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Sample records for play joint attention

  1. Joint attention at 10 months of age in infant-mother dyads: contrasting free toy-play with semi-structured toy-play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus, Vera; Martins, Carla; Osório, Ana; Martins, Eva Costa; Soares, Isabel

    2013-02-01

    Fifty-two 10-month-olds and their mothers were observed in free toy-play and semi-structured toy-play for assessing joint attention capabilities. Mothers exhibited more bids for joint attention during semi-structured toy-play. Infants' response to maternal behaviors and their bids for initiating joint attention were higher during free toy-play.

  2. Brief Report: Linking Early Joint Attention and Play Abilities to Later Reports of Friendships for Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Stephanny F.; Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the influence of early joint attention and play in children with autism on child- and parent-reported friendship quality 5 years later. Initially, children participated in developmental, joint attention, and play measures. At follow-up (age 8-9), parents and children completed the Friendship Qualities Scale (Bukowski et al. in…

  3. Brief Report: Linking Early Joint Attention and Play Abilities to Later Reports of Friendships for Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Stephanny F.; Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the influence of early joint attention and play in children with autism on child- and parent-reported friendship quality 5 years later. Initially, children participated in developmental, joint attention, and play measures. At follow-up (age 8-9), parents and children completed the Friendship Qualities Scale (Bukowski et al. in…

  4. A Play and Joint Attention Intervention for Teachers of Young Children with Autism: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Connie S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to pilot test a classroom-based intervention focused on facilitating play and joint attention for young children with autism in self-contained special education classrooms. Thirty-three children with autism between the ages of 3 and 6 years participated in the study with their classroom teachers (n = 14). The 14 preschool…

  5. Social-communicative abilities as treatment goals for preschool children with autism spectrum disorder: the importance of imitation, joint attention, and play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warreyn, Petra; van der Paelt, Sara; Roeyers, Herbert

    2014-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive developmental disorder with a lifelong impact on multiple domains of functioning. Often, a diagnosis is possible by 3 years of age. Given the benefits of early intervention, it is advisable to start treatment as soon as possible after the diagnosis has been made. Among other factors, early intervention should focus on social-communicative abilities such as imitation, joint attention, and play. In this review, the typical developmental course and functions of these social-communicative abilities are described, and the problems young children with ASD experience in this domain. In addition, different approaches to promoting these abilities are explained. The authors recommend the inclusion of imitation, joint attention, and play as treatment goals in community settings for children with ASD.

  6. Teaching reciprocal imitation skills to young children with autism using a naturalistic behavioral approach: effects on language, pretend play, and joint attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Brooke; Schreibman, Laura

    2006-05-01

    Children with autism exhibit significant deficits in imitation skills which impede the acquisition of more complex behaviors and socialization, and are thus an important focus of early intervention programs for children with autism. This study used a multiple-baseline design across five young children with autism to assess the benefit of a naturalistic behavioral technique for teaching object imitation. Participants increased their imitation skills and generalized these skills to novel environments. In addition, participants exhibited increases in other social-communicative behaviors, including language, pretend play, and joint attention. These results provide support for the effectiveness of a naturalistic behavioral intervention for teaching imitation and offer a new and potentially important treatment option for young children who exhibit deficits in social-communicative behaviors.

  7. Joint attention by gaze interpolation and saliency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Yücel; A.A. Salah; C. Meriçli; T. Meriçli; R. Valenti; T. Gevers

    2013-01-01

    Joint attention, which is the ability of coordination of a common point of reference with the communicating party, emerges as a key factor in various interaction scenarios. This paper presents an image-based method for establishing joint attention between an experimenter and a robot. The precise ana

  8. Joint Attention in Autism: Teaching Smiling Coordinated with Gaze to Respond to Joint Attention Bids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstovska-Guerrero, Ivana; Jones, Emily A.

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism demonstrate early deficits in joint attention and expressions of affect. Interventions to teach joint attention have addressed gaze behavior, gestures, and vocalizations, but have not specifically taught an expression of positive affect such as smiling that tends to occur during joint attention interactions. Intervention was…

  9. Joint Attention in Autism: Teaching Smiling Coordinated with Gaze to Respond to Joint Attention Bids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstovska-Guerrero, Ivana; Jones, Emily A.

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism demonstrate early deficits in joint attention and expressions of affect. Interventions to teach joint attention have addressed gaze behavior, gestures, and vocalizations, but have not specifically taught an expression of positive affect such as smiling that tends to occur during joint attention interactions. Intervention was…

  10. Toward a Behavioral Analysis of Joint Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, William V.; MacDonald, Rebecca P. F.; Mansfield, Renee C.; Holcomb, William L.; Ahearn, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Joint attention (JA) initiation is defined in cognitive-developmental psychology as a child's actions that verify or produce simultaneous attending by that child and an adult to some object or event in the environment so that both may experience the object or event together. This paper presents a contingency analysis of gaze shift in JA…

  11. Joint Attention Revisited: Finding Strengths among Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Sarah; Watson, Linda R.

    2016-01-01

    Differences in joint attention are prominent for some children with autism and are often used as an indicator of the disorder. This study examined the joint attention competencies of young children with autism who demonstrated joint attention ability and compared them to children with developmental delays. A total of 40 children with autism and…

  12. Infant Joint Attention, Neural Networks and Social Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Mundy, Peter; Jarrold, William

    2010-01-01

    Neural network models of attention can provide a unifying approach to the study of human cognitive and emotional development (Posner & Rothbart, 2007). This paper we argue that a neural networks approach to the infant development of joint attention can inform our understanding of the nature of human social learning, symbolic thought process and social cognition. At its most basic, joint attention involves the capacity to coordinate one’s own visual attention with that of another person. We pr...

  13. Temperamental and Joint Attentional Predictors of Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salley, Brenda J.; Dixon, Wallace E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Individual differences in child temperament have been associated with individual differences in language development. Similarly, relationships have been reported between early nonverbal social communication (joint attention) and both temperament and language. The present study examined whether individual differences in joint attention might…

  14. Joint attention, social cognition and recognition memory in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwanguk eKim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The early emerging capacity for Joint Attention, or socially coordinated visual attention, is thought to be integral to the development of social-cognition in childhood. Recent studies have also begun to suggest that joint attention affects adult cognition as well, but methodological limitations hamper research on this topic. To address this issue we developed a novel virtual reality (VR paradigm that integrates eye-tracking and virtual avatar technology to measure two types of joint attention in adults, Initiating Joint Attention (IJA and Responding to Joint Attention (RJA. Distinguishing these types of joint attention in research is important because they are thought to reflect unique, as well as common constellations of processes involved in human social-cognition and social learning. We tested the validity of the differentiation of IJA and RJA in our paradigm in two studies of picture recognition memory in undergraduate students. Study 1 indicated that young adults correctly identified more pictures they had previously viewed in an IJA condition (67% than in a RJA (58% condition, η2 = .57. Study 2 controlled for IJA and RJA stimulus viewing time differences, and replicated the findings of Study 1. The implications of these results for the validity of the paradigm and research on the affects of joint attention on adult social-cognition are discussed.

  15. Playfulness in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipold, Elizabeth E.; Bundy, Anita C.

    2000-01-01

    Scores on the Test of Playfulness for 25 children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) were significantly lower than those of 25 children without, especially on internal control, intrinsic motivation, and framing. Three items (mischief, teasing/joking, clowning) yielded unexpectedly higher scores for ADHD children. (SK)

  16. Weak Central Coherence, Poor Joint Attention, and Low Verbal Ability: Independent Deficits in Early Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Bronwyn; Maybery, Murray; Durkin, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    Compared preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders with a matched control group to investigate whether weak central coherence could account for deficits in two behaviors purported to tap capabilities fundamental to a theory of mind: joint attention and pretend play. Found that pretend play did not differentiate the two groups. Weak central…

  17. Socio- cultural effects on children's initiation of joint attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana eGavrilov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Exchanging gazes with a social partner in response to an event in the environment is considered an effective means to direct attention, share affective experiences and highlight a target in the environment. This behavior appears during infancy and plays an important role in children's learning and in shaping their socio-emotional development. It has been suggested that cultural values of the community affect socio-emotional development through attentional dynamics of social reference (Rogoff et al., 1993. Maturational processes of brain-circuits have been found to mediate socio-cultural learning and the behavioral manifestation of cultural norms starting at preschool age (Nelson and Guyer, 2011. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relations between cultural ecology levels and children's joint attention (JA. Initiation of JA bids was studied empirically as a function of the level of social load of the target toy (3 levels, the community level of adherence to traditional values (3 levels parental education (2 levels and gender. Sixty-two kindergarten aged children were enrolled in a structured toy-exploration task, during which they were presented with toys of various social loads, with social agents (i.e., mother and experimenter present nearby, and non-social distracters presented intermittently. Analysis of variance indicated that the child's initiation of JA towards the social partner was affected by all levels of cultural ecology (i.e., toy's social load, adherence to tradition values, parental education, gender, thus supporting the study's hypotheses. The effects were such that overall, children, particularly girls' JA initiation was augmented in social toys and moderated by the socio-cultural variables. Cultural ecology seems to be related to children's JA, thereby scaffolding initiation of social sharing cues between children and adults. JA plays a role in adjusting children's internal representations of their ecological

  18. How Getting Noticed Helps Getting On: Successful Attention Capture Doubles Children’s Cooperative Play

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    Nicola eYuill

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative social interaction is a complex skill that involves maintaining shared attention and continually negotiating a common frame of reference. Privileged in human evolution, cooperation provides support for the development of social-cognitive skills. We hypothesise that providing audio support for capturing playmates’ attention will increase cooperative play in groups of young children. Attention capture was manipulated via an audio-augmented toy to boost children’s attention bids. Study 1 (48 6- to 11-year-olds showed that the augmented toy yielded significantly more cooperative play in triads compared to the same toy without augmentation. In Study 2 (33 7- to 9-year-olds the augmented toy supported greater success of attention bids which were associated with longer cooperative play, associated in turn with better group narratives. The results show how cooperation requires moment-by-moment coordination of attention and how we can manipulate environments to reveal and support mechanisms of social interaction. Our findings have implications for understanding the role of joint attention in the development of cooperative action and shared understanding.

