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  1. Chirality plays important roles in radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yumei

    2006-01-01

    The paper introduces the basic concept of chirality, target specific selectivity and their relationship in radiopharmaceuticals. If the ligands labeled by radionuclides have chiral center, the enantiomers must be separated, or the target specific selectivity will not be good. Chirality is one of the most important factors which must be considered in the study of the structure-activity relationship of radiopharmaceuticals. (authors)

  2. NHE8 plays important roles in gastric mucosal protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua; Li, Jing; Chen, Huacong; Wang, Chunhui

    2013-01-01

    Sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE) 8 is an apically expressed membrane protein in the intestinal epithelial cells. It plays important roles in sodium absorption and bicarbonate secretion in the intestine. Although NHE8 mRNA has been detected in the stomach, the precise location and physiological role of NHE8 in the gastric glands remain unclear. In the current study, we successfully detected the expression of NHE8 in the glandular region of the stomach by Western blotting and located NHE8 protein at the apical membrane in the surface mucous cells by a confocal microscopic method. We also identified the expression of downregulated-in-adenoma (DRA) in the surface mucous cells in the stomach. Using NHE8−/− mice, we found that NHE8 plays little or no role in basal gastric acid production, yet NHE8−/− mice have reduced gastric mucosal surface pH and higher incidence of developing gastric ulcer. DRA expression was reduced significantly in the stomach in NHE8−/− mice. The propensity for gastric ulcer, reduced mucosal surface pH, and low DRA expression suggest that NHE8 is indirectly involved in gastric bicarbonate secretion and gastric mucosal protection. PMID:23220221

  3. DREAM plays an important role in platelet activation and thrombogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungho; Tseng, Alan; Barazia, Andrew; Italiano, Joseph E.

    2017-01-01

    Downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), a transcriptional repressor, is known to modulate pain responses. However, it is unknown whether DREAM is expressed in anucleate platelets and plays a role in thrombogenesis. By using intravital microscopy with DREAM-null mice and their bone marrow chimeras, we demonstrated that both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cell DREAMs are required for platelet thrombus formation following laser-induced arteriolar injury. In a FeCl3-induced thrombosis model, we found that compared with wild-type (WT) control and nonhematopoietic DREAM knockout (KO) mice, DREAM KO control and hematopoietic DREAM KO mice showed a significant delay in time to occlusion. Tail bleeding time was prolonged in DREAM KO control mice, but not in WT or DREAM bone marrow chimeric mice. In vivo adoptive transfer experiments further indicated the importance of platelet DREAM in thrombogenesis. We found that DREAM deletion does not alter the ultrastructural features of platelets but significantly impairs platelet aggregation and adenosine triphosphate secretion induced by numerous agonists (collagen-related peptide, adenosine 5′-diphosphate, A23187, thrombin, or U46619). Biochemical studies revealed that platelet DREAM positively regulates phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity during platelet activation. Using DREAM-null platelets and PI3K isoform-specific inhibitors, we observed that platelet DREAM is important for α-granule secretion, Ca2+ mobilization, and aggregation through PI3K class Iβ (PI3K-Iβ). Genetic and pharmacological studies in human megakaryoblastic MEG-01 cells showed that DREAM is important for A23187-induced Ca2+ mobilization and its regulatory function requires Ca2+ binding and PI3K-Iβ activation. These results suggest that platelet DREAM regulates PI3K-Iβ activity and plays an important role during thrombus formation. PMID:27903531

  4. Copy number variation plays an important role in clinical epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Heather; Shen, Yiping; Avallone, Jennifer; Sheidley, Beth R.; Pinsky, Rebecca; Bergin, Ann M.; Berry, Gerard T.; Duffy, Frank H.; Eksioglu, Yaman; Harris, David J.; Hisama, Fuki M.; Ho, Eugenia; Irons, Mira; Jacobsen, Christina M.; James, Philip; Kothare, Sanjeev; Khwaja, Omar; Lipton, Jonathan; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Markowitz, Jennifer; Maski, Kiran; Megerian, J. Thomas; Neilan, Edward; Raffalli, Peter C.; Robbins, Michael; Roberts, Amy; Roe, Eugene; Rollins, Caitlin; Sahin, Mustafa; Sarco, Dean; Schonwald, Alison; Smith, Sharon E.; Soul, Janet; Stoler, Joan M.; Takeoka, Masanori; Tan, Wen-Han; Torres, Alcy R.; Tsai, Peter; Urion, David K.; Weissman, Laura; Wolff, Robert; Wu, Bai-Lin; Miller, David T.; Poduri, Annapurna

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of copy number abnormalities detectable by chromosomal microarray (CMA) testing in patients with epilepsy at a tertiary care center. Methods We identified patients with ICD-9 codes for epilepsy or seizures and clinical CMA testing performed between October 2006 and February 2011 at Boston Children’s Hospital. We reviewed medical records and included patients meeting criteria for epilepsy. We phenotypically characterized patients with epilepsy-associated abnormalities on CMA. Results Of 973 patients who had CMA and ICD-9 codes for epilepsy or seizures, 805 patients satisfied criteria for epilepsy. We observed 437 copy number variants (CNVs) in 323 patients (1–4 per patient), including 185 (42%) deletions and 252 (58%) duplications. Forty (9%) were confirmed de novo, 186 (43%) were inherited, and parental data were unavailable for 211 (48%). Excluding full chromosome trisomies, CNV size ranged from 18 kb to 142 Mb, and 34% were over 500 kb. In at least 40 cases (5%), the epilepsy phenotype was explained by a CNV, including 29 patients with epilepsy-associated syndromes and 11 with likely disease-associated CNVs involving epilepsy genes or “hotspots.” We observed numerous recurrent CNVs including 10 involving loss or gain of Xp22.31, a region described in patients with and without epilepsy. Interpretation Copy number abnormalities play an important role in patients with epilepsy. Given that the diagnostic yield of CMA for epilepsy patients is similar to the yield in autism spectrum disorders and in prenatal diagnosis, for which published guidelines recommend testing with CMA, we recommend the implementation of CMA in the evaluation of unexplained epilepsy. PMID:24811917

  5. Coal still plays an important role in Europe's energy business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.; Beer, G.

    2004-01-01

    European energy mix would be unimaginable without the coal as it is used to produce about 25 percent of the EU electricity and its importance will even increase after the enlargement. In many of the accession countries coal represents the main source of electricity. Reviews of electricity production in dependence of source, coal mining and share of brown coal on electricity production in European Union are presented

  6. An Na+/H+ antiporter gene from wheat plays an important role

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    might play an important role in salt and osmotic stress tolerance in plant cells. [Yu J N, Huang J, ..... of TaNHX2 might be related to salt tolerance in wheat. TaNHX2 might also ... This work was supported by National Basic Research Project.

  7. Setting a good example: Regenerative energies play an important role in Schleswig-Holstein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rave, K.

    1995-01-01

    In Schleswig-Holstein the use of regenerative energies is supported more than in any other Land of Germany. Due to the fact that large regions of the Land are situated in strong breeze zones, wind power plays the most important role. Almost 50% of the overall German wind current is gained in Schleswig-Holstein. Furthermore solar energy and water power are also used directly. (orig.) [de

  8. IRBIT plays an important role in NHE3-mediated pHi regulation in HSG cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tien Manh; Park, Moon-Yong; Lee, Jiyeon; Bae, Jun-Seok; Hwang, Sung-Min; Choi, Se-Young; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Park, Kyungpyo

    2013-07-19

    Expression of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor-binding protein (IRBIT) has been reported in epithelial cells. However, its role in pHi regulation is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the role of IRBIT in pHi regulation, mediated by Na(+)/H(+) exchangers (NHEs), in salivary glands. We measured pHi recovery from cell acidification in BCECF-loaded salivary HSG cells. Western blot and co-immunoprecipitation (CO-IP) assays were also performed, showing that NHE1, 2 and 3 are expressed, and IRBIT binds to NHE3. HOE642, a specific NHE1 blocker, inhibited pHi recovery, but 40% pH(i) recovery was still observed even at the highest concentration of HOE642. Furthermore, pretreatment of the cells with siIRBIT significantly inhibited pHi recovery, indicating that NHE3 potentially plays a role in pHi recovery as well. The amount of membrane-localized NHE3 and its interaction with IRBIT are also significantly increased by cell acidification. In addition, we found that Ste20p-related proline alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) reverses the effect of IRBIT on membrane NHE3 translocation. Taken together, we conclude that IRBIT plays an important role in pHi regulation, mediated by NHE3, and further regulated by SPAK. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. LKR/SDH plays important roles throughout the tick life cycle including a long starvation period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banzragch Battur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lysine-ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase (LKR/SDH is a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing the first two steps of lysine catabolism in plants and mammals. However, to date, the properties of the lysine degradation pathway and biological functions of LKR/SDH have been very little described in arthropods such as ticks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We isolated and characterized the gene encoding lysine-ketoglutarate reductase (LKR, EC 1.5.1.8 and saccharopine dehydrogenase (SDH, EC 1.5.1.9 from a tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis, cDNA library that encodes a bifunctional polypeptide bearing domains similar to the plant and mammalian LKR/SDH enzymes. Expression of LKR/SDH was detected in all developmental stages, indicating an important role throughout the tick life cycle, including a long period of starvation after detachment from the host. The LKR/SDH mRNA transcripts were more abundant in unfed and starved ticks than in fed and engorged ticks, suggesting that tick LKR/SDH are important for the starved tick. Gene silencing of LKR/SDH by RNAi indicated that the tick LKR/SDH plays an integral role in the osmotic regulation of water balance and development of eggs in ovary of engorged females. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Transcription analysis and gene silencing of LKR/SDH indicated that tick LKR/SDH enzyme plays not only important roles in egg production, reproduction and development of the tick, but also in carbon, nitrogen and water balance, crucial physiological processes for the survival of ticks. This is the first report on the role of LKR/SDH in osmotic regulation in animals including vertebrate and arthropods.

  10. Microbial functional diversity plays an important role in the degradation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Samrat; Tribedi, Prosun

    2018-03-01

    Towards bioremediation of recalcitrant materials like synthetic polymer, soil has been recognized as a traditional site for disposal and subsequent degradation as some microorganisms in soil can degrade the polymer in a non-toxic, cost-effective, and environment friendly way. Microbial functional diversity is a constituent of biodiversity that includes wide range of metabolic activities that can influence numerous aspects of ecosystem functioning like ecosystem stability, nutrient availability, ecosystem dynamics, etc. Thus, in the current study, we assumed that microbial functional diversity could play an important role in polymer degradation in soil. To verify this hypothesis, we isolated soil from five different sites of landfill and examined several microbiological parameters wherein we observed a significant variation in heterotrophic microbial count as well as microbial activities among the soil microcosms tested. Multivariate analysis (principle component analysis) based on the carbon sources utilization pattern revealed that soil microcosms showed different metabolic patterns suggesting the variable distribution of microorganisms among the soil microcosms tested. Since microbial functional diversity depends on both microbial richness and evenness, Shannon diversity index was determined to measure microbial richness and Gini coefficient was determined to measure microbial evenness. The tested soil microcosms exhibited variation in both microbial richness and evenness suggesting the considerable difference in microbial functional diversity among the tested microcosms. We then measured polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) degradation in soil microcosms after desired period of incubation of PHB in soil wherein we found that soil microcosms having higher functional diversity showed enhanced PHB degradation and soil microcosms having lower functional diversity showed reduced PHB degradation. We also noticed that all the tested soil microcosms showed similar pattern in both

  11. The European Commission: nuclear power has an important role to play

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    The European Commission (E.C.) thinks that nuclear power has an important role to play: first to reduce CO 2 emissions and secondly to reinforce energy self-reliance of the member states. The decision to introduce nuclear power in their energy mix belongs to every state but the E.C. has also highlighted that if adequate investment are quickly made 2 thirds of the electricity produced in the European Union in 2010 could by from low-carbon-emitting sources. Today with 148 reactors operating in 15 member countries nuclear power contributes to 1 third of the electricity produced. Another issue that is looming is the security of electricity supplying. A study has shown that the security level is worsening (particularly in winter) because of the greater part of wind energy in the energy mix as wind energy is not necessarily available when energy demand is peaking. The E.C. has proposed a new directive drawing a common standard frame for nuclear safety requirements concerning design, site selection, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Each member state will have the choice to implement stiffer regulations. The European Union must reduce its dependency on Russian gas by increasing its storing capacities, by easing gas exchanges between member states and by importing more liquefied natural gas. European member states will have to invert 1000*10 9 euros in gas and electrical power infrastructures in the next 25 years. (A.C.)

  12. The right thalamus may play an important role in anesthesia-awakening regulation in frogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhu Fan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Previous studies have shown that the mammalian thalamus is a key structure for anesthesia-induced unconsciousness and anesthesia-awakening regulation. However, both the dynamic characteristics and probable lateralization of thalamic functioning during anesthesia-awakening regulation are not fully understood, and little is known of the evolutionary basis of the role of the thalamus in anesthesia-awakening regulation. Methods An amphibian species, the South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis was used in the present study. The frogs were immersed in triciane methanesulfonate (MS-222 for general anesthesia. Electroencephalogram (EEG signals were recorded continuously from both sides of the telencephalon, diencephalon (thalamus and mesencephalon during the pre-anesthesia stage, administration stage, recovery stage and post-anesthesia stage. EEG data was analyzed including calculation of approximate entropy (ApEn and permutation entropy (PE. Results Both ApEn and PE values differed significantly between anesthesia stages, with the highest values occurring during the awakening period and the lowest values during the anesthesia period. There was a significant correlation between the stage durations and ApEn or PE values during anesthesia-awakening cycle primarily for the right diencephalon (right thalamus. ApEn and PE values for females were significantly higher than those for males. Discussion ApEn and PE measurements are suitable for estimating depth of anesthesia and complexity of amphibian brain activity. The right thalamus appears physiologically positioned to play an important role in anesthesia-awakening regulation in frogs indicating an early evolutionary origin of the role of the thalamus in arousal and consciousness in land vertebrates. Sex differences exist in the neural regulation of general anesthesia in frogs.

  13. Urease plays an important role in the chemotactic motility of Helicobacter pylori in a viscous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, H; Yoshiyama, H; Takeuchi, H; Mizote, T; Okita, K; Nakazawa, T

    1998-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori exhibits chemotactic responses to urea, flurofamide, acetohydroxamic acid, and sodium bicarbonate. In buffer, the chemotactic activities of a urease-positive strain were higher than those of the isogenic urease-negative strain. Moreover, the chemotactic activities of the urease-positive strain were increased in a viscous solution containing 3% polyvinylpyrrolidone, whereas those of the urease-negative mutant were not. These results are in accordance with the fact that the mutant strain did not show swarming in motility agar regardless of having flagella. Incubation of the wild-type strain with flurofamide resulted in partial inhibition of the chemotactic activities in the viscous solution. In addition, incubation with acetohydroxamic acid, a low-molecular-weight, diffusible urease inhibitor, resulted in complete loss of chemotactic activity in the viscous solution. The inhibition of the chemotactic activity by urease inhibitors paralleled the inhibition of urease. The chemotactic activity of H. pylori was also inhibited by the proton carrier carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, showing that H. pylori utilizes proton motive force for motility. These results indicate that cytoplasmic urease plays an important role in the chemotactic motility of H. pylori under a condition that mimics the ecological niche of the bacterium, the gastric mucous layer.

  14. Biotransformation effect of Bombyx Mori L. may play an important role in treating diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, La; Li, Yin; Guo, Xin-Feng; Liu, Xu-Sheng

    2016-11-01

    Compared with herbal drugs, medicine processed from animals (animal medicine) was thought to have more bioactive substances and higher activities. Biotransformation effect often plays an important role in their effect. However, researches about effect of animal medicine on diabetic nephropathy and applying animal medicine as natural bio-transformer were seldom reported. The purpose of this paper was to reveal the use of Bombyx Mori L. on diabetic nephropathy from ancient to modern times. The classical literature indicated that Saosi Decoction (), which contains Bombyx Mori L. or silkworm cocoon, was applied to treat disorders congruent with modern disease diabetic nephropathy from the Ming to Qing Dynasty in ancient China. Modern studies showed that Bombyx Mori L. contains four main active constituents. Among these, 1-deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ) and quercetin showed promising potential to be new agents in diabetic nephropathy treatment. The concentrations of 1-DNJ and the activities of quercetin in Bombyx Mori L. are higher than in mulberry leaves, because of the biotransformation in the Bombyx Mori L. body. However, these specifific components need further human and mechanistic studies to determine their therapeutic potential for this challenging condition.

  15. MiR-378 Plays an Important Role in the Differentiation of Bovine Preadipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Yang-Yang; Gao, Yan; Zhang, Lian-Jiang; Chen, Hong-Yan; Zhou, Qian; Chai, Meng-Long; Li, Qing-Ying; Jiang, Hao; Yuan, Bao; Dai, Li-Sheng; Zhang, Jia-Bao

    2015-01-01

    Adipocyte, the main cellular component of white adipose tissue, plays a vital role in energy balance in higher eukaryotes. In recent years, adipocytes have also been identified as a major endocrine organ involved in immunological responses, vascular diseases, and appetite regulation. In farm animals, fat content and categories are closely correlated with meat quality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenous single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules, participate in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis through regulating the transcription or translation of target mRNAs. MiR-378 plays an important role in a number of biological processes, including cell growth, cell differentiation, tumor cell survival and angiogenesis. In the present study, bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay were used to identify and validate the target genes of miR-378. In vitro cell transfection, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), western blot analysis, Oil Red O staining, and triglyceride content measurement were conducted to analyze the effects of miR-378 on bovine preadipocyte differentiation. MiR-378 was induced during adipocyte differentiation. In the differentiated adipocytes overexpressing miR- 378, the volume of lipid droplets was enlarged, and the triglyceride content was increased. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of the adipocyte differentiation marker genes, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP), were significantly elevated in the differentiated, mature adipocytes. In contrast, the mRNA expression level of preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref-1) was markedly reduced. E2F transcription factor 2 (E2F2) and Ras-related nuclear (RAN)-binding protein 10 (RANBP10) were the two target genes of miR-378. The mRNA expression levels of E2F2 and RANBP10 did not significantly change in bovine preadipocytes overexpressing miR-378. However, the

  16. Anxiety and perceived psychological stress play an important role in the immune response after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jason P; Walsh, Neil P; Diment, Philip C; Roberts, Ross

    2018-01-01

    There are common pathways by which psychological stress and exercise stress alter immunity. However, it remains unknown whether psychological stress plays a role in the in vivo immune response to exercise. We examined the relationship between anxiety and perceived psychological stress reported before exercise and in vivo immunity after exercise using skin sensitisation with Diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP). In a randomised design, sixty four, thoroughly familiarised, males completed widely used psychological instruments to assess state-anxiety and perceived psychological stress before exercise, and ran either 30 minutes at 60% (30MI) or 80% (30HI) V . O2peak, 120 minutes at 60% (120MI) V . O2peak or rested (CON) before DPCP sensitisation. Cutaneous recall to DPCP was measured as the dermal thickening response to a low-dose series DPCP challenge 4-weeks after sensitisation. After accounting for exercise (R2 = 0.20; P stress (ΔR2 = 0.13; P stress on in vivo immunity after exercise. Moreover, correlations were of comparable strength for the relationship between physiological stress (heart rate training impulse) and the summed dermal response to DPCP (r = -0.37; 95% CI: -0.05 to -0.62; P = 0.01), and state-anxiety and the summed dermal response to DPCP (r = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.63; P stress levels before exercise play animportant role in determining the strength of the in vivo immune response after exercise. These findings indicate a similar strength relationship for the level of state-anxiety prior to exercise and the level of physiological stress during exercise with the in vivo immune response after exercise. Future research is required to investigate exercise-immune responses in athletes, military personnel and others in physically demanding occupations experiencing higher levels of psychological stress than those reported in this study e.g. related to important competition, military operations and major life events. Nevertheless, the present findings support the

  17. MiR-378 Plays an Important Role in the Differentiation of Bovine Preadipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Yuan Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adipocyte, the main cellular component of white adipose tissue, plays a vital role in energy balance in higher eukaryotes. In recent years, adipocytes have also been identified as a major endocrine organ involved in immunological responses, vascular diseases, and appetite regulation. In farm animals, fat content and categories are closely correlated with meat quality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a class of endogenous single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules, participate in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis through regulating the transcription or translation of target mRNAs. MiR-378 plays an important role in a number of biological processes, including cell growth, cell differentiation, tumor cell survival and angiogenesis. Methods: In the present study, bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay were used to identify and validate the target genes of miR-378. In vitro cell transfection, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR, western blot analysis, Oil Red O staining, and triglyceride content measurement were conducted to analyze the effects of miR-378 on bovine preadipocyte differentiation. Results: MiR-378 was induced during adipocyte differentiation. In the differentiated adipocytes overexpressing miR-378, the volume of lipid droplets was enlarged, and the triglyceride content was increased. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of the adipocyte differentiation marker genes, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP, were significantly elevated in the differentiated, mature adipocytes. In contrast, the mRNA expression level of preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref-1 was markedly reduced. E2F transcription factor 2 (E2F2 and Ras-related nuclear (RAN-binding protein 10 (RANBP10 were the two target genes of miR-378. The mRNA expression levels of E2F2 and RANBP10 did not significantly change in bovine preadipocytes

  18. The importance and possibilities of role playing on children surgery classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goremykin I.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the first experience in the implementation into the pedagogical process of one of the methods of active training — role playing. The need for intensification of medical education process is linked primarily to the rapid increase in the volume required to provide students with information and the lack of training time. The analysis showed that the game significantly increases the level of students' knowledge, but require substantial modernization of the educational process.

  19. Play's Importance in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Anette; Heden, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute knowledge on and gain an understanding of elementary school teachers' perspectives on the function of play in children's learning processes. The study is qualitative with a hermeneutical approach and has George Herbert Mead as a theoretical frame of reference. Interviews have been carried out with seven…

  20. Soil water content plays an important role in soil-atmosphere exchange of carbonyl sulfide (OCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhigang; Behrendt, Thomas; Bunk, Rüdiger; Wu, Dianming; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is a quite stable gas in the troposphere and is transported up to the stratosphere, where it contributes to the sulfate aerosol layer (Crutzen 1976). The tropospheric concentration seems to be quite constant, indicating a balance between sinks and sources. Recent work by Sandoval-Soto et al. (2005) demonstrated the enormous strength of the vegetation sink and the urgent needs to understand the sinks and sources. The role of soils is a matter of discussion (Kesselmeier et al., 1999; Van Diest and Kesselmeier, 2008; Maseyk et al., 2014; Whelan et al., 2015). To better understand the influence of soil water content and OCS mixing ratio on OCS fluxes, we used an OCS analyzer (LGR COS/CO Analyzer 907-0028, Los Gatos, CA, USA) coupled with automated soil chamber system (Behrendt et al., 2014) to measure the OCS fluxes with a slow drying of four different types of soil (arable wheat soil in Mainz, blueberry soil in Waldstein, spruce soil in Waldstein and needle forest soil in Finland). Results showed that OCS fluxes as well as the optimum soil water content for OCS uptake varied significantly for different soils. The net production rates changed significantly with the soil drying out from 100% to about 5% water holding capacity (WHC), implying that soil water content play an important role in the uptake processes. The production and uptake processes were distinguished by the regression of OCS fluxes under different OCS mixing ratios. OCS compensation points (CP) were found to differ significantly for different soil types and water content, with the lowest CP at about 20% WHC, implying that when estimating the global budgets of OCS, especially for soils fluxes, soil water content should be taken into serious consideration. References Crutzen, P. J. 1976, Geophys. Res. Lett., 3, 73-76. Sandoval-Soto, L. et al., 2005, Biogeosciences, 2, 125-132. Kesselmeier, J. et al., 1999, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 11577-11584. Van Diest, H. and Kesselmeier, J. 2008

  1. Exosomes play an important role in the process of psoralen reverse multidrug resistance of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Xu, Chengfeng; Hua, Yitong; Sun, Leitao; Cheng, Kai; Jia, Zhongming; Han, Yong; Dong, Jianli; Cui, Yuzhen; Yang, Zhenlin

    2016-12-01

    Release of exosomes have been shown to play critical roles in drug resistance by delivering cargo. Targeting the transfer of exosomes from resistant cells to sensitive cells may be an approach to overcome some cases of drug resistance. In this study, we investigated the potential role of exosomes in the process of psoralen reverse multidrug resistance of MCF-7/ADR cells. Exosomes were isolated by differential centrifugation of culture media from MCF-7/ADR cells (ADR/exo) and MCF-7 parental cells (S/exo). Exosomes were characterized by morphology, exosomal markers and size distribution. The ability of ADR/exo to transfer multidrug resistance was assessed by MTT and real-time quantitative PCR. The different formation and secretion of exosomes were detected by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Then we performed comparative transcriptomic analysis using RNA-Seq technology and real-time quantitative PCR to better understand the gene expression regulation in exosmes formation and release after psoralen treatment. Our data showed that exosomes derived from MCF-7/ADR cells were able to promote active sequestration of drugs and could induce a drug resistance phenotype by transferring drug-resistance-related gene MDR-1 and P-glycoprotein protein. Psoralen could reduce the formation and secretion of exosomes to overcome drug resistance. There were 21 differentially expressed genes. Gene ontology (GO) pathway analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that the most significantly expressed genes were linked to PPAR and P53 signaling pathways which were related to exosomes formation, secretion and cargo sorting. Psoralen can affect the exosomes and induce the reduction of resistance transmission via exosomes might through PPAR and P53 signaling pathways, which might provide a novel strategy for breast cancer resistance to chemotherapy in the future.

  2. Peptidoglycan crosslinking relaxation plays an important role in Staphylococcus aureus WalKR-dependent cell viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Delaune

    Full Text Available The WalKR two-component system is essential for viability of Staphylococcus aureus, a major pathogen. We have shown that WalKR acts as the master controller of peptidoglycan metabolism, yet none of the identified regulon genes explain its requirement for cell viability. Transmission electron micrographs revealed cell wall thickening and aberrant division septa in the absence of WalKR, suggesting its requirement may be linked to its role in coordinating cell wall metabolism and cell division. We therefore tested whether uncoupling autolysin gene expression from WalKR-dependent regulation could compensate for its essential nature. Uncoupled expression of genes encoding lytic transglycosylases or amidases did not restore growth to a WalKR-depleted strain. We identified only two WalKR-regulon genes whose expression restored cell viability in the absence of WalKR: lytM and ssaA. Neither of these two genes are essential under our conditions and a ΔlytM ΔssaA mutant does not present any growth defect. LytM is a glycyl-glycyl endopeptidase, hydrolyzing the pentaglycine interpeptide crossbridge, and SsaA belongs to the CHAP amidase family, members of which such as LysK and LytA have been shown to have D-alanyl-glycyl endopeptidase activity, cleaving between the crossbridge and the stem peptide. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that peptidoglycan crosslinking relaxation through crossbridge hydrolysis plays a crucial role in the essential requirement of the WalKR system for cell viability.

  3. Did large animals play an important role in global biogeochemical cycling in the past?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, C.

    2014-12-01

    In the late Pleistocene (~50-10,000 years ago), ninety-seven genera of large animals (>44kg) (megafauna) went extinct, concentrated in the Americas and Australia. The loss of megafauna had major effects on ecosystem structure, seed dispersal and land surface albedo. However, the impact of this dramatic extinction on ecosystem nutrient biogeochemistry, through the lateral transport of dung and bodies, has never been explored. Here we explore these nutrient impacts using a novel mathematical framework that analyses this lateral transport as a diffusion-like process and demonstrates that large animals play a disproportionately large role in the horizontal transfer of nutrients across landscapes. For example, we estimate that the extinction of the Amazonian megafauna led to a >98% reduction in the lateral transfer flux of the limiting nutrient phosphorus (P) with similar, though less extreme, decreases in all continents outside of Africa. This resulted in strong decreases in phosphorus availability in Eastern Amazonia away from fertile floodplains, a decline which may still be ongoing, and current P limitation in the Amazon basin may be partially a relic of an ecosystem without the functional connectedness it once had. More broadly, the Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions resulted in major and ongoing disruptions to terrestrial biogeochemical cycling at continental scales and increased nutrient heterogeneity globally.

  4. Memory, not just perception, plays an important role in terrestrial mammalian migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracis, Chloe; Mueller, Thomas

    2017-05-31

    One of the key questions regarding the underlying mechanisms of mammalian land migrations is how animals select where to go. Most studies assume perception of resources as the navigational mechanism. The possible role of memory that would allow forecasting conditions at distant locations and times based on information about environmental conditions from previous years has been little studied. We study migrating zebra in Botswana using an individual-based simulation model, where perceptually guided individuals use currently sensed resources at different perceptual ranges, while memory-guided individuals use long-term averages of past resources to forecast future conditions. We compare simulated individuals guided by perception or memory on resource landscapes of remotely sensed vegetation data to trajectories of GPS-tagged zebras. Our results show that memory provides a clear signal that best directs migrants to their destination compared to perception at even the largest perceptual ranges. Zebras modelled with memory arrived two to four times, or up to 100 km, closer to the migration destination than those using perception. We suggest that memory in addition to perception is important for directing ungulate migration. Furthermore, our findings are important for the conservation of migratory mammals, as memory informing direction suggests migration routes could be relatively inflexible. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Gravity Plays an Important Role in Muscle Development and the Differentiation of Contractile Protein Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Gregory A.; Haddad, Fadia; Baldwin, Kenneth M.

    2003-01-01

    Several muscles in the body exist mainly to work against gravity. Whether gravity is important in the development of these muscles is not known. By examining the basic proteins that compose muscle, questions about the role of gravity in muscle development can be answered. Myosin heavy chains (MHCs) are a family of proteins critically important for muscle contraction. Several types of MHCs exist (e.g., neonatal, slow, fast), and each type is produced by a particular gene. Neonatal MHCs are produced early in life. Slow MHCs are important in antigravity muscles, and fast MHCs are found in fast-twitch power muscles. The gene that is turned on or expressed will determine which MHC is produced. Early in development, antigravity skeletal muscles (muscles that work against gravity) normally produce a combination of the neonatal/embryonic MHCs. The expression of these primitive MHCs is repressed early in development; and the adult slow and fast MHC genes become fully expressed. We tested the hypothesis that weightbearing activity is critical for inducing the normal expression of the slow MHC gene typically expressed in adult antigravity muscles. Also, we hypothesized that thyroid hormone, but not opposition to gravity, is necessary for expressing the adult fast IIb MHC gene essential for high-intensity muscle performance. Groups of normal thyroid and thyroid-deficient neonatal rats were studied after their return from the 16-day Neurolab mission and compared to matched controls. The results suggest: (1) Weightlessness impaired body and limb skeletal muscle growth in both normal and thyroid-deficient animals. Antigravity muscles were impaired more than those used primarily for locomotion andor nonweightbearing activity. (2) Systemic and muscle expression of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), an important body and tissue growth factor, was depressed in flight animals. (3) Normal slow, type I MHC gene expression was markedly repressed in the normal thyroid flight group. (4

  6. Intracellularly Induced Cyclophilins Play an Important Role in Stress Adaptation and Virulence of Brucella abortus

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Fernández, Lucía; DelVecchio, Vito G.; Briones, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Brucella is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes the worldwide zoonotic disease brucellosis. Brucella virulence relies on its ability to transition to an intracellular lifestyle within host cells. Thus, this pathogen must sense its intracellular localization and then reprogram gene expression for survival within the host cell. A comparative proteomic investigation was performed to identify differentially expressed proteins potentially relevant for Brucella intracellular adaptation. Two proteins identified as cyclophilins (CypA and CypB) were overexpressed in the intracellular environment of the host cell in comparison to laboratory-grown Brucella. To define the potential role of cyclophilins in Brucella virulence, a double-deletion mutant was constructed and its resulting phenotype was characterized. The Brucella abortus ΔcypAB mutant displayed increased sensitivity to environmental stressors, such as oxidative stress, pH, and detergents. In addition, the B. abortus ΔcypAB mutant strain had a reduced growth rate at lower temperature, a phenotype associated with defective expression of cyclophilins in other microorganisms. The B. abortus ΔcypAB mutant also displays reduced virulence in BALB/c mice and defective intracellular survival in HeLa cells. These findings suggest that cyclophilins are important for Brucella virulence and survival in the host cells. PMID:23230297

  7. Central dopaminergic neurotransmission plays an important role in thermoregulation and performance during endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyan; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    Dopamine (DA) has been widely investigated for its potential role in determining exercise performance. It was originally thought that DA's ergogenic effect was by mediating psychological responses. Recently, some studies have also suggested that DA may regulate physiological responses, such as thermoregulation. Hyperthermia has been demonstrated as an important limiting factor during endurance exercise. DA is prominent in the thermoregulatory centre, and changes in DA concentration have been shown to affect core temperature regulation during exercise. Some studies have proposed that DA or DA/noradrenaline (NA) reuptake inhibitors can improve exercise performance, despite hyperthermia during exercise in the heat. DA/NA reuptake inhibitors also increase catecholamine release in the thermoregulatory centre. Intracerebroventricularly injected DA has been shown to improve exercise performance through inhibiting hyperthermia-induced fatigue, even at normal ambient temperatures. Further, caffeine has been reported to increase DA release in the thermoregulatory centre and improves endurance exercise performance despite increased core body temperature. Taken together, DA has been shown to have ergogenic effects and increase heat storage and hyperthermia tolerance. The mechanisms underlying these effects seem to involve limiting/overriding the inhibitory signals from the central nervous system that result in cessation of exercise due to hyperthermia.

  8. Does Morphology Play an Important Role in L2 Chinese Vocabulary Acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haomin

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the role of morphological awareness in second language (L2) Chinese vocabulary acquisition through an investigation of linguistic universality and specificity underlying morphological awareness. Morphological awareness in this study was conceptualized as a universal and sharable cognitive resource as well as a…

  9. Proteins Play Important Role in Intercellular Adhesion Affecting on Fruit Textural Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahadur Adhikari, Khem; Shomer, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    Fruit textural quality is becoming a major quality parameter for export, postharvest preservation, handling and processing. The main determinant of textural quality is intercellular adhesion (ICA) as attributed by the cell wall (CW) and its components. The importance of CW protein in ICA strength......Fruit textural quality is becoming a major quality parameter for export, postharvest preservation, handling and processing. The main determinant of textural quality is intercellular adhesion (ICA) as attributed by the cell wall (CW) and its components. The importance of CW protein in ICA...... strengthening was exempli ed in Medjoul date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit, as a model. Fruit mesocarp sensitively responded to culture environment which was assayed in vitro at pH 3.5( pKa) in presence of organic acid molecules. The max penetration force, as a measure of ICA strength, of p...

  10. Resveratrol plays important role in protective mechanisms in renal disease - mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Albertoni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (RESV is a polyphenolic compound found in various plants, including grapes, berries and peanuts, and its processed foods as red wine. RESV possesses a variety of bioactivities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antidiabetic, anticancer, chemopreventive, neuroprotective, renal lipotoxicity preventative, and renal protective effects. Numerous studies have demonstrated that polyphenols promote cardiovascular health. Furthermore, RESV can ameliorate several types of renal injury in animal models, including diabetic nephropathy, hyperuricemic, drug-induced injury, aldosterone-induced injury, ischemia-reperfusion injury, sepsis-related injury, and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, RESV can prevent the increase in vasoconstrictors, such as angiotensin II (AII and endothelin-1 (ET-1, as well as intracellular calcium, in mesangial cells. Together, these findings suggest a potential role for RESV as a supplemental therapy for the prevention of renal injury.

  11. Sperm associated antigen 9 plays an important role in bladder transitional cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Kanojia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Majority of bladder cancer deaths are caused due to transitional cell carcinoma (TCC which is the most prevalent and chemoresistant malignancy of urinary bladder. Therefore, we analyzed the role of Sperm associated antigen 9 (SPAG9 in bladder TCC. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We examined SPAG9 expression and humoral response in 125 bladder TCC patients. Four bladder cancer cell lines were assessed for SPAG9 expression. In addition, we investigated the effect of SPAG9 ablation on cellular proliferation, cell cycle, migration and invasion in UM-UC-3 bladder cancer cells by employing gene silencing approach. Our SPAG9 gene and protein expression analysis revealed SPAG9 expression in 81% of bladder TCC tissue specimens. High SPAG9 expression (>60% SPAG9 positive cells was found to be significantly associated with superficial non-muscle invasive stage (P = 0.042 and low grade tumors (P = 0.002 suggesting SPAG9 putative role in early spread and tumorigenesis. Humoral response against SPAG9 was observed in 95% of patients found positive for SPAG9 expression. All four bladder cancer cell lines revealed SPAG9 expression. In addition, SPAG9 gene silencing in UM-UC-3 cells resulted in induction of G0-G1 arrest characterized by up-regulation of p16 and p21 and consequent down-regulation of cyclin E, cyclin D and cyclin B, CDK4 and CDK1. Further, SPAG9 gene silencing also resulted in reduction in cellular growth, and migration and invasion ability of cancer cells in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our data in clinical specimens indicated that SPAG9 is potential biomarker and therapeutic target for bladder TCC.

  12. The role of play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, B.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Play is seen as an activity that is fun, voluntary, offers escape, and is fundamentally exciting. Play is however, more than that; it is a working model of flexibility! There is a vital link between play, psychological development and learning. Moreover, the importance of play has gained importance

  13. The European Commission: nuclear power has an important role to play; Commission Europeenne: le nucleaire a un role important a jouer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2008-11-15

    The European Commission (E.C.) thinks that nuclear power has an important role to play: first to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and secondly to reinforce energy self-reliance of the member states. The decision to introduce nuclear power in their energy mix belongs to every state but the E.C. has also highlighted that if adequate investment are quickly made 2 thirds of the electricity produced in the European Union in 2010 could by from low-carbon-emitting sources. Today with 148 reactors operating in 15 member countries nuclear power contributes to 1 third of the electricity produced. Another issue that is looming is the security of electricity supplying. A study has shown that the security level is worsening (particularly in winter) because of the greater part of wind energy in the energy mix as wind energy is not necessarily available when energy demand is peaking. The E.C. has proposed a new directive drawing a common standard frame for nuclear safety requirements concerning design, site selection, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Each member state will have the choice to implement stiffer regulations. The European Union must reduce its dependency on Russian gas by increasing its storing capacities, by easing gas exchanges between member states and by importing more liquefied natural gas. European member states will have to invert 1000*10{sup 9} euros in gas and electrical power infrastructures in the next 25 years. (A.C.)

  14. The kidneys play an important role in the clearance of rFVIIa in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Bill; Appa, Rupa S.; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    study was to evaluate the importance of the kidneys in the clearance process of rFVIIa after iv administration to rats using a nephrectomy model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A nephrectomized rat model was established and validated using inulin, a compound primarily cleared by the kidneys, as a test substance...... of mixed effects methods, where a pharmacokinetic model was used to simultaneously model all data from healthy, sham operated, and nephrectomized rats. RESULTS: Nephrectomized animals showed stable rectal temperature, SpO2 and pulse and as expected, clearance of inulin was essentially abolished compared...

  15. Role-Playing Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)

  16. Socio-economic status plays important roles in childhood cancer treatment outcome in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, Saskia; Gunawan, Stefanus; Wolters, Emma; van de Ven, Peter; Sitaresmi, Mei; Dongen, Josephine van; Veerman, Anjo; Mantik, Max; Kaspers, Gertjan

    2012-01-01

    The influence of parental socio-economic status on childhood cancer treatment outcome in low-income countries has not been sufficiently investigated. Our study examined this influence and explored parental experiences during cancer treatment of their children in an Indonesian academic hospital. Medical charts of 145 children diagnosed with cancer between 1999 and 2009 were reviewed retrospectively. From October 2011 until January 2012, 40 caretakers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Of all patients, 48% abandoned treatment, 34% experienced death, 9% had progressive/ relapsed disease, and 9% overall event-free survival. Prosperous patients had better treatment outcome than poor patients (Pfate or God (55%). Causes of cancer were thought to be destiny (35%) or God's punishment (23%). Alternative treatment could (18%) or might (50%) cure cancer. Most parents (95%) would like more information about cancer and treatment. More contact with doctors was desired (98%). Income decreased during treatment (55%). Parents lost employment (48% fathers, 10% mothers), most of whom stated this loss was caused by their child's cancer (84% fathers, 100% mothers). Loss of income led to financial difficulties (63%) and debts (55%). Treatment abandonment was most important reason for treatment failure. Treatment outcome was determined by parental socio-economic status. Childhood cancer survival could improve if financial constraints and provision of information and guidance are better addressed.

  17. Autophagy plays an important role in protecting Pacific oysters from OsHV-1 and Vibrio aestuarianus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Pierrick; Moreau, Kevin; Segarra, Amélie; Tourbiez, Delphine; Travers, Marie-Agnès; Rubinsztein, David C; Renault, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Recent mass mortality outbreaks around the world in Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, have seriously affected the aquaculture economy. Although the causes for these mortality outbreaks appear complex, infectious agents are involved. Two pathogens are associated with mass mortality outbreaks, the virus ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) and the bacterium Vibrio aestuarianus. Here we describe the interactions between these 2 pathogens and autophagy, a conserved intracellular pathway playing a key role in innate immunity. We show for the first time that autophagy pathway is present and functional in Pacific oysters and plays an important role to protect animals from infections. This study contributes to better understand the innate immune system of Pacific oysters.

  18. First impression at stroke onset plays an important role in early hospital arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Yasuyuki; Wada, Kuniyasu; Shibazaki, Kensaku; Inoue, Takeshi; Ueno, Yuji; Yamashita, Shinji; Kimura, Kazumi

    2006-01-01

    Treatment for acute ischemic stroke should be administered as soon as possible after symptom onset. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not the patient's and bystander's first impression at stroke onset was associated with hospital arrival time. To investigate the factors influencing the prehospital delay, we prospectively interviewed consecutive stroke patients and bystanders about their first impression at the stroke onset and assessed the methods of transportation, and clinical characteristics. Early arrival was defined as a hospital arrival of within 2 h from stroke onset. One hundred thirty patients were enrolled: 82% were ischemic stroke and 18% were cerebral hemorrhage. The median interval between symptom onset and the hospital arrival was 7.5 h and 30% of patients presented within 2 h of stroke onset. First impression of stroke (odds ratios [OR] 4.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.54-13.5, p=0.006), presence of consciousness disturbance (OR 4.29, CI 1.39-13.3, p=0.011), arrival through other facilities (OR 0.25, CI 0.08-0.76, p=0.015), a history of diabetes (OR 0.23, CI 0.06-0.80, p=0.028) and nocturnal onset (OR 0.19, CI 0.04-0.88, p=0.042) independently contributed to the early arrival. The first impression of patients and bystanders at stroke onset is important in order to reach hospital earlier in Japan. Public educational systems such as those, which advertise stroke warning signs, are necessary.

  19. Genetic factors may play a prominent role in the development of coronary heart disease dependent on important environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, C; Chang, Z; Magnusson, P K E; Ingelsson, E; Pedersen, N L

    2014-01-01

    Astract Song C, Chang Z, Magnusson PKE, Ingelsson E, Pedersen NL (Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Uppsala University, Uppsala; Sweden). Genetic factors may play a prominent role in the developmentofcoronary heart diseasedependenton important environmental factors. J InternMed2014; 275: 631–639. Objective The aim of the study was to examine whether various lifestyle factors modify genetic influences on coronary heart disease (CHD). Design The effect of lifestyle factors [including smoking, sedentary lifestyle, alcohol intake and body mass index (BMI)] on risk of CHD was evaluated via Cox regression models in a twin study of gene–environment interaction. Using structure equation modelling, we estimated genetic variance of CHD dependent on lifestyle factors. Subjects In total, 51 065 same-sex twins from 25 715 twin pairs born before 1958 and registered in the Swedish Twin Registry were eligible for this study. During the 40-year follow-up, 7264 incident CHD events were recorded. Results Smoking, sedentary lifestyle and above average BMI were significantly associated with increased CHD incidence. The heritability of CHD decreased with increasing age, as well as with increasing levels of BMI, in both men and women. Conclusions The difference in the genetic component of CHD as a function of BMI suggests that genetic factors may play a more prominent role for disease development in the absence of important environmental factors. Increased knowledge of gene–environment interactions will be important for a full understanding of the aetiology of CHD. PMID:24330166

  20. Phosphorylation of CaMKII in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus plays an important role in sleep-wake regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Su-Ying; Li, Sheng-Jie; Cui, Xiang-Yu; Zhang, Xue-Qiong; Yu, Bin; Sheng, Zhao-Fu; Huang, Yuan-Li; Cao, Qing; Xu, Ya-Ping; Lin, Zhi-Ge; Yang, Guang; Song, Jin-Zhi; Ding, Hui; Wang, Zi-Jun; Zhang, Yong-He

    2016-02-01

    The Ca(2+) modulation in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) plays an important role in sleep-wake regulation. Calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) is an important signal-transducing molecule that is activated by Ca(2+) . This study investigated the effects of intracellular Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling in the DRN on sleep-wake states in rats. Maximum and minimum CaMKII phosphorylation was detected at Zeitgeber time 21 (ZT 21; wakefulness state) and ZT 3 (sleep state), respectively, across the light-dark rhythm in the DRN in rats. Six-hour sleep deprivation significantly reduced CaMKII phosphorylation in the DRN. Microinjection of the CAMKII activation inhibitor KN-93 (5 or 10 nmol) into the DRN suppressed wakefulness and enhanced rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and non-REM sleep (NREMS). Application of a high dose of KN-93 (10 nmol) increased slow-wave sleep (SWS) time, SWS bouts, the mean duration of SWS, the percentage of SWS relative to total sleep, and delta power density during NREMS. Microinjection of CaCl2 (50 nmol) in the DRN increased CaMKII phosphorylation and decreased NREMS, SWS, and REMS. KN-93 abolished the inhibitory effects of CaCl2 on NREMS, SWS, and REMS. These data indicate a novel wake-promoting and sleep-suppressing role for the Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling pathway in DRN neurons. We propose that the intracellular Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) plays wake-promoting and sleep-suppressing role in rats. Intra-DRN application of KN-93 (CaMKII activation inhibitor) suppressed wakefulness and enhanced rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and non-REMS (NREMS). Intra-DRN application of CaCl2 attenuated REMS and NREMS. We think these findings should provide a novel cellular and molecular mechanism of sleep-wake regulation. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  1. Dimer monomer transition and dimer re-formation play important role for ATM cellular function during DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Fengxia; Zhang, Minjie; Li, Xiaohua; Yang, Caiyun; Meng, Hao; Wang, Dong; Chang, Shuang; Xu, Ye; Price, Brendan; Sun, Yingli

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ATM phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. • The PETPVFRLT box of ATM plays a key role in its dimer dissociation in DNA repair. • The dephosphorylation of ATM is critical for dimer re-formation after DNA repair. - Abstract: The ATM protein kinase, is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is recruited and activated by DNA double-strand breaks, mediates responses to ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. Here we show that ATM is held inactive in unirradiated cells as a dimer and phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. Cellular irradiation induces rapid intermolecular autophosphorylation of serine 1981 that causes dimer dissociation and initiates cellular ATM kinase activity. ATM cannot phosphorylate the substrates when it could not undergo dimer monomer transition. After DNA repair, the active monomer will undergo dephosphorylation to form dimer again and dephosphorylation is critical for dimer re-formation. Our work reveals novel function of ATM dimer monomer transition and explains why ATM dimer monomer transition plays such important role for ATM cellular activity during DNA repair

  2. A Petunia Homeodomain-Leucine Zipper Protein, PhHD-Zip, Plays an Important Role in Flower Senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaoxiao; Donnelly, Linda; Sun, Daoyang; Rao, Jingping; Reid, Michael S.; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Flower senescence is initiated by developmental and environmental signals, and regulated by gene transcription. A homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, PhHD-Zip, is up-regulated during petunia flower senescence. Virus-induced gene silencing of PhHD-Zip extended flower life by 20% both in unpollinated and pollinated flowers. Silencing PhHD-Zip also dramatically reduced ethylene production and the abundance of transcripts of genes involved in ethylene (ACS, ACO), and ABA (NCED) biosynthesis. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29) was also dramatically reduced in the silenced flowers. Over-expression of PhHD-Zip accelerated petunia flower senescence. Furthermore, PhHD-Zip transcript abundance in petunia flowers was increased by application of hormones (ethylene, ABA) and abiotic stresses (dehydration, NaCl and cold). Our results suggest that PhHD-Zip plays an important role in regulating petunia flower senescence. PMID:24551088

  3. Doing what comes naturally: a special workforce plays an important role in a new on-site remediation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsters, S.

    1999-01-01

    A bioremediation system developed by Calgary-based Unique Oilfield Technology Services (UNOTEC) that uses naturally occurring bacteria and fungi to decompose oilfield waste is described. In essence, UNOTEC creates a suitable work environment for microorganisms by mixing drilling residue with organic oil absorbent and bulking agent, and the micro-organisms do the rest. The key ingredient in the mix is canola meal which has been shown to have the ability to immobilize oil and prevent leaching in the containment mixtures following land treatment, due to its oleophilic qualities, which are a function of its origin as an oil seed. Canola meal contains large amounts of protein, hence it is an important source of nitrogen. Since nitrogen is considered essential for stimulating growth in microorganisms, the meal plays a critical role as a catalyst for microbial activity in the containment mix. Details of applying the technology, and on-going experiments demonstrating its efficiency are described. 10 photos

  4. A Petunia homeodomain-leucine zipper protein, PhHD-Zip, plays an important role in flower senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaoxiao; Donnelly, Linda; Sun, Daoyang; Rao, Jingping; Reid, Michael S; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Flower senescence is initiated by developmental and environmental signals, and regulated by gene transcription. A homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, PhHD-Zip, is up-regulated during petunia flower senescence. Virus-induced gene silencing of PhHD-Zip extended flower life by 20% both in unpollinated and pollinated flowers. Silencing PhHD-Zip also dramatically reduced ethylene production and the abundance of transcripts of genes involved in ethylene (ACS, ACO), and ABA (NCED) biosynthesis. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29) was also dramatically reduced in the silenced flowers. Over-expression of PhHD-Zip accelerated petunia flower senescence. Furthermore, PhHD-Zip transcript abundance in petunia flowers was increased by application of hormones (ethylene, ABA) and abiotic stresses (dehydration, NaCl and cold). Our results suggest that PhHD-Zip plays an important role in regulating petunia flower senescence.

  5. A Petunia homeodomain-leucine zipper protein, PhHD-Zip, plays an important role in flower senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Chang

    Full Text Available Flower senescence is initiated by developmental and environmental signals, and regulated by gene transcription. A homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, PhHD-Zip, is up-regulated during petunia flower senescence. Virus-induced gene silencing of PhHD-Zip extended flower life by 20% both in unpollinated and pollinated flowers. Silencing PhHD-Zip also dramatically reduced ethylene production and the abundance of transcripts of genes involved in ethylene (ACS, ACO, and ABA (NCED biosynthesis. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29 was also dramatically reduced in the silenced flowers. Over-expression of PhHD-Zip accelerated petunia flower senescence. Furthermore, PhHD-Zip transcript abundance in petunia flowers was increased by application of hormones (ethylene, ABA and abiotic stresses (dehydration, NaCl and cold. Our results suggest that PhHD-Zip plays an important role in regulating petunia flower senescence.

  6. Ruminal Prevotella spp. may play an important role in the conversion of plant lignans into human health beneficial antioxidants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L B Schogor

    Full Text Available Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG, the most abundant lignan in flaxseed, is metabolized by the ruminal microbiota into enterolignans, which are strong antioxidants. Enterolactone (EL, the main mammalian enterolignan produced in the rumen, is transferred into physiological fluids, with potentially human health benefits with respect to menopausal symptoms, hormone-dependent cancers, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis and diabetes. However, no information exists to our knowledge on bacterial taxa that play a role in converting plant lignans into EL in ruminants. In order to investigate this, eight rumen cannulated cows were used in a double 4 × 4 Latin square design and fed with four treatments: control with no flax meal (FM, or 5%, 10% and 15% FM (on a dry matter basis. Concentration of EL in the rumen increased linearly with increasing FM inclusion. Total rumen bacterial 16S rRNA concentration obtained using Q-PCR did not differ among treatments. PCR-T-RFLP based dendrograms revealed no global clustering based on diet indicating between animal variation. PCR-DGGE showed a clustering by diet effect within four cows that had similar basal ruminal microbiota. DNA extracted from bands present following feeding 15% FM and absent with no FM supplementation were sequenced and it showed that many genera, in particular Prevotella spp., contributed to the metabolism of lignans. A subsequent in vitro study using selected pure cultures of ruminal bacteria incubated with SDG indicated that 11 ruminal bacteria were able to convert SDG into secoisolariciresinol (SECO, with Prevotella spp. being the main converters. These data suggest that Prevotella spp. is one genus playing an important role in the conversion of plant lignans to human health beneficial antioxidants in the rumen.

  7. A thioredoxin-dependent peroxiredoxin Q from Corynebacterium glutamicum plays an important role in defense against oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Su

    Full Text Available Peroxiredoxin Q (PrxQ that belonged to the cysteine-based peroxidases has long been identified in numerous bacteria, but the information on the physiological and biochemical functions of PrxQ remain largely lacking in Corynebacterium glutamicum. To better systematically understand PrxQ, we reported that PrxQ from model and important industrial organism C. glutamicum, encoded by the gene ncgl2403 annotated as a putative PrxQ, played important roles in adverse stress resistance. The lack of C. glutamicum prxQ gene resulted in enhanced cell sensitivity, increased ROS accumulation, and elevated protein carbonylation levels under adverse stress conditions. Accordingly, PrxQ-mediated resistance to adverse stresses mainly relied on the degradation of ROS. The physiological roles of PrxQ in resistance to adverse stresses were corroborated by its induced expression under adverse stresses, regulated directly by the stress-responsive ECF-sigma factor SigH. Through catalytical kinetic activity, heterodimer formation, and bacterial two-hybrid analysis, we proved that C. glutamicum PrxQ catalytically eliminated peroxides by exclusively receiving electrons from thioredoxin (Trx/thioredoxin reductase (TrxR system and had a broad range of oxidizing substrates, but a better efficiency for peroxynitrite and cumene hydroperoxide (CHP. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that the conserved Cys49 and Cys54 are the peroxide oxidation site and the resolving Cys residue, respectively. It was also discovered that C. glutamicum PrxQ mainly existed in monomer whether under its native state or functional state. Based on these results, a catalytic model of PrxQ is being proposed. Moreover, our result that C. glutamicum PrxQ can prevent the damaging effects of adverse stresses by acting as thioredoxin-dependent monomeric peroxidase could be further applied to improve the survival ability and robustness of the important bacterium during fermentation process.

