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  1. Significant roles played by interleukin-10 in outcome of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobini, Masoud; Mortazavi, Maryam; Nadi, Somayeh; Zare-Bidaki, Mohammad; Pourtalebi, Somayeh; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi

    2016-02-01

    Imbalanced immune responses against fetus alloantigens can lead to abnormality in pregnancy. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) plays key roles in regulation of immune responses against self and foreign antigens to induce tolerance to these antigens. Therefore, alteration in expression of IL-10 during pregnancy may result in several pathologic conditions such as preterm labor. IL-10 leads to a normal pregnancy via several molecular mechanisms including development of tolerogenic dendritic cells, T regulatory lymphocytes and activation of the JAK1/STAT3 pathway in the target cells. This review has collected recent data regarding the status of IL-10 expression during term and preterm deliveries and also its molecular mechanisms that lead to a normal pregnancy.

  2. Significant roles played by interleukin-10 in outcome of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mobini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Imbalanced immune responses against fetus alloantigens can lead to abnormality in pregnancy. Interleukin-10(IL-10 plays key roles in regulation of immune responses against self and foreign antigens to induce tolerance to these antigens. Therefore, alteration in expression of IL-10 during pregnancy may result in several pathologic conditions such as preterm labor. IL-10 leads to a normal pregnancy via several molecular mechanisms including development of tolerogenic dendritic cells, T regulatory lymphocytes and activation of the JAK1/STAT3 pathway in the target cells. This review has collected recent data regarding the status of IL-10 expression during term and preterm deliveries and also its molecular mechanisms that lead to a normal pregnancy.

  3. TLR3 Plays Significant Roles against HBV-Associated HCC

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    Xiao-lan Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3 is a pattern-recognizing receptor that is involved in immune signaling and plays a crucial role in survival by being able to recognize various viral components including double-stranded RNA (dsRNA. The role of TLR3 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC with hepatitis B virus (HBV infections is not well understood. To investigate the ability of TLR3 in regulating HBV replication in HCC, 80 cases of human HCC were collected and their tissue microarray was made. In HCC cells, the expression and location of TLR3, hepatitis-associated virus, and interstitial immunoreactive cells were assayed with immunohistochemical staining. The apoptosis of tumor cells was also detected by TUNEL stain. Correlations between TLR3 expression and HBV infection, interstitial immunoreactive cells, and cells apoptosis in HCC were investigated. In addition, we explored whether TLR3 agonist dsRNA can inhibit HepG2.2.15 cells secreting HBV. We found that the cytoplasmic expression of TLR3 in HCC is positively related to HBsAg infection and HCC with cirrhosis and promotes interstitial immunoreactive cells infiltration and cancer cells apoptosis. In HepG2.2.15 cells, dsRNA inhibited the secretion of HBV and induced apoptosis. These results indicate that TLR3 signaling activity may be involved in immune responses against HBV in HCC.

  4. Significant roles played by IL-10 in Chlamydia infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Hamid; Zare-Bidaki, Mohammad; Zainodini, Nahid; Assar, Shokrollah; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi

    2014-06-01

    Chlamydia species are obligate intracellular parasites which cause usually asymptomatic genital tract infections and also are associated with several complications. Previous studies demonstrated that immune responses to Chlamydia species are different and the diseases will be limited to some cases. Additionally, Chlamydia species are able to modulate immune responses via regulating expression of some immune system molecules including cytokines. IL-10, as the main anti-inflammatory cytokine, plays important roles in the induction of immune-tolerance against self-antigen and also immune-homeostasis after microbe elimination. Furthermore, it has been documented that ectopic expression of IL-10 is associated with several chronic infectious diseases. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that changes in the regulation of this cytokine can be associated with infection with several species of Chlamydia and their associated complications. This review collected the recent information regarding the association and relationship of IL-10 with Chlamydia infections. Another aim of this review article is to address recent data regarding the association of genetic variations (polymorphisms) of IL-10 and Chlamydia infections.

  5. A Significant Play

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁海光; 陈明

    2002-01-01

    Yesterday evening, I went to see a play. It was really significant. It was about Zheng Xiaoyue, a very clever and diligent middle school student. Unfortunately, her mother died when she and her brother were very young. Her father was out of work and,

  6. On whether mirror neurons play a significant role in processing affective prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Vijayachandra

    2009-02-01

    Several behavioral and neuroimaging studies have indicated that both right and left cortical structures and a few subcortical ones are involved in processing affective prosody. Recent investigations have shown that the mirror neuron system plays a crucial role in several higher-level functions such as empathy, theory of mind, language, etc., but no studies so far link the mirror neuron system with affective prosody. In this paper is a speculation that the mirror neuron system, which serves as a common neural substrate for different higher-level functions, may play a significant role in processing affective prosody via its connections with the limbic lobe. Actual research must apply electrophysiological and neuroimaging techniques to assess whether the mirror neuron systems underly affective prosody in humans.

  7. Efflux pumps of Mycobacterium tuberculosis play a significant role in antituberculosis activity of potential drug candidates.

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    Balganesh, Meenakshi; Dinesh, Neela; Sharma, Sreevalli; Kuruppath, Sanjana; Nair, Anju V; Sharma, Umender

    2012-05-01

    Active efflux of drugs mediated by efflux pumps that confer drug resistance is one of the mechanisms developed by bacteria to counter the adverse effects of antibiotics and chemicals. To understand these efflux mechanisms in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we generated knockout (KO) mutants of four efflux pumps of the pathogen belonging to different classes. We measured the MICs and kill values of two different compound classes on the wild type (WT) and the efflux pump (EP) KO mutants in the presence and absence of the efflux inhibitors verapamil and l-phenylalanyl-l-arginyl-β-naphthylamide (PAβN). Among the pumps studied, the efflux pumps belonging to the ABC (ATP-binding cassette) class, encoded by Rv1218c, and the SMR (small multidrug resistance) class, encoded by Rv3065, appear to play important roles in mediating the efflux of different chemical classes and antibiotics. Efflux pumps encoded by Rv0849 and Rv1258c also mediate the efflux of these compounds, but to a lesser extent. Increased killing is observed in WT M. tuberculosis cells by these compounds in the presence of either verapamil or PAβN. The efflux pump KO mutants were more susceptible to these compounds in the presence of efflux inhibitors. We have shown that these four efflux pumps of M. tuberculosis play a vital role in mediating efflux of different chemical scaffolds. Inhibitors of one or several of these efflux pumps could have a significant impact in the treatment of tuberculosis. The identification and characterization of Rv0849, a new efflux pump belonging to the MFS (major facilitator superfamily) class, are reported.

  8. Higher resolution stimulus facilitates depth perception: MT+ plays a significant role in monocular depth perception.

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    Tsushima, Yoshiaki; Komine, Kazuteru; Sawahata, Yasuhito; Hiruma, Nobuyuki

    2014-10-20

    Today, we human beings are facing with high-quality virtual world of a completely new nature. For example, we have a digital display consisting of a high enough resolution that we cannot distinguish from the real world. However, little is known how such high-quality representation contributes to the sense of realness, especially to depth perception. What is the neural mechanism of processing such fine but virtual representation? Here, we psychophysically and physiologically examined the relationship between stimulus resolution and depth perception, with using luminance-contrast (shading) as a monocular depth cue. As a result, we found that a higher resolution stimulus facilitates depth perception even when the stimulus resolution difference is undetectable. This finding is against the traditional cognitive hierarchy of visual information processing that visual input is processed continuously in a bottom-up cascade of cortical regions that analyze increasingly complex information such as depth information. In addition, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results reveal that the human middle temporal (MT+) plays a significant role in monocular depth perception. These results might provide us with not only the new insight of our neural mechanism of depth perception but also the future progress of our neural system accompanied by state-of- the-art technologies.

  9. Diagnosing sputum/smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis: Does fibre-optic bronchoscopy play a significant role?

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    Bachh Arshad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Diagnosis of sputum/smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients can be both challenging and time consuming with many patients being put on empirical anti-tubercular treatment. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy may provide a confirmative and early diagnosis in such patients. Aims: To assess the role of fibreoptic bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of sputum /smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 75 suspected sputum / smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis cases attending Pulmonary Medicine Department of Mamata Medical College and Hospital, Khammam, AP. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy was performed; culture of sputum and bronchial washings for Mycobacterium tuberculosis was done by BACTEC method. Results: A final diagnosis of sputum /smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis was made in 60 patients. Bronchial washings smear for acid-fast bacilli (AFB was positive in 21 patients while culture of bronchial washings was positive in 39 patients. In 29 patients, smear or culture of bronchial washing alone contributed to the final diagnosis. Total yield of bronchoscopy in diagnosis of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis was 83.33% (50/60; bronchoscopy was the only diagnostic method in 66% cases (40/60 with bronchial washings being the only diagnostic method in 48.33%. Bronchial washings smear for AFB and histopathological evidence of caseating granuloma made immediate diagnosis possible in 48.33% (29/60 patients. Conclusion: Our study suggests that fibreoptic bronchoscopy can provide excellent material for diagnosis of suspected cases of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in whom smears of expectorated sputum do not reveal mycobacteria.

  10. Gallstones play a significant role in Salmonella spp. gallbladder colonization and carriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Robert W.; Rosales-Reyes, Roberto; la Luz Ramírez-Aguilar, María de; Chapa-Azuela, Oscar; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia; Gunn, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi can colonize the gallbladder and persist in an asymptomatic carrier state that is frequently associated with the presence of gallstones. We have shown that salmonellae form bile-mediated biofilms on human gallstones and cholesterol-coated surfaces in vitro. Here, we test the hypothesis that biofilms on cholesterol gallbladder stones facilitate typhoid carriage in mice and men. Naturally resistant (Nramp1+/+) mice fed a lithogenic diet developed cholesterol gallstones that supported biofilm formation during persistent serovar Typhimurium infection and, as a result, demonstrated enhanced fecal shedding and enhanced colonization of gallbladder tissue and bile. In typhoid endemic Mexico City, 5% of enrolled cholelithiasis patients carried serovar Typhi, and bacterial biofilms could be visualized on gallstones from these carriers whereas significant biofilms were not detected on gallstones from Escherichia coli infected gallbladders. These findings offer direct evidence that gallstone biofilms occur in humans and mice, which facilitate gallbladder colonization and shedding. PMID:20176950

  11. Local persistence and global dissemination play a significant role in the circulation of influenza B viruses in Leyte Island, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuse, Yuki; Odagiri, Takashi; Tamaki, Raita; Kamigaki, Taro; Otomaru, Hirono; Opinion, Jamie; Santo, Arlene; Dolina-Lacaba, Donna; Daya, Edgard; Okamoto, Michiko; Saito-Obata, Mariko; Inobaya, Marianette; Tan, Alvin; Tallo, Veronica; Lupisan, Socorro; Suzuki, Akira; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-05-01

    The local and global transmission dynamics of influenza B virus is not completely understood mainly because of limited epidemiological and sequence data for influenza B virus. Here we report epidemiological and molecular characteristics of influenza B viruses from 2010 to 2013 in Leyte Island, Philippines. Phylogenetic analyses showed global dissemination of the virus among both neighboring and distant areas. The analyses also suggest that southeast Asia is not a distributor of influenza B virus and can introduce the virus from other areas. Furthermore, we found evidence on the local persistence of the virus over years in the Philippines. Taken together, both local persistence and global dissemination play a significant role in the circulation of influenza B virus.

  12. Role-Playing Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)

  13. Role-Playing Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)

  14. HMGB1 and Histones Play a Significant Role in Inducing Systemic Inflammation and Multiple Organ Dysfunctions in Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenhunen, Jyrki; Tonnessen, Tor Inge

    2017-01-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) starts as a local inflammation of pancreatic tissue that induces the development of multiple extrapancreatic organs dysfunction; however, the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. Ischemia-reperfusion, circulating inflammatory cytokines, and possible bile cytokines significantly contribute to gut mucosal injury and intestinal bacterial translocation (BT) during SAP. Circulating HMGB1 level is significantly increased in SAP patients and HMGB1 is an important factor that mediates (at least partly) gut BT during SAP. Gut BT plays a critical role in triggering/inducing systemic inflammation/sepsis in critical illness, and profound systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) can lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) during SAP, and systemic inflammation with multiorgan dysfunction is the cause of death in experimental SAP. Therefore, HMGB1 is an important factor that links gut BT and systemic inflammation. Furthermore, HMGB1 significantly contributes to multiple organ injuries. The SAP patients also have significantly increased circulating histones and cell-free DNAs levels, which can reflect the disease severity and contribute to multiple organ injuries in SAP. Hepatic Kupffer cells (KCs) are the predominant source of circulating inflammatory cytokines in SAP, and new evidence indicates that hepatocyte is another important source of circulating HMGB1 in SAP; therefore, treating the liver injury is important in SAP. PMID:28316860

  15. HMGB1 and Histones Play a Significant Role in Inducing Systemic Inflammation and Multiple Organ Dysfunctions in Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runkuan Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP starts as a local inflammation of pancreatic tissue that induces the development of multiple extrapancreatic organs dysfunction; however, the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. Ischemia-reperfusion, circulating inflammatory cytokines, and possible bile cytokines significantly contribute to gut mucosal injury and intestinal bacterial translocation (BT during SAP. Circulating HMGB1 level is significantly increased in SAP patients and HMGB1 is an important factor that mediates (at least partly gut BT during SAP. Gut BT plays a critical role in triggering/inducing systemic inflammation/sepsis in critical illness, and profound systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS can lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS during SAP, and systemic inflammation with multiorgan dysfunction is the cause of death in experimental SAP. Therefore, HMGB1 is an important factor that links gut BT and systemic inflammation. Furthermore, HMGB1 significantly contributes to multiple organ injuries. The SAP patients also have significantly increased circulating histones and cell-free DNAs levels, which can reflect the disease severity and contribute to multiple organ injuries in SAP. Hepatic Kupffer cells (KCs are the predominant source of circulating inflammatory cytokines in SAP, and new evidence indicates that hepatocyte is another important source of circulating HMGB1 in SAP; therefore, treating the liver injury is important in SAP.

  16. Role Playing and Skits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letwin, Robert, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Explores non-scripted role playing, dialogue role playing, sociodrama, and skits as variations of simulation techniques. Provides step-by-step guidelines for conducting such sessions. Successful Meetings, Bill Communications, Inc., 1422 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 19102. Subscription Rates: yearly (US, Canada, Mexico) $14.00; elsewhere,…

  17. Monocarboxylate transporter 4 plays a significant role in the neuroprotective mechanism of ischemic preconditioning in transient cerebral ischemia

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    Seongkweon Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs, which carry monocarboxylates such as lactate across biological membranes, have been associated with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion process. In this study, we studied the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC on MCT4 immunoreactivity after 5 minutes of transient cerebral ischemia in the gerbil. Animals were randomly designated to four groups (sham-operated group, ischemia only group, IPC + sham-operated group and IPC + ischemia group. A serious loss of neuron was found in the stratum pyramidale of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1, not CA2/3, of the ischemia-only group at 5 days post-ischemia; however, in the IPC + ischemia groups, neurons in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 were well protected. Weak MCT4 immunoreactivity was found in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 in the sham-operated group. MCT4 immunoreactivity in the stratum pyramidale began to decrease at 2 days post-ischemia and was hardly detected at 5 days post-ischemia; at this time point, MCT4 immunoreactivity was newly expressed in astrocytes. In the IPC + sham-operated group, MCT4 immunoreactivity in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 was increased compared with the sham-operated group, and, in the IPC + ischemia group, MCT4 immunoreactivity was also increased in the stratum pyramidale compared with the ischemia only group. Briefly, present findings show that IPC apparently protected CA1 pyramidal neurons and increased or maintained MCT4 expression in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 after transient cerebral ischemia. Our findings suggest that MCT4 appears to play a significant role in the neuroprotective mechanism of IPC in the gerbil with transient cerebral ischemia.

  18. Selective block of IKs plays a significant role in MAP triangulation induced by IKr block in isolated rabbit heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérard, N C; Traebert, M; Suter, W; Dumotier, B M

    2008-01-01

    The role of IKr (rapidly-activating delayed rectifier K(+) current) block in triangulation of monophasic action potentials (MAP) and in development of torsade de pointes (TdP) arrhythmia is known. Combined IKr and IKs (slowly-activating delayed rectifier K(+) current) block has been demonstrated to promote TdP. The aim of this study was to describe a possible implication of IKs block in MAP triangulation. Four contact electrodes were placed on the epicardium of the left ventricle of Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts to record monophasic action potentials (MAP), with an IKr blocker d,l-sotalol (3 to 100 microM, n=6) or a non-selective IKr blocker, quinidine (1 to 30 microM, n=6). Their effects were assessed with or without a specific IKs blocker chromanol 293B (20 microM, n=6), on MAP duration at 30, 60 and 90% of repolarization (APD30, 60 and 90, respectively) and MAP triangulation (APD90-APD30) at 1 and 0.2 Hz. D,L-sotalol increased significantly APD90 and triangulation with reverse use-dependency for concentrations > or =10 microM. Quinidine markedly prolonged APD90 and triangulation with reverse use-dependency at concentrations > or =3 microM. Chromanol 293B alone had no effects on APD, but when combined with D,L-sotalol or quinidine (i) increased APD prolonging effects, (ii) lowered values of pro-arrhythmic concentrations, (iii) increased incidence and length of D,L-sotalol- or quinidine-induced Early Afterdepolarizations (EADs) and TdP. All these events were primarily due to an important slowing of final repolarization, i.e. a marked increased triangulation. IKs, even of low amplitude in rabbits, plays a key role in ventricular repolarization. IKs is involved in prolonged MAP duration mainly by triangulation and subsequent increased drug arrhythmogenicity. Therefore drug affinity for IKs must be evaluated with IKr studies as part of preclinical drug cardiac safety assessment.

  19. Playing the Role

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The G20 London summit made history. While applauding the summit’s productive communique, Ni Xiaoling, senior financial observer with Xinhua News Agency, warns of the gap between the greater responsibilities the International Monetary Fund shoulders and its limited capabilities to play the role of coordinator in economic globalization.

  20. Serotonin gene variants are unlikely to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of the sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, David S

    2013-11-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is defined as the sudden and unexpected death of an infant less than 12 months of age that is related to a sleep period and remains unexplained after a complete autopsy, death scene investigation, and review of the clinical history. The cause of SIDS is unknown, but a major subset of SIDS is proposed to result from abnormalities in serotonin (5-HT) and related neurotransmitters in regions of the lower brainstem that result in failure of protective homeostatic responses to life-threatening challenges during sleep. Multiple studies have implicated gene variants that affect different elements of 5-HT neurotransmission in the pathogenesis of these abnormalities in SIDS. In this review I discuss the data from these studies together with some new data correlating genotype with brainstem 5-HT neurochemistry in the same SIDS cases and conclude that these gene variants are unlikely to play a major role in the pathogenesis of the medullary 5-HT abnormalities observed in SIDS.

  1. Releases of surgically deafened homing pigeons indicate that aural cues play a significant role in their navigational system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrum, Jonathan T; Manley, Geoffrey A

    2015-10-01

    Experienced homing pigeons with extirpated cochleae and lagenae were released from six sites in upstate New York and western Pennsylvania on 17 days between 1973 and 1975 by William T. Keeton and his co-workers at Cornell University. The previously unpublished data indicate that departure directions of the operated birds were significantly different from those of sham-operated control birds (314 total), indicating that aural cues play an important part in the pigeon's navigational system. Moreover, propagation modeling of infrasonic waves using meteorological data for the release days supports the possibility that control birds used infrasonic signals to determine their homeward direction. Local acoustic 'shadow' zones, therefore, could have caused initial disorientation of control birds at release sites where they were normally well oriented. Experimental birds plausibly employed an alternate 'route-reversal' strategy to return home perhaps using their ocular-based magnetic compass. We suggest, based on Keeton's results from another site of long-term disorientation, that experienced pigeons depend predominantly on infrasonic cues for initial orientation, and that surgical removal of their aural sense compelled them to switch to a secondary navigational strategy.

  2. Endomembrane Ca2+-AtPases play a significant role in virus-induced adaptation to oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabala, Sergey; Bækgaard, Lone; Shabala, Lana

    2011-01-01

    Although the role of Ca2+ influx channels in oxidative stress signaling and cross-tolerance in plants is well established, little is known about the role of active Ca2+ efflux systems in this process. In our recent paper,17 we reported Potato Virus X (PVX)-induced acquired resistance to oxidative...... for practical applications in agriculture, after in-depth comprehension of the fundamental mechanisms involved in common responses to environmental factors at the genomic, cellular and organismal levels....

  3. Sensory feedback plays a significant role in generating walking gait and in gait transition in salamanders: A simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalin eHarischandra

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Here, we use a three-dimensional, neuro-musculo-mechanical model of a salamander with realistic physical parameters in order to investigate the role of sensory feedback in gait generation and transition. Activation of limb and axial muscles were driven by neural output patterns obtained from a central pattern generator (CPG which is composed of simulated spiking neurons with adaptation. The CPG consists of a body CPG and four limb CPGs that are interconnected via synapses both ipsilateraly and contralaterally. We use the model both with and without sensory modulation and for different combinations of ipsilateral and contralateral coupling between the limb CPGs. We found that the proprioceptive sensory inputs are essential in obtaining a coordinated walking gait. The sensory feedback includes the signals coming from the stretch receptor like intraspinal neurons located in the girdle regions and the limb stretch receptors residing in the hip and scapula regions of the salamander. On the other hand, coordinated motor output patterns for the trotting gait were obtainable without the sensory inputs. We found that the gait transition from walking to trotting can be induced by increased activity of the descending drive coming from the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR and is helped by the sensory inputs at the hip and scapula regions detecting the late stance phase. More neurophysiological experiments are required to identify the precise type of mechanoreceptors in the salamander and the neural mechanisms mediating the sensory modulation.

  4. THE VALUE OF ROLE PLAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    IntroductionIn China,the English as a foreign language (EFL) class for non-English majors at college levelprovides little opportunity for oral interaction among students.One solution to this problem is toadopt a series of communicative teaching techniques.Role play is one such technique.This paperattempts to assess the value of role play by analysing our experience of using it as a communicationactivity.

  5. Motivations for play in computer role-playing games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the motivations for play in the context of single-and multi-player digital Role-Playing Games (RPGs) are examined. Survey data were drawn from respondents online and participants in a related experimental study. The results indicate that motivations for play are not simple constructs......, but rather composed of multiple motivational drivers that are heavily interrelated and act in concert. Character uniqueness and Discovery & Immersion were the highest ranked motivational categories. Different levels of detail in motivations for playing single-/multi- Player RPGs were located......, with mechanistic/tactical play and character-based/social play being the two overall motivational factors. Copyright 2008 ACM....

  6. Psychiatrists' Perceptions of Role-Playing Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Eric; Chiniara, Carl; Biskin, Robert; Montoro, Richard

    2015-09-01

    The literature has seen a surge in research on the mental health impacts of technologies such as Facebook, video games, and massively-multiplayer online role-playing games such as World of Warcraft, but little is known regarding the mental health impact of non-video role-playing games, such as Dungeons & Dragons. The present study examines how psychiatrists' perceive role-playing games and whether they play them. Psychiatrists at a tertiary care centre in Canada completed a questionnaire assessing history of playing role-playing games and whether they associate them with psychopathology. Forty-eight psychiatrists responded. Twenty-three percent have played a role-playing game over their lifetimes. Twenty-two percent believed there was an association between psychopathology and role-playing games. A majority of psychiatrists who responded do not associate role-playing games with psychopathology. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  7. Motivations for play in computer role-playing games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the motivations for play in the context of single-and multi-player digital Role-Playing Games (RPGs) are examined. Survey data were drawn from respondents online and participants in a related experimental study. The results indicate that motivations for play are not simple constructs......, but rather composed of multiple motivational drivers that are heavily interrelated and act in concert. Character uniqueness and Discovery & Immersion were the highest ranked motivational categories. Different levels of detail in motivations for playing single-/multi- Player RPGs were located...

  8. I Play Roles, Therefore I Am

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Waade, Anne Marit

    2007-01-01

    -reflecting activity is getting an increasingly growing attention from the media, and the fact that educators, teachers, and development consultants have discovered the potential inherent in role-playing, both as an idea and a strategy. In this essay, we place leisure role-playing in a broader perspective, not only...... in relation to actual phenomena in mediatized popular culture (such as computer games) or to storytelling in organizations, but also in relation to role-playing as a tradition and theoretical consideration within education, theatre, and the social sciences. The points and discussions are based on our book......The attention paid to live-action role-playing and other forms of leisure role-playing has exploded over the past few years, both due to the fact that the role-playing community continues to attract a lot of new members, the fact that role-playing as a creative, self-organizing and self...

  9. Minor Constituents in Rice Bran Oil and Sesame Oil Play a Significant Role in Modulating Lipid Homeostasis and Inflammatory Markers in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalagala, Poorna C R; Sugasini, Dhavamani; Ramaprasad, Talahalli Ravichandra; Lokesh, Belur Ramaswamy

    2017-07-01

    The effects of feeding rats with groundnut oil (GNO), rice bran oil (RBO), and sesame oil (SESO) on serum lipids, liver lipids, and inflammatory markers were evaluated in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed with AIN-93 diet supplemented with 10 wt% of GNO, RBO, and SESO in the form of native (N) and minor constituent-removed (MCR) oils. Rats given RBO and SESO showed significant reduction in serum and liver lipids, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, cytokines in liver, and eicosanoids in leukocytes as compared with the rats given GNO and MCR oils. The rats fed with native oils of RBO and SESO showed an upregulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and downregulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65. These effects of native oil were significantly compromised when rats were given MCR oils. In conclusion, the minor constituents significantly support the hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory properties of RBO and SESO.

  10. The vesicle size of DDA:TDB liposomal adjuvants plays a role in the cell-mediated immune response but has no significant effect on antibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen-Lacey, Malou; Devitt, Andrew; Perrie, Yvonne

    2011-09-05

    The use of cationic liposomes as experimental adjuvants for subunit peptide of protein vaccines is well documented. Recently the cationic liposome CAF01, composed of dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) and trehalose dibehenate (TDB), has entered Phase I clinical trials for use in a tuberculosis (TB) vaccine. CAF01 liposomes are a heterogeneous population with a mean vesicle size of 500 nm; a strong retention of antigen at the injection site and a Th1-biassed immune response are noted. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether CAF01 liposomes of significantly different vesicle sizes exhibited altered pharmacokinetics in vivo and cellular uptake with activation in vitro. Furthermore, the immune response against the TB antigen Ag85B-ESAT-6 was followed when various sized CAF01 liposomes were used as vaccine adjuvants. The results showed no differences in vaccine (liposome or antigen) draining from the injection site, however, significant differences in the movement of liposomes to the popliteal lymph node were noted. Liposome uptake by THP-1 vitamin D3 stimulated macrophage-like cells did not show a liposome size-dependent pattern of uptake. Finally, whilst there were no significant differences in the IgG1/2 regardless of the liposome size used as a delivery vehicle for Ag85B-ESAT-6, vesicle size has a size dependent effect on cell proliferation and IL-10 production with larger liposomes (in excess of 2 μm) promoting the highest proliferation and lowest IL-10 responses, yet vesicles of ~500 nm promoting higher IFN-γ cytokine production from splenocytes and higher IL-1β at the site of injection.

  11. Psychodrama: group psychotherapy through role playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipper, D A

    1992-10-01

    The theory and the therapeutic procedure of classical psychodrama are described along with brief illustrations. Classical psychodrama and sociodrama stemmed from role theory, enactments, "tele," the reciprocity of choices, and the theory of spontaneity-robopathy and creativity. The discussion focuses on key concepts such as the therapeutic team, the structure of the session, transference and reality, countertransference, the here-and-now and the encounter, the group-as-a-whole, resistance and difficult clients, and affect and cognition. Also described are the neoclassical approaches of psychodrama, action methods, and clinical role playing, and the significance of the concept of behavioral simulation in group psychotherapy.

  12. Surface Charges and Shell Crosslinks Each Play Significant Roles in Mediating Degradation, Biofouling, Cytotoxicity and Immunotoxicity for Polyphosphoester-based Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsabahy, Mahmoud; Zhang, Shiyi; Zhang, Fuwu; Deng, Zhou J.; Lim, Young H.; Wang, Hai; Parsamian, Perouza; Hammond, Paula T.; Wooley, Karen L.

    2013-11-01

    The construction of nanostructures from biodegradable precursors and shell/core crosslinking have been pursued as strategies to solve the problems of toxicity and limited stability, respectively. Polyphosphoester (PPE)-based micelles and crosslinked nanoparticles with non-ionic, anionic, cationic, and zwitterionic surface characteristics for potential packaging and delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents, were constructed using a quick and efficient synthetic strategy, and importantly, demonstrated remarkable differences in terms of cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and biofouling properties, as a function of their surface characteristics and also with dependence on crosslinking throughout the shell layers. For instance, crosslinking of zwitterionic micelles significantly reduced the immunotoxicity, as evidenced from the absence of secretions of any of the 23 measured cytokines from RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages treated with the nanoparticles. The micelles and their crosslinked analogs demonstrated lower cytotoxicity than several commercially-available vehicles, and their degradation products were not cytotoxic to cells at the range of the tested concentrations. PPE-nanoparticles are expected to have broad implications in clinical nanomedicine as alternative vehicles to those involved in several of the currently available medications.

  13. Do unsafe tetanus toxoid injections play a significant role in the transmission of HIV/AIDS? Evidence from seven African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Walque, D

    2008-04-01

    Although sexual transmission is generally considered to be the main factor driving the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa, recent studies have claimed that iatrogenic transmission should be considered as an important source of HIV infection. In particular, receipt of tetanus toxoid injections during pregnancy has been reported to be associated with HIV infection in Kenya. The objective of this paper is to assess the robustness of this association among women in nationally representative HIV surveys in seven African countries. The association between prophylactic tetanus toxoid injections during pregnancy and HIV infection was analysed, using individual-level data from women who gave birth in the past five years. These data are from the nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys, which included HIV testing in seven African countries: Burkina Faso 2003 (N = 2424), Cameroon 2004 (N = 2600), Ethiopia 2005 (N = 2886), Ghana 2003 (N = 2560), Kenya 2003 (N = 1617), Lesotho 2004 (N = 1278) and Senegal 2005 (N = 2126). Once the odds ratios (OR) were adjusted for five-year age groups and for ethnic, urban and regional indicators, the association between prophylactic tetanus toxoid injections during pregnancy and HIV infection was never statistically significant in any of the seven countries. Only in Cameroon was there an association between previous tetanus toxoid injection and HIV positivity but it became weaker (OR 1.53, 95% CI 0.91 to 2.57) once urban location and ethnic group were adjusted for. Although the risk of HIV infection through unsafe injections and healthcare should not be ignored and should be reduced, it does not seem that there is, at present and in the seven countries studied, strong evidence supporting the claim that unsafe tetanus toxoid injections are a major factor driving the HIV epidemic.

  14. Restaurant Role-Play in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borya, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Research methods is perceived as a technical and difficult topic by some students. Using role-play to teach it can make it more accessible, meaningful and engaging. Role-playing the familiar roles of customer and waiting staff at a restaurant and discussing the variables that may affect the size of tips can help students to learn some of the key…

  15. Using Role Play to Debate Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agell, Laia; Soria, Vanessa; Carrió, Mar

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals in biomedical research is a socio-scientific issue in which decision-making is complicated. In this article, we describe an experience involving a role play activity performed during school visits to the Barcelona Biomedical Research Park (PRBB) to debate animal testing. Role playing games require students to defend different…

  16. Moving educational role-play beyond entertainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus Henriksen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Educational role-play has long proved an effective tool for consultants trying to develop the skills that employees are using for performing certain job functions. However, while educational role-play often is presented as an entertaining means for learning, such insistence on making learning gam...

  17. Using Role Play to Debate Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agell, Laia; Soria, Vanessa; Carrió, Mar

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals in biomedical research is a socio-scientific issue in which decision-making is complicated. In this article, we describe an experience involving a role play activity performed during school visits to the Barcelona Biomedical Research Park (PRBB) to debate animal testing. Role playing games require students to defend different…

  18. Role Playing Research before Dungeons and Dragons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieberoth, Andreas

    of Dungeons and Dragons the hobby community quickly took up this more serious mantle as well. Looking to a few unfortunate cases, and the obvious psychological power of role playing experience, many came to believe that role playing can have a profound psychological impact, but few evidence based studies have...... the effects of roleplaying – long before LARP and Dungeons and Dragons....

  19. Moving educational role-play beyond entertainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus Henriksen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Educational role-play has long proved an effective tool for consultants trying to develop the skills that employees are using for performing certain job functions. However, while educational role-play often is presented as an entertaining means for learning, such insistence on making learning gam...

  20. The TViews Table Role-Playing Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Van Devender

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The TViews Table Role-Playing Game (TTRPG is a digital tabletop role-playing game that runs on the TViews table, bridging the separate worlds of traditional role-playing games with the growing area of massively multiplayer online role-playing games. The TViews table is an interactive tabletop media platform that can track the location of multiple tagged objects in real-time as they are moved around its surface, providing a simultaneous and coincident graphical display. In this paper we present the implementation of the first version of TTRPG, with a content set based on the traditional Dungeons & Dragons rule-set. We also discuss the results of a user study that used TTRPG to explore the possible social context of digital tabletop role-playing games.

  1. I Play Roles, Therefore I Am

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Waade, Anne Marit

    2007-01-01

    -reflecting activity is getting an increasingly growing attention from the media, and the fact that educators, teachers, and development consultants have discovered the potential inherent in role-playing, both as an idea and a strategy. In this essay, we place leisure role-playing in a broader perspective, not only...... in relation to actual phenomena in mediatized popular culture (such as computer games) or to storytelling in organizations, but also in relation to role-playing as a tradition and theoretical consideration within education, theatre, and the social sciences. The points and discussions are based on our book...

  2. Solving the Plagiary Puzzle with Role Plays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moder, Carol Lynn; Halleck, Gene B.

    1995-01-01

    Presents exercises and role plays designed to help English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students enrolled in or bound for American universities understand plagiarism and the need to properly document essays and term papers. (five references) (MDM)

  3. Role-playing for more realistic technical skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikendei, C; Zeuch, A; Dieckmann, P; Roth, C; Schäfer, S; Völkl, M; Schellberg, D; Herzog, W; Jünger, J

    2005-03-01

    Clinical skills are an important and necessary part of clinical competence. Simulation plays an important role in many fields of medical education. Although role-playing is common in communication training, there are no reports about the use of student role-plays in the training of technical clinical skills. This article describes an educational intervention with analysis of pre- and post-intervention self-selected student survey evaluations. After one term of skills training, a thorough evaluation showed that the skills-lab training did not seem very realistic nor was it very demanding for trainees. To create a more realistic training situation and to enhance students' involvement, case studies and role-plays with defined roles for students (i.e. intern, senior consultant) were introduced into half of the sessions. Results of the evaluation in the second term showed that sessions with role-playing were rated significantly higher than sessions without role-playing.

  4. MOVING EDUCATIONAL ROLE-PLAY BEYOND ENTERTAINMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Duus Henriksen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Educational role-play has long proved an effective tool for consultants trying to develop the skills that employees are using for performing certain job functions. However, while educational role-play often is presented as an entertaining means for learning, such insistence on making learning games more gamish seems to have an inhibiting effect on designing and thinking games beyond mere skill acquisition. By emphasising the role-play based process as a conflictual negotiation between distinctive categories of knowledge, this paper presents the explorative application of knowledge, while framing the facilitation of reflective processes as the key for transcending knowledge from the game’s context to that of the participants. While pointing towards the compatibility issues between current conceptions of learning games and the facilitation of reflective processes, the paper emphasises the need for thinking the learning game as a part of a didactic design, rather than something beneficial in itself.

  5. Live action role-playing games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2006-01-01

    Live action role-playing games share a range of characteristics with massively multi-player online games (MMOGs). Because these games have existed for more than 20 years, players of these games have a substantial amount of experience in handling issues pertinent to MMOGs. Survey and review of live...... action role-playing games, whose participant count can be in the thousands, reveal that features such as size, theme, game master-to-player ratio, and others interact to form complex systems that require several different groups of control tools to manage. The way that these games are managed offers...

  6. Role Playing, Issue Importance, and Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarup, Gian

    1981-01-01

    Contrasted three major theories on attitude change: cognitive dissonance, incentive, and social judgment. Results from student questionnaires provided little support for cognitive dissonance. Also provided credible, though overlapping, evidence for incentive and social judgment theories. Improvised role playing produced more change than did…

  7. A Role-Play Rorschach Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricklin, Barry

    1975-01-01

    Three subjects were used in a role playing study based on the subject's own Rorschach responses. The results proved to be valuable as an aspect of therapeutic involvement. Results also help to expand and clarify the psychological meaning of Rorschach images. (Author/DEP)

  8. Role Playing: Rehearsal for Language Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Lee

    1970-01-01

    Argues that in teaching standard English to groups which, like Eskimos and speakers of Hawaiian Pidgin, are quite removed from mainstream American culture, role playing, as natural human behavior, can provide the bridge between classroom drill and real-life utilization of new language patterns. (FB)

  9. Epoxy adhesive plays crucial role at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Epoxy adhesives are set to play a vital role in Europe's biggest-ever scientific experiment at the European Centre for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, thereby helping scientists gain a better understanding of the origins of the universe." (1 page)

  10. Epoxy adhesive plays crucial role at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Epoxy adhesives are set to play a vital role in Europe's biggest-ever scientific experiment at the European Centrefor Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, thereby helping scientists gain a better understanding of the origins of the universe." (1/2 page)

  11. Time perspective as a predictor of massive multiplayer online role-playing game playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukavska, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the relationship between the time perspective (TP) personality trait and massive multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) playing. We investigate the question of frequency of playing. The TP was measured with Zimbardo's TP Inventory (ZTPI), which includes five factors-past negative, past positive, present hedonistic, present fatalistic, and future. The study used data from 154 MMORPG players. We demonstrated that TP partially explained differences within a group of players with respect to the frequency of playing. Significant positive correlations were found between present factors and the amount of time spent playing MMORPGs, and significant negative correlation was found between the future factor and the time spent playing MMORPGs. Our study also revealed the influence of future-present balance on playing time. Players who scored lower in future-present balance variables (their present score was relatively high compared with their future score) reported higher values in playing time. In contrast to referential studies on TP and drug abuse and gambling, present fatalistic TP was demonstrated to be a stronger predictor of extensive playing than present hedonistic TP, which opened the question of motivation for playing. The advantage of our study compared with other personality-based studies lies in the fact that TP is a stable but malleable personality trait with a direct link to playing behavior. Therefore, TP is a promising conceptual resource for excessive playing therapy.

  12. A role-play Rorschach procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricklin, B

    1975-10-01

    Rorschach responses of three subjects were used to stimulate the type of role-playing popularized by Fritz Perls' Gestalt therapy. The standard Rorschachs were given first. Afterwards, each subject was presented with certain of his or her own images as a stimulus for the role-playing. The subjects consisted of a 19-year-old female with severe anxiety attacks, an 11-year-old lad diagnosed as having minimal cerebral dysfunction, and a 46-year-old man who had undergone two years of successful psychotherapy. It is proposed that the resulting data are valuable in expanding and clarifying the psychological meaning of the Rorschach images. Further, the procedure can be utilized, if desired, as a spur to therapeutic involvement.

  13. Role Engagement and Anonymity in Synchronous Online Role Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cornelius

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Role play activities provide opportunities for learners to adopt unfamiliar roles, engage in interactions with others, and get involved in realistic tasks. They are often recommended to foster the development of soft skills and a wider perspective of the world. Such activities are widely used as an online teaching approach, with examples ranging from the simple use of email to the employment of virtual worlds and Web 2.0 technologies.This paper provides a case study of a role play activity which employs real-time anonymous discussion forums and aims to improve our understanding of effective role play and the impact of anonymity. This role play has been effective in educating learners about different perspectives on the issue of Quality in Further Education. The context and implementation of the role play are outlined, and the learners’ interactions and experiences are explored using an investigative analysis of discussion transcripts and semi-structured interviews with participants. The findings suggest that role engagement and anonymity are important components for success in synchronous online role play. Evidence is presented that provides an insight into the factors which encourage role engagement, including prior experiences and contributions from peers. The impact of anonymity is also explored since many participants did not regard the study environment as real and attempted to identify their peers.

  14. Live action role-playing games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2006-01-01

    Live action role-playing games share a range of characteristics with massively multi-player online games (MMOGs). Because these games have existed for more than 20 years, players of these games have a substantial amount of experience in handling issues pertinent to MMOGs. Survey and review of liv...... a variety of venues for further research into how these management techniques can be applied to MMOGs. © 2006 Sage Publications....

  15. Educational role-play: moving beyond entertainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus Henriksen, Thomas

    This paper presents a controversial approach to innovating educational role-play. It is argued that we should stop thinking games as an entertaining mean for facilitating participation, and instead try to see games as a content provider and feedback mechanism. A theoretical model is presented...... on how learning games can benefit from such thinking, allowing learning games to change focus from trivial drill-andpractice purposes, to facilitating advanced learning processes, such as reflection and change learning....

  16. Could the domestic cat play a significant role in the transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis? A study based on qPCR analysis of cat feces in a rural area in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knapp Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcus multilocularis, a cestode parasite responsible for alveolar echinococcosis in humans, is often reported in Europe. It involves red foxes, domestic dogs, and domestic and wild cats as definitive hosts. The parasite infects small mammals and accidentally humans as intermediate hosts and develops in a similar way to a tumor, usually in the liver. Domestic animals are suspected of playing a role in parasite transmission, but this is rarely proven. Moreover, the role of domestic cats is thought to be small, because of experimental studies showing incomplete development of the parasite observed in their intestines. In the present study, we investigated copro-sampling performed in a rural and highly endemic area in Eastern France, on carnivore feces (n = 150. From these samples, the parasite was detected and identified by DNA analysis using quantitative PCR targeting part of a mitochondrial gene (Em-qPCR. Taeniid eggs were isolated from positive-Em-qPCR samples by flotation, and species identification was confirmed by sequencing on DNA extracts. From a total of 43 copro-samples from cats, four tested positive for E. multilocularis by the Em-qPCR. In two of these, we found parasite eggs that were identified as E. multilocularis. This finding was confirmed by sequencing, while one dog stool out of 61 collected was found to be positive, no egg was detectable. At the same time, 34% of fox stools tested positive for the parasite. The present study challenges the current idea that cats are only of minor significance in the E. multilocularis life cycle.

  17. Role Engagement and Anonymity in Synchronous Online Role Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Sarah; Gordon, Carole; Harris, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Role play activities provide opportunities for learners to adopt unfamiliar roles, engage in interactions with others, and get involved in realistic tasks. They are often recommended to foster the development of soft skills and a wider perspective of the world. Such activities are widely used as an online teaching approach, with examples ranging…

  18. Actors in Academia--Roles Professors Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, Mary Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    In order to set the stage for the "actors in academia," the author suggests that the following roles and responsibilities are the most significant ones for the college/university professor, including some for students: (1) Actor; (2) Communicator; (3) Facilitator; (4) Trainer/Coach; (5) Craftsman (craft of teaching); and (6) Manager. After 40…

  19. On the significance of adult play: what does social play tell us about adult horse welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausberger, Martine; Fureix, Carole; Bourjade, Marie; Wessel-Robert, Sabine; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick

    2012-04-01

    Play remains a mystery and adult play even more so. More typical of young stages in healthy individuals, it occurs rarely at adult stages but then more often in captive/domestic animals, which can imply spatial, social and/or feeding deprivations or restrictions that are challenging to welfare, than in animals living in natural conditions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that adult play may reflect altered welfare states and chronic stress in horses, in which, as in several species, play rarely occurs at adult stages in natural conditions. We observed the behaviour (in particular, social play) of riding school horses during occasional outings in a paddock and measured several stress indicators when these horses were in their individual home boxes. Our results revealed that (1) the number of horses and rates of adult play appeared very high compared to field report data and (2) most stress indicators measured differed between `players' and `non-players', revealing that most `playful' animals were suffering from more chronic stress than `non-playful' horses. Frequency of play behaviour correlated with a score of chronic stress. This first discovery of a relationship between adult play and altered welfare opens new lines of research that certainly deserves comparative studies in a variety of species.

  20. TEACHING SPEAKING BY ROLE-PLAY ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadilah Fadilah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The students often find some problems in practising English speaking. The problem frequently found is that their native language causes them difficult to use the foreign language. Other reason is because of motivation lack to practice the second language in daily conversation. They are also too shy and afraid to take part in the conversation. Many factors can cause the problem of the students’ speaking skills namely the students’ interest, the material, and the media among others including the technique in teaching English. There are many ways that can be done by the students to develop their ability in speaking English. The appropriate technique used by the English teacher also supports their interested in practising their speaking. One of the techniques that can be applied is role play.

  1. Empathic Features and Absorption in Fantasy Role-Playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Anissa; Wickramasekera, Ian E; Pekala, Ronald J; Rivers, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the levels of empathy and absorption of individuals who regularly play fantasy and science fiction role-playing games. A hypothesis was developed that higher levels of empathy would be found in individuals who fantasy role-play based upon previous research in hypnosis such as J. R. Hilgard's (1970) imaginative involvement hypothesis, research into the "fantasy prone" personality type (Wilson & Barber, 1981), and the empathic involvement hypothesis (Wickramasekera II & Szlyk, 2003). The participants in the current study were 127 fantasy role-players who volunteered and completed the Davis Interpersonal Reactivity Index (empathy) and the Tellegen Absorption Scale (absorption). The results demonstrated that those who play fantasy role-playing games scored significantly higher than the comparison group on the IRI scale of empathy, confirming the hypothesis that fantasy role-players report experiencing higher levels of empathic involvement with others. Correlational analysis between the measures demonstrated a significant positive correlation between empathy and absorption (r = .43, p fantasy role-players have a uniquely empathically-imaginative style. The results also confirm and extend previous findings on the relationship between empathy and absorption as predicted by the Empathic Involvement Hypothesis (Wickramasekera II & Szlyk, 2003).

  2. MOVING EDUCATIONAL ROLE-PLAY BEYOND ENTERTAINMENT MOVING EDUCATIONAL ROLE-PLAY BEYOND ENTERTAINMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Duus Henriksen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Educational role-play has long proved an effective tool for consultants trying to develop the skills that employees are using for performing certain job functions. However, while educational role-play often is presented as an entertaining means for learning, such insistence on making learning games more gamish seems to have an inhibiting effect on designing and thinking games beyond mere skill acquisition. By emphasising the role-play based process as a conflictual negotiation between distinctive categories of knowledge, this paper presents the explorative application of knowledge, while framing the facilitation of reflective processes as the key for transcending knowledge from the game’s context to that of the participants. While pointing towards the compatibility issues between current conceptions of learning games and the facilitation of reflective processes, the paper emphasises the need for thinking the learning game as a part of a didactic design, rather than something beneficial in itself.Educational role-play has long proved an effective tool for consultants trying to develop the skills that employees are using for performing certain job functions. However, while educational role-play often is presented as an entertaining means for learning, such insistence on making learning games more gamish seems to have an inhibiting effect on designing and thinking games beyond mere skill acquisition. By emphasising the role-play based process as a conflictual negotiation between distinctive categories of knowledge, this paper presents the explorative application of knowledge, while framing the facilitation of reflective processes as the key for transcending knowledge from the game’s context to that of the participants. While pointing towards the compatibility issues between current conceptions of learning games and the facilitation of reflective processes, the paper emphasises the need for thinking the learning game as a part of a didactic

  3. Virtual Playgrounds? Assessing the Playfulness of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kerrie Lewis

    2010-01-01

    Millions of children and adults devote much of their leisure time to playing massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). Most observers commonly categorize computer games as a play activity, but this article asks whether MMORPGs contain activities that might not be play. The author examines the phenomenon of online gaming and…

  4. Use of dyadic role-playing to increase student participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaens, Glenda; Baldwin, Joan H

    2002-01-01

    Dyadic role-playing is a way to combine role-playing and dyad work in class to increase student participation. The instructor can use warm-up exercises to help students reduce their stress, and to recognize the value of role-playing in their journeys toward becoming professional nurses. The advantages, limitations, and practical considerations regarding dyadic role-playing are also highlighted.

  5. "Reluctant Participants" in Role Play Simulations: Stage Fright or Bewilderment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Danny

    1985-01-01

    Discusses factors contributing to participant reluctance in role playing--isolation of role play from the curriculum; lack of interest because of perceived irrelevance to social psychological themes; and acting anxiety. A two-step design which involves gradual role play introduction and observation by reluctant participants is suggested as a…

  6. Rim Sim: A Role-Play Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Robert C.; Frew, Suzanne L.; Howell, David G.; Karl, Herman A.; Rudin, Emily B.

    2003-01-01

    Rim Sim is a 6-hour, eight-party negotiation that focuses on creating a framework for the long-term disaster-recovery efforts. It involves a range of players from five countries affected by two natural disasters: a typhoon about a year ago and an earthquake about 6 months ago. The players are members of an International Disaster Working Group (IDWG) that has been created by an international commission. The IDWG has been charged with drawing up a framework for managing two issues: the reconstruction of regionally significant infrastructure and the design of a mechanism for allocating funding to each country for reconstruction of local infrastructure and ongoing humanitarian needs. The first issue will involve making choices among five options (two harbor options, two airport options, and one rail-line option), each of which will have three levels at which to rebuild. The second issue will involve five starting-point options. Participants are encouraged to invent other options for both issues. The goal of Rim Sim is to raise questions about traditional approaches to disaster-preparedness planning and reconstruction efforts in an international setting, in this case the Pacific Rim. Players must confront the reverberating effects of disasters and the problems of using science and technical information in decisionmaking, and are introduced to a consensus-building approach emphasizing face-to-face dialog and multinational cooperation in dealing with humanitarian concerns, as well as long-term efforts to reconstruct local and regional infrastructure. The Rim Sim simulation raises four key points: ripple effects of disasters, role of science, multiparty negotiation, and building personal relationships.

  7. Insight: Exploring Hidden Roles in Collaborative Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricia Shi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks into interaction modes between players in co-located, collaborative games. In particular, hidden traitor games, in which one or more players is secretly working against the group mission, has the effect of increasing paranoia and distrust between players, so this paper looks into the opposite of a hidden traitor – a hidden benefactor. Rather than sabotaging the group mission, the hidden benefactor would help the group achieve the end goal while still having a reason to stay hidden. The paper explores what games with such a role can look like and how the role changes player interactions. Finally, the paper addresses the divide between video game and board game interaction modes; hidden roles are not common within video games, but they are of growing prevalence in board games. This fact, combined with the exploration of hidden benefactors, reveals that hidden roles is a mechanic that video games should develop into in order to match board games’ complexity of player interaction modes.

  8. Attacking the Personal Fable: Role-Play and Its Effect on Teen Attitudes toward Sexual Abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltz, Eli; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examines role playing as a tool for changing teenagers' attitudes about sex behavior and the consequences of teen pregnancy. A sample of 267 ninth-grade students attending a high-risk urban school participated. Role playing and watching videos of friends' role playing significantly increased favorable attitudes toward abstinence in girls but not…

  9. Teaching clinical interviewing skills using role-playing: conveying empathy to performing a suicide assessment: a primer for individual role-playing and scripted group role-playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Shawn Christopher; Barney, Christine

    2015-03-01

    This article provides a useful introduction to the art of role-playing in both the individual format and the group format using scripted group role-playing (SGRP). Role-playing can provide powerful learning opportunities, but to do so it must be done well. This article imparts guidance toward this goal. SGRP may greatly enhance the acquisition of critical complex interviewing skills, such as suicide assessment and uncovering domestic violence, in health care providers across all disciplines, an educational goal that has not been achievable to date. Although research is at an early stage of development, the hope represented by SGRP is tangible.