  19. How getting noticed helps getting on: successful attention capture doubles children's cooperative play.

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    Yuill, Nicola; Hinske, Steve; Williams, Sophie E; Leith, Georgia

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative social interaction is a complex skill that involves maintaining shared attention and continually negotiating a common frame of reference. Privileged in human evolution, cooperation provides support for the development of social-cognitive skills. We hypothesize that providing audio support for capturing playmates' attention will increase cooperative play in groups of young children. Attention capture was manipulated via an audio-augmented toy to boost children's attention bids. Study 1 (48 6- to 11-year-olds) showed that the augmented toy yielded significantly more cooperative play in triads compared to the same toy without augmentation. In Study 2 (33 7- to 9-year-olds) the augmented toy supported greater success of attention bids, which were associated with longer cooperative play, associated in turn with better group narratives. The results show how cooperation requires moment-by-moment coordination of attention and how we can manipulate environments to reveal and support mechanisms of social interaction. Our findings have implications for understanding the role of joint attention in the development of cooperative action and shared understanding.

  20. Video game play, attention, and learning: how to shape the development of attention and influence learning?

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    Cardoso-Leite, Pedro; Bavelier, Daphne

    2014-04-01

    The notion that play may facilitate learning has long been touted. Here, we review how video game play may be leveraged for enhancing attentional control, allowing greater cognitive flexibility and learning and in turn new routes to better address developmental disorders. Video games, initially developed for entertainment, appear to enhance the behavior in domains as varied as perception, attention, task switching, or mental rotation. This surprisingly wide transfer may be mediated by enhanced attentional control, allowing increased signal-to-noise ratio and thus more informed decisions. The possibility of enhancing attentional control through targeted interventions, be it computerized training or self-regulation techniques, is now well established. Embedding such training in video game play is appealing, given the astounding amount of time spent by children and adults worldwide with this media. It holds the promise of increasing compliance in patients and motivation in school children, and of enhancing the use of positive impact games. Yet for all the promises, existing research indicates that not all games are created equal: a better understanding of the game play elements that foster attention and learning as well as of the strategies developed by the players is needed. Computational models from machine learning or developmental robotics provide a rich theoretical framework to develop this work further and address its impact on developmental disorders.

  1. Infants' Early Visual Attention and Social Engagement as Developmental Precursors to Joint Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salley, Brenda; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Neal-Beevers, A. Rebecca; Tenenbaum, Elena J.; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia L.; Tronick, Ed; Lagasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles; Whitaker, Toni; Hammond, Jane; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined infants' early visual attention (at 1 month of age) and social engagement (4 months) as predictors of their later joint attention (12 and 18 months). The sample (n = 325), drawn from the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a longitudinal multicenter project conducted at 4 centers of the National Institute of Child Health and Human…

  2. Declarative Joint Attention as a Foundation of Theory of Mind

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    Sodian, Beate; Kristen-Antonow, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Theories of social-cognitive development have attributed a foundational role to declarative joint attention. The present longitudinal study of 83 children, who were assessed on a battery of social-cognitive tasks at multiple measurement points from the age of 12 to 50 months, tested a predictive model of theory of mind (false-belief…

  3. Declarative Joint Attention as a Foundation of Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodian, Beate; Kristen-Antonow, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Theories of social-cognitive development have attributed a foundational role to declarative joint attention. The present longitudinal study of 83 children, who were assessed on a battery of social-cognitive tasks at multiple measurement points from the age of 12 to 50 months, tested a predictive model of theory of mind (false-belief…

  4. Self-Referenced Processing, Neurodevelopment and Joint Attention in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Peter; Gwaltney, Mary; Henderson, Heather

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a parallel and distributed processing model (PDPM) of joint attention, self-referenced processing and autism. According to this model, autism involves early impairments in the capacity for rapid, integrated processing of self-referenced (proprioceptive and interoceptive) and other-referenced (exteroceptive) information.…

  5. Joint attention for stimuli on the hands: Ownership matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eTaylor

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The visual system treats the space near the hands with unique, action-related priorities. For example, attention orients slowly to stimuli on the hands (Taylor & Witt, 2014. In this article, we asked whether jointly attended hands are attended in the same way. Specifically, we examined whether ownership over the hand mattered: Do we attend to our hands and the hands of others in the same way? Pairs of participants performed a spatial cueing task with stimuli that could be projected onto one partner’s hands or on a control surface. Results show delayed orienting of attention to targets appearing on the hands, but only for the owner of the hands. For an observer, others’ hands are like any other surface. This result emphasizes the importance of ownership for hand-based effects on vision, and in doing so, is inconsistent with some expectations of the joint action literature.

  6. Joint attention for stimuli on the hands: ownership matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. E. T.; Pratt, Jay; Witt, Jessica K.

    2015-01-01

    The visual system treats the space near the hands with unique, action-related priorities. For example, attention orients slowly to stimuli on the hands (Taylor and Witt, 2014). In this article, we asked whether jointly attended hands are attended in the same way. Specifically, we examined whether ownership over the hand mattered: do we attend to our hands and the hands of others in the same way? Pairs of participants performed a spatial cueing task with stimuli that could be projected onto one partner’s hands or on a control surface. Results show delayed orienting of attention to targets appearing on the hands, but only for the owner of the hands. For an observer, others’ hands are like any other surface. This result emphasizes the importance of ownership for hand-based effects on vision, and in doing so, is inconsistent with some expectations of the joint action literature. PMID:25983713

  7. Genetic influences on receptive joint attention in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, William D; Keebaugh, Alaine C; Reamer, Lisa A;

    2014-01-01

    Despite their genetic similarity to humans, our understanding of the role of genes on cognitive traits in chimpanzees remains virtually unexplored. Here, we examined the relationship between genetic variation in the arginine vasopressin V1a receptor gene (AVPR1A) and social cognition in chimpanze....... The collective findings show that AVPR1A polymorphisms are associated with individual differences in performance on a receptive joint attention task in chimpanzees....

  8. Detecting communicative intent in a computerised test of joint attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Caruana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The successful navigation of social interactions depends on a range of cognitive faculties—including the ability to achieve joint attention with others to share information and experiences. We investigated the influence that intention monitoring processes have on gaze-following response times during joint attention. We employed a virtual reality task in which 16 healthy adults engaged in a collaborative game with a virtual partner to locate a target in a visual array. In the Search task, the virtual partner was programmed to engage in non-communicative gaze shifts in search of the target, establish eye contact, and then display a communicative gaze shift to guide the participant to the target. In the NoSearch task, the virtual partner simply established eye contact and then made a single communicative gaze shift towards the target (i.e., there were no non-communicative gaze shifts in search of the target. Thus, only the Search task required participants to monitor their partner’s communicative intent before responding to joint attention bids. We found that gaze following was significantly slower in the Search task than the NoSearch task. However, the same effect on response times was not observed when participants completed non-social control versions of the Search and NoSearch tasks, in which the avatar’s gaze was replaced by arrow cues. These data demonstrate that the intention monitoring processes involved in differentiating communicative and non-communicative gaze shifts during the Search task had a measurable influence on subsequent joint attention behaviour. The empirical and methodological implications of these findings for the fields of autism and social neuroscience will be discussed.