  8. Hepcidin is directly regulated by insulin and plays an important role in iron overload in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heyang; Li, Hongxia; Jiang, Xin; Shi, Wencai; Shen, Zhilei; Li, Min

    2014-05-01

    Iron overload is frequently observed in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesize that hepcidin may be directly regulated by insulin and play an important role in iron overload in DM2. We therefore examined the hepatic iron content, serum iron parameters, intestinal iron absorption, and liver hepcidin expression in rats treated with streptozotocin (STZ), which was given alone or after insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet. The direct effect of insulin on hepcidin and its molecular mechanisms were furthermore determined in vitro in HepG2 cells. STZ administration caused a significant reduction in liver hepcidin level and a marked increase in intestinal iron absorption and serum and hepatic iron content. Insulin obviously upregulated hepcidin expression in HepG2 cells and enhanced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 protein synthesis and DNA binding activity. The effect of insulin on hepcidin disappeared when the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway was blocked and could be partially inhibited by U0126. In conclusion, the current study suggests that hepcidin can be directly regulated by insulin, and the suppressed liver hepcidin synthesis may be an important reason for the iron overload in DM2.

  9. Nutrition metabolism plays an important role in the alternate bearing of the olive tree (Olea europaea L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Turktas

    Full Text Available The olive tree (Olea europaea L. is widely known for its strong tendency for alternate bearing, which severely affects the fruit yield from year to year. Microarray based gene expression analysis using RNA from olive samples (on-off years leaves and ripe-unripe fruits are particularly useful to understand the molecular mechanisms influencing the periodicity in the olive tree. Thus, we carried out genome wide transcriptome analyses involving different organs and temporal stages of the olive tree using the NimbleGen Array containing 136,628 oligonucleotide probe sets. Cluster analyses of the genes showed that cDNAs originated from different organs could be sorted into separate groups. The nutritional control had a particularly remarkable impact on the alternate bearing of olive, as shown by the differential expression of transcripts under different temporal phases and organs. Additionally, hormonal control and flowering processes also played important roles in this phenomenon. Our analyses provide further insights into the transcript changes between "on year" and "off year" leaves along with the changes from unrpipe to ripe fruits, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the olive tree alternate bearing. These findings have important implications for the breeding and agriculture of the olive tree and other crops showing periodicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the development and use of an olive array to document the gene expression profiling associated with the alternate bearing in olive tree.

  10. Nutrition Metabolism Plays an Important Role in the Alternate Bearing of the Olive Tree (Olea europaea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turktas, Mine; Inal, Behcet; Okay, Sezer; Erkilic, Emine Gulden; Dundar, Ekrem; Hernandez, Pilar; Dorado, Gabriel; Unver, Turgay

    2013-01-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is widely known for its strong tendency for alternate bearing, which severely affects the fruit yield from year to year. Microarray based gene expression analysis using RNA from olive samples (on-off years leaves and ripe-unripe fruits) are particularly useful to understand the molecular mechanisms influencing the periodicity in the olive tree. Thus, we carried out genome wide transcriptome analyses involving different organs and temporal stages of the olive tree using the NimbleGen Array containing 136,628 oligonucleotide probe sets. Cluster analyses of the genes showed that cDNAs originated from different organs could be sorted into separate groups. The nutritional control had a particularly remarkable impact on the alternate bearing of olive, as shown by the differential expression of transcripts under different temporal phases and organs. Additionally, hormonal control and flowering processes also played important roles in this phenomenon. Our analyses provide further insights into the transcript changes between ”on year” and “off year” leaves along with the changes from unrpipe to ripe fruits, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the olive tree alternate bearing. These findings have important implications for the breeding and agriculture of the olive tree and other crops showing periodicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the development and use of an olive array to document the gene expression profiling associated with the alternate bearing in olive tree. PMID:23555820

  11. Macrophages as IL-25/IL-33-responsive cells play an important role in the induction of type 2 immunity.

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    Zhonghan Yang

    Full Text Available Type 2 immunity is essential for host protection against nematode infection but is detrimental in allergic inflammation or asthma. There is a major research focus on the effector molecules and specific cell types involved in the initiation of type 2 immunity. Recent work has implicated an important role of epithelial-derived cytokines, IL-25 and IL-33, acting on innate immune cells that are believed to be the initial sources of type 2 cytokines IL-4/IL-5/IL-13. The identities of the cell types that mediate the effects of IL-25/IL-33, however, remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrate that macrophages as IL-25/IL-33-responsive cells play an important role in inducing type 2 immunity using both in vitro and in vivo approaches. Macrophages produced type 2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 in response to the stimulation of IL-25/IL-33 in vitro, or were the IL-13-producing cells in mice administrated with exogenous IL-33 or infected with Heligmosomoides bakeri. In addition, IL-33 induced alternative activation of macrophages primarily through autocrine IL-13 activating the IL-4Rα-STAT6 pathway. Moreover, depletion of macrophages attenuated the IL-25/IL-33-induced type 2 immunity in mice, while adoptive transfer of IL-33-activated macrophages into mice with a chronic Heligmosomoides bakeri infection induced worm expulsion accompanied by a potent type 2 protective immune response. Thus, macrophages represent a unique population of the innate immune cells pivotal to type 2 immunity and a potential therapeutic target in controlling type 2 immunity-mediated inflammatory pathologies.

  12. High-throughput deep sequencing reveals that microRNAs play important roles in salt tolerance of euhalophyte Salicornia europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Juanjuan; Wang, Jinhui; Fan, Pengxiang; Jia, Weitao; Nie, Lingling; Jiang, Ping; Chen, Xianyang; Lv, Sulian; Wan, Lichuan; Chang, Sandra; Li, Shizhong; Li, Yinxin

    2015-02-26

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in plant development processes and play pivotal roles in plant adaptation to environmental stresses. Salicornia europaea, a salt mash euhalophyte, is a suitable model plant to study salt adaptation mechanisms. S. europaea is also a vegetable, forage, and oilseed that can be used for saline land reclamation and biofuel precursor production on marginal lands. Despite its importance, no miRNA has been identified from S. europaea thus far. Deep sequencing was performed to investigate small RNA transcriptome of S. europaea. Two hundred and ten conserved miRNAs comprising 51 families and 31 novel miRNAs (including seven miRNA star sequences) belonging to 30 families were identified. About half (13 out of 31) of the novel miRNAs were only detected in salt-treated samples. The expression of 43 conserved and 13 novel miRNAs significantly changed in response to salinity. In addition, 53 conserved and 13 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed between the shoots and roots. Furthermore, 306 and 195 S. europaea unigenes were predicted to be targets of 41 conserved and 29 novel miRNA families, respectively. These targets encoded a wide range of proteins, and genes involved in transcription regulation constituted the largest category. Four of these genes encoding laccase, F-box family protein, SAC3/GANP family protein, and NADPH cytochrome P-450 reductase were validated using 5'-RACE. Our results indicate that specific miRNAs are tightly regulated by salinity in the shoots and/or roots of S. europaea, which may play important roles in salt tolerance of this euhalophyte. The S. europaea salt-responsive miRNAs and miRNAs that target transcription factors, nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat proteins and enzymes involved in lignin biosynthesis as well as carbon and nitrogen metabolism may be applied in genetic engineering of crops with high stress tolerance, and genetic modification of biofuel crops with high biomass and regulatable

  13. Affective temperaments play an important role in the relationship between child abuse and the diagnosis of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Takeshi; Tanichi, Masaaki; Saito, Taku; Nakagawa, Shin; Masuya, Jiro; Tanabe, Hajime; Yoshino, Aihide; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2018-04-01

    In previous studies, various components such as environmental and genetic factors have been shown to contribute to the development of bipolar disorder (BD). This study investigated how multiple factors, including child abuse, adult life events, and affective temperaments, are interrelated and how they affect the diagnosis of BD. A total of 170 healthy controls and 75 BD patients completed the following self-administered questionnaires: the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 evaluating the severity of depressive symptoms; the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS) evaluating child abuse; the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) evaluating affective temperaments; and the Life Experiences Survey (LES) evaluating negative and positive adult life events. The data were subjected to univariate analysis, multivariable analysis, and structural equation modeling. The structural equation modeling showed that the diagnosis of BD was indirectly predicted by the neglect and sexual abuse scores of the CATS through four affective temperaments (depressive, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious) of the TEMPS-A and directly predicted by these four affective temperaments. This study suggested that affective temperament plays an important role as a mediator in the influence of child abuse on BD diagnosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Abnormal expression of Nrf2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis and development of adenomyosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Du, Baoying; Zhou, Hao; Shen, Fengxian; Li, Juan; Xie, Zhenwei

    2017-01-01

    To explore the expression level of Nrf2 in adenomyosis and study the mechanism of abnormal expression of Nrf2 in the pathogenesis of adenomyosis. Western blot, immunohistochemistry(IHC) and real time PCR were used to measure Nrf2 expression levels in tissue and cell samples. Knockdown and overexpression of Nrf2 were used to investigate the variation of migration ability of endometrial glandular cells as well as the regulatory mechanism. Nrf2 protein levels were significantly higher in the eutopic and ectopic endometrial glands when compared with control cases using IHC and western blot methods. (pendometrial glandular cells. With increased expression of Nrf2, cell scratch assay showed that the agonist-treated group migrated significantly faster than the control group, with MMP9 protein level markedly elevated. In contrast, Nrf2 siRNA-treated group migrated slower than the control group, with decreased expression of MMP9 protein. All of the scratching healing spaces and protein levels between the treated and control groups were statistically significant (p< 0.05). Abnormal expression of Nrf2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis and development of adenomyosis. Specified reduction of Nrf2 expression could prove to be a new therapeutic target in the clinical treatment of adenomyosis.

  15. Matrix Metallopeptidase 14 Plays an Important Role in Regulating Tumorigenic Gene Expression and Invasion Ability of HeLa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Hui; Wang, Juan-Juan; Li, Min; Zheng, Han-Xi; Xu, Lan; Chen, You-Guo

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the functional effect of matrix metallopeptidase 14 (MMP14) on cell invasion in cervical cancer cells (HeLa line) and to study the underlying molecular mechanisms. Expression vector of short hairpin RNA targeting MMP14 was treated in HeLa cells, and then, transfection efficiency was verified by a florescence microscope. Transwell assay was used to investigate cell invasion ability in HeLa cells. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analysis were used to detect the expression of MMP14 and relative factors in messenger RNA and protein levels, respectively. Matrix metallopeptidase 14 short hairpin RNA expression vector transfection obviously decreased MMP14 expression in messenger RNA and protein levels. Down-regulation of MMP14 suppressed invasion ability of HeLa cells and reduced transforming growth factor β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor B expressions. Furthermore, MMP14 knockdown decreased bone sialoprotein and enhanced forkhead box protein L2 expression in both RNA and protein levels. Matrix metallopeptidase 14 plays an important role in regulating invasion of HeLa cells. Matrix metallopeptidase 14 knockdown contributes to attenuating the malignant phenotype of cervical cancer cell.

  16. Central neuropeptide Y plays an important role in mediating the adaptation mechanism against chronic stress in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Babygirija, Reji; Zheng, Jun; Shi, Bei; Sun, Weinan; Zheng, Xiaojiao; Zhang, Fan; Cao, Yu

    2018-02-07

    Exposure to continuous life stress often causes gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Studies have shown that neuropeptide Y (NPY) counteracts the biological actions of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF), and is involved in the termination of the stress response. However, in chronic repeated restraint stress (CRS) conditions, the actions of NPY on GI motility remain controversial. To evaluate the role of NPY in mediation of the adaptation mechanism and GI motility in CRS conditions, a CRS rat model was set up. Central CRF and NPY expression levels were analyzed, serum corticosterone and NPY concentrations were measured, and GI motor function was evaluated. The NPY Y1 receptor antagonist BIBP-3226 was centrally administered before stress loading, and on days, 1-5, of repeated stress, the central CRF and the serum corticosterone concentrations were measured. In addition, gastric and colonic motor functions were evaluated. The elevated central CRF expression and corticosterone concentration caused by acute stress began to fall after 3 days of stress loading, while central NPY expression and serum NPY began to increase. GI dysmotility also returned to a normal level. Pretreatment with BIBP-3226 abolished the adaptation mechanism, and significantly increased CRF expression and the corticosterone concentration, which resulted in delayed gastric emptying and accelerated fecal pellet output. Inhibited gastric motility and enhanced distal colonic motility were also recorded. CRS-produced adaptation, over-expressed central CRF, and GI dysmotility observed in acute restraint stress were restored to normal levels. Central NPY via the Y1 receptor plays an important role in mediating the adaptation mechanism against chronic stress. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  17. Autophagy plays an important role in Sunitinib-mediated cell death in H9c2 cardiac muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yuqin; Xue Tao; Yang Xiaochun; Zhu Hong; Ding Xiaofei; Lou Liming; Lu Wei; Yang Bo; He Qiaojun

    2010-01-01

    Sunitinib, which is a multitargeted tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, exhibits antiangiogenic and antitumor activity, and extends survival of patients with metastatic renal-cell carcinoma (mRCC) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). This molecule has also been reported to be associated with cardiotoxicity at a high frequency, but the mechanism is still unknown. In the present study, we observed that Sunitinib showed high anti-proliferative effect on H9c2 cardiac muscle cells measured by PI staining and the MTT assay. But apoptotic markers (PARP cleavage, caspase 3 cleavage and chromatin condensation) were uniformly negative in H9c2 cells after Sunitinib treatment for 48 h, indicating that another cell death pathway may be involved in Sunitinib-induced cardiotoxicity. Here we found Sunitinib dramatically increased autophagic flux in H9c2 cells. Acidic vesicle fluorescence and high expression of LC3-II in H9c2 cells identified autophagy as a Sunitinib-induced process that might be associated with cytotoxicity. Furthermore, knocking down Beclin 1 by RNA-interference to block autophagy in H9c2 cells revealed that the death rate was decreased when treated with Sunitinib in comparison to control cells. These results confirmed that autophagy plays an important role in Sunitinib-mediated H9c2 cells cytotoxicity. Taken together, the data presented here strongly suggest that autophagy is associated with Sunitinib-induced cardiotoxicity, and that inhibition of autophagy constitutes a viable strategy for reducing Sunitinib-induced cardiomyocyte death thereby alleviating Sunitinib cardiotoxicity.

  18. Orexin receptor-1 in the locus coeruleus plays an important role in cue-dependent fear memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soya, Shingo; Shoji, Hirotaka; Hasegawa, Emi; Hondo, Mari; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Mieda, Michihiro; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2013-09-04

    The noradrenergic (NA) projections arising from the locus ceruleus (LC) to the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis have been implicated in the formation of emotional memory. Since NA neurons in the LC (LC-NA neurons) abundantly express orexin receptor-1 (OX1R) and receive prominent innervation by orexin-producing neurons, we hypothesized that an OX1R-mediated pathway is involved in the physiological fear learning process via regulation of LC-NA neurons. To evaluate this hypothesis, we examined the phenotype of Ox1r(-/-) mice in the classic cued and contextual fear-conditioning test. We found that Ox1r(-/-) mice showed impaired freezing responses in both cued and contextual fear-conditioning paradigms. In contrast, Ox2r(-/-) mice showed normal freezing behavior in the cued fear-conditioning test, while they exhibited shorter freezing time in the contextual fear-conditioning test. Double immunolabeling of Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase showed that double-positive LC-NA neurons after test sessions of both cued and contextual stimuli were significantly fewer in Ox1r(-/-) mice. AAV-mediated expression of OX1R in LC-NA neurons in Ox1r(-/-) mice restored the freezing behavior to the auditory cue to a comparable level to that in wild-type mice in the test session. Decreased freezing time during the contextual fear test was not affected by restoring OX1R expression in LC-NA neurons. These observations support the hypothesis that the orexin system modulates the formation and expression of fear memory via OX1R in multiple pathways. Especially, OX1R in LC-NA neurons plays an important role in cue-dependent fear memory formation and/or retrieval.

  19. The novel zinc cluster regulator Tog1 plays important roles in oleate utilization and oxidative stress response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thepnok, Piyasuda; Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok; Soontorngun, Nitnipa, E-mail: nitnipa.soo@kmutt.ac.th

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • TOG1 deletion results in defective growth on non-fermentable carbon sources. • Removal of TOG1 sensitizes cells to oxidative stress. • Tog1 directly binds and activates expression of oleate utilizing genes. • The Δtog1 cells display reduced peroxisomal content in oleate culture. • S. cerevisiae zinc cluster Tog1 is a novel activator of oleate utilization. - Abstract: Many zinc cluster proteins have been shown to play a role in the transcriptional regulation of glucose-repressible genes during glucose exhaustion and diauxic shift. Here, we studied an additional member of this family called Yer184c (herein called Tog1) for transcriptional regulator of oleate. Our results showed that a Δtog1 strain displays impaired growth with several non-fermentable carbons. Tog1 is also implicated in oxidative stress tolerance. Importantly, during the glucose–oleate shift, combined results from quantitative real time-PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments showed that Tog1 acts as a direct activator of oleate utilizing genes, encoded key enzymes in β-Oxidation and NADPH regeneration (POX1, FOX2, POT1 and IDP2), the glyoxylate shunt (MLS1 and ICL1), and gluconeogenesis (PCK1 and FBP1). A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the Δtog1 strain assayed with oleate also revealed a substantial decrease in peroxisome abundance that is vital for fatty acid oxidation. Overall, our results clearly demonstrated that Tog1 is a newly characterized zinc cluster regulator that functions in the complex network of non-fermentable carbon metabolism in Saccharomycescerevisiae.

  20. FIP1 Plays an Important Role in Nitrate Signaling and Regulates CIPK8 and CIPK23 Expression in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Unraveling the molecular mechanisms of nitrate regulation and deciphering the underlying genetic network is vital for elucidating nitrate uptake and utilization in plants. Such knowledge could lead to the improvement of nitrogen-use efficiency in agriculture. Here, we report that the FIP1 gene (factor interacting with poly(A polymerase 1 plays an important role in nitrate signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. FIP1 encodes a putative core component of the polyadenylation factor complex. We found that FIP1 interacts with the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 30-L (CPSF30-L, which is also an essential player in nitrate signaling. The induction of nitrate-responsive genes following nitrate treatment was inhibited in the fip1 mutant. The nitrate content was also reduced in fip1 seedlings due to their decreased nitrate uptake activity. Furthermore, the nitrate content was higher in the roots but lower in the roots of fip1, which may result from the downregulation of NRT1.8 and the upregulation of the nitrate assimilation genes. In addition, qPCR analyses revealed that FIP1 negatively regulated the expression of CIPK8 and CIPK23, two protein kinases involved in nitrate signaling. In the fip1 mutant, the increased expression of CIPK23 may affect nitrate uptake, resulting in its lower nitrate content. Genetic and molecular evidence suggests that FIP1 and CPSF30-L function in the same nitrate-signaling pathway, with FIP1 mediating signaling through its interaction with CPSF30-L and its regulation of CIPK8 and CIPK23. Analysis of the 3′-UTR of NRT1.1 showed that the pattern of polyadenylation sites was altered in the fip1 mutant. These findings add a novel component to the nitrate regulation network and enhance our understanding of the underlying mechanisms for nitrate signaling.

  1. Abnormal expression of Nrf2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis and development of adenomyosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Chen

    Full Text Available To explore the expression level of Nrf2 in adenomyosis and study the mechanism of abnormal expression of Nrf2 in the pathogenesis of adenomyosis.Western blot, immunohistochemistry(IHC and real time PCR were used to measure Nrf2 expression levels in tissue and cell samples. Knockdown and overexpression of Nrf2 were used to investigate the variation of migration ability of endometrial glandular cells as well as the regulatory mechanism.Nrf2 protein levels were significantly higher in the eutopic and ectopic endometrial glands when compared with control cases using IHC and western blot methods. (p< 0.05. However, there was no statistical difference in Nrf2 mRNA expression levels between the adenomyosis and control groups. Using an agonist and Nrf2 siRNA, we regulated the Nrf2 protein levels of primary cultured endometrial glandular cells. With increased expression of Nrf2, cell scratch assay showed that the agonist-treated group migrated significantly faster than the control group, with MMP9 protein level markedly elevated. In contrast, Nrf2 siRNA-treated group migrated slower than the control group, with decreased expression of MMP9 protein. All of the scratching healing spaces and protein levels between the treated and control groups were statistically significant (p< 0.05.Abnormal expression of Nrf2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis and development of adenomyosis. Specified reduction of Nrf2 expression could prove to be a new therapeutic target in the clinical treatment of adenomyosis.

  2. C1 metabolism plays an important role during formaldehyde metabolism and detoxification in petunia under liquid HCHO stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Tang, Lijuan; Sun, Huiqun; Han, Shuang; Wang, Xinjia; Zhou, Shengen; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2014-10-01

    Petunia hybrida is a model ornamental plant grown worldwide. To understand the HCHO-uptake efficiency and metabolic mechanism of petunia, the aseptic petunia plants were treated in HCHO solutions. An analysis of HCHO-uptake showed that petunia plants effectively removed HCHO from 2, 4 and 6 mM HCHO solutions. The (13)C NMR analyses indicated that H(13)CHO was primarily used to synthesize [5-(13)C]methionine (Met) via C1 metabolism in petunia plants treated with 2 mM H(13)CHO. Pretreatment with cyclosporin A (CSA) or l-carnitine (LC), the inhibitors of mitochondrial permeability transition pores, did not affect the synthesis of [5-(13)C]Met in petunia plants under 2 mM H(13)CHO stress, indicating that the Met-generated pathway may function in the cytoplasm. Under 4 or 6 mM liquid H(13)CHO stress, H(13)CHO metabolism in petunia plants produced considerable amount of H(13)COOH and [2-(13)C]glycine (Gly) through C1 metabolism and a small amount of [U-(13)C]Gluc via the Calvin Cycle. Pretreatment with CSA or LC significantly inhibited the production of [2-(13)C]Gly in 6 mM H(13)CHO-treated petunia plants, which suggests that chloroplasts and peroxisomes might be involved in the generation of [2-(13)C]Gly. These results revealed that the C1 metabolism played an important role, whereas the Calvin Cycle had only a small contribution during HCHO metabolism and detoxification in petunia under liquid HCHO stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Can Brazil play a more important role in global tuberculosis drug production? An assessment of current capacity and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemal, Andre; Keravec, Joel; Menezes, Alexandre; Trajman, Anete

    2013-03-27

    Despite the existence of effective treatment, tuberculosis is still a global public health issue. The World Health Organization recommends a six-month four-drug regimen in fixed-dose combination formulation to treat drug sensitive tuberculosis, and long course regimens with several second-line drugs to treat multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. To achieve the projected tuberculosis elimination goal by 2050, it will be essential to ensure a non-interrupted supply of quality-assured tuberculosis drugs. However, quality and affordable tuberculosis drug supply is still a significant challenge for National Tuberculosis Programs. Quality drug production requires a combination of complex steps. The first challenge is to guarantee the quality of tuberculosis active pharmaceutical ingredients, then ensure an adequate manufacturing process, according to international standards, to guarantee final product's safety, efficacy and quality. Good practices for storage, transport, distribution and quality control procedures must follow. In contrast to other high-burden countries, Brazil produces tuberculosis drugs through a strong network of public sector drug manufacturers regulated by a World Health Organization-certified national sanitary authority. The installed capacity for production surpasses the 71,000 needed treatments in the country. However, in order to be prepared to act as a global supplier, important bottlenecks are to be overcome. This article presents an in-depth analysis of the current status of production of tuberculosis drugs in Brazil and the bottlenecks and opportunities for the country to sustain national demand and play a role as a potential global supplier. Raw material and drug production, quality control, international certification and pre-qualification, political commitment and regulatory aspects are discussed, as well recommendations for tackling these bottlenecks. This discussion becomes more important as new drugs and regimens to treat tuberculosis are

  4. Repetitive sequences and epigenetic modification: inseparable partners play important roles in the evolution of plant sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Yuan, Jin-Hong; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Gao, Wu-Jun

    2016-05-01

    The present review discusses the roles of repetitive sequences played in plant sex chromosome evolution, and highlights epigenetic modification as potential mechanism of repetitive sequences involved in sex chromosome evolution. Sex determination in plants is mostly based on sex chromosomes. Classic theory proposes that sex chromosomes evolve from a specific pair of autosomes with emergence of a sex-determining gene(s). Subsequently, the newly formed sex chromosomes stop recombination in a small region around the sex-determining locus, and over time, the non-recombining region expands to almost all parts of the sex chromosomes. Accumulation of repetitive sequences, mostly transposable elements and tandem repeats, is a conspicuous feature of the non-recombining region of the Y chromosome, even in primitive one. Repetitive sequences may play multiple roles in sex chromosome evolution, such as triggering heterochromatization and causing recombination suppression, leading to structural and morphological differentiation of sex chromosomes, and promoting Y chromosome degeneration and X chromosome dosage compensation. In this article, we review the current status of this field, and based on preliminary evidence, we posit that repetitive sequences are involved in sex chromosome evolution probably via epigenetic modification, such as DNA and histone methylation, with small interfering RNAs as the mediator.

  5. Enhanced reality live role playing

    OpenAIRE

    Söderberg, Jonas; Waern, Annika; Åkesson, Karl-Petter; Björk, Staffan; Falk, Jennica

    2004-01-01

    Live role-playing is a form of improvisational theatre played for the experience of the performers and without an audience. These games form a challenging application domain for ubiquitous technology. We discuss the design options for enhanced reality live role-playing and the role of technology in live role-playing games.

  6. Induction of C-Mip by IL-17 Plays an Important Role in Adriamycin-Induced Podocyte Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbo Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Although the disturbance of T lymphocyte and glomerular podocyte exerts a crucial function in the pathogenesis of proteinuria, the potential link is still unclear. Methods: The balance of Treg and Th17 cells, and the expression of IL-17/IL-17R and c-mip were investigated in adrimycin-induced nephropathy (AN mice. The effect and mechanism of IL-17 on podocyte were explored in cultured podocytes. Results: The proportion of Th17 cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, the amount of IL-17 in serum and kidney cortical homogenates, and the expression of IL-17R and c-mip in glomerular podocyte were increased obviously in AN mice. In cultured podocytes, recombinant IL-17 led to an induction of apoptosis and cytoskeletal disorganization, an overproduction of c-mip while down-regulation of phosphor-nephrin, and an increased binding of c-mip to NF-κB/RelA. Silence of c-mip prevented podocyte apoptosis and reduction of phosphor-nephrin by prompting nuclear translocation of NF-κB/RelA in IL-17 treated cells. Persistent activation of NF-κB up-regulated pro-survival protein Bcl-2 and decreased podocyte apoptosis, but had no effect on phosphor-nephrin level. Conclusion: These findings demonstrated that induction of IL-17 released by Th17 cells plays a key role in podocytopathy most likely through down-regulation of phosphor-nephrin and Bcl-2 level via overproduction of c-mip.

  7. Nod-Like Receptor Protein-3 Inflammasome Plays an Important Role during Early Stages of Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M.; Mirza, Rita E.; Koh, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    The Nod-like receptor protein (NLRP)-3 inflammasome/IL-1β pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory skin diseases, but its biological role in wound healing remains to be elucidated. Since inflammation is typically thought to impede healing, we hypothesized that loss of NLRP-3 activity would result in a downregulated inflammatory response and accelerated wound healing. NLRP-3 null mice, caspase-1 null mice and C57Bl/6 wild type control mice (WT) received four 8 mm excisional cutaneous wounds; inflammation and healing were assessed during the early stage of wound healing. Consistent with our hypothesis, wounds from NLRP-3 null and caspase-1 null mice contained lower levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α compared to WT mice and had reduced neutrophil and macrophage accumulation. Contrary to our hypothesis, re-epithelialization, granulation tissue formation, and angiogenesis were delayed in NLRP-3 null mice and caspase-1 null mice compared to WT mice, indicating that NLRP-3 signaling is important for early events in wound healing. Topical treatment of excisional wounds with recombinant IL-1β partially restored granulation tissue formation in wounds of NLRP-3 null mice, confirming the importance of NLRP-3-dependent IL-1β production during early wound healing. Despite the improvement in healing, angiogenesis and levels of the pro-angiogenic growth factor VEGF were further reduced in IL-1β treated wounds, suggesting that IL-1β has a negative effect on angiogenesis and that NLRP-3 promotes angiogenesis in an IL-1β-independent manner. These findings indicate that the NLRP-3 inflammasome contributes to the early inflammatory phase following skin wounding and is important for efficient healing. PMID:25793779

  8. Cartilage link protein 1 (Crtl1), an extracellular matrix component playing an important role in heart development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirrig, Elaine E; Snarr, Brian S; Chintalapudi, Mastan R; O'neal, Jessica L; Phelps, Aimee L; Barth, Jeremy L; Fresco, Victor M; Kern, Christine B; Mjaatvedt, Corey H; Toole, Bryan P; Hoffman, Stanley; Trusk, Thomas C; Argraves, W Scott; Wessels, Andy

    2007-10-15

    To expand our insight into cardiac development, a comparative DNA microarray analysis was performed using tissues from the atrioventricular junction (AVJ) and ventricular chambers of mouse hearts at embryonic day (ED) 10.5-11.0. This comparison revealed differential expression of approximately 200 genes, including cartilage link protein 1 (Crtl1). Crtl1 stabilizes the interaction between hyaluronan (HA) and versican, two extracellular matrix components essential for cardiac development. Immunohistochemical studies showed that, initially, Crtl1, versican, and HA are co-expressed in the endocardial lining of the heart, and in the endocardially derived mesenchyme of the AVJ and outflow tract (OFT). At later stages, this co-expression becomes restricted to discrete populations of endocardially derived mesenchyme. Histological analysis of the Crtl1-deficient mouse revealed a spectrum of cardiac malformations, including AV septal and myocardial defects, while expression studies showed a significant reduction in versican levels. Subsequent analysis of the hdf mouse, which carries an insertional mutation in the versican gene (CSPG2), demonstrated that haploinsufficient versican mice display septal defects resembling those seen in Crtl1(-/-) embryos, suggesting that reduced versican expression may contribute to a subset of the cardiac abnormalities observed in the Crtl1(-/-) mouse. Combined, these findings establish an important role for Crtl1 in heart development.

  9. Pathogenesis of Congenital Rubella Virus Infection in Human Fetuses: Viral Infection in the Ciliary Body Could Play an Important Role in Cataractogenesis

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    Thong Van Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation: Our study based on the pathological examination demonstrated that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of human fetuses. This fact was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and direct detection of viral RNA in multiple organs. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report demonstrating that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of the human body. Importantly, virus infection of the ciliary body could play an important role in cataractogenesis.

  10. The Plant Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins Play Important Roles in Defense against Pathogens and Insect Pest Attacks

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    Feng Zhu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs are toxic N-glycosidases that depurinate eukaryotic and prokaryotic rRNAs, thereby arresting protein synthesis during translation. RIPs are widely found in various plant species and within different tissues. It is demonstrated in vitro and in transgenic plants that RIPs have been connected to defense by antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, and insecticidal activities. However, the mechanism of these effects is still not completely clear. There are a number of reviews of RIPs. However, there are no reviews on the biological functions of RIPs in defense against pathogens and insect pests. Therefore, in this report, we focused on the effect of RIPs from plants in defense against pathogens and insect pest attacks. First, we summarize the three different types of RIPs based on their physical properties. RIPs are generally distributed in plants. Then, we discuss the distribution of RIPs that are found in various plant species and in fungi, bacteria, algae, and animals. Various RIPs have shown unique bioactive properties including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and insecticidal activity. Finally, we divided the discussion into the biological roles of RIPs in defense against bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insects. This review is focused on the role of plant RIPs in defense against bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insect attacks. The role of plant RIPs in defense against pathogens and insects is being comprehended currently. Future study utilizing transgenic technology approaches to study the mechanisms of RIPs will undoubtedly generate a better comprehending of the role of plant RIPs in defense against pathogens and insects. Discovering additional crosstalk mechanisms between RIPs and phytohormones or reactive oxygen species (ROS against pathogen and insect infections will be a significant subject in the field of biotic stress study. These studies are helpful in revealing significance of genetic control that can

  11. FoxO1 Plays an Important Role in Regulating ?-Cell Compensation for Insulin Resistance in Male Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ting; Kim, Dae Hyun; Xiao, Xiangwei; Lee, Sojin; Gong, Zhenwei; Muzumdar, Radhika; Calabuig-Navarro, Virtu; Yamauchi, Jun; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Wang, Rennian; Bottino, Rita; Alvarez-Perez, Juan Carlos; Garcia-Oca?a, Adolfo; Gittes, George; Dong, H. Henry

    2016-01-01

    ?-Cell compensation is an essential mechanism by which ?-cells increase insulin secretion for overcoming insulin resistance to maintain euglycemia in obesity. Failure of ?-cells to compensate for insulin resistance contributes to insulin insufficiency and overt diabetes. To understand the mechanism of ?-cell compensation, we characterized the role of forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) in ?-cell compensation in mice under physiological and pathological conditions. FoxO1 is a key transcription factor that...

  12. Negative Correlation between miR-200c and Decorin Plays an Important Role in the Pathogenesis of Colorectal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Yi Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To demonstrate the regulatory role of miRNA in colorectal carcinoma (CRC and reveal the transcript markers that may be associated with CRC clinical outcomes. Method. Herein, we analyzed both mRNA and miRNA gene expression profiles of 255 CRC tumor samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas project to reveal the regulatory association between miRNA and mRNA. Also, the potential role of gene coexpression network in CRC has been explored. Results. The negative correlation between miR-200c and DCN (Decorin was calculated in CRC, indicating that DCN could be a potential target of miR-200c. Clinical features indicated that colon polyp history and overall survival were significantly related to the expression level of miR-200c. Three coexpression networks have been constructed, and genes involved in the networks are related to cell cycle, NOTCH, and mTOR signaling pathways. Conclusion. Our result provides a new insight into cancer related mRNA coexpression network in CRC research.

  13. Do Substance P and Neurokinin A Play Important Roles in the Control of LH Secretion in Ewes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergani, Chrysanthi; Mazzella, Leanne; Coolen, Lique M.; McCosh, Richard B.; Hardy, Steven L.; Newcomb, Nora; Grachev, Pasha; Lehman, Michael N.

    2016-01-01

    There is now general agreement that neurokinin B (NKB) acts via neurokinin-3-receptor (NK3R) to stimulate secretion of GnRH and LH in several species, including rats, mice, sheep, and humans. However, the roles of two other tachykinins, substance P (SP) and neurokinin A, which act primarily via NK1R and NK2R, respectively, are less clear. In rodents, these signaling pathways can stimulate LH release and substitute for NKB signaling; in humans, SP is colocalized with kisspeptin and NKB in the mediobasal hypothalamus. In this study, we examined the possible role of these tachykinins in control of the reproductive axis in sheep. Immunohistochemistry was used to describe the expression of SP and NK1R in the ovine diencephalon and determine whether these proteins are colocalized in kisspeptin or GnRH neurons. SP-containing cell bodies were largely confined to the arcuate nucleus, but NK1R-immunoreactivity was more widespread. However, there was very low coexpression of SP or NK1R in kisspeptin cells and none in GnRH neurons. We next determined the minimal effective dose of these three tachykinins that would stimulate LH secretion when administered into the third ventricle of ovary-intact anestrous sheep. A much lower dose of NKB (0.2 nmol) than of neurokinin A (2 nmol) or SP (10 nmol) consistently stimulated LH secretion. Moreover, the relative potency of these three neuropeptides parallels the relative selectivity of NK3R. Based on these anatomical and pharmacological data, we conclude that NKB-NK3R signaling is the primary pathway for the control of GnRH secretion by tachykinins in ewes. PMID:27704950

  14. The AAA ATPase Vps4 Plays Important Roles in Candida albicans Hyphal Formation and is Inhibited by DBeQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yahui; Li, Wanjie; Chu, Mi; Chen, Hengye; Yu, Haoyuan; Fang, Chaoguang; Sun, Ningze; Wang, Qiming; Luo, Tian; Luo, Kaiju; She, Xueping; Zhang, Mengqian; Yang, Dong

    2016-06-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic human pathogen, and its pathogenicity is associated with hyphal formation. Previous studies have shown that at neutral-to-alkaline pH, hyphal growth is dependent on the Rim101 pathway whose activation requires Snf7, a member of the ESCRT system. In this work, we described the purification and characterization of the C. albicans Vps4, an AAA ATPase required for recycling of the ESCRTs. Its role on hyphal growth has been investigated. Our data suggest deletion of Vps4 decreases overall hyphal growth at pH 7 and increases the growth of multiple hyphae induced by serum, which indicates that the ESCRTs may make a Rim101-independent contribution to hyphal growth. Furthermore, DBeQ, an inhibitor of the AAA ATPase p97, was shown to inhibit the ATPase activity of Vps4 with an IC50 of about 11.5 μM. To a less degree, it also inhibits hyphal growth. Our work may provide a new strategy to control C. albicans infection.

  15. ERK1/2 signaling plays an important role in topoisomerase II poison-induced G2/M checkpoint activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Ryan H; Greer, Patrick M; Cao, Phu T; Cowan, Kenneth H; Yan, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Topo II poisons, which target topoisomerase II (topo II) to generate enzyme mediated DNA damage, have been commonly used for anti-cancer treatment. While clinical evidence demonstrate a capability of topo II poisons in inducing apoptosis in cancer cells, accumulating evidence also show that topo II poison treatment frequently results in cell cycle arrest in cancer cells, which was associated with subsequent resistance to these treatments. Results in this report indicate that treatment of MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cells with topo II poisons resulted in an increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and an subsequent induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, inhibition of ERK1/2 activation using specific inhibitors markedly attenuated the topo II poison-induced G2/M arrest and diminished the topo II poison-induced activation of ATR and Chk1 kinases. Moreover, decreased expression of ATR by specific shRNA diminished topo II poison-induced G2/M arrest but had no effect on topo II poison-induced ERK1/2 activation. In contrast, inhibition of ERK1/2 signaling had little, if any, effect on topo II poison-induced ATM activation. In addition, ATM inhibition by either incubation of cells with ATM specific inhibitor or transfection of cells with ATM specific siRNA did not block topo II poison-induced G2/M arrest. Ultimately, inhibition of ERK1/2 signaling greatly enhanced topo II poison-induced apoptosis. These results implicate a critical role for ERK1/2 signaling in the activation of G2/M checkpoint response following topo II poison treatment, which protects cells from topo II poison-induced apoptosis.

  16. The heat shock response plays an important role in TDP-43 clearance: evidence for dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han-Jou; Mitchell, Jacqueline C; Novoselov, Sergey; Miller, Jack; Nishimura, Agnes L; Scotter, Emma L; Vance, Caroline A; Cheetham, Michael E; Shaw, Christopher E

    2016-05-01

    Detergent-resistant, ubiquitinated and hyperphosphorylated Tar DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43, encoded by TARDBP) neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions are the pathological hallmark in ∼95% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and ∼60% of frontotemporal lobar degeneration cases. We sought to explore the role for the heat shock response in the clearance of insoluble TDP-43 in a cellular model of disease and to validate our findings in transgenic mice and human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis tissues. The heat shock response is a stress-responsive protective mechanism regulated by the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), which increases the expression of chaperones that refold damaged misfolded proteins or facilitate their degradation. Here we show that manipulation of the heat shock response by expression of dominant active HSF1 results in a dramatic reduction of insoluble and hyperphosphorylated TDP-43 that enhances cell survival, whereas expression of dominant negative HSF1 leads to enhanced TDP-43 aggregation and hyperphosphorylation. To determine which chaperones were mediating TDP-43 clearance we over-expressed a range of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and identified DNAJB2a (encoded by DNAJB2, and also known as HSJ1a) as a potent anti-aggregation chaperone for TDP-43. DNAJB2a has a J domain, allowing it to interact with HSP70, and ubiquitin interacting motifs, which enable it to engage the degradation of its client proteins. Using functionally deleted DNAJB2a constructs we demonstrated that TDP-43 clearance was J domain-dependent and was not affected by ubiquitin interacting motif deletion or proteasome inhibition. This indicates that TDP-43 is maintained in a soluble state by DNAJB2a, leaving the total levels of TDP-43 unchanged. Additionally, we have demonstrated that the levels of HSF1 and heat shock proteins are significantly reduced in affected neuronal tissues from a TDP-43 transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and patients with

  17. Enhancer of zeste homologue 2 plays an important role in neuroblastoma cell survival independent of its histone methyltransferase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bate-Eya, Laurel T; Gierman, Hinco J; Ebus, Marli E; Koster, Jan; Caron, Huib N; Versteeg, Rogier; Dolman, M Emmy M; Molenaar, Jan J

    2017-04-01

    Neuroblastoma is predominantly characterised by chromosomal rearrangements. Next to V-Myc Avian Myelocytomatosis Viral Oncogene Neuroblastoma Derived Homolog (MYCN) amplification, chromosome 7 and 17q gains are frequently observed. We identified a neuroblastoma patient with a regional 7q36 gain, encompassing the enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2) gene. EZH2 is the histone methyltransferase of lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3) that forms the catalytic subunit of the polycomb repressive complex 2. H3K27me3 is commonly associated with the silencing of genes involved in cellular processes such as cell cycle regulation, cellular differentiation and cancer. High EZH2 expression correlated with poor prognosis and overall survival independent of MYCN amplification status. Unexpectedly, treatment of 3 EZH2-high expressing neuroblastoma cell lines (IMR32, CHP134 and NMB), with EZH2-specific inhibitors (GSK126 and EPZ6438) resulted in only a slight G1 arrest, despite maximum histone methyltransferase activity inhibition. Furthermore, colony formation in cell lines treated with the inhibitors was reduced only at concentrations much higher than necessary for complete inhibition of EZH2 histone methyltransferase activity. Knockdown of the complete protein with three independent shRNAs resulted in a strong apoptotic response and decreased cyclin D1 levels. This apoptotic response could be rescued by overexpressing EZH2ΔSET, a truncated form of wild-type EZH2 lacking the SET transactivation domain necessary for histone methyltransferase activity. Our findings suggest that high EZH2 expression, at least in neuroblastoma, has a survival function independent of its methyltransferase activity. This important finding highlights the need for studies on EZH2 beyond its methyltransferase function and the requirement for compounds that will target EZH2 as a complete protein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cadmium stress assessment based on the electrocardiogram characteristics of zebra fish (Danio rerio): QRS complex could play an important role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Na; Ji, Lizhen; Song, Jie; Ma, Jingchun; Li, Shangge; Ren, Zongming; Xu, Fei; Zhu, Jianping

    2017-10-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) of zebra fish (Danio rerio) expresses cardiac features that are similar to humans. Here we use sharp microelectrode measurements to obtain ECG characteristics in adult zebra fish and analyze the effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) on the heart. We observe the overall changes of ECG parameters in different treatments (0.1 TU, 0.5 TU and 1.0 TU CdCl 2 ), including P wave, Q wave, R wave, S wave, T wave, PR interval (atrial contraction), QRS complex (ventricular depolarization), ST segment, and QT interval (ventricular repolarization). The trends of the ECG parameters showed some responses to the concentration and exposure time of CdCl 2 , but it was difficult to obtain more information about the useful indicators in water quality assessment depending on tendency analysis alone. A self-organizing map (SOM) showed that P values, R values, and T values were similar; R wave and T wave amplitude were similar; and most important, QRS value was similar to the CdCl 2 stress according to the classified data patterns including CdCl 2 stress (E) and ECG components based on the Ward linkage. It suggested that the duration of QRS complex was related to environmental stress E directly. The specification and evaluation of ECG parameters in Cd 2+ pollution suggested that there is a markedly significant correlation between QRS complex and CdCl 2 stress with the highest r (0.729) and the smallest p (0.002) among all ECG characteristics. In this case, it is concluded that QRS complex can be used as an indicator in the CdCl 2 stress assessment due to the lowest AIC data abased on the linear regression model between the CdCl 2 stress and ECG parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Unit cost of healthcare services at 200-bed public hospitals in Myanmar: what plays an important role of hospital budgeting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Thet Mon; Saw, Yu Mon; Khaing, Moe; Win, Ei Mon; Cho, Su Myat; Kariya, Tetsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Eiko; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2017-09-19

    Cost information is important for efficient allocation of healthcare expenditure, estimating future budget allocation, and setting user fees to start new financing systems. Myanmar is in political transition, and trying to achieve universal health coverage by 2030. This study assessed the unit cost of healthcare services at two public hospitals in the country from the provider perspective. The study also analyzed the cost structure of the hospitals to allocate and manage the budgets appropriately. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted at 200-bed Magway Teaching Hospital (MTH) and Pyinmanar General Hospital (PMN GH), in Myanmar, for the financial year 2015-2016. The step-down costing method was applied to calculate unit cost per inpatient day and per outpatient visit. The costs were calculated by using Microsoft Excel 2010. The unit costs per inpatient day varied largely from unit to unit in both hospitals. At PMN GH, unit cost per inpatient day was 28,374 Kyats (27.60 USD) for pediatric unit and 1,961,806 Kyats (1908.37 USD) for ear, nose, and throat unit. At MTH, the unit costs per inpatient day were 19,704 Kyats (19.17 USD) for medicine unit and 168,835 Kyats (164.24 USD) for eye unit. The unit cost of outpatient visit was 14,882 Kyats (14.48 USD) at PMN GH, while 23,059 Kyats (22.43 USD) at MTH. Regarding cost structure, medicines and medical supplies was the largest component at MTH, and the equipment was the largest component at PMN GH. The surgery unit of MTH and the eye unit of PMN GH consumed most of the total cost of the hospitals. The unit costs were influenced by the utilization of hospital services by the patients, the efficiency of available resources, type of medical services provided, and medical practice of the physicians. The cost structures variation was also found between MTH and PMN GH. The findings provided the basic information regarding the healthcare cost of public hospitals which can apply the efficient utilization of the

  20. A nuclear-encoded chloroplast protein harboring a single CRM domain plays an important role in the Arabidopsis growth and stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwanuk; Lee, Hwa Jung; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jeon, Young; Pai, Hyun-Sook; Kang, Hunseung

    2014-04-16

    Although several chloroplast RNA splicing and ribosome maturation (CRM) domain-containing proteins have been characterized for intron splicing and rRNA processing during chloroplast gene expression, the functional role of a majority of CRM domain proteins in plant growth and development as well as chloroplast RNA metabolism remains largely unknown. Here, we characterized the developmental and stress response roles of a nuclear-encoded chloroplast protein harboring a single CRM domain (At4g39040), designated CFM4, in Arabidopsis thaliana. Analysis of CFM4-GFP fusion proteins revealed that CFM4 is localized to chloroplasts. The loss-of-function T-DNA insertion mutants for CFM4 (cfm4) displayed retarded growth and delayed senescence, suggesting that CFM4 plays a role in growth and development of plants under normal growth conditions. In addition, cfm4 mutants showed retarded seed germination and seedling growth under stress conditions. No alteration in the splicing patterns of intron-containing chloroplast genes was observed in the mutant plants, but the processing of 16S and 4.5S rRNAs was abnormal in the mutant plants. Importantly, CFM4 was determined to possess RNA chaperone activity. These results suggest that the chloroplast-targeted CFM4, one of two Arabidopsis genes encoding a single CRM domain-containing protein, harbors RNA chaperone activity and plays a role in the Arabidopsis growth and stress response by affecting rRNA processing in chloroplasts.

  1. TmCactin plays an important role in Gram-negative and -positive bacterial infection by regulating expression of 7 AMP genes in Tenebrio molitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yong Hun; Jung Kim, Yu; Beom Park, Ki; Hwan Seong, Jeong; Gon Kim, Soo; Park, Soyi; Young Noh, Mi; Seok Lee, Yong; Soo Han, Yeon

    2017-01-01

    Cactin was originally identified as an interactor of the Drosophila IκB factor Cactus and shown to play a role in controlling embryonic polarity and regulating the NF-κB signaling pathway. While subsequent studies have identified the roles for Cactin in the mammalian immune response, the immune function of Cactin in insects has not been described yet. Here, we identified a Cactin gene from the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (TmCactin) and characterized its functional role in innate immunity. TmCactin was highly expressed in prepupa to last instar stages, and its expression was high in the integument and Malpighian tubules of last instar larvae and adults. TmCactin was induced in larvae after infection with different pathogens and detectable within 3 hours of infection. The highest levels of TmCactin expression were detected at 9 hours post infection. TmCactin RNAi significantly decreased the survival rates of larvae after challenge with Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, but had no significant effect after challenge with Candida albicans. Furthermore, TmCactin RNAi significantly reduced the expression of seven antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs) after bacterial challenge. Our results suggest that TmCactin may serve as an important regulator of innate immunity, mediating AMP responses against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in T. molitor. PMID:28418029

  2. The comER Gene Plays an Important Role in Biofilm Formation and Sporulation in both Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Yu, Yiyang; Wang, Luyao; Luo, Yuming; Guo, Jian-Hua; Chai, Yunrong

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria adopt alternative cell fates during development. In Bacillus subtilis, the transition from planktonic growth to biofilm formation and sporulation is controlled by a complex regulatory circuit, in which the most important event is activation of Spo0A, a transcription factor and a master regulator for genes involved in both biofilm formation and sporulation. In B. cereus, the regulatory pathway controlling biofilm formation and cell differentiation is much less clear. In this study, we show that a novel gene, comER, plays a significant role in biofilm formation as well as sporulation in both B. subtilis and B. cereus. Mutations in the comER gene result in defects in biofilm formation and a delay in spore formation in the two Bacillus species. Our evidence supports the idea that comER may be part of the regulatory circuit that controls Spo0A activation. comER likely acts upstream of sda, a gene encoding a small checkpoint protein for both sporulation and biofilm formation, by blocking the phosphor-relay and thereby Spo0A activation. In summary, our studies outlined a conserved, positive role for comER, a gene whose function was previously uncharacterized, in the regulation of biofilm formation and sporulation in the two Bacillus species.

  3. The comER Gene Plays an Important Role in Biofilm Formation and Sporulation in both Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Yu, Yiyang; Wang, Luyao; Luo, Yuming; Guo, Jian-hua; Chai, Yunrong

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria adopt alternative cell fates during development. In Bacillus subtilis, the transition from planktonic growth to biofilm formation and sporulation is controlled by a complex regulatory circuit, in which the most important event is activation of Spo0A, a transcription factor and a master regulator for genes involved in both biofilm formation and sporulation. In B. cereus, the regulatory pathway controlling biofilm formation and cell differentiation is much less clear. In this study, we show that a novel gene, comER, plays a significant role in biofilm formation as well as sporulation in both B. subtilis and B. cereus. Mutations in the comER gene result in defects in biofilm formation and a delay in spore formation in the two Bacillus species. Our evidence supports the idea that comER may be part of the regulatory circuit that controls Spo0A activation. comER likely acts upstream of sda, a gene encoding a small checkpoint protein for both sporulation and biofilm formation, by blocking the phosphor-relay and thereby Spo0A activation. In summary, our studies outlined a conserved, positive role for comER, a gene whose function was previously uncharacterized, in the regulation of biofilm formation and sporulation in the two Bacillus species. PMID:27446060

  4. Combined Transcriptomic Analysis Revealed AKR1B10 Played an Important Role in Psoriasis through the Dysregulated Lipid Pathway and Overproliferation of Keratinocyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlu Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA-seq has enabled in-depth analysis of the pathogenesis of psoriasis on the transcriptomic level, and many biomarkers have been discovered to be related to the immune response, lipid metabolism, and keratinocyte proliferation. However, few studies have combined analysis from various datasets. In this study, we integrated different psoriasis RNA-seq datasets to reveal the pathogenesis of psoriasis through the analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs, pathway analysis, and functional annotation. The revealed biomarkers were further validated through proliferation phenotypes. The results showed that DEGs were functionally related to lipid metabolism and keratinocyte differentiation dysregulation. The results also showed new biomarkers, such as AKR1B10 and PLA2G gene families, as well as pathways that include the PPAR signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, alpha-linoleic acid metabolism, and glycosphingolipid biosynthesis. Using siRNA knockdown assays, we further validated the role that the AKR1B10 gene plays in proliferation. Our study demonstrated not only the dysfunction of the AKR1B10 gene in lipid metabolizing but also its important role in the overproliferation and migration of keratinocyte, which provided evidence for further therapeutic uses for psoriasis.

  5. A conserved neuronal DAF-16/FoxO plays an important role in conveying pheromone signals to elicit repulsion behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Donha; Hahm, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Saeram; Ha, Go; Chang, Gyeong-Eon; Jeong, Haelim; Kim, Heekyeong; Kim, Sunhee; Cheong, Eunji; Paik, Young-Ki

    2017-08-03

    Animals use pheromones as a conspecific chemical language to respond appropriately to environmental changes. The soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans secretes ascaroside pheromones throughout the lifecycle, which influences entry into dauer phase in early larvae, in addition to sexual attraction and aggregation. In adult hermaphrodites, pheromone sensory signals perceived by worms usually elicit repulsion as an initial behavioral signature. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal pheromone sensory process from perception to repulsion in adult hermaphrodites remain poorly understood. Here, we show that pheromone signals perceived by GPA-3 is conveyed through glutamatergic neurotransmission in which neuronal DAF-16/FoxO plays an important modulatory role by controlling glutaminase gene expression. We further provide evidence that this modulatory role for DAF-16/FoxO seems to be conserved evolutionarily by electro-physiological study in mouse primary hippocampal neurons that are responsible for glutamatergic neurotransmission. These findings provide the basis for understanding the nematode pheromone signaling, which seems crucial for adaptation of adult hermaphrodites to changes in environmental condition for survival.

