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Sample records for play mirror self-recognition

  1. Mirror self-recognition: a review and critique of attempts to promote and engineer self-recognition in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R; Gallup, Gordon G

    2015-10-01

    We review research on reactions to mirrors and self-recognition in nonhuman primates, focusing on methodological issues. Starting with the initial demonstration in chimpanzees in 1970 and subsequent attempts to extend this to other species, self-recognition in great apes is discussed with emphasis on spontaneous manifestations of mirror-guided self-exploration as well as spontaneous use of the mirror to investigate foreign marks on otherwise nonvisible body parts-the mark test. Attempts to show self-recognition in other primates are examined with particular reference to the lack of convincing examples of spontaneous mirror-guided self-exploration, and efforts to engineer positive mark test responses by modifying the test or using conditioning techniques. Despite intensive efforts to demonstrate self-recognition in other primates, we conclude that to date there is no compelling evidence that prosimians, monkeys, or lesser apes-gibbons and siamangs-are capable of mirror self-recognition.

  2. Development of Self-Recognition, Personal Pronoun Use, and Pretend Play During the 2nd Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Ramsay, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relation of visual self-recognition to personal pronoun use and pretend play. For a longitudinal sample (N66) at the ages when self-recognition was emerging (15, 18, and 21 months), self-recognition was related to personal pronoun use and pretend play such that children showing self-recognition used more personal pronouns…

  3. Mirror-induced behavior in the magpie (Pica pica: evidence of self-recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Prior

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Comparative studies suggest that at least some bird species have evolved mental skills similar to those found in humans and apes. This is indicated by feats such as tool use, episodic-like memory, and the ability to use one's own experience in predicting the behavior of conspecifics. It is, however, not yet clear whether these skills are accompanied by an understanding of the self. In apes, self-directed behavior in response to a mirror has been taken as evidence of self-recognition. We investigated mirror-induced behavior in the magpie, a songbird species from the crow family. As in apes, some individuals behaved in front of the mirror as if they were testing behavioral contingencies. When provided with a mark, magpies showed spontaneous mark-directed behavior. Our findings provide the first evidence of mirror self-recognition in a non-mammalian species. They suggest that essential components of human self-recognition have evolved independently in different vertebrate classes with a separate evolutionary history.

  4. What mirror self-recognition can tell us about aspects of self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilhab, Theresa

    2007-01-01

    Biology and Philosophy Vol. 19(no.1):111-126. 2004 Short description: What does the capacity to recognize self by mirrors tell about self-consciousness? Abstract: Research on mirror self-recognition where animals are observed for mirror-guided self-directed behaviour has predominated the empirical...... approach to self-awareness in nonhuman primates. The ability to direct behaviour to previously unseen parts of the body such as the inside of the mouth, or grooming the eye by aid of mirrors has been interpreted as recognition of self and evidence of a self-concept. Three decades of research has revealed...... that contrary to monkeys, most great apes (humans, common chimpanzees, pygmy chimpanzees and orangutans but not the gorilla) have convincingly displayed the capacity to recognize self by mirrors. The putative discontinuity in phylogeny of the ability suggests the existence of a so-called cognitive gap between...

  5. Spontaneous expression of mirror self-recognition in monkeys after learning precise visual-proprioceptive association for mirror images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Liangtang; Zhang, Shikun; Poo, Mu-Ming; Gong, Neng

    2017-03-21

    Mirror self-recognition (MSR) is generally considered to be an intrinsic cognitive ability found only in humans and a few species of great apes. Rhesus monkeys do not spontaneously show MSR, but they have the ability to use a mirror as an instrument to find hidden objects. The mechanism underlying the transition from simple mirror use to MSR remains unclear. Here we show that rhesus monkeys could show MSR after learning precise visual-proprioceptive association for mirror images. We trained head-fixed monkeys on a chair in front of a mirror to touch with spatiotemporal precision a laser pointer light spot on an adjacent board that could only be seen in the mirror. After several weeks of training, when the same laser pointer light was projected to the monkey's face, a location not used in training, all three trained monkeys successfully touched the face area marked by the light spot in front of a mirror. All trained monkeys passed the standard face mark test for MSR both on the monkey chair and in their home cage. Importantly, distinct from untrained control monkeys, the trained monkeys showed typical mirror-induced self-directed behaviors in their home cage, such as using the mirror to explore normally unseen body parts. Thus, bodily self-consciousness may be a cognitive ability present in many more species than previously thought, and acquisition of precise visual-proprioceptive association for the images in the mirror is critical for revealing the MSR ability of the animal.

  6. MONKEYS, MIRRORS, AND ME: GORDON GALLUP AND THE STUDY OF SELF-RECOGNITION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Katja

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the work of psychologist Gordon Gallup, Jr., during the 1960s and 1970s on mirror self-recognition in animals. It shows how Gallup tried to integrate the mental "self-concept" into an otherwise strictly behaviorist paradigm. By making an argument from material culture, the article demonstrates how Gallup's adoption of a self-concept is best understood as a product of his sustained analysis of the workings of the mirror as a piece of experimental apparatus. In certain situations, the stimulus properties of the mirror changed dramatically, a shift that Gallup thought legitimated the positing of a self-concept. For this reason, Gallup supposed he could use a mirror to provide an operationalized concept of the self, that is, produce a definition that was compatible with behaviorist experimental norms. The article argues that behaviorism was more supple and productive than is often assumed, and contained resources that could align it with the "cognitive revolution" to which it is most often opposed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Dolphins' Self-Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宏纲

    2004-01-01

    Many people believe that dolphins are among the smartest animals on Earth. Dolphins are warm-blooded sea animals, Recently, scientists discovered that dolphins could do something that humans can do. They say dolphins can recognize themselves in a mirror, a shiny piece of glass.

  8. Gaming mirrors at play through ludic data-selves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Gandolfi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the article is on data-self technology in digital entertainment - virtual entities that replicate and/or are influenced by players’ behaviors and actions, working as agential mirrors on the screen. Little efforts have been done in investigating their potential in social research and educational technology; however, data-selves can serve as promising self-revealing tools toward personal identities and narrations. In order to enlighten their effectiveness, a multidisciplinary framework led by the core concepts of “narrative identity” and “discursive-practical consciousness” is advanced. The proposal has been tested (pre-post interviews and play sessions with an empirical exploration involving n:32 participants and the video games Black and White 2 and Forza: Motorsprint 5, which include data-self features. Results show that this technology can make a difference in engaging and stimulating subjects’ interest and feedback, but further researches are needed to deepen its scope and range of application.

  9. Play in America from Pilgrims and Patriots to Kid Jocks and Joystick Jockeys: Or How Play Mirrors Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on a range of sources in the history of play, this article discusses how play for all ages mirrors social change, especially but not exclusively in America. The article explores three broad themes from colonial times to the present: first, how play was shaped by changes in work and time at work; second, how play activities were transformed…

  10. On whether mirror neurons play a significant role in processing affective prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Vijayachandra

    2009-02-01

    Several behavioral and neuroimaging studies have indicated that both right and left cortical structures and a few subcortical ones are involved in processing affective prosody. Recent investigations have shown that the mirror neuron system plays a crucial role in several higher-level functions such as empathy, theory of mind, language, etc., but no studies so far link the mirror neuron system with affective prosody. In this paper is a speculation that the mirror neuron system, which serves as a common neural substrate for different higher-level functions, may play a significant role in processing affective prosody via its connections with the limbic lobe. Actual research must apply electrophysiological and neuroimaging techniques to assess whether the mirror neuron systems underly affective prosody in humans.

  11. Mirroring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Gregers

    2016-01-01

    and metaphorical value of mirroring for creativity theory across two different research fields — neuroscience and learning. We engage in a mutual (possibly creative) exploration of mirroring from ‘mirror neurons’ to mirroring in social learning theory. One of the most fascinating aspects of mirroring......Most definitions of creativity emphasise originality. The creative product is recognised as distinct from other products and the creative person as someone who stands out from the crowd. What tend to be overlooked are acts of mirroring as a crucial element of the creative process. The human ability...... to empathise and socialise is partly due to another, more fundamental ability to duplicate the stance of the other (see also Chapter 13). Through mirroring, we attune to other people and thus create resonance and preparedness for mutual creative exploration. In this chapter, we investigate the object...

  12. Mirror, mirror on the wall, how does my brain recognize my image at all?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Butler

    Full Text Available For decades researchers have used mirrors to study self-recognition. However, attempts to identify neural processes underlying this ability have used photographs instead. Here we used event related potentials (ERPs to compare self-face recognition in photographs versus mirrors and found distinct neural signatures. Measures of visual self-recognition are therefore not independent of the medium employed.

  13. Play with online virtual pets as a method to improve mirror neuron and real world functioning in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Eric Lewin

    2008-01-01

    Autism is a severe disease with no known cause and no cure or treatment. Recently, ourselves and subsequently others found that so-called "mirror neurons" - neurons that respond not only when a person moves, but upon observation of movement in another - are dysfunctional in autistic children. Here I suggest an easy, simple, inexpensive and fun method to improve mirror neuron functioning in autistic children, increase appreciation in autistic children for the theory of mind and thinking of others, and most importantly hopefully to improve real world functioning: play with virtual online pets that are the "embodiment" of a stuffed animal the child has. Adoption and then care and play with online pets forces, in a fun way, one to think about the world through the eyes and needs of the pet. A simple method to test this play with online virtual pet therapy is described.

  14. Virus-mediated suppression of host non-self recognition facilitates horizontal transmission of heterologous viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songsong; Cheng, Jiasen; Fu, Yanping; Chen, Tao; Jiang, Daohong; Ghabrial, Said A.

    2017-01-01

    Non-self recognition is a common phenomenon among organisms; it often leads to innate immunity to prevent the invasion of parasites and maintain the genetic polymorphism of organisms. Fungal vegetative incompatibility is a type of non-self recognition which often induces programmed cell death (PCD) and restricts the spread of molecular parasites. It is not clearly known whether virus infection could attenuate non-self recognition among host individuals to facilitate its spread. Here, we report that a hypovirulence-associated mycoreovirus, named Sclerotinia sclerotiorum mycoreovirus 4 (SsMYRV4), could suppress host non-self recognition and facilitate horizontal transmission of heterologous viruses. We found that cell death in intermingled colony regions between SsMYRV4-infected Sclerotinia sclerotiorum strain and other tested vegetatively incompatible strains was markedly reduced and inhibition barrage lines were not clearly observed. Vegetative incompatibility, which involves Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) signaling pathway, is controlled by specific loci termed het (heterokaryon incompatibility) loci. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a key role in vegetative incompatibility-mediated PCD. The expression of G protein subunit genes, het genes, and ROS-related genes were significantly down-regulated, and cellular production of ROS was suppressed in the presence of SsMYRV4. Furthermore, SsMYRV4-infected strain could easily accept other viruses through hyphal contact and these viruses could be efficiently transmitted from SsMYRV4-infected strain to other vegetatively incompatible individuals. Thus, we concluded that SsMYRV4 is capable of suppressing host non-self recognition and facilitating heterologous viruses transmission among host individuals. These findings may enhance our understanding of virus ecology, and provide a potential strategy to utilize hypovirulence-associated mycoviruses to control fungal diseases. PMID:28334041

  15. Delayed Self-Recognition in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Sophie E.; Bowler, Dermot M.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate temporally extended self-awareness (awareness of one's place in and continued existence through time) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), using the delayed self-recognition (DSR) paradigm (Povinelli et al., Child Development 67:1540-1554, 1996). Relative to age and verbal ability matched comparison children, children…

  16. The Effects of Mirroring in a Playful Virtual Environment: A Comparative Study with Children and Adults Having Impairments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borum, Nanna; Christiansen, Line Gad; Jepsen, Henrik Wolff

    2013-01-01

    consisting of two test conditions, a mirrored self-image condition and a silhouette condition, were conducted with repeated measurement and an interval of one week between each condition. The participants were from four special needs daycare centers and selected by caregivers. They consisted of 20 children...

  17. Self-recognition in the Asian elephant and future directions for cognitive research with elephants in zoological settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnik, Joshua M; de Waal, Frans B M; Moore, Donald; Reiss, Diana

    2010-01-01

    The field of animal cognition has grown steadily for nearly four decades, but the primary focus has centered on easily kept lab animals of varying cognitive capacity, including rodents, birds and primates. Elephants (animals not easily kept in a laboratory) are generally thought of as highly social, cooperative, intelligent animals, yet few studies-with the exception of long-term behavioral field studies-have been conducted to directly support this assumption. In fact, there has been remarkably little cognitive research conducted on Asian (Elephas maximus) or African (Loxodonta africana or L. cyclotis) elephants. Here, we discuss the opportunity and rationale for conducting such research on elephants in zoological facilities, and review some of the recent developments in the field of elephant cognition, including our recent study on mirror self-recognition in E. maximus.

  18. From mirror self-recognition to the looking-glass self: exploring the Justification Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Leigh S

    2005-01-01

    In his Tree of Knowledge (ToK) System, Henriques (2003) posits that the human ego or "self" has evolved because human beings are the only animals that have had to justify their behavior to others. This essay provides evidence for this Justification Hypothesis (JH) from everyday life sociology, starting with the work of George Herbert Mead and Charles Horton Cooley, and focuses on research related to the concept of the "looking-glass self." Special emphasis is given to the pragmatics of speech acts, the presentation of self in interaction rituals, the accounts given by actors in justification of their actions, and the role of social norms and conformity in the large-scale justification systems commonly called "culture."

  19. Playing Charades in the fMRI : Are Mirror and/or Mentalizing Areas Involved in Gestural Communication?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, Marleen B.; Gazzola, Valeria; Goebel, Rainer; Keysers, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Communication is an important aspect of human life, allowing us to powerfully coordinate our behaviour with that of others. Boiled down to its mere essentials, communication entails transferring a mental content from one brain to another. Spoken language obviously plays an important role in

  20. DMPD: Infectious non-self recognition in invertebrates: lessons from Drosophila andother insect models. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15476918 Infectious non-self recognition in invertebrates: lessons from Drosophila ...fectious non-self recognition in invertebrates: lessons from Drosophila andother insect models. PubmedID 154...76918 Title Infectious non-self recognition in invertebrates: lessons from Drosop

  1. Cultural difference in neural mechanisms of self-recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Jie; Liu, Chang Hong; Han, Shihui

    2012-01-01

    Self-construals are different between Western and East Asian cultures in that the Western self emphasizes more on self-focused attention whereas the East Asian self stresses more on the fundamental social connections between people. To investigate whether such cultural difference in self-related processing extends to face recognition, we recorded event-related potentials from British and Chinese subjects while they judged head orientations of their own face or a familiar face in visual displays. For the British, the own-face induced faster responses and a larger negative activity at 280-340 ms over the frontal-central area (N2) relative to the familiar face. In contrast, the Chinese showed weakened self-advantage in behavioral responses and reduced anterior N2 amplitude to the own-face compared with the familiar face. Our findings suggest that enhanced social salience of one’s own face results in different neurocognitive processes of self-recognition in Western and Chinese cultures. PMID:19739032

  2. Mirror neurons and mirror systems in monkeys and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2008-06-01

    Mirror neurons are a distinct class of neurons that transform specific sensory information into a motor format. Mirror neurons have been originally discovered in the premotor and parietal cortex of the monkey. Subsequent neurophysiological (TMS, EEG, MEG) and brain imaging studies have shown that a mirror mechanism is also present in humans. According to its anatomical locations, mirror mechanism plays a role in action and intention understanding, imitation, speech, and emotion feeling.

  3. Cardiac Responses in a Japanese Monkey to Mirror-Self-Image

    OpenAIRE

    Itakura, Shoji; Fukuda, Sachio

    1993-01-01

    The heart rate of one male Japanese monkey was recorded during the presentation of a mirror and a real monkey. The patterns of heart rate changes were different between the two kinds of stimuli. The possibility of a new index of self-recognition in nonhuman primates was demonstrated.

  4. Einstein's Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjurchinovski, Aleksandar; Skeparovski, Aleksandar

    2008-01-01

    Reflection of light from a plane mirror in uniform rectilinear motion is a century-old problem, intimately related to the foundations of special relativity. The problem was first investigated by Einstein in his famous 1905 paper by using the Lorentz transformations to switch from the mirror's rest frame to the frame where the mirror moves at a…

  5. Archetypal-Imaging and Mirror-Gazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni B. Caputo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mirrors have been studied by cognitive psychology in order to understand self-recognition, self-identity, and self-consciousness. Moreover, the relevance of mirrors in spirituality, magic and arts may also suggest that mirrors can be symbols of unconscious contents. Carl G. Jung investigated mirrors in relation to the unconscious, particularly in Psychology and Alchemy. However, the relationship between the conscious behavior in front of a mirror and the unconscious meaning of mirrors has not been clarified. Recently, empirical research found that gazing at one’s own face in the mirror for a few minutes, at a low illumination level, produces the perception of bodily dysmorphic illusions of strange-faces. Healthy observers usually describe huge distortions of their own faces, monstrous beings, prototypical faces, faces of relatives and deceased, and faces of animals. In the psychiatric population, some schizophrenics show a dramatic increase of strange-face illusions. They can also describe the perception of multiple-others that fill the mirror surface surrounding their strange-face. Schizophrenics are usually convinced that strange-face illusions are truly real and identify themselves with strange-face illusions, diversely from healthy individuals who never identify with them. On the contrary, most patients with major depression do not perceive strange-face illusions, or they perceive very faint changes of their immobile faces in the mirror, like death statues. Strange-face illusions may be the psychodynamic projection of the subject’s unconscious archetypal contents into the mirror image. Therefore, strange-face illusions might provide both an ecological setting and an experimental technique for “imaging of the unconscious”. Future researches have been proposed.

  6. Archetypal-imaging and mirror-gazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Giovanni B

    2014-03-01

    Mirrors have been studied by cognitive psychology in order to understand self-recognition, self-identity, and self-consciousness. Moreover, the relevance of mirrors in spirituality, magic and arts may also suggest that mirrors can be symbols of unconscious contents. Carl G. Jung investigated mirrors in relation to the unconscious, particularly in Psychology and Alchemy. However, the relationship between the conscious behavior in front of a mirror and the unconscious meaning of mirrors has not been clarified. Recently, empirical research found that gazing at one's own face in the mirror for a few minutes, at a low illumination level, produces the perception of bodily dysmorphic illusions of strange-faces. Healthy observers usually describe huge distortions of their own faces, monstrous beings, prototypical faces, faces of relatives and deceased, and faces of animals. In the psychiatric population, some schizophrenics show a dramatic increase of strange-face illusions. They can also describe the perception of multiple-others that fill the mirror surface surrounding their strange-face. Schizophrenics are usually convinced that strange-face illusions are truly real and identify themselves with strange-face illusions, diversely from healthy individuals who never identify with them. On the contrary, most patients with major depression do not perceive strange-face illusions, or they perceive very faint changes of their immobile faces in the mirror, like death statues. Strange-face illusions may be the psychodynamic projection of the subject's unconscious archetypal contents into the mirror image. Therefore, strange-face illusions might provide both an ecological setting and an experimental technique for "imaging of the unconscious". Future researches have been proposed.

  7. Chiral mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plum, Eric, E-mail: erp@orc.soton.ac.uk [Optoelectronics Research Centre and Centre for Photonic Metamaterials, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Zheludev, Nikolay I., E-mail: niz@orc.soton.ac.uk [Optoelectronics Research Centre and Centre for Photonic Metamaterials, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); The Photonics Institute and Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637378 (Singapore)

    2015-06-01

    Mirrors are used in telescopes, microscopes, photo cameras, lasers, satellite dishes, and everywhere else, where redirection of electromagnetic radiation is required making them arguably the most important optical component. While conventional isotropic mirrors will reflect linear polarizations without change, the handedness of circularly polarized waves is reversed upon reflection. Here, we demonstrate a type of mirror reflecting one circular polarization without changing its handedness, while absorbing the other. The polarization-preserving mirror consists of a planar metasurface with a subwavelength pattern that cannot be superimposed with its mirror image without being lifted out of its plane, and a conventional mirror spaced by a fraction of the wavelength from the metasurface. Such mirrors enable circularly polarized lasers and Fabry-Pérot cavities with enhanced tunability, gyroscopic applications, polarization-sensitive detectors of electromagnetic waves, and can be used to enhance spectroscopies of chiral media.

  8. Neural Mechanism for Mirrored Self-face Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Motoaki; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Kotozaki, Yuka; Akimoto, Yoritaka; Nozawa, Takayuki; Yomogida, Yukihito; Hanawa, Sugiko; Yamamoto, Yuki; Sakuma, Atsushi; Nakagawa, Seishu; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-09-01

    Self-face recognition in the mirror is considered to involve multiple processes that integrate 2 perceptual cues: temporal contingency of the visual feedback on one's action (contingency cue) and matching with self-face representation in long-term memory (figurative cue). The aim of this study was to examine the neural bases of these processes by manipulating 2 perceptual cues using a "virtual mirror" system. This system allowed online dynamic presentations of real-time and delayed self- or other facial actions. Perception-level processes were identified as responses to only a single perceptual cue. The effect of the contingency cue was identified in the cuneus. The regions sensitive to the figurative cue were subdivided by the response to a static self-face, which was identified in the right temporal, parietal, and frontal regions, but not in the bilateral occipitoparietal regions. Semantic- or integration-level processes, including amodal self-representation and belief validation, which allow modality-independent self-recognition and the resolution of potential conflicts between perceptual cues, respectively, were identified in distinct regions in the right frontal and insular cortices. The results are supportive of the multicomponent notion of self-recognition and suggest a critical role for contingency detection in the co-emergence of self-recognition and empathy in infants.

  9. Magic Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Allan

    2011-01-01

    "Magic mirrors" were so named because, when they were positioned to throw a reflected patch of sunlight on a nearby wall, this area contained an outline of a design cast on the back of the (bronze) mirror. Investigations begun in the 19th century showed that this was a response to heavy localized pressures exerted on the face of the thin mirror…

  10. Real-time face swapping as a tool for understanding infant self-recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Sao Mai; Asada, Minoru

    2011-01-01

    To study the preference of infants for contingency of movements and familiarity of faces during self-recognition task, we built, as an accurate and instantaneous imitator, a real-time face- swapper for videos. We present a non-constraint face-swapper based on 3D visual tracking that achieves real-time performance through parallel computing. Our imitator system is par- ticularly suited for experiments involving children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder who are often strongly disturbed by the constraints of other methods.

  11. Mirror symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Voisin, Claire

    1999-01-01

    This is the English translation of Professor Voisin's book reflecting the discovery of the mirror symmetry phenomenon. The first chapter is devoted to the geometry of Calabi-Yau manifolds, and the second describes, as motivation, the ideas from quantum field theory that led to the discovery of mirror symmetry. The other chapters deal with more specialized aspects of the subject: the work of Candelas, de la Ossa, Greene, and Parkes, based on the fact that under the mirror symmetry hypothesis, the variation of Hodge structure of a Calabi-Yau threefold determines the Gromov-Witten invariants of its mirror; Batyrev's construction, which exhibits the mirror symmetry phenomenon between hypersurfaces of toric Fano varieties, after a combinatorial classification of the latter; the mathematical construction of the Gromov-Witten potential, and the proof of its crucial property (that it satisfies the WDVV equation), which makes it possible to construct a flat connection underlying a variation of Hodge structure in the ...

  12. Mirror neurons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rubia Vila, Francisco José

    2011-01-01

    Mirror neurons were recently discovered in frontal brain areas of the monkey. They are activated when the animal makes a specific movement, but also when the animal observes the same movement in another animal...

  13. Mirror, mirror on the wall

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    RICH 2, one of the two Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment, is being prepared to join the other detector elements ready for the first proton-proton collisions at LHC. The mirrors of the RICH2 detector are meticulously assembled in a clean room.In a large dark room, men in white move around an immense structure some 7 metres high, 10 metres wide and nearly 2.5 metres deep. Apparently effortlessly, they are installing the two large high-precision spherical mirrors. These mirrors will focus Cherenkov light, created by the charged particles that will traverse this detector, onto the photon detectors. Each spherical mirror wall is made up of facets like a fly's eye. Twenty-eight individual thin glass mirrors will all point to the same point in space to within a few micro-radians. The development of these mirrors has been technically demanding : Ideally they should be massless, sturdy, precise and have high reflectivity. In practice, though not massless, they are made from a mere 6 mm thin gl...

  14. Self-recognition mechanism between skin and suckers prevents octopus arms from interfering with each other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesher, Nir; Levy, Guy; Grasso, Frank W; Hochner, Binyamin

    2014-06-02

    Controlling movements of flexible arms is a challenging task for the octopus because of the virtually infinite number of degrees of freedom (DOFs) [1, 2]. Octopuses simplify this control by using stereotypical motion patterns that reduce the DOFs, in the control space, to a workable few [2]. These movements are triggered by the brain and are generated by motor programs embedded in the peripheral neuromuscular system of the arm [3-5]. The hundreds of suckers along each arm have a tendency to stick to almost any object they contact [6-9]. The existence of this reflex could pose significant problems with unplanned interactions between the arms if not appropriately managed. This problem is likely to be accentuated because it is accepted that octopuses are "not aware of their arms" [10-14]. Here we report of a self-recognition mechanism that has a novel role in motor control, restraining the arms from interfering with each other. We show that the suckers of amputated arms never attach to octopus skin because a chemical in the skin inhibits the attachment reflex of the suckers. The peripheral mechanism appears to be overridden by central control because, in contrast to amputated arms, behaving octopuses sometime grab amputated arms. Surprisingly, octopuses seem to identify their own amputated arms, as they treat arms of other octopuses like food more often than their own. This self-recognition mechanism is a novel peripheral component in the embodied organization of the adaptive interactions between the octopus's brain, body, and environment [15, 16].

  15. Danger signals - damaged-self recognition across the tree of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eHeil

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Multicellular organisms suffer injury and serve as hosts for microorganisms. Therefore, they require mechanisms to detect injury and to distinguish the self from the non-self and the harmless non-self (microbial mutualists and commensals from the detrimental non-self (pathogens. Danger signals are 'damage-associated molecular patterns' (DAMPs that are released from the disrupted host tissue or exposed on stressed cells. Seemingly ubiquitous DAMPs are extracellular ATP or extracellular DNA, fragmented cell walls or extracellular matrices, and many other types of delocalized molecules and fragments of macromolecules that are released when pre-existing precursors come into contact with enzymes from which they are separated in the intact cell. Any kind of these DAMPs enable damaged-self recognition, inform the host on tissue disruption, initiate processes aimed at restoring homeostasis, such as sealing the wound, and prepare the adjacent tissues for the perception of invaders. In mammals, antigen-processing and -presenting cells such as dendritic cells mature to immunostimulatory cells after the perception of DAMPs, prime naïve T-cells and elicit a specific adaptive T-/B-cell immune response. We discuss molecules that serve as DAMPs in multiple organisms and their perception by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs. Ca2+- fluxes, membrane depolarization, the liberation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signalling cascades are the ubiquitous molecular mechanisms that act downstream of the PRRs in organisms across the tree of life. Damaged-self recognition contains both homologous and analogous elements and is likely to have evolved in all eukaryotic kingdoms, because all organisms found the same solutions for the same problem: damage must be recognized without depending on enemy-derived molecules and responses to the non-self must be directed specifically against detrimental invaders.

  16. [Mirror neurons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubia Vila, Francisco José

    2011-01-01

    Mirror neurons were recently discovered in frontal brain areas of the monkey. They are activated when the animal makes a specific movement, but also when the animal observes the same movement in another animal. Some of them also respond to the emotional expression of other animals of the same species. These mirror neurons have also been found in humans. They respond to or "reflect" actions of other individuals in the brain and are thought to represent the basis for imitation and empathy and hence the neurobiological substrate for "theory of mind", the potential origin of language and the so-called moral instinct.

  17. Different neural processes accompany self-recognition in photographs across the lifespan: an ERP study using dizygotic twins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Butler

    Full Text Available Our appearance changes over time, yet we can recognize ourselves in photographs from across the lifespan. Researchers have extensively studied self-recognition in photographs and have proposed that specific neural correlates are involved, but few studies have examined self-recognition using images from different periods of life. Here we compared ERP responses to photographs of participants when they were 5-15, 16-25, and 26-45 years old. We found marked differences between the responses to photographs from these time periods in terms of the neural markers generally assumed to reflect (i the configural processing of faces (i.e., the N170, (ii the matching of the currently perceived face to a representation already stored in memory (i.e., the P250, and (iii the retrieval of information about the person being recognized (i.e., the N400. There was no uniform neural signature of visual self-recognition. To test whether there was anything specific to self-recognition in these brain responses, we also asked participants to identify photographs of their dizygotic twins taken from the same time periods. Critically, this allowed us to minimize the confounding effects of exposure, for it is likely that participants have been similarly exposed to each other's faces over the lifespan. The same pattern of neural response emerged with only one exception: the neural marker reflecting the retrieval of mnemonic information (N400 differed across the lifespan for self but not for twin. These results, as well as our novel approach using twins and photographs from across the lifespan, have wide-ranging consequences for the study of self-recognition and the nature of our personal identity through time.

  18. What do mirror neurons mirror?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uithol, S.; Rooij, I.J.E.I. van; Bekkering, H.; Haselager, W.F.G.

    2011-01-01

    Single cell recordings in monkeys provide strong evidence for an important role of the motor system in action understanding. This evidence is backed up by data from studies of the (human) mirror neuron system using neuroimaging or TMS techniques, and behavioral experiments. Although the data acquire

  19. What do mirror neurons mirror?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uithol, S.; Rooij, I.J.E.I. van; Bekkering, H.; Haselager, W.F.G.

    2011-01-01

    Single cell recordings in monkeys provide strong evidence for an important role of the motor system in action understanding. This evidence is backed up by data from studies of the (human) mirror neuron system using neuroimaging or TMS techniques, and behavioral experiments. Although the data

  20. Mirror monochromator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankos, Marian [Electron Optica, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Shadman, Khashayar [Electron Optica, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2014-12-02

    In this SBIR project, Electron Optica, Inc. (EOI) is developing a mirror electron monochromator (MirrorChrom) attachment to new and retrofitted electron microscopes (EMs) for improving the energy resolution of the EM from the characteristic range of 0.2-0.5 eV to the range of 10-50 meV. This improvement will enhance the characterization of materials by imaging and spectroscopy. In particular, the monochromator will refine the energy spectra characterizing materials, as obtained from transmission EMs [TEMs] fitted with electron spectrometers, and it will increase the spatial resolution of the images of materials taken with scanning EMs (SEMs) operated at low voltages. EOI’s MirrorChrom technology utilizes a magnetic prism to simultaneously deflect the electron beam off the axis of the microscope column by 90° and disperse the electrons in proportional to their energies into a module with an electron mirror and a knife-edge. The knife-edge cuts off the tails of the energy distribution to reduce the energy spread of the electrons that are reflected, and subsequently deflected, back into the microscope column. The knife-edge is less prone to contamination, and thereby charging, than the conventional slits used in existing monochromators, which improves the reliability and stability of the module. The overall design of the MirrorChrom exploits the symmetry inherent in reversing the electron trajectory in order to maintain the beam brightness – a parameter that impacts how well the electron beam can be focused downstream onto a sample. During phase I, EOI drafted a set of candidate monochromator architectures and evaluated the trade-offs between energy resolution and beam current to achieve the optimum design for three particular applications with market potential: increasing the spatial resolution of low voltage SEMs, increasing the energy resolution of low voltage TEMs (beam energy of 5-20 keV), and increasing the energy resolution of conventional TEMs (beam

  1. Mirror systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howells, M.R.

    1985-12-01

    The physics of VUV and x-ray reflection is reviewed. The main functions of mirrors in synchrotron beamlines are stated briefly and include deflection, filtration, power absorption, formation of a real image of the source, focusing, and collimation. Methods of fabrication of optical surfaces are described. Types of imperfections are discussed, including, aberrations, surface figure inaccuracy, roughness, and degradation due to use. Calculation of the photon beam thermal load, including computer modelling, is considered. 50 refs., 7 figs. (LEW)

  2. Near-wall Behavior of a Scale Self-Recognition Mixed SGS Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Mizuki; Minamoto, Yuki; Naka, Yoshitsugu; Fukushima, Naoya; Shimura, Masayasu; Tanahashi, Mamoru

    2016-11-01

    A Scale Self-Recognition Mixed SGS Model was developed in terms of GS-SGS energy transfer in homogenius isotropic turbulence by Fukushima et al. (2015). In the present research, the near-wall characteristics of the Smagorinsky coefficient, CS are investigated in terms of GS-SGS energy transfer by analyzing DNS data of turbulent channel flows at Reτ = 400, 800 and 1270. CS is dependent on grid anisotropy, and this cause dependences of CS on Reτ . It is revealed that CS obtained directly from the DNS data is independent of Reτ and dependent on only dimensionless wall distance, y+ and filter-width to Kolmogorov scale ratio corrected by f, f . Δ / η , when the grid anisotropy is isolated from CS by using the correction function f proposed by Scotti et al. (1993). The contributions of Leonard, cross and Reynolds terms to total energy transfer are also independent of Reτ and dependent on only y+ and f . Δ / η in the near-wall region. These results suggest that CS can be determined dynamically from f . Δ / η in the wall turbulence if η is sufficiently predicted from the grid scale quantities.

  3. Non-self recognition, transcriptional reprogramming, and secondary metabolite accumulation during plant/pathogen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahlbrock, Klaus; Bednarek, Pawel; Ciolkowski, Ingo; Hamberger, Björn; Heise, Andreas; Liedgens, Hiltrud; Logemann, Elke; Nürnberger, Thorsten; Schmelzer, Elmon; Somssich, Imre E; Tan, Jianwen

    2003-11-25

    Disease resistance of plants involves two distinct forms of chemical communication with the pathogen: recognition and defense. Both are essential components of a highly complex, multifaceted defense response, which begins with non-self recognition through the perception of pathogen-derived signal molecules and results in the production, inter alia, of antibiotically active compounds (phytoalexins) and cell wall-reinforcing material around the infection site. To elucidate the molecular details and the genomic basis of the underlying chains of events, we used two different experimental systems: suspension-cultured cells of Petroselinum crispum (parsley) and wild-type as well as mutant plants of Arabidopsis thaliana. Particular emphasis was placed on the structural and functional identification of signal and defense molecules, and on the mechanisms of signal perception, intracellular signal transduction and transcriptional reprogramming, including the structural and functional characterization of the responsible cis-acting gene promoter elements and transacting regulatory proteins. Comparing P. crispum and A. thaliana allows us to distinguish species-specific defense mechanisms from more universal responses, and furthermore provides general insights into the nature of the interactions. Despite the complexity of the pathogen defense response, it is experimentally tractable, and knowledge gained so far has opened up a new realm of gene technology-assisted strategies for resistance breeding of crop plants.

  4. Mirror neurons: their implications for group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermer, Victor L

    2010-10-01

    Recently discovered mirror neurons in the motor cortex of the brain register the actions and intentions of both the organism and others in the environment. As such, they may play a significant role in social behavior and groups. This paper considers the potential implications of mirror neurons and related neural networks for group therapists, proposing that mirror neurons and mirror systems provide "hard-wired" support for the group therapist's belief in the centrality of relationships in the treatment process and exploring their value in accounting for group-as-a-whole phenomena. Mirror neurons further confirm the holistic, social nature of perception, action, and intention as distinct from a stimulus-response behaviorism. The implications of mirror neurons and mirroring processes for the group therapist role, interventions, and training are also discussed.

  5. Bosonization and Mirror Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Kachru, Shamit; Torroba, Gonzalo; Wang, Huajia

    2016-01-01

    We study bosonization in 2+1 dimensions using mirror symmetry, a duality that relates pairs of supersymmetric theories. Upon breaking supersymmetry in a controlled way, we dynamically obtain the bosonization duality that equates the theory of a free Dirac fermion to QED3 with a single scalar boson. This duality may be used to demonstrate the bosonization duality relating an $O(2)$-symmetric Wilson-Fisher fixed point to QED3 with a single Dirac fermion, Peskin-Dasgupta-Halperin duality, and the recently conjectured duality relating the theory of a free Dirac fermion to fermionic QED3 with a single flavor. Chern-Simons and BF couplings for both dynamical and background gauge fields play a central role in our approach. In the course of our study, we describe a chiral mirror pair that may be viewed as the minimal supersymmetric generalization of the two bosonization dualities.

  6. Bosonization and mirror symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachru, Shamit; Mulligan, Michael; Torroba, Gonzalo; Wang, Huajia

    2016-10-01

    We study bosonization in 2 +1 dimensions using mirror symmetry, a duality that relates pairs of supersymmetric theories. Upon breaking supersymmetry in a controlled way, we dynamically obtain the bosonization duality that equates the theory of a free Dirac fermion to QED3 with a single scalar boson. This duality may be used to demonstrate the bosonization duality relating an O (2 )-symmetric Wilson-Fisher fixed point to QED3 with a single Dirac fermion, Peskin-Dasgupta-Halperin duality, and the recently conjectured duality relating the theory of a free Dirac fermion to fermionic QED3 with a single flavor. Chern-Simons and BF couplings for both dynamical and background gauge fields play a central role in our approach. In the course of our study, we describe a "chiral" mirror pair that may be viewed as the minimal supersymmetric generalization of the two bosonization dualities.

  7. Testing for disconnection and distance effects on physiological self-recognition within clonal fragments of Potentilla reptans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin eChen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that belowground self-recognition in clonal plants can be disrupted between sister ramets by the loss of connections or long distances within a genet. However, these results may be confounded by severing connections between ramets in the setups. Using Potentilla reptans, we examined severance effects in a setup that grew ramet pairs with connections either intact or severed. We showed that severance generally reduced new stolon mass but had no effect on root allocation of ramets. However, it did reduce root mass of younger ramets of the pairs. We also explored evidence for physiological self-recognition with another setup that avoided severing connections by manipulating root interactions between closely connected ramets, between remotely connected ramets and between disconnected ramets within one genet. We found that ramets grown with disconnected neighbors had less new stolon mass, similar root mass but higher root allocation as compared to ramets grown with connected neighbors. There was no difference in ramet growth between closely connected- and remotely connected-neighbor treatments. Thus, we suggest that severing connections affects ramet interactions by disrupting their physiological integration. Using the second setup, we provide unbiased evidence for physiological self-recognition, while also suggesting that it can persist over long distances.

  8. Prevalence and Self-recognition of Chronic Constipation: Results of an Internet Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Akio; Tomita, Toshihiko; Oshima, Tadayuki; Toyoshima, Fumihiko; Yamasaki, Takahisa; Okugawa, Takuya; Kondo, Takashi; Kono, Tomoaki; Tozawa, Katsuyuki; Ikehara, Hisatomo; Ohda, Yoshio; Fukui, Hirokazu; Watari, Jiro; Miwa, Hiroto

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Although chronic constipation is a common symptom, to date no international consensus has been reached regarding its definition. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate defecation habits and (2) to examine the prevalence of constipation using the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine (JSIM) and the Rome III criteria using an online survey. Methods An online questionnaire composed of items on the frequency, interval, form of defecation, the management, and self-recognition of constipation (reference standard of constipation) was created. A total of 5155 valid responses were received. In addition, constipation symptoms were evaluated through a survey using the JSIM and the Rome III criteria. Results In the internet survey, 28.4% of the respondents considered themselves to be constipated. Stratified by sex, significantly more females (37.5%) than males (19.1%) considered themselves to be constipated (P < 0.001). The prevalence of constipation among the respondents was 28.0% using the Rome III, but only 10.1% using the JSIM. The diagnostic accuracy was 73.2% for the Rome III and 78.1% for the JSIM, while the diagnostic specificity was 81.1% for the Rome III and 97.5% for the JSIM. However, the diagnostic sensitivities for both measures were low, at 52.2% and 29.2% for the Rome III and the JSIM, respectively. Conclusions The online survey developed for this study was able to provide clarification regarding defecation patterns. The results also suggest a discrepancy between the self-recognized prevalence of constipation in Japan and prevalence of constipation based on the JSIM criteria. PMID:27426278

  9. Induction of interleukin 2 receptor beta chain expression by self-recognition in the thymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, T; Mitnacht, R; Boyd, R; Hünig, T

    1994-11-01

    1-2% of adult mouse thymocytes express the T cell receptor alpha/beta (TCR-alpha/beta) together with the interleukin (IL) 2R beta (p70), but not the alpha (p 55) chain. We show that the previously described alpha/beta-TCR +CD4-8- and the partially overlapping Ly6C+ thymocytes are contained within this subset. Most IL-2R beta+ alpha/beta-TCR+ cells have a mature and activated (heat stable antigen [HSA]-, thymic shared antigen 1 [TSA-1]-, CD44high, CD69+) phenotype. Overrepresentation of V beta 8.2 in both CD4-8- and CD4 and/or CD8+ IL-2R beta+ thymocytes suggests that IL-2R beta expression is induced by a TCR-mediated activation event. In mice transgenic for an H-2Kb-specific TCR, IL-2R beta+ cells were abundant under conditions of mainstream negative selection, i.e., in the presence of Kb, but absent under conditions of mainstream positive selection or in a nonselecting environment. Together, these results show that in addition to clonal deletion, self-recognition by immature thymocytes leads to phenotypic maturation of a small subset of thymocytes expressing IL-2R beta. IL-2-deficient mice contain normal numbers of IL-2R beta+ alpha/beta-TCR+ thymocytes, indicating that like mainstream T cell development, this minor pathway of positive selection does not depend on IL-2. However, in the absence of IL-2, the CD4/CD8 subset composition of IL-2R beta+ thymocytes is skewed towards CD4-8+, mostly at the expense of CD4-8-. A possible relevance of this finding for the development of the immune pathology of IL-2-deficient mice is discussed.

  10. Galectins as self/non-self recognition receptors in innate and adaptive immunity: An unresolved paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo R. Vasta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Galectins are characterized by their binding affinity for ß-galactosides, a unique binding site sequence motif, and wide taxonomic distribution and structural conservation in vertebrates, invertebrates, protista, and fungi. Since their initial description, galectins were considered to bind endogenous (self glycans and mediate developmental processes and cancer. In the past few years, however, numerous studies have described the diverse effects of galectins on cells involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses, and the mechanistic aspects of their regulatory roles in immune homeostasis. More recently, however, evidence has accumulated to suggest that galectins also bind exogenous (non-self glycans on the surface of potentially pathogenic microbes, parasites, and fungi, suggesting that galectins can function as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs in innate immunity. Thus, a perplexing paradox arises by the fact that galectins also recognize lactosamine-containing glycans on the host cell surface during developmental processes and regulation of immune responses. According to the currently accepted model for non-self recognition, PRRs recognize pathogens via highly conserved microbial surface molecules of wide distribution such as LPS or peptidoglycan (pathogen-associated molecular patterns; PAMPs, which are absent in the host. Hence, this would not apply to galectins, which apparently bind similar self/non-self molecular patterns on host and microbial cells. This paradox underscores first, an oversimplification in the use of the PRR/PAMP terminology. Second, and most importantly, it reveals significant gaps in our knowledge about the diversity of the host galectin repertoire, and the subcellular targeting, localization, and secretion. Furthermore, our knowledge about the structural and biophysical aspects of their interactions with the host and microbial carbohydrate moieties is fragmentary, and warrants further investigation.

  11. Galectins as self/non-self recognition receptors in innate and adaptive immunity: an unresolved paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasta, Gerardo R.; Ahmed, Hafiz; Nita-Lazar, Mihai; Banerjee, Aditi; Pasek, Marta; Shridhar, Surekha; Guha, Prasun; Fernández-Robledo, José A.

    2012-01-01

    Galectins are characterized by their binding affinity for β-galactosides, a unique binding site sequence motif, and wide taxonomic distribution and structural conservation in vertebrates, invertebrates, protista, and fungi. Since their initial description, galectins were considered to bind endogenous (“self”) glycans and mediate developmental processes and cancer. In the past few years, however, numerous studies have described the diverse effects of galectins on cells involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses, and the mechanistic aspects of their regulatory roles in immune homeostasis. More recently, however, evidence has accumulated to suggest that galectins also bind exogenous (“non-self”) glycans on the surface of potentially pathogenic microbes, parasites, and fungi, suggesting that galectins can function as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in innate immunity. Thus, a perplexing paradox arises by the fact that galectins also recognize lactosamine-containing glycans on the host cell surface during developmental processes and regulation of immune responses. According to the currently accepted model for non-self recognition, PRRs recognize pathogens via highly conserved microbial surface molecules of wide distribution such as LPS or peptidoglycan (pathogen-associated molecular patterns; PAMPs), which are absent in the host. Hence, this would not apply to galectins, which apparently bind similar self/non-self molecular patterns on host and microbial cells. This paradox underscores first, an oversimplification in the use of the PRR/PAMP terminology. Second, and most importantly, it reveals significant gaps in our knowledge about the diversity of the host galectin repertoire, and the subcellular targeting, localization, and secretion. Furthermore, our knowledge about the structural and biophysical aspects of their interactions with the host and microbial carbohydrate moieties is fragmentary, and warrants further investigation. PMID:22811679

  12. [What mirror neurons have revealed: revisited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Akira; Maeda, Kazutaka

    2014-06-01

    The first paper on mirror neurons was published in 1992. In the span of over two decades since then, much knowledge about the relationship between social cognitive function and the motor control system has been accumulated. Direct matching of visual actions and their corresponding motor representations is the most important functional property of mirror neuron. Many studies have emphasized intrinsic simulation as a core concept for mirror neurons. Mirror neurons are thought to play a role in social cognitive function. However, the function of mirror neurons in the macaque remains unclear, because such cognitive functions are limited or lacking in macaque monkeys. It is therefore important to discuss these neurons in the context of motor function. Rizzolatti and colleagues have stressed that the most important function of mirror neurons in macaques is recognition of actions performed by other individuals. I suggest that mirror neurons in the Macaque inferior pariental lobule might be correlated with body schema. In the parieto-premotor network, matching of corollary discharge and actual sensory feedback is an essential neuronal operation. Recently, neurons showing mirror properties were found in some cortical areas outside the mirror neuron system. The current work would revisit the outcomes of mirror neuron studies to discuss the function of mirror neurons in the monkey.

  13. Lightweight Metal Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossett, E.; Winslow, P.

    1984-01-01

    Two "eggcrate" halves brazed together. Lightweight flat mirrors fabricated by machining pockets in two plates of beryllium and brazing machined halves together. Mirror less than half weight of same mirror made by previous design.