  9. Haemophilia Joint Health Score in healthy adults playing sports.

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    Sluiter, D; Foppen, W; de Kleijn, P; Fischer, K

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate outcome of prophylactic clotting factor replacement in children with haemophilia, the Haemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS) was developed aiming at scoring early joint changes in children aged 4-18. The HJHS has been used for adults on long-term prophylaxis but interpretation of small changes remains difficult. Some changes in these patients may be due to sports-related injuries. Evaluation of HJHS score in healthy adults playing sports could improve the interpretation of this score in haemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the HJHS scores in a cohort of young, healthy men participating in sports. Concomitant with a project collecting MRI images of ankles and knees in normal young adults, HJHS scores were assessed in 30 healthy men aged 18-26, participating in sports one to three times per week. One physiotherapist assessed their clinical function using the HJHS 2.1. History of joint injuries was documented. MRI images were scored by a single radiologist, using the International Prophylaxis Study Group additive MRI score. Median age of the study group was 24.3 years (range 19.0-26.4) and median frequency of sports activities was three times per week (range 1-4). Six joints (five knees, one ankle) had a history of sports-related injury. The median overall HJHS score was 0 out of 124 (range 0-3), with 60% of subjects showing no abnormalities on HJHS. All joints were normal on MRI. These results suggest that frequent sports participation and related injuries are not related with abnormalities in HJHS scores.

  10. Is Early Joint Attention Associated with School-Age Pragmatic Language?

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    Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Khalulyan, Allie; del Rosario, Mithi; McCarthy, Brigid; Gomez, Lovella; Sigman, Marian; Hutman, Ted

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate evidence for the social-cognitive theory of joint attention, we examined relations between initiation of and response to joint attention at 12 and 18 months of age and pragmatic and structural language approximately 6 years later among children with and without autism spectrum disorder. Initiation of joint attention at 18…

  11. Is Early Joint Attention Associated with School-Age Pragmatic Language?

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    Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Khalulyan, Allie; del Rosario, Mithi; McCarthy, Brigid; Gomez, Lovella; Sigman, Marian; Hutman, Ted

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate evidence for the social-cognitive theory of joint attention, we examined relations between initiation of and response to joint attention at 12 and 18 months of age and pragmatic and structural language approximately 6 years later among children with and without autism spectrum disorder. Initiation of joint attention at 18…

  12. Joint attention for stimuli on the hands: Ownership matters

    OpenAIRE

    Eric eTaylor; Jay ePratt; Jessica eWitt

    2015-01-01

    The visual system treats the space near the hands with unique, action-related priorities. For example, attention orients slowly to stimuli on the hands (Taylor and Witt, 2014). In this article, we asked whether jointly attended hands are attended in the same way. Specifically, we examined whether ownership over the hand mattered: do we attend to our hands and the hands of others in the same way? Pairs of participants performed a spatial cueing task with stimuli that could be projected onto on...

  13. Atypical prefrontal cortical responses to joint/non-joint attention in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD): A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study

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    Zhu, Huilin; Li, Jun; Fan, Yuebo; Li, Xinge; Huang, Dan; He, Sailing

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neuro-developmental disorder, characterized by impairments in one’s capacity for joint attention. In this study, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was applied to study the differences in activation and functional connectivity in the prefrontal cortex between children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing (TD) children. 21 ASD and 20 TD children were recruited to perform joint and non-joint attention tasks. Compared with TD children, children with ASD showed reduced activation and atypical functional connectivity pattern in the prefrontal cortex during joint attention. The atypical development of left prefrontal cortex might play an important role in social cognition defects of children with ASD. PMID:25798296

  14. Nonverbal communication of intention and attention while playing a game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ditte Hvas

    This poster abstract describes first part of a series of experiments on using the individual’s gesture, grip and direction of face, to infer intentions and attention during interaction with technology. The experiment recorded here studies these patterns of nonverbal communication in order...

  15. Short-Term Effects of Playing Computer Games on Attention

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    Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Celik, Gonca Gul; Avci, Ayse; Seydaoglu, Gulsah; Uzel, Mehtap; Altunbas, Handan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of the present study is to investigate the short-term cognitive effects of computer games in children with different psychiatric disorders and normal controls. Method: One hundred one children are recruited for the study (aged between 9 and 12 years). All participants played a motor-racing game on the computer for 1 hour.…

  16. Simulating social interactions for the experimental investigation of joint attention.

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    Caruana, Nathan; McArthur, Genevieve; Woolgar, Alexandra; Brock, Jon

    2017-03-01

    Social interactions are, by their nature, dynamic and reciprocal - your behaviour affects my behaviour, which affects your behaviour in return. However, until recently, the field of social cognitive neuroscience has been dominated by paradigms in which participants passively observe social stimuli from a detached "third person" perspective. Here we consider the unique conceptual and methodological challenges involved in adopting a "second person" approach whereby social cognitive mechanisms and their neural correlates are investigated within social interactions (Schilbach et al., 2013). The key question for researchers is how to distil a complex, intentional interaction between two individuals into a tightly controlled and replicable experimental paradigm. We explore these issues within the context of recent investigations of joint attention - the ability to coordinate a common focus of attention with another person. We review pioneering neurophysiology and eye-tracking studies that have begun to address these issues; offer recommendations for the optimal design and implementation of interactive tasks, and discuss the broader implications of interactive approaches for social cognitive neuroscience.

  17. Modality Use in Joint Attention between Hearing Parents and Deaf Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eDepowski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined differences in modality use during episodes of joint attention between hearing parent-hearing child dyads and hearing parent-deaf child dyads. Hearing children were age-matched to deaf children. Dyads were video recorded in a free play session with analyses focused on uni- and multimodality use during joint attention episodes. Results revealed that adults in hearing parent-deaf child dyads spent a significantly greater proportion of time interacting with their children using multiple communicative modalities than adults in hearing parent-hearing child dyads, who tended to use the auditory modality (e.g., oral language most often. While these findings demonstrate that hearing parents accommodate their children's hearing status, we observed greater overall time spent in joint attention in hearing parent-hearing child dyads than hearing parent-deaf child dyads. Our results point to important avenues for future research on how parents can better accommodate their child’s hearing status through the use of multimodal communication strategies.

  18. The effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in autistic children: A randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

    2008-01-01

    and play sessions with toys, and using standardized tools and DVD analysis of sessions to evaluate behavioral changes in children with autism. The overall results indicated that improvisational music therapy was more effective at facilitating joint attention behaviors and non-verbal social communication...

  19. The Effects of Improvisational Music Therapy on Joint Attention Behaviors in Autistic Children: A Randomized Controlled Study

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    Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and play sessions with toys, and using standardized…

  20. The Effects of Improvisational Music Therapy on Joint Attention Behaviors in Autistic Children: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and play sessions with toys, and using standardized…

  1. The Effects of Improvisational Music Therapy on Joint Attention Behaviours in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jinah

    2006-01-01

    into unstructured and structured parts. There were four different types of dependent measurements; the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior Inventory (PDDBI), the Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS), the Mother Play Intervention Profile (MPIP) and DVD analyses of selected session data. 10 children, all......This research investigated the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviours in children with autistic spectrum disorder. The study was designed to look at these behaviours in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and free play, and use both standardized...... male, age between 3-6 year old, with clear diagnoses of autistic spectrum disorder completed the trial. The overall results from the PDDBI, the ESCS and session analysis were generally in favour of music therapy over free play, indicating improvisational music therapy was more effective at improving...

  2. Infants' joint attention skills predict toddlers' emerging mental state language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristen, Susanne; Sodian, Beate; Thoermer, Claudia; Perst, Hannah

    2011-09-01

    To assess predictive relations between joint attention skills, intention understanding, and mental state vocabulary, 88 children were tested with measures of comprehension of gaze and referential pointing, as well as the production of declarative gestures and the comprehension and production of imperative gestures, at the ages of 7-18 months. Infants' intention-based imitation skills were assessed at 12, 15, and 18 months. At the ages of 24 and 36 months, toddlers' internal state lexicon was evaluated by parents with a German adaptation of the Mental State Language Questionnaire (Olineck & Poulin-Dubois, 2005). Regression analyses revealed that 9-months-olds' comprehension of referential pointing contributed significantly to the prediction of intention-based imitation skills at 15 months, as well as to children's volition and cognition vocabularies at 24 and 36 months, respectively. Moreover, 12-month-olds' comprehension of an imperative motive was shown to selectively predict toddlers' use of volition terms at 24 months. Overall, these results provide empirical evidence for both general and specific developmental relations between preverbal communication skills and mental state language, thus implying developmental continuity within the social domain in the first 3 years of life.

  3. Modelling the coevolution of joint attention and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan

    2012-11-22

    Joint attention (JA) is important to many social, communicative activities, including language, and humans exhibit a considerably high level of JA compared with non-human primates. We propose a coevolutionary hypothesis to explain this degree-difference in JA: once JA started to aid linguistic comprehension, along with language evolution, communicative success (CS) during cultural transmission could enhance the levels of JA among language users. We illustrate this hypothesis via a multi-agent computational model, where JA boils down to a genetically transmitted ability to obtain non-linguistic cues aiding comprehension. The simulation results and statistical analysis show that: (i) the level of JA is correlated with the understandability of the emergent language; and (ii) CS can boost an initially low level of JA and 'ratchet' it up to a stable high level. This coevolutionary perspective helps explain the degree-difference in many language-related competences between humans and non-human primates, and reflects the importance of biological evolution, individual learning and cultural transmission to language evolution.

