WorldWideScience

Sample records for players explore solutions

  1. Player Collaboration in the Explorative Sound Environment ToneInk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Marie S.; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, ToneInk, a prototype of a music based play scenario that investigates player collaboration, is introduced. ToneInk is an explorative sound environment that differs from the majority of music based games in that players can collaborate and be creative in the way they express...... mutual awareness, and in general were more passive when they needed to monitor a screen interface that supported the sound environment. Player collaboration was strongest when players negotiated rhythm, while the negotiation of melody was temporally offset and consisted of long individual explorations....

  2. Player Collaboration in the Explorative Sound Environment ToneInk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Marie; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2016-01-01

    mutual awareness, and in general were more passive when they needed to monitor a screen interface that supported the sound environment. Player collaboration was strongest when players negotiated rhythm, while the negotiation of melody was temporally offset and consisted of long individual explorations....

  3. Exploring manufacturing solutions for SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Agnieszka; Blichfeldt, Henrik; Bilberg, Arne

    This exploratory study provides an overview over current state of manufacturing solutions in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in region of Southern Denmark. Building on manufacturing paradigms, this paper reveals relevant aspects for the development and implementation of improving SMEs’ ...... of manufacturing solutions, which are required to increase their competitiveness and assure sustainable growth.......This exploratory study provides an overview over current state of manufacturing solutions in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in region of Southern Denmark. Building on manufacturing paradigms, this paper reveals relevant aspects for the development and implementation of improving SMEs...

  4. Analytical solution for a class of linear quadratic open-loop Nash game with multiple players

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohong NIAN; Zhisheng DUAN; Wenyan TANG

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the Nash equilibria for differential games with multiple players is studied. A method for solving the Riccati-type matrix differential equations for open-loop Nash strategy in linear quadratic game with multiple players is presented and analytical solution is given for a type of differential games in which the system matrixcan be diagonalizable. As the special cases, the Nash equilibria for some type of differential games with particular structure is studied also, and some results in previous literatures are extended. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the solution procedure.

  5. An Exploration of Gender-Role Expectations and Conflict among Women Rugby Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Melissa A.; Jome, LaRae M.

    2007-01-01

    Gender-role conflict theory has suggested that women athletes will experience role conflict because they are attempting to enact both feminine and masculine gender roles, yet research findings have shown mixed support for this notion. The purpose of this study was to explore how women rugby players negotiate gender-role expectations and conflict…

  6. An Exploration of Gender-Role Expectations and Conflict among Women Rugby Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Melissa A.; Jome, LaRae M.

    2007-01-01

    Gender-role conflict theory has suggested that women athletes will experience role conflict because they are attempting to enact both feminine and masculine gender roles, yet research findings have shown mixed support for this notion. The purpose of this study was to explore how women rugby players negotiate gender-role expectations and conflict…

  7. Exploration of the Affecting Factors on the Quit Intentions of Online-Game Players in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Online-games are products of hedonic information technology. Players’ addiction will lead to seriously negative consequences. That how to prevent online-game addiction exclusively becomes a problem concerned by whole society. The purpose of this study is to explore the influence factors and its mechanism that can weaken or even eliminate online-game addiction. On the basis of the theory of planned behaviour, anticipated guilt and past behaviour are introduced into the model to explain players’ quit intention of online-game. Data collected from 393 online-game players around China mainland indicate that negative attitude, negative-subjective norm and perceived behavioural control significantly affect the quit intention of online-game players, while the anticipated guilt plays a mediator role. Past behaviour can moderate the relations between the anticipated guilt and the quit intention of online-game players. The more the past game behaviour the player owns, the stronger the positive effects of anticipated guilt on game quit intention he/she will harbor. Conclusions are helpful to the intervention of player’s game behaviour and strengthen the self-control ability of players.

  8. Time consistent Pareto solutions in common access resource gameswith asymmetric players

    OpenAIRE

    De-Paz, Albert; Marín Solano, Jesús; Navas, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    In the analysis of equilibrium policies in a di erential game, if agents have different time preference rates, the cooperative (Pareto optimum) solution obtained by applying the Pontryagin's Maximum Principle becomes time inconsistent. In this work we derive a set of dynamic programming equations (in discrete and continuous time) whose solutions are time consistent equilibrium rules for N-player cooperative di erential games in which agents di er in their instantaneous utility functions and a...

  9. Exploring Team Passing Networks and Player Movement Dynamics in Youth Association Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Diogo; Santos, Sara; Lago-Penas, Carlos; Jiménez, Sergio; Sampaio, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how youth football players base their game interactions may constitute a solid criterion for fine-tuning the training process and, ultimately, to achieve better individual and team performances during competition. The present study aims to explore how passing networks and positioning variables can be linked to the match outcome in youth elite association football. The participants included 44 male elite players from under-15 and under-17 age groups. A passing network approach within positioning-derived variables was computed to identify the contributions of individual players for the overall team behaviour outcome during a simulated match. Results suggested that lower team passing dependency for a given player (expressed by lower betweenness network centrality scores) and high intra-team well-connected passing relations (expressed by higher closeness network centrality scores) were related to better outcomes. The correlation between the dyads’ positioning regularity and the passing density showed a most likely higher correlation in under-15 (moderate effect), indicating a possible more dependence of the ball position rather than in the under-17 teams (small/unclear effects). Overall, this study emphasizes the potential of coupling notational analyses with spatial-temporal relations to produce a more functional and holistic understanding of teams’ sports performance. Also, the social network analysis allowed to reveal novel key determinants of collective performance. PMID:28141823

  10. Exploring Team Passing Networks and Player Movement Dynamics in Youth Association Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Bruno; Coutinho, Diogo; Santos, Sara; Lago-Penas, Carlos; Jiménez, Sergio; Sampaio, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how youth football players base their game interactions may constitute a solid criterion for fine-tuning the training process and, ultimately, to achieve better individual and team performances during competition. The present study aims to explore how passing networks and positioning variables can be linked to the match outcome in youth elite association football. The participants included 44 male elite players from under-15 and under-17 age groups. A passing network approach within positioning-derived variables was computed to identify the contributions of individual players for the overall team behaviour outcome during a simulated match. Results suggested that lower team passing dependency for a given player (expressed by lower betweenness network centrality scores) and high intra-team well-connected passing relations (expressed by higher closeness network centrality scores) were related to better outcomes. The correlation between the dyads' positioning regularity and the passing density showed a most likely higher correlation in under-15 (moderate effect), indicating a possible more dependence of the ball position rather than in the under-17 teams (small/unclear effects). Overall, this study emphasizes the potential of coupling notational analyses with spatial-temporal relations to produce a more functional and holistic understanding of teams' sports performance. Also, the social network analysis allowed to reveal novel key determinants of collective performance.

  11. Approximate N-Player Nonzero-Sum Game Solution for an Uncertain Continuous Nonlinear System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marcus; Kamalapurkar, Rushikesh; Bhasin, Shubhendu; Dixon, Warren E

    2015-08-01

    An approximate online equilibrium solution is developed for an N -player nonzero-sum game subject to continuous-time nonlinear unknown dynamics and an infinite horizon quadratic cost. A novel actor-critic-identifier structure is used, wherein a robust dynamic neural network is used to asymptotically identify the uncertain system with additive disturbances, and a set of critic and actor NNs are used to approximate the value functions and equilibrium policies, respectively. The weight update laws for the actor neural networks (NNs) are generated using a gradient-descent method, and the critic NNs are generated by least square regression, which are both based on the modified Bellman error that is independent of the system dynamics. A Lyapunov-based stability analysis shows that uniformly ultimately bounded tracking is achieved, and a convergence analysis demonstrates that the approximate control policies converge to a neighborhood of the optimal solutions. The actor, critic, and identifier structures are implemented in real time continuously and simultaneously. Simulations on two and three player games illustrate the performance of the developed method.

  12. On-ice sweat rate, voluntary fluid intake, and sodium balance during practice in male junior ice hockey players drinking water or a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Logan, Heather M; Spriet, Lawrence L; Palmer, Matthew S

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the repeatability of hydration and sweat measurements taken during on-ice hockey practices with players drinking only water, and determined whether having only a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES...

  13. Engineering a Solution to Jupiter Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Karla; Magner, Thomas; Lisano, Michael; Pappalardo, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) would be an international mission with the overall theme of investigating the emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. Its goals are to (1) explore Europa to investigate its habitability, (2) characterize Ganymede as a planetary object including its potential habitability and (3) explore the Jupiter system as an archetype for gas giants. NASA and ESA have concluded a detailed joint study of a mission to Europa, Ganymede, and the Jupiter system with conceptual orbiters developed by NASA and ESA. The baseline EJSM architecture consists of two primary elements operating simultaneously in the Jovian system: the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO), and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). JEO and JGO would execute an intricately choreographed exploration of the Jupiter System before settling into orbit around Europa and Ganymede, respectively. EJSM would directly address themes concerning the origin and evolution of satellite systems and water-rich environments in icy satellites. The potential habitability of the ocean-bearing moons Europa and Ganymede would be investigated, by characterizing the geophysical, compositional, geological, and external processes that affect these icy worlds. EJSM would also investigate Io and Callisto, Jupiter's atmosphere, and the Jovian magnetosphere. By understanding the Jupiter system and unraveling its history, the formation and evolution of gas giant planets and their satellites would be better known. Most importantly, EJSM would shed new light on the potential for the emergence of life in the celestial neighborhood and beyond. The EJSM baseline architecture would provide opportunities for coordinated synergistic observations by JEO and JGO of the Jupiter and Ganymede magnetospheres, the volcanoes and torus of Io, the atmosphere of Jupiter, and comparative planetology of icy satellites. Each spacecraft would conduct both synergistic dual-spacecraft investigations and stand

  14. Exploring Game Performance in the National Basketball Association Using Player Tracking Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Sampaio

    Full Text Available Recent player tracking technology provides new information about basketball game performance. The aim of this study was to (i compare the game performances of all-star and non all-star basketball players from the National Basketball Association (NBA, and (ii describe the different basketball game performance profiles based on the different game roles. Archival data were obtained from all 2013-2014 regular season games (n = 1230. The variables analyzed included the points per game, minutes played and the game actions recorded by the player tracking system. To accomplish the first aim, the performance per minute of play was analyzed using a descriptive discriminant analysis to identify which variables best predict the all-star and non all-star playing categories. The all-star players showed slower velocities in defense and performed better in elbow touches, defensive rebounds, close touches, close points and pull-up points, possibly due to optimized attention processes that are key for perceiving the required appropriate environmental information. The second aim was addressed using a k-means cluster analysis, with the aim of creating maximal different performance profile groupings. Afterwards, a descriptive discriminant analysis identified which variables best predict the different playing clusters. The results identified different playing profile of performers, particularly related to the game roles of scoring, passing, defensive and all-round game behavior. Coaching staffs may apply this information to different players, while accounting for individual differences and functional variability, to optimize practice planning and, consequently, the game performances of individuals and teams.

  15. Exploring Game Performance in the National Basketball Association Using Player Tracking Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja-González, Julio; Jiménez Sáiz, Sergio; Schelling i del Alcázar, Xavi; Balciunas, Mindaugas

    2015-01-01

    Recent player tracking technology provides new information about basketball game performance. The aim of this study was to (i) compare the game performances of all-star and non all-star basketball players from the National Basketball Association (NBA), and (ii) describe the different basketball game performance profiles based on the different game roles. Archival data were obtained from all 2013-2014 regular season games (n = 1230). The variables analyzed included the points per game, minutes played and the game actions recorded by the player tracking system. To accomplish the first aim, the performance per minute of play was analyzed using a descriptive discriminant analysis to identify which variables best predict the all-star and non all-star playing categories. The all-star players showed slower velocities in defense and performed better in elbow touches, defensive rebounds, close touches, close points and pull-up points, possibly due to optimized attention processes that are key for perceiving the required appropriate environmental information. The second aim was addressed using a k-means cluster analysis, with the aim of creating maximal different performance profile groupings. Afterwards, a descriptive discriminant analysis identified which variables best predict the different playing clusters. The results identified different playing profile of performers, particularly related to the game roles of scoring, passing, defensive and all-round game behavior. Coaching staffs may apply this information to different players, while accounting for individual differences and functional variability, to optimize practice planning and, consequently, the game performances of individuals and teams. PMID:26171606

  16. Exploring Game Performance in the National Basketball Association Using Player Tracking Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Jaime; McGarry, Tim; Calleja-González, Julio; Jiménez Sáiz, Sergio; Schelling I Del Alcázar, Xavi; Balciunas, Mindaugas

    2015-01-01

    Recent player tracking technology provides new information about basketball game performance. The aim of this study was to (i) compare the game performances of all-star and non all-star basketball players from the National Basketball Association (NBA), and (ii) describe the different basketball game performance profiles based on the different game roles. Archival data were obtained from all 2013-2014 regular season games (n = 1230). The variables analyzed included the points per game, minutes played and the game actions recorded by the player tracking system. To accomplish the first aim, the performance per minute of play was analyzed using a descriptive discriminant analysis to identify which variables best predict the all-star and non all-star playing categories. The all-star players showed slower velocities in defense and performed better in elbow touches, defensive rebounds, close touches, close points and pull-up points, possibly due to optimized attention processes that are key for perceiving the required appropriate environmental information. The second aim was addressed using a k-means cluster analysis, with the aim of creating maximal different performance profile groupings. Afterwards, a descriptive discriminant analysis identified which variables best predict the different playing clusters. The results identified different playing profile of performers, particularly related to the game roles of scoring, passing, defensive and all-round game behavior. Coaching staffs may apply this information to different players, while accounting for individual differences and functional variability, to optimize practice planning and, consequently, the game performances of individuals and teams.

  17. Challenging the other: exploring the role of opponent gender in digital game competition for female players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Lotte; Núñez Castellar, Elena; Van Looy, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Abstract The present study investigated the effect of opponent gender on the game experience of female players. Concretely, it looked into skill perception and player emotions of women in same gender and cross-gender game competition. We set up a 2×2×2 (male vs. female opponent×low vs. high competitive women×lost vs. won game) experimental design in which women were instructed to play against a proclaimed male and female competitor. Unknowingly, however, participants played against an AI, which was configured to produce a winning and a losing condition for each opponent by manipulating difficulty. Results indicated that opponent gender only had an effect on perceived stress, which was higher with male opponents. Moreover, players evaluated their own gaming skills as lower and the skills of presumed male opponents as higher when they thought they were playing against men. Importantly, our results also showed that the above described pattern for self-perceived skills and perceived opponent skills was modulated by trait competitiveness with a larger effect size for low competitive women. Overall, this study illustrates that gender dynamics affect the play experience of women in cross-gender gaming competition. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  18. Exploration of polyelectrolytes as draw solutes in forward osmosis processes

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Qingchun

    2012-03-01

    The development of the forward osmosis (FO) process has been constrained by the slow development of appropriate draw solutions. Two significant concerns related to draw solutions are the draw solute leakage and intensiveenergy requirement in recycling draw solutes after the FO process. FO would be much attractive if there is no draw solute leakage and the recycle of draw solutes is easy and economic. In this study, polyelectrolytes of a series of polyacrylic acid sodium salts (PAA-Na), were explored as draw solutes in the FO process. The characteristics of high solubility in water and flexibility in structural configuration ensure the suitability of PAA-Na as draw solutes and their relative ease in recycle through pressure-driven membrane processes. The high water flux with insignificant salt leakage in the FO process and the high salt rejection in recycle processes reveal the superiority of PAA-Na to conventional ionic salts, such as NaCl, when comparing their FO performance via the same membranes. The repeatable performance of PAA-Na after recycle indicates the absence of any aggregation problems. The overall performance demonstrates that polyelectrolytes of PAA-Na series are promising as draw solutes, and the new concept of using polyelectrolytes as draw solutes in FO processes is applicable. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Online Solution of Two-Player Zero-Sum Games for Continuous-Time Nonlinear Systems With Completely Unknown Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yue; Chai, Tianyou

    2016-12-01

    Regarding two-player zero-sum games of continuous-time nonlinear systems with completely unknown dynamics, this paper presents an online adaptive algorithm for learning the Nash equilibrium solution, i.e., the optimal policy pair. First, for known systems, the simultaneous policy updating algorithm (SPUA) is reviewed. A new analytical method to prove the convergence is presented. Then, based on the SPUA, without using a priori knowledge of any system dynamics, an online algorithm is proposed to simultaneously learn in real time either the minimal nonnegative solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Isaacs (HJI) equation or the generalized algebraic Riccati equation for linear systems as a special case, along with the optimal policy pair. The approximate solution to the HJI equation and the admissible policy pair is reexpressed by the approximation theorem. The unknown constants or weights of each are identified simultaneously by resorting to the recursive least square method. The convergence of the online algorithm to the optimal solutions is provided. A practical online algorithm is also developed. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis in a Mixed Methods Research Design to Explore Music in the Lives of Mature Age Amateur Keyboard Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the use of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) in a mixed methods research design with reference to five recent publications about music in the lives of mature age amateur keyboard players. It explores the links between IPA and the data-gathering methods of "Rivers of Musical Experience",…

  1. Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis in a Mixed Methods Research Design to Explore Music in the Lives of Mature Age Amateur Keyboard Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the use of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) in a mixed methods research design with reference to five recent publications about music in the lives of mature age amateur keyboard players. It explores the links between IPA and the data-gathering methods of "Rivers of Musical Experience",…

  2. Exploration of a hearing protective device solution for premature babies

    OpenAIRE

    Valls Esteve, Arnau

    2015-01-01

    Exploration of a hearing protective device solution for premature babies The levels of noise in most hospital NICUs frequently exceed recommended World Health Organization (WHO) standards and recommended international limits. Additionally, premature babies and newborns can have stays of up to 3 months in these settings. In recent years, the combination of these two factors has raised concerns in the medical community about the effects of patients' exposure to noise, starting to be clearly ...

  3. Soccer Specific Stadiums and Designated Players: Exploring the Major League Soccer Attendance Assumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Parrish

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Literature focusing on sport spectator behavior is abundant. The North American based literature on sports spectator consumption patterns is situated within the context of the mainstream sports of gridiron football, basketball, and baseball. Soccer (association football, among other niche sports, is often marginalized in part due to its comparatively limited appeal to consumers in the region. International scholars have thoroughly explored the topic of soccer spectator attendance however these findings are contextual and specific to the region or locale under investigation. The following study is a contribution to both the global and domestic literature base on soccer spectators in the United States. Specifically, it explores the relationship between Major League Soccer (MLS attendance figures and two conspicuous trends permeating the league: 1 the finance and construction of soccer specific stadiums and 2 paying market value for “designated players” (DPs. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  4. Winter: Public Enemy #1 for Accessibility EXPLORING NEW SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Morales

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Winter is expensive. For countries situated in the northern hemisphere, closer to the north pole, such as Canada, Russia and Scandinavia, winter requires the acquisition of special clothing, car tires, and sports equipment, snow removal or plowing from the streets, and is associated with the presence of ice patches, along with accidents and illnesses associated with cold weather. Fall-related injuries due to winter conditions have been estimated to cost the Canadian health care system $ 2.8 billion a year. However, the greatest cost snow entails every year is the social isolation of seniors as well as wheelchair and walker users. This results from the lack of accessibility, as it is difficult to circulate on snow-covered streets even for the able-bodied. Social isolation has been associated with other negative consequences such as depression and even suicide. This exploratory pilot study aimed at finding possible and feasible design solutions for improving the accessibility of sidewalks during winter conditions. For this project we used a Co-Design methodology. Stakeholders (City of Quebec representatives, designers, urban planners, occupational therapists, and adults with motor, visual and aural disabilities were invited to participate in the design process. In order to meet the objectives, two main steps were carried out: 1. Conception of the design solutions (through Co-design sessions in a Focus-group format with seniors, designers and researchers; and 2. Validation of the design solutions (consultation with experts and stakeholders. The results are a wide variety of possible and feasible solutions, including the reorganisation of the snow-removal procedure and the development of heated curb cuts. This project was funded by the City of Quebec in partnership with the Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche en réadaptation et intégration sociale (CIRRIS. Ultimately, the project sought to explore possible solutions to be implemented

  5. Exploring Self-regulation of More or Less Expert College-Age Video Game Players: A Sequential Explanatory Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz Soylu, Meryem; Bruning, Roger H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined differences in self-regulation among college-age expert, moderately expert, and non-expert video game players in playing video games for fun. Winne's model of self-regulation (Winne, 2001) guided the study. The main assumption of this study was that expert video game players used more processes of self-regulation than the less-expert players. We surveyed 143 college students about their game playing frequency, habits, and use of self-regulation. Data analysis indicated that while playing recreational video games, expert gamers self-regulated more than moderately expert and non-expert players and moderately expert players used more processes of self-regulation than non-experts. Semi-structured interviews also were conducted with selected participants at each of the expertise levels. Qualitative follow-up analyses revealed five themes: (1) characteristics of expert video gamers, (2) conditions for playing a video game, (3) figuring out a game, (4) how gamers act and, (5) game context. Overall, findings indicated that playing a video game is a highly self-regulated activity and that becoming an expert video game player mobilizes multiple sets of self-regulation related skills and processes. These findings are seen as promising for educators desiring to encourage student self-regulation, because they indicate the possibility of supporting students via recreational video games by recognizing that their play includes processes of self-regulation. PMID:27729881

  6. On-ice sweat rate, voluntary fluid intake, and sodium balance during practice in male junior ice hockey players drinking water or a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Matthew S; Logan, Heather M; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2010-06-01

    This study evaluated the repeatability of hydration and sweat measurements taken during on-ice hockey practices with players drinking only water, and determined whether having only a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES) to drink during practices decreased fluid intake or affected other hydration and (or) sweat measures. All testing was conducted on elite players of an Ontario Hockey League team (+/-SE; mean age, 17.6 +/- 0.3 years; mean height, 182.9 +/- 1.4 cm; mean body mass, 83.0 +/- 1.7 kg). Players were studied 3 times over the course of 6 weekly on-ice practices (+/-SE; mean playing time, 1.58 +/- 0.07 h; mean temperature, 11.4 +/- 0.8 degrees C; mean relative humidity, 52% +/- 3%). There was strong repeatability of the measured hydration and sweat parameters between 2 similar on-ice practices when players drank only water. Limiting the players to drinking only a CES (as opposed to water) did not decrease fluid intake during practice (+/-SE; mean CES intake, 0.72 +/- 0.07 L.h-1 vs. mean water intake, 0.82 +/- 0.08 L.h-1) or affect sweat rate (1.5 +/- 0.1 L.h-1 vs. 1.5 +/- 0.1 L.h-1), sweat sodium concentration (72.4 +/- 5.6 mmol.L-1 vs. 73.0 +/- 4.4 mmol.L-1), or percent body mass loss (1.1% +/- 0.2% vs. 0.9% +/- 0.2%). Drinking a CES also improved sodium balance (-2.1 +/- 0.2 g.h-1 vs. -2.6 +/- 0.3 g.h-1) and provided the players with a significant carbohydrate (43 +/- 4 g.h-1 vs. 0 +/- 0 g.h-1) during practice. In summary, a single field sweat test during similar on-ice hockey practices in male junior hockey players is sufficient to evaluate fluid and electrolyte balance. Also, a CES does not affect voluntary fluid intake during practice, compared with water, in these players. The CES provided some salt to offset the salt lost in sweat, and carbohydrate, which may help maintain physical and mental performance in the later stages of practice.

  7. Exploring challenges and solutions in the preparation of surgical patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Thea Palsgaard; Münter, Kristine Husum; Østergaard, Doris;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Handover of surgical patients from ward to operating room is a sensible point for information and communication failures. Guidelines were developed for preparation of surgical patients. Our aim was to explore if patients are sufficiently prepared for surgery according to local......, workshops including table simulations involving the various professions and specialties were held. RESULTS: In total, 314 surgical procedures were performed of which 196 were eligible for analysis. Emergency procedures showed the poorest results with non-completed tasks comprising 58% of electronic patient...... documentation. Furthermore, challenges and suggestions for solutions were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Completion of mandatory tasks for surgical patient preparation was poor. Workshops with table simulations actively involved the stakeholders from various professions and specialties in describing the patient...

  8. The Player as Author: Exploring the Effects of Mobile Gaming and the Location-Aware Interface on Storytelling

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Hetland; Jacob Hughes; Ben S. Bunting

    2012-01-01

    The mobile internet expands the immersive potential of storytelling by introducing electronic games powered by portable, location-aware interfaces. Mobile gaming has become the latest iteration in a decades-long evolution of electronic games that seek to empower the player not just as an avatar in a gameworld but also as a co-author of that gameworld, alongside the game’s original designers. Location-aware interfaces allow players to implicate places in the physical world as part of their gam...

  9. VLC Media Player is explored in the teaching%VLC Media Player在教学中的应用探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾友波

    2011-01-01

    从VLC Media Player自身的特点介绍,探索引入网络教学能解决教学中的哪些日常问题,利用VLC Media Player软件搭建局域网视频单播、组播、广播平台,实现在线视频学习,促进学习者的学习绩效。%This paper describes the characteristics of VLC Media Player in order to explore the introduction of the teaching-learning can solve day-to-day life problems,the last through using VLC Media Player software build the LAN video unicast,multicast,broadcast platform to realize online video learning,the promotion of learner learning performance.

  10. The Player as Author: Exploring the Effects of Mobile Gaming and the Location-Aware Interface on Storytelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hetland

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The mobile internet expands the immersive potential of storytelling by introducing electronic games powered by portable, location-aware interfaces. Mobile gaming has become the latest iteration in a decades-long evolution of electronic games that seek to empower the player not just as an avatar in a gameworld but also as a co-author of that gameworld, alongside the game’s original designers. Location-aware interfaces allow players to implicate places in the physical world as part of their gameworld (and vice versa for the first time. In addition to empowering the player as a co-author in the process of constructing a compelling gameworld, then, mobile games eschew linear narrative structures in favor of a cooperative storytelling process that is reliant in part on the player’s experience of place. While such an author-player “worldmaking” approach to storytelling is not new, mobile games evolve the process beyond what has yet been possible within the technical and physical constraints of the traditional video gaming format. Location-aware interfaces allow mobile games to extend the worldmaking process beyond the screen and into the physical world, co-opting the player’s sensory experiences of real-world places as potential storytelling tools. In our essay, we theorize the unique storytelling potential of mobile games while describing our experience attempting to harness that potential through the design and implementation of our hybrid-reality game University of Death.

  11. Exploring Cylindrical Solutions in Modified f(G) Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Houndjo, M J S; Momeni, D; Myrzakulov, R

    2013-01-01

    We present cylindrically symmetric solutions for a type of the Gauss-Bonnet gravity, in details. We derive the full system of the field equations and show that there exist seven families of exact solutions for three forms of viable models. By applying the method based on the effective fluid energy momentum tensor components, we evaluate the mass per unit length for the solutions. From dynamical point of the view, by evaluating the null energy condition for these configurations, we show that in some cases the azimuthal pressure breaks the energy condition. This violation of the null energy condition predicts the existence of a cylindrical wormhole.

  12. Veto players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warntjen, Andreas; Dowding, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Veto players are political actors whose consent is necessary to adopt a new policy. Put otherwise, they have veto power which allows them to prevent a change to the status quo. The concept is crucial to the influential veto player theory developed by George Tsebelis. Building on earlier work in form

  13. Veto players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warntjen, Andreas; Dowding, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Veto players are political actors whose consent is necessary to adopt a new policy. Put otherwise, they have veto power which allows them to prevent a change to the status quo. The concept is crucial to the influential veto player theory developed by George Tsebelis. Building on earlier work in form

  14. Decision Exploration Lab : A Visual Analytics Solution for Decision Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeksema, Bertjan; Baudel, Thomas; Telea, Alex; Crisafulli, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    We present a visual analytics solution designed to address prevalent issues in the area of Operational Decision Management (ODM). In ODM, which has its roots in Artificial Intelligence (Expert Systems) and Management Science, it is increasingly important to align business decisions with business goa

  15. Statistics by Example, Exploring Data, Teachers' Commentary and Solutions Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinka, Martha; Sutherland, Michael

    Part I of the teachers' commentary for "Exploring Data" includes a brief description of demands on the reader in terms of reading vocabulary and mathematical skills and comprehension, lists the substantive areas covered by the examples, suggests ways in which the pamphlet might be used in the classroom, and discusses background information for the…

  16. Exploring challenges and solutions in the preparation of surgical patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Thea Palsgaard; Münter, Kristine Husum; Østergaard, Doris;

    2015-01-01

    guidelines and to identify challenges and solutions for correct preparation through interactive table simulation-based workshops involving the various professions and specialties. METHODS: Firstly, specific tasks in the hospital guidelines were monitored for all surgical procedures during one week. Secondly...... management system tasks, 26% of anaesthesia record tasks, 24% of medication tasks, 14% of blood test tasks and 12% of patient record tasks. In two workshops held for each of four specialties, a total of 21 participants mapped the preoperative patient journey with related responsibilities, tasks and written...... documentation. Furthermore, challenges and suggestions for solutions were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Completion of mandatory tasks for surgical patient preparation was poor. Workshops with table simulations actively involved the stakeholders from various professions and specialties in describing the patient...

  17. Underwater Multi-Node Radio Communication Solutions for Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawar, Zaid Fares Yousef; Haddad, Sanad Atef Sari; Mestariheh, Feras R. M.; Jonsson, Lars Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The exploration of the presumably life harboring subsurface ocean of Europa will provide scientists with extensive new knowledge in the search for extraterrestrial life. A highly miniaturized payload is required to penetrate a narrow passage through the thick ice crust covering Europa's surface. Underwater wireless communications may be the most viable means of communication for such exploratory missions, accounting for size and weight restrictions. This presents a challenge to achieve satisfactory data rates and a range that permits autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) to communicate within their region of operation, as well as with a surface lander or orbiter. This work presents thorough prototype experimentation on an underwater communication system established between several nodes using RF signals. During an eight-week internship experience at NASA's Ames Research Center in September-October 2014, our team developed a Europa exploration mission concept, built representative hardware, and carried out tests to assess the feasibility of key aspects of the concept. Experiments demonstrating the viability of RF communication underwater comprised inspecting the effect of depth and horizontal distance on signal strength as well as the optimum positioning of antennas. To test the system's performance, two submersibles were designed and built. A commercially available remotely operated vehicle (ROV) was also modified and used as a main communication node. The two submersibles were wirelessly connected and accommodated sensors capable of characterizing water properties and equipped with 2.4 GHz, 1 mW transceivers to communicate the measured data. The communication procedure is that the main communication node requests the collected data from the two submersibles when in range and receives it instantly through RF. This work models what may take place during an actual mission to Europa. The developed mission concept involved a hybrid communication system consisting of

  18. Molecular Twister: A Game for Exploring Solution Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawyer R. Masonjones

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available pH is an essential biological concept with critical importance at various scales, from the molecular level, dealing with blood buffers, homeostasis, and proton gradients, all the way up to the ecosystem level, with soil chemistry and acid rain. However, pH is also a concept that spawns student misconceptions and misunderstanding in terms of what is happening in a solution on the atomic level. The Molecular Twister game, created for a Florida Department of Education funded professional development workshop for Florida high school teachers hosted at the University of Tampa  (Science Math Masters, seeks to model pH in such a way that students can visually and kinesthetically learn the concept in a few minutes. In addition, the basic design of the game pieces allow for teaching extensions to include more complex acid-base reactions. Challenge questions are provided to allow teachers to bring relevancy to the game, using examples of acid-base chemistry pulled from cases in human health and the environment.

  19. A Factor-Based Exploration of Player´s Continuation Desire in Free-to-Play Mobile Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stankevicius, Deividas; Jady, Hawraa Amira; Drachen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    the perceived user experience factors relevant for Continuation Desire and then attempts to predict play-ers’ intention to continue playing. Structural Equation Mod-eling analysis was performed to validate the model and to predict the intention of continuation desire. At the same time, exploring why people...... continue playing, based on ex-periments using Candy Crush Saga, one of the most popular Free-to-Play mobile games worldwide. The findings indi-cate that motivation is an important factor of Continuation Desire in Free-to-Play mobile games, with engagement, en-joyment and flow being less important...

  20. A Factor-Based Exploration of Player´s Continuation Desire in Free-to-Play Mobile Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stankevicius, Deividas; Jady, Hawraa Amira; Drachen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    experience, motivation and enjoyment, yet difficult to measure. These concepts were conceptualized into different factors and thereby it was identified which of them are re-lated. This resulted in a synthesized model that was based on the Theory of Planned Behavior model. This model takes into account......This paper explores the concept of Continuation Desire fur-ther by investigating the behavioral intent of players’ desire to keep playing. User experience is a complex, multifaceted topic, which is commonly studied through different aspects namely engagement, continuation desire, immersion, flow...

  1. Monte Carlo exploration of Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solutions to the solar neutrino problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X.; Schramm, D. N.; Bahcall, J. N.

    1992-01-01

    The paper explores the impact of astrophysical uncertainties on the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) solution by calculating the allowed MSW solutions for 1000 different solar models with a Monte Carlo selection of solar model input parameters, assuming a full three-family MSW mixing. Applications are made to the chlorine, gallium, Kamiokande, and Borexino experiments. The initial GALLEX result limits the mixing parameters to the upper diagonal and the vertical regions of the MSW triangle. The expected event rates in the Borexino experiment are also calculated, assuming the MSW solutions implied by GALLEX.

  2. Exploring Fundamental Concepts in Aqueous Solution Conductivity: A General Chemistry Laboratory Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyasulu, Frazier; Stevanov, Kelly; Barlag, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Using a conductivity sensor, a temperature sensor, and a datalogger, fundamental factors that affect conductivity are explored. These factors are (i) concentration, (ii) temperature, (iii) ion charge, and (iv) size and or mass of anion. In addition, the conductivities of a number of other solutions are measured. This lab has been designed to…

  3. Sounds of Waitakere: Using Practitioner Research to Explore How Year 6 Recorder Players Compose Responses to Visual Representations of a Natural Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Linda; Locke, Terry

    2011-01-01

    How might primary students utilise the stimulus of a painting in a collaborative composition drawing on a non-conventional sound palette of their own making? This practitioner research features 17 recorder players from a Year 6 class (10-11-year-olds) who attend a West Auckland primary school in New Zealand. These children were invited to…

  4. Exploring the Concept of Big Data : Technologies, Solutions and Best Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Ritola, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    This research work aims to explore the concept of Big Data in detail. More specifically, the objective is to define and clarify the concept by examining the exact meaning of Big Data and understanding its underlying technologies. Moreover, this research discusses Big Data analytics solutions offered in the market today, along with best practices on implementing at strategic level. Big Data is one of the most talked about topics of the recent years in both business and information technolo...

  5. The Cheerleader and the Football Player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Malati

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity in physics using a narrative about a bet between a cheerleader who claims she can lift a 300-pound football player off the ground. Includes questions, teaching notes, and solutions. (MM)

  6. Product Lifecycle Management and the Quest for Sustainable Space Exploration Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Grieves, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) is an outcome of lean thinking to eliminate waste and increase productivity. PLM is inextricably tied to the systems engineering business philosophy, coupled with a methodology by which personnel, processes and practices, and information technology combine to form an architecture platform for product design, development, manufacturing, operations, and decommissioning. In this model, which is being implemented by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Engineering Directorate, total lifecycle costs are important variables for critical decision-making. With the ultimate goal to deliver quality products that meet or exceed requirements on time and within budget, PLM is a powerful concept to shape everything from engineering trade studies and testing goals, to integrated vehicle operations and retirement scenarios. This briefing will demonstrate how the MSFC Engineering Directorate is implementing PLM as part of an overall strategy to deliver safe, reliable, and affordable space exploration solutions and how that strategy aligns with the Agency and Center systems engineering policies and processes. Sustainable space exploration solutions demand that all lifecycle phases be optimized, and engineering the next generation space transportation system requires a paradigm shift such that digital tools and knowledge management, which are central elements of PLM, are used consistently to maximum effect. Adopting PLM, which has been used by the aerospace and automotive industry for many years, for spacecraft applications provides a foundation for strong, disciplined systems engineering and accountable return on investment. PLM enables better solutions using fewer resources by making lifecycle considerations in an integrative decision-making process.

  7. Product Lifecycle Management and the Quest for Sustainable Space Exploration Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) is an outcome of lean thinking to eliminate waste and increase productivity. PLM is inextricably tied to the systems engineering business philosophy, coupled with a methodology by which personnel, processes and practices, and information technology combine to form an architecture platform for product design, development, manufacturing, operations, and decommissioning. In this model, which is being implemented by the Engineering Directorate at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center, total lifecycle costs are important variables for critical decisionmaking. With the ultimate goal to deliver quality products that meet or exceed requirements on time and within budget, PLM is a powerful tool to shape everything from engineering trade studies and testing goals, to integrated vehicle operations and retirement scenarios. This paper will demonstrate how the Engineering Directorate is implementing PLM as part of an overall strategy to deliver safe, reliable, and affordable space exploration solutions. It has been 30 years since the United States fielded the Space Shuttle. The next generation space transportation system requires a paradigm shift such that digital tools and knowledge management, which are central elements of PLM, are used consistently to maximum effect. The outcome is a better use of scarce resources, along with more focus on stakeholder and customer requirements, as a new portfolio of enabling tools becomes second nature to the workforce. This paper will use the design and manufacturing processes, which have transitioned to digital-based activities, to show how PLM supports the comprehensive systems engineering and integration function. It also will go through a launch countdown scenario where an anomaly is detected to show how the virtual vehicle created from paperless processes will help solve technical challenges and improve the likelihood of launching on schedule, with

  8. A Multi-agent player for Settlers of Catan

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    There are many games that have been a challenge to Research in Artificial Intelligence. One such game is Settlers of Catan (SoC). The purpose of this thesis is to develop a Multi-agent player for SoC. Although it is difficult to focus on all the dimensions of the game during implementation, therefore a good enough solution is proposed. An emphasis is placed on building a good trader for the player. Once a working solution had been built, the player was tested against other players which inclu...

  9. Exploring the biomechanical load of a sliding on the skin: understanding the acute skin injury mechanism of player-surface interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Eijnde, Wilbert; Meijer, Kenneth; Lamers, Edwin; Peppelman, Malou; van Erp, Piet

    2017-09-01

    Currently, there is a shortage of biomechanical data regarding acute skin injury mechanisms that are involved in player-surface contact in soccer on artificial turf. It is hypothesized that peak loads on the skin during the landing phase are an important factor in causing an acute skin injury. Simultaneously, video analysis and load measurements using an in-ground force plate of the landing phase of a sliding tackle were recorded and correlated with observed clinical skin lesions. Video analysis revealed two sliding techniques: a horizontal jump and a sliding-in technique. The first technique resulted in both significantly higher vertical and horizontal peak forces during impact on the knee (2.3±0.4 kN and 1.4±0.5 kN) and thigh (4.9±0.9 kN and 1.8±0.5 kN). In combination with the observed skin lesion areas, a combined normal-shear stress of at least 24 and 14 N.cm-2 induce abrasion injuries on dry artificial turf. The findings of this study confirm that high peak stresses during the landing phase of a sliding is critical for inducing skin injuries on the knee and thigh. Reducing these peak shear stresses could be an important first step towards preventive measures.

  10. Exploration of As(III)/As(V) Uptake from Aqueous Solution by Synthesized Calcium Sulfate Whisker☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojuan Chen; Liuchun Yang; Junfeng Zhang; Yan Huang

    2014-01-01

    Although common calcium-containing minerals such as calcite and gypsum may fix arsenic, the interaction be-tween modified calcic minerals and arsenic has seldom been reported. The uptake behavior of As(III)/As(V) from aqueous solutions by calcium sulfate whisker (CSW, dihydrate or anhydrite) synthesized through a cooling recrystal ization method was explored. A series of batch experiments were conducted to examine the effect of pH, reaction time, whisker dosage, and initial As concentration. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the samples prepared. The results showed that pH of the aqueous solution was an important parameter for As(III)/As(V) uptake, and an excellent removal efficiency could be achieved under strongly alkaline condition. The data from batch experiments for reaction of As(V) with calcium sulfate dihydrate whisker (CSDW) and calcium sulfate anhydrous whisker (CSAW) were well described with extended Langmuir EXT1 model, from which theoretic maximum adsorption capacity of 46.57 mg As(V)·(g CSDW)−1 and 39.18 mg As(V)·(g CSAW)−1 were obtained. Some calcium arsenate solids products, such as CaAsO3(OH) (weilite, syn), Ca3(AsO4)2 (calcium arsenate), CaO–As2O5, Ca–As–O, Ca5(AsO4)3OH·xH2O (calcium arsenate hydroxide hydrate), and CaH(AsO4)·2H2O (hydrogen calcium arsenic oxide hydrate), were detected at pH = 12.5 through XRD analysis. This indicates that the interaction mechanism between As(V) and CSW is a complex adsorption process combined with surface dissolution and chemical precipitation.

  11. Biogeochemical Filtering of Solute Signals Explored as a Function of Transport and Reaction Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardo, S.; Basu, N. B.; Rao, P. C.

    2009-12-01

    Catchment biogeochemical responses are the result of superposition of diverse dynamic components, which can be related to climate forcing, water flow, and biogeochemical reactions. The interactions among these components are highly non-linear and contribute to the generation of emergent patterns at multiple spatial and temporal scales. The aim of this work is to explore the following biogeochemical signatures arising from such interactions: (1) the relationship between contaminant loads (L) and discharge (Q) at the annual timescale, leading to an apparent chemostatic relationship (i.e., linear L-Q plots) for different contaminants and at different spatial scales; (2) spatial patterns in the slope and the scatter of the L-Q relationships; and (3) correlation between the intra-annual flow duration curves (FDC) and the load duration curves (LDC). Exploring this relationship necessitates the use of a parsimonious model, with few spatially uniform time constants, that can generate synthetic time series of load and flow at the outlet of river basins. The Mass Response Functions (MRF) approach (Rinaldo et al., 2006), lends itself suitable for the purpose since it relies on the assumption that the evolution of solute concentration in the water pulses depends only on the residence time, and not on its trajectory - thus space is replaced by time. The model simulates the episodic delivery of water and contaminant pulses from the hillslopes to the stream network in response to temporally random but spatially uniform effective rainfall patterns. The domain is described by an immobile source zone in which first order biogeochemical reactions (degradation rate constant ke) alter the solute mass, while multiple mobile rainfall pulses exchange mass with the source zone following linear kinetics (mass transfer rate constant α). The biogeochemical module of MRF, that was originally written to simulate non-reactive tracer and nitrate transport, was modified to include the more

  12. Local Solutions for National Challenges? Exploring Local Solutions through the Case of a National Succession Planning Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The notion of localism and decentralization in national policy has come increasingly to the fore in recent years. The national succession planning strategy for headteachers in England introduced by the National College for School Leadership promoted "local solutions for a national challenge". This article deals with some aspects of the…

  13. Definition and use of Solution-focused Sustainability Assessment: A novel approach to generate, explore and decide on sustainable solutions for wicked problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijp, Michiel C; Posthuma, Leo; Wintersen, Arjen; Devilee, Jeroen; Swartjes, Frank A

    2016-05-01

    This paper introduces Solution-focused Sustainability Assessment (SfSA), provides practical guidance formatted as a versatile process framework, and illustrates its utility for solving a wicked environmental management problem. Society faces complex and increasingly wicked environmental problems for which sustainable solutions are sought. Wicked problems are multi-faceted, and deriving of a management solution requires an approach that is participative, iterative, innovative, and transparent in its definition of sustainability and translation to sustainability metrics. We suggest to add the use of a solution-focused approach. The SfSA framework is collated from elements from risk assessment, risk governance, adaptive management and sustainability assessment frameworks, expanded with the 'solution-focused' paradigm as recently proposed in the context of risk assessment. The main innovation of this approach is the broad exploration of solutions upfront in assessment projects. The case study concerns the sustainable management of slightly contaminated sediments continuously formed in ditches in rural, agricultural areas. This problem is wicked, as disposal of contaminated sediment on adjacent land is potentially hazardous to humans, ecosystems and agricultural products. Non-removal would however reduce drainage capacity followed by increased risks of flooding, while contaminated sediment removal followed by offsite treatment implies high budget costs and soil subsidence. Application of the steps in the SfSA-framework served in solving this problem. Important elements were early exploration of a wide 'solution-space', stakeholder involvement from the onset of the assessment, clear agreements on the risk and sustainability metrics of the problem and on the interpretation and decision procedures, and adaptive management. Application of the key elements of the SfSA approach eventually resulted in adoption of a novel sediment management policy. The stakeholder

  14. Exploring the Capability of Evaluating Technical Solutions: A Collaborative Study into the Primary Technology Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkholm, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Within the field of technology education, evaluating technical solutions is considered as an important topic. Research indicates that pupils have difficulties in evaluating technical solutions in terms of fitness for purpose, i.e. how effective a technical solution supports its intended function. By using the learning study, which is an iterative…

  15. Exploring the Capability of Evaluating Technical Solutions: A Collaborative Study into the Primary Technology Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkholm, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Within the field of technology education, evaluating technical solutions is considered as an important topic. Research indicates that pupils have difficulties in evaluating technical solutions in terms of fitness for purpose, i.e. how effective a technical solution supports its intended function. By using the learning study, which is an iterative…

  16. Exploring the relation between 4D and 5D BPS solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrndt, Klaus [Arnold-Sommerfeld-Center for Theoretical Physics, Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Theresienstrasse 37, 80333 Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: behrndt@theorie.physik.uni-muenchen.de; Lopes Cardoso, Gabriel [Arnold-Sommerfeld-Center for Theoretical Physics, Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Theresienstrasse 37, 80333 Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: gcardoso@theorie.physik.uni-muenchen.de; Mahapatra, Swapna [Physics Department, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar 751 004 (India)]. E-mail: swapna@iopb.res.in

    2006-01-02

    Based on recent proposals linking four and five-dimensional BPS solutions, we discuss the explicit dictionary between general stationary 4D and 5D supersymmetric solutions in N=2 supergravity theories with cubic prepotentials. All these solutions are completely determined in terms of the same set of harmonic functions and the same set of attractor equations. As an example, we discuss black holes and black rings in Godel-Taub-NUT spacetime. Then we consider corrections to the 4D solutions associated with more general prepotentials and comment on analogous corrections on the 5D side.

  17. RETIRED MATCHES AMONG MALE PROFESSIONAL TENNIS PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijan Breznik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the effect of characteristics of various games and players on the proportion of retired tennis matches in the Open Era of tennis. The data included over 420,000 matches played among 17,553 tennis players in the period from 1968 to the end of 2010. The influence of the surface type was clearly confirmed, with the proportion of retired matches being higher on hard and clay courts compared to grass and carpet surfaces. Similarly, more retired matches were observed in outdoor venues than in indoor ones. The impact of other variables, tournament types, rounds at which the game was played and both players' ranks, is more ambiguous. Our interpretation of the obtained results is presented in the paper. Network analytic methods were applied to extract players with the most retired matches in their careers. Eventually, we defined a group of top tennis players and gave a more precise insight into retired matches in that group. Correspondence analysis was used to visually display the two-mode network of top players and the proportion of retired matches by surface type

  18. Problems experienced by role players within the managed healthcare context in Gauteng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mahlo

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Role players within the context of managed healthcare in Gauteng experience problems in the delivery of healthcare, which negatively affect their working relationships. This in turn, affects the quality of care provided to patients. The purpose of this study is to explore and describe the problem experienced by different role players within the context of managed healthcare in Gauteng, as well as the suggested solutions to counteract these problems. These results will be utilised as the basis of a conceptual framework to formulate a strategy to enhance the working relationships amongst these role players. The strategy will not be discussed in this article as the focus is on the problems experienced by the role players in the delivery of healthcare, as well as suggested solutions in the counteraction thereof. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual study was followed to explore and describe the problems, as well as the suggested solutions to counteract these problems. Focus group interviews were conducted to collect data from three private hospitals, three managed care organisations and four general medical practitioners in Gauteng. The participants were purposively and conveniently selected. Content analysis as described by Tesch (1990 was followed to analyse the data. The main problems experienced were related to inadequate communication, inadequate staff competence, cost saving versus quality care, procedural complexity, perceived loss of power by doctors and patients and the system of accounts payment. The suggested solutions focused mainly on empowerment and standardisation of procedures. It is recommended that replication studies of this nature be conducted in other provinces and that ethical standards are formulated within the managed healthcare context.

  19. Initial exploration of growth of InN by electrochemical solution growth.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldrip, Karen Elizabeth

    2010-02-01

    This report summarizes a brief and unsuccessful attempt to grow indium nitride via the electrochemical solution growth method and a modification thereof. Described in this report is a brief effort using a $50,000 LDRD award to explore the possibilities of applying the Electrochemical Solution Growth (ESG) technique to the growth of indium nitride (InN). The ability to grow bulk InN would be exciting from a scientific perspective, and a commercial incentive lies in the potential of extending the ESG technique to grow homogeneous, bulk alloys of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N for light emitting diodes (LEDs) operating in the green region of the spectrum. Indium nitride is the most difficult of the III-nitrides to grow due to its very high equilibrium vapor pressure of nitrogen1. It is several orders of magnitude higher than for gallium nitride or aluminum nitride. InN has a bandgap energy of 0.7eV, and achieving its growth in bulk for large area, high quality substrates would permit the fabrication of LEDs operating in the infrared. By alloying with GaN and AlN, the bulk material used as substrates would enable high efficiency emission wavelengths that could be tailored all the way through the deep ultraviolet. In addition, InN has been shown to have very high electronic mobilities (2700 cm{sup 2}/V s), making it a promising material for transistors and even terahertz emitters. Several attempts at synthesizing InN have been made by several groups. It was shown that metallic indium does not interact with unactivated nitrogen even at very high temperatures. Thus sets up an incompatibility between the precursors in all growth methods: a tradeoff between thermally activating the nitrogen-containing precursor and the low decomposition temperature of solid InN. We have been working to develop a novel growth technique that circumvents the difficulties of other bulk growth techniques by precipitating the column III nitrides from a solvent, such as a molten chloride salt, that

  20. High School Football Players and Their Coaches: A Qualitative Study of Their Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaza, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    This basic qualitative study of high school football coach-player relationships explores the players' perceptions of these relationships, specifically the perceptions the players have of how these relationships influenced their lives. This study allowed the researcher to examine the characteristics of high school football coaches as they relate to…

  1. High School Football Players and Their Coaches: A Qualitative Study of Their Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaza, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    This basic qualitative study of high school football coach-player relationships explores the players' perceptions of these relationships, specifically the perceptions the players have of how these relationships influenced their lives. This study allowed the researcher to examine the characteristics of high school football coaches as they relate to…

  2. Exploring Lovelock theory moduli space for Schrödinger solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep P. Jatkar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We look for Schrödinger solutions in Lovelock gravity in D>4. We span the entire parameter space and determine parametric relations under which the Schrödinger solution exists. We find that in arbitrary dimensions pure Lovelock theories have Schrödinger solutions of arbitrary radius, on a co-dimension one locus in the Lovelock parameter space. This co-dimension one locus contains the subspace over which the Lovelock gravity can be written in the Chern–Simons form. Schrödinger solutions do not exist outside this locus and on this locus they exist for arbitrary dynamical exponent z. This freedom in z is due to the degeneracy in the configuration space. We show that this degeneracy survives certain deformation away from the Lovelock moduli space.

  3. Exploring Lovelock theory moduli space for Schrödinger solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatkar, Dileep P.; Kundu, Nilay

    2016-09-01

    We look for Schrödinger solutions in Lovelock gravity in D > 4. We span the entire parameter space and determine parametric relations under which the Schrödinger solution exists. We find that in arbitrary dimensions pure Lovelock theories have Schrödinger solutions of arbitrary radius, on a co-dimension one locus in the Lovelock parameter space. This co-dimension one locus contains the subspace over which the Lovelock gravity can be written in the Chern-Simons form. Schrödinger solutions do not exist outside this locus and on this locus they exist for arbitrary dynamical exponent z. This freedom in z is due to the degeneracy in the configuration space. We show that this degeneracy survives certain deformation away from the Lovelock moduli space.

  4. The Player Engagement Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Engagement is an essential element of the player experience, and the concept is described in various ways in the literature. To gain a more detailed comprehension of this multifaceted concept, and in order to better understand what aspects can be used to evaluate engaging game play and to design...... engaging user experiences, this study investigates one dimension of player engagement by empirically identifying the components associated with the desire to continue playing. Based on a description of the characteristics of player engagement, a series of surveys were developed to discover the components......, categories and triggers involved in this process. By applying grounded theory to the analysis of the responses, a process-oriented player engagement framework was developed and four main components consisting of objectives, activities, accomplishments and affects as well as the corresponding categories...

  5. Elusive Reaction Intermediates in Solution Explored by ESI-MS: Reverse Periscope for Mechanistic Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobucci, Claudio; Reale, Samantha; De Angelis, Francesco

    2016-02-24

    Just as periscopes allow a submarine to visually search for objects above the surface of the sea, in a reversed periscope fashion electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) can analyze the compounds at the gas phase/liquid phase interface for chemical entities which may exist in solution. The challenge is the identification and structural characterization of key elusive reaction intermediates in chemical transformations, intermediates which are able to explain how chemical processes occur. This Minireview summarizes recent selected publications on the use of ESI-MS techniques for studying solution intermediates of homogeneous chemical reactions.

  6. Exploring Innovative Solutions for Quality of Life and Care of Bed-Ridden Nursing Home Residents through Codesign Sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Hoof

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bed-ridden nursing home residents are in need of environments which are homelike and facilitate the provision of care. Design guidance for this group of older people is limited. This study concerned the exploration and generation of innovative environmental enrichment scenarios for bed-ridden residents. This exploration was conducted through a combination of participatory action research with user-centred design involving 56 professional stakeholders in interactive work sessions. This study identified numerous design solutions, both concepts and products that are available on the marketplace and that on a higher level relate to improvements in resident autonomy and the supply of technological items and architectural features. The methodology chosen can be used to explore the creative potential of stakeholders from the domain of healthcare in product innovation.

  7. Exploring Innovative Solutions for Quality of Life and Care of Bed-Ridden Nursing Home Residents through Codesign Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoof, J.; Wetzels, M. H.; Dooremalen, A. M. C.; Overdiep, R. A.; Nieboer, M. E.; Eyck, A. M. E.; van Gorkom, P. J. L. M.; Zwerts-Verhelst, E. L. M.; Aarts, S.; Vissers-Luijcks, C.; van der Voort, C. S.; Moonen, M. J. G. A.; van de Vrande, H. A.; van Dijck-Heinen, C. J. M. L.; Wouters, E. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Bed-ridden nursing home residents are in need of environments which are homelike and facilitate the provision of care. Design guidance for this group of older people is limited. This study concerned the exploration and generation of innovative environmental enrichment scenarios for bed-ridden residents. This exploration was conducted through a combination of participatory action research with user-centred design involving 56 professional stakeholders in interactive work sessions. This study identified numerous design solutions, both concepts and products that are available on the marketplace and that on a higher level relate to improvements in resident autonomy and the supply of technological items and architectural features. The methodology chosen can be used to explore the creative potential of stakeholders from the domain of healthcare in product innovation. PMID:26543647

  8. Executive functions predict the success of top-soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestberg, Torbjörn; Gustafson, Roland; Maurex, Liselotte; Ingvar, Martin; Petrovic, Predrag

    2012-01-01

    While the importance of physical abilities and motor coordination is non-contested in sport, more focus has recently been turned toward cognitive processes important for different sports. However, this line of studies has often investigated sport-specific cognitive traits, while few studies have focused on general cognitive traits. We explored if measures of general executive functions can predict the success of a soccer player. The present study used standardized neuropsychological assessment tools assessing players' general executive functions including on-line multi-processing such as creativity, response inhibition, and cognitive flexibility. In a first cross-sectional part of the study we compared the results between High Division players (HD), Lower Division players (LD) and a standardized norm group. The result shows that both HD and LD players had significantly better measures of executive functions in comparison to the norm group for both men and women. Moreover, the HD players outperformed the LD players in these tests. In the second prospective part of the study, a partial correlation test showed a significant correlation between the result from the executive test and the numbers of goals and assists the players had scored two seasons later. The results from this study strongly suggest that results in cognitive function tests predict the success of ball sport players.