  14. Double arch mirror study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukobratovich, D.; Hillman, D.

    1983-01-01

    The development of a method of mounting light weight glass mirrors for astronomical telescopes compatible with the goals of the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) was investigated. A 20 in. diameter double arch lightweight mirror previously fabricated was modified to use a new mount configuration. This mount concept was developed and fabricated. The mounting concept of the double mounting mirror is outlined. The modifications made to the mirror, fabrication of the mirror mount, and room temperature testing of the mirror and mount and the extension of the mirror and mount concept to a full size (40 in. diameter) primary mirror for SIRTF are discussed.

  15. Polymer glazing for silver mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neidlinger, H H; Schissel, P

    1985-07-01

    This paper reports on an evaluation and modification of polymeric glazings to protect silver mirrors. The mirrors were made using Corning 7809 glass as a substrate onto which a thin silver film is deposited. The modified polymeric films are then cast from solution onto the silver. The mirrors were characterized by measuring the hemispherical reflectance and the specular reflectance at 660 nm and selected acceptance angles (7.5 mrad or 3.5 mrad). The mirrors were exposed to environmental degradation using accelerated weathering devices and outdoor exposure. Empirical evidence has demonstrated that polymethylmethacrylate is a stable polymer in a terrestrial environment, but the polymer does not provide adequate protection for the silver reflector. The crucial role in degradation played by ultraviolet (uv) light is shown by several experimental results. It has been demonstrated that uv stabilizers added to the polymer improve the weatherability of mirrors. The relative effectiveness of different stabilizers will be discussed in terms of the weathering modes, retention of optical properties, and effectiveness of the additives. The process for silver deposition influences the reflectance of silver mirrors, and the optical properties depend on subtle relationships between the metallization and the dielectric (polymeric) films that are in contact with the silver.

  16. Enantiomeric self-recognition in homo- and heterodinuclear macrocyclic lanthanide(III) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisowski, Jerzy

    2011-06-20

    The controlled formation of lanthanide(III) dinuclear μ-hydroxo-bridged [Ln(2)L(2)(μ-OH)(2)X(2)](n+) complexes (where X = H(2)O, NO(3)(-), or Cl(-)) of the enantiopure chiral macrocycle L is reported. The (1)H and (13)C NMR resonances of these complexes have been assigned on the basis of COSY, NOESY, TOCSY, and HMQC spectra. The observed NOE connectivities confirm that the dimeric solid-state structure is retained in solution. The enantiomeric nature of the obtained chiral complexes and binding of hydroxide anions are reflected in their CD spectra. The formation of the dimeric complexes is accompanied by a complete enantiomeric self-recognition of the chiral macrocyclic units. The reaction of NaOH with a mixture of two different mononuclear lanthanide(III) complexes, [Ln(1)L](3+) and [Ln(2)L](3+), results in formation of the heterodinuclear [Ln(1)Ln(2)L(2)(μ-OH)(2)X(2)](n+) complexes as well as the corresponding homodinuclear complexes. The formation of the heterodinuclear complex is directly confirmed by the NOESY spectra of [EuLuL(2)(μ-OH)(2)(H(2)O)(2)](4+), which reveal close contacts between the macrocyclic unit containing the Eu(III) ion and the macrocyclic unit containing the Lu(III) ion. While the relative amounts of homo- and heterodinuclear complexes are statistical for the two lanthanide(III) ions of similar radii, a clear preference for the formation of heterodinuclear species is observed when the two mononuclear complexes contain lanthanide(III) ions of markedly different sizes, e.g., La(III) and Yb(III). The formation of heterodinuclear complexes is accompanied by the self-sorting of the chiral macrocyclic units based on their chirality. The reactions of NaOH with a pair of homochiral or racemic mononuclear complexes, [Ln(1)L(RRRR)](3+)/[Ln(2)L(RRRR)](3+), [Ln(1)L(SSSS)](3+)/[Ln(2)L(SSSS)](3+), or [Ln(1)L(rac)](3+)/[Ln(2)L(rac)](3+), results in mixtures of homochiral, homodinuclear and homochiral, heterodinuclear complexes. On the contrary, no

  17. How plants sense wounds: damaged-self recognition is based on plant-derived elicitors and induces octadecanoid signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Heil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animal-derived elicitors can be used by plants to detect herbivory but they function only in specific insect-plant interactions. How can plants generally perceive damage caused by herbivores? Damaged-self recognition occurs when plants perceive molecular signals of damage: degraded plant molecules or molecules localized outside their original compartment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Flame wounding or applying leaf extract or solutions of sucrose or ATP to slightly wounded lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus leaves induced the secretion of extrafloral nectar, an indirect defense mechanism. Chemically related molecules that would not be released in high concentrations from damaged plant cells (glucose, fructose, salt, and sorbitol did not elicit a detectable response, excluding osmotic shock as an alternative explanation. Treatments inducing extrafloral nectar secretion also enhanced endogenous concentrations of the defense hormone jasmonic acid (JA. Endogenous JA was also induced by mechanically damaging leaves of lima bean, Arabidopsis, maize, strawberry, sesame and tomato. In lima bean, tomato and sesame, the application of leaf extract further increased endogenous JA content, indicating that damaged-self recognition is taxonomically widely distributed. Transcriptomic patterns obtained with untargeted 454 pyrosequencing of lima bean in response to flame wounding or the application of leaf extract or JA were highly similar to each other, but differed from the response to mere mechanical damage. We conclude that the amount or concentration of damaged-self signals can quantitatively determine the intensity of the wound response and that the full damaged-self response requires the disruption of many cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Numerous compounds function as JA-inducing elicitors in different plant species. Most of them are, contain, or release, plant-derived molecular motifs. Damaged-self recognition represents a taxonomically

  18. [Motion control of moving mirror based on fixed-mirror adjustment in FTIR spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-bing; Xu, Xian-ze; Le, Yi; Xu, Feng-qiu; Li, Jun-wei

    2012-08-01

    The performance of the uniform motion of the moving mirror, which is the only constant motion part in FTIR spectrometer, and the performance of the alignment of the fixed mirror play a key role in FTIR spectrometer, and affect the interference effect and the quality of the spectrogram and may restrict the precision and resolution of the instrument directly. The present article focuses on the research on the uniform motion of the moving mirror and the alignment of the fixed mirror. In order to improve the FTIR spectrometer, the maglev support system was designed for the moving mirror and the phase detection technology was adopted to adjust the tilt angle between the moving mirror and the fixed mirror. This paper also introduces an improved fuzzy PID control algorithm to get the accurate speed of the moving mirror and realize the control strategy from both hardware design and algorithm. The results show that the development of the moving mirror motion control system gets sufficient accuracy and real-time, which can ensure the uniform motion of the moving mirror and the alignment of the fixed mirror.

  19. Topological recursion and mirror curves

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchard, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    We study the constant contributions to the free energies obtained through the topological recursion applied to the complex curves mirror to toric Calabi-Yau threefolds. We show that the recursion reproduces precisely the corresponding Gromov-Witten invariants, which can be encoded in powers of the MacMahon function. As a result, we extend the scope of the "remodeling conjecture" to the full free energies, including the constant contributions. In the process we study how the pair of pants decomposition of the mirror curves plays an important role in the topological recursion. We also show that the free energies are not, strictly speaking, symplectic invariants, and that the recursive construction of the free energies does not commute with certain limits of mirror curves.

  20. Mirror Neurons and Mirror-Touch Synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkovski, Omer; Katzin, Naama; Salti, Moti

    2016-05-30

    Since mirror neurons were introduced to the neuroscientific community more than 20 years ago, they have become an elegant and intuitive account for different cognitive mechanisms (e.g., empathy, goal understanding) and conditions (e.g., autism spectrum disorders). Recently, mirror neurons were suggested to be the mechanism underlying a specific type of synesthesia. Mirror-touch synesthesia is a phenomenon in which individuals experience somatosensory sensations when seeing someone else being touched. Appealing as it is, careful delineation is required when applying this mechanism. Using the mirror-touch synesthesia case, we put forward theoretical and methodological issues that should be addressed before relying on the mirror-neurons account. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Durable solar mirror films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, Mark B.; Henderson, Andrew J.; Hebrink, Timothy J.; Katare, Rajesh K.; Jing, Naiyong; North, Diane; Peterson, Eric M.

    2017-02-14

    The present disclosure generally relates to durable solar mirror films, methods of making durable solar mirror films, and constructions including durable solar mirror films. In one embodiment, the present disclosure relates to a solar mirror film comprising: a multilayer optical film layer including having a coefficient of hygroscopic expansion of less than about 30 ppm per percent relative humidity; and a reflective layer having a coefficient of hygroscopic expansion.

  2. The Mirror Oscilloscpoe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudriaan, B.

    2003-01-01

    This project is about designing and realizing an oscilloscope based on a laser beam reflected by two mirrors. The ¿Mirror Oscilloscope¿ uses two voice-coils actuators with mounted mirrors to reflect laser light, such that an image of a harmonic signal is projected on a projection screen. For trackin

  3. Where do mirror neurons come from?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2010-03-01

    Debates about the evolution of the 'mirror neuron system' imply that it is an adaptation for action understanding. Alternatively, mirror neurons may be a byproduct of associative learning. Here I argue that the adaptation and associative hypotheses both offer plausible accounts of the origin of mirror neurons, but the associative hypothesis has three advantages. First, it provides a straightforward, testable explanation for the differences between monkeys and humans that have led some researchers to question the existence of a mirror neuron system. Second, it is consistent with emerging evidence that mirror neurons contribute to a range of social cognitive functions, but do not play a dominant, specialised role in action understanding. Finally, the associative hypothesis is supported by recent data showing that, even in adulthood, the mirror neuron system can be transformed by sensorimotor learning. The associative account implies that mirror neurons come from sensorimotor experience, and that much of this experience is obtained through interaction with others. Therefore, if the associative account is correct, the mirror neuron system is a product, as well as a process, of social interaction. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Father-Infant Interaction, Paternal Ideas about Early Child Care, and Their Consequences for the Development of Children's Self-Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borke, Jorn; Lamm, Bettina; Eickhorst, Andreas; Keller, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, the authors addressed intracultural variation on fathers' interactions with their 3-month-old infants, their ideas about parental care, and the timing of their children's self-recognition at the age of 18-20 months. Participants were 24 middle-class German fathers and their firstborn children. Two behavioral clusters…

  5. Water Cooled Mirror Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Holloway, Michael Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pulliam, Elias Noel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-30

    This design is intended to replace the current mirror setup being used for the NorthStar Moly 99 project in order to monitor the target coupon. The existing setup has limited movement for camera alignment and is difficult to align properly. This proposed conceptual design for a water cooled mirror will allow for greater thermal transfer between the mirror and the water block. It will also improve positioning of the mirror by using flexible vacuum hosing and a ball head joint capable of a wide range of motion. Incorporating this design into the target monitoring system will provide more efficient cooling of the mirror which will improve the amount of diffraction caused by the heating of the mirror. The process of aligning the mirror for accurate position will be greatly improved by increasing the range of motion by offering six degrees of freedom.

  6. Manufacturing of Lightweight Mirror

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Fabrication of the lightweight mirror is one of the key techniques for many large optical systems. CAD,CAM and CNC technologies are adopted in designing and manufacturing such mirrors in CIOMP. Better working efficiency and higher lightweight grade have been achieved. The results show that mirrors up to 70% weight reduction and 0.02λ(rms.) surface accuracy or better can be obtained.

  7. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    , but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty......, the aesthetics of play through action; political play -- from Maradona's goal against England in the 1986 World Cup to the hactivist activities of Anonymous; the political, aesthetic, and moral activity of game design; and why play and computers get along so well....

  8. Auditory–vocal mirroring in songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Mirror neurons are theorized to serve as a neural substrate for spoken language in humans, but the existence and functions of auditory–vocal mirror neurons in the human brain remain largely matters of speculation. Songbirds resemble humans in their capacity for vocal learning and depend on their learned songs to facilitate courtship and individual recognition. Recent neurophysiological studies have detected putative auditory–vocal mirror neurons in a sensorimotor region of the songbird's brain that plays an important role in expressive and receptive aspects of vocal communication. This review discusses the auditory and motor-related properties of these cells, considers their potential role on song learning and communication in relation to classical studies of birdsong, and points to the circuit and developmental mechanisms that may give rise to auditory–vocal mirroring in the songbird's brain. PMID:24778375

  9. The mirror box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Gene; Mathieson, Don

    2001-11-01

    The mirror box is an old standby in magic shows and an impressive demonstration of the law of reflection for the physics instructor. The box creates the illusion of an object floating in space by the use of a plane mirror.

  10. Corticospinal mirror neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraskov, A; Philipp, R; Waldert, S; Vigneswaran, G; Quallo, M M; Lemon, R N

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the properties of neurons with mirror-like characteristics that were identified as pyramidal tract neurons (PTNs) and recorded in the ventral premotor cortex (area F5) and primary motor cortex (M1) of three macaque monkeys. We analysed the neurons' discharge while the monkeys performed active grasp of either food or an object, and also while they observed an experimenter carrying out a similar range of grasps. A considerable proportion of tested PTNs showed clear mirror-like properties (52% F5 and 58% M1). Some PTNs exhibited 'classical' mirror neuron properties, increasing activity for both execution and observation, while others decreased their discharge during observation ('suppression mirror-neurons'). These experiments not only demonstrate the existence of PTNs as mirror neurons in M1, but also reveal some interesting differences between M1 and F5 mirror PTNs. Although observation-related changes in the discharge of PTNs must reach the spinal cord and will include some direct projections to motoneurons supplying grasping muscles, there was no EMG activity in these muscles during action observation. We suggest that the mirror neuron system is involved in the withholding of unwanted movement during action observation. Mirror neurons are differentially recruited in the behaviour that switches rapidly between making your own movements and observing those of others.

  11. Advanced Mirror Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) project matures critical technologies required to enable ultra-stable 4-m-or-larger monolithic or segmented ultraviolet, optical, and infrared (UVOIR) space telescope primary-mirror assemblies for general astrophysics and ultra-high-contrast observations of exoplanets.

  12. Playful Gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makedon, Alexander

    A philosophical analysis of play and games is undertaken in this paper. Playful gaming, which is shown to be a synthesis of play and games, is utilized as a category for undertaking the examination of play and games. The significance of playful gaming to education is demonstrated through analyses of Plato's, Dewey's, Sartre's, and Marcuse's…

  13. Copying the development: mirror neurons in child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Morban, Demian Arturo; Montero Cruz, Nathalia Caridad

    2016-06-10

    Since intrauterine life, our brain is exposed to diverse internal and external factors that generate epigenetic changes affecting the neural networks and thus modifying the properties of the mirror neurons of the developing infant. We consider that changes on the mirror neurons may play a role on the neuro-developmental pathologies of an infant where no structural brain lesion is observed.

  14. Confounding the origin and function of mirror neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2014-04-01

    Cook et al. argue that mirror neurons originate in sensorimotor associative learning and that their function is determined by their origin. Both these claims are hard to accept. It is here suggested that a major role in the origin of the mirror mechanism is played by top-down connections rather than by associative learning.

  15. Space Mirror Alignment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jau, Bruno M.; McKinney, Colin; Smythe, Robert F.; Palmer, Dean L.

    2011-01-01

    An optical alignment mirror mechanism (AMM) has been developed with angular positioning accuracy of +/-0.2 arcsec. This requires the mirror s linear positioning actuators to have positioning resolutions of +/-112 nm to enable the mirror to meet the angular tip/tilt accuracy requirement. Demonstrated capabilities are 0.1 arc-sec angular mirror positioning accuracy, which translates into linear positioning resolutions at the actuator of 50 nm. The mechanism consists of a structure with sets of cross-directional flexures that enable the mirror s tip and tilt motion, a mirror with its kinematic mount, and two linear actuators. An actuator comprises a brushless DC motor, a linear ball screw, and a piezoelectric brake that holds the mirror s position while the unit is unpowered. An interferometric linear position sensor senses the actuator s position. The AMMs were developed for an Astrometric Beam Combiner (ABC) optical bench, which is part of an interferometer development. Custom electronics were also developed to accommodate the presence of multiple AMMs within the ABC and provide a compact, all-in-one solution to power and control the AMMs.

  16. The use of mirror mechanism for activity-dependent neurorehabilitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Dong; Lei Song; Qun Liu; Ying Sha; Lina Lin; Yao Wang

    2011-01-01

    The present study observed the effects of the non-invasive, mirror neuron system application on neurorehabilitation.In primate studies, mirror neurons have been shown to fire when the subject observes or performs a specific action, thereby allowing for observation of motor cortex activation.This activation of the mirror neuron system could serve as a treatment for stroke patients.In the present study, the combination of a mirror neuron system-based therapy was introduced for the treatment of patients with motor-deficits, who could not perform rehabilitation exercises.The results also indicate that this therapeutic method plays a positive role in emotional regulation in the same patients.

  17. Mesmerising mirror neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2010-06-01

    Mirror neurons have been hailed as the key to understanding social cognition. I argue that three currents of thought-relating to evolution, atomism and telepathy-have magnified the perceived importance of mirror neurons. When they are understood to be a product of associative learning, rather than an adaptation for social cognition, mirror neurons are no longer mesmerising, but they continue to raise important questions about both the psychology of science and the neural bases of social cognition. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Aesthetic Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jytte Susanne

    2012-01-01

    to the children’s complex life-worlds. Further, this leads to an analysis of music-play activities as play with an art-form (music), which includes aesthetic dimensions and gives the music-play activities its character of being aesthetic play. Following Lev Vygotsky’s insight that art is a way of building life...

  19. Minimal Mirror Twin Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Barbieri, Riccardo; Harigaya, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    In a Mirror Twin World with a maximally symmetric Higgs sector the little hierarchy of the Standard Model can be significantly mitigated, perhaps displacing the cutoff scale above the LHC reach. We show that consistency with observations requires that the Z2 parity exchanging the Standard Model with its mirror be broken in the Yukawa couplings. A minimal such effective field theory, with this sole Z2 breaking, can generate the Z2 breaking in the Higgs sector necessary for the Twin Higgs mechanism, and has constrained and correlated signals in invisible Higgs decays, direct Dark Matter Detection and Dark Radiation, all within reach of foreseen experiments. For dark matter, both mirror neutrons and a variety of self-interacting mirror atoms are considered. Neutrino mass signals and the effects of a possible additional Z2 breaking from the vacuum expectation values of B-L breaking fields are also discussed.

  20. The Athena Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Eric

    2016-07-01

    The Athena mission (Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics) requires lightweight X-ray Wolter optics with a high angular resolution and large effective area. For achieving an effective area of 2 m^2 (at 1 keV) and an angular resolution of below 5 arcsec, the Silicon Pore Optics technology was developed by ESA together with a consortium of European industry. Silicon Pore Optics are made of commercial Si wafers using process technology adapted from the semiconductor industry. We present the current design of the Athena mirror concentrating on the technology development status of the Silicon Pore Optics, ranging from the manufacturing of single mirror plates towards complete focusing mirror modules and their integration into the mirror structure.

  1. Mirror reactor surface study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A. L.; Damm, C. C.; Futch, A. H.; Hiskes, J. R.; Meisenheimer, R. G.; Moir, R. W.; Simonen, T. C.; Stallard, B. W.; Taylor, C. E.

    1976-09-01

    A general survey is presented of surface-related phenomena associated with the following mirror reactor elements: plasma first wall, ion sources, neutral beams, director converters, vacuum systems, and plasma diagnostics. A discussion of surface phenomena in possible abnormal reactor operation is included. Several studies which appear to merit immediate attention and which are essential to the development of mirror reactors are abstracted from the list of recommended areas for surface work. The appendix contains a discussion of the fundamentals of particle/surface interactions. The interactions surveyed are backscattering, thermal desorption, sputtering, diffusion, particle ranges in solids, and surface spectroscopic methods. A bibliography lists references in a number of categories pertinent to mirror reactors. Several complete published and unpublished reports on surface aspects of current mirror plasma experiments and reactor developments are also included.

  2. Manufacturing parabolic mirrors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    The photo shows the construction of a vertical centrifuge mounted on an air cushion, with a precision of 1/10000 during rotation, used for the manufacture of very high=precision parabolic mirrors. (See Annual Report 1974.)

  3. The obsidian mirror The obsidian mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Socorro Reis Amorin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The author James Norman is an American who has always lived in Mexico during the summer. He seems to love Mexican - Indian traditions and he is well acquainted with the pre-historic culture as it is shown in his book: "The Obsidian Mirror". "The Obsidian Mirror" is a mysterious story about an archeologist: Quigley that lives in a small village in Mexico-San Marcos. He is searching for antiques that belong to some tribes of pre-historic Indians in order to find out their mysteries. Quigley becomes so engaged in his work that his mind has reached a stage that is impossible to separate between Quigley the archeologist, and Quigley as an ancient Indian. The culture, the myth, the sensation of Omen - characteristics of the Indians are within himself. As a result, Quigley acts sometimes as a real Indian. The author James Norman is an American who has always lived in Mexico during the summer. He seems to love Mexican - Indian traditions and he is well acquainted with the pre-historic culture as it is shown in his book: "The Obsidian Mirror". "The Obsidian Mirror" is a mysterious story about an archeologist: Quigley that lives in a small village in Mexico-San Marcos. He is searching for antiques that belong to some tribes of pre-historic Indians in order to find out their mysteries. Quigley becomes so engaged in his work that his mind has reached a stage that is impossible to separate between Quigley the archeologist, and Quigley as an ancient Indian. The culture, the myth, the sensation of Omen - characteristics of the Indians are within himself. As a result, Quigley acts sometimes as a real Indian.

  4. Mirror contamination in space I: mirror modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijger, J. M.; Snel, R.; van Harten, G.; Rietjens, J. H. H.; Aben, I.

    2014-10-01

    We present a comprehensive model that can be employed to describe and correct for degradation of (scan) mirrors and diffusers in satellite instruments that suffer from changing optical Ultraviolet to visible (UV-VIS) properties during their operational lifetime. As trend studies become more important, so does the importance of understanding and correcting for this degradation. This is the case not only with respect to the transmission of the optical components, but also with respect to wavelength, polarisation, or scan-angle effects. Our hypothesis is that mirrors in flight suffer from the deposition of a thin absorbing layer of contaminant, which slowly builds up over time. We describe this with the Mueller matrix formalism and Fresnel equations for thin multi-layer contamination films. Special care is taken to avoid the confusion often present in earlier publications concerning the Mueller matrix calculus with out-of-plane reflections. The method can be applied to any UV-VIS satellite instrument. We illustrate and verify our approach to the optical behaviour of the multiple scan mirrors of SCIAMACHY (onboard ENVISAT).

  5. Relativistic Mirrors in Laser Plasmas (Analytical Methods)

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, Sergei V; Kando, Masaki; Koga, James K

    2016-01-01

    Relativistic flying mirrors in plasmas are realized as thin dense electron (or electron-ion) layers accelerated by high-intensity electromagnetic waves to velocities close to the speed of light in vacuum. The reflection of an electromagnetic wave from the relativistic mirror results in its energy and frequency changing. In a counter-propagation configuration, the frequency of the reflected wave is multiplied by the factor proportional to the Lorentz factor squared. This scientific area promises the development of sources of ultrashort X-ray pulses in the attosecond range. The expected intensity will reach the level at which the effects predicted by nonlinear quantum electrodynamics start to play a key role.

  6. Aesthetic Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jytte Susanne

    2012-01-01

    The present article explores the role of music-related artefacts and technologies in children’s lives. More specifically, it analyzes how four 10- to 11-year old girls use CDs and DVD games in their music-play activities and which developmental themes and potentials may accrue from such activities...... to the children’s complex life-worlds. Further, this leads to an analysis of music-play activities as play with an art-form (music), which includes aesthetic dimensions and gives the music-play activities its character of being aesthetic play. Following Lev Vygotsky’s insight that art is a way of building life...

  7. Relativistic mirrors in laser plasmas (analytical methods)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh; Kando, M.; Koga, J.

    2016-10-01

    Relativistic flying mirrors in plasmas are realized as thin dense electron (or electron-ion) layers accelerated by high-intensity electromagnetic waves to velocities close to the speed of light in vacuum. The reflection of an electromagnetic wave from the relativistic mirror results in its energy and frequency changing. In a counter-propagation configuration, the frequency of the reflected wave is multiplied by the factor proportional to the Lorentz factor squared. This scientific area promises the development of sources of ultrashort x-ray pulses in the attosecond range. The expected intensity will reach the level at which the effects predicted by nonlinear quantum electrodynamics start to play a key role. We present an overview of theoretical methods used to describe relativistic flying, accelerating, oscillating mirrors emerging in intense laser-plasma interactions.

  8. Playful Membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels; Pors, Justine Grønbæk

    2014-01-01

    This article studies the implications of current attempts by organizations to adapt to a world of constant change by introducing the notion of playful organizational membership. To this end we conduct a brief semantic history of organizational play and argue that when organizations play, employees...... are expected to engage in playful exploration of alternative selves. Drawing on Niklas Luhmann's theory of time and decision-making and Gregory Bateson's theory of play, the article analyses three empirical examples of how games play with conceptions of time. We explore how games represent an organizational...... desire to reach out - not just to the future - but to futures beyond the future presently imaginable. The article concludes that playful membership is membership through which employees are expected to develop a surplus of potential identities and continuously cross boundaries between real and virtual...

  9. White Light Focusing Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric; Lyndaker, Aaron; Deyhim, Alex; Sullivan, Michael; Chance, Mark; Abel, Don; Toomey, John; Hulbert, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The NSLS X28C white-light beamline is being outfitted with a focusing mirror in order to increase, as well as control, the x-ray intensity at the sample position. The new mirror is a 50 mm × 100 mm × 1100 mm single crystal silicon cylindrical 43.1mm radius substrate bendable to a toroid from infinite to 1200 m radius. The unique feature of this mirror system is the dual use of Indalloy 51 as both a mechanism for heat transfer and a buoyant support to negate the effects of gravity. The benefit of the liquid metal support is the ability to correct for minor slope errors that take the form of a parabola. A bobber mechanism is employed to displace the fluid under the mirror +/- 1.5 mm. This allows RMS slope error correction on the order of 2 urad. The unique mounting of the mirror ensures the contributions to slope error from errant mechanical stresses due to machining tolerances are virtually non-existent. After correction, the surface figure error (measured minus ideal) is <= 0.5 urad rms.

  10. Uridine composition of the poly-U/UC tract of HCV RNA defines non-self recognition by RIG-I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretja Schnell

    Full Text Available Viral infection of mammalian cells triggers the innate immune response through non-self recognition of pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs in viral nucleic acid. Accurate PAMP discrimination is essential to avoid self recognition that can generate autoimmunity, and therefore should be facilitated by the presence of multiple motifs in a PAMP that mark it as non-self. Hepatitis C virus (HCV RNA is recognized as non-self by RIG-I through the presence of a 5'-triphosphate (5'-ppp on the viral RNA in association with a 3' poly-U/UC tract. Here we define the HCV PAMP and the criteria for RIG-I non-self discrimination of HCV by examining the RNA structure-function attributes that impart PAMP function to the poly-U/UC tract. We found that the 34 nucleotide poly-uridine "core" of this sequence tract was essential for RIG-I activation, and that interspersed ribocytosine nucleotides between poly-U sequences in the RNA were required to achieve optimal RIG-I signal induction. 5'-ppp poly-U/UC RNA variants that stimulated strong RIG-I activation efficiently bound purified RIG-I protein in vitro, and RNA interaction with both the repressor domain and helicase domain of RIG-I was required to activate signaling. When appended to 5'-ppp RNA that lacks PAMP activity, the poly-U/UC U-core sequence conferred non-self recognition of the RNA and innate immune signaling by RIG-I. Importantly, HCV poly-U/UC RNA variants that strongly activated RIG-I signaling triggered potent anti-HCV responses in vitro and hepatic innate immune responses in vivo using a mouse model of PAMP signaling. These studies define a multi-motif PAMP signature of non-self recognition by RIG-I that incorporates a 5'-ppp with poly-uridine sequence composition and length. This HCV PAMP motif drives potent RIG-I signaling to induce the innate immune response to infection. Our studies define a basis of non-self discrimination by RIG-I and offer insights into the antiviral therapeutic

  11. Playful Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    these practices, which compose the taxonomy of tablet play. My contribution lies in identifying and proposing a series of theoretical concepts that complement recent theories related to play and digital literacy studies. The data collected through observations informed some noteworthy aspects, including how...... with tablets’ physical and digital affordances shape children’s digital play. This thesis presents how young children’s current practices when playing with tablets inform digital experiences in Denmark and Japan. Through an interdisciplinary lens and a grounded theory approach, I have identified and mapped...... vocabulary in children’s digital play experiences. These early digital experiences set the rules for the playgrounds and assert digital tablets as twenty-first-century toys, shaping young children’s playful literacy....

  12. Pretend play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Deena Skolnick

    2015-01-01

    Pretend play is a form of playful behavior that involves nonliteral action. Although on the surface this activity appears to be merely for fun, recent research has discovered that children's pretend play has connections to important cognitive and social skills, such as symbolic thinking, theory of mind, and counterfactual reasoning. The current article first defines pretend play and then reviews the arguments and evidence for these three connections. Pretend play has a nonliteral correspondence to reality, hence pretending may provide children with practice with navigating symbolic relationships, which may strengthen their language skills. Pretend play and theory of mind reasoning share a focus on others' mental states in order to correctly interpret their behavior, hence pretending and theory of mind may be mutually supportive in development. Pretend play and counterfactual reasoning both involve representing nonreal states of affairs, hence pretending may facilitate children's counterfactual abilities. These connections make pretend play an important phenomenon in cognitive science: Studying children's pretend play can provide insight into these other abilities and their developmental trajectories, and thereby into human cognitive architecture and its development.

  13. Playful Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The video Playful Interaction describes a future architectural office, and envisions ideas and concepts for playful interactions between people, materials and appliances in a pervasive and augmented working environment. The video both describes existing developments, technologies and designs...... as well as ideas not yet implemented such as playful modes of interaction with an augmented ball. Playful Interaction has been used as a hybrid of a vision video and a video prototype (1). Externally the video has been used to visualising our new ideas, and internally the video has also worked to inspire...

  14. Mediatized play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    Children’s play must nowadays be understood as a mediatized field in society and culture. Media – understood in a very broad sense - holds severe explanatory power in describing and understanding the practice of play, since play happens both with, through and inspired by media of different sorts....... In this presentation the case of ‘playing soccer’ will be outlined through its different mediated manifestations, including soccer games and programs on TV, computer games, magazines, books, YouTube videos and soccer trading cards....

  15. Play practices and play moods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop a view of play as a relation between play practices and play moods based on an empirical study of children's everyday life and by using Bateson's term of ‘framing’ [(1955/2001). In Steps to an ecology of mind (pp. 75–80). Chicago: University of Chicago Press......], Schmidt's notion of ‘commonness’ [(2005). Om respekten. København: Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitets Forlag; (2011). On respect. Copenhagen: Danish School of Education University Press] and Heidegger's term ‘mood’ [(1938/1996). Time and being. Cornwall: Wiley-Blackwell.]. Play mood is a state of being...... in which we are open and ready, both to others and their production of meaning and to new opportunities for producing meaning. This play mood is created when we engage with the world during play practices. The article points out four types of play moods – devotion, intensity, tension and euphorica – which...

  16. Surface micromachined scanning mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Kent Erik

    1992-01-01

    Both aluminum cantilever and torsional scanning mirrors have been fabricated and their static and dynamic properties are studied experimentally and theoretically. The experiments showed resonance frequencies in the range of 163 k-Hz - 632 kHz for cantilever beams with Q values between 5 and 11....... Torsional mirrors showed resonance frequencies in the range of 410 kHz - 667 kHz with Q values of 10 - 17. All measurements performed at atmospheric pressure. Both types of mechanical structures were deflected electrostatically at large angles (± 5°) more than 1011 times without breaking and without any...

  17. Unification with mirror fermions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantaphyllou George

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a new framework unifying interactions in nature by introducing mirror fermions, explaining the hierarchy between the weak scale and the coupling unification scale, which is found to lie close to Planck energies. A novel process leading to the emergence of symmetry is proposed, which not only reduces the arbitrariness of the scenario proposed but is also followed by significant cosmological implications. Phenomenology includes the probability of detection of mirror fermions via the corresponding composite bosonic states and the relevant quantum corrections at the LHC.

  18. Rearview Mirror Dimming Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, William

    2011-01-01

    Students are often unaware of the little tab on a rear-view mirror that is used to dim headlights from the rear. Those who know about this tab are usually interested in knowing how it works. Explanations of the optics involved can be found in Serway and Jewett and Jones and Edge. An alternate explanation is given.

  19. Rearview Mirror Dimming Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, William

    2011-01-01

    Students are often unaware of the little tab on a rear-view mirror that is used to dim headlights from the rear. Those who know about this tab are usually interested in knowing how it works. Explanations of the optics involved can be found in Serway and Jewett and Jones and Edge. An alternate explanation is given.

  20. Playful Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Justine Grønbæk; Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    and undecidability. With an empirical point of departure in Danish public school policy and two concrete examples of games utilised in school development, the article analyses how play is a way for organisations to simultaneously decide and also avoid making a decision, thus keeping flexibility and possibilities...... intact. In its final sections, the article discusses what happens to conditions of decision-making when organisations do not just see undecidability as a given condition, but as a limited resource indispensable for change and renewal. The article advances discussions of organisational play by exploring......This article explores how organisational play becomes a managerial tool to increase and benefit from undecidability. The article draws on Niklas Luhmann's concept of decision and on Gregory Bateson's theory of play to create a conceptual framework for analysing the relation between decision...

  1. Derived Categories of BHK Mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Favero, David

    2016-01-01

    We prove a derived analogue to the results of Borisov, Clarke, Kelly, and Shoemaker on the birationality of Berglund-Hubsch-Krawitz mirrors. Heavily bootstrapping off work of Seidel and Sheridan, we obtain Homological Mirror Symmetry for Berglund-Hubsch-Krawitz mirror pencils to hypersurfaces in projective space.

  2. Mirror image agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Issac, Thomas Gregor

    2014-10-01

    Gnosis is a modality-specific ability to access semantic knowledge of an object or stimulus in the presence of normal perception. Failure of this is agnosia or disorder of recognition. It can be highly selective within a mode. self-images are different from others as none has seen one's own image except in reflection. Failure to recognize this image can be labeled as mirror image agnosia or Prosopagnosia for reflected self-image. Whereas mirror agnosia is a well-recognized situation where the person while looking at reflected images of other objects in the mirror he imagines that the objects are in fact inside the mirror and not outside. Five patients, four females, and one male presented with failure to recognize reflected self-image, resulting in patients conversing with the image as a friend, fighting because the person in mirror is wearing her nose stud, suspecting the reflected self-image to be an intruder; but did not have prosopagnosia for others faces, non living objects on self and also apraxias except dressing apraxia in one patient. This phenomena is new to our knowledge. Mirror image agnosia is an unique phenomena which is seen in patients with parietal lobe atrophy without specificity to a category of dementing illness and seems to disappear as disease advances. Reflected self-images probably have a specific neural substrate that gets affected very early in posterior dementias specially the ones which predominantly affect the right side. At that phase most patients are mistaken as suffering from psychiatric disorder as cognition is moderately preserved. As disease becomes more widespread this symptom becomes masked. A high degree of suspicion and proper assessment might help physicians to recognize the organic cause of the symptom so that early therapeutic interventions can be initiated. Further assessment of the symptom with FMRI and PET scan is likely to solve the mystery of how brain handles reflected self-images. A new observation involving failure

  3. Mirror image agnosia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gnosis is a modality-specific ability to access semantic knowledge of an object or stimulus in the presence of normal perception. Failure of this is agnosia or disorder of recognition. It can be highly selective within a mode. self-images are different from others as none has seen one′s own image except in reflection. Failure to recognize this image can be labeled as mirror image agnosia or Prosopagnosia for reflected self-image. Whereas mirror agnosia is a well-recognized situation where the person while looking at reflected images of other objects in the mirror he imagines that the objects are in fact inside the mirror and not outside. Material and Methods:: Five patients, four females, and one male presented with failure to recognize reflected self-image, resulting in patients conversing with the image as a friend, fighting because the person in mirror is wearing her nose stud, suspecting the reflected self-image to be an intruder; but did not have prosopagnosia for others faces, non living objects on self and also apraxias except dressing apraxia in one patient. This phenomena is new to our knowledge. Results: Mirror image agnosia is an unique phenomena which is seen in patients with parietal lobe atrophy without specificity to a category of dementing illness and seems to disappear as disease advances. Discussion: Reflected self-images probably have a specific neural substrate that gets affected very early in posterior dementias specially the ones which predominantly affect the right side. At that phase most patients are mistaken as suffering from psychiatric disorder as cognition is moderately preserved. As disease becomes more widespread this symptom becomes masked. A high degree of suspicion and proper assessment might help physicians to recognize the organic cause of the symptom so that early therapeutic interventions can be initiated. Further assessment of the symptom with FMRI and PET scan is likely to solve the mystery

  4. Group play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    of group dynamics, the influence of the fictional game characters and the comparative play experience between the two formats. The results indicate that group dynamics and the relationship between the players and their digital characters, are integral to the quality of the gaming experience in multiplayer......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...

  5. Postphenomenological Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammar, Emil

    This paper aims to identify an understanding of digital games in virtual environments by using Don Ihde’s (1990) postphenomenological approach to how technology mediates the world to human beings in conjunction with Hans-Georg Gadamer’s (1993) notion of play . Through this tentatively proposed...... amalgamation of theories I point towards an alternative understanding of the relationship between play and game as not only dialectic, but also as socially and ethically relevant qua the design and implementation of the game as technology....

  6. Dynamic coherent backscattering mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeylikovich, I.; Xu, M., E-mail: mxu@fairfield.edu [Physics Department, Fairfield University, Fairfield, CT 06824 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The phase of multiply scattered light has recently attracted considerable interest. Coherent backscattering is a striking phenomenon of multiple scattered light in which the coherence of light survives multiple scattering in a random medium and is observable in the direction space as an enhancement of the intensity of backscattered light within a cone around the retroreflection direction. Reciprocity also leads to enhancement of backscattering light in the spatial space. The random medium behaves as a reciprocity mirror which robustly converts a diverging incident beam into a converging backscattering one focusing at a conjugate spot in space. Here we first analyze theoretically this coherent backscattering mirror (CBM) phenomenon and then demonstrate the capability of CBM compensating and correcting both static and dynamic phase distortions occurring along the optical path. CBM may offer novel approaches for high speed dynamic phase corrections in optical systems and find applications in sensing and navigation.

  7. Dynamic coherent backscattering mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M.

    2016-01-01

    The phase of multiply scattered light has recently attracted considerable interest. Coherent backscattering is a striking phenomenon of multiple scattered light in which the coherence of light survives multiple scattering in a random medium and is observable in the direction space as an enhancement of the intensity of backscattered light within a cone around the retroreflection direction. Reciprocity also leads to enhancement of backscattering light in the spatial space. The random medium behaves as a reciprocity mirror which robustly converts a diverging incident beam into a converging backscattering one focusing at a conjugate spot in space. Here we first analyze theoretically this coherent backscattering mirror (CBM) phenomenon and then demonstrate the capability of CBM compensating and correcting both static and dynamic phase distortions occurring along the optical path. CBM may offer novel approaches for high speed dynamic phase corrections in optical systems and find applications in sensing and navigation. PMID:26937296

  8. Mirror Principle, 1

    CERN Document Server

    Lian Bong H; Yau, S T

    1997-01-01

    We propose and study the following Mirror Principle: certain sequences of multiplicative equivariant characteristic classes on Kontsevich's stable map moduli spaces can be computed in terms of certain hypergeometric type classes. As applications, we compute the equivariant Euler classes of obstruction bundles induced by any concavex bundles -- including any direct sum of line bundles -- on $\\P^n$. This includes proving the formula of Candelas-de la Ossa-Green-Parkes hence completing the program of Candelas et al, Kontesevich, Manin, and Givental, to compute rigorously the instanton prepotential function for the quintic in $\\P^4$. We derive, among many other examples, the multiple cover formula for Gromov-Witten invariants of $\\P^1$, computed earlier by Morrison-Aspinwall and by Manin in different approaches. We also prove a formula for enumerating Euler classes which arise in the so-called local mirror symmetry for some noncompact Calabi-Yau manifolds. At the end we interprete an infinite dimensional transfor...

  9. Clay Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Liz; Steffan, Dana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to use clay as a potential material for young children to explore. As teachers, the authors find that their dialogue about the potential of clay as a learning medium raises many questions: (1) What makes clay so enticing? (2) Why are teachers noticing different play and conversation around the clay table as compared to…

  10. Complex/Symplectic Mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Chuang, W; Tomasiello, A; Chuang, Wu-yen; Kachru, Shamit; Tomasiello, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    We construct a class of symplectic non--Kaehler and complex non--Kaehler string theory vacua, extending and providing evidence for an earlier suggestion by Polchinski and Strominger. The class admits a mirror pairing by construction. Comparing hints from a variety of sources, including ten--dimensional supergravity and KK reduction on SU(3)--structure manifolds, suggests a picture in which string theory extends Reid's fantasy to connect classes of both complex non-Kaehler and symplectic non-Kaehler manifolds.

  11. Group play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects of the v......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...... RPGs, with the first being of greater importance to digital games and the latter to the tabletop version....

  12. A spectrum of shadowed mirroring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanamaker, Melissa C

    2012-04-01

    The central focus of this paper is to explore and extend Kohut's theory of maternal mirroring and to place it within the current context of psychoanalytic thinking. Kohut believed a child must experience "positive" mirroring from his or her mother in infancy and beyond to ensure development of a healthy self. Kohut alludes, however, to a possible situation in which the mother's face, metaphorically a mirror, can appear "faceless" to her child. From this I have inferred the concept of what I shall call "shadowed mirroring." Clinical and literary examples show that distorted, "shadowed" mirroring appears on a spectrum, with passive mirroring at one end and hostile (either verbal or nonverbal) mirroring on the other; some individuals experience both. I then consider how "shadowed mirroring," especially hostile mirroring, can be understood within the twin contexts of the overall mother-child relationship and present-day Intersubjective/Relational thinking that is both bidirectional and co-constructed. Shadowed mirroring can lead to severe personality dysfunction along the borderline-narcissistic range, as well as to difficulties in the areas of identity formation, failure of self-cohesiveness, and the blunting of certain humane qualities like empathy.

  13. Relating the "mirrorness" of mirror neurons to their origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilner, James M; Friston, Karl J

    2014-04-01

    Ever since their discovery, mirror neurons have generated much interest and debate. A commonly held view of mirror neuron function is that they transform "visual information into knowledge," thus enabling action understanding and non-verbal social communication between con-specifics (Rizzolatti & Craighero 2004). This functionality is thought to be so important that it has been argued that mirror neurons must be a result of selective pressure.

  14. Playing Possum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Euli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our society is drenched in the catastrophe; where the growth of financial crisis, environmental cataclysm and militarization represents its gaudiest and mortifying phenomena. Humans struggle with depression, sense of impotence, anguish towards a future considered a threat.  A possibility to keep us alive can be represented by the enhancement of our ability in ‘playing Possum’, an exercise of desisting and renitence: to firmly say ‘no’. To say no to a world that proposes just one way of being and living free, that imposes as the only unavoidable possible destiny.

  15. Playful Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv; Eriksson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the design of future services for children in Danish public libraries is discussed, in the light of new challenges and opportunities in relation to new media and technologies. The Danish government has over the last few years initiated and described a range of initiatives regarding...... in the library, the changing role of the librarians and the library space. We argue that intertwining traditional library services with new media forms and engaging play is the core challenge for future design in physical public libraries, but also that it is through new media and technology that new...

  16. Playful Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv; Eriksson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    in the library, the changing role of the librarians and the library space. We argue that intertwining traditional library services with new media forms and engaging play is the core challenge for future design in physical public libraries, but also that it is through new media and technology that new......In this paper, the design of future services for children in Danish public libraries is discussed, in the light of new challenges and opportunities in relation to new media and technologies. The Danish government has over the last few years initiated and described a range of initiatives regarding...

  17. Review Essay: Mirror Neurons in the Discourse of Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Pätzold

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery in the mid-1990s, mirror neurons have been the subject of continuous discussions in neurosciences as well as in the social sciences. The interest of scientists outside the life sciences in mirror neurons is primarily based on the fact that mirror neurons not only have epistemological meaning, but also seem to play an important role in processes of social insights and emotions, like empathy. With her book, Nadia ZABOURA provides a new contribution from a social and cultural sciences point of view, which critically reflects the discussion on mirror neurons and its consequences on the social sciences and humanities. Starting off from philosophical approaches to the mind-matter-dualism and the question of intersubjectivity, she explores the meaning of mirror neurons for the debate on empathy and communication. By discussing concepts of philosophy and communication sciences as well as current knowledge on mirror neurons, she concludes that they do not provide a stable basis for any material reductionism, which would explain phenomena like intersubjectivity only by recordable neuronal processes. The book refers to a variety of related theories (ranging from DESCARTES through to MEAD and TOMASELLO; these references are inspiring, yet they stay cursory for the most part. All in all the book offers avenues for further inquiry on the issues in focus, and can rather be taken as "tour of suggestions" through the topical field of mirror neurons and the related research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1003245

  18. Playing cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Mrs. Zahia Marzouk, vice-president of the Alexandria Family Planning Association and a living legend of Egyptian family planning, does not believe in talking about problems. She is far too busy learning from people and teaching them. Her latest brainstorm is a set of playing cards designed to help girls and women to read and learn about family planning at the same time. The 5 packs of cards, representing familiar words and sounds, and each with a family planning joker, took Mrs. Marzouk 6 months to design and paint by hand. They have now been printed, packed into packets provided by UNICEF, and distributed to some 2000 literacy groups in factories and family planning clinics. Each woman who succeeds in learning to read is encouraged to teach 4 others. They then go to the family planning clinic to be examined and gain a certificate. For the teacher who has made them proficient there is a special prize. Girls at El Brinth village outside Alexandria are pictured playing cards at the family planning center where they are learning various skills including how to read.

  19. SXI Prototype mirror mount

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This final report describes the work performed from June 1993 to January 1995. The purpose of this contract was to provide optomechanical engineering and fabrication support to the Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) program in the areas of mirror, optical bench and camera assemblies of the telescope. The Center for Applied Optics (CAO) worked closely with the Optics and S&E technical staff of MSFC to develop and investigate the most viable and economical options for the design and fabrication of a number of parts for the various telescope assemblies. All the tasks under this delivery order have been successfully completed within budget and schedule.

  20. Look Into the Mirror

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏文虹

    2007-01-01

    Look into the mirror. Who is that girl I see, staring strange back at me? Is it a true myself or someone I have never known? Who am I? Why am I in this world? What am I going to do? So many times I questioned myself. I could never find a perfect answer. Why do I have to do such a lot of hard work? Why must I have so many exams? Why do I always read and read, write and write? Don't tell me it is the very life. Don't tell me these should be my happiness.