  6. 15-lipoxygenase metabolites play an important role in the development of a T-helper type 1 allergic inflammation induced by double-stranded RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, S G; Moon, H-G; Kim, Y-S; Choi, J-P; Shin, T-S; Hong, S-W; Tae, Y-M; Kim, S-H; Zhu, Z; Gho, Y S; Kim, Y-K

    2009-06-01

    We recently demonstrated that the T-helper type 1 (Th1) immune response plays an important role in the development of non-eosinophilic inflammation induced by airway exposure of an allergen plus double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). However, the role of lipoxygenase (LO) metabolites in the development of Th1 inflammation is poorly understood. To evaluate the role of LO metabolites in the development of Th1 inflammation induced by sensitization with an allergen plus dsRNA. A Th2-allergic inflammation mouse model was created by an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide-depleted ovalbumin (OVA, 75 microg) and alum (2 mg) twice, and the Th1 model was created by intranasal application of OVA (75 microg) and synthetic dsRNA [10 microg of poly(I : C)] four times, followed by an intranasal challenge with 50 microg of OVA four times. The role of LO metabolites was evaluated using two approaches: a transgenic approach using 5-LO(-/-) and 15-LO(-/-) mice, and a pharmacological approach using inhibitors of cysteinyl leucotriene receptor-1 (cysLTR1), LTB4 receptor (BLT1), and 15-LO. We found that the Th1-allergic inflammation induced by OVA+dsRNA sensitization was similar between 5-LO(-/-) and wild-type (WT) control mice, although Th2 inflammation induced by sensitization with OVA+alum was reduced in the former group. In addition, dsRNA-induced Th1 allergic inflammation, which is associated with down-regulation of 15-hydroxyeicosateraenoic acids production, was not affected by treatment with cysLTR1 or BLT1 inhibitors, whereas it was significantly lower in 12/15-LO(-/-) mice compared with WT control mice. Moreover, dsRNA-induced allergic inflammation and the recruitment of T cells following an allergen challenge were significantly inhibited by treatment with a specific 15-LO inhibitor (PD146176). 15-LO metabolites appear to be important mediators in the development of Th1-allergic inflammation induced by sensitization with an allergen plus dsRNA. Our findings suggest that the

  7. Tyrosine411 and Arginine410 of Human Serum Albumin Play an Important Role in the Binding of Sodium 4-Phenylbutyrate to Site II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enokida, Taisuke; Yamasaki, Keishi; Okamoto, Yuko; Taguchi, Kazuaki; Ishiguro, Takako; Maruyama, Toru; Seo, Hakaru; Otagiri, Masaki

    2016-06-01

    Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PB) has many pharmacological activities; therefore extending its clinical use to the treatment of a wider variety of diseases would be desirable. However, our knowledge of the binding of PB to plasma proteins is not extensive. To address this issue in more detail, we characterized the protein binding of PB. Binding experiments showed that PB mainly binds to human serum albumin (HSA) in plasma. PB was also found to bind to a single site on HSA, which was identified as site II by fluorescent probe displacement experiment. Furthermore, an appropriate alkyl chain length and a carboxylic group in the PB structure were required for PB binding to HSA, suggesting that hydrophobic (and van der Waals) and electrostatic interactions are involved as binding modes. The contributions of hydrogen bonding and/or van der Waals interactions were also indicated by thermodynamic analyses. Tyrosine411 and arginine410 were identified as being involved in the binding of PB to site II, based on binding experiments using chemically modified- and mutant-HSA preparations. In conclusion, the available evidence indicates that PB binds to site II of HSA with assistance by multiple forces and that tyrosine411 and arginine410 both play important roles in this phenomenon. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The long-term effect of zinc soil contamination on selected free amino acids playing an important role in plant adaptation to stress and senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlíková, Daniela; Zemanová, Veronika; Procházková, Dagmar; Pavlík, Milan; Száková, Jiřina; Wilhelmová, Naďa

    2014-02-01

    Increased endogenous plant cytokinin (CK) content through transformation with an isopentyl transferase (ipt) gene has been associated with improved plant stress tolerance. The objective of this study is to determine amino acid changes associated with elevated CK production in ipt transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L., cv. Wisconsin 38). Nontransformed (WT) and transformed tobacco plants with ipt gene controlled by senescence-activated promoter (SAG) were exposed to zinc soil contamination (tested levels Zn1=250, Zn2=500, Zn3=750 mg kg(-1) soil). The Zn effect on plant stress metabolism resulted in changes in levels of selected free amino acids playing an important role in adaptation to stress and plant senescence (alanine, leucine, proline, methionine and γ-aminobutyrate) and differed for transformed and nontransformed tobacco plants. Analyses of amino acids confirmed that SAG tobacco plants had improved zinc tolerance compared with the WT plants. The enhanced Zn tolerance of SAG plants was associated with the maintenance of accumulation of proline, methionine and γ-aminobutyrate. The concentrations of leucine and alanine did not show significant differences between plant lines. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Protein kinase a dependent phosphorylation of apical membrane antigen 1 plays an important role in erythrocyte invasion by the malaria parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Leykauf

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Apicomplexan parasites are obligate intracellular parasites that infect a variety of hosts, causing significant diseases in livestock and humans. The invasive forms of the parasites invade their host cells by gliding motility, an active process driven by parasite adhesion proteins and molecular motors. A crucial point during host cell invasion is the formation of a ring-shaped area of intimate contact between the parasite and the host known as a tight junction. As the invasive zoite propels itself into the host-cell, the junction moves down the length of the parasite. This process must be tightly regulated and signalling is likely to play a role in this event. One crucial protein for tight-junction formation is the apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1. Here we have investigated the phosphorylation status of this key player in the invasion process in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. We show that the cytoplasmic tail of P. falciparum AMA1 is phosphorylated at serine 610. We provide evidence that the enzyme responsible for serine 610 phosphorylation is the cAMP regulated protein kinase A (PfPKA. Importantly, mutation of AMA1 serine 610 to alanine abrogates phosphorylation of AMA1 in vivo and dramatically impedes invasion. In addition to shedding unexpected new light on AMA1 function, this work represents the first time PKA has been implicated in merozoite invasion.

  10. H2O2 plays an important role in the lifestyle of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides during interaction with cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloy, Ygor R G; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Barreto, Ana L H; Freire-Filho, Francisco R; Oliveira, Jose T A

    2015-08-01

    Plant-fungus interactions usually generate H(2)O(2) in the infected plant tissue. H(2)O(2) has a direct antimicrobial effect and is involved in the cross-linking of cell walls, signaling, induction of gene expression, hypersensitive cell death and induced systemic acquired resistance. This has raised the hypothesis that H(2)O(2) manipulation by pharmacological compounds could alter the lifestyle of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides during interaction with the BR-3-Tracuateua cowpea genotype. The primary leaves of cowpea were excised, infiltrated with salicylic acid (SA), glucose oxidase + glucose (GO/G), catalase (CAT) or diphenyliodonium chloride (DPI), followed by spore inoculation on the adaxial leaf surface. SA or GO/G-treated plantlets showed increased H(2)O(2) accumulation and lipid peroxidation. The fungus used a subcuticular, intramural necrotrophic strategy, and developed secondary hyphae associated with the quick spread and rapid killing of host cells. However, CAT or DPI-treated leaves exhibited decreased H(2)O(2) concentration and lipid peroxidation and the fungus developed intracellular hemibiotrophic infection with vesicles, in addition to primary and secondary hyphal formation. These results suggest that H(2)O(2) plays an important role in the cowpea (C. gloeosporioides) pathosystem given that it affected fungal lifestyle during interaction. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chondroitin 4-O-Sulfotransferase Is Indispensable for Sulfation of Chondroitin and Plays an Important Role in Maintaining Normal Life Span and Oxidative Stress Responses in Nematodes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumikawa, Tomomi; Dejima, Katsufumi; Watamoto, Yukiko; Nomura, Kazuko H.; Kanaki, Nanako; Rikitake, Marika; Tou, Mai; Murata, Daisuke; Yanagita, Eri; Kano, Ai; Mitani, Shohei; Nomura, Kazuya; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS)/chondroitin (Chn) chains are indispensable for embryonic cell division and cytokinesis in the early developmental stages in Caenorhabditis elegans and mice, whereas heparan sulfate (HS) is essential for axon guidance during nervous system development. These data indicate that the fundamental functions of CS and HS are conserved from worms to mammals and that the function of CS/Chn differs from that of HS. Although previous studies have shown that C. elegans produces HS and non-sulfated Chn, whether the organism produces CS remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that C. elegans produces a small amount of 4-O-sulfated Chn and report the identification of C41C4.1, an orthologue of the human chondroitin 4-O-sulfotransferase gene. Loss of C41C4.1 in C. elegans resulted in a decline in 4-O-sulfation of CS and an increase in the number of sulfated units in HS. C41C4.1 deletion mutants exhibited reduced survival rates after synchronization with sodium hypochlorite. Collectively, these results show for the first time that CS glycans are present in C. elegans and that the Chn 4-O-sulfotransferase responsible for the sulfation plays an important role in protecting nematodes from oxidative stress. PMID:27645998

  12. Chondroitin 4-O-Sulfotransferase Is Indispensable for Sulfation of Chondroitin and Plays an Important Role in Maintaining Normal Life Span and Oxidative Stress Responses in Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumikawa, Tomomi; Dejima, Katsufumi; Watamoto, Yukiko; Nomura, Kazuko H; Kanaki, Nanako; Rikitake, Marika; Tou, Mai; Murata, Daisuke; Yanagita, Eri; Kano, Ai; Mitani, Shohei; Nomura, Kazuya; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2016-10-28

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS)/chondroitin (Chn) chains are indispensable for embryonic cell division and cytokinesis in the early developmental stages in Caenorhabditis elegans and mice, whereas heparan sulfate (HS) is essential for axon guidance during nervous system development. These data indicate that the fundamental functions of CS and HS are conserved from worms to mammals and that the function of CS/Chn differs from that of HS. Although previous studies have shown that C. elegans produces HS and non-sulfated Chn, whether the organism produces CS remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that C. elegans produces a small amount of 4-O-sulfated Chn and report the identification of C41C4.1, an orthologue of the human chondroitin 4-O-sulfotransferase gene. Loss of C41C4.1 in C. elegans resulted in a decline in 4-O-sulfation of CS and an increase in the number of sulfated units in HS. C41C4.1 deletion mutants exhibited reduced survival rates after synchronization with sodium hypochlorite. Collectively, these results show for the first time that CS glycans are present in C. elegans and that the Chn 4-O-sulfotransferase responsible for the sulfation plays an important role in protecting nematodes from oxidative stress. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Transcriptional profiling of Medicago truncatula under salt stress identified a novel CBF transcription factor MtCBF4 that plays an important role in abiotic stress responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Zhen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salt stress hinders the growth of plants and reduces crop production worldwide. However, different plant species might possess different adaptive mechanisms to mitigate salt stress. We conducted a detailed pathway analysis of transcriptional dynamics in the roots of Medicago truncatula seedlings under salt stress and selected a transcription factor gene, MtCBF4, for experimental validation. Results A microarray experiment was conducted using root samples collected 6, 24, and 48 h after application of 180 mM NaCl. Analysis of 11 statistically significant expression profiles revealed different behaviors between primary and secondary metabolism pathways in response to external stress. Secondary metabolism that helps to maintain osmotic balance was induced. One of the highly induced transcription factor genes was successfully cloned, and was named MtCBF4. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MtCBF4, which belongs to the AP2-EREBP transcription factor family, is a novel member of the CBF transcription factor in M. truncatula. MtCBF4 is shown to be a nuclear-localized protein. Expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula was induced by most of the abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, cold, and abscisic acid, suggesting crosstalk between these abiotic stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing MtCBF4 enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress, and activated expression of downstream genes that contain DRE elements. Over-expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula also enhanced salt tolerance and induced expression level of corresponding downstream genes. Conclusion Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis revealed complex mechanisms exist in plants in response to salt stress. The novel transcription factor gene MtCBF4 identified here played an important role in response to abiotic stresses, indicating that it might be a good candidate gene for genetic improvement to produce stress-tolerant plants.

  14. Complement Factor B is the Downstream Effector of Toll-Like Receptors and Plays an Important Role in a Mouse Model of Severe Sepsis¶

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lin; Feng, Yan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Ming; Chen, Chan; Cai, Jiayan; Gong, Yu; Wang, Larry; Thurman, Joshua M.; Wu, Xiaobo; Atkinson, John P.; Chao, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Severe sepsis involves massive activation of the innate immune system and leads to high mortality. Previous studies have demonstrated that various types of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate a systemic inflammatory response and contribute to organ injury and mortality in animal models of severe sepsis. However, the downstream mechanisms responsible for TLR-mediated septic injury are poorly understood. Here, we show that activation of TLR2, TLR3 and TLR4 markedly enhanced complement factor B (cfB) synthesis and release by macrophages and cardiac cells. Polymicrobial sepsis, created by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in a mouse model, augmented cfB levels in the serum, peritoneal cavity and major organs including the kidney and heart. CLP also led to the alternative pathway (AP) activation, C3 fragment deposition in the kidney and heart, and cfB-dependent C3dg elevation. Bacteria isolated from septic mice activated the serum AP via a factor D-dependent manner. MyD88 deletion attenuated cfB/C3 up-regulation as well as cleavage induced by polymicrobial infection. Importantly, during sepsis, absence of cfB conferred a protective effect with improved survival and cardiac function, and markedly attenuated acute kidney injury. cfB deletion also led to increased neutrophil migratory function during the early phase of sepsis, decreased local and systemic bacterial load, attenuated cytokine production and reduced neutrophil reactive oxygen species production. Together, our data indicate that cfB acts as a downstream effector of TLR signaling and plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of severe bacterial sepsis. PMID:24154627

  15. TLR9 played a more important role than TLR2 in the combination of maltose-binding protein and BCG-induced Th1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Weihua; Wang, Fang; Liu, Guomu; Zhang, Nannan; Yuan, Hongyan; Jie, Jing; Tai, Guixiang

    2016-11-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that maltose-binding protein (MBP) combined with BCG induced synergistic mouse Th1 activation in vivo. Here, to explore the mechanism of MBP combined with BCG on Th1 activation, mouse purified CD4 + T cells were stimulated with MBP and BCG in vitro. The results showed that MBP combined with BCG synergistically increased IFN-γ production, accompanied with the upregulation of TLR2/9 expressions, suggesting that TLR2/9 were involved in the combination-induced Th1 activation. Next, TLR2 antibodies and TLR9 inhibitor were used to further analyze the effects of TLRs in Th1 activation. Results showed TLR2 antibody partly decreased MBP combined with BCG-induced IFN-γ production, MyD88 expression and IκB phosphorylation, indicating that TLR2-mediated MyD88-dependent pathway was involved in the MBP combined with BCG-induced Th1 activation. Moreover, MBP combined with BCG-induced Th1 activation was completely abrogated by TLR9 inhibitor, suggesting that TLR9-mediated MyD88-dependent pathway played a more important role than TLR2 in the combination-induced Th1 activation. Further study showed that TLR9 inhibitor downregulated TLR2 expression, suggesting that TLR9 signaling regulated TLR2 activation to favor Th1 resonse induced by MBP combined with BCG. Collectively, we demonstrated for the first time that the cross-talk of TLR2 and TLR9 triggered Th1 activation collaboratively and our findings provided valuable information about designing more effective adjuvant for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Lung fibroblasts may play an important role in clearing apoptotic bodies of bronchial epithelial cells generated by exposure to PHMG-P-containing solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Jung; Park, Sung-Jin; Kim, Sanghwa; Lee, Kyuhong; Chang, Jaerak

    2018-04-01

    Polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) has been widely used in the industry owing to its excellent biocidal, anti-corrosive, and anti-biofouling properties. In Korea, consumers exposed to PHMG-phosphate (PHMG-P)-containing humidifier disinfectant have begun to suffer from fibrotic lung injury-related symptoms for unknown reasons. However, no appropriate treatment has yet been found because the detail toxic mechanism has not been identified. Herein, we first studied the toxic mechanism of PHMG-P-containing solution using human normal bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B cells). When exposed for 24 h, PHMG-P-containing solution rapidly decreased cell viability from around 6 h after exposure and significantly increased of the phosphatidylserine exposure and the LDH release. At 6 h of exposure, the material contained in the solution was found to be bound to the cell membrane and the inner wall of vacuoles, and damaged the cell membrane and organelles. In addition, a significant increase of IFN-γ was observed among cytokines, the expression of apoptosis-, autophagy-, and membrane and DNA damage-related proteins was also enhanced. Meanwhile, the level of intracellular ROS and the secretion of IL-8 and CXCL-1, which are chemokines for professional phagocytes, decreased. Thus, we treated dead BEAS-2B cells to lung fibroblasts (HFL-1), non-professional phagocytes, and then we observed that the dead cells rapidly attached to HFL-1 cells and were taken up. Additionally, increased secretion of IL-8 and CXCL-1 was observed in the cells. Based on these results, we suggest that pulmonary exposure to PHMG-P induces apoptosis of bronchial epithelial cells and lung fibroblasts might play an important role in the clearance of the apoptotic debris. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Surface Layer Homology Domain-Containing Proteins of Alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 Play an Important Role in Alkaline Adaptation via Peptidoglycan Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujinami, Shun; Ito, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    It is well known that the Na + cycle and the cell wall are essential for alkaline adaptation of Na + -dependent alkaliphilic Bacillus species. In Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4, surface layer protein A (SlpA), the most abundant protein in the surface layer (S-layer) of the cell wall, is involved in alkaline adaptation, especially under low Na + concentrations. The presence of a large number of genes that encode S-layer homology (SLH) domain-containing proteins has been suggested from the genome sequence of B. pseudofirmus OF4. However, other than SlpA, the functions of SLH domain-containing proteins are not well known. Therefore, a deletion mutant of the csaB gene, required for the retention of SLH domain-containing proteins on the cell wall, was constructed to investigate its physiological properties. The csaB mutant strain of B. pseudofirmus OF4 had a chained morphology and alkaline sensitivity even under a 230 mM Na + concentration at which there is no growth difference between the parental strain and the slpA mutant strain. Ultra-thin section transmission electron microscopy showed that a csaB mutant strain lacked an S-layer part, and its peptidoglycan (PG) layer was disturbed. The slpA mutant strain also lacked an S-layer part, although its PG layer was not disturbed. These results suggested that the surface layer homology domain-containing proteins of B. pseudofirmus OF4 play an important role in alkaline adaptation via peptidoglycan synthesis.

  18. Transcriptional profiling of Medicago truncatula under salt stress identified a novel CBF transcription factor MtCBF4 that plays an important role in abiotic stress responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Salt stress hinders the growth of plants and reduces crop production worldwide. However, different plant species might possess different adaptive mechanisms to mitigate salt stress. We conducted a detailed pathway analysis of transcriptional dynamics in the roots of Medicago truncatula seedlings under salt stress and selected a transcription factor gene, MtCBF4, for experimental validation. Results A microarray experiment was conducted using root samples collected 6, 24, and 48 h after application of 180 mM NaCl. Analysis of 11 statistically significant expression profiles revealed different behaviors between primary and secondary metabolism pathways in response to external stress. Secondary metabolism that helps to maintain osmotic balance was induced. One of the highly induced transcription factor genes was successfully cloned, and was named MtCBF4. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MtCBF4, which belongs to the AP2-EREBP transcription factor family, is a novel member of the CBF transcription factor in M. truncatula. MtCBF4 is shown to be a nuclear-localized protein. Expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula was induced by most of the abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, cold, and abscisic acid, suggesting crosstalk between these abiotic stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing MtCBF4 enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress, and activated expression of downstream genes that contain DRE elements. Over-expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula also enhanced salt tolerance and induced expression level of corresponding downstream genes. Conclusion Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis revealed complex mechanisms exist in plants in response to salt stress. The novel transcription factor gene MtCBF4 identified here played an important role in response to abiotic stresses, indicating that it might be a good candidate gene for genetic improvement to produce stress-tolerant plants. PMID:21718548

  19. Psychiatrists' Perceptions of Role-Playing Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Eric; Chiniara, Carl; Biskin, Robert; Montoro, Richard

    2015-09-01

    The literature has seen a surge in research on the mental health impacts of technologies such as Facebook, video games, and massively-multiplayer online role-playing games such as World of Warcraft, but little is known regarding the mental health impact of non-video role-playing games, such as Dungeons & Dragons. The present study examines how psychiatrists' perceive role-playing games and whether they play them. Psychiatrists at a tertiary care centre in Canada completed a questionnaire assessing history of playing role-playing games and whether they associate them with psychopathology. Forty-eight psychiatrists responded. Twenty-three percent have played a role-playing game over their lifetimes. Twenty-two percent believed there was an association between psychopathology and role-playing games. A majority of psychiatrists who responded do not associate role-playing games with psychopathology. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  20. Sirtuin 3, a new target of PGC-1alpha, plays an important role in the suppression of ROS and mitochondrial biogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxing Kong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3 is one of the seven mammalian sirtuins, which are homologs of the yeast Sir2 gene. SIRT3 is the only sirtuin with a reported association with the human life span. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha plays important roles in adaptive thermogenesis, gluconeogenesis, mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration. PGC-1alpha induces several key reactive oxygen species (ROS-detoxifying enzymes, but the molecular mechanism underlying this is not well understood.Here we show that PGC-1alpha strongly stimulated mouse Sirt3 gene expression in muscle cells and hepatocytes. Knockdown of PGC-1alpha led to decreased Sirt3 gene expression. PGC-1alpha activated the mouse SIRT3 promoter, which was mediated by an estrogen-related receptor (ERR binding element (ERRE (-407/-399 mapped to the promoter region. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed that ERRalpha bound to the identified ERRE and PGC-1alpha co-localized with ERRalpha in the mSirt3 promoter. Knockdown of ERRalpha reduced the induction of Sirt3 by PGC-1alpha in C(2C(12 myotubes. Furthermore, Sirt3 was essential for PGC-1alpha-dependent induction of ROS-detoxifying enzymes and several components of the respiratory chain, including glutathione peroxidase-1, superoxide dismutase 2, ATP synthase 5c, and cytochrome c. Overexpression of SIRT3 or PGC-1alpha in C(2C(12 myotubes decreased basal ROS level. In contrast, knockdown of mSIRT3 increased basal ROS level and blocked the inhibitory effect of PGC-1alpha on cellular ROS production. Finally, SIRT3 stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis, and SIRT3 knockdown decreased the stimulatory effect of PGC-1alpha on mitochondrial biogenesis in C(2C(12 myotubes.Our results indicate that Sirt3 functions as a downstream target gene of PGC-1alpha and mediates the PGC-1alpha effects on cellular ROS production and mitochondrial biogenesis. Thus, SIRT3 integrates cellular energy

  1. Deep cerebellar nuclei play an important role in two-tone discrimination on delay eyeblink conditioning in C57BL/6 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiro Sakamoto

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN-lesioned mice develop conditioned responses (CR on delay eyeblink conditioning when a salient tone conditioned stimulus (CS is used, which suggests that the cerebellum potentially plays a role in more complicated cognitive functions. In the present study, we examined the role of DCN in tone frequency discrimination in the delay eyeblink-conditioning paradigm. In the first experiment, DCN-lesioned and sham-operated mice were subjected to standard simple eyeblink conditioning under low-frequency tone CS (LCS: 1 kHz, 80 dB or high-frequency tone CS (HCS: 10 kHz, 70 dB conditions. DCN-lesioned mice developed CR in both CS conditions as well as sham-operated mice. In the second experiment, DCN-lesioned and sham-operated mice were subjected to two-tone discrimination tasks, with LCS+ (or HCS+ paired with unconditioned stimulus (US, and HCS- (or LCS- without US. CR% in sham-operated mice increased in LCS+ (or HCS+ trials, regardless of tone frequency of CS, but not in HCS- (or LCS- trials. The results indicate that sham-operated mice can discriminate between LCS+ and HCS- (or HCS+ and LCS-. In contrast, DCN-lesioned mice showed high CR% in not only LCS+ (or HCS+ trials but also HCS- (or LCS- trials. The results indicate that DCN lesions impair the discrimination between tone frequency in eyeblink conditioning. Our results suggest that the cerebellum plays a pivotal role in the discrimination of tone frequency.

  2. THE IMPORTANCE OF PLAY DURING HOSPITALIZATION OF CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukourikos, Konstantinos; Tzeha, Laila; Pantelidou, Parthenopi; Tsaloglidou, Areti

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Play constitutes an essential parameter of the normal psychosomatic development of children, as well as their statutory right. It is also an important means of communication in childhood. Objective: To review, detect and highlight all data cited regarding the role of play during the hospitalization of children. Methodology: Literature review was achieved by searching the databases Scopus, PubMed, Cinhal in English, using the following key words: therapeutic play, play therapy, hospitalized child, therapist. Results: During hospitalization, play either in the form of therapeutic play, or as in the form of play therapy, is proven to be of high therapeutic value for ill children, thus contributing to both their physical and emotional well-being and to their recovery. It helps to investigate issues related to the child’s experiences in the hospital and reduce the intensity of negative feelings accompanying a child’s admission to hospital and hospitalization. Play is widely used in pre-operative preparation and invasive procedures, while its use among children hospitalized for cancer is beneficial. Conclusion: The use of play in hospital may become a tool in the hands of healthcare professionals, in order to provide substantial assistance to hospitalized children, as long as they have appropriate training, patience, and will to apply it during hospitalization. PMID:26889107

  3. Transcription factor σB plays an important role in the production of extracellular membrane-derived vesicles in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hwa Lee

    Full Text Available Gram-negative bacteria produce extracellular outer membrane vesicles (OMVs that interact with host cells. Unlike Gram-negative bacteria, less is known about the production and role of extracellular membrane vesicles (MVs in Gram-positive bacteria. The food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes can survive under extreme environmental and energy stress conditions and the transcription factor σ(B is involved in this survival ability. Here, we first determined the production of MVs from L. monocytogenes and evaluated whether general stress transcription factor σ(B affected production of MVs in L. monocytogenes. L. monocytogenes secreted MVs during in vitro broth culture. The wild-type strain actively produced MVs approximately nine times more and also produced more intact shapes of MVs than those of the isogenic ΔsigB mutant. A proteomic analysis showed that 130 and 89 MV proteins were identified in the wild-type and ΔsigB mutant strains, respectively. Wild-type strain-derived MVs contained proteins regulated by σ(B such as transporters (OpuCA and OpuCC, stress response (Kat, metabolism (LacD, translation (InfC, and cell division protein (FtsZ. Gene Ontology (GO enrichment analysis showed that wild-type-derived MV proteins corresponded to several GO terms, including response to stress (heat, acid, and bile resistance and extracellular polysaccharide biosynthetic process, but not the ΔsigB mutant. Internalin B (InlB was almost three times more contained in MVs derived from the wild-type strain than in MVs derived from the ΔsigB mutant. Taken together, these results suggest that σ(B plays a pivotal role in the production of MVs and protein profiles contained in MVs. L. monocytogenes MVs may contribute to host infection and survival ability under various stressful conditions.

  4. Play Therapy: Role in Reading Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla

    1991-01-01

    Reviews the literature concerning the role of play therapy (particularly sandplay and nondirected play therapy) in the improvement of reading. Suggests that the role of play therapy is to support the child, encourage the child, and build self-esteem thus creating the optimal learning environment for reading improvement. (RS)

  5. Restaurant Role-Play in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borya, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Research methods is perceived as a technical and difficult topic by some students. Using role-play to teach it can make it more accessible, meaningful and engaging. Role-playing the familiar roles of customer and waiting staff at a restaurant and discussing the variables that may affect the size of tips can help students to learn some of the key…

  6. High mobility group box associated with cell proliferation appears to play an important role in hepatocellular carcinogenesis in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shugo; Takeshita, Kentaro; Asamoto, Makoto; Takahashi, Satoru; Kandori, Hitoshi; Tsujimura, Kazunari; Saito, Fumiyo; Masuko, Kazuo; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2009-01-31

    To identify genes important in hepatocellular carcinogenesis, especially processes involved in malignant transformation, we focused on differences in gene expression between adenomas and carcinomas by DNA microarray. Eighty-one genes for which expression was specific in carcinomas were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software and Gene Ontology, and found to be associated with TP53 and regulators of cell proliferation. In the genes associated with TP53, we selected high mobility group box (HMGB) for detailed analysis. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of HMGBs in carcinomas to be significantly higher than in other lesions among both human and rat liver, and a positive correlation between HMGBs and TP53 was detected in rat carcinomas. Knock-down of HMGB 2 expression in a rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell line by RNAi resulted in inhibition of cell growth, although no effects on invasion were evident in vitro. These results suggest that acquisition of malignant potential in the liver requires specific signaling pathways related to high cell proliferation associated with TP53. In particular, HMGBs appear to have an important role for progression and cell proliferation associated with loss of TP53 function in rat and in human hepatocarcinogenesis.

  7. High mobility group box associated with cell proliferation appears to play an important role in hepatocellular carcinogenesis in rats and humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shugo; Takeshita, Kentaro; Asamoto, Makoto; Takahashi, Satoru; Kandori, Hitoshi; Tsujimura, Kazunari; Saito, Fumiyo; Masuko, Kazuo; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2009-01-01

    To identify genes important in hepatocellular carcinogenesis, especially processes involved in malignant transformation, we focused on differences in gene expression between adenomas and carcinomas by DNA microarray. Eighty-one genes for which expression was specific in carcinomas were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software and Gene Ontology, and found to be associated with TP53 and regulators of cell proliferation. In the genes associated with TP53, we selected high mobility group box (HMGB) for detailed analysis. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of HMGBs in carcinomas to be significantly higher than in other lesions among both human and rat liver, and a positive correlation between HMGBs and TP53 was detected in rat carcinomas. Knock-down of HMGB 2 expression in a rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell line by RNAi resulted in inhibition of cell growth, although no effects on invasion were evident in vitro. These results suggest that acquisition of malignant potential in the liver requires specific signaling pathways related to high cell proliferation associated with TP53. In particular, HMGBs appear to have an important role for progression and cell proliferation associated with loss of TP53 function in rat and in human hepatocarcinogenesis

  8. AMP-activated protein kinase plays an important evolutionary conserved role in the regulation of glucose metabolism in fish skeletal muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo J Magnoni

    Full Text Available AMPK, a master metabolic switch, mediates the observed increase of glucose uptake in locomotory muscle of mammals during exercise. AMPK is activated by changes in the intracellular AMP:ATP ratio when ATP consumption is stimulated by contractile activity but also by AICAR and metformin, compounds that increase glucose transport in mammalian muscle cells. However, the possible role of AMPK in the regulation of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle has not been investigated in other vertebrates, including fish. In this study, we investigated the effects of AMPK activators on glucose uptake, AMPK activity, cell surface levels of trout GLUT4 and expression of GLUT1 and GLUT4 as well as the expression of enzymes regulating glucose disposal and PGC1α in trout myotubes derived from a primary muscle cell culture. We show that AICAR and metformin significantly stimulated glucose uptake (1.6 and 1.3 fold, respectively and that Compound C completely abrogated the stimulatory effects of the AMPK activators on glucose uptake. The combination of insulin and AMPK activators did not result in additive nor synergistic effects on glucose uptake. Moreover, exposure of trout myotubes to AICAR and metformin resulted in an increase in AMPK activity (3.8 and 3 fold, respectively. We also provide evidence suggesting that stimulation of glucose uptake by AMPK activators in trout myotubes may take place, at least in part, by increasing the cell surface and mRNA levels of trout GLUT4. Finally, AICAR increased the mRNA levels of genes involved in glucose disposal (hexokinase, 6-phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase and citrate synthase and mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α and did not affect glycogen content or glycogen synthase mRNA levels in trout myotubes. Therefore, we provide evidence, for the first time in non-mammalian vertebrates, suggesting a potentially important role of AMPK in stimulating glucose uptake and utilization in the skeletal muscle of fish.

  9. Role-playing for more realistic technical skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikendei, C; Zeuch, A; Dieckmann, P; Roth, C; Schäfer, S; Völkl, M; Schellberg, D; Herzog, W; Jünger, J

    2005-03-01

    Clinical skills are an important and necessary part of clinical competence. Simulation plays an important role in many fields of medical education. Although role-playing is common in communication training, there are no reports about the use of student role-plays in the training of technical clinical skills. This article describes an educational intervention with analysis of pre- and post-intervention self-selected student survey evaluations. After one term of skills training, a thorough evaluation showed that the skills-lab training did not seem very realistic nor was it very demanding for trainees. To create a more realistic training situation and to enhance students' involvement, case studies and role-plays with defined roles for students (i.e. intern, senior consultant) were introduced into half of the sessions. Results of the evaluation in the second term showed that sessions with role-playing were rated significantly higher than sessions without role-playing.

  10. Using Role Play to Debate Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agell, Laia; Soria, Vanessa; Carrió, Mar

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals in biomedical research is a socio-scientific issue in which decision-making is complicated. In this article, we describe an experience involving a role play activity performed during school visits to the Barcelona Biomedical Research Park (PRBB) to debate animal testing. Role playing games require students to defend different…

  11. Moving educational role-play beyond entertainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus Henriksen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Educational role-play has long proved an effective tool for consultants trying to develop the skills that employees are using for performing certain job functions. However, while educational role-play often is presented as an entertaining means for learning, such insistence on making learning gam...

  12. Enhancing Playful Teachers' Perception of the Importance of ICT Use in the Classroom: The Role of Risk Taking as a Mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, A. Lin; Low, Ee Ling; Ng, Pak Tee; Yeung, Alexander S.; Cai, Li

    2015-01-01

    In today's world, teaching and learning processes inevitably involve the application of information and communication technology (ICT). It seems reasonable to expect personal attributes such as cognitive playfulness to be associated with consistent application of ICT. Using survey responses from Singapore students in a teacher education programme…

  13. Large and medium-sized pulmonary artery obstruction does not play a role of primary importance in the etiology of sickle-cell disease-associated pulmonary hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beers, Eduard J.; van Eck-Smit, Berthe L. F.; Mac Gillavry, Melvin R.; van Tuijn, Charlotte F. J.; van Esser, Joost W. J.; Brandjes, Dees P. M.; Kappers-Klunne, Mies C.; Duits, Ashley J.; Biemond, Bart J.; Schnog, John-John B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PHT) occurs in approximately 30% of adult patients with sickle-cell disease (SCD) and is a risk factor for early death. The potential role of pulmonary artery obstruction, whether due to emboli or in situ thrombosis, in the etiology of SCD-related PHT is unknown.

  14. I Play Roles, Therefore I Am

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Waade, Anne Marit

    2007-01-01

    -reflecting activity is getting an increasingly growing attention from the media, and the fact that educators, teachers, and development consultants have discovered the potential inherent in role-playing, both as an idea and a strategy. In this essay, we place leisure role-playing in a broader perspective, not only...... Rollespil - i æstetisk, pædagogisk og kulturel sammenhæng (2006), which is the first Danish academic anthology on role-playing as an aesthetic, educational, and cultural phenomenon....

  15. Online role-playing for faculty development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladhani, Zahra; Chhatwal, Jugesh; Vyas, Rashmi; Iqbal, Mobeen; Tan, Christina; Diserens, Deborah

    2011-03-01

    There has been a rapid growth of online teaching in the past few years, yet the implementation of role-play for formal educational activities in an online setting is growing more slowly. The use of online role-playing for the development of health professions educators is virtually un-documented in the literature. In the project reported here we use role-playing as a method to motivate and increase active participation in an online web-based discussion on community-based medical education (CBME). The Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education & Research (FAIMER(®) ) Institute hosts virtual group discussions for fellows as part of its fellowship programmes, in order to deepen their knowledge base in health professions education and research. In June 2008, a group of seven FAIMER(®) fellows and faculty members moderated an online discussion on CBME using an online role-play exercise with other fellows and faculty members. Out of a total of 102 fellows, 36 (35.3%) participated actively, which exceeded the typical percentage of list server participation. In addition, a rich discussion resulted in a comprehensive report on the goals, challenges, logistical components, role of Health Ministry policy and the possible ethical mandate of CBME in developing countries. Online role-play encouraged distributed participation among a highly diverse international group of participants, supporting the conclusion that role-playing can be used effectively with mid-career health professional faculty members in the online environment. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  16. The large first periplasmic loop of SecD and SecF plays an important role in SecDF functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouwen, N; Piwowarek, M; Berrelkamp, G; Driessen, AJM

    A remarkable feature of proteins of the SecD and SecF family involved in protein translocation is that they possess a very large first periplasmic domain. Here we report that this large first periplasmic domain is not required for the SecD-SecF interaction but that it is important for catalyzing

  17. Does constructive neutral evolution play an important role in the origin of cellular complexity? Making sense of the origins and uses of biological complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speijer, Dave

    2011-01-01

    Recently, constructive neutral evolution has been touted as an important concept for the understanding of the emergence of cellular complexity. It has been invoked to help explain the development and retention of, amongst others, RNA splicing, RNA editing and ribosomal and mitochondrial respiratory

  18. The Photographic History of Greenland’s Glaciers – and how the historical data plays an important role in today’s glacier research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Anders Anker; Kjeldsen, Kristian Kjellerup; Korsgaard, Niels Jákup

    As the Greenland Ice Sheet and Greenland's glaciers are continuing to loss mass at high rates, knowledge of their past response to climatic changes is ever important. By harvesting the archives for images, both terrestrial and airborne, we are able to expand the record of glacier observation...... by several decades, thus supplying crucial knowledge on glacier behavior to important climatic transitions such as the end of the Little Ice Age and the early 20th Century warming. Here we show how a large collection of historical aerial images portray the glacial response to the Little Ice Age deglaciation...... in Greenland and document frontal change throughout the 20th Century. A detailed story of the LIA-deglaciation is told by supplementing with terrestrial photos that capture the onset of retreat and high resolution aerial images that portray geomorphological evidence of the Little Ice Age maximum extent...

  19. Proteomics of Fusarium oxysporum race 1 and race 4 reveals enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and ion transport that might play important roles in banana Fusarium wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Yi, Xiaoping; Peng, Ming; Zeng, Huicai; Wang, Dan; Li, Bo; Tong, Zheng; Chang, Lili; Jin, Xiang; Wang, Xuchu

    2014-01-01

    Banana Fusarium wilt is a soil-spread fungal disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum. In China, the main virulence fungi in banana are F. oxysporum race 1 (F1, weak virulence) and race 4 (F4, strong virulence). To date, no proteomic analyses have compared the two races, but the difference in virulence between F1 and F4 might result from their differentially expressed proteins. Here we report the first comparative proteomics of F1 and F4 cultured under various conditions, and finally identify 99 protein species, which represent 59 unique proteins. These proteins are mainly involved in carbohydrate metabolism, post-translational modification, energy production, and inorganic ion transport. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that among the 46 proteins identified from F4 were several enzymes that might be important for virulence. Reverse transcription PCR analysis of the genes for 15 of the 56 proteins revealed that their transcriptional patterns were similar to their protein expression patterns. Taken together, these data suggest that proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism and ion transport may be important in the pathogenesis of banana Fusarium wilt. Some enzymes such as catalase-peroxidase, galactosidase and chitinase might contribute to the strong virulence of F4. Overexpression or knockout of the genes for the F4-specific proteins will help us to further understand the molecular mechanism of Fusarium-induced banana wilt.

  20. Curcumin β-D-Glucuronide Plays an Important Role to Keep High Levels of Free-Form Curcumin in the Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Hitomi; Imaizumi, Atsushi; Sumi, Yoshihiko; Hashimoto, Tadashi; Kanai, Masashi; Makino, Yuji; Tsuda, Takanori; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Kakeya, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin, a polyphenol derived from the rhizome of the naturally occurring plant Curcuma longa, has various pharmacological actions such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In this paper, we evaluated the role of its internal metabolite, curcumin β-D-glucuronide (curcumin monoglucuronide, CMG), by investigating curcumin kinetics and metabolism in the blood. Firstly, we orally administered highly bioavailable curcumin to rats to elucidate its kinetics, and observed not only the free-form of curcumin, but also, curcumin in a conjugated form, within the portal vein. We confirmed that curcumin is conjugated when it passes through the intestinal wall. CMG, one of the metabolites, was then orally administered to rats. Despite its high aqueous solubility compared to free-form curcumin, it was not well absorbed. In addition, CMG was injected intravenously into rats in order to assess its metabolic behavior in the blood. Interestingly, high levels of free-form curcumin, thought to be sufficiently high to be pharmacologically active, were observed. The in vivo antitumor effects of CMG following intravenous injection were then evaluated in tumor-bearing mice with the HCT116 human colon cancer cell line. The tumor volume within the CMG group was significantly less than that of the control group. Moreover, there was no significant loss of body weight in the CMG group compared to the control group. These results suggest that CMG could be used as an anticancer agent without the serious side effects that most anticancer agents have.

  1. Does constructive neutral evolution play an important role in the origin of cellular complexity? Making sense of the origins and uses of biological complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speijer, Dave

    2011-05-01

    Recently, constructive neutral evolution has been touted as an important concept for the understanding of the emergence of cellular complexity. It has been invoked to help explain the development and retention of, amongst others, RNA splicing, RNA editing and ribosomal and mitochondrial respiratory chain complexity. The theory originated as a welcome explanation of isolated small scale cellular idiosyncrasies and as a reaction to 'overselectionism'. Here I contend, that in its extended form, it has major conceptual problems, can not explain observed patterns of complex processes, is too easily dismissive of alternative selectionist models, underestimates the creative force of complexity as such, and--if seen as a major evolutionary mechanism for all organisms--could stifle further thought regarding the evolution of highly complex biological processes. Copyright © 2011 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Cell division and endoreduplication play important roles in stem swelling of tuber mustard (Brassica juncea Coss. var. tumida Tsen et Lee).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H; Wang, L L; Sun, L T; Dong, L L; Liu, B; Chen, L P

    2012-11-01

    We investigated spatio-temporal variations in cell division and the occurrence of endoreduplication in cells of tuber mustard stems during development. Cells in the stem had 8C nuclei (C represents DNA content of a two haploid genome), since it is an allotetraploid species derived from diploid Brassica rapa (AA) and B. nigra (BB), thus indicating the occurrence of endoreduplication. Additionally, we observed a dynamic change of cell ploidy in different regions of the swollen stems, with a decrease in 4C proportion in P4-1 and a sharp increase in 8C cells that became the dominant cell type (86.33% at most) in the inner pith cells. Furthermore, cDNAs of 14 cell cycle genes and four cell expansion genes were cloned and their spatial transcripts analysed in order to understand their roles in stem development. The expression of most cell cycle genes peaked in regions of the outer pith (P2 or P3), some genes regulating S/G2 and G2/M (BjCDKB1;2, BjCYCB1;1 and BjCYCB1;2) significantly decrease in P5 and P6, while G1/S regulators (BjE2Fa, BjE2Fb and BjE2Fc) showed a relative high expression level in the inner pith (P5) where cells were undergoing endoreduplication. Coincidentally, BjXTH1and BjXTH2 were exclusively expressed in the endoreduplicated cells. Our results suggest that cells of outer pith regions (P2 and P3) mainly divide for cell proliferation, while cells of the inner pith expand through endoreduplication. Endoreduplication could trigger expression of BjXTH1 and BjXTH2 and thus function in cell expansion of the pith tissue. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. IL-4/5 signalling plays an important role during Litomosoides sigmodontis infection, influencing both immune system regulation and tissue pathology in the thoracic cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Manuel; Tamadaho, Ruth S; Feid, Judith; Vogel, Wenzel; Wiszniewsky, Katharina; Perner, Sven; Hoerauf, Achim; Layland, Laura E

    2017-12-01

    -/- mice. In summary, this study unravels the essential role of IL-4/IL-5 signalling in controlling immunity against filarial infections and demonstrates the requirement of this pathway for the host to control ensuing pathology and inflammation. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Vitamin D deficiency plays an important role in cardiac disease and affects patient outcome: Still a myth or a fact that needs exploration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher Fanari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that a low vitamin D status may be an important and hitherto neglected factor of cardiovascular disease. This review is an overview of the current body of literature, and presents evidence of the mechanisms through which vitamin D deficiency affects the cardiovascular system in general and the heart in particular. Available data indicate that the majority of congestive heart failure patients have 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency. Furthermore, the low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level has a higher impact on hypertension, coronary artery disease an on the occurrence of relevant cardiac events. A serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level below 75 nmol/l (30 ng/l is generally regarded as vitamin D insufficiency in both adults and children, while a level below 50 nmol/l (20 ng/l is considered deficiency. Levels below 50 nmol/l (20 ng/l are linked independently to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  5. Dyssynergic defecation may play an important role in postoperative Hirschsprung's disease patients with severe persistent constipation: analysis of a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinds, Rob J; Eggink, Maura C; Heineman, Erik; Broens, Paul M A

    2014-10-01

    After surgery for Hirschsprung's disease (HD) the majority of patients have satisfactory clinical outcomes. Nevertheless, a substantial number of patients remain who suffer from severe persistent constipation. Current consensus attributes these complaints to the hallmarks of HD. In non-HD patients a cause for severe constipation is dyssynergic defecation. Retrospectively, we reviewed the medical records of ten postoperative HD patients with severe persistent constipation who had undergone extensive anorectal function tests to diagnose the reason for the constipation. We analyzed the results of these tests. During the last three years, ten postoperative HD patients with severe persistent constipation were given extensive anorectal function tests. All ten patients were diagnosed with dyssynergic defecation. The ages at the time of diagnosis ranged from 7 to 19years with a median age of 12years. Signs of an enlarged rectum were seen in all ten patients, with a maximum measured value of 845mL. Patients with HD may also suffer from dyssynergic defecation. It is important to consider this possibility when dealing with severe persistent constipation in postoperative HD patients. Viable options for treating dyssynergic defecation are available that could prevent irreversible long-term complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Correlation between Early Stages of Life Exposed to Chinese Famine and Cognitive Decline in Adulthood: Nutrition of Adulthood Plays an Important Role in the Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Hongguo; Xi, Yuandi; An, Yu; Tao, Lingwei; Zhang, Xiaona; Yu, Huiyan; Wang, Ying; Qin, Zhongsheng; Xiao, Rong

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether people exposed to the Chinese Famine in fetal period or in multiple stages of childhood are associated with cognitive decline in adulthood. Furthermore, the nutritional environment of adulthood was explored as an important factor in this correlation. Methods: 1162 adults born between 1952 and 1964 were recruited. They were divided into five groups which were non-exposed group, fetal-exposed group, early childhood-exposed group, mid childhood-exposed group and late childhood-exposed group. Cognitive function was measured by using a comprehensive neuropsychological battery test, including Montreal cognitive assessment-Beijing version, mini-mental state examination, auditory verbal learning test, digit span forward, digit span backward, trail making test, and digit symbol test. Semi-quantified food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess the dietary nutrition in their adulthood. The dietary nutrient consumption pattern was identified by Two-step and K-means cluster analysis. Results: The significant differences in cognitive function were manifested in different groups. Compared with non-exposed group, subjects in fetal-exposed group had a higher risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (OR 1.51 95% CI 1.02–2.23, P = 0.039) and global cognitive decline (OR 1.68 59% CI 1.02–2.77, P = 0.044). The similar result was also observed in subjects of early childhood-exposed group. Otherwise, subjects who were classified in high nutrient consumption pattern had higher risk of cognitive decline. Moreover, the higher consumption of several nutrients such as fat, carbohydrate and manganese were associated with worse performance on digit span forward, digit span backward, trail making test A, trail making test B and digit symbol. Conclusion: Early stages of life exposed to the Chinese Famine were associated with higher risk of cognitive decline in adulthood. The stronger associations were manifested in the

  7. The Correlation between Early Stages of Life Exposed to Chinese Famine and Cognitive Decline in Adulthood: Nutrition of Adulthood Plays an Important Role in the Link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguo Rong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether people exposed to the Chinese Famine in fetal period or in multiple stages of childhood are associated with cognitive decline in adulthood. Furthermore, the nutritional environment of adulthood was explored as an important factor in this correlation.Methods: 1162 adults born between 1952 and 1964 were recruited. They were divided into five groups which were non-exposed group, fetal-exposed group, early childhood-exposed group, mid childhood-exposed group and late childhood-exposed group. Cognitive function was measured by using a comprehensive neuropsychological battery test, including Montreal cognitive assessment-Beijing version, mini-mental state examination, auditory verbal learning test, digit span forward, digit span backward, trail making test, and digit symbol test. Semi-quantified food frequency questionnaire (FFQ was used to assess the dietary nutrition in their adulthood. The dietary nutrient consumption pattern was identified by Two-step and K-means cluster analysis.Results: The significant differences in cognitive function were manifested in different groups. Compared with non-exposed group, subjects in fetal-exposed group had a higher risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI (OR 1.51 95% CI 1.02–2.23, P = 0.039 and global cognitive decline (OR 1.68 59% CI 1.02–2.77, P = 0.044. The similar result was also observed in subjects of early childhood-exposed group. Otherwise, subjects who were classified in high nutrient consumption pattern had higher risk of cognitive decline. Moreover, the higher consumption of several nutrients such as fat, carbohydrate and manganese were associated with worse performance on digit span forward, digit span backward, trail making test A, trail making test B and digit symbol.Conclusion: Early stages of life exposed to the Chinese Famine were associated with higher risk of cognitive decline in adulthood. The stronger associations were manifested

  8. Live action role-playing games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2006-01-01

    Live action role-playing games share a range of characteristics with massively multi-player online games (MMOGs). Because these games have existed for more than 20 years, players of these games have a substantial amount of experience in handling issues pertinent to MMOGs. Survey and review of live...... action role-playing games, whose participant count can be in the thousands, reveal that features such as size, theme, game master-to-player ratio, and others interact to form complex systems that require several different groups of control tools to manage. The way that these games are managed offers...

  9. The Importance of play During Childhood: The Lesson for care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lack of knowledge on the importance of play for children has ledparents, care givers and pre-school teachers deny children their rights to play,instead they have placed more emphasis on reading and arithmetic. This paper isbased on literature review, and presents the developmental stages of childhood anddiscusses the ...

  10. Some Roles Children Play in Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Nancy; And Others

    1973-01-01

    A child patient may play one of several fixed roles in the family. As scapegoat, his shortcomings are emphasized; as baby, his dependence, weakness, and immaturity are rewarded; as pet, love and praise, some undeserved, are won; and, as peacemaker, he must promote peace at the cost of suppressing his own feelings. (ST)

  11. Role playing research before Dungeons and Dragons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieberoth, Andreas

    been published (for a review, see Lieberoth & Trier-Knudsen, 2015). Sometimes the therapeutic concept of “”Psychodrama”” is evoked as an earlier 20th century case (and suggested efficacy) of role playing as a positive tool for personal and psychological change, but digging a bit deeper, it turns out...

  12. Educational role-play: moving beyond entertainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus Henriksen, Thomas

    This paper presents a controversial approach to innovating educational role-play. It is argued that we should stop thinking games as an entertaining mean for facilitating participation, and instead try to see games as a content provider and feedback mechanism. A theoretical model is presented...

  13. Rhythmic Reading and Role-Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombarbdo, Mary A.

    2005-01-01

    Children listen, act out and recite nursery rhymes and thus learn about rhyming words, absorb the rhythm of English language, and begin to develop speech sound awareness in an interactive and fun way, which can further enhance reading achievement. Encouraging children to dramatize the rhymes leads to role plays which uses basic vocabulary sight…

  14. Epoxy adhesive plays crucial role at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Epoxy adhesives are set to play a vital role in Europe's biggest-ever scientific experiment at the European Centrefor Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, thereby helping scientists gain a better understanding of the origins of the universe." (1/2 page)

  15. Epoxy adhesive plays crucial role at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Epoxy adhesives are set to play a vital role in Europe's biggest-ever scientific experiment at the European Centre for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, thereby helping scientists gain a better understanding of the origins of the universe." (1 page)

  16. Psychodrama: group psychotherapy through role playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipper, D A

    1992-10-01

    The theory and the therapeutic procedure of classical psychodrama are described along with brief illustrations. Classical psychodrama and sociodrama stemmed from role theory, enactments, "tele," the reciprocity of choices, and the theory of spontaneity-robopathy and creativity. The discussion focuses on key concepts such as the therapeutic team, the structure of the session, transference and reality, countertransference, the here-and-now and the encounter, the group-as-a-whole, resistance and difficult clients, and affect and cognition. Also described are the neoclassical approaches of psychodrama, action methods, and clinical role playing, and the significance of the concept of behavioral simulation in group psychotherapy.

  17. The experiences of context on role play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justina Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue in question relates to the preparation that has the staff, for the use of the experiences of the context of children of preschool grade of primary school, in the role plays, for evidence that the social aspect that own the game, being a prerequisite for the formation and development of the child's personality, and being a problem under investigation in educational practice in all aspects of Early Childhood Education.

  18. Motivations for Play in Computer Role-Playing Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    , but rather composed of multiple motivational drivers that are heavily interrelated and act in concert. Character uniqueness and Discovery & Immersion were the highest ranked motivational categories. Different levels of detail in motivations for playing single-/multi- Player RPGs were located...

  19. TOOLS FOR COLABORATIVE LEARNING: A ROLE-PLAYING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ortiz-de-Urbina Criado

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Role-playing is an active participation tool that facilitates cooperative learning. It has also proved to be more effective in developing competencies than traditional methods. This technique is essential to make theory and practice compatible as is required in order to adapt subjects to the new education system based on the Bolonia’s agreement, especially in Social Sciences disciplines. Consequently, the objective of this paper is to show the effect and use of role-playing applied to management area. Therefore, we analyze and design the role-playing, putting it in practice in the classroom in Human Resource Management subject of different academic degrees. To conclude, this paper has shown the importance of role-playing as a learning tool and development of skills like work cooperation, problem and conflict solving, decision making, and managing complex systems.

  20. 2D-DIGE and MALDI TOF/TOF MS analysis reveal that small GTPase signaling pathways may play an important role in cadmium-induced colon cell malignant transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jian; Zhou, Zhongping; Zheng, Jianzhou; Zhang, Zhuyi; Lu, Rongzhu; Liu, Hanqing; Shi, Haifeng; Tu, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal present in the environment and in industrial materials. Cadmium has demonstrated carcinogenic activity that induces cell transformation, but how this occurs is unclear. We used 2D-DIGE and MALDI TOF/TOF MS combined with bioinformatics and immunoblotting to investigate the molecular mechanism of cadmium transformation. We found that small GTPases were critical for transformation. Additionally, proteins involved in mitochondrial transcription, DNA repair, and translation also had altered expression patterns in cadmium treated cells. Collectively, our results suggest that activation of small GTPases contributes to cadmium-induced transformation of colon cells. - Highlights: • Colon epithelial cell line is firstly successfully transformed by cadmium. • 2D-DIGE is applied to visualize the differentially expressed proteins. • RhoA plays an important role in cadmium induced malignant transformation. • Bioinformatic and experimental methods are combined to explore new mechanisms.