  4. Creating Joint Attentional Frames and Pointing to Evidence in the Reading and Writing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, John A.; Liu, Rong; Scullion, Vicki A.

    2015-01-01

    This theory-into-practice paper integrates Tomasello's concept of Joint Attentional Frames and well-known ideas related to the work of Russian psychologist, Lev Vygotsky, with more recent ideas from social semiotics. Classroom procedures for incorporating student-created Joint Attentional Frames into literacy lessons are explained by links to…

  5. Best Practices for Teaching Joint Attention: A Systematic Review of the Intervention Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Pamela J.; O'Reilly, Mark; Streusand, William; Levine, Ann; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Fragale, Christina; Pierce, Nigel; Aguilar, Jeannie

    2011-01-01

    Joint attention is the act of sharing an experience of an object or event with another person. Individuals with autism often have deficits in this area. This review synthesizes 27 articles, involving interventions for individuals with autism, that measured joint attention as an outcome variable. Studies were analyzed and summarized in terms of:…

  6. Joint-Attention and the Social Phenotype of School-Aged Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Peter; Novotny, Stephanie; Swain-Lerro, Lindsey; McIntyre, Nancy; Zajic, Matt; Oswald, Tasha

    2017-01-01

    The validity of joint attention assessment in school-aged children with ASD is unclear (Lord, Jones, "Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry" 53(5):490-509, 2012). This study examined the feasibility and validity of a parent-report measure of joint attention related behaviors in verbal children and adolescents with ASD. Fifty-two…

  7. A Robotic Therapy Case Study: Developing Joint Attention Skills with a Student on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charron, Nancy; Lewis, Lundy; Craig, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a possible methodology for developing joint attention skills in students with autism spectrum disorder. Co-robot therapy with the humanoid robot NAO was used to foster a student's joint attention skill development; 20-min sessions conducted once weekly during the school year were video recorded and…

  8. Script Fading to Promote Unscripted Bids for Joint Attention in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Joy S.; Betz, Alison M.; Higbee, Thomas S.

    2012-01-01

    We used a script-fading procedure to teach 3 children with autism to initiate bids for joint attention. We examined the effects of (a) scripts, (b) varied adult scripted responses, and (c) multiple-exemplar script training on promoting unscripted language during bids for joint attention. All 3 participants learned to initiate bids for joint…

  9. Giving a helping hand: effects of joint attention on mental rotation of body parts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böckler, A.; Knoblich, G.K.; Sebanz, N.

    2011-01-01

    Research on joint attention has addressed both the effects of gaze following and the ability to share representations. It is largely unknown, however, whether sharing attention also affects the perceptual processing of jointly attended objects. This study tested whether attending to stimuli with ano

  10. Exploring the Nature of Joint Attention Impairments in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Associated Social and Cognitive Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schietecatte, Inge; Roeyers, Herbert; Warreyn, Petra

    2012-01-01

    It is generally accepted that joint attention skills are impaired in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this study, social preference, attention disengagement and intention understanding, assumed to be associated with the development of joint attention, are explored in relation to joint attention skills in children with ASD at the…

  11. Deliberate play and preparation jointly benefit motor and cognitive development: mediated and moderated effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina ePesce

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In light of the interrelation between motor and cognitive development and the predictive value of the former for the latter, the secular decline observed in motor coordination ability as early as preschool urges identification of interventions that may jointly impact motor and cognitive efficiency.The aim of this study was twofold. It (1 explored the outcomes of enriched physical education, centered on deliberate play and cognitively challenging variability of practice, on motor coordination and cognitive processing; (2 examined whether motor coordination outcomes mediate intervention effects on children’s cognition, while controlling for moderation by lifestyle factors as outdoor play habits and weight status. Four hundred and sixty children aged 5-10 years participated in a 6-month group randomized intervention in physical education, with or without playful coordinative and cognitive enrichment. The weight status and spontaneous outdoor play habits of children (parental report of outdoor play were evaluated at baseline. Before and after the intervention, motor developmental level (Movement Assessment Battery for Children was evaluated in all children, who were then assessed either with a test of working memory (Random Number Generation task, or with a test of attention (from the Cognitive Assessment System, CAS.Children assigned to the ‘enriched’ intervention showed more pronounced improvements in all motor coordination assessments (manual dexterity, ball skills, static/dynamic balance. The beneficial effect on ball skills was amplified by the level of spontaneous outdoor play and weight status. Among indices of executive function and attention, only that of inhibition showed a differential effect of intervention type. Moderated mediation showed that the better outcome of the enriched physical education on ball skills mediated the better inhibition outcome, but only when the enrichment intervention was paralleled by a medium

  12. Deliberate Play and Preparation Jointly Benefit Motor and Cognitive Development: Mediated and Moderated Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Caterina; Masci, Ilaria; Marchetti, Rosalba; Vazou, Spyridoula; Sääkslahti, Arja; Tomporowski, Phillip D

    2016-01-01

    In light of the interrelation between motor and cognitive development and the predictive value of the former for the latter, the secular decline observed in motor coordination ability as early as preschool urges identification of interventions that may jointly impact motor and cognitive efficiency. The aim of this study was twofold. It (1) explored the outcomes of enriched physical education (PE), centered on deliberate play and cognitively challenging variability of practice, on motor coordination and cognitive processing; (2) examined whether motor coordination outcomes mediate intervention effects on children's cognition, while controlling for moderation by lifestyle factors as outdoor play habits and weight status. Four hundred and sixty children aged 5-10 years participated in a 6-month group randomized intervention in PE, with or without playful coordinative and cognitive enrichment. The weight status and spontaneous outdoor play habits of children (parental report of outdoor play) were evaluated at baseline. Before and after the intervention, motor developmental level (Movement Assessment Battery for Children) was evaluated in all children, who were then assessed either with a test of working memory (Random Number Generation task), or with a test of attention (from the Cognitive Assessment System). Children assigned to the 'enriched' intervention showed more pronounced improvements in all motor coordination assessments (manual dexterity, ball skills, static/dynamic balance). The beneficial effect on ball skills was amplified by the level of spontaneous outdoor play and weight status. Among indices of executive function and attention, only that of inhibition showed a differential effect of intervention type. Moderated mediation showed that the better outcome of the enriched PE on ball skills mediated the better inhibition outcome, but only when the enrichment intervention was paralleled by a medium-to-high level of outdoor play. Results suggest that

  13. Joint attention difficulties in autistic adults: An interactive eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, Nathan; Stieglitz Ham, Heidi; Brock, Jon; Woolgar, Alexandra; Kloth, Nadine; Palermo, Romina; McArthur, Genevieve

    2017-04-01

    Joint attention - the ability to coordinate attention with a social partner - is critical for social communication, learning and the regulation of interpersonal relationships. Infants and young children with autism demonstrate impairments in both initiating and responding to joint attention bids in naturalistic settings. However, little is known about joint attention abilities in adults with autism. Here, we tested 17 autistic adults and 17 age- and nonverbal intelligence quotient-matched controls using an interactive eye-tracking paradigm in which participants initiated and responded to joint attention bids with an on-screen avatar. Compared to control participants, autistic adults completed fewer trials successfully. They were also slower to respond to joint attention bids in the first block of testing but performed as well as controls in the second block. There were no group differences in responding to spatial cues on a non-social task with similar attention and oculomotor demands. These experimental results were mirrored in the subjective reports given by participants, with some commenting that they initially found it challenging to communicate using eye gaze, but were able to develop strategies that allowed them to achieve joint attention. Our study indicates that for many autistic individuals, subtle difficulties using eye-gaze information persist well into adulthood.

  14. Look at this: the neural correlates of initiating and responding to bids for joint attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth eRedcay

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available When engaging in joint attention, one person directs another person’s attention to an object (Initiating Joint Attention, IJA, and the second person’s attention follows (Responding to Joint Attention, RJA. As such, joint attention must occur within the context of a social interaction. This ability is critical to language and social development; yet the neural bases for this pivotal skill remain understudied. This paucity of research is likely due to the challenge in acquiring functional MRI data during a naturalistic, contingent social interaction. To examine the neural bases of both IJA and RJA we implemented a dual-video set-up that allowed for a face-to-face interaction between subject and experimenter via video during fMRI data collection. In each trial, participants either followed the experimenter’s gaze to a target (RJA or cued the experimenter to look at the target (IJA. A control condition, solo attention (SA, was included in which the subject shifted gaze to a target while the experimenter closed her eyes. Block and event-related analyses were conducted and revealed common and distinct regions for IJA and RJA. Distinct regions included the ventromedial prefrontal cortex for RJA and intraparietal sulcus and middle frontal gyrus for IJA (as compared to SA. Conjunction analyses revealed overlap in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS for IJA and RJA (as compared to SA for the event analyses. Functional connectivity analyses during a resting baseline suggest joint attention processes recruit distinct but interacting networks, including social-cognitive, voluntary attention orienting, and visual networks. This novel experimental set-up allowed for the identification of the neural bases of joint attention during a real-time interaction and findings suggest that whether one is the initiator or responder, the dMPFC and right pSTS, are selectively recruited during periods of joint

  15. Joint-Attentional States and Lexical Acquisition at 18 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Philip J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Two groups of 18-month-olds were exposed to a novel object labeled "dodo." The object was introduced when the infant's attention was focused either on the object or on another object. Infants in the group with attention on the object were more likely than the others to identify the dodo object in subsequent comprehension tests. (MDM)

  16. The effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in autistic children: A randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy a...... skills in children than play. Session analysis showed significantly more and lengthier events of eye contact and turn-taking in improvisational music therapy than play sessions. The implications of these findings are discussed further.......The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy...... and play sessions with toys, and using standardized tools and DVD analysis of sessions to evaluate behavioral changes in children with autism. The overall results indicated that improvisational music therapy was more effective at facilitating joint attention behaviors and non-verbal social communication...