  9. Executive functions predict the success of top-soccer players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torbjörn Vestberg

    Full Text Available While the importance of physical abilities and motor coordination is non-contested in sport, more focus has recently been turned toward cognitive processes important for different sports. However, this line of studies has often investigated sport-specific cognitive traits, while few studies have focused on general cognitive traits. We explored if measures of general executive functions can predict the success of a soccer player. The present study used standardized neuropsychological assessment tools assessing players' general executive functions including on-line multi-processing such as creativity, response inhibition, and cognitive flexibility. In a first cross-sectional part of the study we compared the results between High Division players (HD, Lower Division players (LD and a standardized norm group. The result shows that both HD and LD players had significantly better measures of executive functions in comparison to the norm group for both men and women. Moreover, the HD players outperformed the LD players in these tests. In the second prospective part of the study, a partial correlation test showed a significant correlation between the result from the executive test and the numbers of goals and assists the players had scored two seasons later. The results from this study strongly suggest that results in cognitive function tests predict the success of ball sport players.

  10. Exploring How Experience with Planning Impacts First Grade Students' Planning and Solutions to Engineering Design Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portsmore, Merredith D.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation presents research that investigated how first grade students' ability to construct solutions and to plan through drawing for engineering design problems is related to their participation in a LEGO-based engineering curriculum with two variations on the instruction for planning. The quasi-experimental design engaged two first…

  11. Exploring Barriers and Solutions to Academic Writing: Perspectives from Students, Higher Education and Further Education Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itua, Imose; Coffey, Margaret; Merryweather, David; Norton, Lin; Foxcroft, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Staff and student perceptions of what constitutes good academic writing in both further and higher education often differ. This is reflected in written assignments which frequently fall below the expected standard. In seeking to develop the writing skills of students and propose potential solutions to writing difficulties, a study was conducted in…

  12. Accelerated exploration of multi-principal element alloys with solid solution phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkov, O. N.; Miller, J. D.; Miracle, D. B.; Woodward, C.

    2015-03-01

    Recent multi-principal element, high entropy alloy (HEA) development strategies vastly expand the number of candidate alloy systems, but also pose a new challenge—how to rapidly screen thousands of candidate alloy systems for targeted properties. Here we develop a new approach to rapidly assess structural metals by combining calculated phase diagrams with simple rules based on the phases present, their transformation temperatures and useful microstructures. We evaluate over 130,000 alloy systems, identifying promising compositions for more time-intensive experimental studies. We find the surprising result that solid solution alloys become less likely as the number of alloy elements increases. This contradicts the major premise of HEAs—that increased configurational entropy increases the stability of disordered solid solution phases. As the number of elements increases, the configurational entropy rises slowly while the probability of at least one pair of elements favouring formation of intermetallic compounds increases more rapidly, explaining this apparent contradiction.

  13. Accelerated exploration of multi-principal element alloys with solid solution phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkov, O N; Miller, J D; Miracle, D B; Woodward, C

    2015-03-05

    Recent multi-principal element, high entropy alloy (HEA) development strategies vastly expand the number of candidate alloy systems, but also pose a new challenge--how to rapidly screen thousands of candidate alloy systems for targeted properties. Here we develop a new approach to rapidly assess structural metals by combining calculated phase diagrams with simple rules based on the phases present, their transformation temperatures and useful microstructures. We evaluate over 130,000 alloy systems, identifying promising compositions for more time-intensive experimental studies. We find the surprising result that solid solution alloys become less likely as the number of alloy elements increases. This contradicts the major premise of HEAs--that increased configurational entropy increases the stability of disordered solid solution phases. As the number of elements increases, the configurational entropy rises slowly while the probability of at least one pair of elements favouring formation of intermetallic compounds increases more rapidly, explaining this apparent contradiction.

  14. ExplorOcean H2O SOS: Help Heal the Ocean-Student Operated Solutions: Operation Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, N.; Wood, J. H.

    2016-12-01

    The ExplorOcean H2O SOS: Help Heal the Ocean—Student Operated Solutions: Operation Climate Change, teaches middle and high school students about ocean threats related to climate change through hands-on activities and learning experiences in the field. During each session (in-class or after-school as a club), students build an understanding about how climate change impacts our oceans using resources provided by ExplorOcean (hands-on activities, presentations, multi-media). Through a student leadership model, students present lessons to each other, interweaving a deep learning of science, 21st century technology, communication skills, and leadership. After participating in learning experiences and activities related to 6 key climate change concepts: 1) Introduction to climate change, 2) Increased sea temperatures, 3) Ocean acidification, 4) Sea level rise, 5) Feedback mechanisms, and 6) Innovative solutions. H2O SOS- Operation Climate change participants select one focus issue and use it to design a multi-pronged campaign to increase awareness about this issue in their local community. The campaign includes social media, an interactive activity, and a visual component. All participating clubs that meet participation and action goals earn a field trip to ExplorOcean where they dive deeper into their selected issue through hands-on activities, real-world investigations, and interviews or presentations with experts. In addition to self-selected opportunities to showcase their focus issue, teams will participate in one of several key events identified by ExplorOcean, including ExplorOcean's annual World Oceans Day Expo.

  15. Exploring Lithologic Controls on Solute Transport at the Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, K.; Kuntz, B. W.; Toran, L.

    2009-12-01

    The Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SHCZO) team has found that soil chemistry does not correlate with variability in pore fluid chemistry, suggesting the presence of macropores. Because of such heterogeneity, it is often difficult to relate short-term event chemistry to what we know about the chemistry of waters in catchments. Additionally, it is not clear what role the shale bedrock has on flow and transport of solutes within the catchment. We have been conducting tracer tests at the laboratory and field-scale to move toward describing short-term flux and solute transport behavior with the goal of integrating behavior over geologic time clarify the relationship between soil chemistry and pore fluid data. In field sites where such high permeability contrasts exist, what roles do flow and transport play in long-term fate of solutes? What is the importance of the interface between the shale bedrock and the regolith above? Is the shale bedrock “impermeable”? To improve characterization of permeability of the consolidated shale, we drilled four 17-m deep bedrock wells at the SHCZO and have collected a suite of borehole logs. From the drilling and data collected within the new wells, we can make the following conclusions: that there is a “slow drilling” zone around 6-7 m below land surface, above which is highly weathered shale that is reddish in color, beneath which is largely unfractured blue-grey shale. The natural gamma data similar indicate a higher percentage of clays with depth than in the top 6 m, which corresponds with data from Jin et al. (submitted, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta) that shows variability in shale bedrock density down about 6 m. Pump and slug test indicate an effective hydraulic conductivity of the Rose Hill Shale in the drilled boreholes on the order of 10-6 m/s, although hydraulic conductivity of the shale bedrock matrix estimated in a triaxial compression chamber is approximately10-15 m/s. In field-scale and lab-scale tracer

  16. Cooperation: New Players in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Hugon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalisation and the current global financial crisis, new players are emerging in cooperation in Africa. These partners loosen financial constraints and conditionalities, increase the room for manoeuvre and stimulate commodity markets. On the other hand, they also increase the risks of renewed indebtedness and potentially weaken the coordination of aid policies. Do these partnerships call the new cooperation practices of OECD countries into question? Do they justify the return to a realpolitik or are they repeating the earlier mistakes of industrial powers? Can these mistakes be corrected? The question also arises as to whether the global crisis, which has a profound effect on Africa, will lead to a withdrawal or to a passing of the baton on to new, emerging powers. This article highlights the new geopolitical issues concerning Africa in a multipolar world, then discusses the new players involved in cooperation in Africa, before going on to explore the horizons that are opening up for cooperation in Africa, in particular with regard to the global crisis.

  17. Using Interactive 3D PDF for Exploring Complex Biomedical Data: Experiences and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newe, Axel; Becker, Linda

    2016-01-01

    The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the most commonly used file format for the exchange of electronic documents. A lesser-known feature of PDF is the possibility to embed three-dimensional models and to display these models interactively with a qualified reader. This technology is well suited to present, to explore and to communicate complex biomedical data. This applies in particular for data which would suffer from a loss of information if it was reduced to a static two-dimensional projection. In this article, we present applications of 3D PDF for selected scholarly and clinical use cases in the biomedical domain. Furthermore, we present a sophisticated tool for the generation of respective PDF documents.

  18. Learning to create new solutions together: A focus group study exploring interprofessional innovation in midwifery education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Helle

    2016-01-01

    Undergraduate students can learn how to be innovative in partnerships with health care institutions and private enterprises. This study portrays how a three phase innovation model was applied in an interprofessional health education context at a Danish university college. The aim of the study was to explore midwifery, nutrition and health as well physiotherapy students' perceptions of participating in a real-life innovation project situated in antenatal care. A total of eighteen students participated in five focus group interviews. Thematic analysis was used to interpret data findings. Data analysis revealed three themes: 'Navigating in uncertainty', 'Being part of a team' and 'Impact of project learning'. Students found project learning to be the most relevant with regards to their clinical practice. Furthermore, study findings suggest that innovation is promoted by teamwork, interprofessional participation, mentor support and external partnerships.

  19. Exploring Ayurvedic knowledge on food and health for providing innovative solutions to contemporary healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unnikrishnan ePayyappallimana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda, a traditional system of medicine that originated over 3 millennia ago in the South Asian region, offers extensive insights about food and health based on certain unique conceptual as well as theoretical positions. Health is defined as a state of equilibrium with one self (svasthya but which is inextricably linked to the environment. Ayurvedic principles like the tridosha (three humours theory provide the relationship between the microcosm and the macrocosm that can be applied in day to day practice. Classical Ayurveda texts cover an array of themes on food ranging from diversity of natural sources, their properties in relation to seasons and places and to their specific function both in physiological and pathological states. The epistemic perspective on health and nutrition in Ayurveda is very different from that of biomedicine and modern nutrition. However, contemporary knowledge is reinventing and advancing several of these concepts in an era of systems biology, personalized medicine, and the broader context of a more holistic transition in sciences in general. Trans-disciplinary research could be important not only for pushing the boundaries of food and health sciences but also for providing practical solutions for contemporary health conditions. This article briefly reviews the parallels in Ayurveda and biomedicine and draws attention to the need for a deeper engagement with traditional knowledge systems like Ayurveda. It points out that recreation of the methodologies that enabled the holistic view point about health in Ayurveda may unravel some of the complex connections with Nature.

  20. Geobiological Cycling of Gold: From Fundamental Process Understanding to Exploration Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Reith

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Microbial communities mediating gold cycling occur on gold grains from (sub-tropical, (semi-arid, temperate and subarctic environments. The majority of identified species comprising these biofilms are β-Proteobacteria. Some bacteria, e.g., Cupriavidus metallidurans, Delftia acidovorans and Salmonella typhimurium, have developed biochemical responses to deal with highly toxic gold complexes. These include gold specific sensing and efflux, co-utilization of resistance mechanisms for other metals, and excretion of gold-complex-reducing siderophores that ultimately catalyze the biomineralization of nano-particulate, spheroidal and/or bacteriomorphic gold. In turn, the toxicity of gold complexes fosters the development of specialized biofilms on gold grains, and hence the cycling of gold in surface environments. This was not reported on isoferroplatinum grains under most near-surface environments, due to the lower toxicity of mobile platinum complexes. The discovery of gold-specific microbial responses can now drive the development of geobiological exploration tools, e.g., gold bioindicators and biosensors. Bioindicators employ genetic markers from soils and groundwaters to provide information about gold mineralization processes, while biosensors will allow in-field analyses of gold concentrations in complex sampling media.

  1. Organic aerosol source apportionment in London 2013 with ME-2: exploring the solution space with annual and seasonal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Villegas, Ernesto; Green, David C.; Priestman, Max; Canonaco, Francesco; Coe, Hugh; Prévôt, André S. H.; Allan, James D.

    2016-12-01

    The multilinear engine (ME-2) factorization tool is being widely used following the recent development of the Source Finder (SoFi) interface at the Paul Scherrer Institute. However, the success of this tool, when using the a value approach, largely depends on the inputs (i.e. target profiles) applied as well as the experience of the user. A strategy to explore the solution space is proposed, in which the solution that best describes the organic aerosol (OA) sources is determined according to the systematic application of predefined statistical tests. This includes trilinear regression, which proves to be a useful tool for comparing different ME-2 solutions. Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) measurements were carried out at the urban background site of North Kensington, London from March to December 2013, where for the first time the behaviour of OA sources and their possible environmental implications were studied using an ACSM. Five OA sources were identified: biomass burning OA (BBOA), hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), cooking OA (COA), semivolatile oxygenated OA (SVOOA) and low-volatility oxygenated OA (LVOOA). ME-2 analysis of the seasonal data sets (spring, summer and autumn) showed a higher variability in the OA sources that was not detected in the combined March-December data set; this variability was explored with the triangle plots f44 : f43 f44 : f60, in which a high variation of SVOOA relative to LVOOA was observed in the f44 : f43 analysis. Hence, it was possible to conclude that, when performing source apportionment to long-term measurements, important information may be lost and this analysis should be done to short periods of time, such as seasonally. Further analysis on the atmospheric implications of these OA sources was carried out, identifying evidence of the possible contribution of heavy-duty diesel vehicles to air pollution during weekdays compared to those fuelled by petrol.

  2. Analyzing online game players: from materialism and motivation to attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ju-Hui; Zhang, Hongxia

    2008-12-01

    The online game market has been growing rapidly and has received an increasing amount of attention in recent years. The results of a survey conducted in China to explore online game players' attitude formation reveal that (a) the online game player's level of materialism positively influences the motivation for playing, (b) motivation positively influences attitude toward online games, and (c) motivation fully mediates the effects of materialism on attitude.

  3. SOLUTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Hoyos Guajardo, Ph.D. Candidate, M.Sc., B.Eng.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The theory that is presented below aims to conceptualise how a group of undergraduate students tackle non-routine mathematical problems during a problem-solving course. The aim of the course is to allow students to experience mathematics as a creative process and to reflect on their own experience. During the course, students are required to produce a written ‘rubric’ of their work, i.e., to document their thoughts as they occur as well as their emotionsduring the process. These ‘rubrics’ were used as the main source of data.Students’ problem-solving processes can be explained as a three-stage process that has been called ‘solutioning’. This process is presented in the six sections below. The first three refer to a common area of concern that can be called‘generating knowledge’. In this way, generating knowledge also includes issues related to ‘key ideas’ and ‘gaining understanding’. The third and the fourth sections refer to ‘generating’ and ‘validating a solution’, respectively. Finally, once solutions are generated and validated, students usually try to improve them further before presenting them as final results. Thus, the last section deals with‘improving a solution’. Although not all students go through all of the stages, it may be said that ‘solutioning’ considers students’ main concerns as they tackle non-routine mathematical problems.

  4. Evaluating the Impact of Player Experience in the Design of a Serious Game for Upper Extremity Stroke Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro d'Ornellas, Marcos; Cargnin, Diego João; Cervi Prado, Ana Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Video games have become a major entertainment industry and one of the most popular leisure forms, ranging from laboratory experiments to a mainstream cultural medium. Indeed, current games are multimodal and multidimensional products, relying on sophisticated features including not only a narrative-driven story but also impressive graphics and detailed settings. All of these elements helped to create a seamless and appealing product that have resulted in a growing number of players and in the number of game genres. Although video games have been used in education, simulation, and training, another application that exploits serious gaming is the exploration of player experience in the context of game research. Recent advances in the natural user interfaces and player experience have brought new perspectives on the in-game assessment of serious games. This paper evaluates the impact of player experience in the design of a serious game for upper extremity stroke rehabilitation. The game combines biofeedback and mirror neurons both in single and multiplayer mode. Results have shown that the game is a feasible solution to integrate serious games into the physical therapy routine.

  5. Active Learning for Player Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Shaker, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Learning models of player behavior has been the focus of several studies. This work is motivated by better understanding of player behavior, a knowledge that can ultimately be employed to provide player-adapted or personalized content. In this paper, we propose the use of active learning for player...... experience modeling. We use a dataset from hundreds of players playing Infinite Mario Bros. as a case study and we employ the random forest method to learn mod- els of player experience through the active learning approach. The results obtained suggest that only part of the dataset (up to half the size...... of the full dataset) is necessary for the construction of accu- rate models that are as accurate as those constructed from the full dataset. This indicates the potential of the method and its benefits in cases when obtaining the data is expensive or time, storage or effort consuming. The results also indicate...

  6. Active Learning for Player Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Shaker, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Learning models of player behavior has been the focus of several studies. This work is motivated by better understanding of player behavior, a knowledge that can ultimately be employed to provide player-adapted or personalized content. In this paper, we propose the use of active learning for player...... experience modeling. We use a dataset from hundreds of players playing Infinite Mario Bros. as a case study and we employ the random forest method to learn mod- els of player experience through the active learning approach. The results obtained suggest that only part of the dataset (up to half the size...... of the full dataset) is necessary for the construction of accu- rate models that are as accurate as those constructed from the full dataset. This indicates the potential of the method and its benefits in cases when obtaining the data is expensive or time, storage or effort consuming. The results also indicate...

  7. Performance following a first professional concussion among National Basketball Association players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Zuckerman, Scott L; Stotts, Jeff; Zalneraitis, Brian H; Gardner, Ryan M; Kerr, Zachary Y; Solomon, Gary S

    2016-09-01

    Basketball is a physical game played on a hardwood floor among high-jumping athletes at risk for injury. It is currently unknown how sport-related concussion (SRC) affects player performance after injury among professional basketball players. The objective of this study was to explore the impact of SRC on basketball performance among National Basketball Association (NBA) players. A retrospective, archival cohort study was performed that compared NBA player performance following concussion to pre-concussive performance. A comprehensive NBA injury database, compiled from publically available sources, was queried for NBA players who suffered concussion from 2005-06 to 2014-15 (10 seasons). Intra-and inter-player analyses were performed against a matched control group of players who missed playing time for personal reasons. Following application of inclusion/exclusion criteria and a matching process, 51 concussed players and 51 control players were included in analysis. There were no statistically significant decrements in baseline to post-concussion performance metrics in intra-player or player vs. controls after 5 return games. Our findings suggest that at the NBA level, an athlete's performance in the initial 5 games following injury does not suffer from the after-effects of concussive injury. These results may be useful in counseling professional athletes following a concussion.

  8. Assessing personal talent determinants in young racquet sport players : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Irene R.; Bustin, Paul M. J.; Oosterveld, Frits G. J.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Nijhuis-Van Der Sanden, Maria W. G.

    2016-01-01

    Since junior performances have little predictive value for future success, other solutions are sought to assess a young player's potential. The objectives of this systematic review are (1) to provide an overview of instruments measuring personal talent determinants of young players in racquet sports

  9. Assessing personal talent determinants in young racquet sport players: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, I.R.; Bustin, P.M.; Oosterveld, F.G.; Elferink-Gemser, M.T.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2016-01-01

    Since junior performances have little predictive value for future success, other solutions are sought to assess a young player's potential. The objectives of this systematic review are (1) to provide an overview of instruments measuring personal talent determinants of young players in racquet sports

  10. Assessing personal talent determinants in young racquet sport players: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, I.R.; Bustin, P.M.; Oosterveld, F.G.; Elferink-Gemser, M.T.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2016-01-01

    Since junior performances have little predictive value for future success, other solutions are sought to assess a young player's potential. The objectives of this systematic review are (1) to provide an overview of instruments measuring personal talent determinants of young players in racquet

  11. Assessing personal talent determinants in young racquet sport players : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Irene R.; Bustin, Paul M. J.; Oosterveld, Frits G. J.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Nijhuis-Van Der Sanden, Maria W. G.

    2016-01-01

    Since junior performances have little predictive value for future success, other solutions are sought to assess a young player's potential. The objectives of this systematic review are (1) to provide an overview of instruments measuring personal talent determinants of young players in racquet

  12. Multi-Player Quantum Games

    CERN Document Server

    Benjamin, S C; Benjamin, Simon C.; Hayden, Patrick M.

    2001-01-01

    Game theory is a mature field of applied mathematics. It formalizes the conflict between competing agents, and has found applications ranging from economics through to biology. Recently the first efforts have been made to introduce quantum information into game theory. For two-player games, it has been found that when the allowed `moves' are extended to include everything quantum mechanically possible, then the predominant strategies in the game can disappear, and only reappear if the players degrade the quantum coherence. Here we present the first study of quantum games with more than two players. We demonstrate that such games can exhibit `coherent' equilibrium strategies which have no analogue in classical games, or even in two-player quantum games. These equilibria are generally of a cooperative nature: quantum players can exploit their environment highly efficiently through the use of collaborative strategies.

  13. The Edubox Learning Design Player

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tattersall, Colin; Vogten, Hubert; Hermans, Henry

    2005-01-01

    Tattersall, C., Vogten, H. & Hermans, H. (2005). The Edubox Learning Design Player. In: Koper, R. & Tattersall, C., Learning Design: A Handbook on Modelling and Delivering Networked Education and Training (pp. 303-310). Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer Verlag.

  14. The Astro Learning Design Player

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharples, Paul; Wilson, Scott; Popat, Kris; Griffiths, David; Beauvoir, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Sharples, Paul Wilson, S., Popat, K., Griffiths, D., Beauvoir, P. (2009) The Astro Learning Design Player. This software is distributed under the three clause BSD license, copyright TENCompetence Foundation

  15. The Edubox Learning Design Player

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tattersall, Colin; Vogten, Hubert; Hermans, Henry

    2005-01-01

    Tattersall, C., Vogten, H. & Hermans, H. (2005). The Edubox Learning Design Player. In: Koper, R. & Tattersall, C., Learning Design: A Handbook on Modelling and Delivering Networked Education and Training (pp. 303-310). Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer Verlag.

  16. Deploying music characteristics for an affective music player

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaag, Marjolein D.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; van den Broek, Egon; Cohn, Jeffrey; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes work toward an affective music player (AMP), which is able to direct affect to a goal state by selecting music. Repeatedly, music has been shown to modulate affect; however, precise guidelines for the use of music characteristics in an AMP have not been defined. To explore these

  17. Deploying music characteristics for an affective music player

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaag, van der Marjolein D.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Broek, van den Egon L.; Cohn, Jeffrey; Nijholt, Anton; Pantic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes work toward an affective music player (AMP), which is able to direct affect to a goal state by selecting music. Repeatedly, music has been shown to modulate affect; however, precise guidelines for the use of music characteristics in an AMP have not been defined. To explore these

  18. Two-player envy-free multi-cake division

    CERN Document Server

    Cloutier, John; Su, Francis Edward

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a generalized cake-cutting problem in which we seek to divide multiple cakes so that two players may get their most-preferred piece selections: a choice of one piece from each cake, allowing for the possibility of linked preferences over the cakes. For two players, we show that disjoint envy-free piece selections may not exist for two cakes cut into two pieces each, and they may not exist for three cakes cut into three pieces each. However, there do exist such divisions for two cakes cut into three pieces each, and for three cakes cut into four pieces each. The resulting allocations of pieces to players are Pareto-optimal with respect to the division. We use a generalization of Sperner's lemma on the polytope of divisions to locate solutions to our generalized cake-cutting problem.

  19. Pre-training perceived wellness impacts training output in Australian football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Tania F; Cormack, Stuart J; Gabbett, Tim J; Lorenzen, Christian H

    2016-08-01

    The impact of perceived wellness on a range of external load parameters, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and external load:RPE ratios, was explored during skill-based training in Australian footballers. Fifteen training sessions involving 36 participants were analysed. Each morning before any physical training, players completed a customised perceived wellness questionnaire (sleep quality, fatigue, stress, mood and muscle soreness). Microtechnology devices provided external load (average speed, high-speed running distance, player load and player load slow). Players provided RPE using the modified Borg category-ratio 10 RPE scale. Mixed-effect linear models revealed significant effects of wellness Z-score on player load and player load slow. Effects are reported with 95% confidence limits. A wellness Z-score of -1 corresponded to a -4.9 ± 3.1 and -8.6 ± 3.9% reduction in player load and player load slow, respectively, compared to those without reduced wellness. Small significant effects were also seen in the average speed:RPE and player load slow:RPE models. A wellness Z-score of -1 corresponded to a 0.43 ± 0.38 m·min(-1) and -0.02 ± 0.01 au·min(-1) change in the average speed:RPE and player load slow:RPE ratios, respectively. Magnitude-based analysis revealed that the practical size of the effect of a pre-training perceived wellness Z-score of -1 would have on player load slow was likely negative. The results of this study suggests that monitoring pre-training perceived wellness may provide coaches with information about the intensity of output that can be expected from individual players during a training session.

  20. Frontal Lobe Function in Chess Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chess is considered as a cognitive game because of severe engagement of the mental resources during playing. The purpose of this study is evaluation of frontal lobe function of chess players with matched non-players. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST data showed no difference between the player and non-player groups in preservation error and completed categories but surprisingly showed significantly lower grade of the player group in correct response. Our data reveal that chess players dont have any preference in any stage of Stroop test. Chess players dont have any preference in selective attention, inhibition and executive cognitive function. Chess players' have lower shifting abilities than non-players.

  1. Soccer and Relative Age Effect: A Walk among Elite Players and Young Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Jacob Sierra-Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grouping people according to chronological age is popular in fields such as education and sport. Athletes who are born in the first months of the year usually have cognitive and physical development differences in contrast to those born in the last months of the same year. That is why competitive teams tend to select older players more often than youngsters. Age differences between athletes born in the same year as well as an over-representation of older players are known as the Relative Age Effect. This effect is extensively described in young and elite team sports such as basketball, volleyball or, ice-hockey, as well as in soccer. The purpose of this study is to examine the state-of-the-art of the Relative Age Effect in youth and elite soccer players. This review summarizes recent research articles on the Relative Age Effect related to competitive soccer from 2010 to 2016. The systematic literature search was conducted in four databases: SPORTDiscus, Medline, EBSCO host and Google Scholar. Although causes and final solutions have not been clearly achieved yet, it is necessary to continue investigating this phenomenon in order to provide a starting point for future research.

  2. People efficiently explore the solution space of the computationally intractable traveling salesman problem to find near-optimal tours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Acuña

    Full Text Available Humans need to solve computationally intractable problems such as visual search, categorization, and simultaneous learning and acting, yet an increasing body of evidence suggests that their solutions to instantiations of these problems are near optimal. Computational complexity advances an explanation to this apparent paradox: (1 only a small portion of instances of such problems are actually hard, and (2 successful heuristics exploit structural properties of the typical instance to selectively improve parts that are likely to be sub-optimal. We hypothesize that these two ideas largely account for the good performance of humans on computationally hard problems. We tested part of this hypothesis by studying the solutions of 28 participants to 28 instances of the Euclidean Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP. Participants were provided feedback on the cost of their solutions and were allowed unlimited solution attempts (trials. We found a significant improvement between the first and last trials and that solutions are significantly different from random tours that follow the convex hull and do not have self-crossings. More importantly, we found that participants modified their current better solutions in such a way that edges belonging to the optimal solution ("good" edges were significantly more likely to stay than other edges ("bad" edges, a hallmark of structural exploitation. We found, however, that more trials harmed the participants' ability to tell good from bad edges, suggesting that after too many trials the participants "ran out of ideas." In sum, we provide the first demonstration of significant performance improvement on the TSP under repetition and feedback and evidence that human problem-solving may exploit the structure of hard problems paralleling behavior of state-of-the-art heuristics.

  3. Exploring molecular insights into aggregation of hydrotrope sodium cumene sulfonate in aqueous solution: a molecular dynamics simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shubhadip; Paul, Sandip

    2015-02-19

    Hydrotropes are an important class of molecules that enhance the solubility of an otherwise insoluble or sparingly soluble solute in water. Besides this, hydrotropes are also known to self-assemble in aqueous solution and form aggregates. It is the hydrotrope aggregate that helps in solubilizing a solute molecule in water. In view of this, we try to understand the underlying mechanism of self-aggregation of hydrotrope sodium cumene sulfonate (SCS) in water. We have carried out classical molecular dynamics simulations of aqueous SCS solutions with a regime of concentrations. Moreover, to examine the effect of temperature change on SCS aggregation, if any, we consider four different temperatures ranging from 298 to 358 K. From the estimation of densities of different solutions we calculate apparent and partial molal volumes of the hydrotrope. The changes in these quantities increase sharply at a characteristic minimum hydrotrope concentration. The determination of molal expansibility at infinite dilution for different temperatures indicates the water structure breaking by SCS molecules, which is further confirmed by the calculations of water-water pair correlation functions. In comparison with typical surfactants in micelles, a slightly lower value of volumetric change upon aggregation per carbon atom suggests the formation of a more closely packed structure of hydrotrope aggregates. A close examination of different structural properties of hydrotrope solutions reveals that the hydrophobic interactions through their hydrophobic tails significantly contribute in hydrotrope aggregation,and the dehydration of hydrophobic tail at elevated temperatures is also visible. Remarkably, the aggregates have little or no impact on the average number of water-SCS hydrogen bonds.

  4. A new game plan for C players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Beth; Handfield-Jones, Helen; Michaels, Ed

    2002-01-01

    It's a big driver of business success, but one that executives are loath to talk about: upgrading the talent pool by weeding out "C" players from management. These aren't the incompetent or unethical managers whom organizations dismiss without a backward glance; C performers deliver results that are acceptable--barely--but they fail to innovate or to inspire the people they lead. The authors of The War for Talent have studied what it takes to upgrade an organization's talent pool. In this article, they explore the hidden costs of tolerating under-performance and acknowledge the reasons why executives may shy away from dealing decisively with C players. They recommend that organizations take an "iron hand in a velvet glove" approach to managing subpar performers. That is, companies should establish rigorous, disciplined processes for assessing and dealing with low-performing managers but still treat them with respect. The authors outline three ironhanded steps. First, executives must identify C players by evaluating their talents and distributing employee performances along an assessment curve. Second, executives must agree on explicit action plans that articulate the improvements or changes that C performers must achieve within six to 12 months. And third, executives should hold managers accountable for carrying out the action plans. Without such discipline, procrastination, rationalization, and inaction will prevail. The authors also emphasize the need for the "velvet glove." Executives must ensure that low performers are treated with dignity, so they should offer candid feedback, instructive coaching, and generous severance packages and outplacement support. The authors' approach isn't about being tough on people; it's about being relentlessly focused on performance.

  5. Exploring item and higher order factor structure with the Schmid-Leiman solution: syntax codes for SPSS and SAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Hans-Georg; Preising, Katja

    2005-02-01

    To ease the interpretation of higher order factor analysis, the direct relationships between variables and higher order factors may be calculated by the Schmid-Leiman solution (SLS; Schmid & Leiman, 1957). This simple transformation of higher order factor analysis orthogonalizes first-order and higher order factors and thereby allows the interpretation of the relative impact of factor levels on variables. The Schmid-Leiman solution may also be used to facilitate theorizing and scale development. The rationale for the procedure is presented, supplemented by syntax codes for SPSS and SAS, since the transformation is not part of most statistical programs. Syntax codes may also be downloaded from www.psychonomic.org/archive/.

  6. The Effectiveness Evaluation among Different Player-Matching Mechanisms in a Multi-Player Quiz Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Fu-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether different player-matching mechanisms in educational multi-player online games (MOGs) can affect students' learning performance, enjoyment perception and gaming behaviors. Based on the multi-player quiz game, TRIS-Q, developed by Tsai, Tsai and Lin (2015) using a free player-matching (FPM) mechanism, the same…

  7. Research of spectral characteristics of ubiquinone solution and explore of the solvent effect on the experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, Elvira O.; Gorbunova, Elena V.; Korotaev, Valery V.

    2016-04-01

    This work is dedicated to the research of the clinical diagnosis method of determining the antioxidant status of the human body. The existing methods for determining the level of antioxidants in connection with biological functions of the human antioxidant system were studied. Antioxidants in the human body, in the form of solutions were chosen as a research objects. The technique of experimental studies of ubiquinone solutions in oil and alcohol by spectroscopic method was offered. The experimental results connected with the optical density and color characteristics confirm the possibility of applying the clinical diagnosis method of estimation antioxidant balance. Also, it was found that this method can be applicable to the quality control of medicines for treating diseases provoked by oxidative stress, which means that this method may be developed not only for using in the clinic.

  8. Exploring the structure of biological macromolecules in solution using Quokka, the small angle neutron scattering instrument, at ANSTO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kathleen; Jeffries, Cy M.; Knott, Robert B.; Sokolova, Anna; Jacques, David A.; Duff, Anthony P.

    2015-10-01

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) is widely used to extract structural parameters, shape and other types of information from a vast array of materials. The technique is applied to biological macromolecules and their complexes in solution to reveal information often not accessible by other techniques. SANS measurements on biomolecules present some particular challenges however, one of which is suitable instrumentation. This review details SANS experiments performed on two well-characterised globular proteins (lysozyme and glucose isomerase) using Quokka, the recently commissioned SANS instrument at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The instrument configuration as well as data collection and reduction strategies for biological investigations are discussed and act as a general reference for structural biologists who use the instrument. Both model independent analysis of the two proteins and ab initio modelling illustrate that Quokka-SANS data can be used to successfully model the overall shapes of proteins in solution, providing a benchmark for users.

  9. Exploring the structure of biological macromolecules in solution using Quokka, the small angle neutron scattering instrument, at ANSTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Kathleen, E-mail: kw@ansto.gov.au [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Rd, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Jeffries, Cy M.; Knott, Robert B.; Sokolova, Anna [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Rd, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Jacques, David A. [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Duff, Anthony P. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Rd, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2015-10-21

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) is widely used to extract structural parameters, shape and other types of information from a vast array of materials. The technique is applied to biological macromolecules and their complexes in solution to reveal information often not accessible by other techniques. SANS measurements on biomolecules present some particular challenges however, one of which is suitable instrumentation. This review details SANS experiments performed on two well-characterised globular proteins (lysozyme and glucose isomerase) using Quokka, the recently commissioned SANS instrument at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The instrument configuration as well as data collection and reduction strategies for biological investigations are discussed and act as a general reference for structural biologists who use the instrument. Both model independent analysis of the two proteins and ab initio modelling illustrate that Quokka-SANS data can be used to successfully model the overall shapes of proteins in solution, providing a benchmark for users.

  10. Multiobjective Interaction Programming Problem with Interaction Constraint for Two Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends an existing cooperative multi-objective interaction programming problem with interaction constraint for two players (or two agents. First, we define an s-optimal joint solution with weight vector to multi-objective interaction programming problem with interaction constraint for two players and get some properties of it. It is proved that the s-optimal joint solution with weight vector to the multi-objective interaction programming problem can be obtained by solving a corresponding mathematical programming problem. Then, we define another s-optimal joint solution with weight value to multi-objective interaction programming problem with interaction constraint for two players and get some of its properties. It is proved that the s-optimal joint solution with weight vector to multi-objective interaction programming problem can be obtained by solving a corresponding mathematical programming problem. Finally, we build a pricing multi-objective interaction programming model for a bi-level supply chain. Numerical results show that the interaction programming pricing model is better than Stackelberg pricing model and the joint pricing model.

  11. The NBA’s Maximum Player Salary and the Distribution of Player Rents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M. Hastings

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The NBA’s 1999 Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA included provisions capping individual player pay in addition to team payrolls. This study examines the effect the NBA’s maximum player salary on player rents by comparing player pay from the 1997–1998 and 2003–2004 seasons while controlling for player productivity and other factors related to player pay. The results indicate a large increase in the pay received by teams’ second highest and, to a lesser extent, third highest paid players. We interpret this result as evidence that the adoption of the maximum player salary shifted rents from stars to complementary players. We also show that the 1999 CBA’s rookie contract provisions reduced salaries of early career players.

  12. Head Impact Exposure and Neurologic Function of Youth Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munce, Thayne A; Dorman, Jason C; Thompson, Paul A; Valentine, Verle D; Bergeron, Michael F

    2015-08-01

    Football players are subjected to repetitive impacts that may lead to brain injury and neurologic dysfunction. Knowledge about head impact exposure (HIE) and consequent neurologic function among youth football players is limited. This study aimed to measure and characterize HIE of youth football players throughout one season and explore associations between HIE and changes in selected clinical measures of neurologic function. Twenty-two youth football players (11-13 yr) wore helmets outfitted with a head impact telemetry (HIT) system to quantify head impact frequency, magnitude, duration, and location. Impact data were collected for each practice (27) and game (9) in a single season. Selected clinical measures of balance, oculomotor performance, reaction time, and self-reported symptoms were assessed before and after the season. The median individual head impacts per practice, per game, and throughout the entire season were 9, 12, and 252, respectively. Approximately 50% of all head impacts (6183) had a linear acceleration between 10g and 20g, but nearly 2% were greater than 80g. Overall, the head impact frequency distributions in this study population were similar in magnitude and location as in high school and collegiate football, but total impact frequency was lower. Individual changes in neurologic function were not associated with cumulative HIE. This study provides a novel examination of HIE and associations with short-term neurologic function in youth football and notably contributes to the limited HIE data currently available for this population. Whereas youth football players can experience remarkably similar head impact forces as high school players, cumulative subconcussive HIE throughout one youth football season may not be detrimental to short-term clinical measures of neurologic function.

  13. A quantum-like view to a generalized two players game

    CERN Document Server

    Bagarello, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    This paper consider the possibility of using some quantum tools in decision making strategies. In particular, we consider here a dynamical open quantum system helping two players, $\\G_1$ and $\\G_2$, to take their decisions in a specific context. We see that, within our approach, the final choices of the players do not depend in general on their initial {\\em mental states}, but they are driven essentially by the environment which interacts with them. The model proposed here also considers interactions of different nature between the two players, and it is simple enough to allow for an analytical solution of the equations of motion.

  14. Profit allocation among rational players in a cooperative game under uncertainty

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sibasis Bandyopadhyay; Swapan Raha; Prasun Kumar Nayak

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a cooperative game has been considered, where there is a coalition between rational players in an uncertain environment. The uncertainty occurs in terms of the quality of the raw material. The pay-offs of the players are influenced by the degree of satisfaction. Pay-offs are considered as interval numbers. A multisection technique has been applied to obtain a rational solution. In the process, it has been found that the degree of satisfaction of the rational players converges to its optimum value with the convergence of the iterations. A comparative study has been made with methods existing in the literature.

  15. Differential proteomics to explore the inhibitory effects of acidic, slightly acidic electrolysed water and sodium hypochlorite solution on Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tai-Yuan; Kuo, Shu-Hao; Chen, Shui-Tein; Hwang, Deng-Fwu

    2016-03-01

    Slightly acidic electrolysed water (SlAEW) and acidic electrolysed water (AEW) have been demonstrated to effectively inactivate food-borne pathogens. However, the underlying mechanism of inactivation remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, a differential proteomic platform was used to investigate the bactericidal mechanism of SlAEW, AEW, and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solutions against Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The upregulated proteins after SlAEW, AEW, and NaOCl treatments were identified as outer membrane proteins K and U. The downregulated proteins after the SlAEW, AEW, and NaOCl treatments were identified as adenylate kinase, phosphoglycerate kinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and enolase, all of which are responsible for energy metabolism. Protein synthesis-associated proteins were downregulated and identified as elongation factor Tu and GAPDH. The inhibitory effects of SlAEW and AEW solutions against V. parahaemolyticus may be attributed to the changes in cell membrane permeability, protein synthesis activity, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) biosynthesis pathways such as glycolysis and ATP replenishment.

  16. Procedural Personas for Player Decision Modeling and Procedural Content Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgård, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    ." These methods for constructing procedural personas are then integrated with existing procedural content generation systems, acting as critics that shape the output of these systems, optimizing generated content for different personas and by extension, different kinds of players and their decision making styles....... This thesis explores methods for creating low-complexity, easily interpretable, generative AI agents for use in game and simulation design. Based on insights from decision theory and behavioral economics, the thesis investigates how player decision making styles may be defined, operationalised, and measured...... in specific games. It further explores how simple utility functions, easily defined and changed by game designers, can be used to construct agents expressing a variety of decision making styles within a game, using a variety of contemporary AI approaches, naming the resulting agents "Procedural Personas...

  17. Exploring the conformational and reactive dynamics of biomolecules in solution using an extended version of the glycine reactive force field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monti, Susanna; Corozzi, Alessandro; Fristrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    reported glycine parameters. This expansion consists of adding to the training set more than five hundred molecular systems, including all the amino acids and some short peptide structures, which have been investigated by means of quantum mechanical calculations. The performance of this ReaxFF protein...... force field on a relatively short time scale (500 ps) is validated by comparison with classical non-reactive simulations and experimental data of well characterized test cases, comprising capped amino acids, peptides, and small proteins, and reaction mechanisms connected to the pharmaceutical sector......In order to describe possible reaction mechanisms involving amino acids, and the evolution of the protonation state of amino acid side chains in solution, a reactive force field (ReaxFF-based description) for peptide and protein simulations has been developed as an expansion of the previously...

  18. Rural electrification through private models: the case of solar-powered mini-grid development in Kenya: Exploring the hybrid nature of private business models and the interplay between new players and existing structures in the Kenyan rural electrification regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mathilde Brix

    2017-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa more than 630 million people live without access to electricity. Access to modern energy services like phone-charging, electric lighting, cooling, heating, etc. is an important enabler of social and economic development and human well-being. Renewable energy...... in bringing electricity to everyone in the near future. In East Africa, mini-grid development has primarily been driven by NGOs or faithbased organisations. However, recent technological advances like mobile phone payment solutions and drops in solar PV prices are making solar-powered mini-grids a cost...

  19. Hot melt extrusion based solid solution approach: Exploring polymer comparison, physicochemical characterization and in-vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fule, Ritesh; Paithankar, Vivek; Amin, Purnima

    2016-02-29

    The objective of this study was to develop solid solution (SSL) using hot-melt extrusion as a continuous manufacturing method. Powder blends of artesunate (ARS) a water insoluble drug with either Soluplus (SOL) or Kollidon VA64 (VA64) and additives in the form of surfactants or plasticizers were extruded to manufacture extrudes. The incorporation of surfactant or plasticizers facilitates smooth extrusion processing of the drug-excipient blend which directly reduced the residence time to form extrudes and works as parameter to control flow of the drug-excipients melt inside the extruder barrel. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (TXRD) analysis revealed the existence of the drug within the extrudes in amorphous state. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy (RS), Raman imaging (RI) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analytical characterization were carry out on the SSL formulations showed a homogeneous drug distribution within the extrudes. (2)D NMR and (1)H NMR studies were undertaken to reveal the possible drug-excipient interactions. The SSL produced via continuous HME processing showed significantly faster release of ARS compared to the pure drug substance. It is observed that F1 SSL (soluplus based) have 66.44 times higher AUC(0-72) and 16.60 times higher Cmax than pure ARS. Also K1 SSL (Kollidon VA64 based) have 62.20 times higher AUC(0-72) and 13.40 times higher Cmax than pure ARS.

  20. Adapting playware to multiple players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þorsteinsson, Arnar Tumi; Lund, Henrik Hautop; Mastorakis, Nikos

    2011-01-01

    With the creation of playware as intelligent hardware and software that creates play, it is possible to adapt the play tool to the individual user, and even to multiple users playing at the same time with the play tool. In this paper, we show how it is possible to implement adaptivity in modular...... to such differences, and argues that adaptivity is needed to make games fit to the individual users in both single-player games and multi-player games. As a case study, we implemented such adaptivity on modular interactive tiles for the single-user game ColorTimer, and for the multiple-user games PingPong, in which...

  1. Psychological games of entangled players

    CERN Document Server

    Zak, Michail

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces a new approach to theory of differential games in which entangled players try to predict and influence actions of their adversaries. The entanglement is generated be a joint probability density known by the players. Incase of complex density, its imaginary part represents a measure of uncertainty of the density distribution. The novelty of the approach is in non-Newtonian mathematical formalism thatis based upon a behavioral model of Livings. The model is quantum-inspired: it represented by a modified Madelung equation which the quantum potential is replaced by different, specially chosen "computational" potential. It consists of motor dynamics simulating actual behavior of the object, and mental dynamics representing evolution of the corresponding knowledge-based and incorporating this knowledge in the for m of information flows into the motor dynamics. Due to feedback from mental dynamics, motor dynamics attains quantum-like properties: its trajectory splits into a family of different t...

  2. Two-Player Graph Pebbling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudente, Matthew James

    Given a graph G with pebbles on the vertices, we define a pebbling move as removing two pebbles from a vertex u, placing one pebble on a neighbor v, and discarding the other pebble, like a toll. The pebbling number pi( G) is the least number of pebbles needed so that every arrangement of pi(G) pebbles can place a pebble on any vertex through a sequence of pebbling moves. We introduce a new variation on graph pebbling called two-player pebbling. In this, players called the mover and the defender alternate moves, with the stipulation that the defender cannot reverse the previous move. The mover wins only if they can place a pebble on a specified vertex and the defender wins if the mover cannot. We define η(G), analogously, as the minimum number of pebbles such that given every configuration of the η( G) pebbles and every specified vertex r, the mover has a winning strategy. First, we will investigate upper bounds for η( G) on various classes of graphs and find a certain structure for which the defender has a winning strategy, no matter how many pebbles are in a configuration. Then, we characterize winning configurations for both players on a special class of diameter 2 graphs. Finally, we show winning configurations for the mover on paths using a recursive argument.

  3. Motivational profile quality players handball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Martínez Moreno

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the sport context, elite category, it is necessary to know all the factors, which in one way or another, affect the athletes throughout the different competitions. The object of study is to know the motivational profile of elite handball players. The sample consisted of 495 players, of whom 47.8% were boys and 52.2% girls, their ages ranged from 12 to 16 years, with an average of 13.8 years (dt = 1.0. Descriptive statistical analyzes of the sample, absolute and relative frequencies were performed for the qualitative variables and for the quantitative values minimum, maximum, mean, standard deviation, Cronbach's alpha. Correlation between variables, with the Pearson correlation coefficient. The MANCOVA test was performed to determine if there were differences between the dimensions of the questionnaire, according to age and years of practice. The results reveal that handball players elite category of the sample object of study have mainly intrinsic motivation, achieving high scores on general motivation, motivation achievement and motivation stimulation. In addition to moderately high values in introjected regulation and very low values in demotivation.

  4. [Dietary behaviours of volleyball and basketball players].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepańska, Elzbieta; Spałkowska, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    In sports, such as basketball and volleyball, players must demonstrate the speed, strength, stamina and concentration. Correct nutrition affects the strength of the muscles and the extension of capacity. It is also necessary for the proper functioning of the nervous system and determines the rate of regeneration after physical effort. The aim of this study was to assess dietary behaviours of professional volleyball and basketball players and compare the prevalence of correct behaviours in both groups. 209 professional volleyball and basketball players from sports clubs localized in six Silesian cities were survived with the mean of author questionnaire. The chi-square test was used to examine differences in the prevalence of the correct behaviours among players. Analysis of the results obtained showed that 52% of the players had 4-5 meals a day. 35% of respondents had wholemeal bread and/or groats daily. Milk and dairy products daily ate 71% of surveyed players, meat and sausages 70% respectively. 41% of respondents had cottage cheese and 28% had fish several times a week. Vegetables and fruit were eaten by 21% and respectively 23% of respondents. Sweets were eaten daily by 40% of surveyed, while fast-food were eaten several times a week by 17% of players. Nutrients for athletes were used by 32%, and vitamin supplementation by 48% of respondents. Prevalence of correct dietary behaviour in the group of professional volleyball and basketball players differed. Basketball players statistically more frequently than volleyball players had 4-5 meals a day, had wholemeal bread and/or thick groats, milk and dairy products, meat and sausages, especially poultry. They had raw vegetables and fruit several times a day. They drank more than 2.5 liters of fluids per day. They also significantly more frequently than volleyball players consumed the fast-food occasionally or never. Dietary behaviours of surveyed players were incorrect. Comparison of prevalence of proper behaviours

  5. Vitamin D Deficiency Among Professional Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Matthew P; Lombardo, Stephen J; Kharrazi, F Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin D plays an important role in several systems of the human body. Various studies have linked vitamin D deficiency to stress and insufficiency fractures, muscle recovery and function, and athletic performance. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the elite athletic population has not been extensively studied, and very few reports exist among professional athletes. There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency among players attending the National Basketball Association (NBA) Combine. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. This is a retrospective review of data previously collected as part of the routine medical evaluation of players in the NBA Combines from 2009 through 2013. Player parameters evaluated were height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and vitamin D level. Statistical analysis using t tests and analysis of variance was used to detect any correlation between the player parameters and vitamin D level. Vitamin D levels were categorized as deficient (32 ng/mL). After institutional review board approval was submitted to the NBA, the NBA released deidentified data on 279 players who participated in the combines from 2009 through 2013. There were 90 players (32.3%) who were deficient, 131 players (47.0%) who were insufficient, and 58 players (20.8%) who were sufficient. A total of 221 players (79.3%) were either vitamin D deficient or insufficient. Among all players included, the average vitamin D level was 25.6 ± 10.2 ng/mL. Among the players who were deficient, insufficient, and sufficient, the average vitamin D levels were 16.1 ± 2.1 ng/mL, 25.0 ± 3.4 ng/mL, and 41.6 ± 8.6 ng/mL, respectively. Player height and weight were significantly increased in vitamin D-sufficient players compared with players who were not sufficient (P = .0008 and .009, respectively). Player age and BMI did not significantly differ depending on vitamin D status (P = .15 and .77, respectively). There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency

  6. A Simple Exercise-to-Play Proposal that would Reduce Games Addiction and Keep Players Healthy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nael Hirzallah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Games players usually get addicted to video games in general and more specifically to those that are usually played over the internet. These players prefer to stay at home and play games rather than playing sports or outdoor games. This paper presents a proposal that aims to implement a simple way to let video games players exercise in order to play. The proposal targets games where players virtually live inside a certain area such as a forest, city or a war zone. Their aim is to explore the area, capture, kill and avoid being killed by something or someone. A costumed built treadmill acting as a movement capture device is proposed to capture players’ commands for movements. These movements include Running, walking, Stopping, and Turning. In that way, the players enjoy exercising as well as playing the game. However, sooner or later, the players get exhausted driving them to exit the game. That way, we believe that such a proposal would keep players healthy, and reduce the chance of addiction.

  7. Determinants of sport-specific postural control strategy and balance performance of amateur rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Gary C C; Fong, Shirley S M; Chung, Joanne W Y; Chung, Louisa M Y; Ma, Ada W W; Macfarlane, Duncan J

    2016-11-01

    Postural control strategy and balance performance of rugby players are important yet under-examined issues. This study aimed to examine the differences in balance strategy and balance performance between amateur rugby players and non-players, and to explore training- and injury-related factors that may affect rugby players' balance outcomes. Cross-sectional and exploratory study. Forty-five amateur rugby players and 41 healthy active individuals participated in the study. Balance performance and balance strategies were assessed using the sensory organization test (SOT) of the Smart Equitest computerized dynamic posturography machine. Rugby training history and injury history were solicited from the participants. The SOT strategy scores were 1.99-54.90% lower in the rugby group than in the control group (prugby group than in the control group (prugby training (in years) was independently associated with the SOT condition 6 strategy score, explaining 15.7% of its variance (p=0.006). There was no association between SOT condition 6 strategy/equilibrium scores and injury history among the rugby players (p>0.05). Amateur rugby players demonstrated inferior balance strategy and balance performance compared to their non-training counterparts. Their suboptimal balance strategy was associated with insufficient training experience but not with history of injury. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of Moderate and High-Intensity Fatigue on Groundstroke Accuracy in Expert and Non-Expert Tennis Players

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Lyons; Yahya Al-Nakeeb; Joanne Hankey; Alan Nevill

    2013-01-01

    peer-reviewed Exploring the effects of fatigue on skilled performance in tennis presents a significant challenge to the researcher with respect to ecological validity. This study examined the effects of moderate and high-intensity fatigue on groundstroke accuracy in expert and non-expert tennis players. The research also explored whether the effects of fatigue are the same regardless of gender and player's achievement motivation characteristics. 13 expert (7 male, 6 female) and 17 non-expe...

  9. Player-character dynamics in multi-player Role Playing Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; McIlwain, Doris; Brolund, Thea

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive empirical study of the impact of integrating complex game characters in multi-player Role Playing Games across tabletop and digital formats. Players were provided with characters that had detailed background history, personality and goals. Player...... and player engagement with their character and no correlation between enjoyment and similarity between player and character personality. © 2007 Authors & Digital Games Research Association (DiGRA)....... and character personality were assessed using the Extended Personal Attributes Questionnaire (EPAQ) and further questionnaires administered to measure player enjoyment and the player-character relationship. Results include a high level of player enjoyment across all formats, a high correlation between enjoyment...

  10. An investigation of player to player character identification via personal pronouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hichens, Michael; Drachen, Anders; Richards, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The player character is an important feature of many games, where it is through the character that the player interacts with game world. There has been considerable interest in the relationship between the player and the player character. Much of this work has examined the identification of players...... in playing video games, did have a statistically significant affect, indicating that different levels of identification are more dependent on the player than on the game. This indicates that players are not a homogeneous group with respect to player character identification and is an important consideration...... with their characters, generally taking either a textual analysis approach, or has been empirical work that has explicitly identified the idea of identification through survey instruments, etc. The work presented here takes a different empirical approach, focusing on the use of various pronoun forms (first, second...

  11. Serious eye injury in badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, S P

    1987-10-01

    Serious eye injury can occur in badminton players and may become more frequent. The causes and nature of such injuries in this sport in six patients are discussed. All were playing competitive doubles matches. Penetrating eye injury due to a shattered glass spectacle lens occurred. Players should be advised not to wear spectacles with glass lenses. Ocular protection in this sport is desirable, and the forward player should hold the racket in front of the face.

  12. The Prevalence of Injuries in Professional Turkish Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaner, Faruk; Gumusdag, Hayrettin; Kartal, Alparslan; Gumus, M.; Gullu, A.; Imamoglu, O.

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the prevalence and anatomical sites of injuries in professional soccer players in one game season. Material and methods: A cohort of 510 professional male soccer players consisting of 48 goalkeepers, 194 defence players, 189 mid-field players and 79 forward players of the 1st and 2nd Turkish Professional Soccer Leagues in…

  13. Chess players' fame versus their merit

    CERN Document Server

    Simkin, M V

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a pool of international chess title holders born between 1901 and 1943. Using Elo ratings we compute for every player his expected score in a game with a randomly selected player from the pool. We use this figure as player's merit. We measure players' fame as the number of Google hits. The correlation between fame and merit is 0.38. At the same time the correlation between the logarithm of fame and merit is 0.61. This suggests that fame grows exponentially with merit.

  14. Physiological characteristics of international female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Sarah A; Brughelli, Matt; Harris, Nigel K

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological characteristics of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) eligible international female soccer players aged 14-36 years and to determine if measures were significantly different for players selected (i.e., starters) to the starting line up for an FIFA tournament as compared with those not selected (i.e., nonstarters). Fifty-one (N = 18 Under 17; N = 18 Under 20; N = 15 Senior) international female soccer players participated in this study. The subjects underwent measurements of anthropometry (height and body mass), lower body strength (isokinetic testing), sprint kinetics and kinematics (nonmotorized treadmill), leg power (unilateral jumping), and maximal aerobic velocity (30:15 intermittent fitness test) during the final preparatory stage for an FIFA event. Outcomes of the age group data indicate that differences in physiological capacities are evident for the Under 17 players as compared with those for the Under 20 and Senior capped international players, suggesting a plateau in the acquisition of physical qualities as players mature. Starters tended to be faster (effect size [ES] = 0.55-1.0, p velocity (ES = 0.78-2.45, p velocity (ES = 0.87, p players, where maximal aerobic velocity was the primary difference between starters and nonstarters (ES = 0.83-2.45, p players. Coaches should emphasize the development of speed, maximal aerobic velocity, and leg strength in developing female soccer players.