  1. Eavesdropping with a Mirror

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER LIM

    1994-01-01

    It was a custom in Yidu that on New Year’s Eve, people eavesdropped outside other people’s homes with a bronze mirror hidden in the bosom after reciting a rhyme to it. People believed that what they had heard would often fortell good or bad luck. A family named Zheng once lived in Yidu. The two sons of this family were both considered intellectuals, But the older son was eager to learn while the younger was lazy and sluggish. Their parents only liked the older son. Because of this, the old couple’s attitudes toward their two daughters-in-law were also

  2. Complex/Symplectic Mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Wu-yen; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC; Tomasiello, Alessandro; /Stanford U., ITP

    2005-10-28

    We construct a class of symplectic non-Kaehler and complex non-Kaehler string theory vacua, extending and providing evidence for an earlier suggestion by Polchinski and Strominger. The class admits a mirror pairing by construction. Comparing hints from a variety of sources, including ten-dimensional supergravity and KK reduction on SU(3)-structure manifolds, suggests a picture in which string theory extends Reid's fantasy to connect classes of both complex non-Kaehler and symplectic non-Kaehler manifolds.

  3. Mirror symmetry II

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, Brian R

    1997-01-01

    Mirror symmetry has undergone dramatic progress during the last five years. Tremendous insight has been gained on a number of key issues. This volume surveys these results. Some of the contributions in this work have appeared elsewhere, while others were written specifically for this collection. The areas covered are organized into 4 sections, and each presents papers by both physicists and mathematicians. This volume collects the most important developments that have taken place in mathematical physics since 1991. It is an essential reference tool for both mathematics and physics libraries and for students of physics and mathematics.

  4. Ronchi test for flat mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada, N. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Engelfried, J. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico)]. E-mail: jurgen@ifisica.uaslp.mx; Morelos, A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2005-11-11

    One of the RICHes in the velocity spectrometers of the proposed CKM experiment requires a flat mirror, situated in the high intensity kaon beam. To reduce the interaction background for the experiment, this mirror has to be as thin as possible. First glass prototypes were produced in Mexico. To test the surface quality of these prototypes, we extended the Ronchi method so flat mirrors can also be tested. We present the methods and report on results of our measurements.

  5. Focusing Mirror with Tunable Eccentricity

    CERN Document Server

    Stürmer, Moritz; Brunne, Jens; Wallrabe, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    We present a new kind of varifocal mirror with independently adjustable curvatures in the major directions. For actuation we use two stacked piezo bending actuators with crossed in-plane polarization. This mirror can be used for example as an off-axis focusing device with tunable focal length and compensation for a variable angle of incidence or for coma correction. We demonstrate the prototype of such a mirror and characterize the mechanical deflection, as well as the focusing capabilities.

  6. Mirror development for CTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, A.; Doro, M.; Brun, P.; Canestrari, R.; Chadwick, P.; Font, L.; Ghigo, M.; Lorenz, E.; Mariotti, M.; Michalowski, J.; Niemiec, J.; Pareschi, G.; Peyaud, B.; Seweryn, K.

    2009-08-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), currently in its early design phase, is a proposed new project for groundbased gamma-ray astronomy with at least 10 times higher sensitivity than current instruments. CTA is planned to consist of several tens of large Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) with a combined reflective surface of up to 10,000 m2. The challenge for the future CTA array is to develop lightweight and cost efficient mirrors with high production rates, good longterm durability and adequate optical properties. The technologies currently under investigation comprise different methods of carbon fibre/epoxy based substrates, sandwich concepts with cold-slumped surfaces made of thin float glass and different structural materials like aluminum honeycomb, glass foam or PU foam inside, and aluminum sandwich structures with either diamond milled surfaces or reflective foils. The current status of the mirror development for CTA will be summarized together with investigations on the improvement of the reflective surfaces and their protection against degradation.

  7. [Mirror neurons: from anatomy to pathophysiological and therapeutic implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathon, B

    2013-04-01

    Mirror neurons are a special class of neurons discovered in the 1990s. They respond when we perform an action and also when we see someone else perform that action. They play a role in the pathophysiology of some neuropsychiatric diseases. Mirror neurons have been identified in humans: in Broca's area and the inferior parietal cortex. Their responses are qualitative and selective depending on the observed action. Emotions (including disgust) and empathy seem to operate according to a mirror mechanism. Indeed, the mirror system allows us to encode the sensory experience and to simulate the emotional state of others. This results in our improved identification of the emotions in others. Additionally, mirror neurons can encode an observed action in motor stimuli and allow its reproduction; thus, they are involved in imitation and learning. Current studies are assessing the role of mirror neurons in the pathopysiology of social-behavior disorders, including autism and schizophrenia. Understanding this mirror system will allow us to develop psychotherapy practices based on empathic resonance between the patient and the therapist. Also, some authors report that a passive rehabilitation technique, based on stimulation of the mirror-neuron system, has a beneficial effect in the treatment of patients with post-stroke motor deficits. Mirror neurons are an anatomical entity that enables improved understanding of behavior and emotions, and serves as a base for developing new cognitive therapies. Additional studies are needed to clarify the exact role of this neuronal system in social cognition and its role in the development of some neuropsychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Polishing technique for beryllium mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froechtenigt, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    Performance tests, accomplished by inserting entire X ray telescope and polished mirror into vacuum line 67 m long and taking photographs of an X ray resolution source, indicate that polishing increases mirror efficiency from 0.06 percent for X rays at 0.8 nm and increases resolution from 15 to 3.75 arc-seconds.

  9. Mirroring patients – or not

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annette Sofie; Fosgerau, Christina Fogtmann

    2015-01-01

    on studies of imitative behaviour within linguistics and psychology, we argue that interactional mirroring is an important aspect of displaying implicit mentalization. We aimed to explore if, and in that case how, mirroring is displayed by general practitioners (GPs) and psychiatrists in consultations...... with patients with depression. We wanted to see how implicit mentalizing unfolds in physician–patient interactions. Consultations were videorecorded and analysed within the framework of conversation analysis. GPs and psychiatrists differed substantially in their propensity to mirror body movements and verbal...... and acoustic features of speech. GPs mirrored their patients more than psychiatrists in all modalities and were more flexible in their interactional behaviour. Psychiatrists seemed more static, regardless of the emotionality displayed by patients. Implicitly mirroring and attuning to patients could signify...

  10. Resonance MEMS mirrors design considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourani, S.

    2010-02-01

    Resonance MEMS mirrors are widely used today for many applications such as barcode scanners and personalprojectors. bTendo manufactures Personal Projection Engines on two types of mirrors: 1. Resonance mirrors for horizontal scanning 2. Linear mirrors for vertical scanning In this lecture we will discuss the "Energy Balance" and start-up conditions for resonance mirrors. We will derive the conditions for start-up as well as the predicted curve of θ(v): (see manuscript for equation) We will show simulation results in the time domain that prove the validity of the last equation. Finite element simulation could be used to calculate the comb capacitance and to predict the performance of a new structure.

  11. Shell Separation for Mirror Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Space Optics Manufacturing Center has been working to expand our view of the universe via sophisticated new telescopes. The Optics Center's goal is to develop low-cost, advanced space optics technologies for the NASA program in the 21st century - including the long-term goal of imaging Earth-like planets in distant solar systems. To reduce the cost of mirror fabrication, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed replication techniques, the machinery, and materials to replicate electro-formed nickel mirrors. Optics replication uses reusable forms, called mandrels, to make telescope mirrors ready for final finishing. MSFC optical physicist Bill Jones monitors a device used to chill a mandrel, causing it to shrink and separate from the telescope mirror without deforming the mirror's precisely curved surface.

  12. Mirror man: a case of skilled deliberate mirror writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Robert D; De Lucia, Natascia; Della Sala, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Mirror writing is a striking behaviour that is common in children and can reemerge in adults following brain damage. Skilled deliberate mirror writing has also been reported, but only anecdotally. We provide the first quantitative study of skilled deliberate mirror writing. K.B. can write forward or backward, vertically upright or inverted, with the hands acting alone or simultaneously. K.B. is predominantly left handed, but writes habitually with his right hand. Of his writing formats, his left hand mirror writing is by far the most similar in style to his normal handwriting. When writing bimanually, he performs better when his two hands make mirror-symmetrical movements to write opposite scripts than if they move in the same direction to write similar scripts. He has no special facility for reading mirrored text. These features are consistent with prior anecdotal cases and support a motor basis for K.B.'s ability, according to which his skilled mirror writing results from the left hand execution of a low-level motor program for a right hand abductive writing action. Our methods offer a novel framework for investigating the sharing of motor representations across effectors.

  13. Advanced Mirror & Modelling Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effinger, Michael; Stahl, H. Philip; Abplanalp, Laura; Maffett, Steven; Egerman, Robert; Eng, Ron; Arnold, William; Mosier, Gary; Blaurock, Carl

    2014-01-01

    The 2020 Decadal technology survey is starting in 2018. Technology on the shelf at that time will help guide selection to future low risk and low cost missions. The Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) team has identified development priorities based on science goals and engineering requirements for Ultraviolet Optical near-Infrared (UVOIR) missions in order to contribute to the selection process. One key development identified was lightweight mirror fabrication and testing. A monolithic, stacked, deep core mirror was fused and replicated twice to achieve the desired radius of curvature. It was subsequently successfully polished and tested. A recently awarded second phase to the AMTD project will develop larger mirrors to demonstrate the lateral scaling of the deep core mirror technology. Another key development was rapid modeling for the mirror. One model focused on generating optical and structural model results in minutes instead of months. Many variables could be accounted for regarding the core, face plate and back structure details. A portion of a spacecraft model was also developed. The spacecraft model incorporated direct integration to transform optical path difference to Point Spread Function (PSF) and between PSF to modulation transfer function. The second phase to the project will take the results of the rapid mirror modeler and integrate them into the rapid spacecraft modeler.

  14. The flying mirror: future brightest x-ray and γ-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esirkepov, T. Z.; Bulanov, S. V.; Kando, M.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Zhidkov, A. G.

    2009-05-01

    An ultra-bright high-power X-ray and γ-ray source is proposed. A relativistic flying mirror reflects a counterpropagating electromagnetic radiation causing its frequency multiplication and intensification, while the role of the mirror is played by a solid-density thin plasma slab accelerating in the radiation pressure dominant regime. Frequencies of high harmonics generated at the flying mirror by a relativistically strong counter-propagating radiation undergo multiplication with the same factor as the fundamental frequency of the reflected radiation, approximately equal to the quadruple of the square of the mirror Lorentz factor. The theory of the reflectivity of a moving thin plasma slab is presented.

  15. LSST primary/tertiary monolithic mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebag, J.; Gressler, W.; Liang, M.; Neill, D.; Araujo-Hauck, C.; Andrew, J.; Angeli, G.; Cho, M.; Claver, C.; Daruich, F.; Gessner, C.; Hileman, E.; Krabbendam, V.; Muller, G.; Poczulp, G.; Repp, R.; Wiecha, O.; Xin, B.; Kenagy, K.; Martin, H. M.; Tuell, M. T.; West, S. C.

    2016-08-01

    At the core of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) three-mirror optical design is the primary/tertiary (M1M3) mirror that combines these two large mirrors onto one monolithic substrate. The M1M3 mirror was spin cast and polished at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab at The University of Arizona (formerly SOML, now the Richard F. Caris Mirror Lab at the University of Arizona (RFCML)). Final acceptance of the mirror occurred during the year 2015 and the mirror is now in storage while the mirror cell assembly is being fabricated. The M1M3 mirror will be tested at RFCML after integration with its mirror cell before being shipped to Chile.

  16. Tandem mirror and field-reversed mirror experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coensgen, F.H.; Simonen, T.C.; Turner, W.C.

    1979-08-21

    This paper is largely devoted to tandem mirror and field-reversed mirror experiments at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL), and briefly summarizes results of experiments in which field-reversal has been achieved. In the tandem experiment, high-energy, high-density plasmas (nearly identical to 2XIIB plasmas) are located at each end of a solenoid where plasma ions are electrostatically confined by the high positive poentials arising in the end plug plasma. End plug ions are magnetically confined, and electrons are electrostatically confined by the overall positive potential of the system. The field-reversed mirror reactor consists of several small field-reversed mirror plasmas linked together for economic reasons. In the LLL Beta II experiment, generation of a field-reversed plasma ring will be investigated using a high-energy plasma gun with a transverse radial magnetic field. This plasma will be further heated and sustained by injection of intense, high-energy neutral beams.

  17. MIRROR MOVEMENT: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA. Momen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Mirror movement is an interesting but often overlooked neurological soft sign;these movements are described as simultaneous contralateral, involuntary, identical movements that accompany voluntary movements. This neurologic problem is very rarely seen in children; in familial cases there is a positive history of these movements in parents, diminishing with time. Here, we have presented the case of an 11-year old girl with mirror movements in her upper limbs which interfered with her hand writing. Her neurological examination revealed normal results. In this report, we have tried to explain some of the pathophysiologic mechanisms related to these abnormal movements.Keywords:Mirror Movements, Children, Soft neurologic sign

  18. Theta functions and mirror symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This is a survey covering aspects of varied work of the authors with Mohammed Abouzaid, Paul Hacking, and Sean Keel. While theta functions are traditionally canonical sections of ample line bundles on abelian varieties, we motivate, using mirror symmetry, the idea that theta functions exist in much greater generality. This suggestion originates with the work of the late Andrei Tyurin. We outline how to construct theta functions on the degenerations of varieties constructed in previous work of the authors, and then explain applications of this construction to homological mirror symmetry and constructions of broad classes of mirror varieties.

  19. Edificio Daily Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Owen

    1963-07-01

    Full Text Available The building has 18 levels. The Press occupies the 4 basement floors. The ground floor is taken up with the entrance hall, and an indoor carriage way. A snack bar and the telephone operators are situated on the second floor. The production department and the medical services are located on the third storey, whilst the fourth is occupied by the offices and library. The fifth floor is the beginning of the higher section of the building. This floor and up to including the 11th floor are devoted to office space, except for the 10th storey, which contains the office apartments of the directors and the Council Chamber. Equipment related to various services of the building is housed on the 12th storey. Finally, this tall building constitutes a fine landmark in the London skyline. The Daily Mirror building is outstanding for the appropriate nature, the completeness and the quality of its installations, which thus provide the most widely read paper in the world with outstandingly efficient offices.Este edificio consta de 18 plantas. El cuerpo de Prensa se aloja en los cuatro sótanos; los vestíbulos de entrada y una calzada interior para vehículos se hallan en la planta baja; la primera alberga un snack-bar y centralita telefónica; la segunda, el departamento de producción y centro de asistencia médica, y la tercera, las oficinas y biblioteca principales. La cuarta planta señala el comienzo del bloque alto; esta planta, junto con las quinta, sexta, séptima, octava y décima, están dedicadas a oficinas. La novena contiene las oficinas-apartamentos de los directores y salas de Consejo, y la undécima, la maquinaria para las diversas instalaciones del edificio. La elevada torre constituye un grandioso hito de referencia en esta zona de Londres. El «Daily Mirror» se distingue por el acierto, número y perfección de sus instalaciones, que proporcionan, al periódico de mayor actualidad mundial, las más adecuadas y amplias oficinas modernas.

  20. Evanescent Wave Atomic Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezali, S.; Taleb, A.

    2008-09-01

    A research project at the "Laboratoire d'électronique quantique" consists in a theoretical study of the reflection and diffraction phenomena via an atomic mirror. This poster presents the principle of an atomic mirror. Many groups in the world have constructed this type of atom optics experiments such as in Paris-Orsay-Villetaneuse (France), Stanford-Gaithersburg (USA), Munich-Heidelberg (Germany), etc. A laser beam goes into a prism with an incidence bigger than the critical incidence. It undergoes a total reflection on the plane face of the prism and then exits. The transmitted resulting wave out of the prism is evanescent and repulsive as the frequency detuning of the laser beam compared to the atomic transition δ = ωL-ω0 is positive. The cold atomic sample interacts with this evanescent wave and undergoes one or more elastic bounces by passing into backward points in its trajectory because the atoms' kinetic energy (of the order of the μeV) is less than the maximum of the dipolar potential barrier ℏΩ2/Δ where Ω is the Rabi frequency [1]. In fact, the atoms are cooled and captured in a magneto-optical trap placed at a distance of the order of the cm above the prism surface. The dipolar potential with which interact the slow atoms is obtained for a two level atom in a case of a dipolar electric transition (D2 Rubidium transition at a wavelength of 780nm delivered by a Titane-Saphir laser between a fundamental state Jf = l/2 and an excited state Je = 3/2). This potential is corrected by an attractive Van der Waals term which varies as 1/z3 in the Lennard-Jones approximation (typical atomic distance of the order of λ0/2π where λ0 is the laser wavelength) and in 1/z4 if the distance between the atom and its image in the dielectric is big in front of λ0/2π. This last case is obtained in a quantum electrodynamic calculation by taking into account an orthornormal base [2]. We'll examine the role of spontaneous emission for which the rate is inversely

  1. Mis-folding and self-association: opportunities for alternative modes of self-recognition during the folding of TIM barrel proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, C. Robert

    2006-03-01

    The (βα)8 or TIM barrel motif is one of the most common in biology, represented in all three super-kingdoms of life. Detailed thermodynamic and kinetic analysis of the folding reactions of three members of the TIM barrel family of proteins reveal a common propensity to mis-fold to an off-pathway intermediate in less than a few milliseconds. The unfolding of this stopped-flow burst-phase intermediate controls access to an on-pathway intermediate that is highly-populated at moderate denaturant concentrations. Curiously, the equilibrium intermediate for two of the three nominally monomeric proteins spontaneously adopts a dimeric form; the native state of the third also dimerizes at micromolar concentrations. The early mis-folding reactions may reflect the rapid access to non-native folds enabled by the simple, repetitive βα topology of this motif. The propensity of stable forms, either intermediate or native, to form dimers may reflect a segment-swapping mechanism enabled by the modular folding of these single structural domain proteins. Off-pathway intermediates and non-native dimers serve as examples of important, alternative intra- or inter-molecular self-recognition events.

  2. Vocal coordination and vocal imitation: a role for mirror neurons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John D

    2014-04-01

    Some birds and mammals have vocal communication systems in which coordination between individuals is important. Examples would include duetting or antiphonal calling in some birds and mammals, rapid exchanges of the same vocalization, and vocal exchanges between paired individuals and other nearby pairs. Mirror neurons may play a role in such systems but become functional only after experience.

  3. Mirror Neurons, the Development of Empathy, and Digital Story Telling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Mary

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the intersection of work in media education, religious education, concerns about digital cultures' impact on human relationality, and the possible role that mirror neurons might play in the development of empathy. Digital story telling--particularly as embodied in the work of the Center for Digital Storytelling…

  4. Mirror Neurons, the Development of Empathy, and Digital Story Telling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Mary

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the intersection of work in media education, religious education, concerns about digital cultures' impact on human relationality, and the possible role that mirror neurons might play in the development of empathy. Digital story telling--particularly as embodied in the work of the Center for Digital Storytelling…

  5. Walk like me, talk like me. The connection between mirror neurons and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffin, Jillian M; Tohid, Hassaan

    2016-04-01

    Understanding social cognition has become a hallmark in deciphering autism spectrum disorder. Neurobiological theories are taking precedence in causation studies as researchers look to abnormalities in brain development as the cause of deficits in social behavior, cognitive processes, and language. Following their discovery in the 1990s, mirror neurons have become a dominant theory for that the mirror neuron system may play a critical role in the pathophysiology of various symptoms of autism. Over the decades, the theory has evolved from the suggestion of a broken mirror neuron system to impairments in mirror neuron circuitry. The mirror neuron system has not gained total support due to inconsistent findings; a comprehensive analysis of the growing body of research could shed light on the benefits, or the disadvantage of continuing to study mirror neurons and their connection to autism.

  6. Responder fast steering mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, Andrew; Shawki, Islam

    2013-10-01

    Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems (SAS) has designed, built and tested a 3.3-inch diameter fast steering mirror (FSM) for space application. This 2-axis FSM operates over a large angle (over 10 degree range), has a very high servo bandwidth (over 3.3 Khz closed loop bandwidth), has nanoradian-class noise, and is designed to support microradian class line of sight accuracy. The FSM maintains excellent performance over large temperature ranges (which includes wave front error) and has very high reliability with the help of fully redundant angle sensors and actuator circuits. The FSM is capable of achieving all its design requirements while also being reaction-compensated. The reaction compensation is achieved passively and does not need a separate control loop. The FSM has undergone various environmental testing which include exported forces and torques and thermal vacuum testing that support the FSM design claims. This paper presents the mechanical design and test results of the mechanism which satisfies the rigorous vacuum and space application requirements.

  7. Tinbergen on mirror neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Fifty years ago, Niko Tinbergen defined the scope of behavioural biology with his four problems: causation, ontogeny, survival value and evolution. About 20 years ago, there was another highly significant development in behavioural biology-the discovery of mirror neurons (MNs). Here, I use Tinbergen's original four problems (rather than the list that appears in textbooks) to highlight the differences between two prominent accounts of MNs, the genetic and associative accounts; to suggest that the latter provides the defeasible 'best explanation' for current data on the causation and ontogeny of MNs; and to argue that functional analysis, of the kind that Tinbergen identified somewhat misleadingly with studies of 'survival value', should be a high priority for future research. In this kind of functional analysis, system-level theories would assign MNs a small, but potentially important, role in the achievement of action understanding-or another social cognitive function-by a production line of interacting component processes. These theories would be tested by experimental intervention in human and non-human animal samples with carefully documented and controlled developmental histories.

  8. Advanced Mirror Material System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Peregrine will bring together recent laboratory developments and mature the technology so that complete mirror and telescope assemblies can be reliably and robustly...

  9. Autism: Lost in the Mirror?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Barry

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available When I began my training as an analyst I took up a placement in an early intervention centre for autistic pre-scholars. The school was run on the psychological principles of ABA and children were tutored on a reward system promoting positive behaviors. Whilst working there I noticed that a number of children had a particular fascination for their mirrored image. This fascination was pervasive and many children would do their work primarily for the reward of the mirror. Through the lens of psychoanalysis I found this very interesting and Lacan’s Mirror Phase immediately came to mind and with this it bore the question as to whether or not there was something in the Mirror Phase of development that had an impact on what we see as symptoms of Autism.

  10. Fast Picometer Mirror Mount Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a 6DOF controllable mirror mount with high dynamic range and fast tip/tilt capability for space based applications. It will enable the...

  11. Reflections on a Black Mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Good, Michael R R

    2016-01-01

    A black mirror is an accelerated boundary that produces particles in an exact correspondence to an evaporating black hole. We investigate the spectral dynamics of the particle creation during the formation process.

  12. Dielectric Coatings for IACT Mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Förster, A; Chadwick, P; Held, M

    2013-01-01

    Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes for very-high energy gamma-ray astronomy need mirror with high reflectance roughly in the wavelength between 300 and 550 nm. The current standard reflective layer of such mirrors is aluminum. Being permanently exposed to the environment they show a constant degradation over the years. New and improved dielectric coatings have been developed to enhance their resistance to environmental impact and to extend their possible lifetime. In addition, these customized coatings have an increased reflectance of over 95% and are designed to significantly lower the night-sky background contribution. The development of such coatings for mirrors with areas up to 2 m2 and low application temperatures to suite the composite materials used for the new mirror susbtrates of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) and the results of extensive durability tests are presented.

  13. Alignment Mirror Mechanisms for Space Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jau, Bruno M.; McKinney, Colin M.; Smythe, Robert F.; Palmer, Dean

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes an optical Alignment Mirror Mechanism (AMM), and discusses its control scheme. The mirror's angular positioning accuracy requirement is +/- 0.2 arc-sec. This requires the mirror's linear positioning actuators to have a positioning accuracy of +/- 109 nm to enable the mirror to meet the angular tip/tilt accuracy requirement. Demonstrated capabilities are +/- 35 nm linear positioning capability at the actuator, which translates into +/- 0.07 arc-sec angular mirror positioning accuracy.

  14. On Chinese Characters in Meiji Japanese and Japanese Self-recognition%明治日本的汉字观与日本人的自我认识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩冰

    2012-01-01

    汉字最初传到日本之时作为象征神圣与权威的事物被日本人民所崇拜。然而到了近代特别是明治时期以来众多的知识分子却提出了以废除汉字为主的汉字观,并开展了盛极一时的汉字废除运动。明治知识分子的这种汉字观是受国学者及水户学者的影响而发展起来的自国优越思想。明治时期的汉字认识过程实际上就是自我身份构建的过程,既自我认识的过程。%The Chinese character was considered as holy and authoritative thing worshipped by Japanese people when it was originally introduced into Japan. However, since modern times, especially Meiji Time, numerous Japanese intellectuals put forward a viewpoint on Chinese characters which focused on abolishing Chinese characters in Japanese and developed Chinese abolishment movement which prevailed for a long time. Influenced by Kokugaku scholars and Mito scholars, the intellectuals developed the viewpoint from the thoughts that Japan was superior to other countries. The process of Chinese recognition in Meiji Time was actually the process of identity construction, namely, the process of self-recognition.

  15. Mirror neurons encode the subjective value of an observed action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caggiano, Vittorio; Fogassi, Leonardo; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Casile, Antonino; Giese, Martin A; Thier, Peter

    2012-07-17

    Objects grasped by an agent have a value not only for the acting agent, but also for an individual observing the grasping act. The value that the observer attributes to the object that is grasped can be pivotal for selecting a possible behavioral response. Mirror neurons in area F5 of the monkey premotor cortex have been suggested to play a crucial role in the understanding of action goals. However, it has not been addressed if these neurons are also involved in representing the value of the grasped object. Here we report that observation-related neuronal responses of F5 mirror neurons are indeed modulated by the value that the monkey associates with the grasped object. These findings suggest that during action observation F5 mirror neurons have access to key information needed to shape the behavioral responses of the observer.

  16. More questions for mirror neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Emma

    2013-09-01

    The mirror neuron system is widely held to provide direct access to the motor goals of others. This paper critically investigates this idea, focusing on the so-called 'intentional worry'. I explore two answers to the intentional worry: first that the worry is premised on too limited an understanding of mirror neuron behaviour (Sections 2 and 3), second that the appeal made to mirror neurons can be refined in such a way as to avoid the worry (Section 4). I argue that the first response requires an account of the mechanism by which small-scale gestures are supposedly mapped to larger chains of actions but that none of the extant accounts of this mechanism are plausible. Section 4 then briefly examines refinements of the mirror neuron-mindreading hypothesis which avoid the intentional worry. I conclude that these refinements may well be plausible but that they undermine many of the claims standardly made for mirror neurons. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Metamaterial mirrors in optoelectronic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Esfandyarpour, Majid

    2014-06-22

    The phase reversal that occurs when light is reflected from a metallic mirror produces a standing wave with reduced intensity near the reflective surface. This effect is highly undesirable in optoelectronic devices that use metal films as both electrical contacts and optical mirrors, because it dictates a minimum spacing between the metal and the underlying active semiconductor layers, therefore posing a fundamental limit to the overall thickness of the device. Here, we show that this challenge can be circumvented by using a metamaterial mirror whose reflection phase is tunable from that of a perfect electric mirror († = €) to that of a perfect magnetic mirror († = 0). This tunability in reflection phase can also be exploited to optimize the standing wave profile in planar devices to maximize light-matter interaction. Specifically, we show that light absorption and photocurrent generation in a sub-100 nm active semiconductor layer of a model solar cell can be enhanced by ∼20% over a broad spectral band. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  18. Metrology of IXO Mirror Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kai-Wing

    2011-01-01

    For future x-ray astrophysics mission that demands optics with large throughput and excellent angular resolution, many telescope concepts build around assembling thin mirror segments in a Wolter I geometry, such as that originally proposed for the International X-ray Observatory. The arc-second resolution requirement posts unique challenges not just for fabrication, mounting but also for metrology of these mirror segments. In this paper, we shall discuss the metrology of these segments using normal incidence metrological method with interferometers and null lenses. We present results of the calibration of the metrology systems we are currently using, discuss their accuracy and address the precision in measuring near-cylindrical mirror segments and the stability of the measurements.

  19. Alpha Channeling in Mirror Machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch N.J.

    2005-10-19

    Because of their engineering simplicity, high-β, and steady-state operation, mirror machines and related open-trap machines such as gas dynamic traps, are an attractive concept for achieving controlled nuclear fusion. In these open-trap machines, the confinement occurs by means of magnetic mirroring, without the magnetic field lines closing upon themselves within the region of particle confinement. Unfortunately, these concepts have not achieved to date very spectacular laboratory results, and their reactor prospects are dimmed by the prospect of a low Q-factor, the ratio of fusion power produced to auxiliary power. Nonetheless, because of its engineering promise, over the years numerous improvements have been proposed to enhance the reactor prospects of mirror fusion, such as tandem designs, end-plugging, and electric potential barriers.

  20. Harmonic Distortion in CMOS Current Mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik

    1998-01-01

    One of the origins of harmonic distortion in CMOS current mirrors is the inevitable mismatch between the MOS transistors involved. In this paper we examine both single current mirrors and complementary class AB current mirrors and develop an analytical model for the mismatch induced harmonic...... distortion. This analytical model is verified through simulations and is used for a discussion of the impact of mismatch on harmonic distortion properties of CMOS current mirrors. It is found that distortion levels somewhat below 1% can be attained by carefully matching the mirror transistors but ultra low...... distortion is not achievable with CMOS current mirrors...

  1. Composite single crystal silicon scan mirror substrates Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Single crystal silicon is a desirable mirror substrate for scan mirrors in space telescopes. As diameters of mirrors become larger, existing manufacturing...

  2. Deformable mirror with thermal actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vdovin, Gleb; Loktev, Mikhail

    2002-05-01

    Low-cost adaptive optics is applied in lasers, scientific instrumentation, ultrafast sciences, and ophthalmology. These applications demand that the deformable mirrors used be simple, inexpensive, reliable, and efficient. We report a novel type of ultralow-cost deformable mirror with thermal actuators. The device has a response time of ~5 s , an actuator stroke of ~6mum , and temporal stability of ~lambda/10 rms in the visible range and can be used for correction of rather large aberrations with slow-changing amplitude.

  3. NASA CONNECT: Algebra: Mirror, Mirror on the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    'Algebra: Mirror, Mirror on the Universe' is the last of seven programs in the 1999-2000 NASA CONNECT series. Produced by NASA Langley Research Center's Office of Education, NASA CONNECT is an award-winning series of instructional programs designed to enhance the teaching of math, science and technology concepts in grades 5-8. NASA CONNECT establishes the 'connection' between the mathematics, science, and technology concepts taught in the classroom and NASA research. Each program in the series supports the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; includes a resource-rich teacher guide; and uses a classroom experiment and web-based activity to complement and enhance the math, science, and technology concepts presented in the program. NASA CONNECT is FREE and the programs in the series are in the public domain. Visit our web site and register. http://connect.larc.nasa.gov In 'Algebra: Mirror, Mirror on the Universe', students will learn how algebra is used to explore the universe.

  4. Lightweight ZERODUR: Validation of Mirror Performance and Mirror Modeling Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Tony; Stahl, H. Philip; Westerhoff, Thomas; Valente, Martin; Brooks, Thomas; Eng, Ron

    2017-01-01

    Upcoming spaceborne missions, both moderate and large in scale, require extreme dimensional stability while relying both upon established lightweight mirror materials, and also upon accurate modeling methods to predict performance under varying boundary conditions. We describe tests, recently performed at NASA's XRCF chambers and laboratories in Huntsville Alabama, during which a 1.2 m diameter, f/1.2988% lightweighted SCHOTT lightweighted ZERODUR(TradeMark) mirror was tested for thermal stability under static loads in steps down to 230K. Test results are compared to model predictions, based upon recently published data on ZERODUR(TradeMark). In addition to monitoring the mirror surface for thermal perturbations in XRCF Thermal Vacuum tests, static load gravity deformations have been measured and compared to model predictions. Also the Modal Response(dynamic disturbance) was measured and compared to model. We will discuss the fabrication approach and optomechanical design of the ZERODUR(TradeMark) mirror substrate by SCHOTT, its optical preparation for test by Arizona Optical Systems (AOS). Summarize the outcome of NASA's XRCF tests and model validations

  5. Timecourse of mirror and counter-mirror effects measured with transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Andrea; Heyes, Cecilia; Becchio, Cristina; Bird, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    The human mirror system has been the subject of much research over the past two decades, but little is known about the timecourse of mirror responses. In addition, it is unclear whether mirror and counter-mirror effects follow the same timecourse. We used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to investigate the timecourse of mirror and counter-mirror responses in the human brain. Experiment 1 demonstrated that mirror responses can be measured from around 200 ms after observed action onset. Experiment 2 demonstrated significant effects of counter-mirror sensorimotor training at all timepoints at which a mirror response was found in Experiment 1 (i.e. from 200 ms onward), indicating that mirror and counter-mirror responses follow the same timecourse. By suggesting similarly direct routes for mirror and counter-mirror responses, these results support the associative account of mirror neuron origins whereby mirror responses arise as a result of correlated sensorimotor experience during development. More generally, they contribute to theorizing regarding mirror neuron function by providing some constraints on how quickly mirror responses can influence social cognition. PMID:23709352

  6. The cortical mirror system reflects the cortical motor system. Comment on "Grasping synergies: A motor-control approach to the mirror neuron mechanism" by A. D'Ausilio et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naish, Katherine R.; Holmes, Nicholas P.

    2015-03-01

    Mirror neurons - cells that are active during both the execution and observation of actions - have been implicated in a wide range of functions. It was originally suggested that these interesting cells play a role in the ability to understand the actions of others [2]. While there are strong arguments against the mirror system being the only mechanism underlying our ability to interpret others' actions (e.g., [4]), it may well play a contributory role. One important constraint on the role that the mirror system could play in action understanding is the extent to which the observed action and the mirror representation match each other. To use the mirror analogy: how closely does the reflection resemble the subject standing in front of it?

  7. [The ontogeny of the mirror neuron system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako

    2014-06-01

    Abstract Humans utilize the mirror neuron system to understand and predict others' actions. However, the ontogeny of the mirror neuron system remains unknown. Whether mirror neuron function is an innate trait or whether mirror neurons acquire their sensorimotor matching properties ontogenetically remains to be clarified. In this paper, I review the ontogenetic theory of the mirror neuron system. I then discuss the functioning of the mirror neuron system in the context of social cognitive abilities, which are unique to humans. Recently, some researchers argue that it is too early to interpret the function of mirror neurons as an understanding of the underlying psychological states of others. They imply that such functioning would require inferential cognitive processes that are known to involve areas outside the mirror neuron system. Filling in this missing link may be the key to elucidating the unique ability of humans to understand others' actions.

  8. MIRROR THERAPY: A REVIEW OF EVIDENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishath Najiha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to identify and summarize the existing evidences on mirror box therapy for the management of various musculoskeletal conditions. A systemic literature search was performed to identify studies concerning mirror therapy. The included journal articles were reviewed and assessed for its significance. Fifty one studies were identified and reviewed. Five different patient categories were studied: 24 studies focussed on mirror therapy after stroke, thirteen studies focussed on mirror therapy after an amputation, three studies focussed on mirror therapy with complex regional pain syndrome patients, two studies on mirror therapy for cerebral palsy and one study focussed on mirror therapy after a fracture. The articles reviewed showed a trend that mirror therapy is effective in stroke, phantom limb pain, complex regional pain syndrome, cerebral palsy and fracture rehabilitation.

  9. Mirror with thermally controlled radius of curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, George R.; Shinn, Michelle D.

    2010-06-22

    A radius of curvature controlled mirror for controlling precisely the focal point of a laser beam or other light beam. The radius of curvature controlled mirror provides nearly spherical distortion of the mirror in response to differential expansion between the front and rear surfaces of the mirror. The radius of curvature controlled mirror compensates for changes in other optical components due to heating or other physical changes. The radius of curvature controlled mirror includes an arrangement for adjusting the temperature of the front surface and separately adjusting the temperature of the rear surface to control the radius of curvature. The temperature adjustment arrangements can include cooling channels within the mirror body or convection of a gas upon the surface of the mirror. A control system controls the differential expansion between the front and rear surfaces to achieve the desired radius of curvature.

  10. Tiny Mirrors Make TV Magic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨仲言

    1994-01-01

    By mounting thousands of miniature mirrors atop a silicon chip, a Texas Instruments engineer has crafted a TV display technology that can produce brighter and larger pictures than ever before. Since their invention, televisions have relied on cathode-ray tubes for their displays. These generate images by spraying electrons onto the back of

  11. Mounting and Alignment of IXO Mirror Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kai-Wing; Zhang, William; Evans, Tyler; McClelland, Ryan; Hong, Melinda; Mazzarella, James; Saha, Timo; Jalota, Lalit; Olsen, Lawrence; Byron, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    A suspension-mounting scheme is developed for the IXO (International X-ray Observatory) mirror segments in which the figure of the mirror segment is preserved in each stage of mounting. The mirror, first fixed on a thermally compatible strongback, is subsequently transported, aligned and transferred onto its mirror housing. In this paper, we shall outline the requirement, approaches, and recent progress of the suspension mount processes.

  12. The Axisymmetric Tandem Mirror: A Magnetic Mirror Concept Game Changer Magnet Mirror Status Study Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonen, T; Cohen, R; Correll, D; Fowler, K; Post, D; Berk, H; Horton, W; Hooper, E B; Fisch, N; Hassam, A; Baldwin, D; Pearlstein, D; Logan, G; Turner, B; Moir, R; Molvik, A; Ryutov, D; Ivanov, A A; Kesner, J; Cohen, B; McLean, H; Tamano, T; Tang, X Z; Imai, T

    2008-10-24

    Experimental results, theory and innovative ideas now point with increased confidence to the possibility of a Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT) neutron source which would be on the path to an attractively simple Axisymmetric Tandem Mirror (ATM) power plant. Although magnetic mirror research was terminated in the US 20 years ago, experiments continued in Japan (Gamma 10) and Russia (GDT), with a very small US effort. This research has now yielded data, increased understanding, and generated ideas resulting in the new concepts described here. Early mirror research was carried out with circular axisymmetric magnets. These plasmas were MHD unstable due to the unfavorable magnetic curvature near the mid-plane. Then the minimum-B concept emerged in which the field line curvature was everywhere favorable and the plasma was situated in a MHD stable magnetic well (70% average beta in 2XII-B). The Ioffe-bar or baseball-coil became the standard for over 40 years. In the 1980's, driven by success with minimum-B stabilization and the control of ion cyclotron instabilities in PR6 and 2XII-B, mirrors were viewed as a potentially attractive concept with near-term advantages as a lower Q neutron source for applications such as a hybrid fission fuel factory or toxic waste burner. However there are down sides to the minimum-B geometry: coil construction is complex; restraining magnetic forces limit field strength and mirror ratios. Furthermore, the magnetic field lines have geodesic curvature which introduces resonant and neoclassical radial transport as observed in early tandem mirror experiments. So what now leads us to think that simple axisymmetric mirror plasmas can be stable? The Russian GDT experiment achieves on-axis 60% beta by peaking of the kinetic plasma pressure near the mirror throat (where the curvature is favorable) to counter-balance the average unfavorable mid-plane curvature. Then a modest augmentation of plasma pressure in the expander results in stability. The GDT

  13. The function of mirror neurons in the learning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, Neurosciences have developed very much, being elaborated many important theories scientific research in the field. The main goal of neuroscience is to understand how groups of neurons interact to create the behavior. Neuroscientists studying the action of molecules, genes and cells. It also explores the complex interactions involved in motion perception, thoughts, emotions and learning. Brick fundamental nervous system is the nerve cell, neuron. Neurons exchange information by sending electrical signals and chemical through connections called synapses. Discovered by a group of Italian researchers from the University of Parma, neurons - mirror are a special class of nerve cells played an important role in the direct knowledge, automatic and unconscious environment. These cortical neurons are activated not only when an action is fulfilled, but when we see how the same action is performed by someone else, they represent neural mechanism by which the actions, intentions and emotions of others can be understood automatically. In childhood neurons - mirror are extremely important. Thanks to them we learned a lot in the early years: smile, to ask for help and, in fact, all the behaviors and family and group norms. People learn by what they see and sense the others. Neurons - mirror are important to understanding the actions and intentions of other people and learn new skills through mirror image. They are involved in planning and controlling actions, abstract thinking and memory. If a child observes an action, neurons - mirror is activated and forming new neural pathways as if even he takes that action. Efficient activity of mirror neurons leads to good development in all areas at a higher emotional intelligence and the ability to empathize with others.

  14. Mirror movements in progressive hemifacial atrophy

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Mirror movements are simultaneous, involuntary, identical movements occurring during contralateral voluntary movements. These movements are considered as soft neurologic signs seen uncommonly in clinical practice. The mirror movements are described in various neurological disorders which include parkinsonism, cranio veretebral junction anamolies, and hemiplegic cerebral palsy. These movements are intriguing and can pose significant disability. However, no such observation regarding mirror mov...

  15. Through the looking-glass: mirror reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Molinaro, Nicola; Carreiras, Manuel

    2011-02-14

    At early stages of object identification we process correctly oriented and mirrored versions of an object similarly. However, in letter and word perception, such tolerance to mirror reversals is harmful for efficient reading. Do readers successfully develop blindness mechanisms for mirror-letters and words? We conducted two masked priming experiments while recording participants' electrophysiological brain responses to briefly presented primes including mirror-letters (Experiment 1) or to shortly presented mirror-words (Experiment 2). Results showed that the human visual word recognition system is not totally blind to mirror-letters and mirror-words, since the early stages of processing mirror-letters and mirror-words produced effects on target word recognition that were highly similar to the effects produced by identical primes (N250 component). In a posterior stage of processing (N400 epoch), the effect of mirror-letters and mirror-words was different from the effect of identical primes, even though reversed primes still elicited N400 priming effects different from unrelated primes. These results demonstrate that readers perceive mirror-letters and words as correct at initial stages of word recognition, and that the visual word recognition system's neural representation is grounded on basic principles that govern object perception.

  16. Light Weight Silicon Mirrors for Space Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bly, Vincent T.; Hill, Peter C.; Hagopian, John G.; Strojay, Carl R.; Miller, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Each mirror is a monolithic structure from a single crystal of silicon. The mirrors are light weighted after the optical surface is ground and polished. Mirrors made during the initial phase of this work were typically 1/50 lambda or better (RMS at 633 n m)

  17. The mirror neuron system : New frontiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keysers, Christian; Fadiga, Luciano

    2008-01-01

    Since the discovery of mirror neurons, much effort has been invested into Studying their location and properties in the human brain. Here we review these original findings and introduce the Main topics of this special issue of Social Neuroscience. What does the mirror system code? How is the mirror

  18. A new solution for mirror coating in $\\gamma$-ray Cherenkov Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Bonardi, Antonio; Hermanutz, Stephan; Santangelo, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In the $\\gamma$-ray Cherenkov Astronomy framework mirror coating plays a crucial role in defining the light response of the telescope. We carried out a study for new mirror coating solutions with both a numerical simulation software and a vacuum chamber for small sample production. In this article, we present a new mirror coating solution consisting of a 28-layer interferometric SiO$_{2}$-TiO$_{2}$-HfO$_{2}$ design deposited on a glass substrate, whose average reflectance is above $90\\%$ for normally incident light in the wavelength range between 300 and 550 nm.

  19. Steps toward increasing Q in mirror systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, R.F.

    1979-08-20

    Experiments such as the 2XIIB experiment at Livermore have established the ability of mirror systems to confine high temperature, high density plasmas at central beta values exceeding unity. Given these results the next tasks for the mirror approach are to explore means for increasing the energy gain factor Q and to scale up the plasma volume, both of these requirements deriving from economic constraints. This report discusses means for increasng Q, including recent improvements in the tandem mirror concept and design studies of the field-reversed mirror in the context of upcoming and proposed scaled-up mirror experiments.

  20. Design of a rapidly cooled cryogenic mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Ron; Hsu, Ike

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses the design, analysis, and testing of a rapidly cooled beryllium cryogenic mirror, which is the primary mirror in the four-element optical system for the Long Wavelength Infrared Advanced Technology Seeker. The mirror is shown to meet the requirement of five minutes for cooling to cryogenic operating temperature; it also maintains its optical figure and vacuum integrity and meets the nuclear specification. Results of a detailed thermal analysis on the mirror showed that, using nitrogen gas at 80 K as coolant, the front face of the mirror can be cooled from an initial temperature of 300 K to less than 90 K within five minutes. In a vacuum chamber, using liquid nitrogen as coolant, the mirror can be cooled to 80 K within 1.5 min. The mirror is well thermally insulated, so that it can be maintained at less than its operating temperature for a long time without active cooling.

  1. Improved cylindrical mirror energy analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranova, L. A.

    2017-03-01

    A study has been carried out of the electron-optical properties of improved design of the cylindrical mirror energy analyzer. Both external and internal electrodes of the analyzer are divided into three isolated parts, whereby the potentials on the individual parts can be regulated independently from each other. In symmetric operating mode at identical potentials on the side parts of the electrodes, a significant increase has been obtained in resolving power and light-gathering power of the analyzer compared to the standard design of the cylindrical mirror. In asymmetric operating mode, which is implemented in a linear potential distribution on the external electrode, the conditions have been found under which the linear dispersion of the analyzer increases several times.

  2. Spectral Theory and Mirror Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in string theory have revealed a surprising connection between spectral theory and local mirror symmetry: it has been found that the quantization of mirror curves to toric Calabi-Yau threefolds leads to trace class operators, whose spectral properties are conjecturally encoded in the enumerative geometry of the Calabi-Yau. This leads to a new, infinite family of solvable spectral problems: the Fredholm determinants of these operators can be found explicitly in terms of Gromov-Witten invariants and their refinements; their spectrum is encoded in exact quantization conditions, and turns out to be determined by the vanishing of a quantum theta function. Conversely, the spectral theory of these operators provides a non-perturbative definition of topological string theory on toric Calabi-Yau threefolds. In particular, their integral kernels lead to matrix integral representations of the topological string partition function, which explain some number-theoretic properties of the periods. In this...