  17. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Preschool-Based Joint Attention Intervention for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaale, Anett; Smith, Lars; Sponheim, Eili

    2012-01-01

    Background: Deficits in joint attention (JA) and joint engagement (JE) represent a core problem in young children with autism as these affect language and social development. Studies of parent-mediated and specialist-mediated JA-intervention suggest that such intervention may be effective. However, there is little knowledge about the success of…

  18. Social Attention, Joint Attention and Sustained Attention in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Williams Syndrome: Convergences and Divergences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanti, Giacomo; Fanning, Peter A. J.; Hocking, Darren R.; Sievers, Stephanie; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2017-01-01

    There is limited knowledge on shared and syndrome-specific attentional profiles in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Williams syndrome (WS). Using eye-tracking, we examined attentional profiles of 35 preschoolers with ASD, 22 preschoolers with WS and 20 typically developing children across social and non-social dimensions of attention. Children…

  19. The Role of Polyperspective Representations in Joint Attention Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zotov M.V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work was to test the hypothesis that one's identification of objects of attention in an observed individual depends on his/her understanding of the context of a communicative situation based on the comparison of the participants' points of view. In the first experimental study the subjects (N=74 carried out visual search for objects of attention of participants of non-verbal communication scenes with/without information on the communication context provided, and with short/prolonged display of information for assessing gaze direction of the participants. Understanding the context resulted in a higher efficiency of identification and saccadic detection of the participants' objects of attention in the subjects, regardless of their access to the information on gaze direction. In the second experiment the subjects (N=32, after watching videos of communication episodes, were asked to search for changes of different objects in the scenes. Those subjects who had a clear understanding of the context of communication first of all noticed the changes in the future objects of attention of the participants, in spite of the absence of any 'hints' like head or eye orientation. The outcomes of the research are discussed within the framework of concepts focusing on the significance of polyperspective representations for the understanding of communicative signals

  20. Joint Attention Behaviours and Vocabulary Development in Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, L.; Salvi, A.; D'Odorico, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Because of their difficulties in language development, various studies have focussed on the precursors of linguistic skills in children with Down syndrome. However, data on the predictive role of joint attention on language development in this population are inconsistent. The present study aimed to analyse attention behaviours in a…

  1. Joint Attention Behaviours and Vocabulary Development in Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, L.; Salvi, A.; D'Odorico, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Because of their difficulties in language development, various studies have focussed on the precursors of linguistic skills in children with Down syndrome. However, data on the predictive role of joint attention on language development in this population are inconsistent. The present study aimed to analyse attention behaviours in a…

  2. Background Television and Infants' Allocation of Their Attention during Toy Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setliff, Alissa E.; Courage, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of background television on 6- and 12-month-olds' attention during 20 min of toy play was examined. During the first or second half of the session, a clip from a variety of commonly available television programs was presented. The duration and frequency of infants' looks to the toys and to the television indicated that regardless of age…

  3. Guided versus Independent Play: Which Better Sustains Attention among Infants and Toddlers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner-Neblett, Nicole; Holochwost, Steven J.; Gallagher, Kathleen Cranley; Iruka, Iheoma U.; Odom, Samuel L.; Pungello, Elizabeth P.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of sustained attention occurs during infancy and toddlerhood, as neurological maturation allows children to increasingly attend to objects and events in the environment (Ruff & Rothbart, 1996). Play experiences during this period can serve as a context during which children's ability to attend can provide an opportunity for…

  4. Emotional communication in the context of joint attention for food stimuli: effects on attentional and affective processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soussignan, Robert; Schaal, Benoist; Boulanger, Véronique; Garcia, Samuel; Jiang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Guided by distinct theoretical frameworks (the embodiment theories, shared-signal hypothesis, and appraisal theories), we examined the effects of gaze direction and emotional expressions (joy, disgust, and neutral) of virtual characters on attention orienting and affective reactivity of participants while they were engaged in joint attention for food stimuli contrasted by preference (disliked, moderately liked, and liked). The participants were exposed to videos of avatars looking at food and displaying facial expressions with their gaze directed either toward the food only or toward the food and participants consecutively. We recorded eye-tracking responses, heart rate, facial electromyography (zygomatic, corrugator, and levator labii regions), and food wanting/liking. The avatars' joy faces increased the participants' zygomatic reactions and food liking, with mutual eye contact boosting attentional responses. Eye contact also fostered disgust reactions to disliked food, regardless of the avatars' expressions. The findings show that joint attention for food accompanied by face-to-face emotional communication elicits differential attentional and affective responses. The findings appear consistent with the appraisal theories of emotion.

  5. Brief Report: Reduced Temporal-Central EEG Alpha Coherence during Joint Attention Perception in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Mark; McMahon, Camilla M.; Davidson, Bridget C.; Newell, Lisa C.; Mundy, Peter C.; Henderson, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Although prior studies have demonstrated reduced resting state EEG coherence in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), no studies have explored the nature of EEG coherence during joint attention. We examined the EEG coherence of the joint attention network in adolescents with and without ASD during congruent and incongruent joint attention…

  6. Playing smart vs. playing safe: the joint expression of phenotypic plasticity and potential bet hedging across and within thermal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, A M

    2014-06-01

    Adaptive phenotypic plasticity evolves when cues reliably predict fitness consequences of life-history decisions, whereas bet hedging evolves when environments are unpredictable. These modes of response should be jointly expressed, because environmental variance is composed of both predictable and unpredictable components. However, little attention has been paid to the joint expression of plasticity and bet hedging. Here, I examine the simultaneous expression of plasticity in germination rate and two potential bet-hedging traits - germination fraction and within-season diversification in timing of germination - in seeds from multiple seed families of five geographically distant populations of Lobelia inflata (L.) subjected to a thermal gradient. Populations differ in germination plasticity to temperature, in total germination fraction and in the expression of potential diversification in the timing of germination. The observation of a negative partial correlation between the expression of plasticity and germination variance (potential diversification), and a positive correlation between plasticity and germination fraction is suggestive of a trade-off between modes of response to environmental variance. If the observed correlations are indicative of those between adaptive plasticity and bet hedging, we expect an optimal balance to exist and differ among populations. I discuss the challenges involved in testing whether the balance between plasticity and bet hedging depends on the relative predictability of environmental variance.

  7. The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor α5 Subunit Plays a Key Role in Attention Circuitry and Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Craig D. C.; De Biasi, Mariella; Fletcher, Paul J.; Lambe, Evelyn K.

    2010-01-01

    Stimulation of the prefrontal cortex by acetylcholine is critical for attention; however, the cellular mechanisms underlying its influence on attention pathways within the brain are not well understood. Pyramidal neurons in layer VI of the prefrontal cortex are believed to play an important role in this process because they are excited by acetylcholine and provide a major source of feedback projections to the thalamus. Here, we show using whole-cell electrophysiology that the relatively rare α5 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor powerfully enhances nicotinic currents in layer VI pyramidal neurons in prefrontal cortical brain slices from adult mice. In addition, behavioral experiments using the five-choice serial reaction time test show that the presence of the nicotinic receptor α5 subunit also increases the accuracy of adult mice on this visual attention task under highly demanding conditions. Together, these findings demonstrate a novel and important role for the nicotinic receptor α5 subunit in adult brain circuitry required for attentional performance. PMID:20610759

  8. Is Infant Initiation of Joint Attention by Pointing Affected by Type of Interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Fabia; Perucchini, Paola; March, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of two experiments studying the effects of type of interaction on infant production of declarative pointing. In Experiment 1, intensity of social presence was manipulated in adult-infant interaction with 12-19-month-olds (no social presence; adult responding only; adult also initiating joint attentional bids).…

  9. Brief Report: Joint Attention and Information Processing in Children with Higher Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Peter; Kim, Kwanguk; McIntyre, Nancy; Lerro, Lindsay; Jarrold, William

    2016-01-01

    Theory suggests that information processing during joint attention may be atypical in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This hypothesis was tested in a study of school-aged children with higher functioning ASD and groups of children with symptoms of ADHD or typical development. The results indicated that the control groups displayed…

  10. Using Virtual Reality Environment to Improve Joint Attention Associated with Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yufang; Huang, Ruowen