  10. SodA is a major metabolic antioxidant in Brucella abortus 2308 that plays a significant, but limited, role in the virulence of this strain in the mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Daniel W; Baumgartner, John E; Gee, Jason M; Anderson, Eric S; Roop, R Martin

    2012-07-01

    The gene designated BAB1_0591 in the Brucella abortus 2308 genome sequence encodes the manganese-cofactored superoxide dismutase SodA. An isogenic sodA mutant derived from B. abortus 2308, designated JB12, displays a small colony phenotype, increased sensitivity in vitro to endogenous superoxide generators, hydrogen peroxide and exposure to acidic pH, and a lag in growth when cultured in rich and minimal media that can be rescued by the addition of all 20 amino acids to the growth medium. B. abortus JB12 exhibits significant attenuation in both cultured murine macrophages and experimentally infected mice, but this attenuation is limited to the early stages of infection. Addition of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin to infected macrophages does not alleviate the attenuation exhibited by JB12, suggesting that the basis for the attenuation of the B. abortus sodA mutant is not an increased sensitivity to exogenous superoxide generated through the oxidative burst of host phagocytes. It is possible, however, that the increased sensitivity of the B. abortus sodA mutant to acid makes it less resistant than the parental strain to killing by the low pH encountered during the early stages of the development of the brucella-containing vacuoles in macrophages. These experimental findings support the proposed role for SodA as a major cytoplasmic antioxidant in brucella. Although this enzyme provides a clear benefit to B. abortus 2308 during the early stages of infection in macrophages and mice, SodA appears to be dispensable once the brucellae have established an infection.

  11. The role-playing: the art to catch the eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Lanza, Tiziana

    2015-04-01

    We present some interactive, immersive, authentic role-plays simulation designed to teach to different public: tertiary, secondary and primary students and an experience with a teachers group, after April 6 2009 L'Aquila Earthquake. We will discuss about the basics of the role-play and its applications to the geosciences in outreach projects. Role-play is a powerful method to educate to risk mitigation with particular we will discuss our experience regarding seismic risk. Finally, we will present some data on the effectiveness of the role-play in different settings in which we used it.

  12. Setting Sight on Role Playing: To Accommodate or to Repudiate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Apriani Fata

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To set sight on role play by means to look at EFL teacher’s experience and students’ perspectives of role play (RP technique enactment in teaching speaking by using qualitative design. This research was a qualitative study. It was discharged at a Senior high school in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. It provided work for the instrument of observation sheet, field notes and interview guide, and also questionnaire. The methodology designated the combination of four mountainsides to expose in-depth the urgency of role play in which applied since 1936. The result of interview was exposed that the English teacher claimed that role play was a technique applied to promote speaking and it was corroborated by the result of field note. Likewise, regarding students’ perspective depicted that the students indeed agreed on themselves of the usefulness of role play to enhance their speaking skill and motivation. Thus, Students asserted that the learning was more fun and enjoyable through role play itself. It is merely found in this research study that role playing can accommodate students’ need and teacher’s side in English language teaching. Nevertheless, this article applies a small subject as the participant. Therefore, the researchers recommended to have a deep look at reasoning students’ point of view in terms of role play technique implementation in non-English class. And see ascertains how beneficial it is in terms of role play (RP in a large classroom.

  13. NG compressors play role in success story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-11

    In early 1993, Con Edison and Brooklyn Union Gas began offering rebates to manufacturers that replaced electric motor-driven air compressors with natural gas engine-driven air compressors. These rebates covered significant portions of the costs of installation. After carefully considering all options, Ultra Creative decided to order two Quincy QSS-750-NG, 220-HP units from scales Air Compressor Crop. Scales is a full-service air compressor distribution which offers complete turnkey installation service on all types of stationary air compressors, plus maintenance and repairs. The complete Quincy QSS Series of natural gas engine-driven air compressors is available in sizes from 370 to 1500 cfm. An optical heat recovery system can boost energy efficiencies over 80%. For example, heat recovered from the engine cooling water and exhaust, combined with the heat recovered from the air compressor oil cooler and aftercooler, can be used for heating boiler and laundry process water, plastics thermoforming, unit heaters for space heating, plating tanks, and a variety of other applications to displace conventional fuels.

  14. Cerebellar vermis plays a causal role in visual motion discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Renzi, Chiara; Casali, Stefano; Silvanto, Juha; Vecchi, Tomaso; Papagno, Costanza; D'Angelo, Egidio

    2014-09-01

    Cerebellar patients have been found to show deficits in visual motion discrimination, suggesting that the cerebellum may play a role in visual sensory processing beyond mediating motor control. Here we show that triple-pulse online transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over cerebellar vermis but not over the cerebellar hemispheres significantly impaired motion discrimination. Critically, the interference caused by vermis TMS on motion discrimination did not depend on an indirect effect of TMS over nearby visual areas, as demonstrated by a control experiment in which TMS over V1 but not over cerebellar vermis significantly impaired orientation discrimination. These findings demonstrate the causal role of the cerebellar vermis in visual motion processing in neurologically normal participants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Foreign Ludicity in Online Role-Playing Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Mei-Ya

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on an explorative case study which, in the first place, aimed to ascertain different types of foreign language play in online role-playing in "Second Life," and which, secondly aimed to describe how various sources of contextual support can explain this foreign language play. Students' written conversation was analyzed and…

  16. Foreign Ludicity in Online Role-Playing Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Mei-Ya

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on an explorative case study which, in the first place, aimed to ascertain different types of foreign language play in online role-playing in "Second Life," and which, secondly aimed to describe how various sources of contextual support can explain this foreign language play. Students' written conversation was…

  17. Museum Superheroes: The Role of Play in Young Children's Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowski, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the role of play in an art museum. Reflecting upon a kindergarten field trip to the Warhol Museum in which children's play was the centerpiece of the museum experience, the author examines what early childhood theorists have written about the value of play in young children's lives. She shows how the Warhol's program for…

  18. The Self-Reflexive Tabletop Role-Playing Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Torner

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tabletop role-playing games combine performance, procedures, and improvisation to both tell stories and reflect on the nature of storytelling. This article discusses the three games 1,001 Nights by Meguey Baker, What Is a Role-Playing Game? by Epidiah Ravachol, and World Wide Wrestling by Nathan D. Paoletta in terms of how their procedures of play and framing devices comment on the tabletop role-playing game medium. Taken together, these three games on games demonstrate the inherent tensions of player motivation, collective fiction creation, and selling a performance to one’s fellow players, and how RPG theory helps us to understand them.

  19. A Historical Journey in Science Education through Role Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Smita

    2013-01-01

    In order to avoid a routine classroom environment, teachers often employ the use of role-plays. This is an effective strategy because it is essential for teachers to engage their students with information through various methods. Role-playing provides the children with the opportunity to incorporate multiple senses into a knowledge-based, fun…

  20. Role-Playing and Religion: Using Games to Educate Millennials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Adam L.

    2008-01-01

    I have been experimenting with using role-playing and games in my religion classes for several years and have found that students respond well to these pedagogical tools and methods. After reviewing my experiences, I explore the reasons for students' positive response. I argue that role-playing games capitalize on our students' educational…

  1. Master's Students' Experiences in a Multicultural Counseling Role-Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, Clarrice; Jencius, Marty; McGlothlin, Jason

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of master's students in regard to their participation in a multicultural role-play and review process (Jencius "et al." 2004). Whereas the literature has supported the use of role-plays as a multicultural training technique (Alvarez and Miville 2003; Vazquez and Garcia-Vazquez 2003), there is a distinct lack of…

  2. Role Play in Nutrition Education for the Young Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbach, Ellen S.; Yawkey, Thomas Daniels

    1980-01-01

    Role-playing in nutrition has many advantages as an educational technique, including building thoughts, facilitating flexible thinking, promoting awareness, and providing opportunities for practicing food-related behavior. The Curry and Arnaud model for role play is presented in terms of its components and how each component relates to nutrition…

  3. Role Playing: Applications in Hostage and Crisis Negotiation Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hasselt, Vincent B.; Romano, Stephen J.; Vecchi, Gregory M.

    2008-01-01

    Role playing has been a mainstay of behavioral assessment for decades. In recent years, however, this analogue strategy has also enjoyed widespread application in the field of law enforcement. Most notably, role-play procedures have become an integral component of assessment and training efforts in hostage and crisis negotiation, which attempts to…

  4. Online gaming addiction? Motives predict addictive play behavior in massively multiplayer online role-playing games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Kuss; J. Louws; R.W. Wiers

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about excessive online gaming. Playing Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) appears to be particularly problematic, because these games require a high degree of commitment and time investment from the players to the detriment of occupat

  5. Grammar J, as in Jazzing Around: The Roles "Play" Plays in Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, Hans

    This paper asks what role "play" plays in writing and how it can help a writer, whatever dread, boredom, skill, or ethnicity he/she brings to writing. Some of the ideas in the paper come from Africa, courtesy of Robert Farris Thompson. In his "philosophy of discourse" discussed in the paper, Thompson speaks of the "big…

  6. Reflective Responses Following a Role Play Simulation of Nurse Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Deborah L.; Gillespie, Gordon Lee; Boesch, Maura C.; Bateman, Kyle M.; Grubb, Paula L.

    2017-01-01

    The affective domain of learning can be used with role play simulation to develop professional values in nursing students. A qualitative exploratory design was used for this study to evaluate role play simulation as an active learning strategy. The context for the role play was bullying in nursing practice. Three hundred thirty-three senior nursing students from five college campuses participated. Following the role play simulation students completed a reflection worksheet. The worksheet data were qualitatively coded into themes. Thematic findings were personal responses during the simulation, nonverbal communications exhibited during the simulation, actions taken by participants during the simulation, and the perceived impact of bullying. Role play simulation was a highly effective pedagogy requiring no technology, was free, and elicited learning at both the cognitive and affective domains of learning. PMID:28628071

  7. Qualitative Evaluation of a Role Play Bullying Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Gordon L; Brown, Kathryn; Grubb, Paula; Shay, Amy; Montoya, Karen

    Bullying against nurses is becoming a pervasive problem. In this article, a role play simulation designed for undergraduate nursing students is described. In addition, the evaluation findings from a subsample of students who participated in a role play simulation addressing bullying behaviors are reported. Focus group sessions were completed with a subset of eight students who participated in the intervention. Sessions were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using Colaizzi's procedural steps for qualitative analysis. Themes derived from the data were "The Experience of Being Bullied", "Implementation of the Program", "Desired Outcome of the Program", and "Context of Bullying in the Nursing Profession". Role play simulation was an effective and active learning strategy to diffuse education on bullying in nursing practice. Bullying in nursing was identified as a problem worthy of incorporation into the undergraduate nursing curriculum. To further enhance the learning experience with role play simulation, adequate briefing instructions, opportunity to opt out of the role play, and comprehensive debriefing are essential.

  8. PDGFRα plays a crucial role in connective tissue remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Shinjiro; Ishii, Yoko; Hamashima, Takeru; Yamamoto, Seiji; Mori, Hisashi; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Shen, Jie; Inoue, Ran; Nishizono, Hirofumi; Itoh, Hiroshi; Majima, Masataka; Abraham, David; Miyawaki, Toshio; Sasahara, Masakiyo

    2015-12-07

    Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) plays a pivotal role in the remodeling of connective tissues. Emerging data indicate the distinctive role of PDGF receptor-α (PDGFRα) in this process. In the present study, the Pdgfra gene was systemically inactivated in adult mouse (α-KO mouse), and the role of PDGFRα was examined in the subcutaneously implanted sponge matrices. PDGFRα expressed in the fibroblasts of Pdgfra-preserving control mice (Flox mice), was significantly reduced in the sponges in α-KO mice. Neovascularized areas were largely suppressed in the α-KO mice than in the Flox mice, whereas the other parameters related to the blood vessels and endothelial cells were similar. The deposition of collagen and fibronectin and the expression of collagen 1a1 and 3a1 genes were significantly reduced in α-KO mice. There was a significantly decrease in the number and dividing fibroblasts in the α-KO mice, and those of macrophages were similar between the two genotypes. Hepatocyte growth factor (Hgf) gene expression was suppressed in Pdgfra-inactivated fibroblasts and connective tissue. The findings implicate the role of PDGFRα-dependent ECM and HGF production in fibroblasts that promotes the remodeling of connective tissue and suggest that PDGFRα may be a relevant target to regulate connective tissue remodeling.

  9. Online gaming addiction? Motives predict addictive play behavior in massively multiplayer online role-playing games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J; Louws, Jorik; Wiers, Reinout W

    2012-09-01

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about excessive online gaming. Playing Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) appears to be particularly problematic, because these games require a high degree of commitment and time investment from the players to the detriment of occupational, social, and other recreational activities and relations. A number of gaming motives have been linked to excessive online gaming in adolescents and young adults. We assessed 175 current MMORPG players and 90 nonplayers using a Web-based questionnaire regarding their gaming behavior, problems as consequences of gaming, and game motivations and tested their statistical associations. Results indicated that (a) MMORPG players are significantly more likely to experience gaming-related problems relative to nonplayers, and that (b) the gaming motivations escapism and mechanics significantly predicted excessive gaming and appeared as stronger predictors than time investment in game. The findings support the necessity of using measures that distinguish between different types of online games. In addition, this study proves useful regarding the current discussion on establishing (online) gaming addiction as a diagnosis in future categorizations of psychopathology.

  10. PERSONALITY AND CHARACTER PREFERENCE IN ROLE-PLAYING GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José Ramos-Villagrasa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In role-playing games players perform participative and episodic stories. Personality is a psychological construct associated with decision processes in many aspects of life. In this study, we analyzed if Big Five Personality Factors were related to game character preferences in the role-playing game “Dungeons & Dragons”. Results show that Personality is related only in the decision of character’s class. We also study the relationship between Personality and plots in role-playing games (action, intrigue, mystery, and personal relationships. Finally, recommendations to further investigation were given.

  11. FL Writing Plays a Significant Role in FL Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HouTianzhen

    2004-01-01

    The view of writing as a tool for learning and not just a means to demonstrate learning is one of the major contributions of the research into the writing process (Emig1977). No matter what teaching approaches are applied, the four basic languages kills are interactive and cooperative. In our traditional FL teaching, however, FL writing was always regarded as the most

  12. FOXE3 plays a significant role in autosomal recessive microphthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Linda M; Tyler, Rebecca C; Schneider, Adele; Bardakjian, Tanya; Stoler, Joan M; Melancon, Serge B; Semina, Elena V

    2010-03-01

    FOXE3 forkhead transcription factor is essential to lens development in vertebrates. The eyes of Foxe3/foxe3-deficient mice and zebrafish fail to develop normally. In humans, autosomal dominant and recessive mutations in FOXE3 have been associated with variable phenotypes including anterior segment anomalies, cataract, and microphthalmia. We undertook sequencing of FOXE3 in 116 probands with a spectrum of ocular defects ranging from anterior segment dysgenesis and cataract to anophthalmia/microphthalmia. Recessive mutations in FOXE3 were found in four of 26 probands affected with bilateral microphthalmia (15% of all bilateral microphthalmia and 100% of consanguineous families with this phenotype). FOXE3-positive microphthalmia was accompanied by aphakia and/or corneal defects; no other associated systemic anomalies were observed in FOXE3-positive families. The previously reported c.720C > A (p.C240X) nonsense mutation was identified in two additional families in our sample and therefore appears to be recurrent, now reported in three independent microphthalmia families of varied ethnic backgrounds. Several missense variants were identified at varying frequencies in patient and control groups with some apparently being race-specific, which underscores the importance of utilizing race/ethnicity-matched control populations in evaluating the relevance of genetic screening results. In conclusion, FOXE3 mutations represent an important cause of nonsyndromic autosomal recessive bilateral microphthalmia.

  13. TOOLS FOR COLABORATIVE LEARNING: A ROLE-PLAYING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ortiz-de-Urbina Criado

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Role-playing is an active participation tool that facilitates cooperative learning. It has also proved to be more effective in developing competencies than traditional methods. This technique is essential to make theory and practice compatible as is required in order to adapt subjects to the new education system based on the Bolonia’s agreement, especially in Social Sciences disciplines. Consequently, the objective of this paper is to show the effect and use of role-playing applied to management area. Therefore, we analyze and design the role-playing, putting it in practice in the classroom in Human Resource Management subject of different academic degrees. To conclude, this paper has shown the importance of role-playing as a learning tool and development of skills like work cooperation, problem and conflict solving, decision making, and managing complex systems.

  14. Does Mercury in Fish Play a Role in ALS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163675.html Does Mercury in Fish Play a Role in ALS? Certain ... 2017 MONDAY, Feb. 20, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Eating mercury-laden seafood may raise the risk of developing ...

  15. Effects of Videotaped Role Playing on Nurses' Therapeutic Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kay F.; Kroth, Jerome A.

    1976-01-01

    Research determining the effectiveness of videotape recorded (VTR) role playing as a teaching technique was conducted on nurses attending continuing education classes in verbal and nonverbal therapeutic communication skills. VTR appears to be an effective technique. (LH)

  16. Does Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis Play a Role in Metabolic Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Porter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The function ascribed to brown adipose tissue in humans has long been confined to thermoregulation in neonates, where this thermogenic capacity was thought lost with maturation. Recently, brown adipose tissue depots have been identified in adult humans. The significant oxidative capacity of brown adipocytes and the ability of their mitochondria to respire independently of ATP production, has led to renewed interest in the role that these adipocytes play in human energy metabolism. In our view, there is a need for robust physiological studies determining the relationship between molecular signatures of brown adipose tissue, adipose tissue mitochondrial function, and whole body energy metabolism, in order to elucidate the significance of thermogenic adipose tissue in humans. Until such information is available, the role of thermogenic adipose tissue in human metabolism and the potential that these adipocytes may prevent or treat obesity and metabolic diseases in humans will remain unknown. In this article, we summarize the recent literature pertaining to brown adipose tissue function with the aims of drawing the readers’ attention to the lack of data concerning the role of brown adipocytes in human physiology, and to the potential limitations of current research strategies.

  17. Representation of Cultural Role-Play for Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarelli, Thomas; Pepe, Aaron; Rosenzweiz, Larry; Paulus, John; Yi, Ahn Na

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Defense (000) has successfully applied a number of methods for cultural familiarization training ranging from stand-up classroom training, to face-to-face live role-play, to so-called smart-cards. Recent interest has turned to the use of single and mUlti-player gaming technologies to augment these traditional methods of cultural familiarization. One such system, termed CulturePad, has been designed as a game-based role-play environment suitable for use in training and experimentation involving cultural roleplay scenarios. This paper describes the initial CulturePad effort focused on a literature review regarding the use of role-play for cultural training and a feasibility assessment of using a game-mediated environment for role-play. A small-scale pilot involving cultural experts was conducted to collect qualitative behavioral data comparing live role-play to game-mediated role-play in a multiplayer gaming engine.

  18. The Role of Play in Children's Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Sue; Downing, Julia; Shemilt, Rise

    2014-10-01

    Play is the universal language of childhood and the time and opportunity to play is every child's right. The role of play as a vehicle for communication, a tool for distraction and its value in the holistic development of a normal child is without dispute. The role and value of play increase proportionately when a child is made more vulnerable through illness or disability. Despite this, providing time and opportunities to play can be overlooked or considered to be of little importance or relevance when the focus of the adult carers is the amelioration of clinical symptoms of the illness and on lessening the psychological impact the illness may have on the child. This paper outlines the role and the value of play as an integral component in the provision of palliative care for children with chronic, life-threatening and life-limiting conditions. It will show how providing appropriate equipment, sufficient time and relevant play opportunities not only improves the very sick child's psychological wellbeing, but also allows the child to cast aside the confines and restrictions imposed upon them by their illness and for a few golden moments to be nothing more than a child at play.

  19. The Role of Play in Children’s Palliative Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Boucher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Play is the universal language of childhood and the time and opportunity to play is every child’s right. The role of play as a vehicle for communication, a tool for distraction and its value in the holistic development of a normal child is without dispute. The role and value of play increase proportionately when a child is made more vulnerable through illness or disability. Despite this, providing time and opportunities to play can be overlooked or considered to be of little importance or relevance when the focus of the adult carers is the amelioration of clinical symptoms of the illness and on lessening the psychological impact the illness may have on the child. This paper outlines the role and the value of play as an integral component in the provision of palliative care for children with chronic, life-threatening and life-limiting conditions. It will show how providing appropriate equipment, sufficient time and relevant play opportunities not only improves the very sick child’s psychological wellbeing, but also allows the child to cast aside the confines and restrictions imposed upon them by their illness and for a few golden moments to be nothing more than a child at play.

  20. The On-Going Role-Play in Suggestopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateva, Galya

    1997-01-01

    Defines continuous role playing in foreign language teaching suggestopedia (as practiced in Bulgaria); discusses how to achieve and sustain it; and considers its advantages, disadvantages and relevance. The article notes that the balancing role of the teacher is crucial to the techniques employed in the classroom dialogs. (10 references) (CK)

  1. "Free Vote": Role-Playing Parliament in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Lynn

    1977-01-01

    A Canadian political role-playing sequence helps secondary students understand the workings of Parliament and clarify their own values. The issue under debate is abolition or retention of capital punishment. Article describes rationale, teacher's instructions, roles, related legislature, rules of Parliamentary debate, public opinion polls, news…

  2. The On-Going Role-Play in Suggestopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateva, Galya

    1997-01-01

    Defines continuous role playing in foreign language teaching suggestopedia (as practiced in Bulgaria); discusses how to achieve and sustain it; and considers its advantages, disadvantages and relevance. The article notes that the balancing role of the teacher is crucial to the techniques employed in the classroom dialogs. (10 references) (CK)

  3. (Role) Playing Politics in an Environmental Chemistry Lecture Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, A. Meredith; Higgins, Daniel A.

    2007-02-01

    Mock congressional hearings are described as an active learning, role-playing activity for the environmental chemistry lecture course. Each student plays dual roles in this activity, alternately serving as a witness and committee member on hearing topics selected by the class. As witnesses, the students assume the roles of scientists, politicians, industrial representatives, and environmental group representatives and present both written and oral arguments for or against a particular issue. At other times, they play the role of congressional committee members and question the witnesses. Hearings are held on topics related to renewable and nonrenewable energy; hazardous waste; water, soil, and air pollution; water quality; and genetic engineering. This activity greatly enriches the educational experience for the students by allowing them to become actively engaged in learning and debating specific issues related to course materials.

  4. Do Demodex mites play a role in pterygium development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkowski, Witold; Moneta-Wielgoś, Joanna; Młocicki, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Numerous reports point to Demodex mites as the aetiology of certain eye and skin conditions, hence it is highly probable that infestation with these mites may also play a role in the aetiology and pathogenesis of pterygium. Therefore here we present a hypothesis: whether the presence of Demodex mites in eyelash hair follicles significantly correlates with the presence of pterygia, which could point to a potential role of these mites in the development of such lesions. We present preliminary data for supporting this hypothesis. These results were collected from a group of 69 subjects, including 39 with pterygium. Subjects were studied for the presence of Demodex folliculorum and/or D. brevis within eyelash follicles. The sample was defined as positive if at least one parasite, larva or egg were present. Preliminary statistical analyses were performed, and indicated a significant relationship between Demodex mite infestation and the presence of pterygium (pDemodex infestation formed a dominant group. The proportion of subjects with both pterygia and Demodex presence is high at 93.33%, while the proportion of subjects without pterygia who have mites is low at 20.51%. Aforementioned results support our working hypothesis that infestation with Demodex mites may result in pterygium development and therefore patients diagnosed with pterygium should be assessed for the presence of Demodex to verify our preliminary results. In the present paper, we discuss potential influence of Demodex on conjunctiva and propose a hypothetical pathological mechanism linking the development of pterygia with demodicosis.

  5. Role-Playing in Analytical Chemistry: The Alumni Speak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Paul T.; Walters, John P.

    2000-08-01

    Cooperative learning constructs take a variety of forms. Over the last 15 years, one such pedagogical structure, role-playing, has been used in the analytical chemistry curriculum at St. Olaf College. A long-term assessment of this teaching method was conducted through use of a survey distributed to alumni graduating between 1987 and 1997. The graduates overwhelmingly indicated that the use of role-playing had a positive impact on their careers as well as their lives. Furthermore, many non-achievement learning outcomes attributed to cooperative learning experiences were reinforced through the survey response. Role-playing created an effective environment in which to develop communication and collaborative skills in addition to the technical skills that are essential to analytical chemistry. These results support continued evolutionary development of this teaching method.

  6. Role-playing in the problem-based learning class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2012-01-01

    Learning and teaching have been conceptualized and executed in many styles, such as self-learning, peer learning, and interaction between the learner and mentor. Today, openness to alternative ideas and embracing innovative approaches in nursing education are encouraged in order to meet students' learning interests and needs, and to address ever-changing healthcare requests. Problem-based learning has been widely adopted in nursing education, with various positive effects on students' learning, such as motivated learning, team work, problem-solving skills and critical thinking. Role-plays have been demonstrated as an effective learning strategy that includes an active and experiential feature that facilitates students' autonomy in their health-related learning. However, there is a lack of discussion of whether and how role-play can be used in problem-based learning (PBL). This paper shows the development of a classroom-based innovation using role-play in the PBL class for higher diploma year-one nurse students (a total of 20 students, five per group). This paper consists of five sections: a) the literature on PBL and nurse education, and role-plays as the innovation; b) the PBL case scenario with the illustration of the two role-play scripts, c) student evaluation on role-play in the PBL class; d) discussions on both achievements and limitations of this innovation, and e) the conclusion. It is hoped that this paper will be an example to other nurse educators who are keen on exploring interactive and student-driven learning and teaching strategies in the PBL class.

  7. The Many Faces of Role-Playing Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitchens, Michael; Drachen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Role-playing games have grown and evolved into a large number of forms in the last thirty years, spanning digital as well as non-digital media. They demonstrate a wide variety in the number of participants, style of play and the formal and informal systems that govern them. Despite this diversity...... by anything more than a colloquial name. Additionally, research involving these games is hampered by lack of a widely accepted definition of what constitutes a roleplaying game, as it is then not even possible to clearly delineate the subject of such research. In this paper various example of role...

  8. Role-playing in nursing theory: engaging online students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Cheryle; Adelman, Deborah S

    2010-04-01

    The teaching and learning of nursing theory, at all program levels, is challenging due to the complexity and abstract nature of its content, the dry nature in which the study of theory often is approached, a perception of disconnect from practice, and faculty discomfort and avoidance of the subject matter. Adapting creative educational strategies to the online environment is an ongoing challenge for educators. Role-play relates well to the constructivist basis of creating personal meaning based on the individual's experiences. This article examines the use of role-play as an educational strategy for teaching nursing theory in an online baccalaureate program. In a core professional issues course, students adopt the persona of a specific nursing theorist, interacting with other "nursing theorists" played by their peers. Student engagement and active learning reflect excitement and interest, and course evaluations have been extremely positive for this content and method.

  9. From MMORPG to a Classroom Multiplayer Presential Role Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susaeta, Heinz; Jimenez, Felipe; Nussbaum, Miguel; Gajardo, Ignacio; Andreu, Juan Jose; Villalta, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The popularity of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) has grown enormously, with communities of players reaching into the millions. Their fantasy narratives present multiple challenges created by the virtual environment and/or other players. The games' potential for education stems from the fact that players are immersed in a…

  10. Confronting Prejudiced Comments: Effectiveness of a Role-Playing Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Timothy J.; McDonough, Tracy A.; Bodle, James H.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether a role-playing exercise, similar to that developed by Plous (2000), increases students' ability to generate effective responses to prejudiced comments. We assessed social psychology students' (n = 23) ability to respond to prejudiced comments before and after the exercise, and compared their performance to that of 2 other…

  11. Basal ganglia play a crucial role in decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Thibaut, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have suggested that the striatum, located at the interface of the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic circuit, consists of separate circuits that serve distinct functions It plays an important role in motor planning, value processing, and decision making.

  12. A Role-Playing Exercise for Analyzing Intercultural Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Carol M.; Taylor, G. Stephen

    1994-01-01

    Presents a business communication scenario for students to role-play and analyze, using a systematic process for identifying communication roadblocks occurring on the job, especially when communicating with people from diverse backgrounds and other countries. Discusses ways to improve the communication process to enable students to develop…

  13. The Ecology of Role Play: Intentionality and Cultural Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the evolutionary function of children's pretence. The everyday, cultural environment that children engage with is of a highly complex structure. Human adaptation, thus, becomes, by analogy, an equally complex process that requires the development of life skills. Whilst in role play children engage in "mimesis" and…

  14. Role-Playing a Legend in Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xun; Lee, Jack; Yamashiro, Kelly A.

    2003-01-01

    Reports a case study of thirteen college students engaging in a role-play activity of a Maui legend in a virtual reality environment. Immersed in the authentic cultural environment, the students not only interacted with the environment and each other, but recreated the legend based on their interpretation of the culture. (CAK)

  15. Exploring the Concept of Sustainable Development through Role-Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchs, Arnaud; Blanchard, Odile

    2011-01-01

    The concept of sustainable development is used in everyday life by the general public, alongside researchers, institutions, and private companies. Nevertheless, its definition is far from being unequivocal. Clarifying the outline of the concept seems necessary. We have created a role-play for this purpose. Our article aims at depicting its main…

  16. The Korean War: A Role-Play to Remember

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Marjori M.

    2009-01-01

    The Korean War is often given a cursory glance, if that, in U.S. foreign relations today. This article provides all the information necessary to conduct a role-play in one class period to help students understand the events of the war. Introductory and follow-up questions are also included to stimulate discussion and to connect the events of a war…

  17. Biography and Role Playing: Fostering Empathy in Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorman, Paula B.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a means for increasing undergraduate and graduate students' level of empathy. Assigned students to write about and role play a character that they create who suffers from a psychological disorder. Explains that after quantitative and qualitative analyses it was demonstrated that students' empathy increased. (CMK)

  18. A Role Play on Export Decisions and the Exchange Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterell, Ann

    1987-01-01

    Explains that the goal of this exercise is to encourage an understanding of the effects of exchange rate changes and the use of forward rates. Provides a role play that involves students working in groups to decide whether to export a consignment of golf trollies to Italy and shortbread to Canada. (BSR)

  19. A Forensic Psychology Exercise: Role Playing and the Insanity Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fass, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a role playing exercise that provides students with an introduction to forensic psychology and the insanity defense. Reports that 87% of the students found this exercise to be an enjoyable teaching technique and useful in providing an understanding of the insanity defense. Concludes that the exercise increases student interest and…

  20. Negative ratings play a positive role in information filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Lü, Linyuan; Zhou, Tao

    2011-11-01

    The explosive growth of information asks for advanced information filtering techniques to solve the so-called information overload problem. A promising way is the recommender system which analyzes the historical records of users’ activities and accordingly provides personalized recommendations. Most recommender systems can be represented by user-object bipartite networks where users can evaluate and vote for objects, and ratings such as “dislike” and “I hate it” are treated straightforwardly as negative factors or are completely ignored in traditional approaches. Applying a local diffusion algorithm on three benchmark data sets, MovieLens, Netflix and Amazon, our study arrives at a very surprising result, namely the negative ratings may play a positive role especially for very sparse data sets. In-depth analysis at the microscopic level indicates that the negative ratings from less active users to less popular objects could probably have positive impacts on the recommendations, while the ones connecting active users and popular objects mostly should be treated negatively. We finally outline the significant relevance of our results to the two long-term challenges in information filtering: the sparsity problem and the cold-start problem.

  1. Modeling infectious diseases dissemination through online role-playing games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balicer, Ran D

    2007-03-01

    As mathematical modeling of infectious diseases becomes increasingly important for developing public health policies, a novel platform for such studies might be considered. Millions of people worldwide play interactive online role-playing games, forming complex and rich networks among their virtual characters. An unexpected outbreak of an infective communicable disease (unplanned by the game creators) recently occurred in this virtual world. This outbreak holds surprising similarities to real-world epidemics. It is possible that these virtual environments could serve as a platform for studying the dissemination of infectious diseases, and as a testing ground for novel interventions to control emerging communicable diseases.

  2. Play a Starring Role in Your Textbook: A Digital Web Platform with an Embedded Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielvogel, Laura; Spielvogel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we introduce our digital e-textbook web platform with an integrated role-playing game, which has been created for "introduction to anthropology" courses. We believe that textbooks have the potential to do more to motivate students' pursuit of learning if their material (topically organised chapters supported by…

  3. Play a Starring Role in Your Textbook: A Digital Web Platform with an Embedded Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielvogel, Laura; Spielvogel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we introduce our digital e-textbook web platform with an integrated role-playing game, which has been created for "introduction to anthropology" courses. We believe that textbooks have the potential to do more to motivate students' pursuit of learning if their material (topically organised chapters supported by…

  4. Do dental impression materials play a role in cross contamination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalon, Shlomo; Eini, Amir; Gorfil, Colin; Ben-Amar, Ariel; Slutzky, Hagay

    2011-01-01

    Dentists are required to institute infectious control procedures. Dental impression materials possessing antimicrobial properties may aid in reducing the risk of cross contamination since impression materials might play a role as carriers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of four impression materials. Four impression materials--Orthoprint, Impregum Penta, Aquasil Ultra Monophase, and Permlastic--were evaluated by the direct contact test. The materials were tested in contact with Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Candida albicans. The materials were mixed; allowed to set; and examined immediately and after aging for 24, 48, and 72 hours and 1 week. Two-way ANOVA, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey multiple comparison procedures were applied to the results. Impregum Penta presented the broadest antibacterial spectrum of all the materials tested. There was a complete growth inhibition of S aureus and S epidermidis, and it sustained this ability for at least 7 days. It also showed an antifungal effect by partially inhibiting the growth of C albicans, a quality that was seen only immediately after setting. Aquasil Ultra showed an antifungal effect only immediately after setting. Permlastic showed a complete growth inhibition when in contact with C albicans and sustained this ability for at least 7 days. No significant antimicrobial properties were recorded for Orthoprint. When in contact with E faecalis, no significant antibacterial properties were recorded for any of the materials. None of the tested materials exhibited a long-lasting or complete antibacterial and antifungal property. Therefore, disinfection of impressions is essential.

  5. Social interactions in massively multiplayer online role-playing gamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Helena; Griffiths, Mark D

    2007-08-01

    To date, most research into massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) has examined the demographics of play. This study explored the social interactions that occur both within and outside of MMORPGs. The sample consisted of 912 self-selected MMORPG players from 45 countries. MMORPGs were found to be highly socially interactive environments providing the opportunity to create strong friendships and emotional relationships. The study demonstrated that the social interactions in online gaming form a considerable element in the enjoyment of playing. The study showed MMORPGs can be extremely social games, with high percentages of gamers making life-long friends and partners. It was concluded that virtual gaming may allow players to express themselves in ways they may not feel comfortable doing in real life because of their appearance, gender, sexuality, and/or age. MMORPGs also offer a place where teamwork, encouragement, and fun can be experienced.

  6. GeoQuest an Interactive Role Playing game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraffi, Sabina; Sacerdoti, Francesco; Scamardella, Alessandra

    2015-04-01

    The acquisition of knowledge and enhancing skills at actual time requires different approaches, involving students as much as possible, taking advantage of informal learning strengths and opportunities of formal learning. In this perspective, the game seems to be a perfect vehicle, not a single student's playing but a cooperative one. The GeoQuest project consists of an interactive role-playing game which involves all students using a patented system: the "teaching projector". This system allows the interaction of the class group through the use of smartphones and tablets, and it shows in real-time the game progress to the whole class. Our role-playing game is based on three routes at different degrees. The students, divided into several categories (physicist, chemists, disseminators, technicians, historians) have to follow a geological trail in order to discover the present and the past of the Earth. During the path, students have to pass some doors in teamwork; they allow assessment and represent the main sharing/disclosure moment. The doors allow to modulate the activities according to single lesson, teaching unit, module. Main Objectives: Working on PC by themselves, students could be even more alone: it needs a best fitting between ICT and cooperative learning. Role-playing helps students to reach their goals easily through cooperation; this in order to avoid the risk of loneliness of Inquiry Based Science Education, preserving entirely the educational value. Science Research now is based on field expert interaction: the role-playing game categories reflect the necessary team to get their goal. The several roles allow everyone to enhance their own skills. the "teaching projector" allows students to comment and to evaluate the groups activities and route them, providing real-time corrections to everybody. The playing categories represent all the aspects of the research areas: from scientists (physicists, chemists), to technicians, to disseminators and

  7. Using Role-Playing Games to Teach Astronomy: An Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Paul

    Since 1998, I've been experimenting with the use of role-playing games to teach astronomy. Students play the role of competing teams of researchers, racing to solve some astrophysical mystery. In this article, I review what has been learned from using these games around the world over the last eight years. The most common problem encountered is a tendency for students to become overly political. An unexpected benefit of these games is the boost that they give to student self- confidence. Overall, they seem to work well with a wide range of students, ranging from ninth grade to graduate school, and students exposed to this game comment repeatedly on how the games changed their attitudes toward the scientific process.

  8. Beyond self-selection in video game play: an experimental examination of the consequences of massively multiplayer online role-playing game play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Joshua M

    2007-10-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the study of video games. Existing work is limited by the use of correlational designs and is thus unable to make causal inferences or remove self-selection biases from observed results. The recent development of online, socially integrated video games (massively multiplayer online role-playing games [MMORPGs]) has created a new experience for gamers. This randomized, longitudinal study examined the effects of being assigned to play different video game types on game usage, health, well-being, sleep, socializing, and academics. One hundred 18- to 20-year-old participants (73% male; 68% Caucasian) were randomly assigned to play arcade, console, solo computer, or MMORPG games for 1 month. The MMORPG group differed significantly from other groups after 1 month, reporting more hours spent playing, worse health, worse sleep quality, and greater interference in "real-life" socializing and academic work. In contrast, this group also reported greater enjoyment in playing, greater interest in continuing to play, and greater acquisition of new friendships. MMORPGs represent a different gaming experience with different consequences than other types of video games and appear to pose both unique risks and benefits from their use.

  9. Melatonin Plays a Protective Role in Postburn Rodent Gut Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid M. Al-Ghoul, Steven Abu-Shaqra, Byeong Gyu Park, Nadeem Fazal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin is a possible protective agent in postburn gut pathophysiological dynamics. We investigated the role of endogenously-produced versus exogenously-administered melatonin in a major thermal injury rat model with well-characterized gut inflammatory complications. Our rationale is that understanding in vivo melatonin mechanisms in control and inflamed tissues will improve our understanding of its potential as a safe anti-inflammatory/antioxidant therapeutic alternative. Towards this end, we tested the hypothesis that the gut is both a source and a target for melatonin and that mesenteric melatonin plays an anti-inflammatory role following major thermal injury in rats with 3rd degree hot water scald over 30% TBSA. Our methods for assessing the gut as a source of melatonin included plasma melatonin ELISA measurements in systemic and mesenteric circulation as well as rtPCR measurement of jejunum and terminal ileum expression of the melatonin synthesizing enzymes arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT and 5-hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT in sham versus day-3 postburn rats. Our melatonin ELISA results revealed that mesenteric circulation has much higher melatonin than systemic circulation and that both mesenteric and systemic melatonin levels are increased three days following major thermal injury. Our rtPCR results complemented the ELISA data in showing that the melatonin synthesizing enzymes AA-NAT and HIOMT are expressed in the ileum and jejunum and that this expression is increased three days following major thermal injury. Interestingly, the rtPCR data also revealed negative feedback by melatonin as exogenous melatonin supplementation at a dose of 7.43 mg (32 μmole/kg, but not 1.86 mg/kg (8 μmole/kg drastically suppressed AA-NAT mRNA expression. Our methods also included an assessment of the gut as a target for melatonin utilizing computerized immunohistochemical measurements to quantify the effects of exogenous melatonin

  10. Hevin plays a pivotal role in corneal wound healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam S Chaurasia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hevin is a matricellular protein involved in tissue repair and remodeling via interaction with the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM proteins. In this study, we examined the functional role of hevin using a corneal stromal wound healing model achieved by an excimer laser-induced irregular phototherapeutic keratectomy (IrrPTK in hevin-null (hevin(-/- mice. We also investigated the effects of exogenous supplementation of recombinant human hevin (rhHevin to rescue the stromal cellular components damaged by the excimer laser. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Wild type (WT and hevin (-/- mice were divided into three groups at 4 time points- 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks. Group I served as naïve without any treatment. Group II received epithelial debridement and underwent IrrPTK using excimer laser. Group III received topical application of rhHevin after IrrPTK surgery for 3 days. Eyes were analyzed for corneal haze and matrix remodeling components using slit lamp biomicroscopy, in vivo confocal microscopy, light microscopy (LM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, immunohistochemistry (IHC and western blotting (WB. IHC showed upregulation of hevin in IrrPTK-injured WT mice. Hevin (-/- mice developed corneal haze as early as 1-2 weeks post IrrPTK-treatment compared to the WT group, which peaked at 3-4 weeks. They also exhibited accumulation of inflammatory cells, fibrotic components of ECM proteins and vascularized corneas as seen by IHC and WB. LM and TEM showed activated keratocytes (myofibroblasts, inflammatory debris and vascular tissues in the stroma. Exogenous application of rhHevin for 3 days reinstated inflammatory index of the corneal stroma similar to WT mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Hevin is transiently expressed in the IrrPTK-injured corneas and loss of hevin predisposes them to aberrant wound healing. Hevin (-/- mice develop early corneal haze characterized by severe chronic inflammation and stromal fibrosis that can be rescued

  11. Drama and Role Playing in Teaching Practice: The Role of Group Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çerkez, Yagmur; Altinay, Zehra; Altinay, Fahriye; Bashirova, Elnara

    2012-01-01

    The research study aims to explore the essence of group work in drama and role playing for teaching practice inline with the nature of collaborative learning process. This research study has qualitative nature by capturing experiences of volunteer ninety pre-service teachers about group works, gained skills from drama and role playing in their…

  12. Roles and Relationships in Student Teaching: A Role-Play Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Jeewa R.

    This role-play activity is designed for use by teacher educators in a general or content area methods class to help education majors become knowledgeable of role expectations in the student teaching experience and build good interpersonal role relationships. Students conduct library research and interviews concerning role expectations, use the…

  13. Does epigenetics play a role in human asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercelli, Donata

    2016-04-01

    Asthma and other allergic diseases are among the most prevalent chronic non-communicable diseases of childhood. According to the World Health Organization, asthma affects >7.0 million children under 18 in the United States, with an economic burden that is estimated to exceed that of tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS combined. Despite much research, the natural history of asthma and its pathogenesis are still in many ways elusive. This review discusses our current understanding of the role epigenetic processes play in asthma pathogenesis, focusing on genome-wide, population-based studies. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Benchmark problems in which equality plays the major role

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, E.; Wos, L.

    1992-05-01

    We have recently heard rumors that researchers are again studying paramodulation [Wos87] in the context of strategy for its control. In part to facilitate such research, and in part to provide test problems for evaluating other approaches to equality-oriented reasoning, we offer in this article a set of benchmark problems in which equality plays the dominant role. The test problems are taken from group theory, Robbins algebra, combinatory logic, and other areas. For each problem, we include appropriate clauses and comment as to its status with regard to provability by an unaided automated reasoning program.

  15. Benchmark problems in which equality plays the major role

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, E.; Wos, L.

    1992-01-01

    We have recently heard rumors that researchers are again studying paramodulation (Wos87) in the context of strategy for its control. In part to facilitate such research, and in part to provide test problems for evaluating other approaches to equality-oriented reasoning, we offer in this article a set of benchmark problems in which equality plays the dominant role. The test problems are taken from group theory, Robbins algebra, combinatory logic, and other areas. For each problem, we include appropriate clauses and comment as to its status with regard to provability by an unaided automated reasoning program.

  16. Role Play in Counselor Education and Supervision: Innovative Ideas, Gaps, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Allison L.

    2009-01-01

    Ideas for using role play in counselor education have been discussed in the literature. While there are "how-to" suggestions for using role play, rather than students' personal material, or "real" play in the classroom, a lack of "how-to" articles exists for using role play in counseling supervision. Literature on role play in counselor education…

  17. Dewey on Seriousness, Playfulness and the Role of the Teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Skilbeck

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The chapter that John Dewey dedicates to consideration of play and work in the curriculum in Democracy and Education echoes his thoughts on the same subject in How We Think, which preceded Democracy and Education by six years. Dewey closes How We Think with a more expansive treatment of the topic and is keen not only to recast the traditional dichotomy of work and play as distinct kinds of educational activity but to challenge the hierarchical status of the accompanying mental states of seriousness and playfulness. Dewey argues that a combination of playfulness and seriousness represents the ideal mental attitude of the artist: teaching is an art, therefore the teacher is an artist and the ideal mental attitude of the teacher to his or work combines the playful and the serious. It is the task of the teacher to inculcate such habits of mind in his or her students for whom it is implicitly the ideal mental state for learning. It is in the light of this that we should understand what characterises play and work as features of educational activity. Consideration of what Dewey meant is accompanied by an example from contemporary educational practice intended to illustrate Dewey’s sense of purposeful activity in which a playful approach creates the kind of embodied experience that will help students to achieve desired educational outcomes. This will lead to reflection on how the role of the teacher as an artist might be conceived, resisting both the temptation towards an instrumental characterisation of playfulness derived from the application of discoveries in cognitive science to classroom practice and goal-directed notions of seriousness. I will argue that alongside the conventional classroom skills of the teacher, what is required is an authentic presence that is attuned to the nature of what is being taught, together with a concern for the outcomes to be achieved. Such an attunement would allow for playfulness and humour as well as seriousness

  18. Glucocorticoids play a key role in circadian cell cycle rhythms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Dickmeis

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Clock output pathways play a pivotal role by relaying timing information from the circadian clock to a diversity of physiological systems. Both cell-autonomous and systemic mechanisms have been implicated as clock outputs; however, the relative importance and interplay between these mechanisms are poorly understood. The cell cycle represents a highly conserved regulatory target of the circadian timing system. Previously, we have demonstrated that in zebrafish, the circadian clock has the capacity to generate daily rhythms of S phase by a cell-autonomous mechanism in vitro. Here, by studying a panel of zebrafish mutants, we reveal that the pituitary-adrenal axis also plays an essential role in establishing these rhythms in the whole animal. Mutants with a reduction or a complete absence of corticotrope pituitary cells show attenuated cell-proliferation rhythms, whereas expression of circadian clock genes is not affected. We show that the corticotrope deficiency is associated with reduced cortisol levels, implicating glucocorticoids as a component of a systemic signaling pathway required for circadian cell cycle rhythmicity. Strikingly, high-amplitude rhythms can be rescued by exposing mutant larvae to a tonic concentration of a glucocorticoid agonist. Our work suggests that cell-autonomous clock mechanisms are not sufficient to establish circadian cell cycle rhythms at the whole-animal level. Instead, they act in concert with a systemic signaling environment of which glucocorticoids are an essential part.

  19. Playing to Learn——The Incorporation of Role-play Exercises into Vocational English Language Classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡陈红

    2012-01-01

    The following paper investigates the increase in the use of role-play exercises within secondary vocational English teaching.This paper also discusses how to use role-play to stimulate students’ interest in English learning and maximize English teaching efficiency.

  20. Quest for new materials: Inorganic chemistry plays a crucial role

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Gopalakrishnan; Rohini Mani

    2009-05-01

    There is an endless quest for new materials to meet the demands of advancing technology. Thus, we need new magnetic and metallic/semiconducting materials for spintronics, new low-loss dielectrics for telecommunication, new multi-ferroic materials that combine both ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism for memory devices, new piezoelectrics that do not contain lead, new lithium containing solids for application as cathode/anode/electrolyte in lithium batteries, hydrogen storage materials for mobile/transport applications and catalyst materials that can convert, for example, methane to higher hydrocarbons, and the list is endless! Fortunately for us, chemistry - inorganic chemistry in particular - plays a crucial role in this quest. Most of the functional materials mentioned above are inorganic non-molecular solids, while much of the conventional inorganic chemistry deals with isolated molecules or molecular solids. Even so, the basic concepts that we learn in inorganic chemistry, for example, acidity/basicity, oxidation/reduction (potentials), crystal field theory, low spin-high spin/inner sphere-outer sphere complexes, role of -electrons in transition metal chemistry, electron-transfer reactions, coordination geometries around metal atoms, Jahn-Teller distortion, metal-metal bonds, cation-anion (metal-nonmetal) redox competition in the stabilization of oxidation states - all find crucial application in the design and synthesis of inorganic solids possessing technologically important properties. An attempt has been made here to illustrate the role of inorganic chemistry in this endeavour, drawing examples from the literature as well as from the research work of my group.

  1. [Does acidosis in brain play a role in Alzheimer's disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirchl, Michael; Humpel, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is characterized by beta-amyloid plaques, tau pathology, cell death of cholinergic neurons, inflammatory processes and cerebrovascular damage. The reasons for the development of this chronic disease are not known yet. We hypothesize that chronic long lasting mild damage of the cerebrovascular brain capillaries cause hypoperfusion, acidosis and neurodegeneration, and induces a cell death cascade with beta-amyloid dysfunction and tau-pathology and inflammation. Vascular risk factors, such as hyperhomocysteinemia or hypercholesterolemia, may play a role in this process. The accumulation of chronic silent strokes may cause cognitive defects as seen in vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. This summary tries to link the different events, which occur in Alzheimer's disease, focusing on the cerebrovascular hypothesis.

  2. Role Playing Game (RPG on nursing undergraduate course: educational potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Nathale Soares

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of a Role Playing Game as an educational strategy in Undergraduate Nursing course, emphasizing its subjective implications in understanding aspects of the profession. This is a qualitative study, conducted through an evaluative research, of deployment analysis type. Nursing students of the 3rd period participated. The instrument to collection was Memories of Game, reports prepared by students after game sessions. The game is a non-traditional educational strategy that enabled approach to students through professional practice, active participation, self-reflection and reflection on professional practice. This strategy favored individualization processes, allowing students to experience situations similar to the nursing practice and exercise skills such as teamwork and creativity. The expansion of studies that address the subjective processes in higher education, through simulation games, can contribute to better design of health development processes.

  3. [Vascular depression in the elderly. Does inflammation play a role?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscogliosi, Giovanni; Andreozzi, Paola; Chiriac, Iulia Maria; Ettorre, Evaristo; Vulcano, Achiropita; Servello, Adriana; Marigliano, Benedetta; Marigliano, Vincenzo

    2011-06-01

    Vascular depression in the elderly. Does inflammation play a role?Depression is the most common comorbidity in the elderly, and it is a major determinant of disability. The late-onset depression in highly associated to cardiovascular disease. Depressive symptoms may follow vascular brain damage, especially when mood regulating areas are affected. However depression is strongly associated to vascular disease even when there is no manifest brain damage. Recently great attention has been given to chronic inflammation, both related to depression and vascular disease. Both experimental and clinical evidence shows that a rise in the concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and glucocorticoids in depressed patients is associated with defect in serotonergic function. Chronic inflammation may underlie many forms of depression associated with vascular disease and metabolic syndrome. The importance of the inflammation hypothesis of depression lies is that psychotropic drugs may have central anti-inflammatory action, and that new generation of central anti-inflammatory drugs may be useful in depression treatment.

  4. Does genomic imprinting play a role in autoimmunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camprubí, Cristina; Monk, David

    2011-01-01

    In the 19th century Gregor Mendel defined the laws of genetic inheritance by crossing different types of peas. From these results arose his principle of equivalence: the gene will have the same behaviour whether it is inherited from the mother or the father. Today, several key exceptions to this principle are known, for example sex-linked traits and genes in the mitochondrial genome, whose inheritance patterns are referred to as 'non mendelian'. A third, important exception in mammals is that of genomic imprinting, where transcripts are expressed in a monoallelic fashion from only the maternal or the paternal chromosome. In this chapter, we discuss how parent-of-origin effects and genomic imprinting may play a role in autoimmunity and speculate how imprinted miRNAs may influence the expression of many target autoimmune associated genes.

  5. The role thermal physiology plays in species invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Amanda L

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of physiological phenotypes that may play a part in the establishment of non-native species can broaden our understanding about the ecology of species invasion. Here, an assessment was carried out by comparing the responses of invasive and native species to thermal stress. The goal was to identify physiological patterns that facilitate invasion success and to investigate whether these traits are widespread among invasive ectotherms. Four hypotheses were generated and tested using a review of the literature to determine whether they could be supported across taxonomically diverse invasive organisms. The four hypotheses are as follows: (i) broad geographical temperature tolerances (thermal width) confer a higher upper thermal tolerance threshold for invasive rather than native species; (ii) the upper thermal extreme experienced in nature is more highly correlated with upper thermal tolerance threshold for invasive vs. native animals; (iii) protein chaperone expression-a cellular mechanism that underlies an organism's thermal tolerance threshold-is greater in invasive organisms than in native ones; and (iv) acclimation to higher temperatures can promote a greater range of thermal tolerance for invasive compared with native species. Each hypothesis was supported by a meta-analysis of the invasive/thermal physiology literature, providing further evidence that physiology plays a substantial role in the establishment of invasive ectotherms.