  3. ZERODUR for stress mirror polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Kunisch, Clemens; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    Stress mirror polishing is considered as one of several polishing technologies for the generation of the aspherical shaped primary mirror segments of the thirty meter telescope (TMT). For stress mirror polishing it is essential to precisely know the elastic response of glass ceramic substrate materials under a given deformation load. In the past it was experimentally shown that glass ceramics do not respond instantaneously to loading and unloading conditions, this effect was called "delayed elasticity." Recently SCHOTT has shown that it is possible to use a model to predict the characteristic thermal expansion behaviour of individual ZERODUR® batches for a given temperature profile. A similar approach will be used to predict the delayed elastic behavior of ZERODUR® under time dependent loads. In this presentation the delayed elasticity effect of ZERODUR® is reviewed. The delayed elastic response of the material to load conditions is shown and discussed. First results of a model approach based on experimental results and tools that have been built up for the modelling of the delayed elasticity effect of ZERODUR® will be presented.

  4. 大学生自我认识与自我接纳团体辅导方案%On the Group Counseling Program for College Students' Self-recognition and Self-acceptance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    In recent years' work, the writer finds that there exist problems in college students' self-recognition and self-accep-tance with the popularization of higher education and more and more severe social competition, and they affect college students' development. In order to solve the problems, the writer carefully designed a group counseling program for college students' self-recognition and self-acceptance, which has been widely im-plemented in this school and it has achieved prominent effect.%  笔者在近几年的工作中发现,随着高等教育的普及和社会竞争的日趋激烈,很多大学生在自我认同和自我接纳方面存在问题,且这一问题严重影响了学生的成长和成才。为解决这一问题带给学生的困扰,笔者精心设计了“大学生自我认识与自我接纳”团体辅导方案。此方案已在我校广泛开展,效果显著,对其他高校开展同类活动具有很好的参考价值。

  5. Mirror agnosia and the mirrored-self misidentification delusion: a hypnotic analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Michael H; Cox, Rochelle E; Barnier, Amanda J; Langdon, Robyn; Coltheart, Max

    2012-05-01

    Mirrored-self misidentification is the delusional belief that one's reflection in the mirror is a stranger. Current theories suggest that one pathway to the delusion is mirror agnosia (a deficit in which patients are unable to use mirror knowledge when interacting with mirrors). This study examined whether a hypnotic suggestion for mirror agnosia can recreate features of the delusion. Ten high hypnotisable participants were given either a suggestion to not understand mirrors or to see the mirror as a window. Participants were asked to look into a mirror and describe what they saw. Participants were tested on their understanding of mirrors and received a series of challenges. Participants then received a detailed postexperimental inquiry. Three of five participants given the suggestion to not understand mirrors reported seeing a stranger and maintained this belief when challenged. These participants also showed signs of mirror agnosia. No participants given the suggestion to see a window reported seeing a stranger. Results indicate that a hypnotic suggestion for mirror agnosia can be used to recreate the mirrored-self misidentification delusion. Factors influencing the effectiveness of hypnotic analogues of psychopathology, such as participants' expectations and interpretations, are discussed.

  6. Mirror Metrology Using Nano-Probe Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David; Hong, Maoling; Byron, Glenn; McClelland, Ryan; Chan, Kai-Wing

    2012-01-01

    Thin, lightweight mirrors are needed for future x-ray space telescopes in order to increase x-ray collecting area while maintaining a reduced mass and volume capable of being launched on existing rockets. However, it is very difficult to determine the undistorted shape of such thin mirrors because the mounting of the mirror during measurement causes distortion. Traditional kinematic mounts have insufficient supports to control the distortion to measurable levels and prevent the mirror from vibrating during measurement. Over-constrained mounts (non-kinematic) result in an unknown force state causing mirror distortion that cannot be determined or analytically removed. In order to measure flexible mirrors, it is necessary to over-constrain the mirror. Over-constraint causes unknown distortions to be applied to the mirror. Even if a kinematic constraint system can be used, necessary imperfections in the kinematic assumption can lead to an unknown force state capable of distorting the mirror. Previously, thicker, stiffer, and heavier mirrors were used to achieve low optical figure distortion. These mirrors could be measured to an acceptable level of precision using traditional kinematic mounts. As lighter weight precision optics have developed, systems such as the whiffle tree or hydraulic supports have been used to provide additional mounting supports while maintaining the kinematic assumption. The purpose of this invention is to over-constrain a mirror for optical measurement without causing unacceptable or unknown distortions. The invention uses force gauges capable of measuring 1/10,000 of a Newton attached to nano-actuators to support a thin x-ray optic with known and controlled forces to allow for figure measurement and knowledge of the undeformed mirror figure. The mirror is hung from strings such that it is minimally distorted and in a known force state. However, the hanging mirror cannot be measured because it is both swinging and vibrating. In order to

  7. Mirror-Symmetric Matrices and Their Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国林; 冯正和

    2002-01-01

    The well-known centrosymmetric matrices correctly reflect mirror-symmetry with no component or only one component on the mirror plane. Mirror-symmetric matrices defined in this paper can represent mirror-symmetric structures with various components on the mirror plane. Some basic properties of mirror-symmetric matrices were studied and applied to interconnection analysis. A generalized odd/even-mode decomposition scheme was developed based on the mirror reflection relationship for mirror-symmetric multiconductor transmission lines (MTLs). The per-unit-length (PUL) impedance matrix Z and admittance matrix Y can be divided into odd-mode and even-mode PUL matrices. Thus the order of the MTL system is reduced from n to k and k+p, where p(≥0)is the conductor number on the mirror plane. The analysis of mirror-symmetric matrices is related to the theory of symmetric group, which is the most effective tool for the study of symmetry.

  8. Reflectivity-modulated grating-mirror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The invention relates to vertical cavity lasers (VCL) incorporating a reflectivity-modulated grating mirror (1) for modulating the laser output. A cavity is formed by a bottom mirror (4), an active region (3), and an outcoupling top grating mirror (1) formed by a periodic refractive index grating...... to the oscillation axis. A modulated voltage (91) is applied in reverse bias between the n- and p-doped layers to modulate the refractive index of the electrooptic material layer (12) and thereby the reflectivity spectrum of the grating mirror (1). The reflectivity of the grating mirror (1) can be modulated between...... a reflectivity with little or no out coupling and a reflectivity with normal out coupling, wherein lasing in the VCL is supported at both the first and the second reflectivity. As the out coupling mirror modulates the output, the lasing does not need to be modulated, and the invention provides the advantage...

  9. Standard specification for silvered flat glass mirror

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers the requirements for silvered flat glass mirrors of rectangular shape supplied as cut sizes, stock sheets or as lehr ends and to which no further processing (such as edgework or other fabrication) has been done. 1.2 This specification covers the quality requirements of silvered annealed monolithic clear and tinted flat glass mirrors up to 6 mm (¼ in.) thick. The mirrors are intended to be used indoors for mirror glazing, for components of decorative accessories or for similar uses. 1.3 This specification does not address safety glazing materials nor requirements for mirror applications. Consult model building codes and other applicable standards for safety glazing applications. 1.4 Mirrors covered in this specification are not intended for use in environments where high humidity or airborne corrosion promoters, or both, are consistently present (such as swimming pool areas, ocean-going vessels, chemical laboratories and other corrosive environments). 1.5 The dimensional val...

  10. Mirror Development for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Förster, A; Baba, H; Bähr, J; Bonardi, A; Bonnoli, G; Brun, P; Canestrari, R; Chadwick, P; Chikawa, M; Carton, P -H; De Souza, V; Dipold, J; Doro, M; Durand, D; Dyrda, M; Giro, E; Glicenstein, J -F; Hanabata, Y; Hayashida, M; Hrabovski, M; Jeanney, C; Kagaya, M; Katagiri, H; Lessio, L; MANDAT, D; Mariotti, M; Medina, C; Michałowski, J; Micolon, P; Nakajima, D; Niemiec, J; Nozato, A; Palatka, M; Pareschi, G; Pech, M; Peyaud, B; Pühlhofer, G; Rataj, M; Rodeghiero, G; Rojas, G; Rousselle, J; Sakonaka, R; Schovanek, P; Seweryn, K; Schultz, C; Shu, S; Stinzing, F; Stodulski, M; Teshima, M; Travniczek, P; Van Eldik, C; Vassiliev, V; Wiśniewski, Ł; Wörnlein, A; Yoshida, T

    2013-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a planned observatory for very-high energy gamma-ray astronomy. It will consist of several tens of telescopes of different sizes, with a total mirror area of up to 10,000 square meters. Most mirrors of current installations are either polished glass mirrors or diamond-turned aluminium mirrors, both labour intensive technologies. For CTA, several new technologies for a fast and cost-efficient production of light-weight and reliable mirror substrates have been developed and industrial pre-production has started for most of them. In addition, new or improved aluminium-based and dielectric surface coatings have been developed to increase the reflectance over the lifetime of the mirrors compared to those of current Cherenkov telescope instruments.

  11. Deformable mirrors development program at ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebele, Stefan; Vernet, Elise; Brinkmann, Martin; Jakob, Gerd; Lilley, Paul; Casali, Mark; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Kasper, Markus

    2016-07-01

    Over the last decade, adaptive optics has become essential in different fields of research including medicine and industrial applications. With this new need, the market of deformable mirrors has expanded a lot allowing new technologies and actuation principles to be developed. Several E-ELT instruments have identified the need for post focal deformable mirrors but with the increasing size of the telescopes the requirements on the deformable mirrors become more demanding. A simple scaling up of existing technologies from few hundred actuators to thousands of actuators will not be sufficient to satisfy the future needs of ESO. To bridge the gap between available deformable mirrors and the future needs for the E-ELT, ESO started a development program for deformable mirror technologies. The requirements and the path to get the deformable mirrors for post focal adaptive optics systems for the E-ELT is presented.

  12. Play Therapy Utilizing the Sony EyeToy®

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Tony; Petersson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    to the potentials of games utilizing mirrored user embodiment in therapy. Results highlight the positive aspects of gameplay and the evaluand potential in the field. Conclusions suggest a continuum where presence state is a significant interim mode toward a higher order aesthetic resonance state that we claim...... inherent to our interpretation of play therapy....

  13. Mirror QCD and Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Pasechnik, Roman; Teryaev, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    An analog of Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) sector known as mirror QCD (mQCD) can affect the cosmological evolution and help in resolving the Cosmological Constant problem. In this work, we explore an intriguing possibility for a compensation of the negative QCD vacuum contribution to the ground state energy density of the universe by means of a positive contribution from the chromomagnetic gluon condensate in mQCD. The trace anomaly compensation condition and the form of the mQCD coupling constant in the infrared limit have been proposed by analysing a partial non-perturbative solution of the Einstein--Yang-Mills equations of motion.

  14. Tandem mirror technology demonstration facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-10-01

    This report describes a facility for generating engineering data on the nuclear technologies needed to build an engineering test reactor (ETR). The facility, based on a tandem mirror operating in the Kelley mode, could be used to produce a high neutron flux (1.4 MW/M/sup 2/) on an 8-m/sup 2/ test area for testing fusion blankets. Runs of more than 100 h, with an average availability of 30%, would produce a fluence of 5 mW/yr/m/sup 2/ and give the necessary experience for successful operation of an ETR.

  15. Inhomogeneous interface laser mirror coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledger, A M

    1979-09-01

    Methods of improving the durability of thin-film laser mirror coatings for 10.6 microm using thorium fluoride, zinc selenide, and zinc sulfide materials have been investigated. The largest improvement in film durability was obtained by using inhomogeneous interface fabrication for all the dielectric-dielectric interfaces and by incorporating cerium fluoride protective overcoating material into the film design. Experimental results are given for enhanced reflectors, polarization-selective coatings, and buried-grating aperture-sharing coatings designed for high-power laser applications.

  16. Mirror averaging with sparsity priors

    CERN Document Server

    Dalalyan, Arnak

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of aggregating the elements of a (possibly infinite) dictionary for building a decision procedure, that aims at minimizing a given criterion. Along with the dictionary, an independent identically distributed training sample is available, on which the performance of a given procedure can be tested. In a fairly general set-up, we establish an oracle inequality for the Mirror Averaging aggregate based on any prior distribution. This oracle inequality is applied in the context of sparse coding for different problems of statistics and machine learning such as regression, density estimation and binary classification.

  17. Reflective metallic coatings for first mirrors on ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eren, Baran, E-mail: baran.eren@unibas.ch [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Marot, Laurent [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Litnovsky, Andrey; Matveeva, Maria [Institut fuer Energieforschung (Plasmaphysik), Forschungszentrum Juelich, Association EURATOM-FZJ, D 52425 Juelich (Germany); Steiner, Roland; Emberger, Valentin; Wisse, Marco [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Mathys, Daniel [Centre of Microscopy, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 50/70, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Covarel, Gregory [Laboratoire de Physique et Mecanique Textile EA CNRS 7189, Universite de Haute Alsace, 61 rue Albert Camus, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Meyer, Ernst [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2011-10-15

    Metallic mirrors are foreseen to play a crucial role for all optical diagnostics in ITER. Therefore, the development of reliable techniques for the production of mirrors which are able to maintain their optical properties in the harsh ITER environment is highly important. By applying magnetron sputtering and evaporation techniques, rhodium and molybdenum films have been prepared for tokamak tests. The films were characterised in terms of chemical composition, surface roughness, crystallite structure, reflectivity and adhesion. No impurities were detected on the surface after deposition. The effects of deposition parameters and substrate temperature on the resulting crystallite structure, surface roughness and hence on the reflectivity, were investigated. The films are found to exhibit nanometric crystallites with a dense columnar structure. Open boundaries between the crystallite columns, which are sometimes present after evaporation, are found to reduce the reflectivity as compared to rhodium or molybdenum references.

  18. Transport phenomena in stochastic magnetic mirrors

    OpenAIRE

    Malyshkin, Leonid; Kulsrud, Russell

    2000-01-01

    Parallel thermal conduction along stochastic magnetic field lines may be reduced because the heat conducting electrons become trapped and detrapped between regions of strong magnetic field (magnetic mirrors). The problem reduces to a simple but realistic model for diffusion of mono-energetic electrons based on the fact that when there is a reduction of diffusion, it is controlled by a subset of the mirrors, the principle mirrors. The diffusion reduction can be considered as equivalent to an e...

  19. Pulse compression by use of deformable mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeek, E; Maginnis, K; Backus, S; Russek, U; Murnane, M; Mourou, G; Kapteyn, H; Vdovin, G

    1999-04-01

    An electrostatically deformable, gold-coated, silicon nitride membrane mirror was used as a phase modulator to compress pulses from 92 to 15 fs. Both an iterative genetic algorithm and single-step dispersion compensation based on frequency-resolved optical gating calibration of the mirror were used to compress pulses to within 10% of the transform limit. Frequency-resolved optical gating was used to characterize the pulses and to test the range of the deformable-mirror-based compressor.

  20. Mirrored Light Field Video Camera Adapter

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Dorian; Dansereau, Donald G.; Martin, Steve; Corke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the design of a custom mirror-based light field camera adapter that is cheap, simple in construction, and accessible. Mirrors of different shape and orientation reflect the scene into an upwards-facing camera to create an array of virtual cameras with overlapping field of view at specified depths, and deliver video frame rate light fields. We describe the design, construction, decoding and calibration processes of our mirror-based light field camera adapter in preparation ...

  1. MIRROR THERAPY: A REVIEW OF EVIDENCES

    OpenAIRE

    Aishath Najiha; Jagatheesan Alagesan; Vandana J Rathod; Poongundran Paranthaman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to identify and summarize the existing evidences on mirror box therapy for the management of various musculoskeletal conditions. A systemic literature search was performed to identify studies concerning mirror therapy. The included journal articles were reviewed and assessed for its significance. Fifty one studies were identified and reviewed. Five different patient categories were studied: 24 studies focussed on mirror therapy after stroke, thirteen studies focusse...

  2. Children's Empowerment in Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Natalie

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the level of empowerment and autonomy children can create in their play experiences. It examines the play discourses that children build and maintain and considers the importance of play contexts in supporting children's emotional and social development. These aspects of play are often unseen or misunderstood by the adult…

  3. The Play of Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry

    2012-01-01

    The author reviews the role of play within psychotherapy. She does not discuss the formal play therapy especially popular for young children, nor play from the Jungian perspective that encourages the use of the sand tray with adults. Instead, she focuses on the informal use of play during psychotherapy as it is orchestrated intuitively. Because…

  4. Two people playing together: some thoughts on play, playing, and playfulness in psychoanalytic work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vliegen, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Children's play and the playfulness of adolescents and adults are important indicators of personal growth and development. When a child is not able to play, or an adolescent/adult is not able to be playful with thoughts and ideas, psychotherapy can help to find a more playful and creative stance. Elaborating Winnicott's (1968, p. 591) statement that "psychotherapy has to do with two people playing together," three perspectives on play in psychotherapy are discussed. In the first point of view, the child gets in touch with and can work through aspects of his or her inner world, while playing in the presence of the therapist. The power of play is then rooted in the playful communication with the self In a second perspective, in play the child is communicating aspects of his or her inner world to the therapist as a significant other. In a third view, in "playing together" child and therapist are coconstructing new meanings. These three perspectives on play are valid at different moments of a therapy process or for different children, depending on the complex vicissitudes of the child's constitution, life experiences, development, and psychic structure. Concerning these three perspectives, a parallel can be drawn between the therapist's attitude toward the child's play and the way the therapist responds to the verbal play of an adolescent or adult. We illustrate this with the case of Jacob, a late adolescent hardly able to play with ideas.

  5. Applying Play to Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Patricia S.; Fokes, Joann

    The objectives of this paper are (1) to present the relationship of play to language and cognition, (2) to describe the stages of play and discuss recent literature about the characteristics of play, and (3) to describe the use of play with the multifaceted goals of cognition, pragmatics, semantics, syntax, and morphology as an intervention…

  6. Single Crystal Silicon Mirrors for Spaceflight Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop a well understood process for manufacturing visible quality SCSi mirrors. Areas of research include stress relief, figure, finish, and light weighting...

  7. Mirror movements in progressive hemifacial atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajesh; Dixit, Puneet Kumar; Lalla, Rakesh; Singh, Babita

    2015-01-01

    Mirror movements are simultaneous, involuntary, identical movements occurring during contralateral voluntary movements. These movements are considered as soft neurologic signs seen uncommonly in clinical practice. The mirror movements are described in various neurological disorders which include parkinsonism, cranio veretebral junction anamolies, and hemiplegic cerebral palsy. These movements are intriguing and can pose significant disability. However, no such observation regarding mirror movements in progressive hemifacial atrophy have been reported previously. We are reporting a teenage girl suffering from progressive hemifacial atrophy and epilepsy with demonstrable mirror movements in hand. PMID:26019431

  8. Analytic solution for a quartic electron mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straton, Jack C., E-mail: straton@pdx.edu

    2015-01-15

    A converging electron mirror can be used to compensate for spherical and chromatic aberrations in an electron microscope. This paper presents an analytical solution to a diode (two-electrode) electrostatic mirror including the next term beyond the known hyperbolic shape. The latter is a solution of the Laplace equation to second order in the variables perpendicular to and along the mirror's radius (z{sup 2}−r{sup 2}/2) to which we add a quartic term (kλz{sup 4}). The analytical solution is found in terms of Jacobi cosine-amplitude functions. We find that a mirror less concave than the hyperbolic profile is more sensitive to changes in mirror voltages and the contrary holds for the mirror more concave than the hyperbolic profile. - Highlights: • We find the analytical solution for electron mirrors whose curvature has z4 dependence added to the usual z{sup 2} – r{sup 2}/2 terms. • The resulting Jacobi cosine-amplitude function reduces to the well-known cosh solution in the limit where the new term is 0. • This quartic term gives a mirror designer additional flexibility for eliminating spherical and chromatic aberrations. • The possibility of using these analytical results to approximately model spherical tetrode mirrors close to axis is noted.

  9. Mirror movements in progressive hemifacial atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Verma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mirror movements are simultaneous, involuntary, identical movements occurring during contralateral voluntary movements. These movements are considered as soft neurologic signs seen uncommonly in clinical practice. The mirror movements are described in various neurological disorders which include parkinsonism, cranio veretebral junction anamolies, and hemiplegic cerebral palsy. These movements are intriguing and can pose significant disability. However, no such observation regarding mirror movements in progressive hemifacial atrophy have been reported previously. We are reporting a teenage girl suffering from progressive hemifacial atrophy and epilepsy with demonstrable mirror movements in hand.

  10. Double curvature mirrors for linear concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Tamir; Ackler, Harold; Finot, Marc

    2012-10-01

    Skyline Solar's medium concentration photovoltaic system uses quasi-parabolic mirrors and one axis tracking. Improvements in levelized cost of energy can be achieved by effective management of non-uniformity of the flux line on the panels. To reduce non uniformity of the flux line due to mirror to mirror gaps, Skyline developed a dual curvature mirror that stretches the flux line along the panel. Extensive modeling and experiments have been conducted to analyze the impact of this new design and to optimize the design.

  11. The uncanny mirror: a re-framing of mirror self-experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Philippe; Zahavi, Dan

    2011-06-01

    Mirror self-experience is re-casted away from the cognitivist interpretation that has dominated discussions on the issue since the establishment of the mirror mark test. Ideas formulated by Merleau-Ponty on mirror self-experience point to the profoundly unsettling encounter with one's specular double. These ideas, together with developmental evidence are re-visited to provide a new, psychologically and phenomenologically more valid account of mirror self-experience: an experience associated with deep wariness.

  12. One mirror beam steering: determination of steering mirror parameters from image pointing direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Torben B.; Granger, Zachary A.

    2016-09-01

    Mathematical models are used to establish the exact path of a beam reflected by a plane mirror in terms of the mirror geometry descriptors. In particular, the mirror geometry descriptors (tilt angles) are determined as functions of the beam path in image space. This is also useful for determining scan patterns when the mirror is used as a scanning device. These formulations are readily adaptable to commercially available ray tracing programs.

  13. Neurodegeneration and mirror image agnosia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Normal Percept with abnormal meaning (Agnosias has been described from nineteenth century onwards. Later literature became abundant with information on the spectrum of Prosopagnosias. However, selective difficulty in identifying reflected self images with relatively better cognitive functions leads to problems in differentiating it from non-organic psychosis. Aim: In the present study, we investigated patients with dementia who showed difficulty in identifying reflected self images while they were being tested for problems in gnosis with reference to identification of reflected objects, animals, relatives, and themselves and correlate with neuropsychological and radiological parameters. Patients and Methods: Five such patients were identified and tested with a 45 cm × 45 cm mirror kept at 30-cm distance straight ahead of them. Results: Mirror image agnosia is seen in patients with moderate stage posterior dementias who showed neuropsychological and radiological evidence of right parietal dysfunction. Conclusion: Interpretation of reflected self images perception in real time probably involves distinct data-linking circuits in the right parietal lobe, which may get disrupted early in the course of the disease.

  14. FAME: freeform active mirror experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitink-Kroes, Gabby; Agócs, Tibor; Miller, Chris; Black, Martin; Farkas, Szigfrid; Lemared, Sabri; Bettonvil, Felix; Montgomery, David; Marcos, Michel; Jaskó, Attila; van Duffelen, Farian; Challita, Zalpha; Fok, Sandy; Kiaeerad, Fatemeh; Hugot, Emmanuel; Schnetler, Hermine; Venema, Lars

    2016-07-01

    FAME is a four-year project and part of the OPTICON/FP7 program that is aimed at providing a breakthrough component for future compact, wide field, high resolution imagers or spectrographs, based on both Freeform technology, and the flexibility and versatility of active systems. Due to the opening of a new parameter space in optical design, Freeform Optics are a revolution in imaging systems for a broad range of applications from high tech cameras to astronomy, via earth observation systems, drones and defense. Freeform mirrors are defined by a non-rotational symmetry of the surface shape, and the fact that the surface shape cannot be simply described by conicoids extensions, or off-axis conicoids. An extreme freeform surface is a significantly challenging optical surface, especially for UV/VIS/NIR diffraction limited instruments. The aim of the FAME effort is to use an extreme freeform mirror with standard optics in order to propose an integrated system solution for use in future instruments. The work done so far concentrated on identification of compact, fast, widefield optical designs working in the visible, with diffraction limited performance; optimization of the number of required actuators and their layout; the design of an active array to manipulate the face sheet, as well as the actuator design. In this paper we present the status of the demonstrator development, with focus on the different building blocks: an extreme freeform thin face sheet, the active array, a highly controllable thermal actuator array, and the metrology and control system.

  15. Explaining mirror-touch synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jamie; Banissy, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) is the conscious experience of tactile sensations induced by seeing someone else touched. This paper considers two different, although not mutually exclusive, theoretical explanations and, in the final section, considers the relation between MTS and other forms of synesthesia and also other kinds of vicarious perception (e.g., contagious yawning). The Threshold Theory explains MTS in terms of hyper-activity within a mirror system for touch and/or pain. This offers a good account for some of the evidence (e.g., from fMRI) but fails to explain the whole pattern (e.g., structural brain differences outside of this system; performance on some tests of social cognition). The Self-Other Theory explains MTS in terms of disturbances in the ability to distinguish the self from others. This can be construed in terms of over-extension of the bodily self in to others, or as difficulties in the control of body-based self-other representations. In this account, MTS is a symptom of a broader cognitive profile. We suggest this meets the criteria for synesthesia, despite the proximal causal mechanisms remaining largely unknown, and that the tendency to localize vicarious sensory experiences distinguishes it from other kinds of seemingly related phenomena (e.g., non-localized affective responses to observing pain).

  16. Neurodegeneration and Mirror Image Agnosia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Issac, Thomas Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Normal Percept with abnormal meaning (Agnosias) has been described from nineteenth century onwards. Later literature became abundant with information on the spectrum of Prosopagnosias. However, selective difficulty in identifying reflected self images with relatively better cognitive functions leads to problems in differentiating it from non-organic psychosis. Aim: In the present study, we investigated patients with dementia who showed difficulty in identifying reflected self images while they were being tested for problems in gnosis with reference to identification of reflected objects, animals, relatives, and themselves and correlate with neuropsychological and radiological parameters. Patients and Methods: Five such patients were identified and tested with a 45 cm × 45 cm mirror kept at 30-cm distance straight ahead of them. Results: Mirror image agnosia is seen in patients with moderate stage posterior dementias who showed neuropsychological and radiological evidence of right parietal dysfunction. Conclusion: Interpretation of reflected self images perception in real time probably involves distinct data-linking circuits in the right parietal lobe, which may get disrupted early in the course of the disease. PMID:25317393

  17. Relativistic Tennis Using Flying Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirozhkov, A. S.; Kando, M.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Ma, J.; Fukuda, Y.; Chen, L.-M.; Daito, I.; Ogura, K.; Homma, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Kotaki, H.; Sagisaka, A.; Mori, M.; Koga, J. K.; Kawachi, T.; Daido, H.; Bulanov, S. V.; Kimura, T.; Kato, Y.; Tajima, T.

    2008-06-01

    Upon reflection from a relativistic mirror, the electromagnetic pulse frequency is upshifted and the duration is shortened by the factor proportional to the relativistic gamma-factor squared due to the double Doppler effect. We present the results of the proof-of-principle experiment for frequency upshifting of the laser pulse reflected from the relativistic "flying mirror", which is a wake wave near the breaking threshold created by a strong driver pulse propagating in underdense plasma. Experimentally, the wake wave is created by a 2 TW, 76 fs Ti:S laser pulse from the JLITE-X laser system in helium plasma with the electron density of ≈4-6×1019 cm-3. The reflected signal is observed with a grazing-incidence spectrograph in 24 shots. The wavelength of the reflected radiation ranges from 7 to 14 nm, the corresponding frequency upshifting factors are ˜55-115, and the gamma-factors are y = 4-6. The reflected signal contains at least 3×107 photons/sr. This effect can be used to generate coherent high-frequency ultrashort pulses that inherit temporal shape and polarization from the original (low-frequency) ones. Apart from this, the reflected radiation contains important information about the wake wave itself, e.g. location, size, phase velocity, etc.

  18. Electrochromic Mirrors With Variable Reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baucke, Friedrich G. K.

    1986-09-01

    Unstructured electrochromic mirrors with variable reflectance have been developed on the basis of hydrogen tungsten bronzes. The characteristic compounds of these devices are (1) solid ion-conducting layers ("electrolytes") resulting in only few micrometer thick all-solid-state systems, which can be enclosed between the substrate and a second glass plate and are thus protected from the environment, (2) integrated reflecting metal layers, and (3) hydrogen-storing electrochromic layers. Two basically different constructions are feasible. In "diffusion-driven" devices the bronze is formed (decomposed) by the chemical reaction x/2 H2+ W03⇔HxW03, in "field-driven" systems an electrochemical bronze formation (decomposition), x H + W03+ x e HxW03, takes place. The modes of construction are presented and compared, the electrochemistry of the thin layer cells involved is discussed, the prop-erties of devices according to the state of development are reported, and possible applications, e.g. as glare-free, inside and outside, automotive rear view mirrors with adjustable reflectance, are briefly described.

  19. Mirror particles and mirror matter: 50 years of speculations and searches

    CERN Document Server

    Okun, Lev Borisovich

    2006-01-01

    This text has been prepared for the talk at the ``ITEP Meeting on the future of heavy flavor physics'', Moscow, ITEP, July 24-25, 2006 (http://www.itep.ru/eng/bellemeeting). It describes emergence and evolution of concept of ``mirror particles'' and ``mirror matter'' and presents a concise guide to the ``mirror-land''.

  20. The play grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh, Rune; Johansen, Asger

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose The Play Grid, a model for systemizing different play types. The approach is psychological by nature and the actual Play Grid is based, therefore, on two pairs of fundamental and widely acknowledged distinguishing characteristics of the ego, namely: extraversion vs...... at the Play Grid. Thus, the model has four quadrants, each of them describing one of four play types: the Assembler, the Director, the Explorer, and the Improviser. It is our hope that the Play Grid can be a useful design tool for making entertainment products for children....

  1. Manufacturing Precise, Lightweight Paraboloidal Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Frederick Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A process for fabricating a precise, diffraction- limited, ultra-lightweight, composite- material (matrix/fiber) paraboloidal telescope mirror has been devised. Unlike the traditional process of fabrication of heavier glass-based mirrors, this process involves a minimum of manual steps and subjective judgment. Instead, this process involves objectively controllable, repeatable steps; hence, this process is better suited for mass production. Other processes that have been investigated for fabrication of precise composite-material lightweight mirrors have resulted in print-through of fiber patterns onto reflecting surfaces, and have not provided adequate structural support for maintenance of stable, diffraction-limited surface figures. In contrast, this process does not result in print-through of the fiber pattern onto the reflecting surface and does provide a lightweight, rigid structure capable of maintaining a diffraction-limited surface figure in the face of changing temperature, humidity, and air pressure. The process consists mainly of the following steps: 1. A precise glass mandrel is fabricated by conventional optical grinding and polishing. 2. The mandrel is coated with a release agent and covered with layers of a carbon- fiber composite material. 3. The outer surface of the outer layer of the carbon-fiber composite material is coated with a surfactant chosen to provide for the proper flow of an epoxy resin to be applied subsequently. 4. The mandrel as thus covered is mounted on a temperature-controlled spin table. 5. The table is heated to a suitable temperature and spun at a suitable speed as the epoxy resin is poured onto the coated carbon-fiber composite material. 6. The surface figure of the optic is monitored and adjusted by use of traditional Ronchi, Focault, and interferometric optical measurement techniques while the speed of rotation and the temperature are adjusted to obtain the desired figure. The proper selection of surfactant, speed or rotation

  2. Neural mirroring and social interaction: Motor system involvement during action observation relates to early peer cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endedijk, H M; Meyer, M; Bekkering, H; Cillessen, A H N; Hunnius, S

    2017-04-01

    Whether we hand over objects to someone, play a team sport, or make music together, social interaction often involves interpersonal action coordination, both during instances of cooperation and entrainment. Neural mirroring is thought to play a crucial role in processing other's actions and is therefore considered important for social interaction. Still, to date, it is unknown whether interindividual differences in neural mirroring play a role in interpersonal coordination during different instances of social interaction. A relation between neural mirroring and interpersonal coordination has particularly relevant implications for early childhood, since successful early interaction with peers is predictive of a more favorable social development. We examined the relation between neural mirroring and children's interpersonal coordination during peer interaction using EEG and longitudinal behavioral data. Results showed that 4-year-old children with higher levels of motor system involvement during action observation (as indicated by lower beta-power) were more successful in early peer cooperation. This is the first evidence for a relation between motor system involvement during action observation and interpersonal coordination during other instances of social interaction. The findings suggest that interindividual differences in neural mirroring are related to interpersonal coordination and thus successful social interaction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. LHCb ring imaging Cherenkov detector mirrors

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    In a large dark room, men in white move around an immense structure some 7 m high, 10 m wide and nearly 2.5 m deep. Apparently effortlessly, they are installing the two large high-precision spherical mirrors. These mirrors will focus Cherenkov light, created by the charged particles that will traverse this detector, onto the photon detectors.

  4. Evolution of the tandem mirror reactor concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, G.A.; Logan, B.G.

    1982-03-09

    We discuss the evolution of the tandem mirror reactor concept from the original conceptual reactor design (1977) through the first application of the thermal barrier concept to a reactor design (1979) to the beginning of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (1982).

  5. LED structure with enhanced mirror reflectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Michael; Donofrio, Matthew; Heikman, Sten; Schneider, Kevin S; Haberern, Kevin W; Edmond, John A

    2014-04-01

    Embodiments of the present invention are generally related to LED chips having improved overall emission by reducing the light-absorbing effects of barrier layers adjacent mirror contacts. In one embodiment, a LED chip comprises one or more LEDs, with each LED having an active region, a first contact under the active region having a highly reflective mirror, and a barrier layer adjacent the mirror. The barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that it does not extend beyond the periphery of the mirror. In another possible embodiment, an insulator is further provided, with the insulator adjacent the barrier layer and adjacent portions of the mirror not contacted by the active region or by the barrier layer. In yet another embodiment, a second contact is provided on the active region. In a further embodiment, the barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that the periphery of the mirror is at least 40% free of the barrier layer, and the second contact is below the first contact and accessible from the bottom of the chip.

  6. Segmented mirror control system hardware for CELT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Terry S.; Nelson, Jerry E.

    2000-07-01

    The primary mirror of the proposed California Extremely Large Telescope is a 30-meter diameter mosaic of hexagonal segments. The primary mirror active control will be achieved using four systems: sensors, actuators, processor, and alignment camera. We describe here the basic requirements of sensors and actuators, sketch a sensor design, and indicate interesting actuator alternatives.

  7. The Mirror Neuron System and Action Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccino, Giovanni; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Riggio, Lucia

    2004-01-01

    Mirror neurons, first described in the rostral part of monkey ventral premotor cortex (area F5), discharge both when the animal performs a goal-directed hand action and when it observes another individual performing the same or a similar action. More recently, in the same area mirror neurons responding to the observation of mouth actions have been…

  8. Unbroken Mirror Neurons in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yang-Teng; Decety, Jean; Yang, Chia-Yen; Liu, Ji-Lin; Cheng, Yawei

    2010-01-01

    Background: The "broken mirror" theory of autism, which proposes that a dysfunction of the human mirror neuron system (MNS) is responsible for the core social and cognitive deficits in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), has received considerable attention despite weak empirical evidence. Methods: In this electroencephalographic…

  9. Do mirror neurons subserve action understanding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickok, Gregory

    2013-04-12

    Mirror neurons were once widely believed to support action understanding via motor simulation of the observed actions. Recent evidence regarding the functional properties of mirror neurons in monkeys as well as much neuropsychological evidence in humans has shown that this is not the case. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mirror matter and primordial black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Nicole F.; Volkas, Raymond R.

    1998-01-01

    A consequence of the evaporation of primordial black holes in the early universe may be the generation of mirror matter. This would have implications with regard to dark matter, and the number of light particle species in equilibrium at the time of big bang nucleosynthesis. The possibilities for the production of mirror matter by this mechanism are explored.

  11. Cortical mechanisms of mirror therapy after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, Holly E; Borrelli, Mimi R; Borchert, Robin J; Bradbury, David; Ward, Nick S

    2015-06-01

    Mirror therapy is a new form of stroke rehabilitation that uses the mirror reflection of the unaffected hand in place of the affected hand to augment movement training. The mechanism of mirror therapy is not known but is thought to involve changes in cerebral organization. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to measure changes in cortical activity during mirror training after stroke. In particular, we examined movement-related changes in the power of cortical oscillations in the beta (15-30 Hz) frequency range, known to be involved in movement. Ten stroke patients with upper limb paresis and 13 healthy controls were recorded using MEG while performing bimanual hand movements in 2 different conditions. In one, subjects looked directly at their affected hand (or dominant hand in controls), and in the other, they looked at a mirror reflection of their unaffected hand in place of their affected hand. The movement-related beta desynchronization was calculated in both primary motor cortices. Movement-related beta desynchronization was symmetrical during bilateral movement and unaltered by the mirror condition in controls. In the patients, movement-related beta desynchronization was generally smaller than in controls, but greater in contralesional compared to ipsilesional motor cortex. This initial asymmetry in movement-related beta desynchronization between hemispheres was made more symmetrical by the presence of the mirror. Mirror therapy could potentially aid stroke rehabilitation by normalizing an asymmetrical pattern of movement-related beta desynchronization in primary motor cortices during bilateral movement. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Unbroken Mirror Neurons in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yang-Teng; Decety, Jean; Yang, Chia-Yen; Liu, Ji-Lin; Cheng, Yawei

    2010-01-01

    Background: The "broken mirror" theory of autism, which proposes that a dysfunction of the human mirror neuron system (MNS) is responsible for the core social and cognitive deficits in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), has received considerable attention despite weak empirical evidence. Methods: In this electroencephalographic…

  13. The Mirror Neuron System and Action Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccino, Giovanni; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Riggio, Lucia

    2004-01-01

    Mirror neurons, first described in the rostral part of monkey ventral premotor cortex (area F5), discharge both when the animal performs a goal-directed hand action and when it observes another individual performing the same or a similar action. More recently, in the same area mirror neurons responding to the observation of mouth actions have been…

  14. Affective multimodal mirror: sensing and eliciting laughter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melder, W.A.; Truong, K.P.; Uyl, M. den; Leeuwen, D.A. van; Neerincx, M.A.; Loos, L.R.; Stock Plum, B.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a multimodal affective mirror that senses and elicits laughter. Currently, the mirror contains a vocal and a facial affect-sensing module, a component that fuses the output of these two modules to achieve a user-state assessment, a user state transition model, and a compone

  15. Role-Playing Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)

  16. Play the Tuberculosis Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questionnaire Tuberculosis Play Tuberculosis Experiments & Discoveries About the game Discover and experience some of the classic methods ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  17. Play the MRI Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teachers' Questionnaire MRI Play MRI the Magnetic Miracle Game About the game In the MRI imaging technique, strong magnets and ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  18. Play the Electrocardiogram Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Electrocardiogram Play the ECG Game About the game ECG is used for diagnosing heart conditions by ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  19. Learning Through Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... play, such as using play dough, LEGOs, and board games. Toys such as puzzles, pegboards, beads, and lacing ... Building sets, books, bicycles, roller skates, ice skates, board games, checkers, beginning sports • Middle Schoolers and Adolescents: Athletics, ...

  20. Children, Time, and Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkind, David; Rinaldi, Carla; Flemmert Jensen, Anne;

    Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003.......Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003....

  1. Role-Playing Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)

  2. Play at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier Sørensen, Bent; Spoelstra, Sverre

    2012-01-01

    for business and the other insists that work and play are largely indistinguishable in the postindustrial organization. Our field study of a design and communications company in Denmark shows that organizational play can be much more than just functional to the organization. We identify three ways in which......The interest in organizational play is growing, both in popular business discourse and organization studies. As the presumption that play is dysfunctional for organizations is increasingly discarded, the existing positions may be divided into two camps; one proposes ‘serious play’ as an engine...... workplaces engage in play: play as a (serious) continuation of work, play as a (critical) intervention into work and play as an (uninvited) usurpation of work....

  3. Mirror neurons through the lens of epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Pier F; Tramacere, Antonella; Simpson, Elizabeth A; Iriki, Atsushi

    2013-09-01

    The consensus view in mirror neuron research is that mirror neurons comprise a uniform, stable execution-observation matching system. In this opinion article, we argue that, in light of recent evidence, this is at best an incomplete and oversimplified view of mirror neurons, where activity is actually variable and more plastic than previously theorized. We propose an epigenetic account for understanding developmental changes in sensorimotor systems, including variations in mirror neuron activity. Although associative and genetic accounts fail to consider the complexity of genetic and nongenetic interactions, we propose a new evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) perspective, which predicts that environmental differences early in development should produce variations in mirror neuron response patterns, tuning them to the social environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mirror neurons and their clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena; Cattaneo, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    One of the most exciting events in neurosciences over the past few years has been the discovery of a mechanism that unifies action perception and action execution. The essence of this 'mirror' mechanism is as follows: whenever individuals observe an action being done by someone else, a set of neurons that code for that action is activated in the observers' motor system. Since the observers are aware of the outcome of their motor acts, they also understand what the other individual is doing without the need for intermediate cognitive mediation. In this Review, after discussing the most pertinent data concerning the mirror mechanism, we examine the clinical relevance of this mechanism. We first discuss the relationship between mirror mechanism impairment and some core symptoms of autism. We then outline the theoretical principles of neurorehabilitation strategies based on the mirror mechanism. We conclude by examining the relationship between the mirror mechanism and some features of the environmental dependency syndromes.

  5. Cryostable lightweight frit bonded silicon mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, F.; McCarter, D.; Tangedahl, M.; Content, D.

    The excellent polishability, low density and relatively high stiffness of silicon make it an attractive candidate for optical applications that require superior performance. Assembly of silicon details by means of glass frit bonding permits significant light weighting thus enhancing the benefit of silicon mirrors. To demonstrate the performance potential, a small lightweight glass frit bonded silicon mirror was fabricated and tested for cryoability. The test mirror was 12.5cm in diameter with a 60cm spherical radius and a maximum thickness, at the perimeter, of 2.5cm. A machined silicon core was used to stiffen the two face sheets of the silicon sandwich. These three elements were assembled, by glass frit bonding, to form the substrate that was polished. The experimental evaluation in a liquid nitrogen cryostat, demonstrated cryostability performance significantly better than required by the mirror specification. Key WordsCryostable, Lightweight, Silicon, Frit Bond, Spherical, Mirror

  6. DAMA annual modulation and mirror Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerulli, R.; Cappella, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, AQ (Italy); Villar, P. [Universidad de Zaragoza, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Saragossa (Spain); Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc, Canfranc Estacion, Huesca (Spain); Bernabei, R.; Belli, P. [Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Incicchitti, A. [Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Rome (Italy); Addazi, A.; Berezhiani, Z. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, AQ (Italy); Universita di L' Aquila, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Coppito, AQ (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    The DAMA experiment using ultra low background NaI(Tl) crystal scintillators has measured an annual modulation effect in the keV region which satisfies all the peculiarities of an effect induced by Dark Matter particles. In this paper we analyze this annual modulation effect in terms of mirror Dark Matter, an exact duplicate of ordinary matter from parallel hidden sector, which chemical composition is dominated by mirror helium while it can also contain significant fractions of heavier elements as Carbon and Oxygen. Dark mirror atoms are considered to interact with the target nuclei in the detector via Rutherford-like scattering induced by kinetic mixing between mirror and ordinary photons, both being massless. In the present analysis we consider various possible scenarios for the mirror matter chemical composition. For all the scenarios, the relevant ranges for the kinetic mixing parameter have been obtained taking also into account various existing uncertainties in nuclear and particle physics quantities. (orig.)

  7. High reflection mirrors for pulse compression gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmier, S; Neauport, J; Baclet, N; Lavastre, E; Dupuy, G

    2009-10-26

    We report an experimental investigation of high reflection mirrors used to fabricate gratings for pulse compression application at the wavelength of 1.053microm. Two kinds of mirrors are studied: the mixed Metal MultiLayer Dielectric (MMLD) mirrors which combine a gold metal layer with some e-beam evaporated dielectric bilayers on the top and the standard e-beam evaporated MultiLayer Dielectric (MLD) mirrors. Various samples were manufactured, damage tested at a pulse duration of 500fs. Damage sites were subsequently observed by means of Nomarski microscopy and white light interferometer microscopy. The comparison of the results evidences that if MMLD design can offer damage performances rather similar to MLD design, it also exhibits lower stresses; being thus an optimal mirror substrate for a pulse compression grating operating under vacuum.

  8. DAMA annual modulation and mirror Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerulli, R.; Villar, P.; Cappella, F.; Bernabei, R.; Belli, P.; Incicchitti, A.; Addazi, A.; Berezhiani, Z.

    2017-02-01

    The DAMA experiment using ultra low background NaI(Tl) crystal scintillators has measured an annual modulation effect in the keV region which satisfies all the peculiarities of an effect induced by Dark Matter particles. In this paper we analyze this annual modulation effect in terms of mirror Dark Matter, an exact duplicate of ordinary matter from parallel hidden sector, which chemical composition is dominated by mirror helium while it can also contain significant fractions of heavier elements as Carbon and Oxygen. Dark mirror atoms are considered to interact with the target nuclei in the detector via Rutherford-like scattering induced by kinetic mixing between mirror and ordinary photons, both being massless. In the present analysis we consider various possible scenarios for the mirror matter chemical composition. For all the scenarios, the relevant ranges for the kinetic mixing parameter have been obtained taking also into account various existing uncertainties in nuclear and particle physics quantities.

  9. Mirror-image-induced magnetic modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xifré-Pérez, Elisabet; Shi, Lei; Tuzer, Umut; Fenollosa, Roberto; Ramiro-Manzano, Fernando; Quidant, Romain; Meseguer, Francisco

    2013-01-22

    Reflection in a mirror changes the handedness of the real world, and right-handed objects turn left-handed and vice versa (M. Gardner, The Ambidextrous Universe, Penguin Books, 1964). Also, we learn from electromagnetism textbooks that a flat metallic mirror transforms an electric charge into a virtual opposite charge. Consequently, the mirror image of a magnet is another parallel virtual magnet as the mirror image changes both the charge sign and the curl handedness. Here we report the dramatic modification in the optical response of a silicon nanocavity induced by the interaction with its image through a flat metallic mirror. The system of real and virtual dipoles can be interpreted as an effective magnetic dipole responsible for a strong enhancement of the cavity scattering cross section.

  10. Playing with social identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This chapter offers support for Vygotsky’s claim that all play involves both an imagined situation as well as rules. Synthesising Schousboe’s comprehensive model of spheres of realities in playing (see Chapter 1, this volume) with Lev Vygotskys insight that all playing involve rules as well...

  11. Toddlers: Learning by Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Toddlers: Learning by Playing KidsHealth > For Parents > Toddlers: Learning by Playing Print A A A What's in ... child's play, but toddlers are hard at work learning important physical skills as they gain muscle control, ...