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study is using data glove to practice Joint attention skill in virtual reality environment for people with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). The virtual reality environment provides a safe environment for PDD people. Especially, when they made errors during practice in virtual reality environment, there is no suffering or…

  11. Hamlet without the Prince: Shortcomings of an Activity-Based Account of Joint Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, R. Peter

    2007-01-01

    In this commentary, I consider several strengths of the position adopted by Racine and Carpendale (2007), but suggest that the authors are in danger of overstating their case. In doing so, they appear to sideline an issue that should be pivotal for accounts of joint attention: how does a child come to arrive at an understanding that people, both…

  12. "Gaze Leading": Initiating Simulated Joint Attention Influences Eye Movements and Choice Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Andrew P.; Murphy, Emily; Naughtin, Claire K.; Kritikos, Ada; Schilbach, Leonhard; Becker, Stefanie I.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research in adults has made great use of the gaze cuing paradigm to understand the behavior of the follower in joint attention episodes. We implemented a gaze leading task to investigate the initiator--the other person in these triadic interactions. In a series of gaze-contingent eye-tracking studies, we show that fixation dwell time upon…

  13. Hamlet without the Prince: Shortcomings of an Activity-Based Account of Joint Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, R. Peter

    2007-01-01

    In this commentary, I consider several strengths of the position adopted by Racine and Carpendale (2007), but suggest that the authors are in danger of overstating their case. In doing so, they appear to sideline an issue that should be pivotal for accounts of joint attention: how does a child come to arrive at an understanding that people, both…

  14. Using Virtual Reality Environment to Improve Joint Attention Associated with Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yufang; Huang, Ruowen

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study is using data glove to practice Joint attention skill in virtual reality environment for people with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). The virtual reality environment provides a safe environment for PDD people. Especially, when they made errors during practice in virtual reality environment, there is no suffering or…

  15. Temporal expectation and attention jointly modulate auditory oscillatory activity in the beta band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorovic, Ana; Schoffelen, Jan-Mathijs; van Ede, Freek; Maris, Eric; de Lange, Floris P

    2015-01-01

    The neural response to a stimulus is influenced by endogenous factors such as expectation and attention. Current research suggests that expectation and attention exert their effects in opposite directions, where expectation decreases neural activity in sensory areas, while attention increases it. However, expectation and attention are usually studied either in isolation or confounded with each other. A recent study suggests that expectation and attention may act jointly on sensory processing, by increasing the neural response to expected events when they are attended, but decreasing it when they are unattended. Here we test this hypothesis in an auditory temporal cueing paradigm using magnetoencephalography in humans. In our study participants attended to, or away from, tones that could arrive at expected or unexpected moments. We found a decrease in auditory beta band synchrony to expected (versus unexpected) tones if they were unattended, but no difference if they were attended. Modulations in beta power were already evident prior to the expected onset times of the tones. These findings suggest that expectation and attention jointly modulate sensory processing.

  16. Using Perseverative Interests to Elicit Joint Attention Behaviors in Young Children with Autism: Theoretical and Clinical Implications for Understanding Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vismara, Laurie A.; Lyons, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Various explanations have been offered in the literature on the underlying cause of joint attention deficits in autism. One possible explanation is that children with autism are capable of producing joint attention but lack the social motivation to share their interests with others. The current study used a single-subject reversal design with…

  17. The Effectiveness of a Joint Attention Training Program on Improving Communication Skills of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Mourad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of a joint attention intervention program on improving joint attention and communication skills in children with autism disorder. Participants were ten children between the ages of five and seven who attended a school for children with developmental disabilities (Tarbya Fekrya ). A pre-post…

  18. Impact of robot-mediated interaction system on joint attention skills for children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhi; Zhang, Lian; Bekele, Esubalew; Swanson, Amy; Crittendon, Julie A; Warren, Zachary; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2013-06-01

    With Centers for Disease Control and Prevention prevalence estimates for children with autism spectrum disorder 1 in 88, identification and effective treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often characterized as a public health emergency. There is an urgent need for more efficacious treatments whose realistic application will yield more substantial impact on the neurodevelopmental trajectories of young children with ASD. Robotic technology appears particularly promising for potential application to ASD intervention. Initial results applying robotic technology to ASD intervention have consistently demonstrated a unique potential to elicit interest and attention in young children with ASD. As such, technologies capable of intelligently harnessing this potential, along with capabilities for detecting and meaningfully responding to young children's attention and behavior, may represent intervention platforms with substantial promise for impacting early symptoms of ASD. Our current work describes development and application of a novel adaptive robot-mediated interaction technology for facilitating early joint attention skills for children with ASD. The system is composed of a humanoid robot endowed with a prompt decision hierarchy to alter behavior in concert with reinforcing stimuli within an intervention environment to promote joint attention skills. Results of implementation of this system over time, including specific analyses of attentional bias and performance enhancement, with 6 young children with ASD are presented.

  19. Brain connectivity study of joint attention using frequency-domain optical imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Ujwal; Zhu, Banghe; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2010-02-01

    Autism is a socio-communication brain development disorder. It is marked by degeneration in the ability to respond to joint attention skill task, from as early as 12 to 18 months of age. This trait is used to distinguish autistic from nonautistic populations. In this study, diffuse optical imaging is being used to study brain connectivity for the first time in response to joint attention experience in normal adults. The prefrontal region of the brain was non-invasively imaged using a frequency-domain based optical imager. The imaging studies were performed on 11 normal right-handed adults and optical measurements were acquired in response to joint-attention based video clips. While the intensity-based optical data provides information about the hemodynamic response of the underlying neural process, the time-dependent phase-based optical data has the potential to explicate the directional information on the activation of the brain. Thus brain connectivity studies are performed by computing covariance/correlations between spatial units using this frequency-domain based optical measurements. The preliminary results indicate that the extent of synchrony and directional variation in the pattern of activation varies in the left and right frontal cortex. The results have significant implication for research in neural pathways associated with autism that can be mapped using diffuse optical imaging tools in the future.

  20. Atypical brain activation patterns during a face-to-face joint attention game in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redcay, Elizabeth; Dodell-Feder, David; Mavros, Penelope L; Kleiner, Mario; Pearrow, Mark J; Triantafyllou, Christina; Gabrieli, John D; Saxe, Rebecca

    2013-10-01

    Joint attention behaviors include initiating one's own and responding to another's bid for joint attention to an object, person, or topic. Joint attention abilities in autism are pervasively atypical, correlate with development of language and social abilities, and discriminate children with autism from other developmental disorders. Despite the importance of these behaviors, the neural correlates of joint attention in individuals with autism remain unclear. This paucity of data is likely due to the inherent challenge of acquiring data during a real-time social interaction. We used a novel experimental set-up in which participants engaged with an experimenter in an interactive face-to-face joint attention game during fMRI data acquisition. Both initiating and responding to joint attention behaviors were examined as well as a solo attention (SA) control condition. Participants included adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 13), a mean age- and sex-matched neurotypical group (n = 14), and a separate group of neurotypical adults (n = 22). Significant differences were found between groups within social-cognitive brain regions, including dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC) and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), during the RJA as compared to SA conditions. Region-of-interest analyses revealed a lack of signal differentiation between joint attention and control conditions within left pSTS and dMPFC in individuals with ASD. Within the pSTS, this lack of differentiation was characterized by reduced activation during joint attention and relative hyper-activation during SA. These findings suggest a possible failure of developmental neural specialization within the STS and dMPFC to joint attention in ASD.

  1. A frontotemporoparietal network common to initiating and responding to joint attention bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, Nathan; Brock, Jon; Woolgar, Alexandra

    2015-03-01

    Joint attention is a fundamental cognitive ability that supports daily interpersonal relationships and communication. The Parallel Distributed Processing model (PDPM) postulates that responding to (RJA) and initiating (IJA) joint attention are predominantly supported by posterior-parietal and frontal regions respectively. It also argues that these neural networks integrate during development, supporting the parallel processes of self- and other-attention representation during interactions. However, direct evidence for the PDPM is limited due to a lack of ecologically valid experimental paradigms that can capture both RJA and IJA. Building on existing interactive approaches, we developed a virtual reality paradigm where participants engaged in an online interaction to complete a cooperative task. By including tightly controlled baseline conditions to remove activity associated with non-social task demands, we were able to directly contrast the neural correlates of RJA and IJA to determine whether these processes are supported by common brain regions. Both RJA and IJA activated broad frontotemporoparietal networks. Critically, a conjunction analysis identified that a subset of these regions were common to both RJA and IJA. This right-lateralised network included the dorsal portion of the middle frontal gyrus (MFG), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), middle temporal gyrus (MTG), precentral gyrus, posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and precuneus. Additional activation was observed in this network for IJA relative to RJA at MFG, IFG, TPJ and precuneus. This is the first imaging study to directly investigate the neural correlates common to RJA and IJA engagement, and thus support the assumption that a broad integrated network underlies the parallel aspects of both initiating and responding to joint attention.