  15. From endurance to power athletes: The changing shape of successful male professional tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale-Watts, Adam S; Nevill, Alan M

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify whether the relative shape and size characteristics of elite male tennis players have changed over time, and in addition whether any anthropometric parameters characterise the more successful players in Grand Slam tournaments. The height and body mass of the players qualifying for the first round in all four Grand Slam tennis tournaments during the period 1982-2011 was obtained, and successful players defined arbitrarily as those reaching round 3 or beyond. Body mass index (BMI) and the reciprocal ponderal index (RPI) were used as our measures of body shape. Multilevel modelling was used to explore the trend over time using non-linear polynomials. The results suggest that the body shape of elite tennis players has changed over time, with a non-linear (cubic polynomial regression model) increase in BMI and a similar non-linear decline in the RPI. BMI, reflecting greater muscle mass rather than greater adiposity, has emerged as an important factor associated with success, identified by a significantly positive (steeper) "successful player"-by-"year" interaction term. The evidence that the RPI of elite tennis players has also decreased over time, together with a significantly negative "successful player"-by-"year" interaction term, suggests that a more linear (ectomorphic) body shape is a less important factor in terms of success. These results suggest that elite male tennis players are becoming more power trained athletes as opposed to endurance athletes, with greater muscle mass being an important factor associated with success in all Grand Slam tournaments.

  16. Understanding Positive Play: An Exploration of Playing Experiences and Responsible Gambling Practices

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This study is one of the first to explore in detail the behaviors, attitudes and motivations of players that show no signs of at-risk or problem gambling behavior (so-called ‘positive players’). Via an online survey, 1484 positive players were compared with 209 problem players identified using the Lie/Bet screen. The study identified two distinct groups of positive players defined according to their motivations to play and their engagement with responsible gambling practices. Those positive p...

  17. The potential risk of personal stereo players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Reuter, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The technological development within personal stereo systems, such as MP3 players, e. g. iPods, has changed music listening habits from home entertainment to everyday and everywhere use. The technology has developed considerably, since the introduction of cassette players and CD walkmen. High...

  18. The potential risk of personal stereo players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Reuter, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The technological development within personal stereo systems,such as MP3 players, e. g. iPods, has changed music listening habits from home entertainment to everyday and everywhere use. The technology has developed considerably, since the introduction of cassette players and CD walkmen. High...

  19. Who Are the Players in Canadian Curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Geoffrey

    1987-01-01

    Labels range of persons advocating different theoretical positions of Canadian curriculum as "players." Describes players as "managers,""predictors,""transformers,""sleuths,""analysts." Values varied viewpoints for attention to language regarding curriculum, critical review of ideas/concepts, examination of current policies, awareness of history…

  20. QuizUp Single Player Web

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnar Marteinsson 1983; Kristinn Júlíusson 1993; Sonja Jónsdóttir 1992; Steinar Þór Árnason 1993

    2016-01-01

    In this report we discuss the B.Sc. project named QuizUp Single Player Web. The project was developed at Reykjavik University in the spring of 2016 in collaboration with Plain Vanilla Games, the makers of the world famous QuizUp app. We developed a Single Player Web application based on the original multiplayer game.

  1. Inferring Player Experiences Using Facial Expressions Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, C.T.; Bakkes, S.; Pisan, Y.; Blackmore, K.; Nesbitt, K.; Smith, S.P.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding player experiences is central to game design. Video captures of players is a common practice for obtaining rich reviewable data for analysing these experiences. However, not enough has been done in investigating ways of preprocessing the video for a more efficient analysis process. Thi

  2. Finite stage asymmetric repeated games: Both players' viewpoints

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lichun

    2017-01-05

    In asymmetric zero-sum games, one player has superior information about the game over the other. It is known that the informed players (maximizer) face the tradeoff of exploiting its superior information at the cost of revealing its superior information, but the basic point of the uninformed player (minimizer)\\'s decision making remains unknown. This paper studies the finite stage asymmetric repeated games from both players\\' viewpoints, and derives that not only security strategies but also the opponents\\' corresponding best responses depends only on the informed player\\'s history action sequences. Moreover, efficient LP formulations to compute both player\\'s security strategies are provided.

  3. Injuries in racket sports among Slovenian players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondric, Miran; Matković, Branka R; Furjan-Mandić, Gordana; Hadzić, Vedran; Dervisević, Edvin

    2011-06-01

    On the sample of 83 top Slovenian athletes we have studied the frequency of injuries among table tennis, tennis and badminton players, types of injuries and severity of injuries--the latter based on data of players absences from training and/or competition processes. The most liable parts to injuries are shoulder girdle (17.27%), spine (16.55%) and ankle (15.83%), while foot (10.07%) and wrist (12.23%) are slightly less liable to injuries. The most frequent injuries in racket sports pertain to muscle tissues. According to this data, the majority of injuries occur halfway through a training session or a competition event, mostly during a competition season. The injuries primarily pertain to muscle tissues; these are followed by joint and tendon injuries. There are no differences between male and female players. Compared to other racket sports players, table tennis players suffer from fewer injuries.

  4. Decreased Nerve Conduction Velocity in Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoush Didehdar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lower limbs nerves are exposed to mechanical injuries in the football players and the purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of football on the lower leg nerves. Materials and Methods: Nerve conduction studies were done on 35 male college students (20 football players, 15 non active during 2006 to 2007 in the Shiraz rehabilitation faculty. Standard nerve conduction techniques using to evaluate dominant and non dominant lower limb nerves. Results: The motor latency of deep peroneal and tibial nerves of dominant leg of football players and sensory latency of superficial peroneal, tibial and compound nerve action potential of tibial nerve of both leg in football players were significantly prolonged (p<0.05. Motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity of tibial and common peroneal in football players were significant delayed (p<0.05. Conclusion: It is concluded that football is sport with high contact and it causes sub-clinical neuropathies due to nerve entrapment.

  5. Outcomes of microfracture in professional basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerynik, Douglas L; Lewullis, Gabriel E; Joves, Brian C; Palmer, Michael P; Tom, James A

    2009-09-01

    Surgical treatment for chondral defects of the knee in competitive running and jumping athletes remains controversial. This study evaluated the performance outcomes of professional basketball players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) who underwent microfracture. Data from 24 professional basketball players from 1997 to 2006 was obtained and analyzed. NBA player efficiency ratings (PER) were calculated for two seasons before and after injury. A control group of 24 players was used for comparison. Study group and control group demographics including age, NBA experience, and minutes per game demonstrated no statistical difference. Mean time to return to an NBA game was 30.0 weeks from the time of surgery. The first season after returning to competition PER and minutes per game decreased by 3.5 (P 0.05) and 3.0 min (P NBA game. On return to competition player performance and minutes per game are diminished.

  6. Coach-directed education is associated with injury-prevention behaviour in players: an ecological cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James C; Gardner-Lubbe, Sugnet; Lambert, Michael Ian; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert

    2016-11-25

    Rugby union ('rugby') presents an above-average risk of injury to participants. BokSmart is a South African nationwide intervention that aims to reduce rugby-related injuries in players. This is achieved by educating coaches and referees to improve injury behaviour of players. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess if the receipt of injury-prevention education was associated with player behaviour. Junior (n=2279) and senior (n=1642) players, who attended merit-based South African Rugby tournaments (2008-2012), completed an anonymous questionnaire. Logistic regressions investigated if player injury-prevention behaviours were associated with the receipt of education on the same topic. Additionally, players' preferred sources of education were explored through frequency and χ(2) analyses. Of the 16 injury-prevention behaviours, 12 (75%) were associated with receiving education on that topic. The four behaviours not associated with education were: warming-up (before training and matches), and avoiding heat and massage post injury. Of the seven possible sources of this education, the majority of players chose either coaches or physiotherapists as their preferred media. In comparison with junior players, more senior players chose physiotherapists instead of coaches for warming-up and cooling-down education. The results of this study support, to a large degree, the strategy of BokSmart-influence of player behaviour through coach education. However, these findings also suggest that BokSmart could target team physiotherapists in addition to coaches and referees with their safety education. Also, players might have different preferences for this education depending on their age. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Executive functioning in highly talented soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburgh, Lot; Scherder, Erik J A; van Lange, Paul A M; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions might be important for successful performance in sports, particularly in team sports requiring quick anticipation and adaptation to continuously changing situations in the field. The executive functions motor inhibition, attention and visuospatial working memory were examined in highly talented soccer players. Eighty-four highly talented youth soccer players (mean age 11.9), and forty-two age-matched amateur soccer players (mean age 11.8) in the age range 8 to 16 years performed a Stop Signal task (motor inhibition), the Attention Network Test (alerting, orienting, and executive attention) and a visuospatial working memory task. The highly talented soccer players followed the talent development program of the youth academy of a professional soccer club and played at the highest national soccer competition for their age. The amateur soccer players played at a regular soccer club in the same geographical region as the highly talented soccer players and play in a regular regional soccer competition. Group differences were tested using analyses of variance. The highly talented group showed superior motor inhibition as measured by stop signal reaction time (SSRT) on the Stop Signal task and a larger alerting effect on the Attention Network Test, indicating an enhanced ability to attain and maintain an alert state. No group differences were found for orienting and executive attention and visuospatial working memory. A logistic regression model with group (highly talented or amateur) as dependent variable and executive function measures that significantly distinguished between groups as predictors showed that these measures differentiated highly talented soccer players from amateur soccer players with 89% accuracy. Highly talented youth soccer players outperform youth amateur players on suppressing ongoing motor responses and on the ability to attain and maintain an alert state; both may be essential for success in soccer.

  8. NFL Physicians: Committed to Excellence in Patient-Player Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The National Football League Physicians Society read with disappointment the article "A Proposal to Address NFL Club Doctors' Conflicts of Interest and to Promote Player Trust." In spite of the authors' suggestions, NFL physicians are accomplished medical professionals who abide by the highest ethical standards in providing treatment to all of their patients, including those who play in the NFL. It defies logic for the authors not to have engaged experienced and active NFL physicians from the very start of their effort to explore, challenge, and recommend significant alterations to the delivery of health care to NFL players. As troubling as this article is from so many perspectives, it does represent an opportunity for the NFLPS to set the record straight and call attention to the excellent quality of care NFL players receive. In addition, it represents an opportunity to expose the extraordinarily weak evidence presented in the article and to refute the baseless allegations that challenge the high ethical standards of NFL physicians. Contrary to solid scientific research that starts with a hypothesis based on theory, in this case, it seems quite apparent that the authors started with a predetermined conclusion and set out to justify it. Their premise was flawed, and they failed in their execution. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  9. How to be a better team player: fifty strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Many medical practice employees have become skeptical of the phrase be a team player and with good reason. Too often the phrase means simply to keep your mouth shut and to go along with what everyone else wants. However, being a team player has real meaning and value, and it doesn't mean that you must knuckle under to pressure. This article suggests 50 strategies that will help you become a better team player in your medical practice. It explores ways for you to manage your emotions and to translate them into effective and strategic communication. It teaches you how to read the emotions of your teammates and to listen actively to what they say. Most of all, this article will help you develop a team attitude and live that attitude every day in your medical practice through your behaviors. This article is laced with more than a half-dozen action tips. It includes a description of the most pervasive, destructive, and selfish team roles that you will want to avoid. It offers a clear description of the difference between a group and a team. Finally, this article includes five fun and effective team-building exercises for you to use in your medical practice to boost morale, improve your effectiveness, and strengthen your medical practice team.

  10. Incidence of Stingers in Young Rugby Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Takayuki; Ota, Chihiro; Yoneda, Takeshi; Maki, Nobukazu; Urayama, Shingo; Nagao, Masashi; Nagayama, Masataka; Kaketa, Takefumi; Takazawa, Yuji; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2015-11-01

    A stinger is a type of neurapraxia of the cervical roots or brachial plexus and represents a reversible peripheral nerve injury. The incidence of and major risk factors for stingers among young rugby players remain uninvestigated. To investigate the incidence, symptoms, and intrinsic risk factors for stingers in elite rugby union teams of young players. Descriptive epidemiology study. A total of 569 male rugby players, including 358 players from 7 high school teams and 211 players from 2 university teams, were investigated using self-administered preseason and postseason questionnaires. The prevalence of a history of stingers was 33.9% (95% CI, 30.3-37.9), and 20.9% (119/569) of players experienced at least 1 episode of a stinger during the season (34.2 [95% CI, 26.2-42.1] events per 1000 player-hours of match exposure). The reinjury rate for stingers per season was 37.3% (95% CI, 30.4-44.2). Using the multivariate Poisson regression method, a history of stingers in the previous season and the grade and position of the player were found to be risk factors for stingers during the current season. The mean severity of injury was 2.9 days, with 79.3% (191/241) of the players not losing any time from playing after sustaining a stinger injury and 5.8% (14/241) of the players recovering within more than 14 days. The most frequent symptom was numbness in the unilateral upper extremity, and the most severe symptom was weakness of grasping (mean severity, 6 days). A logistic regression analysis indicated that a history of stingers in the previous season and an injury with more than 3 symptoms, especially motor weakness, were correlated with the severity of injury. Young rugby players with a history of stingers have a significantly high rate of repeat injuries. Although nearly 80% of the players experienced only minimal (0-1 day) time loss injuries, neurological deficits sometimes last beyond 1 month. A history of stingers was identified to be the strongest risk factor for

  11. (Not Playing Games: Player-Produced Walkthroughs as Archival Documents of Digital Gameplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Newman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The subject of digital game preservation is one that has moved up the research agenda in recent years with a number of international projects, such as KEEP and Preserving Virtual Worlds, highlighting and seeking to address the impact of media decay, hardware and software obsolescence through different strategies including code emulation, for instance. Similarly, and reflecting a popular interest in the histories of digital games, exhibitions such as Game On (Barbican, UK and GameCity (Nottingham, UK experiment with ways of presenting games to a general audience. This article focuses on the UK’s National Videogame Archive (NVA which, since its foundation in 2008, has developed approaches that both dovetail with and critique existing strategies to game preservation, exhibition and display.The article begins by noting the NVA’s interest in preserving not only the code or text of the game, but also the experience of using it – that is, the preservation of gameplay as well as games. This approach is born of a conceptualisation of digital games as what Moulthrop (2004 has called “configurative performances” that are made through the interaction of code, systems, rules and, essentially, the actions of players at play. The analysis develops by problematising technical solutions to game preservation by exploring the way seemingly minute differences in code execution greatly impact on this user experience.Given these issues, the article demonstrates how the NVA returns to first principles and questions the taken-for-granted assumption that the playable game is the most effective tool for interpretation. It also encourages a consideration of the uses of non-interactive audiovisual and (paratextual materials in game preservation activity. In particular, the focus falls upon player-produced walkthrough texts, which are presented as archetypical archival documents of gameplay. The article concludes by provocatively positing that these non

  12. Brain structure in diving players on MR imaging studied with voxel-based morphometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gaoxia Wei; Jing Luo; Youfa Li

    2009-01-01

    We adopted professional diving players as a typical subject pool to explore whether structural brain differences relative to motor skill acquisition exist between highly skilled athletes and non-athletes. Based on the voxel-based morphometric (VBM) technique, structural MRIs of the brains of 12 elite diving players with professional training were analyzed and compared with those of control subjects with-out any professional physical training. Diving players showed significantly increased gray matter density in the thalamus and left pre-central gyrus than control subjects. However, future researches are needed to prove the contribution of preposition and practice. It also suggests that athletes as the subject pool could form a new subject pool to explore plastic change induced by motor skill acquisition.

  13. Examining Player Anger in World of Warcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Jane; Coulson, Mark; Foreman, Nigel

    This questionnaire study of the sources of anger in World of Warcraft applies classical quantitative measurement scale construction to a new problem, generating a host of questionnaire items that could find use in future studies, and identifying four major categories of events that cause negative effect among players. First, 33 players provided examples of in-game scenarios that had made them angry, and their responses were culled to create a 93-item battery rated by hundreds of player respondents in terms of anger intensity and anger frequency. An iterative process of factor analysis and scale reliability assessment led to a 28-item instrument measuring four anger-provoking factors: Raids/Instances, Griefers, Perceived Time Wasting, and Anti-social Players. These anger-causing scenarios were then illustrated by concrete examples from player and researcher experiences in World of Warcraft. One striking finding is that players become angry at other players' negative behavior, regardless of whether that behavior was intended to harm.

  14. Applied physiology of female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J A; Brewer, J

    1993-09-01

    Women's soccer is in its infancy as a sport and research into its physiological demands and the physical characteristics of players is somewhat limited. There is now an increasing demand for scientific investigation of the female game and of the players, match analysis and role variations requiring particular attention. Current research suggests that the demands of the game for women are similar to those placed on male players. Women are reported to cover a similar distance (mean 8471m) to their male counterparts during a game and much the same proportions of the game appear to be devoted to exercise of varying intensities. Furthermore, female and male players appear to tax the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems to a similar level. The physical and physiological characteristics of female soccer players are comparable with those of other female games players and are more favourable than average for the population. Mean body fat percentages of between 19.7 and 22.0% and VO2max values of between 47.1 and 57.6 ml/kg/min have been reported for elite female players, while faster than average sprint times are also characteristic of them.

  15. Exploration des dilemmes éthiques entourant le traitement de la dysphagie à l’enfance et leurs solutions : perceptions d’intervenants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brûlé, Anne-Marie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A review of the literature reveals that there is little knowledge about the ethical dilemmas (and their solutions surrounding the treatment of childhood dysphagia. The aim of this study is to explore and describe the ethical dilemmas faced by practitioners in the treatment of feeding problems in children with dysphagia and the ways in which these problems are solved. Semi-directed interviews were conducted with eight health practitioners working in an integrated university health and social services centre (CIUSSS in Quebec. All the practitioners mentioned that they had encountered ethical dilemmas, on average twice a year, and these had caused them some distress. These dilemmas have three main causes: refusal of treatment by some parents, partial follow-up of professional recommendations and differences of opinion with external partners. To resolve these dilemmas, practitioners say they rely on team discussions and the help of superiors, external partners or parents. The majority of participants mentioned that they needed additional means to resolve these dilemmas and proposed some avenues in that direction. The results of the research generally correspond to those documented in the literature. More attention should be paid to these dilemmas, given the scarcity of ethical resources currently available, that are adapted to and able to address these situations, and the distress that these cause.

  16. Explore the Power of Education and Training Issues and Solutions%探讨电力教育培训工作问题及解决措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏毅

    2014-01-01

    Power companies are technology-intensive enterprises, healthy and stable development of enterprises need to have sufficient human resources to sustain it. Human resources are the core competitiveness of the power companies, and conduct education and training is an effective way to increase the power of enterprise human capital, is an effective means to enhance the core competitiveness of electricity. Analysis to explore the power of education and training in the problems put forward the corresponding solutions.%电力企业属于技术密集型企业,企业的健康、稳定发展需要有足够的人力资源作为支撑。人力资源是电力企业的核心竞争力,而开展教育培训工作则是提高电力企业人力资本的有效途径,是增强电力企业核心竞争力的有效手段。分析、探讨了电力教育培训工作中存在的问题,提出了相应的解决措施。

  17. Computing Decoupled Residuals for Compact Disc Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve Compact Disc Players playability regarding playing Compact Discs with surface faults, like scratches and fingerprints etc, the attention has been put on fault tolerant control schemes. Almost every of those methods are based on fault detection. The standard approach is to use...... a pair of residuals generated by Compact Disc Player. However, these residuals depend on the performance of position servos in the Compact Disc Player. In other publications of the same authors a pair of decoupled residuals is derived. However, the computation of these alternative residuals has been...

  18. Towards Player-Driven Procedural Content Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; Togelius, Julian

    2012-01-01

    Generating immersive game content is one of the ultimate goals for a game designer. This goal can be achieved by realizing the fact that players’ perception of the same game differ according to a number of factors including: players’ personality, playing styles, expertise and culture background....... While one player might find the game immersive, others may quit playing as a result of encountering a seemingly insoluble problem. One promising avenue towards optimizing the gameplay experience for individual game players is to tailor player experience in real-time via automatic game content generation......-driven content generation....

  19. Understanding mismatches in body size, speed and power among adolescent rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Lyndon M; Naughton, Geraldine A; Denny, Greg; Patton, Declan; Hartwig, Tim; Gabbett, Tim J

    2015-05-01

    With adolescent sport increasingly challenged by mismatches in size, new strategies are important to maximize participation. The objectives were to (1) improve the understanding of mismatches in physical size, speed and power in adolescent rugby union players, (2) explore associations between size and performance with demographic, playing-history, and injury profiles, and (3) explore the applicability of existing criteria for age/body mass-based dispensation (playing-down) strategies. Cross-sectional study. Four hundred and eighty-five male community rugby union players were recruited from three Australian states selected to represent community-based U12, U13, U14 and U15 players. Body mass, stature, speed (10, 30, and 40 m sprints) and lower-leg power (relative peak power and relative peak force) were measured. Independent student t-tests, linear regressions and Chi square analyses were undertaken. Mean values in age groups for size, speed and power masked considerable overlap in the ranges within specific age groups of adolescent rugby players. Only a small proportion of players (approximately 5%) shared the highest and lowest tertiles for speed, relative peak power and body mass. Physical size was not related to injury. The mean body mass of current community rugby union players was above the 75th percentile on normative growth-charts. The notion that bigger, faster, and more powerful characteristics occur simultaneously in adolescent rugby players was not supported in the present study. Current practices in body mass-based criteria for playing down an age group lack a sufficient evidence for decision-making. Dispensation solely based on body mass may not address mismatch in junior rugby union. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Procedural Personas for Player Decision Modeling and Procedural Content Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgård, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    in specific games. It further explores how simple utility functions, easily defined and changed by game designers, can be used to construct agents expressing a variety of decision making styles within a game, using a variety of contemporary AI approaches, naming the resulting agents "Procedural Personas......." These methods for constructing procedural personas are then integrated with existing procedural content generation systems, acting as critics that shape the output of these systems, optimizing generated content for different personas and by extension, different kinds of players and their decision making styles...

  1. Let's Play: Exploring Literacy Practices in an Emerging Videogame Paratext

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwell, Catherine; Miller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the literacy practices associated with Let's Play videos (or LPs) on YouTube. A hybrid of digital gaming and video, LPs feature gameplay footage accompanied by simultaneous commentary recorded by the player. Players may set out to promote, review, critique or satirize a game. In recent years, LPs have become hugely popular…

  2. Comparison of game addiction prevalence rates between MMOFPS players and MMORPG players. A case of EVE Online and DUST 514

    OpenAIRE

    Guðmundur Helgason 1990; Ólafur Hrafn Steinarsson 1990

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this research project was to explore the prevalence of gaming addiction among players of different genres of video games. Additionally, the potential risks of structural characteristics of games were also examined. The sample consisted of 445 participants, aged 13 to 67, with 96.6% being male and 3.4% being female. To assess video game addiction the short version of the GAS-7 (Lemmens et al., 2009) was employed. The results showed that no significant differences were found bet...

  3. High School Football Players Use Their Helmets to Tackle Other Players Despite Knowing the Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Andrew M; Nakatsuka, Austin S

    2017-01-01

    There is greater attention to head-related injuries and concussions in American football. The helmet's structural safety and the way that football players use their helmets are important in preventing head injuries. Current strategies include penalizing players for high-risk behavior such as leading with their helmet or hitting an opposing player above the shoulder. Passive strategies include helmet modification to better protect the head of the players or to change the playing style of the players. Hawai‘i high school varsity football players were surveyed to determine how they use their helmets and how a new helmet design would affect their style of play. One hundred seventy-seven surveys were completed; 79% said that they used their helmet to hit an opposing player during a tackle and 46% said they made this contact intentionally. When asked about modifying helmets with a soft material on the outside, 48% said they thought putting a soft cover over a regular helmet would protect their head better. However, many participants said that putting a soft cover over their regular helmet was a bad idea for various reasons. Most young football players use their helmets to block or tackle despite being taught they would be penalized or potentially injured if they did so. By gaining a better understanding of why and how players use their helmets and how they would respond to new helmet designs, steps can be taken to reduce head injuries for all levels of play.

  4. Technical player profiles related to the physical fitness of young female volleyball players predict team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Romero, C; Hernández-Mocholí, M A; García-Hermoso, A

    2015-03-01

    This study is divided into three sequential stages: identification of fitness and game performance profiles (individual player performance), an assessment of the relationship between these profiles, and an assessment of the relationship between individual player profiles and team performance during play (in championship performance). The overall study sample comprised 525 (19 teams) female volleyball players aged 12-16 years and a subsample (N.=43) used to examine study aims one and two was selected from overall sample. Anthropometric, fitness and individual player performance (actual game) data were collected in the subsample. These data were analyzed through clustering methods, ANOVA and independence chi-square test. Then, we investigated whether the proportion of players with the highest individual player performance profile might predict a team's results in the championship. Cluster analysis identified three volleyball fitness profiles (high, medium, and low) and two individual player performance profiles (high and low). The results showed a relationship between both types of profile (fitness and individual player performance). Then, linear regression revealed a moderate relationship between the number of players with a high volleyball fitness profile and a team's results in the championship (R2=0.23). The current study findings may enable coaches and trainers to manage training programs more efficiently in order to obtain tailor-made training, identify volleyball-specific physical fitness training requirements and reach better results during competitions.

  5. Menstrual cycle disorders in female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarska, M; Witkoś, J; Drosdzol-Cop, A; Dąbrowska, J; Dąbrowska-Galas, M; Hartman, M; Plinta, R; Skrzypulec-Plinta, V

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relation between increased physical activity and menstrual disorders in adolescent female volleyball players. The study was conducted on 210 Polish female volleyball players, aged 13-17 years, the authorship questionnaire was used. The results of the study showed that irregular menstruation occurred in 19% of girls, spotting between menstrual periods in 27% and heavy menstruation was reported in 33% of girls. Out of all volleyball female players participating in the study, 94 girls (45%) declared absence of menstrual periods after regular cycles. Statistical analysis showed that the more training hours per week, the bigger probability of the occurrence of irregular menstruation. It was concluded that the number of hours of volleyball training per week affects regularity of menstrual cycles in female volleyball players. The absence of menstruation might be caused by the duration of training per week or years of training.

  6. Towards Generic Models of Player Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Shaker, Mohammad; Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    further examine whether generic features of player be- haviour can be defined and used to boost the modelling per- formance. The accuracies obtained in both experiments in- dicate a promise for the proposed approach and suggest that game-independent player experience models can be built.......-dependent and their applicability is usually limited to the system and the data used for model construction. Establishing models of user experience that are highly scalable while maintaing the performance constitutes an important research direction. In this paper, we propose generic models of user experience in the computer games...... domain. We employ two datasets collected from players in- teractions with two games from different genres where accu- rate models of players experience were previously built. We take the approach one step further by investigating the mod- elling mechanism ability to generalise over the two datasets. We...

  7. Video Player Keyboard Shortcuts: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/hotkeys.html Video Player Keyboard Shortcuts To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. MedlinePlus offers a set of accessible keyboard shortcuts for our latest Health videos on the ...

  8. Scouting the Elite, Unbreakable Football Player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M

    1981-02-01

    Some NFL football teams see physiological profiling as a means to protect and enhance their competitive and business success. Whether football players will benefit by increased performance and fewer injuries remains to be seen.

  9. Sport or school? Dreams and dilemmas for talented young Danish football players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Kahr Sørensen, Jan

    2009-01-01

      Today's young semi-professional football players are expected to continue their education while honing their talents as footballers. This means they must balance the contradictory demands that come from their education establishments and their football clubs. The present study explores how youn...

  10. MP3 Players and Hearing Loss: Adolescents' Perceptions of Loud Music and Hearing Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, I.; Brug, J.; Hosli, E.J.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Raat, H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore adolescents' behaviors and opinions about exposure to loud music from MP3 players. Study design: We conducted a qualitative analysis of focus-group discussions with adolescents aged 12 to 18 years from 2 large secondary schools (1 urban and 1 rural) for pre-vocational and pre-u

  11. Sport or School? Dreams and Dilemmas for Talented Young Danish Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Sorensen, Jan Kahr

    2009-01-01

    Today's young semi-professional football players are expected to continue their education while honing their talents as footballers. This means they must balance the contradictory demands that come from their education establishments and their football clubs. The present study explores how young Danish male football talents experience and describe…

  12. Sport or school? Dreams and dilemmas for talented young Danish football players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Kahr Sørensen, Jan

    2009-01-01

      Today's young semi-professional football players are expected to continue their education while honing their talents as footballers. This means they must balance the contradictory demands that come from their education establishments and their football clubs. The present study explores how young...

  13. Perceived Musculoskeletal Discomfort among Elementary, Middle, and High School String Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Joshua A.; Benedetto, Rachel L.

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify the body regions where young string players report experiencing musculoskeletal discomfort and explore factors that may impact their perceived discomfort. A purposive yet nonprobability sample of elementary (n = 101), middle school (n = 97), and high school (n = 159) students participated in the study by…

  14. Does the Quantum Player Always Win the Classical One?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hai-Jun; FANG Xi-Ming

    2004-01-01

    @@ We study quantum games in which the players have different strategic spaces. We find that the player who can use a quantum strategic space does not always possess more payoffs than the player who is restricted to apply only classical strategies. We find the condition of the classical player getting more payoffs than the quantum player. We also find that the game exhibits intriguing structures.

  15. THE STRUCTURE OF MOTOR ABILITIES IN BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Kocić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of basketball game, just like up-to-date sports results represent the stimulus for further fundamental researches in the aim of improvement scientific and methodological basis of a training work and all other factors connected to the improvement of a training process and top sports creativity. The research was conducted with the aim to determine the specifics of motor abilities in basketball players of the junior rank of competition. All the examinees were male, 16 (+/-6 months years old, 132 in total, all of them were basketball players of the basketball club ”Student” from Nis. The batery of tests for the evaluation of motor abilities included tests for the evaluation of coordination, strength (explosive, repetitive and static, flexibility and stamina and it consisted of 13 motor tests in total. The gained results were processed by the program system for multivariant analysis of data, especially made by Popovic D. for personal computers. The gained results are shown in tables and they give insight into the structure of latent dimensions of basketball players. The motor structure of basketball players is explained by 72.3% of common variance. From the matrix of intercorrelations, four main components were gained. The fist defines tests of static strength, flexibility and repetitive strength; the second is saturated by the test for the evaluation of explosive strength, balance and two tests for the evaluation of repetitive strength. The third is the best explained by the test for the evaluation of balance, flexibility and coordination. The fourth main component is defined by explosive strength. Then, the rotation of components into the oblimin solution is conducted and some better structure of latent dimensions is gained that way. In basketball and other popular sports games in our country, scientific and expert methods and possibilities of scientific fundation of the trainig work are very slowly but surely accepted.The trend

  16. Cortical thinning in former professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerte, Inga K; Mayinger, Michael; Muehlmann, Marc; Kaufmann, David; Lin, Alexander P; Steffinger, Denise; Fisch, Barbara; Rauchmann, Boris-Stephan; Immler, Stefanie; Karch, Susanne; Heinen, Florian R; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Reiser, Maximilian; Stern, Robert A; Zafonte, Ross; Shenton, Martha E

    2016-09-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world. Soccer players are at high risk for repetitive subconcussive head impact when heading the ball. Whether this leads to long-term alterations of the brain's structure associated with cognitive decline remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate cortical thickness in former professional soccer players using high-resolution structural MR imaging. Fifteen former male professional soccer players (mean age 49.3 [SD 5.1] years) underwent high-resolution structural 3 T MR imaging, as well as cognitive testing. Fifteen male, age-matched former professional non-contact sport athletes (mean age 49.6 [SD 6.4] years) served as controls. Group analyses of cortical thickness were performed using voxel-based statistics. Soccer players demonstrated greater cortical thinning with increasing age compared to controls in the right inferolateral-parietal, temporal, and occipital cortex. Cortical thinning was associated with lower cognitive performance as well as with estimated exposure to repetitive subconcussive head impact. Neurocognitive evaluation revealed decreased memory performance in the soccer players compared to controls. The association of cortical thinning and decreased cognitive performance, as well as exposure to repetitive subconcussive head impact, further supports the hypothesis that repetitive subconcussive head impact may play a role in early cognitive decline in soccer players. Future studies are needed to elucidate the time course of changes in cortical thickness as well as their association with impaired cognitive function and possible underlying neurodegenerative process.

  17. Level of knowledge and hydration strategies of young soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrícia Geralda Ferreira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate fluid replacement strategies of young soccer players and their level of knowledge regarding hydration management. A total of 216 males (age: 18 ± 0.9 years playing soccer for 8.7 ± 2.6 years were studied. The participants were members of four elite and subelite Brazilian soccer clubs. An exploratory descriptive study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire consisting of 18 objective questions. The main results indicated that 32.3% and 30.1% of the athletes do not have an appropriate strategy for fluid replacement during competitions and training, respectively. In addition, 1.4% and 4.6% of the subjects reported to ingest no fluids during these exercise conditions. When asked about the type of solution (water or isotonic solution consumed before, during and after exercise, water was the main fluid ingested during these periods. Approximately 80 athletes only ingest fluids when feeling thirsty. Coca-Cola® accounted for 11.1% of ingested fluids. Only 27.8% of the participants measure their body weight and 54.2% were unaware of the adequate strategy for fluid replacement. The most common symptoms reported by the athletes were cramps (53.2%, intense thirst (37.5%, and headache (33.8%. These results suggest that young soccer players have inappropriate fluid replacement habits, a fact that may lead to low performance during training or competition.

  18. THE EFFECT OF MODERATE AND HIGH-INTENSITY FATIGUE ON GROUNDSTROKE ACCURACY IN EXPERT AND NON-EXPERT TENNIS PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Lyons

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploring the effects of fatigue on skilled performance in tennis presents a significant challenge to the researcher with respect to ecological validity. This study examined the effects of moderate and high-intensity fatigue on groundstroke accuracy in expert and non-expert tennis players. The research also explored whether the effects of fatigue are the same regardless of gender and player's achievement motivation characteristics. 13 expert (7 male, 6 female and 17 non-expert (13 male, 4 female tennis players participated in the study. Groundstroke accuracy was assessed using the modified Loughborough Tennis Skills Test. Fatigue was induced using the Loughborough Intermittent Tennis Test with moderate (70% and high-intensities (90% set as a percentage of peak heart rate (attained during a tennis-specific maximal hitting sprint test. Ratings of perceived exertion were used as an adjunct to the monitoring of heart rate. Achievement goal indicators for each player were assessed using the 2 x 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport in an effort to examine if this personality characteristic provides insight into how players perform under moderate and high-intensity fatigue conditions. A series of mixed ANOVA's revealed significant fatigue effects on groundstroke accuracy regardless of expertise. The expert players however, maintained better groundstroke accuracy across all conditions compared to the novice players. Nevertheless, in both groups, performance following high-intensity fatigue deteriorated compared to performance at rest and performance while moderately fatigued. Groundstroke accuracy under moderate levels of fatigue was equivalent to that at rest. Fatigue effects were also similar regardless of gender. No fatigue by expertise, or fatigue by gender interactions were found. Fatigue effects were also equivalent regardless of player's achievement goal indicators. Future research is required to explore the effects of fatigue on

  19. Increased Complexities in Visual Search Behavior in Skilled Players for a Self-Paced Aiming Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyi S. Chia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The badminton serve is an important shot for winning a rally in a match. It combines good technique with the ability to accurately integrate visual information from the shuttle, racket, opponent, and intended landing point. Despite its importance and repercussive nature, to date no study has looked at the visual search behaviors during badminton service in the singles discipline. Unlike anticipatory tasks (e.g., shot returns, the serve presents an opportunity to explore the role of visual search behaviors in movement control for self-paced tasks. Accordingly, this study examined skill-related differences in visual behavior during the badminton singles serve. Skilled (n = 12 and less skilled (n = 12 participants performed 30 serves to a live opponent, while real-time eye movements were captured using a mobile gaze registration system. Frame-by-frame analyses of 662 serves were made and the skilled players took a longer preparatory time before serving. Visual behavior of the skilled players was characterized by significantly greater number of fixations on more areas of interest per trial than the less skilled. In addition, the skilled players spent a significantly longer time fixating on the court and net, whereas the less skilled players found the shuttle to be more informative. Quiet eye (QE duration (indicative of superior sports performance however, did not differ significantly between groups which has implications on the perceived importance of QE in the badminton serve. Moreover, while visual behavior differed by skill level, considerable individual differences were also observed especially within the skilled players. This augments the need for not just group-level analyses, but individualized analysis for a more accurate representation of visual behavior. Findings from this study thus provide an insight to the possible visual search strategies as players serve in net-barrier games. Moreover, this study highlighted an important aspect of

  20. Morphology of young handball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adair da Silva Lopes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare anthropometric and body composition variables from the best male handball athletes competing in the Santa Catarina state youth competition to variables from the other athletes in the same competition, by game position. Seven of the twelve coaches participating in the Santa Catarina Open Youth Games 2004 (up to 18 years freely consented to select the seven best athletes in the competition (one goalkeeper, one pivot, two wingers and three backcourt players. In addition to these seven players, there were a further 79 team members taking part, bringing the total sample size to 86 athletes. The following variables were analyzed: body weight (MC, height (ES, arm span (ENV, hand breadth (DPA, wrist breadth (DRU, forearm circumference (PA, percentage fat (%G, fat mass (MG and lean body mass (MCM. Descriptive statistics (means and standard deviations were employed to classify the athletes according to court position. The chosen athletes were compared with the others using the single-sample t test (p RESUMO Este estudo objetivou comparar variáveis antropométricas e da composição corporal dos melhores atletas de uma competição juvenil (até 18 anos de handebol masculino de Santa Catarina, em relação aos demais atletas da competição por posição de jogo. Sete dentre os doze técnicos participantes dos Joguinhos Abertos de Santa Catarina 2004 aceitaram, voluntariamente, realizar a escolha da seleção dos sete melhores atletas da competição (um goleiro, um pivô, dois extremas e três armadores. Contabilizou-se, além dos sete atletas da seleção, mais 79 atletas titulares de suas equipes, totalizando na amostra, 86 atletas. Foram analisadas as variáveis: massa corporal (MC, estatura (ES, percentual de gordura (%G, massa de gordura (MG, massa corporal magra (MCM, envergadura (ENV, diâmetro palmar (DPA, diâmetro biestilóide rádio-ulnar (DRU e perímetro do antebraço (PA. Utilizou-se a estat

  1. Sports injuries in Plus League volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, E; Dutkiewicz, R; Mgłosiek, M; Nowak-Starz, G; Markowska, M; Jasiński, P; Dudek, J

    2015-06-01

    Although physical activity brings a range of lifelong health benefits, it may also lead to injuries that pose a significant threat to health. It is particularly noticeable in people involved in professional sports where sport-related injuries commonly occur and are associated with intense exercise which aims to improve physical fitness. The article attempts to determine incidence of sports injuries reported by Plus League volleyball players, as well as to identify their most common types and causes. The research project involved 90 Plus League volleyball players aged 18-37 with the average age of 25.11 (SD±5.378). A method of diagnostic survey was applied to collect empirical data by means of questionnaire developed by the authors (researchers). The results were statistically analysed and verified with the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and χ2 test at the significance level (or critical P-value) of P≤0.05. Over 87% of the respondents suffered from at least one sport-related injury. In total, 362 injuries occurred, on average 4.02 injuries per one volleyball player. The most common sports injuries involved ankle or talocrural joint (46 injuries), knee and lower leg muscles (30), interphalangeal articulations of fingers (30) as well as shoulder joint. More than half of the injuries (57%) occurred twice or three times. Volleyball players commonly sustain injuries through contact with an opposing player in competition. Sport-specific injuries may also occur due to exhaustion, lack of rest and undertreated injuries. The most common volleyball-related injuries are primarily talocrural joint, hand and shoulder injuries. Common types of injuries that can affect volleyball players include muscles, joints and ligaments injuries, sprains and strains as well as bruises. Most of these injuries are caused by exhaustion, contact with an opposing player during competition and fatigue. The incidence of sport-related injuries seems to be influenced by such factors as somatic

  2. The stroller in the virtual city: Spatial practice of Hong Kong players in Sleeping Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sleeping Dogs is an open-world role-playing game developed by United Front Games, a Canadian Studio based in Vancouver, in conjunction with Square Enix London Studios and released by Square Enix in 2012. The game features the city of Hong Kong and the society of Chinese Triads. While the game itself is mainly a representation of post-colonial Hong Kong targeting a transnational audience entrenched in similar gameplay mechanics of the genre, the native Hong Kong players react to these reconstructions of Hong Kong through their own gameplay and unique interpretations. The virtual city is not a static representation but a congruence of vigorous interactions between the originally designed space and gamic actions of the players. This paper seeks to explore the spatial and bodily practices of Sleeping Dogs players in the virtual terrain of Hong Kong through the lens of Lefebvre’s spatial theory.

  3. Practice effects reveal visuomotor vulnerability in school and university rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleworth-Edwards, Ann B; Radloff, Sarah E; Whitefield-Alexander, Victoria J; Smith, Ian P; Horsman, Mark

    2014-02-01

    This article reports on three pre- versus post-season prospective studies in which male university and high school contact sport players predominantly of Rugby Union (hereafter rugby) were compared with age, education, and IQ equivalent non-contact sport controls on the ImPACT (Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing) test. All analyses revealed a relative absence of practice effects on the Visual Motor Speed (VMS) composite for contact sport groups compared with controls. The VMS data for rugby players from each study were pooled and subjected to additional analysis (Rugby, n = 145; Controls, n = 106). Controls revealed significant improvement over the season (p rugby players whose performance remained the same (interaction effect, p = .028). It is apparent that practice effects have diagnostic potential in this context, implicating vulnerability on speeded visuomotor processing in association with participation in rugby. Pointers for further research and concussion management in the individual case are explored.

  4. Situational and gender comparisons of digital game players' preferences for game features and gratifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.; Dervin, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    As with “new media” fifty years ago, today's “new media” are scrutinized from the uses and gratifications perspective to understand peoples’ reasons for engaging with them. The new media of interest in this paper are digital games.  Research is in the early stages with this medium, exploring player...... gratifications from game playing and preferences for game playing features.  This research has consistently found gender differences for both, with men more preferring competition gratifications and violent games, and women preferring socializing gratifications and puzzles.  Past research has mostly looked...... at digital games in aggregate, not differentiating between game playing situations.  This study measured the game playing gratifications and feature preferences of male and female players for three game playing situations: playing a game players liked, one they disliked, and one they desired.  Generally...

  5. Head injuries in youth soccer players presenting to the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, W; Streight, S; Simpson, K; Brison, R J

    2005-04-01

    There has been recent concern about neuropsychological injuries experienced by soccer players, particularly related to the purposeful heading of the ball. There are few population based analyses examining whether this is a legitimate concern. To explore, using an existing injury surveillance system, one of many parts of this issue: acute injuries requiring emergency medical care experienced by youth soccer players. Descriptive epidemiological analysis of emergency department injury surveillance data (1996-2001) for youths aged 10-24 years from the Kingston sites of the Canadian Hospital Injury Reporting and Prevention Program. A total of 1714 cases of soccer injury were identified (mean 286 a year); 235 (13.7%) involved diagnoses of injuries to the head. Leading mechanical factors resulting in head injury were contact with other players or persons (153/235; 65.1%) and balls (62/235; 26.4%). Heading was reported in 4/62 (6%) of the ball contact injuries, and attempted heading was reported in 15/153 (9.8%) of the cases involving person to person contact. Unspecified head to head contact between players was reported in 39 cases. Minor head injuries that result in emergency medical treatment do not happen often in youth soccer, and very few can be attributed to the purposeful heading of the ball. Player contact injuries appear to be a more important injury control concern. This study informs one of many aspects of the soccer heading injury debate.

  6. Interaction with the game and motivation among players of massively multiplayer online role-playing games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Héctor; Carbonell, Xavier; Chamarro, Andrés; Oberst, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge about users interacting with Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPG) is fundamental in order to prevent their potential negative effects on behavior. For this reason, the present study analyzed the relationship between styles of play and motivations. An online questionnaire asking for socio-demographic details, playing style, characteristics of the game played and motivations for playing, was answered by 430 Spanish-speaking MMORPG players (45.1% males). The identified profile for players, far away from the stereotype of an adolescent, consisted in a person who mainly plays on PvP (Player versus Player) servers, choosing the type of game according to his experience. Regarding motivations, they were interested in relating with other players through the game (Socialization), in discovering the game's possibilities and development of its adventures (Exploration), to a lesser extent in leadership and prestige (Achievement) and, lastly, identification with an avatar and escape from reality (Dissociation). Although part of the reason for playing was escapism and/or stress relief, the main motivation had a social nature. We conclude that MMORPG offer an attractive environment for a broad spectrum of people, and we have not been able to confirm the stereotype of a loner avoiding reality, taking refuge in games.

  7. Everyday music listening and affect regulation: The role of MP3 players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Strand Skånland

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of digital portable music devices such as MP3 players has rapidly increased during the last decade, and the sheer availability of music offered by such players raises questions about their impact on listeners’ mental and physical health and well-being. This article explores MP3 player use as an everyday tactic for affect regulation, here understood as an individual's efforts to maintain or change the intensity or duration of a given affect. The ability to understand and regulate affects has significant health implications, and among the tactics relevant to such regulation, engagement with music has proven to be particularly successful. The material presented in this article is based on a qualitative interview study focused on MP3 player use as a medium for musical self-care. Because MP3 users can listen to whatever they want, whenever they want, and target their music in the interests of managing and regulating moods and emotions, the MP3 player represents a valuable and convenient technology of affect regulation.

  8. OURNAMENT STRUCTURE AND SUCCESS OF PLAYERS BASED ON LOCATION IN MEN'S PROFESSIONAL TENNIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Filipcic

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the relationship between success of professional male tennis players according to the country and world region from which they originate and the professional tournament structure in men's tennis in that world region and country. The success of a country or world region was defined by the number of players in the top 300 ATP rankings and was calculated for seven time periods between 1975 and 2008. The results showed the correlations between the total number of top 300 ranked players, the total number of tournaments, and the annual tournament prize money of the specific country. The correlations were nearly perfect in the 1975-1990 period (r = 0.93-0.95; p < 0.01 but only high in the 2005-2008 period (r = 0.60-0.64; p < 0.01, suggesting that the association between the number of top 300 ranked tennis players and professional tournaments, while still significant, is in decline. These data should inform the policy and investment decisions of regional and national federations, particularly as they relate to domestic professional tennis tournament structures and to explore opportunities to include professional tournaments of neighbour countries in their player's development programs

  9. Everyday music listening and affect regulation: the role of MP3 players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skånland, Marie Strand

    2013-08-07

    The use of digital portable music devices such as MP3 players has rapidly increased during the last decade, and the sheer availability of music offered by such players raises questions about their impact on listeners' mental and physical health and well-being. This article explores MP3 player use as an everyday tactic for affect regulation, here understood as an individual's efforts to maintain or change the intensity or duration of a given affect. The ability to understand and regulate affects has significant health implications, and among the tactics relevant to such regulation, engagement with music has proven to be particularly successful. The material presented in this article is based on a qualitative interview study focused on MP3 player use as a medium for musical self-care. Because MP3 users can listen to whatever they want, whenever they want, and target their music in the interests of managing and regulating moods and emotions, the MP3 player represents a valuable and convenient technology of affect regulation.

  10. The effect of moderate and high-intensity fatigue on groundstroke accuracy in expert and non-expert tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Mark; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Hankey, Joanne; Nevill, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Exploring the effects of fatigue on skilled performance in tennis presents a significant challenge to the researcher with respect to ecological validity. This study examined the effects of moderate and high-intensity fatigue on groundstroke accuracy in expert and non-expert tennis players. The research also explored whether the effects of fatigue are the same regardless of gender and player's achievement motivation characteristics. 13 expert (7 male, 6 female) and 17 non-expert (13 male, 4 female) tennis players participated in the study. Groundstroke accuracy was assessed using the modified Loughborough Tennis Skills Test. Fatigue was induced using the Loughborough Intermittent Tennis Test with moderate (70%) and high-intensities (90%) set as a percentage of peak heart rate (attained during a tennis-specific maximal hitting sprint test). Ratings of perceived exertion were used as an adjunct to the monitoring of heart rate. Achievement goal indicators for each player were assessed using the 2 x 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport in an effort to examine if this personality characteristic provides insight into how players perform under moderate and high-intensity fatigue conditions. A series of mixed ANOVA's revealed significant fatigue effects on groundstroke accuracy regardless of expertise. The expert players however, maintained better groundstroke accuracy across all conditions compared to the novice players. Nevertheless, in both groups, performance following high-intensity fatigue deteriorated compared to performance at rest and performance while moderately fatigued. Groundstroke accuracy under moderate levels of fatigue was equivalent to that at rest. Fatigue effects were also similar regardless of gender. No fatigue by expertise, or fatigue by gender interactions were found. Fatigue effects were also equivalent regardless of player's achievement goal indicators. Future research is required to explore the effects of fatigue on performance in tennis

  11. Do media players cause interference with pacemakers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaker, Jay P; Patel, Mehul B; Shah, Ashok J; Liepa, Valdis V; Brunett, Joseph D; Jongnarangsin, Krit; Gardiner, Joseph C; Thakur, Ranjan

    2009-11-01

    Electrical devices generate electromagnetic fields that may interfere with pacemakers. Media players cause telemetry interference with pacemakers, but it is not known whether they cause direct interference with pacemakers. The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction between pacemakers and 3 different media players. In this prospective, randomized study, 54 patients with dual chamber pacemakers who were in sinus rhythm underwent baseline observation, followed by observation under telemetry communication. These patients were then randomly evaluated with 3 media players (iPod 3G, iPod Photo, and iPod Touch Apple, Cupertino, CA) with and without telemetry communication for 1 minute each. Patients were monitored for pacemaker malfunction using a single-channel ECG during exposure to media players. The pacemaker was interrogated after each exposure and an interrogation report was printed for evaluation. Pacemaker interference was categorized as type I, II, or III. Types I and II interference described telemetry interference and type III interference was defined as any direct interference with pacemaker function or programmed parameters. A total of 54 patients (29 men and 25 women; mean age 77.2 +/- 9.3 y) were evaluated. In total, of the 162 tests (for telemetry interference) 36.4% were positive (Type I and II). Type III interference was also evaluated in 162 tests and none showed any evidence of direct interference. Media players cause telemetry interference with pacemakers, but they do not directly interfere with pacemaker function.

  12. Game Performance Evaluation in Male Goalball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molik Bartosz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Goalball is a Paralympic sport exclusively for athletes who are visually impaired and blind. The aims of this study were twofold: to describe game performance of elite male goalball players based upon the degree of visual impairment, and to determine if game performance was related to anthropometric characteristics of elite male goalball players. The study sample consisted of 44 male goalball athletes. A total of 38 games were recorded during the Summer Paralympic Games in London 2012. Observations were reported using the Game Efficiency Sheet for Goalball. Additional anthropometric measurements included body mass (kg, body height (cm, the arm span (cm and length of the body in the defensive position (cm. The results differentiating both groups showed that the players with total blindness obtained higher means than the players with visual impairment for game indicators such as the sum of defense (p = 0.03 and the sum of good defense (p = 0.04. The players with visual impairment obtained higher results than those with total blindness for attack efficiency (p = 0.04, the sum of penalty defenses (p = 0.01, and fouls (p = 0.01. The study showed that athletes with blindness demonstrated higher game performance in defence. However, athletes with visual impairment presented higher efficiency in offensive actions. The analyses confirmed that body mass, body height, the arm span and length of the body in the defensive position did not differentiate players’ performance at the elite level.

  13. Motivation and Sport Injuries in Handball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laguna, María

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to test whether different levels of motivation are related to the injuries suffered by elite athletes. The sample consists of 80 professional handball players of ASOBAL League, with a mean age of 24.83 years (+ 5.21. Motivation was assessed through the CPRD scale (Gimeno, Buceta & Pérez-Llantada; 1999 and a self-report questionnaire was used to register sports injuries. The results indicate that there is a relationship between motivational levels and the risk for injury. Specifically, players with high motivated players had a greater number of moderate injuries. Although it may seem paradoxical, it is possible that an excessively high motivation leads to overachievement and risk behaviors, which in turn facilitate the appearance of lesions.

  14. Cricket club looking for new players

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2016-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club, having lost several key players, has had a very difficult season so far and is desperately in need of new players. Having qualified for the Cricket Switzerland semi-finals for the last two years (unfortunately losing both), this year we are bottom of the Western Pool, having played the last two league matches with only 10 players. If you are interested in playing cricket please join us at net practice, which takes place on the Prevessin site each Thursday evening from 18:00 to around 20:00 (weather permitting) or send me an e-mail (see below). Please have a look at the Cricket Club web site for more information: http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ Chris Onions, President of the CERN Cricket Club   (christopher.onions@gmail.com)

  15. Big Data for Business Ecosystem Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perko Igor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the provided research, some of the Big Data most prospective usage domains connect with distinguished player groups found in the business ecosystem. Literature analysis is used to identify the state of the art of Big Data related research in the major domains of its use-namely, individual marketing, health treatment, work opportunities, financial services, and security enforcement. System theory was used to identify business ecosystem major player types disrupted by Big Data: individuals, small and mid-sized enterprises, large organizations, information providers, and regulators. Relationships between the domains and players were explained through new Big Data opportunities and threats and by players’ responsive strategies. System dynamics was used to visualize relationships in the provided model.

  16. Adapting virtual camera behaviour through player modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2015-01-01

    Research in virtual camera control has focused primarily on finding methods to allow designers to place cameras effectively and efficiently in dynamic and unpredictable environments, and to generate complex and dynamic plans for cinematography in virtual environments. In this article, we propose...... a novel approach to virtual camera control, which builds upon camera control and player modelling to provide the user with an adaptive point-of-view. To achieve this goal, we propose a methodology to model the player’s preferences on virtual camera movements and we employ the resulting models to tailor...... the viewpoint movements to the player type and her game-play style. Ultimately, the methodology is applied to a 3D platform game and is evaluated through a controlled experiment; the results suggest that the resulting adaptive cinematographic experience is favoured by some player types and it can generate...

  17. Mean Field Games with a Dominating Player

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensoussan, A., E-mail: axb046100@utdallas.edu [The University of Texas at Dallas, International Center for Decision and Risk Analysis, Jindal School of Management (United States); Chau, M. H. M., E-mail: michaelchaumanho@gmail.com; Yam, S. C. P., E-mail: scpyam@sta.cuhk.edu.hk [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Statistics (Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China) (China)

    2016-08-15

    In this article, we consider mean field games between a dominating player and a group of representative agents, each of which acts similarly and also interacts with each other through a mean field term being substantially influenced by the dominating player. We first provide the general theory and discuss the necessary condition for the optimal controls and equilibrium condition by adopting adjoint equation approach. We then present a special case in the context of linear-quadratic framework, in which a necessary and sufficient condition can be asserted by stochastic maximum principle; we finally establish the sufficient condition that guarantees the unique existence of the equilibrium control. The proof of the convergence result of finite player game to mean field counterpart is provided in Appendix.