  1. 2D-DIGE and MALDI TOF/TOF MS analysis reveal that small GTPase signaling pathways may play an important role in cadmium-induced colon cell malignant transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jian, E-mail: lujian@ujs.edu.cn [School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Institute of Life Sciences, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zhou, Zhongping [School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Institute of Life Sciences, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zheng, Jianzhou [Department of Respiration Medicine, Changzhou No.2 People' s Hospital, Changzhou 213003 (China); Zhang, Zhuyi [School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Institute of Life Sciences, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Lu, Rongzhu [School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Liu, Hanqing [School of Pharmacy, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Shi, Haifeng [Institute of Life Sciences, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Tu, Zhigang, E-mail: tuzg_ujs@ujs.edu.cn [Institute of Life Sciences, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal present in the environment and in industrial materials. Cadmium has demonstrated carcinogenic activity that induces cell transformation, but how this occurs is unclear. We used 2D-DIGE and MALDI TOF/TOF MS combined with bioinformatics and immunoblotting to investigate the molecular mechanism of cadmium transformation. We found that small GTPases were critical for transformation. Additionally, proteins involved in mitochondrial transcription, DNA repair, and translation also had altered expression patterns in cadmium treated cells. Collectively, our results suggest that activation of small GTPases contributes to cadmium-induced transformation of colon cells. - Highlights: • Colon epithelial cell line is firstly successfully transformed by cadmium. • 2D-DIGE is applied to visualize the differentially expressed proteins. • RhoA plays an important role in cadmium induced malignant transformation. • Bioinformatic and experimental methods are combined to explore new mechanisms.

  2. The Correlation of Playing Role-playing Games and Students' Reading Comprehension of Narrative Text

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Praditya

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the correlation of playing Role-Playing Games and students' reading comprehension of narrative text. Thirty (30) ninth grade students who play Role-Playing Games participated in this study. Their frequency in playing Role-Playing Games and their ability in reading comprehension of narrative text are analyzed by using correlation research design. Correlation research design was used in this study in order to find out the tendency of relation between students' frequen...

  3. The Role of Play in Children’s Palliative Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Boucher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Play is the universal language of childhood and the time and opportunity to play is every child’s right. The role of play as a vehicle for communication, a tool for distraction and its value in the holistic development of a normal child is without dispute. The role and value of play increase proportionately when a child is made more vulnerable through illness or disability. Despite this, providing time and opportunities to play can be overlooked or considered to be of little importance or relevance when the focus of the adult carers is the amelioration of clinical symptoms of the illness and on lessening the psychological impact the illness may have on the child. This paper outlines the role and the value of play as an integral component in the provision of palliative care for children with chronic, life-threatening and life-limiting conditions. It will show how providing appropriate equipment, sufficient time and relevant play opportunities not only improves the very sick child’s psychological wellbeing, but also allows the child to cast aside the confines and restrictions imposed upon them by their illness and for a few golden moments to be nothing more than a child at play.

  4. TEACHING SPEAKING BY ROLE-PLAY ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadilah Fadilah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The students often find some problems in practising English speaking. The problem frequently found is that their native language causes them difficult to use the foreign language. Other reason is because of motivation lack to practice the second language in daily conversation. They are also too shy and afraid to take part in the conversation. Many factors can cause the problem of the students’ speaking skills namely the students’ interest, the material, and the media among others including the technique in teaching English. There are many ways that can be done by the students to develop their ability in speaking English. The appropriate technique used by the English teacher also supports their interested in practising their speaking. One of the techniques that can be applied is role play.

  5. Pesquisa qualitativa em Educação Matemática a distância: aspectos importantes do uso do Role Playing Game como procedimento metodológico de pesquisa Qualitative research in distance Mathematics Education: important aspects of the Role Playing Game as research methodological procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Rosa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo evidencia aspectos do Role Playing Game (RPG, jogo de representação de personagens, que o tornam um importante procedimento de investigação em termos de Pesquisa Qualitativa em Educação (no caso, Educação Matemática a Distância. Esse jogo foi adotado em uma pesquisa (ROSA, 2008 que estudou as relações estabelecidas entre a construção de identidades online e o ensino e a aprendizagem do conceito de Integral Definida (conceito do Cálculo Diferencial e Integral em um curso a distância. Assim, a partir dessa investigação que utilizou o RPG jogado a distância, via chat, como procedimento de coleta de dados, discutimos a inserção desse jogo como procedimento metodológico de pesquisa em Educação Matemática a Distância e caracterizamos como esse processo liga-se a questões referentes à Pesquisa Qualitativa nesse novo cenário: o ciberespaço. Logo, assumimos que adotar o RPG como procedimento de pesquisa favorece tanto o pesquisador, quanto os sujeitos investigados, em termos de mostrarem-se como "diferentes" mesmo sendo "os mesmos" (ROSA, 2008 e isso potencializa a produção do conhecimento matemático, bem como a análise das ações e possibilidades educacionais vislumbradas pelo ser online que se apresenta no ambiente natural apresentado. Também apontamos a adoção do RPG como fator que impele e amplia a concepção pós-estruturalista de Educação que, em ambientes virtuais, cada vez mais, vem destacando e estabelecendo uma amplitude de investigação que transforma esse espaço imaginativo e surpreendente em um ambiente natural de pesquisa.This article highlights aspects of the Role Playing Game (RPG, which make an important procedure in terms of research on Qualitative Research in Distance Education (in this case, Mathematics Education. This game was used in a research (ROSA, 2008 that studied the relations between the construction of online identities and teaching and learning of the concept of

  6. "Prey Play": Learning about Predators and Prey through an Interactive, Role-Play Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Cynthia C. M.; Dodd, Kristen; Drennon, Katherine; Nagle, Jack

    2012-01-01

    "Prey Play" is an interactive role-play activity that provides fifth-grade students with opportunities to examine predator-prey interactions. This four-part, role-play activity allows students to take on the role of a predator and prey as they reflect on the behaviors animals exhibit as they collect food and interact with one another, as well as…

  7. Virtual Playgrounds? Assessing the Playfulness of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kerrie Lewis

    2010-01-01

    Millions of children and adults devote much of their leisure time to playing massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). Most observers commonly categorize computer games as a play activity, but this article asks whether MMORPGs contain activities that might not be play. The author examines the phenomenon of online gaming and…

  8. Role-Play and Student Engagement: Reflections from the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Role-play is viewed by scholars as an effective active learning strategy: it encourages participation among passive learners, adds dynamism to the classroom and promotes the retention of material. But what do students think of role-play? This study surveyed 144 students after a role-play activity in a history course and asked them to identify what…

  9. Designing and Evaluating an Online Role Play in Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrastinski, Stefan; Watson, Jason

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify, through a literature review, key issues regarding how online role plays can be designed and to apply them when designing a role play on conflict management. Design/methodology/approach: By drawing on the key issues identified in the literature review, a role play on conflict management was designed and…

  10. From Togetherness to Equal Partnership in Role Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannikainen, Maritta

    1998-01-01

    Explored different kinds of participation in play and development of joint role play. Observed games and play sessions of a 2-year-old girl in a day care group. Found that the girl proceeded from a feeling of togetherness in a shared space through parallel and successive play actions to reciprocity and equal exchange of play actions. (JPB)

  11. Women play larger role in Latin America's commercial urban waste ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    21 juin 2016 ... The research examines the role women play in marketing urban waste as a commercial enterprise and their important contribution to municipal recyclable waste activities. This book ... De courts téléromans pour encourager l'éducation financière et l'inclusion des femmes au Pérou. Le fait de ne pas avoir ...

  12. Binning of shallowly sampled metagenomic sequence fragments reveals that low abundance bacteria play important roles in sulfur cycling and degradation of complex organic polymers in an acid mine drainage community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, G. J.; Andersson, A.; Banfield, J. F.

    2007-12-01

    not expected to reflect the tetranucleotide frequency signature of the host genome. Four unknown tetranucleotide frequency clusters with significant sequence (6 Mb total) were noted and analyzed further. Based on phylogenetic markers and BLAST results, these clusters represent low abundance bacteria including Acintobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. Functional analysis of these clusters revealved that the low- abundance bacteria harbor genes that could potentially encode important ecosystem functions such as sulfur utilization (e.g. polysulfide reductase) and polymer degradation (e.g. chitinase and glycoside hydrolase). We conclude that ESOM clustering of tetranucleotide frequency patterns is an effective method for rapidly binning shotgun community genomic sequences and a valuable tool for analyzing minor community members, which despite their low abundance may play crucial ecological roles.

  13. What role does taste play in school meal interventions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero, Kayla; Olsen, Anne Marie; Wistoft, Karen

    2018-01-01

    dialogue around taste on factors such as physical and psychological well-being, empowerment, school enjoyment, and academic outcomes. By taking steps to accurately evaluate and improve the taste of school food and by creating avenues for students to express their opinions and develop a meaningful sense......School lunch plays an important role in the well-being of students. However, studies have given evidence that school lunch may not be satisfactory to students. Evidence shows that taste plays an influential role in students’ food decisions and eating experiences. This narrative review finds...... that interventions around improving school lunch mainly focus on increasing intake of target foods or food groups, and few studies exist that examine other outcomes such as food enjoyment or well-being. Future interventions could explore the impact of increasing student engagement around school lunch and opening...

  14. Teaching clinical interviewing skills using role-playing: conveying empathy to performing a suicide assessment: a primer for individual role-playing and scripted group role-playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Shawn Christopher; Barney, Christine

    2015-03-01

    This article provides a useful introduction to the art of role-playing in both the individual format and the group format using scripted group role-playing (SGRP). Role-playing can provide powerful learning opportunities, but to do so it must be done well. This article imparts guidance toward this goal. SGRP may greatly enhance the acquisition of critical complex interviewing skills, such as suicide assessment and uncovering domestic violence, in health care providers across all disciplines, an educational goal that has not been achievable to date. Although research is at an early stage of development, the hope represented by SGRP is tangible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Insight: Exploring Hidden Roles in Collaborative Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricia Shi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks into interaction modes between players in co-located, collaborative games. In particular, hidden traitor games, in which one or more players is secretly working against the group mission, has the effect of increasing paranoia and distrust between players, so this paper looks into the opposite of a hidden traitor – a hidden benefactor. Rather than sabotaging the group mission, the hidden benefactor would help the group achieve the end goal while still having a reason to stay hidden. The paper explores what games with such a role can look like and how the role changes player interactions. Finally, the paper addresses the divide between video game and board game interaction modes; hidden roles are not common within video games, but they are of growing prevalence in board games. This fact, combined with the exploration of hidden benefactors, reveals that hidden roles is a mechanic that video games should develop into in order to match board games’ complexity of player interaction modes.

  16. MOTHER-CHILD AND FATHER-CHILD PLAY INTERACTION: THE IMPORTANCE OF PARENTAL PLAYFULNESS AS A MODERATOR OF THE LINKS BETWEEN PARENTAL BEHAVIOR AND CHILD NEGATIVITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menashe-Grinberg, Atara; Atzaba-Poria, Naama

    2017-11-01

    Based on the premise that father-child play is an important context for children's development and that fathers "specialize" in play, similarities and differences in the role of playfulness in the father-child and mother-child relationship were examined. Participants in this study included 111 families (children's age: 1-3 years). Father-child and mother-child play interactions were videotaped and coded for parental playfulness, sensitivity, structuring, and nonintrusiveness as well as child negativity. Results indicated that mothers and fathers did not differ in playfulness and that mothers and fathers who were higher in playfulness had children with lower levels of negativity. However, playfulness differently moderated the links between parents' and children's behaviors for mothers and fathers. A double-risk pattern was found for mothers, such that the links between child negativity and maternal sensitivity, structuring, and nonintrusiveness were significant only for the subgroup of mothers with low levels of playfulness. When mothers had high levels of playfulness, these effects were negligible. For fathers, a double-buffer pattern was revealed, indicating that the links between child negativity and paternal sensitivity and structuring were significant only for fathers with high levels of playfulness. When fathers had low levels of playfulness, these effects were negligible. These findings demonstrate the important role that parental playfulness has on parent-child interaction as well as the need to examine moderation patterns separately for fathers and mothers. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  17. Negotiating succession in a family business - a role play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelzmann-Knafl, Sabine; Winkler, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    . The role-play offers you the possibility to flexibly address various succession-related aspects in family business. It requires a teacher, who is familiar with the family business literature and particularly the research of succession in family business. Furthermore, because role-plays have their own...... dynamics, the teacher should be familiar with applying role-plays in their teaching. In the teaching notes we offer a way to embed the role-play in a five-hour teaching and learning activity addressing the various issues of succession in family firms. You could, however, do only the role-play, for instance......Negotiating succession is crucial for a family business. This role-play will enable students to simulate a family conference of the Mayer & Huber Ltd, a German-based but internationally operating producer of mechanical and electrical locking systems for the automotive industry. During...

  18. Economy and technology roles played by nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Eiji

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of the survey analysis made by Atomic Energy Commission on the roles in economy and technology played in the nuclear energy development and utilization, the following are described: economic roles in nuclear energy development and utilization (the present state of nuclear power industry in Japan and the economy effects); technological roles in the same (the present state of nuclear power technology in Japan and the technology effects). The economy effects in other areas are on higher level than in other industries etc. Then, in the technology effects, system technology and quality control in the nuclear power possess significant effects in other areas. While the nuclear energy development and utilization is important in Japan's energy security, it is contributing largely to the economy and society in Japan. (Mori, K.)

  19. Cooperative learning with role play in Chinese pharmacology education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Hu, Xiamin; Xi, Jinglei

    2012-03-01

    Cooperative learning (CL) and role play are both efficient educational tools for enhancing Chinese student active learning and communication skills. This study was designed to obtain student feedback on the format of CL together with role play in the study of pharmacology in Chinese pharmaceutical undergraduates. CL was used in the self-study of new drugs used clinically but neglected in textbook and class teaching, so that groups of students were assigned to become "specialists" in one area of new drugs. Then, these "specialists" taught their new-found knowledge to other groups in role play approach involving an interaction between the pharmacist and a patient. Student perceptions of CL together with role play were examined using an eight-item survey instrument. Students were satisfied with CL together with role play. Majority of the students believed this teaching method enhanced their learning experience, made them gain more pharmacological expertise, increased the awareness of their career in future and self-educational abilities, and fostered their cooperation spirit and confidence. The materials on CL and role play were also believed pertinent. Only 63.4-76.5% and 63.1-37.3% of the students thought "CL and role-play were very funny" and "I felt very relaxed during CL together with role-play", respectively. CL together with role play is an efficient educational tool for enhancing student active-learning and communication skills. But Chinese students will take some time to adapt to this new teaching method.

  20. Setting Sight on Role Playing: To Accommodate or to Repudiate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Apriani Fata

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To set sight on role play by means to look at EFL teacher’s experience and students’ perspectives of role play (RP technique enactment in teaching speaking by using qualitative design. This research was a qualitative study. It was discharged at a Senior high school in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. It provided work for the instrument of observation sheet, field notes and interview guide, and also questionnaire. The methodology designated the combination of four mountainsides to expose in-depth the urgency of role play in which applied since 1936. The result of interview was exposed that the English teacher claimed that role play was a technique applied to promote speaking and it was corroborated by the result of field note. Likewise, regarding students’ perspective depicted that the students indeed agreed on themselves of the usefulness of role play to enhance their speaking skill and motivation. Thus, Students asserted that the learning was more fun and enjoyable through role play itself. It is merely found in this research study that role playing can accommodate students’ need and teacher’s side in English language teaching. Nevertheless, this article applies a small subject as the participant. Therefore, the researchers recommended to have a deep look at reasoning students’ point of view in terms of role play technique implementation in non-English class. And see ascertains how beneficial it is in terms of role play (RP in a large classroom.

  1. Foreign Ludicity in Online Role-Playing Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Mei-Ya

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on an explorative case study which, in the first place, aimed to ascertain different types of foreign language play in online role-playing in "Second Life," and which, secondly aimed to describe how various sources of contextual support can explain this foreign language play. Students' written conversation was…

  2. Table-Top Role Playing Game and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tsui-shan

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims to observe whether individuals who engaged in table-top role playing game (TRPG) were more creative. Participants total 170 (52 TRPG players, 54 electronic role playing game (ERPG) players and 64 Non-players) aged from 19 to 63. In the current study, an online questionnaire is used, adopting the verbal subtests of…

  3. Role Playing: Applications in Hostage and Crisis Negotiation Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hasselt, Vincent B.; Romano, Stephen J.; Vecchi, Gregory M.

    2008-01-01

    Role playing has been a mainstay of behavioral assessment for decades. In recent years, however, this analogue strategy has also enjoyed widespread application in the field of law enforcement. Most notably, role-play procedures have become an integral component of assessment and training efforts in hostage and crisis negotiation, which attempts to…

  4. Role-Playing and Religion: Using Games to Educate Millennials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Adam L.

    2008-01-01

    I have been experimenting with using role-playing and games in my religion classes for several years and have found that students respond well to these pedagogical tools and methods. After reviewing my experiences, I explore the reasons for students' positive response. I argue that role-playing games capitalize on our students' educational…

  5. When is role playing really experiential? Case studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boess, S.; Saakes, D.; Hummels, C.C.M.; B. Ullmer, xx; A. Schmidt, xx; E. Hornecker, xx; C. Hummels, xx; R. Jacob, xx; E. van der Hoven, xx

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents and evaluates examples from our work with role playing exercises in design, both in design education and in our own design work. Rationales for role playing in design are: communication within the design process, the increase of technological complexity, the experience and

  6. A Historical Journey in Science Education through Role Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Smita

    2013-01-01

    In order to avoid a routine classroom environment, teachers often employ the use of role-plays. This is an effective strategy because it is essential for teachers to engage their students with information through various methods. Role-playing provides the children with the opportunity to incorporate multiple senses into a knowledge-based, fun…

  7. The Use of Role Play in the Training of Hypnotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Shirley

    A model has been developed for using role play in the supervision and training of hypnotherapy. Specific techniques can be role played by trainee and supervisor which can enable the trainee to develop skill and confidence in the use of hypnotic techniques. Hypnotic induction, listening, observing and providing feedback, relaxation,…

  8. Parent participation plays an important part in promoting physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Karin Lindqvist

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although physical activity (PA is an important and modifiable determinant of health, in Sweden only 15% of boys and 10% of girls aged 15 years old achieve the recommended levels of PA 7 days per week. Adolescents’ PA levels are associated with social influence exerted by parents, friends, and teachers. The purpose of this study was to describe parents’ experiences of being a part of their adolescents’ empowerment-inspired PA intervention. A qualitative interview study was performed at a school in the northern part of Sweden. A total of 10 parents were interviewed, and the collected data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Three subthemes were combined into one main theme, demonstrating that parents are one important part of a successful PA intervention. The life of an adolescent has many options and demands that make it difficult to prioritize PA. Although parents felt that they were important in supporting their adolescent, a successful PA intervention must have multiple components. Moreover, the parents noted that the intervention had a positive effect upon not only their adolescents’, but also their own PA. Interventions aimed at promoting PA among adolescents should include measures to stimulate parent participation, have an empowerment approach, and preferably be school-based.

  9. Is it play? Towards a reconceptualisation of role-play from an activity theory perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oers, B.

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a reconceptualisation of role play on the basis of the Cultural-Historical theory (Vygotskij -Leont'ev - El'konin). The theory conceives of play as a specific mode of activity defined by a format that includes three basic parameters (rules, degrees of freedom and involvement).

  10. Online gaming addiction? Motives predict addictive play behavior in massively multiplayer online role-playing games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuss, D.J.; Louws, J.; Wiers, R.W.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about excessive online gaming. Playing Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) appears to be particularly problematic, because these games require a high degree of commitment and time investment from the players to the detriment of

  11. Qualitative Evaluation of a Role Play Bullying Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Gordon L; Brown, Kathryn; Grubb, Paula; Shay, Amy; Montoya, Karen

    Bullying against nurses is becoming a pervasive problem. In this article, a role play simulation designed for undergraduate nursing students is described. In addition, the evaluation findings from a subsample of students who participated in a role play simulation addressing bullying behaviors are reported. Focus group sessions were completed with a subset of eight students who participated in the intervention. Sessions were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using Colaizzi's procedural steps for qualitative analysis. Themes derived from the data were "The Experience of Being Bullied", "Implementation of the Program", "Desired Outcome of the Program", and "Context of Bullying in the Nursing Profession". Role play simulation was an effective and active learning strategy to diffuse education on bullying in nursing practice. Bullying in nursing was identified as a problem worthy of incorporation into the undergraduate nursing curriculum. To further enhance the learning experience with role play simulation, adequate briefing instructions, opportunity to opt out of the role play, and comprehensive debriefing are essential.

  12. Time perspective as a predictor of massive multiplayer online role-playing game playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukavska, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the relationship between the time perspective (TP) personality trait and massive multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) playing. We investigate the question of frequency of playing. The TP was measured with Zimbardo's TP Inventory (ZTPI), which includes five factors-past negative, past positive, present hedonistic, present fatalistic, and future. The study used data from 154 MMORPG players. We demonstrated that TP partially explained differences within a group of players with respect to the frequency of playing. Significant positive correlations were found between present factors and the amount of time spent playing MMORPGs, and significant negative correlation was found between the future factor and the time spent playing MMORPGs. Our study also revealed the influence of future-present balance on playing time. Players who scored lower in future-present balance variables (their present score was relatively high compared with their future score) reported higher values in playing time. In contrast to referential studies on TP and drug abuse and gambling, present fatalistic TP was demonstrated to be a stronger predictor of extensive playing than present hedonistic TP, which opened the question of motivation for playing. The advantage of our study compared with other personality-based studies lies in the fact that TP is a stable but malleable personality trait with a direct link to playing behavior. Therefore, TP is a promising conceptual resource for excessive playing therapy.

  13. Playing Against the Modern World? : Role-Playing Games in Late Modernity

    OpenAIRE

    Harding, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Playing Reality is an anthology of articles on live role-playing, a new art from where the Nordic countries are at the front edge. This book covers a wide range of topics and genres, from practical advice, historical reviews and visions of possible futures to semiotic and philosophical analysis. They Show some of the diversity of participatory arts, and will thus be of interest for anyone in the fields of art, education or performance. It wouldn't be misleading to claim that live role-playing...

  14. The function of game and role playing in adult education

    OpenAIRE

    Žáková, Zuzana

    2009-01-01

    The subjects of this work are game, role and role playing in upbringing, education and training, and in personnel practice. The work uses knowledge of pedagogy, psychology and sociology, and focuses on social interaction and personality development. It introduces basic educational, training and therapeutic methods and procedures, including methods in the field of adult education, where the core of these methods lies in playing roles. It presents brief characteristics of individual methods, in...

  15. Creative Classrooms through Game-Based Role-Play Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    studies a framework that anchors the curriculum in game-based role-play scenarios and offers affordances for the learners to immerse themselves in the multiple perspectives of the roles. In this way of introducing problem based learning in immersive narrative environments, the learners are provided......-based role-play scenarios as a learning tool that can integrate the curriculum in meaningful context, and how it has impacted on the interaction and creative learning experiences in the class....

  16. The Many Faces of Role-Playing Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitchens, Michael; Drachen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Role-playing games have grown and evolved into a large number of forms in the last thirty years, spanning digital as well as non-digital media. They demonstrate a wide variety in the number of participants, style of play and the formal and informal systems that govern them. Despite this diversity...... players at least seem to think they know when something is a role-playing game. Yet there is no commonly accepted definition which both captures games generally accepted as role-playing games and distinguishes them from other, similar, games which begs the question, whether roleplaying games are united...... by anything more than a colloquial name. Additionally, research involving these games is hampered by lack of a widely accepted definition of what constitutes a roleplaying game, as it is then not even possible to clearly delineate the subject of such research. In this paper various example of role-playing...

  17. The role of play themes in non-directive play therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Virginia; Edge, Andrew

    2012-07-01

    Describing the processes underlying play therapy is important for evidence based practice in child therapy. Employing play themes to describe children's play session contents is in widespread use by practitioners, but an adequate classification of these themes for non-directive play therapy practice has not yet been established. This article sets out to fill this gap by first describing how themes can be distinguished and distilled from the contents of play therapy contents. Second, a classification of main themes and sub-themes with exemplars to illustrate these concepts which is compatible with non-directive play therapy practice is set out. Finally a pilot project with experienced play therapists to test this classification in practice is suggested, along with the research questions that will need to be investigated in the shorter and longer terms.

  18. PERSONALITY AND CHARACTER PREFERENCE IN ROLE-PLAYING GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José Ramos-Villagrasa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In role-playing games players perform participative and episodic stories. Personality is a psychological construct associated with decision processes in many aspects of life. In this study, we analyzed if Big Five Personality Factors were related to game character preferences in the role-playing game “Dungeons & Dragons”. Results show that Personality is related only in the decision of character’s class. We also study the relationship between Personality and plots in role-playing games (action, intrigue, mystery, and personal relationships. Finally, recommendations to further investigation were given.

  19. Case studies and role play: learning strategies in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogo, Ana Luísa Petersen; Pai, Daiane Dal; Aliti, Graziella Badin; Hoefel, Heloísa Karnas; Azzolin, Karina de Oliveira; Busin, Lurdes; Unicovsky, Margarita Ana Rubin; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2016-01-01

    to report professors' experience in a public university of Southern region of Brazil using case studies and role play as learning strategies for nursing care of hospitalized adults. learning experience report from the Nursing Care of Adults I class of nursing undergraduate course. the development of case studies and role play considered health care needs from epidemiological profile of chronic noncommunicable diseases morbidity and mortality, nursing as an assisting method, and social aspects of hospitalized individuals. Role play planning was made by creating a stage in laboratory of practices and dialogues comprising students and professors interaction. case studies and role play encouraged students to active search for learning and brought theory closer to real health care situations.

  20. Effect of combined teaching method (role playing and storytelling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of combined teaching method (role playing and storytelling) on creative ... Remember me ... Background and Purpose: Storytelling promotes imagination and satisfies curiosity in children and creates learning opportunities in them.

  1. Older women play predominant role in building social ties and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-08-03

    Aug 3, 2016 ... Older women play predominant role in building social ties and preventing ... brief demonstrates their contribution to building social cohesion and driving ... From learning to policy-oriented research: Lessons from South Africa's ...

  2. Online gaming addiction? Motives predict addictive play behavior in massively multiplayer online role-playing games

    OpenAIRE

    Kuss, DJ; Louws, J; Wiers, RW

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about excessive online gaming. Playing Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) appears to be particularly problematic, because these games require a high degree of commitment and time investment from the players to the detriment of occupational, social, and other recreational activities and relations. A number of gaming motives have been linked to excessive online gaming in adolescents and young adults. We assessed 175 current MMORP...

  3. Chloroplastic thioredoxin-f and thioredoxin-m1/4 play important roles in brassinosteroids-induced changes in CO2 assimilation and cellular redox homeostasis in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fei; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Xia, Xiao-Jian; Shi, Kai; Zhou, Jie; Yu, Jing-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast thioredoxins (TRXs) and glutathione function as redox messengers in the regulation of photosynthesis. In this work, the roles of chloroplast TRXs in brassinosteroids (BRs)-induced changes in cellular redox homeostasis and CO2 assimilation were studied in the leaves of tomato plants. BRs-deficient d ^im plants showed decreased transcripts of TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-x, while exogenous BRs significantly induced CO2 assimilation and the expression of TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-x. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of the chloroplast TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-y genes individually increased membrane lipid peroxidation and accumulation of 2-Cys peroxiredoxin dimers, and decreased the activities of the ascorbate–glutathione cycle enzymes and the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) in the leaves. Furthermore, partial silencing of TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-y resulted in decreased expression of genes involved in the Benson–Calvin cycle and decreased activity of the associated enzymes. Importantly, the BRs-induced increase in CO2 assimilation and the increased expression and activities of antioxidant- and photosynthesis-related genes and enzymes were compromised in the partially TRX-f- and TRX-m1/4-silenced plants. All of these results suggest that TRX-f and TRX-m1/4 are involved in the BRs-induced changes in CO2 assimilation and cellular redox homeostasis in tomato. PMID:24847092

  4. Penerapan Metode Role Playing Dalam Meningkatkan Motivasi Belajar Anak Usia Play Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Anita Alfiani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSalah satu faktor penting dalam kegiatan belajar (KBM untuk anak usia play group adalah guru yang memahami berbagai macam karakterisik peserta didik dan peduli terhadap kebutuhan anak didiknya.Namun Dari hasil penelitian dan kenyataan di lapangan, menunjukkan bahwa pelaksanaan kegiatan belajar mengajar (KBM untuk anak-anak usia play group masih banyak kelemahan dan kekurangannya karenanya  guru juga harus mampu menguasai teknik dan metode dalam  mengajar B untuk anak.Anak didik pada usia play group.Dengan demikian, metode pembelajaran merupakan alat untuk menciptakan proses belajar mengajar.Subana dan Sunarti (2000 : 20 Berpendapat metode adalah rencana penyajian bahan yang menyeluruh dengan urutan yang sistematis berdasarkan approach tertentu. Jadi metode merupakan cara melaksanakan pekerjaan, sedangkan approach, dapat tumbuh beberapan metode. Role Playing adalah suatu cara penguasaan bahan-bahan pelajaran melalui pengembangan imajinasi dan penghayatan siswa. Pengembangan imajinasi dan penghayatan dilakukan siswa dengan memerankannya sebagai tokoh hidup atau benda mati. Permainan ini pada umumnya dilakukan lebih dari satu orang, hal itu bergantung kepada apa yang diperankan.Role Playing yakni memainkan peranan dari peran-peran yang sudah pasti berdasarkan kejadian terdahulu, yang dimaksudkan untuk menciptakan kembali situasi sejarah/peristiwa masa lalu, menciptakan kemungkinan-kemungkinan kejadian masa yang akan datang, menciptakan peristiwa mutakhir yang dapat diperkaya atau mengkhayal situasi pada suatu tempat dan atau waktu tertentu. berarti metode (Role Playing adalah metode pembelajaran yang di dalamnya menampakkan adanya perilaku pura-pura dari siswa yang terlihat dan atau peniruan situasi dari tokoh-tokoh sejarah sedemikian rupa. Dengan demikian  metode Bermain Peran (RolePlayingadalah metode yang melibatkan siswa untuk pura-pura memainkan peran/ tokoh yang terlibat dalam proses sejarah. Teknik ini juga digunakan untuk dapat

  5. Representation of Cultural Role-Play for Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarelli, Thomas; Pepe, Aaron; Rosenzweiz, Larry; Paulus, John; Yi, Ahn Na

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Defense (000) has successfully applied a number of methods for cultural familiarization training ranging from stand-up classroom training, to face-to-face live role-play, to so-called smart-cards. Recent interest has turned to the use of single and mUlti-player gaming technologies to augment these traditional methods of cultural familiarization. One such system, termed CulturePad, has been designed as a game-based role-play environment suitable for use in training and experimentation involving cultural roleplay scenarios. This paper describes the initial CulturePad effort focused on a literature review regarding the use of role-play for cultural training and a feasibility assessment of using a game-mediated environment for role-play. A small-scale pilot involving cultural experts was conducted to collect qualitative behavioral data comparing live role-play to game-mediated role-play in a multiplayer gaming engine.

  6. Does genomic imprinting play a role in autoimmunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camprubí, Cristina; Monk, David

    2011-01-01

    In the 19th century Gregor Mendel defined the laws of genetic inheritance by crossing different types of peas. From these results arose his principle of equivalence: the gene will have the same behaviour whether it is inherited from the mother or the father. Today, several key exceptions to this principle are known, for example sex-linked traits and genes in the mitochondrial genome, whose inheritance patterns are referred to as 'non mendelian'. A third, important exception in mammals is that of genomic imprinting, where transcripts are expressed in a monoallelic fashion from only the maternal or the paternal chromosome. In this chapter, we discuss how parent-of-origin effects and genomic imprinting may play a role in autoimmunity and speculate how imprinted miRNAs may influence the expression of many target autoimmune associated genes.

  7. [Vascular depression in the elderly. Does inflammation play a role?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscogliosi, Giovanni; Andreozzi, Paola; Chiriac, Iulia Maria; Ettorre, Evaristo; Vulcano, Achiropita; Servello, Adriana; Marigliano, Benedetta; Marigliano, Vincenzo

    2011-06-01

    Vascular depression in the elderly. Does inflammation play a role?Depression is the most common comorbidity in the elderly, and it is a major determinant of disability. The late-onset depression in highly associated to cardiovascular disease. Depressive symptoms may follow vascular brain damage, especially when mood regulating areas are affected. However depression is strongly associated to vascular disease even when there is no manifest brain damage. Recently great attention has been given to chronic inflammation, both related to depression and vascular disease. Both experimental and clinical evidence shows that a rise in the concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and glucocorticoids in depressed patients is associated with defect in serotonergic function. Chronic inflammation may underlie many forms of depression associated with vascular disease and metabolic syndrome. The importance of the inflammation hypothesis of depression lies is that psychotropic drugs may have central anti-inflammatory action, and that new generation of central anti-inflammatory drugs may be useful in depression treatment.

  8. E-learning Constructive Role Plays for EFL Learners in China's Tertiary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lin; Suwanthep, Jitpanat

    2011-01-01

    Recently, speaking has played an increasingly important role in second/foreign language settings. However, in many Chinese universities, EFL students rarely communicate in English with other people effectively. The existing behavioristic role plays on New Horizon College English (NHCE) e-learning do not function successfully in supplementing EFL…

  9. What Role Does Taste Play in School Meal Studies? A Narrative Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Kayla; Olsen, Annemarie; Wistoft, Karen

    2018-01-01

    School meals play an important role in student well-being. However, studies have given evidence that school meals may not be satisfactory to students. Evidence suggests that taste plays an influential role in students' food decisions and eating experiences. This review of current research finds that studies around improving school meals mainly…

  10. Character Play – The use of game characters in multi- player Role Playing Games across platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, M.; Brolund, T.

    2008-01-01

    histories of game characters. This article presents results from a comprehensive empirical study of the way complex game characters are utilized by players in multiplayer role-playing games across two different media platforms. The results indicate that adult players are capable of comprehending...... and utilizing game characters with well-defined personalities and backgrounds, as well as rules-based components. Furthermore, that the game format plays a significant role in the pattern of usage of the character elements. This pattern appears directly linked with variations in the way that the different game...

  11. Chloroplastic thioredoxin-f and thioredoxin-m1/4 play important roles in brassinosteroids-induced changes in CO2 assimilation and cellular redox homeostasis in tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Fei; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Xia, Xiao-Jian; Shi, Kai; Zhou, Jie; Yu, Jing-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast thioredoxins (TRXs) and glutathione function as redox messengers in the regulation of photosynthesis. In this work, the roles of chloroplast TRXs in brassinosteroids (BRs)-induced changes in cellular redox homeostasis and CO2 assimilation were studied in the leaves of tomato plants. BRs-deficient d ^im plants showed decreased transcripts of TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-x, while exogenous BRs significantly induced CO2 assimilation and the expression of TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, ...

  12. Role-playing in the problem-based learning class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2012-01-01

    Learning and teaching have been conceptualized and executed in many styles, such as self-learning, peer learning, and interaction between the learner and mentor. Today, openness to alternative ideas and embracing innovative approaches in nursing education are encouraged in order to meet students' learning interests and needs, and to address ever-changing healthcare requests. Problem-based learning has been widely adopted in nursing education, with various positive effects on students' learning, such as motivated learning, team work, problem-solving skills and critical thinking. Role-plays have been demonstrated as an effective learning strategy that includes an active and experiential feature that facilitates students' autonomy in their health-related learning. However, there is a lack of discussion of whether and how role-play can be used in problem-based learning (PBL). This paper shows the development of a classroom-based innovation using role-play in the PBL class for higher diploma year-one nurse students (a total of 20 students, five per group). This paper consists of five sections: a) the literature on PBL and nurse education, and role-plays as the innovation; b) the PBL case scenario with the illustration of the two role-play scripts, c) student evaluation on role-play in the PBL class; d) discussions on both achievements and limitations of this innovation, and e) the conclusion. It is hoped that this paper will be an example to other nurse educators who are keen on exploring interactive and student-driven learning and teaching strategies in the PBL class. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Contrasting Roles of Dopamine and Noradrenaline in the Motivational Properties of Social Play Behavior in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, E J Marijke; van Kerkhof, Linda W M; Servadio, Michela; van Swieten, Maaike M H; Houwing, Danielle J; Aalderink, Mandy; Driel, Nina V; Trezza, Viviana; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2016-02-01

    Social play behavior, abundant in the young of most mammalian species, is thought to be important for social and cognitive development. Social play is highly rewarding, and as such, the expression of social play depends on its pleasurable and motivational properties. Since the motivational properties of social play have only sporadically been investigated, we developed a setup in which rats responded for social play under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Dopaminergic neurotransmission plays a key role in incentive motivational processes, and both dopamine and noradrenaline have been implicated in the modulation of social play behavior. Therefore, we investigated the role of dopamine and noradrenaline in the motivation for social play. Treatment with the psychostimulant drugs methylphenidate and cocaine increased responding for social play, but suppressed its expression during reinforced play periods. The dopamine reuptake inhibitor GBR-12909 increased responding for social play, but did not affect its expression, whereas the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine decreased responding for social play as well as its expression. The effects of methylphenidate and cocaine on responding for social play, but not their play-suppressant effects, were blocked by pretreatment with the dopamine receptor antagonist α-flupenthixol. In contrast, pretreatment with the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist RX821002 prevented the play-suppressant effect of methylphenidate, but left its effect on responding for social play unaltered. In sum, the present study introduces a novel method to study the incentive motivational properties of social play behavior in rats. Using this paradigm, we demonstrate dissociable roles for dopamine and noradrenaline in social play behavior: dopamine stimulates the motivation for social play, whereas noradrenaline negatively modulates the motivation for social play behavior and its expression.

  14. What role can nuclear power play in mitigating global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasztor, J.

    1989-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to look at nuclear fission, as one of the available options, and evaluate qualitatively the extent to which it can play a role in greenhouse gas reduction strategies during the next three decades. No attempt will be made here to make a quantitative comparison with alternative energy supplies, or with energy efficiency measures

  15. A Recruiting and Hiring Role-Play: An Experiential Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Robert; Collins, Marianne K.

    2012-01-01

    Creating experiential learning opportunities that engage students, meet marketing curricula objectives, and fit the application in a traditional semester course is extremely challenging. This paper describes a role-playing simulation offered concurrently to the professional selling and sales management classes in which the selling students act as…

  16. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ROLE PLAY IN TEACHING SPEAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis Suryani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Speaking is one of essential skills that should be mastered by students. In fact, the students face difficulties in speaking such as difficulty to arrange the sentences, fear of making mistakes, and lack of motivation. It is supported by Nunan (1993, he states that there are some challenges in teaching speaking skill in EFL classroom namely lack of motivation, and they tend to use their first language. Related to those problems, role play is offered to overcome the problems in speaking. The aim of the research was to know the effect of using role play in teaching speaking. The research used pre-experimental design with one group pre test and post test design which consist of 30 students as the sample. The data were obtained by using pre test and post test. Then, obtained data were analyzed by using SPSS 20. The result of the research showed that significance value was .00 and it is lower than the significance level .05. It means that the null hypothesis was rejected. Thus, teaching speaking by using role play has a significant effect on improving the students’ speaking ability.    Keywords: role play, speaking, motivation

  17. From MMORPG to a Classroom Multiplayer Presential Role Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susaeta, Heinz; Jimenez, Felipe; Nussbaum, Miguel; Gajardo, Ignacio; Andreu, Juan Jose; Villalta, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The popularity of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) has grown enormously, with communities of players reaching into the millions. Their fantasy narratives present multiple challenges created by the virtual environment and/or other players. The games' potential for education stems from the fact that players are immersed in a…

  18. Player-Character Dynamics in Multi- Player Role Playing Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; McIlwain, D.; Brolund, T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive empirical study of the impact of integrating complex game characters in multi-player Role Playing Games across tabletop and digital formats. Players were provided with characters that had detailed background history, personality and goals. Player...

  19. Confronting Prejudiced Comments: Effectiveness of a Role-Playing Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Timothy J.; McDonough, Tracy A.; Bodle, James H.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether a role-playing exercise, similar to that developed by Plous (2000), increases students' ability to generate effective responses to prejudiced comments. We assessed social psychology students' (n = 23) ability to respond to prejudiced comments before and after the exercise, and compared their performance to that of 2 other…

  20. CGRP may play a causative role in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, L H; Haderslev, P A; Jacobsen, V B

    2002-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has been detected in increased amounts in external jugular venous blood during migraine attacks. However, it is unknown whether this is secondary to migraine or whether CGRP may cause headache. In a double-blind crossover study, the effect of human alphaCGRP...... attacks may play a causative role....

  1. Using Role-Playing Games to Broaden Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConville, Jennifer R.; Rauch, Sebastien; Helgegren, Ida; Kain, Jaan-Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In today's complex society, there is an increasing demand to include a wider set of skills in engineering curricula, especially skills related to policy, society and sustainable development. Role-playing and gaming are active learning tools, which are useful for learning relationships between technology and society, problem solving in…

  2. Designing Role-Playing Video Games for Ethical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrier, Karen

    2017-01-01

    How can we better design games, such as role-playing video games (RPGs), to support the practice of ethical thinking? Ethical thinking is a critical component of twenty-first century citizenship and we need to design ways to creatively support its practice. This study investigates how male participants, ages 18-34, make ethical decisions in three…

  3. The Ecology of Role Play: Intentionality and Cultural Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the evolutionary function of children's pretence. The everyday, cultural environment that children engage with is of a highly complex structure. Human adaptation, thus, becomes, by analogy, an equally complex process that requires the development of life skills. Whilst in role play children engage in "mimesis" and…

  4. Understanding the role played by parents, culture and the school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding the role played by parents, culture and the school curriculum in socializing young women on sexual health issues in rural South African communities. ... highlight a need for designing interventions that can create awareness for parents on the current developmental needs and sexual behavior of adolescents.

  5. Where are kids getting their empty calories? Stores, schools, and fast-food restaurants each played an important role in empty calorie intake among US children during 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poti, Jennifer M; Slining, Meghan M; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-06-01

    Consumption of empty calories, the sum of energy from added sugar and solid fat, exceeds recommendations, but little is known about where US children obtain these empty calories. The objectives of this study were to compare children's empty calorie consumption from retail food stores, schools, and fast-food restaurants; to identify food groups that were top contributors of empty calories from each location; and to determine the location providing the majority of calories for these key food groups. This cross-sectional analysis used data from 3,077 US children aged 2 to 18 years participating in the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The empty calorie content of children's intake from stores (33%), schools (32%), and fast-food restaurants (35%) was not significantly different in 2009-2010. In absolute terms, stores provided the majority of empty calorie intake (436 kcal). The top contributors of added sugar and solid fat from each location were similar: sugar-sweetened beverages, grain desserts, and high-fat milk∗ from stores; high-fat milk, grain desserts, and pizza from schools; and sugar-sweetened beverages, dairy desserts, french fries, and pizza from fast-food restaurants. Schools contributed about 20% of children's intake of high-fat milk and pizza. These findings support the need for continued efforts to reduce empty calorie intake among US children aimed not just at fast-food restaurants, but also at stores and schools. The importance of reformed school nutrition standards was suggested, as prior to implementation of these changes, schools resembled fast-food restaurants in their contributions to empty calorie intake. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Where are kids getting their empty calories? Stores, schools, and fast food restaurants each play an important role in empty calorie intake among US children in 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poti, Jennifer M.; Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M.; Kenan, W.R.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of empty calories, the sum of energy from added sugar and solid fat, exceeds recommendations, but little is known about where US children obtain these empty calories. The objectives of this study were to compare children's empty calorie consumption from retail food stores, schools, and fast food restaurants; to identify food groups that were top contributors of empty calories from each location; and to determine the location providing the majority of calories for these key food groups. This cross-sectional analysis used data from 3,077 US children aged 2-18 years participating in the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The empty calorie content of children's intake from stores (33%), schools (32%), and fast food restaurants (35%) was not significantly different in 2009-2010. In absolute terms, stores provided the majority of empty calorie intake (436 kcal). The top contributors of added sugar and solid fat from each location were similar: sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs), grain desserts, and high-fat milk from stores; high-fat milk, grain desserts, and pizza from schools; and SSBs, dairy desserts, french fries, and pizza from fast food restaurants. Schools contributed about 20% of children's intake of high-fat milk and pizza. In conclusion, these findings support the need for continued efforts to reduce empty calorie intake among US children aimed not just at fast food restaurants, but also at stores and schools. The importance of reformed school nutrition standards was suggested, as prior to their implementation, schools resembled fast food restaurants in their contributions to empty calorie intake. PMID:24200654

  7. MODEL ROLE PLAYING DALAM PEMBELAJARAN SIKLUS AKUNTANSI PERUSAHAAN DAGANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarot Tri Tri Bowo Santoso

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Accounting lesson is considered as a difficult lesson by most students in SMK/SMA. It is even sometimes worse with the less ability of accounting teachers to select learning methods thatcan attract students’ attention and thought. Therefore, it is necessary to find an alternative learning which can help students to involve in the real situation which is fun and memorable. The learning model which can fulfill the fun situation is the role playing. The steps to implement this model in the learning of accounting cycle for trade firm are to divide students in groups and to give each of them an opportunity to play a role. In practice, each student changers the role weekly based on the order. The model makesstuents easier to understand the basic accounting and leads the teachers evaluate the materials if the lack of conformity occurs during the learning.

  8. Play a Starring Role in Your Textbook: A Digital Web Platform with an Embedded Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielvogel, Laura; Spielvogel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we introduce our digital e-textbook web platform with an integrated role-playing game, which has been created for "introduction to anthropology" courses. We believe that textbooks have the potential to do more to motivate students' pursuit of learning if their material (topically organised chapters supported by…

  9. Perioxidases play important roles in abscisic acid (ABA)-simulating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-14

    Nov 14, 2011 ... 1Department of Plant Physiology, Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra, Tr. A. Hlinku .... Ripnany is localized in Danube uplands on clayey brown soil with ... min dark adaptation, 2) chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics mea-.

  10. Perioxidases play important roles in abscisic acid (ABA)-simulating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaf photosynthetic activity limited by summer heat stress represents large constraint to production process of fruit trees. To cope with this problem, we tested photosystem II (PS II) thermostability in clonal apple tree rootstocks with different growth intensity - semi-vigorous-MM106 and dwarfing-J-TE-F experiencing summer ...

  11. Physical Activity Plays an Important Role in Body Weight Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Chaput

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging literature highlights the need to incorporate physical activity into every strategy intended to prevent weight gain as well as to maintain weight loss over time. Furthermore, physical activity should be part of any plan to lose weight. The stimulus of exercise provides valuable metabolic adaptations that improve energy and macronutrient balance regulation. A tight coupling between energy intake and energy expenditure has been documented at high levels of physical exercise, suggesting that exercise may improve appetite control. The regular practice of physical activity has also been reported to reduce the risk of stress-induced weight gain. A more personalized approach is recommended when planning exercise programs in a clinical weight loss setting in order to limit the compensatory changes associated to exercise-induced weight loss. With modern environment promoting overeating and sedentary behavior, there is an urgent need for a concerted action including legislative measures to promote healthy active living in order to curb the current epidemic of chronic diseases.

  12. Starch phosphorylation plays an important role in starch biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Xuan; Dees, Dianka; Dechesne, Annemarie; Huang, Xing Feng; Visser, Richard G.F.; Trindade, Luisa M.

    2017-01-01

    Starch phosphate esters are crucial in starch metabolism and render valuable functionality to starches for various industrial applications. A potato glucan, water dikinase (GWD1) was introduced in tubers of two different potato genetic backgrounds: an amylose-containing line Kardal and the

  13. Research plays an important role in achieving Zero Hunger | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-11-23

    Nov 23, 2017 ... And studies across most African countries show that women provide the ... For example, solar tent dryers reduce the time needed to dry fish while ... but the true test lies in how they will be applied as part of a common and ...

  14. Salvia miltiorrhiza aqueous root extract plays an important role in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and treated. Aqueous root extract of S. miltiorrhiza was introduced intraperitoneally to the treated group. Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan rating scale (BBB) was used to ... extract has therapeutic potential for the treatment of neuronal degeneration following SCI. ..... effects of Lycium barbarum Lynn on protecting retinal.

  15. The role of structural characteristics in problem video game playing: a review

    OpenAIRE

    King, DL; Delfabbro, PH; Griffiths, MD

    2010-01-01

    The structural characteristics of video games may play an important role in explaining why some people play video games to excess. This paper provides a review of the literature on structural features of video games and the psychological experience of playing video games. The dominant view of the appeal of video games is based on operant conditioning theory and the notion that video games satisfy various needs for social interaction and belonging. However, there is a lack of experimental and ...

  16. The branding role that product labelling plays within integrated marketing communication

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.A. This study focuses on empirically determining the branding role that product labelling plays as a strategic element in Integrated Marketing Communication functioning within the food and beverage industry. This research topic was selected for a number of reasons. Firstly, there is a general misconception of the definition of the term Integrated Marketing Communication. Secondly, there is also an emergence of the perception that labelling plays an important role as a strategic element i...

  17. Social interactions in massively multiplayer online role-playing gamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Helena; Griffiths, Mark D

    2007-08-01

    To date, most research into massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) has examined the demographics of play. This study explored the social interactions that occur both within and outside of MMORPGs. The sample consisted of 912 self-selected MMORPG players from 45 countries. MMORPGs were found to be highly socially interactive environments providing the opportunity to create strong friendships and emotional relationships. The study demonstrated that the social interactions in online gaming form a considerable element in the enjoyment of playing. The study showed MMORPGs can be extremely social games, with high percentages of gamers making life-long friends and partners. It was concluded that virtual gaming may allow players to express themselves in ways they may not feel comfortable doing in real life because of their appearance, gender, sexuality, and/or age. MMORPGs also offer a place where teamwork, encouragement, and fun can be experienced.

  18. GeoQuest an Interactive Role Playing game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraffi, Sabina; Sacerdoti, Francesco; Scamardella, Alessandra

    2015-04-01

    The acquisition of knowledge and enhancing skills at actual time requires different approaches, involving students as much as possible, taking advantage of informal learning strengths and opportunities of formal learning. In this perspective, the game seems to be a perfect vehicle, not a single student's playing but a cooperative one. The GeoQuest project consists of an interactive role-playing game which involves all students using a patented system: the "teaching projector". This system allows the interaction of the class group through the use of smartphones and tablets, and it shows in real-time the game progress to the whole class. Our role-playing game is based on three routes at different degrees. The students, divided into several categories (physicist, chemists, disseminators, technicians, historians) have to follow a geological trail in order to discover the present and the past of the Earth. During the path, students have to pass some doors in teamwork; they allow assessment and represent the main sharing/disclosure moment. The doors allow to modulate the activities according to single lesson, teaching unit, module. Main Objectives: Working on PC by themselves, students could be even more alone: it needs a best fitting between ICT and cooperative learning. Role-playing helps students to reach their goals easily through cooperation; this in order to avoid the risk of loneliness of Inquiry Based Science Education, preserving entirely the educational value. Science Research now is based on field expert interaction: the role-playing game categories reflect the necessary team to get their goal. The several roles allow everyone to enhance their own skills. the "teaching projector" allows students to comment and to evaluate the groups activities and route them, providing real-time corrections to everybody. The playing categories represent all the aspects of the research areas: from scientists (physicists, chemists), to technicians, to disseminators and

  19. Character selecting advisor for a role-playing game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfield, Carol L.; Berlanga, Felicia

    1994-01-01

    Role-playing games have been a source of much pleasure and merriment for people of all ages. The process of developing a character for a role-playing game is usually very, very time consuming, delaying what many players consider the most entertaining part of the game. An expert system has been written to assist a player in creating a character by guiding the player through a series of questions. This paper discusses the selection of this topic, the knowledge engineering, the software development, and the resulting program that cuts the time of character development from about 4 hours to 30 minutes. The program was written on a PC and an Apollo in CLIPS 4.3 and currently runs on the Apollo.

  20. The role of play objects and object play in human cognitive evolution and innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Felix; Johannsen, Niels N; Högberg, Anders; Nowell, April; Lombard, Marlize

    2018-01-01

    In this contribution, we address a major puzzle in the evolution of human material culture: If maturing individuals just learn their parental generation's material culture, then what is the origin of key innovations as documented in the archeological record? We approach this question by coupling a life-history model of the costs and benefits of experimentation with a niche-construction perspective. Niche-construction theory suggests that the behavior of organisms and their modification of the world around them have important evolutionary ramifications by altering developmental settings and selection pressures. Part of Homo sapiens' niche is the active provisioning of children with play objects - sometimes functional miniatures of adult tools - and the encouragement of object play, such as playful knapping with stones. Our model suggests that salient material culture innovation may occur or be primed in a late childhood or adolescence sweet spot when cognitive and physical abilities are sufficiently mature but before the full onset of the concerns and costs associated with reproduction. We evaluate the model against a series of archeological cases and make suggestions for future research. © 2018 The Authors Evolutionary Anthropology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The role of play objects and object play in human cognitive evolution and innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, Niels N.; Högberg, Anders; Nowell, April; Lombard, Marlize

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In this contribution, we address a major puzzle in the evolution of human material culture: If maturing individuals just learn their parental generation's material culture, then what is the origin of key innovations as documented in the archeological record? We approach this question by coupling a life‐history model of the costs and benefits of experimentation with a niche‐construction perspective. Niche‐construction theory suggests that the behavior of organisms and their modification of the world around them have important evolutionary ramifications by altering developmental settings and selection pressures. Part of Homo sapiens' niche is the active provisioning of children with play objects — sometimes functional miniatures of adult tools — and the encouragement of object play, such as playful knapping with stones. Our model suggests that salient material culture innovation may occur or be primed in a late childhood or adolescence sweet spot when cognitive and physical abilities are sufficiently mature but before the full onset of the concerns and costs associated with reproduction. We evaluate the model against a series of archeological cases and make suggestions for future research. PMID:29446561

  2. Drama and Role Playing in Teaching Practice: The Role of Group Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çerkez, Yagmur; Altinay, Zehra; Altinay, Fahriye; Bashirova, Elnara

    2012-01-01

    The research study aims to explore the essence of group work in drama and role playing for teaching practice inline with the nature of collaborative learning process. This research study has qualitative nature by capturing experiences of volunteer ninety pre-service teachers about group works, gained skills from drama and role playing in their…

  3. On play and playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, Dusko

    2013-12-01

    The paper offers a review of the development of the concept of play and playing. The true beginnings of the development of the theories of play are set as late as in the 19th century. It is difficult to define play as such; it may much more easily be defined through its antipode--work. In the beginning, play used to be connected with education; it was not before Freud's theory of psychoanalysis and Piaget's developmental psychology that the importance of play in a child's development began to be explained in more detail. The paper further tackles the role of play in the adult age. Detailed attention is paid to psychodynamic and psychoanalytic authors, in particular D. W. Winnicott and his understanding of playing in the intermediary (transitional) empirical or experiential space. In other words, playing occupies a space and time of its own. The neuroscientific concept of playing is also tackled, in the connection with development as well.