  12. Playing against the Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmele, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    The paper first outlines a differentiation of play/game-motivations that include "negative" attitudes against the play/game itself like cheating or spoilsporting. This problem is of particular importance in concern of learning games because they are not "played" for themselves--at least in the first place--but due to an…

  13. Play the Mosquito Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Malaria Play the Mosquito Game Play the Parasite Game About the games Malaria is one of the world's most common ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  14. (Steering) interactive play behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delden, van Robertus Wilhelmus

    2017-01-01

    Play is a powerful means to have an impact on the cognitive, social-emotional, and/or motor skills development. The introduction of technology brings new possibilities to provide engaging and entertaining whole-body play activities. Technology mediates the play activities and in this way changes how

  15. (Steering) interactive play behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Delden, Robertus Wilhelmus

    2017-01-01

    Play is a powerful means to have an impact on the cognitive, social-emotional, and/or motor skills development. The introduction of technology brings new possibilities to provide engaging and entertaining whole-body play activities. Technology mediates the play activities and in this way changes how

  16. Toward a large lightweight mirror for AO: development of a 1m Ni coated CFRP mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S. J.; Doel, A. P.; Brooks, D.; Strangwood, M.

    2008-07-01

    We present our recent developments towards the construction of a large, thin, single-piece mirror for adaptive optics (AO). Our current research program aims to have completed fabrication and testing of a 1m diameter, nickel coated carbon-fibre reinforced cyanate ester resin mirror by the last quarter of 2009. This composite mirror material is being developed to provide a lightweight and robust alternative to thin glass shell mirrors, with the challenge of future large deformable mirrors such as the 2.5m M4 on the E-ELT in mind. A detailed analysis of the material properties of test mirror samples is being performed at the University of Birmingham (UK), the first results of which are discussed and presented here. We discuss the project progress achieved so far, including fabrication of the 1m flat moulds for the replication process, manufacturing and testing methods for 20 cm diameter sample mirrors and system simulations.

  17. Mirror neurons: from origin to function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Richard; Bird, Geoffrey; Catmur, Caroline; Press, Clare; Heyes, Cecilia

    2014-04-01

    This article argues that mirror neurons originate in sensorimotor associative learning and therefore a new approach is needed to investigate their functions. Mirror neurons were discovered about 20 years ago in the monkey brain, and there is now evidence that they are also present in the human brain. The intriguing feature of many mirror neurons is that they fire not only when the animal is performing an action, such as grasping an object using a power grip, but also when the animal passively observes a similar action performed by another agent. It is widely believed that mirror neurons are a genetic adaptation for action understanding; that they were designed by evolution to fulfill a specific socio-cognitive function. In contrast, we argue that mirror neurons are forged by domain-general processes of associative learning in the course of individual development, and, although they may have psychological functions, they do not necessarily have a specific evolutionary purpose or adaptive function. The evidence supporting this view shows that (1) mirror neurons do not consistently encode action "goals"; (2) the contingency- and context-sensitive nature of associative learning explains the full range of mirror neuron properties; (3) human infants receive enough sensorimotor experience to support associative learning of mirror neurons ("wealth of the stimulus"); and (4) mirror neurons can be changed in radical ways by sensorimotor training. The associative account implies that reliable information about the function of mirror neurons can be obtained only by research based on developmental history, system-level theory, and careful experimentation.

  18. Large thin adaptive x-ray mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doel, Peter; Atkins, Carolyn; Thompson, Samantha; Brooks, David; Yao, Jun; Feldman, Charlotte; Willingale, Richard; Button, Tim; Zhang, Dou; James, Ady

    2007-09-01

    This paper describes the progress made in a proof of concept study and recent results of a research program into large active x-ray mirrors that is part of the UK Smart X-ray Optics project. The ultimate aim is to apply the techniques of active/adaptive optics to the next generation of nested shell astronomical X-ray space telescopes. A variety of deformable mirror technologies are currently available, the most promising of which for active X-ray mirrors are probably unimorph and bimorph piezoelectric mirrors. In this type of mirror one or more sheets of piezoelectric material are bonded to or coated with a passive reflective layer. On the back or between the piezoceramic layer/layers are series of electrodes. Application of an electric field causes the piezoelectric material to undergo local deformation thus changing the mirror shape. Starting in 2005 a proof of concept active mirror research program has been undertaken. This work included modelling and development of actively controlled thin shell mirrors. Finite element models of piezo-electric actuated mirrors have been developed and verified against experimental test systems. This has included the modelling and test of piezo-electric hexagonal unimorph segments. Various actuator types and low shrinkage conductive bonding methods have been investigated and laboratory tests of the use of piezo-electric actuators to adjust the form of an XMM-Newton space telescope engineering model mirror shell have been conducted and show that movement of the optics at the required level is achievable. Promising technological approaches have been identified including moulded piezo-ceramics and piezo-electrics fibre bundles.

  19. Black Hole Entropy, Marginal Stability and Mirror Symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspinwall, Paul S.; Maloney, Alexander; Simons, Aaron

    2006-10-06

    We consider the superconformal quantum mechanics associated to BPS black holes in type IIB Calabi-Yau compactifications. This quantum mechanics describes the dynamics of D-branes in the near-horizon attractor geometry of the black hole. In many cases, the black hole entropy can be found by counting the number of chiral primaries in this quantum mechanics. Both the attractor mechanism and notions of marginal stability play important roles in generating the large number of microstates required to explain this entropy. We compute the microscopic entropy explicitly in a few different cases, where the theory reduces to quantum mechanics on the moduli space of special Lagrangians. Under certain assumptions, the problem may be solved by implementing mirror symmetry as three T-dualities: this is essentially the mirror of a calculation by Gaiotto, Strominger and Yin. In some simple cases, the calculation may be done in greater generality without resorting to conjectures about mirror symmetry. For example, the K3 x T{sub 2} case may be studied precisely using the Fourier-Mukai transform.

  20. Double arch mirror study. Part 3: Fabrication and test report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukobratovich, D.; Hillman, D.

    1983-01-01

    A method of mounting a cryogenically cooled, lightweight, double arch, glass mirror was developed for infrared, astronomical telescopes such as the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). A 50 cm, fused silica mirror which was previously fabricated was modified for use with a new mount configuration. This mount concept was developed. The modification of the mirror, the fabrication of the mirror mount, and the room temperature testing of the mounted mirror are reported. A design for a SIRTF class primary mirror is suggested.

  1. Playing with social identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This chapter offers support for Vygotsky’s claim that all play involves both an imagined situation as well as rules. Synthesising Schousboe’s comprehensive model of spheres of realities in playing (see Chapter 1, this volume) with Lev Vygotskys insight that all playing involve rules as well...... as pretence, children’s play is understood as an activity involving rules of the social order (roles and positions) as well as identification processes (imagined situations). The theoretical argumentation builds on empirical examples obtained in two different Danish day-care centres. The chapter is informed...... by ethnographic observations and draws on illustrative examples with symbolic group play as well as game-play with rules (soccer) among 5 year old boys. Findings suggest that day-care children’s play, involves negotiation of roles, positioning and identification, and rules – and that these negotiations...

  2. New and improved technology for manufacture of GMT primary mirror segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Wook; Burge, James H.; Davis, Jonathan M.; Martin, Hubert M.; Tuell, Michael T.; Graves, Logan R.; West, Steve C.

    2016-07-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) primary mirror consists of seven 8.4 m light-weight honeycomb mirrors that are being manufactured at the Richard F. Caris Mirror Lab (RFCML), University of Arizona. In order to manufacture the largest and most aspheric astronomical mirrors various high precision fabrication technologies have been developed, researched and implemented at the RFCML. The unique 8.4 m (in mirror diameter) capacity fabrication facilities are fully equipped with large optical generator (LOG), large polishing machine (LPM), stressed lap, rigid conformal lap (RC lap) and their process simulation/optimization intelligence called MATRIX. While the core capability and key manufacturing technologies have been well demonstrated by completing the first GMT off-axis segment, there have been significant hardware and software level improvements in order to improve and enhance the GMT primary mirror manufacturing efficiency. The new and improved manufacturing technology plays a key role to realize GMT, the next generation extremely large telescope enabling new science and discoveries, with high fabrication efficiency and confidence.

  3. Influence of the contaminant size on the thermal damage of optical mirrors used in high energy laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kai; Song, Rui; Xu, Xiaojun; Liu, Zejin

    2016-09-01

    The laser induced damage is a troublesome issue in the application of optical mirrors, which is related to the robustness of the whole laser system. There are two types of mechanisms about the damage of optical mirrors: thermal effect and field effect, which are responsible for the high energy continuous wave (cw) laser induced damage and the high power pulsed laser induced damage, respectively. Under the irradiation of high energy laser, the contaminant on the mirror surface absorbs the laser energy and converts the laser energy to heat. With the heat accumulating, the optical mirror is likely to fuse and even be totally destroyed. The temperature of the contaminant was measured when it was irradiated by a cw high energy laser with power intensity 3.3kW/cm2. It is found that the contaminant achieves thermal equilibrium in a few seconds and then the temperature stays at 1700K. A physical model was established to describe the process of the thermal equilibrium. The influence of the contaminant size on the thermal damage of the optical mirror was studied theoretically. The results show that the contaminant size plays an important role in the thermal damage of the optical mirror. Only when the contaminant size is smaller than a critical size ( 10μm), the contaminant may reach thermal equilibrium and the optical mirror works well in the high energy laser system. If the contaminant size is quite large (mirror will damage under the irradiation of high energy laser.

  4. Mirror neurons: functions, mechanisms and models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztop, Erhan; Kawato, Mitsuo; Arbib, Michael A

    2013-04-12

    Mirror neurons for manipulation fire both when the animal manipulates an object in a specific way and when it sees another animal (or the experimenter) perform an action that is more or less similar. Such neurons were originally found in macaque monkeys, in the ventral premotor cortex, area F5 and later also in the inferior parietal lobule. Recent neuroimaging data indicate that the adult human brain is endowed with a "mirror neuron system," putatively containing mirror neurons and other neurons, for matching the observation and execution of actions. Mirror neurons may serve action recognition in monkeys as well as humans, whereas their putative role in imitation and language may be realized in human but not in monkey. This article shows the important role of computational models in providing sufficient and causal explanations for the observed phenomena involving mirror systems and the learning processes which form them, and underlines the need for additional circuitry to lift up the monkey mirror neuron circuit to sustain the posited cognitive functions attributed to the human mirror neuron system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Laser cleaning of ITER's diagnostic mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, C. H.; Gentile, C. A.; Doerner, R.

    2012-10-01

    Practical methods to clean ITER's diagnostic mirrors and restore reflectivity will be critical to ITER's plasma operations. We report on laser cleaning of single crystal molybdenum mirrors coated with either carbon or beryllium films 150 - 420 nm thick. A 1.06 μm Nd laser system provided 220 ns pulses at 8 kHz with typical power densities of 1-2 J/cm^2. The laser beam was fiber optically coupled to a scanner suitable for tokamak applications. The efficacy of mirror cleaning was assessed with a new technique that combines microscopic imaging and reflectivity measurements [1]. The method is suitable for hazardous materials such as beryllium as the mirrors remain sealed in a vacuum chamber. Excellent restoration of reflectivity for the carbon coated Mo mirrors was observed after laser scanning under vacuum conditions. For the beryllium coated mirrors restoration of reflectivity has so far been incomplete and modeling indicates that a shorter duration laser pulse is needed. No damage of the molybdenum mirror substrates was observed.[4pt][1] C.H. Skinner et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. at press.

  6. Thermo-optically driven adaptive mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, Felix; Lüthy, Willy

    2006-02-01

    The ideal adaptive optical mirror combines large aperture with high spatial and temporal resolution and a phase shift of at least 2π. Further, a simple low-cost solution is preferred. No adaptive system can perfectly fulfill all these requirements. We present a system that has the potential to reach this goal with the exception of high temporal resolution. But even with a moderate temporal resolution of one second such a system can find practical applications. For example as a laser resonator mirror that allows to modify the intensity distribution of the emission, or to correct slowly varying aberrations of optical systems. Two possible mechanisms can be used to change the optical path length of the adaptive mirror: thermal expansion of the mirror substrate or the thermally induced change of the refractive index (thermal dispersion) of a medium in front of the mirror. Both mechanisms have been shown to lead to promising results. In both cases heating was performed by irradiation of light in the active medium. The thermal dispersion based adaptive mirror is built with a thin layer of a liquid in front of a mirror. To allow a modification of the refractive index by irradiation with a diode laser at 808 nm, a suitable absorber is dissolved in the water. With chopped irradiation a resolution of 3.8 Hz at 30 % contrast is measured. This mirror has been used in a laser resonator to modify the output distribution of the laser. The thermal expansion based adaptive mirror is built with a thin layer of a silicon elastomer with a gold coated front side. We present a preparation method to produce thin films of Sylgard on sapphire. With an irradiated intensity of only 370 mW/cm2 surface modulations of up to 350 nm are obtained. With a test pattern a resolution of 1.6 line-pairs per millimeter at 30 % contrast is measured. The temporal resolution is better than one second.

  7. A laboratory analogue of mirrored-self misidentification delusion: the role of hypnosis, suggestion, and demand characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Michael H; Barnier, Amanda J; Langdon, Robyn; Cox, Rochelle E; Polito, Vince; Coltheart, Max

    2013-12-01

    Mirrored-self misidentification is the delusional belief that one's own reflection in the mirror is a stranger. In two experiments, we tested the ability of hypnotic suggestion to model this condition. In Experiment 1, we compared two suggestions based on either the delusion's surface features (seeing a stranger in the mirror) or underlying processes (impaired face processing). Fifty-two high hypnotisable participants received one of these suggestions either with hypnosis or without in a wake control. In Experiment 2, we examined the extent to which social cues and role-playing could account for participants' behaviour by comparing the responses of 14 hypnotised participants to the suggestion for impaired face processing (reals) with those of 14 nonhypnotised participants instructed to fake their responses (simulators). Overall, results from both experiments confirm that we can use hypnotic suggestion to produce a compelling analogue of mirrored-self misidentification that cannot simply be attributed to social cues or role-playing.

  8. Late Modern Play Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg-Karoff, Helle

    2008-01-01

    Children's play and culture have changed over the recent years, and it is possible to understand the changes as a result of a more general change in society. We witness a large degree of changes connected to demographical aspects of children's lives. First of all it is a fact that large groups....... They are changing play arenas in order to find the identity, which suits them. In order to play children must know and be conscious of the cultural heritage, which contains knowledge of the way to organize in the playing session, the aesthetics, the techniques of playing, and this is something that is handed down...... from one generation to the next. Because older children are no longer present as younger children grow up, the traditional "cultural leaders" are gone. They have taken with them much of the inspiration for play as well as important knowledge about how to organise a game. In that sense we can say...

  9. Play, dreams, and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, J D

    1998-01-01

    Viewed ontogenetically, creating, dreaming, and playing are a variant of object relatedness. It is suggested that in recapitulating the ontogenetic sequence, creating, dreaming, and playing each as a process initiates by de-differentiation to primal union, evolves into transitional functioning, and consummates in tertiary cognitive discourse. The products of the triad--the created object, the dream, and play--are viewed as synergistic psychodynamic composites of topical, personal, and arche-typical imperatives. Creating, dreaming, and playing are easily overburdened by events, becoming stereotypical and repetitious. Nowhere is this more clearly seen than in the play of chronically ill, hospitalized children. It is suggested that with development generally, playing is replaced by formalized games; only dreaming continues as the vestige of early creative abilities.

  10. Play and virtuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein Sando

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The similarities between virtuality and play are obvious, beginning with, for instance, the ubiquitous character of both. This paper deals with how insights from research on play can be used to enlighten our understanding of the ethical dimensions of activities in cyberspace, and vice versa. In particular, a central claim that play is beyond vice and virtue is debated and contested.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v4i2.1762

  11. Why do Dolphins Play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan A. Kuczaj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Play is an important aspect of dolphin life, perhaps even an essential one. Play provides opportunities for dolphin calves to practice and perfect locomotor skills, including those involved in foraging and mating strategies and behaviors. Play also allows dolphin calves to learn important social skills and acquire information about the characteristics and predispositions of members of their social group, particularly their peers. In addition to helping dolphin calves learn how to behave, play also provides valuable opportunities for them to learn how to think. The ability to create and control play contexts enables dolphins to create novel experiences for themselves and their playmates under relatively safe conditions. The behavioral variability and individual creativity that characterize dolphin play yield ample opportunities for individual cognitive development as well as social learning, and sometimes result in innovations that are reproduced by other members of the group. Although adults sometimes produce innovative play, calves are the primary source of such innovations. Calves are also more likely to imitate novel play behaviors than are adults, and so calves contribute significantly to both the creation and transmission of novel play behaviors within a group. Not unexpectedly, then, the complexity of dolphin play increases with the involvement of peers. As a result, the opportunity to observe and/or interact with other dolphin calves enhances the effects of play on the acquisition and maintenance of flexible problem solving skills, the emergence and strengthening of social and communicative competencies, and the establishment of social relationships. It seems that play may have evolved to help young dolphins learn to adapt to novel situations in both their physical and social worlds, the beneficial result being a set of abilities that increases the likelihood that an individual survives and reproduces.

  12. PlayBook三人行

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黑莓时光

    2011-01-01

    PlayBook,来自非苹果的另外一个水果——黑莓,它不是iPad,却也是平板。PBer,这个并不完美的平板——PlayBook的用户,他们开朗、认真、执着。热爱PlayBook的三人,拥有各自的人生轨迹,却挂着同样的嘴角上扬。

  13. Exclusive lower extremity mirror movements and diastematomyelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Smyth, Matthew D; Dure, Leon S; Oakes, W Jerry

    2004-01-01

    Mirror movements usually seen in the Klippel-Feil syndrome are most commonly appreciated in the upper extremities. Lower extremity involvement is seen rarely and when observed, is found in conjunction with upper extremity mirror movements. We report what we believe to be the first case of mirror movements found exclusively in the lower extremities in a female patient presenting with tethered cord syndrome. Our hopes are that this report will help elucidate mechanisms involved with these anomalous movements, as currently there is no commonly accepted etiology.

  14. What we know currently about mirror neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilner, J M; Lemon, R N

    2013-12-02

    Mirror neurons were discovered over twenty years ago in the ventral premotor region F5 of the macaque monkey. Since their discovery much has been written about these neurons, both in the scientific literature and in the popular press. They have been proposed to be the neuronal substrate underlying a vast array of different functions. Indeed so much has been written about mirror neurons that last year they were referred to, rightly or wrongly, as "The most hyped concept in neuroscience". Here we try to cut through some of this hyperbole and review what is currently known (and not known) about mirror neurons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fine alignment of a large segmented mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Thomas William (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system for aligning a segmented mirror includes a source of radiation directed along a first axis to the segmented mirror and a beamsplitter removably inserted along the first axis for redirecting radiation from the first axis to a second axis, substantially perpendicular to the first axis. An imaging array is positioned along the second axis for imaging the redirected radiation, and a knife-edge configured for cutting the redirected radiation is serially positioned to occlude and not occlude the redirected radiation, effectively providing a variable radiation pattern detected by the imaging array for aligning the segmented mirror.

  16. Fiber ring laser with a feedback mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abitan, H; Bohr, H; Pedersen, C F

    2005-12-20

    We describe the spectral and power features of a ytterbium-doped double-clad photonic crystal fiber laser that is operated in a ring configuration with an external mirror that feeds back only one of its two output beams. We compare the operation of the laser with and without an external feedback mirror. We find that the feedback mirror reduces significantly the spectral and power fluctuations. It is also responsible for an interesting spectral phenomenon: The laser frequency is drifting periodically over 9 nm at a rate of 2 nm/s from a short wavelength to a longer wavelength and vice versa.

  17. Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code (Version I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, R.L.; Finn, P.A.; Gohar, M.Y.; Barrett, R.J.; Gorker, G.E.; Spampinaton, P.T.; Bulmer, R.H.; Dorn, D.W.; Perkins, L.J.; Ghose, S.

    1985-09-01

    A computer code was developed to model a Tandem Mirror Reactor. Ths is the first Tandem Mirror Reactor model to couple, in detail, the highly linked physics, magnetics, and neutronic analysis into a single code. This report describes the code architecture, provides a summary description of the modules comprising the code, and includes an example execution of the Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code. Results from this code for two sensitivity studies are also included. These studies are: (1) to determine the impact of center cell plasma radius, length, and ion temperature on reactor cost and performance at constant fusion power; and (2) to determine the impact of reactor power level on cost.

  18. Speech-Associated Gestures, Broca's Area, and the Human Mirror System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, Jeremy I.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Nusbaum, Howard C.; Small, Steven L.

    2007-01-01

    Speech-associated gestures are hand and arm movements that not only convey semantic information to listeners but are themselves actions. Broca's area has been assumed to play an important role both in semantic retrieval or selection (as part of a language comprehension system) and in action recognition (as part of a "mirror" or…

  19. Mirror, Mirror by the Stairs: The Impact of Mirror Exposure on Stair versus Elevator Use in College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Katie L Hodgin; Graham, Dan J.

    2016-01-01

    AbstractPrevious research has indicated that self-awareness-inducing mirrors can successfully incite behaviors that align with one’s personal values, such as helping others. Other research has found a large discrepancy between the high percentage of young adults who report valuing the healthfulness of physical activity (PA) and the low percentage who actually meet PA participation standards. Few studies, however, have examined how mirror exposure and both perceived and actual body size infl...

  20. Mirror, Mirror by the Stairs: The Impact of Mirror Exposure on Stair versus Elevator Use in College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgin, Katie L.; Graham, Dan J.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that self-awareness-inducing mirrors can successfully incite behaviors that align with one’s personal values, such as helping others. Other research has found a large discrepancy between the high percentage of young adults who report valuing the healthfulness of physical activity (PA) and the low percentage who actually meet PA participation standards. However, few studies have examined how mirror exposure and both perceived and actual body size influence highl...

  1. The ontogenetic origins of mirror neurons: evidence from 'tool-use' and 'audiovisual' mirror neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Richard

    2012-10-23

    Since their discovery, mirror neurons--units in the macaque brain that discharge both during action observation and execution--have attracted considerable interest. Whether mirror neurons are an innate endowment or acquire their sensorimotor matching properties ontogenetically has been the subject of intense debate. It is widely believed that these units are an innate trait; that we are born with a set of mature mirror neurons because their matching properties conveyed upon our ancestors an evolutionary advantage. However, an alternative view is that mirror neurons acquire their matching properties during ontogeny, through correlated experience of observing and performing actions. The present article re-examines frequently overlooked neurophysiological reports of 'tool-use' and 'audiovisual' mirror neurons within the context of this debate. It is argued that these findings represent compelling evidence that mirror neurons are a product of sensorimotor experience, and not an innate endowment.

  2. Play your part

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsey, Gaynor

    1978-01-01

    Play your part is a collection of then situations in which students have to take on the roles of particular people and express their opinions, feelings or arguments about the situation. Play your part is intended for use with advanced students of English.

  3. Role Playing and Skits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letwin, Robert, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Explores non-scripted role playing, dialogue role playing, sociodrama, and skits as variations of simulation techniques. Provides step-by-step guidelines for conducting such sessions. Successful Meetings, Bill Communications, Inc., 1422 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 19102. Subscription Rates: yearly (US, Canada, Mexico) $14.00; elsewhere,…

  4. The Play's the Thing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    The modern special education theater in the United States has hosted many plays, none with a larger or more diverse cast than the learning disabilities (LD) play. During the prologue, the children with LD were waiting in the wings, not yet identified as LD but there, nonetheless. With the advent of compulsory education in this country, awareness…

  5. Playfulness and Openness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela; Petersson, Eva

    2011-01-01

    What does it mean to design a playful learning tool? What is needed for a learning tool to be perceived by potential users as playful? These questions emerged reflecting on a Participatory Design process aimed at enhancing museum-learning practice from the perspective of primary school children. ...

  6. Play as Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henricks, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    The author investigates what he believes one of the more important aspects of play--the experience it generates in its participants. He considers the quality of this experience in relation to five ways of viewing play--as action, interaction, activity, disposition, and within a context. He treats broadly the different forms of affect, including…

  7. Art of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel Cristina G.; Walker, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Play is a key element in cultural development, according to the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga. Nowadays many of us interact with other people in online games and social networks, through multiple digital devices. But harnessing playful activities for museum learning is mostly undeveloped. In thi...

  8. Family Play Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Shlomo

    This paper examines a case study of family play therapy in Israel. The unique contributions of play therapy are evaluated including the therapy's accessibility to young children, its richness and flexibility, its exposure of covert patterns, its wealth of therapeutic means, and its therapeutic economy. The systematization of the therapy attempts…

  9. Return to Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Call it physical activity, call it games, or call it play. Whatever its name, it's a place we all need to return to. In the physical education, recreation, and dance professions, we need to redesign programs to address the need for and want of play that is inherent in all of us.

  10. Playful Collaboration (Or Not)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Marcel; Sproedt, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how playing games can be used to teach intangible social interaction across boundaries, in particular within open collaborative innovation. We present an exploratory case study of how students learned from playing a board game in a graduate course of the international...... imply several opportunities and challenges within education and beyond....

  11. Art of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel Cristina G.; Walker, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Play is a key element in cultural development, according to the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga. Nowadays many of us interact with other people in online games and social networks, through multiple digital devices. But harnessing playful activities for museum learning is mostly undeveloped. In thi...

  12. Play framework cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Reelsen, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at advanced developers who are looking to harness the power of Play 2.x. This book will also be useful for professionals looking to dive deeper into web development. Play 2 .x is an excellent framework to accelerate your learning of advanced topics.

  13. Let's Just Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Children have a right to play. The idea is so simple it seems self-evident. But a stroll through any toy superstore, or any half-hour of so-called "children's" programming on commercial TV, makes it clear that violence, not play, dominates what's being sold. In this article, the author discusses how teachers and parents share the responsibility in…

  14. The neuronal correlates of mirror therapy: an fMRI study on mirror induced visual illusions in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielsen, Marian E; Smits, Marion; Ribbers, Gerard M; Stam, Henk J; van der Geest, Jos N; Bussmann, Johannes B J; Selles, Ruud W

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the neuronal basis for the effects of mirror therapy in patients with stroke. 22 patients with stroke participated in this study. The authors used functional MRI to investigate neuronal activation patterns in two experiments. In the unimanual experiment, patients moved their unaffected hand, either while observing it directly (no-mirror condition) or while observing its mirror reflection (mirror condition). In the bimanual experiment, patients moved both hands, either while observing the affected hand directly (no-mirror condition) or while observing the mirror reflection of the unaffected hand in place of the affected hand (mirror condition). A two-factorial analysis with movement (activity vs rest) and mirror (mirror vs no mirror) as main factors was performed to assess neuronal activity resultant of the mirror illusion. Data on 18 participants were suitable for analysis. Results showed a significant interaction effect of movement×mirror during the bimanual experiment. Activated regions were the precuneus and the posterior cingulate cortex (pmirror illusion in patients with stroke, the authors showed that during bimanual movement, the mirror illusion increases activity in the precuneus and the posterior cingulate cortex, areas associated with awareness of the self and spatial attention. By increasing awareness of the affected limb, the mirror illusion might reduce learnt non-use. The fact that the authors did not observe mirror-related activity in areas of the motor or mirror neuron system questions popular theories that attribute the clinical effects of mirror therapy to these systems.

  15. Driver ASICs for Advanced Deformable Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The program leverages on our extensive expertise in developing high-performance driver ASICs for deformable mirror systems and seeks to expand the capacities of the...

  16. Lightweight composite mirrors for telescopes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lightweight, steady and stiff mirrors are necessary to decrease cost of telescopes such as IXO and GenX used in special NASA missions. Low-density materials are...

  17. High Resolution Silicon Deformable Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes a plan to build a prototype small stroke, high precision deformable mirror suitable for space-based operation in systems for high-resolution...

  18. Polishing X-ray Mirror Mandrel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Space Optics Manufacturing Center has been working to expand our view of the universe via sophisticated new telescopes. The Optics Center's goal is to develop low-cost, advanced space optics technologies for the NASA program in the 21st century - including the long-term goal of imaging Earth-like planets in distant solar systems. To reduce the cost of mirror fabrication, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed replication techniques, the machinery, and materials to replicate electro-formed nickel mirrors. The process allows fabricating precisely shaped mandrels to be used and reused as masters for replicating high-quality mirrors. MSFC's Space Optics Manufacturing Technology Center (SOMTC) has grinding and polishing equipment ranging from conventional spindles to custom-designed polishers. These capabilities allow us to grind precisely and polish a variety of optical devices, including x-ray mirror mandrels. This image shows Charlie Griffith polishing the half-meter mandrel at SOMTC.

  19. Collimated Magnetron Sputter Deposition for Mirror Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vickery, A.; Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2008-01-01

    At the Danish National Space Center (DNSC), a planar magnetron sputtering chamber has been established as a research and production coating facility for curved X-ray mirrors for hard X-ray optics for astronomical X-ray telescopes. In the following, we present experimental evidence that a collimat......At the Danish National Space Center (DNSC), a planar magnetron sputtering chamber has been established as a research and production coating facility for curved X-ray mirrors for hard X-ray optics for astronomical X-ray telescopes. In the following, we present experimental evidence...... that a collimation of the sputtered particles is an efficient way to suppress the interfacial roughness of the produced multilayer. We present two different types of collimation optimized for the production of low roughness curved mirrors and flat mirrors, respectively....

  20. High Resolution Silicon Deformable Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposal we describe a plan to build a deformable mirror suitable for space-based operation in systems for high-resolution imaging. The prototype DM will be...

  1. Cosmological Signals of a Mirror Twin Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Nathaniel; Trott, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the cosmology of the minimal model of neutral naturalness, the mirror Twin Higgs. The softly-broken mirror symmetry relating the Standard Model to its twin counterpart leads to significant dark radiation in tension with BBN and CMB observations. We quantify this tension and illustrate how it can be mitigated in several simple scenarios that alter the relative energy densities of the two sectors while respecting the softly-broken mirror symmetry. In particular, we consider both the out-of-equilibrium decay of a new scalar as well as reheating in a toy model of twinned inflation, Twinflation. In both cases the dilution of energy density in the twin sector does not merely reconcile the existence of a mirror Twin Higgs with cosmological constraints, but predicts contributions to cosmological observables that may be probed in current and future CMB experiments. This raises the prospect of discovering evidence of neutral naturalness through cosmology rather than colliders.

  2. The mirror mechanism: recent findings and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Fogassi, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Mirror neurons are a specific type of visuomotor neuron that discharge both when a monkey executes a motor act and when it observes a similar motor act performed by another individual. In this article, we review first the basic properties of these neurons. We then describe visual features recently investigated which indicate that, besides encoding the goal of motor acts, mirror neurons are modulated by location in space of the observed motor acts, by the perspective from which the others' motor acts are seen, and by the value associated with the object on which others' motor acts are performed. In the last part of this article, we discuss the role of the mirror mechanism in planning actions and in understanding the intention underlying the others' motor acts. We also review some human studies suggesting that motor intention in humans may rely, as in the monkey, on the mirror mechanism.

  3. Reflections on mirror neurons and speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotto, Andrew J; Hickok, Gregory S; Holt, Lori L

    2009-03-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons, a class of neurons that respond when a monkey performs an action and also when the monkey observes others producing the same action, has promoted a renaissance for the Motor Theory (MT) of speech perception. This is because mirror neurons seem to accomplish the same kind of one to one mapping between perception and action that MT theorizes to be the basis of human speech communication. However, this seeming correspondence is superficial, and there are theoretical and empirical reasons to temper enthusiasm about the explanatory role mirror neurons might have for speech perception. In fact, rather than providing support for MT, mirror neurons are actually inconsistent with the central tenets of MT.

  4. Silicon Wafer X-ray Mirror Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this one year research project, we propose to do the following four tasks;(1) Design the silicon wafer X-ray mirror demo unit and develop a ray-tracing code to...

  5. 130-nm tunable grating-mirror VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We have reported that a combination of the high-index-contrast grating (HCG) mirror as movable mirror and the extended cavity configuration with an antireflection layer can provide a tuning wavelength range of 100 nm for tunable VCSELs. Here, we report that using the air-coupled cavity configurat......We have reported that a combination of the high-index-contrast grating (HCG) mirror as movable mirror and the extended cavity configuration with an antireflection layer can provide a tuning wavelength range of 100 nm for tunable VCSELs. Here, we report that using the air-coupled cavity...... configuration instead of the extended cavity configuration can bring 130-nm tuning range around 1330-nm wavelength. The air-coupled cavity is known to reduce the quantum confinement factor in VCSELs, increasing threshold. In our air-coupled cavity HCG VCSEL case, the very short power penetration length...

  6. Multilayer active shell mirrors for space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, John; Jackson, Kathryn; Pellegrino, Sergio; Redding, David; Wallace, J. Kent; Bradford, Samuel Case; Barbee, Troy

    2016-07-01

    A novel active mirror technology based on carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) substrates and replication techniques has been developed. Multiple additional layers are implemented into the design serving various functions. Nanolaminate metal films are used to provide a high quality reflective front surface. A backing layer of thin active material is implemented to provide the surface-parallel actuation scheme. Printed electronics are used to create a custom electrode pattern and flexible routing layer. Mirrors of this design are thin ( 100 μm PV) down to sub-micron precision. The system has been validated against several traditional techniques including photogrammetry and interferometry. The mirror performance has been characterized using this system, as well as closed-loop figure correction experiments on 150 mm dia. prototypes. The mirrors have demonstrated post-correction figure accuracies of 200 nm RMS (two dead actuators limiting performance).

  7. Applied physics: Optical trapping for space mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGloin, David

    2014-02-27

    Might it be possible to create mirrors for space telescopes, using nothing but microscopic particles held in place by light? A study that exploits a technique called optical binding provides a step towards this goal.

  8. Ultra-Lightweight Hybrid Structured Mirror Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MMCC is proposing herewith a hybrid structured mirror that combines the advantages of SiC membrane and magnesium graphite composite. The significance of magnesium...

  9. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study interim design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-04-01

    The status of the design of a tenth-of-a-kind commercial tandem-mirror fusion reactor is described at the midpoint of a two-year study. When completed, the design is to serve as a strategic goal for the mirror fusion program. The main objectives of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) are: (1) to design an attractive tandem-mirror fusion reactor producing electricity and synfuels (in alternate versions), (2) to identify key development and technology needs, and (3) to exploit the potential of fusion for safety, low activation, and simple disposal of radioactive waste. In the first year we have emphasized physics and engineering of the central cell and physics of the end cell. Design optimization and trade studies are continuing, and we expect additional modifications in the end cells to further improve the performance of the final design.

  10. Supersymmetric defect models and mirror symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hook, Anson; Kachru, Shamit; Torroba, Gonzalo

    2013-11-01

    We study supersymmetric field theories in three space-time dimensions doped by various configurations of electric charges or magnetic fluxes. These are supersymmetric avatars of impurity models. In the presence of additional sources such configurations are shown to preserve half of the supersymmetries. Mirror symmetry relates the two sets of configurations. We discuss the implications for impurity models in 3d NN = 4 QED with a single charged hypermultiplet (and its mirror, the theory of a free hypermultiplet) as well as 3d NN = 2 QED with one flavor and its dual, a supersymmetric Wilson-Fisher fixed point. Mirror symmetry allows us to find backreacted solutions for arbitrary arrays of defects in the IR limit of NN = 4 QED. Our analysis, complemented with appropriate string theory brane constructions, sheds light on various aspects of mirror symmetry, the map between particles and vortices and the emergence of ground state entropy in QED at finite density.

  11. Vibration damping for the Segmented Mirror Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Joseph R.; Yingling, Adam J.; Griffin, Steven F.; Agrawal, Brij N.; Cobb, Richard G.; Chambers, Trevor S.

    2012-09-01

    The Segmented Mirror Telescope (SMT) at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) in Monterey is a next-generation deployable telescope, featuring a 3-meter 6-segment primary mirror and advanced wavefront sensing and correction capabilities. In its stowed configuration, the SMT primary mirror segments collapse into a small volume; once on location, these segments open to the full 3-meter diameter. The segments must be very accurately aligned after deployment and the segment surfaces are actively controlled using numerous small, embedded actuators. The SMT employs a passive damping system to complement the actuators and mitigate the effects of low-frequency (operating deflection shapes of the mirror and to quantify segment edge displacements; relative alignment of λ/4 or better was desired. The TMDs attenuated the vibration amplitudes by 80% and reduced adjacent segment phase mismatches to acceptable levels.

  12. Supersymmetric Defect Models and Mirror Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hook, Anson; Torroba, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    We study supersymmetric field theories in three space-time dimensions doped by various configurations of electric charges or magnetic fluxes. These are supersymmetric avatars of impurity models. In the presence of additional sources such configurations are shown to preserve half of the supersymmetries. Mirror symmetry relates the two sets of configurations. We discuss the implications for impurity models in 3d N=4 QED with a single charged hypermultiplet (and its mirror, the theory of a free hypermultiplet) as well as 3d N=2 QED with one flavor and its dual, a supersymmetric Wilson-Fisher fixed point. Mirror symmetry allows us to find backreacted solutions for arbitrary arrays of defects in the IR limit of N=4 QED. Our analysis, complemented with appropriate string theory brane constructions, sheds light on various aspects of mirror symmetry, the map between particles and vortices and the emergence of ground state entropy in QED at finite density.

  13. Coating considerations for mirrors of CPV devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmauder, Torsten; Sauer, Peter; Ickes, Gerd [Leybold Optics GmbH, Siemensstr. 88, D-63755 Alzenau (Germany)

    2014-09-26

    One of the different optical concepts for concentrator devices is to place a focussing primary mirror behind a transparent front plate. In addition (also in case of Fresnel-diffractive main optics), further 'secondary' reflectors may be used further along the beam path. Such mirrors are usually implemented as coating stacks of a highly reflective metal - usually silver - and protective layers. The protective layers are preferably designed as reflection enhancing interference stack. The design of such protective layer stacks yields two difficulties, which are addressed in this paper: (a) vacuum coating of three-dimensional parts will result in a thickness distribution and the optical design of the stack should thus be tolerant to layer thickness variations, and (b) different places of the mirror will have different angle-of-incidence of the sunlight under operating conditions. As result, the layer stack has a different design at different places of the mirror.

  14. Silicon Wafer X-ray Mirror Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this one year research project, we propose to do the following four tasks; (1) Design the silicon wafer X-ray mirror demo unit and develop a ray-tracing code to...

  15. Reflective Properties of a Parabolic Mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Gordon P.

    1991-01-01

    An incident light ray parallel to the optical axis of a parabolic mirror will be reflected at the focal point and vice versa. Presents a mathematical proof that uses calculus, algebra, and geometry to prove this reflective property. (MDH)

  16. Mirror aneurysms : a reflection on natural history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, Irene; Torner, James; Huston III, John; Rajput, Michele L.; Wiebers, David O.; Jones, Lyell K.; Brown, Robert D.; Groen, Rob

    2012-01-01

    OBJECT: Investigators conducting the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms, sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, sought to evaluate predictors of future hemorrhage in patients who had unruptured mirror aneurysms. These paired aneurysms in bilateral arterial positions mi

  17. James Webb Space Telescope Primary Mirror Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsey, Paul; Gallagher, B.; Chaney, D.; Brown, B.

    2009-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope has a segmented primary mirror consisting of 18 hexagonal beryllium primary mirror segment assemblies (PMSA) that have a total collecting area greater than 25 square meters. The PMSAs are designed to operate at cryogenic temperatures (39 K) and to be actively controlled to co-phase the segments. This paper discusses the processes and testing utilized in the manufacture of these mirrors including the critical cryogenic testing performed at the XRCF facility at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The manufacturing team is headed by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp (BATC) with support from Brush Wellman for beryllium blank fabrication, Axsys Technologies for the precision machining, L3-Tinsley for the mirror polishing, and QCI for the reflective coating application.

  18. Primary mirror segment fabrication for CELT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Terry S.; Nelson, Jerry E.; Sommargren, Gary E.

    2000-07-01

    The primary mirror of the proposed California Extremely Large Telescope is a 30-meter diameter mosaic of hexagonal segments. An initial design calls for about a thousand segments with a hexagon side length of 0.5 meters, a primary-mirror focal ratio of 1.5, and a segment surface quality of about 20 nanometers rms. We describe concepts for fabricating these segments.

  19. Authors’ response: mirror neurons: tests and testability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catmur, Caroline; Press, Clare; Cook, Richard; Bird, Geoffrey; Heyes, Cecilia

    2014-04-01

    Commentators have tended to focus on the conceptual framework of our article, the contrast between genetic and associative accounts of mirror neurons, and to challenge it with additional possibilities rather than empirical data. This makes the empirically focused comments especially valuable. The mirror neuron debate is replete with ideas; what it needs now are system-level theories and careful experiments – tests and testability.

  20. Anomalous Mirror Symmetry Generated by Optical Illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokichi Sugihara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new concept of mirror symmetry, called “anomalous mirror symmetry”, which is physically impossible but can be perceived by human vision systems because of optical illusion. This symmetry is characterized geometrically and a method for creating cylindrical surfaces that create this symmetry is constructed. Examples of solid objects constructed by a 3D printer are also shown.

  1. On horizonless temperature with an accelerating mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Michael R. R.; Yelshibekov, Khalykbek; Ong, Yen Chin

    2017-03-01

    A new solution of a unitary moving mirror is found to produce finite energy and emit thermal radiation despite the absence of an acceleration horizon. In the limit that the mirror approaches the speed of light, the model corresponds to a black hole formed from the collapse of a null shell. For speeds less than light, the black hole correspondence, if it exists, is that of a remnant.

  2. On Horizonless Temperature with an Accelerating Mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Good, Michael R R; Ong, Yen Chin

    2016-01-01

    A new solution of a unitary moving mirror is found to produce finite energy and emit thermal radiation despite the absence of an acceleration horizon. In the limit that the mirror approaches the speed of light, the model corresponds to a black hole formed from the collapse of a null shell. For speeds less than light, the black hole correspondence, if it exists, is that of a remnant.

  3. Action observation: Inferring intentions without mirror neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frith, Christopher; Kilner, James M

    2008-01-01

    A recent study has shown, using fMRI, that the mirror neuron system does not mediate action understanding when the observed action is novel or when it is hard to understand.......A recent study has shown, using fMRI, that the mirror neuron system does not mediate action understanding when the observed action is novel or when it is hard to understand....

  4. Cryogenic Test Results of Hextek Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadaway, James; Stahl, H. Philip; Eng, Ron; Hogue, William

    2004-01-01

    A 250 mm diameter lightweight borosilicate mirror has been interferometrically tested from room-temperature down to 30 K at the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The minor blank was manufactured by Hextek Corporation using a high-temperature gas fusion process and was then polished at MSFC. It is a sandwich-type mirror consisting of a thin face-sheet (approx.1.5 mm thick), a core structure (20 mm thick, approx.43 mm diameter cells, & 0.5-1.2 mm thick walls), and a thin back-sheet (3 mm thick). The mirror has a 2500 mm spherical radius-of- curvature @/lo). The areal density is 14 kg/sq m. The mirror was tested in the 1 m x 2 m chamber using an Instantaneous Phase Interferometer (PI) from ADE Phase Shift Technologies. The mirror was tested twice. The first test measured the change in surface figure from ambient to 30 K and the repeatability of the change. An attempt was then made by QED Technologies to cryo-figure the mirror using magnetorheological finishing. The second test measured the effectiveness of the cryo- figuring. This paper will describe the test goals, the test instrumentation, and the test results for these cryogenic tests.

  5. Play vs. Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammar, Emil

    Through the theories of play by Gadamer (2004) and Henricks (2006), I will show how the relationship between play and game can be understood as dialectic and disruptive, thus challenging understandings of how the procedures of games determine player activity and vice versa. As such, I posit some...... analytical consequences for understandings of digital games as procedurally fixed (Boghost, 2006; Flannagan, 2009; Bathwaite & Sharp, 2010). That is, if digital games are argued to be procedurally fixed and if play is an appropriative and dialectic activity, then it could be argued that the latter affects...

  6. Play and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The power of play, so central to psychoanalytic theory and practice, is conjoined to the social psychological or socio-politically coloured concept of power, giving rise to many fruitful discussions of how these concepts manifest themselves in clinical work with children, groups and adults....... The inspiration for this book was the 3-section EFPP conference in Copenhagen in May 2007 with the main theme "Play and Power". At the conference and in the book, this theme is presented both inside and outside the therapeutic space. It is amply illustrated in clinical cases from individual psychotherapies....... Play and power are also explored in the broader context of the community, however. In relation to society at large, psychoanalytic psychotherapy has important contributions to offer society, and we need playful creativity and power to bring forward our knowledge about it....

  7. Optical Performance Modeling of FUSE Telescope Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Timo T.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Friedman, Scott D.; Moos, H. Warren

    2000-01-01

    We describe the Metrology Data Processor (METDAT), the Optical Surface Analysis Code (OSAC), and their application to the image evaluation of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) mirrors. The FUSE instrument - designed and developed by the Johns Hopkins University and launched in June 1999 is an astrophysics satellite which provides high resolution spectra (lambda/Delta(lambda) = 20,000 - 25,000) in the wavelength region from 90.5 to 118.7 nm The FUSE instrument is comprised of four co-aligned, normal incidence, off-axis parabolic mirrors, four Rowland circle spectrograph channels with holographic gratings, and delay line microchannel plate detectors. The OSAC code provides a comprehensive analysis of optical system performance, including the effects of optical surface misalignments, low spatial frequency deformations described by discrete polynomial terms, mid- and high-spatial frequency deformations (surface roughness), and diffraction due to the finite size of the aperture. Both normal incidence (traditionally infrared, visible, and near ultraviolet mirror systems) and grazing incidence (x-ray mirror systems) systems can be analyzed. The code also properly accounts for reflectance losses on the mirror surfaces. Low frequency surface errors are described in OSAC by using Zernike polynomials for normal incidence mirrors and Legendre-Fourier polynomials for grazing incidence mirrors. The scatter analysis of the mirror is based on scalar scatter theory. The program accepts simple autocovariance (ACV) function models or power spectral density (PSD) models derived from mirror surface metrology data as input to the scatter calculation. The end product of the program is a user-defined pixel array containing the system Point Spread Function (PSF). The METDAT routine is used in conjunction with the OSAC program. This code reads in laboratory metrology data in a normalized format. The code then fits the data using Zernike polynomials for normal incidence

  8. Primary mirror assemblies for large space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, Evgeny R.; Sokolsky, M. N.