  2. Methods to improve joint attention in young children with autism: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paparella T

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tanya Paparella, Stephanny F N Freeman Department of Child Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: We provide an overview of studies in the past 10 years (2004–2014 that have aimed to improve joint attention (JA in young children at risk for, or with, autism spectrum disorder. Thirteen randomized controlled trial (RCT interventions were found, which received particular focus. Three studies used intervention methods with a developmental orientation and focused on caregiver-mediated methods. Others used combined developmental and behavioral approaches and delivered intervention via trained interventionists, caregivers, and teachers. Interventions ranged widely in density, both with respect to the amount of intervention delivered weekly and the total duration of intervention. Fourteen single-subject research design (SSRD studies and one quasi-experimental pre–post design study were also included. Notably absent in the RCTs were studies using only behavioral methods, while behavioral methods dominated in the SSRDs. The outcomes of the RCTs using combined behavioral and developmental methods generally demonstrate short-term social communication gains. While some studies demonstrated long-term maintenance and positive outcomes in related areas such as language, many did not. The mixed results for language outcomes indicate a need for further investigation. In addition, future studies should further examine participants' developmental readiness and intervention dose in relation to outcome, as well as aim to isolate active ingredients of interventions. Keywords: intervention, joint attention, joint engagement, language, randomized controlled trial

  3. Social cognition, joint attention, and communicative competence from 9 to 15 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, M; Nagell, K; Tomasello, M

    1998-01-01

    At around 1 year of age, human infants display a number of new behaviors that seem to indicate a newly emerging understanding of other persons as intentional beings whose attention to outside objects may be shared, followed into, and directed in various ways. These behaviors have mostly been studied separately. In the current study, we investigated the most important of these behaviors together as they emerged in a single group of 24 infants between 9 and 15 months of age. At each of seven monthly visits, we measured joint attentional engagement, gaze and point following, imitation of two different kinds of actions on objects, imperative and declarative gestures, and comprehension and production of language. We also measured several nonsocial-cognitive skills as a point of comparison. We report two studies. The focus of the first study was the initial emergence of infants' social-cognitive skills and how these skills are related to one another developmentally. We found a reliable pattern of emergence: Infants progressed from sharing to following to directing others' attention and behavior. The nonsocial skills did not emerge predictably in this developmental sequence. Furthermore, correlational analyses showed that the ages of emergence of all pairs of the social-cognitive skills or their components were inter-related. The focus of the second study was the social interaction of infants and their mothers, especially with regard to their skills of joint attentional engagement (including mothers' use of language to follow into or direct infants' attention) and how these skills related to infants' early communicative competence. Our measures of communicative competence included not only language production, as in previous studies, but also language comprehension and gesture production. It was found that two measures--the amount of time infants spent in joint engagement with their mothers and the degree to which mothers used language that followed into their infant

  4. Effects of Joint Attention on Long-Term Memory in 9-Month-Old Infants: An Event-Related Potentials Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Franziska; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2011-01-01

    Joint attention develops during the first year of life but little is known about its effects on long-term memory. We investigated whether joint attention modulates long-term memory in 9-month-old infants. Infants were familiarized with visually presented objects in either of two conditions that differed in the degree of joint attention (high…

  5. Social orienting and joint attention in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Martina; Glaser, Bronwyn; Wood de Wilde, Hilary; Gentaz, Edouard; Eliez, Stephan; Schaer, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) orient less to socially salient stimuli, such as dynamic social images, than typically developing children. In turn, this lack of social orienting is thought to impair affected individuals’ socio communicative development. Here, we aim to explore the relationship between time spent on dynamic social images and ASD behaviors, such as joint attention and communication, in preschoolers on the autism spectrum. In this study, social orienting is measured using eye-tracking during a task consisting of side-by-side presentations of dynamic social images and dynamic geometric images. The side of the screen where each type of video was presented alternated between items to avoid visual perseveration from influencing the location of participants’ first fixations. Visual exploration patterns recorded during the task from 33 preschoolers with ASD were compared with those of 27 typical developing (TD) children. Additionally, we quantified joint attention behaviors and used standardized parent reports to measure communication. We observed reduced orienting to dynamic social images in preschoolers with ASD compared to TD children. Also, ASD participants went to the dynamic social images less frequently for their first fixations. However, we observed great heterogeneity within the ASD group. ASD preschoolers who spent more time on the dynamic social images also presented more pronounced visual engagement with the dynamic social images (longer mean fixation duration and fewer saccades per second). Moreover, in the ASD group, more time spent on dynamic social images correlated with increased frequency of joint attention behaviors, which in turn correlated with improved communication skills. Our results support reduced social orienting in children with ASD, which correlated with their visual exploration patterns. Further, reduced orienting to the social world in young children with ASD is related to socio communicative deficits and

  6. Bids for Joint Attention by Parent-Child Dyads and by Dyads of Young Peers in Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninio, Anat

    2016-01-01

    Before they are 3;0-3;6, children typically do not engage with peers in focused interaction, although they do with adults. With parents, children interact around the "here-and-now". We hypothesize that young peers do not attempt to establish joint attention to present objects. Using the CHILDES database, we compared attention-directives…

  7. Resurrecting free play in young children: looking beyond fitness and fatness to attention, affiliation, and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdette, Hillary L; Whitaker, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    We have observed that the nature and amount of free play in young children has changed. Our purpose in this article is to demonstrate why play, and particularly active, unstructured, outdoor play, needs to be restored in children's lives. We propose that efforts to increase physical activity in young children might be more successful if physical activity is promoted using different language-encouraging play-and if a different set of outcomes are emphasized-aspects of child well-being other than physical health. Because most physical activity in preschoolers is equivalent to gross motor play, we suggest that the term "play" be used to encourage movement in preschoolers. The benefits of play on children's social, emotional, and cognitive development are explored.

  8. The relationship between joint attention and theory of mind in neurotypical adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jordan A; Bryant, Lauren K; Malle, Bertram F; Povinelli, Daniel J; Pruett, John R

    2017-05-01

    Joint attention (JA) is hypothesized to have a close relationship with developing theory of mind (ToM) capabilities. We tested the co-occurrence of ToM and JA in social interactions between adults with no reported history of psychiatric illness or neurodevelopmental disorders. Participants engaged in an experimental task that encouraged nonverbal communication, including JA, and also ToM activity. We adapted an in-lab variant of experience sampling methods (Bryant et al., 2013) to measure ToM during JA based on participants' subjective reports of their thoughts while performing the task. This experiment successfully elicited instances of JA in 17/20 dyads. We compared participants' thought contents during episodes of JA and non-JA. Our results suggest that, in adults, JA and ToM may occur independently. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Who Gets More Attention When an Adult Plays with Two 7-Month-Old Infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Katherine A.

    Focusing on infants' physical attractiveness and behavior, this study explores reasons some infants receive greater amounts and different types of attention from adults than do others. Subjects were observed in 21 groups of three, consisting of one adult and two same-sex infants. Adult subjects were unmarried, childless undergraduate women…

  10. Triple play: Additive contributions of enhanced expectancies, autonomy support, and external attentional focus to motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, Gabriele; Lewthwaite, Rebecca; Cardozo, Priscila; Chiviacowsky, Suzete

    2017-01-24

    In the OPTIMAL theory of motor learning [Wulf, G., & Lewthwaite, R. (2016). Optimizing performance through intrinsic motivation and attention for learning: The OPTIMAL theory of motor learning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. doi:10.3758/s13423-015-0999-9], 3 factors are postulated to facilitate learning: enhanced expectancies (EE) for performance, autonomy support (AS), and an external focus (EF) of attention. In 3 recent studies, combinations 2 of these variables resulted in superior learning relative to the presence of only 1 variable, or none. We examined whether the combination of all 3 factors would enhance learning relative to combinations of 2 factors. Our design included EE-AS, EE-EF, AS-EF, and AS-EE-EF groups. Participants threw balls at a target with their non-dominant arm. In the EE conditions, they received positive social-comparative feedback. In the AS conditions, they were allowed to throw with their dominant arm on trial blocks chosen by them. In the EF conditions, participants were asked to focus on the target. On a delayed retention test, the AS-EE-EF group outperformed all other groups. The findings provide evidence that enhanced expectancies, autonomy support, and an external focus can contribute in an additive fashion to optimize motor learning.

  11. First Chinese public hospital wins Joint Commission International accreditation: the Health Information Department played a key role in the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Audrey; Jun, Cheng Li

    2008-07-01

    Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital in Hangzhou, China spent five years preparing for a Joint Commission International accreditation survey. In March 2007 it became the first public hospital on the Chinese mainland to attain international accreditation. The Health Information Department, managed according to Western standards, played an integral role in preparing the hospital for the survey.