  4. Online gaming addiction? Motives predict addictive play behavior in massively multiplayer online role-playing games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J; Louws, Jorik; Wiers, Reinout W

    2012-09-01

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about excessive online gaming. Playing Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) appears to be particularly problematic, because these games require a high degree of commitment and time investment from the players to the detriment of occupational, social, and other recreational activities and relations. A number of gaming motives have been linked to excessive online gaming in adolescents and young adults. We assessed 175 current MMORPG players and 90 nonplayers using a Web-based questionnaire regarding their gaming behavior, problems as consequences of gaming, and game motivations and tested their statistical associations. Results indicated that (a) MMORPG players are significantly more likely to experience gaming-related problems relative to nonplayers, and that (b) the gaming motivations escapism and mechanics significantly predicted excessive gaming and appeared as stronger predictors than time investment in game. The findings support the necessity of using measures that distinguish between different types of online games. In addition, this study proves useful regarding the current discussion on establishing (online) gaming addiction as a diagnosis in future categorizations of psychopathology.

  5. Adult play fighting and potential role of tail signals in ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palagi, Elisabetta

    2009-02-01

    Adult strepsirrhines have been completely neglected in the study of animal play. I focused on adult play fighting and the role of tail-play as a signal in ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Tail-play is performed during play fighting, when lemurs anoint or, more rarely, wave their tails toward the playmate. During the prereproductive period, male and female lemurs engaged in play fighting with comparable frequencies, as was expected to occur in monomorphic species such as L. catta. The dyads showing low aggression rates engaged most frequently in play fighting, and polyadic play was frequently performed. Signals seem to be important in avoiding escalation to real aggression, especially when the playfulness of performers can be misunderstood by recipients. Tail-play was most frequent (a) in the dyads with low grooming rates (low familiarity degree) and (b) during the most risky play sessions (polyadic ones). Thus, tail-play can be considered as a useful tool for play communication in ringtailed lemurs. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Enhancing interest in statistics among computer science students using computer tool entrepreneur role play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judi, Hairulliza Mohamad; Sahari @ Ashari, Noraidah; Eksan, Zanaton Hj

    2017-04-01

    Previous research in Malaysia indicates that there is a problem regarding attitude towards statistics among students. They didn't show positive attitude in affective, cognitive, capability, value, interest and effort aspects although did well in difficulty. This issue should be given substantial attention because students' attitude towards statistics may give impacts on the teaching and learning process of the subject. Teaching statistics using role play is an appropriate attempt to improve attitudes to statistics, to enhance the learning of statistical techniques and statistical thinking, and to increase generic skills. The objectives of the paper are to give an overview on role play in statistics learning and to access the effect of these activities on students' attitude and learning in action research framework. The computer tool entrepreneur role play is conducted in a two-hour tutorial class session of first year students in Faculty of Information Sciences and Technology (FTSM), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, enrolled in Probability and Statistics course. The results show that most students feel that they have enjoyable and great time in the role play. Furthermore, benefits and disadvantages from role play activities were highlighted to complete the review. Role play is expected to serve as an important activities that take into account students' experience, emotions and responses to provide useful information on how to modify student's thinking or behavior to improve learning.

  7. The implementation of role play in education of pre-service vocational teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati, L.; Pardjono, P.

    2018-01-01

    This article aims to: 1) explain the enhancement of students’ understanding about models of learning through role-play approach, and 2) find out the students’ response to the implementation of role-playing. Role-play is a technique that allows students to explore realistic situations by interacting with other people in a managed way in order to develop experience and trial different strategies in a supported environment. This is a Classroom Action Research consisting 2 cycles, held in the Apparel Pre-service Teacher Education Programs, Universitas Negeri Surabaya in 2016, in the subject of Teaching and Learning Strategy. The number of research subject is 54 students. Data collected by giving test and questionnaire. The data analyzed by descriptive analysis. The result states that:1) Role-play succeeds to improve student understanding of learning models; 2) The student’s’ response shows that the role-play is an exciting activity, provide an opportunity for students to be creative, and easy to be applied. Role-play has flexibility for implemented at the university level, accelerates the student’s understanding of learning materials, trains the students’ independence, responsibility, awareness to others as important provisions to become a teacher.

  8. PDGFRα plays a crucial role in connective tissue remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Shinjiro; Ishii, Yoko; Hamashima, Takeru; Yamamoto, Seiji; Mori, Hisashi; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Shen, Jie; Inoue, Ran; Nishizono, Hirofumi; Itoh, Hiroshi; Majima, Masataka; Abraham, David; Miyawaki, Toshio; Sasahara, Masakiyo

    2015-12-07

    Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) plays a pivotal role in the remodeling of connective tissues. Emerging data indicate the distinctive role of PDGF receptor-α (PDGFRα) in this process. In the present study, the Pdgfra gene was systemically inactivated in adult mouse (α-KO mouse), and the role of PDGFRα was examined in the subcutaneously implanted sponge matrices. PDGFRα expressed in the fibroblasts of Pdgfra-preserving control mice (Flox mice), was significantly reduced in the sponges in α-KO mice. Neovascularized areas were largely suppressed in the α-KO mice than in the Flox mice, whereas the other parameters related to the blood vessels and endothelial cells were similar. The deposition of collagen and fibronectin and the expression of collagen 1a1 and 3a1 genes were significantly reduced in α-KO mice. There was a significantly decrease in the number and dividing fibroblasts in the α-KO mice, and those of macrophages were similar between the two genotypes. Hepatocyte growth factor (Hgf) gene expression was suppressed in Pdgfra-inactivated fibroblasts and connective tissue. The findings implicate the role of PDGFRα-dependent ECM and HGF production in fibroblasts that promotes the remodeling of connective tissue and suggest that PDGFRα may be a relevant target to regulate connective tissue remodeling.

  9. Playing in childhood: importance and singularities for children with visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Mara Zancanaro Pieczkowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated what kind of playing and how visually impaired children play in the family and educational contexts, aiming at understanding playing and the role of toys in these children‟s development. The study was based on the historical-cultural perspective, mainly considering Vygotsky‟s studies. Empirical material was collected from five families with blind or short-sighted children and from the specialized institution these children attend. We adopted semi-structured interviews with parents and educators and observation of the relevant contexts. The data collected was categorized and theorized through content analysis. We concluded that the mediation of another person during playing enables the visually impaired child to develop confidence to explore the physical space, objects and to elaborate concepts.

  10. Role Playing Game (RPG on nursing undergraduate course: educational potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Nathale Soares

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of a Role Playing Game as an educational strategy in Undergraduate Nursing course, emphasizing its subjective implications in understanding aspects of the profession. This is a qualitative study, conducted through an evaluative research, of deployment analysis type. Nursing students of the 3rd period participated. The instrument to collection was Memories of Game, reports prepared by students after game sessions. The game is a non-traditional educational strategy that enabled approach to students through professional practice, active participation, self-reflection and reflection on professional practice. This strategy favored individualization processes, allowing students to experience situations similar to the nursing practice and exercise skills such as teamwork and creativity. The expansion of studies that address the subjective processes in higher education, through simulation games, can contribute to better design of health development processes.

  11. Galactic Winds and the Role Played by Massive Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Timothy M.; Thompson, Todd A.

    Galactic winds from star-forming galaxies play at key role in the evolution of galaxies and the intergalactic medium. They transport metals out of galaxies, chemically enriching the intergalactic medium and modifying the chemical evolution of galaxies. They affect the surrounding interstellar and circumgalactic media, thereby influencing the growth of galaxies though gas accretion and star formation. In this contribution we first summarize the physical mechanisms by which the momentum and energy output from a population of massive stars and associated supernovae can drive galactic winds. We use the prototypical example of M 82 to illustrate the multiphase nature of galactic winds. We then describe how the basic properties of galactic winds are derived from the data, and summarize how the properties of galactic winds vary systematically with the properties of the galaxies that launch them. We conclude with a brief discussion of the broad implications of galactic winds.

  12. ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF SEARCH ENGINE OPTIMIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Gurneet Kaur

    2017-01-01

    Search Engines are an indispensible platform for users all over the globe to search for relevant information online. Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is the exercise of improving the position of a website in search engine rankings, for a chosen set of keywords. SEO is divided into two parts: On-Page and Off-Page SEO. In order to be successful, both the areas require equal attention. This paper aims to explain the functioning of the search engines along with the role and importance of search e...

  13. Exploring the use of role play in a school-based programme to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and, most recently, HIV and AIDS, schools have an important role to play in .... given a basket and invited to go shopping for nappies, rompers, blankets, socks, baby ... in fact, a common concern and provided the opportunity for members to ...

  14. London Debates 2009. What role do museums play in the globalisation of culture ?

    OpenAIRE

    School of Advanced Study

    2010-01-01

    This report underlines the central role museums play in the globalisation of culture, and sets out action points to guide academic research, museum practice and policy-making. A report presenting the most important results of the London Debates, led at the School of Advanced Study in May 2009.

  15. The Role of Peer Guided Play for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papacek, Amy M.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood play has a well-established role in the development of social and cognitive skills that may have important implications for intervention with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Yet, social and language skills of children with ASD are developmentally different from those of typically developing children, although these…

  16. Sustainability and Science Learning: Perceptions from 8th Grade Students Involved with a Role Playing Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Sofia; Baptista, Mónica; Freire, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Raising awareness about sustainability is an urgent need and as such education for sustainability has gained relevancy for the last decades. It is acknowledged that science education can work as an important context for educating for sustainability. The goal of the present paper is to describe a role-playing activity about the construction of a…

  17. Young Children's Role-Playing for Enhancing Personal Intelligences in Multiple Intelligences Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Su-Jeong; Shin, Hwa-Sik; Kim, Myung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    This article examines young children's role-play in an effort to develop methods with which teachers can enhance children's interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences. Examining how MI practice is applied in different cultural and social contexts is important because it can provide new insights on enriching and enhancing curricula and…

  18. BAP1 PLAYS A SURVIVAL ROLE IN CUTANEOUS MELANOMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Taylor, Michael; Miao, Benchun; Ji, Zhenyu; Njauw, Jenny Ching-Ni; Jönsson, Göran; Frederick, Dennie Tompers; Tsao, Hensin

    2014-01-01

    Although the pattern of BAP1 inactivation in ocular melanoma specimens and in the BAP1 cutaneous/ocular melanoma (CM/OM) predisposition syndrome suggests a tumor suppressor function, the specific role of this gene in the pathogenesis of cutaneous melanoma is not fully understood. We thus set out to characterize BAP1 in cutaneous melanoma and discovered an unexpected pro-survival effect of this protein. Tissue and cell lines analysis showed that BAP1 expression was maintained, rather than lost, in primary melanomas compared to nevi and normal skin. Genetic depletion of BAP1 in melanoma cells reduced proliferation and colony forming capability, induced apoptosis and inhibited melanoma tumor growth in vivo. On the molecular level, suppression of BAP1 led to a concomitant drop in the protein levels of survivin a member of anti-apoptotic proteins and a known mediator of melanoma survival. Restoration of survivin in melanoma cells partially rescued the growth-retarding effects of BAP1 loss. In contrast to melanoma cells, stable overexpression of BAP1 into immortalized but non-transformed melanocytes did suppress proliferation and reduce survivin. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that BAP1 may play a growth-sustaining role in melanoma cells, but that its impact on ubiquitination underpins a complex physiology which is context and cell dependent. PMID:25521456

  19. Doublecortin May Play a Role in Defining Chondrocyte Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxia Ge

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic development of articular cartilage has not been well understood and the role of doublecortin (DCX in determination of chondrocyte phenotype is unknown. Here, we use a DCX promoter-driven eGFP reporter mouse model to study the dynamic gene expression profiles in mouse embryonic handplates at E12.5 to E13.5 when the condensed mesenchymal cells differentiate into either endochondral chondrocytes or joint interzone cells. Illumina microarray analysis identified a variety of genes that were expressed differentially in the different regions of mouse handplate. The unique expression patterns of many genes were revealed. Cytl1 and 3110032G18RIK were highly expressed in the proximal region of E12.5 handplate and the carpal region of E13.5 handplate, whereas Olfr538, Kctd15, and Cited1 were highly expressed in the distal region of E12.5 and the metacarpal region of E13.5 handplates. There was an increasing gradient of Hrc expression in the proximal to distal direction in E13.5 handplate. Furthermore, when human DCX protein was expressed in human adipose stem cells, collagen II was decreased while aggrecan, matrilin 2, and GDF5 were increased during the 14-day pellet culture. These findings suggest that DCX may play a role in defining chondrocyte phenotype.

  20. Role-play as an educational tool in medication communication skills: Students' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavanya, S H; Kalpana, L; Veena, R M; Bharath Kumar, V D

    2016-10-01

    Medication communication skills are vital aspects of patient care that may influence treatment outcomes. However, traditional pharmacology curriculum deals with imparting factual information, with little emphasis on patient communication. The current study aims to explore students' perceptions of role-play as an educational tool in acquiring communication skills and to ascertain the need of role-play for their future clinical practice. This questionnaire-based study was done in 2 nd professional MBBS students. A consolidated concept of six training cases, focusing on major communication issues related to medication prescription in pharmacology, were developed for peer-role-play sessions for 2 nd professional MBBS ( n = 122) students. Structured scripts with specific emphasis on prescription medication communication and checklists for feedback were developed. Prevalidated questionnaires measured the quantitative aspects of role-plays in relation to their relevance as teaching-learning tool, perceived benefits of sessions, and their importance for future use. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics. The role-play concept was well appreciated and considered an effective means for acquiring medication communication skills. The structured feedback by peers and faculty was well received by many. Over 90% of the students reported immense confidence in communicating therapy details, namely, drug name, purpose, mechanism, dosing details, and precautions. Majority reported a better retention of pharmacology concepts and preferred more such sessions. Most students consider peer-role-play as an indispensable tool to acquire effective communication skills regarding drug therapy. By virtue of providing experiential learning opportunities and its feasibility of implementation, role-play sessions justify inclusion in undergraduate medical curricula.

  1. Role-play as an educational tool in medication communication skills: Students’ perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavanya, S. H.; Kalpana, L.; Veena, R. M.; Bharath Kumar, V. D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Medication communication skills are vital aspects of patient care that may influence treatment outcomes. However, traditional pharmacology curriculum deals with imparting factual information, with little emphasis on patient communication. The current study aims to explore students’ perceptions of role-play as an educational tool in acquiring communication skills and to ascertain the need of role-play for their future clinical practice. Materials and Methods: This questionnaire-based study was done in 2nd professional MBBS students. A consolidated concept of six training cases, focusing on major communication issues related to medication prescription in pharmacology, were developed for peer-role-play sessions for 2nd professional MBBS (n = 122) students. Structured scripts with specific emphasis on prescription medication communication and checklists for feedback were developed. Prevalidated questionnaires measured the quantitative aspects of role-plays in relation to their relevance as teaching–learning tool, perceived benefits of sessions, and their importance for future use. Statistical Analysis: Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics. Results: The role-play concept was well appreciated and considered an effective means for acquiring medication communication skills. The structured feedback by peers and faculty was well received by many. Over 90% of the students reported immense confidence in communicating therapy details, namely, drug name, purpose, mechanism, dosing details, and precautions. Majority reported a better retention of pharmacology concepts and preferred more such sessions. Conclusions: Most students consider peer-role-play as an indispensable tool to acquire effective communication skills regarding drug therapy. By virtue of providing experiential learning opportunities and its feasibility of implementation, role-play sessions justify inclusion in undergraduate medical curricula. PMID:28031605

  2. Role of oil imports in economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madduri, V.B.N.S.; Radhika, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that energy has a vital role to play in a developing economy. The process of industrialization calls for continuous increase in energy use. In general, the greater the use of energy, the higher the economy is placed in the order of developed countries. Countries with high per-capita income have a high consumption level of energy too. On a per-capita basis, energy consumed in U.S.A. is 51.7 barrels of oil equivalent per year while in India, it is 0.9 barrels of oil equivalent only. Therefore, energy consumption, industrial development and economic growth are interlinked. Energy became a significant part in the process of development. In the case of developing countries, any change in the price of oil has a negative effect on economic growth. It was stated in one of the Oil and Natural Gas Commission reports that a fivefold increase in the international price of oil, in real terms, over the past 15 years has had profound effects on balance of payments and growth prospects in developing countries

  3. Children's Engagement in Play at Home: A Parent's Role in Supporting Play Opportunities during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForett, Doré R.; Mendez, Julia L.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined parents' developmentally appropriate beliefs about young children's play and parents' views on their child's play skills. This exploratory secondary data analysis was drawn from data on low-income African-American and Latino parents and their children (n = 109) participating in Head Start programmes in the USA. Compared with…

  4. The embodied energy in trade: What role does specialization play?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasim, Anwar A.

    2015-01-01

    Many industrialized countries are net importers of embodied energy and emissions, while many developing countries are net exporters. We examine the role of specialization in driving these trade patterns by conducting a spatial index decomposition analysis on the embodied energy in net exports for 41 economies. The results reveal that industrialized countries have generally offshored energy intensive production, which many developing countries specialize in. We find that specialization, on average, makes the biggest contribution, accounting for roughly 50% of a country's embodied energy in net exports. However, other factors, namely energy intensity and the trade balance, combine to make an equally important contribution. In summary, specialization, despite its significant role, is not the only cause of the embodied energy trade patterns observed between industrialized and developing countries. - Highlights: • The embodied energy in net exports is decomposed into three contributors. • The three contributors are intensity, specialization, and the trade balance. • On average, specialization accounts for roughly 50% of embodied energy flows. • The combination of intensity and trade balance effects is equally important.

  5. The Importance of Free Play in the Early Childhood Classroom: Perspectives from a Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Teaching is hard. It's the most rewarding, fulfilling job in the world, but it's also frustrating, infuriating, and really, really hard. In this article, the author reflects on the importance of free play in early childhood classrooms. If teachers want to create happy children who love learning, forcing them to sit at desks or tables through early…

  6. ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITIES IN RESTAURANT BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Batinić

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern restaurant business, as part of a catering business, offers a variety of meals and beverages in restaurants and various related facilities. Promotional activities play a very important role in managing a restaurant and related facilities, because any serious restaurant facility must take all the necessary and effective measures in order to maintain regular guests and approach potential new guests. In this paper, I will write about conceptualizing restaurant business and elementary business systems in restaurant business. In a separate part, I will write about conceptualizing promotions and promotional activities as important factors in achieving better and more efficient communication of restaurants with regular and potential guests.

  7. Using Online Role-Play to Promote Collaborative Argument and Collective Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr-Stevens, Candance; Beach, Richard; Boeser, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses how students use online role-play to collaborate and change real school policy. Playing different characters in an online role-play, students explore controversial aspects of Internet filtering and adopt a plan to change their school's policy. Through engaging in collaborative argumentation during their role-play, students…

  8. The role of play in Danish child care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    of child care. To illustrate how play is a developmental activitity for children, an example of a social fantasy play episode is analysed in order to substantiate the claim: that children’s self-organised play-activities propels social development, authenticity and democratic values.......Children’s play is an immensely central part of child care in Scandinavia. This chapter describes how children’s play with peers and friends is supported by the pedagogical environment of Danish child care. It is argued that play is an existential project for children and that opportunites to play...... freely teaches children to become part of the social order, to become good friends and to solve differences through negotiation. Throughout the chapter the environment facilitating children’s play is illustrated with reference to typical Danish child care practices and research results on quality...

  9. Role-play experience facilitates reading the mind of individuals with different perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumikazu Furumi

    Full Text Available The present study examined effects of role-play experience on reading the mind of people with different perception. It is normally difficult but very important in daily life to understand people with different characteristics, including those with restricted color vision. We explored the mechanisms of reading the mind of people with different perception. Forty university students were introduced to a communication task in which the use of mindreading was essential. During each trial, participants viewed a shelf, presented on a laptop computer, which contained several familiar objects, and they were instructed to touch an object on the shelf following an instruction issued by a partner who stood at the opposite side of the shelf. There were two partners: one was a monkey with normal color vision and the other was a dog with restricted color vision. The monkey could see all the objects in the same colors as the participants, whereas the dog saw some objects in different colors (e.g., he saw as yellow objects that the participants saw as red. Participants were required to respond according to the partner's instruction. In the restricted color vision condition, the dog saw the colors of objects differently; thus, participants had to work out his intentions (i.e., mind read, according to his different perspective. In the normal color vision condition, all objects were in the same colors as those seen by the monkey. Before the test phase, the role-play group had a role-play experience in which participants assumed the role of people with restricted color vision. No-role-play participants made significantly more errors in the restricted color vision condition than in the normal color vision condition, whereas among role-play participants, there was no difference between conditions. These results suggest that role-play experience facilitates reading the mind of people with perceptual experiences different from our own.

  10. Using dramatic role-play to develop emotional aptitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Dinapoli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As university educators, we need to prepare students for the transition from the information age to what Daniel H. Pink (2005 calls the conceptual age, which is governed by artistry, empathy and emotion, by including in the curricula activities that stimulate both hemispheres of the brain. This can be done by promoting activities that energize what Daniel Goleman (1995 refers to as emotional intelligence, and it further maintains that, as Paul Ekman (2003 suggests, the ability to detect feelings improves communication. Recognizing the need to include in the curricula procedures that help develop students’ right brain aptitudes and enhance their communication skills, I have endeavoured to introduce dramatic scene study as a sustained activity in my English for Specific Purposes courses at the Universidad de Valencia. My aim was to energize the students’ creative and emotional aptitudes, as well as to dynamize effective teamwork. This article sustains that dramatic role-play, based on scripted scene study and related improvisational activities, is one way of achieving this.

  11. Sex Differences in Depression: Does Inflammation Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Heather M; Padin, Avelina C; Kuo, Jennifer L; Hughes, Spenser; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2015-10-01

    Women become depressed more frequently than men, a consistent pattern across cultures. Inflammation plays a key role in initiating depression among a subset of individuals, and depression also has inflammatory consequences. Notably, women experience higher levels of inflammation and greater autoimmune disease risk compared to men. In the current review, we explore the bidirectional relationship between inflammation and depression and describe how this link may be particularly relevant for women. Compared to men, women may be more vulnerable to inflammation-induced mood and behavior changes. For example, transient elevations in inflammation prompt greater feelings of loneliness and social disconnection for women than for men, which can contribute to the onset of depression. Women also appear to be disproportionately affected by several factors that elevate inflammation, including prior depression, somatic symptomatology, interpersonal stressors, childhood adversity, obesity, and physical inactivity. Relationship distress and obesity, both of which elevate depression risk, are also more strongly tied to inflammation for women than for men. Taken together, these findings suggest that women's susceptibility to inflammation and its mood effects may contribute to sex differences in depression. Depression continues to be a leading cause of disability worldwide, with women experiencing greater risk than men. Due to the depression-inflammation connection, these patterns may promote additional health risks for women. Considering the impact of inflammation on women's mental health may foster a better understanding of sex differences in depression, as well as the selection of effective depression treatments.

  12. Negative ratings play a positive role in information filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Lü, Linyuan; Zhou, Tao

    2011-11-01

    The explosive growth of information asks for advanced information filtering techniques to solve the so-called information overload problem. A promising way is the recommender system which analyzes the historical records of users’ activities and accordingly provides personalized recommendations. Most recommender systems can be represented by user-object bipartite networks where users can evaluate and vote for objects, and ratings such as “dislike” and “I hate it” are treated straightforwardly as negative factors or are completely ignored in traditional approaches. Applying a local diffusion algorithm on three benchmark data sets, MovieLens, Netflix and Amazon, our study arrives at a very surprising result, namely the negative ratings may play a positive role especially for very sparse data sets. In-depth analysis at the microscopic level indicates that the negative ratings from less active users to less popular objects could probably have positive impacts on the recommendations, while the ones connecting active users and popular objects mostly should be treated negatively. We finally outline the significant relevance of our results to the two long-term challenges in information filtering: the sparsity problem and the cold-start problem.

  13. OPEC fund will continue to play it vital role

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado, H

    1986-09-01

    An interview elicits personal views on the role of and issues related to the OPEC Fund from one of those responsible for its founding. Hurtado comments that the Fund is not likely to change direction, although it accepts the agricultural and industrial development priorities of recipients. He also notes a weakness in the International Fund for Agricultural Development. A shortfall of income as Member Countries respond to falling oil prices will require some management changes in the future, but he sees greater unity among OPEC and Third World countries as a result of current economic strains. The industrialized world, which has provided only one sixth as much aid as OPEC, could apply its savings from current low import prices to help developing countries. North-South cooperation is cyclical, and he expects the current situation to have a positive effect on cooperation.

  14. Could Lipoprotein Lipase Play a Role in Alzheimer's Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Francois Blain

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews recent literature on the role of lipoprotein lipase in the central nervous system with a focus on its recently described role in synaptic remodeling. This novel role could have implication for Alzheimer's disease treatment.

  15. ROL-PLAYING AND GENDER ROLES JUEGOS DE ROL Y ROLES DE GÉNERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ramón Carbó García

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the role playing games evolution from the Gender perspective. The authors analyze the evolution of the role playing games and the progressive incorporation of women to this form of games.El artículo analiza la evolución de los juegos de rol desde la perspectiva de los estudios de género. Los autores analizan la evolución de los juegos de rol y la incorporación progresiva de las mujeres a esta forma de ocio.

  16. Hevin plays a pivotal role in corneal wound healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam S Chaurasia

    with exogenous administration of rhHevin. Thus, hevin plays a pivotal role in the corneal wound healing.

  17. Melatonin plays a protective role in postburn rodent gut pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghoul, Walid M; Abu-Shaqra, Steven; Park, Byeong Gyu; Fazal, Nadeem

    2010-05-17

    Melatonin is a possible protective agent in postburn gut pathophysiological dynamics. We investigated the role of endogenously-produced versus exogenously-administered melatonin in a major thermal injury rat model with well-characterized gut inflammatory complications. Our rationale is that understanding in vivo melatonin mechanisms in control and inflamed tissues will improve our understanding of its potential as a safe anti-inflammatory/antioxidant therapeutic alternative. Towards this end, we tested the hypothesis that the gut is both a source and a target for melatonin and that mesenteric melatonin plays an anti-inflammatory role following major thermal injury in rats with 3rd degree hot water scald over 30% TBSA. Our methods for assessing the gut as a source of melatonin included plasma melatonin ELISA measurements in systemic and mesenteric circulation as well as rtPCR measurement of jejunum and terminal ileum expression of the melatonin synthesizing enzymes arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) and 5-hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) in sham versus day-3 postburn rats. Our melatonin ELISA results revealed that mesenteric circulation has much higher melatonin than systemic circulation and that both mesenteric and systemic melatonin levels are increased three days following major thermal injury. Our rtPCR results complemented the ELISA data in showing that the melatonin synthesizing enzymes AA-NAT and HIOMT are expressed in the ileum and jejunum and that this expression is increased three days following major thermal injury. Interestingly, the rtPCR data also revealed negative feedback by melatonin as exogenous melatonin supplementation at a dose of 7.43 mg (32 micromole/kg), but not 1.86 mg/kg (8 micromole/kg) drastically suppressed AA-NAT mRNA expression. Our methods also included an assessment of the gut as a target for melatonin utilizing computerized immunohistochemical measurements to quantify the effects of exogenous melatonin

  18. Assessing Women's Responses to Sexual Threat: Validity of a Virtual Role-Play Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Rowe, Lorelei Simpson; McDonald, Renee; Platt, Cora G.; Gomez, Gabriella S.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity of a role-play procedure that uses virtual reality technology to assess women's responses to sexual threat. Forty-eight female undergraduate students were randomly assigned to either a standard, face-to-face role-play (RP) or a virtual role-play (VRP) of a sexually coercive situation. A multimethod assessment…

  19. "The Learning Sticks": Reflections on a Case Study of Role-Playing for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sue; Thomas, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Use of role-plays to develop deep student-learning has many advocates. Role-play is a powerful approach for learning that develops relevant skills in a range of disciplines and situations. In Higher Education, sustainability programmes role-play pedagogy appears to have great relevance for developing the competencies that these graduates will…

  20. Predicting The Outcome of Marketing Negotiations: Role-Playing versus Unaided Opinions

    OpenAIRE

    JS Armstrong; Philip D. Hutcherson

    2005-01-01

    Role -playing and unaided opinions were used to forecast the outcome of three negotiations. Consistent with prior re search, role-playing yielded more accurate predictions. In two studies on marketing negotiations, the predictions based on role-playing were correct for 53% of the predictions while unaided opinions were correct for only 7% (p

  1. Using Role-Play for Expert Science Communication with Professional Stakeholders in Flood Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Lindsey; Stokes, Alison; Crowley, Kate; Roberts, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores role-play pedagogies in learning and communicating about cutting-edge flood science by flood risk management professionals in local government. It outlines role-play process/structure and evaluates participant perceptions of their learning experiences. Issues were impacts of prior role-play experience on attitudes brought to…

  2. Heroes of Resiliency and Reciprocity: Teachers' Supporting Role for Reconceptualizing Superhero Play in Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kathleen I.

    2016-01-01

    Superhero play is a specialised form of fantasy play with considerable appeal to young children. During superhero play, children have opportunities to pretend and often to play different types of roles within a safe and caring environment. When guided appropriately in an early childhood classroom, superhero play gives young children opportunities…

  3. IR-induced autophagy plays a role in survival of HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Mi Young; Jang, Eun Yeong; Ryu, Tae Ho; Chung, Dong Min; Kim, Jin Hong; Kim, Jin Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Cells respond to stress with repair, or are diverted into irreversible cell cycle exit (senescence) or are eliminated through programmed cell death. There are two major morphologically distinctive forms of programmed cell death, apoptosis and autophagic cell death. Apoptosis contribute to cell death, whereas autophagy can play a dual role in mediating either cell survival or death in response to various stress stimuli. Here we analysed cellular responses induced by IR. The understanding of an appropriate cellular stress response is of crucial importance in foreseeing the cell fate. Apoptotic feagures were not detected in HeLa under our experimental irradiation condition. Autophagic cell death in HeLa may play an important role in cell protection and can result in cell survival

  4. Parliamentarians play key role in linking population and social development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Mr. Hirofunti Ando, Deputy Executive Director of the UNFPA, delivered the statement of Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the UNFPA at the International Meeting of Parliamentarians on Population and Social Development. The International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (ICPPD) in Cairo in September 1994 made a significant impact on the attitudes and support of parliamentarians regarding population issues. The Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (AFPPD) brought together a group of parliamentarians from all over the world to discuss population issues and social development. The World Summit included in its deliberations the accumulated experiences of earlier international conferences dealing with social economic issues. The ICPD Program of Action addressed concerns relevant to the agenda of the Social Summit: the crucial contribution that early population stabilization will make towards the attainment of sustainable development; the significant role of integrated policies on population and development in creating employment; the importance of population policies and programs in alleviating poverty; the contributions of reproductive health policies, including high-quality family planning services, to the enhancement of the status of women and to the achievement of gender equality; the synergy between education, family planning, and the general improvement of the human condition; and the relationship between population pressures, poverty, and environmental degradation. The ICPD Program of Action also identified critically important population and development objectives, such as ensuring access to education, especially of girls; reducing infant, child, and maternal mortality; and providing universal access to reproductive health and family planning services. Now the challenge is to mobilize the necessary resources for the Social Summit.

  5. Metabolism plays the key roles in Th cells differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hosseinzadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing rate of autoimmunity in recent decades cannot be related to only genetic instabilities and disorders. Diet can directly influence our health. Studies have shown that there is a relationship between nutritional elements and alteration in the immune system. Among immune cells, the function of T lymphocyte is important in directing immune response. T CD4+ cells lead other immune cells to respond to pathogens by secreting cytokines. HIV+ patients, who have largely lost their T CD4+ cells, are susceptible to opportunistic infections, which do not normally affect healthy people. It seems that the metabolism of T cells is critical for their differentiation and their consequent functions. After activation, T cells need to undergo clonal expansion, which is a high energy- consuming process. Studies have shown that specific metabolites deprivation or their excess supply affects T CD4+cells subsets differentiation. Abnormal induction of subsets of T CD4+ cells causes some autoimmunity reactions and hyper-sensitivity as well, which may result from imbalance of diet uptake. In this mini-review, we describe the findings about fatty acids, glucose, amino acids, and vitamins, which are effective in determining the fates of T CD4+ cells. These findings may help us uncover the role of diet in autoimmune diseases.

  6. The kidneys play a central role in the clearance of rhGH in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Bill; Thygesen, Peter; Kreilgaard, Mads

    2016-01-01

    at treatment of patients with growth hormone disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative importance of the kidneys in the clearance of rhGH. The study employed a newly validated nephrectomy rat model and a population based pharmacokinetic approach to assess renal clearance of rh...... that renal clearance plays a pivotal role in the elimination of rhGH in rats....

  7. From board to bedside - training the communication competences of medical students with role plays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttenberger, Katharina; Graessel, Elmar; Simon, Cosima; Donath, Carolin

    2014-07-05

    Role plays and standardized patients are often used in medical education and have proven to be effective tools for enhancing the communication skills of medical students. Most course concepts need additional time and teaching staff, and there are only a few studies about role plays in the preclinical segment. We developed a highly consolidated concept for the curricular course of 2nd-year medical students, including ten role plays about five subjects: anamnesis, shared decision making, prevention, breaking bad news, and so-called "difficult interactions". Before the course, all students were asked about their expectations and attitudes toward the course. After the course, all students rated the course, their individual learning progress, whether their expectations had been fulfilled, and re-evaluated their attitudes. Questionnaires were self-report measures and had a quantitative and a short qualitative section and were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Group differences (sex, age, role played) were evaluated with t tests at a Bonferonni-corrected significance level of p = .03 and the non-parametric U-tests. Implementing this practical course concept is possible without incurring additional costs. This paper not only shows how that can be done but also provides 5 examples of role scripts for different training subjects. The course concept was highly appreciated by the students. More than 75% felt that they had learned important communication techniques and would be better able to handle difficult situations. Playing the doctor's role was felt to be more useful than playing the patient's role. Women admitted a higher degree of shyness in the beginning and gave higher ratings to their learning progress than men. Students' most frequent wish in the qualitative analysis was to be able to play the doctor's role at least once. The students' answers showed a differentiated pattern, thus suggesting that the influence of social desirability was minimal. Practical skills

  8. Social Workers' Perceptions of the Association Between Role Playing Games and Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Lis, Eric; Błachnio, Agata; Ring, Lia; Lavenda, Osnat; Mahat-Shamir, Michal

    2018-03-01

    Whereas role-playing and table-top role-play games (RPGs) have been proven to have potential as therapeutic tools, playing RPGs is often stereotypically associated with social incompetence and psychiatric disorders. Knowledge regarding the stereotype and its implications is very scarce specifically among mental health practitioners. Therefore the present study aimed to narrow this gap in knowledge by examining the perception of Social Workers that are considered to be the forefront of mental health-care, in regard to the association between playing RPGs and mental health. A convenience sample of 130 Social Workers, recruited through social networks (e.g. Facebook, WhatsApp etc.), responded to an on-line survey dealing with their perception of their own knowledge on RPGs, the importance of such knowledge and the association between playing RPGs and mental illness. Results indicated an association between having higher knowledge of RPGs and lower perception of a link between playing RPGs and psychopathology. The study's findings emphasize the false stigma and its potential harmful implication on professionals' practice, especially in the context of intake process and primary diagnostic. The effect of familiarity is also discussed in light of the study's findings. • The perception of mental health professionals toward role playing games such as Dungeons and Dragons is understudied. • Social Workers' perception was measured in regard to the connection between use of RPGs and DSM-IV-TR psychopathology. • Greater knowledge of RPGs was found to be associated with lower perception of the connection between use of RPGs and DSM-IV-TR psychopathology.

  9. Trancending the classrom: A practical guide to remote role plays in teaching international negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolinski, Remigiusz; Kesting, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the pedagogical value of using remote role plays in cross-cultural negotiations between two classes taught simultaneously at different and geographically distant institutions. We argue that remote role-play simulations provide valuable teaching and learning experiences...... of some critical limitations of “traditional” in-class role plays, followed by a practical guide to remote role plays and a report of our experiences with them. Finally, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of remote role plays as a teaching tool for international negotiation classes and the key...

  10. Could borate have played a role in the RNA World?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grew, E. S.; Bada, J. L.; Hazen, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    Two scenarios have been proposed for boron to play a critical role in the stabilization of ribose and other sugars in the ribonucleic acid (RNA) World, >3.8 Ga ago. One scenario envisages oligomeric RNA being synthesized in subaerial intermountane desert valleys in which groundwater was enriched in borate from breakdown of tourmaline (Benner et al. 2012 doi: 10.1021/ar200332w). In the alternative scenario, borates are enriched in hydrothermal environments (3.8 Ma as they are today and (2) plate tectonics was the prevailing regime. The postulated non-marine borate deposits would have been associated with continental collision and subduction with volcanism releasing B, whereas in the second scenario, ocean floor caught up in an early phase of subduction is considered a favorable site for borate formation. Because borate deposits are typically ephemeral and poorly preserved, the lack of evidence in the geologic record for these scenarios does not invalidate them. For example, the oldest reported non-marine borate deposits analogous to the type postulated in first scenario are only 20 Ma, but metamorphosed borates of Precambrian age have been interpreted to have non-marine evaporite precursors, the oldest being 2.4-2.1 Ga in the Liaoning-Jilin area, China. The first B minerals so far reported in the geologic record are metamorphic dravite-schorl tourmalines in the 3.7-3.8 Ga Isua supracrustal belt (southern West Greenland), where there is good evidence for seafloor spreading and subduction. The precursors to the Isua tourmalines are reported to include B-bearing marine clay minerals and detrital tourmaline. The relatively high Li contents in zircon from Jack Hills, Australia, have been cited as evidence for the presence of granitic (s. l.) "protocontinental" crust by 4.3 Ga (Ushikuba et al. 2008 doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2008.05.032; Valley et al. 2010 Rec Geol Surv W Aust, 5-7), but the existence of conventional plate tectonics prior to 3.8 Ga remains controversial

  11. Game-playing in interdisciplinary design and planning teams : A role-play simulation as a learning method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruil, A.W.; Van der Toorn Vrijthoff, W.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present our experiences in setting up and fulfilling a role-play simulation in an academic context. This simulation was set up for the first time in February 2010 to teach 260 students in their final semester in the Bachelor, the bachelor 6, of the Faculty of Architecture how to

  12. Playing in "Trelis Weyr": Investigating Collaborative Practices in a "Dragons of Pern" Role-Play-Game Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive case study examined adolescents' and emerging adults' literate and social practices within the context of a role-play-game (RPG) forum, investigating the ways participants read and collaboratively composed within this space. As a researcher, I was interested in how this space functioned and how the interactions between…

  13. Comparing Video Modeling and Graduated Guidance Together and Video Modeling Alone for Teaching Role Playing Skills to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmanoglu, Nurgul; Yanardag, Mehmet; Batu, E. Sema

    2014-01-01

    Teaching play skills is important for children with autism. The purpose of the present study was to compare effectiveness and efficiency of providing video modeling and graduated guidance together and video modeling alone for teaching role playing skills to children with autism. The study was conducted with four students. The study was conducted…

  14. Motivations to play specifically predict excessive involvement in massively multiplayer online role-playing games: evidence from an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetta Dauriat, Francesca; Zermatten, Ariane; Billieux, Joël; Thorens, Gabriel; Bondolfi, Guido; Zullino, Daniele; Khazaal, Yasser

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have linked massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) with possible problematic usage or internet addiction. The main goal of the present study was to assess links between motivations to play in MMORPGs and addictive involvement in such types of games. A total of 696 gamers responded to an online survey. Five distinct motivations to play were identified in gamers: achievement, socializing, immersion, relaxing and escaping. Multiple regression analysis revealed that addictive MMORPG use patterns are predicted by achievement, escapism and socializing motives. Gender was also a significant predictor of problematic involvement in MMORPGs. Moreover, addictive MMORPG use positively correlated with the weekly time devoted to playing MMORPGs. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Do quarks play an explicit role as nuclear constituents ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Toshimitsu.

    1986-10-01

    Experimental signatures for explicit roles of quarks as nuclear constituents are looked for. It is stressed that hyperons in nuclei may reveal unique information on nuclear interior and possible quark deconfinement. Future directions of hypernuclear spectroscopy are discussed. (author)

  16. The dlt genes play a role in antimicrobial tolerance of Streptococcus mutans biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Carl Martin Peter; Rybtke, Morten; Givskov, Michael

    2016-01-01

    library for genes that are important for biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance provided evidence that the dlt genes play a role in the tolerance of S. mutans biofilms towards gentamicin. The minimum bactericidal concentration for biofilm cells (MBC-B) for a dltA transposon mutant was eight-fold lower...... and complemented strain confirmed that the dlt genes in S. mutans play a role in biofilm-associated tolerance to gentamicin. Confocal laser scanning microscopy analyses of biofilms grown on glass slides showed that the dltA mutant produced roughly the same amount of biofilm as the wild-type, indicating...... that the reduced antimicrobial tolerance of the dltA mutant is not due to a defect in biofilm formation. The products of the dlt genes have been shown to mediate alanylation of teichoic acids, and in accordance the dltA mutant showed a more negatively charged surface than the wild-type, which likely...

  17. The Role of Structural Characteristics in Problematic Video Game Play: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L.; Delfabbro, Paul H.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    The research literature suggests that the structural characteristics of video games may play a considerable role in the initiation, development and maintenance of problematic video game playing. The present study investigated the role of structural characteristics in video game playing behaviour within a sample of 421 video game players aged…

  18. Beyond self-selection in video game play: an experimental examination of the consequences of massively multiplayer online role-playing game play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Joshua M

    2007-10-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the study of video games. Existing work is limited by the use of correlational designs and is thus unable to make causal inferences or remove self-selection biases from observed results. The recent development of online, socially integrated video games (massively multiplayer online role-playing games [MMORPGs]) has created a new experience for gamers. This randomized, longitudinal study examined the effects of being assigned to play different video game types on game usage, health, well-being, sleep, socializing, and academics. One hundred 18- to 20-year-old participants (73% male; 68% Caucasian) were randomly assigned to play arcade, console, solo computer, or MMORPG games for 1 month. The MMORPG group differed significantly from other groups after 1 month, reporting more hours spent playing, worse health, worse sleep quality, and greater interference in "real-life" socializing and academic work. In contrast, this group also reported greater enjoyment in playing, greater interest in continuing to play, and greater acquisition of new friendships. MMORPGs represent a different gaming experience with different consequences than other types of video games and appear to pose both unique risks and benefits from their use.

  19. Some personal notes on role plays as an excellent teaching tool : commentary on "using and developing role plays in teaching aimed at preparing for social responsibility".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Iris

    2013-12-01

    Role plays are extremely valuable tools to address different aspects of teaching social responsibility, because they allow students to "live through" complex ethical decision making dilemmas. While role plays are getting high marks from students because their entertainment value is high, their educational value depends on their closeness to students' work experience and the skills of the teacher in helping students comprehend the lessons they are meant to convey.

  20. Characterization of juvenile play in rats: importance of sex of self and sex of partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argue, Kathryn J; McCarthy, Margaret M

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile social play is observed in many mammalian species, and its disruption in several neuropsychiatric disorders has greatly increased interest in understanding the origins and sources of variability in this behavior. We quantified social play behavior in juvenile rats and investigated the impact of sex and familiarity of the play partner. Sex differences in play behavior were investigated by comparing males and females from either same- or mixed-sex pairs with data pooled over 12 days of analysis. Whether play was altered based on the sex of the play partner was assessed using a paired analysis to compare play with a same- or opposite-sex play partner for both males and females. Additionally, a repeated measures design was utilized to determine whether play changed with increasing age. On postnatal day 33, a novel play partner was introduced. We used a repeated measures analysis to compare postnatal day 33 with the previous day. These approaches were used to assess the effects of age, sex, sex of partner, and familiarity of partner on total social play behavior as well as how play was broken down into components, such as pouncing, pinning, chasing, and boxing. There were sex differences in total frequency of play, and specific parameters of play behavior, such as chasing, pouncing, pinning, and boxing. Additionally, males significantly altered their play behavior in response to the sex of their play partner, whereas females were more sensitive to the familiarity of the play partner. This study provides critical groundwork for uncovering factors that regulate social play behavior and can be used to guide future mechanistic based work.

  1. Benzodiazepines still play a role in modern psychiatric therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Balslev; Videbech, Poul; Osler, Merete

    2017-01-01

    , and that BZ cause traffic accidents, increased mortality and dementia. In Denmark, the use of BZ has been substantially reduced. In this article it is argued, that not all patients habituate, that most of the epidemiological findings are hampered by confounding, and that there still is a role for long...

  2. Scavenger Receptor BI Plays a Role in Facilitating Chylomicron Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Out, R.; Kruijt, J.K.; Rensen, P.C.N.; Hildebrand, R.B.; Vos, P. de; Eck, M. van; Berkel, T.J.C. van

    2004-01-01

    The function of scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) in mediating the selective uptake of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol esters is well established. However, the potential role of SR-BI in chylomicron and chylomicron remnant metabolism is largely unknown. In the present

  3. Motivation within Role-Playing as a Means to Intensify College Students' Educational Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burenkova, Olga Mikhailovna; Arkhipova, Irina Vladimirovna; Semenov, Sergei Aleksandrovich; Samarenkina, Saniya Zakirzyanovna

    2015-01-01

    This article covers college students' educational activity issues while studying a foreign language; analyzes special aspects of motivation introduction, their specific features. It also defines role and structure of role-playing. The authors come to the conclusion that introduction of role-playing in an educational process will bring it closer to…

  4. Can Role-Play with Virtual Humans Teach Interpersonal Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    2007, with concentrations in cinema -television and technology commercialization. He has led several mixed-reality- and game-based training efforts at...options was: t(19) = 2.10, p = .07. Because the wording of the options was identical for both role-players, this result may indicate that the...related potential limitation of our experimental design is that the pretest and posttest versions of the SJT are identical . It could be argued that

  5. Cartographic modeling: The role and importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikonović Vesna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and sense of cartographic modeling is to represent essential, typical and characteristically attributes of mapping territory. Cartographic modeling is applying in two phases: 1. trough theoretical modeling and creating mind models (by notice relevant factors of space, modeling is in cartographer’s mind and 2. trough practical modeling and making prototype model (continuing and objectification of mind model which one has bigger degree of concrezation and experimented role. The maps are mathematical and logical models, which are not just representing the contents of the real space, but also their specific and relational traits which can’t be seen at first sight. Atlas is modeled contexture contents of treated thematic of space on optimal map union. Atlases are higher form of cartography. Modern computer's technology and specific software make possible better and faster making of all kinds of maps, atlases and spatial analysis connections and relationships among all elements of contents from concrete space which is, until now, demand much more time or they can not imagine.

  6. Efficacy of Role Play in Concert with Lecture to Enhance Student Learning of Immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha L. Elliott

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite numerous reports that active learning increases student understanding, many barriers still exist that prevent faculty from shedding the traditional passive lecture and adopting active learning strategies in the classroom. This study looks at the use of role play as an active learning technique to convey new material, or as reinforcement to traditional lecture. A pre- and post-test survey was utilized to determine student learning gains, along with an anonymous survey to determine student attitudes about role play. Student learning gains are similar regardless of class size, role-playing participation or learning style, and reflect an increase in lower order cognition. Attitudes and learning gains indicate role play is preferable as a reinforcement technique, although the order does not matter if both lecture and role play are utilized to convey information. These data provide insight into the best practices of role-playing implementation in concert with traditional lecture format.

  7. Facebook Role Play Addiction - A Comorbidity with Multiple Compulsive-Impulsive Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Deeepa; Shukla, Lekhansh; Kandasamy, Arun; Benegal, Vivek

    2016-06-01

    Background Problematic Internet use (PIU) is an emerging entity with varied contents. Behavioral addictions have high comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. Social networking site (SNS) addiction and role playing game (RPG) addiction are traditionally studied as separate entities. We present a case with excessive Internet use, with a particular focus on phenomenology and psychiatric comorbidities. Case presentation Fifteen-year-old girl with childhood onset attention deficit disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, adolescent onset trichotillomania, and disturbed family environment presented with excessive Facebook use. Main online activity was creating profiles in names of mainstream fictional characters and assuming their identity (background, linguistic attributes, etc.). This was a group activity with significant socialization in the virtual world. Craving, salience, withdrawal, mood modification, and conflict were clearly elucidated and significant social and occupational dysfunction was evident. Discussion This case highlights various vulnerability and sociofamilial factors contributing to behavioral addiction. It also highlights the presence of untreated comorbidities in such cases. The difference from contemporary RPGs and uniqueness of role playing on SNS is discussed. SNS role playing as a separate genre of PIU and its potential to reach epidemic proportions are discussed. Conclusions Individuals with temperamental vulnerability are likely to develop behavioral addictions. Identification and management of comorbid conditions are important. The content of PIU continues to evolve and needs further study.

  8. Use of interactive theater and role play to develop medical students' skills in breaking bad news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skye, Eric P; Wagenschutz, Heather; Steiger, Jeffrey A; Kumagai, Arno K

    2014-12-01

    Creative arts have been increasingly implemented in medical education. This study investigated the use of interactive theater and role play with professional actors in teaching breaking bad news to medical students. The objectives were to explore the contexts, approaches, experiences, and reactions in giving and receiving bad news. Second-year medical students participated in a required educational session that utilized interactive theater which helps students learn about the issues of breaking bad news to a patient with cancer. Following the interactive theater piece, professional actors provided students role play experiences in small groups with breaking bad news. Anonymous evaluation surveys were given out to all second-year medical students at the conclusion of the breaking bad news session. Surveys contained quantitative and qualitative responses. Three years of evaluations were analyzed. A total of 451 (88 %) students completed the evaluations. Comments were thematically analyzed. Ninety-four percent agreed that the theater piece prompted reflection on patient-provider communications, and 89 % agreed that it stimulated discussion on complex issues with breaking bad news. The two most common themes in student comments concerned the importance of realism in the theater piece, and the value of experiencing multiple perspectives. Use of professional actors during the role play exercises enhances the realism and pushed the students out of their own "comfort zones" in ways that may more closely approximate real life clinical situations. Interactive theater can be a potentially powerful tool to teach breaking bad news during medical school.

  9. Research and implementation of role-playing teaching mode supported by gamification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xu; Zhang, Zhenglei; Sun, Lei

    2017-08-01

    The paper designs a Role-playing Teaching Mode Supported by Gamification to stimulate the interest of learners. In the process of creating the teaching mode, the factors of incentive factors, teaching mode and course selection are the most important factors gained by investigate and research. Then under the guidance of the three factors, a leaning framework of role-playing teaching mode which is called Gamification Learning Framework (GM1.0) is determined. In the design of GM1.0, First, collect problem cases which students interested in and select three courses which are Algorithm Design, Data Structure and Program Design. Then, extract the knowledge points of the three courses and merge into the problem cases to form game maps. Last, Learners gain a role-playing actor to join games with the support of game maps and finish selected tasks reaching a higher task level by upgrade checkpoints, experience promotions and award medals changing. After that, learners’ enthusiasm for learning can be stimulated and the innovation abilities can also be improved gradually.

  10. Facebook Role Play Addiction – A Comorbidity with Multiple Compulsive–Impulsive Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Deeepa; Shukla, Lekhansh; Kandasamy, Arun; Benegal, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Background Problematic Internet use (PIU) is an emerging entity with varied contents. Behavioral addictions have high comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive–compulsive spectrum disorders. Social networking site (SNS) addiction and role playing game (RPG) addiction are traditionally studied as separate entities. We present a case with excessive Internet use, with a particular focus on phenomenology and psychiatric comorbidities. Case presentation Fifteen-year-old girl with childhood onset attention deficit disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder, adolescent onset trichotillomania, and disturbed family environment presented with excessive Facebook use. Main online activity was creating profiles in names of mainstream fictional characters and assuming their identity (background, linguistic attributes, etc.). This was a group activity with significant socialization in the virtual world. Craving, salience, withdrawal, mood modification, and conflict were clearly elucidated and significant social and occupational dysfunction was evident. Discussion This case highlights various vulnerability and sociofamilial factors contributing to behavioral addiction. It also highlights the presence of untreated comorbidities in such cases. The difference from contemporary RPGs and uniqueness of role playing on SNS is discussed. SNS role playing as a separate genre of PIU and its potential to reach epidemic proportions are discussed. Conclusions Individuals with temperamental vulnerability are likely to develop behavioral addictions. Identification and management of comorbid conditions are important. The content of PIU continues to evolve and needs further study. PMID:27156380

  11. The significance and perspectives of role playing as a teaching method in process oriented nursing education

    OpenAIRE

    小松, 万喜子; 冨岡, 詔子; 山崎, 章恵; 柳澤, 節子; 百瀬, 由美子

    1999-01-01

    This study was to report the results of students' responses to role playing which has been introduced as a teaching method in adult nursing clinical practice. About 80% of 79 students participated, positively evaluated their experiences in role playing as useful to their clinical practice, with 20% claiming negatively as not useful. An overall result suggested the usefulness of role playing as a method to enhance students' general readiness to their clinical practice. As students with negativ...

  12. Role-play and the Industrial Revolution: an STS approach to the teaching of steam engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabka, Diego; Pereira de Pereira, Alexsandro; Lima Junior, Paulo

    2016-11-01

    Role-play is an interesting, although underexplored, way of teaching physics in high school. This paper presents a science-technology-society (STS) approach to the teaching of heat engines based on a role-play of the Industrial Revolution. Enacting the role-play, students are presented not only to scientific concepts, but also to the social and technological controversies of industrial development.

  13. Transferring Psycho-pedagogical Role-Play in Digital Environments: Tools and Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Dell'Aquila, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Since its origins, role-play technique has been adapted and applied in various ways to different settings and contexts, and for different purposes. It is used in many disciplines, such as psychology, organizational change, sociology and pedagogy. Psychodrama, sociodrama and simulation settings represent different implementations of role-play, which have been exploited in psychotherapy, education, business, organizational and training contexts. Role-play has been extensively recognised as a po...