    1995-09-01

    In this report are considered the basic problems which relate to developemnt, manufacture, experimental trying out, and usage of primary mirrors (PM) of the large space telescopes intended to perform distant sounding of the Earth. Attention is concentrated on development of weight-reduced passive mirrors which ensure more reliable operation of the telescope as a whole. In the report we expressed the opinion that it is quite possible to manufacture a passive weight-reduced PM if its diameter is equal approximately to 3 m. Materials which may be used for the manufacturing of PM are beryllium and silicon carbide, physical and mechanical parameters of which are the most preferable ones. But it should be taken into consideration that this is the glass ceramic of CO115M brand which has been mastered by the industry of Russia in the greatest extent. It was confirmed that parameters of this material remain unchanged during a long period of time. Constructions of the PM, made of glass ceramic, as well as constructions of holders intended to fix the mirror, are presented in this report. A holder is used first of all to prevent lowering of a PM surface quality after a mirror has been removed from a machine and fixed in a primary mirror assembly (PMA). At present two-layer construction of a PM is preferable. This construction consists of thick base including weight reduction structure, which is in a radius which is optimum from the standpoint of deformation of a mirror operating surface. In the process of manufacture a mirror is deprived of its weight with the use of special pneumatic off-loading elements. PMA is erected in vertical plane by means of using an interferometric inspection system. In the end of this report we expressed the views on an approach to engineering of a PM by taking into account potentialities both of space ships and of carrier rockets.

  9. Integration of Mirror Design with Suspension System using NASA's New Mirror Modeling Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold,William R., Sr.; Bevan, Ryan M.; Stahl, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Advances in mirror fabrication are making very large space based telescopes possible. In many applications, only monolithic mirrors can meet the performance requirements. The existing and near-term planned heavy launch vehicles place a premium on lowest possible mass, and then available payload shroud sizes limit near term designs to 4 meter class mirrors. Practical 8 meter class and beyond designs could encourage planners to include larger shrouds, if it can be proven that such mirrors can be manufactured. These two factors, lower mass and larger mirrors, present the classic optimization problem. There is a practical upper limit to how large of a mirror can be supported by a purely kinematic mount system handling both operational and launch loads. This paper shows how the suspension system and mirror blank need to be designed simultaneously. We will also explore the concepts of auxiliary support systems which act only during launch and disengage on orbit. We will define required characteristics of these systems and show how they can substantially reduce the mirror mass.

  10. AdS5×S(5) mirror model as a string sigma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutyunov, Gleb; van Tongeren, Stijn J

    2014-12-31

    Doing a double Wick rotation in the world sheet theory of the light cone AdS5×S(5) superstring results in an inequivalent, so-called mirror theory that plays a central role in the field of integrability in the AdS-CFT correspondence. We show that this mirror theory can be interpreted as the light cone theory of a free string on a different background. This background is related to dS5×H(5) by a double T-duality, and has hidden supersymmetry. The geometry can also be extracted from an integrable deformation of the AdS5×S(5) sigma model, and we prove the observed mirror duality of these deformed models at the bosonic level as a byproduct. While we focus on AdS5×S(5), our results apply more generally.

  11. The Mirror Program: Preparing Women for the Postoperative Mastectomy Mirror-Viewing Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freysteinson, Wyona M; Deutsch, Amy S; Davin, Karen; Lewis, Carol; Sisk, Angela; Sweeney, Lilian; Wuest, Linda; Cesario, Sandra K

    2015-01-01

    Preparing women for the experiences they will endure during the breast cancer trajectory improves psychological outcomes and quality of life. Women have found that it may be difficult to view themselves in a mirror after having a mastectomy. Supporting women who have had a mastectomy in mirror-viewing and body image is a relatively new yet important intervention in oncology nursing. The feasibility of a preoperative mirror program given by oncology nurse navigators to women who were scheduled for a mastectomy was examined in this randomized control study. Pre- and postoperative data on anxiety, body image, depression, emotional well-being, and mirror use were collected from intervention participants (n = 10) and control subjects (n = 9). This article illustrates the development of the mirror program and the results of the feasibility trial, and provides a discussion with implications for future research. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Can play be defined?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Can play be defined? There is reason to raise critical questions about the established academic demand that at phenomenon – also in humanist studies – should first of all be defined, i.e. de-lineated and by neat lines limited to a “little box” that can be handled. The following chapter develops t....... Human beings can very well understand play – or whatever phenomenon in human life – without defining it........ The academic imperative of definition seems to be linked to the positivistic attempts – and produces sometimes monstrous definitions. Have they any philosophical value for our knowledge of what play is? Definition is not a universal instrument of knowledge-building, but a culturally specific construction...

  13. Playing and gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg; Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hanghøj, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    The paper develops an approach of playing and gaming activities through the perspective of both activities as mood activities . The point of departure is that a game - is a tool with which we, through our practices, achieve different moods. This based on an empirical study of children's everyday...... lives, where the differences emerge through actual practices, i.e. through the creation of meaning in the specific situations. The overall argument is that it is not that important whether it is a playing or a gaming activity - it is however crucial to be aware of how moods occur and what their optimal...... dimensions: practices and moods. Practice is the concept of all the doing in the activities. Moods are the particular concept of sense and feeling of being, which is what we are drawn to when we are playing or gaming....

  14. Playing and gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg; Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hanghøj, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    The paper develops an approach of playing and gaming activities through the perspective of both activities as mood activities . The point of departure is that a game - is a tool with which we, through our practices, achieve different moods. This based on an empirical study of children's everyday...... lives, where the differences emerge through actual practices, i.e. through the creation of meaning in the specific situations. The overall argument is that it is not that important whether it is a playing or a gaming activity - it is however crucial to be aware of how moods occur and what their optimal...... dimensions: practices and moods. Practice is the concept of all the doing in the activities. Moods are the particular concept of sense and feeling of being, which is what we are drawn to when we are playing or gaming....

  15. Optomechanical design software for segmented mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Juan

    2016-08-01

    The software package presented in this paper, still under development, was born to help analyzing the influence of the many parameters involved in the design of a large segmented mirror telescope. In summary, it is a set of tools which were added to a common framework as they were needed. Great emphasis has been made on the graphical presentation, as scientific visualization nowadays cannot be conceived without the use of a helpful 3d environment, showing the analyzed system as close to reality as possible. Use of third party software packages is limited to ANSYS, which should be available in the system only if the FEM results are needed. Among the various functionalities of the software, the next ones are worth mentioning here: automatic 3d model construction of a segmented mirror from a set of parameters, geometric ray tracing, automatic 3d model construction of a telescope structure around the defined mirrors from a set of parameters, segmented mirror human access assessment, analysis of integration tolerances, assessment of segments collision, structural deformation under gravity and thermal variation, mirror support system analysis including warping harness mechanisms, etc.

  16. Some Implications of Neutron Mirror Neutron Oscillation

    CERN Document Server

    Mohapatra, Rabindra N; Nussinov, S

    2005-01-01

    We comment on a recently discussed possibility of oscillations between neutrons and degenerate mirror neutrons in the context of mirror models for particles and forces. It has been noted by Bento and Berezhiani that if these oscillations occurred at a rate of $\\tau^{-1}_{NN'}\\sim sec^{-1}$, it would help explain putative super GKZ cosmic ray events provided the temperature of the mirror radiation is $\\sim 0.3-0.4$ times that of familiar cosmic microwave background radiation. We discuss how such oscillation time scales can be realized in mirror models and find that the simplest nonsupersymmetric model for this idea requires the existence of a low mass (30-3000 GeV) color triplet scalar or vector boson. A supersymmetric model, where this constraint can be avoided is severely constrained by the requirement of maintaining a cooler mirror sector. We also find that the reheat temperature after inflation in generic models that give fast $n-n'$ oscillation be less than about 100 GeV in order to maintain the required ...

  17. General game playing

    CERN Document Server

    Genesereth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    General game players are computer systems able to play strategy games based solely on formal game descriptions supplied at ""runtime"" (n other words, they don't know the rules until the game starts). Unlike specialized game players, such as Deep Blue, general game players cannot rely on algorithms designed in advance for specific games; they must discover such algorithms themselves. General game playing expertise depends on intelligence on the part of the game player and not just intelligence of the programmer of the game player.GGP is an interesting application in its own right. It is intell

  18. Playful Collaboration (or Not)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Marcel; Sproedt, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    also be conducive to deep learning. As such, a game can engage different dimensions of learning and embed elements of active, collaborative, cooperative and problem-based learning. Building on this logic, we present an exploratory case study of the use of a particular board game in a class of a course......This paper explores how games and play, which are deeply rooted in human beings as a way to learn and interact, can be used to teach certain concepts and practices related to open collaborative innovation. We discuss how playing games can be a source of creativity, imagination and fun, while it can...

  19. Five recent play dates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Mette Simonsen; Birkbak, Andreas; Jensen, Torben Elgaard

    2017-01-01

    An advantage of the playground metaphor is that it comes with the activity of going out on ‘play dates’ and developing friendships. In such playful relationships, there is always something at stake, but the interaction is also fun and inherently exploratory. In the following, we take a tour of five...... recent collaborative projects that the TANTlab has participated in. The projects differ widely and testify to different experiences with collaboration and intervention – from a data print on obesity with other researchers to a Facebook-driven intervention in Aalborg municipality’s primary school reform...

  20. Mirror, Mirror by the Stairs: The Impact of Mirror Exposure on Stair versus Elevator Use in College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie L Hodgin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPrevious research has indicated that self-awareness-inducing mirrors can successfully incite behaviors that align with one’s personal values, such as helping others. Other research has found a large discrepancy between the high percentage of young adults who report valuing the healthfulness of physical activity (PA and the low percentage who actually meet PA participation standards. Few studies, however, have examined how mirror exposure and both perceived and actual body size influence highly-valued PA participation among college students. The present study assessed stair versus elevator use on a western college campus and hypothesized that mirror exposure would increase the more personally-healthy transportation method of stair use. In accordance with previous research, it was also hypothesized that males and those with a lower body mass index (BMI would be more likely to take the stairs, and that body-size distorting mirrors would impact the stair-elevator decision. One hundred and sixty-seven students (51% male enrolled in an introductory psychology course were recruited to take a survey about their transportation choices at an indoor campus parking garage. Participants were individually exposed to either no mirror, a standard full-length mirror, or a full-length mirror manipulated to make the reflected body size appear either slightly thinner or slightly wider than normal before being asked to go to the fourth floor of the garage for a survey. Participants’ choice of floor climbing method (stairs or elevator was recorded and they were administered an internet-based survey assessing demographic information, BMI, self-awareness, perceived body size, and other variables likely to be associated with stair use. Results from logistic regression analyses revealed that participants who were not exposed to a mirror (OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.14 – 0.96, males (OR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.13 – 0.85, those with lower BMI (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.71

  1. Mirror, Mirror by the Stairs: The Impact of Mirror Exposure on Stair versus Elevator Use in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgin, Katie L; Graham, Dan J

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that self-awareness-inducing mirrors can successfully incite behaviors that align with one's personal values, such as helping others. Other research has found a large discrepancy between the high percentage of young adults who report valuing the healthfulness of physical activity (PA) and the low percentage who actually meet PA participation standards. However, few studies have examined how mirror exposure and both perceived and actual body size influence highly valued PA participation among college students. The present study assessed stair versus elevator use on a western college campus and hypothesized that mirror exposure would increase the more personally healthy transportation method of stair use. In accordance with previous research, it was also hypothesized that males and those with a lower body mass index (BMI) would be more likely to take the stairs, and that body size distorting mirrors would impact the stair-elevator decision. One hundred sixty-seven students (51% male) enrolled in an introductory psychology course were recruited to take a survey about their "transportation choices" at an indoor campus parking garage. Participants were individually exposed to either no mirror, a standard full-length mirror, or a full-length mirror manipulated to make the reflected body size appear either slightly thinner or slightly wider than normal before being asked to go to the fourth floor of the garage for a survey. Participants' choice of floor-climbing method (stairs or elevator) was recorded, and they were administered an Internet-based survey assessing demographic information, BMI, self-awareness, perceived body size, and other variables likely to be associated with stair use. Results from logistic regression analyses revealed that participants who were not exposed to a mirror [odds ratios (OR) = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.14-0.96], males (OR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.13-0.85), those with lower BMI (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.71-0.99), those

  2. VLT beryllium secondary mirror no. 1: performance review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayrel, Marc

    1998-08-01

    The four Very Large Telescope secondary mirrors are 1.2-m Beryllium lightweight convex mirrors. REOSC has been selected for the design and manufacturing of the optics and of their supporting system. The first mirror unit has been delivered in September, 1997. Operating from visible to near infrared, the mirror defines the telescope aperture stop and may be chopped during observation. The optical requirements are tight and a high stiffness, low weight and inertia are requested as well. Using beryllium is a technical challenge for such a large optic manufacturing, in particular regarding its stability. The requirements and design are presented, we review the mirror manufacturing steps: blank production, machining, grinding, Nickel plating, polishing, integration and testing. The optical quality control method, a problem for large convex mirrors control, is detailed. The results of acceptance testing of mirror No. 1 are summarized, we present conclusions about the mirror figure stability. The status of the three additional mirrors manufacturing is presented to conclude.

  3. Playful interactive mirroring to support bonding between parents and children with Down Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manojlovic, Stefan; Boer, Laurens; Sterkenburg, Paula

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the ongoing design research and preliminary results in the field of family-centered healthcare, in particular directed to families with children at the age of 0-2 years with Down Syndrome. A central concern of these families is parent-child bonding, as bonding is often disrupted...

  4. MagicMirror: designing for transitions as they play out in everyday physical rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagalkot, Naveen L.; Sokoler, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    in designing for the transition between exercising at the rehab centre and at home; and also between minute everyday transitions while exercising itself. We invoke the notions of collaborative articulation and piggybacking on everyday artefacts and practices as the way to design for these transitions. Finally...

  5. Four-mirror extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography projection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Simon J; Jeong, Hwan J; Shafer, David R

    2000-01-01

    The invention is directed to a four-mirror catoptric projection system for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography to transfer a pattern from a reflective reticle to a wafer substrate. In order along the light path followed by light from the reticle to the wafer substrate, the system includes a dominantly hyperbolic convex mirror, a dominantly elliptical concave mirror, spherical convex mirror, and spherical concave mirror. The reticle and wafer substrate are positioned along the system's optical axis on opposite sides of the mirrors. The hyperbolic and elliptical mirrors are positioned on the same side of the system's optical axis as the reticle, and are relatively large in diameter as they are positioned on the high magnification side of the system. The hyperbolic and elliptical mirrors are relatively far off the optical axis and hence they have significant aspherical components in their curvatures. The convex spherical mirror is positioned on the optical axis, and has a substantially or perfectly spherical shape. The spherical concave mirror is positioned substantially on the opposite side of the optical axis from the hyperbolic and elliptical mirrors. Because it is positioned off-axis to a degree, the spherical concave mirror has some asphericity to counter aberrations. The spherical concave mirror forms a relatively large, uniform field on the wafer substrate. The mirrors can be tilted or decentered slightly to achieve further increase in the field size.

  6. The Activity of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichlmair, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents Activity Theory as a framework for understanding the action of playing games with the intention of building a foundation for the creation of new game design tools and methods. Activity Theory, an epistemological framework rooted in Soviet psychology of the first half of the 20...

  7. Playing the Role

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The G20 London summit made history. While applauding the summit’s productive communique, Ni Xiaoling, senior financial observer with Xinhua News Agency, warns of the gap between the greater responsibilities the International Monetary Fund shoulders and its limited capabilities to play the role of coordinator in economic globalization.

  8. Abstraction through Game Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraamidou, Antri; Monaghan, John; Walker, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the computer game play of an 11-year-old boy. In the course of building a virtual house he developed and used, without assistance, an artefact and an accompanying strategy to ensure that his house was symmetric. We argue that the creation and use of this artefact-strategy is a mathematical abstraction. The discussion…

  9. Mobilities at Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ungruhe, Christian

    2017-01-01

    -level perspective there is still an analytical gap between the ambitions and experiences of migrating players and economic power relations at play on the one hand and the socio-cultural embedding of the transnational connections in football migration on the other. In order to understand why and how football...

  10. Play's Importance in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Anette; Heden, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute knowledge on and gain an understanding of elementary school teachers' perspectives on the function of play in children's learning processes. The study is qualitative with a hermeneutical approach and has George Herbert Mead as a theoretical frame of reference. Interviews have been carried out with seven…

  11. Play framework essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Richard-Foy, Julien

    2014-01-01

    This book targets Java and Scala developers who already have some experience in web development and who want to master Play framework quickly and efficiently. This book assumes you have a good level of knowledge and understanding of efficient Java and Scala code.

  12. A Significant Play

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁海光; 陈明

    2002-01-01

    Yesterday evening, I went to see a play. It was really significant. It was about Zheng Xiaoyue, a very clever and diligent middle school student. Unfortunately, her mother died when she and her brother were very young. Her father was out of work and,

  13. Cryogenic wavefront correction using membrane deformable mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, H; Sharples, R; Dipper, N; Vdovin, G

    2001-01-01

    Micro-machined membrane deformable mirrors (MMDMs) are being evaluated for their suitability as wavefront correctors at cryogenic temperatures. Presented here are experimental results for the change in the initial mirror figure of 37-channel MMDMs from OKO Technologies upon cooling to T=78K. The changes in the influence functions are also explored. Of the sample of 3 mirrors tested, one was found to have sufficiently small initial static aberrations to be useful as a wavefront corrector at this temperature. The influence functions at T=78K were found to be similar in shape to both those at room temperature and theoretical predictions of the MMDMs surface shape. The magnitude of the surface deflection at T=78K was reduced by around 20% compared with room temperature values.

  14. Massive Particle Reflection from Moving Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfarti, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the reflection of massive particles from moving mirrors. The adoption of the formalism based on the energy-momentum allowed us to derive the most general set of formulas, valid for massive and, in the limit, also for massless particles. We show that the momentum change of the reflecting particle always lies along the normal to the mirror, independent of the mirror speed. The subject is interesting not only to physicists designing concentrators for fascicles of massive particles and electron microscopes but also to computer scientists working in raytracing operating in the photon sector. The paper, far from being only theoretical, has profound and novel practical applications in both domains of engineering design and computer science.

  15. High-dispersive mirrors for femtosecond lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervak, V; Teisset, C; Sugita, A; Naumov, S; Krausz, F; Apolonski, A

    2008-07-07

    We report on the development of highly dispersive mirrors for chirped-pulse oscillators (CPO) and amplifiers (CPA). In this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrate the usability of highly dispersive multilayer mirrors for high-energy femtosecond oscillators, namely for i) a chirped-pulse Ti:Sa oscillator and ii) an Yb:YAG disk oscillator. In both cases a group delay dispersion (GDD) of the order of 2x10(4) fs(2) was introduced, accompanied with an overall transmission loss as low as approximately 2 per cent. This unprecedented combination of high dispersion and low loss over a sizeable bandwidth with multilayer structures opens the prospects for femtosecond CPA systems equipped with a compact, alignment-insensitive all-mirror compressors providing compensation of GDD as well as higher-order dispersion.

  16. Homological mirror symmetry and tropical geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Catanese, Fabrizio; Kontsevich, Maxim; Pantev, Tony; Soibelman, Yan; Zharkov, Ilia

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between Tropical Geometry and Mirror Symmetry goes back to the work of Kontsevich and Y. Soibelman (2000), who applied methods of non-archimedean geometry (in particular, tropical curves) to Homological Mirror Symmetry. In combination with the subsequent work of Mikhalkin on the “tropical” approach to Gromov-Witten theory, and the work of Gross and Siebert, Tropical Geometry has now become a powerful tool. Homological Mirror Symmetry is the area of mathematics concentrated around several categorical equivalences connecting symplectic and holomorphic (or algebraic) geometry. The central ideas first appeared in the work of Maxim Kontsevich (1993). Roughly speaking, the subject can be approached in two ways: either one uses Lagrangian torus fibrations of Calabi-Yau manifolds (the so-called Strominger-Yau-Zaslow picture, further developed by Kontsevich and Soibelman) or one uses Lefschetz fibrations of symplectic manifolds (suggested by Kontsevich and further developed by Seidel). Tropical Ge...

  17. Conference on Complex Geometry and Mirror Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Vinet, Luc; Yau, Shing-Tung; Mirror Symmetry III

    1999-01-01

    This book presents surveys from a workshop held during the theme year in geometry and topology at the Centre de recherches mathématiques (CRM, University of Montréal). The volume is in some sense a sequel to Mirror Symmetry I (1998) and Mirror Symmetry II (1996), copublished by the AMS and International Press. Included are recent developments in the theory of mirror manifolds and the related areas of complex and symplectic geometry. The long introductory articles explain the key physical ideas and motivation, namely conformal field theory, supersymmetry, and string theory. Open problems are emphasized. Thus the book provides an efficient way for a very broad audience of mathematicians and physicists to reach the frontier of research in this fast expanding area. - See more at: http://bookstore.ams.org/amsip-10#sthash.DbxEFJDx.dpuf

  18. Optical Tests of Nanoengineered Liquid Mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Yockell-Lelievre, H; Ritcey, A; Yockell-Lelievre, Helene; Borra, Ermanno F.; Ritcey, Anna; Jr, Lande Vieira da Silva

    2003-01-01

    We describe a new technology for the fabrication of inexpensive high-quality mirrors. We begin by chemically producing a large number of metallic nanoparticles coated with organic ligands. The particles are then spread on a liquid substrate where they self-assemble to give optical quality reflective surfaces. Since liquid surfaces can be modified with a variety of means (e.g. rotation, electromagnetic fields), this opens the possibility of making a new class of versatile and inexpensive optical elements that can have complex shapes which can be modified within short time scales. Interferometric measurements show optical quality surfaces. We have obtained reflectivity curves that show 80% peak reflectivities.We are confident that we can improve the reflectivity curves, for theoretical models predict higher values. We expect that nanoengineered liquid mirrors should be useful for scientific and engineering applications. The technology is interesting for large optics, such as large rotating parabolic mirrors, be...

  19. Plasma cleaning of beryllium coated mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, L.; Marot, L.; Steiner, R.; Newman, M.; Widdowson, A.; Ivanova, D.; Likonen, J.; Petersson, P.; Pintsuk, G.; Rubel, M.; Meyer, E.; Contributors, JET

    2016-02-01

    Cleaning systems of metallic first mirrors are needed in more than 20 optical diagnostic systems from ITER to avoid reflectivity losses. Currently, plasma sputtering is considered as one of the most promising techniques to remove deposits coming from the main wall (mainly beryllium and tungsten). This work presents the results of plasma cleaning of rhodium and molybdenum mirrors exposed in JET-ILW and contaminated with typical tokamak elements (including beryllium and tungsten). Using radio frequency (13.56 MHz) argon or helium plasma, the removal of mixed layers was demonstrated and mirror reflectivity improved towards initial values. The cleaning was evaluated by performing reflectivity measurements, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ion beam analysis.

  20. Topological mirror insulators in one dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Alexander; van den Brink, Jeroen; Ortix, Carmine

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate the existence of topological insulators in one dimension (1D) protected by mirror and time-reversal symmetries. They are characterized by a nontrivial Z2 topological invariant defined in terms of the "partial" polarizations, which we show to be quantized in the presence of a 1D mirror point. The topological invariant determines the generic presence or absence of integer boundary charges at the mirror-symmetric boundaries of the system. We check our findings against spin-orbit coupled Aubry-André-Harper models that can be realized, e.g., in cold-atomic Fermi gases loaded in one-dimensional optical lattices or in density- and Rashba spin-orbit-modulated semiconductor nanowires. In this setup, in-gap end-mode Kramers doublets appearing in the topologically nontrivial state effectively constitute a double-quantum dot with spin-orbit coupling.

  1. Optical Properties of Relativistic Plasma Mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Vincenti, H; Kahaly, S; Martin, Ph; Quéré, F

    2013-01-01

    The advent of ultrahigh-power femtosecond lasers creates a need for optical components suitable to handle ultrahigh light intensities. Due to the unavoidable laser-induced ionization of matter, these components will have to be based on a plasma medium. An archetype of such optical elements is a plasma mirror, created when an intense femtosecond laser pulse impinges on a solid target. It consists of a dense plasma, formed by the laser field itself, which specularly reflects the main part of the pulse. Plasma mirrors have major potential applications as active optical elements to manipulate the temporal and spatial properties of intense laser beams, in particular for the generation of intense attosecond pulses of light. We investigate the basic physics involved in the deformation of a plasma mirror resulting from the light pressure exerted by the ultraintense laser during reflection, by deriving a simple model of this fundamental process, which we validate both numerically and experimentally. The understanding ...

  2. An advanced KB mirror pair for microfocusing

    CERN Document Server

    Ferme, J J

    2001-01-01

    A new range of micro-focusing mirrors based on KB pairs has been developed by SESO for Beamline Nanospectroscopy at the Elettra Storage Ring in Trieste, Italy. Both the focusing and the aspheric shape are adjustable with stepper motors. The goal of the beamline is to have a high photon density spot with a variable size in the experimental chamber over the whole soft X-ray range. The estimated dimension of the final spot should be smaller than 4 mu m sup 2 FWHM, with a photon density of the order of 10 sup 1 sup 3 photons/s mu m sup 2; this may be achieved only by accepting an angular divergence on these mirrors of between 5 and 10 mrad. This condition can be fulfilled only with elliptical (or plane elliptical) mirrors with very limited residual slope errors (below 1 mu rad RMS) that are able to correct even small focal distance errors.

  3. Mirror symmetry for two parameter models, 2

    CERN Document Server

    Candelas, Philip; Katz, S; Morrison, Douglas Robert Ogston; Philip Candelas; Anamaria Font; Sheldon Katz; David R Morrison

    1994-01-01

    We describe in detail the space of the two K\\"ahler parameters of the Calabi--Yau manifold \\P_4^{(1,1,1,6,9)}[18] by exploiting mirror symmetry. The large complex structure limit of the mirror, which corresponds to the classical large radius limit, is found by studying the monodromy of the periods about the discriminant locus, the boundary of the moduli space corresponding to singular Calabi--Yau manifolds. A symplectic basis of periods is found and the action of the Sp(6,\\Z) generators of the modular group is determined. From the mirror map we compute the instanton expansion of the Yukawa couplings and the generalized N=2 index, arriving at the numbers of instantons of genus zero and genus one of each degree. We also investigate an SL(2,\\Z) symmetry that acts on a boundary of the moduli space.

  4. Gasdynamic Mirror (GDM) Fusion Propulsion Engine Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The Gasdynamic Mirror, or GDM, is an example of a magnetic mirror-based fusion propulsion system. Its design is primarily consisting of a long slender solenoid surrounding a vacuum chamber that contains plasma. The bulk of the fusion plasma is confined by magnetic field generated by a series of toroidal-shaped magnets in the center section of the device. the purpose of the GDM Fusion Propulsion Experiment is to confirm the feasibility of the concept and to demonstrate many of the operational characteristics of a full-size plasma can be confined within the desired physical configuration and still reman stable. This image shows an engineer from Propulsion Research Technologies Division at Marshall Space Flight Center inspecting solenoid magnets-A, an integrate part of the Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Propulsion Engine Experiment.

  5. Chirped mirrors with low dispersion ripple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervak, V; Naumov, S; Krausz, F; Apolonski, A

    2007-10-17

    We demonstrate a chirped dielectric multilayer mirror (CM) with controlled reflectivity and dispersion in the wavelength range 760-840 nm. It exhibits a reflectivity of >99.9% and a mean group delay dispersion (GDD) of about -30 fs(2) with a theoretical GDD ripple of less than 0.5 fs(2) in the working spectral range. Deviations of the measured GDD from the calculated one are restricted to less than +/- 3 fs(2), limited by our measurement system. Simulations reveal that a dispersive delay line composed of 120 bounces off these mirrors introduces negligible distortion to a femtosecond pulse and largely preserves its contrast. The mirrors constitute an ideal tool for precision intracavity or extracavity dispersion control in the range of several thousand fs(2), particularly if pulses with high contrast are to be generated.

  6. Long Focal Length Large Mirror Fabrication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, H. E.

    2003-01-01

    The goals of this ambitious program are (1) to develop systems to make large superpolished optical mirrors, (2) to develop low scatter polishing techniques using centrifugal elutriation, (3) to develop a means of measuring scatter at any point on the mirror, (4) to polish a Hindle sphere to measure the optical figure of a one meter diameter convex mandrel, and (5) to fabricate low scatter, large adaptive optic graphite filled, cyanate ester replica transfer mirrors using these mandrels. Deliverables are a 30 cm diameter superpolished composite AO mirror. We fabricated a 1/3rd meter superpolished zerodur flat mandrel and with the support of our major subcontractor, Composite Mirror Applications Inc (CMA) we have demonstrated a 30 cm lightweight cyanate ester mirror with an rms microroughness between 0.6 and 0.8 nm and 8 faceplate influence function of 5 cm. The influence function was chosen to be comparable to the atmospheric correlation coefficient r(sub 0) which is about 5 cm at sea level. There was no print-thru of the graphite fibers in the cyanate ester surface (the bane of many previous efforts to use cyanate ester mirrors). Our subcontractor has devised a means for developing a 30-50 nm thick layer of graphite free pure ester resin on the surface of the mirrors. This graphite fiber filled material has a thermal expansion coefficient in the 10(exp -8) centimeter per Kelvin range (the same range of expansion coefficient as Zerodur and ULE glasses) and does not take up water and swell, so it is a nearly ideal mirror material in these areas. Unfortunately for these 0.8mm thick faceplates, the number of plies is not enough to result in isometric coverage. Isolated figure irregularities can appear, making it necessary to go to thicker faceplates. The influence function will then only approximate the length of r(sub 0), at higher altitudes or longer wavelengths. The influence function goes as the cube of the thickness, so we are now making a faceplate optimized for

  7. Computer Controlled Polishing of the Off-axis Aspheric Mirrors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the manufacturing and testing procedures to make large off-axis aspherical mirrors are presented. The difficulties in polishing and testing for both circular-aperture and rectangular-aperture mirrors are previewed, and a possible solution is given. The two mirrors have been polished by means of CCOS, and the final accuracy is 25nm rms for 770mm×210mm rectangular mirror and 20nm rms for φ600mm circular mirror. These results just meet the optical tolerances specified by the designer, and the manufacturing and testing procedures presented here show good ability to make the large off-axis aspherical mirrors.

  8. Well baffled two-mirror corrector for a parabola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, D R

    1977-05-01

    The two-mirror Baker corrector for a parabolic telescope mirror is a well-known, very elegant design. In some variations, both corrector mirrors are spherical. The only thing marring the beauty of this solution to providing anastigmatic performance for large parabolic telescope mirrors is that the system is difficult to baffle. An alternate two-mirror corrector is presented here-based on a different design principle-that is easy to baffle. One of the two corrector mirrors is spherical, and there is a field stop to further aid in baffling. The penalty paid is that the signs.

  9. Active Beam Shaping System and Method Using Sequential Deformable Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Colin A. (Inventor); Pueyo, Laurent A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An active optical beam shaping system includes a first deformable mirror arranged to at least partially intercept an entrance beam of light and to provide a first reflected beam of light, a second deformable mirror arranged to at least partially intercept the first reflected beam of light from the first deformable mirror and to provide a second reflected beam of light, and a signal processing and control system configured to communicate with the first and second deformable mirrors. The first deformable mirror, the second deformable mirror and the signal processing and control system together provide a large amplitude light modulation range to provide an actively shaped optical beam.

  10. Two-Sided Gravitational Mirror: Sealing off Curvature Singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Davidson, Aharon

    2012-01-01

    A gravitational mirror is a non-singular finite redshift surface which bounces all incident null geodesics. While a white mirror (outward bouncing) resembles 't Hooft's brick wall, a black mirror (inward bouncing) offers a novel mechanism for sealing off curvature singularities. The geometry underlying a two-sided mirror is characterized by a single signature change, to be contrasted with the signature flip which governs the black hole geometry. To demonstrate the phenomenon analytically, we derive an exact, static, radially symmetric, two-sided mirror solution, which asymptotes the massless BTZ black hole background, and then probe the local structure of a massive mirror.

  11. Alignment and focus of mirrored facets of a heliosat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yellowhair, Julius E; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Diver, Richard B; Moss, Timothy A

    2013-11-12

    Various technologies pertaining to aligning and focusing mirrored facets of a heliostat are described herein. Updating alignment and/or focus of mirrored facets is undertaken through generation of a theoretical image, wherein the theoretical image is indicative of a reflection of the target via the mirrored facets when the mirrored facets are properly aligned. This theoretical image includes reference points that are overlaid on an image of the target as reflected by the mirrored facets of the heliostat. A technician adjusts alignment/focus of a mirrored facet by causing reflected reference markings to become aligned with the reference points in the theoretical image.

  12. Mirroring Mobile Phone in the Clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Z.Wang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a framework of Mirroring Mobile Phone in the Clouds (MMPC) to speed up data/computing intensive applications on a mobile phone by taking full advantage of the super computing power of the clouds. An application on the mobile phone is dynamically partitioned in such a way that the heavy-weighted part is always running on a mirrored server in the clouds while the light-weighted part remains on the mobile phone. A performance improvement (an energy consumption reduction of 70...

  13. Topology optimization design of space rectangular mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yanjun; Wang, Wei; Liu, Bei; Li, Xupeng

    2016-10-01

    A conceptual lightweight rectangular mirror is designed based on the theory of topology optimization and the specific structure size is determined through sensitivity analysis and size optimization in this paper. Under the load condition of gravity along the optical axis, compared with the mirrors designed by traditional method using finite element analysis method, the performance of the topology optimization reflectors supported by peripheral six points are superior in lightweight ratio, structure stiffness and the reflective surface accuracy. This suggests that the lightweight method in this paper is effective and has potential value for the design of rectangular reflector.

  14. The many faces of mirror symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Kachru, Shamit; Torroba, Gonzalo; Wang, Huajia

    2016-01-01

    We study supersymmetry breaking perturbations of the simplest dual pair of 2+1-dimensional N = 2 supersymmetric field theories -- the free chiral multiplet and N = 2 super-QED with a single flavor. We find dual descriptions of a phase diagram containing four distinct massive phases. The equivalence of the intervening critical theories gives rise to several non-supersymmetric avatars of mirror symmetry: we find dualities relating scalar QED to a free fermion and Wilson-Fisher theories to both scalar and fermionic QED. Thus, mirror symmetry can be viewed as the multicritical parent duality from which these non-supersymmetric dualities directly descend.

  15. Black Hole - Moving Mirror II: Particle Creation

    CERN Document Server

    Good, Michael R R; Evans, Charles R

    2015-01-01

    There is an exact correspondence between the simplest solution to Einstein's equations describing the formation of a black hole and a particular moving mirror trajectory. In both cases the Bogolubov coefficients in 1+1 dimensions are identical and can be computed analytically. Particle creation is investigated by using wave packets. The entire particle creation history is computed, incorporating the early-time non-thermal emission due to the formation of the black hole (or the early-time acceleration of the moving mirror) and the evolution to a Planckian spectrum.

  16. Specular Reflections: John Brett and the Mirror of Venus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Mussell

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 When John Brett, the Pre-Raphaelite painter and astronomer, presented his theory of specular reflection in Venus to the Royal Astronomical Society, he provoked a controversy over both the constitution of the planet and the learned society. Brett thought Venus was most likely a ball of molten metal enclosed in a glass envelope and this raised the tantalizing possibility that it might function as a mirror, reflecting back an image of the earth. A few months later another 'Mirror of Venus 'was displayed at the Grosvenor Gallery. The surface of Edward Burne-Jones's painting provides a different model of reflection but one that illuminates the space of the Royal Astronomical Society and the practice of astronomy more broadly. Using Burne-Jones’s painting as a point of comparison, I argue that Brett’s astronomy put into play a desiring, viewing subject that was disavowed in his landscape art.

  17. Mirror reading can reverse the flow of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasanto, Daniel; Bottini, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    How does culture shape our concepts? Across many cultures, people conceptualize time as if it flows along a horizontal timeline, but the direction of this implicit timeline is culture specific: Later times are on the right in some cultures but on the left in others. Here we investigated whether experience reading can determine the direction and orientation of the mental timeline, independent of other cultural and linguistic factors. Dutch speakers performed space-time congruity tasks with the instructions and stimuli written in either standard, mirror-reversed, or rotated orthography. When participants judged temporal phrases written in standard orthography, their reaction times were consistent with a rightward-directed mental timeline, but after brief exposure to mirror-reversed orthography, their mental timelines were reversed. When standard orthography was rotated 90° clockwise (downward) or counterclockwise (upward), participants' mental timelines were rotated, accordingly. Reading can play a causal role in shaping people's implicit time representations. Exposure to a new orthography can change the direction and orientation of the mental timeline within minutes, even when the new space-time mapping directly contradicts the reader's usual mapping. To account for this representational flexibility, we propose the hierarchical mental metaphors theory, according to which culturally conditioned mappings between space and time are specific instances of a more general mapping, which is conditioned by the relationship between space and time in the physical world. Conceptualizations of time are culture specific at one level of analysis but may be universal at another.

  18. Effects of a mirror-induced visual illusion on a reaching task in stroke patients: implications for mirror therapy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selles, Ruud W; Michielsen, Marian E; Bussmann, Johannes B J; Stam, Henk J; Hurkmans, Henri L; Heijnen, Iris; de Groot, Danielle; Ribbers, Gerard M

    2014-09-01

    Although most mirror therapy studies have shown improved motor performance in stroke patients, the optimal mirror training protocol still remains unclear. To study the relative contribution of a mirror in training a reaching task and of unilateral and bimanual training with a mirror. A total of 93 stroke patients at least 6 months poststroke were instructed to perform a reaching task as fast and as fluently as possible. They performed 70 practice trials after being randomly allocated to 1 of 5 experimental groups: training with (1) the paretic arm with direct view (Paretic-No Mirror), (2) the nonparetic arm with direct view (Nonparetic-No Mirror), (3) the nonparetic arm with mirror reflection (Nonparetic Mirror), (4) both sides and with a nontransparent screen preventing visual control of paretic side (Bilateral-Screen), and (5) both sides with mirror reflection of the nonparetic arm (Bilateral-Mirror). As baseline and follow-up, patients performed 6 trials using only their paretic side. Primary outcome measure was the movement time. We found the largest intervention effect in the Paretic-No Mirror condition. However, the Nonparetic-Mirror condition was not significantly different from the Paretic-No Mirror condition, while the Unaffected-No Mirror condition had significantly less improvement than the Paretic-No Mirror condition. In addition, movement time improved significantly less in the bimanual conditions and there was no difference between both bimanual conditions or between both mirror conditions. The present study confirms that using a mirror reflection can facilitate motor learning. In this task, bimanual movement using mirror training was less effective than unilateral training. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. [Mirror, mirror of the wall: mirror therapy in the treatment of phantom limbs and phantom limb pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Roberto; Furnari, Anna; Lamberti, Raul Coelho; Kouloulas, Efthimios; Hagenberg, Annegret; Mallik, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Phantom limb and phantom limb pain control are pivotal points in the sequence of intervention to bring the amputee to functional autonomy. The alterations of perception and sensation, the pain of the residual limb and the phantom limb are therefore aspects of amputation that should be taken into account in the "prise en charge" of these patients. Within the more advanced physical therapies to control phantom and phantom limb pain there is the use of mirrors (mirror therapy). This article willfocus on its use and on the possible side effects induced by the lack of patient selection and a conflict of body schema restoration through mirror therapy with concurrent prosthetic training and trauma acceptance. Advice on the need to select patients before treatment decisions, with regard to their psychological as well as clinical profile (including time since amputation and clinical setting), and the need to be aware of the possible adverse effects matching different and somehow conflicting therapeutic approaches, are put forward. Thus a coordinated sequence of diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic procedures carried out by an interdisciplinary rehabilitation team that works globally on all patients' problems is fundamental in the management of amputees and phantom limb pain. Further studies and the development of a multidisciplinary network to study this and other applications of mirror therapy are needed.

  20. Play or science?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieberoth, Andreas; Pedersen, Mads Kock; Sherson, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Crowdscience games may hold unique potentials as learning opportunities compared to games made for fun or education. They are part of an actual science problem solving process: By playing, players help scientists, and thereby interact with real continuous research processes. This mixes the two...... worlds of play and science in new ways. During usability testing we discovered that users of the crowdscience game Quantum Dreams tended to answer questions in game terms, even when directed explicitly to give science explanations. We then examined these competing frames of understanding though a mixed...... correlational and grounded theory analysis. This essay presents the core ideas of crowdscience games as learning opportunities, and reports how a group of players used “game”, “science” and “conceptual” frames to interpret their experience. Our results suggest that oscillating between the frames instead...

  1. Understanding Games as Played

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leino, Olli Tapio

    2009-01-01

    Researchers interested in player’s experience would assumedly, across disciplines, agree that the goal behind enquiries into player’s experience is to understand the how games’ features end up affecting the player’s experience. Much of the contemporary interdisciplinary research into player......’s experience leans toward the empirical-scientific, in the forms (neuro)psychology, sociology and cognitive science, to name a few. In such approaches, for example demonstrating correlation between physiological symptoms and an in-game event may amount to ‘understanding’. However, the experience of computer...... game play is a viable topic also for computer game studies within the general tradition of humanities. In such context, the idea of ‘understanding an experience’ invites an approach focusing on the experienced significance of events and objects within computer game play. This focus, in turn, suggests...

  2. Ravens at Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Bird Rose

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available ‘We were driving through Death Valley, an American-Australian and two Aussies, taking the scenic route from Las Vegas to Santa Cruz.’ This multi-voiced account of multispecies encounters along a highway takes up the challenge of playful and humorous writing that is as well deeply serious and theoretically provocative. Our travels brought us into what Donna Haraway calls the contact zone: a region of recognition and response. The contact zone is a place of significant questions: ‘Who are you, and so who are we? Here we are, and so what are we to become?’ Events were everything in this ecology of play, in which the movements of all the actors involved the material field in its entirety. We were brought into dances of approach and withdrawal, dances emerging directly, to paraphrase Brian Massumi, from the dynamic relation between a myriad of charged particles.

  3. Public Computation & Boundary Play

    CERN Document Server

    Sengupta, Pratim

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce 'public computation' as a genre of learning environments that can be used to radically broaden public participation in authentic, computation-enabled STEM disciplinary practices. Our paradigmatic approach utilizes open source software designed for professional scientists, engineers and digital artists, and situates them in an undiluted form, alongside live and archived expert support, in a public space. We present a case study of DigiPlay, a prototypical public computation space we designed at the University of Calgary, where users can interact directly with scientific simulations as well as the underlying open source code using an array of massive multi- touch screens. We argue that in such a space, public interactions with the code can be thought of as boundary work and play, through which public participation becomes legitimate scientific act, as the public engages in scientific creation through truly open-ended explorations with the code.

  4. Play. Learn. Innovate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sproedt, Henrik

    evidence that play and games could be interesting perspectives to take in order to understand complex social interaction. I come to the conclusion that – in innovation settings – the social dynamics that affect the process are essentially about transformation of knowledge across boundaries. I propose......„Play. Learn. Innovate. – Grasping the Social Dynamics of Participatory Innovation“ the title of this thesis describes how the complex interplay of unexpected events led to some burning questions and eventually to this thesis, which one could call an innovation*1*. During several years...... study were to better understand the theoretical foundations and practical implications of complex social interaction in organizational innovation settings. As I did not find any existing models or hypotheses that I was interested in testing I set out to discover how I could grasp complex social...

  5. "Playing" with our users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2014-01-01

    was from the amazing Dr Anthony Lewis Brooks (aka Tony) who has conceived the concepts GameAbilitation, ArtAbilitation, and Ludic Engagement Designs for All. While presenting some of his work on GameAbilitation and ArtAbilitation he brought up the subject of conducting research with users with disabilities......, about what happens to our users when research is over, funds are gone and the curtain of experiments has fallen. Dr Brooks presented the case of a young user who while unable to move and communicate had to part with the test device that provided him with interactive playful experience. We’ve all been...... confined in a house. For researchers that work with people with disabilities and in my case with playful interactions and positive immersive experience, we might have to think harder when we write project proposals or sketch our methodology. Devices, software and experience should be available to the users...

  6. Creativity and Playfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Skovbjerg, Helle Marie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This article explores how student behavior and interactions change when teachers use “producing games” as a primary pedagogical strategy (Papert, 1980; Ejsing-Duun and Karoff, 2014). Based on student and teacher actions and responses, as well as on students' production—observed during f...... fieldwork—this paper emphasizes the importance of understanding how students explore creativity and playfulness while producing in learning situations....

  7. Creativity and Playfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Skovbjerg, Helle Marie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This article explores how student behavior and interactions change when teachers use “producing games” as a primary pedagogical strategy (Papert, 1980; Ejsing-Duun and Karoff, 2014). Based on student and teacher actions and responses, as well as on students' production—observed during f...... fieldwork—this paper emphasizes the importance of understanding how students explore creativity and playfulness while producing in learning situations....

  8. The strange physics of low frequency mirror mode turbulence in the high temperature plasma of the magnetosheath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Treumann

    2004-01-01

    in mirror modes and redistribute energy (cf. for instance, Chisham et al. 1998. Such trapped electrons excite banded whistler wave emission known under the name of lion roars and indicating that the mirror modes contain a trapped particle component while leading to the splitting of particle distributions (see Baumjohann et al., 1999 into trapped and passing particles. The most amazing fact about mirror modes is, however, that they evolve in the practically fully collisionless regime of high temperature plasma where it is on thermodynamic reasons entirely impossible to expel any magnetic field from the plasma. The fact that magnetic fields are indeed locally extracted makes mirror modes similar to 'superconducting' structures in matter as known only at extremely low temperatures. Of course, microscopic quantum effects do not play a role in mirror modes. However, it seems that all mirror structures have typical scales of the order of the ion inertial length which implies that mirrors evolve in a regime where the transverse ion and electron motions decouple. In this case the Hall kinetics comes into play. We estimate that in the marginally stationary nonlinear state of the evolution of mirror modes the modes become stretched along the magnetic field with k||=0 and that a small number the order of a few percent of the particle density is responsible only for the screening of the field from the interior of the mirror bubbles.