  18. There is no game without a player

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    on the subject matter from the catalogue of game theory. All four suggestions exclude the player from the relationship. This paper introduces a phenomenological point of view and includes the player in order to understand the relationship between structure and dressing. It argues that players constitute a bridge......This paper is a search for meaning or to be more precise a study of how meaning is produced between ontology and fiction in computer games. It sets out to investigate the relationship between formal abstract game structures and game representation (dressing) by presenting four suggestions...... or the center which establishes, upholds and renegotiate the relationship between formal game structure and game dressing. It also argues that players’ interaction with both structure and dressing produce meaning and the production of meaning is the relationship between formal abstract game structures and game...

  19. Modelling Virtual Camera Behaviour Through Player Gaze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picardi, Andrea; Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2012-01-01

    In a three-dimensional virtual environment, aspects such as narrative and interaction largely depend on the placement and animation of the virtual camera. Therefore, virtual camera control plays a critical role in player experience and, thereby, in the overall quality of a computer game. Both game...... industry and game AI research focus on the devel- opment of increasingly sophisticated systems to automate the control of the virtual camera integrating artificial intel- ligence algorithms within physical simulations. However, in both industry and academia little research has been carried out...... on the relationship between virtual camera, game-play and player behaviour. We run a game user experiment to shed some light on this relationship and identify relevant dif- ferences between camera behaviours through different game sessions, playing behaviours and player gaze patterns. Re- sults show that users can...

  20. Individual recovery profiles in basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jordi; Ramos-Castro, Juan; Rodas, Gil; Tarragó, Joan R; Capdevila, Lluís

    2015-01-01

    In the sport context, recovery has been characterized as a multifactor process (physiological, psychological, behavioral, social, etc.). This study takes a multidisciplinary approach to find psychophysiological markers of the stress-recovery process. It aims to determine how athletes' specific recovery actions relate to their perceptions of recovery, and Heart Rate Variability (HRV). A total of 196 assessments were analyzed from 6 players on a men's professional basketball team within the Liga LEB Oro basketball federation (2012/2013 season). Perceptions of recovery, recovery strategies, and HRV were recorded. The results show a pattern of individual differences in behavior related to athletes' recovery actions and HRV profiles throughout the season (p < .05). Moreover, we observed that each player had different recovery needs. In light of these results, we suggest an individualistic approach to evaluating and monitoring recovery to attend more accurately to each player's recovery needs.

  1. Cervical joint position sense in rugby players versus non-rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsault, Nicolas; Anxionnaz, Marion; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    To determine whether cervical joint position sense is modified by intensive rugby practice. A group-comparison study. University Medical Bioengineering Laboratory. Twenty young elite rugby players (10 forwards and 10 backs) and 10 young non-rugby elite sports players. Participants were asked to perform the cervicocephalic relocation test (CRT) to the neutral head position (NHP) that is, to reposition their head on their trunk, as accurately as possible, after full active left and right cervical rotation. Rugby players were asked to perform the CRT to NHP before and after a training session. Absolute and variable errors were used to assess accuracy and consistency of the repositioning for the three groups of Forwards, Backs and Non-rugby players, respectively. The 2 groups of Forwards and Backs exhibited higher absolute and variable errors than the group of Non-rugby players. No difference was found between the two groups of Forwards and Backs and no difference was found between Before and After the training session. The cervical joint position sense of young elite rugby players is altered compared to that of non-rugby players. Furthermore, Forwards and Backs demonstrated comparable repositioning errors before and after a specific training session, suggesting that cervical proprioceptive alteration is mainly due to tackling and not the scrum.

  2. Injury incidence and balance in rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Jaco Ras; Puckree, Threethambal

    2014-01-01

    Objective : This study determined and correlated injury incidence and balance in rugby players. A prospective survey with balance testing was conducted on first year rugby academy players (N= 114). Injury incidence, static and dynamic balance were tested pre and post-season using a Biosway portable balance system. The data was analysed using paired and independent samples t-tests at pscrum-half (14.80%) playing position, injuries in the 2nd half of the match (57%), and during contact (67%). Conclusion : Injury incidence was related to static and dynamic balance in forward right direction only.

  3. Fault Predictive Control of Compact Disk Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Wickerhauser, Mladen Victor

    2006-01-01

    Optical disc players such as CD-players have problems playing certain discs with surface faults like scratches and fingerprints. The problem is to be found in the servo controller which positions the optical pick-up, such that the laser beam is focused on the information track. A scheme handling ...... of the feature based control scheme, such that a prediction step is included. The proposed scheme is compared with the feature based control scheme, in the perspective of handling surface faults, by simulations. These simulations show the improvements given by the proposed algorithm....

  4. Sprint, agility, strength and endurance capacity in wheelchair basketball players

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yanci, J; Granados, C; Otero, M; Badiola, A; Olasagasti, J; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, I; Iturricastillo, A; Gil, Sm

    ...; and secondly, to analyse the physical characteristics measured by sprint, agility, strength and endurance field tests in wheelchair basketball (WB) players. 16 WB players (33.06 ± 7.36 years, 71.89...

  5. Jet Lag a Drag on Pro Baseball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 163187.html Jet Lag a Drag on Pro Baseball Players Study found traveling across time zones linked ... might be more than just tiring for pro baseball players: The resulting jet lag may actually harm ...

  6. Insights into relationships between body mass, composition and bone: findings in elite rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hind, Karen; Gannon, Lisa; Brightmore, Amy; Beck, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that bone strength is not proportional to body weight in obese populations. Elite rugby players have a similar body mass index (BMI) to obese individuals but differ markedly with low body fat, high lean mass, and frequent skeletal exposure to loading through weight-bearing exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine relationships between body weight, composition, and bone strength in male rugby players characterized by high BMI and high lean mass. Fifty-two elite male rugby players and 32 nonathletic, age-matched controls differing in BMI (30.2 ± 3.2 vs 24.1 ± 2.1 kg/m²; p = 0.02) received 1 total body and one total hip dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Hip structural analysis of the proximal femur was used to determine bone mineral density (BMD) and cross-sectional bone geometry. Multiple linear regression was computed to identify independent variables associated with total hip and femoral neck BMD and hip structural analysis-derived bone geometry parameters. Analysis of covariance was used to explore differences between groups. Further comparisons between groups were performed after normalizing parameters to body weight and to lean mass. There was a trend for a positive fat-bone relationship in rugby players, and a negative relationship in controls, although neither reached statistical significance. Correlations with lean mass were stronger for bone geometry (r(2): 0.408-0.520) than for BMD (r(2): 0.267-0.293). Relative to body weight, BMD was 6.7% lower in rugby players than controls (p Rugby players were heavier than controls, with greater lean mass and BMD (p rugby players (p rugby players was reduced in proportion to body weight and lean mass. However, their superior bone geometry suggests that overall bone strength may be adequate for loading demands. Fat-bone interactions in athletes engaged in high-impact sports require further exploration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Factors Affecting Ankle Support Device Usage in Young Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Cusimano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study explores factors affecting the decision of basketball players to wear ankle support devices (ASDs. A questionnaire regarding attitudes towards ASD usage was developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM. The questionnaire assessed HBM perceptions (susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers and modifying factors (demographic, personal history of ankle injury, influence of coach to preventive action that may affect an athlete’s decision to wear ASDs. One hundred forty basketball players competing at the recreational, high school, or university levels completed the questionnaire, with the questionnaires being completed at the basketball gymnasium or at home. It was found that athletes whose coaches enforced ASD use were significantly more likely to wear them (OR: 35.71; 95% CI: 10.01, 127.36, as were athletes who perceived ankle injuries to be severe (OR: 2.77; 95% CI: 1.04, 7.37. Previous injury did not significantly increase the odds of using an ASD. The combined influence of coach enforcement and previous injury had the greatest effect on increasing ASD use. The largest barrier to ASD use was a lack of aesthetic appeal. Strategies aimed at increasing players’ willingness to wear ankle protection should be emphasized among coaches and parents as this may increase use of ASDs.

  8. Training Patterns of Wheelchair Basketball Players in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Yasar

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze technical drills, warm-up and cool-down exercises used by wheelchair basketball players of the Turkish league in relation to training sessions. 33 male wheelchair basketball players participated in the study (mean age 26.6[plus or minus]5,95 years). All players reported that they used warm-up exercises before…

  9. Automatic player detection and identification for sports entertainment applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmood, Zahid; Ali, Tauseef; Khattak, Shadid; Hasan, Laiq; Khan, Samee U.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an augmented reality sports broadcasting application for automatic detection, recognition of players during play, followed by display of personal information of players. The proposed application can be divided into four major steps. In first step, each player in the image i

  10. Synthetic Players: A Quest for Artificial Intelligence in Computer Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouni Smed

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic players are the computer-controlled actors in a computer game. In this paper, we describe both the implementation issues and the behavioural expectations related to synthetic players. We recognize the role of synthetic players by analysing the components of games in general and computer games in particular.

  11. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Collegiate Football Players and Nonathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Merrill, Michael; Swanson, John; Moore, J. Brian; Brubaker, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Collegiate American football players may be at risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To compare cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular structure and function parameters of football players, stratified by position, to a group of sedentary, nonathletes. Participants: Twenty-six collegiate football players and 13 nonathletes…

  12. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Collegiate Football Players and Nonathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Merrill, Michael; Swanson, John; Moore, J. Brian; Brubaker, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Collegiate American football players may be at risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To compare cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular structure and function parameters of football players, stratified by position, to a group of sedentary, nonathletes. Participants: Twenty-six collegiate football players and 13 nonathletes…

  13. Understanding the Mismatch Between Coaches' and Players' Perceptions of Exertion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Michel S.; Kersten, Anna W.; Frencken, Wouter G. P.

    2017-01-01

    A mismatch between the training exertion intended by a coach and the exertion perceived by players is well established in sports. However, it is unknown whether coaches can accurately observe exertion of individual players during training. Furthermore, the discrepancy in coaches' and players' percep

  14. High School Rugby Players' Perception of Coaching Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broodryk, Retief; van den Berg, Pieter Hendrick

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were firstly to determine the players' perceptions of their respective coaches' coaching effectiveness and secondly, determine the difference between big and small schools of the players' perceptions of their respective coaches' coaching effectiveness. Four hundred and seventy six players from 22 schools were asked to fill…

  15. Preferred Leadership Behaviours of Male and Female Badminton Players

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkumar S HARMA

    2015-01-01

    Pr eferences for specific coaching behaviours of male and female Badminton players were measured by the modified and revised Leadership Scale for Sport. Eighty two (Males=61, Females=21) badminton players were selected from amongst the players representing th eir respective university teams in East - zone Inter - university Badminton (Men/Women) tournaments held at Bilaspur (CG). The present investigation noted ...

  16. Automatic player detection and identification for sports entertainment applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmood, Zahid; Ali, Tauseef; Khattak, Shadid; Hasan, Laiq; Khan, Samee U.

    In this paper, we develop an augmented reality sports broadcasting application for automatic detection, recognition of players during play, followed by display of personal information of players. The proposed application can be divided into four major steps. In first step, each player in the image

  17. Dynamic Difficulty Balancing for Cautious Players and Risk Takers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Hawkins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic balancing of game difficulty can help cater for different levels of ability in players. However, performance in some game tasks depends on not only the player's ability but also their desire to take risk. Taking or avoiding risk can offer players its own reward in a game situation. Furthermore, a game designer may want to adjust the mechanics differently for a risky, high ability player, as opposed to a risky, low ability player. In this work, we describe a novel modelling technique known as particle filtering which can be used to model various levels of player ability while also considering the player's risk profile. We demonstrate this technique by developing a game challenge where players are required to make a decision between a number of possible alternatives where only a single alternative is correct. Risky players respond faster but with more likelihood of failure. Cautious players wait longer for more evidence, increasing their likelihood of success, but at the expense of game time. By gathering empirical data for the player's response time and accuracy, we develop particle filter models. These models can then be used in real-time to categorise players into different ability and risk-taking levels.

  18. Understanding the Mismatch Between Coaches' and Players' Perceptions of Exertion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Michel S; Kersten, Anna W; Frencken, Wouter G

    2016-01-01

    A mismatch between the intended training exertion by the coach and the perceived exertion by players is well established in sports. However, it is unknown if coaches are able to accurately observe exertion of individual players during training. Furthermore, the discrepancy in coaches' and players' p

  19. Kinanthropometric characteristics in teenager basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Abella del Campo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Basketball is a sport with a high heterogeneity anthropometric as playing position. Point guard is usually the lowest player but also the fastest. Guard is similar to point guard, faster and more agile than the others. Small forward has an intermediate height between the inside and outside players and it combines height with velocity. And center (pivot has a physical role, it has the highest and more muscle mass. The aim of this study is to describe the kinanthropometric profile of male cadet “Valencia Basket Club”. Material and Methods: A total of 20 male cadet basketball players were evaluated (15.35±0.59 years old. An anthropometrist level 1 took anthropometric measures according to the methodology of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK. Body composition was calculated according to the kinanthropometry consensus of the Kinanthropometry Spanish Group (GREC, somatotype with Heath-Carter’s method and adiposemuscular and cardiovascular risk index. Results: Differences in values of weight, height, skinfold and body composition from variables of sample and position were observed. Lower values were from point guard position and higher values were from center position. An increasing trend of these parameters was established in the following order: point guard, guard, small forward and center. Conclusions: The Valencia Basket Club cadet player overall somatotype is balance ectomorph. To know kinanthropometric profile may be beneficial to develop specific training and nutrition plans as well as to see evolution and characteristics for optimal performance

  20. Soccer skill development in talented players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijgen, B C H; Elferink-Gemser, M T; Ali, A; Visscher, C

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study was to gain insight into the development of soccer-specific skills and whether differences between talented players exist on the Loughborough Soccer Passing Test (LSPT). Two scores were derived from the LSPT: 1) execution time: time to complete 16 passes (speed) and 2) skill performance time: execution time including bonus and penalty time for accuracy. The study consisted of 2 parts, the first of which incorporated a quasi-longitudinal design with 270 talented players aged 10-18 years performing the LSPT (661 measurement occasions); multilevel modelling was applied. Secondly, differences between those players allowed to continue in the development program (selected, n=269) and players who were forced to leave (de-selected, n=50) were investigated using independent sample t-tests. The longitudinal data showed that the predicted execution time (i. e., speed) improved approximately 18% from age 10-18 years (Pskill performance time (i. e., combination of speed and accuracy) was predicted to improve approximately 32% (Pskill performance time (P0.05). In conclusion, in high-level youth soccer, the combination of speed and accuracy in soccer skills might be more important than speed alone. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Mental rotation performance in male soccer players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Jansen

    Full Text Available It is the main goal of this study to investigate the visual-spatial cognition in male soccer players. Forty males (20 soccer players and 20 non-athletes solved a chronometric mental rotation task with both cubed and embodied figures (human figures, body postures. The results confirm previous results that all participants had a lower mental rotation speed for cube figures compared to embodied figures and a higher error rate for cube figures, but only at angular disparities greater than 90°. It is a new finding that soccer-players showed a faster reaction time for embodied stimuli. Because rotation speed did not differ between soccer-players and non-athletes this finding cannot be attributed to the mental rotation process itself but instead to differences in one of the following processes which are involved in a mental rotation task: the encoding process, the maintanence of readiness, or the motor process. The results are discussed against the background of the influence on longterm physical activity on mental rotation and the context of embodied cognition.

  2. Motivational Traits of Elite Young Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Craig; Meyers, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    Among the most overlooked aspects in the development of elite young soccer players is that of specific psychological traits. Of those traits, motivation has important implications for programs whose objectives are identification and cultivation of young, skilled performers. The growth in popularity of soccer by youth and the successes experienced…

  3. Soccer Skill Development in Talented Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, B. C. H.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Ali, A.; Visscher, C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to gain insight into the development of soccer-specific skills and whether differences between talented players exist on the Loughborough Soccer Passing Test (LSPT). Two scores were derived from the LSPT: 1) execution time: time to complete 16 passes (speed) and 2) skill per

  4. Exploring high charge of phosphate as new draw solute in a forward osmosis-membrane distillation hybrid system for concentrating high-nutrient sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nguyen Cong; Nguyen, Hau Thi; Ho, Su-Thing; Chen, Shiao-Shing; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Ray, Saikat Sinha; Hsu, Hung-Te

    2016-07-01

    For the first time, a high charge of phosphate was used as the draw solute in a forward osmosis-membrane distillation (FO-MD) hybrid system for concentrating high-nutrient sludge. A high water flux (12.5L/m(2)h) and a low reverse salt flux (0.84g/m(2)) were simultaneously achieved at pH9 by using 0.1M Na3PO4 as the draw solute and deionized water as the feed solution in the FO process. The specific reverse salt flux of 0.1M Na3PO4 (Js/Jw=0.07g/L) was considerably less than that of 0.1M NaCl (Js/Jw=0.37g/L) because the complexion between Na(+) and HPO4(2-) at pH9 led to the reduction of free Na(+) ions, which subsequently reduced the reverse salt diffusion substantially. Moreover, for a feed solution with an initial sludge concentration of 3500mg/L, the sludge concentration could be concentrated to 19,800 and 22,000mg/L in the pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) and FO membrane orientations, respectively, after 15h of operation. Four types of MD membranes were selected for draw solution recovery; of these, a polytetrafluoroethylene membrane with a pore size of 0.45μm was the most effective in achieving a high water flux (10.28L/m(2)h) and high salt rejection (approximately 100%) in a diluted Na3PO4 draw solution.

  5. Football players, asset management & the unexploited potential of enhanced player engagement in football management & marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives.......This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives....

  6. Football players, asset management & the unexploited potential of enhanced player engagement in football management & marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives.......This article gives insights into why and how football brands (e.g. clubs and governing bodies) can benefit from enhancing the activation of players in football management and football marketing initiatives....

  7. The ideal elf: identity exploration in World of Warcraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessière, Katherine; Seay, A Fleming; Kiesler, Sara

    2007-08-01

    In this study, we examine the identity exploration possibilities presented by online multiplayer games in which players use graphics tools and character-creation software to construct an avatar, or character. We predicted World of Warcraft players would create their main character more similar to their ideal self than the players themselves were. Our results support this idea; a sample of players rated their character as having more favorable attributes that were more favorable than their own self-rated attributes. This trend was stronger among those with lower psychological well-being, who rated themselves comparatively lower than they rated their character. Our results suggest that the game world allows players the freedom to create successful virtual selves regardless of the constraints of their actual situation.

  8. Anthropometric Characteristics of Spanish Professional Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquera Alejandro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of elite basketball players’ anthropometric characteristics alongside those of body composition contributes significantly to their profiling as professional athletes and plays an important role in the selection process, as these characteristics can have a significant impact on performance. In the current study, 110 professional basketball players from a series of Spanish professional Leagues (ACB, LEB and EBA and youth level National Teams (U20 and U18 had their anthropometric profiles measured and compared to determine differences between them. Furthermore, all 110 players were divided into three different categories according to their playing position: guards, forwards and centres. The results obtained show no significant differences between players in different competitions in weight, height and the sum of skinfolds. Nonetheless, there were several differences related to body fat content (13.03% in ACB players and 10.52% in the lower categories and National Teams. There were also several differences found between the different playing positions amongst all playing levels in body mass (79.56 ± 2.41, 91.04 ± 1.51 and 104.56 ± 1.73 kg, height (182.28 ± 0.96, 195.65 ± 1.00 and 204.08 ± 0.67 cm, skinfold distribution and perimeters. However, there were no significant differences in body fat content between the different playing positions. The conclusions obtained from this study provide a better understanding to basketball specialists regarding the selection process of players at the elite level, especially on the transition from youth elite programs to men’s elite leagues.

  9. The architecture of the chess player's brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänggi, Jürgen; Brütsch, Karin; Siegel, Adrian M; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-09-01

    The game of chess can be seen as a typical example for an expertise task requiring domain-specific training and experience. Despite intensive behavioural studies the neural underpinnings of chess performance and expertise are not entirely understood. A few functional neuroimaging studies have shown that expert chess players recruit different psychological functions and activate different brain areas while they are engaged in chess-related activities. Based on this functional literature, we predicted to find morphological differences in a network comprised by parietal and frontal areas and especially the occipito-temporal junction (OTJ), fusiform gyrus, and caudate nucleus. Twenty expert chess players and 20 control subjects were investigated using voxel-based and surface-based morphometry as well as diffusion tensor imaging. Grey matter volume and cortical thickness were reduced in chess players compared with those of control men in the OTJ and precunei. The volumes of both caudate nuclei were not different between groups, but correlated inversely with the years of chess playing experience. Mean diffusivity was increased in chess players compared with that of controls in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus and the Elo score (a chess tournament ranking) was inversely related to mean diffusivity within the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. To the best of our knowledge we showed for the first time that there are specific differences in grey and white matter morphology between chess players and control subjects in brain regions associated with cognitive functions important for playing chess. Whether these anatomical alterations are the cause or consequence of the intensive and long-term chess training and practice remains to be shown in future studies.

  10. Dynamic Visual Acuity Training in Cricket Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Edgar, B.Optom

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dynamic visual acuity (DVA is the ability of an observer to correctly identify details of a moving target and is considered to be important for tasks like driving. Dynamic Visual Acuity is better in athletes involved in sports such as basketball and baseball; however, no previous studies have considered the sport of cricket. We conducted a study to determine whether there was any difference in DVA between cricket and non-cricket players. Method: Dynamic visual acuity was measured by asking subjects to identify the orientation of the gap of a moving Landolt C target as a four-alternative forced-choice task. The Landolt C targets had confusion bars surrounding them. The participants in the study were tested twice with a break of seven weeks. In between the two measurements, participants underwent two training sessions (similar to the testing sessions, each three weeks apart. Results: The initial mean DVA for cricket players was 107.7 deg/sec, and the mean DVA for non-cricket players was 105.5 deg/sec, with a target size of 6/15. The subjects who participated in training (cricketers and non-cricketers improved in DVA by 41 deg/sec in contrast to the improvement in the non-training subjects of 18 deg/sec (p=0.0032. The cricketers who participated in the training improved in DVA by 44 deg/sec, whereas the cricketers who did not participate in the training improved by 19 deg/sec (p=0.0167. Conclusions: We found no significant difference in initial DVA between the cricket players and the non-cricket players. The training resulted in an extremely significant improvement in DVA performance by both the cricketers and non-cricketers.

  11. Evaluating Australian football league player contributions using interactive network simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Jonathan; Bedford, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the contribution of Australian Football League (AFL) players to their team's on-field network by simulating player interactions within a chosen team list and estimating the net effect on final score margin. A Visual Basic computer program was written, firstly, to isolate the effective interactions between players from a particular team in all 2011 season matches and, secondly, to generate a symmetric interaction matrix for each match. Negative binomial distributions were fitted to each player pairing in the Geelong Football Club for the 2011 season, enabling an interactive match simulation model given the 22 chosen players. Dynamic player ratings were calculated from the simulated network using eigenvector centrality, a method that recognises and rewards interactions with more prominent players in the team network. The centrality ratings were recorded after every network simulation and then applied in final score margin predictions so that each player's match contribution-and, hence, an optimal team-could be estimated. The paper ultimately demonstrates that the presence of highly rated players, such as Geelong's Jimmy Bartel, provides the most utility within a simulated team network. It is anticipated that these findings will facilitate optimal AFL team selection and player substitutions, which are key areas of interest to coaches. Network simulations are also attractive for use within betting markets, specifically to provide information on the likelihood of a chosen AFL team list "covering the line ". Key pointsA simulated interaction matrix for Australian Rules football players is proposedThe simulations were carried out by fitting unique negative binomial distributions to each player pairing in a sideEigenvector centrality was calculated for each player in a simulated matrix, then for the teamThe team centrality measure adequately predicted the team's winning marginA player's net effect on margin could hence be estimated by replacing him in

  12. Precision: A motor capability that defines a successful basketball player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaković Marko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Precision, as a basic motor ability, represents, along with coordination, the least explored area of motorics. Insufficient research of this phenomenon is also true of basketball. Within it, we monitor displays of precision in the most specific of all conditions - during a basketball game. This paper represents a review of research concerning precision, with a brief critical overview of the mentioned phenomenon. Apart from the conclusions, which speak about precision as the basic motor capability (and have been presented as products of speculation and earlier findings, a review of empirical research related to situational precision has also been presented. These studies have been aimed at finding a connection between shot patterns and distance to target; goal visualisation; influence of skeleton dimension on precision. One of the goals of this paper is to point out the significance of precision of players at guard position, which could be a significant selection factor.

  13. Multi-Player and Multi-Choice Quantum Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜江峰; 李卉; 许晓栋; 周先意; 韩荣典

    2002-01-01

    We investigate a multi-player and multi-choice quantum game. We start from a two-player and two-choice game,and the result is better than its classical version. Then we extend this to N-player and N-choice cases. In the quantum domain, we provide a strategy with which players can always avoid the worst outcome. Also, by changing the value of the parameter of the initial state, the probabilities for players to obtain the best pay-off will be much higher than in its classical version.

  14. Vertical jump performance of professional male and female volleyball players: effects of playing position and competition level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Tine; Hadžić, Vedran; Dervišević, Edvin; Markovic, Goran

    2015-06-01

    Vertical jump (VJ) performance is an important element for successful volleyball practice. The aims of the study were (a) to explore the overall VJ performance of elite volleyball players of both sexes, (b) to explore the differences in VJ performance among different competition levels and different playing positions, and (c) to evaluate the sex-related differences in the role of the arm swing and 3-step approach with arm swing on the jump height. We assessed the VJ capacity in 253 volleyball players (113 males and 140 females) from Slovenian first and second Volleyball Division. The height of squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump, block jump, and attack jump was tested using an Optojump system. We observed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in VJ height between different levels of play that were most pronounced in the SJ. Position-related differences in VJ performance were observed in male players between receivers and setters (p ≤ 0.05), whereas in females, VJ performance across different playing positions seems equal. Finally, we found that male players significantly better use the arm swing during VJ than females (p ≤ 0.05), whereas the use of eccentric part of the jump and approach before the spike to improve VJ performance seem to be equally mastered activity in both sexes. These results could assist coaches in the development of jumping performance in volleyball players. Furthermore, presented normative data for jump heights of elite male and female volleyball players could be useful in selection and profiling of young volleyball players.

  15. Prospective study of injury in volleyball players: 6 year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, M F; Ezechieli, M; Classen, L; Kieffer, O; Miltner, O

    2015-01-01

    The volleyball game has a high complexity and thus entails a lot of strain to the players. Due to this high and different training and competition strain comprehensive and individual training plans should be developed with competing training objectives in order to prevent injuries. The aim of the study was to analyse prospectively over six seasons the acute and overuse injuries of a German male professional volleyball team. The study included 34 male national league players from season the 2007/08 to 2012/13. All players received a sport medicine examination and a functional diagnosis before each season. Based on the results the players received an individual training plan. The players suffered 186 injuries. The prevalence of acute injuries was 1.94 per player and overuse injuries 0.64 per player. The incidence of acute injuries was 3.3/1000 h volleyball and overuse injuries 1.08/1000 h volleyball. The largest number of injuries was found in the spine. The players had most likely minor injuries. The players had significantly fewer injuries in their second season (1.92) than in their first season (3.25; p= 0.004). It could be concluded that volleyball is a sport with a relative low prevalence of injuries compared to other team sports. The prevalence of injury is 2.58 per player. Due to an injury a player dropped out 16.91 days per season. An individual training program seems to reduce the incidence of injury.

  16. 2-Player Nash and Nonsymmetric Bargaining Games: Algorithms and Structural Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Vazirani, Vijay V

    2009-01-01

    The solution to a Nash or a nonsymmetric bargaining game is obtained by maximizing a concave function over a convex set, i.e., it is the solution to a convex program. We show that each 2-player game whose convex program has linear constraints, admits a rational solution and such a solution can be found in polynomial time using only an LP solver. If in addition, the game is succinct, i.e., the coefficients in its convex program are ``small'', then its solution can be found in strongly polynomial time. We also give a non-succinct linear game whose solution can be found in strongly polynomial time. The notion of flexible budget markets, introduced in \\cite{va.NB}, plays a crucial role in the design of these algorithms.

  17. Recognition accuracy by experienced men and women players of basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millslagle, Duane G

    2002-08-01

    This study examined 30 experienced basketball players' recognition accuracy by sex, playing position (guard, forward, and center), and situations in the game of basketball. The study used a perceptual cognitive paradigm in which subjects viewed slides of structured and unstructured game situations and accurately recognized the presence or absence of the basketball. A significant difference in recognition accuracy by sex, players' position, and structure of the game situation was found. Male players' recognition accuracy was better than the female players'. The recognition accuracy of subjects who played guard was better than that of subjects who played forward or center. The players' recognition accuracy was more accurate when observing structured plays versus unstructured plays. The conclusion of this study suggested that experienced basketball players differ in their cognitive and visual searching processes by sex and player position within the sport of basketball.

  18. Geoelectrical exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Said Barseem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sinai development is a goal of successive governments in Egypt. The present study is a geoelectrical exploration to find appropriate solutions of the problems affecting the land of a Research Station in Southeast Al Qantara. This research station is one of the Desert Research Center stations to facilitate the development of desert land for agriculture by introducing applied research. It suffers from some problems which can be summarized in the shortage of irrigation water and water logging. The appropriate solutions of these problems have been delineated by the results of 1D and 2D geoelectrical measurements. Electrical resistivity (ER revealed the subsurface sedimentary sequences and extension of subsurface layers in the horizontal and vertical directions, especially, the water bearing layer. Additionally it helped to choose the most suitable places to drill productive wells with a good condition.

  19. A cooperative game-theoretic framework for negotiating marine spatial allocation agreements among heterogeneous players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriazi, Zacharoula; Lejano, Raul; Maes, Frank; Degraer, Steven

    2017-02-01

    Marine spatial allocation has become, in recent decades, a political flashpoint, fuelled by political power struggles, as well as the continuously increasing demand for marine space by both traditional and emerging marine uses. To effectively address this issue, we develop a decision-making procedure, that facilitates the distribution of disputed areas of specific size among heterogeneous players in a transparent and ethical way, while considering coalitional formations through coexistence. To do this, we model players' alternative strategies and payoffs within a cooperative game-theoretic framework. Depending on whether transferable utility (TU) or non-transferable utility (NTU) is the more appropriate assumption, we illustrate the use of the TU Shapley value and the Lejano's fixed point NTU Shapley value to solve for the ideal allocations. The applicability and effectiveness of the process has been tested in a case study area, the Dogger Bank Special Area of Conservation in the North Sea, which involves three totally or partially conflicting activities, i.e. fishing, nature conservation and wind farm development. The findings demonstrate that the process is capable of providing a unique, fair and equitable division of space Finally, among the two solution concepts proposed the fixed point NTU Shapley value manages to better address the heterogeneity of the players and thus to provide a more socially acceptable allocation that favours the weaker player, while demonstrating the importance of the monetary valuation attributed by each use to the area.

  20. Identification af explosive power factors as predictors of player quality in young female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgantov, Zoran; Milić, Mirjana; Katić, Ratko

    2013-05-01

    With the purpose of determining the factor structure of explosive power, as well as the influence of each factor on situational efficiency, 56 young female volleyball players were tested using 14 tests for assessing nonspecific and specific explosive power. By factor analysis, 4 significant factors were isolated which explained the total of over 80% of the common variability in young female volleyball players. The first factor was defined as volleyball-specific jumping, the second factor as nonspecific jumping and sprinting, the third factor as throwing explosive power, while the fourth factor was interpreted as volleyball-specific throwing and spiking speed from the ground. Results obtained by regression analysis in the latent space of explosive power indicate that the identified factors are good predictors of player quality in young female volleyball players. The fourth factor defined as throwing and spiking speed from the ground had the largest influence on player quality, followed by volleyball-specific jumping and nonspecific jumping and sprinting, and to a much lesser extent, by throwing explosive power The results obtained in this age group bring to the fore the ability of spiking and serving a ball of high speed, which hinders the opponents from playing those balls in serve reception and field defence. This ability, combined with a high standing vertical jump reach and spike approach vertical jump reach (which is the basis of the 1st varimax factor) enables successful performance of all volleyball elements by which points are won in complex 1 (spike) and complex 2 (serve and block). Even though the 2nd factor (nonspecific jumping and sprinting) has a slightly smaller impact on situational efficiency in young players, this ability provides preconditions i.e. preparation for successful realisation of all volleyball elements, so greater attention must be paid to perfecting it in young female volleyball players.

  1. Anthropometric and Somatotype Characteristics of Young Soccer Players: Differences Among Categories, Subcategories, and Playing Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Vetrano, Mario; Camolese, Giancarlo; Guidetti, Laura; Baldari, Carlo

    2015-08-01

    Considering that anthropometric parameters are important factors in the performance of the soccer players, the aim of this study was to explore the differences in anthropometric and somatotype characteristics of Italian young soccer players. Weight, height, body mass index, and somatotype of 112 young soccer players, grouped in Giovanissimi "A" (14 years), "B" (13 years), and "C" (12 years) as well as Allievi "B" (15 years) and "A" (16 years) and "Juniores" (older than 17 years), were evaluated. Statistical analysis tests were computed at p ≤ 0.05, and an analysis of variance for each somatotype was calculated to analyze the main effects and interactions of the factors: categories, subcategories, and playing position. Bonferroni's post hoc analysis was used to identify differences among mean values. Considering all subjects, we have found significant differences in categories, subcategories, and playing position between anthropometric values and a somatotype value of 2.8-3.8-2.9. Significant differences have found among goalkeepers and the others playing position in endomorphy (p ≤ 0.001) and with defenders and midfielders in ectomorphy (p somatotype differences for playing position within categories also in the youngest categories and subcategories, in particular, in the endomorphy component. Young soccer players should be trained with more appropriate and specific training load to avoid the increased injury risk during adolescence.

  2. Insight: Exploring Hidden Roles in Collaborative Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricia Shi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks into interaction modes between players in co-located, collaborative games. In particular, hidden traitor games, in which one or more players is secretly working against the group mission, has the effect of increasing paranoia and distrust between players, so this paper looks into the opposite of a hidden traitor – a hidden benefactor. Rather than sabotaging the group mission, the hidden benefactor would help the group achieve the end goal while still having a reason to stay hidden. The paper explores what games with such a role can look like and how the role changes player interactions. Finally, the paper addresses the divide between video game and board game interaction modes; hidden roles are not common within video games, but they are of growing prevalence in board games. This fact, combined with the exploration of hidden benefactors, reveals that hidden roles is a mechanic that video games should develop into in order to match board games’ complexity of player interaction modes.

  3. Player Transformation of Educational Multiplayer Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Misfeldt, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Children's great interest in multiplayer games has led to attempts to design educational multiplayer games. In this study, we have studied a test of an educational multiplayer game designed for mathematics education for children aged nine to twelve. In our observations, it became clear that pupils...... transformed the game to accommodate social interaction. With these transformed ways of playing the game, they managed to get to the top of the high score list while avoiding the educational parts of the game. Players transforming educational games to escape learning elements can be a problem when these games...... are used for formal education. In this paper we argue that player transformation of educational games can, however, be the basis of exciting and unconventional learning of valuable things, such as how to transform information technology to better accommodate social interaction....

  4. Common Injuries of Collegiate Tennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wisdom Magtajas Valleser

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the common injuries of Filipino collegiate tennis players; 110 varsity tennis players with a mean of 20 years old (SD ± 1.7 with an average playing experience of 12 years participated in the study. There was a 100% occurrence of at least one injury with an average rate of 5.98 injuries per person. The authors observed that the most commonly injured anatomical region is the lower extremity; ankles were recorded as the most commonly injured part. Other commonly injured areas included the shoulders and lower back. Furthermore, the most common injury type is tendinitis, sprains, and strains. The recorded injuries were mostly associated with overuse injuries, and the findings were similar to those of most other studies on tennis injuries. A larger sample size may provide more conclusive findings on tennis injuries, particularly in different levels of competition, such as recreational or professional athletes.

  5. Towards Generic Models of Player Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Shaker, Mohammad; Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    -dependent and their applicability is usually limited to the system and the data used for model construction. Establishing models of user experience that are highly scalable while maintaing the performance constitutes an important research direction. In this paper, we propose generic models of user experience in the computer games...... further examine whether generic features of player be- haviour can be defined and used to boost the modelling per- formance. The accuracies obtained in both experiments in- dicate a promise for the proposed approach and suggest that game-independent player experience models can be built.......Context personalisation is a flourishing area of research with many applications. Context personalisation systems usually employ a user model to predict the appeal of the context to a particular user given a history of interactions. Most of the models used are context...

  6. Macro-players in stock markets

    CERN Document Server

    Röhner, B M

    2005-01-01

    It is usually assumed that stock prices reflect a balance between large numbers of small individual sellers and buyers. However, over the past fifty years mutual funds and other institutional shareholders have assumed an ever increasing part of stock transactions: their assets, as a percentage of GDP, have been multiplied by more than one hundred. The paper presents evidence which shows that reactions to major shocks are often dominated by a small number of institutional players. Most often the market gets a wrong perception and inadequate understanding of such events because the relevant information (e.g. the fact that one mutual fund has sold several million shares) only becomes available weeks or months after the event, through reports to the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Our observations suggest that there is a radical difference between small ($ 5% $) price changes which, on the contrary, may be caused by massive sales (or purchases) by a few players. This suggests that the mechanisms which a...

  7. Evolutionary game theory: molecules as players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Katrin; Hummert, Sabine; Werner, Sarah; Basanta, David; Deutsch, Andreas; Schuster, Stefan; Theissen, Günter; Schroeter, Anja

    2014-12-01

    In this and an accompanying paper we review the use of game theoretical concepts in cell biology and molecular biology. This review focuses on the subcellular level by considering viruses, genes, and molecules as players. We discuss in which way catalytic RNA can be treated by game theory. Moreover, genes can compete for success in replication and can have different strategies in interactions with other genetic elements. Also transposable elements, or "jumping genes", can act as players because they usually bear different traits or strategies. Viruses compete in the case of co-infecting a host cell. Proteins interact in a game theoretical sense when forming heterodimers. Finally, we describe how the Shapley value can be applied to enzymes in metabolic pathways. We show that game theory can be successfully applied to describe and analyse scenarios at the molecular level resulting in counterintuitive conclusions.

  8. Left ventricular biomechanics in professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lueder, T G; Hodt, A; Gjerdalen, G F; Steine, K

    2017-04-04

    Chronic exercise induces adaptive changes of left ventricular (LV) ejection and filling capacities which may be detected by novel speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI)-based techniques. A total of 103 consecutive male elite Norwegian soccer players and 46 age-matched healthy controls underwent echocardiography at rest. STE was used to assess LV torsional mechanics and LV systolic longitudinal strain (LS). Diastolic function was evaluated by trans-mitral blood flow, mitral annular velocities by TDI, and LV inflow propagation velocity by color M-mode. Despite similar global LS, players displayed lower basal wall and higher apical wall LS values vs controls, resulting in an incremental base-to-apex gradient of LS. Color M-mode and TDI-derived data were similar in both groups. Peak systolic twist rate (TWR) was significantly lower in players (86.4±2.8 vs controls 101.9±5.2 deg/s, Pplayers (-124.5±4.2 vs -106.9±6.7 deg/s) and peaked earlier during the cardiac cycle (112.7±0.8 vs 117.4±2.4% of systole duration, both Pplayers. Augmented diastolic wall strain (DWS), a novel measure of LV compliance in players, was associated with improved myocardial mechanical efficiency. The described myocardial biomechanics may underlie augmented exertional cardiac function in athletes and may have a potential role to characterize athlete's heart by itself or to distinguish it from hypertensive or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The El Dorado of Handball? Foreign Female Players Stay, while Domestic Players Return from Abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bon, Marta; Topič, Mojca Doupona; Šibila, Marko

    2016-04-01

    The main purpose of this research was to study the characteristics of migration in European women's handball based on the Slovenian example and to find the differences between the foreigners coming to Slovenia and the Slovenians transferring to foreign clubs. The research was based on 16 open face-to-face semi-structured interviews (8 Slovenians (age 29.5 ± 6.2 years) and 8 foreigners (age 35.5 ± 8.7 years)). We found out that the most powerful factor in foreigners was the financial one, while within Slovenian players it was their personal desire for progression within their sport, the club's reputation and poor conditions in their previous club. The results confirm that when making a decision on transfer, all players had the support of family and friends, while the clubs of foreign players were not as supportive. Most interviewees considered their careers successful and did not regret going abroad. The research indicates that the largest differences discovered between Slovenians and foreigners were that foreign female players chose to stay in the new country (Slovenia), while domestic players returned home after few years playing abroad. In conclusion, the results show that in top-level handball there are important differences between migration models which are based on nationality and also that the migration models change throughout time, which is largely connected with the socioeconomic events in the country of origin or transfer.

  10. Tibia and fibula fractures in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, B P; Lohnes, J H; Nunley, J A; Garrett, W E

    1999-01-01

    We performed a retrospective review of 31 athletes who sustained a fracture of the lower leg from a direct blow while playing soccer. Fifteen fractures involved both the tibia and fibula 11 only the tibia, and 5 only the fibula. Information was collected using a standardized questionnaire. The mean follow-up from the time of injury was 30 months. Injuries typically occurred in young, competitive athletes during game situations. The mechanisms were broadly classified into several categories: contact during a slide tackle (13, 42%), a collision with the goalkeeper (8, 26%), two opposing players colliding while swinging for a loose ball (7, 23%), or a player being kicked by a standing opponent (3, 10%). The majority of fractures (26, 90%) occurred while the athletes were wearing shin guards. The point of impact was with the shin guard prior to the fracture in 16 cases (62%). Return to competitive soccer averaged 40 weeks for combined tibia and fibula fractures, 35 weeks for isolated tibia fractures, and 18 weeks for isolated fibula fractures. Injuries were associated with a high incidence of major complications (12 out of 31, 39%), especially in concurrent tibia and fibula fractures (8 out of 15, 50%). These findings suggest that lower leg fractures in soccer players are serious injuries, often necessitating a prolonged recovery time. In addition, this study questions the ability of shin guards to protect against fractures.

  11. Reindeer & Wolves: Exploring Sensory Deprivation in Multiplayer Digital Bodily Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnegan, Daniel; Velloso, Eduardo; Mitchell, Robb;

    2014-01-01

    Games designed around digital bodily play involve bodily movement and expression to create engaging gameplay experiences. Most feedback in these games takes the form of visual stimuli. To explore the gameplay mechanics afforded by depriving players from these visual cues, we designed Reindeer & W...... & Wolves, a role-playing game where blindfolded players capture other players relying on their hearing alone. Based on our design and play testing, we devised four strategies for designing games that incorporate sensory deprivation as an element of the core mechanic.......Games designed around digital bodily play involve bodily movement and expression to create engaging gameplay experiences. Most feedback in these games takes the form of visual stimuli. To explore the gameplay mechanics afforded by depriving players from these visual cues, we designed Reindeer...

  12. EVALUATING AUSTRALIAN FOOTBALL LEAGUE PLAYER CONTRIBUTIONS USING INTERACTIVE NETWORK SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sargent

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the contribution of Australian Football League (AFL players to their team's on-field network by simulating player interactions within a chosen team list and estimating the net effect on final score margin. A Visual Basic computer program was written, firstly, to isolate the effective interactions between players from a particular team in all 2011 season matches and, secondly, to generate a symmetric interaction matrix for each match. Negative binomial distributions were fitted to each player pairing in the Geelong Football Club for the 2011 season, enabling an interactive match simulation model given the 22 chosen players. Dynamic player ratings were calculated from the simulated network using eigenvector centrality, a method that recognises and rewards interactions with more prominent players in the team network. The centrality ratings were recorded after every network simulation and then applied in final score margin predictions so that each player's match contribution-and, hence, an optimal team-could be estimated. The paper ultimately demonstrates that the presence of highly rated players, such as Geelong's Jimmy Bartel, provides the most utility within a simulated team network. It is anticipated that these findings will facilitate optimal AFL team selection and player substitutions, which are key areas of interest to coaches. Network simulations are also attractive for use within betting markets, specifically to provide information on the likelihood of a chosen AFL team list "covering the line".

  13. An Analysis Framework for Structured Multi-player Game%结构化多人博弈的分析框架

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国翰

    2014-01-01

    -player structured game is provided as the general situation, then, according to the generalanalytical framework, a classical cooperative game is analyzed with the discovery of the game called "3 players distribute 300 Yuan", which has a stable Nash Equilibrium in fact-each player gets 100Yuan. As a simple application, the results of "war and coalition game" between 3 nations can be explored. As the results, there are two stable NEs in the game. In the two NEs, the super powers always make alliances with the small country, while, the small country always chooses"war"with the local hegemony.From the two examples above, the structured multi-player game has some advantages on analyzing political problems, social issues, and economics situations, compared with some traditional game theories. The solutions of the structured multi-player game look more suitable to facts in the real society.

  14. Relations of Control: Walkthroughs and the Structuring of Player Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Newman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Videogame walkthroughs provide instructions on various elements of gameplay in relation to specific digital games, and exist as text-based documents and, to a lesser extent, as recorded moving image game footage. We focus here on written-walkthroughs for the purposes of depth, while recognising the specific and significant position that moving image walkthroughs hold (see Ashton, forthcoming. Player-produced walkthroughs, freely and widely distributed online, point to the broader social contexts that inform and structure player agency. In this article, we emphasize three perspectives on these documents. First, walkthroughs can be approached as a means of recording and codifying playing styles, thereby legitimising specific approaches or strategies. Accordingly, we highlight glitch hunting and the Pokémon series to illustrate the diversity of these playing styles and the significance of the walkthrough as a form of ludic archival document. Second, walkthroughs as textual codifications of gameplay potential can encourage new styles of engagement with authors and performers by outlining opportunities for play, and illuminating strategies and techniques previously unknown to the reader. Importantly, as we shall demonstrate, walkthroughs not only investigate and interrogate game texts – exploring their every narrative turn and spatial aspects in minute detail – but also frequently present techniques that take advantage of weaknesses and flaws in the ruleset or code of the game in order to offer new gameplay options. In this respect, as James Newman (2008 suggests, walkthroughs can be understood as a form of reverse-engineering that renegotiates the player-designer relationship and encourages (perhaps even demands deliberately investigative, resistant and deviant strategies of gameplay. These modes of engagement frequently involve playing beyond performative norms and technical limits. The walkthrough, then, is both a document of the game as

  15. Dementia and Robotics: People with Advancing Dementia and Their Carers Driving an Exploration into an Engineering Solution to Maintaining Safe Exercise Regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Carol; Penders, Jacques; Procter, Paula M

    2016-01-01

    The merging of the human world and the information technology world is advancing at a pace, even for those with dementia there are many useful smart 'phone applications including reminders, family pictures display, GPS functions and video communications. This paper will report upon initial collaborative work developing a robotic solution to engaging individuals with advancing dementia in safe exercise regimes. The research team has been driven by the needs of people with advancing dementia and their carers through a focus group methodology, the format, discussions and outcomes of these groups will be reported. The plans for the next stage of the research will be outlined including the continuing collaboration with advancing dementia and their carers.

  16. Participatory Systems Modeling to Explore Sustainable Solutions: Triple-Value Simulation Modeling Cases Tackle Nutrient and Watershed Management from a Socio-Ecological Systems (ses) Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholtz ten Brink, M. R.; Heineman, K.; Foley, G. J.; Ruder, E.; Tanners, N.; Bassi, A.; Fiksel, J.

    2016-12-01

    Decision makers often need assistance in understanding dynamic interactions and linkages among economic, environmental and social systems in coastal watersheds. They also need scientific input to better evaluate potential costs and benefits of alternative policy interventions. The US EPA is applying sustainability science to address these needs. Triple Value (3V) Scoping and Modeling projects bring a systems approach to understand complex environmental problems, incorporate local knowledge, and allow decision-makers to explore policy scenarios. This leads to better understanding of feedbacks and outcomes to both human and environmental systems.The Suffolk County, NY (eastern Long Island) 3V Case uses SES interconnections to explore possible policy options and scenarios for intervention to mitigate the effects of excess nitrogen (N) loading to ground, surface, and estuarine waters. Many of the environmental impacts of N pollution have adverse effects on social and economic well-being and productivity. Key are loss of enjoyment and recreational use of local beach environments and loss of income and revenues from tourism and local fisheries. Stakeholders generated this Problem Statement: Suffolk County is experiencing widespread degradation to groundwater and the coastal marine environment caused by excess nitrogen. How can local stakeholders and decision makers in Suffolk County arrest and reverse this degradation, restore conditions to support a healthy thriving ecosystem, strengthen the County's resilience to emerging and expected environmental threats from global climate change, support and promote economic growth, attract a vibrant and sustainable workforce, and maintain and enhance quality of life and affordability for all County residents? They then built a Causal Loop Diagram of indicators and relationships that reflect these issues and identified a set of alternative policy interventions to address them. The project team conducted an extensive review of

  17. Sympathetic enhancement in futsal players but not in football players after repeated sprint ability test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Sheng; Liao, Chih-Jung; Lu, Wan-An; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) can disclose the specific adaptation of sympathovagal modulation to exercise. This study investigated the change in HRV measures after anaerobic and aerobic intermittent exercises in university football and futsal players. 36 male university students with physically active lifestyle (n=14), football (n=12), and futsal (n=10) participated in this study. The participants completed the repeated sprint ability (RSA) test and Yo-Yo (YY) intermittent recovery test level 1 in randomised order. ECG signals of the participants were recorded in supine position 15 min before and 30 min after exercises. Before exercise, and 5 and 30 min after exercise, the blood pressures were also taken. In the RSA protocol, the percentage changes in normalised high-frequency power (nHFP) were significantly decreased, while the percentage changes in the very low/high frequency power ratio (VLHR) and low/high frequency power ratio (LHR) were significantly increased in futsal players after exercise, as compared with the controls. No significant changes in all HRV indices were found in the YY protocol, except the respiratory frequency. After exercise, the percent decrease in vagal modulation in futsal players was significantly reduced, while the percentage increase in sympathetic modulation in futsal players was significantly enhanced in the RSA test, but not in the YY test, as compared with the control group. The increase in sympathetic activity and the decrease in vagal activity in the futsal players were greater than the corresponding increase and decrease in the football players in the RSA test.

  18. Application of the grid-characteristic method on unstructured tetrahedral meshes to the solution of direct problems in seismic exploration of fractured layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biryukov, V. A.; Muratov, M. V.; Petrov, I. B.; Sannikov, A. V.; Favorskaya, A. V.

    2015-10-01

    Seismic responses from fractured geological layers are mathematically simulated by applying the grid-characteristic method on unstructured tetrahedral meshes with the use of high-performance computer systems. The method is intended for computing complicated spatial dynamical processes in complex heterogeneous media and is characterized by exact formulation of contact conditions. As a result, it can be applied to the simulation of seismic exploration problems, including in regions with a large number of inhomogeneities, examples of which are fractured structures. The use of unstructured tetrahedral meshes makes it possible to specify geological cracks of various shapes and spatial orientations. As a result, problems are solved in a formulation maximally close to an actual situation. A cluster of computers is used to improve the accuracy of the computation by optimizing its duration.

  19. Tracking down a solution: exploring the acceptability and value of wearable GPS devices for older persons, individuals with a disability and their support persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Brittany; Aplin, Tammy; de Jonge, Desleigh; Goyne, Matthew

    2017-11-01

    To explore the acceptability and value of three wearable GPS devices for older persons and individuals with a disability and safety concerns when accessing the community. This pilot study explored six wearers' and their support persons' experience of using three different wearable GPS devices (a pendant, watch, and mini GPS phone), each for a two-week period. Participants identified safety as the main value of using a wearable GPS device. The acceptability and value of these devices was strongly influenced by device features, ease of use, cost, appearance, the reliability of the GPS coordinates, the wearer's health condition and the users familiarity with technology. Overall, participants indicated that they preferred the pendant. Wearable GPS devices are potentially useful in providing individuals who have safety concerns with reassurance and access to assistance as required. To ensure successful utilization, future device design and device selection should consider the user's familiarity with technology and their health condition. This study also revealed that not all wearable GPS devices provide continuous location tracking. It is therefore critical to ensure that the device's location tracking functions address the wearer's requirements and reason for using the device. Implications for Rehabilitation The acceptability and usability of wearable GPS devices is strongly influenced by the device features, ease of use, cost, appearance, the reliability of the device to provide accurate and timely GPS coordinates, as well as the health condition of the wearer and their familiarity with technology. Wearable GPS devices need to be simple to use and support and training is essential to ensure they are successfully utilized. Not all wearable GPS devices provide continuous location tracking and accuracy of location is impacted by line of sight to satellites. Therefore, care needs to be taken when choosing a suitable device, to ensure that the device's location tracking

  20. Time-Loss Injuries in Sub-Elite and Emerging Rugby League Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Booth, Rhonda Orr

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to 1 investigate the incidence and characteristics of injuries in emerging rugby league players; and 2 explore the differences in injury incidence and characteristics between the various sub-elite competitions. An NRL emerging player development squad (n = 34 was observed from the beginning of pre-season until the finish of competition. Time-loss injury was defined as any physical pain or impairment sustained that resulted in players missing a match. Injuries were categorised according to circumstance, incidence, characteristics, playing position and competition level. Of a total of 196 injuries that were recorded, 45 were time-loss and 151 were transient. The total injury incidence was 7.9/1,000 playing hours. The most common sites for time-loss injuries were the shoulder, ankle/foot and knee. Ligament injuries accounted for the highest number of injuries by type. Forwards sustained the greatest number of injuries. However, backs suffered the greatest injury cost. The majority of time-loss injuries were sustained during competition matches. Injuries sustained during open age matches resulted in significantly higher injury cost to those received at NYC matches. NRL development and emerging rugby league players are exposed to high risk of injury. Lower limb and shoulder injuries to bone or connective tissue are prevalent as a result of contact during match play. Players at this developmental level feed into several different playing squads where disparities in physical development, maturation, playing intensity and training regimes are evident. This presents a challenge in matching physiological capabilities with playing demands for NRL development squads.

  1. Vascular Health in American Football Players: Cardiovascular Risk Increased in Division III Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah L. Feairheller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies report that football players have high blood pressure (BP and increased cardiovascular risk. There are over 70,000 NCAA football players and 450 Division III schools sponsor football programs, yet limited research exists on vascular health of athletes. This study aimed to compare vascular and cardiovascular health measures between football players and nonathlete controls. Twenty-three athletes and 19 nonathletes participated. Vascular health measures included flow-mediated dilation (FMD and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT. Cardiovascular measures included clinic and 24 hr BP levels, body composition, VO2 max, and fasting glucose/cholesterol levels. Compared to controls, football players had a worse vascular and cardiovascular profile. Football players had thicker carotid artery IMT (0.49 ± 0.06 mm versus 0.46 ± 0.07 mm and larger brachial artery diameter during FMD (4.3±0.5 mm versus 3.7±0.6 mm, but no difference in percent FMD. Systolic BP was significantly higher in football players at all measurements: resting (128.2±6.4 mmHg versus 122.4±6.8 mmHg, submaximal exercise (150.4±18.8 mmHg versus 137.3±9.5 mmHg, maximal exercise (211.3±25.9 mmHg versus 191.4±19.2 mmHg, and 24-hour BP (124.9±6.3 mmHg versus 109.8±3.7 mmHg. Football players also had higher fasting glucose (91.6±6.5 mg/dL versus 86.6±5.8 mg/dL, lower HDL (36.5±11.2 mg/dL versus 47.1±14.8 mg/dL, and higher body fat percentage (29.2±7.9% versus 23.2±7.0%. Division III collegiate football players remain an understudied population and may be at increased cardiovascular risk.