  6. The role thermal physiology plays in species invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of physiological phenotypes that may play a part in the establishment of non-native species can broaden our understanding about the ecology of species invasion. Here, an assessment was carried out by comparing the responses of invasive and native species to thermal stress. The goal was to identify physiological patterns that facilitate invasion success and to investigate whether these traits are widespread among invasive ectotherms. Four hypotheses were generated and tested using a review of the literature to determine whether they could be supported across taxonomically diverse invasive organisms. The four hypotheses are as follows: (i) broad geographical temperature tolerances (thermal width) confer a higher upper thermal tolerance threshold for invasive rather than native species; (ii) the upper thermal extreme experienced in nature is more highly correlated with upper thermal tolerance threshold for invasive vs. native animals; (iii) protein chaperone expression—a cellular mechanism that underlies an organism's thermal tolerance threshold—is greater in invasive organisms than in native ones; and (iv) acclimation to higher temperatures can promote a greater range of thermal tolerance for invasive compared with native species. Each hypothesis was supported by a meta-analysis of the invasive/thermal physiology literature, providing further evidence that physiology plays a substantial role in the establishment of invasive ectotherms. PMID:27293666

  7. Dissection of appetitive conditioning. Does impulsivity play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristou, Harilaos; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Beunen, Shalana; Jansen, Anita

    2013-10-01

    It is generally assumed that cue-reactivity results from appetitive pavlovian learning. This is the reason for applying cue exposure with response prevention interventions in the treatment of substance and eating disorders. However, not all appetitive conditioned responses are equally sensitive to extinction. Additionally, impulsivity traits appear to moderate cue-reactivity. Nevertheless, there has been little research on the role of impulsivity traits in the learning of different appetitive response systems. The purpose of the present study was (i) to replicate Van Gucht et al.'s (2010) findings, in particular, the acquisition and the differential extinction of appetitive learned responses and ii) to investigate the role of impulsivity traits in appetitive learning. Participants (n=50) took part in a single laboratory session. Impulsivity traits (reward sensitivity, response inhibition, sensation seeking) were measured at the beginning of the session. A paradigm similar to Van Gucht et al.'s (2010) was used for the acquisition and extinction of subjective conditioned responses for milk chocolate (craving, expectancy, and liking). The acquisition of appetitive responses was successful. Unlike craving and liking, the extinction of expectancy was fully successful. Impulsivity traits played no role in the acquisition and extinction of appetitive conditioning. The results support the differential sensitivity of different appetitive response systems to extinction. The lack of findings for the role of impulsivity traits in appetitive learning shows that the question of how impulsivity affects appetitive behaviour still remains open. Theoretical and methodological issues and clinical implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of preschool teacher in child structured and unstructured play

    OpenAIRE

    Bajde, Karmen

    2016-01-01

    The thesis entitled The Role of Preschool Teacher in Child Structured and Unstructured Play focuses on play, play materials and the role of preschool teacher in the preschool period. The theoretical part focuses on the meaning of child’s play and play materials as well as the role of the preschool professionals. Various types, factors and characteristics of child’s play were presented and play materials were defined. Toy quality criteria are also briefly described. The chapter dealing with th...

  9. Doublecortin May Play a Role in Defining Chondrocyte Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxia Ge

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic development of articular cartilage has not been well understood and the role of doublecortin (DCX in determination of chondrocyte phenotype is unknown. Here, we use a DCX promoter-driven eGFP reporter mouse model to study the dynamic gene expression profiles in mouse embryonic handplates at E12.5 to E13.5 when the condensed mesenchymal cells differentiate into either endochondral chondrocytes or joint interzone cells. Illumina microarray analysis identified a variety of genes that were expressed differentially in the different regions of mouse handplate. The unique expression patterns of many genes were revealed. Cytl1 and 3110032G18RIK were highly expressed in the proximal region of E12.5 handplate and the carpal region of E13.5 handplate, whereas Olfr538, Kctd15, and Cited1 were highly expressed in the distal region of E12.5 and the metacarpal region of E13.5 handplates. There was an increasing gradient of Hrc expression in the proximal to distal direction in E13.5 handplate. Furthermore, when human DCX protein was expressed in human adipose stem cells, collagen II was decreased while aggrecan, matrilin 2, and GDF5 were increased during the 14-day pellet culture. These findings suggest that DCX may play a role in defining chondrocyte phenotype.

  10. Children's Engagement in Play at Home: A Parent's Role in Supporting Play Opportunities during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForett, Doré R.; Mendez, Julia L.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined parents' developmentally appropriate beliefs about young children's play and parents' views on their child's play skills. This exploratory secondary data analysis was drawn from data on low-income African-American and Latino parents and their children (n = 109) participating in Head Start programmes in the USA. Compared with…

  11. The role of play in Danish child care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    of child care. To illustrate how play is a developmental activitity for children, an example of a social fantasy play episode is analysed in order to substantiate the claim: that children’s self-organised play-activities propels social development, authenticity and democratic values.......Children’s play is an immensely central part of child care in Scandinavia. This chapter describes how children’s play with peers and friends is supported by the pedagogical environment of Danish child care. It is argued that play is an existential project for children and that opportunites to play...... freely teaches children to become part of the social order, to become good friends and to solve differences through negotiation. Throughout the chapter the environment facilitating children’s play is illustrated with reference to typical Danish child care practices and research results on quality...

  12. Copy number variation plays an important role in clinical epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Heather; Shen, Yiping; Avallone, Jennifer; Sheidley, Beth R.; Pinsky, Rebecca; Bergin, Ann M.; Berry, Gerard T.; Duffy, Frank H.; Eksioglu, Yaman; Harris, David J.; Hisama, Fuki M.; Ho, Eugenia; Irons, Mira; Jacobsen, Christina M.; James, Philip; Kothare, Sanjeev; Khwaja, Omar; Lipton, Jonathan; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Markowitz, Jennifer; Maski, Kiran; Megerian, J. Thomas; Neilan, Edward; Raffalli, Peter C.; Robbins, Michael; Roberts, Amy; Roe, Eugene; Rollins, Caitlin; Sahin, Mustafa; Sarco, Dean; Schonwald, Alison; Smith, Sharon E.; Soul, Janet; Stoler, Joan M.; Takeoka, Masanori; Tan, Wen-Han; Torres, Alcy R.; Tsai, Peter; Urion, David K.; Weissman, Laura; Wolff, Robert; Wu, Bai-Lin; Miller, David T.; Poduri, Annapurna

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of copy number abnormalities detectable by chromosomal microarray (CMA) testing in patients with epilepsy at a tertiary care center. Methods We identified patients with ICD-9 codes for epilepsy or seizures and clinical CMA testing performed between October 2006 and February 2011 at Boston Children’s Hospital. We reviewed medical records and included patients meeting criteria for epilepsy. We phenotypically characterized patients with epilepsy-associated abnormalities on CMA. Results Of 973 patients who had CMA and ICD-9 codes for epilepsy or seizures, 805 patients satisfied criteria for epilepsy. We observed 437 copy number variants (CNVs) in 323 patients (1–4 per patient), including 185 (42%) deletions and 252 (58%) duplications. Forty (9%) were confirmed de novo, 186 (43%) were inherited, and parental data were unavailable for 211 (48%). Excluding full chromosome trisomies, CNV size ranged from 18 kb to 142 Mb, and 34% were over 500 kb. In at least 40 cases (5%), the epilepsy phenotype was explained by a CNV, including 29 patients with epilepsy-associated syndromes and 11 with likely disease-associated CNVs involving epilepsy genes or “hotspots.” We observed numerous recurrent CNVs including 10 involving loss or gain of Xp22.31, a region described in patients with and without epilepsy. Interpretation Copy number abnormalities play an important role in patients with epilepsy. Given that the diagnostic yield of CMA for epilepsy patients is similar to the yield in autism spectrum disorders and in prenatal diagnosis, for which published guidelines recommend testing with CMA, we recommend the implementation of CMA in the evaluation of unexplained epilepsy. PMID:24811917

  13. Forced Choices: Role Play and the Problem of Disappearing Syntax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kellogg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We begin with the observation that some Korean elementary school children in English class, confined to a single situation and even a single language exponent in a role play, appear to produce far more coherent dialogue than the previous week when they were allowed completely free choices in language. We note that at the same time as their dialogue becomes longer, their sentences become shorter (tall and thinner on the printed page, and we suggest that the grammatical complexity is consciously unpacked as discourse complexity. When we turn to a large corpus of longitudinal and cross sectional data, we see, however, that “thinner” dialogue with short utterances is not always more creative, at least not grammatically. We see that the children are deliberately and consciously choosing more elliptical and less creative expressions when they speak. We generalize from this data to show that the problem is no mere artifact of the data sample. We theorize from this generalization to show that the development of the child’s free will in syntax is related to a long chain of such constraints, leading from instincts to habits to intelligent choices oriented toward the immediate environment to acts of free will which are genuinely voluntary and which admit no sovereign but the child’s developing self. Indeed, we shall argue that the exercise of this sovereignty is precisely how the child develops a self in the first place.

  14. Myeloma — the integral role played by the professional nurse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucille Wood

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Myeloma is a malignancy o f plasma cells which are terminally differentiated B-lymphocytes. The diagnosis may he made incidentally at routine blood testing, when an abnormality is found in the plasma proteins on electrophoresis. More usually the patients are symptomatic, with bone pain, anaemia, evidence o f renal failure, or the metabolic abnormalities associated with increased plasma calcium and urate levels. Effective treatment will extend survival from 7 to approximately 30 months and at the same time improve the quality o f life. Treatment is multidisciplinary, prominently involves the professional nurse and may arbitrarily be divided into two stages. Firstly, reversible lesions, such as dehydration and plasma hyperviscosity must be corrected, hypercalcaemia and hyperuricaemia improved and, if necessary, renal dialysis undertaken. Secondly, but o f equal importance, is the need for specific therapy to be directed against the tumour itself, and both cytotoxic agents and irradiation have an important role to play. More recently, newer approaches have included high dose chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation.

  15. Using dramatic role-play to develop emotional aptitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Dinapoli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As university educators, we need to prepare students for the transition from the information age to what Daniel H. Pink (2005 calls the conceptual age, which is governed by artistry, empathy and emotion, by including in the curricula activities that stimulate both hemispheres of the brain. This can be done by promoting activities that energize what Daniel Goleman (1995 refers to as emotional intelligence, and it further maintains that, as Paul Ekman (2003 suggests, the ability to detect feelings improves communication. Recognizing the need to include in the curricula procedures that help develop students’ right brain aptitudes and enhance their communication skills, I have endeavoured to introduce dramatic scene study as a sustained activity in my English for Specific Purposes courses at the Universidad de Valencia. My aim was to energize the students’ creative and emotional aptitudes, as well as to dynamize effective teamwork. This article sustains that dramatic role-play, based on scripted scene study and related improvisational activities, is one way of achieving this.

  16. Role-Playing Game Based Assessment to Fractional Concept in Second Grade Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Fu-Yuan; Hsieh, Mei-Ling

    2017-01-01

    This study developed a set of Role-playing game (RPG), which was used to explore whether significant differences exist in academic performance and learning attitudes between RPG-based assessment and traditional lectures. This study also investigated the satisfaction of students toward the RPG scenario. Research participants included 100 second…

  17. Serotonin and dopamine play complementary roles in gambling to recover losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell-Meiklejohn, Daniel; Cooke, Jennifer; Wakeley, Judi

    2011-01-01

    of losses surrendered. Propranolol markedly reduced heart rate but produced no significant changes in loss-chasing behaviour. Serotonin and dopamine play dissociable roles in the tendency of individuals to gamble to recover losses. Serotonergic activity mediates the persistence of loss-chasing behaviour...

  18. Role-Playing Game Based Assessment to Fractional Concept in Second Grade Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Fu-Yuan; Hsieh, Mei-Ling

    2017-01-01

    This study developed a set of Role-playing game (RPG), which was used to explore whether significant differences exist in academic performance and learning attitudes between RPG-based assessment and traditional lectures. This study also investigated the satisfaction of students toward the RPG scenario. Research participants included 100 second…

  19. Playing with Fear: Children's Play and Its Role in Expressing Fears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heibeck, Tracy H.

    Preschool children's fears of animals and the dark were investigated in an effort to examine how preschoolers use play as a medium for expressing fearful emotions. A total of 48 children participated in the study. Interviews with parents were used to identify 12 preschoolers who were anxious about the dark and 12 who were anxious about dogs; 24…

  20. Exploring the Potential of Role Play in Higher Education: Development of a Typology and Teacher Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Deepa; Stupans, Ieva

    2012-01-01

    Role-play, in which learners act out roles in case scenarios, appears to be used across a broad range of discipline areas to address learning across the cognitive, psychomotor and affective domains. This paper describes the development of a prospective typology of role-play learning opportunities derived from role-play scenarios used at one large…

  1. Role-play experience facilitates reading the mind of individuals with different perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumikazu Furumi

    Full Text Available The present study examined effects of role-play experience on reading the mind of people with different perception. It is normally difficult but very important in daily life to understand people with different characteristics, including those with restricted color vision. We explored the mechanisms of reading the mind of people with different perception. Forty university students were introduced to a communication task in which the use of mindreading was essential. During each trial, participants viewed a shelf, presented on a laptop computer, which contained several familiar objects, and they were instructed to touch an object on the shelf following an instruction issued by a partner who stood at the opposite side of the shelf. There were two partners: one was a monkey with normal color vision and the other was a dog with restricted color vision. The monkey could see all the objects in the same colors as the participants, whereas the dog saw some objects in different colors (e.g., he saw as yellow objects that the participants saw as red. Participants were required to respond according to the partner's instruction. In the restricted color vision condition, the dog saw the colors of objects differently; thus, participants had to work out his intentions (i.e., mind read, according to his different perspective. In the normal color vision condition, all objects were in the same colors as those seen by the monkey. Before the test phase, the role-play group had a role-play experience in which participants assumed the role of people with restricted color vision. No-role-play participants made significantly more errors in the restricted color vision condition than in the normal color vision condition, whereas among role-play participants, there was no difference between conditions. These results suggest that role-play experience facilitates reading the mind of people with perceptual experiences different from our own.

  2. ROL-PLAYING AND GENDER ROLES JUEGOS DE ROL Y ROLES DE GÉNERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ramón Carbó García

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the role playing games evolution from the Gender perspective. The authors analyze the evolution of the role playing games and the progressive incorporation of women to this form of games.El artículo analiza la evolución de los juegos de rol desde la perspectiva de los estudios de género. Los autores analizan la evolución de los juegos de rol y la incorporación progresiva de las mujeres a esta forma de ocio.

  3. Role Playing Approach vs. Traditional Method about Neonatal Admission Skills among Midwifery Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Mohamadiriz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Since, employing new education approach is necessary for enhancing medical students` skills, so the aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of roleplay approach compared the traditional method about neonatal admission skills in delivery room among midwifery students. Materials and Methods This was an experimental study in 2013-2014 in Isfahan-Iran. After baseline testing, 30 midwifery students were trained using role-playing method for neonatal admission skills (n=15, case group and using a traditional method (n=15, control group. Participants were tested after intervention in final term. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS version 13 and descriptive and analysis such as independent t-test and paired test. The significant level was considered less than 0.05. Results Before intervention, the findings did not show any significant difference between skill scores of  two groups (role-play and traditional method; while a statistically significant difference was observed in after intervention between the scores of two groups (P=0.003. After intervention, Paired t- test showed a statistically significant difference in skills scores in two groups respectively (P=0.024, P=0.010. Conclusion Role-play teaching technique can be increased neonatal admission management skills levels in midwifery students. So, the conduction of this educational model is recommended as an effective learning in neonatal admission management. The role playing approach leads to comparable practical neonatal admission management-performance compared to traditional method. Therefore, this approach could be useful in special educational settings especial midwifery and neonatal wards.

  4. Expressions of Critical Thinking in Role-Playing Simulations: Comparisons across Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertmer, Peggy A.; Strobel, Johannes; Cheng, Xi; Chen, Xiaojun; Kim, Hannah; Olesova, Larissa; Sadaf, Ayesha; Tomory, Annette

    2010-01-01

    The development of critical thinking is crucial in professional education to augment the capabilities of pre-professional students. One method for enhancing critical thinking is participation in role-playing simulation-based scenarios where students work together to resolve a potentially real situation. In this study, undergraduate nursing…

  5. Role-play facilitates children’s mindreading of those with atypical color perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumikazu eFurumi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effects of role-play experience on children’s mindreading ability. Forty-one primary school children (20 boys, 21 girls, mean age: 9.37 years, range: 8–11 years were introduced to a communication task in which the use of mindreading was essential. During each trial, participants viewed a shelf, presented on a laptop, which contained several familiar objects, and they were instructed to touch an object on the shelf following an order issued by a manager who stood at the opposite side of the shelf. There were two managers: one was a monkey manager with normal color vision, and the other was a dog manager with restricted color vision. The monkey manager could see all the objects in the same colors as the participants, whereas the dog manager saw some objects in different colors. Participants were required to respond according to the manager's instruction. In the restricted color vision condition, the dog manager saw the colors of objects differently; thus, participants had to work out his intentions, according to his different perspective. In the normal color vision condition, all objects were in the same colors as those seen by the monkey manager. Before the test phase, participants in the role-play group were provided a role-play experience in which they assumed the role of the dog manager with restricted color vision. The experimental data were analyzed using a 2 x 2 mixed-design ANOVA (role-play condition x communication partner condition to examine differences in the error rate. Both main effects and its interaction were significant. According to the post-hoc analyses, participants in the no-role-play condition made significantly more errors in the restricted color vision condition than in the normal color vision condition, whereas no such difference was found among participants in the role-play condition. These results suggest that role-play experience could facilitate mindreading of characters with

  6. Correspondence of Motivational Interviewing Adherence and Competence Ratings in Real and Role-Played Client Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Suzanne E.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Nich, Charla; Canning-Ball, Monica; Martino, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Treatment integrity ratings (adherence and competence) are frequently used as outcome measures in clinician training studies, drawn from recorded real client or role-played client sessions. However, it is unknown whether clinician adherence and competence are similar in real client and role-played sessions or whether real and role-play clients…

  7. Using Role-Play for Expert Science Communication with Professional Stakeholders in Flood Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Lindsey; Stokes, Alison; Crowley, Kate; Roberts, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores role-play pedagogies in learning and communicating about cutting-edge flood science by flood risk management professionals in local government. It outlines role-play process/structure and evaluates participant perceptions of their learning experiences. Issues were impacts of prior role-play experience on attitudes brought to…

  8. Using Role-Play for Expert Science Communication with Professional Stakeholders in Flood Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Lindsey; Stokes, Alison; Crowley, Kate; Roberts, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores role-play pedagogies in learning and communicating about cutting-edge flood science by flood risk management professionals in local government. It outlines role-play process/structure and evaluates participant perceptions of their learning experiences. Issues were impacts of prior role-play experience on attitudes brought to…

  9. Assessing Women's Responses to Sexual Threat: Validity of a Virtual Role-Play Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Rowe, Lorelei Simpson; McDonald, Renee; Platt, Cora G.; Gomez, Gabriella S.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity of a role-play procedure that uses virtual reality technology to assess women's responses to sexual threat. Forty-eight female undergraduate students were randomly assigned to either a standard, face-to-face role-play (RP) or a virtual role-play (VRP) of a sexually coercive situation. A multimethod assessment…

  10. Parliamentarians play key role in linking population and social development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Mr. Hirofunti Ando, Deputy Executive Director of the UNFPA, delivered the statement of Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the UNFPA at the International Meeting of Parliamentarians on Population and Social Development. The International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (ICPPD) in Cairo in September 1994 made a significant impact on the attitudes and support of parliamentarians regarding population issues. The Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (AFPPD) brought together a group of parliamentarians from all over the world to discuss population issues and social development. The World Summit included in its deliberations the accumulated experiences of earlier international conferences dealing with social economic issues. The ICPD Program of Action addressed concerns relevant to the agenda of the Social Summit: the crucial contribution that early population stabilization will make towards the attainment of sustainable development; the significant role of integrated policies on population and development in creating employment; the importance of population policies and programs in alleviating poverty; the contributions of reproductive health policies, including high-quality family planning services, to the enhancement of the status of women and to the achievement of gender equality; the synergy between education, family planning, and the general improvement of the human condition; and the relationship between population pressures, poverty, and environmental degradation. The ICPD Program of Action also identified critically important population and development objectives, such as ensuring access to education, especially of girls; reducing infant, child, and maternal mortality; and providing universal access to reproductive health and family planning services. Now the challenge is to mobilize the necessary resources for the Social Summit.

  11. The virulence regulator PrfA plays a significant role in the Listeria monocytogenes biofilm formation%毒力基因调控蛋白PrfA促进单核细胞增生李斯特菌生物被膜的形成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯飞飞; 张强; 王莉; 冯晓琴; 尹晓蛟; 罗勤

    2011-01-01

    The ability of the foodbome pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to develop biofilm in food-processing environment is a major concern for the food safety, because formation of biofilm facilitates bacteria to survive in the adverse environment and resist desiccation, UV light and treatmentwith antimicrobial and sanitizing agents. However, the molecular mechanism of biofilm formation in L. Monocytogenes has not been fully understood. PrfA is a key transcriptional activator that positively regulates most of the known Hsterial virulence genes expression. In order to explore the role of PrfA on Listeria biofilm development, we compared the abilities of biofilm formation in this study for L. Monocytogenes wild type strains (EGD and EGDe) and their prfA deletion mutants (EGDAp^ and EGDeApr/A), nonpathogenic Listeria innocua, as well as the recombinant strains that can constitutively express PrfA in L. Innocua (LI-pERL3-/r/4*) and in EGDpAprfA {EGDeAprfA-pERL3-prfA*). Our results showed that the wild types of L. Monocytogenes had strong abilities to develop "a network of knitted chains" biofilm structures on polyvinyl chloride microtiter plates, while unstructured biofilm was observed in L. Innocua. Biofilm formation was reduced in L. Monocytogenes mutants lacking PrfA and rescued in the strain with constitutive expression of PrfA. However, PrfA had no impact on L. Innocua biofilm formation. Our results suggest that PrfA plays a significant role only in the L. Monocytogenes biofilm formation but not in L. Innocua. PrfA might indirectly regulate expression of certain genes involving in L. Monocytogenes biofilm formation.%单核细胞增生李斯特菌(Listeria monocytogenes,LM)是重要的革兰氏阳性食源性致病菌,易在食品以及各种食品加工、运输和保藏设备的接触面形成生物被膜,从而具有更强的抗逆性而难以彻底清除,因此成为食品卫生安全的重要隐患.PrfA是LM毒力基因转录表达的重要调控因子,通过比较研

  12. DNA methylation plays a crucial role during early Nasonia development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwier, M. V.; Verhulst, E. C.; Zwahlen, R. D.; Beukeboom, L. W.; van de Zande, L.

    2012-01-01

    Although the role of DNA methylation in insect development is still poorly understood, the number and role of DNA methyltransferases in insects vary strongly between species. DNA methylation appears to be widely present among the social hymenoptera and functional studies in Apis have suggested a cru

  13. From board to bedside - training the communication competences of medical students with role plays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttenberger, Katharina; Graessel, Elmar; Simon, Cosima; Donath, Carolin

    2014-07-05

    Role plays and standardized patients are often used in medical education and have proven to be effective tools for enhancing the communication skills of medical students. Most course concepts need additional time and teaching staff, and there are only a few studies about role plays in the preclinical segment. We developed a highly consolidated concept for the curricular course of 2nd-year medical students, including ten role plays about five subjects: anamnesis, shared decision making, prevention, breaking bad news, and so-called "difficult interactions". Before the course, all students were asked about their expectations and attitudes toward the course. After the course, all students rated the course, their individual learning progress, whether their expectations had been fulfilled, and re-evaluated their attitudes. Questionnaires were self-report measures and had a quantitative and a short qualitative section and were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Group differences (sex, age, role played) were evaluated with t tests at a Bonferonni-corrected significance level of p = .03 and the non-parametric U-tests. Implementing this practical course concept is possible without incurring additional costs. This paper not only shows how that can be done but also provides 5 examples of role scripts for different training subjects. The course concept was highly appreciated by the students. More than 75% felt that they had learned important communication techniques and would be better able to handle difficult situations. Playing the doctor's role was felt to be more useful than playing the patient's role. Women admitted a higher degree of shyness in the beginning and gave higher ratings to their learning progress than men. Students' most frequent wish in the qualitative analysis was to be able to play the doctor's role at least once. The students' answers showed a differentiated pattern, thus suggesting that the influence of social desirability was minimal. Practical skills

  14. Playing in "Trelis Weyr": Investigating Collaborative Practices in a "Dragons of Pern" Role-Play-Game Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive case study examined adolescents' and emerging adults' literate and social practices within the context of a role-play-game (RPG) forum, investigating the ways participants read and collaboratively composed within this space. As a researcher, I was interested in how this space functioned and how the interactions between…

  15. Emotional Role Playing, Attitude Change, and Attraction Toward a Disabled Person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clore, Gerald L.; Jeffery, Katherine McMillan

    The effects of emotional role playing on interpersonal attitudes toward the disabled are explored. Three treatment groups (role players, vicarious role players, and controls) were involved. Role playing consisted of traveling about the campus in a wheel chair for an hour. Results indicated that, compared to the control experience, both direct and…

  16. Fungal Histidine Phosphotransferase Plays a Crucial Role in Photomorphogenesis and Pathogenesis in Magnaporthe oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha C. Mohanan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Two-component signal transduction (TCST pathways play crucial roles in many cellular functions such as stress responses, biofilm formation, and sporulation. The histidine phosphotransferase (HPt, which is an intermediate phosphotransfer protein in a two-component system, transfers a phosphate group to a phosphorylatable aspartate residue in the target protein(s, and up-regulates stress-activated MAP kinase cascades. Most fungal genomes carry a single copy of the gene coding for HPt, which are potential antifungal targets. However, unlike the histidine kinases (HK or the downstream response regulators (RR in two-component system, the HPts have not been well-studied in phytopathogenic fungi. In this study, we investigated the role of HPt in the model rice-blast fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. We found that in M. oryzae an additional isoform of the HPT gene YPD1 was expressed specifically in response to light. Further, the expression of light-regulated genes such as those encoding envoy and blue-light-harvesting protein, and PAS domain containing HKs was significantly reduced upon down-regulation of YPD1 in M. oryzae. Importantly, down-regulation of YPD1 led to a significant decrease in the ability to penetrate the host cuticle and in light-dependent conidiation in M. oryzae. Thus, our results indicate that Ypd1 plays an important role in asexual development and host invasion, and suggest that YPD1 isoforms likely have distinct roles to play in the rice-blast pathogen M. oryzae.

  17. Fungal histidine phosphotransferase plays a crucial role in photomorphogenesis and pathogenesis in Magnaporthe oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanan, Varsha C.; Chandarana, Pinal M.; Chattoo, Bharat. B.; Patkar, Rajesh N.; Manjrekar, Johannes

    2017-05-01

    Two-component signal transduction (TCST) pathways play crucial roles in many cellular functions such as stress responses, biofilm formation and sporulation. The histidine phosphotransferase (HPt), which is an intermediate phosphotransfer protein in a two-component system, transfers a phosphate group to a phosphorylatable aspartate residue in the target protein(s), and up-regulates stress-activated MAP kinase cascades. Most fungal genomes carry a single copy of the gene coding for HPt, which are potential antifungal targets. However, unlike the histidine kinases (HK) or the downstream response regulators (RR) in two-component system, the HPts have not been well studied in phytopathogenic fungi. In this study, we investigated the role of HPt in the model rice-blast fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. We found that in M. oryzae an additional isoform of the HPT gene YPD1 was expressed specifically in response to light. Further, the expression of light-regulated genes such as those encoding envoy and blue-light-harvesting protein, and PAS domain containing HKs was significantly reduced upon down-regulation of YPD1 in M. oryzae. Importantly, down-regulation of YPD1 led to a significant decrease in the ability to penetrate the host cuticle and in light-dependent conidiation in M. oryzae. Thus, our results indicate that Ypd1 plays an important role in asexual development and host invasion, and suggest that YPD1 isoforms likely have distinct roles to play in the rice-blast pathogen M. oryzae.

  18. The importance and possibilities of role playing on children surgery classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goremykin I.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the first experience in the implementation into the pedagogical process of one of the methods of active training — role playing. The need for intensification of medical education process is linked primarily to the rapid increase in the volume required to provide students with information and the lack of training time. The analysis showed that the game significantly increases the level of students' knowledge, but require substantial modernization of the educational process.

  19. Metabolites of cerebellar neurons and hippocampal neurons play opposite roles in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Du

    Full Text Available Metabolites of neural cells, is known to have a significant effect on the normal physiology and function of neurons in brain. However, whether they play a role in pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases is unknown. Here, we show that metabolites of neurons play essential role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Firstly, in vivo and in vitro metabolites of cerebellar neurons both significantly induced the expression of Abeta-degrading enzymes in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex and promoted Abeta clearance. Moreover, metabolites of cerebellar neurons significantly reduced brain Abeta levels and reversed cognitive impairments and other AD-like phenotypes of APP/PS1 transgenic mice, in both early and late stages of AD pathology. On the other hand, metabolites of hippocampal neurons reduced the expression of Abeta-degrading enzymes in the cerebellum and caused cerebellar neurodegeneration in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Thus, we report, for the first time, that metabolites of neurons not only are required for maintaining the normal physiology of neurons but also play essential role in the pathogenesis of AD and may be responsible for the regional-specificity of Abeta deposition and AD pathology.

  20. Factors influencing player preferences for heroic roles in role-playing games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shang Hwa; Kao, Ching-Han; Wu, Muh-Cherng

    2007-04-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate whether player personality or social cognition influence preferences for heroic roles in role-playing games (RPG). In Study 1, 149 teenager subjects were categorized into five groups according to the Guilford Personality Inventory. Heroes were clustered into three types based on their attributes. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) results indicated that each personality group did not display distinctive preference for any particular heroic type. However, of the three heroic types teenagers most strongly preferred, Justice Warrior was followed, in order of preference, by Visionary Leader and Saint. In Study 2, the influence of three player social cognition factors (similarity, proximity, and familiarity) on player preference for heroic roles was studied. Multiple regression analysis results indicated that similarity and familiarity predicted player preferences for heroic roles.

  1. 78 FR 77771 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Love and Play: A Pair of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Love and Play: A Pair of Paintings by..., I hereby determine that the object to be included in the exhibition ``Love and Play: A Pair...

  2. The Role of Structural Characteristics in Problematic Video Game Play: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L.; Delfabbro, Paul H.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    The research literature suggests that the structural characteristics of video games may play a considerable role in the initiation, development and maintenance of problematic video game playing. The present study investigated the role of structural characteristics in video game playing behaviour within a sample of 421 video game players aged…

  3. Can Role-Play with Virtual Humans Teach Interpersonal Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    2007, with concentrations in cinema -television and technology commercialization. He has led several mixed-reality- and game-based training efforts at...participants’ responses to the role-players, their perception of the realism of the virtual human and the social characteristics of the interaction, and the

  4. Teaching for Civic Participation with Negotiation Role Plays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stacie Nicole

    2004-01-01

    This activity is designed to help teachers engage students in a critical examination of the challenges embedded in balancing economic, environmental, and immigration policy. Students take on the roles of environmental and elderly advocacy groups, both for and against increased immigration. By taking on the personalities and interests of these…

  5. Non-main Stream Plays Main Role in Shipbuilding Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Ping

    2009-01-01

    @@ Comparing with both the major shipyards and shipping companies that were facing an market decline and hard time,the non-mainstream ship types,non-mainstream ship manufacturers and non-mainstream ship owners,as main roles,made a wonderful show of living and developing in 2009.

  6. Benzodiazepines still play a role in modern psychiatric therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Balslev; Videbech, Poul; Osler, Merete

    2017-01-01

    , and that BZ cause traffic accidents, increased mortality and dementia. In Denmark, the use of BZ has been substantially reduced. In this article it is argued, that not all patients habituate, that most of the epidemiological findings are hampered by confounding, and that there still is a role for long...

  7. PLAY AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE IN CORECTIVE GYMNASTICS FOR PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujo Bjeković

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In present life conditions, especially in urban environment, children have very poor conditions for physical activities, or for movement in general. According to the new researches, working conditions and quality of work in nurseries and schools, especially if they are related to physical exercises, have certain influences on overall development of pre-school and school children. Childhood is ideal time for correction of numerous postural disturbances and deformities, whether they are congenital or acquired by injury, wrong body posture, or by poor nutrition. Playing is a power fultool for directing correct development of children, so very of ten it has to be adapted to age, capabilities, interests and needs of children.

  8. Some personal notes on role plays as an excellent teaching tool : commentary on "using and developing role plays in teaching aimed at preparing for social responsibility".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Iris

    2013-12-01

    Role plays are extremely valuable tools to address different aspects of teaching social responsibility, because they allow students to "live through" complex ethical decision making dilemmas. While role plays are getting high marks from students because their entertainment value is high, their educational value depends on their closeness to students' work experience and the skills of the teacher in helping students comprehend the lessons they are meant to convey.

  9. Parkin Plays a Role in Sporadic Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurologic disorder, which affects approximately one million men and women in the U.S. alone. PD represents a heterogeneous disorder with common clinical manifestations and for the most part common neuropathological findings. Objective This short article reviews the role of the ubiquitin E3 ligase in sporadic PD. Methods The role of parkin in sporadic PD was reviewed by querying PubMed Results Parkin is inactivated in sporadic PD via S-nitrosylation, oxidative and dopaminergic stress, and phosphorylation by the stress activated kinase, c-Abl leading to the accumulation of AIMP2 and PARIS (ZNF746). Conclusion Strategies aimed at maintaining parkin in a catalytically active state or interfering with toxicity of AIMP2 and PARIS (ZNF746) offer new therapeutic opportunities. PMID:24029689

  10. Facebook Role Play Addiction - A Comorbidity with Multiple Compulsive-Impulsive Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Deeepa; Shukla, Lekhansh; Kandasamy, Arun; Benegal, Vivek

    2016-06-01

    Background Problematic Internet use (PIU) is an emerging entity with varied contents. Behavioral addictions have high comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. Social networking site (SNS) addiction and role playing game (RPG) addiction are traditionally studied as separate entities. We present a case with excessive Internet use, with a particular focus on phenomenology and psychiatric comorbidities. Case presentation Fifteen-year-old girl with childhood onset attention deficit disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, adolescent onset trichotillomania, and disturbed family environment presented with excessive Facebook use. Main online activity was creating profiles in names of mainstream fictional characters and assuming their identity (background, linguistic attributes, etc.). This was a group activity with significant socialization in the virtual world. Craving, salience, withdrawal, mood modification, and conflict were clearly elucidated and significant social and occupational dysfunction was evident. Discussion This case highlights various vulnerability and sociofamilial factors contributing to behavioral addiction. It also highlights the presence of untreated comorbidities in such cases. The difference from contemporary RPGs and uniqueness of role playing on SNS is discussed. SNS role playing as a separate genre of PIU and its potential to reach epidemic proportions are discussed. Conclusions Individuals with temperamental vulnerability are likely to develop behavioral addictions. Identification and management of comorbid conditions are important. The content of PIU continues to evolve and needs further study.

  11. What Roles Can Scientists Play in Public Discourse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Michael

    2011-04-01

    What is a useful and proper role for scientists in the public arena? How can we best discriminate where the boundary lies between expert knowledge and values or political opinion, and how can we properly honor that line? What can we expect in the way of reception for our interventions, and how can we increase their efficacy? Involvement in public policy debates is a common and accepted role for scientists in many disciplines. In the sciences related to public health, it is taken for granted that experts will talk about the implications of their research for public policy, whether in regard to smoking, diet, or disease spread. There is also a remarkable track record of geoscientists taking a lead role in the public arena and actually affecting public policy—F. Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina collaborated on ozone depletion research at the Department of Chemistry at University of California, Irvine and then went on to make outstanding public contributions, as have James Hansen (at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies); Robert Watson (first at NASA, then at the University of East Anglia); and, of course, the late Stephen Schneider (first at the U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research, then Stanford) on climate. Some “public” geoscientists have restricted their activities to interpreting science for the wider public, while others have endorsed specific policy initiatives (see Figure 1). I firmly believe that the quality of public discourse and the information reaching policy makers were better for their interventions.

  12. Role-play using SBAR technique to improve observed communication skills in senior nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesten, Karen S

    2011-02-01

    Patients in the care of clinically expert professionals suffer medical errors with alarming frequency. The Joint Commission's National Patient Safety Goals strives to improve the effectiveness of communication among caregivers by recommending the implementation of a standardized tool known as SBAR (Situation, Background, Assessment, and Recommendation). This experimental study evaluated data from undergraduate nursing students (N = 115) on their performance using a standardized communication tool SBAR. The mean performance scores of the didactic plus role-play students were significantly higher than those who had didactic instruction alone (t = -2.6, p = 0.005). Findings suggest role-play may have a place in teaching communication skills in nursing schools as well as continuing education and training in hospitals and other health care settings. Interdisciplinary communication training may provide even more effective learning. The link between effective communication and improved patient outcomes also should be studied.

  13. Motivation within Role-Playing as a Means to Intensify College Students' Educational Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burenkova, Olga Mikhailovna; Arkhipova, Irina Vladimirovna; Semenov, Sergei Aleksandrovich; Samarenkina, Saniya Zakirzyanovna

    2015-01-01

    This article covers college students' educational activity issues while studying a foreign language; analyzes special aspects of motivation introduction, their specific features. It also defines role and structure of role-playing. The authors come to the conclusion that introduction of role-playing in an educational process will bring it closer to…

  14. Scenes of shame, social Roles, and the play with masks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welz, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    more ambiguous, dynamic self-image as result of an interactive evaluation of oneself by oneself and others. Seeing oneself seen contributes to the sense of who one becomes. From being absorbed in what one does, one might suddenly become self-aware, shift viewpoints and feel pressed to put on masks....... In putting on a mask, one relates to oneself in distancing oneself from oneself. In being at once a moral agent and a performing actor with an audience and norms in mind, one embodies and transcends the social roles one takes. In addition to the feeling of shame, in which the self finds itself passively...

  15. Early influences and childhood development. Does helicobacter play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Adrian

    2007-11-01

    In the late 1960s, Rene Dubos showed that a variety of nutritional stress in utero or in early infancy could have dramatic impact on childhood development that was irreversible. This included detectable changes in the brain. Since that time, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) has been identified as one of the major nutritional stresses that leads to permanent behavioral changes in both experimental animals and humans resulting in poorer cognitive, motor, and social-emotional function. It has been proposed that these changes play an important part in the inter-generational transmission of poverty. More recently, it is becoming clear that Helicobacter pylori causes IDA in populations on an iron-limiting diet. The main thesis of this article is that H. pylori infection may indeed have an impact on childhood development and that much more research is needed in this area as intervention via immunization or antimicrobial therapy in populations in the developing world may have major positive benefits via cure of IDA and prevention of brain damage in the young.

  16. Collagen VII plays a dual role in wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Alexander; Velati, Daniela; Mittapalli, Venugopal R; Fritsch, Anja; Kern, Johannes S; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2013-08-01

    Although a host of intracellular signals is known to contribute to wound healing, the role of the cell microenvironment in tissue repair remains elusive. Here we employed 2 different mouse models of genetic skin fragility to assess the role of the basement membrane protein collagen VII (COL7A1) in wound healing. COL7A1 secures the attachment of the epidermis to the dermis, and its mutations cause a human skin fragility disorder coined recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) that is associated with a constant wound burden. We show that COL7A1 is instrumental for skin wound closure by 2 interconnected mechanisms. First, COL7A1 was required for re-epithelialization through organization of laminin-332 at the dermal-epidermal junction. Its loss perturbs laminin-332 organization during wound healing, which in turn abrogates strictly polarized expression of integrin α6β4 in basal keratinocytes and negatively impacts the laminin-332/integrin α6β4 signaling axis guiding keratinocyte migration. Second, COL7A1 supported dermal fibroblast migration and regulates their cytokine production in the granulation tissue. These findings, which were validated in human wounds, identify COL7A1 as a critical player in physiological wound healing in humans and mice and may facilitate development of therapeutic strategies not only for RDEB, but also for other chronic wounds.

  17. Efficacy of Role Play in Concert with Lecture to Enhance Student Learning of Immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha L. Elliott

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite numerous reports that active learning increases student understanding, many barriers still exist that prevent faculty from shedding the traditional passive lecture and adopting active learning strategies in the classroom. This study looks at the use of role play as an active learning technique to convey new material, or as reinforcement to traditional lecture. A pre- and post-test survey was utilized to determine student learning gains, along with an anonymous survey to determine student attitudes about role play. Student learning gains are similar regardless of class size, role-playing participation or learning style, and reflect an increase in lower order cognition. Attitudes and learning gains indicate role play is preferable as a reinforcement technique, although the order does not matter if both lecture and role play are utilized to convey information. These data provide insight into the best practices of role-playing implementation in concert with traditional lecture format.

  18. Efficacy of role play in concert with lecture to enhance student learning of immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Samantha L

    2010-01-01

    Despite numerous reports that active learning increases student understanding, many barriers still exist that prevent faculty from shedding the traditional passive lecture and adopting active learning strategies in the classroom. This study looks at the use of role play as an active learning technique to convey new material, or as reinforcement to traditional lecture. A pre- and post-test survey was utilized to determine student learning gains, along with an anonymous survey to determine student attitudes about role play. Student learning gains are similar regardless of class size, role-playing participation or learning style, and reflect an increase in lower order cognition. Attitudes and learning gains indicate role play is preferable as a reinforcement technique, although the order does not matter if both lecture and role play are utilized to convey information. These data provide insight into the best practices of role-playing implementation in concert with traditional lecture format.

  19. Effects of communication training on real practice performance: a role-play module versus a standardized patient module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Claudia; Woermann, Ulrich; Shaha, Maya; Rethans, Jan-Joost; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of modules involving standardized patients and role-plays on training communication skills. The first module involved standardized patients and an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE); the second module consisted of peer role-plays and a written examination. A randomized posttest-only control group design with first-year nursing students was used. The intervention group received one-to-one communication training with direct oral feedback from the standardized patient. The control group had training with peer role-playing and mutual feedback. The posttest involved students' rating their self-efficacy, and real patients and clinical supervisors evaluated their communication skills. No significant differences were found between self-efficacy and patient ratings. However, the clinical supervisors rated the intervention group's communication skills to be significantly (p communication training modules including standardized patients and an OSCE are superior to communication training modules with peer role-playing.

  20. What role do nightmares play in suicide? A brief exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Caitlin E; Speed, Katrina J; Cartwright, Patricia M; Drapeau, Christopher W; Heo, Yeseul; Nadorff, Michael R

    2017-08-12

    The suicide rate in the United States has climbed each year for more than a decade, highlighting the need for greater understanding of, and prevention strategies for suicidal behavior. Nightmares have been shown to be associated with suicidal behavior independent of several psychiatric risk factors for suicide, such as symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The specific role of nightmares in contributing to suicide remains unclear due to the difficulty in delineating causal factors. However, the reporting, screening and treatment of nightmares continues to remain rare making progress difficult. Research is beginning to make some progress in uncovering the mechanisms by which nightmares increase suicide risk providing opportunities for intervention and prediction of suicidal behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Etiology of Sarcoidosis: Does Infection Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidha, Shiv; Sotirchos, Elias S.; Eckstein, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous inflammatory disorder of unclear etiology, which is known to affect multiple organ systems including the lungs, heart, skin, central nervous system, and eyes, among others. For this reason, sarcoidosis represents a systemic medical disorder that is clinically relevant to multiple medical sub-specialties. Despite extensive research, the etiology of sarcoidosis has yet to be elucidated, although most evidence supports that the pathogenetic mechanism of sarcoidosis is an aberrant immune response, driven by an unidentified antigen (or antigens) in genetically susceptible individuals. Multiple candidate etiologic agents, including microbial organisms and environmental agents, have been investigated, but study results are inconclusive. In this review, we describe the known histologic and immunologic features of sarcoidosis and discuss the evidence supporting a role for infectious processes in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis. PMID:22461752

  2. Can lenalidomide play a role in the management of scleritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jafar, Hassan A; Abul, Nadia; Kumar, Niranjan; Al-Awadhi, Adel

    2013-06-18

    Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory agent that was approved for the treatment of a monoclonal bone marrow disorders, myelodysplastic syndrome del(5q)(MDS del(5q)), in 2005; the drug was subsequently also approved for the treatment of refractory multiple myeloma, a bone marrow malignancy of the B-lymphocyte lineage. The purpose of this study is to report a case of MDS del(5q) in a female patient, which was most likely secondary to the immunosuppressive drugs that the patient was taking for scleritis. After lenalidomide treatment, the patient's haematological symptoms rapidly resolved and she became transfusion independent, with normal haemoglobin levels. This medication also helped control her dependence on high doses of oral prednisolone. The patient continued to receive treatment with low-dose lenalidomide, and her scleritis has been in long-term remission for 3 years. A larger prospective study can further define the role of lenalidomide in the management of scleritis.

  3. Role-play and the Industrial Revolution: an STS approach to the teaching of steam engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabka, Diego; Pereira de Pereira, Alexsandro; Lima Junior, Paulo

    2016-11-01

    Role-play is an interesting, although underexplored, way of teaching physics in high school. This paper presents a science-technology-society (STS) approach to the teaching of heat engines based on a role-play of the Industrial Revolution. Enacting the role-play, students are presented not only to scientific concepts, but also to the social and technological controversies of industrial development.

  4. Profit Sharing and Workplace Productivity: Does Teamwork Play a Role?

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J. Long; Fang, Tony

    2013-01-01

    The conditions under which profit sharing affects workplace productivity have never been fully understood. Using panel data, this paper examines whether there is any link between adoption of an employee profit sharing plan and subsequent productivity growth in Canadian establishments, and whether this relationship is affected by various contextual factors, particularly use of work teams. In so doing, we use both three and five-year panels. Overall, we find a significant link between adoption ...

  5. Profit Sharing and Workplace Productivity: Does Teamwork Play a Role?

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Richard J.; Fang, Tony

    2013-01-01

    The conditions under which profit sharing affects workplace productivity have never been fully understood. Using panel data, this paper examines whether there is any link between adoption of an employee profit sharing plan and subsequent productivity growth in Canadian establishments, and whether this relationship is affected by various contextual factors, particularly use of work teams. In so doing, we use both three and five-year panels. Overall, we find a significant link between adoption ...

  6. Microbial communities play important roles in modulating paddy soil fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xuesong; Fu, Xiaoqian; Yang, Yun; Cai, Peng; Peng, Shaobing; Chen, Wenli; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2016-02-01

    We studied microbial communities in two paddy soils, which did not receive nitrogen fertilization and were distinguished by the soil properties. The two microbial communities differed in the relative abundance of gram-negative bacteria and total microbial biomass. Variability in microbial communities between the two fields was related to the levels of phosphorus and soil moisture. Redundancy analysis for individual soils showed that the bacterial community dynamics in the high-yield soil were significantly correlated with total carbon, moisture, available potassium, and pH, and those in the low-yield cores were shaped by pH, and nitrogen factors. Biolog Eco-plate data showed a more active microbial community in the high yield soil. The variations of enzymatic activities in the two soils were significantly explained by total nitrogen, total potassium, and moisture. The enzymatic variability in the low-yield soil was significantly explained by potassium, available nitrogen, pH, and total carbon, and that in the high-yield soil was partially explained by potassium and moisture. We found the relative abundances of Gram-negative bacteria and Actinomycetes partially explained the spatial and temporal variations of soil enzymatic activities, respectively. The high-yield soil microbes are probably more active to modulate soil fertility for rice production.

  7. Microbial communities play important roles in modulating paddy soil fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xuesong; Fu, Xiaoqian; Yang, Yun; Cai, Peng; Peng, Shaobing; Chen, Wenli; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2016-02-04

    We studied microbial communities in two paddy soils, which did not receive nitrogen fertilization and were distinguished by the soil properties. The two microbial communities differed in the relative abundance of gram-negative bacteria and total microbial biomass. Variability in microbial communities between the two fields was related to the levels of phosphorus and soil moisture. Redundancy analysis for individual soils showed that the bacterial community dynamics in the high-yield soil were significantly correlated with total carbon, moisture, available potassium, and pH, and those in the low-yield cores were shaped by pH, and nitrogen factors. Biolog Eco-plate data showed a more active microbial community in the high yield soil. The variations of enzymatic activities in the two soils were significantly explained by total nitrogen, total potassium, and moisture. The enzymatic variability in the low-yield soil was significantly explained by potassium, available nitrogen, pH, and total carbon, and that in the high-yield soil was partially explained by potassium and moisture. We found the relative abundances of Gram-negative bacteria and Actinomycetes partially explained the spatial and temporal variations of soil enzymatic activities, respectively. The high-yield soil microbes are probably more active to modulate soil fertility for rice production.

  8. [Role playing as an essential element of simulation procedures in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Peter; Rall, Marcus; Eich, Christoph; Schnabel, Kai; Jünger, Jana; Nikendei, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Role playing is an important element of virtually all simulation-based procedures. An improved understanding for methodological aspects facilitates its goal-oriented use in education and training, research and examinations. In the present paper we describe how different forms of role play are used in different simulation-based procedures. We describe a plausibility study from skills labs demonstrating that the introduction of role-playing can increase perceived realism. Finally we derive practical suggestions for the conduction of role plays in medical simulation.

  9. Role-playing as a tool for hiring, training, and supervising peer providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hans; Solomon, Phyllis

    2014-04-01

    This article presents role-playing as an activity that can help managers in hiring, evaluating, and supervising peer providers. With the increasing employment of peers in mental health care systems, supervisors have had to face dilemmas related to peer employment more frequently and with little guidance and direction. In response, this article presents role-playing as a practical tool to hire, train, and supervise peer providers. The effectiveness of role-playing depends largely on context and execution, and so this article also offers direction on how to maximize the utility and benefits of role-playing to enhance the performance of peer providers.

  10. Cysteine homeostasis plays an essential role in plant immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Consolación; Bermúdez, M Ángeles; Romero, Luis C; Gotor, Cecilia; García, Irene

    2012-01-01

    • Cysteine is the metabolic precursor of essential biomolecules such as vitamins, cofactors, antioxidants and many defense compounds. The last step of cysteine metabolism is catalysed by O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL), which incorporates reduced sulfur into O-acetylserine to produce cysteine. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the main OASTL isoform OAS-A1 and the cytosolic desulfhydrase DES1, which degrades cysteine, contribute to the cytosolic cysteine homeostasis. • Meta-analysis of the transcriptomes of knockout plants for OAS-A1 and for DES1 show a high correlation with the biotic stress series in both cases. • The study of the response of knockout mutants to plant pathogens shows that des1 mutants behave as constitutive systemic acquired resistance mutants, with high resistance to biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens, salicylic acid accumulation and WRKY54 and PR1 induction, while oas-a1 knockout mutants are more sensitive to biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens. However, oas-a1 knockout mutants lack the hypersensitive response associated with the effector-triggered immunity elicited by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 avrRpm1. • Our results highlight the role of cysteine as a crucial metabolite in the plant immune response.