  9. Delayed mirror visual feedback presented using a novel mirror therapy system enhances cortical activation in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsin-Min; Li, Ping-Chia; Fan, Shih-Chen

    2015-07-11

    Mirror visual feedback (MVF) generated in mirror therapy (MT) with a physical mirror promotes the recovery of hemiparetic limbs in patients with stroke, but is limited in that it cannot provide an asymmetric mode for bimanual coordination training. Here, we developed a novel MT system that can manipulate the MVF to resolve this issue. The aims of this pilot study were to examine the feasibility of delayed MVF on MT and to establish its effects on cortical activation in order to understand how it can be used for clinical applications in the future. Three conditions (no MVF, MVF, and 2-s delayed MVF) presented via our digital MT system were evaluated for their time-course effects on cortical activity by event-related desynchronization (ERD) of mu rhythm electroencephalography (EEG) during button presses in 18 healthy adults. Phasic ERD areas, defined as the areas of the relative ERD curve that were below the reference level and within -2-0 s (P0), 0-2 s (P1), and 2-4 s (P2) of the button press, were used. The overall (P0 to P2) and phasic ERD areas were higher when MVF was provided compared to when MVF was not provided for all EEG channels (C3, Cz, and C4). Phasic ERD areas in the P2 phase only increased during the delayed-MVF condition. Significant enhancement of cortical activation in the mirror neuron system and an increase in attention to the unseen limb may play major roles in the response to MVF during MT. In comparison to the no MVF condition, the higher phasic ERD areas that were observed during the P1 phase in the delayed-MVF condition indicate that the image of the still hand may have enhanced the cortical activation that occurred in response to the button press. This study is the first to achieve delayed MVF for upper-limb MT. Our approach confirms previous findings regarding the effects of MVF on cortical activation and contributes additional evidence supporting the use of this method in the future for upper-limb motor training in patients with stroke.

  10. Moving mirrors and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Stargen, D Jaffino; Sriramkumar, L

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the random motion of a mirror in (1 + 1)-dimensions that is immersed in a thermal bath of massless scalar particles which are interacting with the mirror through a boundary condition. Imposing the Dirichlet or the Neumann boundary conditions on the moving mirror, we evaluate the mean radiation reaction force on the mirror and the correlation function describing the fluctuations in the force about the mean value. From the correlation function thus obtained, we explicitly establish the fluctuation-dissipation theorem governing the moving mirror. Using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, we compute the mean-squared displacement of the mirror at finite and zero temperature. We clarify a few points concerning the various limiting behavior of the mean-squared displacement of the mirror. While we recover the standard result at finite temperature, we find that the mirror diffuses logarithmically at zero temperature, confirming similar conclusions that have been arrived at earlier in this context. We a...

  11. Piezoelectric deformable mirror for intra-cavity laser adaptive optics.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Long, CS

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a deformable mirror to be used in conjunction with diffractive optical elements inside a laser cavity. A prototype piezoelectric unimorph adaptive mirror was developed to correct for time dependent phase...

  12. The investigation on mirrors maladjustment for RLG

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-qing; Gao, Ai-hua; Hu, Shang-bin; Lu, Zhi-guo

    2011-06-01

    In order to meet the high demand of the entire technology processing, the error compensation method is usually used to correct them and is premised on a good understanding of error sources and the law of the errors. In this paper, based on the theories of Collins's Integral and Collins's EIKONAL Function and the MATLAB software, we simulated and calculated the spatial distribution of optical beam in the cavity of the ring laser gyro under the resonator's maladjustment caused by the technology processing. From the simulation results, we can get that to the small-gain lasers, the same amount of disorders in the different structures have different effects on the spatial distribution of the beam, and the structures using the spherical mirrors relatively have the small impact on the beam; under the same disorder in the same cavity shape, the signal light and the calibration light which are respectively detected from the mirror M1 and M4 are different; under the same structures, different mirrors with the same amount of disorder will cause the different beat frequency difference; because of the disorders, the spot centers of clockwise and counterclockwise waves happen shift and will seriously affect the normal operation of the laser gyro if the imbalance reaches a certain degree. This work has a guiding role in the mirror adjustment of the laser gyros' technology processing, and has a reference value to the survival rate of the laser gyros and the improvement of measurement accuracy.

  13. The "Curriculum Vitae": An Imperfect Mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, John B.

    1992-01-01

    Curriculum vitae for college faculty can be ambiguous and even misleading: they can obscure an individual's primary teaching and instructional achievements, tell less than they appear to, and convey an unintended message. Faculty should evaluate the clarity and force with which their vitae express their accomplishments and mirror their abilities.…

  14. Spheroidal galactic halos and mirror dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Foot, R

    2004-01-01

    Mirror matter has been proposed as a dark matter candidate. It has several very attractive features, including automatic stability and darkness, the ability to mimic the broad features of cold dark matter while in the linear density perturbation regime, and consistency with all direct dark matter search experiments, both negative (e.g. CDMS II) and positive (DAMA). In this paper we consider an important unsolved problem: Are there plausible reasons to explain why most of the mirror matter in spiral galaxies exists in the form of gaseous {\\it spheroidal} galactic halos around ordinary matter {\\it disks}? We compute an order-of-magnitude estimate that the mirror photon luminosity of a typical spiral galaxy today is around $10^{44}$ erg/s. Interestingly, this rate of energy loss is similar to the power supplied by ordinary supernova explosions. We discuss circumstances under which supernova power can be used to heat the gaseous part of the mirror matter halo and hence prevent its collapse to a disk. The {\\it mac...

  15. Homological Perturbation Theory and Mirror Symmetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian ZHOU

    2003-01-01

    We explain how deformation theories of geometric objects such as complex structures,Poisson structures and holomorphic bundle structures lead to differential Gerstenhaber or Poisson al-gebras. We use homological perturbation theory to construct A∞ algebra structures on the cohomology,and their canonically defined deformations. Such constructions are used to formulate a version of A∞algebraic mirror symmetry.

  16. Deformable Mirrors Capture Exoplanet Data, Reflect Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    To image and characterize exoplanets, Goddard Space Flight Center turned to deformable mirrors (DMs). Berkeley, California-based Iris AO, Inc. worked with Goddard through the SBIR program to improve the company’s microelectromechanical DMs, which are now being evaluated and used for biological research, industrial applications, and could even be used by drug manufacturers.

  17. Brane brick models in the mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Sebastián; Lee, Sangmin; Seong, Rak-Kyeong; Vafa, Cumrun

    2017-02-01

    Brane brick models are Type IIA brane configurations that encode the 2 d N=(0,2) gauge theories on the worldvolume of D1-branes probing toric Calabi-Yau 4-folds. We use mirror symmetry to improve our understanding of this correspondence and to provide a systematic approach for constructing brane brick models starting from geometry. The mirror configuration consists of D5-branes wrapping 4-spheres and the gauge theory is determined by how they intersect. We also explain how 2 d (0 , 2) triality is realized in terms of geometric transitions in the mirror geometry. Mirror symmetry leads to a geometric unification of dualities in different dimensions, where the order of duality is n - 1 for a Calabi-Yau n-fold. This makes us conjecture the existence of a quadrality symmetry in 0 d. Finally, we comment on how the M-theory lift of brane brick models connects to the classification of 2 d (0 , 2) theories in terms of 4-manifolds.

  18. Mirror Symmetry and Polar Duality of Polytopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Cox

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This expository article explores the connection between the polar duality from polyhedral geometry and mirror symmetry from mathematical physics and algebraic geometry. Topics discussed include duality of polytopes and cones as well as the famous quintic threefold and the toric variety of a reflexive polytope.

  19. Mirror Images: New Reflections on Teacher Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reason, Casey; Reason, Clair

    2011-01-01

    What inspires teachers to see themselves as leaders? "Mirror Images" takes a comprehensive look at what teacher leadership means today and how teachers can transform the future of their profession. Included are ten iconic images of teacher leadership roles to help teachers move beyond teaching as they were taught. The authors make a compelling…

  20. Mirror Neurons and the Evolution of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corballis, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    The mirror system provided a natural platform for the subsequent evolution of language. In nonhuman primates, the system provides for the understanding of biological action, and possibly for imitation, both prerequisites for language. I argue that language evolved from manual gestures, initially as a system of pantomime, but with gestures…

  1. Adjustable Membrane Mirrors Incorporating G-Elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zensheu; Morgan, Rhonda M.; Xu, Tian-Bing; Su, Ji; Hishinuma, Yoshikazu; Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    2008-01-01

    Lightweight, flexible, large-aperture mirrors of a type being developed for use in outer space have unimorph structures that enable precise adjustment of their surface figures. A mirror of this type includes a reflective membrane layer bonded with an electrostrictive grafted elastomer (G-elastomer) layer, plus electrodes suitably positioned with respect to these layers. By virtue of the electrostrictive effect, an electric field applied to the G-elastomer membrane induces a strain along the membrane and thus causes a deflection of the mirror surface. Utilizing this effect, the mirror surface figure can be adjusted locally by individually addressing pairs of electrodes. G-elastomers, which were developed at NASA Langley Research Center, were chosen for this development in preference to other electroactive polymers partly because they offer superior electromechanical performance. Whereas other electroactive polymers offer, variously, large strains with low moduli of elasticity or small strains with high moduli of elasticity, G-elastomers offer both large strains (as large as 4 percent) and high moduli of elasticity (about 580 MPa). In addition, G-elastomer layers can be made by standard melt pressing or room-temperature solution casting.

  2. Brane Brick Models in the Mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, Sebastian; Seong, Rak-Kyeong; Vafa, Cumrun

    2016-01-01

    Brane brick models are Type IIA brane configurations that encode the $2d$ $\\mathcal{N}=(0,2)$ gauge theories on the worldvolume of D1-branes probing toric Calabi-Yau 4-folds. We use mirror symmetry to improve our understanding of this correspondence and to provide a systematic approach for constructing brane brick models starting from geometry. The mirror configuration consists of D5-branes wrapping 4-spheres and the gauge theory is determined by how they intersect. We also explain how $2d$ $(0,2)$ triality is realized in terms of geometric transitions in the mirror geometry. Mirror symmetry leads to a geometric unification of dualities in different dimensions, where the order of duality is $n-1$ for a Calabi-Yau $n$-fold. This makes us conjecture the existence of a quadrality symmetry in $0d$. Finally, we comment on how the M-theory lift of brane brick models connects to the classification of $2d$ $(0,2)$ theories in terms of 4-manifolds.

  3. Children's Drawings: A Mirror to Their Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Isabelle D.; Seiwert, Clair S.; Dickey, Tara M.; Flichtbeil, Judith D.

    2006-01-01

    Children's drawings are thought to be a mirror of a child's representational development. Research suggests that with age children develop more complex and symbolic representational strategies and reference points become more differentiated by gender. We collected two drawings from 109 5-13-year-old children (three age groups). Each child drew…

  4. Neuro-Fuzzy Phasing of Segmented Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Philip D.

    1999-01-01

    A new phasing algorithm for segmented mirrors based on neuro-fuzzy techniques is described. A unique feature of this algorithm is the introduction of an observer bank. Its effectiveness is tested in a very simple model with remarkable success. The new algorithm requires much less computational effort than existing algorithms and therefore promises to be quite useful when implemented on more complex models.

  5. Solid State Replacement of Rotating Mirror Cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, A M; Bartolick, J M

    2006-08-25

    Rotating mirror cameras have been the mainstay of mega-frame per second imaging for decades. There is still no electronic camera that can match a film based rotary mirror camera for the combination of frame count, speed, resolution and dynamic range. The rotary mirror cameras are predominantly used in the range of 0.1 to 100 micro-seconds per frame, for 25 to more than a hundred frames. Electron tube gated cameras dominate the sub microsecond regime but are frame count limited. Video cameras are pushing into the microsecond regime but are resolution limited by the high data rates. An all solid state architecture, dubbed ''In-situ Storage Image Sensor'' or ''ISIS'', by Prof. Goji Etoh, has made its first appearance into the market and its evaluation is discussed. Recent work at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has concentrated both on evaluation of the presently available technologies and exploring the capabilities of the ISIS architecture. It is clear though there is presently no single chip camera that can simultaneously match the rotary mirror cameras, the ISIS architecture has the potential to approach their performance.

  6. Mirror Neurons and the Evolution of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corballis, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    The mirror system provided a natural platform for the subsequent evolution of language. In nonhuman primates, the system provides for the understanding of biological action, and possibly for imitation, both prerequisites for language. I argue that language evolved from manual gestures, initially as a system of pantomime, but with gestures…

  7. Mirror Your Audience's Attitude: A Global Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meussling, Vonne

    Recent advertising research has suggested that to gain initial entry into and retain continual success with a targeted audience of consumers, it is wise to mirror the attitudes and desires of those consumers. This has proven effective in the United States, where companies such as Chevrolet, Levi Strauss, and Coca-Cola have successfully catered to…

  8. Social neuroscience: mirror neurons recorded in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria

    2010-04-27

    New single-cell recordings show that humans do have mirror neurons, and in more brain regions than previously suspected. Some action-execution neurons were seen to be inhibited during observation, possibly preventing imitation and helping self/other discrimination.

  9. Silicon Carbide Technologies for Lightweighted Aerospace Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    silicon carbide (SiC) based materials. It is anticipated that SiC can be utilized for most applications from cryogenic to high temperatures. This talk will focus on describing the SOA for these (near term) SiC technology solutions for making mirror structural substrates, figuring and finishing technologies being investigated to reduce cost time

  10. Analysis of Online Composite Mirror Descent Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yunwen; Zhou, Ding-Xuan

    2017-03-01

    We study the convergence of the online composite mirror descent algorithm, which involves a mirror map to reflect the geometry of the data and a convex objective function consisting of a loss and a regularizer possibly inducing sparsity. Our error analysis provides convergence rates in terms of properties of the strongly convex differentiable mirror map and the objective function. For a class of objective functions with Hölder continuous gradients, the convergence rates of the excess (regularized) risk under polynomially decaying step sizes have the order [Formula: see text] after [Formula: see text] iterates. Our results improve the existing error analysis for the online composite mirror descent algorithm by avoiding averaging and removing boundedness assumptions, and they sharpen the existing convergence rates of the last iterate for online gradient descent without any boundedness assumptions. Our methodology mainly depends on a novel error decomposition in terms of an excess Bregman distance, refined analysis of self-bounding properties of the objective function, and the resulting one-step progress bounds.

  11. Large Telescope Segmented Primary Mirror Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rud, Mayer

    2010-01-01

    A document discusses a broadband (white light) point source, located at the telescope Cassegrain focus, which generates a cone of light limited by the hole in the secondary mirror (SM). It propagates to the aspheric null-mirror, which is optimized to make all the reflected rays to be normal to the primary mirror (PM) upon reflection. PM retro-reflects the rays back through the system for wavefront analysis. The point source and the wavefront analysis subsystems are all located behind the PM. The PM phasing is absolute (white light) and does not involve the SM. A relatively small, aspheric null-mirror located near the PM center of curvature has been designed to deliver the high level of optical wavefront correction. The phasing of the segments is absolute due to the use of a broadband source. The segmented PM is optically aligned independently and separately from the SM alignment. The separation of the PM segments alignment from the PM to the SM, and other telescope optics alignments, may be a significant advantage, eliminating the errors coupling. The point source of this concept is fully cooperative, unlike a star or laser-generated guide-star, providing the necessary brightness for the optimal S/N ratio, the spectral content, and the stable on-axis position. This concept can be implemented in the lab for the PM initial alignment, or made to be a permanent feature of the space-based or groundbased telescope.

  12. Alignment and Integration of Lightweight Mirror Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Tyler; Biskach, Michael; Mazzarella, Jim; McClelland, Ryan; Saha, Timo; Zhang, Will; Chan, Kai-Wing

    2011-01-01

    The optics for the International X-Ray Observatory (IXO) require alignment and integration of about fourteen thousand thin mirror segments to achieve the mission goal of 3.0 square meters of effective area at 1.25 keV with an angular resolution of five arc-seconds. These mirror segments are 0.4 mm thick, and 200 to 400 mm in size, which makes it difficult not to impart distortion at the sub-arc-second level. This paper outlines the precise alignment, permanent bonding, and verification testing techniques developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Improvements in alignment include new hardware and automation software. Improvements in bonding include two module new simulators to bond mirrors into, a glass housing for proving single pair bonding, and a Kovar module for bonding multiple pairs of mirrors. Three separate bonding trials were x-ray tested producing results meeting the requirement of sub ten arc-second alignment. This paper will highlight these recent advances in alignment, testing, and bonding techniques and the exciting developments in thin x-ray optic technology development.

  13. Mirror Symmetry of Matter and Antimatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Robert

    2010-03-01

    Physical processes involving weak interactions have mirror images which can be mimicked in the natural universe only by exchanging matter and antimatter. This experimental observation is easily explained by the hypothesis that spatial inversion exchanges matter and antimatter. Yet according to conventional theory, the parity operator P does not exchange matter and antimatter but instead yields phenomena which have never been observed. We examine the conventional derivation of the Dirac parity operator and find that it is based on the speculative assumption that the unit imaginary is always a true scalar rather than a pseudoscalar. This assumption incorrectly requires that the matrix 0̂ preserve its sign under spatial inversion. This requirement results in a mixed-parity vector space defined relative to velocity, which is otherwise isomorphic to the spatial axes. We derive a new spatial inversion operator M (for mirroring) by requiring that for any set of orthogonal basis vectors, all three must have the same parity. A pseudoscalar unit imaginary is defined in terms of Dirac matrices. The M operator is a symmetry of the Dirac equation. It exchanges positive and negative energy eigenfunctions, consistent with all experimental evidence of mirror symmetry between matter and antimatter. This result provides a simple reason for the apparent absence in nature of mirror-like phenomena, such as right-handed neutrinos, which do not exchange matter and antimatter.

  14. Enhancing Learning Outcomes: The Internet Mirror Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    The author redesigned an undergraduate physiology course using a novel Internet mirror model: parallel lecture and Internet-based sections conducted so that students can move freely from one to the other (or choose both) during the semester. Within the constraints of this paradigm, he used technology to enhance student learning: adding…

  15. Classroom Explorations: Pendulums, Mirrors, and Galileo's Drama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavicchi, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    What do you see in a mirror when not looking at yourself? What goes on as a pendulum swings? Undergraduates in a science class supposed that these behaviors were obvious until their explorations exposed questions with no quick answers. While exploring materials, students researched Galileo, his trial, and its aftermath. Galileo came to life both…

  16. Individual differences in responses toward a mirror by captive tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella / Differenze individuali nelle risposte allo specchio nei cebi dai cornetti (Cebus apella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cristina Riviello

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study examines the responses directed toward a mirror by capuchin monkeys tested both individually (Phases I-III and in group (Phase IV. Subjects were four laboratory-born and tool-using Cebus apella. Manipulative responses decreased over phases for all subjects, whereas social responses decreased in the two adult monkeys and increased in the two juveniles. In addition, one subject preformed peculiar manipulations of the mirror, and the adult male showed reactions typical of psychological distress. No evidence of self-recognition was found. Riassunto Questo studio esamina i comportamenti diretti allo specchio di alcuni cebi dai cornetti testati sia individualmente (Fase I-III sia in gruppo (Fase IV allo scopo di investigare capacità di autoriconoscimento in questa specie. Sono stati osservati 4 soggetti appartenenti a differenti classi di età. Le risposte allo specchio sono state di tipo sociale e manipolativo. Durante il corso delle osservazioni le risposte manipolative sono diminuite in tutti i soggetti presi in esame mentre quelle sociali sono aumentate nei giovani e diminuite negli adulti. Nel corso dell'esperimento i cebi non hanno mostrato capacità di autoriconoscimento.

  17. D-branes in N=2 Liouville and its mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Israel, D; Troost, J; Israel, Dan; Pakman, Ari; Troost, Jan

    2004-01-01

    We study D-branes in the mirror pair N=2 Liouville / supersymmetric SL(2,R)/U(1) coset superconformal field theories. We build D0, D1 and D2 branes, on the basis of the boundary state construction for the Euclidean AdS(3) conformal field theory. We also construct D0-branes in an orbifold that rotates the angular direction of the cigar. We show how the poles of correlators associated to localized states and bulk interactions naturally decouple in the one-point functions of localized and extended branes. We stress the role played in the analysis of D-brane spectra by primaries in SL(2,R)/U(1) which are descendents of the parent theory.

  18. Ferrofluid Based Deformable Mirrors - a New Approach to Adaptive Optics Using Liquid Mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Laird, P; Berube, V; Borra, E F; Ritcey, A; Rioux, M; Robitaille, N; Thibault, S; Yockell-Lelievre, H

    2002-01-01

    The trend towards ever larger telescopes and more advanced adaptive optics systems is driving the need for deformable mirrors with a large number of low cost actuators. Liquid mirrors have long been recognized a potential low cost alternative to conventional solid mirrors. By using a water or oil based ferrofluid we are able to benefit from a stronger magnetic response than is found in magnetic liquid metal amalgams and avoid the difficulty of passing a uniform current through a liquid. Depositing a thin silver colloid known as a metal liquid-like film (MELLF) on the ferrofluid surface solves the problem of low reflectivity of pure ferrofluids. This combination provides a liquid optical surface that can be precisely shaped in a magnetic field. We present experimental results obtained with a prototype deformable liquid mirror based on this combination.

  19. Celadon Figurines Play Instruments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    This group of figurines, each 0.15m tall, were unearthed from a Tang Dynasty tomb in Changsha in 1977. Music was very developed in the Tang Dynasty. Colorful musical instruments and dances were popular both among the people and in the palace. These vivid-looking figurines wear pleated skirts with small sleeves and open chest, a style influenced by the non-Han nationalities living in the north and west of China. Some of the musical instruments were brought from the Western Regions. The figurines are playing the xiao (a vertical bamboo flute), the konghou (an

  20. Motivation, Creativity, Play & Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    implementation of robotic physical movement synchronously manipulated from sourced data movement information of a human. SoundScapes is a concept based on non-verbal communication and stimulation through interactive play with sounds and images, which is being realised in the production of a non-wearable sensor...... groups of children, including children with severe physical/multi disabilities. The sourced capture of the human data is from enhanced virtual interactive space created from sensors. The data is constituted of the situated multimodal communication and forms of expression. The ‘VIS’ is considered...

  1. Motivation, Creativity, Play & Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    implementation of robotic physical movement synchronously manipulated from sourced data movement information of a human. SoundScapes is a concept based on non-verbal communication and stimulation through interactive play with sounds and images, which is being realised in the production of a non-wearable sensor...... groups of children, including children with severe physical/multi disabilities. The sourced capture of the human data is from enhanced virtual interactive space created from sensors. The data is constituted of the situated multimodal communication and forms of expression. The ‘VIS’ is considered...

  2. "Playing" with our users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2014-01-01

    . Unfortunately if donated in the school they are rarely being used by the students. In the case of virtual reality or artistic installations it is extremely difficult to provide such equipment to users. Last but not least we are not sure how the software will be used and if the experience will continue...... after the conduct of the research. If not due to restrictions, user should at least continue to be part of the research’s debrief and next steps. While I was in Nottingham I realised that sometimes our research, our playful educational experience, our DIY VR helmet, our beta, glitchy, research-only game...

  3. Turning training into play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarhus, Rikke; Grönvall, Erik; Larsen, Simon Bo;

    2011-01-01

    Embodied gaming has been adopted and gained credibility in the field of physical rehabilitation. In this paper, we report on findings from a six-month-long study of three groups of senior citizens, and their use of Nintendo Wii Fit in a supervised physical training context. We argue that the study...... participants generally found physical training both fun and socially engaging, and experienced improved fitness. We also argue that embodied gaming motivates seniors to do more than they think themselves capable of, and allows seniors with different mental and physical capabilities to play together. However...

  4. Play and playfulness, basic features of early childhood education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singer, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education, but that play curricula can have serious drawbacks. The starting point is the play theory of the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga, a radical critic of the focus on the educational benefits of play. According

  5. Play and playfulness, basic features of early childhood education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singer, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education, but that play curricula can have serious drawbacks. The starting point is the play theory of the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga, a radical critic of the focus on the educational benefits of play. According

  6. Wavefront Reconstruction and Mirror Surface Optimizationfor Adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    correction. A DM has a reflective surface with actuators along the back struc- ture that apply forces causing the mirror surface to adapt to a desired shape...actuators. The actuators cause forces along the back of the mirror structure and the mirror surface deflects to form the conjugate shape of the wavefront...optical axis of the primary mirror. The interferometer and null corrector are mounted to remove the 81 Interferometer Null corrector Hexapod ❋✐❣✉r

  7. Two-Sided Gravitational Mirror: Sealing off Curvature Singularities

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Aharon; Yellin, Ben

    2011-01-01

    A gravitational mirror is a non-singular finite redshift surface which bounces all incident null geodesics. While a white mirror (outward bouncing) resembles 't Hooft's brick wall, a black mirror (inward bouncing) offers a novel mechanism for sealing off curvature singularities. The geometry underlying a two-sided mirror is characterized by a single signature change, to be contrasted with the signature flip which governs the black hole geometry. To demonstrate the phenomenon analytically, we ...

  8. Efficacy of Mirror Therapy Containing Functional Tasks in Poststroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Kil-Byung; Lee, Hong-Jae; Yoo, JeeHyun; Yun, Hyun-Ju; Hwang, Hye-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of mirror therapy containing functional tasks on upper extremity function and activities of daily living in patients with subacute stroke. Methods The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: the mirror therapy group (30 patients) and the sham therapy group (30 patients). The mirror therapy group underwent a mirror therapy program together with conventional therapy for 20 minutes per day on 5 days per week for 4 weeks. The control group received a sh...

  9. Mirror Symmetry, D-Branes and Counting Holomorphic Discs

    OpenAIRE

    Aganagic, Mina; Vafa, Cumrun

    2000-01-01

    We consider a class of special Lagrangian subspaces of Calabi-Yau manifolds and identify their mirrors, using the recent derivation of mirror symmetry, as certain holomorphic varieties of the mirror geometry. This transforms the counting of holomorphic disc instantons ending on the Lagrangian submanifold to the classical Abel-Jacobi map on the mirror. We recover some results already anticipated as well as obtain some highly non-trivial new predictions.

  10. Characterization of a piezo bendable X-ray mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannoni, Maurizio; Freijo Martín, Idoia; Siewert, Frank; Signorato, Riccardo; Yang, Fan; Sinn, Harald

    2016-01-01

    A full-scale piezo bendable mirror built as a prototype for an offset mirror at the European XFEL is characterized. The piezo ceramic elements are glued onto the mirror substrate, side-face on with respect to the reflecting surface. Using a nanometre optical component measuring machine and a large-aperture Fizeau interferometer, the mirror profile and influence functions were characterized, and further analysis was made to investigate the junction effect, hysteresis, twisting and reproducibility.

  11. Treatment Strategies for Intracranial Mirror Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Xin; Xue, Zhe; Li, Lin; Wu, Chen; Zhang, Yan-Yang; Lou, Xin; Ma, Lin; Sun, Zheng-Hui

    2017-04-01

    Intracranial mirror aneurysms are clinically rare and uncommonly reported in the literature. Therefore, the present study evaluated a series of mirror aneurysm cases with respect to the clinical features of the patients and the treatment strategies that were used. This study retrospectively reviewed and systematically analyzed the clinical features, imaging data, treatment methods, and treatment outcomes of 68 cases of mirror aneurysms (a total of 70 pairs) in patients who were admitted to our department between November 2007 and May 2016. The patient population included 24 male and 44 female patients, with a mean age of 52 years. The mirror aneurysms were primarily located in posterior communicating artery and middle cerebral artery and 65 of the aneurysms were large or giant (≧10 mm). Of the 68 patients, 28 were treated by the clipping or embolization of all aneurysms in one stage, 16 were treated in 2 stages, 16 were treated by treating part of the aneurysms, and 8 were observed. The modified Rankin Scale scores of the 60 patients that were treated indicated that 52 had a good recovery (modified Rankin Scale score ≦2; 86.7%), and 1 patient died. Treatment strategies for mirror aneurysms should be determined individually according to the location, size, and morphology of the aneurysm, as well as the clinical manifestations of each patient. Furthermore, the responsible ruptured aneurysm should be given treatment priority, whereas the contralateral unruptured aneurysm should be observed or treated in either 1 or 2 stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Next Generation Lightweight Mirror Modeling Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, William R., Sr.; Fitzgerald, Mathew; Rosa, Rubin Jaca; Stahl, H. Philip

    2013-01-01

    The advances in manufacturing techniques for lightweight mirrors, such as EXELSIS deep core low temperature fusion, Corning's continued improvements in the Frit bonding process and the ability to cast large complex designs, combined with water-jet and conventional diamond machining of glasses and ceramics has created the need for more efficient means of generating finite element models of these structures. Traditional methods of assembling 400,000 + element models can take weeks of effort, severely limiting the range of possible optimization variables. This paper will introduce model generation software developed under NASA sponsorship for the design of both terrestrial and space based mirrors. The software deals with any current mirror manufacturing technique, single substrates, multiple arrays of substrates, as well as the ability to merge submodels into a single large model. The modeler generates both mirror and suspension system elements, suspensions can be created either for each individual petal or the whole mirror. A typical model generation of 250,000 nodes and 450,000 elements only takes 5-10 minutes, much of that time being variable input time. The program can create input decks for ANSYS, ABAQUS and NASTRAN. An archive/retrieval system permits creation of complete trade studies, varying cell size, depth, and petal size, suspension geometry with the ability to recall a particular set of parameters and make small or large changes with ease. The input decks created by the modeler are text files which can be modified by any editor, all the key shell thickness parameters are accessible and comments in deck identify which groups of elements are associated with these parameters. This again makes optimization easier. With ANSYS decks, the nodes representing support attachments are grouped into components; in ABAQUS these are SETS and in NASTRAN as GRIDPOINT SETS, this make integration of these models into large telescope or satellite models easier.

  13. Next-Generation Lightweight Mirror Modeling Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, William R., Sr.; Fitzgerald, Mathew; Rosa, Rubin Jaca; Stahl, Phil

    2013-01-01

    The advances in manufacturing techniques for lightweight mirrors, such as EXELSIS deep core low temperature fusion, Corning's continued improvements in the Frit bonding process and the ability to cast large complex designs, combined with water-jet and conventional diamond machining of glasses and ceramics has created the need for more efficient means of generating finite element models of these structures. Traditional methods of assembling 400,000 + element models can take weeks of effort, severely limiting the range of possible optimization variables. This paper will introduce model generation software developed under NASA sponsorship for the design of both terrestrial and space based mirrors. The software deals with any current mirror manufacturing technique, single substrates, multiple arrays of substrates, as well as the ability to merge submodels into a single large model. The modeler generates both mirror and suspension system elements, suspensions can be created either for each individual petal or the whole mirror. A typical model generation of 250,000 nodes and 450,000 elements only takes 5-10 minutes, much of that time being variable input time. The program can create input decks for ANSYS, ABAQUS and NASTRAN. An archive/retrieval system permits creation of complete trade studies, varying cell size, depth, and petal size, suspension geometry with the ability to recall a particular set of parameters and make small or large changes with ease. The input decks created by the modeler are text files which can be modified by any editor, all the key shell thickness parameters are accessible and comments in deck identify which groups of elements are associated with these parameters. This again makes optimization easier. With ANSYS decks, the nodes representing support attachments are grouped into components; in ABAQUS these are SETS and in NASTRAN as GRIDPOINT SETS, this make integration of these models into large telescope or satellite models possible

  14. Improved Mirror Source Method in Roomacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechel, F. P.

    2002-10-01

    Most authors in room acoustics qualify the mirror source method (MS-method) as the only exact method to evaluate sound fields in auditoria. But evidently nobody applies it. The reason for this discrepancy is the abundantly high numbers of needed mirror sources which are reported in the literature, although such estimations of needed numbers of mirror sources mostly are used for the justification of more or less heuristic modifications of the MS-method. The present, intentionally tutorial article accentuates the analytical foundations of the MS-method whereby the number of needed mirror sources is reduced already. Further, the task of field evaluation in three-dimensional spaces is reduced to a sequence of tasks in two-dimensional room edges. This not only allows the use of easier geometrical computations in two dimensions, but also the sound field in corner areas can be represented by a single (directional) source sitting on the corner line, so that only this "corner source" must be mirror-reflected in the further process. This procedure gives a drastic reduction of the number of needed equivalent sources. Finally, the traditional MS-method is not applicable in rooms with convex corners (the angle between the corner flanks, measured on the room side, exceeds 180°). In such cases, the MS-method is combined below with the second principle of superposition(PSP). It reduces the scattering task at convex corners to two sub-tasks between one flank and the median plane of the room wedge, i.e., always in concave corner areas where the MS-method can be applied.

  15. “Rough and Tumble” Play: Lessons in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pam Jarvis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses upon the developmental role of Rough and Tumble (R&T play with particular attention to the narratives that children use to underpin such activities, and to gender differences within these. The empirical research focused upon the R&T play of children in the early years department of a suburban primary school in Northern England. The children's playtime activities were ethnographically observed over a period of eighteen calendar months, encompassing five school terms. The effects of evolution, biology and culture are recognized in the approach taken to the analysis of data. Findings indicated that the narratives underpinning R&T play were socially complex and highly gendered, and that mixed gender R&T play in particular could be theorized to mirror and simplify aspects of complex, gendered adult interaction.

  16. Profile measurement of concave spherical mirror and a flat mirror using a high-speed nanoprofiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuki, Koji; Kitayama, Takao; Matsumura, Hiroki; Kojima, Takuya; Uchikoshi, Junichi; Higashi, Yasuo; Endo, Katsuyoshi

    2013-05-16

    Ultraprecise aspheric mirrors that offer nanofocusing and high coherence are indispensable for developing third-generation synchrotron radiation and X-ray free-electron laser sources. In industry, the extreme ultraviolet (wavelength: 13.5 nm) lithography used for high-accuracy aspheric mirrors is a promising technology for fabricating semiconductor devices. In addition, ultraprecise mirrors with a radius of curvature of less than 10 mm are needed in many digital video instruments. We developed a new type of nanoprofiler that traces the normal vector of a mirror's surface. The principle of our measuring method is that the normal vector at each point on the surface is determined by making the incident light beam on the mirror surface and the reflected beam at that point coincide, using two sets of two pairs of goniometers and one linear stage. From the acquired normal vectors and their coordinates, the three-dimensional shape is calculated by a reconstruction algorithm. The characteristics of the measuring method are as follows: the profiler uses the straightness of laser light without using a reference surface. Surfaces of any shape can be measured, and there is no limit on the aperture size. We calibrated this nanoprofiler by considering the system error resulting from the assembly error and encoder scale error, and evaluated the performance at the nanometer scale. We suppressed the effect of random errors by maintaining the temperature in a constant-temperature room within ±0.01°C. We measured a concave spherical mirror with a radius of curvature of 400 mm and a flat mirror and compared the results with those obtained using a Fizeau interferometer. The profiles of the mirrors were consistent within the range of system errors.

  17. Functional and structural brain differences associated with mirror-touch synaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holle, Henning; Banissy, Michael J; Ward, Jamie

    2013-12-01

    Observing touch is known to activate regions of the somatosensory cortex but the interpretation of this finding is controversial (e.g. does it reflect the simulated action of touching or the simulated reception of touch?). For most people, observing touch is not linked to reported experiences of feeling touch but in some people it is (mirror-touch synaesthetes). We conducted an fMRI study in which participants (mirror-touch synaesthetes, controls) watched movies of stimuli (face, dummy, object) being touched or approached. In addition we examined whether mirror touch synaesthesia is associated with local changes of grey and white matter volume in the brain using VBM (voxel-based morphometry). Both synaesthetes and controls activated the somatosensory system (primary and secondary somatosensory cortices, SI and SII) when viewing touch, and the same regions were activated (by a separate localiser) when feeling touch--i.e. there is a mirror system for touch. However, when comparing the two groups, we found evidence that SII seems to play a particular important role in mirror-touch synaesthesia: in synaesthetes, but not in controls, posterior SII was active for watching touch to a face (in addition to SI and posterior temporal lobe); activity in SII correlated with subjective intensity measures of mirror-touch synaesthesia (taken outside the scanner), and we observed an increase in grey matter volume within the SII of the synaesthetes' brains. In addition, the synaesthetes showed hypo-activity when watching touch to a dummy in posterior SII. We conclude that the secondary somatosensory cortex has a key role in this form of synaesthesia.

  18. Playing The Lobby

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Playing a game can be defined as, in a fun way, to reach a goal by means of helpers and challenged by obstacles and opponents. In this workshop we will gain a new understanding of the lobby by making it into a game. The lobby of the museum can be understood as a game in which the players (the....... The object is surprisingly not to play the games, but to design them. Through the design process we are forced to discuss: What are the challenges of a particular lobby (e.g. ticketing, queueing, other visitors, guards, getting lost)? Which properties do the players have (e.g. patience, expectations, need...... of a toilet)? what boosters may they obtain in the lobby (e.g. coffee, help, souvenirs, signs)? And how can we make this an enjoyable experience? The object of the games is to understand the lobby in a new way to identify problems, and think of ways to improve the functions, flow, and services of the lobby....

  19. Technology and applications of micromachined silicon adaptive mirrors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vdovin, G.; Middelhoek, S.; Sarro, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    The technology of low-cost high-quality micromachined adaptive mirrors is reported. Adaptive mirrors are fabricated by combining bulk silicon micromachining with standard electronics technologies. Mirrors with tens of control channels, having RMS initial deviation from plane of the order of λ/20 and

  20. Titanium Alloy Strong Back for IXO Mirror Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, Glenn P.; Kai-Wang, Chan

    2011-01-01

    A titanium-alloy mirror-holding fixture called a strong back allows the temporary and permanent bonding of a 50 degree D263 glass x-ray mirror (IXO here stands for International X-ray Observatory). The strong back is used to hold and position a mirror segment so that mounting tabs may be bonded to the mirror with ultra-low distortion of the optical surface. Ti-15%Mo alloy was the material of choice for the strong back and tabs because the coefficient of thermal expansion closely matches that of the D263 glass and the material is relatively easy to machine. This invention has the ability to transfer bonded mounting points from a temporary location on the strong back to a permanent location on the strong back with minimal distortion. Secondly, it converts a single mirror segment into a rigid body with an acceptable amount of distortion of the mirror, and then maneuvers that rigid body into optical alignment such that the mirror segment can be bonded into a housing simulator or mirror module. Key problems are that the mirrors are 0.4-mm thick and have a very low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Because the mirrors are so thin, they are very flexible and are easily distorted. When permanently bonding the mirror, the goal is to achieve a less than 1-micron distortion. Temperature deviations in the lab, which have been measured to be around 1 C, have caused significant distortions in the mirror segment.

  1. Monitoring of absolute mirror alignment at COMPASS RICH-1 detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexeev, M.; Birsa, R.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Chiosso, M.; Ciliberti, P.; Dalla Torre, S.; Denisov, O.; Duic, V.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Gayde, J. Ch; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Levorato, S.; Maggiora, A.; Martin, A.; Menon, G.; Panzieri, D.; Pesaro, G.; Polak, J.; Rocco, E.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Steiger, L.; Sulc, M.; Takekawa, S.; Tessarotto, F.

    2014-01-01

    The gaseous COMPASS RICH-1 detector uses two spherical mirror surfaces, segmented into 116 individual mirrors, to focus the Cherenkov photons onto the detector plane. Any mirror misalignment directly affects the detector resolution. The on-line Continuous Line Alignment and Monitoring (CLAM) photogr

  2. Egon Schiele and Frida Kahlo: the self-portrait as mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafo, D

    1991-01-01

    This article explores the psychoanalytic significance of the self-portraits of Egon Schiele and Frida Kahlo. Both artists employed the self-portrait as a central means of artistic expression. Their fanatic and prolific focus on artistic self-representation exemplifies the manner in which they dealt creatively with narcissistic issues. The therapeutic function of the self-portrait as mirror is examined as well as the part it plays in self-consolidation and identity maintenance.

  3. Rear view mirror: blogging as a reflective tool for practice as research

    OpenAIRE

    Pinchbeck, Michael

    2017-01-01

    For Michael Pinchbeck's PhD project exploring dramaturgy he kept blogs for each performance process and an online appendix to the thesis which housed interviews with artists about why they worked with or as dramaturgs. Now he reflects on the critical and creative role blogs play in practice as research as a 'rear view mirror'. The online space allows an 'embedded dramaturgy' to take place and makes more visible a private process, to invite and enrich a wider debate of the work.

  4. Derivation of the Lifshitz-Matsubara sum formula for the Casimir pressure between metallic plane mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérout, R.; Lambrecht, A.; Milton, K. A.; Reynaud, S.

    2014-10-01

    We carefully reexamine the conditions of validity for the consistent derivation of the Lifshitz-Matsubara sum formula for the Casimir pressure between metallic plane mirrors. We recover the usual expression for the lossy Drude model but not for the lossless plasma model. We give an interpretation of this new result in terms of the modes associated with the Foucault currents, which play a role in the limit of vanishing losses, in contrast to common expectations.

  5. Playing it Real

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grubert, Jens; Morrison, Ann; Munz, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Magic lens and static peephole interfaces are used in numerous consumer mobile phone applications such as Augmented Reality browsers, games or digital map applications in a variety of contexts including public spaces. Interface performance has been evaluated for various interaction tasks involving...... spatial relationships in a scene. However, interface usage outside laboratory conditions has not been considered in depth in the evaluation of these interfaces. We present findings about the usage of magic lens and static peephole interfaces for playing a find-and-select game in a public space and report...... on the reactions of the public audience to participants’ interactions. Contrary to our expectations participants favored the magic lens over a static peephole interface despite tracking errors, fatigue and potentially conspicuous gestures. Most passersby did not pay attention to the participants and vice versa...

  6. Immune Regulation by Self-Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald

    2015-01-01

    Circulating T cells that specifically target normal self-proteins expressed by regulatory immune cells were first described in patients with cancer, but can also be detected in healthy individuals. The adaptive immune system is distinguished for its ability to differentiate between self...... the direct targeting of cancer cells in addition to regulatory immune cells. Anti-Tregs provide the immune system with yet another level of immune regulation and contradict the notion that immune cells involved in the adjustment of immune responses only act as suppressor cells.......-antigens and foreign antigens. Thus, it was remarkable to discover T cells that apparently lacked tolerance to important self-proteins, eg, IDO, PD-L1, and FoxP3, expressed in regulatory immune cells. The ability of self-reactive T cells to react to and eliminate regulatory immune cells can influence general immune...

  7. Demonstrating Chirality: Using a Mirror with Physical Models To Show Non-superimposability of Chiral Molecules with Their Mirror Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a remarkable demonstration on chiralty in molecules and the existence of enantiomers, also known as non-superimposable mirror images. Uses a mirror, a physical model of a molecule, and a bit of trickery involving the non-superimposable mirror image. (Author/NB)

  8. Mirrors Containing Biomimetic Shape-Control Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart

    2003-01-01

    Curved mirrors of a proposed type would comprise lightweight sheets or films containing integral, biologically inspired actuators for controlling their surface figures. These mirrors could be useful in such applications as collection of solar energy, focusing of radio beams, and (provided sufficient precision could be achieved) imaging. These mirrors were originally intended for use in outer space, but it should also be possible to develop terrestrial versions. Several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles have described a variety of approaches to the design of curved, lightweight mirrors containing integral shape-control actuators. The primary distinction between the present approach and the prior approaches lies in the actuator design concept, which involves shapes and movements reminiscent of those of a variety of small, multi-armed animals. The shape and movement of an actuator of this type can also be characterized as reminiscent of that of an umbrella. This concept can be further characterized as a derivative of that of multifinger grippers, the fingers of which are bimorph bending actuators (see Figure 1). The fingers of such actuators can be strips containing any of a variety of materials that have been investigated for use as actuators, including such electroactive polymers as ionomeric polymer/metal composites (IPMCs), ferroelectric polymers, and grafted elastomers. A mirror according to this proposal would be made from a sheet of one of the actuator composites mentioned above. The design would involve many variables, including the pre-curvature and stiffness of the mirror sheet, the required precision of figure control, the required range of variation in focal length (see Figure 2), the required precision of figure control for imaging or non-imaging use, the bending and twisting moments needed to effect the required deformations, and voltage-tomoment coefficients of the actuators, and the voltages accordingly required for actuation. A typical design would call

  9. Axisymmetric Magnetic Mirror Fusion-Fission Hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martovetsky, N. N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Molvik, A. W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ryutov, D. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Simonen, T. C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-05-13

    The achieved performance of the gas dynamic trap version of magnetic mirrors and today’s technology we believe are sufficient with modest further efforts for a neutron source for material testing (Q=Pfusion/Pinput~0.1). The performance needed for commercial power production requires considerable further advances to achieve the necessary high Q>>10. An early application of the mirror, requiring intermediate performance and intermediate values of Q~1 are the hybrid applications. The Axisymmetric Mirror has a number of attractive features as a driver for a fusion-fission hybrid system: geometrical simplicity, inherently steady-state operation, and the presence of the natural divertors in the form of end tanks. This level of physics performance has the virtue of low risk and only modest R&D needed and its simplicity promises economy advantages. Operation at Q~1 allows for relatively low electron temperatures, in the range of 4 keV, for the DT injection energy ~ 80 keV. A simple mirror with the plasma diameter of 1 m and mirror-to-mirror length of 35 m is discussed. Simple circular superconducting coils are based on today’s technology. The positive ion neutral beams are similar to existing units but designed for steady state. A brief qualitative discussion of three groups of physics issues is presented: axial heat loss, MHD stability in the axisymmetric geometry, microstability of sloshing ions. Burning fission reactor wastes by fissioning actinides (transuranics: Pu, Np, Am, Cm, .. or just minor actinides: Np, Am, Cm, …) in the hybrid will multiply fusion’s energy by a factor of ~10 or more and diminish the Q needed to less than 1 to overcome the cost of recirculating power for good economics. The economic value of destroying actinides by fissioning is rather low based on either the cost of long-term storage or even deep geologic disposal so most of the revenues of hybrids will come from electrical power. Hybrids that obtain revenues from

  10. Mirror symmetry in the presence of branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertens, Adrian

    2011-10-11

    This work deals with mirror symmetry for N=1 compactifications on compact Calabi-Yau threefolds with branes. The mayor tool is a combined deformation space for the Calabi-Yau and a hypersurface within it. Periods of this deformation space contain information about B-type branes within the hypersurface in addition to the usual closed string data. To study these periods we generalize techniques used in closed string mirror symmetry. We derive the Picard-Fuchs system and encode the information in extended toric polytopes. Solutions of the Picard-Fuchs equations give superpotentials for certain brane configurations. This is an efficient way to calculate superpotentials. The deformations we consider are massive for all branes with non trivial superpotential. Depending on a choice of a family of hypersurfaces, the superpotential of the effective low energy theory depends on different massive fields. A priori there is no reason for these fields to be lighter then other fields that are not included. We find however examples where the superpotential is nearly at. In these examples we use the Gauss-Manin connection on the combined deformation space to define an open string mirror map. We find instanton generated superpotentials of A-type branes. This gives predictions for Ooguri-Vafa invariants counting holomorphic disks that end on a Lagrangian brane on the Quintic. A second class of examples does not have preferred nearly massless deformations and different families of hypersurfaces can be used to calculate the same on-shell superpotential. We calculate examples of superpotentials for branes in Calabi-Yau manifolds with several moduli. The on-shell superpotentials are mapped to the mirror A-model to study the instanton expansion and to obtain predictions for disk invariants. The combined deformation spaces are equivalent to the quantum corrected Kaehler deformation spaces of certain non compact Calabi-Yau fourfolds. These fourfolds are fibrations of Calabi-Yau threefolds

  11. Quality evaluation of spaceborne SiC mirrors (I): analytical examination of the effects on mirror accuracy by variation in the thermal expansion property of the mirror surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Masaki; Imai, Tadashi; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Yui, Yukari; Tange, Yoshio; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Nakagawa, Takao; Enya, Keigo

    2013-07-10

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency has studied a large-scale lightweight mirror constructed of reaction-bonded silicon carbide-based material as a key technology in future astronomical and earth observation missions. The authors selected silicon carbide as the promising candidate due to excellent characteristics of specific stiffness and thermal stability. One of the most important technical issues for large-scale ceramic components is the uniformity of the material's property, depending on part and processing. It might influence mirror accuracy due to uneven thermal deformation. The authors conducted systematic case studies for the conditions of CTE by finite element analysis to know the typical influence of material property nonuniformity on mirror accuracy and consequently derived a comprehensive empirical equation for the series of CTE's main factors. In addition, the authors computationally reproduced the mirror accuracy profile of a small prototype mirror shown in cryogenic testing and hereby verified wide-range practical computational evaluation technology of mirror accuracy.