  2. Vascular Health in American Football Players: Cardiovascular Risk Increased in Division III Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feairheller, Deborah L.; Aichele, Kristin R.; Oakman, Joyann E.; Neal, Michael P.; Cromwell, Christina M.; Lenzo, Jessica M.; Perez, Avery N.; Bye, Naomi L.; Santaniello, Erica L.; Hill, Jessica A.; Evans, Rachel C.; Thiele, Karla A.; Chavis, Lauren N.; Getty, Allyson K.; Wisdo, Tia R.; McClelland, JoAnna M.; Sturgeon, Kathleen; Chlad, Pam

    2016-01-01

    Studies report that football players have high blood pressure (BP) and increased cardiovascular risk. There are over 70,000 NCAA football players and 450 Division III schools sponsor football programs, yet limited research exists on vascular health of athletes. This study aimed to compare vascular and cardiovascular health measures between football players and nonathlete controls. Twenty-three athletes and 19 nonathletes participated. Vascular health measures included flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Cardiovascular measures included clinic and 24 hr BP levels, body composition, VO2 max, and fasting glucose/cholesterol levels. Compared to controls, football players had a worse vascular and cardiovascular profile. Football players had thicker carotid artery IMT (0.49 ± 0.06 mm versus 0.46 ± 0.07 mm) and larger brachial artery diameter during FMD (4.3 ± 0.5 mm versus 3.7 ± 0.6 mm), but no difference in percent FMD. Systolic BP was significantly higher in football players at all measurements: resting (128.2 ± 6.4 mmHg versus 122.4 ± 6.8 mmHg), submaximal exercise (150.4 ± 18.8 mmHg versus 137.3 ± 9.5 mmHg), maximal exercise (211.3 ± 25.9 mmHg versus 191.4 ± 19.2 mmHg), and 24-hour BP (124.9 ± 6.3 mmHg versus 109.8 ± 3.7 mmHg). Football players also had higher fasting glucose (91.6 ± 6.5 mg/dL versus 86.6 ± 5.8 mg/dL), lower HDL (36.5 ± 11.2 mg/dL versus 47.1 ± 14.8 mg/dL), and higher body fat percentage (29.2 ± 7.9% versus 23.2 ± 7.0%). Division III collegiate football players remain an understudied population and may be at increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:26904291

  3. A prospective study of concussions among National Hockey League players during regular season games: the NHL-NHLPA Concussion Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Brian W; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Rizos, John; Kang, Jian; Burke, Charles J

    2011-05-17

    In 1997, the National Hockey League (NHL) and NHL Players' Association (NHLPA) launched a concussion program to improve the understanding of this injury. We explored initial postconcussion signs, symptoms, physical examination findings and time loss (i.e., time between the injury and medical clearance by the physician to return to competitive play), experienced by male professional ice-hockey players, and assessed the utility of initial postconcussion clinical manifestations in predicting time loss among hockey players. We conducted a prospective case series of concussions over seven NHL regular seasons (1997-2004) using an inclusive cohort of players. The primary outcome was concussion and the secondary outcome was time loss. NHL team physicians documented post-concussion clinical manifestations and recorded the date when a player was medically cleared to return to play. Team physicians reported 559 concussions during regular season games. The estimated incidence was 1.8 concussions per 1000 player-hours. The most common postconcussion symptom was headache (71%). On average, time loss (in days) increased 2.25 times (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41-3.62) for every subsequent (i.e., recurrent) concussion sustained during the study period. Controlling for age and position, significant predictors of time loss were postconcussion headache (p < 0.001), low energy or fatigue (p = 0.01), amnesia (p = 0.02) and abnormal neurologic examination (p = 0.01). Using a previously suggested time loss cut-point of 10 days, headache (odds ratio [OR] 2.17, 95% CI 1.33-3.54) and low energy or fatigue (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.04-2.85) were significant predictors of time loss of more than 10 days. Postconcussion headache, low energy or fatigue, amnesia and abnormal neurologic examination were significant predictors of time loss among professional hockey players.

  4. Energy Balance during Taekwondo Practice in Elite Male Taekwondo Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kang Ok; Garber, Carol Ewing; Lee, Sukho; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2013-03-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate energy expenditure and dietary intake of nutrients during Taekwondo practice in elite Korean male Taekwondo players. Elite Korean male high school (high school player: HP; n = 59) and college players (college player: CP; n = 58) wore an accelerometer to measure energy expenditure and recorded their daily dietary intake for nutritional analysis over the course of five days. Nutritional adequacy ratios for total energy (0.82), vitamin C (0.97), calcium (0.78), and folate (0.75) were below recommended levels for all players. When comparing daily nutrient intake and energy expenditure between HP and CP, the HP group had significantly higher total calorie intake (402.7 kcal, p Taekwondo practice, the total energy expenditure (151.2 kcal, p = 0.001), total activity counts (130,674 counts, p = 0.038) and energy expenditure during Taekwondo practice (257.7 kcal, p Taekwondo players.

  5. Prevalence and determinants of symptoms of common mental disorders in retired professional Rugby Union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Lambert, Mike

    2016-08-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD) (distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance, adverse nutrition behaviour, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking) among retired professional Rugby Union players. The secondary aim was to explore the associations between stressors (life events, Rugby Union career dissatisfaction) and the health conditions under study. Therefore, cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study of retired professional Rugby Union players. An electronic questionnaire was established using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of CMD and stressors. The electronic questionnaire was subsequently distributed to retired players by the national Rugby Union players' associations in France, Ireland and South Africa. Among 295 retired professional Rugby Union players (mean age of 38 years), prevalence rates were 25% for distress, 28% for anxiety/depression, 29% for sleeping disturbance, 62% for adverse nutrition behaviour, 15% for smoking and 24% for adverse alcohol behaviour. A higher number of life events were associated with distress (OR = 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.4), anxiety/depression (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1), sleeping disturbance (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1) and adverse nutrition behaviour (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.3-2.5). A higher level of dissatisfaction of the player's Rugby Union career was associated with distress (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.8-1.0), sleeping disturbance (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.9-1.0), smoking (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.9-1.0) and adverse nutrition behaviour (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.8-0.9). In conclusion, our study suggests that prevalence of symptoms of CMD is high among retired professional Rugby Union players, being associated with both a higher number of life events and a higher level of Rugby Union career dissatisfaction.

  6. Strength and Power Correlates of Throwing Velocity on Subelite Male Cricket Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeston, Jonathan L; Carter, Thomas; Whitaker, Gary; Nicholls, Owen; Rooney, Kieron B

    2016-06-01

    Throwing velocity is an important aspect of fielding in cricket to affect run-outs and reduce the opponent's run-scoring opportunities. Although a relationship between strength and/or power and throwing velocity has been well established in baseball, water polo, and European handball, it has not been adequately explored in cricket. Consequently, this study aimed to determine the relationship between measures of strength and/or power and throwing velocity in cricket players. Seventeen male cricket players (mean ± SD; age, 21.1 ± 1.6 years; height, 1.79 ± 0.06 m; weight, 79.8 ± 6.4 kg) from an elite athlete program were tested for maximal throwing velocity from the stretch position and after a 3-meter shuffle. They were also assessed for strength and power using a range of different measures. Throwing velocity from the stretch position (30.5 ± 2.4 m·s) was significantly related to dominant leg lateral-to-medial jump (LMJ) distance (r = 0.71; p MB Rot) throw velocity and medicine ball chest pass (MB CP) distance (r = 0.67; p MB Rot and MB CP explained 66% of the variance. The results were similar for velocity after a shuffle step (31.8 ± 2.1 m·s); however, VJ height reached statistical significance (r = 0.51; p ≤ 0.05). The multiple regression was also similar with MB Rot and MB CP explaining 70% of the variance. The cricketers in this study threw with greater velocity than elite junior and subelite senior cricketers but with lower velocities than elite senior cricketers and collegiate level and professional baseball players. This is the first study to demonstrate a link between strength and/or power and throwing velocity in cricket players and highlight the importance of power development as it relates to throwing velocity. Exercises that more closely simulated the speed (body weight jumps and medicine ball throws) or movement pattern (shoulder IR) of overhead throwing were greater predictors of throwing velocity. Strength and conditioning staff should

  7. Reliability of the Tuck Jump Injury Risk Screening Assessment in Elite Male Youth Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Paul J; Oliver, Jon L; de Ste Croix, Mark B A; Myer, Gregory D; Lloyd, Rhodri S

    2016-06-01

    Read, PJ, Oliver, JL, de Ste Croix, MBA, Myer, GD, and Lloyd, RS. Reliability of the tuck jump injury risk screening assessment in elite male youth soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1510-1516, 2016-Altered neuromuscular control has been suggested as a mechanism for injury in soccer players. Ligamentous injuries most often occur during dynamic movements, such as decelerations from jump-landing maneuvers where high-risk movement patterns are present. The assessment of kinematic variables during jump-landing tasks as part of a preparticipation screen is useful in the identification of injury risk. An example of a field-based screening tool is the repeated tuck jump assessment. The purpose of this study was to analyze the within-subject variation of the tuck jump screening assessment in elite male youth soccer players. Twenty-five pre-peak height velocity (PHV) and 25 post-PHV elite male youth soccer players from the academy of a professional English soccer club completed the assessment. A test-retest design was used to explore the within-subject intersession reliability. Technique was graded retrospectively against the 10-point criteria set out in the screening protocol using two-dimensional video cameras. The typical error range reported for tuck jump total score (0.90-1.01 in pre-PHV and post-PHV players respectively) was considered acceptable. When each criteria was analyzed individually, kappa coefficient determined that knee valgus was the only criterion to reach substantial agreement across the two test sessions for both groups. The results of this study suggest that although tuck jump total score may be reliably assessed in elite male youth soccer players, caution should be applied in solely interpreting the composite score due to the high within-subject variation in a number of the individual criteria. Knee valgus may be reliably used to screen elite youth male soccer players for this plyometric technique error and for test-retest comparison.

  8. Heart rate and activity profile for young female soccer players

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The physical and physiological demands of high-level male soccer have been studied extensively, while few studies have investigated the demands placed on females during match-play, however, there is no information available about the heart rate and activity profile of young female soccer players during match play. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine cardiovascular (heart-rates HR) and physical demands of young female soccer players during a match. Players were observed during a fr...

  9. Temperamental Predictive Factors for Success in Korean Professional Baseball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Kyoung Doo; Han, Doug Hyun; Hannon, James C.; Hall, Morgan S.; Choi, Jae Won

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this five-year cohort study, we hypothesize that factors of temperament and character in professional baseball players predict the speed of obtaining success and the quality of success as well as anxiety control. Methods Participants included 120 male rookie players from the Korea Baseball Organization (KBO) and 107 male non-players with no history of playing baseball. The personality/characters and state/trait anxieties of participants were assessed with the Temperament and Char...

  10. Nutritional Habits & Knowledge in the Division I Collegiate Football Player

    OpenAIRE

    Hale, Mallory

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Athlete’s nutritional habits and knowledge can directly affect their performance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the nutritional habits and knowledge of the Division I collegiate football player. Methods: The participants of this study are male Division I college football players at Utah State University. The athletes included 45 players ranging from 18-26 and include freshman through seniors. Results: Over eighty six percent of the athletes were unaware that a ...

  11. Understanding Positive Play: An Exploration of Playing Experiences and Responsible Gambling Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Richard T A; Griffiths, Mark D

    2015-12-01

    This study is one of the first to explore in detail the behaviors, attitudes and motivations of players that show no signs of at-risk or problem gambling behavior (so-called 'positive players'). Via an online survey, 1484 positive players were compared with 209 problem players identified using the Lie/Bet screen. The study identified two distinct groups of positive players defined according to their motivations to play and their engagement with responsible gambling (RG) practices. Those positive players that played most frequently employed the most personal RG strategies. Reasons that positive players gave for gambling were focused on leisure (e.g., playing for fun, being entertained, and/or winning a prize). By contrast, problem gamblers were much more focused upon modifying mood states (e.g., excitement, relaxation, depression and playing when bored or upset). The present study also suggests that online gambling is not, by default, inherently riskier than gambling in more traditional ways, as online gambling was the most popular media by which positive players gambled. Furthermore, most positive players reported that it was easier to stick to their limits when playing the National Lottery online compared to traditional retail purchasing of tickets. Problem players were significantly more likely than positive players to gamble with family and friends, suggesting that, contrary to a popular RG message, social play may not be inherently safer than gambling alone. It is proposed that players (generally) may identify more with the term 'positive play' than the term 'RG' which is frequently interpreted as being aimed at people with gambling problems, rather than all players.

  12. Climate Solutions Presentations on Science On a Sphere (SOS) and SOS Explorer achieve acceptance of Climate Science among Policymakers as well as the Public: US National Academy of Sciences Symposium/Open House Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievering, H.

    2015-12-01

    The outcomes of climate science are inherently rife with discussions of dire consequences for humans that leave many listeners feeling helpless and hopeless. We have found that a focus on clean energy solutions, without reference to dirty energy, substantially reduces (may even eliminate) the negativity associated with sea level rise, extreme weather and other climate change presentations. US audiences respond well to discussion of California's clean energy transformation with solar, wind, geothermal and water power together now approaching 25% of total energy supply for the world's sixth largest economy. For both policymakers and the general public, a "positive climate change" presentation does not generally suffice on its own. Clear visual display of climate science information is essential. We have found the Science On a Sphere (SOS) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration science education tool, to be exceptional in this regard. Further, broad dissemination is possible given the SOS network consists of over 120 sites in 23 countries. The new SOS Explorer system, an advanced science education tool, can readily utilize the over 500 available SOS data sets. We have recently developed an arctic amplification and mid-latitude climate change impacts program for the upcoming US National Academy of Sciences' Arctic Matters Symposium/Open House. This SOS and SOS Explorer education program will be described with emphasis on the climate solutions incorporated into this module targeted at US policymakers and invited open house public.

  13. Switching dynamics in an interpersonal competition brings about "deadlock" synchronization of players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akifumi Kijima

    Full Text Available In competitive sport game behavior, certain interpersonal patterns of movement coordination evolve even though each individual player only intends to exert their own strategy to win. To investigate this interpersonal pattern formation process, we asked pairs of naïve participants to engage in a play-tag game in which they had to remove a tag fastened to their partner's hip. Relative phase analysis of the players' step towards-away velocities indicated that anti-phase synchronization evolved across 10 repetitions of the game. We clarified evolution of this synchronization process using a dynamical model with an attractor (at relative π phase and a repeller (at 0 relative phase and discuss the self-organized nature of model and its ability to embody general solution for martial art interpersonal coordination.

  14. Switching dynamics in an interpersonal competition brings about "deadlock" synchronization of players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijima, Akifumi; Kadota, Koji; Yokoyama, Keiko; Okumura, Motoki; Suzuki, Hiroo; Schmidt, R C; Yamamoto, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    In competitive sport game behavior, certain interpersonal patterns of movement coordination evolve even though each individual player only intends to exert their own strategy to win. To investigate this interpersonal pattern formation process, we asked pairs of naïve participants to engage in a play-tag game in which they had to remove a tag fastened to their partner's hip. Relative phase analysis of the players' step towards-away velocities indicated that anti-phase synchronization evolved across 10 repetitions of the game. We clarified evolution of this synchronization process using a dynamical model with an attractor (at relative π phase) and a repeller (at 0 relative phase) and discuss the self-organized nature of model and its ability to embody general solution for martial art interpersonal coordination.

  15. Analysis of two-player quantum games in an EPR setting using Clifford's geometric algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, James M; Iqbal, Azhar; Abbott, Derek

    2012-01-01

    The framework for playing quantum games in an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) type setting is investigated using the mathematical formalism of geometric algebra (GA). The main advantage of this framework is that the players' strategy sets remain identical to the ones in the classical mixed-strategy version of the game, and hence the quantum game becomes a proper extension of the classical game, avoiding a criticism of other quantum game frameworks. We produce a general solution for two-player games, and as examples, we analyze the games of Prisoners' Dilemma and Stag Hunt in the EPR setting. The use of GA allows a quantum-mechanical analysis without the use of complex numbers or the Dirac Bra-ket notation, and hence is more accessible to the non-physicist.

  16. Analysis of two-player quantum games in an EPR setting using Clifford's geometric algebra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Chappell

    Full Text Available The framework for playing quantum games in an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR type setting is investigated using the mathematical formalism of geometric algebra (GA. The main advantage of this framework is that the players' strategy sets remain identical to the ones in the classical mixed-strategy version of the game, and hence the quantum game becomes a proper extension of the classical game, avoiding a criticism of other quantum game frameworks. We produce a general solution for two-player games, and as examples, we analyze the games of Prisoners' Dilemma and Stag Hunt in the EPR setting. The use of GA allows a quantum-mechanical analysis without the use of complex numbers or the Dirac Bra-ket notation, and hence is more accessible to the non-physicist.

  17. Towards Player Adaptivity in a Serious Game for Conflict Resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grappiolo, C.; Cheong, Yun-Gyung; Togelius, J.

    2011-01-01

    to resolve this type of conflict, the underlying system generates level content automatically which adapts to player experience and behaviour. Preliminary results demonstrate the efficiency of the procedural content generation mechanism in guiding the training of players towards targeted learning objectives.......We present a technology demonstrator for an adaptive serious game for teaching conflict resolution and discuss the research questions associated with the project. The prototype is a single-player 3D mini-game which simulates a resource management conflict scenario. In order to teach the player how...

  18. Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery in Female Professional Tennis Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Simon W.; Safran, Marc R.; Dakic, Jodie; Nguyen, Michael L.; Stroia, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Recent publications have highlighted the relatively poor outcome of other overhead athletes, particularly baseball players, with regard to return to sports at the same or higher level after shoulder surgery. However, true assessment of their ability when returning to sport is not as clear. Further, ability to return to other overhead sports has not been reported. Our objective was to assess outcome and time to return to previous level of function following shoulder surgery in professional tennis players. Methods: The records of all female tennis players on the Women’s Tennis Association (WTA) professional circuit between January 2008 and June 2010 were reviewed to identify players who underwent shoulder surgery on their dominant (serving) shoulder. Details of the surgery including date, procedures performed, and complications were recorded. The primary outcomes were ability and time to return to professional play, and if they were able to return to their previous level of function, as determined by singles ranking. Pre and post-operative singles rankings were used to determine rate and completeness of return to preoperative function. Their highest ranking pre-injury, post operatively, and the time to return to pre-injury ranking were evaluated. Results: During the study period eight professional women tennis players from the WTA underwent shoulder surgery on their dominant arm. All surgery was performed arthroscopically, 7 out of 8 players had more than one procedure performed during the surgery. In total, 3 players underwent debridement of a partial rotator cuff tear and 2 players underwent repair of a complete supraspinatus tear. Three players had an anterior labral repair or reconstruction for anterior instability, and one player underwent repair of a SLAP lesion. Two players underwent neurolysis of a suprascapular nerve, and three players in total underwent a subacromial decompression. All players (100%) returned to professional play. The mean

  19. Understanding the Mismatch Between Coaches' and Players' Perceptions of Exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Michel S; Kersten, Anna W; Frencken, Wouter G P

    2017-04-01

    A mismatch between the training exertion intended by a coach and the exertion perceived by players is well established in sports. However, it is unknown whether coaches can accurately observe exertion of individual players during training. Furthermore, the discrepancy in coaches' and players' perceptions has not been explained. To determine the relation between intended and observed training exertion by the coach and perceived training exertion by the players and establish whether on-field training characteristics, intermittent endurance capacity, and maturity status explain the mismatch. During 2 mesocycles of 4 wk (in November and March), rating of intended exertion (RIE), rating of observed exertion (ROE), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored in 31 elite young soccer players. External and internal training loads were objectively quantified with accelerometers (PlayerLoad) and heart-rate monitors (TRIMPmod). Results of an interval shuttle-run test (ISRT) and age at peak height velocity (APHV) were determined for all players. RIE, ROE, and RPE were monitored in 977 training sessions. The correlations between RIE and RPE (r = .58; P players will do and what they actually did on the field. When doing this, they consider the intermittent endurance capacity of individual players.

  20. Membongkar Veto Player dalam Politik Kepartaian Indonesia Menuju Pemilu 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Budi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article explains about how party elites, then identified as veto players, in Indonesia’s 2014 election organize themselve into party organization. The authority institutionalization of the veto player creates a decisional and positional quadrant of each party in terms of party politics of 2014 election. The findings of veto player pattern in such a party politics confirm forms of a centripetal force of politics in party organization. Finally, veto player behavior causes a spectrum of political cybernetics among political parties based on its turbulence, cohesiveness, and switching elites.

  1. Social exploration of 1D games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the apparently meaningless concept of a 1 dimensional computer game is explored, via netnography. A small number of games was designed and implemented, in close contact with online communities of players and developers, providing evidence that 1 dimension is enough to produce...... interesting gameplay, to allow for level design and even to leave room for artistic considerations on 1D rendering. General techniques to re-design classic 2D games into 1D are also emerging from this exploration....

  2. Concussion knowledge in high school football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournoyer, Janie; Tripp, Brady L

    2014-01-01

    Participating in sports while experiencing symptoms of a concussion can be dangerous. An athlete's lack of knowledge may be one factor influencing his or her decision to report symptoms. In an effort to enhance concussion education among high school athletes, legislation in Florida has attempted to address the issue through parental consent forms. To survey high school varsity football players to determine their level of knowledge about concussions after the initiation of new concussion-education legislation. Cross-sectional study. Descriptive survey administered in person during a team meeting. A total of 334 varsity football players from 11 high schools in Florida. Participants completed a survey and identified the symptoms and consequences of a concussion among distractors. They also indicated whether they had received education about concussions from a parent, formal education, neither, or both. The most correctly identified symptoms were headache (97%), dizziness (93%), and confusion (90%), and the most correctly identified consequence was persistent headache (93%). Participants reported receiving education from their parents (54%) or from a formal source (60%). Twenty-five percent reported never receiving any education regarding concussions. No correlations were found between the method of education and the knowledge of symptoms or consequences of concussion. The high school football players we surveyed did not have appropriate knowledge of the symptoms and consequences of concussions. Nausea or vomiting, neck pain, grogginess, difficulty concentrating, and personality or behavioral changes were often missed by participants, and only a small proportion correctly identified brain hemorrhage, coma, and death as possible consequences of inappropriate care after a concussion. Even with parents or guardians signing a consent form indicating they discussed concussion awareness with their child, 46% of athletes suggested they had not.

  3. Extortion subdues human players but is finally punished in the prisoner's dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbe, Christian; Röhl, Torsten; Milinski, Manfred

    2014-05-29

    Extortion is the practice of obtaining advantages through explicit forces and threats. Recently, it was demonstrated that even the repeated prisoner's dilemma, one of the key models to explain mutual cooperation, allows for implicit forms of extortion. According to the theory, extortioners demand and receive an excessive share of any surplus, which allows them to outperform any adapting co-player. To explore the performance of such strategies against humans, we have designed an economic experiment in which participants were matched either with an extortioner or with a generous co-player. Although extortioners succeeded against each of their human opponents, extortion resulted in lower payoffs than generosity. Human subjects showed a strong concern for fairness: they punished extortion by refusing to fully cooperate, thereby reducing their own, and even more so, the extortioner's gains. Thus, the prospects of extorting others in social relationships seem limited; in the long run, generosity is more profitable.

  4. An investigation of the relationships different protocols anaerobic performance tests determined in American football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender Eyuboğlu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false TR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships different protocols anaerobic performance tests in American football players. 27 American football players from a university team participated in this study voluntarily ( age: 23.07±3.45 yrs. For the determination of body composition, subjects height, body weight and skinfold thicknesses were taken and body fat percentage was determined by the Acikada   formula (1991. Wingate Anaerobic Power Test (WAnT, squat jump (SJ, counter movement jump (CMJ,  repeated-jump and 10-20-30 meter transition (speed times were used for the determination of anaerobic performance. Results of Pearson Product Moment correlation analysis, WAnT anaerobic power was significantly correlated with anaerobic capacity (r=.394; p

  5. Its okay to be a quad: wheelchair rugby players sense of community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Donna; Johnston, Keith; Gustafson, Paul; Elliott, Melanie; Thurmeier, Robin; Kuttai, Heather

    2009-04-01

    This study explored the social experience of wheelchair rugby from the perspective of the players. Eleven national level rugby players (10 males, 1 female with a mean age of 33 years) shared their experiences through the phenomenological methods of semistructured focus group interviews and artifacts. Three themes emerged from the thematic analysis (a) it's okay to be a quad, (b) don't tell us we can't, and (c) the power of wheelchair rugby. The athletes identified with a shared sense of community and the membership, fulfillment of need, influence, and shared emotional connections they used to authentically express themselves through their sport. The implications of the findings were interpreted within the theoretical context of psychological sense of community.

  6. Comparison of Shoulder Strength in Routinely Trained Badminton Players and Non-Badminton Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Zhen Feng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shoulder pain is a common reason for patients to seek medical help in any healthcare center. Shoulder pain is influenced by a few factors such as gender, posture during daily activities, aging and psychological factors. Based on the study of Epidemiology of Injuries and Prevention Strategies in Competitive Swimmers, shoulder pain due to shoulder injuries can be reduced by strengthening the shoulder muscle. Badminton has become one of the most popular sports in Asia, especially in Indonesia. This study was conducted to determine if badmintonis able to strengthen the shoulder muscle group. Methods: A cross-sectional analytic experimental study was conducted on September 2015 at Lodaya Badminton Training Center and Bale Padjadjaran of Universitas Padjadjaran. Subjects were 30 healthy male routinely trained badminton players and 30 non-badminton players who voluntarily follow the rstudy procedures. Strength measurement procedures were provided to the subjects after getting informed consent.  Data analysis was performed using T-test. Results: The shoulder strength  in routinely trained badminton players was significantly different from  non-badminton players (P<0.05. Conclusions: Shoulder strength can be improved through routine training of badminton to reduce risk of shoulder injury.   DOI: 10.15850/amj.v4n2.1083

  7. Probabilistic one-player Ramsey games via deterministic two-player games

    CERN Document Server

    Belfrage, Michael; Spöhel, Reto

    2009-01-01

    Consider the following probabilistic one-player game: The board is a graph with $n$ vertices, which initially contains no edges. In each step, a new edge is drawn uniformly at random from all non-edges and is presented to the player, henceforth called Painter. Painter must assign one of $r$ available colors to each edge immediately, where $r \\geq 2$ is a fixed integer. The game is over as soon as a monochromatic copy of some fixed graph $F$ has been created, and Painter's goal is to 'survive' for as many steps as possible before this happens. We present a new technique for deriving upper bounds on the threshold of this game, i.e., on the typical number of steps Painter will survive with an optimal strategy. More specifically, we consider a deterministic two-player variant of the game where the edges are not chosen randomly, but by a second player Builder. However, Builder has to adhere to the restriction that, for some real number $d$, the ratio of edges to vertices in all subgraphs of the evolving board neve...

  8. DIFFERENCES IN FUNCTIONAL AND MOTOR ABILITIES OFYOUNG FOOTBALL PLAYERS, BASKETBALL AND VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franja Fratrić

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research is to determine whether and what differences exist between the three groups of subjects (high-quality football, volleyball and basketball cadets and youth age, in the motoric and functional abilities, as well as to identify dif- ferences between subgroups within each sport. The sample consists of 61 volleyball, 31 basketball player and football player 31 (total n = 123 male, cadet and youth age are members of local clubs. Subjects were born between 01.01.1991 and 12.12.1994. The sample of variables are the values of 17 tests for the evaluation of functional and mobile status. The Motor-functional status on the basis of the results of secondary value of foot- ball, basketball and volleyball make a clear conclusion that the football players showed the best results in almost all the tests and that they had the smallest disbalance in the power of certain groups of muscles.The football players hve the highest homogeneity.

  9. Meniscal ossicle in a professional soccer player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogassawara, R; Zayni, R; Orhant, E; Noel, E; Fournier, Y; Hager, J-P; Chambat, P; Sonnery-Cottet, B

    2011-06-01

    Meniscal ossicles are an unusual finding and a rare cause for knee pain. They are often initially diagnosed as a loose body, chondrocalcinosis or meniscal calcification within the knee joint. Few cases have been reported in the literature. We present a case of a meniscal ossicle with an associated femoral cartilage lesion in a healthy 26-year-old male professional soccer player who presented with swelling and pain. The purpose of this article is to discuss the origins, radiological features, clinical symptoms and prognosis of meniscal ossicles.

  10. Payoff Shares in Two-Player Contests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Häfner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In imperfectly discriminating contests with symmetric valuations, equilibrium payoffs are positive shares of the value of the prize. In contrast to a bargaining situation, players’ shares sum to less than one because a residual share of the value is lost due to rent dissipation. In this paper, we consider contests with two players and investigate the relationship between these equilibrium shares and the parameters of a class of asymmetric Tullock contest success functions. Our main finding is that any players’ shares that sum up to less than one can arise as the unique outcome of a pure-strategy Nash equilibrium for appropriate parameters.

  11. Acing common skin problems in tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basler, R S; Garcia, M A

    1998-12-01

    The following measures can help prevent skin disorders in tennis players: wearing properly fitted shoes to avoid tennis toe, talon noir, and calluses; applying lubricants to protect against blisters and chafing; washing skin thoroughly to reduce the risk of acne mechanica; and wearing a hat and sunscreen to guard against photoinjury. 'Stringer's fingers' can be prevented by breaking the habit of adjusting the racket strings after each point. Should these disorders become troublesome, conservative treatments are usually effective. For example, calluses may be carefully pared, and pain from a subungual hemorrhage can be relieved by piercing the toenail with a hot paper clip.

  12. Predicting Player Churn In the Wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadiji, Fabian; Sifa, Rafet; Drachen, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    a crucial value, allowing developers to obtain data-driven insights to inform design, development and marketing strategies. One of the key challenges is modeling and predicting player churn. This paper presents the first cross-game study of churn prediction in Free-to-Play games. Churn in games is discussed...... with the individual retention model for each game in the dataset used, we develop a broadly applicable churn prediction model, which does not rely on gamedesign specific features. The presented classifiers are applied on a dataset covering five free-to-play games resulting in high accuracy churn prediction....

  13. Match analysis and player characteristics in rugby sevens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alex; Gill, Nicholas; Cronin, John

    2014-03-01

    Rugby sevens is a contact sport contested by two teams of seven players who compete over two 7-min halves, most frequently played in a tournament style. The IRB Sevens World Series is thought of as the preeminent rugby sevens competition in the world and has grown in competitiveness from its inception in 2000. The decision to include rugby sevens in the 2016 Olympics is likely to increase the global profile and participation in the game. Many rugby sevens players concurrently compete in 15-a-side rugby union as backs and loose forwards; however, a continued increase in the popularity of rugby sevens will likely see the emergence of the specialist rugby sevens player. Often thought of as the abbreviated version of rugby union, rugby sevens is played under nearly identical laws and on the same field dimensions as the 15-man code. However, research has shown the movement demands of rugby sevens and rugby union are dissimilar, with rugby sevens players spending a larger proportion of the game running at high intensity (≥ 5 m s(-1)). Given the dissimilarity in match demands in conjunction with differences in the competition structure between the codes, it appears the considerable depth of literature specific to performance in rugby union may be of little value for the preparation of rugby sevens players. Investigations of the physical characteristics of rugby sevens players show backs are lighter and shorter than forwards, while players across all positions possess a lean body composition. International rugby sevens players have similar speed characteristics to rugby union backs across distances of 10-30 m; however, rugby sevens players appear to have superior intermittent aerobic endurance. Despite being of likely importance, little is known of the strength and power characteristics of rugby sevens players. Research into the speed and aerobic endurance characteristics of rugby sevens players has not distinguished between backs and forwards and, as such, it is unclear

  14. Sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito E

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eri Ito, Jun Iwamoto, Koichiro Azuma, Hideo MatsumotoInstitute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: The purpose of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players. According to our database, during the 20-year period between October 1991 and June 2011, 1,219 basketball players (640 males and 579 females consulted our sports medicine clinic; in total, 1,414 injuries in basketball players (729 injuries in males and 685 injuries in females were recorded. The mean age of patients was 19.6 years. The most common injury site was the knee, followed by the foot and ankle, lower back, and upper extremities. There was a higher proportion of female players presenting with a knee injury, compared with male players (50.4% vs 41.7%, and a lower proportion of female players presenting with an upper extremity injury (5.1% vs 9.7%. The proportion of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the 10–19-year-old age group was higher among female players than among male players (45.9% vs 22.1%, while the proportions of Osgood–Schlatter disease in the 10–19-year-old age group and jumper's knee (patellar and femoral tendinopathy in the 20–29-year-old age group were higher among male players than among female players (12.5% vs 1.8% and 14.6% vs 3.7%, respectively. However, the proportions of other injuries did not differ significantly between male and female players. The present observational study, which was performed using a retrospective case-series design, showed the existence of sex-specific differences in knee injuries sustained while participating in basketball.Keywords: sports injury, sex, anterior cruciate ligament injury, Osgood–Schlatter disease, basketball

  15. Strength asymmetry of the shoulders in elite volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzic, Vedran; Sattler, Tine; Veselko, Matjaž; Markovic, Goran; Dervisevic, Edvin

    2014-01-01

    Volleyball players are reported to have shoulder strength imbalances. Previous authors have primarily investigated small samples of male players at a single skill level, without considering playing position, and with inconsistent findings. To evaluate shoulder strength asymmetry and a history of shoulder injury in a large sample of professional volleyball players of both sexes across different playing positions and skill levels. Descriptive laboratory study. A sample of 183 volleyball players (99 men, 84 women). We assessed shoulder internal-rotator and external-rotator concentric strength at 60°/s using an isokinetic dynamometer and dominant-nondominant differences in shoulder strength and strength ratios using repeated-measures analyses of variance. Peak torque was normalized for body mass and external-rotation/internal-rotation concentric strength. Internal-rotation strength was asymmetric in favor of the dominant side in both sexes, regardless of previous shoulder injury status. Male volleyball players had a lower shoulder strength ratio on the dominant side, regardless of previous shoulder injury status. However, this finding was valid only when hand dominance was taken into account. Female volleyball players playing at a higher level (ie, first versus second division) were 3.43 times more likely to have an abnormal strength ratio. Playing position was not associated with an abnormal shoulder strength ratio or strength asymmetry. In male volleyball players, the external-rotation/internal-rotation strength ratio of the dominant shoulder was lower, regardless of playing position, skill level, or a previous shoulder injury. In female players, the ratio was less only in those at a higher skill level. Although speculative, these findings generally suggest that female volleyball players could have a lower risk of developing shoulder-related problems than male volleyball players. Isokinetic shoulder testing may reveal important information about the possible risk

  16. Exploring the Quantum Speed Limit with Computer Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Jakob Winther Hedemann; Pedersen, Mads Kock; Munch, Michael Kulmback

    2016-01-01

    scientists and allowing them to provide novel solutions to the research problems. Citizen science games have been used successfully in Foldit, EteRNA and EyeWire to study protein and RNA folding and neuron mapping. However, gamification has never been applied in quantum physics. Everyday experiences of non......-experts are based on classical physics and it is \\textit{a priori} not clear that they should have an intuition for quantum dynamics. Does this premise hinder the use of citizen scientists in the realm of quantum mechanics? Here we report on Quantum Moves, an online platform gamifying optimization problems...... in quantum physics. Quantum Moves aims to use human players to find solutions to a class of problems associated with quantum computing. Players discover novel solution strategies which numerical optimizations fail to find. Guided by player strategies, a new low-dimensional heuristic optimization method...

  17. Scapula Kinematics of Youth Baseball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Gretchen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Literature has revealed the importance of quantifying resting scapular posture in overhead athletes as well as quantifying scapular kinematics during dynamic movement. Prior to this project much of the attention in throwing research had been focused on the position of the humerus without description of the positioning of the scapula. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to present scapular kinematics during pitching in youth baseball players. Twenty-five youth baseball players (age 11.3 + 1.0 years; body height 152.4 + 9.0 cm; body mass 47.5 + 11.3 kg, with no history of injury, participated in the study. Scapular kinematics at the events of maximum humeral external rotation (MER and maximum humeral internal rotation (MIR during the pitching motion were assessed three-dimensionally while pitching fastballs for strikes. Results revealed that at the event of MER, the scapula was in a position of retraction, upward rotation and a posterior tilt. While at the event of MIR, the scapula was protracted, upward rotated and tilted anteriorly.

  18. Scapula Kinematics of Youth Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Gretchen; Weimar, Wendi

    2015-12-22

    Literature has revealed the importance of quantifying resting scapular posture in overhead athletes as well as quantifying scapular kinematics during dynamic movement. Prior to this project much of the attention in throwing research had been focused on the position of the humerus without description of the positioning of the scapula. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to present scapular kinematics during pitching in youth baseball players. Twenty-five youth baseball players (age 11.3 + 1.0 years; body height 152.4 + 9.0 cm; body mass 47.5 + 11.3 kg), with no history of injury, participated in the study. Scapular kinematics at the events of maximum humeral external rotation (MER) and maximum humeral internal rotation (MIR) during the pitching motion were assessed three-dimensionally while pitching fastballs for strikes. Results revealed that at the event of MER, the scapula was in a position of retraction, upward rotation and a posterior tilt. While at the event of MIR, the scapula was protracted, upward rotated and tilted anteriorly.

  19. Sport commitment in adolescent soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Belando Pedreño

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to contribute to the postulates of the self-determination theory, the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation by Vallerand, and social goals. A structural regression model was estimated to analyze the relations between social goals (responsibility and relationships, praise for autonomous behavior, satisfaction of the basic psychological needs and intrinsic motivation in commitment to sport. A sample of 264 young Spanish soccer players aged between 14 and 16 (M =14.74, SD =.77 participated in the study. Structural Equation Modeling results showed that the social responsibility goal, the social relationship goal and praise for autonomous behavior predicted perceived competence. Furthermore, the relationship goal also predicted the need for relatedness. Satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for competence and relatedness predicted intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation positively predicted future commitment to sport. These results highlighted the importance of social goals, praise for autonomous behavior and psychological mediators in encouraging greater commitment in young soccer players. Future research should focus on the coach’s role in generating greater commitment to sport through the development of intervention methodologies based on social goals.

  20. Protective Equipment and Player Characteristics Associated With the Incidence of Sport-Related Concussion in High School Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuine, Timothy A.; Hetzel, Scott; McCrea, Michael; Brooks, M. Alison

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of sport-related concussion (SRC) in high school football is well documented. However, limited prospective data are available regarding how player characteristics and protective equipment affect the incidence of SRC. Purpose To determine whether the type of protective equipment (helmet and mouth guard) and player characteristics affect the incidence of SRC in high school football players. Design Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods Certified athletic trainers (ATs) at each high school recorded the type of helmet worn (brand, model, purchase year, and recondition status) by each player as well as information regarding players’ demographics, type of mouth guard used, and history of SRC. The ATs also recorded the incidence and days lost from participation for each SRC. Incidence of SRC was compared for various helmets, type of mouth guard, history of SRC, and player demographics. Results A total of 2081 players (grades 9–12) enrolled during the 2012 and/or 2013 football seasons (2287 player-seasons) and participated in 134,437 football (practice or competition) exposures. Of these players, 206 (9%) sustained a total of 211 SRCs (1.56/1000 exposures). There was no difference in the incidence of SRC (number of helmets, % SRC [95% CI]) for players wearing Riddell (1171, 9.1% [7.6%–11.0%]), Schutt (680, 8.7% [6.7%–11.1%]), or Xenith (436, 9.2% [6.7%–12.4%]) helmets. Helmet age and recondition status did not affect the incidence of SRC. The rate of SRC (hazard ratio [HR]) was higher in players who wore a custom mouth guard (HR = 1.69 [95% CI, 1.20–2.37], P football players. Players who had sustained an SRC within the previous 12 months were more likely to sustain an SRC than were players without a history of SRC. Sports medicine providers who work with high school football players need to realize that factors other than the type of protective equipment worn affect the risk of SRC in high school players. PMID:25060072

  1. Gender Differences in Coping among Elite Table Tennis Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirimoglu, Huseyin

    2011-01-01

    The current study aims to investigate the explanatory power of social support and coping in relation to a competitive sport event between male and female table tennis players. 246 university students table tennis players (120 men and 126 women) from different region and part of Turkey were invited to participate in a survey study included the…

  2. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierike, S.C. te; Jong, M.C. de; Tromp, E.J.; Vuijk, P.J.; Lemmink, K.A.; Malina, R.M.; Elferink-Gemser, M.T.; Visscher, C.

    2013-01-01

    Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated in a mixed-longitudinal sample of 48 elite basketball players 14 to 19 years of age (16.1±1.7 years). Players were observed on six occasions during the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons. Three basketball-specific field tests were administe

  3. Relative risk for concussions in young female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Sarah; Lechuga, David; Zachariah, Thomas; Beaulieu, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relative risk and reported symptoms of concussions in 11- to 13-year-old, female soccer players. For this, a survey to compare the reported incidence of concussion in age-matched female soccer players to nonsoccer players was performed. The survey included 342 girls between the ages of 11 and 13: 195 were involved in an organized soccer team and 147 were not involved in organized soccer but were allowed to participate in any other sport or activity. A total of 94 of the 195 soccer players, or 48%, reported at least one symptom consistent with a concussion. The most prevalent symptom for these girls was headache (84%). A total of 34 of the 147 nonsoccer players, or 23%, reported at least one symptom consistent with a concussion in the previous six months. These results determined that the relative risk of probable concussions among 11- to 13-year-old, female soccer players is 2.09 (p concussions in young female soccer players is significantly higher than in a control group of nonsoccer players of the same sex and age.

  4. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen A.P.M. Lemmink; S.C. te Wierike; E.J. Tromp; M.T. Elferink-Gemser; M.C. de Jong; R.M. Malina; P.J. Vuijk; C. Visscher

    2013-01-01

    Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated in a mixed-longitudinal sample of 48 elite basketball players 14 to 19 years of age (16.1±1.7 years). Players were observed on six occasions during the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons. Three basketball-specific field tests were

  5. [Muscular trunk stability in professional and amateur volleyball players].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltner, O; Siebert, C; Tschaepe, R; Maus, U; Kieffer, O

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the efficiency of muscular activity in the trunk stabilisation of professional volleyball players compared to a group of amateur hobby players. The results were compared amongst the groups as well as with a reference group consisting of asymptomatic individuals. The question to be answered was whether or not professional volleyball players possess a characteristic strength profile in their trunk musculature and if differences exist with regard to the individuals' competitive playing level. In this comparative study 12 professional volleyball players (German Bundesliga) and 18 non-professional volleyball players were analysed with regard to their isometric strength profile in all three planes. The reference group was provided by the Proxomed company, which had previously analysed healthy untrained individuals (n = 1045) of various age groups. A sports-specific profile for the musculature of volleyball players revealed a significant reduction in the flexion and rotation strength as well as a well-developed lateral flexion strength (highly significant when compared to the reference group). With reference to the level played, better strength values in flexion and lateral flexion were found among the professional athletes. Professional volleyball players present with a characteristic trunk musculature strength profile. A detailed analysis of the muscle strength of the spine as part of a sports medicine work-up could prove helpful in preventing injuries and overuse problems in professional and hobby volleyball players.

  6. Differences in energy capacities between tennis players and runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Dario; Vucetić, Vlatko; Zugaj, Sanja

    2013-05-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine differences between elite athletes and tennis players in order to provide a clearer picture regarding the energy demands in modern tennis. Forty-eight (48) athletes and 24 tennis players from Croatian national leagues were compared in morphological and physiological parameters of an all-out incremental treadmill test with gas exchange measurements. Tennis players' HRmax (192.96+/-7.75 bpm) shows values that are most different to 400-meters sprinters (200.13+/-6.95 bpm). Maximum running speed of tennis players on the treadmill (vmax) is no different with the speed achieved by sprinters, while there are significant differences among other athletes. Values in running speed at anaerobic threshold (vAnT) show no statistically significant difference with the values for athlete sprinters and 400-m sprinters. Values of RvO2max for tennis players indicate significant similarities with athlete sprinters and 400-m sprinters while the values of RvO2AnT are nearly identical with the values for sprinters and show no statistically significant differences (ptennis players approximate most different those of the middle and long distance runners. This singles out the possible importance of the anaerobic capacity and the high level of sprint endurance in tennis players. Knowing these characteristics is the basis for planning and implementing training systems that will enable the increase and optimal usage of energy capacities of tennis players in possibly improving sports results.

  7. Translucent Players: Explaining Cooperative Behavior in Social Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Capraro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, numerous experiments have shown that humans do not always behave so as to maximize their material payoff. Cooperative behavior when non-cooperation is a dominant strategy (with respect to the material payoffs is particularly puzzling. Here we propose a novel approach to explain cooperation, assuming what Halpern and Pass call translucent players. Typically, players are assumed to be opaque, in the sense that a deviation by one player in a normal-form game does not affect the strategies used by other players. But a player may believe that if he switches from one strategy to another, the fact that he chooses to switch may be visible to the other players. For example, if he chooses to defect in Prisoner's Dilemma, the other player may sense his guilt. We show that by assuming translucent players, we can recover many of the regularities observed in human behavior in well-studied games such as Prisoner's Dilemma, Traveler's Dilemma, Bertrand Competition, and the Public Goods game.

  8. Labor Market Structure and Salary Determination among Professional Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Michael

    1988-01-01

    The author investigates the labor market structure and determinants of salaries for professional basketball players. An expanded version of the resource perspective is used. A three-tiered model of labor market segmentation is revealed for professional basketball players, but other variables also are important in salary determination. (Author/CH)

  9. The Mental Skills Training of University Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Hassan; Omar-Fauzee, Mohd-Sofian; Jamalis, Marjohan; Ab-Latif, Rozita; Cheric, Majid Chahrdah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the kind of mental skills training needed most by the university soccer players. Eight male university football players (aged 25 to 36) from one large university in Kuala Lumpur agreed to participate in this study. On average, they have 10 years of playing experience. All of them have signed the informed…

  10. Differences in Soccer Kick Kinematics between Blind Players and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Katis, Athanasios; Kellis, Eleftherios; Natsikas, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the kinematic differences during instep soccer kicks between players who were blind and sighted controls. Eleven male soccer players who were blind and nine male sighted performed instep kicks under static and dynamic conditions. The results indicated significantly higher (p less than 0.05) ball…

  11. Playing time between senior rugby players of different ethnic groups ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discovery High Performance Centre, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, and MRC/UCT Research Unit for Exercise ... nutritional advice, life skills and technical rugby coaching. The ... Players were given feedback on their performance in each of the 3 ..... the skill acquisition that is required by a high-level adult player.

  12. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen A.P.M. Lemmink; S.C. te Wierike; E.J. Tromp; M.T. Elferink-Gemser; M.C. de Jong; R.M. Malina; P.J. Vuijk; C. Visscher

    2013-01-01

    Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated in a mixed-longitudinal sample of 48 elite basketball players 14 to 19 years of age (16.1±1.7 years). Players were observed on six occasions during the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons. Three basketball-specific field tests were administe

  13. Analysis of motor activities of professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejewski, Marcin; Chmura, Jan; Pluta, Beata; Kasprzak, Andrzej

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the distance covered by professional soccer players during matches with the use of the computerized match analysis system Amisco Pro® (version 1.0.2, Nice, France). Kinematic examination included the specification of the distance covered by 31 players participating in 4 matches in the Union of European Football Association Cup competitions during the 2008-2009 season. Data were analyzed based on players' positions on the pitch, changes in the players' motor activity intensity level, and match period (first or second half). The results of statistical analysis revealed that the average total distance covered by all players (n = 31) was 11,288 ± 734 m. With respect to the player's position on the pitch, the midfielders traveled the longest average distance (11,770 ± 554 m) during the game. This was 3% longer than the distance achieved by the attackers at 11,377 ± 584 m, and 7% longer than that achieved by the defenders 10,932 ± 728 m. The analysis of physical loads on soccer players during a match is highly useful for training individualization. It provides a tool for effective planning and for recording the loads on players, which is an indispensable element of modern coaching.

  14. Neuropsychological consequence of soccer play in adolescent U.K. School team soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Richard; Rutherford, Andrew; Potter, Douglas; Fernie, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    To assess mild head injury effects in adolescent soccer players, neuropsychological performance across school team soccer players, rugby players and noncontact sport players was assessed in a quasi-experimental cross-sectional design. One hundred eighty-five males were tested (ages 13-16; response rate 55%) and 86 contributed data to the analyses after exclusion for recent concussion and overlapping sports participation. Soccer players showed lower premorbid intellectual functioning, but neither soccer players nor rugby players showed neuropsychological decrement compared with noncontact sport players. Cumulative heading did not predict neuropsychological performance. While no specific attribute of soccer was linked with neuropsychological impairment, head injury predicted reduced attention for all participants.

  15. Evaluating the heading in professional soccer players by playing positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkmen, Nurtekin

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy and coordination of heading in professional soccer players of different positions. A total of 243 professional soccer players were examined for the study. The Federation Internationale de Football Association Medical Assessment and Research Center (F-MARC) test battery was used to evaluate heading in soccer players. In the heading of the ball thrown from middle of the goal, forwards were better than goalkeepers (p heading of the ball thrown from the right side of the goalpost, defenders were better than goalkeepers (p heading of goalkeepers being worse than the others; goalkeepers use their hands in both training and matches, whereas for forwards and defensive players being better than goalkeepers depends mainly on their positions in soccer. Trainers and coaches should give place specific training programs to improve heading ability in the training schedule of soccer players at a professional level.

  16. Shoulder injuries in rugby players: mechanisms, examination, and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Kevin; Stoneman, Paul

    2014-11-01

    The sport of rugby is growing in popularity for players at the high school and collegiate levels. This article will provided the sports therapist with an introduction to the management of shoulder injuries in rugby players. Rugby matches results in frequent impacts and leveraging forces to the shoulder region during the tackling, scrums, rucks and maul components of the game. Rugby players frequently sustain contusion and impact injuries to the shoulder region, including injuries to the sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular (AC), and glenohumeral (GH) joints. Players assessed during practices and matches should be screened for signs of fracture, cervical spine and brachial plexus injuries. A three phase program will be proposed to rehabilitate players with shoulder instabilities using rugby specific stabilization, proprioception, and strengthening exercises. A plan for return to play will be addressed including position-specific activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A retrospective study on anthropometrical, physical fitness and motor coordination characteristics that influence drop out, contract status and first-team playing time in high-level soccer players, aged 8 to 18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprez, Dieter; Fransen, Job; Lenoir, Matthieu; Philippaerts, Renaat M; Vaeyens, Roel

    2014-12-02

    The goal of this manuscript was twofold and a two-study approach was conducted. The first study aimed to expose the anthropometrical, physical performance and motor coordination characteristics that influence drop out from a high-level soccer training program in players aged 8-16 years. The mixed-longitudinal sample included 388 Belgian youth soccer players who were assigned to either a 'club group' or a 'drop out group'. In the second study, cross-sectional data of anthropometry, physical performance and motor coordination were retrospectively explored to investigate which characteristics influence future contract status (contract vs. no contract group) and first-team playing time for 72 high-level youth soccer players (mean age=16.2 y).Generally, club players outperformed their drop out peers for motor coordination, soccer-specific aerobic endurance and speed. Anthropometry and estimated maturity status did not discriminate between club and drop out players. Contract players jumped further (p=0.011) and had faster times for a 5m sprint (p=0.041) than no contract players. The following prediction equation explains 16.7% of the variance in future playing minutes in adolescent youth male soccer players: -2869.3 + 14.6 * standing broad jump.Practitioners should include the evaluation of motor coordination, aerobic endurance and speed performances to distinguish high-level soccer players further succeeding a talent development program and future drop out players, between 8 and 16 years. From the age of 16 years, measures of explosivity are supportive when selecting players into a future professional soccer career.

  18. 跆拳道运动员赛前强化期训练负荷监控的生化特点及机能评定探究%The Exploration of Biochemical Characteristics and Function Evaluation on Load Monitoring of Pre-competition Strengthened Training for Kickboxing Players

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郏孙勇

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand the change rules of body functions for kickboxing players on pre-competition training, we tested some physiological, biochemical index for kickboxing players, such as red blood cells, hemoglobin, red blood cells deposited, blood creatine kinase, and blood urea, serum testosterone and cortisolfor etc. for a period of 1 2 months intensive training in preparing the big competition. The results show: If parts of the athletes' function index present the change varies with athletic intensity in pre-competition, the strengthened training load will reach the requirement of " adaptation-strengthen adjustment-combat". When it represents consolidate small cycles, athletes" physiological, biochemical function index and adjustment and strengthened small cycle present significant growth (P 0. 05). Adjust to good state 2 weeks or 1 week before match. Because the accumulation of the training effect in athletes" body function, they remains in a temporary fatigue, which is good for the body to produce more training adaptation and recovery and to lay body foundation for the fierce competition.%为了解跆拳道运动员赛前训练中身体机能的变化规律,对跆拳道运动员备战大型运动会大周期中1~2月强化训练期内红细胞、血红蛋白、红细胞压积、血肌酸激酶、血尿素、血清睾酮和皮质醇等生理、生化指标进行测试,并对其进行分析。结果表明:大赛前运动员的部分机能指标随运动强度呈现不同的阶段变化,强化期训练负荷达到“适应-强化调整-临战”的要求;表现为巩固性小周期时,运动员生理、生化机能指标与调整和强化性小周期呈现显著性增长(P〈0.05);赛前2周或1周基本调整至较好状态,运动员身体机能由于训练效果的累积,处于暂时疲劳状态,有利于机体产生更大的训练适应与恢复,为激烈的比赛奠定身体机能基础。

  19. Health Care for NFL Players: Upholding Physician Standards and Enhancing the Doctor-Patient Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvernay-Tardif, Laurent

    2016-11-01

    Beginning my third year with the Kansas City Chiefs and being also a medical student at McGill University, I was at first a little reluctant to comment on Glenn Cohen et al.'s critique of the National Football League's structure involving player health and team doctors, but the opportunity to provide a perspective as both a football player and a medical student was too much to forgo. Because of my athletic and academic background, I am often asked what I think about injuries in professional sports and about the role of sports medicine physicians, and Cohen et al.'s article demands a thoughtful reaction. I want to suggest that the fundamental principles concerning the medical profession and the doctor-patient relationship provide additional arguments for some of the solutions that Cohen et al. discuss. The professional self-regulation that the proposed medical committee could provide and the reliance on a doctor who was not hired by the player's employer-the club-for a second opinion are both good ways to minimize conflicts of interest. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  20. A Method for Using Player Tracking Data in Basketball to Learn Player Skills and Predict Team Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Skinner

    Full Text Available Player tracking data represents a revolutionary new data source for basketball analysis, in which essentially every aspect of a player's performance is tracked and can be analyzed numerically. We suggest a way by which this data set, when coupled with a network-style model of the offense that relates players' skills to the team's success at running different plays, can be used to automatically learn players' skills and predict the performance of untested 5-man lineups in a way that accounts for the interaction between players' respective skill sets. After developing a general analysis procedure, we present as an example a specific implementation of our method using a simplified network model. While player tracking data is not yet available in the public domain, we evaluate our model using simulated data and show that player skills can be accurately inferred by a simple statistical inference scheme. Finally, we use the model to analyze games from the 2011 playoff series between the Memphis Grizzlies and the Oklahoma City Thunder and we show that, even with a very limited data set, the model can consistently describe a player's interactions with a given lineup based only on his performance with a different lineup.