  11. DNABII proteins play a central role in UPEC biofilm structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, Aishwarya; Justice, Sheryl S; Bakaletz, Lauren O; Goodman, Steven D

    2015-06-01

    Most chronic and recurrent bacterial infections involve a biofilm component, the foundation of which is the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is a conserved and key component of the EPS of pathogenic biofilms. The DNABII protein family includes integration host factor (IHF) and histone-like protein (HU); both are present in the extracellular milieu. We have shown previously that the DNABII proteins are often found in association with eDNA and are critical for the structural integrity of bacterial communities that utilize eDNA as a matrix component. Here, we demonstrate that uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strain UTI89 incorporates eDNA within its biofilm matrix and that the DNABII proteins are not only important for biofilm growth, but are limiting; exogenous addition of these proteins promotes biofilm formation that is dependent on eDNA. In addition, we show that both subunits of IHF, yet only one subunit of HU (HupB), are critical for UPEC biofilm development. We discuss the roles of these proteins in context of the UPEC EPS.

  12. [Activities and authors. Role playing in health education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, E G; Nunes, M M

    1996-01-01

    One the forms that the capitalism met for perpetuate his ideology was through of scholastic institution and do this, your set doctrinaire. This space orderly frequently oppose teachers and students, where the practice is enforce through of foregoing scheme. At sphere of health, this scheme repeatedly, because the conception of health /disease nap works of health teach the subordinate population and the culture is transmit for health, basically on advice and norm for the people with process of culpability for theirs diseases. We would like at this work report our experience with the Pedagogic Psychodrama of ROMANA (1987), at raising your demands referring informations about Firsts Aids with teenagers matriculation on course for patrol at slum of Rocinha(R.J.), where the datas were analysis quality of discourse. The utilization of a methodology don't exclude the station context if subject of apprenticeship, contribute for understand your role and commitment with the transformation personal and collective, we hope contribute with Nursing, teach possibilities, pedagogic and creatives for humanization the Education at Health.

  13. Maintenance of polymorphic females: do parasites play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Guillén, R A; Martínez-Zamilpa, S M J; Jiménez-Cortés, J G; Forbes, M R L; Córdoba-Aguilar, A

    2013-01-01

    The role of parasites in explaining maintenance of polymorphism is an unexplored research avenue. In odonates, female-limited color polymorphism (one female morph mimicking the conspecific male and one or more gynochromatic morphs) is widespread. Here we investigated whether parasitism contributes to color polymorphism maintenance by studying six species of female dimorphic damselflies using large databases of field-collected animals. We predicted that androchrome females (male mimics) would be more intensively parasitized than gynochrome females which is, according to previous studies, counterbalanced by the advantages of the former when evading male harassment compared to gynochrome females. Here we show that in Ischnura denticollis and Enallagma novahispaniae, androchrome females suffer from a higher degree of parasitism than gynochromatic females, and contrary to prediction, than males. Thus, our study has detected a correlation between color polymorphism and parasitic burden in odonates. This leads us to hypothesize that natural selection, via parasite pressure, can explain in part how androchrome and gynochrome female color morphs can be maintained. Both morphs may cope with parasites in a different way: given that androchrome females are more heavily parasitized, they may pay a higher fecundity costs, in comparison to gynochrome females.

  14. [The pharmacist should play an active role in family planning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portes, M

    1983-01-01

    Although pharmacies now dispense primarily modern products originating in large multinational corporations, the community pharmacist has not been replaced by any ultramodern technological advance. Many thousand persons acquire family planning products in pharmacies. The pharmacist works many hours a day, is always available, and provides free advice to his clients. Pharmacists are consulted daily on numerous topics, especially on family planning. Many prsons in rural areas are without the services of a physician and rely on pharmacists all the more. Pharmacists could orient the public on family planning in general, help in choosing the most appropriate of available methods, and refer patients to physicians in case of problems. Participants at the recent International Conference on the Role of Retail Pharmacists in Family Planning, held in Alexandria, Egypt, concluded that pharmacists should cooperate with physicians and other health professionals to provide family planning services and should participate in elaboration of laws regulating the manufacture, storage, prices, and distribution of contraceptives. The prices of contraceptive supplies to the consumer could be reduced if taxes and import duties were removed, if supplies were produced locally, or if supplies were subsidized by some donor organization.

  15. Microbiota plays a role in oral immune priming in Tribolium castaneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momir eFuto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Animals are inhabited by a diverse community of microorganisms. The relevance of such microbiota is increasingly being recognised in a broad spectrum of species, ranging from sponges to primates, revealing various beneficial roles that microbes can play. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum represents a well-established experimental model organism for studying questions in ecology and evolution, however, the relevance of its microbial community is still largely unknown. T. castaneum larvae orally exposed to inactivated bacterial components of the entomopathogen Bacillus thuringiensis bv. tenebrionis showed increased survival upon a subsequent challenge with spores of this bacterium. To investigate whether T. castaneum microbiota plays a role in this phenomenon, we established a protocol for raising microbe-free larvae and subsequently tested whether they differ in their ability to mount such a priming response. Here we demonstrate that larvae with significantly lowered microbial loads, show decreased survival upon secondary challenge with B. thuringiensis bv. tenebrionis spores, compared to animals which were allowed to regain their microbiota before priming. Although the exact mechanism of oral immune priming is unclear, we here suggest that microbiota plays a crucial role in oral immune priming in this species.

  16. Prokineticin 2 Plays a Pivotal Role in Psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin He

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is histologically characterized by keratinocytes (KC hyperproliferation, inflammation, and increased angiogenesis, but the pathological factor responsible for these symptoms is unknown. Here, a neuroendocrine peptide (prokineticin 2, PK2, is highly expressed in human and mouse psoriatic skins but no significant change in other autoimmune diseases, suggesting that PK2 is a psoriasis-specific factor. Bacterial products significantly up-regulated PK2, implying that infection induces PK2 over-expression. PK2 promoted KC and macrophage to produce interleukin-1 (IL-1, the central player of inflammation and psoriasis, which acts on adjacent fibroblast to induce inflammatory cascades and KC hyperproliferation. IL-1 feeds back on macrophages to induce PK2 production to perpetuate PK2-IL-1 positive feedback loop. PK2 also promoted angiogenesis, another psoriatic symptom. In mouse models, PK2 over-expression aggravated psoriasis while its knock-down inhibited pathological development. The results indicate that PK2 over-production perpetuates psoriatic symptoms by creating PK-2-IL-1 vicious loop. PK2 is a central player in psoriasis and a promising psoriasis-specific target.

  17. Prokineticin 2 Plays a Pivotal Role in Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoqin; Shen, Chuanbin; Lu, Qiumin; Li, Jiong; Wei, Yuquan; He, Li; Bai, Ruizhen; Zheng, Jie; Luan, Ning; Zhang, Zhiye; Rong, Mingqiang; Lai, Ren

    2016-11-01

    Psoriasis is histologically characterized by keratinocytes (KC) hyperproliferation, inflammation, and increased angiogenesis, but the pathological factor responsible for these symptoms is unknown. Here, a neuroendocrine peptide (prokineticin 2, PK2), is highly expressed in human and mouse psoriatic skins but no significant change in other autoimmune diseases, suggesting that PK2 is a psoriasis-specific factor. Bacterial products significantly up-regulated PK2, implying that infection induces PK2 over-expression. PK2 promoted KC and macrophage to produce interleukin-1 (IL-1), the central player of inflammation and psoriasis, which acts on adjacent fibroblast to induce inflammatory cascades and KC hyperproliferation. IL-1 feeds back on macrophages to induce PK2 production to perpetuate PK2-IL-1 positive feedback loop. PK2 also promoted angiogenesis, another psoriatic symptom. In mouse models, PK2 over-expression aggravated psoriasis while its knock-down inhibited pathological development. The results indicate that PK2 over-production perpetuates psoriatic symptoms by creating PK-2-IL-1 vicious loop. PK2 is a central player in psoriasis and a promising psoriasis-specific target.

  18. Augmented pentose phosphate pathway plays critical roles in colorectal carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Norisuke; Inoue, Ken-ichi; Tanaka, Genki; Akimoto, Kazumi; Kubota, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    Glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) are preferentially activated in cancer cells. Accumulating evidence indicated the significance of the altered glucose metabolism in cancer, but the implication for oncotherapy remains unclear. Here we report that the synthesis of glycolytic and PPP enzymes is almost ubiquitously augmented in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) specimens. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor INK128 (300 nM) and phytochemical Avemar (1 mg/ml) inhibited the synthesis of PPP enzymes in CRC cell lines. INK128 (150-600 nM) and resveratrol (75-300 μM) inhibited aerobic glycolysis in the cell lines. INK128 (300 nM) and Avemar (1 mg/ml) decreased the NADPH/NADP(+) ratio as well as the GSH/GSSG ratio in the cell lines. Finally, per os administration of INK128 (0.8 mg/kg) or Avemar (1 g/kg) suppressed tumor growth and delayed tumor formation by transplantable CRC specimens derived from patients. Taken together, pharmacological inhibition of the mTOR-PPP axis is a promising therapeutic strategy against CRCs.

  19. Avoiding Treatment Interruptions: What Role Do Australian Community Pharmacists Play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Hasn Abukres

    Full Text Available To explore the reported practice of Australian community pharmacists when dealing with medication supply requests in absence of a valid prescription.Self-administered questionnaire was posted to 1490 randomly selected community pharmacies across all Australian states and territories. This sample was estimated to be a 20% of all Australian community pharmacies.Three hundred eighty five pharmacists participated in the study (response rate achieved was 27.9% (there were 111 undelivered questionnaires. Respondents indicated that they were more likely to provide medications to regular customers without a valid prescription compared to non-regular customers (p<0.0001. However, supply was also influenced by the type of prescription and the medication requested. In the case of type of prescription (Standard, Authority or Private this relates to the complexity/probability of obtaining a valid prescription from the prescriber at a later date (i.e. supply with an anticipated prescription. Decisions to supply and/or not supply related to medication type were more complex. For some cases, including medication with potential for abuse, the practice and/or the method of supply varied significantly according to age and gender of the pharmacist, and pharmacy location (p<0.05.Although being a regular customer does not guarantee a supply, results of this study reinforce the importance for patients having a regular pharmacy, where pharmacists were more likely to continue medication supply in cases of patients presenting without a valid prescription. We would suggest, more flexible legislation should be implemented to allow pharmacists to continue supplying of medication when obtaining a prescription is not practical.

  20. Online-offline activities and game-playing behaviors of avatars in a massive multiplayer online role-playing game

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Tan, Qun-Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are very popular in China, which provides a potential platform for scientific research. We study the online-offline activities of avatars in an MMORPG to understand their game-playing behavior. The statistical analysis unveils that the active avatars can be classified into three types. The avatars of the first type are owned by game cheaters who go online and offline in preset time intervals with the online duration distributions dominated by pulses. The second type of avatars is characterized by a Weibull distribution in the online durations, which is confirmed by statistical tests. The distributions of online durations of the remaining individual avatars differ from the above two types and cannot be described by a simple form. These findings have potential applications in the game industry.

  1. Online-offline activities and game-playing behaviors of avatars in a massive multiplayer online role-playing game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Tan, Qun-Zhao

    2009-11-01

    Massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are very popular in China, which provides a potential platform for scientific research. We study the online-offline activities of avatars in an MMORPG to understand their game-playing behavior. The statistical analysis unveils that the active avatars can be classified into three types. The avatars of the first type are owned by game cheaters who go online and offline in preset time intervals with the online duration distributions dominated by pulses. The second type of avatars is characterized by a Weibull distribution in the online durations, which is confirmed by statistical tests. The distributions of online durations of the remaining individual avatars differ from the above two types and cannot be described by a simple form. These findings have potential applications in the game industry.

  2. Focal osteoporosis defects play a key role in hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Kenneth E S; Skingle, Linda; Gee, Andrew H; Turmezei, Thomas D; Johannesdottir, Fjola; Blesic, Karen; Rose, Collette; Vindlacheruvu, Madhavi; Donell, Simon; Vaculik, Jan; Dungl, Pavel; Horak, Martin; Stepan, Jan J; Reeve, Jonathan; Treece, Graham M

    2017-01-01

    Hip fractures are mainly caused by accidental falls and trips, which magnify forces in well-defined areas of the proximal femur. Unfortunately, the same areas are at risk of rapid bone loss with ageing, since they are relatively stress-shielded during walking and sitting. Focal osteoporosis in those areas may contribute to fracture, and targeted 3D measurements might enhance hip fracture prediction. In the FEMCO case-control clinical study, Cortical Bone Mapping (CBM) was applied to clinical computed tomography (CT) scans to define 3D cortical and trabecular bone defects in patients with acute hip fracture compared to controls. Direct measurements of trabecular bone volume were then made in biopsies of target regions removed at operation. The sample consisted of CT scans from 313 female and 40 male volunteers (158 with proximal femoral fracture, 145 age-matched controls and 50 fallers without hip fracture). Detailed Cortical Bone Maps (c.5580 measurement points on the unfractured hip) were created before registering each hip to an average femur shape to facilitate statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Areas where cortical and trabecular bone differed from controls were visualised in 3D for location, magnitude and statistical significance. Measures from the novel regions created by the SPM process were then tested for their ability to classify fracture versus control by comparison with traditional CT measures of areal Bone Mineral Density (aBMD). In women we used the surgical classification of fracture location ('femoral neck' or 'trochanteric') to discover whether focal osteoporosis was specific to fracture type. To explore whether the focal areas were osteoporotic by histological criteria, we used micro CT to measure trabecular bone parameters in targeted biopsies taken from the femoral heads of 14 cases. Hip fracture patients had distinct patterns of focal osteoporosis that determined fracture type, and CBM measures classified fracture type better than a

  3. Canadian Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Young Children's Gender-Role Play and Cultural Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servos, Jennifer E.; Dewar, Brandy A.; Bosacki, Sandra L.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates early childhood educators' perceptions of children's gender-role play and the impact their cultural background plays in their gender identity and play behaviors. Through qualitative in-depth interviews, early childhood educators in Canada (n = 40) were asked questions relating to their experiences with children from…

  4. Canadian Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Young Children's Gender-Role Play and Cultural Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servos, Jennifer E.; Dewar, Brandy A.; Bosacki, Sandra L.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates early childhood educators' perceptions of children's gender-role play and the impact their cultural background plays in their gender identity and play behaviors. Through qualitative in-depth interviews, early childhood educators in Canada (n = 40) were asked questions relating to their experiences with children from…

  5. Simulation, Role-Playing, and Sociodrama in the Social Studies. With an Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Dale M.; Garvey, Sancha K.

    1967-01-01

    Classroom experience for social studies students in simulation, role-playing, and sociodrama provides not only an interesting way of learning, but also an appreciation for the complexity and interdependence of social systems in the modern world. Role-playing requires a student to assume an identity other than his own to increase his understanding…

  6. Breathing Life into History: Using Role-Playing to Engage Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Barbara C.; Murthy, Shalini A.

    2006-01-01

    Alternately referred to as historical role-playing, dramatic improvisation, sociodrama, or first-person characterization, role playing is a teaching strategy that often uses official accounts, personal narratives, and diaries to recreate a particular time period, specific event, or breathe life into a character from history. Historical…

  7. Preparing an L2 Role-Play: How Students Manage L2 Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edstrom, Anne

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable variation in the implementation of role-play activities in second language (L2)/foreign language (FL) classroom settings, and little information is available about how students actually manage them, particularly with regards to overcoming their L2 deficits. This study examines the preparation of role-plays by university…

  8. Fostering Argumentative Knowledge Construction through Enactive Role Play in "Second Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, Azilawati; Chee, Yam San; Ho, Caroline Mei Lin

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how pre-university students shared and constructed knowledge in the context of GP (general paper) by interacting through individual virtual characters across five cycles of enactive role play sessions. Contextualized scenarios on the topic of euthanasia were developed in "Second Life". Role-playing the virtual characters…

  9. Investigating L2 Spoken English through the Role Play Learner Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Andrea; Pedrazzini, Luciana

    2011-01-01

    We describe an exploratory study carried out within the University of Milan, Department of English the aim of which was to analyse features of the spoken English of first-year Modern Languages undergraduates. We compiled a learner corpus, the "Role Play" corpus, which consisted of 69 role-play interactions in English carried out by…

  10. What Students Need: Exploring Teachers' Views via Imagined Role-Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazkis, Rina; Nejad, Masomeh Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Role-playing is an unscripted dramatic technique that encourages participants to improvise behaviors that illustrate expected actions of persons involved in defined situations. However, among various uses in developing professionals, the use of role-playing in teacher education is rather rare. To give all students the opportunity to participate in…

  11. The Evaluation of Role-Playing in the Context of Teaching Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belova, Nadja; Eilks, Ingo; Feierabend, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Role-plays are a common pedagogical tool in the Social Sciences. As an imitation of societal practices, role-plays are thought to support the development of argumentation and decision-making skills among learners. However, argumentation and decision making are also goals in science education in general and in socioscientific issues-oriented…

  12. Role-Playing in Science Education: An Effective Strategy for Developing Multiple Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Elaine V.; Cruz, Barbara C.

    2009-01-01

    Role-playing can be an engaging and creative strategy to use in the college classroom. Using official accounts, personal narratives, and diaries to recreate a particular time period, event, or personality, the instructional strategy alternately referred to as role-playing, dramatic improvisation, or first-person characterization can be an…

  13. Learning by Doing in Leadership Education: Experiencing Followership and Effective Leadership Communication through Role-Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Filiz; Lebron, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a role-play exercise to illustrate the influence of followership styles and effective communication on leader-follower relationship formation and development. We provide the pedagogical theory and evidence behind using role-plays in classroom settings, followed by a literature review pertaining to…

  14. Understanding Protein Synthesis: A Role-Play Approach in Large Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Cole, Oladipo

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of role play in a large undergraduate science class. The targeted population consisted of 298 students enrolled in 2 sections of an undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology course taught by the same instructor. The section engaged in the role-play activity served as the study group, whereas the section…

  15. Role Playing: The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Noel C.

    1978-01-01

    Describes how a role playing exercise can be used to teach students in a college level history course about the use of the atomic bomb in World War II. Information is presented on general use of role playing in history courses, objectives, questions to consider about use of the atomic bomb, and course evaluation. For journal availability, see so…

  16. Mars Colony: Using Role-Play as a Pedagogical Approach to Teaching Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, Nathan; Wood, Aja; Soldan, Katie; Tai, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss role-play as a pedagogical strategy to engage kindergarten and first-grade students in science and engineering. They present a five-part Mars colony lesson that they developed for a blended class, during which students role-play a space-exploration story that enables them to gain a firsthand perspective of what…

  17. Using a Corporate Partnership to Enhance Learning in a Sourcing Negotiation Role-play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Janet L.; Eboch, Karen; Gilberg, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Although role-plays can be effective teaching tools for buyer-supplier negotiation, learning can be somewhat limited because typically novices are negotiating with each other. We describe how we collaborated with a corporate partner, CACI International, to develop and implement a repeatable sourcing and negotiation role-play that helps to address…

  18. Enhancing Role-Play Activities with Pocket Camcorder Technology: Strategies for Counselor-Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Sara Meghan; Thanasiu, Page L.

    2011-01-01

    Counselor-educators can benefit from specific guidelines and creative suggestions when implementing role-play and technology-related teaching strategies in counseling training programs. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to: (a) discuss the use of role-play and video recording in counselor education; (b) introduce counselor-educators to…

  19. E-learning Constructive Role Plays for EFL Learners in China's Tertiary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lin; Suwanthep, Jitpanat

    2011-01-01

    Recently, speaking has played an increasingly important role in second/foreign language settings. However, in many Chinese universities, EFL students rarely communicate in English with other people effectively. The existing behavioristic role plays on New Horizon College English (NHCE) e-learning do not function successfully in supplementing EFL…

  20. Development of an Electronic Role-Play Assessment Initiative in Bioscience for Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Judy; Ainscough, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Devising authentic assessments for subjects with large enrolments is a challenge. This study describes an electronic role-play assessment for approximately 600 first-year nursing students to learn and apply pathophysiology (bioscience) concepts to nursing practice. Students used Microsoft Office PowerPoint[R] to prepare electronic role-plays both…

  1. Comparing Role-Playing Activities in Second Life and Face-to-Face Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Noh, Jeongmin J.; Koehler, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared student performances in role-playing activities in both a face-to-face (FTF) environment and a virtual 3D environment, Second Life (SL). We found that students produced a similar amount of communication in the two environments, but the communication styles were different. In SL role-playing activities, students took more…

  2. The Great Evolution Trial: Use of Role-Play in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duveen, Jonathan; Solomon, Joan

    1994-01-01

    Provides both the pedagogic and scientific thinking that guided the construction of a classroom role play called "The Great Evolution Debate," which is about the publication of Darwin's "The Origin of Species." Provides tentative findings regarding learning from role playing. (ZWH)

  3. Understanding Protein Synthesis: A Role-Play Approach in Large Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Cole, Oladipo

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of role play in a large undergraduate science class. The targeted population consisted of 298 students enrolled in 2 sections of an undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology course taught by the same instructor. The section engaged in the role-play activity served as the study group, whereas the section…

  4. Role Playing in Physical Education to Teach in the Affective Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samalot-Rivera, Amaury

    2014-01-01

    Using role playing during physical education provides limitless opportunities for intervention and for the demonstration of personal and social qualities. The purpose of this article is to provide easy steps for implementing role playing as a strategy to teach social skills to students in the physical education setting.

  5. The Strategic Micro-Firm: A Role Play In Management Training for Dynamic Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnabe, Federico; Busco, Cristiano; Davidsen, Pal I.; Lambri, Maurizio; Zatta, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the main characteristics of the role-playing game "Strategic Micro-Firm" which aims to reproduce the fundamental features of a complex supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: A specific role-playing game is presented, in which a Balanced Scorecard is used as the reporting device and is…

  6. Role playing to train elementary teachers to use a classroom management "skill package".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, F H; Eimers, R C

    1975-01-01

    Two teachers who led regular third-grade classrooms in a suburban elementary school were trained via role-playing to use a broad range of social skills in dealing with group behavioral management in the classroom. Teacher training reduced disruptive student behavior during both seat work and group discussions in both classrooms. A measure of student productivity during arithmetic period in one classroom showed significant gains in arithmetic problems correct per day for the middle and bottom thirds of the class, with the bottom third increasing by 76%.

  7. Does base-pairing strength play a role in microRNA repression?

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the authors explore the possibility that the base-pairing strength of miRNA–mRNA target plays a role in microRNA-mediated gene regulation. The authors found a significant correlation between the physiological temperature of the organism and the average G/C content of its miRNAs. This study suggests that an organism adapts its miRNA–target free energy according to its physiological temperature, thus highlighting the importance of base-pairing strength in miRNA activity.

  8. Trancending the classrom: A practical guide to remote role plays in teaching international negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolinski, Remigiusz; Kesting, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the pedagogical value of using remote role plays in cross-cultural negotiations between two classes taught simultaneously at different and geographically distant institutions. We argue that remote role-play simulations provide valuable teaching and learning experiences......, and are particularly helpful for managing issues associated with outside-group negotiation and cultural differences, the prenegotiation stage, electronic negotiations and distorted communication, and one-shot settings in which the negotiator lacks previous knowledge of the partner. The article begins with a discussion...... of some critical limitations of “traditional” in-class role plays, followed by a practical guide to remote role plays and a report of our experiences with them. Finally, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of remote role plays as a teaching tool for international negotiation classes and the key...

  9. Serious Simulation Role-Playing Games for Transformative Climate Change Education: "World Climate" and "Future Climate"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney-Varga, J. N.; Sterman, J.; Sawin, E.; Jones, A.; Merhi, H.; Hunt, C.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change, its mitigation, and adaption to its impacts are among the greatest challenges of our times. Despite the importance of societal decisions in determining climate change outcomes, flawed mental models about climate change remain widespread, are often deeply entrenched, and present significant barriers to understanding and decision-making around climate change. Here, we describe two simulation role-playing games that combine active, affective, and analytical learning to enable shifts of deeply held conceptions about climate change. The games, World Climate and Future Climate, use a state-of-the-art decision support simulation, C-ROADS (Climate Rapid Overview and Decision Support) to provide users with immediate feedback on the outcomes of their mitigation strategies at the national level, including global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and concentrations, mean temperature changes, sea level rise, and ocean acidification. C-ROADS outcomes are consistent with the atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMS), such as those used by the IPCC, but runs in less than one second on ordinary laptops, providing immediate feedback to participants on the consequences of their proposed policies. Both World Climate and Future Climate role-playing games provide immersive, situated learning experiences that motivate active engagement with climate science and policy. In World Climate, participants play the role of United Nations climate treaty negotiators. Participant emissions reductions proposals are continually assessed through interactive exploration of the best available science through C-ROADS. Future Climate focuses on time delays in the climate and energy systems. Participants play the roles of three generations: today's policymakers, today's youth, and 'just born.' The game unfolds in three rounds 25 simulated years apart. In the first round, only today's policymakers make decisions; In the next round, the young become the policymakers and inherit the

  10. Did the naval wars in the North Atlantic and adjacent North and Baltic Sea during WWI and WWII played a significant role in the two climatic shifts of the 20th Century, the Arctic warming (1919 to 1939) and the global cooling (1940 to mid 1970)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaerts, Arnd

    2010-05-01

    A better understanding of the perfect time correlation between the two most devastating naval wars during the last century, and the most prominent climatic changes in the Northern Hemisphere, the first at the end of WWI, and the second immediately after WWII commencement, could highlight the role of the ocean and adjacent seas in climate change matters, and of anthropogenic activities in the marine environment. The study provides an overview of decisive links between naval activities and a change of air temperatures, showing that the Arctic warming (1919 to 1939) was based on a different mechanism as the cooling period (1940 to mid 1970), which needs to be subdivided in two distinct periods, and three main regions. From autumn 1939 to winter 1941/42 naval war was primarily fought in the North- and Baltic Sea and the most eastern part of the Northern North Atlantic. Only after the U.S.A. became a war party in December 1941, the naval war took place everywhere in the North Atlantic for more than two years, and with increasing intensity in the Western North Pacific from 1942 to August 1945. Particular attention is given to the role of the North and Baltic Sea concerning the three extreme cold winters in Europe 1939/40, 1940/41 and 1941/42 that marked the start of a three decade long global cooling, and had been the coldest for more than 100 years. The most affected locations lay close to those sea areas with the highest naval activities, e.g. the North Sea section from The Netherlands to Denmark, and in the Southern and Central Baltic Sea in winter 1939/40. Similar observations can be made for the two subsequent war winters. After the invasion of Norway in 1940 the Skagerrak region experienced a record cold winter. The next most severe winter conditions in 1941/42 can be attributed to the realm of the Eastern Baltic Sea where naval force had been active since Germany had attacked Russia in June 1941. A significant fact of the three extreme winters is their appearance

  11. Natural killer lytic-associated molecule plays a role in controlling tumor dissemination and metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Glenn Hoover

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer lytic-associated molecule (NKLAM is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that plays a major role in the cytolytic activity of NK cells. NKLAM is rapidly synthesized and then targeted to the granule membranes of NK cells upon NK activation. Previous studies have shown an essential role for NKLAM in NK killing activity in vitro. These findings were extended to an in vivo model of NK-mediated tumor killing in which NKLAM-deficient knockout (KO mice injected with B16 melanoma cells were found to have significantly higher numbers of pulmonary tumor nodules than wild type (WT mice. To further investigate the role of NKLAM and NK function in tumor immunity in vivo, we utilized additional tumor models to compare tumor development and progression in NKLAM KO and WT mice. Primary tumor growth, dissemination, and metastasis of RMA-S lymphoma cells and E0771 breast cancer cells were evaluated. Both tumor cell lines were stably transfected with constructs that allow expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP, which serves as a tumor-specific marker. Intravenous injection of NK-sensitive RMA-S lymphoma cells resulted in greater dissemination of lymphoma cells in NKLAM KO mice than in WT mice. Lymphoma cells were found in the lymph nodes and bone marrow of NKLAM KO mice two weeks after injection; few detectable tumor cells remained in WT mice. E0771 syngeneic breast cancer cells were injected into the mammary pads of NKLAM KO and WT mice. Primary tumor growth was greater in NKLAM KO than in WT mice. More significantly, there were four to five fold more tumor cells in the blood and lungs of NKLAM KO than in WT mice two weeks after injection of tumor cells into the mammary pad. These results indicate that NKLAM plays a role in tumor development in vivo, especially in controlling tumor dissemination and metastasis to distant sites.

  12. Role-play as a pedagogical method to prepare students for practice: The students’ voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrika Westrup

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss how and why role-play supports students in gaining insights into complex leadership situations. We give voice to the students by illustrating their experiences in a role-playing activity involving a human resource management issue designed, performed, and evaluated as part of a management program. The results show that the role-playing supports the students by stimulating them to understand the issue from various perspectives, hence performing an overall change of perspectives. The role-playing exercise also enabled the students to create a collective understanding of the situation. The active social interactions and conversations of role-playing contributed to establishing a sense of community among the students. We argue that role-play could be a viable and forceful pedagogical method whereby teachers give their students the opportunity to prepare for practice. However, to implement role-play as an alternative method of learning requires that the method is a part of the institutional learning space.

  13. Autophagy Plays an Essential Role in Mediating Regression of Hypertrophy during Unloading of the Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, Nirmala; Ikeda, Yoshiyuki; Hong, Chull; Alcendor, Ralph R.; Usui, Soichiro; Gao, Shumin; Maejima, Yasuhiro; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is a bulk degradation mechanism for cytosolic proteins and organelles. The heart undergoes hypertrophy in response to mechanical load but hypertrophy can regress upon unloading. We hypothesize that autophagy plays an important role in mediating regression of cardiac hypertrophy during unloading. Mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) for 1 week, after which the constriction was removed (DeTAC). Regression of cardiac hypertrophy was observed after DeTAC, as indicated by reduction of LVW/BW and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area. Indicators of autophagy, including LC3-II expression, p62 degradation and GFP-LC3 dots/cell, were significantly increased after DeTAC, suggesting that autophagy is induced. Stimulation of autophagy during DeTAC was accompanied by upregulation of FoxO1. Upregulation of FoxO1 and autophagy was also observed in vitro when cultured cardiomyocytes were subjected to mechanical stretch followed by incubation without stretch (de-stretch). Transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of FoxO1 exhibited smaller hearts and upregulation of autophagy. Overexpression of FoxO1 in cultured cardiomyocytes significantly reduced cell size, an effect which was attenuated when autophagy was inhibited. To further examine the role of autophagy and FoxO1 in mediating the regression of cardiac hypertrophy, beclin1+/− mice and cultured cardiomyocytes transduced with adenoviruses harboring shRNA-beclin1 or shRNA-FoxO1 were subjected to TAC/stretch followed by DeTAC/de-stretch. Regression of cardiac hypertrophy achieved after DeTAC/de-stretch was significantly attenuated when autophagy was suppressed through downregulation of beclin1 or FoxO1. These results suggest that autophagy and FoxO1 play an essential role in mediating regression of cardiac hypertrophy during mechanical unloading. PMID:23308102

  14. Play in two languages. Language alternation and code-switching in role-play in North Sámi and Norwegian

    OpenAIRE

    Carola Kleemann

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses how children in a Sámi kindergarten use their languages, North Sámi and Norwegian, in everyday life. My focus is on role-play in periods of free play in a kindergarten where children speak both North Sámi and Norwegian. Role-play is a bilingual context in that one sequence of play most often uses elements from both languages. Role-play as a situation is suitable for studying language alternation and code-switching because it is an in-group driven activity. The language a...

  15. A comparative test of the developmental, role-playing, and defensive explanations of offspring identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, J L; Minns, D R

    1978-01-01

    Following Mussen and Distler (1959) and Bandura, Ross and Ross (1963), the developmental, defensive, and role-playing theories of identification are tested on high school seniors. Previous tests have supported the developmental and role-playing hypotheses about equally, while the defensive hypothesis lacks consistent empirical support. Questions are raised, however, about the merit of these tests. Data are presented on seniors in an Eastern suburban school and a Midwestern small town school which support the developmental (warmth) hypothesis but which are inconsistent with the defensive and role-playing hypotheses. Parental behavior is measured by the Bronfenbrenner Parent Behavior Questionnaire and identification is measured by the semantic differential.

  16. Sexually dimorphic role for vasopressin in the development of social play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Paul

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the well-established role of vasopressin (AVP in adult social behavior, its role in social development is relatively unexplored. In this paper, we focus on the most prominent social behavior of juvenile rats, social play. Previous pharmacological experiments in our laboratory suggested that AVP regulates play in a sex- and brain region-specific manner in juvenile rats. Here we investigate the role of specific AVP systems in the emergence of social play. We first characterize the development of play in male and female Wistar rats and then ask whether the development of AVP mRNA expression correlates with the emergence of play. Unexpectedly, play emerged more rapidly in weanling-aged females than in males, resulting in a sex difference opposite of that typically reported for older, juvenile rats. AVP mRNA and play were correlated in males only, with a negative correlation in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and a positive correlation in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. These findings support the hypothesis that AVP acts differentially on multiple systems in a sex-specific manner to regulate social play and suggest a role for PVN and BNST AVP systems in the development of play. Differential neuropeptide regulation of male and female social development may underlie well-documented sex differences in incidence, progression, and symptom severity of behavioral disorders during development.

  17. Character play - The use of game characters in multi-player role-playing games across platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    Avatars are a commonly used mechanism for representing the player within the world of a game. The avatar forms the main point of interaction between the player and the game, and thus the avatar is an important game design feature. Character-based games combine the concept of an avatar...... with that of a character, enhancing the avatar with specific features that commonly are changeable, and which can be defined within or outside the framework of the game rules. Within digital games, the rules-based features have received comparatively more attention than, for example, the personalities and background...... histories of game characters. This article presents results from a comprehensive empirical study of the way complex game characters are utilized by players in multiplayer role-playing games across two different media platforms. The results indicate that adult players are capable of comprehending...

  18. Character play - The use of game characters in multi-player role-playing games across platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    Avatars are a commonly used mechanism for representing the player within the world of a game. The avatar forms the main point of interaction between the player and the game, and thus the avatar is an important game design feature. Character-based games combine the concept of an avatar...... with that of a character, enhancing the avatar with specific features that commonly are changeable, and which can be defined within or outside the framework of the game rules. Within digital games, the rules-based features have received comparatively more attention than, for example, the personalities and background...... histories of game characters. This article presents results from a comprehensive empirical study of the way complex game characters are utilized by players in multiplayer role-playing games across two different media platforms. The results indicate that adult players are capable of comprehending...

  19. Effect of role play education on primiparous women's fear of natural delivery and their decision on the mode of delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaee, Maryam; Abedian, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: The number of women who select cesarean section due to fear of childbirth has increased. Role play education seems to be a helpful method to remove or reduce the fear of childbirth. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of role play education on primiparous women's fear of natural delivery and their decision on the mode of delivery. Materials and Methods: In this blind clinical trial, 67 primiparous women with natural pregnancy at 34–36 weeks of gestational age and with no indication of cesarean section were selected from the health care centers in Mashhad. They were randomly assigned to two groups who underwent pre-test and post-test with the help of delivery attitude questionnaire to investigate their fear of childbirth and a researcher-made pregnant women's decision investigation questionnaire. Education through role play was conducted in the form of three scenarios during seven stages. The findings were analyzed by Fisher's exact test and independent t-test through SPSS. Results: The two groups were significantly different concerning the fear of childbirth after the intervention (P = 0.007), and the fear score showed a higher reduction in the role play group compared to the lecture group. There was a significant difference between the two groups concerning the reduction of elective cesarean section and the decision on the mode of delivery at the time of admission in the labor room (P = 0.000). About 75% in the lecture group and 100% in the role play group selected natural delivery. Conclusions: In the present study, the effect of role play was more in making a decision on natural delivery, reducing the fear of childbirth, and reducing the rate of elective cesarean section. It is suggested to use role play method to educate pregnant women to reduce the rate of cesarean sections. PMID:25709689

  20. Does Islam play a role in anti-immigrant sentiment? An experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, Mathew J; Jamal, Amaney

    2015-09-01

    Are Muslim immigrants subjected to targeted opposition (i.e., Islamophobia) on their pathway to US citizenship? Using a list experiment and a representative sample of the US population, we compare explicit and implicit opposition to Muslim and Christian immigrants. We find that Muslim immigrants, relative to Christian immigrants, experience greater explicit resistance. However, when social desirability bias is taken into account via the list experiment, we find that opposition to Christian and Muslim immigrants is the same. The explanation is that respondents conceal a significant amount of opposition to Christian immigrants. Muslim immigrants, on the other hand, are afforded no such protection. We find that religiosity or denomination do not play a significant role in determining implicit or explicit opposition. We conclude that Islamophobia, which is only explicitly expressed, is best understood as reflective of social desirability bias from which Muslim immigrants do not benefit.

  1. Adult play fighting and potential role of tail signals in ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palagi, Elisabetta

    2009-02-01

    Adult strepsirrhines have been completely neglected in the study of animal play. I focused on adult play fighting and the role of tail-play as a signal in ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Tail-play is performed during play fighting, when lemurs anoint or, more rarely, wave their tails toward the playmate. During the prereproductive period, male and female lemurs engaged in play fighting with comparable frequencies, as was expected to occur in monomorphic species such as L. catta. The dyads showing low aggression rates engaged most frequently in play fighting, and polyadic play was frequently performed. Signals seem to be important in avoiding escalation to real aggression, especially when the playfulness of performers can be misunderstood by recipients. Tail-play was most frequent (a) in the dyads with low grooming rates (low familiarity degree) and (b) during the most risky play sessions (polyadic ones). Thus, tail-play can be considered as a useful tool for play communication in ringtailed lemurs. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Insights from Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games to Enhance Gamification in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Tavakkoli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the study of a cohort of college graduate and undergraduate students who participated in playing a Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game (MMORPG as a gameplay rich with social interaction as well as intellectual and aesthetic features. Statistically significant differences among our participants' perception, sensation seeking, and satisfaction in relation to gameplay features are investigated. Our primary objective in this investigation was to look for certain aspects of game playing and sensation seeking that attracts a group of students to engage in long term gameplay online. Results support the majority of pre-planned hypotheses and show potential important considerations to take into account when developing gamified content for educational applications. Furthermore, the limitation of the data used in this study is presented and future directions to remove the current limitation and proliferate results through qualitative research into players' in-game social interactions. We suggest that finding similarities and underlying patterns of attraction among a diverse group of students could be beneficial in designing gameplay features to enhance student participation in the learning experience and improve learning performance.

  3. The Many Roles We Play: Perceptions of the Role of Psychology Lecturers According to Staff and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M.

    2007-01-01

    Lecturers in psychology have many different roles that they must play. It is often very difficult to know what roles are the most important and which to focus on. This study assessed the perceived importance of seven different roles lecturers undertake according to psychology lecturers and students. Results indicated that assessor, course planner,…

  4. Involving consumers in product design through collaboration: the case of online role-playing games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shu-Yu

    2010-12-01

    The release of software attributes to users by software designers for the creation of user-designed forms is regarded as a producer-consumer collaboration, leading consumers to expend significant effort on a specific product. This article identifies such software/product attributes within online role-playing games and then explores how consumers' prior experience affects the evaluation of such attributes. In this article, product attributes comprise customized, content, and interactive externality-sensitive and complementary externality-sensitive attributes, with the value of each attribute being greater for experts than for novices. In Study 1, data were collected and analyzed for the purpose of identifying such features in online role-playing games. The results can also be generalized to convergent products, such as TV games that have been redesigned as online games or mobile games found in Study 2. For the introduction of a convergent product to be successful, our research suggests that the potential market-segment focus should be on knowledgeable consumers who accept such products more readily.

  5. Phytochromes play a role in phototropism and gravitropism in Arabidopsis roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correll, Melanie J.; Coveney, Katrina M.; Raines, Steven V.; Mullen, Jack L.; Hangarter, Roger P.; Kiss, John Z.

    2003-05-01

    Phototropism as well as gravitropism plays a role in the oriented growth of roots in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots. Phytochrome A (phyA) and phyB mediate the positive red-light-based photoresponse in roots since single mutants (and the double phyAB mutant) were severely impaired in this response. In blue-light-based negative phototropism, phyA and phyAB (but not phyB) were inhibited in the response relative to the WT. In root gravitropism, phyB and phyAB (but not phyA) were inhibited in the response compared to the WT. The differences observed in tropistic responses were not due to growth limitations since the growth rates among all the mutants tested were not significantly different from that of the WT. Thus, our study shows that the blue-light and red-light systems interact in roots and that phytochrome plays a key role in plant development by integrating multiple environmental stimuli.

  6. Effects of a single-session assertiveness music therapy role playing protocol for psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to implement and measure the effectiveness of a single-session assertiveness music therapy role playing protocol for psychiatric inpatients. Participants (N=133) were randomly assigned by group to one of three conditions: (a) Assertiveness Music Therapy, (b) No Music Assertiveness, or (c) Music No Assertiveness. Participants in both assertiveness conditions role played a number of different commonly occurring scenarios at an inpatient psychiatric facility and in the community. There were no significant between-group differences in posttest quality of life, locus of control, or other subscales. However, participants in both assertiveness conditions tended to have slightly higher internal locus of control and overall quality of life scores than participants in the music no assertiveness condition. Additionally, the assertiveness music therapy condition had higher attendance rates than the other conditions. A higher percentage of participants from both the assertiveness music therapy and music no assertiveness conditions indicated they thought their session was the most helpful/therapeutic group therapy session in which they had participated; this was not the case for the assertiveness no music condition. Future research is warranted to measure the effects of protocols that can help psychiatric patients generalize skills learned in treatment.

  7. Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 plays an important role in normal terminal erythroid differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattangadi, Shilpa M; Burke, Karly A; Lodish, Harvey F

    2010-06-10

    Gene-targeting experiments report that the homeodomain-interacting protein kinases 1 and 2, Hipk1 and Hipk2, are essential but redundant in hematopoietic development because Hipk1/Hipk2 double-deficient animals exhibit severe defects in hematopoiesis and vasculogenesis, whereas the single knockouts do not. These serine-threonine kinases phosphorylate and consequently modify the functions of several important hematopoietic transcription factors and cofactors. Here we show that Hipk2 knockdown alone plays a significant role in terminal fetal liver erythroid differentiation. Hipk1 and Hipk2 are highly induced during primary mouse fetal liver erythropoiesis. Specific knockdown of Hipk2 inhibits terminal erythroid cell proliferation (explained in part by impaired cell-cycle progression as well as increased apoptosis) and terminal enucleation as well as the accumulation of hemoglobin. Hipk2 knockdown also reduces the transcription of many genes involved in proliferation and apoptosis as well as important, erythroid-specific genes involved in hemoglobin biosynthesis, such as alpha-globin and mitoferrin 1, demonstrating that Hipk2 plays an important role in some but not all aspects of normal terminal erythroid differentiation.

  8. An evaluation of the role played by remote sensing technology following the World Trade Center attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Remote sensing technology has been widely recognized for contributing to emergency response efforts after the World Trade Center attack on September 11th, 2001. The need to coordinate activities in the midst of a dense, yet relatively small area, made the combination of imagery and mapped data strategically useful. This paper reviews the role played by aerial photography, satellite imagery, and LIDAR data at Ground Zero. It examines how emergency managers utilized these datasets, and identifies significant problems that were encountered. It goes on to explore additional ways in which imagery could have been used, while presenting recommendations for more effective use in future disasters and Homeland Security applications. To plan adequately for future events, it was important to capture knowledge from individuals who responded to the World Trade Center attack. In recognition, interviews with key emergency management and geographic information system (GIS) personnel provide the basis of this paper. Successful techniques should not be forgotten, or serious problems dismissed. Although widely used after September 11th, it is important to recognize that with better planning, remote sensing and GIS could have played an even greater role. Together with a data acquisition timeline, an expanded discussion of these issues is available in the MCEER/NSF report "Emergency Response in the Wake of the World Trade Center Attack: The Remote Sensing Perspective" (Huyck and Adams, 2002).

  9. Nicotinamide overload may play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Sheng Zhou; Li-Bin Zhang; Ning Luo; Fu-Ning Bian; Wei Zou; Lai-Bin Dong; Zhi-Gang Zhao; Sheng-Fan Li; Xiao-Jie Gong; Zeng-Guo Yu; Chang-Bin Sun; Da Li; Cong-Long Zheng; Dong-Ju Jiang; Zheng-Ning Li; Wu-Ping Sun; Ming Guo; Yong-Zhi Lun; Yi-Ming Zhou; Fu-Cheng Xiao; Li-Xin Jing; Shen-Xia Sun

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether nicotinamide overload plays a role in type 2 diabetes.METHODS: Nicotinamide metabolic patterns of 14 diabetic and 14 non-diabetic subjects were compared using HPLC. Cumulative effects of nicotinamide and N~1-methylnicotinamide on glucose metabolism, plasma H_2O_2 levels and tissue nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) contents of adult Sprague-Dawley rats were observed. The role of human sweat glands and rat skin in nicotinamide metabolism was investigated using sauna and burn injury, respectively.RESULTS: Diabetic subjects had significantly higher plasma N~1-methylnicotinamide levels 5 h after a 100-mg nicotinamide load than the non-diabetic subjects (0.89 ± 0.13 μmol/L vs 0.6 ± 0.13 μmol/L, P< 0.001). Cumulative doses of nicotinamide (2 g/kg) significantly increased rat plasma N~1-methylnicotinamide concentrations associated with severe insulin resistance, which was mimicked by N~1-methylnicotinamide. Moreover, cumulative exposure to N~1-methylnicotinamide (2 g/kg) markedly reduced rat muscle and liver NAD contents and erythrocyte NAD/ NADH ratio, and increased plasma H_2O_2 levels. Decrease in NAD/NADH ratio and increase in H_2O_2 generation were also observed in human erythrocytes after exposure to N~1-methylnicotinamide in vitro. Sweating eliminated excessive nicotinamide (5.3-fold increase in sweat nicotinamide concentration 1 h after a 100-mg nicotinamide load). Skin damage or aldehyde oxidase inhibition with tamoxifen or olanzapine, both being notorious for impairing glucose tolerance, delayed N~1-methylnicotinamide clearance.CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that nicotinamide overload, which induced an increase in plasma N~1-methylnicotinamide, associated with oxidative stress and insulin resistance, plays a role in type 2 diabetes.

  10. Nicotinamide overload may play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shi-Sheng; Li, Da; Sun, Wu-Ping; Guo, Ming; Lun, Yong-Zhi; Zhou, Yi-Ming; Xiao, Fu-Cheng; Jing, Li-Xin; Sun, Shen-Xia; Zhang, Li-Bin; Luo, Ning; Bian, Fu-Ning; Zou, Wei; Dong, Lai-Bin; Zhao, Zhi-Gang; Li, Sheng-Fan; Gong, Xiao-Jie; Yu, Zeng-Guo; Sun, Chang-Bin; Zheng, Cong-Long; Jiang, Dong-Ju; Li, Zheng-Ning

    2009-12-07

    To investigate whether nicotinamide overload plays a role in type 2 diabetes. Nicotinamide metabolic patterns of 14 diabetic and 14 non-diabetic subjects were compared using HPLC. Cumulative effects of nicotinamide and N(1)-methylnicotinamide on glucose metabolism, plasma H(2)O(2) levels and tissue nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) contents of adult Sprague-Dawley rats were observed. The role of human sweat glands and rat skin in nicotinamide metabolism was investigated using sauna and burn injury, respectively. Diabetic subjects had significantly higher plasma N(1)-methylnicotinamide levels 5 h after a 100-mg nicotinamide load than the non-diabetic subjects (0.89 +/- 0.13 micromol/L vs 0.6 +/- 0.13 micromol/L, P nicotinamide (2 g/kg) significantly increased rat plasma N(1)-methylnicotinamide concentrations associated with severe insulin resistance, which was mimicked by N(1)-methylnicotinamide. Moreover, cumulative exposure to N(1)-methylnicotinamide (2 g/kg) markedly reduced rat muscle and liver NAD contents and erythrocyte NAD/NADH ratio, and increased plasma H(2)O(2) levels. Decrease in NAD/NADH ratio and increase in H(2)O(2) generation were also observed in human erythrocytes after exposure to N(1)-methylnicotinamide in vitro. Sweating eliminated excessive nicotinamide (5.3-fold increase in sweat nicotinamide concentration 1 h after a 100-mg nicotinamide load). Skin damage or aldehyde oxidase inhibition with tamoxifen or olanzapine, both being notorious for impairing glucose tolerance, delayed N(1)-methylnicotinamide clearance. These findings suggest that nicotinamide overload, which induced an increase in plasma N(1)-methylnicotinamide, associated with oxidative stress and insulin resistance, plays a role in type 2 diabetes.

  11. Problematic usage among highly-engaged players of massively multiplayer online role playing games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Christopher S; Malesky, L Alvin

    2008-08-01

    One popular facet of Internet gaming is the massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG). Some individuals spend so much time playing these games that it creates problems in their lives. This study focused on players of World of Warcraft. Factor analysis revealed one factor related to problematic usage, which was correlated with amount of time played, and personality characteristics of agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and extraversion.

  12. RAGE Plays a Role in LPS-Induced NF-κB Activation and Endothelial Hyperpermeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liqun; Wu, Jie; Guo, Xiaohua; Huang, Xuliang; Huang, Qiaobing

    2017-03-30

    Endothelial functional dysregulation and barrier disruption contribute to the initiation and development of sepsis. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) has been demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis. The present study aimed to investigate the role of RAGE in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation in endothelial cells and the consequent endothelial hyperpermeability. LPS-induced upregulation of RAGE protein expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was detected by western blotting. Activation of NF-κB was revealed using western blotting and immunofluorescent staining. LPS-elicited endothelial hyperpermeability was explored by transendothelial electrical resistance (TER) assay and endothelial monolayer permeability assay. The blocking antibody specific to RAGE was used to confirm the role of RAGE in LPS-mediated NF-κB activation and endothelial barrier disruption. We found that LPS upregulated the protein expression of RAGE in a dose- and time-dependent manner in HUVECs. Moreover, LPS triggered a significant phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα, as well as NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. Moreover, we observed a significant increase in endothelial permeability after LPS treatment. However, the RAGE blocking antibody attenuated LPS-evoked NF-κB activation and endothelial hyperpermeability. Our results suggest that RAGE plays an important role in LPS-induced NF-κB activation and endothelial barrier dysfunction.

  13. What Can Students Learn in an Extended Role-Play Simulation on Technology and Society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loui, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    In a small course on technology and society, students participated in an extended role-play simulation for two weeks. Each student played a different adult character in a fictional community, which faces technological decisions in three scenarios set in the near future. The three scenarios involved stem cell research, nanotechnology, and privacy.…

  14. Exploring Kindergarten Teachers' Views and Roles Regarding Children's Outdoor Play Environments in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Qaryouti, Ibrahim A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore kindergarten teachers' views and roles regarding outdoor play environments in Omani kindergartens. Thirty kindergarten teachers from 15 private kindergartens were observed and interviewed. The results indicated that teachers recognize the importance of outdoor play in children's development and learning.…

  15. Exploring the Use of Role Play in a School-Based Programme to Reduce Teenage Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Myra; Diamini, Nthabiseng; Khanyile, Zama; Mpanza, Lloyd; Sathiparsad, Reshma

    2012-01-01

    Can the use of a method such as role play help reduce sexual risk behaviour among KwaZulu-Natal learners? A study was undertaken of the use of role plays by Grade 8 learners, at eight urban and rural KwaZulu-Natal high schools, as part of a programme to reduce the prevalence of teenage pregnancy. Within the framework of Bandura's Social Cognitive…

  16. Logoplaste : how business models can play an important role in the achievement of sustained competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Pita, Miguel Vieira

    2011-01-01

    Dissertation title: Logoplaste: How Business Models can play an important role in the achievement of Sustained Competitive Advantage Author: Miguel Vieira Pita The following dissertation gives focus to the case study of Logoplaste, a successful Portuguese company where strategy plays an important role in the short and long term success of the company. Focusing on writing a dissertation that gives highlight to the creation and development of the firm’s valuable resources and ...