  14. Benzodiazepines still play a role in modern psychiatric therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Balslev; Videbech, Poul; Osler, Merete

    2017-01-01

    Benzodiazepines (BZ) are widely used for anxiety across psychiatric diagnoses, but for the last decades regulation has been increasingly tight due to problems with tolerance, addiction, withdrawal symptoms and cognitive side effects. Some guidelines claim that BZ only work for a few weeks......, and that BZ cause traffic accidents, increased mortality and dementia. In Denmark, the use of BZ has been substantially reduced. In this article it is argued, that not all patients habituate, that most of the epidemiological findings are hampered by confounding, and that there still is a role for long...

  15. CAN OYSTERS PLAY A ROLE IN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The culinary and commercial value of oysters is widely recognized but, until recently, their ecological importance has been largely overlooked. Field and laboratory studies have begun to explore how filter-feeding and reef building by oysters can influence nutrient cycling, biodi...

  16. Reflective Role-Playing in the Development of Dialogic Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersted, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Whether an organization prospers depends importantly on the relationships among its participants, and central to the success of relationships is the process of dialogue. This article describes an action-based educational practice for enhancing dialogical and relational skills among members of an organization. The effort draws on concepts of…

  17. The important role of energy taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    This is a discussion of the importance of energy taxation in EU countries. Although natural gas is the most environmentally friendly of the fossil fuels, its use may be taxed far harder in the future. The price effects of such a development are discussed. The increasing taxes on oil products which has taken place in the OECD area may come to slow down if competing economies elsewhere do not follow the same policy. The challenge is particularly coming from the new economies in Asia, included the giants China and India, which now have far larger economic growth than the OECD area with a corresponding increased energy consumption. Strong competition may develop both in the markets for products and in the market for factor inputs (energy), so that taxes within the OECD area no longer can be increased but must be lowered. This may also happen if the oil price is high over some time. As far as taxes on natural gas in the European gas market is concerned, the large industrial users will face a regional competitive situation for natural gas as an input factor, while they are globally in a competitive situation for oil as an input factor. In product markets, this industry competes globally in the same way, as does industry that uses oil. This may lead to European countries wishing to tax the use of natural gas in the consumer sector harder than gas for industry and the production of electricity

  18. Theoretical aspects of business role-playing game for senior students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faychuk Olena Leonidivna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with some theoretically grounded features of the business role-playing game determined to improve the learning process of senior students (specialization «Social work». The authors give the classification of business role-playing games, benefits and effective application of the rules of role-plays, and possibilities of using them in the learning process. Business role-playing games provide students’ initiative, emotional saturation of the learning process and help to assimilate the basic theoretical knowledge.

  19. Role-Playing (Psychodrama in the Social Rehabilitation of Juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Grzyb

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the term of psychodrama in the aspect of the social rehabilitation process of juveniles. An important area of considerations is noting the most effective form of work in the modification of socially desirable behavior. Moreover, the identification and wider discussion of the aspect of psychodrama interaction indicates the emotional, therapeutic, and above all correctional dimension, so desired in the social rehabilitation of juveniles.

  20. A novel microglial subset plays a key role in myelinogenesis in developing brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka; Holtman, Inge; Krueger, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Microglia are resident macrophages of the central nervous system that contribute to homeostasis and neuroinflammation. Although known to play an important role in brain development, their exact function has not been fully described. Here we show that in contrast to healthy adult and inflammation......-activated cells, neonatal microglia show a unique myelinogenic and neurogenic phenotype. A CD11c+ microglial subset that predominates in primary myelinating areas of the developing brain expresses genes for neuronal and glial survival, migration and differentiation. These cells are the major source of insulin...

  1. Cysteine homeostasis plays an essential role in plant immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Consolación; Bermúdez, M Ángeles; Romero, Luis C; Gotor, Cecilia; García, Irene

    2012-01-01

    • Cysteine is the metabolic precursor of essential biomolecules such as vitamins, cofactors, antioxidants and many defense compounds. The last step of cysteine metabolism is catalysed by O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL), which incorporates reduced sulfur into O-acetylserine to produce cysteine. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the main OASTL isoform OAS-A1 and the cytosolic desulfhydrase DES1, which degrades cysteine, contribute to the cytosolic cysteine homeostasis. • Meta-analysis of the transcriptomes of knockout plants for OAS-A1 and for DES1 show a high correlation with the biotic stress series in both cases. • The study of the response of knockout mutants to plant pathogens shows that des1 mutants behave as constitutive systemic acquired resistance mutants, with high resistance to biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens, salicylic acid accumulation and WRKY54 and PR1 induction, while oas-a1 knockout mutants are more sensitive to biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens. However, oas-a1 knockout mutants lack the hypersensitive response associated with the effector-triggered immunity elicited by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 avrRpm1. • Our results highlight the role of cysteine as a crucial metabolite in the plant immune response. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. IFT46 plays an essential role in cilia development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Sun; Hwang, Kyu-Seok; Oh, Hyun-Woo; Ji-Ae, Kim; Kim, Hyun-Taek; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Ju; Ko, Je Yeong; Choi, Jung-Hwa; Jeong, Yun-Mi; You, Kwan-Hee; Kim, Joon; Park, Doo-Sang; Nam, Ki-Hoan; Aizawa, Shinichi; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Shioi, Go; Park, Jong-Hoon; Zhou, Weibin; Kim, Nam-Soon; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Cilia are microtubule-based structures that project into the extracellular space. Ciliary defects are associated with several human diseases, including polycystic kidney disease, primary ciliary dyskinesia, left-right axis patterning, hydrocephalus and retinal degeneration. However, the genetic and cellular biological control of ciliogenesis remains poorly understood. The IFT46 is one of the highly conserved intraflagellar transport complex B proteins. In zebrafish, ift46 is expressed in various ciliated tissues such as Kupffer’s vesicle, pronephric ducts, ears and spinal cord. We show that ift46 is localized to the basal body. Knockdown of ift46 gene results in multiple phenotypes associated with various ciliopathies including kidney cysts, pericardial edema and ventral axis curvature. In ift46 morphants, cilia in kidney and spinal canal are shortened and abnormal. Similar ciliary defects are observed in otic vesicles, lateral line hair cells, olfactory pits, but not in Kupffer’s vesicle. To explore the functions of Ift46 during mouse development, we have generated Ift46 knock-out mice. The Ift46 mutants have developmental defects in brain, neural tube and heart. In particular Ift46(−/−) homozygotes displays randomization of the embryo heart looping, which is a hallmark of defective left-right (L/R) axis patterning. Taken together, our results demonstrated that IFT46 has an essential role in vertebrate ciliary development. PMID:25722189

  3. Paraflocculus plays a role in salicylate-induced tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yali; Liu, Junxiu; Jiang, Qin; Duan, Qingchuan; Mao, Lanqun; Ma, Furong

    2017-09-01

    Tinnitus impairs quality of life of about 1-2% of the whole population. In most severe situation, tinnitus may cause social isolation, depression and suicide. Drug treatments for tinnitus are generally ineffective, and the mechanisms of tinnitus are still undetermined. Accumulating evidence suggests that tinnitus is related to changes of widespread brain networks. Recent studies propose that paraflocculus (PFL), which is indirectly connected to various cortical regions, may be a gating zone of tinnitus. So we examined the electrophysiological changes and neurotransmitter alterations of the PFL in a rat model of sodium salicylate (SS)-induced tinnitus. We found that spontaneous firing rate (SFR) of the putative excitatory interneurons of the PFL was significantly increased. The level of glutamic acid, which is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the nervous system, was also dramatically increased in the PFL after SS treatment. These results confirmed the hyperactivity of PFL in the rats with SS-treatment, which might be due to the increased glutamic acid. Then we examined the SFR of the auditory cortex (AC), the center for auditory perception, before and after electrical stimulation of the PFL. 71.4% (105/147) of the recorded neurons showed a response to the stimulation of the PFL. The result demonstrated that stimulation of the PFL could modulate the activity of the AC. Our study suggests a role of PFL in SS-induced tinnitus and AC as a potential target of PFL in the process of tinnitus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sleep apps: what role do they play in clinical medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Christopher P; Williams, Adrian J

    2017-11-01

    Today's smartphones boast more computing power than the Apollo Guidance Computer. Given the ubiquity and popularity of smartphones, are we already carrying around miniaturized sleep labs in our pockets? There is still a lack of validation studies for consumer sleep technologies in general and apps for monitoring sleep in particular. To overcome this gap, multidisciplinary teams are needed that focus on feasibility work at the intersection of software engineering, data science and clinical sleep medicine. To date, no smartphone app for monitoring sleep through movement sensors has been successfully validated against polysomnography, despite the role and validity of actigraphy in sleep medicine having been well established. Missing separation of concerns, not methodology, poses the key limiting factor: The two essential steps in the monitoring process, data collection and scoring, are chained together inside a black box due to the closed nature of consumer devices. This leaves researchers with little room for influence nor can they access raw data. Multidisciplinary teams that wield complete power over the sleep monitoring process are sorely needed.

  5. Symbiotic bacteria of helminths: what role may they play in ecosystems under anthropogenic stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, N J

    2016-11-01

    Symbiotic bacteria are a common feature of many animals, particularly invertebrates, from both aquatic and terrestrial habitats. These bacteria have increasingly been recognized as performing an important role in maintaining invertebrate health. Both ecto- and endoparasitic helminths have also been found to harbour a range of bacterial species which provide a similar function. The part symbiotic bacteria play in sustaining homeostasis of free-living invertebrates exposed to anthropogenic pressure (climate change, pollution), and the consequences to invertebrate populations when their symbionts succumb to poor environmental conditions, are increasingly important areas of research. Helminths are also susceptible to environmental stress and their symbiotic bacteria may be a key aspect of their responses to deteriorating conditions. This article summarizes the ecophysiological relationship helminths have with symbiotic bacteria and the role they play in maintaining a healthy parasite and the relevance of specific changes that occur in free-living invertebrate-bacteria interactions under anthropogenic pressure to helminths and their bacterial communities. It also discusses the importance of understanding the mechanistic sensitivity of helminth-bacteria relationships to environmental stress for comprehending the responses of parasites to challenging conditions.

  6. Perineuronal nets play a role in regulating striatal function in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunchul Lee

    Full Text Available The striatum is the primary input nucleus of the basal ganglia, a collection of nuclei that play important roles in motor control and associative learning. We have previously reported that perineuronal nets (PNNs, aggregations of chondroitin-sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs, form in the matrix compartment of the mouse striatum during the second postnatal week. This period overlaps with important developmental changes, including the attainment of an adult-like gait. Here, we investigate the identity of the cells encapsulated by PNNs, characterize their topographical distribution and determine their function by assessing the impact of enzymatic digestion of PNNs on two striatum-dependent behaviors: ambulation and goal-directed spatial learning. We show PNNs are more numerous caudally, and that a substantial fraction (41% of these structures surrounds parvalbumin positive (PV+ interneurons, while approximately 51% of PV+ cells are ensheathed by PNNs. The colocalization of these structures is greatest in dorsal, lateral and caudal regions of the striatum. Bilateral digestion of striatal PNNs led to an increase in both the width and variability of hind limb gait. Intriguingly, this also resulted in an improvement in the acquisition rate of the Morris water maze. Together, these data show that PNNs are associated with specific elements of striatal circuits and play a key role in regulating the function of this important structure in the mouse.

  7. Perineuronal nets play a role in regulating striatal function in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunchul; Leamey, Catherine A; Sawatari, Atomu

    2012-01-01

    The striatum is the primary input nucleus of the basal ganglia, a collection of nuclei that play important roles in motor control and associative learning. We have previously reported that perineuronal nets (PNNs), aggregations of chondroitin-sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), form in the matrix compartment of the mouse striatum during the second postnatal week. This period overlaps with important developmental changes, including the attainment of an adult-like gait. Here, we investigate the identity of the cells encapsulated by PNNs, characterize their topographical distribution and determine their function by assessing the impact of enzymatic digestion of PNNs on two striatum-dependent behaviors: ambulation and goal-directed spatial learning. We show PNNs are more numerous caudally, and that a substantial fraction (41%) of these structures surrounds parvalbumin positive (PV+) interneurons, while approximately 51% of PV+ cells are ensheathed by PNNs. The colocalization of these structures is greatest in dorsal, lateral and caudal regions of the striatum. Bilateral digestion of striatal PNNs led to an increase in both the width and variability of hind limb gait. Intriguingly, this also resulted in an improvement in the acquisition rate of the Morris water maze. Together, these data show that PNNs are associated with specific elements of striatal circuits and play a key role in regulating the function of this important structure in the mouse.

  8. Angiotensin-Converting Enzymes Play a Dominant Role in Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Jin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization, infertility, associated with metabolic syndrome, has become a global issue with a 10%–20% incidence worldwide. An accumulating body of evidence has shown that the renin–angiotensin system is involved in the fertility problems observed in some populations. Moreover, alterations in the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme-1, angiotensin-converting enzyme-2, and angiotensin-converting enzyme-3 might be one of the most important mechanisms underlying both female and male infertility. However, as a pseudogene in humans, further studies are needed to explore whether the abnormal angiotensin-converting enzyme-3 gene could result in the problems of human reproduction. In this review, the relationship between angiotensin-converting enzymes and fertile ability is summarized, and a new procedure for the treatment of infertility is discussed.

  9. Omentin - a new adipokine with many roles to play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halabis Magdalena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is at a point of high interest in medical research, not only as an energy depot, but also because it secretes nearly more than 600 cytokines. These are termed‚ adipokines’. Human adipokines are involved in numerous metabolic processes, including the regulation of appetite, energy expenditure, insulin sensitivity, inflammation and cardiovascular activity. Thus, these could be clinically important as a markers of adipose tissue function and increased metabolic risk. The search for novel adipokines linking obesity to related co-morbidities has become a major topic in obesity research. In such work, there is an increasing need to define their function, their molecular targets and their potential clinical relevance as biomarkers or in the treatment of obesity and other metabolic diseases.

  10. The Role that Natural Environment Plays in Reducing Noise Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Saber Maash

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Noise pollution is one of the major problems for the present time and it can affect the life of human being. Noise pollution is excessive, displeasing human, animal or machine-created environmental noise that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life. Researchers have mentioned a lot of devastating effects of noise that can disrupt the physical and psychological health of human beings. Noise pollution has also been considered as an important issue which needs to be solved in industrial countries and also as a main factor that is required to be minimized in factory construction and also in producing machinery. In the current article we are aimed at discussing some solutions that natural environment can bring to mankind regarding the reduction of noise pollution.

  11. HJV and HFE Play Distinct Roles in Regulating Hepcidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Wang, Hao; An, Peng; Tao, Yunlong; Deng, Jiali; Zhang, Zhuzhen; Shen, Yuanyuan; Chen, Caiyong; Min, Junxia; Wang, Fudi

    2015-05-20

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is an iron overload disease that is caused by mutations in HFE, HJV, and several other genes. However, whether HFE-HH and HJV-HH share a common pathway via hepcidin regulation is currently unclear. Recently, some HH patients have been reported to carry concurrent mutations in both the HFE and HJV genes. To dissect the roles and molecular mechanisms of HFE and/or HJV in the pathogenesis of HH, we studied Hfe(-/-), Hjv(-/-), and Hfe(-/-)Hjv(-/-) double-knockout mouse models. Hfe(-/-)Hjv(-/-) mice developed iron overload in multiple organs at levels comparable to Hjv(-/-) mice. After an acute delivery of iron, the expression of hepcidin (i.e., Hamp1 mRNA) was increased in the livers of wild-type and Hfe(-/-) mice, but not in either Hjv(-/-) or Hfe(-/-)Hjv(-/-) mice. Furthermore, iron-induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 was not detected in the livers of Hjv(-/-) or Hfe(-/-)Hjv(-/-) mice. We generated and phenotypically characterized Hfe(-/-)Hjv(-/-) double-knockout mice. In addition, because they faithfully phenocopy clinical HH patients, these mouse models are an invaluable tool for mechanistically dissecting how HFE and HJV regulate hepcidin expression. Based on our results, we conclude that HFE may depend on HJV for transferrin-dependent hepcidin regulation. The presence of residual hepcidin in the absence of HFE suggests either the presence of an unknown regulator (e.g., TFR2) that is synergistic with HJV or that HJV is sufficient to maintain basal levels of hepcidin.

  12. Serious Simulation Role-Playing Games for Transformative Climate Change Education: "World Climate" and "Future Climate"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney-Varga, J. N.; Sterman, J.; Sawin, E.; Jones, A.; Merhi, H.; Hunt, C.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change, its mitigation, and adaption to its impacts are among the greatest challenges of our times. Despite the importance of societal decisions in determining climate change outcomes, flawed mental models about climate change remain widespread, are often deeply entrenched, and present significant barriers to understanding and decision-making around climate change. Here, we describe two simulation role-playing games that combine active, affective, and analytical learning to enable shifts of deeply held conceptions about climate change. The games, World Climate and Future Climate, use a state-of-the-art decision support simulation, C-ROADS (Climate Rapid Overview and Decision Support) to provide users with immediate feedback on the outcomes of their mitigation strategies at the national level, including global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and concentrations, mean temperature changes, sea level rise, and ocean acidification. C-ROADS outcomes are consistent with the atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMS), such as those used by the IPCC, but runs in less than one second on ordinary laptops, providing immediate feedback to participants on the consequences of their proposed policies. Both World Climate and Future Climate role-playing games provide immersive, situated learning experiences that motivate active engagement with climate science and policy. In World Climate, participants play the role of United Nations climate treaty negotiators. Participant emissions reductions proposals are continually assessed through interactive exploration of the best available science through C-ROADS. Future Climate focuses on time delays in the climate and energy systems. Participants play the roles of three generations: today's policymakers, today's youth, and 'just born.' The game unfolds in three rounds 25 simulated years apart. In the first round, only today's policymakers make decisions; In the next round, the young become the policymakers and inherit the

  13. Overview of Play: Its Uses and Importance in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifter, Karin; Foster-Sanda, Suzanne; Arzamarski, Caley; Briesch, Jacquelyn; McClure, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Play is a natural activity of early childhood, which has great relevance to the fields of early intervention, early childhood special education, and early childhood education. Within these fields, ongoing tensions persist in how play is described and used. These tensions compromise activities of assessment, intervention, and curriculum development…

  14. Neurodegenerative Diseases: Might Citrus Flavonoids Play a Protective Role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santa Cirmi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases (ND result from the gradual and progressive degeneration of the structure and function of the central nervous system or the peripheral nervous system or both. They are characterized by deterioration of neurons and/or myelin sheath, disruption of sensory information transmission and loss of movement control. There is no effective treatment for ND, and the drugs currently marketed are symptom-oriented, albeit with several side effects. Within the past decades, several natural remedies have gained attention as potential neuroprotective drugs. Moreover, an increasing number of studies have suggested that dietary intake of vegetables and fruits can prevent or delay the onset of ND. These properties are mainly due to the presence of polyphenols, an important group of phytochemicals that are abundantly present in fruits, vegetables, cereals and beverages. The main class of polyphenols is flavonoids, abundant in Citrus fruits. Our review is an overview on the scientific literature concerning the neuroprotective effects of the Citrus flavonoids in the prevention or treatment of ND. This review may be used as scientific basis for the development of nutraceuticals, food supplements or complementary and alternative drugs to maintain and improve the neurophysiological status.

  15. Canadian Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Young Children's Gender-Role Play and Cultural Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servos, Jennifer E.; Dewar, Brandy A.; Bosacki, Sandra L.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates early childhood educators' perceptions of children's gender-role play and the impact their cultural background plays in their gender identity and play behaviors. Through qualitative in-depth interviews, early childhood educators in Canada (n = 40) were asked questions relating to their experiences with children from…

  16. Online-offline activities and game-playing behaviors of avatars in a massive multiplayer online role-playing game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Tan, Qun-Zhao

    2009-11-01

    Massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are very popular in China, which provides a potential platform for scientific research. We study the online-offline activities of avatars in an MMORPG to understand their game-playing behavior. The statistical analysis unveils that the active avatars can be classified into three types. The avatars of the first type are owned by game cheaters who go online and offline in preset time intervals with the online duration distributions dominated by pulses. The second type of avatars is characterized by a Weibull distribution in the online durations, which is confirmed by statistical tests. The distributions of online durations of the remaining individual avatars differ from the above two types and cannot be described by a simple form. These findings have potential applications in the game industry.

  17. Trusted Sources: The Role Scientific Societies Can Play in Improving Public Opinions on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntee, C.; Cairns, A.; Buhrman, J.

    2012-12-01

    Public acceptance of the scientific consensus regarding climate change has eroded and misinformation designed to confuse the public is rapidly proliferating. Those issues, combined with an increase of politically motivated attacks on climate scientists and their research, have led to a place where ideology can trump scientific consensus as the foundation for developing policy solutions. The scientific community has been, thus far, unprepared to respond effectively to these developments. However, as a scientific society whose members engage in climate science research, and one whose organizational mission and vision are centered on the concepts of science for the benefit of humanity and ensuring a sustainable future, the American Geophysical Union can, and should, play an important role in reversing this trend. To that end, in 2011, AGU convened a Leadership Summit on Climate Science Communication, in which presidents, executive directors, and senior public policy staff from 17 scientific organizations engaged with experts in the social sciences regarding effective communication of climate science and with practitioners from agriculture, energy, and the military. The discussions focused on three key issues: the environment of climate science communication; public understanding of climate change; and the perspectives of consumers of climate science-based information who work with specific audiences. Participants diagnosed previous challenges and failings, enumerated the key constituencies that need to be effectively engaged, and identified the critical role played by cultural cognition—the influence of group values, particularly around equality and authority, individualism, and community; and the perceptions of risk. Since that meeting, AGU has consistently worked to identify and explore ways that it, and its members, and improve the effectiveness of their communication with the public about climate change. This presentation will focus on the insights AGU has

  18. Exploring the use of role play in a school-based programme to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring the use of role play in a school-based programme to reduce teenage pregnancy. ... South African Journal of Education ... study was undertaken of the use of role plays by Grade 8 learners, at eight urban and rural KwaZulu-Natal high schools, as part of a programme to reduce the prevalence of teenage pregnancy.

  19. Learning by Doing in Leadership Education: Experiencing Followership and Effective Leadership Communication through Role-Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Filiz; Lebron, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a role-play exercise to illustrate the influence of followership styles and effective communication on leader-follower relationship formation and development. We provide the pedagogical theory and evidence behind using role-plays in classroom settings, followed by a literature review pertaining to…

  20. The Strategic Micro-Firm: A Role Play In Management Training for Dynamic Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnabe, Federico; Busco, Cristiano; Davidsen, Pal I.; Lambri, Maurizio; Zatta, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the main characteristics of the role-playing game "Strategic Micro-Firm" which aims to reproduce the fundamental features of a complex supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: A specific role-playing game is presented, in which a Balanced Scorecard is used as the reporting device and is…

  1. Teacher's Guide to Canal. The Middlesex Canal: A Role Playing Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Cary W.; Tedesco, Paul H.

    The document consists of a role-playing game and related teacher's guide designed to illustrate decision-making processes leading to the building of the Middlesex Canal in Massachusetts in 1793. The primary educational objective is to involve students in the decision-making process through role play. The game is designed to facilitate…

  2. Enhancing Role-Play Activities with Pocket Camcorder Technology: Strategies for Counselor-Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Sara Meghan; Thanasiu, Page L.

    2011-01-01

    Counselor-educators can benefit from specific guidelines and creative suggestions when implementing role-play and technology-related teaching strategies in counseling training programs. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to: (a) discuss the use of role-play and video recording in counselor education; (b) introduce counselor-educators to…

  3. Role-Playing in Science Education: An Effective Strategy for Developing Multiple Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Elaine V.; Cruz, Barbara C.

    2009-01-01

    Role-playing can be an engaging and creative strategy to use in the college classroom. Using official accounts, personal narratives, and diaries to recreate a particular time period, event, or personality, the instructional strategy alternately referred to as role-playing, dramatic improvisation, or first-person characterization can be an…

  4. Role Playing in Physical Education to Teach in the Affective Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samalot-Rivera, Amaury

    2014-01-01

    Using role playing during physical education provides limitless opportunities for intervention and for the demonstration of personal and social qualities. The purpose of this article is to provide easy steps for implementing role playing as a strategy to teach social skills to students in the physical education setting.

  5. What Students Need: Exploring Teachers' Views via Imagined Role-Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazkis, Rina; Nejad, Masomeh Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Role-playing is an unscripted dramatic technique that encourages participants to improvise behaviors that illustrate expected actions of persons involved in defined situations. However, among various uses in developing professionals, the use of role-playing in teacher education is rather rare. To give all students the opportunity to participate in…

  6. 25 CFR 900.229 - What role will the awarding official play during an appeal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What role will the awarding official play during an appeal? 900.229 Section 900.229 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, AND INDIAN... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Post-Award Contract Disputes § 900.229 What role will the awarding official play...

  7. The Evaluation of Role-Playing in the Context of Teaching Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belova, Nadja; Eilks, Ingo; Feierabend, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Role-plays are a common pedagogical tool in the Social Sciences. As an imitation of societal practices, role-plays are thought to support the development of argumentation and decision-making skills among learners. However, argumentation and decision making are also goals in science education in general and in socioscientific issues-oriented…

  8. Comparing Role-Playing Activities in Second Life and Face-to-Face Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Noh, Jeongmin J.; Koehler, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared student performances in role-playing activities in both a face-to-face (FTF) environment and a virtual 3D environment, Second Life (SL). We found that students produced a similar amount of communication in the two environments, but the communication styles were different. In SL role-playing activities, students took more…

  9. You Must Participate: Violating Research Ethical Principles through Role-Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    The author discusses the use of role-play to teach research ethics in three semesters of a research methods class. Small groups of students were assigned one of nine ethical norms discussed in the course textbook and the American Sociological Association Code of Ethics. Each group role-played the violation of their assigned ethic to the class. The…

  10. Understanding Protein Synthesis: A Role-Play Approach in Large Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Cole, Oladipo

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of role play in a large undergraduate science class. The targeted population consisted of 298 students enrolled in 2 sections of an undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology course taught by the same instructor. The section engaged in the role-play activity served as the study group, whereas the section…

  11. Using a Corporate Partnership to Enhance Learning in a Sourcing Negotiation Role-play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Janet L.; Eboch, Karen; Gilberg, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Although role-plays can be effective teaching tools for buyer-supplier negotiation, learning can be somewhat limited because typically novices are negotiating with each other. We describe how we collaborated with a corporate partner, CACI International, to develop and implement a repeatable sourcing and negotiation role-play that helps to address…

  12. Mars Colony: Using Role-Play as a Pedagogical Approach to Teaching Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, Nathan; Wood, Aja; Soldan, Katie; Tai, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss role-play as a pedagogical strategy to engage kindergarten and first-grade students in science and engineering. They present a five-part Mars colony lesson that they developed for a blended class, during which students role-play a space-exploration story that enables them to gain a firsthand perspective of what…

  13. Role-Play in Literature Lectures: The Students' Assessment of Their Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riain, Isobel Ní; Dawson, Ciarán; McCarthy, Marian

    2018-01-01

    The following article is based on a piece of qualitative research on the use of role-play in a literature module in the Modern Irish Dept. of University College Cork, Ireland, in 2015. There were 18 students involved in the research. The aim of the research was to investigate if students associate learning with the use of role-play in literature…

  14. Prohibitin plays a critical role in Enterovirus 71 neuropathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issac Horng Khit Too

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A close relative of poliovirus, enterovirus 71 (EV71 is regarded as an important neurotropic virus of serious public health concern. EV71 causes Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease and has been associated with neurological complications in young children. Our limited understanding of the mechanisms involved in its neuropathogenesis has hampered the development of effective therapeutic options. Here, using a two-dimensional proteomics approach combined with mass spectrometry, we have identified a unique panel of host proteins that were differentially and dynamically modulated during EV71 infection of motor-neuron NSC-34 cells, which are found at the neuromuscular junctions where EV71 is believed to enter the central nervous system. Meta-analysis with previously published proteomics studies in neuroblastoma or muscle cell lines revealed minimal overlapping which suggests unique host-pathogen interactions in NSC-34 cells. Among the candidate proteins, we focused our attention on prohibitin (PHB, a protein that is involved in multiple cellular functions and the target of anti-cancer drug Rocaglamide (Roc-A. We demonstrated that cell surface-expressed PHB is involved in EV71 entry into neuronal cells specifically, while membrane-bound mitochondrial PHB associates with the virus replication complex and facilitates viral replication. Furthermore, Roc-A treatment of EV71-infected neuronal cells reduced significantly virus yields. However, the inhibitory effect of Roc-A on PHB in NSC-34 cells was not through blocking the CRAF/MEK/ERK pathway as previously reported. Instead, Roc-A treated NSC-34 cells had lower mitochondria-associated PHB and lower ATP levels that correlated with impaired mitochondria integrity. In vivo, EV71-infected mice treated with Roc-A survived longer than the vehicle-treated animals and had significantly lower virus loads in their spinal cord and brain, whereas virus titers in their limb muscles were comparable to controls. Together, this

  15. Prohibitin plays a critical role in Enterovirus 71 neuropathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Too, Issac Horng Khit; Bonne, Isabelle; Tan, Eng Lee; Chu, Justin Jang Hann; Alonso, Sylvie

    2018-01-01

    A close relative of poliovirus, enterovirus 71 (EV71) is regarded as an important neurotropic virus of serious public health concern. EV71 causes Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease and has been associated with neurological complications in young children. Our limited understanding of the mechanisms involved in its neuropathogenesis has hampered the development of effective therapeutic options. Here, using a two-dimensional proteomics approach combined with mass spectrometry, we have identified a unique panel of host proteins that were differentially and dynamically modulated during EV71 infection of motor-neuron NSC-34 cells, which are found at the neuromuscular junctions where EV71 is believed to enter the central nervous system. Meta-analysis with previously published proteomics studies in neuroblastoma or muscle cell lines revealed minimal overlapping which suggests unique host-pathogen interactions in NSC-34 cells. Among the candidate proteins, we focused our attention on prohibitin (PHB), a protein that is involved in multiple cellular functions and the target of anti-cancer drug Rocaglamide (Roc-A). We demonstrated that cell surface-expressed PHB is involved in EV71 entry into neuronal cells specifically, while membrane-bound mitochondrial PHB associates with the virus replication complex and facilitates viral replication. Furthermore, Roc-A treatment of EV71-infected neuronal cells reduced significantly virus yields. However, the inhibitory effect of Roc-A on PHB in NSC-34 cells was not through blocking the CRAF/MEK/ERK pathway as previously reported. Instead, Roc-A treated NSC-34 cells had lower mitochondria-associated PHB and lower ATP levels that correlated with impaired mitochondria integrity. In vivo, EV71-infected mice treated with Roc-A survived longer than the vehicle-treated animals and had significantly lower virus loads in their spinal cord and brain, whereas virus titers in their limb muscles were comparable to controls. Together, this study uncovers

  16. Rules out of Roles: Differences in Play Language and Their Developmental Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongho; Kellogg, David

    2007-01-01

    Using a discourse analytic approach from the work of Hoey (1991) and a dual processing model from Wray (2000), this paper compares the language produced by the same classes of children when they are engaged in role-play and when they are playing rule-based games. We find that role-play tends to be richer in "frozen" pair parts, where the responses…

  17. Exploring the use of role play in a school-based programme to reduce teenage pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myra Taylor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Can the use of a method such as role play help reduce sexual risk behaviour among KwaZulu-Natal learners? A study was undertaken of the use of role plays by Grade 8 learners, at eight urban and rural KwaZulu-Natal high schools, as part of a programme to reduce the prevalence of teenage pregnancy. Within the framework of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory, learners participated in role plays covering five topics - choice, self-respect and emotional abuse; partner coercion/negotiation about having sex; visiting the clinic for contraception; perceived and purchasing value of the child support grant; and testing for HIV. We report on the organisation, implementation and evaluation of the role plays. Data from facilitators, educators and learners were triangulated and suggest that role play has potential for building self-efficacy among learners with respect to sexual behaviour.

  18. The Implementation of Role Play to Improve EFL Speaking Skill of the Second Semester Students of Akademi Bahasa Asing Balikpapan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rochman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Speaking is an important skill learned by English student although English covers four skills namely speaking, listening, speaking and writing. Speaking is the main bridge for the students to master English. Unfortunately the fact has shown that the students were quite difficult to improve their speaking skill because they were accustomed to use their native language language in their daily life than using English. The above facts signify that the lecturer should apply the techniques that can motivate students to speak and engage students in encouraging activities. One of the techniques that encourage students to speak is role play. Role play is the choice implemented by the researcher in improving the speaking skill of the first year students at ABA Balikpapan since using role play, the students can express their idea, opinion, and feeling well in their performance without being worried to make mistake. Based on the result of the study, it can be concluded that the result of this research was satisfying. This research claims that it was successful in the effort in improving students’ English speaking skill through Role-Play. Role-Play activity could increase the students’ motivation in joining the teaching and learning activity. Their motivation is reflected in their efforts in preparing the Role-Play.

  19. Transforming Water Supply Regimes in India: Do Public-Private Partnerships Have a Role to Play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Gopakumar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Public-private partnerships (PPP are an important governance strategy that has recently emerged as a solution to enhance the access of marginalised residents to urban infrastructures. With the inception of neo-liberal economic reforms in India, in Indian cities too PPP has emerged as an innovative approach to expand coverage of water supply and sanitation infrastructures. However, there has been little study of the dynamics of partnership efforts in different urban contexts: What role do they play in transforming existing infrastructure regimes? Do reform strategies such as partnerships result in increased privatisation or do they make the governance of infrastructures more participative? Reviewing some of the recent literature on urban political analysis, this article develops the concept of water supply regime to describe the context of water provision in three metropolitan cities in India. To further our understanding of the role of PPP within regimes, this article sketches five cases of water supply and sanitation partnerships located within these three metropolitan cities. From these empirical studies, the article arrives at the conclusion that while PPP are always products of the regime-context they are inserted within, quite often strategic actors in the partnership use the PPP to further their interests by initiating a shift in the regime pathway. This leads us to conclude that PPPs do play a role in making water supply regimes more participative but that depends on the nature of the regime as well as the actions of partners.

  20. Self-Actualization of Youth Subculture Members (Role-Playing Movement as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Zhuravleva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the research of youth subculture members’ self-actualization (role-playing movement as an example. It describes certain characteristics of role-players’ self-actualization, its structure, and also its gender and age specific features. It has been proven that the level of self-actualization of the members of the role-playing movement is higher than of the people who are not interested in it and that taking part in role-playing games is a more significant factor for the self-actualization of the personality than the gender and age of the players.

  1. Histidine Metabolism and IGPD Play a Key Role in Cefquinome Inhibiting Biofilm Formation of Staphylococcus xylosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-hui Zhou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus xylosus (S. xylosus is an AT-rich and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS. It is normally regarded as non-pathogenic, however, recent studies have demonstrated that it is related to human opportunistic infections and bovine mastitis. In addition, S. xylosus strains have the ability to form biofilm. Biofilms are also involved in chronic infections and antibiotic resistance, there are only a few reports about cefquinome inhibiting S. xylosus biofilm formation and the protein targets of cefquinome. In our study, we found that sub-MICs of cefquinome were sufficient to inhibit biofilm formation. To investigate the potential protein targets of cefquinome, we used iTRAQ for the analyses of cells at two different conditions: 1/2-MIC (0.125 μg/mL cefquinome treatment and no treatment. Using iTRAQ technique and KEGG database analysis, we found that proteins differently expression in histidine metabolism pathway may play a role in the process by which 1/2-MIC (0.125 μg/mL cefquinome inhibits S. xylosus biofilm formation. Interestingly, we found a sharply down-regulated enzyme [A0A068E9J3 imidazoleglycerol-phosphate dehydratase (IGPD] involved in histidine metabolism pathway in cefquinome-treated cells. We demonstrated the important role of IGPD in sub-MICs cefquinome inhibiting biofilm formation of S. xylosus by gene (hisB knockout, IGPD enzyme activity and histidine content assays. Thus, our data sheds light on important role of histidine metabolism in S. xylosus biofilm formation; especially, IGPD involved in histidine metabolism might play a crucial role in sub-MICs cefquinome inhibition of biofilm formation of S. xylosus, and we propose IGPD as an attractive protein target of cefquinome.

  2. 78 FR 77771 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Love and Play: A Pair of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8571] Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Love and Play: A Pair of Paintings by Fragonard-- Toledo Museum of Art and Thyssen-Bornemisza... the exhibition ``Love and Play: A Pair of Paintings by Fragonard--Toledo Museum of Art and Thyssen...

  3. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide plays a role in olfactory memory formation in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józsa, Rita; Hollósy, Tibor; Tamás, Andrea; Tóth, Gábor; Lengvári, István; Reglodi, Dóra

    2005-11-01

    PACAP plays an important role during development of the nervous system and is also involved in memory processing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the function of PACAP in chicken embryonic olfactory memory formation by blocking PACAP at a sensitive period in ovo. Chicken were exposed daily to strawberry scent in ovo from embryonic day 15. Control eggs were treated only with saline, while other eggs received a single injection of the PACAP antagonist PACAP6-38 at day 15. The consumption of scented and unscented water was measured daily after hatching. Animals exposed to strawberry scent in ovo showed no preference. However, chickens exposed to PACAP6-38, showed a clear preference for plain water, similarly to unexposed chicken. Our present study points to PACAP's possible importance in embryonic olfactory memory formation.

  4. DICER-LIKE2 plays a primary role in transitive silencing of transgenes in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sizolwenkosi Mlotshwa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Dicer-like (DCL enzymes play a pivotal role in RNA silencing in plants, processing the long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA that triggers silencing into the primary short interfering RNAs (siRNAs that mediate it. The siRNA population can be augmented and silencing amplified via transitivity, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR-dependent pathway that uses the target RNA as substrate to generate secondary siRNAs. Here we report that Arabidopsis DCL2-but not DCL4-is required for transitivity in cell-autonomous, post-transcriptional silencing of transgenes. An insertion mutation in DCL2 blocked sense transgene-induced silencing and eliminated accumulation of the associated RDR-dependent siRNAs. In hairpin transgene-induced silencing, the dcl2 mutation likewise eliminated accumulation of secondary siRNAs and blocked transitive silencing, but did not block silencing mediated by primary siRNAs. Strikingly, in all cases, the dcl2 mutation eliminated accumulation of all secondary siRNAs, including those generated by other DCL enzymes. In contrast, mutations in DCL4 promoted a dramatic shift to transitive silencing in the case of the hairpin transgene and enhanced silencing induced by the sense transgene. Suppression of hairpin and sense transgene silencing by the P1/HC-Pro and P38 viral suppressors was associated with elimination of secondary siRNA accumulation, but the suppressors did not block processing of the stem of the hairpin transcript into primary siRNAs. Thus, these viral suppressors resemble the dcl2 mutation in their effects on siRNA biogenesis. We conclude that DCL2 plays an essential, as opposed to redundant, role in transitive silencing of transgenes and may play a more important role in silencing of viruses than currently thought.

  5. Role-play as a pedagogical method to prepare students for practice: The students’ voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrika Westrup

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss how and why role-play supports students in gaining insights into complex leadership situations. We give voice to the students by illustrating their experiences in a role-playing activity involving a human resource management issue designed, performed, and evaluated as part of a management program. The results show that the role-playing supports the students by stimulating them to understand the issue from various perspectives, hence performing an overall change of perspectives. The role-playing exercise also enabled the students to create a collective understanding of the situation. The active social interactions and conversations of role-playing contributed to establishing a sense of community among the students. We argue that role-play could be a viable and forceful pedagogical method whereby teachers give their students the opportunity to prepare for practice. However, to implement role-play as an alternative method of learning requires that the method is a part of the institutional learning space.

  6. Contrasting Roles of Dopamine and Noradrenaline in the Motivational Properties of Social Play Behavior in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, E.J.M.; van Kerkhof, L.W.M.; Servadio, Michela; van Swieten, Maaike; Houwing, Danielle J; Aalderink, Mandy; Driel, Nina V; Trezza, Viviana; Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Social play behavior, abundant in the young of many mammalian species, is generally assumed to be important for social and cognitive development. Social play is highly rewarding, and as such, the expression of social play depends on its pleasurable and motivational properties. Since the motivational

  7. Importance of Night Dreams in Ibsen's Plays A Psychoanalytic study of The Vikings of Helgeland and Little Eyolf

    OpenAIRE

    Bardzimashvili, Nino

    2014-01-01

    The topic for my thesis is the importance of night dreams in Henrik Ibsen's plays. My study of the subject is based on two plays, The Vikings of Helgeland and Little Eyolf. The first one is a historical play written in 1857 and is usually discussed in relationship with nationalism and the political events in 19th century Norway. The second one is known as a "family romance" and was written in 1894. These two plays represent different periods of Henrik Ibsen's writing and hence it is...

  8. Peer play, emotion understanding, and socio-moral explanation: the role of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Kay; Banerjee, Robin

    2011-06-01

    Engagement in peer play is an important factor in young children’s adjustment as they make the transition to school. We evaluated individual differences in peer play within a sample of 58 children aged 4–5 years. Among boys, but not among girls, emotion understanding and verbal ability independently served as positive predictors of interactive peer play and negative predictors of disconnected play. Among girls, but not among boys, interactive peer play and socio-moral reasoning about peer conflict situations independently predicted sociometric most-like nominations. The results provide a foundation for further research on divergence in the early peer play of girls and boys.

  9. Insights from Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games to Enhance Gamification in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Tavakkoli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the study of a cohort of college graduate and undergraduate students who participated in playing a Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game (MMORPG as a gameplay rich with social interaction as well as intellectual and aesthetic features. Statistically significant differences among our participants' perception, sensation seeking, and satisfaction in relation to gameplay features are investigated. Our primary objective in this investigation was to look for certain aspects of game playing and sensation seeking that attracts a group of students to engage in long term gameplay online. Results support the majority of pre-planned hypotheses and show potential important considerations to take into account when developing gamified content for educational applications. Furthermore, the limitation of the data used in this study is presented and future directions to remove the current limitation and proliferate results through qualitative research into players' in-game social interactions. We suggest that finding similarities and underlying patterns of attraction among a diverse group of students could be beneficial in designing gameplay features to enhance student participation in the learning experience and improve learning performance.

  10. Sexually dimorphic role for vasopressin in the development of social play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Paul

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the well-established role of vasopressin (AVP in adult social behavior, its role in social development is relatively unexplored. In this paper, we focus on the most prominent social behavior of juvenile rats, social play. Previous pharmacological experiments in our laboratory suggested that AVP regulates play in a sex- and brain region-specific manner in juvenile rats. Here we investigate the role of specific AVP systems in the emergence of social play. We first characterize the development of play in male and female Wistar rats and then ask whether the development of AVP mRNA expression correlates with the emergence of play. Unexpectedly, play emerged more rapidly in weanling-aged females than in males, resulting in a sex difference opposite of that typically reported for older, juvenile rats. AVP mRNA and play were correlated in males only, with a negative correlation in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and a positive correlation in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. These findings support the hypothesis that AVP acts differentially on multiple systems in a sex-specific manner to regulate social play and suggest a role for PVN and BNST AVP systems in the development of play. Differential neuropeptide regulation of male and female social development may underlie well-documented sex differences in incidence, progression, and symptom severity of behavioral disorders during development.

  11. The dlt genes play a role in antimicrobial tolerance of Streptococcus mutans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Martin; Rybtke, Morten; Givskov, Michael; Høiby, Niels; Twetman, Svante; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2016-09-01

    Microbial biofilms are tolerant to antibiotic treatment and therefore cause problematic infections. Knowledge about the molecular mechanisms underlying biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance will aid the development of antibiofilm drugs. Screening of a Streptococcus mutans transposon mutant library for genes that are important for biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance provided evidence that the dlt genes play a role in the tolerance of S. mutans biofilms towards gentamicin. The minimum bactericidal concentration for biofilm cells (MBC-B) for a dltA transposon mutant was eight-fold lower than that of the wild-type. The minimum bactericidal concentration for planktonic cells (MBC-P) was only slightly reduced, indicating that the mechanism involved in the observed antimicrobial tolerance has a predominant role specifically in biofilms. Experiments with a knockout dltA mutant and complemented strain confirmed that the dlt genes in S. mutans play a role in biofilm-associated tolerance to gentamicin. Confocal laser scanning microscopy analyses of biofilms grown on glass slides showed that the dltA mutant produced roughly the same amount of biofilm as the wild-type, indicating that the reduced antimicrobial tolerance of the dltA mutant is not due to a defect in biofilm formation. The products of the dlt genes have been shown to mediate alanylation of teichoic acids, and in accordance the dltA mutant showed a more negatively charged surface than the wild-type, which likely is an important factor in the reduced tolerance of the dltA mutant biofilms towards the positively charged gentamicin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  12. SIRT1 may play a crucial role in overload-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltai, Erika; Bori, Zoltán; Chabert, Clovis; Dubouchaud, Hervé; Naito, Hisashi; Machida, Shuichi; Davies, Kelvin Ja; Murlasits, Zsolt; Fry, Andrew C; Boldogh, Istvan; Radak, Zsolt

    2017-06-01

    Silent mating type information regulation 2 homologue 1 (SIRT1) activity and content increased significantly in overload-induced hypertrophy. SIRT1-mediated signalling through Akt, the endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediated pathway, regulates anabolic process in the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. The regulation of catabolic signalling via forkhead box O 1 and protein ubiquitination is SIRT1 dependent. Overload-induced changes in microRNA levels regulate SIRT1 and insulin-like growth factor 1 signalling. Significant skeletal muscle mass guarantees functional wellbeing and is important for high level performance in many sports. Although the molecular mechanism for skeletal muscle hypertrophy has been well studied, it still is not completely understood. In the present study, we used a functional overload model to induce plantaris muscle hypertrophy by surgically removing the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles in rats. Two weeks of muscle ablation resulted in a 40% increase in muscle mass, which was associated with a significant increase in silent mating type information regulation 2 homologue 1 (SIRT1) content and activity (P overload-induced hypertrophy. These findings, along with the well-known regulatory roles that SIRT1 plays in modulating both anabolic and catabolic pathways, allow us to propose the hypothesis that SIRT1 may actually play a crucial causal role in overload-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. This hypothesis will now require rigorous direct and functional testing. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  13. Role played by acid-sensitive ion channels in evoking the exercise pressor reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Shawn G; McCord, Jennifer L; Rainier, Jon; Liu, Zhuqing; Kaufman, Marc P

    2008-10-01

    The exercise pressor reflex arises from contracting skeletal muscle and is believed to play a role in evoking the cardiovascular responses to static exercise, effects that include increases in arterial pressure and heart rate. This reflex is believed to be evoked by the metabolic and mechanical stimulation of thin fiber muscle afferents. Lactic acid is known to be an important metabolic stimulus evoking the reflex. Until recently, the only antagonist for acid-sensitive ion channels (ASICs), the receptors to lactic acid, was amiloride, a substance that is also a potent antagonist for both epithelial sodium channels as well as voltage-gated sodium channels. Recently, a second compound, A-317567, has been shown to be an effective and selective antagonist to ASICs in vitro. Consequently, we measured the pressor responses to the static contraction of the triceps surae muscles in decerebrate cats before and after a popliteal arterial injection of A-317567 (10 mM solution; 0.5 ml). We found that this ASIC antagonist significantly attenuated by half (Pacid injection into the popliteal artery. In contrast, A-317567 had no effect on the pressor responses to tendon stretch, a pure mechanical stimulus, and to a popliteal arterial injection of capsaicin, which stimulated transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channels. We conclude that ASICs on thin fiber muscle afferents play a substantial role in evoking the metabolic component of the exercise pressor reflex.

  14. RECORDED-ROLE PLAY IN EFL CLASSROOM: A WAY OF MAXIMIZING STUDENTS‟ POTENTIAL IN SPEAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krismiyati Krismiyati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Teaching English for non English Department students will be quite a challenge as the students have various background and interest. Handling those students in a big number in a class that requires them to speak is another impending challenge. This is an action research on role-play in English classroom for Information Technology students. This study tries to see whether recorded-role play could maximize students‘ potential in speaking. This study involved 30 students taking English course in Information Technology Faculty. The students were given a situation in which they had to act the role play. They drafted the role -play before they recorded it. The result shows that students felt less tense in acting the role. They also got more time to practice their pronunciation before recording. It even gave students who felt reluctant and shy in the class to actively participate. In addition, students could play around with the supporting background sound to show their creativity. Surprisingly, most students do their best to show their effort in their speaking as the end-product would be played in the classroom, even the most quiet students performed really well. Finally, this recorded-role play proved to be an effective way to maximize students‘ potential in speaking.

  15. The Role And Importance Of Communication In Management

    OpenAIRE

    Dijana Gupta

    2011-01-01

    From the aspect of management, communication process takes a special role because the same one is being required for a success, progress and achievement of objectives of each organization. The work itself discusses the concept of communication, its role and importance in management, where the models, techniques and obstacles to communication projects are being processed. The problem of scientific research and the subject of this work is contained in considering the role and importance of comm...

  16. Cultural scripts, memories of childhood abuse, and multiple identities: a study of role-played enactments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Jane; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2002-01-01

    This study compared the reports of satanic, sexual, and physical abuse of persons instructed to role-play either dissociative identity disorder (DID) (n = 33), major depression (n = 33), or a college student who experienced minor adjustment problems ("normal") (n = 33) across a number of trials that included role-played hypnosis. As hypothesized, more of the participants who were asked to role-play DID reported at least one instance of satanic ritual abuse and sexual abuse compared with those who role-played depression or a college student with minor adjustment problems. DID role-players reported more incidents of sexual abuse and more severe physical and sexual abuse than did the major depression role-players. Further, the DID role-players differed from the normal role-players on all the measures of frequency and severity of physical and sexual abuse. Participants in all groups reported more frequent and severe incidents of physical abuse after role-played hypnosis than they did prior to it.

  17. Problematic usage among highly-engaged players of massively multiplayer online role playing games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Christopher S; Malesky, L Alvin

    2008-08-01

    One popular facet of Internet gaming is the massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG). Some individuals spend so much time playing these games that it creates problems in their lives. This study focused on players of World of Warcraft. Factor analysis revealed one factor related to problematic usage, which was correlated with amount of time played, and personality characteristics of agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and extraversion.

  18. The role played by recruitment agencies in the emigration of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role played by recruitment agencies in the emigration of South African nurses. ... Many nurses who leave the Republic of South Africa might use recruitment agencies' assistance. These concerns raised by ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  19. Biodiversity conservation and climate mitigation: What role can economic instruments play?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ring, I.; Drechsler, M.; Teeffelen, van A.J.A.; Irawan, S.; Venter, O.

    2010-01-01

    Tradable permits and intergovernmental fiscal transfers play an increasing role in both biodiversity conservation and climate mitigation. In comparison to regulatory and planning approaches these economic instruments offer a more flexible and cost-effective approach to biodiversity conservation.

  20. Highlight: Private sector could play a major role in feeding Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-09-08

    Sep 8, 2014 ... Highlight: Private sector could play a major role in feeding Africa ... scale, we will need to involve the private sector," said IDRC President Jean Lebel. ... There is ample evidence that addressing gender inequalities and ...

  1. Learner Interaction in a Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game (MMORPG): A Sociocultural Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the linguistic and social interaction of four intermediate EFL learners during game play in a massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG). Twelve illustrative episodes drawn from the participants' text chat, collected in four 70-minute sessions held over a one-month period, are analyzed from a…

  2. What Can Students Learn in an Extended Role-Play Simulation on Technology and Society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loui, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    In a small course on technology and society, students participated in an extended role-play simulation for two weeks. Each student played a different adult character in a fictional community, which faces technological decisions in three scenarios set in the near future. The three scenarios involved stem cell research, nanotechnology, and privacy.…

  3. A Taxonomy of Vocabulary Learning Strategies Used in Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytheway, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Initiated in response to informal reports of vocabulary gains from gamers at universities in New Zealand and the Netherlands, this qualitative study explored how English language learners autonomously learn vocabulary while playing massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). Using research processes inherent in Grounded Theory, data…

  4. Promoting Positive Peer Interactions in the Preschool Classroom: The Role and the Responsibility of the Teacher in Supporting Children's Sociodramatic Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.

    2015-01-01

    Teachers play an important role in expanding and supporting children's play and interactions with peers. This manuscript provides specific guidelines for interventions teachers can use to promote successful peer interactions in preschool settings. The strategies discussed include: (a) preparing the physical environment for play (e.g., toy…

  5. Exploring the Use of Role Play in a School-Based Programme to Reduce Teenage Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Myra; Diamini, Nthabiseng; Khanyile, Zama; Mpanza, Lloyd; Sathiparsad, Reshma

    2012-01-01

    Can the use of a method such as role play help reduce sexual risk behaviour among KwaZulu-Natal learners? A study was undertaken of the use of role plays by Grade 8 learners, at eight urban and rural KwaZulu-Natal high schools, as part of a programme to reduce the prevalence of teenage pregnancy. Within the framework of Bandura's Social Cognitive…

  6. Using Analogy Role-Play Activity in an Undergraduate Biology Classroom to Show Central Dogma Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Masaharu; Kurabayashi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    For the study of biology in an undergraduate classroom, a classroom exercise was developed: an analogy role-play to learn mechanisms of gene transcription and protein translation (central dogma). To develop the central dogma role-play exercise, we made DNA and mRNA using paper sheets, tRNA using a wire dress hanger, and amino acids using Lego®…

  7. Using group role-playing games with gifted children and adolescents: A psychosocial intervention model

    OpenAIRE

    Rosselet, J. G.; Stauffer, S. D.

    2013-01-01

    Gifted children develop asynchronously, often advanced for their age cognitively, but at or between their chronological and mental ages socially and emotionally (Robinson, 2008). In order to help gifted children and adolescents develop and practice social and emotional self-regulation skills, we investigated the use of an Adlerian play therapy approach during pen-and-paper role-playing games. Additionally, we used Goffman's (1961, 1974) social role identification and distance to encourage par...