  1. A prospective study of concussions among National Hockey League players during regular season games: the NHL-NHLPA Concussion Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Brian W.; Meeuwisse, Willem H.; Rizos, John; Kang, Jian; Burke, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Background In 1997, the National Hockey League (NHL) and NHL Players’ Association (NHLPA) launched a concussion program to improve the understanding of this injury. We explored initial postconcussion signs, symptoms, physical examination findings and time loss (i.e., time between the injury and medical clearance by the physician to return to competitive play), experienced by male professional ice-hockey players, and assessed the utility of initial postconcussion clinical manifestations in predicting time loss among hockey players. Methods We conducted a prospective case series of concussions over seven NHL regular seasons (1997–2004) using an inclusive cohort of players. The primary outcome was concussion and the secondary outcome was time loss. NHL team physicians documented post-concussion clinical manifestations and recorded the date when a player was medically cleared to return to play. Results Team physicians reported 559 concussions during regular season games. The estimated incidence was 1.8 concussions per 1000 player-hours. The most common postconcussion symptom was headache (71%). On average, time loss (in days) increased 2.25 times (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41–3.62) for every subsequent (i.e., recurrent) concussion sustained during the study period. Controlling for age and position, significant predictors of time loss were postconcussion headache (p < 0.001), low energy or fatigue (p = 0.01), amnesia (p = 0.02) and abnormal neurologic examination (p = 0.01). Using a previously suggested time loss cut-point of 10 days, headache (odds ratio [OR] 2.17, 95% CI 1.33–3.54) and low energy or fatigue (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.04–2.85) were significant predictors of time loss of more than 10 days. Interpretation Postconcussion headache, low energy or fatigue, amnesia and abnormal neurologic examination were significant predictors of time loss among professional hockey players. PMID:21502355

  2. Impact of specific training and competition on myocardial structure and function in different age ranges of male handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrebi, Brahim; Tkatchuk, Vladimir; Hlila, Nawel; Mouelhi, Emna; Belhani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Handball activity involves cardiac changes and demands a mixture of both eccentric and concentric remodeling within the heart. This study seeks to explore heart performance and cardiac remodeling likely to define cardiac parameters which influence specific performance in male handball players across different age ranges. Forty three players, with a regular training and competitive background in handball separated into three groups aged on average 11.78 ± 0.41 for youth players aka "schools", "elite juniors" 15.99 ± 0.81 and "elite adults" 24.46 ± 2.63 years, underwent echocardiography and ECG examinations. Incremental ergocycle and specific field (SFT) tests have also been conducted. With age and regular training and competition, myocardial remodeling in different age ranges exhibit significant differences in dilatation's parameters between "schools" and "juniors" players, such as the end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) and the end-systolic diameter of the left ventricle (LVESD), the root of aorta (Ao) and left atrial (LA), while significant increase is observed between "juniors" and "adults" players in the interventricular septum (IVS), the posterior wall thicknesses (PWT) and LV mass index. ECG changes are also noted but NS differences were observed in studied parameters. For incremental maximal test, players demonstrate a significant increase in duration and total work between "schools" and "juniors" and, in total work only, between "juniors" and "seniors". The SFT shows improvement in performance which ranged between 26.17 ± 1.83 sec to 31.23 ± 2.34 sec respectively from "seniors" to "schools". The cross-sectional approach used to compare groups with prior hypothesis that there would be differences in exercise performance and cardiac parameters depending on duration of prior handball practice, leads to point out the early cardiac remodeling within the heart as adaptive change. Prevalence of cardiac chamber dilation with less hypertrophy remodeling was found

  3. Bone Mineral Density of Adolescent Female Tennis Players and Nontennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevser Ermin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine differences in bone mineral density (BMD among adolescent female tennis players (TPs and nontennis players (NTPs and to assess body composition as a predictor variable of BMD. Nineteen female TPs and 19 female NTPs, ages 14 to 18 years, participated in this study. Lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, forearms BMD, and body composition were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Lumbar spine and total hip BMD measurements for TP were greater than NTP. However, these differences were not statistically significant (=0.37 and 0.12, resp.. TP had significantly greater femoral neck BMD than NTPs (=0.02. This difference might play an important role in preventing osteoporosis and decreasing the risk of fractures at the hip later in life.

  4. Determinants of the half-turn with the ball in sub-elite youth soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Matteo; Codari, Marina; Grilli, Massimo; Bellistri, Giuseppe; Lovecchio, Nicola; Sforza, Chiarella

    2016-06-01

    We explored the biomechanics of the 180° change-of-direction with the ball (half-turn) in soccer. We aimed at identifying movement strategies which enhance the players' half-turning performance, by characterising technique kinematics and understanding the structure of biomechanical and anthropometrics variables. Ten Under-13 sub-elite male players were recorded with an optoelectronic motion analyser while performing a 5-m straight dribbling followed by a half-turn with the sole. Joints kinematics differences between faster and slower trials were found in support-side hip rotation, driving-side hip adduction, trunk flexion and rotation, and arms abduction. To unveil the data-set structure, a principal component (PC) analysis and a stepwise linear discriminant analysis were performed using 30 biomechanical parameters and four anthropometric variables for each trial. Seven retained PCs explained 79% of the overall variability, featuring combinations of original variables that help in understanding the factors facilitating fast half-turns: keeping short steps, minimising lateral and forward body movements, and centre-of-mass lowering, even with ample lower limbs ranges of motion (RoM); abducting the upper limbs while limiting trunk flexion and pelvic inclination RoM. Balance and task-constrained exercises may be proposed to improve this technique. Moreover, a quantitative knowledge of the movement structure could give coaches objective insights to better instruct young players.

  5. The influence of physical and cognitive factors on reactive agility performance in men basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Aaron; Humphries, Brendan; Tucker, Patrick S; Dalbo, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the influence of physical and cognitive measures on reactive agility performance in basketball players. Twelve men basketball players performed multiple sprint, Change of Direction Speed Test, and Reactive Agility Test trials. Pearson's correlation analyses were used to determine relationships between the predictor variables (stature, mass, body composition, 5-m, 10-m and 20-m sprint times, peak speed, closed-skill agility time, response time and decision-making time) and reactive agility time (response variable). Simple and stepwise regression analyses determined the individual influence of each predictor variable and the best predictor model for reactive agility time. Morphological (r = -0.45 to 0.19), sprint (r = -0.40 to 0.41) and change-of-direction speed measures (r = 0.43) had small to moderate correlations with reactive agility time. Response time (r = 0.76, P = 0.004) and decision-making time (r = 0.58, P = 0.049) had large to very large relationships with reactive agility time. Response time was identified as the sole predictor variable for reactive agility time in the stepwise model (R(2) = 0.58, P = 0.004). In conclusion, cognitive measures had the greatest influence on reactive agility performance in men basketball players. These findings suggest reaction and decision-making drills should be incorporated in basketball training programmes.

  6. Peptide glutamine supplementation for tolerance of intermittent exercise in soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Favano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether supplementation of carbohydrate together with peptide glutamine would increase exercise tolerance in soccer players. METHODS: Nine male soccer players (mean age: 18.4 ± 1.1 years; body mass: 69.2 ± 4.6 kg; height: 175.5 ± 7.3 cm; and maximum oxygen consumption of 57.7 ± 4.8 ml.kg-1.min-1 were evaluated. All of them underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test and followed a protocol that simulated the movements of a soccer game in order to evaluate their tolerance to intermittent exercise. By means of a draw, either carbohydrate with peptide glutamine (CARBOGLUT: 50g of maltodextrin + 3.5g of peptide glutamine in 250 ml of water or carbohydrate alone (CARBO: 50g of maltodextrin in 250 ml of water was administered in order to investigate the enhancement of the soccer players' performances. The solution was given thirty minutes before beginning the test, which was performed twice with a one-week interval between tests. RESULTS: A great improvement in the time and distance covered was observed when the athletes consumed the CARBOGLUT mixture. Total distance covered was 12750 ± 4037m when using CARBO, and 15571 ± 4184m when using CARBOGLUT (p<0.01; total duration of tolerance was 73 ± 23 min when using CARBO and 88 ± 24 min when using CARBOGLUT (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: The CARBOGLUT mixture was more efficient in increasing the distance covered and the length of time for which intermittent exercise was tolerated. CARBOGLUT also reduced feelings of fatigue in the players compared with the use of the CARBO mixture alone.

  7. Sympathetic enhancement in futsal players but not in football players after repeated sprint ability test

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yung-Sheng; Liao, Chih-Jung; Lu, Wan-An; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2015-01-01

    Background Heart rate variability (HRV) can disclose the specific adaptation of sympathovagal modulation to exercise. This study investigated the change in HRV measures after anaerobic and aerobic intermittent exercises in university football and futsal players. Method 36 male university students with physically active lifestyle (n=14), football (n=12), and futsal (n=10) participated in this study. The participants completed the repeated sprint ability (RSA) test and Yo-Yo (YY) intermittent r...

  8. The Use of Player-centered Positive Reinforcement to Schedule In-game Rewards Increases Enjoyment and Performance in a Serious Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniket Nagle

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Among the methods used to increase enjoyment and performance in serious games, reward schedules, i.e., determining when in-game rewards should be given, have not been sufficiently explored. In the present study, we designed a simple memory training serious game and compared two methods of scheduling rewards, both based on the paradigm of positive reinforcement: fixed ratio schedule, in which rewards were given after a fixed number of correct responses, and variable ratio schedule, in which rewards were given after an unpredictable number of correct responses. To account for the variability in player preference for rewards, a player-centered sub-mode was included in both schedules by adjusting the schedule ratio according to player preference for rewards. The effectiveness of this approach was tested by comparing it against two more sub-modes: one which used a predetermined ratio, and another which set the ratio to the opposite of player preference. The game was put online and tested with 210 participants. Enjoyment, performance, duration of gameplay, and likelihood to play again were significantly higher in the player-centered sub-mode than the other sub-modes. On average, the variable-ratio schedule was better in the outcome measures than the fixed-ratio schedule. The results highlight the importance of in-game rewards, and indicate that giving rewards according to a player-centered variable-ratio schedule has the potential to make serious games more effective.

  9. Coach/player relationships in tennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapavessis, H; Gordon, S

    1991-09-01

    The present study examined the variables that predict coach/athlete compatibility. Compatibility among a sample of 52 elite tennis coach/player dyads was assessed using a sport adapted version of Schutz's (1966) Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behaviour (FIRO-B), a sport adapted version of Fiedler's (1967) Least Preferred Co-worker scale (LPC), and Chelladurai and Saleh's (1980) Leadership Scale for Sport (LSS). Self-ratings of the quality of the interaction were obtained from both coach and athlete. Multiple-regression analyses using self-rating scores as the dependent measure were carried out to determine which variables best predicted the degree of compatibility. The sole inventory that significantly predicted compatibility was the LSS. More specifically, the discrepancy between the athlete's preferences and perceptions on the autocratic dimension was the best predictor. Implications for tennis coaches and recommendations for future research in this area are discussed.

  10. Gamification in Fostering Creativity: Player Type Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Kalinauskas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to analyze gamification, as the method for promoting creativity in individual and collective levels with the respect to player types.Design/methodology/approach – This research serves as a general review/viewpoint which seeks to examine collective creativity as a phenomenon and gamification as the tool for promoting individual and collective creativity. The paper is based on the comparative analysis of scientific literature and related sources from game design, psychology, business and entertainment.Findings – Although the gamification is gaining more public attention, there is a lack of studies which would reveal its relations in fostering individual and collective creativity. One of the main goals of any gamified content is to raise the engagement into activities in non-game contexts. The objective of creative work is to come up with some ideas, methods or tools which would be significantly new and innovative in the case of a certain issue. The theory of “flow” is used widely in explaining the working principles of gamification. In this state, the information absorption rates are increased and the group or individual is immersed into performed activities. This may lead to prolonged periods while accumulating knowledge, and thus, improving creative capabilities in the specific domain. However, creative performance in different fields has various approaches. It is also related to personal characteristics. The success of gamification is also dependent on the types of “players” which participate in the activity. Having the common picture of personality type in creative performance and in game based tasks may allow creating gamification strategy for optimal engagement into creative work according to the features of a person.Research limitations/implications – There are very few empirical studies which would support correlation between experiencing the “flow” state and a raise of creativity. The idea of unified

  11. Cellular Players in Skeletal Muscle Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cristina Ceafalan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle, a tissue endowed with remarkable endogenous regeneration potential, is still under focused experimental investigation mainly due to treatment potential for muscle trauma and muscular dystrophies. Resident satellite cells with stem cell features were enthusiastically described quite a long time ago, but activation of these cells is not yet controlled by any medical interventions. However, after thorough reports of their existence, survival, activation, and differentiation there are still many questions to be answered regarding the intimate mechanism of tissue regeneration. This review delivers an up-to-date inventory of the main known key players in skeletal muscle repair, revealed by various models of tissue injuries in mechanical trauma, toxic lesions, and muscular dystrophy. A better understanding of the spatial and temporal relationships between various cell populations, with different physical or paracrine interactions and phenotype changes induced by local or systemic signalling, might lead to a more efficient approach for future therapies.

  12. Morphological classification of novice female volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José António Ribeiro Maia

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of physique have been the subject of several studies in sport sciences because high-level competitive sports place maximum demands on the physical constitution of players. Furthermore, the specifi c function performed by a player in a game may be related to a particular modality. The goals of this study were: (1 to describe and to compare, from a somatic point of view, the physiques of 71 female volleyball players at beginner levels A and B (aged 12-14 years; and (2 to identify the components of somatic structure that best differentiate the athletics by level of experience. In order to evaluate the players’ somatic structure,we performed 21 measurements including: weight and height, diameters, circumferences, upper and lower limb measurements and skinfolds thicknesses. Discriminant function analysis (DFA was used to identify the power of variables classifi cation. No difference was found in physique between level A and level B players. They were classifi ed by somatotype as mesomorphic endomorphs (A = 4.76 - 3.78 - 1.85; and B = 4.37 - 4.02 - 1.88. RESUMO As características morfológicas têm sido objeto de vários estudos em Ciências Desporto, pelo fato de o fenômeno do desporto de alta competição exigir o máximo da estrutura física dos atletas e pela expectativa da função que o atleta desempenha em jogo. O presente estudo teve como objetivo: (1 descrever e comparar, do ponto de vista somático, a estrutura morfológica de 71 atletas de voleibol do sexo feminino dos escalões de formação A e B (entre os 12 e 14 anos de idade; (2 identifi car os componentes da estrutura somática que melhor diferenciam as atletas de níveis distintos. Para a avaliação da estrutura somática das atletas foram efetuadas 21 avaliações, incluindo além do peso e altura, comprimento dos membros, perímetros, diâmetros e pregas de adiposidade subcutâneas. Com o intuito de verifi car o poder discriminatório das variáveis na

  13. Stem Cells and Neuroprotection: Understanding the Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Pearce

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of neuroprotective therapies begs the question of how such therapies could affect preexisting stem cell populations within the host, as well as those introduced through cell-replacement therapy. Multiple mechanisms may mediate stem cell responses to neuroprotectants such as host/donor age and gender, cellular lineage/differentiation status, and mitochondrial dynamics. Current therapeutic sources for stem cells are embryonic, somatic, or induced pluripotent, with very little known about the effects of gender, age, cell type, and mitochondrial dynamics. With the advent of therapies to stimulate and recruit endogenous stem cells or transplant donor cells into damage areas in the hopes of recuperative regeneration of lost neurons, it is important to discuss mechanisms that dictate the winning players in the neuroprotection game. This review will focus on our current understanding of the characteristics of renewing stem cells that may affect neuroprotection.

  14. Myeloid dendritic cells are potential players in human neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eBossù

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s (AD and Parkinson’s (PD diseases are devastating neurodegenerative disturbances wherein neuroinflammation is a chronic pathogenic process with high therapeutic potential. Major mediators of AD/PD neuroimmune processes are resident immune cells, but immune cells derived from periphery may also participate and to some extent modify neuroinflammation. Specifically, blood borne myeloid cells emerge as crucial components of AD/PD progression and susceptibility. Among these, dendritic cells (DCs are key immune orchestrators and players of brain immune surveillance: we candidate them as potential mediators of both AD and PD and as relevant cell model for unraveling myeloid cell role in neurodegeneration. Hence, we recapitulate and discuss emerging data suggesting that blood-derived DCs play a role in experimental and human neurodegenerative diseases. In humans, in particular, DCs are modified by in vitro culture with neurodegeneration-associated pathogenic factors and dysregulated in AD patients, while the levels of DC precursors are decreased in AD and PD patients’ blood, possibly as an index of their recruitment to the brain. Overall, we emphasize the need to explore the impact of DCs on neurodegeneration to uncover peripheral immune mechanisms of pathogenic importance, recognize potential biomarkers and improve therapeutic approaches for neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. University Football Players, Postural Stability, and Concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Barbara Sue

    2016-02-01

    Concussion in football athletes is certainly more prevalent and has potentially serious outcomes. With current concerns and increasing return-to-play issues, additional assessment focus is needed. Division 1 college football athletes, from 18 to 20.9 years (n = 177; age, 19.7 ± 1.2 years; height, 182.3 ± 4.5 cm; weight, 97.3 ± 10.6 kg), before fall practice, over a period of 3 years, underwent baseline postural stability testing (sensory organization test [SOT], NeuroCom). Individuals, who were diagnosed with a concussion (headache, dizziness, fatigue, confusion, or loss of consciousness) during practice or actual competition (n = 15; age, 18.9 ± 0.9 years; height, 181.8 ± 2.5 cm; weight, 86.6 ± 3.6 kg), underwent serial evaluation after injury and 24 hours after concussion. As soon as the player was considered asymptomatic, the test was completed on the first and 14th day. A control group of noninjured male athletes (n = 15; age, 19.1 ± 0.4 years; height, 178.2 ± 3.2 cm; weight, 78.6 ± 2.1 kg) were tested for the same time frame. This particular study was only one part of the total evaluation conducted for the concussed athlete's return to play. Results indicated that the concussion group had a statistically significant (p = 0.037) change from their baseline SOT score and the control group (p = 0.025). This change remained significant until day 14 of posttesting. These data indicate that the SOT, when available, may be a positive additional assessment of concussed college-aged football players. Professionals, when dealing with concussion in competitive sports, do need to continue to work together, but awareness of SOT assessments may also contribute to the return-to-play decisions.

  16. SPORTS SHOES PURCHASE INTENTION AMONG MALAYSIAN VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS VS. NON-VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS: A CONCEPTUAL PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOH PIN SIANG

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to advance the understanding of volleyball players’ purchase intention toward sport shoes by investigating the relationship between the independent variables (endorsement, advertising, pricing and electronic word-of-mouth and purchase intention. Descriptive research and causal research will be used as the research design, thus questionnaire and experimentation will be used to obtain data. Primary data in this study is attained by distributing the questionnaire to the Malaysian volleyball players throughout several volleyball tournament venues in Malaysia. The experiment will be conducted by comparing two groups of respondents, including volleyball players and non-volleyball players. This study is limited to several independent variables such as endorsement, advertising, pricing and electronic word-of-mouth. This study is significant for marketers for solving the challenges faced in the sport industry. It also helps to identify consumers’ purchase preferences for sport shoes. The marketer would understand more about their targeted customers’ intentions to purchase, thus the sport industry related with sport marketing in Malaysia might gain more profit.

  17. Cervical range of motion and proprioception in rugby players versus non-rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, Sally D; McCarthy, Peter W

    2007-06-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of number of years of playing rugby on neck function. Active cervical spine range of motion and proprioception were assessed in 14 non-rugby-playing but trained sportsmen (mean age 28 years, s = 7) and 46 rugby players (26 rugby forwards: mean age 26 years, s = 5; mean years played 14 years; 20 backs: mean age 24 years, s = 5; mean years played 14 years). Active cervical range of motion in flexion, extension, left and right lateral flexion, plus left and right rotation were measured using a cervical range of motion device. The ability to reposition the head in a central position with eyes closed was taken as a measure of proprioception. Results show that rugby forwards generally had the least active cervical range of motion, particularly neck extension (forwards, 43 degrees ; backs, 55 degrees ; controls, 58 degrees ), with the decrement correlating with the number of years played. In addition, repositioning was significantly worse in rugby players after neck extension than non-rugby players (6 degrees vs. 3 degrees ). The active cervical range of motion of rugby forwards is similar to that of whiplash patients, suggesting that participation in rugby can have an effect on neck range of motion that is equivalent to chronic disability. Reduced active cervical range of motion could also increase the likelihood of injury and exacerbate age-related neck problems.

  18. Writing Game Center Apps in iOS Bringing Your Players Into the Game

    CERN Document Server

    Nahavandipoor, Vandad

    2011-01-01

    Now that Apple has introduced the GameKit framework to its iOS SDK, you can integrate Game Center features directly into your iPhone and iPad apps. This concise cookbook shows you how it's done, with 18 targeted recipes for adding leaderboards, user authentication, achievements, multiplayer games, and many other features. How do you display players' scores and achievements? How do you create Game Center accounts and add friends? Each recipe in this book includes a simple code solution you can put to work immediately, along with a detailed discussion that offers insight into why and how the r

  19. Epidemiology and Impact of Knee Injuries in Major and Minor League Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Diane L; Curriero, Frank C; Camp, Christopher L; Brophy, Robert H; Leo, Tony; Meister, Keith; Paletta, George A; Steubs, John A; Mandelbaum, Bert R; Pollack, Keshia M

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have explored the frequency and impact of lower extremity injuries, such as those to the knee, among professional baseball players. The purpose of this study was to detail the epidemiology of knee injuries in Major League Baseball (MLB) and Minor League Baseball (MiLB) players during the 2011-2014 seasons. It was hypothesized that knee injuries are a common occurrence in these athletes, and represent a significant source of time away from play. The MLB Health and Injury Tracking System database was searched to identify all patients diagnosed with knee injuries during the 2011-2014 seasons. All injuries that occurred during the preseason, regular season, and postseason that resulted in time away from play were included. Injury data analyzed included total number of knee injuries, specific diagnoses, injury mechanisms, locations, player positions, and time lost. Descriptive statistics were conducted and injury rates per athlete-exposures were calculated. During the 2011-2014 seasons, a total of 2171 knee injuries occurred in MLB and MiLB players, representing 6.5% of all injuries in professional baseball. The knee injury rate across both the MLB and MiLB was 1.2 per 1000 athlete-exposures. The mean number of days missed per injury across both leagues was 16.2 with a total of 30,449 days of missed play amongst all athletes over the 4 seasons. Injuries to the knee were the fifth most common cause of missed time in all of baseball, and the fourth most common reason for missed games in the MLB alone. Approximately 12% of all injuries required surgical intervention. The most common mechanism of injury was noncontact (44%), and base runners were injured more frequently than any other position (24%). The infield (30%) and home plate (23%) were the most common locations in which injuries occurred. These data can be utilized for targeted injury prevention initiatives.

  20. Sport-specific factors predicting player retention in junior cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpey, Scott; Croucher, Tom; Bani Mustafa, Ahmed; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-04-01

    Understanding factors that motivate young athletes to continue participation in sport can help key stakeholders cultivate an environment that fosters long-term participation. This investigation sought to determine the performance and participation factors that influenced continued participation in junior cricket. Administration-level data were collected each annual season across a seven-year period by a community-level junior cricket association in Australia and analysed to identify the performance and participation-based predictors of player retention. All players were males aged <16 years. Players were categorised according to whether they remained in (or departed from) the association at the end of each playing season. A multivariate logistic regression model with a stepwise variable selection was employed to identify significant independent predictors of player retention. The number of innings batted and overs bowled were significant participation-related contributors to junior cricket player retention. Performance factors such as the number of wickets taken and the number of runs scored also significantly influenced player retention. Finally, team age group, the number of previous seasons played and age were also significant factors in player retention. This demonstrates that sufficient opportunity for children to participate in the game and expression of skills competence are key factors for retention in cricket.

  1. Active tuning of stroke-induced vibrations by tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadefaux, Delphine; Rao, Guillaume; Androuet, Philippe; Berton, Eric; Vigouroux, Laurent

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates how tennis players control stroke-induced vibration. Its aim is to characterise how a tennis player deals with entering vibration waves or how he/she has the ability to finely adjust them. A specific experimental procedure was designed, based on simultaneously collecting sets of kinematic, vibration and electromyographic data during forehand strokes using various commercial rackets and stroke intensities. Using 14 expert players, a wide range of excitations at spectral and temporal levels were investigated. Energetic and spectral descriptors of stroke-induced vibration occurring at the racket handle and at the player's wrist and elbow were computed. Results indicated that vibrational characteristics are strongly governed by grip force and to a lower extent by the racket properties. Grip force management drives the amount of energy, as well as its distribution, into the forearm. Furthermore, hand-grip can be assimilated to an adaptive filter which can significantly modify the spectral parameters propagating into the player's upper limb. A significant outcome is that these spectral characteristics are as much dependent on the player as on the racket. This contribution opens up new perspectives in equipment manufacture by underlining the need to account for player/racket interaction in the design process.

  2. A Novel Music Player Controlling Design Based on Gesture Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has proposed a novel music player controlling method based on gesture recognition, which translating the gesture interacting signal into a controlling instruction for the music player. Firstly, utilizing the laptop’s webcam to capture the image information, and then employing the image processing method to tackle it. The skin color detection was used to obtain the information of gesture candidates, and a background subtraction was introduced to eliminate the distributing information. Moreover, in order to ensure the rapid and effective implementation of music player proposed here, the barycenter of a gesture was calculated as one Recognized Reference Information (RRI; a ratio between the gesture’s width and height was also selected as the other RRI; the comparison of these two RRI values was utilized to obtain a pattern signal of the gesture which was corresponding to the controlling instruction for the Music Player. Eventually, a Music Player was programmed and the pattern signal generated by gesture recognition was used to control the Music Player as willing to realize four basic functions: “play”, “pause”, “previous” and “next”. A series of tests using our gesture recognition based Music Player was conducted under the condition with different kinds of complex backgrounds, and the results showed the satisfactory performance of our interactive designing.

  3. Physical performance of elite and subelite Spanish female futsal players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Arias, JA; Carrasco-Poyatos, M; Alcaraz, PE

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the parameters distinguishing top female futsal players from lower level players. Twenty-seven female futsal players participated in the study, composed of professional first division (elite; n = 15) players and semi-professional second division players (sub-elite; n = 14). Active and passive straight leg raise tests, isokinetic strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 60° · s-1 angular velocity, squat and counter movement jumps, 30 m sprint, 30 m agility, repeated sprint ability test and maximum ball speed during shooting were measured. The elite players were more agile and kicked harder than sub-elite players in maximum ball speed during the shooting test (P ≤ 0.05). However, no significant differences between teams were observed in active and passive hamstring flexibility, jumping ability, repeated sprint ability test, 30 m sprint time, H/Q ratio and absolute and relative torque from 60° · s-1 angular velocity. Based on these findings we conclude that agility and maximum ball speed during shooting may be important determinant factors of Spanish female futsal actions and could distinguish ability at high-level games. PMID:27601786

  4. Physical performance of elite and subelite Spanish female futsal players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJ Ramos-Campo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the parameters distinguishing top female futsal players from lower level players. Twenty-seven female futsal players participated in the study, composed of professional first division (elite; n=15 players and semi-professional second division players (sub-elite; n=14. Active and passive straight leg raise tests, isokinetic strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 60º • s-1 angular velocity, squat and counter movement jumps, 30 m sprint, 30 m agility, repeated sprint ability test and maximum ball speed during shooting were measured. The elite players were more agile and kicked harder than sub-elite players in maximum ball speed during the shooting test (P≤0.05. However, no significant differences between teams were observed in active and passive hamstring flexibility, jumping ability, repeated sprint ability test, 30 m sprint time, H/Q ratio and absolute and relative torque from 60° • s-1 angular velocity. Based on these findings we conclude that agility and maximum ball speed during shooting may be important determinant factors of Spanish female futsal actions and could distinguish ability at high-level games.

  5. Throwing speed and accuracy in baseball and cricket players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeston, Jonathan; Rooney, Kieron

    2014-06-01

    Throwing speed and accuracy are both critical to sports performance but cannot be optimized simultaneously. This speed-accuracy trade-off (SATO) is evident across a number of throwing groups but remains poorly understood. The goal was to describe the SATO in baseball and cricket players and determine the speed that optimizes accuracy. 20 grade-level baseball and cricket players performed 10 throws at 80% and 100% of maximal throwing speed (MTS) toward a cricket stump. Baseball players then performed a further 10 throws at 70%, 80%, 90%, and 100% of MTS toward a circular target. Baseball players threw faster with greater accuracy than cricket players at both speeds. Both groups demonstrated a significant SATO as vertical error increased with increases in speed; the trade-off was worse for cricketers than baseball players. Accuracy was optimized at 70% of MTS for baseballers. Throwing athletes should decrease speed when accuracy is critical. Cricket players could adopt baseball-training practices to improve throwing performance.

  6. Tracking of Ball and Players in Beach Volleyball Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Gabriel; Herrera López, Patricia; Link, Daniel; Eskofier, Bjoern

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents methods for the determination of players' positions and contact time points by tracking the players and the ball in beach volleyball videos. Two player tracking methods are compared, a classical particle filter and a rigid grid integral histogram tracker. Due to mutual occlusion of the players and the camera perspective, results are best for the front players, with 74,6% and 82,6% of correctly tracked frames for the particle method and the integral histogram method, respectively. Results suggest an improved robustness against player confusion between different particle sets when tracking with a rigid grid approach. Faster processing and less player confusions make this method superior to the classical particle filter. Two different ball tracking methods are used that detect ball candidates from movement difference images using a background subtraction algorithm. Ball trajectories are estimated and interpolated from parabolic flight equations. The tracking accuracy of the ball is 54,2% for the trajectory growth method and 42,1% for the Hough line detection method. Tracking results of over 90% from the literature could not be confirmed. Ball contact frames were estimated from parabolic trajectory intersection, resulting in 48,9% of correctly estimated ball contact points. PMID:25426936

  7. SUPERSTITIOUS BEHAVIOR AMONG JUDO, TAEKWONDO AND BOXING PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Dureja

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study was designed to measure superstitious behavior among Judo, Taekwondo and Boxing players. Material: Thirty (N=30 male inter-college level players with the age group of 19-25 years were selected through purposive sampling technique to act as subjects from affiliated colleges of Panjab University, Chandigarh. They were further divided into three groups: Group-A [Judo (n=10], Group-B [Taekwondo (n=10] and Group-C [Boxing (n=10]. One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was applied to find out the differences among judo, taekwondo and boxing players. Where ‘F’ values found significant, Least Significant Differences (LSD Post-hoc test was applied to find out the direction and degree of difference. Results: The level of significance was set at 0.05. The result revealed significant differences among judo, taekwondo and boxing players on the sub parameters: clothing and appearance, preparation, team ritual and coach. However, no significant differences have been observed on the sub-parameters fetish, game/competition, prayer and parameter superstitious (Total. Conclusions: The obtained results showed significant differences on the sub-parameter Coach among Judo, Taekwondo and Boxing players. While calculating the mean values of entire groups, it has been observed that Boxing players demonstrate significantly better on the sub-parameter Coach. Therefore, it can be ascertained that Boxing players are more confident that coach bring a lucky charm to our game.

  8. Somatotype, size and body composition of competitive female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malousaris, Grigoris G; Bergeles, Nikolaos K; Barzouka, Karolina G; Bayios, Ioannis A; Nassis, George P; Koskolou, Maria D

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the morphological characteristics of competitive female volleyball players. For this purpose, body weight and height, breadths and girths as well as skinfold thickness at various body sites were assessed in 163 elite female volleyball players (age: 23.8+/-4.7 years, years of playing: 11.5+/-4.2, hours of training per week: 11.9+/-2.9, means+/-S.D.). Seventy-nine of these players were from the A1 division and the rest from the A2 division of the Greek National League. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare the differences in these characteristics between competition level and playing position. Body height ranged from 161cm to 194cm, and the mean value (177.1+/-6.5cm) was not inferior to that of international players of similar calibre. Adiposity of these players (sum of 5 skinfolds: 51.8+/-10.2mm, percent body fat: 23.4+/-2.8) was higher than that reported in other studies in which, however, different methodology was used. Volleyball athletes of this study were mainly balanced endomorphs (3.4-2.7-2.9). The A1 division players were taller and slightly leaner with greater fat-free mass than their A2 counterparts. Significant differences were found among athletes of different playing positions which are interpreted by their varying roles and physical demands during a volleyball game. The volleyball players who play as opposites were the only subgroup of players differing between divisions; the A2 opposites had more body fat than A1 opposites. These data could be added in the international literature related to the anthropometric characteristics of competitive female volleyball players.

  9. Performance Outcomes After Metacarpal Fractures in National Basketball Association Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guss, Michael S; Begly, John P; Ramme, Austin J; Hinds, Richard M; Karia, Raj J; Capo, John T

    2016-12-01

    Background: The aim was to determine whether players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) who sustain metacarpal fractures demonstrate decreased performance upon return to competition when compared with their performance before injury and that of their control-matched peers. Methods: Data for 32 NBA players with metacarpal fractures incurred over 11 seasons (2002-2003 to 2012-2013) were obtained from injury reports, press releases, and player profiles (www.nba.com and www.basketballreference.com). Player age, body mass index (BMI), position, shooting hand, number of years in the league, and treatment (surgical vs nonsurgical) were recorded. Individual season statistics for the 2 seasons immediately prior to injury and the 2 seasons after injury, including player efficiency rating (PER), were obtained. Thirty-two controls matched by player position, age, and performance statistics were identified. A performance comparison of the cohorts was performed. Results: Mean age at the time of injury was 27 years with an average player BMI of 24. Players had a mean 5.6 seasons of NBA experience prior to injury. There was no significant change in PER when preinjury and postinjury performances were compared. Neither injury to their shooting hand nor operative management of the fracture led to a decrease in performance during the 2 seasons after injury. When compared with matched controls, no significant decline in performance in PER the first season and second season after injury was found. Conclusion: NBA players sustaining metacarpal fractures can reasonably expect to return to their preinjury performance levels following appropriate treatment.

  10. A Profile of Fitness Parameters and Performance of Volleyball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind B. Taware

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ball games require comprehen-sive ability including physical, technical, men-tal and tactical abilities. Among them, physicalabilities of players exert marked effects on theskill of the players themselves and the tacticsof the team. Therefore players must have thephysical abilities to meet the demand of thesport. Volleyball is one of the most popularlyplayed games in the world. Unfortunately, thelevel of performance of the Indian volleyballplayers lags far behind the international stan-dards. Aim of the Study: The present study wasaimed to assess flexibility, muscular endurance,power and cardio-respiratory endurance of vol-leyball players and to compare the results withage matched controls. Also, to compare thefindings of the volleyball players with that ofthe international norms from the available lit-erature and to make some suggestions for theimprovement in their performance level. Ma-terial and Methods: The study was carried outin 40 male volleyball players aged between 17to 26 years and 40 ages matched male controls.Physical fitness parameters namely flexibility,muscular endurance, power and cardio-respi-ratory endurance were measured, data was ana-lyzed using unpaired ‘t’-test. Results: It was ob-served that all physical fitness parameters weresignificantly more in players as compared totheir aged-matched controls but when values ofthe subjects were compared to internationalstandards; our subjects were behind the recom-mended norms for the elite volleyball players.Conclusion: The volleyball players have moreadvantage of flexibility muscular endurance,power and cardio-respiratory endurance.

  11. Management of female handball players' activity applying interactive technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolova L.S.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of developed methods for the control of female handball players' readiness to competitive activity was determined. The opportunities of team management regarding the specification of playing role, the formation of the starting line of players and the replacement according to game priorities in attack or defense were considered. The availability of the adequate zone of handball players' mobilizing readiness that allows to have a significant influence on individual effectiveness in the conditions of optimal management and to increase the quality of team game was determined.

  12. Design of a WAV audio player based on K20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The designed player uses the Freescale Company’s MK20DX128VLH7 as the core control ship, and its hardware platform is equipped with VS1003 audio decoder, OLED display interface, USB interface and SD card slot. The player uses the open source embedded real-time operating system μC/OS-II, Freescale USB Stack V4.1.1 and FATFS, and a graphical user interface is developed to improve the user experience based on CGUI. In general, the designed WAV audio player has a strong applicability and a good practical value.

  13. Vitamin D profile in National Football League players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroon, Joseph C; Mathyssek, Christina M; Bost, Jeffrey W; Amos, Austin; Winkelman, Robert; Yates, Anthony P; Duca, Mark A; Norwig, John A

    2015-05-01

    By maintaining phosphate and calcium homeostasis, vitamin D is critical for bone health and possibly physical performance. Hence, vitamin D is important to athletes. Few studies have investigated vitamin D levels in relation to fractures and performance in athletes, and no published study has included a multiracial sample of professional American football players. To assess vitamin D levels, including the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, in professional American football players and to evaluate the association of vitamin D levels with race, fracture history, and the ability to obtain a contract position, which may be a marker for athletic performance. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Serum vitamin D levels of 80 professional football players from a single team in the National Football League were obtained during the 2011 off-season (mean age, 26.5±3.7 years; black, n=67 [84%]). These levels were used to compare injury reports from the 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 seasons. Statistical analyses were performed to test if vitamin D levels were related to race, fracture history, and the ability to obtain a contract position. Mean vitamin D level was 27.4±11.7 ng/mL, with significantly lower levels for black players (25.6±11.3 ng/mL) versus white players (37.4±8.6 ng/mL; F 1,78=13.00, P=.001). All athletes who were vitamin D deficient were black. When controlling for number of professional years played, vitamin D levels were significantly lower in players with at least 1 bone fracture when compared with no fractures. Players who were released during the preseason because of either injury or poor performance had significantly lower vitamin D levels than did players who played in the regular season. Black professional football players have a higher rate of vitamin D deficiency than do white players. Furthermore, professional football players with higher vitamin D levels were more likely to obtain a contract position in the National Football League

  14. Particle Swarm Optimization of Electricity Market Negotiating Players Portfolio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Tiago; Vale, Zita; Sousa, Tiago

    2014-01-01

    for market players. The ALBidS system allows MASCEM market negotiating players to take the best possible advantages from each market context. However, it is still necessary to adequately optimize the players’ portfolio investment. For this purpose, this paper proposes a market portfolio optimization method......, based on particle swarm optimization, which provides the best investment profile for a market player, considering different market opportunities (bilateral negotiation, market sessions, and operation in different markets) and the negotiation context such as the peak and off-peak periods of the day...

  15. Cryptographically Blinded Games: Leveraging Players' Limitations for Equilibria and Profit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubacek, Pavel; Park, Sunoo

    2014-01-01

    In this work we apply methods from cryptography to enable mutually distrusting players to implement broad classes of mediated equilibria of strategic games without trusted mediation. Our implementation uses a pre-play 'cheap talk' phase, consisting of non- binding communication between players pr...... prior to play in the original game. In the cheap talk phase, the players run a secure multi-party computation protocol to sample from an equilibrium of a "cryptographically blinded" version of the game, in which actions are encrypted...

  16. Thermoregulation, Fluid Balance, and Sweat Losses in American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jon K; Baker, Lindsay B; Barnes, Kelly; Ungaro, Corey; Stofan, John

    2016-10-01

    Numerous studies have reported on the thermoregulation and hydration challenges athletes face in team and individual sports during exercise in the heat. Comparatively less research, however, has been conducted on the American Football player. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review data collected in laboratory and field studies and discuss the thermoregulation, fluid balance, and sweat losses of American Football players. American Football presents a unique challenge to thermoregulation compared with other sports because of the encapsulating nature of the required protective equipment, large body size of players, and preseason practice occurring during the hottest time of year. Epidemiological studies report disproportionately higher rates of exertional heat illness and heat stroke in American Football compared with other sports. Specifically, larger players (e.g., linemen) are at increased risk for heat ailments compared with smaller players (e.g., backs) because of greater body mass index, increased body fat, lower surface area to body mass ratio, lower aerobic capacity, and the stationary nature of the position, which can reduce heat dissipation. A consistent finding across studies is that larger players exhibit higher sweating rates than smaller players. Mean sweating rates from 1.0 to 2.9 L/h have been reported for college and professional American Football players, with several studies reporting 3.0 L/h or more in some larger players. Sweat sodium concentration of American Football players does not seem to differ from that of athletes in other sports; however, given the high volume of sweat loss, the potential for sodium loss is higher in American Football than in other sports. Despite high sweating rates with American Football players, the observed disturbances in fluid balance have generally been mild (mean body mass loss ≤2 %). The majority of field-based studies have been conducted in the northeastern part of the United States, with limited

  17. Generative Agents for Player Decision Modeling in Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgård, Christoffer; Liapis, Antonios; Togelius, Julian

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method for modeling player decision making through the use of agents as AI-driven personas. The paper argues that artificial agents, as generative player models, have properties that allow them to be used as psyhometrically valid, abstract simulations of a human player...... to or divergence from these. Essentially, at each step the action of the human is compared to what actions a number of reinforcement-learned agents would have taken in the same situation, where each agent is trained using a different reward scheme. Finally, extensions are outlined for adapting the agents...

  18. Sports players : the heroes of the mediated sacred sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar RUBIO-HERNÁNDEZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Broadcasted sport is one of the elements of the mediated culture which mobilizes extremely passionate masses. Thus, it can be considered as a mythical expression within current society, since contemporary era is witness to the revival of the sacred which manifests through rituals, myths and the divinization of certain products and celebrities. This article analyzes how media depictions exalt players as objects of worship and devotion. It will specifically focus on the most successful Spanish sportsmen such as the tennis player Rafael Nadal and the players of the national soccer team and how they are promoted as national heroes in advertising.

  19. CAREER TRANSITION FROM JUNIOR TO SENIOR IN BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate what factors affect basketball players in the transition from junior and amateur to senior and professional sport respectively. The study was a qualitative research which uses a semi-structured interview to get the data. There were interviewed five Spanish basketball players who were starting playing in a team of Basketball Club Association (C.B.A.. The results showed that the participants face several changes both in the sport and in the life outside sport. At the same time, the results indicated the existence of several coping strategies that help the player in his career transition.

  20. KNEE AND SHOULDER INJURY RISK ASSESSMENT IN SCHOOL LEVEL FEMALE BASKETBALL PLAYERS: A CROSS – SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deebak Kumar Srinivasan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: One of the common reasons for talent not being converted in the big stage is career ending injuries. The best way out is preventing these injuries which is the easiest and most effective solution. Hence, this study was done to evaluate the injury risk among school level basketball players. Materials and Methods: Total of 107 school level female basketball players were assessed for 1. Functional Movement Screen (FMS – To assess risk of injury and functional ability. 2. VO2 max by questionnaire – to assess the maximum endurance level of the athlete. 3. Jump alignment on landing by HD slow motion video analysis - to assess risk of knee injury. 4. Glenohumeral Internal Rotation Deficit (GIRD & Total Range Of Motion Deficit (TROMD by Goniometer to assess risk of shoulder injury. Results: In our study even though the FMS scores were good for majority of the players, the risk of shoulder injury was high TROMD (50.46% compared to GIRD (11.21%. Jump alignment results showed that majority of players landed in internal rotation (62.61%. VO2 max assessment revealed superior results for all athletes. Majority of athletes had a good (79.43% FMS score. Conclusion: To prevent performance declining or career ending injury to talented athletes, early intervention at school level is the essential. So we recommend structured stretching exercise programme including sleepers stretches for shoulders and hip abductors and external rotators strengthening along with proper landing drills for athletes from school level itself.

  1. Project Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, K. K.; Henderson, A.; Lee, J.; Smith, G.; Stluka, E.

    1984-01-01

    PROJECT EXPLORER is a program that will fly student-developed experiments onboard the Space Shuttle in NASA's Get-Away Special (GAS) containers. The program is co-sponsored by the Alabama Space and Rocket Center, the Alabama-Mississippi Section of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Alabama A&M University and requires extensive support by the University of Alabama in Huntsville. A unique feature of this project will demonstrate transmissions to ground stations on amateur radio frequencies in English language. Experiments Nos. 1, 2, and 3 use the microgravity of space flight to study the solidification of lead-antimony and aluminum-copper alloys, the growth of potassium-tetracyanoplatinate hydrate crystals in an aqueous solution, and the germination of radish seeds. Flight results will be compared with Earth-based data. Experiment No. 4 features radio transmission and will also provide timing for the start of all other experiments. A microprocessor will obtain real-time data from all experiments as well as temperature and pressure measurements taken inside the canister. These data will be transmitted on previously announced amateur radio frequencies after they have been converted into the English language by a digitalker for general reception.

  2. Beneficial Long Communication in the Multi-Player Electronic Mail Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jaegher, K.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the two-player electronic mail game (EMG), as is well-known, the probability of collective action is lower the more confirmations and re-confirmations are made available to players. In the multi-player EMG, however, as we show players may coordinate on equilibria where they require only few of

  3. A comparison of throwing kinematics between youth baseball players with and without a history of medial elbow pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yung-Hsien; Wu, Ting-Yu; Learman, Kenneth E; Tsai, Yung-Shen

    2010-06-30

    Risk factors in throwing factors associated to little league elbow have not been adequately explored. Whether these factors also affect the players' performance is also important to elucidate while modifying throwing pattern to reduce injury. The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in throwing kinematics between youth baseball players with or without a history of medial elbow pain (MEP) and to determine the relationship between their throwing kinematics and ball speed. Fifteen players with previous MEP were matched with 15 healthy players by age, height and weight. Throwing kinematics was recorded by an electromagnetic motion analysis system. A foot switch was used for determining foot off and foot contact. Ball speed was recorded with a sports radar gun. The group with a history of MEP demonstrated less elbow flexion angle at maximum shoulder external rotation and had more lateral trunk tilt at ball release compared to the healthy group. The group with a history of MEP also had faster maximum upper torso rotation velocities, maximum pelvis rotation velocities and ball speeds. Maximum shoulder external rotation angle (r = 0.458, P = 0.011), elbow flexion angle at maximum shoulder external rotation (r = -0.637, P = 0.0003), and maximum upper torso rotation velocity (r = 0.562, P = 0.002) had significant correlation with ball speed. Findings of this study can be treated as elbow injury-related factors that clinicians and coaches can attend to when taking care of youth

  4. Young Football Players Tackle Greatest Concussion Risk At Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160579.html Young Football Players Tackle Greatest Concussion Risk at Practice But ... Children under the age of 14 who play football are at risk of concussions, and a small ...

  5. Physical profiles of elite male field hockey and soccer players ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical profiles of elite male field hockey and soccer players - application to sport-specific tests. ... South African Journal of Sports Medicine ... of field tests for hockey and soccer for the purposes of talent identification and training prescription.

  6. Intermittent Testing and Training for High-Level Football Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen

    Football is the most popular sport in the world, played by over 400 million men and women. In addition to the wide range of sport-specific technical and tactical skills needed, several physical components have been shown to be necessary to perform at a high level. The present PhD thesis is based...... on four articles that focus on physical testing and training for elite and sub-elite football players.The first article (Study I) aims to identify and establish aerobic capacities and anthropometric characteristics of elite female football players with the use of laboratory tests, and to examine whether...... with other field tests the Yo-Yo IR2 has become an important tool for monitoring the physical fitness of football players. However, the burden of testing, for players (physically and mentally) and the coaching staff (time consuming), is large and there is a probability that the tests may contain overlapping...

  7. Comparative Study on Anxiety between Student Players of Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    cognitive and behavioral components. The root .... on the induced stress on the heart rate of players before the game and physical work load and ... analysis rather than to assume the relationships based on previous theories per se (Reilly and.

  8. Research on Dietary Nutrition Supplement of Taekwondo Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqun Qu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To comprehend the characteristics of Taekwondo and the problems lying in the nutrient and dietary structure of Taekwondo players through this study and then formulate a scientific and reasonable structure in nutrient and dietary for Taekwondo players, in order to improve their athletic ability in the meantime of improving their physical quality. To comprehend energy consumption characteristics of Taekwondo and current situation of nutrient and dietary structure of Taekwondo players through methods of literature collection and comparative research and then come up with a scientific and reasonable structure in nutrient and dietary. A reasonable nutrient and dietary structure can not only improve physical function and guarantee a normal internal metabolism of Taekwondo players, but also can effectively improve their athletic ability and improve their performance in competition.

  9. Tackle-injury epidemiology in koshuis rugby players at Stellenbosch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little is known about the epidemiology of tackle injuries in koshuis rugby players. Objectives. To (i) calculate ... Department of Sport Science, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa. Corresponding ..... prevention. Int J Sports Sci ...

  10. Hypoconnectivity and Hyperfrontality in Retired American Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampshire, Adam; MacDonald, Alex; Owen, Adrian M.

    2013-10-01

    Recent research has raised concerns about the long-term neurological consequences of repetitive concussive and sub-concussive injuries in professional players of American Football. Despite this interest, the neural and psychological status of retired players remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the performances and brain activation patterns of retired National Football League players (NFL alumni) relative to controls using an fMRI-optimised neuropsychological test of executive function. Behaviourally, the NFL alumni showed only modest performance deficits on the executive task. By contrast, they showed pronounced hyperactivation and hypoconnectivity of the dorsolateral frontal and frontopolar cortices. Critically, abnormal frontal-lobe function was correlated with the number of times that NFL alumni reported having been removed from play after head injury and was evident in individual players. These results support the hypothesis that NFL alumni have a heightened probability of developing executive dysfunction and suggest that fMRI provides the most sensitive biomarker of the underlying neural abnormality.

  11. Soccer players' fitting perception of different upper boot materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaso Melis, J C; Priego Quesada, J I; Lucas-Cuevas, A G; González García, J C; Puigcerver Palau, S

    2016-07-01

    The present study assessed the influence of upper boot materials on fitting perception. Twenty players tested three soccer boots only differing in the upper boot material (natural calf leather, natural kangaroo leather and synthetic leather). Players reported fitting perception and preference on specific foot areas using a perceived fitting scale. Ratings were averaged for every foot area. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze the differences between boots. The kangaroo leather boots were perceived tighter and closer to the preferred fitting in general fitting, metatarsals area and instep area. The synthetic leather boots were perceived as the loosest and as the most distant boot from the preferred fitting in medial front area and instep area. In conclusion, the type of upper boot material influences the fitting perception of soccer players. The kangaroo leather was the material whose fitting was perceived closest to the players fitting preference.

  12. How Players Lose Interest in Playing a Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauckhage, Christian; Kersting, Kristian; Sifa, Rafet

    2012-01-01

    Analyzing telemetry data of player behavior in computer games is a topic of increasing interest for industry and research, alike. When applied to game telemetry data, pattern recognition and statistical analysis provide valuable business intelligence tools for game development. An important problem...... introduce methods from random process theory into game data mining in order to draw inferences about player engagement. Given large samples (over 250,000 players) of behavioral telemetry data from five different action-adventure and shooter games, we extract information as to how long individual players...... have played these games and apply techniques from lifetime analysis to identify common patterns. In all five cases, we find that the Weibull distribution gives a good account of the statistics of total playing times. This implies that an average player’s interest in playing one of the games considered...

  13. Development of speed qualities of skilled water-polo players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrovsky M.V.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Swimming preparation of water-polo players is the basic factor of victory of command. There are a few variants of development of speed swimming preparation. The effective pedagogical mean of stimulation of speed qualities is brief exercises at the end of employments after long aerobic work. The purpose of work is an improvement of method of speed preparation of skilled water-polo players. 26 skilled water-polo players (MS -14 and KMS - 12 took part in an experiment in age from 21 to 32 years. The results of correction of structure of training employment are in-process presented in micro cycle. They are directed on the improvement of speed qualities of water-polo players.

  14. Diagnosis Aerobic Component of Operational Preparedness Skill Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasylyuk Vasyl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable importance for the control system, selection and orientation of the players on the stage long-term preparation plays a selection of effective methods of testing the various components of functional fitness athlete for timely, objective information about the players. The use of reliable scientific methods of effective monitoring of the athlete contributes to the further improvement of skills, increase athletic achievements. The purpose of this article is to describe and summarize modern methods of diagnosis and development of aerobic component of operational preparedness players qualifications. This article describes methods that actively and effectively used in leading European football teams. Specifically Yo-Yo test, test Shuttle (beep-test, Bangsbo test, test Hoff-Helgerud, test Conconi, Wingate-test. These tests have a high level of reliability and security mechanisms for assessing aerobic power players.

  15. Preferred Leadership Behaviours of Male and Female Badminton Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar S HARMA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pr eferences for specific coaching behaviours of male and female Badminton players were measured by the modified and revised Leadership Scale for Sport. Eighty two (Males=61, Females=21 badminton players were selected from amongst the players representing th eir respective university teams in East - zone Inter - university Badminton (Men/Women tournaments held at Bilaspur (CG. The present investigation noted the statistically significant differences among East - zone Inter - university level male as well as female B adminton player’s preferences for specific coaching behaviour. Differences were not observed between male and female badminton players in all the dimensions together of specific coaching behaviours of preferred leadership. It is recommended that coaches a lign their coaching style to meet the needs of their teams.

  16. A measure for the batting performance of cricket players : research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. A single measure that can be used to assess the performance of batsmen ... a formula for batting performance and a classification table for Test players. Keywords: Batting performance, Consistency, Cricket, Present form of a batsman ...

  17. Real-Time Game Adaptation for Optimizing Player Satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yannakakis, Georgios; Hallam, John

    2009-01-01

    A methodology for optimizing player satisfaction in games on the "playware" physical interactive platform is demonstrated in this paper. Previously constructed artificial neural network user models, reported in the literature, map individual playing characteristics to reported entertainment...

  18. Extensive monitoring through multiple blood samples in professional soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Mette F; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to make a comprehensive gathering of consecutive detailed blood samples from professional soccer players, and to analyze different blood parameters in relation to seasonal changes in training and match exposure.Blood samples were collected five times during a six...... months period and analyzed for 37 variables in 27 professional soccer players from the best Danish league. Additionally, players were tested for body composition, VO2max and physical performance by the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance sub-max test (IE2).Multiple variations in blood parameters occurred during...... of the season. Leucocytes decreased with increased physical training. Lymphocytes decreased at the end of the season. VO2max decreased towards the end of the season whereas no significant changes were observed in the IE2 test.The regular blood samples from elite soccer players reveal significant changes...

  19. A characterization of 2-player mechanisms for scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Christodoulou, George; Vidali, Angelina

    2008-01-01

    We study the mechanism design problem of scheduling unrelated machines and we completely characterize the decisive truthful mechanisms for two players when the domain contains both positive and negative values. We show that the class of truthful mechanisms is very limited: A decisive truthful mechanism partitions the tasks into groups so that the tasks in each group are allocated independently of the other groups. Tasks in a group of size at least two are allocated by an affine minimizer and tasks in singleton groups by a task-independent mechanism. This characterization is about all truthful mechanisms, including those with unbounded approximation ratio. A direct consequence of this approach is that the approximation ratio of mechanisms for two players is 2, even for two tasks. In fact, it follows that for two players, VCG is the unique algorithm with optimal approximation 2. This characterization provides some support that any decisive truthful mechanism (for 3 or more players) partitions the tasks into gro...