  17. Enhancing interest in statistics among computer science students using computer tool entrepreneur role play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judi, Hairulliza Mohamad; Sahari @ Ashari, Noraidah; Eksan, Zanaton Hj

    2017-04-01

    Previous research in Malaysia indicates that there is a problem regarding attitude towards statistics among students. They didn't show positive attitude in affective, cognitive, capability, value, interest and effort aspects although did well in difficulty. This issue should be given substantial attention because students' attitude towards statistics may give impacts on the teaching and learning process of the subject. Teaching statistics using role play is an appropriate attempt to improve attitudes to statistics, to enhance the learning of statistical techniques and statistical thinking, and to increase generic skills. The objectives of the paper are to give an overview on role play in statistics learning and to access the effect of these activities on students' attitude and learning in action research framework. The computer tool entrepreneur role play is conducted in a two-hour tutorial class session of first year students in Faculty of Information Sciences and Technology (FTSM), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, enrolled in Probability and Statistics course. The results show that most students feel that they have enjoyable and great time in the role play. Furthermore, benefits and disadvantages from role play activities were highlighted to complete the review. Role play is expected to serve as an important activities that take into account students' experience, emotions and responses to provide useful information on how to modify student's thinking or behavior to improve learning.

  18. The role and significance of management in insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Stanić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The conditions in which insurance organizations operate now in the Republic of Croatia are significantly altered compared to a few years ago. Changes in the economic system, which are still pending, alter the terms of the business of insurance organizations in Croatia and they require continuous monitoring of the environment, quick action, innovation and improvement of insurance services to meet the needs of users. Management has a key role in the implementation of organizational adjustments of insurance organizations in market conditions. In this article, the author discusses about management in insurance field with special emphasis on asymmetric informations and the role of information systems in modern management of these organizations. The work is complemented by the practical aspects of the insurance business.

  19. Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in coastal lagoons: Does microbial diversity play any role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovaro, Roberto; Pusceddu, Antonio

    2007-10-01

    Although prokaryotes are small in size, they are a significant biomass component in aquatic ecosystems and play a major role in biogeochemical processes. It is generally assumed that the relative importance of prokaryotes to material and energy fluxes is maximized in low-productivity (oligotrophic) ecosystems and decreases in high-productivity (eutrophic) ecosystems. Lagoon and coastal ecosystems are extremely dynamic, typically highly productive and dominated by macro-size organisms (both macrofauna and macrophytes). As such, their functional characteristics are typically evaluated from a "macrobial" perspective. An efficient ecosystem functioning, with fast nutrient cycling, high productivity, low C accumulation and lack of hypoxic/dystrophic crises is, however, intimately dependent on the interaction between microbial and macrobial organisms. We make here an attempt to relate prokaryote biodiversity (genotype richness, using fingerprinting techniques, ARISA) and ecosystem functioning (using a series of parameters including meiofaunal biomass, prokaryote C production and organic matter turnover rates) in different Mediterranean lagoon systems. The lagoons differed significantly with each other for all the variables. While no relationships were observed between the environmental characteristics of the lagoons and the bacterial diversity, the latter was significantly and positively correlated with the functioning and efficiency of the lagoons. The investigation of the links between microbial diversity and functioning in lagoons is still at its infancy, but these preliminary results suggest that a better understanding of the role of prokaryote diversity on ecosystem functioning and efficiency could open new perspectives for the conservation and management of these highly productive and vulnerable ecosystems.

  20. Play in two languages. Language alternation and code-switching in role-play in North Sámi and Norwegian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Kleemann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses how children in a Sámi kindergarten use their languages, North Sámi and Norwegian, in everyday life. My focus is on role-play in periods of free play in a kindergarten where children speak both North Sámi and Norwegian. Role-play is a bilingual context in that one sequence of play most often uses elements from both languages. Role-play as a situation is suitable for studying language alternation and code-switching because it is an in-group driven activity. The language alternation and code-switching which appears in role-play situations is discussed in light of theories advocating dividing code and language, viewing language choice as one of a cluster of codes used in role-play. I argue the children observed for this study have layers of codes to use. I discuss the language codes North Sámi, Norwegian and bilingual, which the children use in the role-play setting; the main codes used are directory utterances, role utterances, magical utterances and out-of-play-utterances.

  1. Effects of e-learning, lectures, and role playing on nursing students’ knowledge acquisition, retention and satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourghaznein, Tayebeh; Sabeghi, Hakimeh; Shariatinejad, Keyvan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nursing education can maintain its dynamic quality when it moves toward innovation and modern methods of teaching and learning. Therefore, teachers are required to employ up to date methods in their teaching plans. This study evaluated the effects of e-learning, lectures, and role playing on nursing students’ learning, retention, and satisfaction. Methods: Sixty nursing students were selected as an experiment and control groups during two consecutive semesters. The educational content was presented as e-learning and role playing during one semester (experiment group) and as lectures in the next semester (control group). A questionnaire containing three parts was used to assess demographics, learning and satisfaction statuses. The questionnaire also included a final openended question to evaluate the students’ ideas about the whole course. Results: The mean scores of posttest were 16.13 ± 1.37 using role playing, 15.50 ± 1.44 using e-learning and 16.45 ± 1.23 using lectures. The differences between the mean scores of posttest and pretest were 12.84 ± 1.43, 12.56 ± 1.57, and 13.73 ± 1.53 in the mentioned methods, respectively. Lectures resulted in significantly better learning compared to role playing and e-learning. In contrast, retention rates were significantly lower using lectures than using role playing and e-learning. Students’ satisfaction from e-learning was significantly lower than lecturing and role playing. Conclusion: Due to the lower rates of retention following lectures, the teachers are recommended to use student- centered approaches in their lectures. Since students’ satisfaction with e-learning was lower than the other methods, further studies are suggested to explore the problems of e-learning in Iran. PMID:26000257

  2. Comparing two instructional methods of role playing and lecture on primigravida females, decision about type of delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedian, Zahra; Navaee, Maryam; Sani, Hossein Jafari; Ebrahimzadeh, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    Each mother has the legal right to decide about her delivery, but this decision should be made based on scientific knowledge. Instructions during pregnancy help to choose the proper type of delivery. This study conducted aimed to compare two instructional methods of role playing and lecture on primigravida decision about type of delivery. In this single-blind clinical trial 67 primigravida, 34-36 week were selected using multi-stage sampling and assigned into two groups randomly. Decision-making (before, 2-week after, and at admission in maternity department) was tested by a questionnaire. In role-playing group, advantages and disadvantages of two type delivery were presented by role-playing in 90-min by three scenarios. In lecture group, it was also presented in a 90-min lecture. Data were analyzed by mean difference test, Fisher test, independent and paired t-test. Two groups showed a significant difference in terms of decision at admission to maternity department (P = 0.000). 75% of lecture group and 100% of role-playing group selected normal delivery. Postintervention knowledge score in lecture group was 18 ± 5.3 and in role-playing group 17.1 ± 4.0. Percent of change in knowledge scores in two groups was significant (P = 0.001). Participants' attitude, before and after the intervention, in both groups was significant (P 0.05). In this research, lecture was more effective in raising knowledge level, and role playing was more effective in raising decision to vaginal delivery and reducing elective caesarean section. It is therefore suggested to use both teaching methods altogether for pregnant women to decrease the rate of unnecessary cesarean.

  3. Hepatic Glucocorticoid Receptor Plays a Greater Role Than Adipose GR in Metabolic Syndrome Despite Renal Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sandip K; Hutson, Irina; Harris, Charles A

    2016-12-01

    Exogenous glucocorticoid administration results in hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, hepatic dyslipidemia, and hypertension, a constellation of findings known as Cushing's syndrome. These effects are mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Because GR activation in liver and adipose has been implicated in metabolic syndrome (MS), we wanted to determine the role of GR in these tissues in the development of MS. Because GR knockout (KO) mice (whole-body KO) exhibit perinatal lethality due to respiratory failure, we generated tissue-specific (liver or adipose) GRKO mice using cre-lox technology. Real-time PCR analysis of liver mRNA from dexamethasone-treated wildtype (WT) and liver GRKO mice indicated that hepatic GR regulates the expression of key genes involved in gluconeogenesis and glycogen metabolism. Interestingly, we have observed that liver-specific deletion of GR resulted in a significant increase in mRNA expression of key genes involved in gluconeogenesis and glycogen metabolism in kidney tissue, indicating a compensatory mechanism to maintain glucose homeostasis. We have also observed that GR plays an important role in regulating the mRNA expression of key genes involved in lipid metabolism. Liver GRKO mice demonstrated decreased fat mass and liver glycogen content compared with WT mice administered dexamethasone for 2 weeks. Adipose-specific deletion of GR did not alter glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity of adipose GRKO mice compared with WT mice administrated dexamethasone. This indicates that liver GR might be more important in development of MS in dexamethasone-treated mice, whereas adipose GR plays a little role in these paradigms.

  4. Does elevated osteopontin level play an important role in the development of scoliosis in bipedal mice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ning; Li, Mo; Wu, Tao; Liu, Jun; Wang, Binbin; Tang, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies implied indirectly that an elevated osteopontin (OPN) level might play a key role in the pathomechanism of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Nonetheless, up to now, no direct evidence was proposed to determine this issue. The aim was to determine the role of OPN in the pathomechanism of scoliosis. This was an experimental study to investigate the role of OPN in a bipedal mouse scoliosis model. All procedures were performed under the approval and supervision of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of our university. A new bipedal mouse model with elevated OPN level was established in this study. Amputation of forelimbs and tail was performed on 80 male C3H/HeJ mice at the age of 3 weeks. Then, these mice were randomly divided into two groups: Group A consisted of 40 mice treated with OPN 40 mg/kg daily and Group B consisted of the remaining 40 mice treated with saline. Then, 40 quadruped mice with saline were included in Group C. Body length, X-rays, and computed tomographic scans were obtained at the twentieth week. Then, scoliosis incidence, curve magnitude, and circulating OPN level were compared among groups. Osteopontin level was significantly higher in Group A compared with that in Groups B and C. Spine deformity was identified in 37 mice in Group A, 21 mice in Group B, and 5 mice in Group C. The average Cobb angle was 29.8° in Group A, 20.9° in Group B, and 17.5° in Group C. Although no significant difference of body length was found, significant statistical difference was noted in terms of scoliosis incidence and curve magnitude, among the three groups. The results of the present study indicated that the elevated OPN level might play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of scoliosis, that is, it not only raises the risk for scoliosis in bipedal mice but also contributes to curve progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Carboxylate groups play a major role in antitumor activity of Ganoderma applanatum polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaobo; Zhao, Chen; Pan, Wei; Wang, Jinping; Wang, Weijun

    2015-06-05

    In this paper, the structure difference between the polysaccharides isolated from fruit bodies (FGAP) and submerged fermentation system (SGAP) of Ganoderma applanatum was investigated by means of GPC, HPLC and IR, respectively. And their antitumor activities were evaluated against Sarcoma 180 in vivo. The results showed that FGAP and SGAP were typical polysaccharides with different molecular weights, monosaccharide components, and functional groups. Closely related to the distinct structures, FGAP exhibited a better antitumor activity than SGAP. Moreover, since FGAP contained carboxylate groups rather than SGAP, such groups were chemically introduced into SGAP (CSGAP) by carboxymethylation in order to identify their contribution to antitumor activity. The results demonstrated that the inhibition of CSGAP against Sarcoma 180 in vivo was significantly enhanced by comparison to the native SGAP and even higher than that of FGAP, suggesting that the carboxylate groups played a major role in antitumor activity of G. applanatum polysaccharide.

  6. Psychometric Characteristics of Role-Play Assessments of Social Skill in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellack, Alan S.; Brown, Clayton H.; Thomas-Lohrman, Shannon

    2006-01-01

    There is an extensive literature documenting that people with schizophrenia have marked impairments in social role functioning and social skill. One of the most widely employed strategies for assessing social skill has been role-play tests: simulated social interactions that are videotaped for subsequent behavioral coding. There has been…

  7. Plasmin plays an essential role in amplification of psoriasiform skin inflammation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although increased levels of plasminogen activators have been found in psoriatic lesions, the role of plasmin converted from plasminogen by plasminogen activators in pathogenesis of psoriasis has not been investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we examined the contribution of plasmin to amplification of inflammation in patients with psoriasis. We found that plasminogen was diminished, but that the amount and activity of its converted product plasmin were markedly increased in psoriasis. Moreover, annexin II, a receptor for plasmin was dramatically increased in both dermis and epidermis in psoriasis. Plasmin at sites of inflammation was pro-inflammatory, eliciting production of inflammatory factors, including CC chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20 and interleukin-23 (IL-23, that was mediated by the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB signaling pathway and that had an essential role in the recruitment and activation of pathogenic C-C chemokine receptor type 6 (CCR6+ T cells. Moreover, intradermal injection of plasmin or plasmin together with recombinant monocyte/macrophage chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 resulted in induction of psoriasiform skin inflammation around the injection sites with several aspects of human psoriasis in mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Plasmin converted from plasminogen by plasminogen activators plays an essential role in amplification of psoriasiform skin inflammation in mice, and targeting plasmin receptor--annexin II--may harbor therapeutic potential for the treatment of human psoriasis.

  8. The art of effectively teaching clinical interviewing skills using role-playing: a primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Christine; Shea, Shawn Christopher

    2007-06-01

    Time pressure on trainees and supervisors alike places a premium on efficiency in training students to master clinical skills. Through role-playing, a supervisor can create multiple iterations of the desired skill until competence is obtained. The skill training can be advanced in intensity and complexity until the trainer and trainee are confident that the interviewing skill is accessible on demand and that the trainee is comfortable with its use. This article focuses on practical methods of creating believable roles for role-playing and how to use them to teach specific interviewing skills strategically.

  9. Danish general practitioners only play a minor role in the coordination of cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsted, Rikke Juul; Guassora, Ann Dorrit; Thorsen, Thorkil

    2011-01-01

    of coordination. The aim of the article is to discuss whether general practitioners (GPs) may play a coordinating role for individual patients in Danish cancer treatment? MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study is based on individual interviews and focus groups analyzed by meaning condensation. RESULTS: The GP....... In the majority of cases, GPs had no access to information or were not informed about hospital decisions affecting the patients’ trajectories, and they were therefore unable to perform a coordinating role. CONCLUSION: GPs only played a minor or no role at all as coordinators of individual cancer patient...

  10. Role-play as an educational tool in medication communication skills: Students' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavanya, S H; Kalpana, L; Veena, R M; Bharath Kumar, V D

    2016-10-01

    Medication communication skills are vital aspects of patient care that may influence treatment outcomes. However, traditional pharmacology curriculum deals with imparting factual information, with little emphasis on patient communication. The current study aims to explore students' perceptions of role-play as an educational tool in acquiring communication skills and to ascertain the need of role-play for their future clinical practice. This questionnaire-based study was done in 2(nd) professional MBBS students. A consolidated concept of six training cases, focusing on major communication issues related to medication prescription in pharmacology, were developed for peer-role-play sessions for 2(nd) professional MBBS (n = 122) students. Structured scripts with specific emphasis on prescription medication communication and checklists for feedback were developed. Prevalidated questionnaires measured the quantitative aspects of role-plays in relation to their relevance as teaching-learning tool, perceived benefits of sessions, and their importance for future use. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics. The role-play concept was well appreciated and considered an effective means for acquiring medication communication skills. The structured feedback by peers and faculty was well received by many. Over 90% of the students reported immense confidence in communicating therapy details, namely, drug name, purpose, mechanism, dosing details, and precautions. Majority reported a better retention of pharmacology concepts and preferred more such sessions. Most students consider peer-role-play as an indispensable tool to acquire effective communication skills regarding drug therapy. By virtue of providing experiential learning opportunities and its feasibility of implementation, role-play sessions justify inclusion in undergraduate medical curricula.

  11. The transcription factor NFATp plays a key role in susceptibility to TB in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Via

    Full Text Available In T cells, the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells p (NFATp is a key regulator of the cytokine genes tumor necrosis factor (TNF and interferon-γ (IFN-γ. Here, we show that NFATp-deficient (NFATp(-/- mice have a dramatic and highly significant increase in mortality after Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb infection as compared to mortality of control animals after MTb infection. Animals deficient in NFATp have significantly impaired levels of TNF and IFN-γ transcription and protein expression in naïve or total CD4(+ T cells, but display wild-type levels of TNF mRNA or protein from MTb-stimulated dendritic cells (DC. The rapid mortality and disease severity observed in MTb-infected NFATp(-/- mice is associated with dysregulated production of TNF and IFN-γ in the lungs, as well as with increased levels of TNF, in their serum. Furthermore, global blocking of TNF production by injection of a TNF neutralizaing agent at 6 weeks, but not 12 weeks, post-MTb-infection further decreased the survival rate of both wild-type and NFATp(-/- mice, indicating an early role for TNF derived from cells from the monocyte lineage in containment of infection. These results thus demonstrate that NFATp plays a critical role in immune containment of TB disease in vivo, through the NFATp-dependent expression of TNF and IFN-γ in T cells.

  12. CBX7 deficiency plays a positive role in dentin and alveolar bone development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhixuan; Yin, Ying; Jiang, Fei; Niu, Yuming; Wan, Shujian; Chen, Ning; Shen, Ming

    2016-08-01

    To clarify the role of CBX7 deficiency in dentin and alveolar bone development, the dental and mandibular phenotypes of homozygous CBX7-knockout (CBX7(-/-)) mice were compared with their wild-type (WT) counterparts at 3 weeks age. In contrast to WT littermates, dental volume and dentin sialoprotein-positive area were significantly increased, whereas the area ratio of predentin to dentin was decreased markedly in CBX7(-/-) mice. Mineral density, cortical thickness, alveolar bone volume, type I collagen and osterix-immunopositive area, osteoblast number and activity, protein expression and mRNA level of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, osteopontin and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) were all remarkably increased, while osteoclast number and activity, and mRNA expression ratio of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) to osteoprotegerin (opg) were all decreased significantly in the alveolar bone of CBX7(-/-) mice compared with their WT counterparts. Moreover, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells were found more in Hertwig' s epithelial root sheath of CBX7(-/-) mice, and their protein level of cyclin E1, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) were correspondingly increased in contrast to WT mice. Taken together, these results of this study suggest that CBX7 deficiency plays a positive role in dentin and alveolar bone formation.

  13. Turkish Foreign Language Learners' Roles and Outputs: Introducing an Innovation and Role-Playing in Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Cigdem; Comoglu, Irem; Baran, Bahar

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to design of the two activities "introducing an innovation" and "role playing" in Second Life (SL) and to evaluate qualitatively Turkish foreign language learner's roles and outputs before, while, and after the implementation of the activities. The study used community of inquiry model consisting of cognitive…

  14. Does seed size and surface anatomy play role in combating phytotoxicity of nanoparticles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Navin; Bhargava, Arpit; Pareek, Vikram; Sayeed Akhtar, Mohd; Panwar, Jitendra

    2017-03-01

    Rapid utilization of nano-based products will inevitably release nanoparticles into the environment with unidentified consequences. Plants, being an integral part of ecosystem play a vital role in the incorporation of nanoparticles in food chain and thus, need to be critically assessed. The present study assesses the comparative phytotoxicity of nanoparticle, bulk and ionic forms of zinc at different concentrations on selected plant species with varying seed size and surface anatomy. ZnO nanoparticles were chosen in view of their wide spread use in cosmetics and health care products, which allow their direct release in the environment. The impact on germination rate, shoot & root length and vigour index were evaluated. A concentration dependent inhibition of seed germination as well as seedling length was observed in all the tested plants. Due to the presence of thick cuticle on testa and root, pearl millet (xerophytic plant) was found to be relatively less sensitive to ZnO nanoparticles as compared to wheat and tomato (mesophytic plants) with normal cuticle layer. No correlation was observed between nanoparticles toxicity and seed size. The results indicated that variations in surface anatomy of seeds play a crucial role in determining the phytotoxicity of nanoparticles. The present findings significantly contribute to assess potential consequences of nanoparticle release in environment particularly with major emphasis on plant systems. It is the first report which suggests that variations observed in phytotoxicity of nanoparticles is mainly due to the predominant differences in size and surface anatomy of tested plant seeds and root architecture. Effect of various concentrations of nano ZnO, bulk ZnO and zinc sulphate on the growth of pearl millet (A), tomato (B) and wheat (C) seedlings.

  15. AtTMEM18 plays important roles in pollen tube and vegetative growth in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ying Dou; Ke-Zhen Yang; Zhao-Xia Ma; Li-Qun Chen; Xue-Qin Zhang; Jin-Rong Bai; De Ye

    2016-01-01

    In flowering plants, pol en tube growth is essential for delivery of male gametes into the female gametophyte or embryo sac for double fertilization. Although many genes have been identified as being involved in the process, the molecular mechanisms of pol en tube growth remains poorly understood. In this study, we identified that the Arabidopsis Transmembrane Protein 18 (AtTMEM18) gene played important roles in pol en tube growth. The AtTMEM18 shares a high similarity with the Transmembrane 18 proteins (TMEM18s) that are conserved in most eukaryotes and may play important roles in obesity in humans. Mutation in the AtTMEM18 by a Ds insertion caused abnormal cal ose deposition in the pol en grains and had a significant impact on pol en germination and pol en tube growth. AtTMEM18 is expressed in pol en grains, pol en tubes, root tips and other vegetative tissues. The pol en-rescued assays showed that the mutation in AtTMEM18 also caused defects in roots, stems, leaves and transmitting tracts. AtTMEM18-GFP was located around the nuclei. Genetic assays demonstrated that the localization of AtTMEM18 around the nuclei in the generative cel s of pol en grains was essential for the male fertility. Furthermore, expression of the rice TMEM18-homologous protein (OsTMEM18) driven by LAT52 promoter could recover the fertility of the Arabidopsis attmem18 mutant. These results suggested that the TMEM18 is important for plant growth in Arabidopsis.

  16. Hypoxia-inducible factor plays a gut-injurious role in intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Kolenkode B; Colorado, Iriana; Reino, Diego; Palange, David; Lu, Qi; Qin, Xiaofa; Abungu, Billy; Watkins, Anthony; Caputo, Francis J; Xu, Da-Zhong; Semenza, Gregg L; Deitch, Edwin A; Feinman, Rena

    2011-05-01

    Gut injury and loss of normal intestinal barrier function are key elements in the paradigm of gut-origin systemic inflammatory response syndrome, acute lung injury, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). As hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) is a critical determinant of the physiological and pathophysiological response to hypoxia and ischemia, we asked whether HIF-1 plays a proximal role in the induction of gut injury and subsequent lung injury. Using partially HIF-1α-deficient mice in an isolated superior mesenteric artery occlusion (SMAO) intestinal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury model (45 min SMAO followed by 3 h of reperfusion), we showed a direct relationship between HIF-1 activation and intestinal I/R injury. Specifically, partial HIF-1α deficiency attenuated SMAO-induced increases in intestinal permeability, lipid peroxidation, mucosal caspase-3 activity, and IL-1β mRNA levels. Furthermore, partial HIF-1α deficiency prevented the induction of ileal mucosal inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein levels after SMAO and iNOS deficiency ameliorated SMAO-induced villus injury. Resistance to SMAO-induced gut injury was also associated with resistance to lung injury, as reflected by decreased levels of myeloperoxidase, IL-6 and IL-10 in the lungs of HIF-1α(+/-) mice. In contrast, a short duration of SMAO (15 min) followed by 3 h of reperfusion neither induced mucosal HIF-1α protein levels nor caused significant gut and lung injury in wild-type or HIF-1α(+/-) mice. This study indicates that intestinal HIF-1 activation is a proximal regulator of I/R-induced gut mucosal injury and gut-induced lung injury. However, the duration and severity of the gut I/R insult dictate whether HIF-1 plays a gut-protective or deleterious role.

  17. Damaged DNA binding protein 2 plays a role in breast cancer cell growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilal Kattan

    Full Text Available The Damaged DNA binding protein 2 (DDB2, is involved in nucleotide excision repair as well as in other biological processes in normal cells, including transcription and cell cycle regulation. Loss of DDB2 function may be related to tumor susceptibility. However, hypothesis of this study was that DDB2 could play a role in breast cancer cell growth, resulting in its well known interaction with the proliferative marker E2F1 in breast neoplasia. DDB2 gene was overexpressed in estrogen receptor (ER-positive (MCF-7 and T47D, but not in ER-negative breast cancer (MDA-MB231 and SKBR3 or normal mammary epithelial cell lines. In addition, DDB2 expression was significantly (3.0-fold higher in ER-positive than in ER-negative tumor samples (P = 0.0208 from 16 patients with breast carcinoma. Knockdown of DDB2 by small interfering RNA in MCF-7 cells caused a decrease in cancer cell growth and colony formation. Inversely, introduction of the DDB2 gene into MDA-MB231 cells stimulated growth and colony formation. Cell cycle distribution and 5 Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation by flow cytometry analysis showed that the growth-inhibiting effect of DDB2 knockdown was the consequence of a delayed G1/S transition and a slowed progression through the S phase of MCF-7 cells. These results were supported by a strong decrease in the expression of S phase markers (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen, cyclin E and dihydrofolate reductase. These findings demonstrate for the first time that DDB2 can play a role as oncogene and may become a promising candidate as a predictive marker in breast cancer.

  18. Performing self, performing character: Exploring gender performativity in online role-playing games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Osborne

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Online narrative (fiction-based role-playing games and massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs provide a ludic structure in which role players enact the gender and sexuality of their avatars. To investigate how role players perceive and perform their avatars' gender and sexuality in online games, I invited role players from MMORPGs and narrative RPGs to participate in an online survey. This study examines how the online game environment mediates players' self-expression and their acceptance of minority identities. Qualitative analysis of the data collected suggests that players who demonstrate empathy with and examination of their avatars' genders and sexualities, and who experience a sense of belonging within the game structure, are able to form positive interpersonal relationships that allow them to accept others' expressed identities.

  19. Epidermal growth factor receptor plays an anabolic role in bone metabolism in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianrong; Tamasi, Joseph; Lu, Xin; Zhu, Ji; Chen, Haiyan; Tian, Xiaoyan; Lee, Tang-Cheng; Threadgill, David W; Kream, Barbara E; Kang, Yibin; Partridge, Nicola C; Qin, Ling

    2011-05-01

    While the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated signaling pathway has been shown to have vital roles in many developmental and pathologic processes, its functions in the development and homeostasis of the skeletal system has been poorly defined. To address its in vivo role, we constructed transgenic and pharmacologic mouse models and used peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), micro-computed tomography (µCT) and histomorphometry to analyze their trabecular and cortical bone phenotypes. We initially deleted the EGFR in preosteoblasts/osteoblasts using a Cre/loxP system (Col-Cre Egfr(f/f)), but no bone phenotype was observed because of incomplete deletion of the Egfr genomic locus. To further reduce the remaining osteoblastic EGFR activity, we introduced an EGFR dominant-negative allele, Wa5, and generated Col-Cre Egfr(Wa5/f) mice. At 3 and 7 months of age, both male and female mice exhibited a remarkable decrease in tibial trabecular bone mass with abnormalities in trabecular number and thickness. Histologic analyses revealed decreases in osteoblast number and mineralization activity and an increase in osteoclast number. Significant increases in trabecular pattern factor and structural model index indicate that trabecular microarchitecture was altered. The femurs of these mice were shorter and smaller with reduced cortical area and periosteal perimeter. Moreover, colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) assay indicates that these mice had fewer bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and committed progenitors. Similarly, administration of an EGFR inhibitor into wild-type mice caused a significant reduction in trabecular bone volume. In contrast, Egfr(Dsk5/+) mice with a constitutively active EGFR allele displayed increases in trabecular and cortical bone content. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the EGFR signaling pathway is an important bone regulator and that it primarily plays an anabolic role in bone metabolism. Copyright © 2011

  20. Psychological motivation in online role-playing games : a study of Spanish 'World of Warcraft' players

    OpenAIRE

    Fuster, Héctor; Oberst, Ursula E.; Griffiths, Mark; Sánchez Carbonell, Xavier; Chamarro Lusar, Andrés; Talarn Caparrós, Antoni

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of playing videogames has increased considera- bly during the last few decades, and has become one of the most popular leisure activities worldwide. Some of the most popular game types are the Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs). How- ever, there has also been increased suspicion and social alarm that these games may possess an addictive potential, similar to other behavioural addictions, and that the user may develop maladaptive behaviours with respect to...

  1. Fostering creativity, empathy and self-regulation through story-based educational role-play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa

    Fostering creativity, empathy and self-regulation through story-based educational role-playThe educational demands of the 21st. century calls for developing learning approaches and designs that are engaging to learners with different strenghts and challenges. In order to raise the percentage......, collaboration and creative problem-solving as well as empathy and self-regulation.The project has used a mixed-methods approach which combined case-studies and surveys.This presentation will present prelimininary findings from the study that indicate the neuro-educational potentials to be achieved, through...... engaging the learners in narrative educational role-play. These include how the learners engagement in role-play can afford emotionally encoded memory, socially and contextually anchored interactions with the learning material as well as empathy and self-regulation.Based on the findings from the R...

  2. Verbal communication of story facilitators in multi-player role-playing games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Brolund, Thea; Hitchens, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Multi-player role-playing games form one of the key examples of interactive, emergent and collaborative storytelling systems available. These games and the collaborative stories that they create, are commonly facilitated by a specialized participant, the game master. In the current study, the ver......Multi-player role-playing games form one of the key examples of interactive, emergent and collaborative storytelling systems available. These games and the collaborative stories that they create, are commonly facilitated by a specialized participant, the game master. In the current study......, the verbal communication of game masters in a series of role-playing game sessions is categorized and analyzed depending on form and content, using protocol analysis, establishing a model for the verbal communication of game masters. © 2008 Springer Berlin Heidelberg....

  3. Analyzing Members' Motivations to Participate in Role-Playing and Self-Expression Based Virtual Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Eun; Saharia, Aditya

    With the rapid growth of computer mediated communication technologies in the last two decades, various types of virtual communities have emerged. Some communities provide a role playing arena, enabled by avatars, while others provide an arena for expressing and promoting detailed personal profiles to enhance their offline social networks. Due to different focus of these virtual communities, different factors motivate members to participate in these communities. In this study, we examine differences in members’ motivations to participate in role-playing versus self-expression based virtual communities. To achieve this goal, we apply the Wang and Fesenmaier (2004) framework, which explains members’ participation in terms of their functional, social, psychological, and hedonic needs. The primary contributions of this study are two folds: First, it demonstrates differences between role-playing and self-expression based communities. Second, it provides a comprehensive framework describing members’ motivation to participate in virtual communities.

  4. Verbal communication of story facilitators in multi-player role-playing games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Brolund, Thea; Hitchens, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Multi-player role-playing games form one of the key examples of interactive, emergent and collaborative storytelling systems available. These games and the collaborative stories that they create, are commonly facilitated by a specialized participant, the game master. In the current study, the ver......, the verbal communication of game masters in a series of role-playing game sessions is categorized and analyzed depending on form and content, using protocol analysis, establishing a model for the verbal communication of game masters.......Multi-player role-playing games form one of the key examples of interactive, emergent and collaborative storytelling systems available. These games and the collaborative stories that they create, are commonly facilitated by a specialized participant, the game master. In the current study...

  5. Developing pharmacy student communication skills through role-playing and active learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz Adrian, Julie Ann; Zeszotarski, Paula; Ma, Carolyn

    2015-04-25

    To evaluate the impact on pharmacy students of a communication course, which used role-playing to develop active-learning skills. Students role-playing pharmacists in patient care scenarios were critiqued by students and pharmacist faculty members. Grading was performed using the rubric inspired by Bruce Berger's Communication Skills for Pharmacists. Written skills were evaluated using student written critique questionnaires. Students completed precourse and postcourse self-assessment surveys. Preceptor evaluations were analyzed for course impact. Students demonstrated improvement in oral skills based on role-play scores (45.87/50) after practice sessions. The average score based on the student questionnaire was 9.31/10. Gain was demonstrated in all defined course objectives. Impact on introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) communication objectives was insignificant. Student evaluations for course and teaching strategy reflected a high average. Study results demonstrated improvement in oral and written communication skills that may help improve interprofessional teamwork between pharmacists and other health care providers.

  6. Roles of temperamental arousal and gender-segregated play in young children's social adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabes, R A; Shepard, S A; Guthrie, I K; Martin, C L

    1997-07-01

    The hypothesis that gender differences in children's adjustment is partially influenced by differences in temperament and interactions with same-sex peers was examined. Fifty-seven predominantly White, middle-class preschoolers (29 boys and 28 girls, M age = 54.5 months) participated. Measures were taken of children's arousability, problem behaviors, and tendencies to play with same-sex peers. A semester later, children's peer status was assessed. Analyses revealed that arousability and same-sex peer play interacted to predict problem behaviors. For boys high in arousability, play with same-sex peers increased problem behaviors. In contrast, arousable girls who played with other girls were relatively unlikely to show problem behaviors. Moreover, the interaction of arousability and same-sex peer play predicted boys' (but not girls') peer status, and this relation was partially mediated by problem behaviors. The role of gender-related processes is discussed.

  7. Chondrocyte BMP2 signaling plays an essential role in bone fracture healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Meng; Jin, Hongting; Wang, Baoli; Yukata, Kiminori; Sheu, Tzong-Jen; Ke, Qiao Han; Tong, Peijian; Im, Hee-Jeong; Xiao, Guozhi; Chen, Di

    2013-01-10

    The specific role of endogenous Bmp2 gene in chondrocytes and in osteoblasts in fracture healing was investigated by generation and analysis of chondrocyte- and osteoblast-specific Bmp2 conditional knockout (cKO) mice. The unilateral open transverse tibial fractures were created in these Bmp2 cKO mice. Bone fracture callus samples were collected and analyzed by X-ray, micro-CT, histology analyses, biomechanical testing and gene expression assays. The results demonstrated that the lack of Bmp2 expression in chondrocytes leads to a prolonged cartilage callus formation and a delayed osteogenesis initiation and progression into mineralization phase with lower biomechanical properties. In contrast, when the Bmp2 gene was deleted in osteoblasts, the mice showed no significant difference in the fracture healing process compared to control mice. These findings suggest that endogenous BMP2 expression in chondrocytes may play an essential role in cartilage callus maturation at an early stage of fracture healing. Our studies may provide important information for clinical application of BMP2.

  8. Do neutrophils play a role in establishing liver abscesses and distant metastases caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jung-Chung; Chang, Feng-Yee; Fung, Chang-Phone; Yeh, Kuo-Ming; Chen, Chiung-Tong; Tsai, Yu-Kuo; Siu, L Kristopher

    2010-11-30

    Serotype K1 Klebsiella pneumoniae is a major cause of liver abscesses and endophthalmitis. This study was designed to identify the role of neutrophils in the development of distant metastatic complications that were caused by serotype K1 K. pneumoniae. An in vitro cellular model was used to assess serum resistance and neutrophil-mediated killing. BALB/c mice were injected with neutrophils containing phagocytosed K. pneumoniae. Serotype K1 K. pneumoniae was significantly more resistant to serum killing, neutrophil-mediated phagocytosis and intra-cellular killing than non-K1 isolates (pneutrophils containing phagocytosed serotype K1 K. pneumoniae led to abscess formation in multiple sites including the subcutaneous tissue, lung, and liver, whereas no abscess formation was observed in mice injected with non-K1 isolates. The resistance of serotype K1 K. pneumoniae to complement- and neutrophil-mediated intracellular killing results in the dissemination of K. pneumoniae via the bloodstream. Escape from neutrophil intracellular killing may contribute to the dissemination and establishment of distant metastases. Thus, neutrophils play a role as a vehicle for helping K. pneumoniae and contributing to the establishment of liver abscess and distant metastatic complications.

  9. The adaptor molecule SAP plays essential roles during invariant NKT cell cytotoxicity and lytic synapse formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rupali; Bassiri, Hamid; Guan, Peng; Wiener, Susan; Banerjee, Pinaki P; Zhong, Ming-Chao; Veillette, André; Orange, Jordan S; Nichols, Kim E

    2013-04-25

    The adaptor molecule signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) plays critical roles during invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell ontogeny. As a result, SAP-deficient humans and mice lack iNKT cells. The strict developmental requirement for SAP has made it difficult to discern its possible involvement in mature iNKT cell functions. By using temporal Cre recombinase-mediated gene deletion to ablate SAP expression after completion of iNKT cell development, we demonstrate that SAP is essential for T-cell receptor (TCR)-induced iNKT cell cytotoxicity against T-cell and B-cell leukemia targets in vitro and iNKT-cell-mediated control of T-cell leukemia growth in vivo. These findings are not restricted to the murine system: silencing RNA-mediated suppression of SAP expression in human iNKT cells also significantly impairs TCR-induced cytolysis. Mechanistic studies reveal that iNKT cell killing requires the tyrosine kinase Fyn, a known SAP-binding protein. Furthermore, SAP expression is required within iNKT cells to facilitate their interaction with T-cell targets and induce reorientation of the microtubule-organizing center to the immunologic synapse (IS). Collectively, these studies highlight a novel and essential role for SAP during iNKT cell cytotoxicity and formation of a functional IS.

  10. Leptin signaling plays a critical role in the geniposide-induced decrease of tau phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianhui; Liu, Zixuan; Zhang, Yonglan; Yin, Fei

    2015-12-01

    We have previously demonstrated that geniposide attenuates the production of Aβ1-42 both in vitro and in vivo via enhancing leptin receptor signaling. But the role played by geniposide in the phosphorylation of tau and its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of geniposide on the phosphorylation of tau and the role of leptin signaling in this process. Our data suggested that, accompanied by the up-regulation of leptin receptor expression, geniposide significantly decreased the phosphorylation of tau in rat primary cultured cortical neurons and in APP/PS1 transgenic mice, and this geniposide-induced decrease of tau phosphorylation could be prevented by leptin antagonist (LA). Furthermore, LA also prevented the phosphorylation of Akt at Ser-473 site and GSK-3β at Ser-9 site induced by geniposide. All these results indicate that geniposide may regulate tau phosphorylation through leptin signaling, and geniposide may be a promising therapeutic compound for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease in the future.

  11. Exopolysaccharides play a role in the swarming of the benthic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang eLiu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Most marine bacteria secrete exopolysaccharide (EPS, which is important for bacterial survival in the marine environment. However, it is still unclear whether the self-secreted EPS is involved in marine bacterial motility. Here we studied the role of EPS in the lateral flagella-driven swarming motility of benthic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913 (SM9913 by a comparison of wild SM9913 and ΔepsT, an EPS synthesis defective mutant. Reduction of EPS production in ΔepsT did not affect the growth rate or the swimming motility, but significantly decreased the swarming motility on a swarming plate, suggesting that the EPS may play a role in SM9913 swarming. However, the expression and assembly of lateral flagella in ΔepsT were not affected. Instead, ΔepsT had a different swarming behavior from wild SM9913. The swarming of ΔepsT did not have an obvious rapid swarming period, and its rate became much lower than that of wild SM9913 after 35 h incubation. An addition of surfactin or SM9913 EPS on the surface of the swarming plate could rescue the swarming level. These results indicate that the self-secreted EPS is required for the swarming of SM9913. This study widens our understanding of the function of the EPS of benthic bacteria.

  12. Kruppel-like factor KLF8 plays a critical role in adipocyte differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haemi Lee

    Full Text Available KLF8 (Krüppel-like factor 8 is a zinc-finger transcription factor known to play an essential role in the regulation of the cell cycle, apoptosis, and differentiation. However, its physiological roles and functions in adipogenesis remain unclear. In the present study, we show that KLF8 acts as a key regulator controlling adipocyte differentiation. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, we found that KLF8 expression was induced during differentiation, which was followed by expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα. Adipocyte differentiation was significantly attenuated by the addition of siRNA against KLF8, whereas overexpression of KLF8 resulted in enhanced differentiation. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that overexpression of KLF8 induced PPARγ2 and C/EBPα promoter activity, suggesting that KLF8 is an upstream regulator of PPARγ and C/EBPα. The KLF8 binding sites were localized by site mutation analysis to -191 region in C/EBPα promoter and -303 region in PPARγ promoter, respectively. Taken together, these data reveal that KLF8 is a key component of the transcription factor network that controls terminal differentiation during adipogenesis.

  13. Virtual firm as a role-playing tool for biomedical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagosklonov, Oleg; Soto-Romero, Georges; Guyon, Florent; Courjal, Nadège; Euphrasie, Sebatien; Yahiaoui, Reda; Butterlin, Nadia

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes design of a role-playing tool based on the experience of the practice firm which allows participants to obtain relevant and practical on-the-job experience. The students played the roles of the employees and the applicants for vacant positions at the virtual firm - a small business specialized in biomedical sector - founded to design the demonstration vehicle for a biomedical device. We found that this innovative concept may be used to improve the young engineers performance and to facilitate their post-graduate integration.

  14. Role-Play and Its Functions in Oral English Teaching in Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭思含

    2015-01-01

    Role-play is recommended as a useful method to solve the problem of oral English teaching. It ’s much more than a performance and it can be considered as a way to vary the kinds of spoken interaction that learners can experience in the class⁃room of universities. Through the use of role-play, oral English teaching becomes more interesting and attractive;university stu⁃dents can gain more oral English skills in the mini society atmosphere, and the accuracy and fluency of their oral English will be improved.

  15. Extracellular matrix molecules play diverse roles in the growth and guidance of central nervous system axons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Pires-Neto

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Axon growth and guidance represent complex biological processes in which probably intervene diverse sets of molecular cues that allow for the appropriate wiring of the central nervous system (CNS. The extracellular matrix (ECM represents a major contributor of molecular signals either diffusible or membrane-bound that may regulate different stages of neural development. Some of the brain ECM molecules form tridimensional structures (tunnels and boundaries that appear during time- and space-regulated events, possibly playing relevant roles in the control of axon elongation and pathfinding. This short review focuses mainly on the recognized roles played by proteoglycans, laminin, fibronectin and tenascin in axonal development during ontogenesis.

  16. Facilitating social work role plays in online courses: The use of video conferencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Fitch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Role plays have served an instrumental role in social work education by providing opportunities for students to acquire interaction skills. This project tested various online video conferencing tools to facilitate role plays for students who live in different locations and who are unable to be at the same place at the same time. Key features of the technology included the ability to facilitate real-time interaction, compatibility with laptops and Wi-Fi connections, and the ability to record sessions for later viewing and feedback. Method: Case study design. Results: Students were able to use the videoconferencing software with minimal support. Video quality was not always ideal with contributing factors being the time of day students used the software. There were no distinguishable time and effort demands associated with the online video conferencing compared to classroom role plays. Some students found use of the technology caused them to feel disconnected from their peers compared to face-to-face encounters, while other students found the encounter more intimate in that the pressure to perform in front of others was not felt. Implications: Video conferencing is a promising tool to facilitate social work role plays. Future research needs to assess the acquisition of specific skills compared to traditional classroom students.

  17. THE ROLE PLAY AND THE CHILD WITH AUTISM IN THE HISTORICAL-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica da Silva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the play of make-believe for children with autism, focusing on the symbolic resources it uses in asserting roles. It is based on the theoretical contributions of the historical-cultural perspective, with Vygotsky as its main exponent. The research was carried out in a public school of Early Childhood Education, in Brasília. From the microgenetic analysis, the research had six children diagnosed with autism, at the ages of 4 and 6 years, included in Special Class, as participants. The play situations were videotaped and later transcribed in episode format. In the data analysis, we identified two axes, namely: 1 The construction of the role play and; 2 Assumption of roles by the child with autism: set design and imagery resources. The results reveal the role of the other (intentional participation in the constitution of play activity, especially the role of the adult. In addition, they demonstrate that pedagogical mediation, including the creation of 'scenarios', is fundamental for the extension of the symbolic experience of the child with autism.

  18. SIRT1 may play a crucial role in overload-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltai, Erika; Bori, Zoltán; Chabert, Clovis; Dubouchaud, Hervé; Naito, Hisashi; Machida, Shuichi; Davies, Kelvin Ja; Murlasits, Zsolt; Fry, Andrew C; Boldogh, Istvan; Radak, Zsolt

    2017-06-01

    Silent mating type information regulation 2 homologue 1 (SIRT1) activity and content increased significantly in overload-induced hypertrophy. SIRT1-mediated signalling through Akt, the endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediated pathway, regulates anabolic process in the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. The regulation of catabolic signalling via forkhead box O 1 and protein ubiquitination is SIRT1 dependent. Overload-induced changes in microRNA levels regulate SIRT1 and insulin-like growth factor 1 signalling. Significant skeletal muscle mass guarantees functional wellbeing and is important for high level performance in many sports. Although the molecular mechanism for skeletal muscle hypertrophy has been well studied, it still is not completely understood. In the present study, we used a functional overload model to induce plantaris muscle hypertrophy by surgically removing the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles in rats. Two weeks of muscle ablation resulted in a 40% increase in muscle mass, which was associated with a significant increase in silent mating type information regulation 2 homologue 1 (SIRT1) content and activity (P hypertrophied muscles, and SIRT1 levels correlated with muscle mass, paired box protein 7 (Pax7), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) levels. Alternatively, decreased forkhead box O 1 (FOXO1) and increased K48 polyubiquitination also suggest that SIRT1 could be involved in the catabolic process of hypertrophy. Furthermore, increased levels of K63 and muscle RING finger 2 (MuRF2) protein could also be important enhancers of muscle mass. We report here that the levels of miR1 and miR133a decrease in hypertrophy and negatively correlate with muscle mass, SIRT1 and Nampt levels. Our results reveal a strong correlation between SIRT1 levels and activity, SIRT1-regulated pathways and overload-induced hypertrophy. These findings, along with the well-known regulatory roles that SIRT1 plays in

  19. Comparison of Classic vs. Role plays Teaching Methods on the Menstrual Hygiene Behavior of Secondary School Girls in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ostovar

    2013-09-01

    Background & aim: Awareness about the different aspects of health during puberty plays an important role in the health of girls and finally on their health future pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to to compare the effect of role playing and classical training methods in the the improvement of puberty health among secondary school girls in Yasouj City, Iran. Methods: In this study, the educational need during puberty school girls in the interview was determined. The two schools girls were randomly selected (students any school-60. Next, a knowledge and attitude questionnaire and a behavior checklist related to the main puberty health problems were completed. Then one of the schools randomly was selected as educational interventions schools and other were studied as controls. After grouping the students into four groups of 15, intervention were conducted in four sessions including: role-play, question and answer, and lecture. In the control group, all number of school students received training on puberty health through a classical education (lectures. The results were subsequently compared. Data were analyzed by Student t-test paired t-test, and analysis of variance. Results: The results of this study showed that the level of knowledge, attitude and behavior related to health matters during puberty showed significant improvement in the girls before and after implementation of educational intervention through role play (p<0.05.Thus, the mean score in group role play before intervention was 2.35±1.53 and after was 3.96±1.27 , The mean performance score before intervention 6.04±2.34 and after was, 8.61±1.55, respectively, while in classical group differences were not statistically significant (p<0.05 Conclusion: In comparison with the classical method of health education, teaching through role play significantly improved the level of knowledge, attitude and practice related to puberty health among adolescent girls. Key Words: Education, Adolescent Girls

  20. Psychotherapy with a 3-Year-Old Child: The Role of Play in the Unfolding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcuni, Silvia; Di Riso, Daniela; Mabilia, Diana; Lis, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the outcomes and process of psychodynamic psychotherapies with children. Among the limited number of studies, some only paid attention to play and verbal production, as they are fundamental aspects in assessing the psychotherapy process. This paper focuses on an empirical investigation of a 3-year, once-a-week psychodynamic psychotherapy carried out with a 3-year-old girl. A process-outcome design was implemented to evaluate play and verbal discourse in in the initial, middle, and final parts of 30 psychotherapy sessions. Repeated measurements of standardized play categories (the Play Category System and the Affect in Play Scale—Preschool version) and verbal discourse (Verbal Production) were analyzed. To increase the clinical validity of the study, data from the assessment phase and vignettes from the sessions were reported to deepen the patient’s picture during the unfolding therapy process. Parent reports before and after the therapy were also included. Empirically measured changes in play and verbal production were fundamental in evaluating the young patient’s psychotherapy process. Verbal production and discourse ability progressively increased and took the place of play, which instead became more symbolic. Developmental issues as well as psychotherapy’s influence on the patient’s change, were discussed in relation to the role of play in enhancing the development of verbal dialog and the expression of the child’s emotions, needs, and desires. PMID:28101070

  1. Experiencing the Elicitation of User Requirements and Recording Them in Use Case Diagrams through Role-Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costain, Gay; McKenna, Brad

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a role-play exercise used in a second-year tertiary Systems Analysis and Design course, and the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the students' responses to a survey that solicited their perceptions of that role-play experience. The role-play involved students in eliciting user requirements from customers during a Joint…

  2. Exploring the Impact of Role-Playing on Peer Feedback in an Online Case-Based Learning Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Yu-Hui

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the impact of role-playing on the quality of peer feedback and learners' perception of this strategy in a case-based learning activity with VoiceThread in an online course. The findings revealed potential positive impact of role-playing on learners' generation of constructive feedback as role-playing was associated…

  3. Spontaneous mutations in Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from streptococcal toxic shock syndrome patients play roles in virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikebe, Tadayoshi; Matsumura, Takayuki; Nihonmatsu, Hisako; Ohya, Hitomi; Okuno, Rumi; Mitsui, Chieko; Kawahara, Ryuji; Kameyama, Mitsuhiro; Sasaki, Mari; Shimada, Naomi; Ato, Manabu; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2016-06-28

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus; GAS) is a widespread human pathogen and causes streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). STSS isolates have been previously shown to have high frequency mutations in the csrS/csrR (covS/covR) and/or rgg (ropB) genes, which are negative regulators of virulence. However, these mutations were found at somewhat low frequencies in emm1-genotyped isolates, the most prevalent STSS genotype. In this study, we sought to detect causal mutations of enhanced virulence in emm1 isolates lacking mutation(s) in the csrS/csrR and rgg genes. Three mutations associated with elevated virulence were found in the sic (a virulence gene) promoter, the csrR promoter, and the rocA gene (a csrR positive regulator). In vivo contribution of the sic promoter and rocA mutations to pathogenicity and lethality was confirmed in a GAS mouse model. Frequency of the sic promoter mutation was significantly higher in STSS emm1 isolates than in non-invasive STSS isolates; the rocA gene mutation frequency was not significantly different among STSS and non-STSS isolates. STSS emm1 isolates possessed a high frequency mutation in the sic promoter. Thus, this mutation may play a role in the dynamics of virulence and STSS pathogenesis.

  4. Should College Education Play a Significant Role in Teaching Students about Ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Phillip D.; Atkinson, John K.; Waduge, Shashie

    2015-01-01

    A ten question survey was administered to a medium size university in the Midwest. The responses were fashioned in a 5-item Likert Scale ranging from Strongly Disagree to Strongly Agree. The results were interpreted by SPSS and relationships, frequencies, and descriptive statistics were drawn from the results of this program. The purpose of this…

  5. IL-27 Found to Play Significant Role in Conferring HIV Resistance | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets specific immune cells in the body known as macrophages because these are the cells that eliminate foreign material such as bacteria or viruses. HIV is able to reproduce and spread throughout the body if it can avoid destruction by macrophages. A recent study by Lue Dai, Ph.D., and colleagues revealed that the human cytokine IL-27 helps promote the body’s production of macrophages that are resistant to HIV. The study further found that IL-27 suppresses a gene known as SPTBN1, which facilitates the survival of HIV cells. This breakthrough research was recently published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine.

  6. Indoor air quality and health does fungal contamination play a significant role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardana, Emil J

    2003-05-01

    Fungal contamination in buildings can vary greatly, and their presence in a dwelling does not necessarily constitute exposure. Measurement of mold spores and fragments varies depending on the methodology and instruments used. Meaningful comparison of data is rarely possible. The presence of a specific immune response to a fungal antigen only connotes that exposure to one or more related species has occurred, but not that there is a symptomatic clinical state. The response of individuals to indoor bioaerosols is complex and depends on age, gender, state of health, genetic makeup, and degree and time of bioaerosol exposure. In general, mold contamination in buildings is associated with incursion of water or moisture, which should be remedied as efficiently as possible. When disease occurs, it more likely is related to transient annoyance or irritational reactions. Allergic symptoms may be related to mold proliferation in the home environment. Because molds are encountered both indoors and outdoors, it is difficult to determine where the sensitivity initially arose and if the response is solely provoked by either an indoor or outdoor source. As an indoor allergen, mold is considered to be an infrequent participant in the induction of allergic disease when compared with housedust mites, animal dander, and cockroach allergens. Infection in healthy individuals is rare and usually is caused by an outdoor source. Building-related disease caused by mycotoxicosis has not been proved in the medical literature.