  8. How Might Civilian Technology Firms Play A Role In The Defense Industrial Base Going Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    CIVILIAN TECHNOLOGY FIRMS PLAY A ROLE IN THE DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL BASE GOING FORWARD? by Daniel J. Shipman December 2017 Thesis Advisor: Mie...2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE HOW MIGHT CIVILIAN TECHNOLOGY FIRMS PLAY A ROLE IN THE DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL...the competitive business environment of Department of Defense (DOD) vendors and whether the market is favorable for non-traditional, technology

  9. Teaching to Play Performing a Main Role -- Effective Method of Pretend Play Facilitation in Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmitrova, Vlasta

    2013-01-01

    We compared the efficiency of teacher's direct and indirect intervention into pretend play. Three hundred sixty-eight kindergarten children and 92 qualified kindergarten teachers were involved in the study. In the control group, a teacher indirectly initiated a play, creating a playing corner adjusted to the theme of the pretend play and during…

  10. Role Playing for Improving Women’s Knowledge of Breast Cancer Screening and Performance of Breast Self-Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savabi-Esfahani, Mitra; Taleghani, Fariba; Noroozi, Mahnaz; Tabatabaeian, Maryam

    2017-09-27

    Background: To enhance knowledge and performance of screening as a strategy to control breast cancer, use of effective teaching methods is necessary. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of role-playing on knowledge of breast cancer screening and performance of breast self-examination (BSE). Methods: A quasi experimental design was used. Women enrolled in community cultural centers (n=314) were randomly divided into two educational groups: role playing (intervention) and lecture (control). Data were collected using a structured questionnaire before and after intervention. Reliability of the questionnaire was determined as 0.80 by Cronbach’s alpha. The women were followed up regarding performance of BSE one month later. Results: Of the 314 women, 113 (36%) and 132 (42%) had low and medium levels of knowledge, respectively. More than a third (38.2%) reported that TV and radio were the most important information sources for breast cancer and screening. There were significant differences between mean scores of knowledge before and after the intervention in both groups, but change was greater with role playing (31.3±1.9 as compared to 23.5±1.3) (P=0.001). After a month of educational intervention, 75.7% and 69.8% of those in role playing and control groups had undergone BSE. Conclusion: It appears that application of a role playing method by providers improves women’s knowledge and behavior with respect to breast cancer screening. Creative Commons Attribution License

  11. The Role that Socioaffective Practices Play in Third Graders’ Autonomous Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonatan Perdomo Toro

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe and analyze how autonomous learning emerges in third graders' socioaffective practices as reconstructed in written narratives. Results were obtained by analyzing and reflecting on classroom observation, interviews and written narratives done by the students which let us appreciate different behaviors and reactions the students usually went through. This study shows that children are able to recognize and reflect on the causes and consequences of situations thanks to the use of different socialization forms implemented by their parents; those forms help them become aware of their duties and homework. It also makes evident that social interaction, with family as the main contributors, plays an important role in children's development of autonomy.

  12. Coaching Teachers: An Important Principal Role. Research into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    A principal's most important role is instructional leader. There is a growing recognition of the importance of working with teachers, serving as a mentor and coach. Coaching has emerged as one of the more effective professional development options for adult learners. It is an important tool because it is an investment in human capital and in the…

  13. Three members of the 6-cys protein family of Plasmodium play a role in gamete fertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa R van Dijk

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of fertilization is critically dependent on the mutual recognition of gametes and in Plasmodium, the male gamete surface protein P48/45 is vital to this process. This protein belongs to a family of 10 structurally related proteins, the so called 6-cys family. To identify the role of additional members of this family in Plasmodium fertilisation, we performed genetic and functional analysis on the five members of the 6-cys family that are transcribed during the gametocyte stage of P. berghei. This analysis revealed that in addition to P48/45, two members (P230 and P47 also play an essential role in the process of parasite fertilization. Mating studies between parasites lacking P230, P48/45 or P47 demonstrate that P230, like P48/45, is a male fertility factor, consistent with the previous demonstration of a protein complex containing both P48/45 and P230. In contrast, disruption of P47 results in a strong reduction of female fertility, while males remain unaffected. Further analysis revealed that gametes of mutants lacking expression of p48/45 or p230 or p47 are unable to either recognise or attach to each other. Disruption of the paralog of p230, p230p, also specifically expressed in gametocytes, had no observable effect on fertilization. These results indicate that the P. berghei 6-cys family contains a number of proteins that are either male or female specific ligands that play an important role in gamete recognition and/or attachment. The implications of low levels of fertilisation that exist even in the absence of these proteins, indicating alternative pathways of fertilisation, as well as positive selection acting on these proteins, are discussed in the context of targeting these proteins as transmission blocking vaccine candidates.

  14. Phytochelatins play a key role in arsenic accumulation and tolerance in the aquatic macrophyte Wolffia globosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xin; Uroic, M. Kalle; Xie Wanying; Zhu Yongguan; Chen Baodong; McGrath, Steve P.; Feldmann, Jörg; Zhao Fangjie

    2012-01-01

    The rootless duckweed Wolffia globosa can accumulate and tolerate relatively large amounts of arsenic (As); however, the underlying mechanisms were unknown. W. globosa was exposed to different concentrations of arsenate with or without L-buthionine sulphoximine (BSO), a specific inhibitor of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Free thiol compounds and As(III)–thiol complexes were identified and quantified using HPLC – high resolution ICP-MS – accurate mass ESI-MS. Without BSO, 74% of the As accumulated in the duckweed was complexed with phytochelatins (PCs), with As(III)–PC 4 and As(III)–PC 3 being the main species. BSO was taken up by the duckweed and partly deaminated. The BSO treatment completely suppressed the synthesis of PCs and the formation of As(III)–PC complexes, and also inhibited the reduction of arsenate to arsenite. BSO markedly decreased both As accumulation and As tolerance in W. globosa. The results demonstrate an important role of PCs in detoxifying As and enabling As accumulation in W. globosa. - Highlights: ► W. globosa can accumulate and tolerate relatively large amounts of arsenic. ► Majority of the As accumulated in W. globosa was complexed with phytochelatins (PCs). ► As(III)–PC 4 and As(III)–PC 3 are the main complex species. ► Complexation of arsenite with phytochelatins plays a key role in As tolerance and accumulation. - Complexation of arsenite with phytochelatins plays a key role in both arsenic tolerance and accumulation in the aquatic macrophyte Wolffia globosa.

  15. Senataxin plays an essential role with DNA damage response proteins in meiotic recombination and gene silencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier J Becherel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Senataxin, mutated in the human genetic disorder ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2, plays an important role in maintaining genome integrity by coordination of transcription, DNA replication, and the DNA damage response. We demonstrate that senataxin is essential for spermatogenesis and that it functions at two stages in meiosis during crossing-over in homologous recombination and in meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI. Disruption of the Setx gene caused persistence of DNA double-strand breaks, a defect in disassembly of Rad51 filaments, accumulation of DNA:RNA hybrids (R-loops, and ultimately a failure of crossing-over. Senataxin localised to the XY body in a Brca1-dependent manner, and in its absence there was incomplete localisation of DNA damage response proteins to the XY chromosomes and ATR was retained on the axial elements of these chromosomes, failing to diffuse out into chromatin. Furthermore persistence of RNA polymerase II activity, altered ubH2A distribution, and abnormal XY-linked gene expression in Setx⁻/⁻ revealed an essential role for senataxin in MSCI. These data support key roles for senataxin in coordinating meiotic crossing-over with transcription and in gene silencing to protect the integrity of the genome.

  16. S-14: Soccer Injury Prevention Program; How Parents Can Play a Role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rahimi Moghaddam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Soccer is classified as a high to moderate-intensity contact sport. It is therefore of importance that the incidence of soccer injuries be reduced through preventive interventions. The purpose of this review is to conclude the importance of a prevention program and explore the role parents have towards minimizing soccer related injuries among children and adolescence football players.METHOD: 42 hand searches, 5 books, and 25 electronic articles were reviewed and relevant results were collected for the purpose of this paper. Selected studies were categorized as follows: soccer injury statistics, injury prevention program, and parents and prevention.RESULTS: 5-16 year of age is a critical age range for soccer related injuries. Some studies have confirmed soccer injuries can be reduced by preventive interventions, and mentioned the importance of prevention program and the role of parents in the program. A few studies reported the efficacy for a positive parent-child relationship and injury prevalence, while other reported the negative influence parental demand on injury rates among children. Moreover, suggestions were made of consideration to parents prior to allowing children to participate in soccer.CONCLUSIONS: Prevention of sports injuries is team work, and parent's role can be as vital as other members of the prevention team. In a successful preventive program, there are steps that parents can take to help kids stay safe on the soccer field or wherever they play or participate in sports activities. Educational materials should be provided to parents by soccer camp organizers before children involve in soccer programs.

  17. How coaching can play a key role in the development of nurse managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Liz

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore empirically the role that coaching plays in the development of nurse managers in order to inform further research and policy makers about the potential utility and value of this means of development. There is evidence of the importance of the role of nurse managers who are first line managers of a team of nurses within any health sector. However, there appears to be little understanding of the United Kingdom wide scope of nurse manager development across the United Kingdom and the means to increase its effectiveness. At the same time, it appears that some nurse managers receive coaching to help in their development. This is a mixed methods study, using a pragmatist paradigm. Data was gathered from a quantitative survey and qualitative interviews. This paper is reporting the results of the qualitative interviews only. Twenty-one qualitative interviews were undertaken with nurse managers, coaches and directors of nursing to draw out their own experiences of coaching for nurse managers. Thematic analysis framework was used for data interrogation, identifying new patterns and emerging themes. Themes that emerged from interviews include how nurse managers were introduced to coaching, how they balanced transitions, the role of reflection, the value of relationships and overlaps between clinical supervision, mentoring and coaching. Findings show that following coaching, nurse managers gained increased resilience, confidence and better coping mechanisms. This resulted in perceived improved team management and cohesion and appeared to lead to better quality of care for patients. This study suggests the importance of nurse managers accessing coaching, to enable transformational leadership of their teams of nurses. It suggests also the importance of organisations supporting a coaching culture, to ensure staff satisfaction, motivation and improved quality of patient care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Role-play facilitates children's mindreading of those with atypical color perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumi, Fumikazu; Koyasu, Masuo

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of role-play experience on children's mindreading ability. Forty-one primary school children (20 boys, 21 girls, mean age: 9.37 years, range: 8-11 years) were introduced to a communication task in which the use of mindreading was essential. During each trial, participants viewed a shelf, presented on a laptop, which contained several familiar objects, and they were instructed to touch an object on the shelf following an order issued by a "manager" who stood at the opposite side of the shelf. There were two managers: one was a monkey manager with normal color vision, and the other was a dog manager with restricted color vision. The monkey manager could see all the objects in the same colors as the participants, whereas the dog manager saw some objects in different colors. Participants were required to respond according to the manager's instruction. In the restricted color vision condition, the dog manager saw the colors of objects differently; thus, participants had to work out his intentions, according to his different perspective. In the normal color vision condition, all objects were in the same colors as those seen by the monkey manager. Before the test phase, participants in the role-play group were provided a role-play experience in which they assumed the role of the dog manager with restricted color vision. The experimental data were analyzed using a 2 × 2 mixed-design ANOVA (role-play condition × communication partner condition) to examine differences in the error rate. Both main effects and its interaction were significant. According to the post-hoc analyses, participants in the no-role-play condition made significantly more errors in the restricted color vision condition than in the normal color vision condition, whereas no such difference was found among participants in the role-play condition. These results suggest that role-play experience could facilitate mindreading of characters with restricted color vision.

  19. Reflecting on Role Play in Geographic Education: The Case of the Banana War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Hilda E.

    2004-01-01

    Debates over the nature and extent of globalization raise many issues to be addressed in a geographic education. In this paper, I briefly review case method instruction and role-play as teaching strategies suitable for material on globalization and other geographic subject matter, and then sketch an overview of an undergraduate geography role-play…

  20. On-Line Role-Play as a Teaching Method in Engineering Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Adolfo; Conde, Olga Ma.; Quintela, Ma. Ángeles; Mirapéix, Jesús Ma.; López-Higuera, José Miguel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose adapting role-play teaching methodology to engineering studies. The role of a maintenance technician, a relevant job profile for engineering graduates is has chosen. The interaction is based on email exchange, with the instructor included in the simulation to help guide the activity and achieve learning objectives. In this…

  1. Toll-like receptor 4 plays a protective role in pulmonary tuberculosis in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branger, Judith; Leemans, Jaklien C.; Florquin, Sandrine; Weijer, Sebastiaan; Speelman, Peter; van der Poll, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) play an essential role in the innate recognition of microorganisms by the host. To determine the role of TLR4 in host defense against lung tuberculosis, TLR4 mutant (C3H/HeJ) and wild-type (C3H/HeN) mice were intranasally infected with live Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TLR4

  2. Role modelling in medical education: the importance of teaching skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Annette; Oates, Kim; Goulston, Kerry

    2016-04-01

    By observation of role models, and participation in activities, students develop their attitudes, values and professional competencies. Literature suggests that clinical skills and knowledge, personality, and teaching skills are three main areas that students consider central to the identification of positive role models. The aim of this study was to explore junior medical students' opinions of the ideal attributes of a good role model in clinical tutors. The study was conducted with one cohort (n = 301) of students who had completed year 1 of the medical programme in 2013. All students were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the ideal attributes of a good role model in a clinical tutor. The questionnaire consisted of seven closed items and one open-ended question. The response rate to the questionnaire was 265/301 (88%). Although students found all three key areas important in a good role model, students emphasised the importance of excellence in teaching skills. Specifically, students see good role models as being able to provide a constructive learning environment, a good understanding of the curriculum and an ability to cater to the learning needs of all students. Students see good role models as being able to provide a constructive learning environment While acknowledging the importance of a patient-centred approach, as well as clinical knowledge and skills, our findings reinforce the importance of the actual teaching abilities of role models within medical education. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Penerapan Model Pembelajaran Bermain Peran (Role Playing dalam Meningkatkan Hasil Belajar Ekonomi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Hartati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Berdasarkan observasi di SMA N 1 Wadaslintang proses pembelajararan masih didominasi guru, ini membuat siswa pasif sehingga hasil belajar rendah. Upaya mencapai kompetensi pembelajaran adalah melakukan perbaikan dengan menerapkan model pembelajaran Role playing. Permasalahan: (1 apakah keaktifan siswa dengan penerapan model pembelajaran Role Playing dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar?, (2 bagaimana respon/tanggapan siswa dengan penerapan model Role Playing?. Tujuan: (1 mengetahui aktifitas siswa yang dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar, (2 mengetahui respon/tanggapan siswa terhadap model Role Playing. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian tindakan kelas yang dilaksanakan dalam 2 siklus, masing-masing siklus dua kali pertemuan dan beberapa tahap yaitu perencanaan, pelaksanaan, pengamatan dan refleksi. Data yang diperoleh dalam penelitian ini meliputi: keaktifan siswa, hasil belajar, dan respon siswa. Siklus I aktifitas siswa sebesar 57,82% (cukup aktif, rata-rata nilai hasil belajar 72 ketuntasan klasikal 68,18% dan respon siswa 64,58% (positif. Siklus II keaktifan siswa menjadi 78,9% (aktif, rata-rata nilai hasil belajar 84 ketuntasan klasikal 95,45% dan respon siswa meningkat menjadi 77,56% (positif. Simpulan dari penelitian ini adalah (1 meningkatnya keaktifan siswa dengan model pembelajaran Role Playing dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar siswa, (2 respon/tanggapan siswa menunjukan respon positif selama proses pembelajaran. Saran dari penelitian ini yaitu (1 Pembelajaran menggunakan model role playing dapat disesuaikan dengan materi yang ada dengan catatan guru harus menerangkan terlebih dahulu materi yang akan dipelajari, (2 model pembelajaran role playing memerlukan penguasaan materi yang baik jadi sebelum melakukan proses role playing disarankan siswa lebih banyak membaca materi agar proses pembelajaran lebih aktif. � Based on observation, economic teacher at SMA N 1 Wadaslintang implement teacher center learning, student being pasive and student

  4. An exploratory study of the association between online gaming addiction and enjoyment motivations for playing massively multiplayer online role-playing games

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Z; Williams, GA; Griffiths, MD

    2015-01-01

    Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are a popular form of entertainment used by millions of gamers worldwide. Potential problems relating to MMORPG play have emerged, particularly in relation to being addicted to playing in such virtual environments. In the present study, factors relating to online gaming addiction and motivations for playing in MMORPGs were examined to establish whether they were associated with addiction. A sample comprised 1,167 gamers who were survey...

  5. Facilitating pragmatic skills through role-play in learners with language learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoola, Fareeaa; Flack, Penelope S; Karrim, Saira B

    2017-07-26

    Role-based learning involves the process whereby learners acquire skills, knowledge and understanding through the assumption of roles within real-life settings. Role-play holds potential as an effective learning strategy for children; however, there is limited research on the use of role-play as a therapy method within the field of speech-language pathology. Children with language learning disability (LLD) typically present with difficulties in social communication, which can negatively affect their social and academic achievement. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of role-play as a therapy approach targeting the pragmatic skills of stylistic variation and requesting for clarification in learners with LLD. The use of combined positivist and interpretivist paradigms allowed for the implementation of an embedded mixed methods design. An experimental pretest-posttest design was implemented. Eight participants, who were learners with a diagnosis of LLD, were purposefully selected. Data collection was conducted over five phases, utilising the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (4th Ed.) Pragmatics Profile, discourse completion tasks, session plans and session records. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and were supplemented by qualitative data from session records. Results revealed improvements in stylistic variation and requesting for clarification post role-play intervention, with minimal changes in the control group. Limitations of the study have been reported for consideration when interpreting results. Role-play as a therapy approach targeting two pragmatic skills, stylistic variation and requesting for clarification, was found to be beneficial for learners with LLD. Recommendations for the implementation of role-play as a therapy approach were made.

  6. Facilitating pragmatic skills through role-play in learners with language learning disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fareeaa Abdoola

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Role-based learning involves the process whereby learners acquire skills, knowledge and understanding through the assumption of roles within real-life settings. Role-play holds potential as an effective learning strategy for children; however, there is limited research on the use of role-play as a therapy method within the field of speech-language pathology. Children with language learning disability (LLD typically present with difficulties in social communication, which can negatively affect their social and academic achievement. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of role-play as a therapy approach targeting the pragmatic skills of stylistic variation and requesting for clarification in learners with LLD. Method: The use of combined positivist and interpretivist paradigms allowed for the implementation of an embedded mixed methods design. An experimental pretest-posttest design was implemented. Eight participants, who were learners with a diagnosis of LLD, were purposefully selected. Data collection was conducted over five phases, utilising the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (4th Ed. Pragmatics Profile, discourse completion tasks, session plans and session records. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and were supplemented by qualitative data from session records. Results: Results revealed improvements in stylistic variation and requesting for clarification post role-play intervention, with minimal changes in the control group. Limitations of the study have been reported for consideration when interpreting results. Conclusion: Role-play as a therapy approach targeting two pragmatic skills, stylistic variation and requesting for clarification, was found to be beneficial for learners with LLD. Recommendations for the implementation of role-play as a therapy approach were made.

  7. Turkish Foreign Language Learners' Roles and Outputs: Introducing an Innovation and Role-Playing in Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Cigdem; Comoglu, Irem; Baran, Bahar

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to design of the two activities "introducing an innovation" and "role playing" in Second Life (SL) and to evaluate qualitatively Turkish foreign language learner's roles and outputs before, while, and after the implementation of the activities. The study used community of inquiry model consisting of cognitive…

  8. Efflux pumps of Mycobacterium tuberculosis play a significant role in antituberculosis activity of potential drug candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balganesh, Meenakshi; Dinesh, Neela; Sharma, Sreevalli; Kuruppath, Sanjana; Nair, Anju V; Sharma, Umender

    2012-05-01

    Active efflux of drugs mediated by efflux pumps that confer drug resistance is one of the mechanisms developed by bacteria to counter the adverse effects of antibiotics and chemicals. To understand these efflux mechanisms in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we generated knockout (KO) mutants of four efflux pumps of the pathogen belonging to different classes. We measured the MICs and kill values of two different compound classes on the wild type (WT) and the efflux pump (EP) KO mutants in the presence and absence of the efflux inhibitors verapamil and l-phenylalanyl-l-arginyl-β-naphthylamide (PAβN). Among the pumps studied, the efflux pumps belonging to the ABC (ATP-binding cassette) class, encoded by Rv1218c, and the SMR (small multidrug resistance) class, encoded by Rv3065, appear to play important roles in mediating the efflux of different chemical classes and antibiotics. Efflux pumps encoded by Rv0849 and Rv1258c also mediate the efflux of these compounds, but to a lesser extent. Increased killing is observed in WT M. tuberculosis cells by these compounds in the presence of either verapamil or PAβN. The efflux pump KO mutants were more susceptible to these compounds in the presence of efflux inhibitors. We have shown that these four efflux pumps of M. tuberculosis play a vital role in mediating efflux of different chemical scaffolds. Inhibitors of one or several of these efflux pumps could have a significant impact in the treatment of tuberculosis. The identification and characterization of Rv0849, a new efflux pump belonging to the MFS (major facilitator superfamily) class, are reported.

  9. Extracellular histones play an inflammatory role in acid aspiration-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanlin; Wen, Zongmei; Guan, Li; Jiang, Ping; Gu, Tao; Zhao, Jinyuan; Lv, Xin; Wen, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Systemic inflammation is a key feature in acid aspiration-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but the factors that trigger inflammation are unclear. The authors hypothesize that extracellular histones, a newly identified inflammatory mediator, play important roles in the pathogenesis of ARDS. The authors used a hydrochloric acid aspiration-induced ARDS model to investigate whether extracellular histones are pathogenic and whether targeting histones are protective. Exogenous histones and antihistone antibody were administered to mice. Heparin can bind to histones, so the authors studied whether heparin could protect from ARDS using cell and mouse models. Furthermore, the authors analyzed whether extracellular histones are clinically involved in ARDS patients caused by gastric aspiration. Extracellular histones in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of acid-treated mice were significantly higher (1.832 ± 0.698) at 3 h after injury than in sham-treated group (0.63 ± 0.153; P = 0.0252, n = 5 per group). Elevated histones may originate from damaged lung cells and neutrophil infiltration. Exogenous histones aggravated lung injury, whereas antihistone antibody markedly attenuated the intensity of ARDS. Notably, heparin provided a similar protective effect against ARDS. Analysis of plasma from ARDS patients (n = 21) showed elevated histones were significantly correlated with the degree of ARDS and were higher in nonsurvivors (2.723 ± 0.2933, n = 7) than in survivors (1.725 ± 0.1787, P = 0.006, n = 14). Extracellular histones may play a contributory role toward ARDS by promoting tissue damage and systemic inflammation and may become a novel marker reflecting disease activity. Targeting histones by neutralizing antibody or heparin shows potent protective effects, suggesting a potentially therapeutic strategy.

  10. MERS-CoV Accessory ORFs Play Key Role for Infection and Pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menachery, Vineet D.; Mitchell, Hugh D.; Cockrell, Adam S.; Gralinski, Lisa E.; Yount, Boyd L.; Graham, Rachel L.; McAnarney, Eileen T.; Douglas, Madeline G.; Scobey, Trevor; Beall, Anne; Dinnon, Kenneth; Kocher, Jacob F.; Hale, Andrew E.; Stratton, Kelly G.; Waters, Katrina M.; Baric, Ralph S.; Racaniello, Vincent R.

    2017-08-22

    ABSTRACT

    While dispensable for viral replication, coronavirus (CoV) accessory open reading frame (ORF) proteins often play critical roles during infection and pathogenesis. Utilizing a previously generated mutant, we demonstrate that the absence of all four Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) accessory ORFs (deletion of ORF3, -4a, -4b, and -5 [dORF3-5]) has major implications for viral replication and pathogenesis. Importantly, attenuation of the dORF3-5 mutant is primarily driven by dysregulated host responses, including disrupted cell processes, augmented interferon (IFN) pathway activation, and robust inflammation.In vitroreplication attenuation also extends toin vivomodels, allowing use of dORF3-5 as a live attenuated vaccine platform. Finally, examination of ORF5 implicates a partial role in modulation of NF-κB-mediated inflammation. Together, the results demonstrate the importance of MERS-CoV accessory ORFs for pathogenesis and highlight them as potential targets for surveillance and therapeutic treatments moving forward.

    IMPORTANCEThe initial emergence and periodic outbreaks of MERS-CoV highlight a continuing threat posed by zoonotic pathogens to global public health. In these studies, mutant virus generation demonstrates the necessity of accessory ORFs in regard to MERS-CoV infection and pathogenesis. With this in mind, accessory ORF functions can be targeted for both therapeutic and vaccine treatments in response to MERS-CoV and related group 2C coronaviruses. In addition, disruption of accessory ORFs in parallel may offer a rapid response platform to attenuation of future emergent strains based on both SARS- and MERS-CoV accessory ORF mutants.

  11. Third Year Medical School Students' Experiences of Revealing Patients' Stories through Role Playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansever, Zeliha; Avsar, Zeynep; Tastan, Kenan

    2015-02-01

    Studying medicine is hard and it takes longer time compared to other majors. In addition, medical students find medical education boring. It is now necessary to turn medical education into an enjoyable and interesting way. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of an educational program related to how to learn taking medical history and how an effective patient-doctor interview should be. The program is structured in various scenarios, on the students learning skills, by the "role playing" method. A scenario prepared by the lecturer was employed in this study. While one of the students acted in a doctor role, the other one played in the role of patient's relative. The lecturer always played in the role of patient. After performing the role playing, students' written and oral feedbacks were gathered. Data were analysed by using SPSS 20.0 program. A total of 470 feedbacks (51.3% were given by the female students) were taken from the students. Thirty-three volunteer students, nineteen of them were male, took part in the role playing. In the patient-doctor interview, the field that students were best were greeting the patients and dealing only with patients during the examination. The mean scores were 3.81±0.95 and 3.79±0.94 respectively. The ability to "summarize" and to "address the patient with his/her name" had the lowest scores; the mean scores of the students in these areas were 2.94±1.11 and 2.70±1.31, respectively. Medical education is a long and tough process. Therefore, it should be interesting, attention getting and cheerful. Role playing can be effective in meeting that need.

  12. Exopolysaccharides play a role in the swarming of the benthic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang eLiu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Most marine bacteria secrete exopolysaccharide (EPS, which is important for bacterial survival in the marine environment. However, it is still unclear whether the self-secreted EPS is involved in marine bacterial motility. Here we studied the role of EPS in the lateral flagella-driven swarming motility of benthic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913 (SM9913 by a comparison of wild SM9913 and ΔepsT, an EPS synthesis defective mutant. Reduction of EPS production in ΔepsT did not affect the growth rate or the swimming motility, but significantly decreased the swarming motility on a swarming plate, suggesting that the EPS may play a role in SM9913 swarming. However, the expression and assembly of lateral flagella in ΔepsT were not affected. Instead, ΔepsT had a different swarming behavior from wild SM9913. The swarming of ΔepsT did not have an obvious rapid swarming period, and its rate became much lower than that of wild SM9913 after 35 h incubation. An addition of surfactin or SM9913 EPS on the surface of the swarming plate could rescue the swarming level. These results indicate that the self-secreted EPS is required for the swarming of SM9913. This study widens our understanding of the function of the EPS of benthic bacteria.

  13. Novel Pectate Lyase Genes of Heterodera glycines Play Key Roles in the Early Stage of Parasitism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Peng

    Full Text Available Pectate lyases are known to play a key role in pectin degradation by catalyzing the random cleavage of internal polymer linkages (endo-pectinases. In this paper, four novel cDNAs, designated Hg-pel-3, Hg-pel-4, Hg-pel-6 and Hg-pel-7, that encode pectate lyases were cloned and characterized from the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines. The predicted protein sequences of HG-PEL-3, HG-PEL-4 and HG-PEL-6 differed significantly in both their amino acid sequences and their genomic structures from other pectate lyases of H. glycines (HG-PEL-1, HG-PEL-2 and HG-PEL-7. A phylogenetic study revealed that the pectate lyase proteins of H. glycines are clustered into distinct clades and have distinct numbers and positioning of introns, which suggests that the pectate lyase genes of H. glycines may have evolved from at least two ancestral genes. A Southern blot analysis revealed that multiple Hg-pel-6-like genes were present in the H. glycines genome. In situ hybridization showed that four novel pectate lyases (Hg-pel-3, Hg-pel-4, Hg-pel-6 and Hg-pel-7 were actively transcribed in the subventral esophageal gland cells. A semi-quantitative RT-PCR assay supported the finding that the expression of these genes was strong in the egg, pre-parasitic second-stage juvenile (J2 and early parasitic J2 stages and that it declined in further developmental stages of the nematode. This expression pattern suggests that these proteins play a role in the migratory phase of the nematode life cycle. Knocking down Hg-pel-6 using in vitro RNA interference resulted in a 46.9% reduction of the number of nematodes that invaded the plants and a 61.5% suppression of the development of H. glycines females within roots compared to the GFP-dsRNA control. Plant host-derived RNAi induced the silencing of the Hg-pel-6gene, which significantly reduced the nematode infection levels at 7 Days post inoculation (dpi. Similarly, this procedure reduced the number of female adults at 40 dpi

  14. Performing self, performing character: Exploring gender performativity in online role-playing games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Osborne

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Online narrative (fiction-based role-playing games and massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs provide a ludic structure in which role players enact the gender and sexuality of their avatars. To investigate how role players perceive and perform their avatars' gender and sexuality in online games, I invited role players from MMORPGs and narrative RPGs to participate in an online survey. This study examines how the online game environment mediates players' self-expression and their acceptance of minority identities. Qualitative analysis of the data collected suggests that players who demonstrate empathy with and examination of their avatars' genders and sexualities, and who experience a sense of belonging within the game structure, are able to form positive interpersonal relationships that allow them to accept others' expressed identities.

  15. APPLICATION METHODS TO INCREASE OF ROLE PLAYING ON LEARNING MATERIALS PRESERVING NKRI (PENERAPAN METODE ROLE PLAY UNTUK MENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR PADA MATERI MENJAGA KEUTUHAN NKRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfudin -

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Uncertainty in the nation's economy, the impact of globalization as well as various crises and disasters are problems that may lead to national disintegration which make few groups want to secede from NKRI. All these problems unilaterally are evidences of the unreliability of civic education learning as a subject that mandates to maintain the integrity of NKRI, not in the macro scope but in giving civic education as early as possible from the elementary school. The learning outcomes of civic education learning do not only include the acquisition of knowledge, but more to the acquisition of feeling and behavior. Consequently, in the pre-cycle, the researcher found difficulties to integrate the two domains, which made the learning outcomes below the mini-mum mastery criteria, students’ behavior lacking the feeling of love to their homeland and stu-dents’ motivation in learning low. To solve the problems, the researcher used role play method and as a result, after two cycles, students’ learning outcomes increased. The percentage of stu-dents’ minimum mastery criteria increased from 52% (score 75 to 69% in cycle I and 96% in cycle II. In addition, the students’ were more motivated in learning, followed ceremony in an or-derly manner, and behaved in ways that reflect the love of homeland. It can be concluded that ap-plying role play method in the lesson of preserving the integrity of NKRI at Grade V SDN Cilengkrang North Sumedang Regencey, students’ learning outcomes could be improved. Keywords: Role Play Method, Civic Education Learning, Integrity of The Unitary State of The Republic of Indonesia Abstrak. Ketidakpastian kondisi perekonomian bangsa, pengaruh globalisasi serta berbagai krisis dan bencana merupakan permasalahan yang merujuk ke arah disintegrasi bangsa. Sehingga segelintir kelompok ingin memisahkan diri dari NKRI. Semua permasalahan diatas secara sepihak merupakan suatu bukti ketidak mempanan pembelajaran PKn

  16. Learner interaction in a massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG): A sociocultural discourse analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the linguistic and social interaction of four intermediate EFL learners during game play in a massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG). Twelve illustrative episodes drawn from the participants’ text chat, collected in four 70-minute sessions held over a one-month period, are analyzed from a sociocultural perspective. Qualitative analysis reveals the presence of interactional features associated with the development of sociocultural competence...

  17. Important role for Toll-like receptor 9 in host defense against meningococcal sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjölinder, Hong; Mogensen, Trine; Kilian, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    have been reported to be involved in the host response to N. meningitidis. While TLR4 has been suggested to play an important role in early containment of infection, the roles of TLR2 and TLR9 in meningococcal disease are not well described. Using a model for meningococcal sepsis, we report that TLR9...... and induction of cytokine gene expression were independent of TLR2 or TLR9 in macrophages and conventional dendritic cells. In contrast, plasmacytoid dendritic cells relied entirely on TLR9 to induce these activities. Thus, our data demonstrate an important role for TLR9 in host defense against N. meningitidis....

  18. Developing pharmacy student communication skills through role-playing and active learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz Adrian, Julie Ann; Zeszotarski, Paula; Ma, Carolyn

    2015-04-25

    To evaluate the impact on pharmacy students of a communication course, which used role-playing to develop active-learning skills. Students role-playing pharmacists in patient care scenarios were critiqued by students and pharmacist faculty members. Grading was performed using the rubric inspired by Bruce Berger's Communication Skills for Pharmacists. Written skills were evaluated using student written critique questionnaires. Students completed precourse and postcourse self-assessment surveys. Preceptor evaluations were analyzed for course impact. Students demonstrated improvement in oral skills based on role-play scores (45.87/50) after practice sessions. The average score based on the student questionnaire was 9.31/10. Gain was demonstrated in all defined course objectives. Impact on introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) communication objectives was insignificant. Student evaluations for course and teaching strategy reflected a high average. Study results demonstrated improvement in oral and written communication skills that may help improve interprofessional teamwork between pharmacists and other health care providers.

  19. Verbal Communication of Story Facilitators in Multi-player Role-Playing Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Brolund, Thea; Hitchens, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Multi-player role-playing games form one of the key examples of interactive, emergent and collaborative storytelling systems available. These games and the collaborative stories that they create, are commonly facilitated by a specialized participant, the game master. In the current study, the ver......Multi-player role-playing games form one of the key examples of interactive, emergent and collaborative storytelling systems available. These games and the collaborative stories that they create, are commonly facilitated by a specialized participant, the game master. In the current study......, the verbal communication of game masters in a series of role-playing game sessions is categorized and analyzed depending on form and content, using protocol analysis, establishing a model for the verbal communication of game masters....

  20. Meningkatkan Kepercayaan Diri Remaja Putri Melalui Layanan Penguasaan Konten Teknik Role Playing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Ida Farida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui peningkatan kepercayaan diri remaja putri pubertas awal setelah diberikan layanan penguasaan konten dengan teknik role playing. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian pre eksperimen. Populasinya remaja putri pubertas awal kelas VII SMP N 13 Semarang. Teknik sampling yang digunakan purposive sampling, dengan sampel 16 remaja putri pubertas awal yang memiliki kecenderungan kepercayaan diri rendah. Metode pengumpulan data menggunakan skala psikologi berupa skala kepercayaan diri. Analisis datanya  menggunakan uji wilcoxon match pair dan deskriptif persentase. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa layanan penguasaan konten dengan teknik role playing dapat meningkatkan kepercayaan diri remaja putri pubertas awal, dengan nilai zhitung = 0 < ztabel = 30. Simpulan dari penelitian ini yakni terdapat peningkatan kepercayaan diri remaja putri pubertas awal setelah diberikan layanan penguasaan konten dengan teknik role playing. This study seeks to find out the increasing confidence of female adolescent in early  puberty  after getting mastery content counseling by role playing technique. This research was using pre-experimental design with  female adolescents of seven graders in SMP N 13 Semarang as the  population. Purposive sampling technique was used  in this study. Sixteen adolescents in their early puberty that had tendency of  low self confidence was used as sample. Method for collecting data was used self confident scale; whereas, the data analysis used wilcoxon match pair test and descriptive percentage. The result of this study showed that counseling of mastery content by role playing technique was able to increase self confidence of female adolescent in early puberity with the score zcount = 0 < ztable= 30. It can concluded that there was increasing of self confidence for female adolescent in early puberty after getting counseling of mastery content by role playing.

  1. Ludic role of religious rituals. The use of play for religious ceremony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciocan Tudor Cosmin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper was made as part of a wider research I made about rituals and their meaning and roles they are playing in the religious system of thinking. The way they are thought, displayed, precisely followed as instructed and believed, makes them a powerful social act that has been always provided by any religion, and also a tool for religion to make the human society what it is today. After I speak about what is a ritual and its religious content in general, I am enumerating roles and functions of play and theatre in particular have, both for profane and religious purpose. Do we still use play/games as adults because they are rewarding, they give us pleasure? They are used as means of relaxation, or for continuing the age of childhood; or it is in our nature to play games in everything we do? In this paper I have emphasized play as adaptive potentiation or adaptive variability useful both in therapy, as in religious ceremony. The relation and comparison of rituals with play is due to the fact that playing is the most engaging behavior performed by man and animals, and it can be found as foundation of almost any ritualist activity.

  2. AF10 plays a key role in the survival of uncommitted hematopoietic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Chamorro-Garcia

    Full Text Available Hematopoiesis is a complex process regulated by both cell intrinsic and cell extrinsic factors. Alterations in the expression of critical genes during hematopoiesis can modify the balance between stem cell differentiation and proliferation, and may ultimately give rise to leukemia and other diseases. AF10 is a transcription factor that has been implicated in the development of leukemia following chromosomal rearrangements between the AF10 gene and one of at least two other genes, MLL and CALM. The link between AF10 and leukemia, together with the known interactions between AF10 and hematopoietic regulators, suggests that AF10 may be important in hematopoiesis and in leukemic transformation. Here we show that AF10 is important for proper hematopoietic differentiation. The induction of hematopoietic differentiation in both human hematopoietic cell lines and murine total bone marrow cells triggers a decrease of AF10 mRNA and protein levels, particularly in stem cells and multipotent progenitors. Gain- and loss-of-function studies demonstrate that over- or under-expression of AF10 leads to apoptotic cell death in stem cells and multipotent progenitors. We conclude that AF10 plays a key role in the maintenance of multipotent hematopoietic cells.

  3. Nuclear science fights malaria. Radiation and molecular techniques can play targeted roles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groth, Steffen; Khan, Baldip; Robinson, Alan; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2001-01-01

    Malaria is the most important insect transmitted disease. Globally there are 300 to 500 million clinical cases of malaria a year. They result in two million deaths per year (one every 30 seconds), more than 90% of which occur in sub-Saharan Africa. More than 90% of those affected are children less than five years old. The economic impact of the disease is felt disproportionately by poor families who may spend a fourth of their annual income on prevention and control measures. The causative agents are parasites of the genus Plasmodium and they are transmitted only by female mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. Among key strategies to control malaria are the surveillance of anti-malarial drug efficacy through monitoring the levels of drug resistance, and the reduction of mosquito populations. Nuclear techniques can play important roles in these efforts to combat malaria. This article reports on IAEA activities associated with drug-resistant malaria and describes how molecular methods making use of radioactive isotopes can provide a great advantage in the diagnosis of resistance. The article further presents the IAEA's plans for initiating a research programme to assess the feasibility of developing the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) as a complementary method to control the vector of malaria

  4. Fostering creativity, empathy and self-regulation through story-based educational role-play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa

    is an interactive approach to learning that involves students in collaborative, creative problem solving in meaningful contexts. A R&D project in Danish schools has studied how the curriculum for grades 6-10 can be embedded in immersive narrative roleplay scenarios, and the implications for the learners’ motivation...... engaging the learners in narrative educational role-play. These include how the learners engagement in role-play can afford emotionally encoded memory, socially and contextually anchored interactions with the learning material as well as empathy and self-regulation.Based on the findings from the R...

  5. Social Psychological Aspects of Addiction to Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinova T.Y.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issue of how massively multiplayer online role¬playing games (MMORPG affect the behavior of players. Basing on a series of research, the paper analyzes how massively multiplayer online role¬playing games are created and highlights their specifics that possibly contribute to the development of psychological addiction to such games. The authors describe the outcomes of their own research on motivation in persons with gaming addiction aged 18 and up, with over 1 year of gaming experience. These out-comes suggest that current traditional criteria developed for assessing gaming addiction cannot be applied to this particular form of addictive behavior.

  6. Virtual firm as a role-playing tool for biomedical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagosklonov, Oleg; Soto-Romero, Georges; Guyon, Florent; Courjal, Nadège; Euphrasie, Sebatien; Yahiaoui, Reda; Butterlin, Nadia

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes design of a role-playing tool based on the experience of the practice firm which allows participants to obtain relevant and practical on-the-job experience. The students played the roles of the employees and the applicants for vacant positions at the virtual firm - a small business specialized in biomedical sector - founded to design the demonstration vehicle for a biomedical device. We found that this innovative concept may be used to improve the young engineers performance and to facilitate their post-graduate integration.

  7. What Role do Metaphors Play in Game-based Learning Processes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Thomas Duus

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explores the role played by metaphors in learning games and game-based learning processes. The aim is to contribute better understanding of the mechanisms of how such games contribute to learning and learning transfer. On the basis of an analytical strategy that emphasises metaphors...... as storylines, actors, acts and movement, three learning games are analysed in order to understand how learningemerges in association to game-embedded metaphors.As shown in this chapter, metaphorsseem to play a profound role in game-based learning, both by providing participantswith a suitcase containing...

  8. What Role do Metaphors Play in Game-Based Learning Processes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Thomas Duus

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the role played by metaphors in learning games and game-based learning processes. The aim is to contribute better understanding of the mechanisms of how such games contribute to learning and learning transfer. On the basis of an analytical strategy that emphasises metaphors...... as storylines, actors, acts and movement, three learning games are analysed in order to understand how learning emerges in association to game-embedded metaphors. As shown in this chapter, metaphors seem to play a profound role in game-based learning, both by providing participants with a suitcase containing...

  9. Senior veterinary students' perceptions of using role play to learn communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jennifer C; Bateman, Shane W

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies of veterinary practice have suggested a correlation between well-developed communication skills and job satisfaction, career retention, customer satisfaction, decreased lawsuits, and financial remuneration for veterinarians. Veterinary educators are under growing pressure to teach functional communication skills to veterinary students; however, the methods employed have not been well evaluated. In this study we have evaluated veterinary student's attitudes to learning communication skills by participating in role play. The study indicates that experiential learning modalities such as role play are perceived as effective by students, despite reluctance to participate and some discomfort surrounding participation.

  10. Experiencing the Elicitation of User Requirements and Recording Them in Use Case Diagrams through Role-Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costain, Gay; McKenna, Brad

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a role-play exercise used in a second-year tertiary Systems Analysis and Design course, and the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the students' responses to a survey that solicited their perceptions of that role-play experience. The role-play involved students in eliciting user requirements from customers during a Joint…

  11. Exploring the Impact of Role-Playing on Peer Feedback in an Online Case-Based Learning Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Yu-Hui

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the impact of role-playing on the quality of peer feedback and learners' perception of this strategy in a case-based learning activity with VoiceThread in an online course. The findings revealed potential positive impact of role-playing on learners' generation of constructive feedback as role-playing was associated with higher…

  12. EG-03EXPRESSION OF PRMT5 CORRELATES WITH MALIGNANT GRADE IN GLIOMAS AND PLAYS A PIVOTAL ROLE IN TUMOR GROWTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaosi; Li, Rong; Zhang, Wenbin; Yang, Xiuhua; Fathallah-Shaykh, Hassan; Gillespie, Yancey; Nabors, Burt

    2014-01-01

    Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) catalyzes the formation of ω-NG,N′G-symmetric dimethylarginine residues on histones as well as other proteins. The modification play an important role in cell differentiation and tumor cell growth. However, the role of PRMT5 in human glioma cells has not been characterized. In this study, we assessed protein expression profiles of PRMT5 in control brain, WHO grade II astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) by immunohistochemistry. PRMT5 was low in glial cells in control brain tissues and low grade astrocytomas. Its expression increased in parallel with malignant progression, and was highly expressed in GBM. Knockdown of PRMT5 by small hairpin RNA caused alterations of p-ERK1/2 and significantly repressed the clonogenic potential and viability of glioma cells. These findings indicate that PRMT5 is a marker of malignant progression in glioma tumors and plays a pivotal role in tumor growth.

  13. Public Libraries Can Play an Important Role in the Aftermath of a Natural Disaster. A Review of: Welsh, T. S. & Higgins, S. E. (2009. Public libraries post-Hurricane Katrina: A pilot study. Library Review, 58(9, 652-659.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Wilson

    2010-09-01

    pertaining to the second research question (What post-disaster public library services were noted in the narratives? included providing information for things such as providing information via the use of computers and the filling out of the Federal Emergency Management Agency and Red Cross aid forms (6 or 60% of the narratives included this, listening and providing comfort (5 or 50% of the narratives, and volunteering and donating, both from others and of the students’ own time, money, or materials (noted by 5 or 50% of the narratives.Conclusion – The researchers concluded that while public libraries suffered devastation during the hurricane, after the hurricane, those libraries that could open provided essential services to people in need. These services included providing access to computers and access to information via computers, aid in filling out necessary relief aid forms, listening and providing comfort, and volunteering time, money, and materials. The public library clearly played a role in both providing information and facilitating communication. Documenting such contributions serves to illustrate the value of public libraries, especially in a post-disaster setting, and helps to demonstrate the value of public libraries in their communities.

  14. Cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase plays a key role in lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ho-Jin; Lee, Su-Min; Son, Byung-Gap; Lee, Soh-Hyun; Ryoo, Zae Young; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Park, Jeen-Woo; Park, Dong-Chan; Song, Byoung J; Veech, Richard L; Song, Hebok; Huh, Tae-Lin

    2004-09-17

    NADPH is an essential cofactor for many enzymatic reactions including glutathione metabolism and fat and cholesterol biosynthesis. We have reported recently an important role for mitochondrial NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase in cellular defense against oxidative damage by providing NADPH needed for the regeneration of reduced glutathione. However, the role of cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) is still unclear. We report here for the first time that IDPc plays a critical role in fat and cholesterol biosynthesis. During differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes, both IDPc enzyme activity and its protein content were increased in parallel in a time-dependent manner. Increased expression of IDPc by stable transfection of IDPc cDNA positively correlated with adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells, whereas decreased IDPc expression by an antisense IDPc vector retarded adipogenesis. Furthermore, transgenic mice with overexpressed IDPc exhibited fatty liver, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. In the epididymal fat pads of the transgenic mice, the expressions of adipocyte-specific genes including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma were markedly elevated. The hepatic and epididymal fat pad contents of acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA in the transgenic mice were significantly lower, whereas the total triglyceride and cholesterol contents were markedly higher in the liver and serum of transgenic mice compared with those measured in wild type mice, suggesting that the consumption rate of those lipogenic precursors needed for fat biosynthesis must be increased by elevated IDPc activity. Taken together, our findings strongly indicate that IDPc would be a major NADPH producer required for fat and cholesterol synthesis.

  15. Amygdalar glutamatergic neuronal systems play a key role on the hibernating state of hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facciolo Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excitatory transmitting mechanisms are proving to play a critical role on neuronal homeostasis conditions of facultative hibernators such as the Syrian golden hamster. Indeed works have shown that the glutamatergic system of the main olfactory brain station (amygdala is capable of controlling thermoregulatory responses, which are considered vital for the different hibernating states. In the present study the role of amygdalar glutamatergic circuits on non-hibernating (NHIB and hibernating (HIB hamsters were assessed on drinking stimuli and subsequently compared to expression variations of some glutamatergic subtype mRNA levels in limbic areas. For this study the two major glutamatergic antagonists and namely that of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR, 3-(+-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl-propyl-1-phosphonate (CPP plus that of the acid α-amine-3-hydroxy-5-metil-4-isoxazol-propionic receptor (AMPAR site, cyano-7-nitro-quinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX were infused into the basolateral amygdala nucleus. Attempts were made to establish the type of effects evoked by amygdalar glutamatergic cross-talking processes during drinking stimuli, a response that may corroborate their major role at least during some stages of this physiological activity in hibernators. Results From the behavioral results it appears that the two glutamatergic compounds exerted distinct effects. In the first case local infusion of basolateral complexes (BLA with NMDAR antagonist caused very great (p Conclusion We conclude that predominant drinking events evoked by glutamatergic mechanisms, in the presence of prevalently down regulated levels of NR1/2A of some telencephalic and hypothalamic areas appear to constitute an important neuronal switch at least during arousal stage of hibernation. The establishment of the type of glutamatergic subtypes that are linked to successful hibernating states, via drinking stimuli, may have useful bearings toward sleeping disorders.

  16. THE ROLE PLAY AND THE CHILD WITH AUTISM IN THE HISTORICAL-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica da Silva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the play of make-believe for children with autism, focusing on the symbolic resources it uses in asserting roles. It is based on the theoretical contributions of the historical-cultural perspective, with Vygotsky as its main exponent. The research was carried out in a public school of Early Childhood Education, in Brasília. From the microgenetic analysis, the research had six children diagnosed with autism, at the ages of 4 and 6 years, included in Special Class, as participants. The play situations were videotaped and later transcribed in episode format. In the data analysis, we identified two axes, namely: 1 The construction of the role play and; 2 Assumption of roles by the child with autism: set design and imagery resources. The results reveal the role of the other (intentional participation in the constitution of play activity, especially the role of the adult. In addition, they demonstrate that pedagogical mediation, including the creation of 'scenarios', is fundamental for the extension of the symbolic experience of the child with autism.

  17. Facilitating social work role plays in online courses: The use of video conferencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Fitch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Role plays have served an instrumental role in social work education by providing opportunities for students to acquire interaction skills. This project tested various online video conferencing tools to facilitate role plays for students who live in different locations and who are unable to be at the same place at the same time. Key features of the technology included the ability to facilitate real-time interaction, compatibility with laptops and Wi-Fi connections, and the ability to record sessions for later viewing and feedback. Method: Case study design. Results: Students were able to use the videoconferencing software with minimal support. Video quality was not always ideal with contributing factors being the time of day students used the software. There were no distinguishable time and effort demands associated with the online video conferencing compared to classroom role plays. Some students found use of the technology caused them to feel disconnected from their peers compared to face-to-face encounters, while other students found the encounter more intimate in that the pressure to perform in front of others was not felt. Implications: Video conferencing is a promising tool to facilitate social work role plays. Future research needs to assess the acquisition of specific skills compared to traditional classroom students.

  18. Microplastics play a minor role in tetracycline sorption in the presence of dissolved organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baile; Liu, Fei; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming

    2018-05-02

    Microplastics have a great potential to sorb organic pollutants from the adjacent environment. In this study, the sorption of tetracycline, a polar and ionizable antibiotic, on three types of microplastics (polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS)) were investigated in batch sorption experiments. The sorption isotherms were well fitted by the Langmuir model, indicating that not only hydrophobic interactions but also other interactions (e.g. electrostatic interactions) played important roles in the sorption process. PS had the maximum sorption capacity, following the order PS > PP > PE, which can be attributed to polar interactions and π-π interactions. The sorption of tetracycline on microplastics was significantly influenced by pH, with sorption capacity increasing gradually, peaking at pH 6.0 and then decreasing, likely due to the influence of tetracycline speciation with the change of pH. Fulvic acid was selected as representative dissolved organic matter (DOM) to examine the effect on sorption. The increasing concentration of fulvic acid inhibited the sorption of tetracycline on three microplastics, decreasing them by more than 90% at the fulvic acid concentration of 20 mg/L, which implied a greater affinity of tetracycline to fulvic acid than to microplastics. Increasing salinity from 0.05 to 3.5% had negligible effects on the sorption of tetracycline on the three microplastics. Our results highlight the importance of pH and DOM on the sorption of tetracycline on microplastics, and suggest the relatively minor role of microplastics in the fate and transport of tetracycline in the aquatic environment in the presence of DOM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A nonspecific Setaria italica lipid transfer protein gene plays a critical role under abiotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlin Pan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs are a class of cysteine-rich soluble proteins having small molecular weights. LTPs participate in flower and seed development, cuticular wax deposition, also play important roles in pathogen and abiotic stress responses. A nonspecific LTP gene (SiLTP was isolated from a foxtail millet (Setaria italica suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH library enriched for differentially expressed genes after abiotic stress treatments. A semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed that SiLTP was expressed in all foxtail millet tissues. Additionally, the SiLTP promoter drove GUS expression in root tips, stems, leaves, flowers and siliques of transgenic Arabidopsis. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that the SiLTP expression was induced by NaCl, polyethylene glycol and abscisic acid. SiLTP was localized in the cytoplasm of tobacco leaf epidermal cells and maize protoplasts. The ectopic expression of SiLTP in tobacco resulted in higher levels of salt and drought tolerance than in the wild type (WT. To further assess the function of SiLTP, SiLTP overexpression (OE and RNA interference (RNAi-based transgenic foxtail millet were obtained. SiLTP-OE lines performed better under salt and drought stresses compared with WT plants. In contrast, the RNAi lines were much more sensitive to salt and drought compared than WT. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and yeast one-hybrids indicated that the transcription factor (TF ABA-responsive DRE-binding protein (SiARDP could bind to the dehydration-responsive element of SiLTP promoter in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Moreover, the SiLTP expression levels were higher in SiARDP-OE plants compared than the WT. These results confirmed that SiLTP plays important roles in improving salt and drought stress tolerance of foxtail millet, and may partly be up-regulated by SiARDP. SiLTP may provide an effective genetic resource for molecular breeding in crops to enhance salt and

  20. Does the Urinary Microbiome Play a Role in Urgency Urinary Incontinence and Its Severity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstens, Lisa; Asquith, Mark; Davin, Sean; Stauffer, Patrick; Fair, Damien; Gregory, W. Thomas; Rosenbaum, James T.; McWeeney, Shannon K.; Nardos, Rahel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Traditionally, the urinary tract has been thought to be sterile in the absence of a clinically identifiable infection. However, recent evidence suggests that the urinary tract harbors a variety of bacterial species, known collectively as the urinary microbiome, even when clinical cultures are negative. Whether these bacteria promote urinary health or contribute to urinary tract disease remains unknown. Emerging evidence indicates that a shift in the urinary microbiome may play an important role in urgency urinary incontinence (UUI). The goal of this prospective pilot study was to determine how the urinary microbiome is different between women with and without UUI. We also sought to identify if characteristics of the urinary microbiome are associated with UUI severity. Methods: We collected urine from clinically well-characterized women with UUI (n = 10) and normal bladder function (n = 10) using a transurethral catheter to avoid bacterial contamination from external tissue. To characterize the resident microbial community, we amplified the bacterial 16S rRNA gene by PCR and performed sequencing using Illumina MiSeq. Sequences were processed using the workflow package QIIME. We identified bacteria that had differential relative abundance between UUI and controls using DESeq2 to fit generalized linear models based on the negative binomial distribution. We also identified relationships between the diversity of the urinary microbiome and severity of UUI symptoms with Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: We successfully extracted and sequenced bacterial DNA from 95% of the urine samples and identified that there is a polymicrobial community in the female bladder in both healthy controls and women with UUI. We found the relative abundance of 14 bacteria significantly differed between control and UUI samples. Furthermore, we established that an increase in UUI symptom severity is associated with a decrease in microbial diversity in women with UUI

  1. Interaction between EphrinB1 and CNK1 Found to Play Role in Tumor Progression | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer The family of proteins known as ephrins plays a critical role in a variety of biological processes. In a recent article in the Journal of Biological Chemistry, Hee Jun Cho, Ph.D., and colleagues report on the interaction between proteins CNK1 and ephrinB1 that promotes cell movement. Their findings may have an important implication in developing

  2. Role-play facilitates children’s mindreading of those with atypical color perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumikazu eFurumi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effects of role-play experience on children’s mindreading ability. Forty-one primary school children (20 boys, 21 girls, mean age: 9.37 years, range: 8–11 years were introduced to a communication task in which the use of mindreading was essential. During each trial, participants viewed a shelf, presented on a laptop, which contained several familiar objects, and they were instructed to touch an object on the shelf following an order issued by a manager who stood at the opposite side of the shelf. There were two managers: one was a monkey manager with normal color vision, and the other was a dog manager with restricted color vision. The monkey manager could see all the objects in the same colors as the participants, whereas the dog manager saw some objects in different colors. Participants were required to respond according to the manager's instruction. In the restricted color vision condition, the dog manager saw the colors of objects differently; thus, participants had to work out his intentions, according to his different perspective. In the normal color vision condition, all objects were in the same colors as those seen by the monkey manager. Before the test phase, participants in the role-play group were provided a role-play experience in which they assumed the role of the dog manager with restricted color vision. The experimental data were analyzed using a 2 x 2 mixed-design ANOVA (role-play condition x communication partner condition to examine differences in the error rate. Both main effects and its interaction were significant. According to the post-hoc analyses, participants in the no-role-play condition made significantly more errors in the restricted color vision condition than in the normal color vision condition, whereas no such difference was found among participants in the role-play condition. These results suggest that role-play experience could facilitate mindreading of characters with

  3. Roles and Importance of Microbes in the Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Lee, Seung Yeop; Roh, Yeol

    2009-01-01

    Recently the importance and interest for the microbes has been increased because several important results for the effects of microbes on the radioactive waste disposal have been published continuously. In this study, research status and major results on the various roles and effects of microbes in the radioactive waste disposal have been investigated. We investigated and summarized the roles and major results of microbes in a multi-barrier system consisting of an engineered barrier and a natural barrier which is considered in radioactive waste disposal systems. For the engineered barrier, we discussed about the effects of microbes on the corrosion of a waste container and investigated the survival possibility and roles of microbes in a compacted bentonite buffer. For the natural barrier, the roles of microbes present in groundwaters and rocks were discussed and summarized with major results from natural analogue studies. Furthermore, we investigated and summarized the roles and various interactions processes of microbes and their effects on the radionuclide migration and retardation including recent research status. Therefore, it is expected that the effects and roles of microbes on the radioactive waste disposal can be rigorously evaluated if further researches are carried out for a long-term behavior of the disposal system in the deep geological environments and for the effects of microbes on the radionuclide migration through geological media.