  12. The lightweight structure design of a CFRP mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jiaoteng; Xu, Liang; Ma, Zhen; Xie, Yongjie; Luo, Yao; Wang, Yongjie; Pang, Zhihai

    2016-10-01

    The advantage of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) is obvious as a common space material for low density, low thermal expansion coefficient and high specific stiffness characteristics, it is the ideal material choice for space optical reflector. Mirror structure with honeycomb can achieve high rates of lightweight, as well as high specific stiffness. For Φ300mm CFRP mirror, accounting of the actual process properties of CFRP, mirror panels laminated based on thermal stability design, honeycomb fabricated using one innovative inlaying-grafting design method. Finally, lightweight structure design of the CFRP primary mirror completed, the thermal stability result of the Φ300mm CFRP mirror achieved is 10nm°C.

  13. Light-weight spherical mirrors for Cherenkov detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cisbani, E; Colilli, S; Crateri, R; Cusanno, F; De Leo, R; Fratoni, R; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Giuliani, F; Gricia, M; Iodice, M; Iommi, R; Lagamba, L; Lucentini, M; Mostarda, A; Nappi, E; Pierangeli, L; Santavenere, F; Urciuoli, G M; Vernin, P

    2003-01-01

    Light-weight spherical mirrors have been appositely designed and built for the gas threshold Cherenkov detectors of the two Hall A spectrometers. The mirrors are made of a 1 mm thick aluminized plexiglass sheet, reinforced by a rigid backing consisting of a phenolic honeycomb sandwiched between two carbon fiber mats epoxy glued. The produced mirrors have a thickness equivalent to 0.55% of radiation length, and an optical slope error of about 5.5 mrad. These characteristics make these mirrors suitable for the implementation in Cherenkov threshold detectors. Ways to improve the mirror features are also discussed in view of their possible employment in RICH detectors.

  14. Simultaneous imaging/reflectivity measurements to assess diagnostic mirror cleaninga)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, C. H.; Gentile, C. A.; Doerner, R.

    2012-10-01

    Practical methods to clean ITER's diagnostic mirrors and restore reflectivity will be critical to ITER's plasma operations. We describe a technique to assess the efficacy of mirror cleaning techniques and detect any damage to the mirror surface. The method combines microscopic imaging and reflectivity measurements in the red, green, and blue spectral regions and at selected wavelengths. The method has been applied to laser cleaning of single crystal molybdenum mirrors coated with either carbon or beryllium films 150-420 nm thick. It is suitable for hazardous materials such as beryllium as the mirrors remain sealed in a vacuum chamber.

  15. Simultaneous imaging/reflectivity measurements to assess diagnostic mirror cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, C H; Gentile, C A; Doerner, R

    2012-10-01

    Practical methods to clean ITER's diagnostic mirrors and restore reflectivity will be critical to ITER's plasma operations. We describe a technique to assess the efficacy of mirror cleaning techniques and detect any damage to the mirror surface. The method combines microscopic imaging and reflectivity measurements in the red, green, and blue spectral regions and at selected wavelengths. The method has been applied to laser cleaning of single crystal molybdenum mirrors coated with either carbon or beryllium films 150-420 nm thick. It is suitable for hazardous materials such as beryllium as the mirrors remain sealed in a vacuum chamber.

  16. Playful Learning and Montessori Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Angeline S Lillard

    2013-01-01

      Although Montessori education is often considered a form of playful learning, Maria Montessori herself spoke negatively about a major component of playful learning-pretend play, or fantasy-for young children...

  17. LUTE primary mirror materials and design study report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthven, Greg

    1993-02-01

    The major objective of the Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) Primary Mirror Materials and Design Study is to investigate the feasibility of the LUTE telescope primary mirror. A systematic approach to accomplish this key goal was taken by first understanding the optical, thermal, and structural requirements and then deriving the critical primary mirror-level requirements for ground testing, launch, and lunar operations. After summarizing the results in those requirements which drove the selection of material and the design for the primary mirror are discussed. Most important of these are the optical design which was assumed to be the MSFC baseline (i.e. 3 mirror optical system), telescope wavefront error (WFE) allocations, the telescope weight budget, and the LUTE operational temperature ranges. Mechanical load levels, reflectance and microroughness issues, and options for the LUTE metering structure were discussed and an outline for the LUTE telescope sub-system design specification was initiated. The primary mirror analysis and results are presented. The six material substrate candidates are discussed and four distinct mirror geometries which are considered are shown. With these materials and configurations together with varying the location of the mirror support points, a total of 42 possible primary mirror designs resulted. The polishability of each substrate candidate was investigated and a usage history of 0.5 meter and larger precision cryogenic mirrors (the operational low end LUTE temperature of 60 K is the reason we feel a survey of cryogenic mirrors is appropriate) that were flown or tested are presented.

  18. Design and development of grazing incidence x-ray mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Fuchang; Mei, Zhiwu; Ma, Tao; Deng, Loulou; Shi, Yongqiang; Li, Liansheng

    2016-01-01

    X-ray pulsar navigation has attracted extensive attentions from academy and engineering domains. The navigation accuracy is can be enhanced through design of X-ray mirrors to focus X-rays to a small detector. The Wolter-I optics, originally proposed based on a paraboloid mirror and a hyperboloid mirror for X-ray imaging, has long been widely developed and employed in X-ray observatory. Some differences, however, remain in the requirements on optics between astronomical X-ray observation and pulsar navigation. The simplified Wolter-I optics, providing single reflection by a paraboloid mirror, is more suitable for pulsar navigation. In this paper, therefore, the grazing incidence X-ray mirror was designed further based on our previous work, with focus on the reflectivity, effective area, angular resolution and baffles. To evaluate the performance of the manufactured mirror, the surface roughness and reflectivity were tested. The test results show that the grazing incidence mirror meets the design specifications. On the basis of this, the reflectivity of the mirror in the working bandwidth was extrapolated to evaluate the focusing ability of the mirror when it works together with the detector. The purpose of our current work to design and develop a prototype mirror was realized. It can lay a foundation and provide guidance for the development of multilayer nested X-ray mirror with larger effective area.

  19. An array of directable mirrors as a photovoltaic solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittner, W. B., III

    1980-01-01

    Calculations of the optics of heliostats for use in large thermal power towers have been carried out in considerable detail, chiefly by Vant-Hull et al. This paper describes a simplified method for calculating the images generated by a special type of concentrator, i.e. an array of independently steered mirrors on a single frame, intended to direct the solar image onto a flat photovoltaic solar cell target. The case of interest is one in which the field of illumination on the target is as uniform as possible, and the emphasis is thus on small 'rim angle' geometries (a configuration which also minimizes mirror interference effects). Calculations are presented for constructing the individual mirror target images in terms of three angles: (1) the angle between the photovoltaic target normal and the reflecting mirror (called here the mirror position angle), (2) the angle between the target center and the sun as measured from the center of the reflecting mirror, and (3) the angle at which the plane defined by the center of the sun, the mirror center and the target center intersects the plane of the target. The overall system efficiency for various mirror configurations, characterized by such parameters as the maximum mirror angle (i.e. 'rim angle'), target-mirror plane separation, and mirror aiming accuracy is discussed in terms of the specifications desirable in an optical concentrator designed specifically to illuminate uniformly a photovoltaic solar cell target.

  20. Mirror therapy in children with hemiplegia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gygax, Marine Jequier; Schneider, Patrick; Newman, Christopher John

    2011-05-01

    Mirror therapy, which provides the visual illusion of a functional paretic limb by using the mirror reflection of the non-paretic arm, is used in the rehabilitation of hemiparesis after stroke in adults. We tested the effectiveness and feasibility of mirror therapy in children with hemiplegia by performing a pilot crossover study in ten participants (aged 6-14 y; five males, five females; Manual Ability Classification System levels: one at level I, two at level II, four at level III, three at level IV) randomly assigned to 15 minutes of daily bimanual training with and without a mirror for 3 weeks. Assessments of maximal grasp and pinch strengths, and upper limb function measured by the Shriner's Hospital Upper Extremity Evaluation were performed at weeks 0 (baseline), 3, 6 (intervention), and 9 (wash-out). Testing of grasp strength behind the mirror improved performance by 15% (p=0.004). Training with the mirror significantly improved grasp strength (with mirror +20.4%, p=0.033; without +5.9%, p>0.1) and upper limb dynamic position (with mirror +4.6%, p=0.044; without +1.2%, p>0.1), while training without a mirror significantly improved pinch strength (with mirror +6.9%, p>0.1; without +21.9%, p=0.026). This preliminary study demonstrates the feasibility of mirror therapy in children with hemiplegia and that it may improve strength and dynamic function of the paretic arm.

  1. Imagination, Playfulness, and Creativity in Children's Play with Different Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo????ller, Signe?? Juhl?

    2015-01-01

    Based on a four-month experimental study of preschool children's play with creative-construction and social-fantasy toys, the author examines the in?uence of both types of toys on the play of preschool children. Her comparative analysis considers the impact of transformative play on the development of imagination during play activities and…

  2. Optimum Design of Lightweight Silicon Carbide Mirror Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Yuanyuan; ZHANG Yumin; HAN Jiecai; ZHANG Jianhan; YAO Wang; ZHOU Yufeng

    2008-01-01

    According to the design requirement and on the basis of the principle that the thermal expansion coefficient of the support structure should match with that of the mirror, a lightweight silicon carbide primary mirror assembly was designed. Finite element analysis combined with the parameter-optimized method was used during the design. Lightweight cell and rigid rib structure were used for the mirror assembly. The static, dynamic and thermal properties of the primary mirror assembly were analyzed. It is shown that after optimization, the lightweight ratio of the silicon carbide mirror is 52.5%, and the rigidity of the silicon carbide structure is high enough to support the required mirror. When temperature changes, the deformation of the mirror surface is in proportion to the temperature difference.

  3. Plasma debris sputter resistant x-ray mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Sho; Inoue, Tomoaki; Harada, Tetsuo

    2013-06-01

    A diamond-like carbon (DLC) mirror, used as a grazing incident mirror in a plasma x-ray source, exhibits a high resistance to plasma debris sputtering. Good mirror reflectivity at a wavelength of 13.5 nm was confirmed using synchrotron radiation at the NewSUBARU facility. The erosion rate due to plasma debris sputtered at the incident debris angle of 20° was measured using a laser-produced Xe plasma source developed by the authors. The results indicate that the DLC film has a 5- and 15-fold higher sputtering resistance compared to films made of the traditional mirror materials Ru and Au, respectively. Because the DLC mirror retains a high sputtering resistance to Sn ions, it may be effective in Sn plasma source applications. We conclude that a grazing incident x-ray mirror coated with DLC can be of use as a plasma debris sputtering resistant mirror.

  4. Monitoring of absolute mirror alignment at COMPASS RICH-1 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexeev, M. [INFN, Sezione di Torino and University of East Piemonte, Alessandria (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Bari, Bari (Italy); Birsa, R. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Chiosso, M. [INFN, Sezione di Torino and University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Ciliberti, P. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Dalla Torre, S. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Denisov, O. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Duic, V. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Ferrero, A. [INFN, Sezione di Torino and University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Finger, M.; Finger, M. [Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Gayde, J.Ch. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Giorgi, M. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Gobbo, B.; Levorato, S. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Maggiora, A. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Martin, A. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Menon, G. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Panzieri, D. [INFN, Sezione di Torino and University of East Piemonte, Alessandria (Italy); and others

    2014-12-01

    The gaseous COMPASS RICH-1 detector uses two spherical mirror surfaces, segmented into 116 individual mirrors, to focus the Cherenkov photons onto the detector plane. Any mirror misalignment directly affects the detector resolution. The on-line Continuous Line Alignment and Monitoring (CLAM) photogrammetry-based method has been implemented to measure the alignment of individual mirrors which can be characterized by the center of curvature. The mirror wall reflects a regular grid of retroreflective strips placed inside the detector vessel. Then, the position of each mirror is determined from the image of the grid reflection. The images are collected by four cameras. Any small mirror misalignment results in changes of the grid lines’ positions in the image. The accuracy limits of the CLAM method were checked by laser interferometry and are below 0.1 mrad.

  5. "Mirror agnosia" in a patient with right occipitotemporal infarct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menon Bijoy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the clinical profile and investigation of K, a patient suffering from agnosia for the concept of "mirrors". Normal people rarely confuse a mirror image for the real image. Our patient ′K′ has intact attention, memory and language with a left visual neglect with left hemianopia. When shown an object on his left with a mirror kept sagitally on his right, K grabs for the reflection and even gropes behind the mirror for it. Yet, when shown the mirror alone, he is able to tell that it is a mirror. Thus the concept of a ′mirror′ is lost in the experimental paradigm. An explanation for mirror ′agnosia′ is provided and recent controversies in the analysis of visuospatial functions in humans is highlighted.

  6. Cavity-mirror degradation in the deep-UV FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, K.; Yamazaki, T.; Sei, N. [Electrotechnical Lab., Ibaraki (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    It is known that the degradation of dielectric multilayer mirrors used in short wavelength free-electron lasers (FELs) is caused by the carbon contamination on the mirror surface and the defects inside the dielectrics. We reported last year that the degraded dielectric multilayer mirrors can be repaired with both surface treatment by RF-induced oxygen plasma and thermal annealing. However, such a mirror degradation is still one of the most critical issues in the deep ultraviolet (UV) FELs, because the fundamental undulator radiation resonating in the laser cavity, the intensity of which is much higher than that of higher harmonics, can be sufficiently energetic to cause the mirror degradation through photochemical reactions. We are investigating the mirror degradation mainly in the deep UV region down to 240 nm. The experimental results will be shown. The mirror degradation mechanism will be discussed.

  7. Nonlinear Mirror Modes in Space Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Sulem, P -L

    2011-01-01

    Since the first observations by Kaufmann et al.\\ (1970), special attention has been paid to static pressure-balanced structures in the form of magnetic holes or humps observed in regions of the solar wind and of planetary magnetosheaths where the $\\beta$ parameter is relatively large and the ion perpendicular temperature exceeds the parallel one. Although alternative interpretations have been proposed, these structures are usually viewed as associated with the mirror instability discovered in 1957 by Vedenov and Sagdeev. After reviewing observational results provided by satellite missions, high-resolution numerical simulations of the Vlasov--Maxwell equations together with asymptotic and phenomenological models of the nonlinear dynamics near the instability threshold are discussed. The constraining effect of the mirror instability on the temperature anisotropy associated with a dominant perpendicular ion heating observed in the solar wind is reported, and recent simulations of this phenomenon based on an elab...

  8. Mirror decay of {sup 75}Sr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huikari, J.; Huang, W.X. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40351, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Oinonen, M. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Algora, A.; Nacher, E. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC - University of Valencia, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Cederkaell, J.; Fraile, L.; Franchoo, S.; Fynbo, H.; Peraejaervi, K.; Weissman, L. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Courtin, S.; Dessagne, P.; Knipper, A.; Marechal, F.; Miehe, C.; Poirier, E. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Jokinen, A.; Aeystoe, J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40351, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Helsinki Institute of Physics, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2003-03-01

    The {beta}-decay of {sup 75}Sr to its mirror nucleus {sup 75}Rb was studied at the ISOLDE PSB facility at CERN by means of {beta}-delayed {gamma} and proton spectroscopy. The decay Q-value and {beta}-delayed {gamma} intensity were measured for the first time. These results, 10.60{+-}0.22 MeV and 4.5{sup +1.9}{sub -0.7}%, together with accurate measurements of the {beta}-decay half-life and {beta}-delayed proton branching ratio yielded the Gamow-Teller strength 0.35{+-}0.05 for the mirror transition. Implications of the results on studies of deformation effects and on the path of the rapid proton capture process are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Dynamic aspects of segmented mirror position control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaercher, Hans J.

    2006-02-01

    Extreme large optical telescopes will operate in an open environment and may be excited by wind effects. The position control of the mirror segments may need fast control, and the position actuators and the related control loops may be separated in a conventional slow, iso-static and a fast reaction-mass type system. There exists some experience with wind excitations of airborne telescopes, e.g. the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy SOFIA. The pointing control system of that telescope is equipped with several dedicated design features, as a vibration isolations system, a flexible body control system and an active mass damper system to handle excitations in different frequency ranges. These features may be transferred to the position control systems of segmented mirrors. The paper will give some system engi-neers recommendations for designing those systems.

  10. Method of Making Lightweight, Single Crystal Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bly, Vincent T. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method of making a mirror from a single crystal blank may include fine grinding top and bottom surfaces of the blank to be parallel. The blank may then be heat treated to near its melting temperature. An optical surface may be created on an optical side of the blank. A protector may be bonded to the optical surface. With the protector in place, the blank may be light weighted by grinding a non-optical surface of the blank using computer controlled grinding. The light weighting may include creating a structure having a substantially minimum mass necessary to maintain distortion of the mirror within a preset limit. A damaged layer of the non-optical surface caused by light weighting may be removed with an isotropic etch and/or repaired by heat treatment. If an oxide layer is present, the entire blank may then be etched using, for example, hydrofluoric acid. A reflecting coating may be deposited on the optical surface.

  11. Mirror reflections of a black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Michael R. R.; Anderson, Paul R.; Evans, Charles R.

    2016-09-01

    An exact correspondence between a black hole and an accelerating mirror is demonstrated. It is shown that for a massless minimally coupled scalar field, the same Bogolubov coefficients connecting the "in" and "out" states occur for a (1 +1 )-dimensional flat spacetime with a particular perfectly reflecting accelerating boundary trajectory and a (1 +1 )-dimensional curved spacetime in which a null shell collapses to form a black hole. Generalization of the latter to the (3 +1 )-dimensional case is discussed. The spectral dynamics is computed in both (1 +1 )-dimensional spacetimes along with the energy flux in the spacetime with a mirror. It is shown that the approach to equilibrium is monotonic, asymmetric in terms of the rate, and there is a specific time which characterizes the system when it is the most out of equilibrium.

  12. Enhancing nanoparticle electrodynamics with gold nanoplate mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zijie; Bao, Ying; Manna, Uttam; Shah, Raman A; Scherer, Norbert F

    2014-05-14

    Mirrors and optical cavities can modify and enhance matter-radiation interactions. Here we report that chemically synthesized Au nanoplates can serve as micrometer-size mirrors that enhance electrodynamic interactions. Because of their plasmonic properties, the Au nanoplates enhance the brightness of scattered light from Ag nanoparticles near the nanoplate surface in dark-field microscopy. More importantly, enhanced optical trapping and optical binding of Ag nanoparticles are demonstrated in interferometric optical traps created from a single laser beam and its reflection from individual Au nanoplates. The enhancement of the interparticle force constant is ≈20-fold more than expected from the increased intensity due to standing wave interference. We show that the additional stability for optical binding arises from the restricted axial thermal motion of the nanoparticles that couples to and reduces the fluctuations in the lateral plane. This new mechanism greatly advances the photonic synthesis of ultrastable nanoparticle arrays and investigation of their properties.

  13. Mirror Instability in the Turbulent Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinger, Petr; Landi, Simone; Matteini, Lorenzo; Verdini, Andrea; Franci, Luca

    2017-04-01

    The relationship between a decaying strong turbulence and the mirror instability in a slowly expanding plasma is investigated using two-dimensional hybrid expanding box simulations. We impose an initial ambient magnetic field perpendicular to the simulation box, and we start with a spectrum of large-scale, linearly polarized, random-phase Alfvénic fluctuations that have energy equipartition between kinetic and magnetic fluctuations and a vanishing correlation between the two fields. A turbulent cascade rapidly develops, magnetic field fluctuations exhibit a Kolmogorov-like power-law spectrum at large scales and a steeper spectrum at sub-ion scales. The imposed expansion (taking a strictly transverse ambient magnetic field) leads to the generation of an important perpendicular proton temperature anisotropy that eventually drives the mirror instability. This instability generates large-amplitude, nonpropagating, compressible, pressure-balanced magnetic structures in a form of magnetic enhancements/humps that reduce the perpendicular temperature anisotropy.

  14. Brainstem hypoplasia presenting with mirror movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Ekmekçi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available 20 years old female patient, who had operated from congenital syndactyly on her left hand at five age, admitted to neurology policlinic with involuntary movement on her hands. We saw mirror movement (MM when she writing, catching with her left hand. This movement is had low amplitude in the right hand than left. Cervical MRG revealed no abnormality. Brain MRG revealed right middle, inferior cerebellary peduncle, olive and pyramid hypoplasia. Mirror movement shows homolog muscle activity which simulating contralateral movement, during a spesific task. This movement is seen usually upper extremity especially in the hand. Corticospinal tract dysfunction is often considered in the pathogenesis. MM may present as part of cervico medullary junction abnormality, cerebral palsy, cerebrovasculary disease, Parkinson disease. We wanted to discuss the patogenesis of MM in our patient with syndactyly and MRG abnormality.

  15. Electrochromic mirror using viologen-anchored nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Na [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Nature-mimic I/O interface Research Section, 218 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); University of Science and Technology, Advanced Device Technology, 217 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seong M.; Ah, Chil Seong; Song, Juhee; Ryu, Hojun; Kim, Yong Hae [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Nature-mimic I/O interface Research Section, 218 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae-Youb, E-mail: youby@etri.re.kr [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Nature-mimic I/O interface Research Section, 218 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); University of Science and Technology, Advanced Device Technology, 217 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Three types of ECM device were fabricated using viologen-anchored ECDs. • The devices were investigated according to their optical structures. • The anti-reflection material affects the reflectance and the coloration efficiency. • The device design of ECMs is a crucial factor for clear reflected images. - Abstract: Electrochromic mirrors (ECMs) that are used in automobile mirrors need to have high reflectance, a high contrast ratio, and a clear image. In particular, it is critical that distortions of clear images are minimized for safety. Therefore, an ECM is fabricated using viologen-anchored nanoparticles and a magnesium fluoride (MgF{sub 2}) layer with an anti-reflection function. The ECM has approximately 30.42% in the reflectance dynamic range and 125 cm{sup 2}/C high coloration efficiency.

  16. Omnidirectional mirror coating design for infrared applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, D. [Electronic Engineering and Physics Division, Thin Film Centre, University of Paisley, Paisley PA1 2BE, Scotland (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: lusk-ph0@wpmail.paisley.ac.uk; Placido, F. [Electronic Engineering and Physics Division, Thin Film Centre, University of Paisley, Paisley PA1 2BE, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-01

    An omnidirectional mirror, with a reflectance (R) of 99.5% for all angles of incidence and both polarisations, was designed from quasi-periodic dielectric stacks based on Fibonacci sequence (FS) by selecting appropriate materials for high and low refractive index layers. At R = 99.5%, the initial omnidirectional spectral range was found to be from 1437 to 1618 nm, which covers completely the telecommunications wavelength region and the S, C and L bands of the erbium doped fiber amplifier gain region. The individual layers within the FS have the same physical thickness, thus having non quarter-wave optical thickness at the centre wavelength. Optimisation from the initial design can expand the omnidirectional spectral region at R = 99.5%, as well as show a higher value of R over the initial omnidirectional spectral range. Deposition and characterisation of the mirror coating have taken place using microwave assisted direct current magnetron sputtering and various characterisation techniques.

  17. Integrated opto-mechanical optimization analysis of large-aperture primary mirror's support position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Ding; Bo, Qi; Jiang, Bian

    2016-10-01

    Large mirror's support position plays a very important role in optical system's wave-front error. This paper took a Φ1.2m diameter primary mirror as an example and introduced the method of integrated opto-mechanical optimization analysis, then structure's parametric model in Proe, finite element's parametric model in Patran, structure analysis in Nastran and opto-mechanical coupling analysis in Sigfit were integrated as a fully automatic process in Isight by use of command streams and result documents produced by these soft wares. After the process was established and verified, automatic gradient searches of primary mirror's optimal support position were conducted using optimizer embedded in Isight. The optimization objective is the minimum of surface error's RMS and the optimization variables are support positions. New searches can easily be conducted repeatedly after mirror's model is modified in the structure parameter document. Because of the search process is fully automatic, manpower and computing time are greatly saved. This example also provides a good reference for problems in opto-mechanical fields.

  18. Preliminary evidence for deficits in multisensory integration in autism spectrum disorders: the mirror neuron hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberman, Lindsay M; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2008-01-01

    Autism is a complex disorder, characterized by social, cognitive, communicative, and motor symptoms. One suggestion, proposed in the current study, to explain the spectrum of symptoms is an underlying impairment in multisensory integration (MSI) systems such as a mirror neuron-like system. The mirror neuron system, thought to play a critical role in skills such as imitation, empathy, and language can be thought of as a multisensory system, converting sensory stimuli into motor representations. Consistent with this, we report preliminary evidence for deficits in a task thought to tap into MSI--"the bouba-kiki task" in children with ASD. The bouba-kiki effect is produced when subjects are asked to pair nonsense shapes with nonsense "words". We found that neurotypical children chose the nonsense "word" whose phonemic structure corresponded with the visual shape of the stimuli 88% of the time. This is presumably because of mirror neuron-like multisensory systems that integrate the visual shape with the corresponding motor gestures used to pronounce the nonsense word. Surprisingly, individuals with ASD only chose the corresponding name 56% of the time. The poor performance by the ASD group on this task suggests a deficit in MSI, perhaps related to impaired MSI brain systems. Though this is a behavioral study, it provides a testable hypothesis for the communication impairments in children with ASD that implicates a specific neural system and fits well with the current findings suggesting an impairment in the mirror systems in individuals with ASD.

  19. Operators and higher genus mirror curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codesido, Santiago; Gu, Jie; Mariño, Marcos

    2017-02-01

    We perform further tests of the correspondence between spectral theory and topological strings, focusing on mirror curves of genus greater than one with nontrivial mass parameters. In particular, we analyze the geometry relevant to the SU(3) relativistic Toda lattice, and the resolved C{^3}/Z_6 orbifold. Furthermore, we give evidence that the correspondence holds for arbitrary values of the mass parameters, where the quantization problem leads to resonant states. We also explore the relation between this correspondence and cluster integrable systems.

  20. Operators and higher genus mirror curves

    CERN Document Server

    Codesido, Santiago; Marino, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    We perform further tests of the correspondence between spectral theory and topological strings, focusing on mirror curves of genus greater than one with nontrivial mass parameters. In particular, we analyze the geometry relevant to the SU(3) relativistic Toda lattice, and the resolved C^3/Z_6 orbifold. Furthermore, we give evidence that the correspondence holds for arbitrary values of the mass parameters, where the quantization problem leads to resonant states. We also explore the relation between this correspondence and cluster integrable systems.

  1. Black Hole - Moving Mirror II: Particle Creation

    OpenAIRE

    Good, Michael R. R.; Anderson, Paul R.; Evans, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    There is an exact correspondence between the simplest solution to Einstein's equations describing the formation of a black hole and a particular moving mirror trajectory. In both cases the Bogolubov coefficients in 1+1 dimensions are identical and can be computed analytically. Particle creation is investigated by using wave packets. The entire particle creation history is computed, incorporating the early-time non-thermal emission due to the formation of the black hole (or the early-time acce...

  2. Superradiance by mini black holes with mirror

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jong-Phil

    2011-01-01

    The superradiant scattering of massive scalar particles by a rotating mini black hole is investigated. Imposing the mirror boundary condition, the system becomes the so called black-hole bomb where the rotation energy of the black hole is transferred to the scattered particle exponentially with time. Bulk emissions as well as brane emissions are considered altogether. It is found that the largest effects are expected for the brane emission of lower angular modes with lighter mass and larger a...

  3. Design of a programmable spiral phase mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Bovino, Fabio Antonio; Bertolotti, Mario

    2011-01-01

    We designed a metallic programmable mirror for optical wavelengths made up of a large number of discrete steps which can be moved independently by actuators. The device is able to easily reshape an incident beam, imprinting on it an optical vortex with tunable topological charge and orbital angular momentum (OAM). Furthermore it is possible to generate almost arbitrary field profiles which can be used for spatial encoding.

  4. Multilayer Active Shell Mirrors for Space Telescopes

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A novel active mirror technology based on carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) substrates and replication techniques has been developed. Multiple additional layers are implemented into the design serving various functions. Nanolaminate metal films are used to provide a high quality reflective front surface. A backing layer of thin active material is implemented to provide the surface-parallel actuation scheme. Printed electronics are used to create a custom electrode pattern and flexible ro...

  5. Mirror Prescription Regression: A Differential Interferometric Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian M. Robinson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a remote, differential method for measuring the prescription of aspheric mirrors using null interferometry in the center-of-curvature configuration. The method requires no equipment beyond that used in a basic interferometery setup (i.e., there are no shearing elements or absolute distance meters. We chose this configuration because of its widespread use. However, the method is generalizable to other configurations with an adjustment of the governing equation. The method involves taking a series of interferograms before and after small, known misalignments are applied to the mirror in the interferometry setup and calculating the prescription (e.g., radius of curvature and conic constant of the mirror, based on these differential measurements, using a nonlinear regression. We apply this method successfully to the testing of a Space Optics Research Lab off-axis parabola with a known focal length of 152.4 mm, a diameter of 76.2 mm, and an off-axis angle of 12°.

  6. The Mirror Neuron System: A Fresh View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casile, Antonino; Caggiano, Vittorio; Ferrari, Pier Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Mirror neurons are a class of visuomotor neurons in the monkey premotor and parietal cortices that discharge during the execution and observation of goal-directed motor acts. They are deemed to be at the basis of primates’ social abilities. In this review, the authors provide a fresh view about two still open questions about mirror neurons. The first question is their possible functional role. By reviewing recent neurophysiological data, the authors suggest that mirror neurons might represent a flexible system that encodes observed actions in terms of several behaviorally relevant features. The second question concerns the possible developmental mechanisms responsible for their initial emergence. To provide a possible answer to question, the authors review two different aspects of sensorimotor development: facial and hand movements, respectively. The authors suggest that possibly two different “mirror” systems might underlie the development of action understanding and imitative abilities in the two cases. More specifically, a possibly prewired system already present at birth but shaped by the social environment might underlie the early development of facial imitative abilities. On the contrary, an experience-dependent system might subserve perception-action couplings in the case of hand movements. The development of this latter system might be critically dependent on the observation of own movements. PMID:21467305

  7. Mirror Surface Grinding of Steel Bonded Carbides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The steel bonded carbide, a composite material, is very difficult to be machined to a fine finish mirror surface. In this paper, an electrolytic in-process dressing (ELID) grinding with metallic bond super-hard abrasive wheel was developed for grinding steel bonded carbide GT35. Factors affecting ELID grinding performance were analyzed by an atomic force microscope (AFM). Based on the analysis of AFM topography of the fine ground mirror surface of the steel bonded carbide, a schematic diagram of the mechanism of micro-removal of the ground surface was described. The AFM topography also shows that the hard brittle carbide particles, on the surface of steel bonded carbide, were machined out by ductile cutting. Since the grinding cracks in the ground surface are due to temperature gradient, temperature distribution in the grinding area was analyzed by finite element method (FEM). Experimental results indicate that a good mirror surface with Ra<0.02pm can be obtained by the developed ELID grinding system.

  8. Mirror contamination in space I: approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijger, J. M.; Snel, R.; van Harten, G.; Rietjens, J. H. H.; Aben, I.

    2014-02-01

    We present a comprehensive model that can be employed to describe and correct for degradation of (scan) mirrors and diffusers in satellite instruments that suffer from changing optical UV-VIS properties during their operational lifetime. As trend studies become more important, so does the importance to understand and correct for this degradation. This is the case not only with respect to the transmission of the optical components, but also with respect to wavelength, polarisation or scan-angle-effects. Our hypothesis is that mirrors in-flight suffer from the deposition of a thin absorbing layer of contaminant, which slowly builds up over time. We describe this with the Mueller matrix formalism and Fresnel equations for thin multi-layer contamination films. Special care is taken to avoid the confusion often present in earlier publications concerning Mueller matrix calculus with out of plane reflections. The method can be applied to any UV-VIS satellite instrument, and in any orbit, both low and geostationary. We illustrate and verify our approach on the optical behaviour of the multiple scan mirrors of SCIAMACHY (on board of ENVISAT).

  9. Mirror seeing of the Antarctic survey telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Kaiyuan; LI Zhengyang; YUAN Xiangyan; PEI Chong

    2014-01-01

    Site testing results indicate that Antarctic Dome A is an excellent ground-based astronomical site suitable for observations ranging from visible to infrared wavelengths. However, the harsh environment in Antarctica, especially the very low temperature and atmospheric pressure, always produces frost on the telescopes’ mirrors, which are exposed to the air. Since the Dome A site is still unattended, the Antarctic telescope tubes are always designed to be filled with dry nitrogen, and the outer surfaces of the optical system are heated by an indium-tin oxide thin film. These precautions can prevent the optical surfaces from frosting over, but they degrade the image quality by introducing additional mirror seeing. Based on testing observations of the second Antarctic Survey Telescope (AST3-2) in the Mohe site in China, mirror seeing resulting from the heated aspheric plate has been measured using micro-thermal sensors. Results comparing the real-time atmospheric seeing monitored by the Differential Image Motion Monitor and real-time examinations of image quality agree well.

  10. Thin Shell, Segmented X-Ray Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petre, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Thin foil mirrors were introduced as a means of achieving high throughput in an X-ray astronomical imaging system in applications for which high angular resolution were not necessary. Since their introduction, their high filling factor, modest mass, relative ease of construction, and modest cost have led to their use in numerous X-ray observatories, including the Broad Band X-ray Telescope, ASCA, and Suzaku. The introduction of key innovations, including epoxy replicated surfaces, multilayer coatings, and glass mirror substrates, has led to performance improvements, and in their becoming widely used for X-ray astronomical imaging at energies above 10 keV. The use of glass substrates has also led to substantial improvement in angular resolution, and thus their incorporation into the NASA concept for the International X-ray Observatory with a planned 3 in diameter aperture. This paper traces the development of foil mirrors from their inception in the 1970's through their current and anticipated future applications.

  11. Mirror Surface Reconstruction from a Single Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miaomiao; Hartley, Richard; Salzmann, Mathieu

    2015-04-01

    This paper tackles the problem of reconstructing the shape of a smooth mirror surface from a single image. In particular, we consider the case where the camera is observing the reflection of a static reference target in the unknown mirror. We first study the reconstruction problem given dense correspondences between 3D points on the reference target and image locations. In such conditions, our differential geometry analysis provides a theoretical proof that the shape of the mirror surface can be recovered if the pose of the reference target is known. We then relax our assumptions by considering the case where only sparse correspondences are available. In this scenario, we formulate reconstruction as an optimization problem, which can be solved using a nonlinear least-squares method. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on both synthetic and real images. We then provide a theoretical analysis of the potential degenerate cases with and without prior knowledge of the pose of the reference target. Finally we show that our theory can be similarly applied to the reconstruction of the surface of transparent object.

  12. Mirror-Like Mechanisms and Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro D'Ausilio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The neural processes underlying sensory-motor integration have always attracted strong interest. The classic view is that action and perception are two extremes of mental operations. In the past 2 decades, though, a large number of discoveries have indeed refuted such an interpretation in favor of a more integrated view. Specifically, the discovery of mirror neurons in monkey premotor cortex is a rather strong demonstration that sensory and motor processes share the same neural substrates. In fact, these cells show complex sensory-motor properties, such that observed, heard, or executed goal-directed actions could equally activate these neurons. On the other hand, the neuroscience of music has similarly emerged as an active and productive field of research. In fact, music-related behaviors are a useful model of action-perception mechanisms and how they develop through training. More recently, these two lines of research have begun to intersect into a novel branch of research. As a consequence, it has been proposed recently that mirror-like mechanisms might be at the basis of human music perception-production abilities. The scope of the present short review is to set the scientific background for mirror-like mechanisms in music by examining recent published data.

  13. The Stepwise Reaction of Rhodium and Iridium Complexes of Formula [MCl2 (κ(4) C,N,N',P-L)] with Silver Cations: A Case of trans-Influence and Chiral Self-Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, María; Tejedor, Leyre; Rodríguez, Ricardo; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Lahoz, Fernando J; García-Orduña, Pilar; Carmona, Daniel

    2017-07-27

    Acetonitrile suspensions of the dichlorido complexes [MCl2 (κ(4) C,N,N',P-L)] [M=Rh (1), Ir (2)] react with AgSbF6 in a 1:2 molar ratio affording the bis-acetonitrile complexes [M(κ(4) C,N,N',P-L)(NCMe)2 ][SbF6 ]2 (3 and 4). The reaction takes place in a sequential manner and the intermediates can be isolated varying the M:Ag molar ratio. In a 2:1 molar ratio, it affords the dimetallic monochlorido-bridged compounds [{MCl(κ(4) C,N,N',P-L)}2 (μ-Cl)][SbF6 ] (5 and 6). In a 1:1 molar ratio, the monosubstituted solvato-complexes [MCl(κ(4) C,N,N',P-L)(Solv)][SbF6 ] (Solv=H2 O, MeCN, 7-10) were obtained. Finally, in a 2:3 molar ratio, it gives complexes 11 and 12 of formula [{M(κ(4) C,N,N',P-L)(NCMe)(μ-Cl)}2 Ag][SbF6 ]3 in which a silver cation joints two cationic monosubstituted acetonitrile-complexes [MCl(κ(4) C,N,N',P-L)(NCMe)](+) through the remaining chlorido ligands and two Ag⋅⋅⋅C interactions with one of the phenyl rings of each PPh2 group. In all the complexes, the aminic nitrogen and the central metal atom are stereogenic centers. In the trimetallic complexes 11 and 12, the silver atom is also a stereogenic center. The formation of the cation of the dimetallic complexes 5 and 6, as well as that of the trimetallic complexes 11 and 12, takes place with chiral molecular self-recognition. Experimental data and DFT calculations provide plausible explanations for the observed molecular recognition. The new complexes have been characterized by analytical, spectroscopic means and by X-ray diffraction methods. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Correction of an active space telescope mirror using a deformable mirror in a woofer-tweeter configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Matthew R.; Kim, Jae Jun; Agrawal, Brij N.

    2016-04-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School's segmented mirror telescope (SMT) was developed using prototype silicon carbide active hybrid mirror technology to demonstrate lower cost and rapid manufacture of primary mirror segments for a space telescope. The developmental mirror segments used too few actuators limiting the ability to adequately correct the surface figure error. To address the unintended shortfall of the developmental mirrors, a deformable mirror is added to the SMT and control techniques are developed. The control techniques are similar to woofer-tweeter adaptive optics, where the SMT segment represents the woofer and the deformable mirror represents the tweeter. The optical design of an SMT woofer-tweeter system is presented, and the impacts of field angle magnification on the placement and size of the deformable mirror are analyzed. A space telescope woofer-tweeter wavefront control technique is proposed using a global influence matrix and closed-loop constrained minimization controller. The control technique simultaneously manipulates the woofer and tweeter mirrors. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate a significant improvement in wavefront error of the primary mirror and the control technique shows significant wavefront error improvement compared to sequentially controlling the woofer and tweeter mirrors.

  15. Playful Learning and Montessori Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S.

    2013-01-01

    Although Montessori education is often considered a form of playful learning, Maria Montessori herself spoke negatively about a major component of playful learning--pretend play, or fantasy--for young children. In this essay, the author discusses this apparent contradiction: how and why Montessori education includes elements of playful learning…

  16. Play and Positive Group Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Pam; White, Samantha

    2010-01-01

    Play is an important part of a child's life and essential to learning and development (Vygotsky, 1978). It is vital that students participate in play and that play be conducted in a restorative manner. Play allows a variety of group dynamics to emerge. Irvin Yalom (1995) identifies 11 curative factors of the group experience. These factors include…

  17. Engineering aspects of a fully mirrored endoscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terra, A., E-mail: a.terra@fz-juelich.de [Institute for Energy and Climate Research IEK-4 (Plasma Physics), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Assoc. EURATOM-FZJ, Member of the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Huber, A.; Schweer, B.; Mertens, Ph. [Institute for Energy and Climate Research IEK-4 (Plasma Physics), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Assoc. EURATOM-FZJ, Member of the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Arnoux, G.; Balshaw, N. [Euratom-CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Brezinsek, S. [Institute for Energy and Climate Research IEK-4 (Plasma Physics), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Assoc. EURATOM-FZJ, Member of the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Egner, S.; Hartl, M.; Kampf, D. [Kayser-Threde GmbH, D-81379 Munich (Germany); Klammer, J. [KRP-Mechatec Engineering GbR, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lambertz, H.T. [Institute for Energy and Climate Research IEK-4 (Plasma Physics), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Assoc. EURATOM-FZJ, Member of the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Morlock, C.; Murari, A. [EFDA-CSU, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Reindl, M. [KRP-Mechatec Engineering GbR, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Sanders, S. [Euratom-CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Sergienko, G. [Institute for Energy and Climate Research IEK-4 (Plasma Physics), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Assoc. EURATOM-FZJ, Member of the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Spencer, G. [Euratom-CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Replacement of JET diagnostics to match the new ITER-like Wall. ► The endoscope test ITER-like design with only mirror based optics. ► Withstanding and diagnostic capability during Plasma operation and disruptions. ► Engineering process from design to installation and procurement. -- Abstract: The development of optical diagnostics, like endoscopes, compatible with the ITER environment (metallic plasma facing components, neutron proof optics, etc.) is a challenge, but current tokamaks such as JET provide opportunities to test fully working concepts. This paper describes the engineering aspects of a fully mirrored endoscope that has recently been designed, procured and installed on JET. The system must operate in a very strict environment with high temperature, high magnetic fields up to B = 4 T and rapid field variations (∂B/∂t ∼ 100 T/s) that induce high stresses due to eddy currents in the front mirror assembly. It must be designed to withstand high mechanical loads especially during disruptions, which lead to acceleration of about 7 g at 14 Hz. For the JET endoscope, when the plasma thermal loading, direct and indirect, was added to the assumed disruption loads, the reserve factor, defined as a ratio of yield strength over summed up von Mises stresses, was close to 1 for the mirror components. To ensure reliable operation, several analyses were performed to evaluate the thermo-mechanical performance of the endoscope and a final validation was obtained from mechanical and thermal tests, before the system's final installation in May 2011. During the tests, stability of the field of view angle variation was kept below 1° despite the high thermal gradient on endoscope head (∂T/∂x ∼ 500 K/m). In parallel, to ensure long time operation and to prevent undesirable performance degradation, a shutter system was also implemented in order to reduce impurity deposition on in-vessel mirrors but also to allow in situ transmission

  18. Play and playfulness in early childhood education and care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer E.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education. The elements of play are pleasure, a sense of freedom, and the co-construction of shared meaning through the use of rules or rhythms. Play and learning are closely related in early childhood. But when the focus on the educational benefits of play becomes too strong, the most essential feature of play is lost: children’s pleasure. Young children in group settings often have to adapt to the teachers’ demands related to security, hygiene, and social norms and values. But the playfulness of the teachers helps to overcome differences in power in the caregiver-child relationship and prevents young children from becoming overburdened with strict rules and group discipline. Play and playfulness are a resource of shared pleasure and creativity in learning processes.

  19. Ouroboros - Playing A Biochemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Rodrigues

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ouroboros: Playing A Biochemical RODRIGUES,D.T.1,2;GAYER, M.C.1,2; ESCOTO, D.F.1; DENARDIN, E.L.G.2, ROEHRS, R.1,2 1Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil 2Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil Introduction: Currently, teachers seek different alternatives to enhance the teaching-learning process. Innovative teaching methodologies are increasingly common tools in educational routine. The use of games, electronic or conventional, is an effective tool to assist in learning and also to raise the social interaction between students. Objective: In this sense our work aims to evaluate the card game and "Ouroboros" board as a teaching and learning tool in biochemistry for a graduating class in Natural Sciences. Materials and methods: The class gathered 22 students of BSc in Natural Sciences. Each letter contained a question across the board that was drawn to a group to answer within the allotted time. The questions related concepts of metabolism, organic and inorganic chemical reactions, bioenergetics, etc.. Before the game application, students underwent a pre-test with four issues involving the content that was being developed. Soon after, the game was applied. Then again questions were asked. Data analysis was performed from the ratio of the number of correct pre-test and post-test answers. Results and discussion: In the pre-test 18.1% of the students knew all issues, 18.1% got 3 correct answers, 40.9% answered only 2 questions correctly and 22.7% did not hit any. In post-test 45.4% answered all the questions right, 31.8% got 3 questions and 22.7% got 2 correct answers. The results show a significant improvement of the students about the field of content taught through the game. Conclusion: Generally, traditional approaches of chemistry and biochemistry are abstract and complex. Thus, through games

  20. Motivations for play in computer role-playing games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the motivations for play in the context of single-and multi-player digital Role-Playing Games (RPGs) are examined. Survey data were drawn from respondents online and participants in a related experimental study. The results indicate that motivations for play are not simple constructs......, but rather composed of multiple motivational drivers that are heavily interrelated and act in concert. Character uniqueness and Discovery & Immersion were the highest ranked motivational categories. Different levels of detail in motivations for playing single-/multi- Player RPGs were located......, with mechanistic/tactical play and character-based/social play being the two overall motivational factors. Copyright 2008 ACM....