  7. Do dynamic effects play a significant role in enzymatic catalysis? A theoretical analysis of formate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Maite; Oliva, Mónica; Castillo, Raquel; Moliner, Vicente; Tuñón, Iñaki

    2010-10-04

    A theoretical study of the protein dynamic effects on the hydride transfer between the formate anion and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)), catalyzed by formate dehydrogenase (FDH), is presented in this paper. The analysis of free downhill molecular dynamic trajectories, performed in the enzyme and compared with the reaction in aqueous solution, has allowed the study of the dynamic coupling between the reacting fragments and the protein or the solvent water molecules, as well as an estimation of the dynamic effect contribution to the catalytic effect from calculation of the transmission coefficient in the enzyme and in solution. The obtained transmission coefficients for the enzyme and in solution were 0.46±0.04 and 0.20±0.03, respectively. These values represent a contribution to catalysis of 0.5 kcal mol(-1), which, although small, is not negligible keeping in mind the low efficiency of FDH. The analysis of the reactive trajectories also reveals how the relative movements of some amino acids, mainly His332 and Arg284, precede and promote the chemical reaction. In spite of these movements, the time-dependent evolution of the electric field created by the enzyme on the key atoms of the reaction reveals a permanent field, which reduces the work required to reach the transition state, with a concomitant polarization of the cofactor. Finally, application of Grote-Hynes theory has allowed the identification of the modes responsible for the substrate-environment coupling, showing how some protein motions take place simultaneously with the reaction. Thus, the equilibrium approach would provide, in this case, an overestimation of the catalyzed rate constant.

  8. Scientists Find X Rays from Stellar Winds That May Play Significant Role in Galactic Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    Colorful star-forming regions that have captivated stargazers since the advent of the telescope 400 years ago contain gas thousands of times more energetic than previously recognized, powered by colliding stellar winds. This multimillion-degree gas radiated as X rays is one of the long-sought sources of energy and elements in the Milky Way galaxy's interstellar medium. A team led by Leisa Townsley, a senior research associate in astronomy and astrophysics at Penn State University, uncovered this wind phenomenon in the Rosette Nebula, a stellar nursery. With the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the team found that the most massive stars in the nebula produce winds that slam into each other, create violent shocks, and infuse the region with 6-million-degree gas. The findings are presented in Washington, D.C., today at a conference entitled "Two Years of Science with Chandra." "A ghostly glow of diffuse X-ray emission pervades the Rosette Nebula and perhaps many other similar star-forming regions throughout the Galaxy," said Townsley. "We now have a new view of the engine lighting the beautiful Rosette Nebula and new evidence for how the interstellar medium may be energized." Townsley and her colleagues created a striking X-ray panorama of the Rosette Molecular Cloud from four images with Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer. This is a swath of the sky nearly 100 light years across sprayed with hundreds of X-ray-emitting young stars. In one corner of the Rosette Molecular Cloud lies the Rosette Nebula, called an "H II region" because the hydrogen gas there has been stripped of its electrons due to the strong ultraviolet radiation from its young stars. This region, about 5,000 light years away in the constellation Monoceros, the Unicorn, has long been a favorite among amateur astronomers. The wispy, colorful display is visible with small telescopes. The Chandra survey reveals, for the first time, 6-million-degree gas at the center of the Rosette Nebula, occupying a volume of about 3,000 cubic light years. Fueling the fury are a handful of massive type-O and type-B stars at the core of the nebula, the most massive members of a populous "OB association" that also includes hundreds of lower- mass stars. Rosette Nebula Optical/X-ray Composite Press Image and Caption "Until this observation, no one really knew where the energy of the powerful OB stellar winds goes," said Eric Feigelson, professor of astronomy and astrophysics at Penn State and a co-investigator in the study. "Theorists have speculated about this for decades, and we now see with Chandra the heat from the winds slamming into the cooler gas." Earlier X-ray telescopes did not have the resolution to differentiate between point sources and diffuse emission in the Rosette Nebula to the extent that Chandra has. Chandra imaged over 300 individual young stars in the Rosette Nebula, plus hundreds more in the Rosette Molecular Cloud. "We were able to identify the faint, diffuse radiation by subtracting out these point sources and looking at what was left over," explains team member Patrick Broos, a research assistant in astronomy and astrophysics at Penn State. The diffuse emission is not likely to be from supernova remnants left over from exploded stars because the Rosette Nebula is too young to have produced these, according to You- Hua Chu, of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Rather, the diffuse emission must be related to the way the stellar winds from OB associations dissipate their energy. Understanding the detailed processes involved will rely on front-line research done in the laboratory on energy transport in very hot gases, according to Thierry Montmerle, of the Centre d'Etudes de Saclay in France. Chu and Montmerle have joined the research team to help interpret the Chandra results. The observations were made with Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer, which was conceived and developed for NASA by Penn State and Massachusetts Institute of Technology under the leadership of Gordon Garmire, the Evan Pugh Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics at Penn State.

  9. Does aldosterone play a significant role for regulation of vascular tone?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Kristina Sanne; Assersen, Kasper Bostlund; Dalgaard, Emil Geertsen;

    2016-01-01

    Besides the well-known renal effects of aldosterone, the hormone is now known to have direct vascular effects. Clinical observations underline substantial adverse effects of aldosterone on cardiovascular function. The source of systemic circulating aldosterone is the adrenal gland zona glomerulosa...... cells through stimulus-secretion coupling involving depolarization, opening of L- and T-type calcium channels and aldosterone synthase activation. Local formation and release in peripheral tissues such as perivascular fat is recognized. Where does aldosterone affect the vasculature? Mineralocorticoid...... receptors (MR) are present in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells and MR-independent pathways are also involved. The vascular effects of aldosterone are complex, both concentration, temporal and spatial aspects are relevant. The acute response includes vasodilation through endothelial nitric oxide...

  10. The kiwifruit lycopene beta-cyclase plays a significant role in carotenoid accumulation in fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampomah-Dwamena, Charles; McGhie, Tony; Wibisono, Reginald; Montefiori, Mirco; Hellens, Roger P; Allan, Andrew C

    2009-01-01

    The composition of carotenoids, along with anthocyanins and chlorophyll, accounts for the distinctive range of colour found in the Actinidia (kiwifruit) species. Lutein and beta-carotene are the most abundant carotenoids found during fruit development, with beta-carotene concentration increasing rapidly during fruit maturation and ripening. In addition, the accumulation of beta-carotene and lutein is influenced by the temperature at which harvested fruit are stored. Expression analysis of carotenoid biosynthetic genes among different genotypes and fruit developmental stages identified Actinidia lycopene beta-cyclase (LCY-beta) as the gene whose expression pattern appeared to be associated with both total carotenoid and beta-carotene accumulation. Phytoene desaturase (PDS) expression was the least variable among the different genotypes, while zeta carotene desaturase (ZDS), beta-carotene hydroxylase (CRH-beta), and epsilon carotene hydroxylase (CRH-epsilon) showed some variation in gene expression. The LCY-beta gene was functionally tested in bacteria and shown to convert lycopene and delta-carotene to beta-carotene and alpha-carotene respectively. This indicates that the accumulation of beta-carotene, the major carotenoid in these kiwifruit species, appears to be controlled by the level of expression of LCY-beta gene.

  11. High Autophagy in the Naked Mole Rat may Play a Significant Role in Maintaining Good Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmin Zhao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The maximum lifespan of the naked mole rat is over 28.3 years, which exceeds that of any other rodent species, suggesting that age-related changes in its body composition and functionality are either attenuated or delayed in this extraordinarily long-lived species. However, the mechanisms underlying the aging process in this species are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether long-lived naked mole rats display more autophagic activity than short-lived mice. Methods: Hepatic stellate cells isolated from naked mole rats were treated with 50 nM rapamycin or 20 mM 3-methyladenine (3-MA for 12 or 24 h. Expression of the autophagy marker proteins LC3-II and beclin 1 was measured with western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The induction of apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: Our results demonstrate that one-day-old naked mole rats have higher levels of autophagy than one-day-old short-lived C57BL/6 mice, and that both adult naked mole rats (eight months old and adult C57BL/6 mice (eight weeks old have high basal levels of autophagy, which may be an important mechanism inhibiting aging and reducing the risk of age-related diseases. Conclusion: Here, we report that autophagy facilitated the survival of hepatic stellate cells from the naked mole rat, and that treatment with 3-MA or rapamycin increased the ratio of apoptotic cells to normal hepatic stellate cells.

  12. Mig-6 plays a critical role in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis and bile acid synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bon Jeong Ku

    Full Text Available The disruption of cholesterol homeostasis leads to an increase in cholesterol levels which results in the development of cardiovascular disease. Mitogen Inducible Gene 6 (Mig-6 is an immediate early response gene that can be induced by various mitogens, stresses, and hormones. To identify the metabolic role of Mig-6 in the liver, we conditionally ablated Mig-6 in the liver using the Albumin-Cre mouse model (Alb(cre/+Mig-6(f/f; Mig-6(d/d. Mig-6(d/d mice exhibit hepatomegaly and fatty liver. Serum levels of total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol and hepatic lipid were significantly increased in the Mig-6(d/d mice. The daily excretion of fecal bile acids was significantly decreased in the Mig-6(d/d mice. DNA microarray analysis of mRNA isolated from the livers of these mice showed alterations in genes that regulate lipid metabolism, bile acid, and cholesterol synthesis, while the expression of genes that regulate biliary excretion of bile acid and triglyceride synthesis showed no difference in the Mig-6(d/d mice compared to Mig-6(f/f controls. These results indicate that Mig-6 plays an important role in cholesterol homeostasis and bile acid synthesis. Mice with liver specific conditional ablation of Mig-6 develop hepatomegaly and increased intrahepatic lipid and provide a novel model system to investigate the genetic and molecular events involved in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis and bile acid synthesis. Defining the molecular mechanisms by which Mig-6 regulates cholesterol homeostasis will provide new insights into the development of more effective ways for the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  13. Characterizing the role benthos plays in large coastal seas and estuaries: A modular approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, K.R.; Zajac, R.N.; Terwin, J.; Andrade, F.; Blanton, J.; Boynton, W.; Carey, D.; Diaz, R.; Holland, Austin F.; Lopez-Jamar, E.; Montagna, P.; Nichols, F.; Rosenberg, R.; Queiroga, H.; Sprung, M.; Whitlatch, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    Ecologists studying coastal and estuarine benthic communities have long taken a macroecological view, by relating benthic community patterns to environmental factors across several spatial scales. Although many general ecological patterns have been established, often a significant amount of the spatial and temporal variation in soft-sediment communities within and among systems remains unexplained. Here we propose a framework that may aid in unraveling the complex influence of environmental factors associated with the different components of coastal systems (i.e. the terrestrial and benthic landscapes, and the hydrological seascape) on benthic communities, and use this information to assess the role played by benthos in coastal ecosystems. A primary component of the approach is the recognition of system modules (e.g. marshes, dendritic systems, tidal rivers, enclosed basins, open bays, lagoons). The modules may differentially interact with key forcing functions (e.g. temperature, salinity, currents) that influence system processes and in turn benthic responses and functions. Modules may also constrain benthic characteristics and related processes within certain ecological boundaries and help explain their overall spatio-temporal variation. We present an example of how benthic community characteristics are related to the modular structure of 14 coastal seas and estuaries, and show that benthic functional group composition is significantly related to the modular structure of these systems. We also propose a framework for exploring the role of benthic communities in coastal systems using this modular approach and offer predictions of how benthic communities may vary depending on the modular composition and characteristics of a coastal system. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Parenting Talent: A Qualitative Investigation of the Roles Parents Play in Talent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Amanda L.; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Kasson, Sarah C.; Perry, Kyle R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has linked talent development to four factors--early experience, coaching, practice, and motivation. In addition to these factors, contemporary talent experts suggest that parents play a critical role in talent development. The purpose of the present study was to uncover parents' in-time perspectives on the talent development…

  15. The Role the Collegiate American Marketing Association Plays in Professional and Entrepreneurial Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, James W.; Scovotti, Carol; Pointer, Lucille

    2008-01-01

    Professional student organizations offer members a wide range of learning opportunities for applied marketing experiences. Little research exists in the marketing education literature on the role student organizations play in preparing their members for life beyond school. Understanding what students seek as members of such organizations and how…

  16. Researching Travel Behavior and Adaptability: Using a Virtual Reality Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watcharasukarn, Montira; Krumdieck, Susan; Green, Richard; Dantas, Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a virtual reality role-playing game that was developed as a survey tool to collect travel behavior data and explore and monitor travel behavior adaptation. The Advanced Energy and Material Systems Laboratory has designed, developed a prototype, and tested such a game platform survey tool, called Travel Activity Constraint…

  17. PRI Play Important Role in West-East Project · Interview with PIR Director Xue Zhenkui

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Lu

    2002-01-01

    @@ Pipeline Research Institute of CNPC (PRI) is playing a more and more important role in the oil and natural gas pipeline industrial development in the present-day China. The pipeline technology and equipment developed by PRI have proven costeffective and extremely useful in the country's WestEast gas transmission pipeline project

  18. ROLE PLAYING THE PROBLEM STORY, AN APPROACH TO HUMAN RELATIONS IN THE CLASSROOM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHAFTEL, FANNIE R.; SHAFTEL, GEORGE

    AN AID TO THE CLASSROOM TEACHER IN THE TEACHING OF HUMAN RELATIONS IS PRESENTED. SOCIODRAMA, OR ROLE-PLAYING, IS PRIMARILY USEFUL IN SOLVING PROBLEMS INVOLVING RELATIONSHIPS AMONG TWO OR MORE PERSONS. IT THEREFORE PROVIDES A VALUABLE LEARNING EXPERIENCE IN SCHOOLS WHICH ARE CONCERNED WITH THE SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLS, WITH MORAL AND…

  19. Party Secretaries in Chinese Higher Education Institutions: What Roles Do They Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hua; Li, Xiaobin

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese political party in power is the Communist Party. In higher education institutions the Party secretary is a ubiquitous presence. The purpose of this study was to answer the question, "What roles do Party secretaries play?" The Party committee headed by the Party secretary in an institution is supposed to lead the institution.…

  20. Role-Playing Games for Capacity Building in Water and Land Management: Some Brazilian Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Maria Eugenia; Jacobi, Pedro Roberto; Ducrot, Raphaele

    2007-01-01

    Role-playing games in natural resource management are currently being tested as research, training, and intervention tools all over the world. Various studies point out their potential to deal with complex issues and to contribute to training processes. The objective of this contribution is to analyze the limits and potentialities of this tool for…

  1. Informal Workplace Communication--What Roles Can Microblogging Play in It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dejin

    2012-01-01

    Informal communication, e.g., unplanned "water-cooler" conversations, has been suggested to play important roles in collaborative work and organizational innovation. It provides opportunities among employees for exchanging work-relevant information, initiating potential collaboration, maintaining awareness of workplace context; and…

  2. Role-Play para o Desenvolvimento de Habilidades de Comunicação e Relacionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lísia Rabelo

    Full Text Available RESUMO O desenvolvimento de habilidades de comunicação e relacionais (HbCR é essencial para a formação médica, logo a utilização de estratégias educacionais que favoreçam seu aprendizado é necessária. O presente trabalho tem por objetivos descrever o processo de implementação da técnica de role-play e avaliar sua utilização no ensino das HbCR, de acordo com a percepção docente. A técnica foi utilizada no curso de Semiologia da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal da Bahia (FMB/UFBA. Para atender a esses objetivos, o presente artigo foi estruturado em duas partes: plano de implementação da técnica de role-play e aplicação do role-play segundo a percepção do docente. O role-play revelou ser uma técnica factível, extremamente adequada ao ensino das HbCR, em consonância com as orientações das Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais do Curso de Graduação em Medicina.

  3. Understanding Collectivism and Female Genital Cutting through a Family Role-Playing Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carol

    2014-01-01

    This study is a test of the effectiveness of a classroom role-playing exercise used to increase the understanding of cultural practices with which many Midwestern college students are uncomfortable. I employed a pre-test/post-test comparison group design. Students enrolled in two sections of a general education global issues course (N = 56) were…

  4. Designing After-School Learning Using the Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Digital games have become popular for engaging students in a range of learning goals, both in the classroom and the after-school space. In this article, I discuss a specific genre of video game, the massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMO), which has been identified as a dynamic environment for encountering 21st-century workplace…

  5. The use of role playing in managerial learning: A socio constructivistic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiller, C.; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Patin-Saint-Mieux, B.

    2014-01-01

    This research deals with role playing (RP) aimed at assisting learners to optimize their managerial style. While RP is often used in training sessions, contributions on its evaluations have decreased since the beginning of the 1980s. Although RP as a training method had been criticized for several r

  6. The use of role playing in managerial learning: a socio constructivistic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiller, Caroline; Heijden, van der Beatrice I.J.M.; Patin-Saint-Mleux, Bertille

    2014-01-01

    This research deals with role playing (RP) aimed at assisting learners to optimize their managerial style. While RP is often used in training sessions, contributions on its evaluations have decreased since the beginning of the 1980s. Although RP as a training method had been criticized for several r

  7. En introduktion til CARM: The Conversation Analytic Role-Play Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Simon Bierring

    2014-01-01

    Dette working paper er en introduktion til og kort diskussion af workshopmetoden Conversation Analytic Role-Play Method (CARM), som er en metode udviklet til at afholde workshops på baggrund af resultater fra interaktionsanalyser. Artiklen er den første introduktion til CARM-metoden på dansk, og...

  8. Designing a mobile learning game to investigate the impact of role-playing on helping behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Birgit; Ternier, Stefaan; Klemke, Roland; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Schmitz, B., Ternier, S., Klemke, R., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2013). Designing a mobile learning game to investigate the impact of role-playing on helping behavior. In D. Hernández-Leo et al. (Eds.), Scaling up Learning for Sustained Impact. Proceedings of European Conference on Technology Enhanced

  9. Use of Role-playing Exercises in Teaching Undergraduate Astronomy and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Paul J.; Byrne, Aidan P.

    1999-08-01

    The use of role-playing exercises in the teaching of university astronomy and physics can enliven lectures, deepen student understanding and dramatically increase the level of classroom interaction. A series of case studies is presented, illustrating the nature of this technique, its advantages and some of its pitfalls. Several ready-to-run exercises are included.

  10. Supporting Children and Families: Communities, Schools, Employers Play Key Roles. Growing Up Well. Focus on Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthauer, Linda; Halfon, Neal

    This report, eighth and last in a series, discusses the important role community groups and leaders, schools, and employers play in providing children and parents support and encouragement. It reports the opinions of California adults, expressed in a survey conducted by the California Center for Health Improvement (CCHI), about a variety of issues…

  11. Role playing with synthetic cultures: the evasive rules of the game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    This article sums up ten years of experience with over 1400 participants of simulation games using synthetic cultures. Synthetic cultures are scripts for role players. They are derived from the five dimensions of culture in Hofstede¿s model. Playing the synthetic cultures leads to dynamics that mimi

  12. The Ethanol Project: Exploring Alternative Energy with Role-Play and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a project that includes a two-week series of researching, essay writing, and speaking lessons exploring the broader implications of using ethanol as a fuel. The author, a chemistry teacher, describes how she uses a senate hearing discussion of ethanol fuel subsidies as the forum for a role-play. The four components of the…

  13. Role Played Self-Disclosure as a Function of Liking and Knowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critelli, Joseph W.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Examines the effects of liking and knowing on self-disclosure using both self-report and observational measures, obtains separate measures of personal and impersonal self-disclosure, and assesses the utility of the role-playing paradigm for revealing orderly relationships among self-disclosure variables. (Author/RK)

  14. Enhancing Information Systems Auditing Knowledge with Role-Playing Game: An Experimental Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongpinunwatana, Nitaya

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the use and effect of a role-playing game on learners' ability in information systems audit. The study is based on experimental research. Information systems control and audit case study and video had been developed. A total of 75 graduate students undertaking a Master's degree in accounting participated in the experiment. The…

  15. The Idiap Wolf corpus: exploring group behaviour in a competitive role-playing game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hung, H.; Chittaranjan, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the Idiap Wolf Database. This is a audio-visual corpus containing natural conversational data of volunteers who took part in a competitive role-playing game. Four groups of 8-12 people were recorded. In total, just over 7 hours of interactive conversational data was collecte

  16. "Try Walking in Our Shoes": Teaching Acculturation and Related Cultural Adjustment Processes through Role-Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Tomaso, Cara C.; Audley, Shannon; Pole, Nnamdi

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we describe several role-playing exercises on acculturation and relevant cultural adjustment processes that we incorporated into Tomcho and Foel's classroom activity on acculturation, and we report data that examine subsequent changes in students' responses on pretest and posttest measures shortly after the activity and present…

  17. Role-Play Game-Enhanced English for a Specific-Purpose Vocabulary-Acquisition Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fang-Chen; Chang, Ben

    2016-01-01

    With the advantages of an engaged and authentic role-play game (RPG), this study aims to develop an RPG-enhanced English for specific purposes (ESP) vocabulary-acquisition framework, providing teachers and students a systematic way to incorporate RPG into ESP learning. The framework is composed of five parts: goal, three-level vocabulary sets, RPG…

  18. The use of role playing in managerial learning: a socio constructivistic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiller, Caroline; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Patin-Saint-Mleux, Bertille

    2014-01-01

    This research deals with role playing (RP) aimed at assisting learners to optimize their managerial style. While RP is often used in training sessions, contributions on its evaluations have decreased since the beginning of the 1980s. Although RP as a training method had been criticized for several

  19. Students as "Humans Chromosomes" in Role-Playing Mitosis and Meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnici, Joseph P.; Yue, Joyce W.; Torres, Kieron M.

    2004-01-01

    Students often find it challenging to understand mitosis and meiosis and determine their processes. To develop an easier way to understand these terms, students are asked to role-play mitosis and meiosis and students themselves act as human chromosomes, which help students to learn differences between mitosis and meiosis.

  20. Understanding Bullying: Using Role-Play with 12-Year-Old Boys in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloyirou, Chrystalla; Lindsay, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the use of role-play in order to investigate bullies' intentions, feelings and perceptions through identification and projection. The study was conducted with nine 12-year-old boys that presented high levels of bullying behaviour, according to their teachers and peers, from three state primary schools in Nicosia, Cyprus, with…

  1. Using analogy role-play activity in an undergraduate biology classroom to show central dogma revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Masaharu; Kurabayashi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    For the study of biology in an undergraduate classroom, a classroom exercise was developed: an analogy role-play to learn mechanisms of gene transcription and protein translation (central dogma). To develop the central dogma role-play exercise, we made DNA and mRNA using paper sheets, tRNA using a wire dress hanger, and amino acids using Lego® blocks (Lego System A/S, Denmark). Students were studying in the course of mathematics, physics, or chemistry, so biology was not among their usual studies. In this exercise, students perform the central dogma role-play and respectively act out nuclear matrix proteins, a transcription factor, an RNA polymerase II, an mRNA transport protein, nuclear pore proteins, a large ribosomal subunit, a small ribosomal subunit, and several amino-acyl tRNA synthetases. Questionnaire results obtained after the activity show that this central dogma role-play analogy holds student interest in the practical molecular biological processes of transcription and translation.

  2. Developing Children's Views of the Nature of Science through Role Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakici, Yilmaz; Bayir, Eylem

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of using role play (portraying a scientist's life story) on the children's views of the nature of science (NOS). The study was carried out at the Children's University of Trakya in Turkey during the summer of 2010. The participants consisted of 18 children, aged 10-11. They met for 10 days for…

  3. Building Fictional Ethos: Analysing the Rhetorical Strategies of Persona Design for Online Role Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr-Stevens, Candance

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a qualitative case study that uses discourse and social semiotic analysis methods in order to examine the rhetorical construction of fictional personas within an online role play used for learning in the college classroom. Of special focus are the differing patterns of semiotic resource use (for example, language and…

  4. The Petunia ortholog of Arabidopsis SUPERMAN plays a distinct role in floral morphogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakagawa, H.; Ferrario, S.I.T.; Angenent, G.C.; Kobayashi, A.; Takatsuji, H.

    2004-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SUPERMAN (SUP) plays a role in establishing a boundary between whorls 3 and 4 of flowers and in ovule development. We characterized a Petunia hybrida (petunia) homolog of SUP, designated PhSUP1, to compare with SUP. Genomic DNA of the PhSUP1 partially restored the

  5. The petunia ortholog of Arabidopsis SUPERMAN plays a distinct role in floral organ morphogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakagawa, H.; Ferrario, S.I.T.; Angenent, G.C.; Kobayashi, A.; Takatsuji, H.

    2004-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SUPERMAN (SUP) plays a role in establishing a boundary between whorls 3 and 4 of flowers and in ovule development. We characterized a Petunia hybrida (petunia) homolog of SUP, designated PhSUP1, to compare with SUP. Genomic DNA of the PhSUP1 partially restored the

  6. Exploring Game Experiences and Game Leadership in Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, YeiBeech; Ryu, SeoungHo

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the in-game experiences of massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) players focusing on game leadership and offline leadership. MMORPGs have enormous potential to provide gameplayers with rich social experiences through various interactions along with social activities such as joining a game community, team play…

  7. Does song repertoire size in Common Blackbirds play a role in an intra-sexual context?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesler, Nana; Mundry, Roger; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Bird song is thought to have a function in both inter- and intra-sexual contexts with song complexity serving as an honest signal of male quality. Theory predicts that males use repertoire sizes to estimate rivals’ fighting ability. Here we tested whether element repertoire size plays a role in a...

  8. Using Role-Play to Enhance Foodborne Illness Crisis Management Capacity in the Produce Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreske, Audrey; Ducharme, Diane; Gunter, Chris; Phister, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Foodborne illness outbreaks have measurable public health effects and often lead to negative produce industry impacts. Reducing loss following a crisis event requires a management plan, although many fresh produce industry members don't have one. Evidence-based workshops using a role-play simulated outbreak were delivered to impact crisis…

  9. What Are the Roles that Children's Drawings Play in Inquiry of Science Concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to identify the roles that drawing played in the process of children's acquisition of science concepts. Seventy pre-service teachers through four semesters from a Midwest University in the USA developed lesson plans on science concepts and then taught them to 70 young children ages 4-7, respectively. This experience was…

  10. The SAMBA role play game in northern Vietnam: An innovative approach to participatory natural resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boissau, S.; Anh, H.L.; Castella, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    The present article describes an experiment using the SAMBA role play game as a research tool in Bac Kan province of Vietnam, in the framework of the Mountain Agrarian Systems Program, a joint research project of the Vietnam Agricultural Science Institute, the International Rice Research Institute,

  11. Teacher's Skill Improvement by Role-Play and Simulations on Collaborative Educational Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carlos-Miguel

    2014-01-01

    This study looked at teachers' role-play and simulations in order to increase teachers' skills in psycho-pedagogical support on educational virtual worlds. We put forward a proposal to encourage the use of 3D scenarios where teachers can improve their skills for situations of cultural and ethical concerns that require a high level…

  12. Developing Adolescents' Resistance to Sexual Coercion through Role-Playing Activities in a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Marion; Arnedillo-Sánchez, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the use of a three dimensional virtual world (3-DVW) to delivery assertiveness training to young adolescents. The case study aims to understand how a sense of presence in VWs facilitates and affect the performance of students role-playing activities to enhance their ability to resist sexual coercion. The results indicate that a…

  13. Role-Playing Simulation as a Communication Tool in Community Dialogue: Karkonosze Mountains Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krolikowska, Karolina; Kronenberg, Jakub; Maliszewska, Karolina; Sendzimir, Jan; Magnuszewski, Piotr; Dunajski, Andrzej; Slodka, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a process of role-playing simulation (RPS) as it was used during an educational exercise in community dialogue in the Karkonosze Mountains region of southwest Poland. Over the past decade Karkonosze National Park, a regional tourist magnet, has provided an excellent example of environmental conflict emerging from the…

  14. Students as "Humans Chromosomes" in Role-Playing Mitosis and Meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnici, Joseph P.; Yue, Joyce W.; Torres, Kieron M.

    2004-01-01

    Students often find it challenging to understand mitosis and meiosis and determine their processes. To develop an easier way to understand these terms, students are asked to role-play mitosis and meiosis and students themselves act as human chromosomes, which help students to learn differences between mitosis and meiosis.

  15. Enhance Learning on Software Project Management through a Role-Play Game in a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maratou, Vicky; Chatzidaki, Eleni; Xenos, Michalis

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a role-play game for software project management (SPM) in a three-dimensional online multiuser virtual world. The Opensimulator platform is used for the creation of an immersive virtual environment that facilitates students' collaboration and realistic interaction, in order to manage unexpected events occurring during the…

  16. Student Perceptions of a Role-Playing Simulation in an Introductory International Relations Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanello, Sean P.; Kirk, Jason A.; Kromer, Mileah K.

    2013-01-01

    An emerging assumption in undergraduate political science education is that role-playing simulations are an effective teaching tool. While previous studies have addressed the pedagogical advantages of simulations as compared to more traditional teaching techniques, less attention has been paid to student perceptions of these simulations. This…

  17. Teachers' Roles in Infants' Play and Its Changing Nature in a Dynamic Group Care Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jeesun

    2013-01-01

    Using a qualitative research approach, this article explores teachers' roles in infants' play and its changing nature in an infant group care setting. Three infant teachers in a child care center were followed over three months. Observations, interviews, ongoing conversations, emails, and reflective notes were used as data sources. Findings…

  18. The petunia ortholog of Arabidopsis SUPERMAN plays a distinct role in floral organ morphogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakagawa, H.; Ferrario, S.I.T.; Angenent, G.C.; Kobayashi, A.; Takatsuji, H.

    2004-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SUPERMAN (SUP) plays a role in establishing a boundary between whorls 3 and 4 of flowers and in ovule development. We characterized a Petunia hybrida (petunia) homolog of SUP, designated PhSUP1, to compare with SUP. Genomic DNA of the PhSUP1 partially restored the

  19. The Petunia ortholog of Arabidopsis SUPERMAN plays a distinct role in floral morphogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakagawa, H.; Ferrario, S.I.T.; Angenent, G.C.; Kobayashi, A.; Takatsuji, H.

    2004-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SUPERMAN (SUP) plays a role in establishing a boundary between whorls 3 and 4 of flowers and in ovule development. We characterized a Petunia hybrida (petunia) homolog of SUP, designated PhSUP1, to compare with SUP. Genomic DNA of the PhSUP1 partially restored the

  20. Evaluation of a communication skills training course for medical students using peer role-play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuob, Nasra Naeim; Qadi, Mahdi Ali; El Deek, Basem Salama; Boker, Abdulaziz Mohamed

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of using peer role-playing in learning the communication skills as a step in the development of the communication skills training course delivered to pre-clinical medical students. This study was conducted at the King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, between September 2014 and February 2015 and comprised medical students. Mixed methods design was used to evaluate the developed communication skills training course. Tests were conducted before and after the communication skills training course to assess the students' self-reported communication. After the course, the students completed a satisfaction survey. Focus groups were conducted to assess the behavioural and organisational changes induced by the course. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis.. Of the293 respondents, 246(84%) were satisfied with the course. Overall, 169(58%) subjects chose the lectures as the most helpful methods for learning the communication skills while 124(42%) considered practical sessions as the most helpful method. Besides, 237(81%) respondents reported that the role-play was beneficial for their learning, while 219(75%) perceived the video-taped role-play as an appropriate method for assessing the communication skills. Peer role-play was found to be a feasible and well-perceived alternative method in facilitating the acquisition of communication skills..

  1. Colonic fermentation may play a role in lactose intolerance in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, T; Priebe, MG; Harmsen, HJM; Stellaard, F; Sun, XH; Welling, GW; Vonk, RJ

    2006-01-01

    The results of our previous study suggested that in addition to the small intestinal lactase activity and transit time, colonic processing of lactose may play a role in lactose intolerance. We investigated whether colonic fermentation of lactose is correlated with lactose intolerance. After 28 Chine

  2. Young Children's Role-Playing for Enhancing Personal Intelligences in Multiple Intelligences Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Su-Jeong; Shin, Hwa-Sik; Kim, Myung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    This article examines young children's role-play in an effort to develop methods with which teachers can enhance children's interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences. Examining how MI practice is applied in different cultural and social contexts is important because it can provide new insights on enriching and enhancing curricula and…

  3. The Ethanol Project: Exploring Alternative Energy with Role-Play and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a project that includes a two-week series of researching, essay writing, and speaking lessons exploring the broader implications of using ethanol as a fuel. The author, a chemistry teacher, describes how she uses a senate hearing discussion of ethanol fuel subsidies as the forum for a role-play. The four components of the…

  4. Excessive Use of Massively Multi-Player Online Role-Playing Games: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zaheer; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are one of the most interesting innovations in the area of online computer gaming. This pilot study set out to examine the psychological and social effects of online gaming using an online questionnaire with particular reference to excessive and "dependent" online gaming. A self-selecting…

  5. Trading Spaces: An Educator's Ethnographic Exploration of Adolescents' Digital Role-Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes-Moore, Stacy

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the author examines a digital role-play in which participants composed an alternate version of "The Hunger Games" (Collins, 2008). Participants imagined characters and posted more than 400 scenes in the online collaboration. The author draws upon ethnographic methods (Merriam, 2009) to describe her participant-observer…

  6. Colleges Could Play Crucial Role in Halting Spread of AIDS Epidemic, Public-Health Officials Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biemiller, Lawrence

    1987-01-01

    Public-health specialists say colleges and universities could play a crucial role in halting the spread of AIDS by educating all their students about the disease and how to avoid becoming infected with the virus that causes it. Reaching minority groups and drug users, and "safe sex" kits are discussed. (MLW)

  7. MiR-378 Plays an Important Role in the Differentiation of Bovine Preadipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Yuan Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adipocyte, the main cellular component of white adipose tissue, plays a vital role in energy balance in higher eukaryotes. In recent years, adipocytes have also been identified as a major endocrine organ involved in immunological responses, vascular diseases, and appetite regulation. In farm animals, fat content and categories are closely correlated with meat quality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a class of endogenous single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules, participate in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis through regulating the transcription or translation of target mRNAs. MiR-378 plays an important role in a number of biological processes, including cell growth, cell differentiation, tumor cell survival and angiogenesis. Methods: In the present study, bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay were used to identify and validate the target genes of miR-378. In vitro cell transfection, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR, western blot analysis, Oil Red O staining, and triglyceride content measurement were conducted to analyze the effects of miR-378 on bovine preadipocyte differentiation. Results: MiR-378 was induced during adipocyte differentiation. In the differentiated adipocytes overexpressing miR-378, the volume of lipid droplets was enlarged, and the triglyceride content was increased. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of the adipocyte differentiation marker genes, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP, were significantly elevated in the differentiated, mature adipocytes. In contrast, the mRNA expression level of preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref-1 was markedly reduced. E2F transcription factor 2 (E2F2 and Ras-related nuclear (RAN-binding protein 10 (RANBP10 were the two target genes of miR-378. The mRNA expression levels of E2F2 and RANBP10 did not significantly change in bovine preadipocytes

  8. LvDJ-1 plays an important role in resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mingzhu; Liu, Yuan; Xie, Chenying; Wang, Wei-Na

    2015-05-01

    DJ-1 was first identified as an oncogene that transformed mouse NIH3T3 cells in cooperation with activated Ras. It has since exhibited a variety of functions in a range of organisms. In this study, the DJ-1 gene in Litopenaeus vannamei (LvDJ-1) was identified and characterized. A recombinant protein LvDJ-1 was produced in Pichia pastoris. LvDJ-1 expression in vivo was knocked down by dsRNA-mediated RNA interference (RNAi), which led to significantly decreased levels of LvDJ-1 mRNA and protein. When the L. vannamei were challenged with RNAi and Vibrio alginolyticus, the transcription and expression of copper zinc superoxide dismutase (LvCZSOD) in the hepatopancreas were dramatically lower in shrimp with knocked down LvDJ-1 than in controls. Transcription and expression of P53 (LvP53) were significantly higher in shrimp lacking LvDJ-1 than in controls. Hepatopancreas samples were analyzed using real time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Moreover, blood samples from the shrimp, assessed with flow cytometry, showed significant increases in respiratory burst and apoptosis in those lacking LvDJ-1 compared to the controls. Cumulative mortality in the shrimp lacking LvDJ-1 was significantly different from that in the control group after challenge with V. alginolyticus. Altogether, the results prove that LvDJ-1 regulates apoptosis and antioxidant activity, and that these functions play an important role in L. vannamei resistance against V. alginolyticus.

  9. Interaction with the game and motivation among players of massively multiplayer online role-playing games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Héctor; Carbonell, Xavier; Chamarro, Andrés; Oberst, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge about users interacting with Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPG) is fundamental in order to prevent their potential negative effects on behavior. For this reason, the present study analyzed the relationship between styles of play and motivations. An online questionnaire asking for socio-demographic details, playing style, characteristics of the game played and motivations for playing, was answered by 430 Spanish-speaking MMORPG players (45.1% males). The identified profile for players, far away from the stereotype of an adolescent, consisted in a person who mainly plays on PvP (Player versus Player) servers, choosing the type of game according to his experience. Regarding motivations, they were interested in relating with other players through the game (Socialization), in discovering the game's possibilities and development of its adventures (Exploration), to a lesser extent in leadership and prestige (Achievement) and, lastly, identification with an avatar and escape from reality (Dissociation). Although part of the reason for playing was escapism and/or stress relief, the main motivation had a social nature. We conclude that MMORPG offer an attractive environment for a broad spectrum of people, and we have not been able to confirm the stereotype of a loner avoiding reality, taking refuge in games.

  10. Developing Children's Views of the Nature of Science Through Role Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakici, Yilmaz; Bayir, Eylem

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of using role play (portraying a scientist's life story) on the children's views of the nature of science (NOS). The study was carried out at the Children's University of Trakya in Turkey during the summer of 2010. The participants consisted of 18 children, aged 10-11. They met for 10 days for approximately 3 h per day. All children completed the pre- and post-tests including 16 open-ended questions in order to reveal changes in their views of the NOS prior to and at the completion of the role-play activities. The results revealed that the children had more informed views of the target NOS aspects in comparison with their views prior to the role-play activities. A large majority of the children (around 80-85%) started out with naive conceptions of the target NOS aspects. Following the role-play activities portraying scientists' lives, there was a 40-45% positive change in children's views of the tentative, empirical and creative/imaginative aspect of the NOS, and a 50-60% positive change in their views regarding the subjective/theory-laden and social-cultural embeddedness of science. The most substantial change occurred in their views concerning scientific method, with a shift of 72%. The percentage of informed views on images of scientists showed diversity. Overall results indicate that role-play/drama-oriented activities portraying scientist's life stories could be used as one of the exciting, informative and constructive ways of developing understanding of the NOS among children.

  11. May “Mitochondrial Eve” and Mitochondrial Haplogroups Play a Role in Neurodegeneration and Alzheimer's Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Caldarazzo Ienco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria, the powerhouse of the cell, play a critical role in several metabolic processes and apoptotic pathways. Multiple evidences suggest that mitochondria may be crucial in ageing-related neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, mitochondrial haplogroups have been linked to multiple area of medicine, from normal ageing to diseases, including neurodegeneration. Polymorphisms within the mitochondrial genome might lead to impaired energy generation and to increased amount of reactive oxygen species, having either susceptibility or protective role in several diseases. Here, we highlight the role of the mitochondrial haplogroups in the pathogenetic cascade leading to diseases, with special attention to Alzheimer's disease.

  12. [Application of role-play simulation in pre-clinical practice of the fourth grade students in department of endodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin-lin; Qiu, Li-hong; Qu, Liu; Xue, Ming; Yan, Lu

    2014-10-01

    To apply role- play simulation in pre-clinical practice of the fourth grade students in department of endodontics. Thirty-two students were randomly divided into 2 groups, there were 16 students in each group. Students in one group were taught with role-play simulation while the other group with lecture-based learning method. The teaching effect was measured with examination and questionnaire survey. The data was analyzed by using SPSS 17.0 software package. There were no significant differences in basic knowledge, case analysis and oral examination between 2 groups (P>0.05), but there was significant difference in history taking and medical records writing, practical examination and total scores between 2 groups (Pendodontics.

  13. Danish general practitioners only play a minor role in the coordination of cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsted, R.J.; Guassora, A.D.; Thorsen, T.

    2011-01-01

    of coordination. The aim of the article is to discuss whether general practitioners (GPs) may play a coordinating role for individual patients in Danish cancer treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study is based on individual interviews and focus groups analyzed by meaning condensation. RESULTS: The GP....... In the majority of cases, GPs had no access to information or were not informed about hospital decisions affecting the patients' trajectories, and they were therefore unable to perform a coordinating role. CONCLUSION: GPs only played a minor or no role at all as coordinators of individual cancer patient...... trajectories. The findings of the present study question the idea that coordination throughout the entire health-care system may be assigned to a single individual as the involved parties belong to different organizations with different goals, managements and economic resources...

  14. Role and significance of total phenols during rooting of Protea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reviewer

    2011-10-03

    Oct 3, 2011 ... 2Department of Plant Production and Soil Science, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria,. Pretoria, 0002, South ... currently, no study has been done on the role of total .... (1985), Sun and Bassuk.

  15. Homo ludicus. The ubiquity of play and its roles in present society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peppino Ortoleva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades new technologies, the rearrangement of living and labour time and other less visible cultural factors have brought some significant historical modifications to the traditionally separated area of the ludic. New types of games have emerged and the threshold between play and reality has been redefined to include aspects of social life that seemed to be unrelated to playing activities.

  16. Social Roles, Role-Playing, and Education: On the High School as Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Craig; Zimbardo, Philip G.

    1973-01-01

    A description and discussion of an experiment which placed normal college males into a prison-like environment related the term "prison" to any environment restricting human freedom, and explored the control of behavior by situations and roles with reference to educational settings, specifically the high school. (Author/KM)

  17. Role Modeling and Role Playing: A Manual for Vocational Development and Employment Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertcher, Harvey; And Others

    This project investigated two major areas: (1) ways in which social science research and employment agency experience could be melded so as to make practical knowledge available to these agencies, and (2) ways of convincing employment agencies to use this knowledge. The manual resulting from the investigation focuses on role modeling and role…

  18. Hill-Sachs lesion location: does it play a role in engagement?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyftopoulos, Soterios; Wang, Annie; Babb, James [NYU Langone Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-08-15

    To see if there is an association between engagement on physical examination (PE) and the location of the Hill-Sachs lesion (HSL) as assessed by the modified biceps angle. Sixty-two patients with a history of anterior shoulder dislocation, who underwent preoperative MRI and arthroscopy at our institution and were tested for engagement on PE, were collected. Two musculoskeletal radiologists reviewed the MR studies, noting the presence of an HSL and documenting the location of the HSL with the modified biceps angle. Statistical analysis included the Mann-Whitney (MW) test and ROC (receiver-operating characteristic) curve. Of 62 patients, there were 58 males and 4 females with a mean age of 30 (range 18-59 years). Twenty patients demonstrated engagement on PE, while 42 did not. All patients had evidence of an HSL on MRI and arthroscopy. The mean biceps angle for the engaging group was 151.5 ± 13.9 , and 142.4 ± 17.3 for the non-engaging group. The biceps angle was statistically significantly higher among patients who had engagement compared to those who did not (p = 0.027). Overall, diagnostic accuracy was highest for a biceps angle >149 , which resulted in a sensitivity of 70 % and specificity of 67 %. The modified biceps angle, as measured on MRI, was significantly higher in patients who demonstrated engagement on physical examination than in those who did not. This supports the theory that the location of the Hill-Sachs lesion may play a role in engagement and may be its most important characteristic when determining its significance. (orig.)

  19. Computer-supported games and role plays in teaching water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Hoekstra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand for an interdisciplinary approach in teaching water management. Computer-supported games and role plays offer the potential of creating an environment in which different disciplines come together and in which students are challenged to develop integrated understanding. Two examples are discussed. The River Basin Game is a common-pool resource game in which participants experience the risk of over-abstractions of water in a river basin and learn how this risk relates to the complexity of the system, the conflict between individual and group optimums and the difficulty in achieving good cooperation. The Globalization of Water Role Play makes participants familiar with the global dimension of water management by letting them experience how national governments can integrate considerations of water scarcity and domestic water productivities into decisions on international trade in commodities like food, cotton and bio-energy. The two examples illustrate that play sessions inspire participants to think about the functioning of systems as a whole and to develop good cooperative courses of action, whereby both uncertainties about the system and the presence of different values and perspectives among participants play a role.

  20. Computer-supported games and role plays in teaching water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Hoekstra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand for an interdisciplinary approach in teaching water management. Computer-supported games and role plays offer the potential of creating an environment in which different disciplines come together and in which students are challenged to develop integrated understanding. Two examples are discussed. The River Basin Game is a common-pool resource game in which participants experience the risk of over-abstractions of water in a river basin and learn how this risk relates to the complexity of the system, the conflict between individual and group optimum and the difficulty to come to good cooperation. The Globalization of Water Role Play makes participants familiar with the global dimension of water management by letting them experience how national governments can integrate considerations of water scarcity and domestic water productivities into decisions on international trade in commodities like food, cotton and bio-energy. The two examples illustrate that plays inspire participants to think about the functioning of systems as a whole and to develop good cooperative courses of action, whereby both uncertainties about the system and the presence of different values and perspectives among participants play a role.

  1. von Hippel-Lindau gene plays a role during zebrafish pronephros development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yau-Hung; Chang, Chiung-Fang; Lai, Yen-Yu; Sun, Chiao-Yin; Ding, Yu-Ju; Tsai, Jen-Ning

    2015-11-01

    von Hippel-Lindau (pVHL)-mediated ubiquitination of HIF-1α plays a central role in the cellular responses to changes in oxygen availability. In the present study, using zebrafish as a model, we showed that specific knockdown of endogenous vhl leads to pronephros malformation and renal failure. Knockdown of vhl resulted in abnormal kidney development, including curved and cystic pronephric tubule or/and cystic and atrophic glomerulus. Co-injecting capped vhl messenger RNA (mRNA) partially rescued pronephros morphant phenotype, confirming the specificity of the morpholino oligonucleotide (MO)-induced pronephric defects. In keeping with the pronephros phenotype, renal function was affected as well in vhl morphants. Dextran clearance abilities of vhl morphants were significantly reduced as compared with those of control embryos. Further analysis indicated that glomerular integrity is impaired in vhl morphants, while the organization of pronephric duct was minimally affected. Vhl morphants display global increased vegf signaling and angiogenesis. In addition, we found that vhl morphants displayed elevated expression of vegfa in podocytes and increased angiogenesis at pronephric glomerulus and the nearby vessels. Treatment of vegf inducer to embryos also caused pronephros phenotype resembling vhl morphants, further supporting that increased vegfa signaling contribute to the pronephros morphant phenotype. Our study establishes the zebrafish as an alternative vertebrate model system for studying Vhl function during kidney development.

  2. Self-concept deficits in massively multiplayer online role-playing games addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leménager, Tagrid; Gwodz, Alexander; Richter, Anne; Reinhard, Iris; Kämmerer, Nina; Sell, Madlen; Mann, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies on Internet addiction point towards a particular constellation of personality traits and deficits in social competence of players addicted to massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs), which are hypothesized to result from impairments in self-concept. The aim of this study was to examine differences in self-concept and degree of avatar identification in World of Warcraft addicted, non-addicted and naive (nonexperienced) participants. Participants (n = 45) completed interviews and self-report questionnaires on social, emotional and physical aspects of self-concept. Attributes of participants' 'actual self', 'ideal self' and their avatar were assessed using the Giessen test. The extent of avatar identification was examined by assessing differences between 'ideal self' and avatar evaluations. In contrast to nonaddicted and naive participants, addicted players showed a more negative body appraisal and lower self-esteem as well as lower permeability, social response, general mood and social potency on the Giessen test subscales. They further showed significantly lower discrepancies between 'ideal self' and avatar ratings on nearly all Giessen test subscales. The results point towards impairments in self-concept and a higher degree in avatar identification in addicted MMORPG players compared to the remaining participants. These results could have important implications for the treatment of addicted MMORPG players. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Characteristics of Social Network Gamers: in between Social Networking and Online Role-Playing Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga eGeisel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Current research on internet addiction (IA reported moderate to high prevalence rates of IA and comorbid psychiatric symptoms in users of social networking sites (SNS and online role-playing games. The aim of this study was to characterise adult users of an internet multiplayer strategy game within a SNS. Therefore, we conducted an exploratory study using an online survey to assess sociodemographic variables, psychopathology and the rate of IA in a sample of adult social network gamers by Young´s Internet Addiction Test (IAT, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS, the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II, the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R and the WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF. All participants were listed gamers of combat zone in the SNS Facebook. In the IAT analysis, 16.2 % of the participants (n = 60 were categorized as subjects with IA and 19.5 % (n = 72 fulfilled the criteria for alexithymia. Comparing study participants with and without IA, the IA group had significantly more subjects with alexithymia, reported more depressive symptoms, and showed poorer quality of life. These findings suggest that social network gaming might also be associated with maladaptive patterns of internet use. Furthermore, a relationship between IA, alexithymia and depressive symptoms was found that needs to be elucidated by future studies.

  4. Autophagy Activated by Bluetongue Virus Infection Plays a Positive Role in Its Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Lv

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bluetongue virus (BTV is an important pathogen of wild and domestic ruminants. Despite extensive study in recent decades, the interplay between BTV and host cells is not clearly understood. Autophagy as a cellular adaptive response plays a part in many viral infections. In our study, we found that BTV1 infection triggers the complete autophagic process in host cells, as demonstrated by the appearance of obvious double-membrane autophagosome-like vesicles, GFP-LC3 dots accumulation, the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and increased levels of autophagic flux in BSR cells (baby hamster kidney cell clones and primary lamb lingual epithelial cells upon BTV1 infection. Moreover, the results of a UV-inactivated BTV1 infection assay suggested that the induction of autophagy was dependent on BTV1 replication. Therefore, we investigated the role of autophagy in BTV1 replication. The inhibition of autophagy by pharmacological inhibitors (3-MA, CQ and RNA interference (siBeclin1 significantly decreased viral protein synthesis and virus yields. In contrast, treating BSR cells with rapamycin, an inducer of autophagy, promoted viral protein expression and the production of infectious BTV1. These findings lead us to conclude that autophagy is activated by BTV1 and contributes to its replication, and provide novel insights into BTV-host interactions.

  5. Autophagy Activated by Bluetongue Virus Infection Plays a Positive Role in Its Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shuang; Xu, Qingyuan; Sun, Encheng; Yang, Tao; Li, Junping; Feng, Yufei; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Haixiu; Zhang, Jikai; Wu, Donglai

    2015-08-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an important pathogen of wild and domestic ruminants. Despite extensive study in recent decades, the interplay between BTV and host cells is not clearly understood. Autophagy as a cellular adaptive response plays a part in many viral infections. In our study, we found that BTV1 infection triggers the complete autophagic process in host cells, as demonstrated by the appearance of obvious double-membrane autophagosome-like vesicles, GFP-LC3 dots accumulation, the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and increased levels of autophagic flux in BSR cells (baby hamster kidney cell clones) and primary lamb lingual epithelial cells upon BTV1 infection. Moreover, the results of a UV-inactivated BTV1 infection assay suggested that the induction of autophagy was dependent on BTV1 replication. Therefore, we investigated the role of autophagy in BTV1 replication. The inhibition of autophagy by pharmacological inhibitors (3-MA, CQ) and RNA interference (siBeclin1) significantly decreased viral protein synthesis and virus yields. In contrast, treating BSR cells with rapamycin, an inducer of autophagy, promoted viral protein expression and the production of infectious BTV1. These findings lead us to conclude that autophagy is activated by BTV1 and contributes to its replication, and provide novel insights into BTV-host interactions.