  20. Continuity, Change and Mature Musical Identity Construction: Using "Rivers of Musical Experience" to Trace the Musical Lives of Six Mature-Age Keyboard Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Angela

    2011-01-01

    "Rivers of Musical Experience" were used as a research tool to explore the wide range of musical experiences and concomitant identity construction that six amateur keyboard players over the age of 55 brought to their learning as mature adults. It appears that significant changes in their lives acted as triggers for them to engage in musical…

  1. Continuity, Change and Mature Musical Identity Construction: Using "Rivers of Musical Experience" to Trace the Musical Lives of Six Mature-Age Keyboard Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Angela

    2011-01-01

    "Rivers of Musical Experience" were used as a research tool to explore the wide range of musical experiences and concomitant identity construction that six amateur keyboard players over the age of 55 brought to their learning as mature adults. It appears that significant changes in their lives acted as triggers for them to engage in musical…

  2. Ranking benchmarks of top 100 players in men's professional tennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Machar; Morris, Craig

    2013-01-01

    In men's professional tennis, players aspire to hold the top ranking position. On the way to the top spot, reaching the top 100 can be seen as a significant career milestone. National Federations undertake extensive efforts to assist their players to reach the top 100. However, objective data considering reasonable ranking yardsticks for top 100 success in men's professional tennis are lacking. Therefore, it is difficult for National Federations and those involved in player development to give empirical programming advice to young players. By taking a closer look at the ranking history of professional male tennis players, this article tries to provide those involved in player development a more objective basis for decision-making. The 100 names, countries, birthdates and ranking histories of the top 100 players listed in the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) at 31 December 2009 were recorded from websites in the public domain. Descriptive statistics were reported for the ranking milestones of interest. Results confirmed the merits of the International Tennis Federation's junior tour with 91% of the top 100 professionals earning a junior ranking, the mean peak of which was 94.1, s=148.9. On average, top 100 professionals achieved their best junior rankings and earned their first ATP point at similar ages, suggesting that players compete on both the junior and professional tours during their transition. Once professionally ranked, players took an average 4.5, s=2.1 years to reach the ATP top 100 at the mean age of 21.5, s=2.6 years, which contrasts with the mean current age of the top 100 of 26.8, s=3.2. The best professional rankings of players born in 1982 or earlier were positively related to the ages at which players earned their first ATP point and then entered the top 100, suggesting that the ages associated with these ranking milestones may have some forecasting potential. Future work should focus on the change in top 100 demographics over time as well

  3. Upper extremity sensorimotor control among collegiate football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudner, Kevin G

    2012-03-01

    Injuries stemming from shoulder instability are very common among athletes participating in contact sports, such as football. Previous research has shown that increased laxity negatively affects the function of the sensorimotor system potentially leading to a pathological cycle of shoulder dysfunction. Currently, there are no data detailing such effects among football players. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the differences in upper extremity sensorimotor control among football players compared with that of a control group. Forty-five collegiate football players and 70 male control subjects with no previous experience in contact sports participated. All the subjects had no recent history of upper extremity injury. Each subject performed three 30-second upper extremity balance trials on each arm. The balance trials were conducted in a single-arm push-up position with the test arm in the center of a force platform and the subjects' feet on a labile device. The trials were averaged, and the differences in radial area deviation between groups were analyzed using separate 1-way analyses of variance (p football players showed significantly more radial area deviation of the dominant (0.41 ± 1.23 cm2, p = 0.02) and nondominant arms (0.47 ± 1.63 cm2, p = 0.03) when compared with the control group. These results suggest that football players may have decreased sensorimotor control of the upper extremity compared with individuals with no contact sport experience. The decreased upper extremity sensorimotor control among the football players may be because of the frequent impacts accumulated during football participation. Football players may benefit from exercises that target the sensorimotor system. These findings may also be beneficial in the evaluation and treatment of various upper extremity injuries among football players.

  4. Analysis of the Motor Activities of Professional Polish Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzejewski Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aims of the present study were to determine the activity profiles of a large sample of Polish Premier League soccer players during elite-standard soccer matches depending on their position on the pitch and the intensity range of physical activity. Material and methods. The study sample comprised 1,178 players in 5 outfield positions: external defenders (ED, n = 289, central defenders (CD, n = 307, central midfield players (CM, n = 327, external midfield players (EM, n = 152, and forwards (F, n = 103. Altogether, 81 Polish League games held during four domestic seasons (2010-2011, 2011-2012, 2012-2013, and 2013-2014 were used in the analysis. A semi-automatic computerised player tracking system (Amisco Pro®, version 1.0.2, Nice, France was applied to create the match activity profiles of the teams. Results. The results of statistical analysis revealed that the average total distance covered by all the players (n = 1,178 was 11,313 ± 852 m. With respect to the players’ position on the pitch, the central midfielders travelled the longest average distance (11,894 ± 765 m during the game. The longest distance was covered in the V1 intensity range (62%, followed by V2 (15%, V3 (10%, V4 (8%, V5 (3%, and V6 (2%. Conclusions. The objective of this study was to verify the differences among playing positions and to quantify the demands placed on elite Polish soccer players in each individual position during match play. While analysing elite-level match play in terms of the overall distance covered in different categories of intensity, we found a number of statistically significant differences between different playing positions. The data presented in this study can be regarded as norms for elite soccer players, serve for present and future comparison, and represent the scientific basis for developing position-specific conditioning/training protocols in soccer.

  5. Biomechanics of heading a soccer ball: implications for player safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbs, C F

    2001-08-08

    To better understand the risk and safety of heading a soccer ball, the author created a set of simple mathematical models based upon Newton's second law of motion to describe the physics of heading. These models describe the player, the ball, the flight of the ball before impact, the motion of the head and ball during impact, and the effects of all of these upon the intensity and the duration of acceleration of the head. The calculated head accelerations were compared to those during presumably safe daily activities of jumping, dancing, and head nodding and also were related to established criteria for serious head injury from the motor vehicle crash literature. The results suggest heading is usually safe but occasionally dangerous, depending on key characteristics of both the player and the ball. Safety is greatly improved when players head the ball with greater effective body mass, which is determined by a player"s size, strength, and technique. Smaller youth players, because of their lesser body mass, are more at risk of potentially dangerous headers than are adults, even when using current youth size balls. Lower ball inflation pressure reduces risk of dangerous head accelerations. Lower pressure balls also have greater "touch" and "playability", measured in terms of contact time and contact area between foot and ball during a kick. Focus on teaching proper technique, the re-design of age-appropriate balls for young players with reduced weight and inflation pressure, and avoidance of head contact with fast, rising balls kicked at close range can substantially reduce risk of subtle brain injury in players who head soccer balls.

  6. Implementation of Mobile Streaming Media Player Based on BREW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhong-rong; LIU Zhao

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays mobile streaming service through cell phone is becoming the highlight of new value-added mobile services. Based on the present CDMA1x wireless data network and Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless (BREW) platform, adopting compression technologies of H.264 and QCP, a set of streaming media players are designed and implemented, and the principle, structure, key technologies and performance analysis of this system are introduced. This player works well in practice.

  7. The strategy of players on the European gas market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecarpentier, A

    2006-07-01

    One result of opening up the European gas market to competition has been to increase the number and diversity of the players involved, whether producers, suppliers or electric utilities. However, while the gas on offer is still controlled by a handful of market players given the increasing importance of state-owned companies from exporting countries outside Europe, the downstream gas sector continues to show a strong concentration of incumbent operators seeking a dominant position in the supply of gas. (author)

  8. An Analysis of Futsal Players' Self-Esteem Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocak, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the self-esteem levels of futsal players according to certain variables. The samples of the study constituted 119 females and 96 males; a total of 215 players with an average age of 21.57 ± 2.20 years. The research was carried out with the end of "Rosenberg self-esteem Scale" developed by…

  9. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AMONG FEMALE BASEBALL PLAYERS: A PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalwinder Singh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The present study was conducted to determine the emotional intelligence among Indian female baseball players. Material : For the purpose of present study, two hundred (N=200 senior national female baseball players were selected through purposive sampling technique from different regions of India. They were selected from four different regions: A (North region baseball players=50, B (East region baseball players=50, C (West region baseball players=50 and D (South region baseball players=50. To collect the required data for the present study, the questionnaire developed by Hyde et al. (2001 on emotional intelligence was administered. One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was employed to compare the entire regions. Where ‘F’ values were found significant, LSD (Least Significant Difference Post-hoc test was applied to find out the direction and degree of difference. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results : Significant differences were observed among North, East, West and South regions female baseball players on the sub-parameters; empathy, self-development, value orientation and on the parameter Emotional Intelligence (Total. No significant differences were noticed on the sub-parameters; self-awareness, self-motivation, emotional stability, managing relations, integrity, commitment and altruistic behaviour. Conclusion: The outcome of results might be due to the fact that East region female baseball players are able to pay attention to the worries and concerns of others, can listen to someone without the urge to say something, can stay focused under pressure, are able to handle multiple demands and able to identify and separate their emotions.

  10. A Musculoskeletal Profile of Elite Female Soccer Players

    OpenAIRE

    Chiaia, Theresa A.; Maschi, Robert A.; Stuhr, Robyn M.; Rogers, Jennifer R.; Sheridan, Monique A.; Callahan, Lisa R.; Hannafin, Jo A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify lower-extremity (LE) musculoskeletal characteristics of elite female soccer players and to determine whether differences between dominant and nondominant extremities exist with respect to strength, flexibility, and range of motion. Physical data were collected from 26 female professional soccer players. Core control, hip and knee passive range of motion (PROM), LE flexibility, hip abductor strength, and dynamic functional alignment were assessed for ea...

  11. An Analysis of Futsal Players' Self-Esteem Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocak, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the self-esteem levels of futsal players according to certain variables. The samples of the study constituted 119 females and 96 males; a total of 215 players with an average age of 21.57 ± 2.20 years. The research was carried out with the end of "Rosenberg self-esteem Scale" developed by…

  12. Return to Sport and Performance After Microfracture in the Knees of National Basketball Association Players

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Joshua D.; David M. Walton; Erickson, Brandon J.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Abrams, Geoffrey D.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Bach, Bernard R.; Cole, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Use of microfracture in the knees of National Basketball Association (NBA) players is controversial. Hypotheses: (1) There would be a high rate of return to sport (RTS) in NBA players following microfracture, (2) players would RTS the season following surgery, (3) preoperative player performance would not be significantly different on RTS, and (4) there would be no significant difference in RTS rate or postoperative performance in players undergoing microfracture in comparison wit...

  13. Quantitative evaluation of trunk muscle strength in wheelchair basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sileno da Silva Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Trunk muscle strength affects trunk controlling playing an important role in performance and to define the classes of wheelchair basketball players. Trunk control capacity differs among players and quantitative assessments of trunk muscle strength have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to identify and correlate quantitative measures of trunk muscle strength with the wheelchair basketball players' classification. Forty-two male wheelchair basketball players with spinal cord injury, amputation, post-poliomyelitis sequelae, and cerebral palsy had their trunk extension and flexion strength evaluated with isokinetic dynamometer. The classes 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 were considered for statistical analysis. Comparison of trunk muscle strength differed significantly between classes: 1.0 and 3.0; 1.0 and 4.0; 2.0 and 3.0; and 2.0 and 4.0. High correlation was found between the trunk muscle strength and players' classes. The findings of the present study showed a strong correlation of trunk muscle strength and wheelchair basketball classes being able to distinguish players in their classes. However, this quantitative method of evaluation of the trunk muscle strength cannot be solely used to make a decision on the full trunk control.

  14. N-player quantum games in an EPR setting

    CERN Document Server

    Chappell, James M; Abbott, Derek

    2012-01-01

    The $N$-player quantum game is analyzed in the context of an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) experiment. In this setting, a player's strategies are not unitary transformations as in alternate quantum game-theoretic frameworks, but a classical choice between two directions along which spin or polarization measurements are made. The players' strategies thus remain identical to their strategies in the mixed-strategy version of the classical game. In the EPR setting the quantum game reduces itself to the corresponding classical game when the shared quantum state reaches zero entanglement. We find the relations for the probability distribution for $N$-qubit GHZ and W-type states, subject to general measurement directions, from which the expressions for the mixed Nash equilibrium and the payoffs are determined. Players' payoffs are then defined with linear functions so that common two-player games can be easily extended to the $N$-player case and permit analytic expressions for the Nash equilibrium. As a specific exa...

  15. Cavum Septum Pellucidum in Retired American Pro-Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Raquel C; Hess, Christopher P; Brus-Ramer, Marcel; Possin, Katherine L; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I; Kramer, Joel H; Berger, Mitchel S; Yaffe, Kristine; Miller, Bruce; Rabinovici, Gil D

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies report that cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is frequent among athletes with a history of repeated traumatic brain injury (TBI), such as boxers. Few studies of CSP in athletes, however, have assessed detailed features of the septum pellucidum in a case-control fashion. This is important because prevalence of CSP in the general population varies widely (2% to 85%) between studies. Further, rates of CSP among American pro-football players have not been described previously. We sought to characterize MRI features of the septum pellucidum in a series of retired pro-football players with a history of repeated concussive/subconcussive head traumas compared with controls. We retrospectively assessed retired American pro-football players presenting to our memory clinic with cognitive/behavioral symptoms in whom structural MRI was available with slice thickness ≤2 mm (n=17). Each player was matched to a memory clinic control patient with no history of TBI. Scans were interpreted by raters blinded to clinical information and TBI/football history, who measured CSP grade (0-absent, 1-equivocal, 2-mild, 3-moderate, 4-severe) and length according to a standard protocol. Sixteen of 17 (94%) players had a CSP graded ≥2 compared with 3 of 17 (18%) controls. CSP was significantly higher grade (pfootball players compared with patients without a history of TBI.

  16. Risk Factors for Injuries in Professional Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxhiu, Bekim; Murtezani, Ardiana; Zahiti, Bedri; Shalaj, Ismet; Sllamniku, Sabit

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors related to the occurrence of injuries in football players. The study included 216 football players from 12 teams in the elite football league. Football-related injury data were collected prospectively during the 2012/2013 competitive season. At baseline the following information was collected for the players: anthropometric measurements (weight, height, BMI, subcutaneous skinfolds), playing experience, injury history, physical fitness performance test (agility run), peak oxygen uptake. The incidence, type and severity of injuries and training and game exposure times were prospectively documented for each player. Most of the players (n = 155, 71.7%) sustained the injures during the study period. The overall injury incidence during the regular season was 6.3 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (95% confidence interval, 4.31-9.67). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that playing experience (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.32-0.61, p football for more than 1 month, with knee injuries (25.42%) being the most severe type. The risk factors that increase injury rates in football players were previous injury, higher age and years of playing. Future research should include adequate rehabilitation program to reduce the risk of injuries.

  17. Early-onset arthritis in retired National Football League players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golightly, Yvonne M; Marshall, Stephen W; Callahan, Leigh F; Guskiewicz, Kevin

    2009-09-01

    Injury has been identified as a potential risk factor for osteoarthritis. However, no previous study has addressed playing-career injuries and subsequent osteoarthritis in a large sample of former athletes. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence and determinants of arthritis and osteoarthritis in retired professional football players. Self-reported arthritis prevalence and retrospectively-recalled injury history were examined in a cross-sectional survey of 2,538 retired football players. Football players reported a high incidence of injury from their professional playing days (52.8% reported knee injuries, 74.1% reported ligament/tendon injuries, and 14.2% reported anterior cruciate ligament tears). For those under 60 years, 40.6% of retired NFL players reported arthritis, compared with 11.7% of U.S. males (prevalence ratio = 3.5, 95% CI: 3.3 to 3.7). Within the retired NFL player cohort, osteoarthritis was more prevalent in those with a history of knee injury (prevalence ratio = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.5 to 1.9) and ligament/tendon injury (prevalence ratio = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4 to 1.9). In males under the age of 60, arthritis is over 3 times more prevalent in retired NFL players than in the general U.S. population. This excess of early-onset arthritis may be due to the high incidence of injury in football.

  18. [Eating habits of a group of professional volleyball players].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacek, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was an analysis of the eating habits of professional volleyball players according to their sex and age. The research has been carried out on a group of 210 men players and women players at the age of 13-25, representatives of sports clubs in Ostrołeka, Myślenice, Bydgoszcz and Warszawa. The research has revealed a limited realisation of rational diets by both men and women players. The most common mistakes made by them include a smaller number of meals during the day than recommended (especially among men), taking up training on empty stomach and insufficient frequency of consumption of dairy products, fish, vegetables and fruit. The research has also revealed excessive consumption of sweets, sweet sparkling drinks and fast food (mainly among men). The examined players to some extent only apply regular strategies of rehydration of their organisms. A high percentage of them do not pay attention to supplementation of liquids after an effort or they drink a lot of liquids at one time. The most frequently chosen drinks were mineral water and isotonic drinks. Supplementation was applied by a small percentage of the players, mainly men, who most often chose vitamins, Izostar, creatine, L-carnitine and HMB.

  19. Caffeine supplementation and reactive agility in elite youth soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, J Bradley; Korgaokar, Ajit; Farley, Richard S; Coons, John M; Caputo, Jennifer L

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the effects of caffeine supplementation (6 mg·kg-1) on performance of a reactive agility test (RAT) in 17 elite, male, youth (M = 14 y) soccer players. Using a double-blind, repeated-measures design, players completed 4 days of testing on the RAT after a standardized warm-up. On day 1, anthropometric measurements were taken and players were accommodated to the RAT. On day 2, baseline performance was established. Caffeine or placebo conditions were randomly assigned on day 3 and the condition was reversed on day 4. Players completed 3 randomized trials of the RAT on days 2, 3, and 4 with at least 1 trial to the players' dominant and nondominant sides. There were no significant differences among conditions in reaction time (RT) to the dominant side, heart rates at any point of measurement, or ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) after completion of the warm-up. Caffeine produced faster RT to the nondominant side (P = .041) and higher RPE at the conclusion of the RAT (P = .013). The effect on the total time (TT) to complete the agility test to the nondominant side approached significance (P = .051). Sprint time and TT to either side did not differ. Caffeine supplementation may provide ergogenic benefit to elite, male, youth soccer players.

  20. ANTROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS AND MOTOR SKILLS OF YOUNG MONTENEGRO BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovan Ljubojević

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Testing and measurement in basketball is basically supposed to help in the initial evaluation and interpretation of features and capabilities of players that are important for their activity. The main objective of testing is the possibility of obtaining information about the three general indicators in basketball practice, namely: the level of current results in certain ability, the pace of results improvement in the ability and stability of the results in tests of ability. For this purpose, testing and measurement of young basketball players, members of the Montenegro under-18 team, was carried out. The aim of this paper is to present the basic features and capabilities of young basketball players of Montenegro and their comparison with some other teams. Variables from anthropometry space were measured: body height, arm span, reach height, body mass. Motor skills were observed by variables: the last squat, thrust from a flat bench, rear thrust, lying-sitting for 30 seconds, sargent test, long jump, 20 yard test, kamikaze, špagat, sitting bow. Based on the processed results it can be concluded that the motor skills of our young players, tested in this study, are at the level of the young players of other representations. The results will be of great help to coaches who work with these players.

  1. ARM 7 BASED MP3 PLAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiq V Mehta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available MP3 is a patented encoding format for digital audio which uses a form of lossy data compression. It is a common audio format for consumer audio streaming or storage, as well as a de facto standard of digital audio compression for the transfer and playback of music on most digital audio players. Since the MPEG-1 Layer III encoding technology is nowadays widely used it might be interesting to gain knowledge of how this powerful compression/decompression scheme actually functions. The MPEG-1 Layer III is capable of reducing the bit rate with a factor of 12 without almost any audible degradation. Arm7 lpc2148 is arm7tdmi-s core board microcontroller that uses 16/32-bit 64 pin (lqfp microcontroller no.lpc2148 from Philips (nxp.The hardware system of lpc2148 includes the necessary devices within only one mcu has such as usb, adc, dac, timer/counter, pwm, capture, i2c, spi, uart, and etc.

  2. Unexpected cellular players in Rett syndrome pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronk, James C; Derecki, Noel C; Litvak, Vladimir; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Rett syndrome is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder, primarily caused by mutations of methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Although the genetic cause of disease was identified over a decade ago, a significant gap still remains in both our clinical and scientific understanding of its pathogenesis. Neurons are known to be primary players in pathology, with their dysfunction being the key in Rett syndrome. While studies in mice have demonstrated a clear causative - and potential therapeutic - role for neurons in Rett syndrome, recent work has suggested that other tissues also contribute significantly to progression of the disease. Indeed, Rett syndrome is known to present with several common peripheral pathologies, such as osteopenia, scoliosis, gastrointestinal problems including nutritional defects, and general growth deficit. Mouse models assessing the potential role of non-neuronal cell types have confirmed both roles in disease and potential therapeutic targets. A new picture is emerging in which neurons both initiate and drive pathology, while dysfunction of other cell types and peripheral tissues exacerbate disease, possibly amplifying further neurologic problems, and ultimately result in a positive feedback loop of progressively worsening symptoms. Here, we review what is known about neuronal and non-neuronal cell types, and discuss how this new, integrative understanding of the disease may allow for additional clinical and scientific pathways for treating and understanding Rett syndrome.

  3. Exact Solutions to Maccari's System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Jun-Ting; GONG Lun-Xun

    2007-01-01

    Based on the generalized Riccati relation, an algebraic method to construct a series of exact solutions to nonlinear evolution equations is proposed. Being concise and straightforward, the method is applied to Maccari's system, and some exact solutions of the system are obtained. The method is of important significance in exploring exact solutions for other nonlinear evolution equations.

  4. METABOLIC DEMANDS OF MATCH PERFORMANCE IN YOUNG SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Aslan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine metabolic responses, movement patterns and distance covered at running speeds corresponding to fixed blood lactate concentrations (FBLs in young soccer players during a match play. A further aim of the study was to evaluate the relationships between FBLs, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max and distance covered during a game. A multistage field test was administered to 32 players to determine FBLs and VO2max. Blood lactate (LA, heart rate (HR and rate of perceived exertion (RPE responses were obtained from 36 players during tournament matches filmed using six fixed cameras. Images were transferred to a computer, for calibration and synchronization. In all players, values for LA and HR were higher and RPE lower during the 1st half compared to the 2nd half of the matches (p < 0.01. Players in forward positions had higher LA levels than defenders, but HR and RPE values were similar between playing positions. Total distance and distance covered in jogging, low-moderate-high intensity running and low intensity sprint were higher during the 1st half (p < 0.01. In the 1st half, players also ran longer distances at FBLs [p<0.01; average running speed at 2mmol·L-1 (FBL2: 3.32 ± 0.31m·s-1 and average running speed at 4mmol·L-1 (FBL4: 3.91 ± 0.25m·s-1]. There was a significant difference between playing positions in distance covered at different running speeds (p < 0.05. However, when distance covered was expressed as FBLs, the players ran similar distances. In addition, relationships between FBLs and total distance covered were significant (r = 0.482 to 0.570; p < 0.01. In conclusion, these findings demonstrated that young soccer players experienced higher internal load during the 1st half of a game compared to the 2nd half. Furthermore, although movement patterns of players differed between playing positions, all players experienced a similar physiological stress throughout the game. Finally, total

  5. Norwegian Football Academy Players-Players Self-Assessed Competence, Perfectionism, Goal Orientations and Motivational Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirik Nerland

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Grounded in the theoretical framework of achievement goal theory and perfectionism theory, the purpose of this study was to examine how self-assessed perceived abilities covariance these variables among Norwegian football academy players. 140 adolescent football players participated, representing three football academies. Perceived competence was reported as equivalent to or better than others. Perfectionism scores showed personal standards as the highest of the dimensions of perfectionism, while perceived parental pressure was lowest. In contrast, mean task orientation and perceived mastery climate were higher than ego orientation and perceived performance climate. The correlation analysis showed that perceived competence correlated positively with personal standards. Personal standards correlated positively with the rest of the perfectionism dimensions as well as ego orientation, perceived mastery- and performance climate. Concern over mistakes was positively correlated with ego-orientation. Overall, findings suggested that personal standards correlate with perceived competence, while these variables also relate to other perfectionism dimensions, goal orientations and perceived motivational climate. Therefore, coaches should highlight the importance of high personal standards, as a potentially maladaptive function on talent development.

  6. Violent video game players and non-players differ on facial emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Ruth L; Wong, Ulric; Hodgins, David C; Chiu, Carina G; Goghari, Vina M

    2016-01-01

    Violent video game playing has been associated with both positive and negative effects on cognition. We examined whether playing two or more hours of violent video games a day, compared to not playing video games, was associated with a different pattern of recognition of five facial emotions, while controlling for general perceptual and cognitive differences that might also occur. Undergraduate students were categorized as violent video game players (n = 83) or non-gamers (n = 69) and completed a facial recognition task, consisting of an emotion recognition condition and a control condition of gender recognition. Additionally, participants completed questionnaires assessing their video game and media consumption, aggression, and mood. Violent video game players recognized fearful faces both more accurately and quickly and disgusted faces less accurately than non-gamers. Desensitization to violence, constant exposure to fear and anxiety during game playing, and the habituation to unpleasant stimuli, are possible mechanisms that could explain these results. Future research should evaluate the effects of violent video game playing on emotion processing and social cognition more broadly.

  7. 注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾溶液的稳定性研究%Stability Explore Injection Amoxicillin Clavulanate Potassium Sodium Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彩兰; 张涛; 郭杨庆

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the injection of sodium amoxicilin and clavulanate potassium solution stability compatibility when using different solvents.Methods Determination of the dosing by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)amoxicilin clavulanate potassium sodium content changes in different time periods,and observe the color changes after dosing.Results For injection amoxicilin sodium clavulanate potassium is preferably stable in 0.9%sodium chloride solvent,in a pharmaceuticaly effective 3h decreased less than 10%;in glucose-containing solvent stability than difference,in a pharmaceuticaly effective drug 3 h decreased about 10%~30%.Conclusion Amoxicilin sodium injection stability of potassium clavulanate in 0.9%sodium chloride solution is preferably,but in the glucose-containing solution is relatively poor stability,and the rate of decline in an amount proportional to the glucose content,immediately after dilution with 0.9%sodium chloride injection solution,and should be complete within 3 h infusion process (25℃ below).%目的 探讨注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾溶液在不同溶剂配伍使用时的稳定性.方法 用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定配液后阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾在不同时段的含量变化情况,并观察配液后颜色变化情况.结果 注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾在0.9%氯化钠注射液中的稳定性较好,在3 h内药物有效含量下降小于10%;但在葡萄糖注射液中的稳定性较差,在用药3 h内药物有效含量下降在10%~30%.结论注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾在0.9%氯化钠注射液中的稳定性较好,但在含葡萄糖溶液中的稳定性相对较差,且其含量下降速度与葡萄糖含量呈正比,用0.9%氯化钠注射液溶解后应立即稀释,并应在3 h内(25℃以下)完成整个输液过程.

  8. Exploration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennevik, H.C. [Saga Petroleum A/S, Forus (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    The paper evaluates exploration technology. Topics discussed are: Visions; the subsurface challenge; the creative tension; the exploration process; seismic; geology; organic geochemistry; seismic resolution; integration; drilling; value creation. 4 refs., 22 figs.

  9. Exploration Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, D.R.; Stanley, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for 2012 draws upon information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents analyses of exploration activities performed by the mineral industry. Three sources of information are reported and analyzed in this annual review of international exploration for 2012: 1) budgetary statistics expressed in U.S. nominal dollars provided by SNL Metals Economics Group (MEG) of Halifax, Nova Scotia; 2) regional and site-specific exploration activities that took place in 2012 as compiled by the USGS and 3) regional events including economic, social and political conditions that affected exploration activities, which were derived from published sources and unpublished discussions with USGS and industry specialists.

  10. Exploration Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savit, Carl H.

    1978-01-01

    Expansion of activity and confirmation of new technological directions characterized several fields of exploration geophysics in 1977. Advances in seismic-reflection exploration have been especially important. (Author/MA)

  11. Breast Cancer: Current Molecular Therapeutic Targets and New Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagini, Siddavaram

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the most frequent cause of cancer death among women worldwide. Breast cancer is a complex, heterogeneous disease classified into hormone-receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 overexpressing (HER2+) and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) based on histological features. Endocrine therapy, the mainstay of treatment for hormone-responsive breast cancer involves use of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), selective estrogen receptor downregulators (SERDs) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs). Agents that target estrogen receptor (ER) and HER2 such as tamoxifen and trastuzumab have been the most extensively used therapeutics for breast cancer. Crosstalk between ER and other signalling networks as well as epigenetic mechanisms have been envisaged to contribute to endocrine therapy resistance. TNBC, a complex, heterogeneous, aggressive form of breast cancer in which the cells do not express ER, progesterone receptor or HER2 is refractory to therapy. Several molecular targets are being explored to target TNBC including androgen receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Receptors, protein tyrosine kinases, phosphatases, proteases, PI3K/Akt signalling pathway, microRNAs (miRs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are potential therapeutic targets. miR-based therapeutic approaches include inhibition of oncomiRs by antisense oligonucleotides, restoration of tumour suppressors using miR mimics, and chemical modification of miRs. The lnRNAs HOTAIR, SPRY4-IT1, GAS5, and PANDAR, new players in tumour development and prognosis may have theranostic applications in breast cancer. Several novel classes of mechanism-based drugs have been designed and synthesised for treatment of breast cancer. Integration of nucleic acid sequencing studies with mass spectrometry-based peptide sequencing and posttranslational modifications as

  12. Academic Quality Control in Nigerian Universities: Exploring Lecturers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiekezie, E. O.; Ejemot-Nwadiaro, R. I.; Essien, M. I.; Timothy, A. Essien

    2014-01-01

    The level of job performance, international comparability and competitiveness of Nigerian university graduates are burning issues. Consequently, the academic quality of Nigerian universities has come under severe criticism. Since university lecturers are key players in quality control in universities, this study explored their perceptions of…

  13. Academic Quality Control in Nigerian Universities: Exploring Lecturers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiekezie, E. O.; Ejemot-Nwadiaro, R. I.; Essien, M. I.; Timothy, A. Essien

    2014-01-01

    The level of job performance, international comparability and competitiveness of Nigerian university graduates are burning issues. Consequently, the academic quality of Nigerian universities has come under severe criticism. Since university lecturers are key players in quality control in universities, this study explored their perceptions of…

  14. L'impact des développements scientifiques sur la résolution des problèmes techniques posés par la nouvelle conjoncture dans l'exploration et la production du pétrole Impact of Scientific Developments on the Solving of Technical Problems Raised by the New Economic Situation in Oil Exploration and Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tissot B.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans les circonstances difficiles que traverse l'exploration et la production du pétrole, le savoir-faire technologique, associé à la maîtrise des coûts, seront pour l'industrie pétrolière et parapétrolière des atouts essentiels. On envisage ici l'impact prévisible des développements scientifiques sur la résolution des problèmes techniques dans l'exploration et la production. Les principales disciplines scientifiques concernées (géologie, géophysique, géochimie, mécanique des roches et des sols, mécanique des fluides, physicochimie des interfaces ainsi que trois techniques de base (modélisation, systèmes experts, matériaux nouveaux sont examinées dans ce sens. En particulier,la modélisation numérique voit son importance croître de manière spectaculaire : elle couvre désormais des domaines nouveaux, comme les Sciences de la Terre, et continue à s'enrichir de développements importants, même dans les secteurs où on l'utilise depuis 20 ans comme la production. Ces évolutions s'accompagneront nécessairement d'ajustements dans la formation des hommes et le fonctionnement des organisations; en particulier un espace nouveau pourrait se dégager pour de petites entreprises de conseil et de service plus riches en matière grise qu'en investissements lourds. In the difficult circumstances now confronting oil exploration and production, technical know-how combined with cost control will be essential assets for the petroleum and petroleum equipment and service industries. This article considers the foreseeable impact of scientific developments on the solving of technical problems in exploration and production. The principal scientific disciplines involved (geology, geophysics, geochemistry, rock and soil mechanics, fluid mechanics, interface physicochemistry as well as three basic techniques (modeling, expert systems, new materials are examined within this context. In particular, numerical modeling is increasing in

  15. Monitoring for overreaching in rugby league players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Aaron J; Reaburn, Peter; Piva, Terrence J; Rowsell, Greg J

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify indicators of non-functional overreaching (NFOR) in team sport athletes undertaking intensive training loads. Eighteen semi-professional rugby league players were randomly assigned into two pair matched groups. One group completed 6 weeks of normal training (NT) whilst the other group was deliberately overreached through intensified training (IT). Both groups then completed the same 7-day stepwise training load reduction taper. Multistage fitness test (MSFT) performance, VO2 (max), peak aerobic running velocity (V (max)), maximal heart rate, vertical jump, 10-s cycle sprint performance and body mass were measured pre- and post-training period and following the taper. Hormonal, haematological and immunological parameters were also measured pre-training and following weeks 2, 4 and 6 of training and post-taper. MANOVA for repeated measures with contrast analysis indicated that MSFT performance and VO2 (max) were significantly reduced in the IT group over time and condition, indicating that a state of overreaching was attained. However, the only biochemical measure that was significantly different between the IT and NT group was the glutamine to glutamate (Gln/Glu) ratio even though testosterone, testosterone to cortisol (T/C) ratio, plasma glutamate, and CK activity were significantly changed after training in both groups. Positive endurance and power performance changes were observed post-taper in the IT group confirming NFOR. These changes were associated with increases in the T/C ratio and the Gln/Glu ratio and decreases in plasma glutamate and CK activity. These results indicate that although there was no single reliable biochemical marker of NFOR in these athletes, the Gln/Glu ratio and MSFT test may be useful measures for monitoring responses to IT in team sport athletes.

  16. Exploring Geometric Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Elana

    2016-01-01

    In this brief article Elana Reiser describes her favorite lesson that combines popular culture with mathematics in a way that motivates student thinking and participation. Exploring open-ended problems, students may feel uneasy at first, but working in small groups often leads them to experiment with a variety of solutions. Reiser explains that…

  17. Prevalent morphometric vertebral fractures in professional male rugby players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Hind

    Full Text Available There is an ongoing concern about the risk of injury to the spine in professional rugby players. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vertebral fracture using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA imaging in professional male rugby players. Ninety five professional rugby league (n = 52 and union (n = 43 players (n = 95; age 25.9 (SD 4.3 years; BMI: 29.5 (SD 2.9 kg.m2 participated in the research. Each participant received one VFA, and one total body and lumbar spine DXA scan (GE Lunar iDXA. One hundred and twenty vertebral fractures were identified in over half of the sample by VFA. Seventy four were graded mild (grade 1, 40 moderate (grade 2 and 6 severe (grade 3. Multiple vertebral fractures (≥2 were found in 37 players (39%. There were no differences in prevalence between codes, or between forwards and backs (both 1.2 v 1.4; p>0.05. The most common sites of fracture were T8 (n = 23, T9 (n = 18 and T10 (n = 21. The mean (SD lumbar spine bone mineral density Z-score was 2.7 (1.3 indicating high player bone mass in comparison with age- and sex-matched norms. We observed a high number of vertebral fractures using DXA VFA in professional rugby players of both codes. The incidence, aetiology and consequences of vertebral fractures in professional rugby players are unclear, and warrant timely, prospective investigation.

  18. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND TACTICAL PREPA RATION OF JUNIOR TENNIS PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Milenković

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ta king in to con si de ra tion the physi cal in vol ve ment, psychological stabi lity and tactical competence of a player in con tem po rary pro fes si o nal ten nis, it can be con cluded that ten nis players are con stantly ex po sed to ma king stre nu o us ef forts. More over, ta king in to ac co unt the system and the or ga ni za tion of to ur na ments, which in vol ve regu lar trips and thus chan ging ti me zo nes, types of the gro unds at ten nis co urts, clo sed sports halls and open ten nis to ur na ments, we can lo gi cally con clu de that psycho lo gi cal and tac ti cal pre pa ra tion of players in lo wer cat he go ri es is of gre at im por tan ce. The pro blem of this study re fers to the cho i ce of tasks gi ven to a player. Tasks are di rectly aimed at psycho lo gi cal sta bi lity which players ha ve to de ve lop be fo re the match, in the warm up pe riod and du ring the match it self. Tac ti cal com pe ten ce is of vi tal im por tan ce for each ten nis player who lo oks forward to ac hi e ving high sports re sults. In that sen se, a the o re ti cal ap pro ach to a tac tic is ne e ded, as well as a partial analysis of tac ti cal va ri a bles adаpted to players and to con di ti ons at matches.

  19. ANTHROPOMETRIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS ON INDIAN INTERUNIVERSITY BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamal Koley

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was two-fold, firstly, to evaluate the anthropometric profile of Indian interuniversity basketball players and, secondly, to search the correlation of body mass index, % body fat, hand grip strength (right dominant and Vo2max,with other anthropometric characteristics studied. Eleven anthropometriccharacteristics, four body composition parameters, two physical and two physiological variables were measured on randomly selected 60 inter-university Indian basketball players (35 males and 25 females aged 18–25 years from Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India with adequate controls (n = 102, 52 males and 50 females. The results indicated that male basketball players were taller (6.63% and heavier (7.31% and female basketball players were slightly taller (0.31% and lighter (3.74% than their control counterparts. One way analysis of variance showed significant (p ≤ .004 - .000 between group differences in all the variables (excepthip circumference between basketball players and controls. In basketball players, significantly positive correlations were found with BMI and other 12 variables, with percent body fat and 7 variables, with right hand grip strength and 12 variables and with Vo2max and other 9 variables, and significantly negative correlationswere found with BMI and other 1 variable (% lean body mass, with percent body fat and other 6 variables, with right hand grip strength and other 2 variables and with Vo2max with other 3 variables. The findings of the present study might be useful in future investigation on player selection, talent identification in the game of basketball and its training program development.

  20. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Wierike, Sanne C M; de Jong, Mark C; Tromp, Eveline J Y; Vuijk, Pieter J; Lemmink, Koen A P M; Malina, Robert M; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris

    2014-04-01

    Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated in a mixed-longitudinal sample of 48 elite basketball players 14-19 years of age (16.1 ± 1.7 years). Players were observed on 6 occasions during the 2008-09 and 2009-10 seasons. Three following basketball-specific field tests were administered on each occasion: the shuttle sprint test for RSA, the vertical jump for lower body explosive strength (power), and the interval shuttle run test for interval endurance capacity. Height and weight were measured; body composition was estimated (percent fat, lean body mass). Multilevel modeling of RSA development curve was used with 32 players (16.0 ± 1.7 years) who had 2 or more observations. The 16 players (16.1 ± 1.8 years) measured on only 1 occasion were used as a control group to evaluate the appropriateness of the model. Age, lower body explosive strength, and interval endurance capacity significantly contributed to RSA (p ≤ 0.05). Repeated sprint ability improved with age from 14 to 17 years (p ≤ 0.05) and reached a plateau at 17-19 years. Predicted RSA did not significantly differ from measured RSA in the control group (p ≥ 0.05). The results suggest a potentially important role for the training of lower body explosive strength and interval endurance capacity in the development of RSA among youth basketball players. Age-specific reference values for RSA of youth players may assist basketball coaches in setting appropriate goals for individual players.

  1. Design of Emergent and Adaptive Virtual Players in a War RTS Game

    CERN Document Server

    Gutiérrez, José A García; Fernández-Leiva, Antonio J

    2012-01-01

    Basically, in (one-player) war Real Time Strategy (wRTS) games a human player controls, in real time, an army consisting of a number of soldiers and her aim is to destroy the opponent's assets where the opponent is a virtual (i.e., non-human player controlled) player that usually consists of a pre-programmed decision-making script. These scripts have usually associated some well-known problems (e.g., predictability, non-rationality, repetitive behaviors, and sensation of artificial stupidity among others). This paper describes a method for the automatic generation of virtual players that adapt to the player skills; this is done by building initially a model of the player behavior in real time during the game, and further evolving the virtual player via this model in-between two games. The paper also shows preliminary results obtained on a one player wRTS game constructed specifically for experimentation.

  2. THE EVALUATION OF SOME PHYSICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CAHARACTERISTICS OF TURKISH AND FOREIGN NATIONAL BADMINTON TEAM PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan REVAN

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate of some physical and physiological characteristics of Turkish and Foreign National Badminton Team Players.The study was participated by 50 players from Turkish team (12 males and 11 females, from foreign team (13 females and 14 males. Body mass index, audio and visual reaction times, anaerobic power, body fat percentage and somatotype components of the participants were determined.While visual right hand reaction times of Turkish Male Badminton Players were better than foreign players, other physical parameters were not found as statistically significant between male player groups. While visual left hand reaction times of Turkish Female Badminton Players were better and mesomorphy values were less than foreign players, in other physical parameters a statistically significant difference could not found between female player groups.As a result, physical and physiological characteristics of Turkish and foreign badminton players were similar.

  3. Exploring Cyberbullying and Other Toxic Behavior in Team Competition Online Games

    CERN Document Server

    Kwak, Haewoon; Han, Seungyeop

    2015-01-01

    In this work we explore cyberbullying and other toxic behavior in team competition online games. Using a dataset of over 10 million player reports on 1.46 million toxic players along with corresponding crowdsourced decisions, we test several hypotheses drawn from theories explaining toxic behavior. Besides providing large-scale, empirical based understanding of toxic behavior, our work can be used as a basis for building systems to detect, prevent, and counter-act toxic behavior.

  4. Lateral Scapular Slide Test and Scapular Mobility in Volleyball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozunlu, Nihan; Tekeli, Hatice; Baltaci, Gul

    2011-01-01

    Context: The stability of the scapula in relation to the entire moving upper extremity is the key in the throwing sequence. The importance of scapular positioning in volleyball players has been well documented in the literature, but no one has compared scapular positioning between volleyball players and sedentary people. Objective: To compare measurements of scapular mobility obtained using the lateral scapular slide test between volleyball players and sedentary participants without shoulder impairments and to compare changes in scapular mobility in players according to the number of years of sport participation. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: University research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 121 people at a single university volunteered. Of these, 67 were sedentary (age = 24.3 ± 2.34 years, height = 1.69 ± 0.09 m, mass = 65.1 ± 11.91 kg); 54 were volleyball players from 4 professional teams and were separated into 2 groups according to their years of sport participation. The first group was named young players (n = 31; age = 17.7 ± 2.58 years, height = 1.83 ± 0.10 m, mass = 68.3 ± 12.21 kg, sport participation ≤ 9 years), and the second group was named old players (n = 23; age = 26.9 ± 3.39 years, height = 1.95 ± 4.38 m, mass = 90.7 ± 5.75 kg, sport participation ≥ 10 years). Main Outcome Measure(s): Study participants completed a rating scale for pain and a questionnaire about demographic and shoulder problems. One assessor performed the lateral scapular slide test and additional flexibility measurements around the shoulder girdle. Flexibility (external rotation, internal rotation) and scapular position (1, 2, 3) were compared among groups (young players, old players, sedentary people) and between sides (dominant, nondominant). Results: In sedentary participants, we found differences for position 1 (t66 = 3.327, P = .002), position 2 (t66 = 2.491, P = .004), position 3 (t66 = 2.512, P = .006), and internal rotation

  5. Concussion among female middle-school soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, John W; Spieker, Amy; Levy, Marni R; Neradilek, Moni; Polissar, Nayak L; Schiff, Melissa A

    2014-03-01

    Despite recent increased awareness about sports concussions, little research has evaluated concussions among middle-school athletes. To evaluate the frequency and duration of concussions in female youth soccer players and to determine if concussions result in stopping play and seeking medical care. Prospective cohort study from March 2008 through May 2012 among 4 soccer clubs from the Puget Sound region of Washington State, involving 351 elite female soccer players, aged 11 to 14 years, from 33 randomly selected youth soccer teams. Of the players contacted, 83.1% participated and 92.4% completed the study. Concussion cumulative incidence, incidence rate, and description of the number, type, and duration of symptoms. We inquired weekly about concussion symptoms and, if present, the symptom type and duration, the event resulting in symptom onset, and whether the player sought medical attention or played while symptomatic. Among the 351 soccer players, there were 59 concussions with 43 742 athletic exposure hours. Cumulative concussion incidence was 13.0% per season, and the incidence rate was 1.2 per 1000 athletic exposure hours (95% CI, 0.9-1.6). Symptoms lasted a median of 4.0 days (mean, 9.4 days). Heading the ball accounted for 30.5% of concussions. Players with the following symptoms had a longer recover time than players without these symptoms: light sensitivity (16.0 vs 3.0 days, P = .001), emotional lability (15.0 vs 3.5 days, P = .002), noise sensitivity (12.0 vs 3.0 days, P = .004), memory loss (9.0 vs 4.0 days, P = .04), nausea (9.0 vs 3.0 days, P = .02), and concentration problems (7.0 vs 2.0 days, P = .02). Most players (58.6%) continued to play with symptoms, with almost half (44.1%) seeking medical attention. Concussion rates in young female soccer players are greater than those reported in older age groups, and most of those concussed report playing with symptoms. Heading the ball is a frequent precipitating event. Awareness

  6. Quadriceps tendon injuries in national football league players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boublik, Martin; Schlegel, Theodore F; Koonce, Ryan C; Genuario, James W; Kinkartz, Jason D

    2013-08-01

    Distal quadriceps tendon tears are uncommon injuries that typically occur in patients older than 40 years of age, and they have a guarded prognosis. Predisposing factors, prodromal findings, mechanisms of injury, treatment guidelines, and recovery expectations are not well described in high-level athletes. Professional American football players with an isolated tear of the quadriceps tendon treated with timely surgical repair will return to their sport. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Fourteen unilateral distal quadriceps tendon tears were identified in National Football League (NFL) players from 1994 to 2004. Team physicians retrospectively reviewed training room and clinic records, operative notes, and imaging studies for each of these players. Data on each player were analyzed to identify variables predicting return to play. A successful outcome was defined as returning to play in regular-season NFL games. Eccentric contraction of the quadriceps was the most common mechanism of injury, occurring in 10 players. Only 1 player had antecedent ipsilateral extensor mechanism symptoms. Eleven players had a complete rupture of the quadriceps tendon, and 3 had partial tears. There were no associated knee injuries. All ruptures were treated with surgical repair, 1 of which was delayed after failure of nonoperative treatment. Fifty percent of players returned to play in regular-season NFL games. There was a trend toward earlier draft status for those who returned to play compared with those who did not (draft round, 3.1 ± 2.5 vs. 6.0 ± 2.9, respectively; P = .073). For those who returned to play, the average number of games after injury was 40.9 (range, 12-92). Quadriceps tendon tears are rare in professional American football players, and they usually occur from eccentric load on the extensor mechanism. Prodromal symptoms and predisposing factors are usually absent. Even with timely surgical repair, there is a low rate of return to play in regular-season games. There

  7. Athletic performance outcomes following lumbar discectomy in professional basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anakwenze, Okechukwu A; Namdari, Surena; Auerbach, Joshua D; Baldwin, Keith; Weidner, Zachary D; Lonner, Baron S; Huffman, G R; Sennett, Brian J

    2010-04-01

    Retrospective case-control study. To quantify the athletic performance profiles after lumbar discectomy (LD) in a cohort of National Basketball Association (NBA) players in comparison with a control group of matched NBA players who did not undergo LD during the same study period. LD provides symptomatic relief and improved functional outcomes in the majority of patients as assessed by validated measures such as Oswestry Disability Index, Visual Analog Scale, and Short Form-36 (SF-36). Among professional athletes, however, the goal of lumbar HNP treated by discectomy is not only to improve functional status but also, ultimately, to return the player to preinjury athletic performance levels. No study to date has compared the athletic performance profiles before and after discectomy in professional athletes. An analysis of NBA games summaries, weekly injury reports, player profiles, and press releases was performed to identify 24 NBA players who underwent LD for symptomatic lumbar HNP between 1991 and 2007. A 1:2 case: control study was performed using players without history of lumbar HNP who were matched for age, position, experience, and body mass index as control subjects (n = 48). Paired t tests were conducted on the following parameters: games played, minutes per game, points per 40 minutes, rebounds per 40 minutes, assists per 40 minutes, steals per 40 minutes, blocks per 40 minutes, and shooting percentage. For each athletic performance outcome, between-group comparisons evaluating preindex to postindex season performance were done (index season = season of surgery). In the LD group, 18 of 24 players (75%) returned to play again in the NBA, compared with 42 of 48 players (88%, P = 0.31) in the control group. One year after surgery, between-group comparisons revealed statistically significant increase in blocked shots per 40 minutes in the LD (0.18) versus control group (-0.33; P = 0.008) and a smaller decrease in rebounds per 40 minutes in the LD (-0

  8. Infectious diseases in rugby players: incidence, treatment and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, A; Atkins, B

    2000-03-01

    Participation in rugby football can expose individuals to a variety of infectious diseases both on and off the field of play. The close physical contact and trauma inherent in playing rugby facilitates the transmission of viral, bacterial and fungal pathogens between players and may also lead to the acquisition of potentially lethal infections from the environment, such as tetanus. In the past few years there have been a number of reported outbreaks of infection amongst rugby players in the medical literature. The appearance of HIV infection has focused attention on the potential for transmission of this and other blood-borne viruses such as hepatitis B and C viruses from bleeding wounds sustained on the rugby field. As a result, various expert bodies have produced guidelines on the management of players with bleeding wounds. Opportunities are now available to rugby players to play outside their own countries, including the third world. This can bring them into contact with a wide range of travel-associated infections, some of which may be life threatening. In view of the above it is clear that rugby players and those who coach and manage rugby teams require information and education on the subject of infection and its prevention, as well as access to appropriate medical care and expertise. Many of the infections seen in rugby players are preventable, e.g. by promoting hygienic facilities and conduct in changing rooms and on the field of play, by exclusion of infected players from contact with others and, in some cases, by immunisation or chemoprophylaxis. Players who present with infections should be assessed, correctly diagnosed (using laboratory investigations where appropriate) and treated, and measures should be taken to prevent spread to team-mates and other contacts while respecting the confidentiality of the individual. Any outbreaks of infection should be reported to the appropriate authorities. There is evidence to suggest that strenuous physical exercise

  9. Iliopsoas and gluteal muscles are asymmetric in tennis players but not in soccer players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Sanchis-Moysi

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the volume and degree of asymmetry of iliopsoas (IL and gluteal muscles (GL in tennis and soccer players. METHODS: IL and GL volumes were determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in male professional tennis (TP and soccer players (SP, and in non-active control subjects (CG (n = 8, 15 and 6, respectively. RESULTS: The dominant and non-dominant IL were hypertrophied in TP (24 and 36%, respectively, P<0.05 and SP (32 and 35%, respectively, P<0.05. In TP the asymmetric hypertrophy of IL (13% greater volume in the non-dominant than in the dominant IL, P<0.01 reversed the side-to-side relationship observed in CG (4% greater volume in the dominant than in the contralateral IL, P<0.01, whilst soccer players had similar volumes in both sides (P = 0.87. The degree of side-to-side asymmetry decreased linearly from the first lumbar disc to the pubic symphysis in TP (r = -0.97, P<0.001, SP (r = -0.85, P<0.01 and CG (r = -0.76, P<0.05. The slope of the relationship was lower in SP due to a greater hypertrophy of the proximal segments of the dominant IL. Soccer and CG had similar GL volumes in both sides (P = 0.11 and P = 0.19, for the dominant and contralateral GL, respectively. GL was asymmetrically hypertrophied in TP. The non-dominant GL volume was 20% greater in TP than in CG (P<0.05, whilst TP and CG had similar dominant GL volumes (P = 0.14. CONCLUSIONS: Tennis elicits an asymmetric hypertrophy of IL and reverses the normal dominant-to-non-dominant balance observed in non-active controls, while soccer is associated to a symmetric hypertrophy of IL. Gluteal muscles are asymmetrically hypertrophied in TP, while SP display a similar size to that observed in controls. It remains to be determined whether the different patterns of IL and GL hypertrophy may influence the risk of injury.

  10. The movement characteristics of English Premiership rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Nicola; Lamb, Kevin; Worsfold, Paul; Headey, Roy; Murray, Stafford

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to quantify the movement characteristics of elite rugby union players during competitive play and identify whether position-related differences exist. Ninety-eight elite players from eight English Premiership Clubs were tracked using global positioning systems (GPS) during 44 competitive matches throughout the 2010/2011 season. Player positions were defined as: (1) backs or forwards; (2) front, second and back rows, scrum half, inside and outside backs; (3) 15 individual positions (numbers 1-15). Analysis revealed the game is predominantly played at low speeds with little distance covered 'sprinting' by either the backs (50 ± 76 m) or the forwards (37 ± 64 m). The backs travelled greater (P scrum half covered the greatest total distance during a match (7098 ± 778 m) and the front row the least (5158 ± 200 m). The back row covered the greatest distances at 'sprinting' speeds, particularly the number 8 position (77 m). These findings reflect notable differences in the movement characteristics displayed by elite rugby union players in specific positional roles, and reinforce the contemporary view that training programmes for such players ought to be structured with this in mind.

  11. Fitness Profiles of Elite Portuguese Rugby Union Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz Luís

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the fitness profiles of senior elite Portuguese rugby players. Forty-six senior Portuguese rugby players, classified as backs (n=22; age 26.2±2.8 and forwards (n=24; age 26.7±2.9 were assessed during physical testing sessions carried out for the Portuguese National rugby team. The body composition, maximum strength and anaerobic capacity of players are hypothesized to be important physical characteristics as successful performance in rugby is predicated on the ability to undertake skilled behaviours both quickly and whilst withstanding large forces when in contact situations. No absolute differences were found between the backs and forwards for the speed performance variables although positional differences were found across all speeds when assessed relative to body mass since the forwards were significantly heavier. Coaches and the management team can use this information for monitoring progressive improvements in the physiological capacities of rugby players. These physical characteristics of elite rugby players provide normative profiles for specific positions and should form the basis of developmental programmes for adolescents.

  12. Player guild dynamics and evolution in massively multiplayer online games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Hsun; Sun, Chuen-Tsai; Hsieh, Jilung

    2008-06-01

    In the latest versions of massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs), developers have purposefully made guilds part of game environments. Guilds represent a powerful method for giving players a sense of online community, but there is little quantitative data on guild dynamics. To address this topic, we took advantage of a feature found in one of today's most popular MMOGs (World of Warcraft) to collect in-game data: user interfaces that players can modify and refine. In addition to collecting data on in-game player activities, we used this feature to observe and investigate how players join and leave guilds. Data were analyzed for the purpose of identifying factors that propel game-world guild dynamics and evolution. After collecting data for 641,805 avatars on 62 Taiwanese World of Warcraft game servers between February 10 and April 10, 2006, we created five guild type categories (small, large, elite, newbie, and unstable) that have different meanings in terms of in-game group dynamics. By viewing players as the most important resource affecting guild life cycles, it is possible to analyze game worlds as ecosystems consisting of evolving guilds and to study how guild life cycles reflect game world characteristics.

  13. How the Iranian Football Coaches and Players Know About Doping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif Barghi, Tohid; Halabchi, Farzin; Dvorak, Jiri; Hosseinnejad, Heydar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, doping is an intricate dilemma. Football is the nationally popular sport in Iran. On the other hand, doping is a serious health hazard sport faces today. Studies dealing with athletes’ knowledge, attitudes and behavior concerning doping in football are scarce. Objectives: Therefore, we aimed to investigate the knowledge and attitudes toward doping among the football coaches and players. Patients and Methods: In a cross sectional study, 375 participants (239 football players and 136 coaches) were studied. A specially made questionnaire was applied. In this study, football teams of different provinces of the country were selected by randomized clustered sampling and questionnaires were distributed among coaches and players. Results: Knowledge of football coaches and players in three categories of doping definitions, recognition of prohibited drugs and side effects of anabolic steroids was poor or moderate in 45.3%, 88.5% and 96.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Football players and coaches have poor knowledge about doping in Iran. Moreover, they believe in some inappropriate myths without any scientific or rational basis.It seems necessary to design a comprehensive educational program for all of the athletes and coaches in Iran. PMID:26448840

  14. Efficiently detecting outlying behavior in video-game players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Bin Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a method for automatically detecting the times during which game players exhibit specific behavior, such as when players commonly show excitement, concentration, immersion, and surprise. The proposed method detects such outlying behavior based on the game players’ characteristics. These characteristics are captured non-invasively in a general game environment. In this paper, cameras were used to analyze observed data such as facial expressions and player movements. Moreover, multimodal data from the game players (i.e., data regarding adjustments to the volume and the use of the keyboard and mouse was used to analyze high-dimensional game-player data. A support vector machine was used to efficiently detect outlying behaviors. We verified the effectiveness of the proposed method using games from several genres. The recall rate of the outlying behavior pre-identified by industry experts was approximately 70%. The proposed method can also be used for feedback analysis of various interactive content provided in PC environments.