  4. Role-Playing Games for Capacity Building in Water and Land Management: Some Brazilian Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Maria Eugenia; Jacobi, Pedro Roberto; Ducrot, Raphaele

    2007-01-01

    Role-playing games in natural resource management are currently being tested as research, training, and intervention tools all over the world. Various studies point out their potential to deal with complex issues and to contribute to training processes. The objective of this contribution is to analyze the limits and potentialities of this tool for…

  5. A Role-Play Game to Facilitate the Development of Students' Reflective Internet Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admiraal, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    Although adolescents are currently the most frequent users of the Internet, many youngsters still have difficulties with a critical, reflective, and responsible use of the Internet. A study was carried out on teaching with a digital role-play game to increase students' reflective Internet skills. In this game, students had to promote a fictional…

  6. Using Role-Play to Enhance Foodborne Illness Crisis Management Capacity in the Produce Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreske, Audrey; Ducharme, Diane; Gunter, Chris; Phister, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Foodborne illness outbreaks have measurable public health effects and often lead to negative produce industry impacts. Reducing loss following a crisis event requires a management plan, although many fresh produce industry members don't have one. Evidence-based workshops using a role-play simulated outbreak were delivered to impact crisis…

  7. What Are the Roles that Children's Drawings Play in Inquiry of Science Concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to identify the roles that drawing played in the process of children's acquisition of science concepts. Seventy pre-service teachers through four semesters from a Midwest University in the USA developed lesson plans on science concepts and then taught them to 70 young children ages 4-7, respectively. This experience was…

  8. "Try Walking in Our Shoes": Teaching Acculturation and Related Cultural Adjustment Processes through Role-Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Tomaso, Cara C.; Audley, Shannon; Pole, Nnamdi

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we describe several role-playing exercises on acculturation and relevant cultural adjustment processes that we incorporated into Tomcho and Foel's classroom activity on acculturation, and we report data that examine subsequent changes in students' responses on pretest and posttest measures shortly after the activity and present…

  9. What role can ISO 17025 play in the South African mining industry? ; Article

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, CJ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available -1 Journal of the Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa March 2013/ Vol 66(1), pp 15-17 What role can ISO 17025 play in the South African mining industry? Pretorius CJ1 and Chesalokile T2 1CSIR. Centre for Mining Innovation 2South African...

  10. Roles High School Principals Play in Establishing a Successful Character Education Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francom, Jacob A.

    2016-01-01

    Principal leadership is crucial to the success of a high school character education initiative. The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory research was to identify the roles that high school principals play in developing, implementing, and sustaining a high functioning character education program. Data were collected through interviews and…

  11. The Role the Collegiate American Marketing Association Plays in Professional and Entrepreneurial Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, James W.; Scovotti, Carol; Pointer, Lucille

    2008-01-01

    Professional student organizations offer members a wide range of learning opportunities for applied marketing experiences. Little research exists in the marketing education literature on the role student organizations play in preparing their members for life beyond school. Understanding what students seek as members of such organizations and how…

  12. Electrostatic Stabilization Plays a Central Role in Autoinhibitory Regulation of the Na+,K+-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Qiucen; Garcia, Alvaro; Han, Minwoo

    2017-01-01

    The Na+,K+-ATPase is present in the plasma membrane of all animal cells. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the Na+ and K+ electrochemical potential gradients across the membrane, which are essential in numerous physiological processes, e.g., nerve, muscle, and kidney function. Its cellular a...

  13. Excessive Use of Massively Multi-Player Online Role-Playing Games: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zaheer; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are one of the most interesting innovations in the area of online computer gaming. This pilot study set out to examine the psychological and social effects of online gaming using an online questionnaire with particular reference to excessive and "dependent" online gaming. A self-selecting…

  14. Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games as Arenas for Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates contemporary research on the use of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) in language education. The development and key features of these games are explored. This is followed by an examination of the theories proposed as a basis for game-based learning, and the claims made regarding the value of…

  15. Using Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games for Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Marcus D.; Braswell, Ray

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the use of a massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) to foster communication and interaction and to facilitate cooperative learning in an online course. The authors delineate the definition and history of massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs), and describe current uses of MMORPGs in education, including…

  16. The Ethanol Project: Exploring Alternative Energy with Role-Play and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a project that includes a two-week series of researching, essay writing, and speaking lessons exploring the broader implications of using ethanol as a fuel. The author, a chemistry teacher, describes how she uses a senate hearing discussion of ethanol fuel subsidies as the forum for a role-play. The four components of the…

  17. Enhancing Information Systems Auditing Knowledge with Role-Playing Game: An Experimental Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongpinunwatana, Nitaya

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the use and effect of a role-playing game on learners' ability in information systems audit. The study is based on experimental research. Information systems control and audit case study and video had been developed. A total of 75 graduate students undertaking a Master's degree in accounting participated in the experiment. The…

  18. Learning Strategies and Learner Attitudes in the Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game Cube World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Shu Li

    2016-01-01

    The rapid progress of technology has revolutionized learning and in the field of computer assisted language learning, the use of digital games has expanded significantly. One type of game that has been attracting interest is massively multiplayer online role-playing games (henceforth MMORPGs). Recent research has drawn attention to the potential…

  19. Colonic fermentation may play a role in lactose intolerance in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, T; Priebe, MG; Harmsen, HJM; Stellaard, F; Sun, XH; Welling, GW; Vonk, RJ

    The results of our previous study suggested that in addition to the small intestinal lactase activity and transit time, colonic processing of lactose may play a role in lactose intolerance. We investigated whether colonic fermentation of lactose is correlated with lactose intolerance. After 28

  20. Evaluation of a communication skills training course for medical students using peer role-play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuob, Nasra Naeim; Qadi, Mahdi Ali; El Deek, Basem Salama; Boker, Abdulaziz Mohamed

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of using peer role-playing in learning the communication skills as a step in the development of the communication skills training course delivered to pre-clinical medical students. This study was conducted at the King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, between September 2014 and February 2015 and comprised medical students. Mixed methods design was used to evaluate the developed communication skills training course. Tests were conducted before and after the communication skills training course to assess the students' self-reported communication. After the course, the students completed a satisfaction survey. Focus groups were conducted to assess the behavioural and organisational changes induced by the course. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis.. Of the293 respondents, 246(84%) were satisfied with the course. Overall, 169(58%) subjects chose the lectures as the most helpful methods for learning the communication skills while 124(42%) considered practical sessions as the most helpful method. Besides, 237(81%) respondents reported that the role-play was beneficial for their learning, while 219(75%) perceived the video-taped role-play as an appropriate method for assessing the communication skills. Peer role-play was found to be a feasible and well-perceived alternative method in facilitating the acquisition of communication skills..

  1. Students as "Humans Chromosomes" in Role-Playing Mitosis and Meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnici, Joseph P.; Yue, Joyce W.; Torres, Kieron M.

    2004-01-01

    Students often find it challenging to understand mitosis and meiosis and determine their processes. To develop an easier way to understand these terms, students are asked to role-play mitosis and meiosis and students themselves act as human chromosomes, which help students to learn differences between mitosis and meiosis.

  2. Role-Play Game-Enhanced English for a Specific-Purpose Vocabulary-Acquisition Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fang-Chen; Chang, Ben

    2016-01-01

    With the advantages of an engaged and authentic role-play game (RPG), this study aims to develop an RPG-enhanced English for specific purposes (ESP) vocabulary-acquisition framework, providing teachers and students a systematic way to incorporate RPG into ESP learning. The framework is composed of five parts: goal, three-level vocabulary sets, RPG…

  3. Personality Correlates of Self-Report, Role-Playing, and In Vivo Measures of Assertiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Samuel B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Undergraduates completed self-report inventories of assertiveness, participated in behavior role-playing tasks and in vivo measures of assertiveness, and completed the Personality Research Form E (PRF-E). Of 22 PRF-E scales, 11 had at least one significant correlation with assertiveness measures. Some composites of PRF-E scales were related to…

  4. Sales Role-Plays and Mock Interviews: An Investigation of Student Performance in Sales Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Sudha; Kothandaraman, Prabakar; Kashyap, Rajiv; Ashnai, Bahar

    2016-01-01

    Sales competitions provide students with opportunities to apply their understanding of sales. Despite a long tradition of scholarship on sales role-plays, the answer to what drives student performance in sales competitions remains elusive. In this research, we examine how motivation (work engagement) and ability (cognitive aptitude and…

  5. A Description Grid to Support the Design of Learning Role-Play Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariais, Christelle; Michau, Florence; Pernin, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    To strengthen the motivation of learners, the professional training sector is focusing more and more on game-based learning. In this context, the authors have become interested in the design of Learning Role-Play Game (LRPG) scenarios. The aim of this article is to improve the designers' confidence in the validity of the game-based learning…

  6. Cross-format analysis of the gaming experience in multi-player role playing games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Newman, K.; Brolund, T.

    2007-01-01

    Forming one of the major genres of games, Role Playing Games (RPGs) have proven an extremely portable concept, and the games are situated across various cultural and format-related boundaries. The effect of porting RPGs between formats is however a subject of which very little is known. This paper...

  7. The use of role playing in managerial learning: A socio constructivistic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiller, C.; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Patin-Saint-Mieux, B.

    2014-01-01

    This research deals with role playing (RP) aimed at assisting learners to optimize their managerial style. While RP is often used in training sessions, contributions on its evaluations have decreased since the beginning of the 1980s. Although RP as a training method had been criticized for several

  8. Researching Travel Behavior and Adaptability: Using a Virtual Reality Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watcharasukarn, Montira; Krumdieck, Susan; Green, Richard; Dantas, Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a virtual reality role-playing game that was developed as a survey tool to collect travel behavior data and explore and monitor travel behavior adaptation. The Advanced Energy and Material Systems Laboratory has designed, developed a prototype, and tested such a game platform survey tool, called Travel Activity Constraint…

  9. The use of role playing in managerial learning: a socio constructivistic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiller, Caroline; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Patin-Saint-Mleux, Bertille

    2014-01-01

    This research deals with role playing (RP) aimed at assisting learners to optimize their managerial style. While RP is often used in training sessions, contributions on its evaluations have decreased since the beginning of the 1980s. Although RP as a training method had been criticized for several

  10. Role playing with synthetic cultures: the evasive rules of the game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    This article sums up ten years of experience with over 1400 participants of simulation games using synthetic cultures. Synthetic cultures are scripts for role players. They are derived from the five dimensions of culture in Hofstede¿s model. Playing the synthetic cultures leads to dynamics that

  11. Designing a mobile learning game to investigate the impact of role-playing on helping behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Birgit; Ternier, Stefaan; Klemke, Roland; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Schmitz, B., Ternier, S., Klemke, R., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2013). Designing a mobile learning game to investigate the impact of role-playing on helping behavior. In D. Hernández-Leo et al. (Eds.), Scaling up Learning for Sustained Impact. Proceedings of European Conference on Technology Enhanced

  12. A Novel Ras Effector Pathway Found to Play Significant Role in Tumor Suppression | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer; photo by Richard Frederickson, Staff Photographer Normal cells have mechanisms to prevent the development of cancer. Among these is a type of tumor suppressor mechanism known as oncogene-induced senescence, or OIS, which halts the uncontrolled growth of cells caused by mutations in oncogenes. The oncogene Ras plays a crucial role in inducing OIS

  13. Designing After-School Learning Using the Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Digital games have become popular for engaging students in a range of learning goals, both in the classroom and the after-school space. In this article, I discuss a specific genre of video game, the massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMO), which has been identified as a dynamic environment for encountering 21st-century workplace…

  14. Exploring Game Experiences and Game Leadership in Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, YeiBeech; Ryu, SeoungHo

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the in-game experiences of massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) players focusing on game leadership and offline leadership. MMORPGs have enormous potential to provide gameplayers with rich social experiences through various interactions along with social activities such as joining a game community, team play…

  15. Understanding Collectivism and Female Genital Cutting through a Family Role-Playing Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carol

    2014-01-01

    This study is a test of the effectiveness of a classroom role-playing exercise used to increase the understanding of cultural practices with which many Midwestern college students are uncomfortable. I employed a pre-test/post-test comparison group design. Students enrolled in two sections of a general education global issues course (N = 56) were…

  16. Choices and Chances: The Sociology Role-Playing Game--The Sociological Imagination in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Joseph M.; Elias, Vicky L.

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces a sociology role-playing game (RPG) used to demonstrate the broad range of social forces, institutions, and structures in a semester-long series of in-class and homework assignments. RPGs and other simulation games have been frequently suggested as a useful teaching methodology because of their unique ability to allow…

  17. Developing Adolescents' Resistance to Sexual Coercion through Role-Playing Activities in a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Marion; Arnedillo-Sánchez, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the use of a three dimensional virtual world (3-DVW) to delivery assertiveness training to young adolescents. The case study aims to understand how a sense of presence in VWs facilitates and affect the performance of students role-playing activities to enhance their ability to resist sexual coercion. The results indicate that a…

  18. Role-Playing Game Based Assessment to Fractional Concept in Second Grade Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Fu-Yuan; Hsieh, Mei-Ling

    2017-01-01

    This study developed a set of Role-playing game (RPG), which was used to explore whether significant differences exist in academic performance and learning attitudes between RPG-based assessment and traditional lectures. This study also investigated the satisfaction of students toward the RPG scenario. Research participants included 100 second…

  19. En introduktion til CARM: The Conversation Analytic Role-Play Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Simon Bierring

    2014-01-01

    Dette working paper er en introduktion til og kort diskussion af workshopmetoden Conversation Analytic Role-Play Method (CARM), som er en metode udviklet til at afholde workshops på baggrund af resultater fra interaktionsanalyser. Artiklen er den første introduktion til CARM-metoden på dansk, og...

  20. The Use of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games in CALL: An Analysis of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary CALL research reflects renewed interest in digital games. One aspect of this phenomenon namely, use of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs), has expanded significantly, highlighting the need for a review. This paper analyzes findings from 10 learner-based studies that draw on accounts of SLA informed by cognitive…

  1. Building Fictional Ethos: Analysing the Rhetorical Strategies of Persona Design for Online Role Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr-Stevens, Candance

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a qualitative case study that uses discourse and social semiotic analysis methods in order to examine the rhetorical construction of fictional personas within an online role play used for learning in the college classroom. Of special focus are the differing patterns of semiotic resource use (for example, language and…

  2. Role Play in Blended Learning: A Case Study Exploring the Impact of Story and Other Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracup, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Role play is an increasingly popular technique in tertiary education, being student centred, constructivist and suitable for a range of subject areas. The choice of formats is wide open, with options ranging from the traditional face to face performance through to multi-user online computer games. Some teachers prefer to take advantage of features…

  3. Trading Spaces: An Educator's Ethnographic Exploration of Adolescents' Digital Role-Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes-Moore, Stacy

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the author examines a digital role-play in which participants composed an alternate version of "The Hunger Games" (Collins, 2008). Participants imagined characters and posted more than 400 scenes in the online collaboration. The author draws upon ethnographic methods (Merriam, 2009) to describe her participant-observer…

  4. Enhance Learning on Software Project Management through a Role-Play Game in a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maratou, Vicky; Chatzidaki, Eleni; Xenos, Michalis

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a role-play game for software project management (SPM) in a three-dimensional online multiuser virtual world. The Opensimulator platform is used for the creation of an immersive virtual environment that facilitates students' collaboration and realistic interaction, in order to manage unexpected events occurring during the…

  5. Playful empowerment, the role of game design innovation in participatory citizenship.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, B.A.M.; Marsh, T.

    2016-01-01

    In this talk I will address a changing perspective on design, one in which users are defined as social and economical actors who co-create products and services. We will see that the role of play in its contemporary and digital form for instance through games, apps, interactive toys is essential in

  6. Role Playing: Using Scenarios to Teach the Interrelatedness of Work and the Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Julie M.

    1985-01-01

    Describes appropriate goals for the role-playing model and types of social problems amenable to its use: achieving a balance between family and work, unemployment, management of economic resources, family contributions to worker productivity, and life-cycle influences on work decisions, among others. (SK)

  7. Exploring the use of role play in a school-based programme to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, gender norms in tradi- ... explained that people's beliefs develop from their experiences through social ... In other words, people act upon their in- ... The first role play began by asking learners to think of an occasion where a person ...

  8. Do the COX-2 inhibitors still have a role to play? : guest editorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Do the COX-2 inhibitors still have a role to play? : guest editorial. A Beeton. Abstract. No Abstract Available Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia & Analgesia Vol.11(2) 2005: 55-60. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics ...

  9. Parenting Talent: A Qualitative Investigation of the Roles Parents Play in Talent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Amanda L.; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Kasson, Sarah C.; Perry, Kyle R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has linked talent development to four factors--early experience, coaching, practice, and motivation. In addition to these factors, contemporary talent experts suggest that parents play a critical role in talent development. The purpose of the present study was to uncover parents' in-time perspectives on the talent development…

  10. Crossing the Border: Science Student Teachers Using Role-Play in Grade 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braund, Martin; Moodley, Trevor; Ekron, Christelle; Ahmed, Zaiboenisha

    2015-01-01

    Drama is used to build knowledge and understanding in science as part of a socio-linguistic, constructivist approach. Role-plays, where learners act as analogues for components and processes, help access abstract ideas. However, a problem restricting many science teachers using these approaches has been that they lack sufficient pedagogical…

  11. Student Perceptions of a Role-Playing Simulation in an Introductory International Relations Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanello, Sean P.; Kirk, Jason A.; Kromer, Mileah K.

    2013-01-01

    An emerging assumption in undergraduate political science education is that role-playing simulations are an effective teaching tool. While previous studies have addressed the pedagogical advantages of simulations as compared to more traditional teaching techniques, less attention has been paid to student perceptions of these simulations. This…

  12. The role of play in pre-school and younger school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopas-Vukašinović Emina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the importance of play for children’s development and learning in institutionalized preschool education, as well as the opportunities it provides concerning the organization of teaching activities with younger school age children. The paper is based on the theoretical framework emphasizing educational character of children’s play, as a specific form of learning. Notwithstanding occasional attempts within pedagogic theory to deny educational values of children’s play and to emphasize instruction as the only form of systematic learning, contemporary pedagogic views consider play an important part of school education. Learning through play at younger school age helps overcome the discontinuity between preschool and school education. Curriculum subject matter can be covered through carefully selected and prepared play activities within the existing system, providing the support, encouragement and guidance by the adults involved, including their proper knowledge of children’ age-related and psycho-physical characteristics. Play facilitates gradual change over from preschool to school developmental stage, free, spontaneous and creative expression and the development of children’s potential.

  13. Interaction with the game and motivation among players of massively multiplayer online role-playing games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Héctor; Carbonell, Xavier; Chamarro, Andrés; Oberst, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge about users interacting with Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPG) is fundamental in order to prevent their potential negative effects on behavior. For this reason, the present study analyzed the relationship between styles of play and motivations. An online questionnaire asking for socio-demographic details, playing style, characteristics of the game played and motivations for playing, was answered by 430 Spanish-speaking MMORPG players (45.1% males). The identified profile for players, far away from the stereotype of an adolescent, consisted in a person who mainly plays on PvP (Player versus Player) servers, choosing the type of game according to his experience. Regarding motivations, they were interested in relating with other players through the game (Socialization), in discovering the game's possibilities and development of its adventures (Exploration), to a lesser extent in leadership and prestige (Achievement) and, lastly, identification with an avatar and escape from reality (Dissociation). Although part of the reason for playing was escapism and/or stress relief, the main motivation had a social nature. We conclude that MMORPG offer an attractive environment for a broad spectrum of people, and we have not been able to confirm the stereotype of a loner avoiding reality, taking refuge in games.

  14. Comparison of Classic vs. Role plays Teaching Methods on the Menstrual Hygiene Behavior of Secondary School Girls in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ostovar

    2013-09-01

    Background & aim: Awareness about the different aspects of health during puberty plays an important role in the health of girls and finally on their health future pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to to compare the effect of role playing and classical training methods in the the improvement of puberty health among secondary school girls in Yasouj City, Iran. Methods: In this study, the educational need during puberty school girls in the interview was determined. The two schools girls were randomly selected (students any school-60. Next, a knowledge and attitude questionnaire and a behavior checklist related to the main puberty health problems were completed. Then one of the schools randomly was selected as educational interventions schools and other were studied as controls. After grouping the students into four groups of 15, intervention were conducted in four sessions including: role-play, question and answer, and lecture. In the control group, all number of school students received training on puberty health through a classical education (lectures. The results were subsequently compared. Data were analyzed by Student t-test paired t-test, and analysis of variance. Results: The results of this study showed that the level of knowledge, attitude and behavior related to health matters during puberty showed significant improvement in the girls before and after implementation of educational intervention through role play (p<0.05.Thus, the mean score in group role play before intervention was 2.35±1.53 and after was 3.96±1.27 , The mean performance score before intervention 6.04±2.34 and after was, 8.61±1.55, respectively, while in classical group differences were not statistically significant (p<0.05 Conclusion: In comparison with the classical method of health education, teaching through role play significantly improved the level of knowledge, attitude and practice related to puberty health among adolescent girls. Key Words: Education, Adolescent Girls

  15. Competence of medical students in communicating drug therapy: Value of role-play demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayem, Yasin I; Altabtabaei, Abdulaziz S; Mohamed, Mohamed W; Arrfedi, Mansour M; Aljawder, Hasan S; Aldebous, Fahad A; James, Henry; Al Khaja, Khalid A J; Sequeira, Reginald P

    2016-01-01

    This study used role-play demonstrations to train medical students to communicate drug therapy and evaluated the perceptions on this instructional approach. The second-year medical students who attended a prescription writing session (n = 133), participated in this study. Prescription communication was introduced by using role-play demonstrations. Participant's perceptions were explored by a self-administered questionnaire and focus group discussion. The academic achievement of attendees and nonattendees was compared with an objective structured performance evaluation (OSPE) station that tested students' competence in this skill. Most attendees responded to the questionnaire (81.2%). Almost all respondents expressed their desire to have similar demonstrations in other units. A large proportion of participants reported that role-play demonstrations helped them develop their communication skills, in general, confidence to communicate drug-related information in a prescription, and the ability to explain the aim of drug therapy to patients. Most trainees thought also that they developed skills to communicate instructions on drug use including drug dose, frequency of administration, duration of therapy, adverse drug reactions, and warnings. During the focus group interviews, students thought that role-play was useful but would be more beneficial if conducted frequently in small group as part of the curriculum implementation. The majority of students also reported improved competence in writing a complete prescription. Analysis of attendees and nonattendees grades in the OSPE showed that the former scored higher than the latter group (P = 0.016). Role-play demonstrations were well accepted by medical students and led to the development of their competence in communicating drug therapy to patients.

  16. Gambling behaviors among university youth: does one's religious affiliation and level of religiosity play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandour, Lilian A; El Sayed, Donna S

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the association between religion, religiosity, and gambling using a cross-sectional sample of 570 American University of Beirut students, who self-filled an anonymous English questionnaire. About half (55%) were lifetime gamblers, of which 12% screened as problem/pathological gamblers. Controlling for other demographics and lifetime substance use, Christian students (vs. Muslims) had higher odds of lifetime gambling [6.6 (3.6, 12.2)], any strategic gambling [2.7 (1.2, 5.9)], social nonproblem gambling (SNPG) [7.6 (4.6, 12.3)], and problem/pathological gambling (PG) [6.8(1.8, 26.5)]. Students who never/rarely practiced their faith were 3.6 times as likely [95% CI: 1.5, 8.7] to report lifetime gambling, 3.7 times as likely to report SNPG (vs. NG) [95% CI: 1.3, 10.6], and 7 times as likely to screen for PG (vs. NG) [95% CI: 1.8, 27.4]. Decreased religious importance was associated with greater odds of lifetime gambling, SNPG and PG (vs. nongambling). Stronger associations were observed among Muslims. Religion and religiosity seem to play a protective role, particularly among Muslims whose faith strictly prohibits gambling. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Microtubule bundling plays a role in ethylene-mediated cortical microtubule reorientation in etiolated Arabidopsis hypocotyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qianqian; Sun, Jingbo; Mao, Tonglin

    2016-05-15

    The gaseous hormone ethylene is known to regulate plant growth under etiolated conditions (the 'triple response'). Although organization of cortical microtubules is essential for cell elongation, the underlying mechanisms that regulate microtubule organization by hormone signaling, including ethylene, are ambiguous. In the present study, we demonstrate that ethylene signaling participates in regulation of cortical microtubule reorientation. In particular, regulation of microtubule bundling is important for this process in etiolated hypocotyls. Time-lapse analysis indicated that selective stabilization of microtubule-bundling structures formed in various arrays is related to ethylene-mediated microtubule orientation. Bundling events and bundle growth lifetimes were significantly increased in oblique and longitudinal arrays, but decreased in transverse arrays in wild-type cells in response to ethylene. However, the effects of ethylene on microtubule bundling were partially suppressed in a microtubule-bundling protein WDL5 knockout mutant (wdl5-1). This study suggests that modulation of microtubule bundles that have formed in certain orientations plays a role in reorienting microtubule arrays in response to ethylene-mediated etiolated hypocotyl cell elongation. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Exosome-mediated microRNA transfer plays a role in radiation-induced bystander effect.

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    Xu, Shuai; Wang, Jufang; Ding, Nan; Hu, Wentao; Zhang, Xurui; Wang, Bing; Hua, Junrui; Wei, Wenjun; Zhu, Qiyun

    2015-01-01

    Bystander effects can be induced through cellular communication between irradiated cells and non-irradiated cells. The signals that mediate this cellular communication, such as cytokines, reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and even microRNAs, can be transferred between cells via gap junctions or extracellular medium. We have previously reported that miR-21, a well described DDR (DNA damage response) microRNA, is involved in radiation-induced bystander effects through a medium-mediated way. However, the mechanisms of the microRNA transfer have not been elucidated in details. In the present study, it was found that exosomes isolated from irradiated conditioned medium could induce bystander effects. Furthermore, we demonstrated plenty of evidences that miR-21, which is up-regulated as a result of mimic transfection or irradiation, can be transferred from donor or irradiated cells into extracellular medium and subsequently get access to the recipient or bystander cells through exosomes to induce bystander effects. Inhibiting the miR-21 expression in advance can offset the bystander effects to some extent. From all of these results, it can be concluded that the exosome-mediated microRNA transfer plays an important role in the radiation-induced bystander effects. These findings provide new insights into the functions of microRNAs and the cellular communication between the directly irradiated cells and the non-irradiated cells.

  19. Mitochondria Play a Central Role in Nonischemic Cardiomyocyte Necrosis: Common to Acute and Chronic Stressor States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Usman; Cheema, Yaser; Shahbaz, Atta U.; Ahokas, Robert A.; Sun, Yao; Gerling, Ivan C.; Bhattacharya, Syamal K.; Weber, Karl T.

    2012-01-01

    The survival of cardiomyocytes must be ensured as the myocardium adjusts to a myriad of competing physiologic and pathophysiologic demands. A significant loss of these contractile cells, together with their replacement by stiff fibrillar collagen in the form of fibrous tissue accounts for a transition from a usually efficient muscular pump into one that is failing. Cellular and subcellular mechanisms involved in the pathogenic origins of cardiomyocyte cell death have long been of interest. This includes programmed molecular pathways to either necrosis or apoptosis which are initiated from ischemic or nonischemic origins. Herein we focus on the central role played by a mitochondriocentric signal-transducer-effector pathway to nonischemic cardiomyocyte necrosis which is common to acute and chronic stressor states. We begin by building upon the hypothesis advanced by Albrecht Fleckenstein and coworkers some 40 years ago based on the importance of calcitropic hormone- mediated intracellular Ca2+ overloading which predominantly involves subsarcolemmal mitochondria and is the signal to pathway activation. Other pathway components, which came to be recognized in subsequent years, include the induction of oxidative stress and opening of the mitochondrial inner membrane permeability transition pore. The ensuing loss of cardiomyocytes and consequent replacement fibrosis, or scarring, represents a disease of adaptation and a classic example of when homeostasis begets dyshomeostasis. PMID:22328074

  20. Quantitative proteomics reveals that peroxidases play key roles in post-flooding recovery in soybean roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mudassar Nawaz; Sakata, Katsumi; Hiraga, Susumu; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-12-05

    Soybean is an important legume crop that exhibits markedly reduced growth and yields under flooding conditions. To unravel the mechanisms involved in recovery after flooding in soybean root, gel-free proteomic analysis was performed. Morphological analysis revealed that growth suppression was more severe with increased flooding duration. Out of a total of 1645 and 1707 identified proteins, 73 and 21 proteins were changed significantly during the recovery stage following 2 and 4 days flooding, respectively. Based on the proteomic, clustering, and in silico protein-protein interaction analyses, six key enzymes were analyzed at the mRNA level. Lipoxygenase 1, which was increased at the protein level during the recovery period, was steadily down-regulated at the mRNA level. The peroxidase superfamily protein continuously increased in abundance during the course of recovery and was up-regulated at the mRNA level. HAD acid phosphatase was decreased at the protein level and down-regulated at the transcript level, while isoflavone reductase and an unknown protein were increased at both the protein and mRNA levels. Consistent with these findings, the enzymatic activity of peroxidase was decreased under flooding stress but increased significantly during the recovery sage. These results suggest that peroxidases might play key roles in post-flooding recovery in soybean roots through the scavenging of toxic radicals.

  1. Self-concept deficits in massively multiplayer online role-playing games addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leménager, Tagrid; Gwodz, Alexander; Richter, Anne; Reinhard, Iris; Kämmerer, Nina; Sell, Madlen; Mann, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies on Internet addiction point towards a particular constellation of personality traits and deficits in social competence of players addicted to massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs), which are hypothesized to result from impairments in self-concept. The aim of this study was to examine differences in self-concept and degree of avatar identification in World of Warcraft addicted, non-addicted and naive (nonexperienced) participants. Participants (n = 45) completed interviews and self-report questionnaires on social, emotional and physical aspects of self-concept. Attributes of participants' 'actual self', 'ideal self' and their avatar were assessed using the Giessen test. The extent of avatar identification was examined by assessing differences between 'ideal self' and avatar evaluations. In contrast to nonaddicted and naive participants, addicted players showed a more negative body appraisal and lower self-esteem as well as lower permeability, social response, general mood and social potency on the Giessen test subscales. They further showed significantly lower discrepancies between 'ideal self' and avatar ratings on nearly all Giessen test subscales. The results point towards impairments in self-concept and a higher degree in avatar identification in addicted MMORPG players compared to the remaining participants. These results could have important implications for the treatment of addicted MMORPG players. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Study of different roles phosphorescent material played in different positions of organic light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keke, Gu; Jian, Zhong; Jiule, Chen; Yucheng, Chen; Ming, Deng

    2013-09-01

    Phosphorescent materials are crucial to improve the luminescence and efficiency of organic light emitting diodes (OLED), because its internal quantum efficiency can reach 100%. So the studying of optical and electrical properties of phosphorescent materials is propitious for the further development of phosphorescent OLED. Phosphorescent materials were generally doped into different host materials as emitting components, not only played an important role in emitting light but also had a profound influence on carrier transport properties. We studied the optical and electrical properties of the blue 4,4'-bis(2,2-diphenylvinyl)-1,1'-biphenyl (DPVBi)-based devices, adding a common yellow phosphorescent material bis[2-(4- tert-butylphenyl)benzothiazolato- N,C2'] iridium(acetylacetonate) [( t-bt)2Ir(acac)] in different positions. The results showed ( t-bt)2Ir(acac) has remarkable hole-trapping ability. Especially the ultrathin structure device, compared to the device without ( t-bt)2Ir(acac), had increased the luminance by about 60%, and the efficiency by about 97%. Then introduced thin 4,4'-bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) host layer between DPVBi and ( t-bt)2Ir(acac), and got devices with stable white color.

  3. Vacuolar processing enzyme plays an essential role in the crystalline structure of glutelin in rice seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamaru, Toshihiro; Uemura, Yuji; Inoue, Yoshimi; Takemoto, Yoko; Siddiqui, Sadar Uddin; Ogawa, Masahiro; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Satoh, Hikaru

    2010-01-01

    To identify the function of genes that regulate the processing of proglutelin, we performed an analysis of glup3 mutants, which accumulates excess amounts of proglutelin and lack the vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE). VPE activity in developing seeds from glup3 lines was reduced remarkably compared with the wild type. DNA sequencing of the VPE gene in glup3 mutants revealed either amino acid substitutions or the appearance of a stop codon within the coding region. Microscopic observations showed that alpha-globulin and proglutelin were distributed homogeneously within glup3 protein storage vacuoles (PSVs), and that glup3 PSVs lacked the crystalline lattice structure typical of wild-type PSVs. This suggests that the processing of proglutelin by VPE in rice is essential for proper PSV structure and compartmentalization of storage proteins. Growth retardation in glup3 seedlings was also observed, indicating that the processing of proglutelin influences early seedling development. These findings indicate that storage of glutelin in its mature form as a crystalline structure in PSVs is required for the rapid use of glutelin as a source of amino acids during early seedling development. In conclusion, VPE plays an important role in the formation of protein crystalline structures in PSVs.

  4. Mitochondrial DNA plays an equal role in influencing female and male longevity in centenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong-Han; Lu, Xiang; Tian, Jiao-Yang; Yan, Dong-Jing; Li, Yu-Chun; Lin, Rong; Perry, Benjamin; Chen, Xiao-Qiong; Yu, Qin; Cai, Wang-Wei; Kong, Qing-Peng

    2016-10-01

    The mitochondrion is a double membrane-bound organelle which plays important functional roles in aging and many other complex phenotypes. Transmission of the mitochondrial genome in the matrilineal line causes the evolutionary selection sieve only in females. Theoretically, beneficial or neutral variations are more likely to accumulate and be retained in the female mitochondrial genome during evolution, which may be an initial trigger of gender dimorphism in aging. The asymmetry of evolutionary processes between gender could lead to males and females aging in different ways. If so, gender specific variation loads could be an evolutionary result of maternal heritage of mitochondrial genomes, especially in centenarians who live to an extreme age and are considered as good models for healthy aging. Here, we tested whether the mitochondrial variation loads were associated with altered aging patterns by investigating the mtDNA haplogroup distribution and genetic diversity between female and male centenarians. We found no evidence of differences in aging patterns between genders in centenarians. Our results indicate that the evolutionary consequence of gender dimorphism in mitochondrial genomes is not a factor in the altered aging patterns in human, and that mitochondrial DNA contributes equally to longevity in males and females. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Histone deacetylases play a major role in the transcriptional regulation of the Plasmodium falciparum life cycle.

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    Balbir K Chaal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The apparent paucity of molecular factors of transcriptional control in the genomes of Plasmodium parasites raises many questions about the mechanisms of life cycle regulation in these malaria parasites. Epigenetic regulation has been suggested to play a major role in the stage specific gene expression during the Plasmodium life cycle. To address some of these questions, we analyzed global transcriptional responses of Plasmodium falciparum to a potent inhibitor of histone deacetylase activities (HDAC. The inhibitor apicidin induced profound transcriptional changes in multiple stages of the P. falciparum intraerythrocytic developmental cycle (IDC that were characterized by rapid activation and repression of a large percentage of the genome. A major component of this response was induction of genes that are otherwise suppressed during that particular stage of the IDC or specific for the exo-erythrocytic stages. In the schizont stage, apicidin induced hyperacetylation of histone lysine residues H3K9, H4K8 and the tetra-acetyl H4 (H4Ac4 and demethylation of H3K4me3. Interestingly, we observed overlapping patterns of chromosomal distributions between H4K8Ac and H3K4me3 and between H3K9Ac and H4Ac4. There was a significant but partial association between the apicidin-induced gene expression and histone modifications, which included a number of stage specific transcription factors. Taken together, inhibition of HDAC activities leads to dramatic de-regulation of the IDC transcriptional cascade, which is a result of both disruption of histone modifications and up-regulation of stage specific transcription factors. These findings suggest an important role of histone modification and chromatin remodeling in transcriptional regulation of the Plasmodium life cycle. This also emphasizes the potential of P. falciparum HDACs as drug targets for malaria chemotherapy.

  6. Histone deacetylases play a major role in the transcriptional regulation of the Plasmodium falciparum life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaal, Balbir K; Gupta, Archna P; Wastuwidyaningtyas, Brigitta D; Luah, Yen-Hoon; Bozdech, Zbynek

    2010-01-22

    The apparent paucity of molecular factors of transcriptional control in the genomes of Plasmodium parasites raises many questions about the mechanisms of life cycle regulation in these malaria parasites. Epigenetic regulation has been suggested to play a major role in the stage specific gene expression during the Plasmodium life cycle. To address some of these questions, we analyzed global transcriptional responses of Plasmodium falciparum to a potent inhibitor of histone deacetylase activities (HDAC). The inhibitor apicidin induced profound transcriptional changes in multiple stages of the P. falciparum intraerythrocytic developmental cycle (IDC) that were characterized by rapid activation and repression of a large percentage of the genome. A major component of this response was induction of genes that are otherwise suppressed during that particular stage of the IDC or specific for the exo-erythrocytic stages. In the schizont stage, apicidin induced hyperacetylation of histone lysine residues H3K9, H4K8 and the tetra-acetyl H4 (H4Ac4) and demethylation of H3K4me3. Interestingly, we observed overlapping patterns of chromosomal distributions between H4K8Ac and H3K4me3 and between H3K9Ac and H4Ac4. There was a significant but partial association between the apicidin-induced gene expression and histone modifications, which included a number of stage specific transcription factors. Taken together, inhibition of HDAC activities leads to dramatic de-regulation of the IDC transcriptional cascade, which is a result of both disruption of histone modifications and up-regulation of stage specific transcription factors. These findings suggest an important role of histone modification and chromatin remodeling in transcriptional regulation of the Plasmodium life cycle. This also emphasizes the potential of P. falciparum HDACs as drug targets for malaria chemotherapy.

  7. The conserved Lysine69 residue plays a catalytic role in Mycobacterium tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Valnês

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The shikimate pathway is an attractive target for the development of antitubercular agents because it is essential in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, but absent in humans. M. tuberculosis aroE-encoded shikimate dehydrogenase catalyzes the forth reaction in the shikimate pathway. Structural and functional studies indicate that Lysine69 may be involved in catalysis and/or substrate binding in M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase. Investigation of the kinetic properties of mutant enzymes can bring important insights about the role of amino acid residues for M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase. Findings We have performed site-directed mutagenesis, steady-state kinetics, equilibrium binding measurements and molecular modeling for both the wild-type M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase and the K69A mutant enzymes. The apparent steady-state kinetic parameters for the M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase were determined; the catalytic constant value for the wild-type enzyme (50 s-1 is 68-fold larger than that for the mutant K69A (0.73 s-1. There was a modest increase in the Michaelis-Menten constant for DHS (K69A = 76 μM; wild-type = 29 μM and NADPH (K69A = 30 μM; wild-type = 11 μM. The equilibrium dissociation constants for wild-type and K69A mutant enzymes are 32 (± 4 μM and 134 (± 21, respectively. Conclusion Our results show that the residue Lysine69 plays a catalytic role and is not involved in substrate binding for the M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase. These efforts on M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase catalytic mechanism determination should help the rational design of specific inhibitors, aiming at the development of antitubercular drugs.

  8. ATM and ATR play complementary roles in the behavior of excitatory and inhibitory vesicle populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Aifang; Zhao, Teng; Tse, Kai-Hei; Chow, Hei-Man; Cui, Yong; Jiang, Liwen; Du, Shengwang; Loy, Michael M T; Herrup, Karl

    2018-01-09

    ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) and ATR (ATM and Rad3-related) are large PI3 kinases whose human mutations result in complex syndromes that include a compromised DNA damage response (DDR) and prominent nervous system phenotypes. Both proteins are nuclear-localized in keeping with their DDR functions, yet both are also found in cytoplasm, including on neuronal synaptic vesicles. In ATM- or ATR-deficient neurons, spontaneous vesicle release is reduced, but a drop in ATM or ATR level also slows FM4-64 dye uptake. In keeping with this, both proteins bind to AP-2 complex components as well as to clathrin, suggesting roles in endocytosis and vesicle recycling. The two proteins play complementary roles in the DDR; ATM is engaged in the repair of double-strand breaks, while ATR deals mainly with single-strand damage. Unexpectedly, this complementarity extends to these proteins' synaptic function as well. Superresolution microscopy and coimmunoprecipitation reveal that ATM associates exclusively with excitatory (VGLUT1 + ) vesicles, while ATR associates only with inhibitory (VGAT + ) vesicles. The levels of ATM and ATR respond to each other; when ATM is deficient, ATR levels rise, and vice versa. Finally, blocking NMDA, but not GABA, receptors causes ATM levels to rise while ATR levels respond to GABA, but not NMDA, receptor blockade. Taken together, our data suggest that ATM and ATR are part of the cellular "infrastructure" that maintains the excitatory/inhibitory balance of the nervous system. This idea has important implications for the human diseases resulting from their genetic deficiency.

  9. Mig-6 plays a critical role in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis and bile acid synthesis.

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    Bon Jeong Ku

    Full Text Available The disruption of cholesterol homeostasis leads to an increase in cholesterol levels which results in the development of cardiovascular disease. Mitogen Inducible Gene 6 (Mig-6 is an immediate early response gene that can be induced by various mitogens, stresses, and hormones. To identify the metabolic role of Mig-6 in the liver, we conditionally ablated Mig-6 in the liver using the Albumin-Cre mouse model (Alb(cre/+Mig-6(f/f; Mig-6(d/d. Mig-6(d/d mice exhibit hepatomegaly and fatty liver. Serum levels of total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol and hepatic lipid were significantly increased in the Mig-6(d/d mice. The daily excretion of fecal bile acids was significantly decreased in the Mig-6(d/d mice. DNA microarray analysis of mRNA isolated from the livers of these mice showed alterations in genes that regulate lipid metabolism, bile acid, and cholesterol synthesis, while the expression of genes that regulate biliary excretion of bile acid and triglyceride synthesis showed no difference in the Mig-6(d/d mice compared to Mig-6(f/f controls. These results indicate that Mig-6 plays an important role in cholesterol homeostasis and bile acid synthesis. Mice with liver specific conditional ablation of Mig-6 develop hepatomegaly and increased intrahepatic lipid and provide a novel model system to investigate the genetic and molecular events involved in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis and bile acid synthesis. Defining the molecular mechanisms by which Mig-6 regulates cholesterol homeostasis will provide new insights into the development of more effective ways for the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  10. Computer-supported games and role plays in teaching water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Hoekstra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand for an interdisciplinary approach in teaching water management. Computer-supported games and role plays offer the potential of creating an environment in which different disciplines come together and in which students are challenged to develop integrated understanding. Two examples are discussed. The River Basin Game is a common-pool resource game in which participants experience the risk of over-abstractions of water in a river basin and learn how this risk relates to the complexity of the system, the conflict between individual and group optimums and the difficulty in achieving good cooperation. The Globalization of Water Role Play makes participants familiar with the global dimension of water management by letting them experience how national governments can integrate considerations of water scarcity and domestic water productivities into decisions on international trade in commodities like food, cotton and bio-energy. The two examples illustrate that play sessions inspire participants to think about the functioning of systems as a whole and to develop good cooperative courses of action, whereby both uncertainties about the system and the presence of different values and perspectives among participants play a role.

  11. Computer-supported games and role plays in teaching water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2012-08-01

    There is an increasing demand for an interdisciplinary approach in teaching water management. Computer-supported games and role plays offer the potential of creating an environment in which different disciplines come together and in which students are challenged to develop integrated understanding. Two examples are discussed. The River Basin Game is a common-pool resource game in which participants experience the risk of over-abstractions of water in a river basin and learn how this risk relates to the complexity of the system, the conflict between individual and group optimums and the difficulty in achieving good cooperation. The Globalization of Water Role Play makes participants familiar with the global dimension of water management by letting them experience how national governments can integrate considerations of water scarcity and domestic water productivities into decisions on international trade in commodities like food, cotton and bio-energy. The two examples illustrate that play sessions inspire participants to think about the functioning of systems as a whole and to develop good cooperative courses of action, whereby both uncertainties about the system and the presence of different values and perspectives among participants play a role.

  12. The Role and Importance of Spa and Wellness Tourism in Hungary's Tourism Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csapó János

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and highlights the role and importance of spa and wellness tourism in Hungary. Ever since tourism has played an important role in the social-economic processes of the country the leading tourism product proved to be health tourism (spa and wellness thanks to the advantageous physical geographical and social-political background. After the presentation of the country-specific theoretical system of spa and wellness, the paper examines the supply and the demand side together with competitor analysis and recent trends in spa and wellness in Hungary.

  13. Social media, help or hindrance: what role does social media play in young people's mental health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Alfie

    2014-11-01

    Social media is a huge force in the lives of young people with wide ranging effects on their development; given the importance of adolescence in the genesis of mental illness, social media is a factor in the mental health of young people. Despite the role that social media obviously plays in the development of mental illness, little research has been done into the impact that social media has on in the mental illness of young people. In general, what research there is points towards social media having a large impact on young people in both positive and negative ways. In particular, certain studies show a greater incidence and severity of bullying online compared to offline which may contribute to the development of depression. This contrasts with the positive impact that social media seems to have for young people in minority groups (ethnic minorities and those with chronic disease or disability) by allowing them to connect with others who live similar lives despite geographical separation. This acts as a positive influence in these people's lives though a direct link to mental illness was not shown. Overall, several important issues are raised: firstly, the lack of research that has been conducted in the area; secondly, the gulf that exists between the generation of younger, 'digital native' generations and the older generations who are not as engaged with social media; and finally, the huge potential that exists for the use of social media as a protective influence for adolescents. With proper engagement, policy makers and health professionals could use social media to connect with young people on issues like mental health.

  14. Acute stress in residents playing different roles during emergency simulations: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Roger Daglius; Scalabrini-Neto, Augusto

    2017-06-19

    To investigate acute stress response in residents playing nurse and physician roles during emergency simulations. Sixteen second-year internal medicine residents participated in teams of four (two playing physician roles and two playing nurse roles). Stress markers were assessed in 24 simulations at baseline (T1) and immediately after the scenario (T2), using heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, salivary α-amylase, salivary cortisol and salivary interleukin-1β. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was applied at T2. Continuous data were summarized for the median (1st-3rd interquartile ranges), and the Mann-Whitney U Test was used to compare the groups. The percent variations of the stress markers in the physician and nurse roles, respectively, were the following: heart rate: 70.5% (46.0-136.5) versus 53.0% (29.5-117.0), U=89.00, p=0.35; systolic blood pressure: 3.0% (0.0-10.0) versus 2.0% (-2.0-9.0), U=59.50, p=0.46; diastolic blood pressure: 5.5% (0.0-13.5) versus 0.0% (0.0-11.5), U=91.50, p=0.27; α-amylase: -5.35% (-62.70-73.90) versus 42.3% (12.4-133.8), U=23.00, p=0.08; cortisol: 35.3% (22.2-83.5) versus 42.3% (12.4-133.8), U=64.00, p=0.08); and interleukin-1β: 54.4% (21.9-109.3) versus 112.55% (29.7-263.3), U= 24.00, p=0.277. For the physician and nurse roles, respectively, the average heart rate was 101.5 (92.0-104.0) versus 91.0 (83.0-99.5) beats per minute, U=96.50, p=0.160; and the state anxiety inventory score was 44.0 (40.0-50.0) versus 42.0 (37.50-48.0) points, U= 89.50, p=0.319. Different roles during emergency simulations evoked similar participants' engagement, as indicated by acute stress levels. Role-play strategies can provide high psychological fidelity for simulation-based training, and these results reinforce the potential of role-play methodologies in medical education.

  15. A study on the role that quorum sensing play in antibiotic-resistant plasmid conjugative transfer in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yueheng; Ma, Qingping; Su, Bingmei; Chen, Rui; Lin, Juan; Lin, Zhifen; Wang, Dali; Yu, Yang

    2018-03-01

    Horizontal genes transfer (HGT) plays an important role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment. However, the mechanisms of HGT of ARGs under the influence of antibiotics in sub-MIC remain rarely explored. Moreover, given its collective nature, HGT was considered to be relative to quorum sensing (QS) system. To investigate whether QS has any impact on horizontal gene transfer of ARGs, experiments were conducted to determine the conjugative efficiency of plasmid RP4 on Escherichia coli (E.coli) under the influences of tetracyclines (TCs), quorum sensing autoinducers (AIs) and quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs). The results indicated that the sub-MIC TCs could facilitate the conjugative transfer of RP4, a process which could be enhanced by AIs but inhibited by QSIs. This study demonstrated the roles that QS played in the dissemination of ARGs, and provided theoretical insights into the mechanism of HGT of ARGs in the environment.

  16. Medical students' perspective about role-plays as a teaching strategy in community medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, Iram; Mukhtar, Fatima; Hashmi, Noreen Rahat

    2012-04-01

    To assess the students' perspective about role-plays conducted as a teaching methodology in community medicine. A quasi-experimental study. Department of Community Medicine at Fatima Memorial College of Medicine and Dentistry from July to November 2010. A probability technique of simple random sampling was used to collect 63 students from the third and fourth year MBBS who were randomly distributed in five sub-groups. They were variously ascribed the roles of obsceners, participants and helpers. A questionnaire was distributed to collect student's responses. The data was analyzed on SPSS version 17 to compare the responses. Chi-square test was applied and p-value was fixed at andragogy (p = 0.005) and 48 (76.2%) said that it provoked critical thinking about the subject (p = 0.038). Fifty-four students (85.7%) admitted that their attention span was better in role-plays as compared to lectures (p = 0.047). Role-plays were well accepted by the students as an effective teaching methodology and can be incorporated as a part of teaching strategies in Community Medicine.

  17. A Quantitative Content Analysis of Leveled Vocabulary Embedded within Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    This content analysis examined levels of vocabulary within massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). A total of six MMORPGs were studied; three were pay-to-play (P2P), and three were free-to-play (F2P). Sixty hours of game play (10 hours per game) provided the researcher with 50,240 embedded vocabulary words. Each MMORPG was…

  18. Role and Importance of Evaluation in Management Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela NICOARA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In determining the enterprise value is assessed, are taken into account all areas that help to generate future profits in the întreprindrii evaluated, respectively. In this respect, a special role is managerial decision.This is the main tool to achieve business objectives, which should be based on past actual situation of the enterprise, the current existing ralitatile on forecasting ability, but also work with other specialisti.Rezultatele assessment is an important source of decision management.

  19. The effect of two kinds of role playing on self-evaluation of improved assertiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipper, D A

    1992-03-01

    The study investigated the "differential effect of role-playing enactments" hypothesis through self-evaluations of improvement in assertiveness by participants in an assertive training program. Twenty-two nonassertive Israeli students were trained in two groups: mimetic-replications (action modeling, n = 12) and spontaneous (self-produced action, n = 10) role-playing interventions. Comparisons of their scores on the Self-Expression College Scale (CSES) before and after the training showed that both groups significantly improved their self-evaluations, but the mimetic-replication group did better. In particular, this group scored significantly higher on the CSES first factor (the willingness to take risks in situations that involved other, significant persons).

  20. Do PhD supervisors play a role in bridging academic cultures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elliot, Dely; Kobayashi, Sofie

    Our study reports a phenomenological investigation of ten international PhD students’ and nine supervisors’ first-hand experience of being in doctoral supervisory relationships in a Danish setting. In-depth qualitative data were gathered through face-to-face individual interviews, which explored...... differences and challenges experienced as a result of diversity with respect to their educational background and practices, particularly the pedagogic variation. In the same way that the literature suggests that educators play a crucial role in mediating such diversity in the teaching and learning contexts...... relationship (that crosses over academic and non-academic concerns) and the distinct role it plays deserves further attention. Cotterall, S. (2013). More than just a brain: emotions and the doctoral experience. Higher Education Research & Development, 1-14. Wright, T. (2003). Postgraduate research students...