  6. Protein Oxidation in Aging: Does It Play a Role in Aging Progression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeg, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: A constant accumulation of oxidized proteins takes place during aging. Oxidation of proteins leads to a partial unfolding and, therefore, to aggregation. Protein aggregates impair the activity of cellular proteolytic systems (proteasomes, lysosomes), resulting in further accumulation of oxidized proteins. In addition, the accumulation of highly crosslinked protein aggregates leads to further oxidant formation, damage to macromolecules, and, finally, to apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, protein oxidation seems to play a role in the development of various age-related diseases, for example, neurodegenerative diseases. Recent Advances: The highly oxidized lipofuscin accumulates during aging. Lipofuscin formation might cause impaired lysosomal and proteasomal degradation, metal ion accumulation, increased reactive oxygen species formation, and apoptosis. Critical Issues: It is still unclear to which extent protein oxidation is involved in the progression of aging and in the development of some age-related diseases. Future Directions: An extensive knowledge of the effects of protein oxidation on the aging process and its contribution to the development of age-related diseases could enable further strategies to reduce age-related impairments. Strategies aimed at lowering aggregate formation might be a straightforward intervention to reduce age-related malfunctions of organs. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 239–255. PMID:25178482

  7. Do the causes of infertility play a direct role in the aetiology of preterm birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerlian, Carmen; Platt, Robert W; Ata, Baris; Tan, Seang-Lin; Basso, Olga

    2015-03-01

    It is well established that singletons born of assisted reproductive technology are at higher risk of preterm birth and other adverse outcomes. What remains unclear is whether the increased risk is attributable to the effects of the treatment alone or whether the underlying causes of infertility also play a role. The aim of this study was to examine whether any of the six categories of causes of infertility were associated with a direct effect on preterm birth using causal mediation analysis. We assembled a hospital-based cohort of births delivered at a large tertiary care hospital in Montreal, Canada between 2001 and 2007. Causes of infertility were ascertained through a clinical database and medical chart abstraction. We employed marginal structural models (MSM) to estimate the controlled direct effect of each cause of infertility on preterm birth compared with couples without the cause under examination. The final study cohort comprised 18,598 singleton and twin pregnancies, including 1689 in couples with ascertained infertility. MSM results suggested no significant direct effect for any of the six categories of causes. However, power was limited in smaller subgroup analyses, and a possible direct effect for uterine abnormalities (e.g. fibroids and malformations) could not be ruled out. In this cohort, most of the increased risk of preterm birth appeared to be explained by maternal characteristics (such as age, body mass index, and education) and by assisted reproduction. If these findings are corroborated, physicians should consider these risks when counselling patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Indirect evidence for elastic energy playing a role in limb recovery during toad hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnyer, Ariela; Gallardo, Mirialys; Cox, Suzanne; Gillis, Gary

    2014-07-01

    Elastic energy is critical for amplifying muscle power during the propulsive phase of anuran jumping. In this study, we use toads (Bufo marinus) to address whether elastic recoil is also involved after take-off to help flex the limbs before landing. The potential for such spring-like behaviour stems from the unusually flexed configuration of a toad's hindlimbs in a relaxed state. Manual extension of the knee beyond approximately 90° leads to the rapid development of passive tension in the limb as underlying elastic tissues become stretched. We hypothesized that during take-off, the knee regularly extends beyond this, allowing passive recoil to help drive limb flexion in mid-air. To test this, we used high-speed video and electromyography to record hindlimb kinematics and electrical activity in a hindlimb extensor (semimembranosus) and flexor (iliofibularis). We predicted that hops in which the knees extended further during take-off would require less knee flexor recruitment during recovery. Knees extended beyond 90° in over 80% of hops, and longer hops involved greater degrees of knee extension during take-off and more intense semimembranosus activity. However, knee flexion velocities during recovery were maintained despite a significant decrease in iliofibularis intensity in longer hops, results consistent with elastic recoil playing a role.

  9. Prolactin May Not Play a Role in Primary Antiphospholipid (Hughes' Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Tavares Neves Junior

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between prolactin (PRL and the immune system has been demonstrated in the last two decades and has opened new windows in the field of immunoendocrinology. However, there are scarce reports about PRL in primary antiphospholipid syndrome (pAPS. The objective of this study was to evaluate PRL levels in patients with pAPS compared to healthy controls and to investigate their possible clinical associations. Fifty-five pAPS patients according to Sapporo criteria were age- and sex-matched with 41 healthy subjects. Individuals with secondary causes of hyperprolactinemia (HPRL were excluded; demographic, biometric, and clinical data, PRL levels, antiphospholipid antibodies, inflammatory markers, and other routine laboratory findings were analyzed. PRL levels were similar between pAPS and healthy controls (8.94±7.02 versus 8.71±6.73 ng/mL, P=.876. Nine percent of the pAPS patients and 12.1% of the control subjects presented HPRL (P=.740. Comparison between the pAPS patients with hyper- and normoprolactinemia revealed no significant differences related to anthropometrics, clinical manifestations, medications, smoking, and antiphospholipid antibodies (P>.05. This study showed that HPRL does not seem to play a role in clinical manifestations of the pAPS, differently from other autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

  10. Calpain and caspase-3 play required roles in immobilization-induced limb muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert, Erin E; Smuder, Ashley J; Min, Kisuk; Kwon, Oh Sung; Powers, Scott K

    2013-05-15

    Prolonged skeletal muscle inactivity results in a rapid decrease in fiber size, primarily due to accelerated proteolysis. Although several proteases are known to contribute to disuse muscle atrophy, the ubiquitin proteasome system is often considered the most important proteolytic system during many conditions that promote muscle wasting. Emerging evidence suggests that calpain and caspase-3 may also play key roles in inactivity-induced atrophy of respiratory muscles, but it remains unknown if these proteases are essential for disuse atrophy in limb skeletal muscles. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that activation of both calpain and caspase-3 is required for locomotor muscle atrophy induced by hindlimb immobilization. Seven days of immobilization (i.e., limb casting) promoted significant atrophy in type I muscle fibers of the rat soleus muscle. Independent pharmacological inhibition of calpain or caspase-3 prevented this casting-induced atrophy. Interestingly, inhibition of calpain activity also prevented caspase-3 activation, and, conversely, inhibition of caspase-3 prevented calpain activation. These findings indicate that a regulatory cross talk exists between these proteases and provide the first evidence that the activation of calpain and caspase-3 is required for inactivity-induced limb muscle atrophy.

  11. Does the surgeon still have a role to play in the diagnosis and management of lymphomas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verghese Anju

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the course of the past 40 years, there have been a significant number of changes in the way in which lymphomatous disease is diagnosed and managed. With the advent of computed tomography, there is little role for staging laparotomy and the surgeon's role may now more diagnostic than therapeutic. Aims To review all cases of lymphoma diagnosed at a single institution in order determine the current role of the surgeon in the diagnosis and management of lymphoma. Patients and methods Computerized pathology records were reviewed for a five-year period 1996 to 2000 to determine all cases of lymph node biopsy (incisional or excisional in which tissue was obtained as part of a planned procedure. Cases of incidental lymphadenopathy were thus excluded. Results A total of 297 biopsies were performed of which 62 (21% yielded lymphomas. There were 22 females and 40 males with a median age of 58 years (range: 19–84 years. The lymphomas were classified as 80% non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 18% Hodgkin's lymphoma and 2% post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Diagnosis was established by general surgeons (n = 48, ENT surgeons (n = 9, radiologists (n = 4 and ophthalmic surgeons (n = 1. The distribution of excised lymph nodes was: cervical (n = 23, inguinal (n = 15, axillary (n = 11, intra-abdominal (n = 6, submandibular (n = 2, supraclavicular (n = 2, periorbital (n = 1, parotid (n = 1 and mediastinal (n = 1. Fine needle aspiration cytology had been performed prior to biopsy in only 32 (52% cases and had suggested: lymphoma (n = 10, reactive changes (n = 13, normal (n = 5, inadequate (n = 4. The majority (78% of cervical lymph nodes were subjected to FNAC prior to biopsy whilst this was performed in only 36% of non-cervical lymphadenopathy. Conclusion The study has shown that lymphoma is a relatively common cause of surgical lymphadenopathy. Given the limitations of FNAC, all suspicious lymph nodes should be biopsied following FNAC even

  12. Alpha-CaMKII plays a critical role in determining the aggressive behavior of human osteosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daft, Paul G.; Yuan, Kaiyu; Warram, Jason M.; Klein, Michael J.; Siegal, Gene P.; Zayzafoon, Majd

    2013-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is among the most frequently occurring primary bone tumors, primarily affecting adolescents and young adults. Despite improvements in osteosarcoma treatment, more specific molecular targets are needed as potential therapeutic options. One target of interest is alpha-Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (α-CaMKII), a ubiquitous mediator of Ca2+-linked signaling, which has been shown to regulate tumor cell proliferation and differentiation. Here, we investigate the role of α-CaMKII in the growth and tumorigenicity of human osteosarcoma. We show that α-CaMKII is highly expressed in primary osteosarcoma tissue derived from 114 patients and is expressed in varying levels in different human osteosarcoma cell lines (HOS, MG-63, MNNG/HOS and 143B). To examine whether α-CaMKII regulates osteosarcoma tumorigenic properties, we genetically inhibited α-CaMKII in two osteosarcoma cell lines using two different α-CaMKII shRNAs delivered by lentiviral vectors and overexpressed α-CaMKII by retrovirus. The genetic deletion of α-CaMKII by shRNA in MG-63 and 143B cells resulted in decreased proliferation (50 and 41%), migration (22 and 25%) and invasion (95 and 90%), respectively. The overexpression of α-CaMKII in HOS cells resulted in increased proliferation (240%), migration (640%) and invasion (10,000%). Furthermore, α-CaMKII deletion in MG-63 cells significantly reduced tumor burden in vivo (65%), while α-CaMKII overexpression resulted in tumor formation in a previously non-tumor forming osteosarcoma cell line (HOS). Our results suggest that α-CaMKII plays a critical role in determining the aggressive phenotype of osteosarcoma, and its inhibition could be an attractive therapeutic target to combat this devastating adolescent disease. PMID:23364534

  13. Pathogenesis of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy: does autoimmunity against calsequestrin and collagen XIII play a role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshang Lahooti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Hooshang Lahooti, Kishan R Parmar, Jack R WallThe Department of Medicine, University of Sydney, Nepean Clinical School, Penrith, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO, or thyroid eye disease, is a complex inflammatory disorder of the eye that, as its name implies, is associated with thyroid disease. TAO can be divided into three subtypes: ocular myopathy, congestive myopathy and mixed congestive and myopathic ophthalmopathy. Although the precise pathophysiology of TAO remains unclear it is likely to reflect an autoimmune reaction involving sensitized T-cells and autoantibodies directed against a thyroid and orbital tissue shared antigen. One well studied candidate in this immune reaction is the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-r, expressed in the orbital fibroblast and pre adipocyte. In our studies of TAO, we have investigated the nature and significance of antibodies targeting other eye muscle and orbital connective tissue (OCT antigens. Our findings suggest that autoimmunity against the eye muscle antigen calsequestrin and the OCT antigen collagen XIII plays a role in the pathogenesis of TAO. We propose that ocular myopathy and chronic eyelid retraction are due to autoimmunity against skeletal muscle calsequestrin in the extraocular and eyelid muscles, respectively. This may be initiated in the thyroid where calsequestrin expression is upregulated, possibly due to a stimulatory effect of TSH-r antibodies. We also propose that congestive ophthalmopathy results from a reaction against the TSH-r or collagen XIII in orbital fibroblast cell membranes. Further insight into the role of eye muscle and OCT antigens in the pathogenesis of TAO may allow for the development of new therapies to treat the eye disorder and reduce patient morbidity.Keywords: thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy, autoimmunity, t calsequestrin, collagen XIII

  14. Exosomes play an important role in the process of psoralen reverse multidrug resistance of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Xu, Chengfeng; Hua, Yitong; Sun, Leitao; Cheng, Kai; Jia, Zhongming; Han, Yong; Dong, Jianli; Cui, Yuzhen; Yang, Zhenlin

    2016-12-01

    Release of exosomes have been shown to play critical roles in drug resistance by delivering cargo. Targeting the transfer of exosomes from resistant cells to sensitive cells may be an approach to overcome some cases of drug resistance. In this study, we investigated the potential role of exosomes in the process of psoralen reverse multidrug resistance of MCF-7/ADR cells. Exosomes were isolated by differential centrifugation of culture media from MCF-7/ADR cells (ADR/exo) and MCF-7 parental cells (S/exo). Exosomes were characterized by morphology, exosomal markers and size distribution. The ability of ADR/exo to transfer multidrug resistance was assessed by MTT and real-time quantitative PCR. The different formation and secretion of exosomes were detected by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Then we performed comparative transcriptomic analysis using RNA-Seq technology and real-time quantitative PCR to better understand the gene expression regulation in exosmes formation and release after psoralen treatment. Our data showed that exosomes derived from MCF-7/ADR cells were able to promote active sequestration of drugs and could induce a drug resistance phenotype by transferring drug-resistance-related gene MDR-1 and P-glycoprotein protein. Psoralen could reduce the formation and secretion of exosomes to overcome drug resistance. There were 21 differentially expressed genes. Gene ontology (GO) pathway analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that the most significantly expressed genes were linked to PPAR and P53 signaling pathways which were related to exosomes formation, secretion and cargo sorting. Psoralen can affect the exosomes and induce the reduction of resistance transmission via exosomes might through PPAR and P53 signaling pathways, which might provide a novel strategy for breast cancer resistance to chemotherapy in the future.

  15. MAML1 enhances the transcriptional activity of Runx2 and plays a role in bone development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Watanabe

    Full Text Available Mastermind-like 1 (MAML1 is a transcriptional co-activator in the Notch signaling pathway. Recently, however, several reports revealed novel and unique roles for MAML1 that are independent of the Notch signaling pathway. We found that MAML1 enhances the transcriptional activity of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2, a transcription factor essential for osteoblastic differentiation and chondrocyte proliferation and maturation. MAML1 significantly enhanced the Runx2-mediated transcription of the p6OSE2-Luc reporter, in which luciferase expression was controlled by six copies of the osteoblast specific element 2 (OSE2 from the Runx2-regulated osteocalcin gene promoter. Interestingly, a deletion mutant of MAML1 lacking the N-terminal Notch-binding domain also enhanced Runx2-mediated transcription. Moreover, inhibition of Notch signaling did not affect the action of MAML1 on Runx2, suggesting that the activation of Runx2 by MAML1 may be caused in a Notch-independent manner. Overexpression of MAML1 transiently enhanced the Runx2-mediated expression of alkaline phosphatase, an early marker of osteoblast differentiation, in the murine pluripotent mesenchymal cell line C3H10T1/2. MAML1(-/- embryos at embryonic day 16.5 (E16.5 had shorter bone lengths than wild-type embryos. The area of primary spongiosa of the femoral diaphysis was narrowed. At E14.5, extended zone of collagen type II alpha 1 (Col2a1 and Sox9 expression, markers of chondrocyte differentiation, and decreased zone of collagen type X alpha 1 (Col10a1 expression, a marker of hypertrophic chondrocyte, were observed. These observations suggest that chondrocyte maturation was impaired in MAML1(-/- mice. MAML1 enhances the transcriptional activity of Runx2 and plays a role in bone development.

  16. Soil water content plays an important role in soil-atmosphere exchange of carbonyl sulfide (OCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhigang; Behrendt, Thomas; Bunk, Rüdiger; Wu, Dianming; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is a quite stable gas in the troposphere and is transported up to the stratosphere, where it contributes to the sulfate aerosol layer (Crutzen 1976). The tropospheric concentration seems to be quite constant, indicating a balance between sinks and sources. Recent work by Sandoval-Soto et al. (2005) demonstrated the enormous strength of the vegetation sink and the urgent needs to understand the sinks and sources. The role of soils is a matter of discussion (Kesselmeier et al., 1999; Van Diest and Kesselmeier, 2008; Maseyk et al., 2014; Whelan et al., 2015). To better understand the influence of soil water content and OCS mixing ratio on OCS fluxes, we used an OCS analyzer (LGR COS/CO Analyzer 907-0028, Los Gatos, CA, USA) coupled with automated soil chamber system (Behrendt et al., 2014) to measure the OCS fluxes with a slow drying of four different types of soil (arable wheat soil in Mainz, blueberry soil in Waldstein, spruce soil in Waldstein and needle forest soil in Finland). Results showed that OCS fluxes as well as the optimum soil water content for OCS uptake varied significantly for different soils. The net production rates changed significantly with the soil drying out from 100% to about 5% water holding capacity (WHC), implying that soil water content play an important role in the uptake processes. The production and uptake processes were distinguished by the regression of OCS fluxes under different OCS mixing ratios. OCS compensation points (CP) were found to differ significantly for different soil types and water content, with the lowest CP at about 20% WHC, implying that when estimating the global budgets of OCS, especially for soils fluxes, soil water content should be taken into serious consideration. References Crutzen, P. J. 1976, Geophys. Res. Lett., 3, 73-76. Sandoval-Soto, L. et al., 2005, Biogeosciences, 2, 125-132. Kesselmeier, J. et al., 1999, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 11577-11584. Van Diest, H. and Kesselmeier, J. 2008

  17. Role played by T-helper 2 in resetting the cytokine balance in allergic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Y Attia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Bronchial asthma is an allergic disorder characterized by excessive hyperactive nature of the airways, which depends on many cytokines such as interleukin-4 (IL-4 and IL-5 that are responsible for the allergic inflammatory response. One of the strategies in the management of bronchial asthma is the induction of synthesis of IL-10; it has an inhibitory effect on the synthesis of the T-helper-2 (Th2 cytokines. Th2 cells play a triggering role in the activation/recruitment of immunoglobulin E antibody-producing B cells, mast cells, and eosinophil cells. To assess regulatory changes in the immune system, in patients with allergy and asthma, we studied the cytokine profile in serum in comparison with normal healthy controls. The study was carried out in Allergy and Immunology Unit, Ain Shams University Hospitals. A total of 170 patients with various allergies and asthmatic conditions were studied, for cytokines in the serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using kits from Immune Technology, and analyzed to identify the triggering factors or main contributors toward allergy and asthma. Our study showed increase in the levels of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6 in all groups, which was nonsignificant. However, the levels of IL-10, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor-α were highly significantly increased. Besides, we found correlation of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor with IL-10. Significant positive correlation with different cytokines was observed. Most of these patients showed increase in immunoglobulin E levels. This study gives a better understanding of how cytokines are the mediators of balance of Th1 and Th2 immune responses and how immunoglobulin E synthesis is controlled by cytokines. Further studies will eventually lead to improved treatment strategies in the clinical management of immunoglobulin E-mediated allergy.

  18. PGK1, a glucose metabolism enzyme, may play an important role in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Yan, Xinfeng; Li, Xia; Zheng, Yabing; Li, Shufeng; Chang, Xiaotian

    2016-10-01

    Some studies have indicated that glucose metabolism plays an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study aimed to find the novel genes affecting glucose metabolism in RA. Synovial tissues of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) were analyzed with Rat Glucose Metabolism RT(2) Profiler™ PCR Array to screen those genes with special expressions in glucose metabolism. Real-time PCR, western blotting, and ELISA were used to confirm the result in synovial tissues and blood of human RA. Culture synovial fibroblast cells (RASF) was treated with siRNA to suppress expressions of the target genes. CCK-8 cell proliferation assay and two-compartment transwell system were performed to examine cell proliferation and cell migration of the treated RASF. Both PCR array and real-time PCR detected the up-regulation of ENO1, HK2, and PGK1 and the down-regulation of PCK1 and PDK4 in synovial tissues of CIA rats. Real-time PCR and western blotting detected the increased expression of ENO1 and PGK1 in RA synovial tissues. ELISA detected a high level of PGK1 in the blood of RA patients. Decreased cell proliferation and cell migration capabilities were significantly detected in RASF following treatment of anti-PGK1 siRNA. IL-1β and IFN-γ rather than TNF-α and IL-1α levels were significantly declined in supernatants of the treated RASF. PGK1, a glycolytic enzyme catalyzing the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate into 2-phosphoglycerate, has increased expression in synovial tissues and blood of RA, which may be involved in pro-inflammation and synovial hyperplasia of the disease.

  19. Do Helper T Cell Subtypes in Lymphocytic Thyroiditis Play a Role in the Antitumor Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seok Woo; Kang, Seong-Ho; Kim, Kyung Rae; Choi, In Hong; Chang, Hang Seok; Oh, Young Lyun; Hong, Soon Won

    2016-01-01

    Background Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is frequently accompanied by lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT). Some reports claim that Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (the clinical form of LT) enhances the likelihood of PTC; however, others suggest that LT has antitumor activity. This study was aimed to find out the relationship between the patterns of helper T cell (Th) cytokines in thyroid tissue of PTC with or without LT and the clinicopathological manifestation of PTC. Methods Fresh surgical samples of PTC with (13 cases) or without (10 cases) LT were used. The prognostic parameters (tumor size, extra-thyroidal extension of PTC, and lymph node metastasis) were analyzed. The mRNA levels of two subtypes of Th cytokines, Th1 (tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α], interferon γ [IFN-γ ], and interleukin [IL] 2) and Th2 (IL-4 and IL-10), were analyzed. Because most PTC cases were microcarcinomas and recent cases without clinical follow-up, negative or faint p27 immunoreactivity was used as a surrogate marker for lymph node metastasis. Results PTC with LT cases showed significantly higher expression of TNF-α (p = .043), IFN-γ (p < .010), IL-4 (p = .015) than those without LT cases. Although the data were not statistically significant, all analyzed cytokines (except for IL-4) were highly expressed in the cases with higher expression of p27 surrogate marker. Conclusions These results indicate that mixed Th1 (TNF-α, IFN-γ , and IL-2) and Th2 (IL-10) immunity might play a role in the antitumor effect in terms of lymph node metastasis. PMID:27681413

  20. SERPINA3K plays antioxidant roles in cultured pterygial epithelial cells through regulating ROS system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengpeng Zhu

    Full Text Available We recently demonstrated that SERPINA3K, a serine proteinase inhibitor, has antioxidant activity in the cornea. Here we investigated the antioxidant effects of SERPINA3K on the pterygial, which is partially caused by oxidative stress in pathogenesis. The head part of primary pterygial tissue was dissected and then cultured in keratinocyte serum-free defined medium (KSFM. The cultured pterygial epithelial cells (PECs were treated with SERPINA3K. The cell proliferation and migration of PECs were measured and analyzed. Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay were performed. It showed that SERPINA3K significantly suppressed the cell proliferation of PECs in a concentration-dependent manner, compared with cultured human conjunctival epithelial cells. SERPINA3K also inhibited the cell migration of PECs. Towards its underlying mechanism, SERPINA3K had antioxidant activities on the PECs by significantly inhibiting NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4, which is an important enzyme of ROS generation, and by elevating the levels of key antioxidant factors of ROS: such as NAD(PH dehydrogenase (quinone 1 (NQO1, NF-E2-related factor-2 (NRF2 and superoxide dismutases (SOD2. Meanwhile, SERPINA3K down-regulated the key effectors of Wnt signaling pathway: β-catenin, nonphospho-β-catenin, and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6. We provided novel evidence that SERPINA3K had inhibitory effects on pterygium and SERPINA3K played antioxidant role via regulating the ROS system and antioxidants.

  1. Use of Role-Playing Game (RPG as a didactic complement in the teaching of Immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus de Oliveira Lunardi Laureano

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available RPG is defined as a Role-Playing Game, in which participants can play against each other, or work together towards a objective. Thereby, an RPG game was developed to work on the content of Immunology with children and adolescents (5th to 8th grade where medieval battles, involving fantastic creatures, are associated with elements that make up the Immune System, such as a shaman representing an T lymphocyte. To teach Immunology through the RPG is primarily needed a master, will guide the participants to teach the content in a playful way, throughout a "war" within a person. The students who will control the characters responsible for attacking and defending the body (infectious agents and white blood cells, respectively having a dice for the scrolling of their actions in the game. As a result, it is expected with this work that Immunology content will be more easily fixed in a fun and enjoyable way.

  2. NCP1/AtMOB1A Plays Key Roles in Auxin-Mediated Arabidopsis Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaona; Guo, Zhiai; Song, Lizhen; Wang, Yanli; Cheng, Youfa

    2016-03-01

    MOB1 protein is a core component of the Hippo signaling pathway in animals where it is involved in controlling tissue growth and tumor suppression. Plant MOB1 proteins display high sequence homology to animal MOB1 proteins, but little is known regarding their role in plant growth and development. Herein we report the critical roles of Arabidopsis MOB1 (AtMOB1A) in auxin-mediated development in Arabidopsis. We found that loss-of-function mutations in AtMOB1A completely eliminated the formation of cotyledons when combined with mutations in PINOID (PID), which encodes a Ser/Thr protein kinase that participates in auxin signaling and transport. We showed that atmob1a was fully rescued by its Drosophila counterpart, suggesting functional conservation. The atmob1a pid double mutants phenocopied several well-characterized mutant combinations that are defective in auxin biosynthesis or transport. Moreover, we demonstrated that atmob1a greatly enhanced several other known auxin mutants, suggesting that AtMOB1A plays a key role in auxin-mediated plant development. The atmob1a single mutant displayed defects in early embryogenesis and had shorter root and smaller flowers than wild type plants. AtMOB1A is uniformly expressed in embryos and suspensor cells during embryogenesis, consistent with its role in embryo development. AtMOB1A protein is localized to nucleus, cytoplasm, and associated to plasma membrane, suggesting that it plays roles in these subcellular localizations. Furthermore, we showed that disruption of AtMOB1A led to a reduced sensitivity to exogenous auxin. Our results demonstrated that AtMOB1A plays an important role in Arabidopsis development by promoting auxin signaling.

  3. Roles traditional healers play in cancer treatment in Malaysia: implications for health promotion and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Sharan; Muhamad, Mazanah

    2013-01-01

    For a number of reasons from cultural compatibility, to accessibility, to cost, traditional healers are a major source of health care in developing countries. In Malaysia, 'en estimated that upwards of 80% of the population consult traditional healers even if simultaneously seeking treatment from the Western medical system. Partially as a result of the widespread practice of visiting traditional healers, cancer diagnosis and treatment in Malaysia is often delayed or interrupted resulting in late presentation, advanced stage diagnosis, and a higher mortality rate than in Western countries. However, there is very little research on the role of traditional healers in cancer treatment in Malaysia. This qualitative study was designed to identify the roles traditional healers play in cancer diagnosis and treatment, with an eye to alleviating the cancer burden through educational responses with four publics in mind-policy makers, Western medical personnel, traditional healers, and the general public. In-depth interviews were conducted with 14 Malay traditional healers, 13 cancer survivors who had seen both traditional healers and Western doctors, and 12 cancer medical specialists. Analysis of the data from these 39 participants revealed four roles traditional healers play in cancer treatment-medicinal healer, emotional comforter, spiritual guide, and palliative caregiver. Three roles (emotional, spiritual, palliative) can be seen as complementary to the allopathic system. Emotional and spiritual roles may augment the effectiveness of biomedical treatment. Cancer awareness and education programs need to position traditional healers as complementary, rather than an alternative to Western medical treatment; Validating the roles Traditional Healers can play in cancer treatment in MY through health promotion and education will contribute to alleviating the nation's cancer burden.

  4. Peer review role-playing as a method of teaching senior undergraduate science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston-Hollitt, Melanie

    2008-11-01

    We present a case study of the use of role-playing as a method of enhancing course delivery in senior undergraduate science courses. Specifically we examine the use of simulating peer review of scientific proposals for time on major international telescopes in a third year astrophysics course at the University of Tasmania. We find that 90% of participating students found the experience to be both enjoyable and a good method for learning and that 100% of students felt that the exercise had aided their understanding of the course material. Furthermore 80% of students felt that the role-playing had enhanced their understanding of scientific decision making while 70% believed that they had learnt to apply principles from the course in new situations.

  5. The apelinergic system: the role played in human physiology and pathology and potential therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeiras-Lopes, Ricardo; Ferreira-Martins, João; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F

    2008-05-01

    Apelin is a recently discovered peptide, identified as an endogenous ligand of receptor APJ. Apelin and receptor APJ are expressed in a wide variety of tissues including heart, brain, kidneys and lungs. Their interaction may have relevant pathophysiologic effects in those tissues. In fact, the last decade has been rich in illustrating the possible roles played by apelin in human physiology, namely as a regulating peptide of cardiovascular, hypothalamus-hypophysis, gastrointestinal, and immune systems. The possible involvement of apelin in the pathogenesis of high prevalence conditions and comorbidities - such as hypertension, heart failure, and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (T2DM) - rank it as a likely therapeutic target to be investigated in the future. The present paper is an overview of apelin physiologic effects and presents the possible role played by this peptide in the pathogenesis of a number of conditions as well as the therapeutic implications that might, therefore, be investigated.

  6. IR-induced autophagy plays a role in survival of HeLa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Mi Young; Jang, Eun Yeong; Ryu, Tae Ho; Chung, Dong Min; Kim, Jin Hong; Kim, Jin Kyu [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Cells respond to stress with repair, or are diverted into irreversible cell cycle exit (senescence) or are eliminated through programmed cell death. There are two major morphologically distinctive forms of programmed cell death, apoptosis and autophagic cell death. Apoptosis contribute to cell death, whereas autophagy can play a dual role in mediating either cell survival or death in response to various stress stimuli. Here we analysed cellular responses induced by IR. The understanding of an appropriate cellular stress response is of crucial importance in foreseeing the cell fate. Apoptotic feagures were not detected in HeLa under our experimental irradiation condition. Autophagic cell death in HeLa may play an important role in cell protection and can result in cell survival.

  7. What Role do Metaphors Play in Game-Based Learning Processes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Thomas Duus

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the role played by metaphors in learning games and game-based learning processes. The aim is to contribute better understanding of the mechanisms of how such games contribute to learning and learning transfer. On the basis of an analytical strategy that emphasises metaphors...... as storylines, actors, acts and movement, three learning games are analysed in order to understand how learning emerges in association to game-embedded metaphors. As shown in this chapter, metaphors seem to play a profound role in game-based learning, both by providing participants with a suitcase containing...... a framework to be unpacked in a subsequent practice, as well as a tool for disciplined imagination and bringing participant experience into the learning situation. By serving both as a vessel for ideas and as a tool for provoking thoughts, metaphors are likely to be key to understanding what participants...

  8. WHAT ROLE DO METAPHORS PLAY IN GAME-BASED LEARNING PROCESSES?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Thomas Duus

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explores the role played by metaphors in learning games and game-based learning processes. The aim is to contribute better understanding of the mechanisms of how such games contribute to learning and learning transfer. On the basis of an analytical strategy that emphasises metaphors...... as storylines, actors, acts and movement, three learning games are analysed in order to understand how learningemerges in association to game-embedded metaphors.As shown in this chapter, metaphorsseem to play a profound role in game-based learning, both by providing participantswith a suitcase containing...... a framework to be unpacked in a subsequent practice, as well as a tool for disciplined imaginationand bringing participant experience into the learning situation. By serving both as a vessel for ideas and as a tool for provoking thoughts, metaphors are likely to be key to understanding what participants bring...

  9. Do mitochondria play a role in remodelling lace plant leaves during programmed cell death?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lane Stephanie

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Programmed cell death (PCD is the regulated death of cells within an organism. The lace plant (Aponogeton madagascariensis produces perforations in its leaves through PCD. The leaves of the plant consist of a latticework of longitudinal and transverse veins enclosing areoles. PCD occurs in the cells at the center of these areoles and progresses outwards, stopping approximately five cells from the vasculature. The role of mitochondria during PCD has been recognized in animals; however, it has been less studied during PCD in plants. Results The following paper elucidates the role of mitochondrial dynamics during developmentally regulated PCD in vivo in A. madagascariensis. A single areole within a window stage leaf (PCD is occurring was divided into three areas based on the progression of PCD; cells that will not undergo PCD (NPCD, cells in early stages of PCD (EPCD, and cells in late stages of PCD (LPCD. Window stage leaves were stained with the mitochondrial dye MitoTracker Red CMXRos and examined. Mitochondrial dynamics were delineated into four categories (M1-M4 based on characteristics including distribution, motility, and membrane potential (ΔΨm. A TUNEL assay showed fragmented nDNA in a gradient over these mitochondrial stages. Chloroplasts and transvacuolar strands were also examined using live cell imaging. The possible importance of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP formation during PCD was indirectly examined via in vivo cyclosporine A (CsA treatment. This treatment resulted in lace plant leaves with a significantly lower number of perforations compared to controls, and that displayed mitochondrial dynamics similar to that of non-PCD cells. Conclusions Results depicted mitochondrial dynamics in vivo as PCD progresses within the lace plant, and highlight the correlation of this organelle with other organelles during developmental PCD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of

  10. Leadership behind the Screen : New Theory about Leadership in Online Role-Playing Games

    OpenAIRE

    Prax, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Purpose/Aim: The aim of this paper is to study how guild leaders in World of Warcraft (WOW) and leaders of real life organizations compare in terms of tasks, every-day experiences, environment, responsibilities and motivation. This comparison is used to build a new theory describing leadership in Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs). Material/Method: The paper uses the grounded theory approach to build a new theory. 12 interviews were conducted, six with WOW guild leaders...

  11. The relief of a caregiver's burden through guided imagery, role-playing, humor, and paradoxical intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Kam-Shing

    2003-01-01

    Caregiving by relatives to a person with mental illness is demanding and overwhelming. This paper describes how to use guided imagery, role-playing, humor, and paradoxical intervention to help the wife of a man with mental illness in easing her worry, anxiety, and frustration engendered by caregiving. The intervention made the wife feel normal and relaxed in facing the "symptoms" of her husband's mental illness. It also revived the wife's patience, hope, and strength in the process of rehabilitation.

  12. Playable Stories: Making Programming and 3D Role-Playing Game Design Personally and Socially Relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram-Goble, Adam

    2013-01-01

    This is an exploratory design study of a novel system for learning programming and 3D role-playing game design as tools for social change. This study was conducted at two sites. Participants in the study were ages 9-14 and worked for up to 15 hours with the platform to learn how to program and design video games with personally or socially…

  13. Demand for Energy and Energy Generation: Does Regional Energy Policy Play a Role?

    OpenAIRE

    Ojeaga, Paul; Odejimi DEBORAH

    2014-01-01

    Does regional energy policy play a role in regional energy generation? What does the implication of the current industrialization trend mean for the generation and the supply process across regions? And to what extent does regional energy policy affect energy security (energy supply risks) in regions? This study investigates the effect of regional energy policy on regional generation characteristics in seven regions of the World using regional panel data from 1980 to 2010 a period of 31 years...

  14. Evaluation of Role Played by Mediators of Immediate Hypersensitivity in Exercise-induced Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Deal, E. Chandler; Wasserman, Stephen I.; Soter, Nicholas A.; Ingram, R. H.; McFadden, E. R.

    1980-01-01

    To determine whether mediators of immediate hypersensitivity played a role in the pathogenesis of exercise-induced asthma, we measured the concentration of histamine and neutrophil-chemotactic activity present in systemic arterial blood during thermal challenges in five asymptomatic asthmatics. Because exercise-induced asthma has been shown to be a result of respiratory heat loss and because respiratory heat loss during isocapnic hyperventilation has been shown to give identical responses, we...

  15. The endangered middle class? A comparative analysis of the role public redistribution plays

    OpenAIRE

    Dallinger, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    This article contributes to the debate on the decline of the middle class by engaging in a cross-national comparison of the role public income redistribution play for the relative income position of the middle, and its change over time. The analysis distinguishes between the development of the market as compared to disposable incomes, since different dynamics shape each. Moreover, the broad category of 'a middle class' is sub-divided into three groups. The analysis is based on a dataset, cove...

  16. [Observation of the effects of warming-up and role-playing in psychodrama in terms of mood rating].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, S

    1993-04-01

    The purpose is to make an appropriate list of terms that describe person's moment-to-moment changes in moods during psychodrama sessions. Seventy nurse students participated in a series of psychodrama sessions, consisting of a session of warming-up and two sessions of role playing. They rated their moods at the beginning of the sessions and after each session, on a five-point scale for each of the 55 terms, which were supposed to cover all kinds of moods during psychodrama sessions. After analyzing variations (using factor analyses) of subjects' ratings, three factors were found to be sufficient for describing their moods, and the terms in the list were eventually reduced to sixteen. Changes of moods analyzed through the ratings of sixteen scales were related significantly with subjects' performances of warming-up and role playing.

  17. ROLE PLAYING GAMES IN THE CLASSROOM LOS JUEGOS DE ROL EN EL AULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Grande de Prado

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Research done on the field of role playing games and their influence on young people's minds produces possitive results, that is to say, they (such games are not dangerous. At the same time, the few articles about role playing games and education show some possitive references about their educational effects. However, role playing games, considered as games, seem not to be relevant as some kind of strategy at Secondary Education nowadays. This article sums up the existing contributions and gives some proposals about their possible implementation.Las investigaciones realizadas en el ámbito de los juegos de rol y su influencia sobre las mentes de los jóvenes arrojan resultados positivos, es decir, no son peligrosos. Al mismo tiempo, los escasos artículos sobre juegos de rol y educación muestran referencias positivas sobre sus efectos educativos. Sin embargo los juegos de rol como tales no parecen ser relevantes actualmente como estrategia en Educación Secundaria. El presente artículo hace un repaso de las aportaciones existentes y realiza algunas propuestas sobre su posible aplicación.

  18. Role-play simulations for climate change adaptation education and engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumore, Danya; Schenk, Todd; Susskind, Lawrence

    2016-08-01

    In order to effectively adapt to climate change, public officials and other stakeholders need to rapidly enhance their understanding of local risks and their ability to collaboratively and adaptively respond to them. We argue that science-based role-play simulation exercises -- a type of 'serious game' involving face-to-face mock decision-making -- have considerable potential as education and engagement tools for enhancing readiness to adapt. Prior research suggests role-play simulations and other serious games can foster public learning and encourage collective action in public policy-making contexts. However, the effectiveness of such exercises in the context of climate change adaptation education and engagement has heretofore been underexplored. We share results from two research projects that demonstrate the effectiveness of role-play simulations in cultivating climate change adaptation literacy, enhancing collaborative capacity and facilitating social learning. Based on our findings, we suggest such exercises should be more widely embraced as part of adaptation professionals' education and engagement toolkits.

  19. Use of interactive theater and role play to develop medical students' skills in breaking bad news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skye, Eric P; Wagenschutz, Heather; Steiger, Jeffrey A; Kumagai, Arno K

    2014-12-01

    Creative arts have been increasingly implemented in medical education. This study investigated the use of interactive theater and role play with professional actors in teaching breaking bad news to medical students. The objectives were to explore the contexts, approaches, experiences, and reactions in giving and receiving bad news. Second-year medical students participated in a required educational session that utilized interactive theater which helps students learn about the issues of breaking bad news to a patient with cancer. Following the interactive theater piece, professional actors provided students role play experiences in small groups with breaking bad news. Anonymous evaluation surveys were given out to all second-year medical students at the conclusion of the breaking bad news session. Surveys contained quantitative and qualitative responses. Three years of evaluations were analyzed. A total of 451 (88 %) students completed the evaluations. Comments were thematically analyzed. Ninety-four percent agreed that the theater piece prompted reflection on patient-provider communications, and 89 % agreed that it stimulated discussion on complex issues with breaking bad news. The two most common themes in student comments concerned the importance of realism in the theater piece, and the value of experiencing multiple perspectives. Use of professional actors during the role play exercises enhances the realism and pushed the students out of their own "comfort zones" in ways that may more closely approximate real life clinical situations. Interactive theater can be a potentially powerful tool to teach breaking bad news during medical school.

  20. Catalytic mechanisms, basic roles, and biotechnological and environmental significance of halogenating enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianping Chen; Karl-Heinz van Pée

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of enzymatic incorporation of halogen atoms into organic molecules has increased during the last few years. Two novel types of halogenating enzymes, flavindependent halogenases and α-ketoglutarate-dependent halogenases, are now known to play a significant role in enzyme-catalyzed halogenation. The recent advances on the halogenating enzymes RebH, SyrB2, and CytC3 have suggested some new mechanisms for enzymatic halogenations. This review concentrates on the occurrence, catalytic mechanisms, and biotechnological applications of the halogenating enzymes that are currently known.

  1. The organization, role, and significance of the rehabilitation team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachalski, Adam

    2005-02-28

    In this article the author shares his 30 years of experience and reflection on teamwork in rehabilitation. In a well-organized rehabilitation team, the result of the team's efforts exceeds the sum of all the individual efforts. In well-organized rehabilitation is the individual segments are played out in the proper order, like the music of an orchestra under the master's baton. The task of directing such a team consists of several phases: deciding who is to do what, communicating that decision for implementation, creating situations that stimulate the members of the team to identify with the established goals, and monitoring performance, which includes expressly delimiting the responsibilities of supervisors and subordinates. The primary obligations of the team leader include earning the team members' acceptance of his/her authority (in which case decisions can be communicated not as orders, but as an expression of the collective will to achieve the goal), facilitating the work of the team members, stimulating them to develop a more creative approach to their work (while simultaneously inculcating them with the habit of precisely following instructions), and contributing to their further professional development. Personal contacts should not be neglected, even those that may seem non-service-related, since this is what transforms a group of strangers into a good team. Information feedback should occur both horizontally and vertically, even diagonally, always by the shortest practical route. The simpler the information loops, the more quickly the information gets where it is needed, and the better the teamwork.

  2. Hexokinase plays a critical role in deoxynivalenol (DON) production and fungal development in Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leigang; Li, Baicun; Zhang, Yu; Jia, Xiaojing; Zhou, Mingguo

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight, is a common pathogen on small grain cereals worldwide and produces various trichothecenes [deoxynivalenol (DON) is predominant] during infection. A previous study has revealed that DON production is positively correlated with the occurrence of carbendazim (MBC) resistance. Here, we identified and characterized two putative genes encoding hexokinase in F. graminearum (FgHXK1 and FgHXK2), which is a rate-limiting enzyme in DON biosynthesis. The expression level of hexokinase genes and the production of pyruvate, which is the precursor of DON, were up-regulated in the MBC-resistant strain, indicating that hexokinase genes might be involved in increased DON production. Phylogenetic and comparative analyses indicated that FgHXK1 was the predominant hexokinase gene. Gene disruption showed that ΔFgHXK1 severely affected DON production, indicating that FgHXK1 played a role in the regulation of DON biosynthesis. Morphological characterization showed that ΔFgHXK1 led to inhibited vegetative growth and conidiation. Sensitivity tests to MBC and various stresses indicated that both ΔFgHXK1 and ΔFgHXK2 mutants showed no significant difference from parental strains. Pathogencity assays showed that ΔFgHXK1 mutants lost virulence on wheat head and corn stigma; however, they showed no change in sexual reproduction. The FgHXK1-overexpressing transformants were obtained subsequently. Their pyruvate and DON production was confirmed to be increased, indicating that FgHXK1 positively regulated DON biosynthesis. Although additional defects appeared in overexpression mutants, MBC sensitivity showed no change. All of the results indicated that the transcriptional level of FgHXK1 regulated DON biosynthesis, but showed no direct relationship with MBC resistance.

  3. A subjective dissatisfaction with body weight in young women: do eating behaviours play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyłowicz, Katarzyna Eufemia; Jesiołowska, Dorota; Obara-Gołębiowska, Małgorzata; Antoniak, Lidia

    2014-01-01

    Food less frequently used to provide the necessary nutrients for the survival and the body begins to play a role, which it is not able to cope with, leading to a dysfunctional its use. In an era of obesity, excessive interest in his appearance and lean silhouette assigning too much significance relates to a growing number of young women. Young women due to a period of their procreative years are particularly vulnerable to the consequences of abnormal eating habits that threaten the health of women and their offspring. In young women of reproductive age, to determine the emotional and habitual reasons behind binge eating and the effect that restriction diets can have for achieving desired body mass in relation to physical activity and the willingness to improve their weight. Subjects surveyed were 372 women aged 18 to 27 years (mean 20.6 ± 1.4) who answered a questionnaire on dietary behaviour devised by Ogińska-Bulik and Putyński [21] which had been extended to include body mass perception/image, adoption of slimming diets, levels of physical activity and place of residence. The women's actual body mass, height and body fat (adipose tissue content) were also measured. Most subjects (63.9%) were dissatisfied with their figures whilst 33.5% underwent slimming diets at least once. Those overweight, complained much more about their figures compared to normal weight women (97.9% vs. 65.1%, pbody as effective tools in reducing eating disorders in terms of the health of young women and multigenerational inheritance health of their offspring.

  4. NF-κB signaling dynamics play a key role in infection control in tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad eFallahi-Sichani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The NF-κB signaling pathway is central to the body’s response to many pathogens. Mathematical models based on cell culture experiments have identified important molecular mechanisms controlling the dynamics of NF-κB signaling, but the dynamics of this pathway have never been studied in the context of an infection in a host. Here, we incorporate these dynamics into a virtual infection setting. We build a multi-scale model of the immune response to the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb to explore the impact of NF-κB dynamics occurring across molecular, cellular and tissue scales in the lung. NF-κB signaling is triggered via tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF binding to receptors on macrophages; TNF has been shown to play a key role in infection dynamics in humans and multiple animal systems. Using our multi-scale model, we predict the impact of TNF-induced NF-κB-mediated responses on the outcome of infection at the level of a granuloma, an aggregate of immune cells and bacteria that forms in response to infection and is key to containment of infection and clinical latency. We show how the stability of mRNA transcripts corresponding to NF-κB-mediated responses significantly controls bacterial load in a granuloma, inflammation level in tissue, and granuloma size. Because we incorporate intracellular signaling pathways explicitly, our analysis also elucidates NF-κB associated signaling molecules and processes that may be new targets for infection control.

  5. Male Parent Plays More Important Role in Heat Tolerance in Three-Line Hybrid Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Guan-fu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ten F1 combinations with their male and female parents were employed to evaluate their heat tolerance during the flowering and early grain filling stages. The rice plants were subjected to heat stress (39 °C–43 °C for 1–15 d during flowering. Based on the heat stress index, heat tolerance was only observed in the F1 combinations H2 (K22A × R207, H3 (Bobai A × R207 and H4 (Bobai A × Minghui 63, whereas the others received above 0.5000 of heat stress index. Both parents of the tolerant combination (heat-tolerant × heat-tolerant possessed heat tolerance, whereas the susceptible combinations were crossed by heat-tolerant (sterile lines × heat-susceptible (restorer lines, heat-susceptible × heat-tolerant, or heat-susceptible × heat-susceptible parents. This result indicated that heat tolerance in rice was controlled by recessive genes. Thus, both parents should possess high temperature tolerance to develop heat-tolerant F1 combinations. Furthermore, the heat stress index of F1 combinations was significantly correlated with the heat stress index of restorer lines but not with the heat stress index of maintainer lines. This result suggested that male parents play a more important role in heat-tolerant combinations than female parents. Therefore, the heat susceptibility of the hybrid rice in China is mainly due to the wide application of low-heat-tolerant restorer lines with high yield in three-line hybrid rice breeding.

  6. Rhinosinusitis derived Staphylococcal enterotoxin B plays a possible role in pathogenesis of food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Shao-Heng

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB is a potent immunomodulator and implicated with pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases mediated by Th1 or Th2 dominant immune responses. The objective of this study is to determine a possible association between rhinosinusitis derived SEB and pathogenesis of food allergy (FA. Methods The study included chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS patients with FA (N = 46 or without FA (N = 33. Controls included FA patients without CRS (N = 26 and healthy volunteers (N = 25. In CRS patients, we assessed the parameters associated with FA including prick skin test (PST reactivity to food allergens, serum levels of allergen-specific IgE and cytokines (IL-4, IL-13, IFN-Î3, and the number/reactivity of food-allergen specific Th1/Th2 cells in the peripheral blood before and 2 months after sinus surgery. Changes of these parameters were evaluated in comparison with changes in SEB concentration in the sinus lavage and stool samples and also in vitro reactivity to SEB. In CRS patients with FA, we also assessed changes in reactivity to oral challenge of offending food before and after sinus surgery. Results Two months following sinus surgery, we observed statistically significant reduction in PST and oral challenge reactivity in CRS patients with FA in parallel to decrease in serum levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13 and allergen specific IgE. Improvement of reactivity to food allergens was positively associated with decline in SEB concentrations in the sinus lavage and stool samples. In vitro study results also indicated a role of SEB in aggravation of Th2 skewed responses to food allergens. Such changes were not observed in CRS-non FA patients or control FA patients. Conclusion The rhinosinusitis derived SEB plays a certain role in the pathogenesis of FA by augmenting and/or maintaining polarized Th2 responses. Removal of SEB-producing pathogens from the rhinosinuses may be beneficial for attenuating the FA

  7. Can Campylobacter jejuni play a role in development of celiac disease? A hypothesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Behnam Sabayan; Farzaneh Foroughinia; Mohammad Hadi Imanieh

    2007-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an entropathy with malabsortive condition in which an allergic reaction to the cereal grain-protein (gluten) causes small intestine mucosal injury. CD is a multifactorial disorder in which both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the disease development. Mechanisms have been described to explain the pathology of CD. T cells specific for multiple gluten peptides are found in virtually all patients. Generation of such a broad T cell response may be a prerequisite for disease development. CD is associated with multiple extraintestinal presentations,including neurological deficits. Recent studies have shown a significant correlation between anti-ganglioside antibodies and neurological disorders in patients with underlying CD. Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids which are abundant in nervous system and in other tissues including gastrointestinal tract. It is not known what triggers the release of anti-ganglioside antibodies in people with gluten sensitivity. But, the mechanism is likely to involve the intestinal immune system response to ingested gliadin, a component of wheat gluten. Studies showed that mechanisms different from gluten exposure may be implicated in antibody formation, and other environmental factors may also exist. In addition, considering the fact that genetic predisposition dysregulating mucosal immune responses in the presence of certain environmental triggers like gastrointestinal infections may be strong etiological factors for developing chronic intestinal inflammation including CD, the hypothesis raised in our mind that antiganglioside antibody formation in CD may play a role not only in development of neurological complications in celiac patients, but also in development of CD itself. As presence of Campylobacter jejuni in other diseases with antigangliosides antibody formation has been established, we propose the possible role of Campylobacter jejuni in development of CD in association with other genetic and

  8. Prototyping Tool for Web-Based Multiuser Online Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Shusuke; Kamada, Masaru; Yonekura, Tatsuhiro

    This letter proposes a prototyping tool for Web-based Multiuser Online Role-Playing Game (MORPG). The design goal is to make this tool simple and powerful. The tool is comprised of a GUI editor, a translator and a runtime environment. The GUI editor is used to edit state-transition diagrams, each of which defines the behavior of the fictional characters. The state-transition diagrams are translated into C program codes, which plays the role of a game engine in RPG system. The runtime environment includes PHP, JavaScript with Ajax and HTML. So the prototype system can be played on the usual Web browser, such as Fire-fox, Safari and IE. On a click or key press by a player, the Web browser sends it to the Web server to reflect its consequence on the screens which other players are looking at. Prospected users of this tool include programming novices and schoolchildren. The knowledge or skill of any specific programming languages is not required to create state-transition diagrams. Its structure is not only suitable for the definition of a character behavior but also intuitive to help novices understand. Therefore, the users can easily create Web-based MORPG system with the tool.

  9. Mitochondria play an important role in the cell proliferation suppressing activity of berberine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Jin; Yu, Xuan; Wang, Xin-Pei; Jiang, Jing-Fei; Yuan, Zhi-Yi; Lu, Xi; Lei, Fan; Xing, Dong-Ming

    2017-01-01

    After being studied for approximately a century, berberine (BBR) has been found to act on various targets and pathways. A great challenge in the pharmacological analysis of BBR at present is to identify which target(s) plays a decisive role. In the study described herein, a rescue experiment was designed to show the important role of mitochondria in BBR activity. A toxic dose of BBR was applied to inhibit cell proliferation and mitochondrial activity, then α-ketobutyrate (AKB), an analogue of pyruvate that serves only as an electron receptor of NADH, was proven to partially restore cell proliferation. However, mitochondrial morphology damage and TCA cycle suppression were not recovered by AKB. As the AKB just help to regenerate NAD+, which is make up for part function of mitochondrial, the recovered cell proliferation stands for the contribution of mitochondria to the activity of BBR. Our results also indicate that BBR suppresses tumour growth and reduces energy charge and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in a HepG2 xenograft model. In summary, our study suggests that mitochondria play an important role in BBR activity regarding tumour cell proliferation and metabolism. PMID:28181523

  10. Simulating Social and Political Influences on Hazard Analysis through a Classroom Role Playing Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, T. C.; Cashman, K. V.