  15. Complexity of comparison of influence of players in simple games

    CERN Document Server

    Aziz, Haris

    2008-01-01

    Coalitional voting games appear in different forms in multi-agent systems, social choice and threshold logic. In this paper, the complexity of comparison of influence between players in coalitional voting games is characterized. The possible representations of simple games considered are simple games represented by winning coalitions, minimal winning coalitions, weighted voting game or a multiple weighted voting game. The influence of players is gauged from the viewpoint of basic player types, desirability relations and classical power indices such as Shapley-Shubik index, Banzhaf index, Holler index, Deegan-Packel index and Chow parameters. Among other results, it is shown that for a simple game represented by minimal winning coalitions, although it is easy to verify whether a player has zero or one voting power, computing the Banzhaf value of the player is #P-complete. Moreover, it is proved that multiple weighted voting games are the only representations for which it is NP-hard to verify whether the game i...

  16. Psychological and sport-specific characteristics of football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, A; Dvorak, J; Rösch, D; Graf-Baumann, T; Chomiak, J; Peterson, L

    2000-01-01

    It is hypothesized that players of different levels of play might differ not only in their football skills but also in their way of playing football and with respect to psychological factors such as concentration, reaction time, or competitive anxiety. The psychological characteristics of a player might influence his way of playing football (in particular with respect to fair play) and also his risk of injury. A group of 588 football players were studied by questionnaire; additionally, reaction time tests were performed. Psychological characteristics were assessed by three established self-evaluation questionnaires: the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory, the State Competitive Anxiety Test, and the State-Trait-Anger-Expression-Inventory. Football-specific characteristics that were investigated included playing experience and positions played, style of play, number of training hours and games, as well as aspects of fair play. Reaction time was tested twice: without the influence of physical exercise and immediately after a 12-minute run. A significant reduction in reaction time was observed after physical exercise. In high-level players, the reaction time immediately after the 12-minute run was significantly shorter than it was in low-level players. The questionnaire answers given regarding fair play clearly indicated that fair play is not paid sufficient respect. The relationship between psychological characteristics and attitudes toward fair play was analyzed and discussed.

  17. Special considerations in the medical management of professional basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingard, S A

    1993-04-01

    The NBA basketball players are among the finest athletes in the world. That along with the increased popularity of the NBA has put a premium on the health of the players. The course of the season puts tremendous stress and strain on players. As medical illnesses occur, the physician may feel increased pressure to put the ill player back into the line-up. One cannot let the pressure for the player to return to activity interfere with good medical practice. At times, it is difficult to allow for the natural course of an illness, however, as discussed in this article, sometimes this is exactly what needs to be done. The temptation to overtreat is also seen in some team physicians. This too must be avoided. Along with proper treatment, there is the need for education of the athletes both in social interactions and in diet and life-style. Then we, as team physicians, can sit back and enjoy the performance on the court.

  18. Epidemiology of musculoskeletal injury in the tennis player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Geoffrey D; Renstrom, Per A; Safran, Marc R

    2012-06-01

    Tennis is a popular sport with tens of millions of players participating worldwide. This popularity was one factor leading to the reappearance of tennis as a medal sport at the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul, South Korea. The volume of play, combined with the physical demands of the sports, can lead to injuries of the musculoskeletal system. Overall, injury incidence and prevalence in tennis has been reported in a number of investigations. The sport creates specific demands on the musculoskeletal system, with acute injuries, such as ankle sprains, being more frequent in the lower extremity while chronic overuse injuries, such as lateral epicondylitis, are more common in the upper extremity in the recreational player and shoulder pain more common in the high-level player. This review discusses the epidemiology of injuries frequently experienced in tennis players and examines some of these injuries' correlation with the development of osteoarthritis. In addition, player-specific factors, such as age, sex, volume of play, skill level, racquet properties and grip positions as well as the effect of playing surface on the incidence and prevalence of injury is reported. Finally, recommendations on standardisation of future epidemiological studies on tennis injuries are made in order to be able to more easily compare results of future investigations.

  19. Fitness Profiles of Elite Portuguese Rugby Union Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Luís; Morais, Tomaz; Rocha, Henrique; James, Nic

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the fitness profiles of senior elite Portuguese rugby players. Forty-six senior Portuguese rugby players, classified as backs (n=22; age 26.2±2.8) and forwards (n=24; age 26.7±2.9) were assessed during physical testing sessions carried out for the Portuguese National rugby team. The body composition, maximum strength and anaerobic capacity of players are hypothesized to be important physical characteristics as successful performance in rugby is predicated on the ability to undertake skilled behaviours both quickly and whilst withstanding large forces when in contact situations. No absolute differences were found between the backs and forwards for the speed performance variables although positional differences were found across all speeds when assessed relative to body mass since the forwards were significantly heavier. Coaches and the management team can use this information for monitoring progressive improvements in the physiological capacities of rugby players. These physical characteristics of elite rugby players provide normative profiles for specific positions and should form the basis of developmental programmes for adolescents. PMID:25114750

  20. Relative age effect and selection of young basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Igor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the present study was to examine whether influence of relative age effect (RAE exists or not in the selected 13 year old basketball players. Subjects were 20 basketball players (HT=177.35cm±6.73, BW=61.42kg±8.98, average age 13 years and 7 months ±.28, average experience in basketball training 4 years and 6 months ±1.15. Sample was divided in two groups: 11 players born in first half of the year and 9 players born in the second half of the year. One-way ANOVA was used in order to analyze the differences between the two groups of players in set of anthropometric variables (body height, arm span, standing reach height, body weight and percentage of body fat, motor variables (velocity of neuromuscular reaction time, vertical jump, 5 meters sprint, 10 meters sprint, 20 meters sprint, T-test, Zig-zag test, ball throw from sitting position, Sit-ups for 30 seconds and standing forward bend and one functional variable (20-M shuttle run test. Subjects do not differ in applied set of parameters, except in on variable (sit-ups for 30 seconds, p=.040. It was concluded that RAE does not exist in this sample of examinees.

  1. MEANING TO BE VOLLEYBALL PLAYER IN CAREER TRANSITION PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Justino

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the meaning of being that a volleyball player for the under-19 players who are experiencing a transition in their in career. Sixteen male players aged 17 and 18 were evaluated, by being asked the triggering question “What does being a volleyball player mean to you?” The analysis of the discourses was carried out according to the procedures recommended by Miles & Huberman (2004. Four response categories resulted: psychoemotional and behavioral skills, emotions in sport, recognition and financial return, skills as an athlete/player. The athletes showed that the meaning of sport lies especially in the passion for practice, but also, in the improving of their tactics and techniques, in the development of psychoemotional and behavioral skills, in the professional recognition and, to a lesser degree, in the financial aspect. Most athletes state they intend to continue in the juvenile sports categories, therefore, understanding the meaning of this activity in their life can be the key to the elaboration of a plan of psychological preparation whose aim is to provide support to their needs in this moment of professional choice.

  2. Ιnjuries in greek amateur soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGIOS TSIGANOS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to record retrospectivelythe epidemiology of injuries in amateur Greek soccer players. Three hundred and one (301 amateur soccer playersvoluntarily participated in the study. Participants answered aspecially-designed questionnaire that included questionsabout demographics, playing surface, division, position,hours of training plus participation, the use of stretching orprophylactic tape, the injury mechanism, the location andtype of injury. During the five years these soccer playerssustained a total of 1.745 injuries, that diagnosed by the orthopedist of the team. Most of injuries were strains (33%,overuse (27% and sprains (25%. The location of injurieswas the thigh (38 %, ankle (27% and knee (13%. Therewas a significant difference in the total number of injuriesamong soccer players with or without scoliosis (t=3.152,p. 0.05 and players that played on sand/dirt (gravel, whosustained more injuries than the players who played on artificial grass or on grass (t=3.413, p. 0.05. No differenceswere found in the other measurement parameters. The results of our study shows that spine deformities and groundsurfaces are the factors that causes more injuries in amateurGreek soccer players.

  3. A Discrete Evolutionary Model for Chess Players' Ratings

    CERN Document Server

    Fenner, Trevor; Loizou, George

    2011-01-01

    The Elo system for rating chess players, also used in other games and sports, was adopted by the World Chess Federation over four decades ago. Although not without controversy, it is accepted as generally reliable and provides a method for assessing players' strengths and ranking them in official tournaments. It is generally accepted that the distribution of players' rating data is approximately normal but, to date, no stochastic model of how the distribution might have arisen has been proposed. We propose such an evolutionary stochastic model, which models the arrival of players into the rating pool, the games they play against each other, and how the results of these games affect their ratings. Using a continuous approximation to the discrete model, we derive the distribution for players' ratings at time $t$ as a normal distribution, where the variance increases in time as a logarithmic function of $t$. We validate the model using published rating data from 2007 to 2010, showing that the parameters obtained...

  4. Effect of creatine supplementation on jumping performance in elite volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne-Lacasse, Martin; Nadon, Raymond; Goulet E, D B

    2011-12-01

    Jump height is a critical aspect of volleyball players' blocking and attacking performance. Although previous studies demonstrated that creatine monohydrate supplementation (CrMS) improves jumping performance, none have yet evaluated its effect among volleyball players with proficient jumping skills. We examined the effect of 4 wk of CrMS on 1 RM spike jump (SJ) and repeated block jump (BJ) performance among 12 elite males of the Sherbrooke University volleyball team. Using a parallel, randomized, double-blind protocol, participants were supplemented with a placebo or creatine solution for 28 d, at a dose of 20 g/d in days 1-4, 10 g/d on days 5-6, and 5 g/d on days 7-28. Pre- and postsupplementation, subjects performed the 1 RM SJ test, followed by the repeated BJ test (10 series of 10 BJs; 3 s interval between jumps; 2 min recovery between series). Due to injuries (N = 2) and outlier data (N = 2), results are reported for eight subjects. Following supplementation, both groups improved SJ and repeated BJ performance. The change in performance during the 1 RM SJ test and over the first two repeated BJ series was unclear between groups. For series 3-6 and 7-10, respectively, CrMS further improved repeated BJ performance by 2.8% (likely beneficial change) and 1.9% (possibly beneficial change), compared with the placebo. Percent repeated BJ decline in performance across the 10 series did not differ between groups pre- and postsupplementation. In conclusion, CrMS likely improved repeated BJ height capability without influencing the magnitude of muscular fatigue in these elite, university-level volleyball players.

  5. Somebody and Nobody: the Authorial Identity of the Player-Playwright-Poet in the Early Modern Theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Archdeacon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focusses on a particular moment at the beginning of the seventeenth century which has been considered to be transitional in terms of how the profession of playwright was perceived. It explores the complex authorial identities of playwrights who were also simultaneously poets and stage actors, roles which both in different ways created tensions with the role of playwright. Via an examination of the stage figure of Nobody which became popular at this time on the London stage, the paper suggests that filling the multiple roles of poet, playwright and player often led to a conflicted relationship with the idea of authorship. Metadramatic readings of the anonymous 1606 playbook Nobody and Somebody appear to support this suggestion, and to indicate that the figure of Nobody could be emblematic of the tensions and conflicts experienced by the player-playwright-poet at this time.

  6. A place in the sun for EXPLORER

    CERN Multimedia

    Paola Catapano

    2012-01-01

    After 20 years of continuous operation, the gravitational-wave detector Explorer has reached the end of its long career at CERN. On 23 January it set off for a new life at the European Gravitational Observatory (EGO) in Cascina, near Pisa. var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2012/CERN-MOVIE-2012-001/CERN-MOVIE-2012-001-0753-kbps-640x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2012/CERN-MOVIE-2012-001/CERN-MOVIE-2012-001-Multirate-200-to-753-kbps-640x360-25-fps.wmv', 'false', 480, 360, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2012/CERN-MOVIE-2012-001/CERN-MOVIE-2012-001-posterframe-640x360-at-10-percent.jpg', '1419184', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2012/CERN-MOVIE-2012-001/CERN-MOVIE-2012-001-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.mp4'); Find more information about EXPLORER in the March issue of the CERN Courier.

  7. Adaptivity to Age, Gender, and Gaming Platform Topology in Physical Multi-Player Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Friðriksson, Rafn Vídalín; Björnsson, Davíð Þór

    2012-01-01

    In games where players are competing against each other, it can be of interest to ensure that all players are challenged according to their individual skills. In order to investigate such adaptivity to the individual player in physical multi-player games, we developed a game on modular interactive...... and adults, and between male and female players. Also, results show statistically significant differences in the game interactions between different physical set-ups of the modular interactive tiles, i.e. the interaction depended on the topology of the modular tiles set-up. Changing the physical set......-up of the physical game platform changes the interaction and performance of the players....

  8. Strength, Endurance, Throwing Velocity and in-Water Jump Performance of Elite German Water Polo Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinner Christoph

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was threefold: 1 to assess the eggbeater kick and throwing performance using a number of water polo specific tests, 2 to explore the relation between the eggbeater kick and throwing performance, and 3 to investigate the relation between the eggbeater kick in the water and strength tests performed in a controlled laboratory setting in elite water polo players. Fifteen male water polo players of the German National Team completed dynamic and isometric strength tests for muscle groups (adductor, abductor, abdominal, pectoralis frequently used during water polo. After these laboratory strength tests, six water polo specific in-water tests were conducted. The eggbeater kick assessed leg endurance and agility, maximal throwing velocity and jump height. A 400 m test and a sprint test examined aerobic and anaerobic performance. The strongest correlation was found between jump height and arm length (p < 0.001, r = 0.89. The laboratory diagnostics of important muscles showed positive correlations with the results of the in-water tests (p < 0.05, r = 0.52-0.70. Muscular strength of the adductor, abdominal and pectoralis muscles was positively related to in-water endurance agility as assessed by the eggbeater kick (p < 0.05; r = 0.53-0.66. Findings from the current study emphasize the need to assess indices of water polo performance both in and out of the water as well as the relation among these parameters to best assess the complex profile of water polo players.

  9. How Do Soccer Players Adjust Their Activity in Team Coordination? An Enactive Phenomenological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Gesbert

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined how individual team members adjust their activity to the needs for collective behavior. To do so, we used an enactive phenomenological approach and explored how soccer players' lived experiences were linked to the active regulation of team coordination during eight offensive transition situations. These situations were defined by the shift from defensive to offensive play following a change in ball possession. We collected phenomenological data, which were processed in four steps. First, we reconstructed the diachronic and synchronic dynamics of the players' lived experiences across these situations in order to identify the units of their activity. Second, we connected each player's units of activity side-by-side in chronological order in order to identify the collective units. Each connection was viewed as a collective regulation mode corresponding to which and how individual units were linked at a given moment. Third, we clustered each collective unit using the related objectives within three modes of regulation—local (L, global (G, and mixed (M. Fourth, we compared the occurrences of these modes in relation to the observable key moments in the situations in order to identify typical patterns. The results indicated four patterns of collective regulation modes. Two distinct patterns were identified without ball possession: reorganize the play formation (G and M and adapt to the actions of putting pressure on the ball carrier (M. Once the ball was recovered, two additional patterns emerged: be available to get the ball out of the recovery zone (L and shoot for the goal (L and M. These results suggest that team coordination is a fluctuating phenomenon that can be described through the more or less predictable chaining between these patterns. They also highlight that team coordination is supported by several modes of regulation, including our proposal of a new mode of interpersonal regulation. We conclude that future research

  10. Creative Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Children are naturally curious and explore in order to make sense of the world; play and exploration are vital to their learning and development. Space and support for children to think, ask questions, make predictions, experiment, look for explanations and draw conclusions is essential in primary science. This ‘children’s science’ emerges naturally as they seek to learn about the world around them (Johnston 2008) and develop creative explanations of natural phenomena. Adopting such an explor...

  11. EXPLORATION GEOCHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072782 Dong Sheng(East China Academy of Metallurgical Geological Exploration,Hefei 230022,China)Regional Geochemical Characteristics of Guichi Area in Anhui Province and Their Ore-Prospecting Significance(Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,ISSN1000-8918,CN11-1906/P,30(3),2006,p.215-219,223,3 illus.,7 refs.)Key words:polymetallic deposits,regional geological exploration,Anhui Province Controlled by unique geological conditions,

  12. PROSPECTING EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082879 Chen Yaoyu(No.3 Geology and Mineral Exploration Team,Gansu Provincial Bureau of Geology and Mineral Exploration and Development,Lanzhou 730050,China); Gong Quansheng Discussion on the Division of Deposit Scale and the Index of Ore Prospecting(Gansu Geology,ISSN 1004—4116,CN62—1191/P,16(3),2007,p.6—11,4 tables,6 refs.) Key words:prospecting and exploration of mineral

  13. GEOCHEMICAL EXPLORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122626 Li Dongfeng ( Liaoning Institute of Mineral Resources Exploration,Shenyang 110032,China ) Application of Comprehensive Geophysical-Geochemical Method in Toudao-yingzi Gold Field ( Journal of Liaoning Technical University ( Natural Sciences ), ISSN1008-0562,CN21-1379 / N,30 ( 6 ), 2011,p.849-852,1illus.,2tables,10refs. ) Key words:gold ores,geophysical exploration,geochemical exploration,Liaoning Province

  14. Is There Chronic Brain Damage in Retired NFL Players? Neuroradiology, Neuropsychology, and Neurology Examinations of 45 Retired Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casson, Ira R; Viano, David C; Haacke, E Mark; Kou, Zhifeng; LeStrange, Danielle G

    2014-09-01

    Neuropathology and surveys of retired National Football League (NFL) players suggest that chronic brain damage is a frequent result of a career in football. There is limited information on the neurological statuses of living retired players. This study aimed to fill the gap in knowledge by conducting in-depth neurological examinations of 30- to 60-year-old retired NFL players. In-depth neurological examinations of 30- to 60-year-old retired players are unlikely to detect objective clinical abnormalities in the majority of subjects. A day-long medical examination was conducted on 45 retired NFL players, including state-of-the-art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; susceptibility weighted imaging [SWI], diffusion tensor imaging [DTI]), comprehensive neuropsychological and neurological examinations, interviews, blood tests, and APOE (apolipoprotein E) genotyping. Level 3. Participants' histories focused on neurological and depression symptoms, exposure to football, and other factors that could affect brain function. The neurological examination included Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) evaluation of cognitive function and a comprehensive search for signs of dysarthria, pyramidal system dysfunction, extrapyramidal system dysfunction, and cerebellar dysfunction. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) measured depression. Neuropsychological tests included pen-and-paper and ImPACT evaluation of cognitive function. Anatomical examination SWI and DTI MRI searched for brain injuries. The results were statistically analyzed for associations with markers of exposure to football and related factors, such as body mass index (BMI), ethanol use, and APOE4 status. The retired players' ages averaged 45.6 ± 8.9 years (range, 30-60 years), and they had 6.8 ± 3.2 years (maximum, 14 years) of NFL play. They reported 6.9 ± 6.2 concussions (maximum, 25) in the NFL. The majority of retired players had normal clinical mental status and central

  15. Intermittent Testing and Training for High-Level Football Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen

    systematic differences between the playing positions can be detected. Lately, field tests have become more frequently used in football than the laboratory tests used in Study I. Study II therefore aims to assess the validity of one of them, the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2). Along...... with other field tests the Yo-Yo IR2 has become an important tool for monitoring the physical fitness of football players. However, the burden of testing, for players (physically and mentally) and the coaching staff (time consuming), is large and there is a probability that the tests may contain overlapping...... on the Yo-Yo IR2 test and other field- and laboratory tests of intermittent interval training performed as anaerobic speed-endurance production training is very limited for football players. Hence, this latter question is examined in Study IV.In Study I we find no differences in anthropometric...

  16. Somatotype of competitive youth soccer players from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidelix, Yara Lucy; Berria, Juliane; Ferrari, Elisa Pinheiro; Ortiz, Jaelson Gonçalves; Cetolin, Tiago; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2014-09-29

    The aim of this study was to identify the morphological configuration of youth athletes from professional soccer clubs and to verify their differences according to the tactical position on the field. Overall, 67 male players aged 15 to 17 years were evaluated. The examined anthropometric measurements included body mass, body height, skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, supraspinal and medial calf), girths (flexed and tensed arm and calf) and breadths (humerus and femur). For statistical purposes, analysis of variance and post hoc Bonferroni and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used. We concluded that goalkeepers were heavier and taller than center backs (p = 0.015 and p = 0.001), midfielders (p = 0.005 and p somatotype for defense, forward and goalkeeper positions was a balanced mesomorph. Midfield players showed ectomorphic-mesomorph characteristics. It was concluded that goalkeepers were characterized as being taller and heavier and that somatotype features of athletes were similar between positions, except for midfield players.

  17. Social dimensions of expertise in World of Warcraft players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Chen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Expertise development in the massively multiplayer online game World of Warcraft (Blizzard Entertainment, 2004 depends greatly on a player's use of social skills to gain access to expert player groups and accrue social and cultural capital. Drawn from ethnographic research, this paper maps out various forms of expert practice and highlights the social aspects of game play that often eclipse the importance of game-mechanics knowledge. At the time of this research, playing World of Warcraft and developing expertise in the game happened roughly within a two-stage process: (1 leveling up, or advancing one's character or avatar while learning the mechanics of the game, and (2 drawing on social capital gained during the first stage to join a group of up to 40 players to partake in high-end or endgame content.

  18. Verbal aggressiveness and state anxiety of volleyball players and coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekiari, Alexandra; Patsiaouras, Asterios; Kokaridas, Dimitrios; Sakellariou, Kimon

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relation of verbal aggressiveness and state anxiety (somatic, cognitive, and self-confidence) in sports settings based on the ratings by volleyball coaches and their athletes. The sample consisted of volleyball athletes (n=208; 98 men and 110 women) and their coaches (n=20; 16 men and 4 women). Analysis showed that male volleyball players rated somatic anxiety higher and were more affected by the verbal aggressiveness of their coaches than female volleyball players. No mean differences were significant for male and female coaches on somatic or cognitive anxiety, self-confidence, or verbal aggressiveness. Also, correlation between subscale scores for male and female volleyball players and coaches was found. The correlations of verbal aggressiveness with self-confidence and anxiety were positive for these athletes, leading them to better behavior. This relationship needs further examination in sport settings.

  19. METRIC TESTS CHARACTERISTIC FOR ESTIMATING JUMPING FOR VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toplica Stojanović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available With goal to establish metric tests characteristics for estimating jumping for volleyball players, it was organized a pilot research on pattern of 23 volleyball players from cadet team and 23 students from high-school. For needs of this research four tests are valid for estimation, jump in block with left and right leg and jump in spike with left and right leg. Each test has been taken three times, so that we could with test-re test method determine their reliability, and with factor analysis their validity. Data were processed by multivariate analysis (item analysis, factor analysis from statistical package „Statistica 6.0 for windows“. On the results of research and discussion we can say that the tests had high coefficient of reliability, as well as factor validity, and these tests can be used to estimate jumping for volleyball players.

  20. Modeling the Semiotic Structure of Player-Characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vella, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    When game studies has tackled the player-character, it has tended to do so by means of an opposition to the notion of the avatar, with the result that the ontological and semiotic nature of the character in itself has not been given due attention. This paper draws on understandings of character...... from the fields of narratology and literary theory to highlight the double-layered ontology of character as both a possible individual and as a semiotic construction. Uri Margolin’s narratological model of character signification is used as the basis for developing a semiotic-structural model...... of the player-character that addresses its specific medialities and formal nature – a task which is performed through illustrative close examinations of the player-characters in The Last of Us (Naughty Dog 2013) and Gone Home (The Fullbright Company 2013)....

  1. Three-player conflicting interest games and nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolonek-Lasoń, Katarzyna

    2017-08-01

    We outline the general construction of three-player games with incomplete information which fulfil the following conditions: (i) symmetry with respect to the permutations of players; (ii) the existence of an upper bound for total payoff resulting from Bell inequalities; (iii) the existence of both fair and unfair Nash equilibria saturating this bound. Conditions (i)-(iii) imply that we are dealing with conflicting interest games. An explicit example of such a game is given. A quantum counterpart of this game is considered. It is obtained by keeping the same utilities but replacing classical advisor by a quantum one. It is shown that the quantum game possesses only fair equilibria with strictly higher payoffs than in the classical case. This implies that quantum nonlocality can be used to resolve the conflict between the players.

  2. Psychosocial Stress and Sport Injuries in Tennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amador Blas Redondo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the perceived social stress and its relation to sports injuries in tennis players. Sixty-three male tennis players, with a mean age of 31.62 years (SD = 8.93, Sports Clubs belonging to the Province of Alicante (Spain completed instruments of psychosocial stress and injuries sustained during the previous year the assessment. The results indicate that life events experienced was related to some of the injuries suffered by players. Relationships were found between the degree of psychological stress experienced and the negative evaluation of this strain, the type (lesions on wrists, ankles and sprains, and severity of injuries (minor injuries.

  3. Adaptations to speed endurance training in highly trained soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Fiorenza, Matteo; Lund, Anders

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study examined whether a period of additional speed endurance training would improve intense intermittent exercise performance in highly trained soccer players during the season and whether the training changed aerobic metabolism and the level of oxidative enzymes in type I...... and II muscle fibers. METHODS: During the last nine weeks of the season, thirteen semi-professional soccer players performed additional speed endurance training sessions consisting of 2-3 sets of 8 - 10 repetitions of 30 m sprints with 10 s of passive recovery (SET). Before and after SET, subjects...... in type I and II fibers did not change. CONCLUSION: In highly trained soccer players, additional speed endurance training is associated with an improved ability to perform repeated high-intensity work. To what extent the training-induced changes in V˙O2 kinetics and mechanical efficiency in type I fibers...

  4. Biomechanics of Heading a Soccer Ball: Implications for Player Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F. Babbs

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the risk and safety of heading a soccer ball, the author created a set of simple mathematical models based upon Newton�s second law of motion to describe the physics of heading. These models describe the player, the ball, the flight of the ball before impact, the motion of the head and ball during impact, and the effects of all of these upon the intensity and the duration of acceleration of the head. The calculated head accelerations were compared to those during presumably safe daily activities of jumping, dancing, and head nodding and also were related to established criteria for serious head injury from the motor vehicle crash literature. The results suggest heading is usually safe but occasionally dangerous, depending on key characteristics of both the player and the ball. Safety is greatly improved when players head the ball with greater effective body mass, which is determined by a player�s size, strength, and technique. Smaller youth players, because of their lesser body mass, are more at risk of potentially dangerous headers than are adults, even when using current youth size balls. Lower ball inflation pressure reduces risk of dangerous head accelerations. Lower pressure balls also have greater “touch” and “playability”, measured in terms of contact time and contact area between foot and ball during a kick. Focus on teaching proper technique, the re-design of age-appropriate balls for young players with reduced weight and inflation pressure, and avoidance of head contact with fast, rising balls kicked at close range can substantially reduce risk of subtle brain injury in players who head soccer balls.

  5. In-season training periodization of professional soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Los Arcos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantify the seasonal perceived respiratory and muscular training loads (i.e., sRPEres-TL and sRPEmus-TL completed by elite-oriented young professional soccer players. Twentyfour players (20.3 ± 2.0 years belonging to the same reserve team of a Spanish La Liga club participated in this study. Only the players that were available to train for a whole week with the team and also to play the weekly game were considered: Starters, players that participated in the match for at least 45 min and Non- Starters, players that did not participate or played less than 45 minutes in the match. The competitive period was analysed after the division into 5x6-8 week blocks and 35x1 week microcycles. Data were also analysed with respect to number of days before the immediate match. Weekly TL variation across the in-season blocks was trivial-small for both groups except between Block 2 and Block 3 (ES= moderate. Substantial TL differences (ES= small–very likely were found between training days, the TL pattern being a progressive increase up to MD-3 followed by a decrease until MD-1. Except for the match, sRPEres-/sRPEmus-TL was very similar between Starters and Non-Starters. In summary, perceived TL across the season displayed limited variation. Coaches periodized training contents to attain the highest weekly TL 72 hours before the match to progressively unload the players between MD-3 and the match day. The data revealed that the TL arising from the weekly game was solely responsible for the observed higher weekly TL of Starters in comparison with Non-Starters.

  6. Comparison of two aerobic field tests in young tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargeas-Gluck, Marie-Agnès; Léger, Luc A

    2012-11-01

    This study compares the maximal responses of a new aerobic tennis field test, the NAVTEN to a known aerobic field test, often used with young tennis players, that is, the continuous multistage 20-m shuttle run test (20-m SRT). The NAVTEN is an intermittent (1-minute/1-minute) multistage test with side-to-side displacements and ball hitting. Ten young elite tennis players aged 12.9 ± 0.3 (mean ± SD) randomly performed both tests and were continuously monitored for heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) using the Vmax ST (Sensormedics). The 20-m SRT and NAVTEN show similar HRpeak (202 ± 6.1 vs. 208 ± 9.5, respectively) and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak (54.2 ± 5.9 vs. 54.9 ± 6.0 ml·kg·min). Pearson correlations between both tests were 0.88 and 0.92 for V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak and maximal speed, respectively. The NAVTEN yielded V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak values that are typical for active subjects of that age and are similar to the 20-m SRT supporting its use to measure aerobic fitness of young tennis players in specific and entertaining field conditions. The fact that two-thirds of the tennis players achieved a different ranking (±1 rank) with the NAVTEN and the 20-m SRT suggests that the NAVTEN may be more specific than the 20-m SRT to assess aerobic fitness of tennis players. From a practical point of view, the NAVTEN test is more specific and pedagogical for young tennis players even though both tests yield similar maximal values.

  7. Influence of fatigue on tackling technique in rugby league players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2008-03-01

    This study investigated the influence of fatigue on tackling technique in rugby league players and determined the relationship between selected physiological capacities and fatigue-induced decrements in tackling technique. Eight rugby league players underwent a standardized one-on-one tackling drill in a 10-m grid. Players performed the one-on-one tackling drill before strenuous exercise and following game-specific repeated-effort exercise of progressively increasing intensities (corresponding to moderate, heavy, and very heavy intensity) in order to induce fatigue that was representative of match conditions. Video footage was taken from the rear, side, and front of the defending player. Tackling technique was objectively assessed using standardized technical criteria. In addition, all players underwent measurements of standard anthropometry (height, body mass, and sum of 7 skinfold measurements), speed (10-, 20-, and 40-m sprint), muscular power (vertical jump), agility (L run), and estimated maximal aerobic power (VO2max multistage fitness test). A progressive increase in total repeated-effort time, heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and ratings of perceived exertion occurred throughout the repeated-effort protocol, demonstrating a progressive increase in intensity and fatigue. Fatigue resulted in progressive reductions in tackling technique. Players with the best tackling technique in a nonfatigued state demonstrated the greatest decrement in tackling technique under fatigued conditions. In addition, a significant association was observed between estimated VO2max (r = -0.62) and agility (r = 0.68) and fatigue-induced decrements in tackling technique. From a practical perspective, these findings suggest that strength and conditioning programs designed to develop endurance, change of direction speed, and anticipation skills may reduce fatigue-induced decrements in tackling technique. Furthermore, any defensive drills designed to improve tackling technique

  8. From Bovine Horde to Urban Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galloway, Anne; Ludvigsen, Martin; Sundholm, Hillevi

    2003-01-01

    This paper tells a story of an international and multidisciplinary atelier-based design experiment. For ten days in Rome, the ‘White Group’ explored a cyclical process of fieldwork and intervention, critical reflection, design concept generation, and prototyping to generate two novel and situated...

  9. Influence of intellectual impairment (II on basketball players´ capacity to solve a game situation: towards evidence-based classification systems in II-basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier PINILLA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Basketball for athletes with intellectual impairment (II requires the development of evidence-based eligibility systems to guarantee that only athletes with significant limitations performing basketball participate in these competitions. In addition, this is needed to re-include IIbasketball in the Paralympic program. To do this, it is required to investigate how II impacts on fundamental basketball activities. To address this need, the aim of this study was to compare ablebodied (AB and II-players´ capacity to solve a game situation. A field test was designed ad hoc in which 38 elite II-players from France, Portugal, Australia and Japan who participated in the Global Games (2015 and 38 AB-basketball players competing in Spanish competitions, had to solve 8 standardized game situations. Results indicated that II-players spent significantly (p≤0.05 more time to decide (0.92±0.2s than AB-players (0.63±0.1s and to execute the solution (II: 3.01±0.4s; AB: 2.56±0.3s. Also, II-players made more rule infractions (II: 7.11±1.4; AB: 7.71±0.7, more feints (II:1.37±1.4; AB: 0.3±0.6, more dribbles (II: 15.08±3.9; AB: 12.29±2.3 and they performed less successful solutions (II: 4.42±1.5; AB: 5.39±1.3. However, no differences were found in number of correct decisions made. Decision time, number of dribbles and situations in which they succeeded were the variables that best discriminated between II and AB-players. These results confirmed the negative influence of II on players´ capacity to solve a basketball game situation. The calculated discriminant function let us establish the minimum scores from this test that indicates significant limitations on the capacity to solve a game situation. These scores are applicable to determine eligibility criteria in IIbasketball worldwide.

  10. Computing Sequential Equilibria for Two-Player Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2006-01-01

    Koller, Megiddo and von Stengel showed how to efficiently compute minimax strategies for two-player extensive-form zero-sum games with imperfect information but perfect recall using linear programming and avoiding conversion to normal form. Koller and Pfeffer pointed out that the strategies...... a sequential equilibrium are computed. In particular, we show that a sequential equilibrium for a two-player zero-sum game with imperfect information but perfect recall can be found in polynomial time. In addition, the equilibrium we find is normal-form perfect. Our technique generalizes to general-sum games...

  11. The expected-outcome model of two-player games

    CERN Document Server

    Abramson, Bruce

    1990-01-01

    The Expected-Outcome Model of Two-Player Games deals with the expected-outcome model of two-player games, in which the relative merit of game-tree nodes, rather than board positions, is considered. The ambiguity of static evaluation and the problems it generates in the search system are examined and the development of a domain-independent static evaluator is described. Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the rationale for the mathematical study of games, followed by a discussion on some previous artificial intelligence (AI) research efforts on game-trees. The nex

  12. Radiographic knee osteoarthritis in ex-elite table tennis players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajabi Reza

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Table tennis involves adoption of the semi-flexed knee and asymmetrical torsional trunk movements creating rotational torques on the knee joint which may predispose players to osteoarthritis (OA of the knee. This study aims to compare radiographic signs of knee OA and associated functional levels in ex-elite male table tennis players and control subjects. Methods Study participants were 22 ex-elite male table tennis players (mean age 56.64 ± 5.17 years with 10 years of involvement at the professional level and 22 non-athletic males (mean age 55.63 ± 4.08 years recruited from the general population. A set of three radiographs taken from each knee were evaluated by an experienced radiologist using the Kellgren and Lawrence (KL scale (0-4 to determine radiographic levels of OA severity. The intercondylar distance was taken as a measure of lower limb angulation. Participants also completed the pain, stiffness, and physical function categories of the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC 3.1 questionnaire. Results The results showed 78.3% of the ex-elite table tennis players and 36.3% of controls had varying signs of radiographic knee OA with a significant difference in the prevalence levels of definite radiographic OA (KL scale > 2 found between the two groups (P ≤ 0.001. Based on the WOMAC scores, 68.2% of the ex-elite table tennis players reported symptoms of knee pain compared with 27.3% of the controls (p = 0.02 though no significant differences were identified in the mean physical function or stiffness scores between the two groups. In terms of knee alignment, 73.7% of the ex-elite athletes and 32% of the control group had signs of altered lower limb alignment (genu varum (p = 0.01. Statistical differences were found in subjects categorized as having radiographic signs of OA and altered lower limb alignment (p = 0.03. Conclusions Ex-elite table tennis players were found to have increased

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF FLUID INGESTION ON PERFORMANCE OF SOCCER PLAYERS DURING A MATCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Tirapegui

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink on soccer performance. Twenty soccer players volunteered to participate in the study. Players were allocated to two assigned trials according to their positional roles in the team: CHO group (ingesting a 6% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution at regular 15 minutes intervals and NCHO (ingesting no fluid during 75 min on-field soccer game. During the trials, body mass loss, heart rate, time spent running, number of sprints and core temperature were measured. There were statistically significant changes (p < 0.05 in body mass loss (CHO: 1.14 ± 0.37 kg vs. NCHO: 1.75 ± 0.47 kg and number of sprints performed (CHO: 14.70 ± 4.38 vs. NCHO: 10.70 ± 5.80 between groups. The main finding of the present study indicates that supplementation with a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink during a soccer match is beneficial in helping to prevent deterioration in performance.

  14. EXPLORATION ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20142564Chen Mingxing(Beijing Research Institute of Survey and Design,China Hydropower Engineering Consulting Group Co.,Beijing 100024,China);Chen Baoguo Application of Drilling Deviation Correcting and Deflecting Techniques in Geological Exploration at Songta Hydropower Station(Exploration Engineering,ISSN1672-7428,CN11-5063/TD,

  15. From Goods to Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakkol, Mehmet; Johnson, Mark; Raja, Jawwad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to adopt service-dominant logic (SDL) to empirically explore network configurations resulting from the provision of goods, goods and services, and solutions. Design/methodology/approach – This paper uses a single, in-depth, exploratory case study in a truck manufacturer ...

  16. Nearly All Autopsied NFL Players Show Trauma-Linked Brain Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_167405.html Nearly All Autopsied NFL Players Show Trauma-Linked Brain Disease No position ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Ninety-nine percent of former NFL players who donated their brain to science turned ...

  17. First Days of Preseason Practice Pose Big Heat Risks for College Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preseason Practice Pose Big Heat Risks for College Football Players Coaches, trainers need to be aware of ... FRIDAY, Aug. 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- As college football players trade in their beach towels for helmets ...

  18. Postural stability decreases in elite young soccer players after a competitive soccer match

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brito, João; Fontes, Ivo; Ribeiro, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of an official soccer match on postural stability in youth elite soccer players.......To investigate the effects of an official soccer match on postural stability in youth elite soccer players....

  19. 'People Love Player's': Cigarette Advertising and the Teenage Consumer in Post-war Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    This article explores the background, creation and reception of a prominent cigarette advertising campaign from the early 1960s. The advertisements featured young couples falling in love as they shared Player's Medium cigarettes together. As such, the advertisements reflected the central place of the teenager within post-war British consumer culture. The campaign was built upon the insights of market research, particularly that carried out by Mark Abrams and his research organization Research Services Limited. Historians have played down the significance of Abrams's work, but it is argued here that the studies and reports Abrams produced rendered the teenage consumer knowable in a powerful way. Advertisers and manufacturers now had detailed knowledge about young people's consumption habits and their motivations. Such research helped the British tobacco industry formulate a controversial marketing strategy-the need to 'recruit' young people to the smoking habit-and the People Love Player's campaign was created with this in mind. The representations of love and gender included in the advertisements gave the campaign an emotional pull which was designed to resonate with young people. The advertisements were widely criticized and this drove the British tobacco industry to remove from its advertising appeals which might influence the young, such as love. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Morning melatonin ingestion and diurnal variation of short-term maximal performances in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghattassi, K; Hammouda, O; Graja, A; Boudhina, N; Chtourou, H; Hadhri, S; Driss, T; Souissi, N

    2016-03-01

    Aim Very few studies have investigated the temporal specificity of melatonin (MEL) ingestion upon short-term maximal athletic performances. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of morning MEL ingestion on cognitive and physical performances measured in the afternoon. Methods Twelve soccer players from a Tunisian squad (17.9 ± 1.3 years, 1.74 ± 0.06 m and 62.0 ± 8.8 kg) participated in the present study. They performed two testing sessions at 08:00 h, 12:00 h and 16:00 h after either MEL (5mg) or placebo (PLA) ingestion, in a randomized order. During each period, the participants performed the following cognitive and physical tests: reaction time and vigilance tests, medicine-ball throw (MBT), five jumps, handgrip strength (HG), and agility tests. Results cognitive and physical performances were significantly higher at 16:00 h compared to 08:00 h during the two conditions (p ingestion did not affect physical and cognitive performances measured at 12:00 h and 16:00 h. Conclusion morning MEL ingestion has no unfavourable effect on afternoon physical and cognitive performances in soccer players.

  1. Promotion of cooperation induced by discriminators in the spatial multi-player donor-recipient game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guang-Hai; Wang, Zhen; Ren, Jian-Kang; Lu, Kun; Li, Ming-Chu

    2016-11-01

    Although the two-player donor-recipient game has been used extensively in studying cooperation in social dilemmas, the scenario in which a donor can simultaneously donate resources to multiple recipients is also common in human societies, economic systems, and social networks. This paper formulates a model of the multi-player donor-recipient game considering a multi-recipient scenario. The promotion of cooperation is also studied by introducing a discriminative cooperation strategy into the game, which donates resources to recipients in proportion to their previous donations with a cost for the collection of information. The evolutionary dynamics of individual strategies are explored in homogeneous and heterogeneous scenarios by leveraging spatial evolutionary game theory. The results show that in a homogeneous scenario, defectors can dominate the network at the equilibrium state only when the cost-to-benefit ratio (R) of donated resources is large. In a heterogeneous scenario, three strategies can coexist all the time within the range of R that was studied, and the promotion of cooperation is more effective when the values of R are smaller. Results from a single node evolution and the formation of local patterns of interaction are provided, and it is analytically shown that discriminators can maintain fairness in resource donation and guarantee long-term cooperation when R is not too large.

  2. Factors associated with deep tissue injury in male wheelchair basketball players of a Japanese national team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Mutsuzaki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of the sporting activity of elite athletes in adapted sports can be difficult if a secondary disorder, such as a pressure ulcer, occurs. Pressure ulcers result from deep tissue injuries by external pressure. The purpose of this study was to use ultrasonography to investigate deep tissue injuries in male wheelchair basketball players of a Japanese national team, and to determine factors associated with the injuries (e.g., body mass index, class of wheelchair basketball, underlying disease, length of athletic career, and whether use of wheelchair is primarily for playing basketball. Twenty male Japanese wheelchair basketball players on the national team for the 2012 London Paralympic Games (12 representative players and eight candidate representative players participated in this study. The sacral region and bilateral ischial regions in each athlete were examined by ultrasonography to detect low-echoic lesions indicative of deep tissue injuries. Nine (45% players had low-echoic lesions, which were detected in 10 of 60 areas. Eight lesions were detected in the sacral region and two lesions were detected in the ischial region. More players with spinal cord injury had low-echoic lesions [9 (69.2% of 13 players], compared to players with skeletal system disease [0 (0% of 7 players, p = 0.002]. Players who used a wheelchair in daily life were more likely to have low-echoic lesions [8 (66.74% of 12 players], compared to players who primarily used a wheelchair for playing basketball [1 (12.5% of 8 players, p = 0.010]. Deep tissue injuries were detected in 45% of male Japanese wheelchair basketball players on the national team. Players with spinal cord injury and players who used a wheelchair in daily life were more likely to have deep tissue injuries, particularly in the sacral region. The lesions were small, but a periodic medical check should be performed to maintain athletes' sporting life.

  3. Physical Characteristics and Performance of Japanese Top-Level American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Daichi; Asakura, Masaki; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Shinzo; Yamada, Yosuke

    2017-09-01

    Yamashita, D, Asakura, M, Ito, Y, Yamada, S, and Yamada, Y. Physical characteristics and performance of Japanese top-level American football players. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2455-2461, 2017-This study aimed to compare the physical characteristics and performance between top-level nonprofessional football players in Japan and National Football League (NFL) Combine invited players and between top-level and middle-level players in Japan to determine the factors that enhance performance in international and national competitions. A total of 168 American football players (>20 years) in Japan participated in an anthropometric (height and weight) and physical (vertical jump, long jump, 40-yard dash, pro-agility shuttle, 3-cone drill, and bench press repetition test) measurement program based on the NFL Combine program to compete in the selection of candidates for the Senior World Championship. All players were categorized into 1 of the 3 position groups based on playing position: skill players, big skill players, and linemen. Japanese players were additionally categorized into selected and nonselected players for the second tryout. The NFL Combine candidates had significantly better performance than selected Japanese players on all variables except on performance related to quickness among the 3 position groups. Compared with nonselected players, selected Japanese skill players had better performance in the 40-yard dash and bench press test and big skill players had better performance in the vertical jump, broad jump, and 40-yard dash. Selected and nonselected Japanese linemen were not different in any measurements. These results showed the challenges in American football in Japan, which include not only improving physical performance of top-level players, but also increasing the number of football players with good physical performance.

  4. Physical Characteristics and Performance of Japanese Top-Level American Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Masaki; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Shinzo; Yamada, Yosuke

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Yamashita, D, Asakura, M, Ito, Y, Yamada, S, and Yamada, Y. Physical characteristics and performance of Japanese top-level American football players. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2455–2461, 2017—This study aimed to compare the physical characteristics and performance between top-level nonprofessional football players in Japan and National Football League (NFL) Combine invited players and between top-level and middle-level players in Japan to determine the factors that enhance performance in international and national competitions. A total of 168 American football players (>20 years) in Japan participated in an anthropometric (height and weight) and physical (vertical jump, long jump, 40-yard dash, pro-agility shuttle, 3-cone drill, and bench press repetition test) measurement program based on the NFL Combine program to compete in the selection of candidates for the Senior World Championship. All players were categorized into 1 of the 3 position groups based on playing position: skill players, big skill players, and linemen. Japanese players were additionally categorized into selected and nonselected players for the second tryout. The NFL Combine candidates had significantly better performance than selected Japanese players on all variables except on performance related to quickness among the 3 position groups. Compared with nonselected players, selected Japanese skill players had better performance in the 40-yard dash and bench press test and big skill players had better performance in the vertical jump, broad jump, and 40-yard dash. Selected and nonselected Japanese linemen were not different in any measurements. These results showed the challenges in American football in Japan, which include not only improving physical performance of top-level players, but also increasing the number of football players with good physical performance. PMID:28052052

  5. EcoTRADE - a multi player network game of a tradable permit market for biodiversity credits

    CERN Document Server

    Hartig, Florian; Drechsler, Martin

    2008-01-01

    EcoTRADE is a multi player network game of a virtual biodiversity credit market. Each player controls the land use of a certain amount of parcels on a virtual landscape. The biodiversity credits of a particular parcel depend on neighboring parcels, which may be owned by other players. The game can be used to study the strategies of players in experiments or classroom games and also as a communication tool for stakeholders participating in credit markets that include spatially interdependent credits.

  6. Impact of specific training and competition on myocardial structure and function in different age ranges of male handball players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim Agrebi

    Full Text Available Handball activity involves cardiac changes and demands a mixture of both eccentric and concentric remodeling within the heart. This study seeks to explore heart performance and cardiac remodeling likely to define cardiac parameters which influence specific performance in male handball players across different age ranges. Forty three players, with a regular training and competitive background in handball separated into three groups aged on average 11.78 ± 0.41 for youth players aka "schools", "elite juniors" 15.99 ± 0.81 and "elite adults" 24.46 ± 2.63 years, underwent echocardiography and ECG examinations. Incremental ergocycle and specific field (SFT tests have also been conducted. With age and regular training and competition, myocardial remodeling in different age ranges exhibit significant differences in dilatation's parameters between "schools" and "juniors" players, such as the end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD and the end-systolic diameter of the left ventricle (LVESD, the root of aorta (Ao and left atrial (LA, while significant increase is observed between "juniors" and "adults" players in the interventricular septum (IVS, the posterior wall thicknesses (PWT and LV mass index. ECG changes are also noted but NS differences were observed in studied parameters. For incremental maximal test, players demonstrate a significant increase in duration and total work between "schools" and "juniors" and, in total work only, between "juniors" and "seniors". The SFT shows improvement in performance which ranged between 26.17 ± 1.83 sec to 31.23 ± 2.34 sec respectively from "seniors" to "schools". The cross-sectional approach used to compare groups with prior hypothesis that there would be differences in exercise performance and cardiac parameters depending on duration of prior handball practice, leads to point out the early cardiac remodeling within the heart as adaptive change. Prevalence of cardiac chamber dilation with less hypertrophy remodeling

  7. Comparison of Speed, Agility, Anaerobic Strength and Anthropometric Characteristics in Male Football and Futsal Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Resat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare speed, agility, anaerobic strength and some anthropometric characteristics in male football and futsal players. The sample of the study is composed of male futsal team players of Aydin Adnan Menderes University (19-24 aged) (n = 12) and Aydin Merkez Yeniköy Football Club players (19-24 aged) (n = 12). Within…

  8. Physical qualities and activity profiles of sub-elite and recreational Australian football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Josh G; Gabbett, Tim J; Townshend, Andrew D; Dawson, Brian T

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between physical qualities and match activity profiles of recreational Australian football players. Prospective cohort study. Forty players from three recreational Australian football teams (Division One, Two and Three) underwent a battery of fitness tests (vertical jump, 10 and 40 m sprint, 6 m × 30 m repeated sprint test, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level Two and 2-km time trial). The activity profiles of competitive match-play were quantified using 10-Hz Global Positioning System units. Division One players possessed greater maximum velocity, Yo-Yo level Two and 2-km time trial performances than Division Two and Three players. In addition, Division One players covered greater relative distance, and relative distances at moderate- and high-intensities during match-play than Division Two and Three players. Division Two players had better 2-km time trial performances than Division Three players. Positive associations (P football players competing at a higher level exhibit greater physical qualities and match-play activity profiles than lesser-skilled recreational players. Acceleration and maximum velocity, 2-km time trial and Yo-Yo level Two performances discriminate between players of different playing levels, and are related to physical match performance in recreational Australian football. The development of these qualities is likely to contribute to improved match performance in recreational Australian football players. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Self-Esteem Profile among the Female Futsal-Football Players at Jordanian Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasawneh, Aman

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the level of physical and body self-esteem among the female futsal - football players at Jordanian clubs. The sample of the study was composed of (38) female players among the Jordanian clubs' players of futsal-football who were chosen randomly out of the study community, and the self-esteem scale was used,…

  10. Design and Usability Testing of an Audio Platform Game for Players with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Michael; Harding, Chris; Bonebright, Terri L.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on the evaluation of a novel audio platform game that creates a spatial, interactive experience via audio cues. A pilot study with players with visual impairments, and usability testing comparing the visual and audio game versions using both sighted players and players with visual impairments, revealed that all the…

  11. Training habits and injuries of masters' level football players: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsham-West, R; Button, C; Milburn, P D; Mündermann, A; Sole, G; Schneiders, A G; Sullivan, S J

    2009-05-01

    To profile training habits and injuries in football players participating in a national Masters tournament. A cross-sectional retrospective study design was used to survey male football players attending the 2008 New Zealand Masters Games. Information regarding player demographics, football injuries, football related training, and risk factors for injury were collected. 199 Players were recruited, with a median age of 44 yrs (range 35-73) and a median football playing history of 15 yrs (range 0-66). Irrespective of age, 112 (84%) players included a warm-up and 104 (78%) included a stretching regime in their regular training programme. In the 12 months prior to the tournament, 128 football related injuries were reported by 93 players (64 injuries/100 players or 46 injured players/100 players). The most frequently injured region was the lower limb; specifically the lower leg (n=23), ankle (n=18), hamstring (n=17), knee (n=15), and Achilles tendon (n=15). This study provides a preliminary insight into the training habits and injury profiles of Masters football players. Despite all players including some form of injury prevention strategy in their training, a significant number of players experienced an injury in the 12 months prior to the tournament.

  12. DMPD: TLR3 in antiviral immunity: key player or bystander? [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16027039 TLR3 in antiviral immunity: key player or bystander? Schroder M, Bowie AG.... Trends Immunol. 2005 Sep;26(9):462-8. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show TLR3 in antiviral immunity: key pl...ayer or bystander? PubmedID 16027039 Title TLR3 in antiviral immunity: key player or bystander? Authors Schr

  13. Modeling Longitudinal Changes in 5m Sprinting Performance Among Young Male Tennis Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, Tamara; Valente-Dos-Santos, Joao; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel J.; Malina, Robert M.; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Smith, Joanne; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Year-to-year changes in sprinting in youth tennis players were examined in a mixed-longitudinal study (256 male players, aged 10-15 years: 993 measurements). Height (h), body mass (BM), lower limb explosive strength (LLES), and a 5-m sprint were measured over five years. During that period, players

  14. The Ability of Elite Table Tennis Players with Intellectual Disabilities to Adapt Their Service/Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Biesen, Debbie; Verellen, Joeri; Meyer, Christophe; Mactavish, Jennifer; Van de Vliet, Peter; Vanlandewijck, Yves

    2010-01-01

    In this study the ability of elite table tennis players with intellectual disability (ID) to adapt their service/return to specific ball spin characteristics was investigated. This was done by examining the performance of 39 players with ID and a reference group of 8 players without ID on a standardized table tennis specific test battery. The…

  15. Achievement Goals, Motivational Climate and Sportspersonship: A Study of Young Handball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stornes, Tor; Ommundsen, Yngvar

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between achievement goals, perceptions of motivational climate and sportspersonship in a sample of young male Norwegian handball players. A cross-sectional study of 440 male handball players aged from 14 to 16 was conducted, in which the players responded to a questionnaire measuring…

  16. Effect of Core Training on 16 Year-Old Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afyon, Yakup Akif

    2014-01-01

    Core trainings have been widely used by trainers recently in order to improve performance of soccer players. In this context, the aim of this study is to examine the effect of core training on some motoric capabilities of 16 years old soccer players. Thirty certified soccer players who were 16 years old from B.B. Bodrumspor Club in 2013-2014…

  17. Pressure at play: measuring player approach and avoidance through the keyboard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogen, Wouter van den; Braad, Eelco; IJsselsteijn, Wijnand

    2014-01-01

    With the increased adoption of real-time objective measurements of player experience, advances have been made in characterising the dynamically changing aspects of the player experience during gameplay itself. A direct coupling to player action, however, is not without challenges. Many physiological

  18. Pressure at play: measuring player approach and avoidance behaviour through the keyboard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogen, Wouter M. van den; Braad, Eelco P.; IJsselsteijn, Wijnand A.

    2014-01-01

    With the increased adoption of real-time objective measurements of player experience, advances have been made in characterising the dynamically changing aspects of the player experience during gameplay itself. A direct coupling to player action, however, is not without challenges. Many physiological

  19. Forecasting the Market for New Communication Technology: The Home Video Player Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfenstein, Bruce C.

    This paper describes a critical study of the available forecasts and forecasting studies for the home video player market over a 15-year period which was undertaken to discover why so many forecasts were wrong about consumer adoption of home videocassette players and videodisk players, the reasons for these errors, and ways in which this knowledge…

  20. Online and live regular poker players: Do they differ in impulsive sensation seeking and gambling practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrault, Servane; Varescon, Isabelle

    2016-03-01

    Background and aims Online gambling appears to have special features, such as anonymity, speed of play and permanent availability, which may contribute to the facilitation and increase in gambling practice, potentially leading to problem gambling. The aims of this study were to assess sociodemographic characteristics, gambling practice and impulsive sensation seeking among a population of regular poker players with different levels of gambling intensity and to compare online and live players. Methods 245 regular poker players (180 online players and 65 live players) completed online self-report scales assessing sociodemographic data, pathological gambling (SOGS), gambling practice (poker questionnaire) and impulsive sensation seeking (ImpSS). We used SOGS scores to rank players according to the intensity of their gambling practice (non-pathological gamblers, problem gamblers and pathological gamblers). Results All poker players displayed a particular sociodemographic profile: they were more likely to be young men, executives or students, mostly single and working full-time. Online players played significantly more often whereas live players reported significantly longer gambling sessions. Sensation seeking was high across all groups, whereas impulsivity significantly distinguished players according to the intensity of gambling. Discussion Our results show the specific profile of poker players. Both impulsivity and sensation seeking seem to be involved in pathological gambling, but playing different roles. Sensation seeking may determine interest in poker whereas impulsivity may be involved in pathological gambling development and maintenance. Conclusions This study opens up new research perspectives and insights into preventive and treatment actions for pathological poker players.