    2006-12-01

    Geological hazard mitigation is a complicated process that involves both detailed scientific research and negotiations between community members with competing interests in the solution. Geological hazards classes based around traditional lecture methods have difficulty conveying the decision-making processes that go into these negotiations. To address this deficiency, we have spent five years developing and testing a role- playing exercise based on mitigation of a dam outburst hazard on Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand. In our exercise, students are asked to undertake one of five different roles and decide the best way to mitigate the hazard. Over the course of their discussion students are challenged to reach a consensus decision despite the presence of strongly opposed positions. Key to the success of the exercise are (1) the presence of a facilitator and recorder for each meeting, (2) the provision of unique information for each interested party, and (3) the division of the class into multiple meeting groups, such that everyone is required to participate and individual groups can evolve to different conclusions. The exercise can be completed in a single hour and twenty minute classroom session that is divided into four parts: an introduction, a meeting between members of the same interested party to discuss strategy, a meeting between different interested parties, and a debriefing session. This framework can be readily translated to any classroom hazard problem. In our experience, students have responded positively to the use of role-playing to supplement lectures.

  11. The PICALM protein plays a key role in iron homeostasis and cell proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula B Scotland

    Full Text Available The ubiquitously expressed phosphatidylinositol binding clathrin assembly (PICALM protein associates with the plasma membrane, binds clathrin, and plays a role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Alterations of the human PICALM gene are present in aggressive hematopoietic malignancies, and genome-wide association studies have recently linked the PICALM locus to late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Inactivating and hypomorphic Picalm mutations in mice cause different degrees of severity of anemia, abnormal iron metabolism, growth retardation and shortened lifespan. To understand PICALM's function, we studied the consequences of PICALM overexpression and characterized PICALM-deficient cells derived from mutant fit1 mice. Our results identify a role for PICALM in transferrin receptor (TfR internalization and demonstrate that the C-terminal PICALM residues are critical for its association with clathrin and for the inhibitory effect of PICALM overexpression on TfR internalization. Murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs that are deficient in PICALM display several characteristics of iron deficiency (increased surface TfR expression, decreased intracellular iron levels, and reduced cellular proliferation, all of which are rescued by retroviral PICALM expression. The proliferation defect of cells that lack PICALM results, at least in part, from insufficient iron uptake, since it can be corrected by iron supplementation. Moreover, PICALM-deficient cells are particularly sensitive to iron chelation. Taken together, these data reveal that PICALM plays a critical role in iron homeostasis, and offer new perspectives into the pathogenesis of PICALM-associated diseases.

  12. Circadian Clock Gene Plays a Key Role on Ovarian Cycle and Spontaneous Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiwen Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Circadian locomotor output cycles protein kaput (CLOCK plays a key role in maintaining circadian rhythms and activation of downstream elements. However, its function on human female reproductive system remains unknown. Methods: To investigate the potential role of CLOCK, CLOCK-shRNAs were transfected into mouse 129 ES cells or injected into the ovaries of adult female mice. Western blotting was utilized to analyze the protein interactions and flow cytometry was used to assess apoptosis. Results: The expression of CLOCK peaked at the 6th week in the healthy fetuses. However, an abnormal expression of CLOCK was detected in fetuses from spontaneous miscarriage. To determine the effect of CLOCK on female fertility, a small hairpin RNA (shRNA strategy was used to specifically knockdown the CLOCK gene expression in vitro and in vivo. Knockdown of CLOCK induced apoptosis in mouse embryonic stem (mES cells and inhibited the proliferation in mES cells in vitro. CLOCK knockdown also led to decreased release of oocytes and smaller litter size compared with control in vivo. Conclusions: Collectively, theses findings indicate that CLOCK plays an important role in fertility and that the CLOCK knockdown leads to reduction in reproduction and increased miscarriage risk.

  13. Transforming Water Supply Regimes in India: Do Public-Private Partnerships Have a Role to Play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Gopakumar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Public-private partnerships (PPP are an important governance strategy that has recently emerged as a solution to enhance the access of marginalised residents to urban infrastructures. With the inception of neo-liberal economic reforms in India, in Indian cities too PPP has emerged as an innovative approach to expand coverage of water supply and sanitation infrastructures. However, there has been little study of the dynamics of partnership efforts in different urban contexts: What role do they play in transforming existing infrastructure regimes? Do reform strategies such as partnerships result in increased privatisation or do they make the governance of infrastructures more participative? Reviewing some of the recent literature on urban political analysis, this article develops the concept of water supply regime to describe the context of water provision in three metropolitan cities in India. To further our understanding of the role of PPP within regimes, this article sketches five cases of water supply and sanitation partnerships located within these three metropolitan cities. From these empirical studies, the article arrives at the conclusion that while PPP are always products of the regime-context they are inserted within, quite often strategic actors in the partnership use the PPP to further their interests by initiating a shift in the regime pathway. This leads us to conclude that PPPs do play a role in making water supply regimes more participative but that depends on the nature of the regime as well as the actions of partners.

  14. The MBD4 Gene Plays an Important Role in Porcine Adipocyte Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Jiang Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: MBD4 (methyl-CpG binding domain protein 4 is an important G: T glycosylase that can identify T-G mismatches. It plays a role in active demethylation through base excision repair. Overexpression of MBD4 gene can cause the demethylation of numerous genes, and the remethylation of MBD4-associated genes can occur when the MBD4 gene is knocked out. To date, the functions and regulatory mechanisms of the MBD4 gene in the differentiation of porcine preadipocytes have not been clearly established. Methods: Subcutaneous fat cells from 1- to 7-day-old Junmu-1 piglets were cultured in vitro, induced to differentiate, and then identified. A real-time fluorescence-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis was conducted to detect MBD4 messenger RNA (mRNA expression. Cells were treated with MBD4-siRNA (small interfering RNA and induced to differentiate. Changes in the lipid droplets were observed by oil red O staining. Changes in the mRNA and protein expression levels of MBD4 and the adipose differentiation-associated genes C/EBPα (CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha, PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, and aP2 (adipocyte protein 2 were detected. In addition, the bisulfite sequencing method was used to detect changes in methylation in the promoters of certain genes associated with adipose differentiation. Results: Levels of MBD4 mRNA and protein expression varied with time over the course of the porcine adipocyte differentiation, with the highest levels of this expression observed on day two of the differentiation process. After silencing MBD4 and inducing differentiation, the production of lipid droplets decreased, the mRNA expression levels of C/EBPα, PPARγ, and aP2 were significantly reduced, and DNA methylation modification levels were significantly elevated in the examined promoter regions. Conclusion: The silencing of the MBD4 gene can influence the DNA methylation levels of preadipocyte

  15. Trusted Sources: The Role Scientific Societies Can Play in Improving Public Opinions on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntee, C.; Cairns, A.; Buhrman, J.

    2012-12-01

    Public acceptance of the scientific consensus regarding climate change has eroded and misinformation designed to confuse the public is rapidly proliferating. Those issues, combined with an increase of politically motivated attacks on climate scientists and their research, have led to a place where ideology can trump scientific consensus as the foundation for developing policy solutions. The scientific community has been, thus far, unprepared to respond effectively to these developments. However, as a scientific society whose members engage in climate science research, and one whose organizational mission and vision are centered on the concepts of science for the benefit of humanity and ensuring a sustainable future, the American Geophysical Union can, and should, play an important role in reversing this trend. To that end, in 2011, AGU convened a Leadership Summit on Climate Science Communication, in which presidents, executive directors, and senior public policy staff from 17 scientific organizations engaged with experts in the social sciences regarding effective communication of climate science and with practitioners from agriculture, energy, and the military. The discussions focused on three key issues: the environment of climate science communication; public understanding of climate change; and the perspectives of consumers of climate science-based information who work with specific audiences. Participants diagnosed previous challenges and failings, enumerated the key constituencies that need to be effectively engaged, and identified the critical role played by cultural cognition—the influence of group values, particularly around equality and authority, individualism, and community; and the perceptions of risk. Since that meeting, AGU has consistently worked to identify and explore ways that it, and its members, and improve the effectiveness of their communication with the public about climate change. This presentation will focus on the insights AGU has

  16. The kidneys play a central role in the clearance of rhGH in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Bill; Thygesen, Peter; Kreilgaard, Mads;

    2016-01-01

    The kidneys are thought to play an important role in the clearance of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH), but the relative importance is not clear. Obtaining knowledge of clearance pathway is an important prerequisite for the development of new long acting growth hormone analogues targeted...... at treatment of patients with growth hormone disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative importance of the kidneys in the clearance of rhGH. The study employed a newly validated nephrectomy rat model and a population based pharmacokinetic approach to assess renal clearance of rh...

  17. The relationships into the video games massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Alfonso Acevedo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the relationships dynamics in the virtuality of the gamers into the massively multiplayer online role-playing game “Perfect World” in the not ocifial latinamerican server “Comunidad Zero”. The main objective of this study is to describe the dynamics of the relationships, analyzing them from the context of the game using the virtual ethnography, understanding the emotional interactions between couples, through a case study. During the development of research, were found several categories related to affective interactions of pre-attachment, manifested in virtual environments of the game and that ultimately manage to simulate the engagement dynamics of the physical contexts.

  18. The Role Of Playing Online Games In Teen’s Developing English Vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This Thesis entitled "The Role of playing Online Games in Teens' Developing Vocabulary" This is a study of the influence of online gaming in the development of English vocabulary teenagers. This study using qualitative methods. Miles and Huberman (1994) defined the way of qualitative research was to find the meaning of data based on the goals stated by the researcher. This study is held in the SMP Neg. 45 Medan and some of his students became participant. Data from this study are the words co...

  19. Baldur’s Gate and History: Race and Alignment in Digital Role-Playing Games

    OpenAIRE

    Warnes, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    This paper, part of a wider study of the connections between romance, fantasy and political rhetoric in the twenty-first century, seeks to historicise some of the defining features of Dungeons and Dragons (D&D)-based role playing games, using as examples the Bioware games, Baldur’s Gate I and II and Neverwinter Nights. The starting point of the paper is that technical, procedural and aesthetic innovations in gaming arise from contexts given by history, and by social and cultural processes...

  20. EFEKTIVITAS METODE ROLE PLAYING PADA MENDESKRIPSIKAN PELAYANAN PRIMA UNTUK MENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Tri Lestari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efektivitas metode pembelajaran role playing pada pokok bahasan mendeskripsikan pelayanan prima untuk meningkatkan hasil belajar siswa kelas X Administrasi Perkantoran SMK Hidayah Semarang. Subjek penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas X AP SMK Hidayah Semarang Tahun Ajaran 2011/2012. Prosedur penelitian ini merupakan siklus kegiatan pembelajaran yang terdiri dari dua siklus, dimana setiap siklus meliputi perencanaan, pelaksanaan tindakan, pengamatan dan refleksi. Instrumen pengumpulan data dalam penelitian ini adalah tes evaluasi yang berupa tes objektif pada tiap akhir siklus dan lembar observasi untuk aktivitas siswa dan kinerja guru. Hasil belajar kognitif siswa pada siklus I sebesar 74,5 dengan ketuntasan klasikal 66,7%. Rata-rata hasil belajar siklus II sebesar 82,5 dengan ketuntasan klasikal 96,7%. Adapun sikap siswa terhadap pembelajaran pada siklus I sebesar 55% dan pada siklus II mencapai peningkatan sebesar 87,5%. Sedangkan kinerja guru pada siklus I mencapai 58,3% dan pada siklus II meningkat menjadi 93,1%. Penerapan metode pembelajaran role playing pada pokok bahasan mendeskripsikan pelayanan prima efektif untuk meningkatkan hasil belajar siswa kelas X Administrasi Perkantoran SMK Hidayah Semarang. Abstract ___________________________________________________________________ The purpose from this research was to determine effectiveness of role playing in describing excellent service to improve students� result class X AP Hidayah Vocational School of Semarang year 2011/2012. The subject of this research is the class X AP of Hidayah Vocational School of Semarang year 2011/2012. The procedure of this research is a cycle of learning activities that consists of two cycles, in which each cycle includes planning, implementation of the action, observation and reflection. Instrument of data collection is the evaluation tests in the form of objective tests at each end of the cycle and observation

  1. The terminal structure plays an important role in the biological activity of cecropin CMIV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦非; 谢维; 董雪吟; 徐贤秀

    1999-01-01

    Antibacterial peptides have received increasing attention as a new pharmaceutical substance. But the molecular mechanism of lysis is still poorly understood. CMIV gene and mutant CMIV gene in GST fusion system were expressed. After cleaving with different cleavage reagents, the peptide with an excess of N-terminus and with an un-amidated C-terminus stopped the activity while the peptide with an excess Asn at the C-terminus had the activity level the same as natural CMIV. The results showed that the terminal structure of cecropin CMIV played an important role in its biological activity.

  2. The synergistic role TQM and reengineering could play in standardizing the European vaccination policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Hans F W

    2002-01-01

    For the implementation of the proposed European standardized vaccination, total quality management (TQM) and reengineering could be powerful tools with a potentially synergistic effect. In the case examined, nonexplicit TQM prepared the organization in several ways for reengineering: providing the human capital, making people think beyond their daily tasks, and pulling the inertial professional organization in the direction of an "adhocracy." The quiet role management played, the incentive supplied by a high authority, the quick creation of solutions, and the existence of a realistic crisis represent other success factors.

  3. My avatar, my self identity in video role-playing games

    CERN Document Server

    Waggoner, Zach

    2009-01-01

    With videogames now one of the world's most popular diversions, the virtual world has increasing psychological influence on real-world players. This book examines the relationships between virtual and non-virtual identity in visual role-playing games. Utilizing James Gee's theoretical constructs of real-world identity, virtual-world identity, and projective identity, this research shows dynamic, varying and complex relationships between the virtual avatar and the player's sense of self and makes recommendations of terminology for future identity researchers.

  4. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 plays a key role in type 1 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Li; Guoliang Liu

    2005-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease resulting from the selective destruction of β cells in the pancreatic islets.In both human and rodent models of type 1 diabetes, the clinical disease is preceded by a progressive mononuclear cell invasion of the pancreatic islets (insulitis). In the early stage of insulitis, the major components are monocyte/macrophages, and the recruitment of mononuclear cells is a critical step in the pathogenesis of the type 1 diabetes. Studies have revealed that Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1)specifically recruits monocytes/macrophages into pancreas and plays an important role in the development of insulitis and diabetes.

  5. Mast Cells Play a Crucial Role in Staphylococcus aureus Peptidoglycan-Induced Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Bai-Sui; He, Shao-Heng; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Wu, Linda; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2007-01-01

    Bacterium-induced diarrhea results in 2 to 2.5 million deaths in the world each year. The mechanism needs to be further understood. Staphylococcus aureus infection has a close relation with diarrhea; its cell wall component peptidoglycan (PGN) has strong biological activity on immune cells and possibly plays a role in S. aureus-induced diarrhea. The present study showed that oral PGN-induced diarrhea in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Intestinal epithelial cells absorbed PGN via the intracel...

  6. Phosphorus plays an important role in enhancing biodiesel productivity of Chlorella vulgaris under nitrogen deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Fei-Fei; Chu, Pei-Na; Cai, Pei-Jie; Li, Wen-Wei; Lam, Paul K S; Zeng, Raymond J

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the role of phosphorus in lipid production under nitrogen starvation conditions, five types of media possessing different nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations or their combination were prepared to culture Chlorella vulgaris. It was found that biomass production under nitrogen deficient condition with sufficient phosphorus supply was similar to that of the control (with sufficient nutrition), resulting in a maximum lipid productivity of 58.39 mg/L/day. Meanwhile, 31P NMR showed that phosphorus in the medium was transformed and accumulated as polyphosphate in cells. The uptake rate of phosphorus in cells was 3.8 times higher than the uptake rate of the control. This study demonstrates that phosphorus plays an important role in lipid production of C. vulgaris under nitrogen deficient conditions and implies a potential to combine phosphorus removal from wastewater with biodiesel production via microalgae.

  7. gga-miR-375 plays a key role in tumorigenesis post subgroup J avian leukosis virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxin Li

    Full Text Available Avian leukosis is a neoplastic disease caused in part by subgroup J avian leukosis virus J (ALV-J. Micro ribonucleic acids (miRNAs play pivotal oncogenic and tumour-suppressor roles in tumour development and progression. However, little is known about the potential role of miRNAs in avian leukosis tumours. We have found a novel tumour-suppressor miRNA, gga-miR-375, associated with avian leukosis tumorigenesis by miRNA microarray in a previous report. We have also previously studied the biological function of gga-miR-375; Overexpression of gga-miR-375 significantly inhibited DF-1 cell proliferation, and significantly reduced the expression of yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1 by repressing the activity of a luciferase reporter carrying the 3'-untranslated region of YAP1. This indicates that gga-miR-375 is frequently downregulated in avian leukosis by inhibiting cell proliferation through YAP1 oncogene targeting. Overexpression of gga-miR-375 markedly promoted serum starvation induced apoptosis, and there may be the reason why the tumour cycle is so long in the infected chickens. In vivo assays, gga-miR-375 was significantly downregulated in chicken livers 20 days after infection with ALV-J, and YAP1 was significantly upregulated 20 days after ALV-J infection (P<0.05. We also found that expression of cyclin E, an important regulator of cell cycle progression, was significantly upregulated (P<0.05. Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (DIAP1, which is related to caspase-dependent apoptosis, was also significantly upregulated after infection. Our data suggests that gga-miR-375 may function as a tumour suppressor thereby regulating cancer cell proliferation and it plays a key role in avian leukosis tumorigenesis.

  8. Teaching communication skills to hospice teams: comparing the effectiveness of a communication skills laboratory with in-person, second life, and phone role-playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Gillian; Ortega, Rosio; Hochstetler, Vicki; Pierson, Kristen; Lin, Peiyi; Lowes, Susan

    2014-09-01

    Communication skills are critical in hospice care but challenging to teach. Therefore, a hospice agency developed a communication skills laboratory for nurses and social workers. Learners role-played 3 common hospice scenarios. The role-play modalities were in-person, Second Life, and telephone. Learners were scored on 4 communication aspects. Learners in all modalities rated the laboratory as very effective. However, learners in the Second Life and phone modality showed greater improvements from scene 1 to 3 than those in the in-person modality. There were no significant differences in improvement between the Second Life and phone modalities. Results support the effectiveness of this communication skills laboratory while using different teaching modalities and show phone and Second Life role-plays were more effective than an in-person role-play. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Autocrine regulation of interferon gamma in mesenchymal stem cells plays a role in early osteoblastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Gustavo; Huang, Dao Chao; Macoritto, Michael; Rivas, Daniel; Yang, Xian Fang; Ste-Marie, Louis Georges; Kremer, Richard

    2009-03-01

    Interferon (IFN)gamma is a strong inhibitor of osteoclast differentiation and activity. However, its role in osteoblastogenesis has not been carefully examined. Using microarray expression analysis, we found that several IFNgamma-inducible genes were upregulated during early phases of osteoblast differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). We therefore hypothesized that IFNgamma may play a role in this process. We first observed a strong and transient increase in IFNgamma production following hMSC induction to differentiate into osteoblasts. We next blocked this endogenous production using a knockdown approach with small interfering RNA and observed a strong inhibition of hMSC differentiation into osteoblasts with a concomitant decrease in Runx2, a factor indispensable for osteoblast development. Additionally, exogenous addition of IFNgamma accelerated hMSC differentiation into osteoblasts in a dose-dependent manner and induced higher levels of Runx2 expression during the early phase of differentiation. We next examined IFNgamma signaling in vivo in IFNgamma receptor 1 knockout (IFNgammaR1(-/-)) mice. Compared with their wild-type littermates, IFNgammaR1(-/-) mice exhibited a reduction in bone mineral density. As in the in vitro experiments, MSCs obtained from IFNgammaR1(-/-) mice showed a lower capacity to differentiate into osteoblasts. In summary, we demonstrate that the presence of IFNgamma plays an important role during the commitment of MSCs into the osteoblastic lineage both in vitro and in vivo, and that this process can be accelerated by exogenous addition of IFNgamma. These data therefore support a new role for IFNgamma as an autocrine regulator of hMSC differentiation and as a potential new target of bone-forming cells in vivo.

  10. Flavones and flavonols play distinct critical roles during nodulation of Medicago truncatula by Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Subramanian, Senthil; Stacey, Gary; Yu, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Flavonoids play critical roles in legume-rhizobium symbiosis. However, the role of individual flavonoid compounds in this process has not yet been clearly established. We silenced different flavonoid-biosynthesis enzymes to generate transgenic Medicago truncatula roots with different flavonoid profiles. Silencing of chalcone synthase, the key entry-point enzyme for flavonoid biosynthesis led to flavonoid-deficient roots. Silencing of isoflavone synthase and flavone synthase led to roots deficient for a subset of flavonoids, isoflavonoids (formononetin and biochanin A) and flavones (7,4'-dihydroxyflavone), respectively. When tested for nodulation by Sinorhizobium meliloti, flavonoid-deficient roots had a near complete loss of nodulation, whereas flavone-deficient roots had reduced nodulation. Isoflavone-deficient roots nodulated normally, suggesting that isoflavones might not play a critical role in M. truncatula nodulation, even though they are the most abundant root flavonoids. Supplementation of flavone-deficient roots with 7, 4'-dihydroxyflavone, a major inducer of S. meliloti nod genes, completely restored nodulation. However, the same treatment did not restore nodulation in flavonoid-deficient roots, suggesting that other non-nod gene-inducing flavonoid compounds are also critical to nodulation. Supplementation of roots with the flavonol kaempferol (an inhibitor of auxin transport), in combination with the use of flavone pre-treated S. meliloti cells, completely restored nodulation in flavonoid-deficient roots. In addition, S. meliloti cells constitutively producing Nod factors were able to nodulate flavone-deficient roots, but not flavonoid-deficient roots. These observations indicated that flavones might act as internal inducers of rhizobial nod genes, and that flavonols might act as auxin transport regulators during nodulation. Both these roles of flavonoids appear critical for symbiosis in M. truncatula.

  11. 25 CFR 900.131 - What role does the Secretary play during the performance of a self-determination construction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What role does the Secretary play during the performance... CONTRACTS UNDER THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Construction § 900.131 What role does the Secretary play during the performance of a self-determination construction contract? (a) If...

  12. Effects of communication training on real practice performance: a role-play module versus a standardized patient module.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlegel, C.; Woermann, U.; Shaha, M.; Rethans, J.J.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of modules involving standardized patients and role-plays on training communication skills. The first module involved standardized patients and an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE); the second module consisted of peer role-plays and a written

  13. Staff Training for Business Process Improvement: The Benefit of Role-Plays in the Case of KreditSim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borner, Rene; Moormann, Jurgen; Wang, Minhong

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to explore staff's experience with role-plays using the example of training bank employees in Six Sigma as a major methodology for business process improvement. Design/methodology/approach: The research is based on a case study. A role-play, KreditSim, is used to simulate a loan approval process that has to be improved by…

  14. World of Wordcraft: Foreign Language Grammar and Composition Taught as a Term-Long Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellar-Goad, T. H. M.

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines an innovative approach to the instruction of foreign languages: a term-long role-playing game in the style of tabletop role-playing games such as "Dungeons & Dragons." Students adopt personas, avatars, or "player characters" and take them through adventures, exploration, puzzles, and fights with…

  15. Effects of communication training on real practice performance: a role-play module versus a standardized patient module.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlegel, C.; Woermann, U.; Shaha, M.; Rethans, J.J.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of modules involving standardized patients and role-plays on training communication skills. The first module involved standardized patients and an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE); the second module consisted of peer role-plays and a written

  16. Teaching Social Communication Skills Using a Cool versus Not Cool Procedure plus Role-Playing and a Social Skills Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Taubman, Mitchell; Milne, Christine; Dale, Stephanie; Leaf, Jeremy; Townley-Cochran, Donna; Tsuji, Kathleen; Kassardjian, Alyne; Alcalay, Aditt; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John

    2016-01-01

    We utilized a cool versus not cool procedure plus role-playing to teach social communication skills to three individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The cool versus not cool procedure plus role-playing consisted of the researcher randomly demonstrating the behavior correctly (cool) two times and the behavior incorrectly (not cool) two…

  17. Teaching Social Communication Skills Using a Cool versus Not Cool Procedure plus Role-Playing and a Social Skills Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Taubman, Mitchell; Milne, Christine; Dale, Stephanie; Leaf, Jeremy; Townley-Cochran, Donna; Tsuji, Kathleen; Kassardjian, Alyne; Alcalay, Aditt; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John

    2016-01-01

    We utilized a cool versus not cool procedure plus role-playing to teach social communication skills to three individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The cool versus not cool procedure plus role-playing consisted of the researcher randomly demonstrating the behavior correctly (cool) two times and the behavior incorrectly (not cool) two…

  18. Staff Training for Business Process Improvement: The Benefit of Role-Plays in the Case of KreditSim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borner, Rene; Moormann, Jurgen; Wang, Minhong

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to explore staff's experience with role-plays using the example of training bank employees in Six Sigma as a major methodology for business process improvement. Design/methodology/approach: The research is based on a case study. A role-play, KreditSim, is used to simulate a loan approval process that has to be improved by…

  19. Changes to the septo-fornical area might play a role in the pathogenesis of anxiety in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palotai, Miklos; Mike, Andrea; Cavallari, Michele

    2017-01-01

    for 19 tracts in 48 MS patients (30 females). ICBM-DTI-81 Atlas-based parcellation was combined with WMLL segmentation of T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fatigue, anxiety, and depression were assessed using Fatigue Impact Scale, State Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory...... and body of the fornix (CBF) remained significantly associated with anxiety. Post hoc analyses showed no CBF lesions on T1-weighted MRI and suggested, but could not confirm, that the septum pellucidum might play a role in the pathogenesis of anxiety. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that anxiety in MS...

  20. "They may be pixels, but they're MY pixels:" developing a metric of character attachment in role-playing video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Melissa L; Weber, René; Bowman, Nicholas David

    2008-08-01

    This paper proposes a new and reliable metric for measuring character attachment (CA), the connection felt by a video game player toward a video game character. Results of construct validity analyses indicate that the proposed CA scale has a significant relationship with self-esteem, addiction, game enjoyment, and time spent playing games; all of these relationships are predicted by theory. Additionally, CA levels for role-playing games differ significantly from CA levels of other character-driven games.

  1. Playful Gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makedon, Alexander

    A philosophical analysis of play and games is undertaken in this paper. Playful gaming, which is shown to be a synthesis of play and games, is utilized as a category for undertaking the examination of play and games. The significance of playful gaming to education is demonstrated through analyses of Plato's, Dewey's, Sartre's, and Marcuse's…

  2. The kidneys play a central role in the clearance of rhGH in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Bill; Thygesen, Peter; Kreilgaard, Mads; Fels, Johannes Josef; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Agersø, Henrik

    2016-04-30

    The kidneys are thought to play an important role in the clearance of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH), but the relative importance is not clear. Obtaining knowledge of clearance pathway is an important prerequisite for the development of new long acting growth hormone analogues targeted at treatment of patients with growth hormone disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative importance of the kidneys in the clearance of rhGH. The study employed a newly validated nephrectomy rat model and a population based pharmacokinetic approach to assess renal clearance of rhGH in non-anesthetized rats, anesthetized rats and in nephrectomized anesthetized rats. Clearance in non-anesthetized rats was 290 ml/h/kg. This was reduced to 185 ml/h/kg by anesthesia and further reduced to 18 ml/h/kg by nephrectomy. As nephrectomy was able to reduce clearance with 90%, we conclude that renal clearance plays a pivotal role in the elimination of rhGH in rats.

  3. The ELG1 clamp loader plays a role in sister chromatid cohesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Parnas

    Full Text Available Mutations in the ELG1 gene of yeast lead to genomic instability, manifested in high levels of genetic recombination, chromosome loss, and gross chromosomal rearrangements. Elg1 shows similarity to the large subunit of the Replication Factor C clamp loader, and forms a RFC-like (RLC complex in conjunction with the 4 small RFC subunits. Two additional RLCs exist in yeast: in one of them the large subunit is Ctf18, and in the other, Rad24. Ctf18 has been characterized as the RLC that functions in sister chromatid cohesion. Here we present evidence that the Elg1 RLC (but not Rad24 also plays an important role in this process. A genetic screen identified the cohesin subunit Mcd1/Scc1 and its loader Scc2 as suppressors of the synthetic lethality between elg1 and ctf4. We describe genetic interactions between ELG1 and genes encoding cohesin subunits and their accessory proteins. We also show that defects in Elg1 lead to higher precocious sister chromatid separation, and that Ctf18 and Elg1 affect cohesion via a joint pathway. Finally, we localize both Ctf18 and Elg1 to chromatin and show that Elg1 plays a role in the recruitment of Ctf18. Our results suggest that Elg1, Ctf4, and Ctf18 may coordinate the relative movement of the replication fork with respect to the cohesin ring.

  4. DC-SIGN plays a stronger role than DCIR in mediating HIV-1 capture and transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wei; Li, Chang; Du, Tao; Hu, Kai; Huang, Xin; Hu, Qinxue

    2014-06-01

    The C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) expressed on dendritic cells (DCs), in particular DC-SIGN and DCIR, likely play an important role in HIV-1 early infection. Here, we systematically compared the capture and transfer capability of DC-SIGN and DCIR using a wide range of HIV-1 isolates. Our results indicated that DC-SIGN plays a stronger role than DCIR in DC-mediated HIV-1 capture and transfer. This was further strengthened by the data from transient and stable transfectants, showing that DC-SIGN had better capability, compared with DCIR in HIV-1 capture and transfer. Following constructing and analyzing a series of soluble DC-SIGN and DCIR truncates and chimeras, we demonstrated that the neck domain, but not the CRD, renders DC-SIGN higher binding affinity to gp120 likely via the formation of tetramerization. Our findings provide insights into CLR-mediated HIV-1 capture and transfer, highlighting potential targets for intervention strategies against gp120-CLR interactions.

  5. The organizational context of ethical dilemmas: a role-playing simulation for the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strosberg, M A

    2001-01-01

    The allocation of health care resources often requires decision makers to balance conflicting ethical principles. The resource-constrained intensive care unit (ICU) provides an ideal setting to study how decision makers go about their balancing act in a complex and dynamic environment. The author presents a role-playing simulation exercise which models ICU admission and discharge decision making. Designed for the class-room, the simulation engages a variety of ethical, managerial, and public policy issues including end-of-life decision making, triage, and rationing. The simulation is based on a sequence of scenarios or "decision rounds" delineating conditions in the ICU in terms of disposition of ICU patients, number of available ICU beds, prognoses of candidates for admission, and other physiological and organizational information. Students, playing the roles of attending physician, hospital administrator, nurse manager, triage officer, and ethics committee member, are challenged to reach consensus in the context of multiple power centers and conflicting goals. An organization theory perspective, incorporated into the simulation, provides insight on how decisions are actually made and stimulates discussion on how decision making might be improved.

  6. Playable stories: Making programming and 3D role-playing game design personally and socially relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram-Goble, Adam

    This is an exploratory design study of a novel system for learning programming and 3D role-playing game design as tools for social change. This study was conducted at two sites. Participants in the study were ages 9-14 and worked for up to 15 hours with the platform to learn how to program and design video games with personally or socially relevant narratives. This first study was successful in that students learned to program a narrative game, and they viewed the social problem framing for the practices as an interesting aspect of the experience. The second study provided illustrative examples of how providing less general structure up-front, afforded players the opportunity to produce the necessary structures as needed for their particular design, and therefore had a richer understanding of what those structures represented. This study demonstrates that not only were participants able to use computational thinking skills such as Boolean and conditional logic, planning, modeling, abstraction, and encapsulation, they were able to bridge these skills to social domains they cared about. In particular, participants created stories about socially relevant topics without to explicit pushes by the instructors. The findings also suggest that the rapid uptake, and successful creation of personally and socially relevant narratives may have been facilitated by close alignment between the conceptual tools represented in the platform, and the domain of 3D role-playing games.

  7. Symbiotic bacteria of helminths: what role may they play in ecosystems under anthropogenic stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, N J

    2016-11-01

    Symbiotic bacteria are a common feature of many animals, particularly invertebrates, from both aquatic and terrestrial habitats. These bacteria have increasingly been recognized as performing an important role in maintaining invertebrate health. Both ecto- and endoparasitic helminths have also been found to harbour a range of bacterial species which provide a similar function. The part symbiotic bacteria play in sustaining homeostasis of free-living invertebrates exposed to anthropogenic pressure (climate change, pollution), and the consequences to invertebrate populations when their symbionts succumb to poor environmental conditions, are increasingly important areas of research. Helminths are also susceptible to environmental stress and their symbiotic bacteria may be a key aspect of their responses to deteriorating conditions. This article summarizes the ecophysiological relationship helminths have with symbiotic bacteria and the role they play in maintaining a healthy parasite and the relevance of specific changes that occur in free-living invertebrate-bacteria interactions under anthropogenic pressure to helminths and their bacterial communities. It also discusses the importance of understanding the mechanistic sensitivity of helminth-bacteria relationships to environmental stress for comprehending the responses of parasites to challenging conditions.

  8. Uniqueness of Entamoeba sulfur metabolism: sulfolipid metabolism that plays pleiotropic roles in the parasitic life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi-Ichi, Fumika; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Yoshida, Hiroki

    2017-09-07

    Sulfur metabolism is ubiquitous and terminally synthesizes various biomolecules that are crucial for organisms, such as sulfur-containing amino acids and co-factors, sulfolipids and sulfated saccharides. Entamoeba histolytica, a protozoan parasite responsible for amoebiasis, possesses the unique sulfur metabolism features of atypical localization and its terminal product being limited to sulfolipids. Here, we present an overall scheme of E. histolytica sulfur metabolism by relating all sulfotransferases and sulfatases to their substrates and products. Furthermore, a novel sulfur metabolite, fatty alcohol disulfates, was identified and shown to play an important role in trophozoite proliferation. Cholesteryl sulfate, another synthesized sulfolipid, was previously demonstrated to play an important role in encystation, a differentiation process from proliferative trophozoite to dormant cyst. Entamoeba survives by alternating between these two distinct forms; therefore, Entamoeba sulfur metabolism contributes to the parasitic life cycle via its terminal products. Interestingly, this unique feature of sulfur metabolism is not conserved in the nonparasitic close relative of Entamoeba, Mastigamoeba, because lateral gene transfer-mediated acquisition of sulfatases and sulfotransferases, critical enzymes conferring this feature, has only occurred in the Entamoeba lineage. Hence, our findings suggest that sulfolipid metabolism has a causal relationship with parasitism. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Does pancreatic ductal anatomy play a role in determining outcomes of pancreatic anastomoses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, P J; Sakpal, S V; Maharaj, R

    2011-02-01

    Pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) is the surgical procedure performed for cancers of the head of the pancreas. Despite a substantial reduction in mortality rates following PD, morbidity remains high secondary to major post-operative complications. Post-operative pancreatic fistula (POPF), the commonest major complication following PD, results from the failure of the pancreato-enteric anastomosis. There appears to be a correlation between intrinsic pancreatic features like the texture of the gland and duct size and the outcome of the pancreatic anastomosis. Based on current clinical research data, we propose a new hypothesis called the "pancreatic ductal anatomy" concept. We hypothesize that morphological variations, anomalies or aberrations of the main pancreatic duct play a role in the outcome of the pancreatic anastomosis, irrespective of its type. The consequence of aberrant ductal anatomy is that certain areas of the remnant pancreas remain either undrained or partially drained, or have blocked ductules/ducts. This results in localized obstructive pancreatitis causing an inflammatory reaction which jeopardizes the anastomosis. We also propose two maneuvers which could possibly play a role in predicting potential problems and also planning the surgical resection and reconstruction in order to reduce the incidence of POPF. The first modality is the use of pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pancreatic duct, and the second maneuver is the gentle cannulation test of the pancreatic duct with a soft, narrow tube following transection of the pancreatic neck. These factors would alert the surgeon about potential ductal variations and could facilitate the surgical approach.

  10. The Role Played by Rainfall on the Seismicity at Fogo Volcano, Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, F.; Saccorotti, G.; Riedel, C.; Bean, C. J.; Wallenstein, N. M.; Viveiros, F. M.

    2007-12-01

    Fogo volcano is an active central volcano, with a lake filled caldera, in the central part of Sao Miguel Island, Azores, whose current activity is limited to fumarolic and hydrothermal activity. It is affected by important active tectonic structures, with extremely high seismic activity and micro-seismicity concentrated in very frequent swarms. A recurrent feature of the seismicity observed in volcanic regions is the occurrence of seismic families, whose origins can be attributed to the same source mechanism, acting in the same small rock volume. Doublets/multiplets were identified in this study within a catalogue of small magnitude (usually lack of any main-shock after-shock sequence and organized migration of the hypocenters. This is suggestive of a very heterogeneous stress field. Vp/Vs is found to be lower than usually observed in volcanic areas, an occurrence likely related to the presence of fluid associated with the geothermal system (Saccorotti et al., 2004). Taken together, these two observations suggest that fluid migration/pressurization play a major role in triggering the recorded seismicity. The geothermal fluids around Fogo massif have been identified as derived from meteoric water, which infiltrates through Fogo Lake and the volcano flank and flows from south to north on the northern flank (Carvalho, 1999). These results point to the important role played by rainfall in triggering seismicity at Sao Miguel, possibly through pressure changes at depth in response to surface rain and/or interaction with the geothermal system.

  11. Extracellular domains play different roles in gap junction formation and docking compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Donglin; Wang, Ao Hong

    2014-02-15

    GJ (gap junction) channels mediate direct intercellular communication and play an important role in many physiological processes. Six connexins oligomerize to form a hemichannel and two hemichannels dock together end-to-end to form a GJ channel. Connexin extracellular domains (E1 and E2) have been shown to be important for the docking, but the molecular mechanisms behind the docking and formation of GJ channels are not clear. Recent developments in atomic GJ structure and functional studies on a series of connexin mutants revealed that E1 and E2 are likely to play different roles in the docking. Non-covalent interactions at the docking interface, including hydrogen bonds, are predicted to form between interdocked extracellular domains. Protein sequence alignment analysis on the docking compatible/incompatible connexins indicate that the E1 domain is important for the formation of the GJ channel and the E2 domain is important in the docking compatibility in heterotypic channels. Interestingly, the hydrogen-bond forming or equivalent residues in both E1 and E2 domains are mutational hot spots for connexin-linked human diseases. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of GJ docking can assist us to develop novel strategies in rescuing the disease-linked connexin mutants.

  12. The methylation hypothesis: do epigenetic chromatin modifications play a role in epileptogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobow, Katja; Blümcke, Ingmar

    2011-07-01

    Any structural brain lesion can provoke epilepsy, although onset and progression of seizures as well as response to antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment remain difficult to predict in each patient. Tremendous work has focused on the development of new AED compounds with the intention to treat seizures. However, these efforts have not yet discovered a "magic bullet" that cures epilepsy in every patient or modifies disease progression. With the "methylation hypothesis" we propose that epigenetic mechanisms play a pivotal role in epileptogenesis in patients with structural lesions. "Epigenetics" is defined as information that is heritable during cell division other than the DNA sequence itself, that is, DNA methylation or histone tail modifications, which can produce lasting alterations in chromatin structure and gene expression. They are increasingly recognized as fundamental regulatory processes in central nervous system development, synaptic plasticity, and memory, and also play a role in neurologic disorders such as schizophrenia and spinal muscular atrophy. The methylation hypothesis suggests that seizures by themselves can induce epigenetic chromatin modifications, thereby aggravating the epileptogenic condition. The impact of the methylation hypothesis for new-onset epilepsy will be discussed. Unravelling of epigenetic pathomechanisms will also open new strategies to identify molecular targets for pharmacologic treatment in epilepsies.

  13. Mechanical factors play an important role in pectus excavatum with thoracic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yuncang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the incidence, imaging characteristics and mechanical factors in scoliotic patients with pectus excavatum. Methods A total of 142 scoliostic patients with pectus excavatum were evaluated prior to operation. The evaluation included a complete physical exam, phenotype and severity of the pectus excavatum, incidence and severity of scoliosis, and analysis of radiological images, including calculation of the Haller index. Results Twenty five out of 142 patients (17.61% with pectus excavatum had scoliosis with a Cobb angle >10 degrees, and in 80.00% of the cases the spinal column was bent to the right. Seventeen patients had bent-to-the-right spines that involved the 6th to 10 th thoracic vertebrae. We found that 23 out of 25 patients with a Cobb angle more than 10° were teenagers and adults. The incidence of scoliosis was only 6.06% in the children under 11 years whereas it was 21.79% in the teenage group. Conclusions Mechanical forces appear to play a role in the coexistence of pectus excavatum and scoliosis. There is a relationship between age, severity (Haller index, asymmetry and scoliosis. The heart and mediastinum play a role in providing an outward force to the left of the sternum which may be an important reason for the coexistence of pectus excavatum and scoliosis, but the correlation needs further proof.

  14. End-of-life care decisions in the pediatric intensive care unit: roles professionals play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, Kelly Nicole; Patel, Rachna; Haber-Barker, Natalie; Emanuel, Linda; Frader, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Objective Describe the roles and respective responsibilities of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) health care professionals (HCPs) in end-of-life care decisions faced by PICU parents. Design Retrospective qualitative study Setting University based tertiary care children’s hospital Participants Eighteen parents of children who died in the PICU and 48 PICU HCPs (physicians, nurses, social workers, child-life specialists, chaplains, and case managers). Interventions In depth, semi-structured focus groups and one-on-one interviews designed to explore experiences in end-of-life care decision making. Measurements and Main Results We identified end-of-life care decisions that parents face based on descriptions by parents and HCPs. Participants described medical and non-medical decisions addressed toward the end of a child’s life. From the descriptions, we identified seven roles HCPs play in end-of-life care decisions. The family supporter addresses emotional, spiritual, environmental, relational and informational family needs in a nondirective way. The family advocate helps families articulate their views and needs to HCPs. The information giver provides parents with medical information, identifies decisions or describes available options, and clarifies parents’ understanding. The general care coordinator helps facilitate interactions among HCPs in the PICU, among HCPs from different subspecialty teams, and between HCPs and parents. The decision maker makes or directly influences the defined plan of action. The end-of-life care coordinator organizes and executes functions occurring directly before, during and after dying/death. The point person develops a unique trusting relationship with parents. Conclusions Our results describe a framework for HCPs’ roles in parental end-of-life care decision making in the PICU that includes directive, value-neutral and organizational roles. More research is needed to validate these roles. Actively ensuring attention to these

  15. The Role of Habits in Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game Usage: Predicting Excessive and Problematic Gaming Through Players' Sensitivity to Situational Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukavská, Kateřina; Hrabec, Ondřej; Chrz, Vladimír

    2016-04-01

    We examined the effect of habitual regulation of massive multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) playing on the problematic (addictive) usage and excessiveness of gaming (time that user spent playing weekly, per session, and in relation to his other leisure activities). We developed the approach to assess the strength of habitual regulation that was based on sensitivity to situational cues. We defined cues as real-life or in-game conditions (e.g., work to be done, activities with friends or family, need to relax, new game expansion) that usually promote gaming (proplay cues) or prevent it (contraplay cues). Using a sample of 377 MMORPG players, we analyzed relationships between variables through partial least squares path modeling. We found that proplay cues sensitivity significantly positively affected the excessiveness of gaming (playing time) as well as the occurrence of problematic usage symptoms. Conversely, contraplay cues sensitivity functioned as a protective factor from these conditions; significant negative effects were found for playing time and problematic usage. Playing time was confirmed to be a mediating variable, affected by cues sensitivity and at the same time affecting problematic usage symptoms. We obtained moderately strong coefficients of determination for both endogenous variables (R(2) = 0.28 for playing time; R(2) = 0.31 for problematic usage) suggesting that the proposed variables possess good explanatory power. Based on our results, we argue that the strength of habitual regulation within MMORPG usage has both positive and negative effects on excessive and problematic usage, which is a new and important finding within the area of Internet gaming addiction.

  16. "You're being paged!" outcomes of a nursing home on-call role-playing and longitudinal curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Misuzu; Bell, Christina L; Inaba, Michiko; Tamura, Bruce K; Ahsan, Samina; Saunders, Valisa; Masaki, Kamal

    2013-11-01

    Effectively handling telephone calls about nursing home (NH) residents is an important skill for healthcare professionals, but little formal training is typically provided. The objective of the current study was to describe and evaluate the effectiveness of a novel structured role-playing didactic session followed by an on-call NH longitudinal clinical experience. The effectiveness of the structured role-playing didactic session was compared in different learners, including geriatric medicine fellows (n = 10), family medicine residents and faculty (n = 14), nurse practitioner students (n = 31), and other learners (n = 7). The curriculum focused on common problems encountered while caring for NH residents during on-call periods. Learners rated themselves using an 18-item pre/post questionnaire including five attitude and 13 skills questions, using a 1-to-5 Likert scale. T-tests were used to compare means before and after sessions. Significant improvements were found in overall mean attitudes and skills scores. For all learners, the greatest improvements were seen in "comfort in managing residents at the NH," "managing feeding or gastrostomy tube dislodgement," "identifying different availability of medications, laboratory studies, and procedures in NH," and "describing steps to send NH residents to the emergency department." Geriatric medicine fellows' attitudes and skills improved significantly after the longitudinal clinical experience. The faculty survey demonstrated improved documentation, communication, and fellows' management of on-call problems after curriculum implementation. This novel curriculum used role-playing to provide training for on-call management of NH residents. This curriculum has been successfully disseminated on a national geriatrics educational resource website (POGOe) and is applicable to geriatric medicine fellowships, internal medicine and family medicine residency programs, and other training programs.

  17. The dlt genes play a role in antimicrobial tolerance of Streptococcus mutans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Martin; Rybtke, Morten; Givskov, Michael; Høiby, Niels; Twetman, Svante; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2016-09-01

    Microbial biofilms are tolerant to antibiotic treatment and therefore cause problematic infections. Knowledge about the molecular mechanisms underlying biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance will aid the development of antibiofilm drugs. Screening of a Streptococcus mutans transposon mutant library for genes that are important for biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance provided evidence that the dlt genes play a role in the tolerance of S. mutans biofilms towards gentamicin. The minimum bactericidal concentration for biofilm cells (MBC-B) for a dltA transposon mutant was eight-fold lower than that of the wild-type. The minimum bactericidal concentration for planktonic cells (MBC-P) was only slightly reduced, indicating that the mechanism involved in the observed antimicrobial tolerance has a predominant role specifically in biofilms. Experiments with a knockout dltA mutant and complemented strain confirmed that the dlt genes in S. mutans play a role in biofilm-associated tolerance to gentamicin. Confocal laser scanning microscopy analyses of biofilms grown on glass slides showed that the dltA mutant produced roughly the same amount of biofilm as the wild-type, indicating that the reduced antimicrobial tolerance of the dltA mutant is not due to a defect in biofilm formation. The products of the dlt genes have been shown to mediate alanylation of teichoic acids, and in accordance the dltA mutant showed a more negatively charged surface than the wild-type, which likely is an important factor in the reduced tolerance of the dltA mutant biofilms towards the positively charged gentamicin.

  18. Smurf1 plays a role in EGF inhibition of BMP2-induced osteogenic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hye-Lim; Park, Hyun-Jung; Kwon, Arang [Department of Molecular Genetics, School of Dentistry and Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-749 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Kyunghwa [Department of Pharmacology, College of Dentistry and Research Institute of Oral Science, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung 210-702, Gangwondo (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Kyung Mi; Ryoo, Hyun-Mo; Kim, Gwan-Shik [Department of Molecular Genetics, School of Dentistry and Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-749 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Jeong-Hwa, E-mail: baekjh@snu.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Genetics, School of Dentistry and Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-01

    It has been demonstrated that epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays a role in supporting the proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells in bone but inhibits their osteogenic differentiation. However, the mechanism underlying EGF inhibition of osteoblast differentiation remains unclear. Smurf1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets Smad1/5 and Runx2, which are critical transcription factors for bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2)-induced osteoblast differentiation. In this study, we investigated the effect of EGF on the expression of Smurf1, and the role of Smurf1 in EGF inhibition of osteogenic differentiation using C2C12 cells, a murine myoblast cell line. EGF increased Smurf1 expression, which was blocked by inhibiting the activity of either JNK or ERK. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and Smurf1 promoter assays demonstrated that c-Jun and Runx2 play roles in the EGF induction of Smurf1 transcription. EGF suppressed BMP2-induced expression of osteogenic marker genes, which were rescued by Smurf1 knockdown. EGF downregulated the protein levels of Runx2 and Smad1 in a proteasome-dependent manner. EGF decreased the transcriptional activity of Runx2 and Smurf1, which was partially rescued by Smurf1 silencing. Taken together, these results suggest that EGF increases Smurf1 expression via the activation of JNK and ERK and the subsequent binding of c-Jun and Runx2 to the Smurf1 promoter and that Smurf1 mediates the inhibitory effect of EGF on BMP2-induced osteoblast differentiation. - Highlights: • EGF increases the expression level of Smurf1 in mesenchymal precursor cells. • EGF reduces the protein levels and transcriptional activity of Runx2 and Smad1. • EGF suppresses BMP2-induced osteogenic differentiation, which is rescued by Smurf1 knockdown.

  19. Nitric Oxide Plays a Central Role in Water Stress-Induced Tanshinone Production in Salvia miltiorrhiza Hairy Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhong Du

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO, a well-known signaling molecule plays an important role in abiotic and biotic stress-induced production of plant secondary metabolites. In this study, roles of NO in water stress-induced tanshinone production in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots were investigated. The results showed that accumulations of four tanshinone compounds in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots were significantly stimulated by sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a NO donor at 100 μM. Effects of SNP were just partially arrested by the mevalonate (MVA pathway inhibitor (mevinolin, but were completely inhibited by the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate pathway (MEP inhibitor (fosmidomycin. The increase of tanshinone accumulation and the up-regulation of HMGR and DXR expression by PEG and ABA treatments were partially inhibited by an inhibitor of NO biosynthesis (Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME and a NO scavenger (2-(4-Carboxyphenyl- 4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO. Simultaneously, NO generation in the hairy roots was triggered by PEG and ABA, and the effects were also arrested by c-PTIO and L-NAME. These results indicated that NO signaling probably plays a central role in water stress-induced tanshinone production in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots. SNP mainly stimulated the MEP pathway to increase tanshinone accumulation.

  20. Nitric Oxide Plays a Central Role in Water Stress-Induced Tanshinone Production in Salvia miltiorrhiza Hairy Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xuhong; Zhang, Chenlu; Guo, Wanli; Jin, Weibo; Liang, Zongsuo; Yan, Xijun; Guo, Zhixin; Liu, Yan; Yang, Dongfeng

    2015-04-24

    Nitric oxide (NO), a well-known signaling molecule plays an important role in abiotic and biotic stress-induced production of plant secondary metabolites. In this study, roles of NO in water stress-induced tanshinone production in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots were investigated. The results showed that accumulations of four tanshinone compounds in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots were significantly stimulated by sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a NO donor) at 100 μM. Effects of SNP were just partially arrested by the mevalonate (MVA) pathway inhibitor (mevinolin), but were completely inhibited by the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate pathway (MEP) inhibitor (fosmidomycin). The increase of tanshinone accumulation and the up-regulation of HMGR and DXR expression by PEG and ABA treatments were partially inhibited by an inhibitor of NO biosynthesis (Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)) and a NO scavenger (2-(4-Carboxyphenyl)- 4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO)). Simultaneously, NO generation in the hairy roots was triggered by PEG and ABA, and the effects were also arrested by c-PTIO and L-NAME. These results indicated that NO signaling probably plays a central role in water stress-induced tanshinone production in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots. SNP mainly stimulated the MEP pathway to increase tanshinone accumulation.