  12. Eye-Tracking as a Measure of Responsiveness to Joint Attention in Infants at Risk for Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navab, Anahita; Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Johnson, Scott P.; Sigman, Marian; Hutman, Ted

    2012-01-01

    Reduced responsiveness to joint attention (RJA), as assessed by the Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS), is predictive of both subsequent language difficulties and autism diagnosis. Eye-tracking measurement of RJA is a promising prognostic tool because it is highly precise and standardized. However, the construct validity of eye-tracking…

  13. The Joint Commission has provided a tool to change your work force: are you paying attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, P J; Strader, M K

    1998-03-01

    Most health care managers wonder how to change employee "attitudes" so that their staff will be more accountable for patient satisfaction, cost reduction, and quality of care. Employees were trained to function in an industry where the power players were the physician and the administrator and now it is exceedingly difficult to get them to switch their attention to the patient and the payer in a market-driven economy. For hospital managers, the answer may be right at their fingertips: The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations' standards demanding that employee competence be objectively measured, proven, tracked & trended, improved, and age specific. A comprehensive competence assessment system can save the health care manager enormous work in measuring fewer things, focusing performance assessment on the 20 percent of things that are true problems, and helping to specifically define certain competencies such as customer focus and cost consciousness so that coaching, training, and giving performance feedback is easier. Developing a comprehensive competence assessment system is a powerful tool to change the culture of organizations. Consequently, it is important that managers be aware of those possibilities before they embark on developing "competencies" or before their organizations get too carried away on redesigning systems to satisfy standards.

  14. Infants' behavioral styles in joint attention situations and parents' socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abels, Monika; Hutman, Ted

    2015-08-01

    In this study the eco-cultural model of parenting (Keller, H. (2007). Cultures of infancy. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum) was applied to the study of joint attention behavior of children from families with different socio-economic status (SES). It was hypothesized that infants' early communication styles would differ with SES reflecting more independent or interdependent interactions with their caregivers. It was also hypothesized that infants would use the same types of behaviors whether they have declarative or imperative communication goals. The Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS, Mundy et al., 2003) was administered to 103 typically developing infants of 12 months (approximately half of them siblings of children with autism). A factor analysis, yielding four behavioral factors, namely pointing, eye contact, actions and following points, confirmed the hypothesis that infants use behaviors consistently across situations independent of their communicative intent. MANOVAs (comprising parental education and income) revealed that higher SES infants showed actions more frequently in the ESCS whereas lower SES infants followed experimenter's points more frequently. The results are discussed in the context of presumably differing socialization goals for infants and the divergent contribution of parental education and income that seem to have additive contribution to some factors (actions, following points) but divergent contributions to others (pointing, eye contact).

  15. Playing for us: The influence of joint action on planning in three-year-olds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerson, S.A.; Hunnius, S.; Bekkering, H.

    2013-01-01

    Learning to plan sequences of actions and appropriately adapt our actions during interactions with others are both critical skills upon which much of human society is built. We know that children’s joint action and planning skills are both undergoing development during the preschool years, but not m

  16. Plug and play type joints in steel and steel-concrete composite constructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlaard, F.S.K.; Brekelmans, J.W.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally for Western Europe countries, joints in steel frame structures are realised using bolts and welds. In the workshop the components are made using welding and drilling of the bolt holes. On site these structural components are connected together using bolts and nuts. The actions on site

  17. Examining executive function in the second year of life: coherence, stability, and relations to joint attention and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stephanie E; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Several theories of executive function (EF) propose that EF development corresponds to children's ability to form representations and reflect on represented stimuli in the environment. However, research on early EF is primarily conducted with preschoolers, despite the fact that important developments in representation (e.g., language, gesture, shared joint attention) occur within the 1st years of life. In the present study, EF performance and the relationship between EF and early representation (i.e., joint attention, language) were longitudinally examined in 47 children at 14 and 18 months of age. Results suggest that the 2nd year of life is a distinct period of EF development in which children exhibit very little coherence or stability across a battery of EF tasks. However, by 18 months, a subset of child participants consistently passed the majority of EF tasks, and superior EF performance was predicted by 14-month representational abilities (i.e., language comprehension and some episodes of initiating joint attention). This research suggests that the transition from foundational behavioral control in infancy to the more complex EF observed in preschool is supported by representational abilities in the 2nd year of life.

  18. Disentangling the initiation from the response in joint attention: an eye-tracking study in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeci, L; Narzisi, A; Campatelli, G; Crifaci, G; Calderoni, S; Gagliano, A; Calzone, C; Colombi, C; Pioggia, G; Muratori, F

    2016-05-17

    Joint attention (JA), whose deficit is an early risk marker for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), has two dimensions: (1) responding to JA and (2) initiating JA. Eye-tracking technology has largely been used to investigate responding JA, but rarely to study initiating JA especially in young children with ASD. The aim of this study was to describe the differences in the visual patterns of toddlers with ASD and those with typical development (TD) during both responding JA and initiating JA tasks. Eye-tracking technology was used to monitor the gaze of 17 children with ASD and 15 age-matched children with TD during the presentation of short video sequences involving one responding JA and two initiating JA tasks (initiating JA-1 and initiating JA-2). Gaze accuracy, transitions and fixations were analyzed. No differences were found in the responding JA task between children with ASD and those with TD, whereas, in the initiating JA tasks, different patterns of fixation and transitions were shown between the groups. These results suggest that children with ASD and those with TD show different visual patterns when they are expected to initiate joint attention but not when they respond to joint attention. We hypothesized that differences in transitions and fixations are linked to ASD impairments in visual disengagement from face, in global scanning of the scene and in the ability to anticipate object's action.

  19. Expectation violation and attention to pain jointly modulate neural gain in somatosensory cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fardo, Francesca; Auksztulewicz, Ryszard; Allen, Micah

    2017-01-01

    The neural processing and experience of pain are influenced by both expectations and attention. For example, the amplitude of event-related pain responses is enhanced by both novel and unexpected pain, and by moving the focus of attention towards a painful stimulus. Under predictive coding......, this congruence can be explained by appeal to a precision-weighting mechanism, which mediates bottom-up and top-down attentional processes by modulating the influence of feedforward and feedback signals throughout the cortical hierarchy. The influence of expectation and attention on pain processing can thus...... expectation violation and attention to pain modulate intrinsic (within-source) and extrinsic (between-source) connectivity in the somatosensory hierarchy. This enabled us to establish whether both expectancy and attentional processes are mediated by a similar precision-encoding mechanism within a network...

  20. Expectation violation and attention to pain jointly modulate neural gain in somatosensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardo, Francesca; Auksztulewicz, Ryszard; Allen, Micah; Dietz, Martin J; Roepstorff, Andreas; Friston, Karl J

    2017-03-21

    The neural processing and experience of pain are influenced by both expectations and attention. For example, the amplitude of event-related pain responses is enhanced by both novel and unexpected pain, and by moving the focus of attention towards a painful stimulus. Under predictive coding, this congruence can be explained by appeal to a precision-weighting mechanism, which mediates bottom-up and top-down attentional processes by modulating the influence of feedforward and feedback signals throughout the cortical hierarchy. The influence of expectation and attention on pain processing can thus be mapped onto changes in effective connectivity between or within specific neuronal populations, using a canonical microcircuit (CMC) model of hierarchical processing. We thus implemented a CMC within dynamic causal modelling (DCM) for magnetoencephalography in human subjects, to investigate how expectation violation and attention to pain modulate intrinsic (within-source) and extrinsic (between-source) connectivity in the somatosensory hierarchy. This enabled us to establish whether both expectancy and attentional processes are mediated by a similar precision-encoding mechanism within a network of somatosensory, frontal and parietal sources. We found that both unexpected and attended pain modulated the gain of superficial pyramidal cells in primary and secondary somatosensory cortex. This modulation occurred in the context of increased lateralized recurrent connectivity between somatosensory and fronto-parietal sources, driven by unexpected painful occurrences. Finally, the strength of effective connectivity parameters in S1, S2 and IFG predicted individual differences in subjective pain modulation ratings. Our findings suggest that neuromodulatory gain control in the somatosensory hierarchy underlies the influence of both expectation violation and attention on cortical processing and pain perception.

  1. Putting the 'Joy' in Joint Attention:Affective-Gestural Synchrony by Parents who Point for their Babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Leavens

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite a growing body of work examining the expression of infants' positive emotion in joint attention contexts, few studies have examined the moment-by-moment dynamics of emotional signaling by adults interacting with babies in these contexts. We invited 73 parents of infants (three fathers to our laboratory, comprising parent-infant dyads with babies at 6 (n = 15, 9 (n = 15, 12 (n = 15, 15 (n = 14, and 18 (n = 14 months of age. Parents were asked to sit in a chair centered on the long axis of a room and to point to distant dolls (2.5 meters when the dolls were animated, while holding their children in their laps. We found that parents displayed the highest levels of smiling at the same time that they pointed, thus demonstrating affective/referential synchrony in their infant-directed communication. There were no discernable differences in this pattern among parents with children of different ages. Thus, parents spontaneously encapsulated episodes of joint attention with positive emotion.

  2. Own-age biases in adults' and children's joint attention: Biased face prioritization, but not gaze following!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freebody, Susannah; Kuhn, Gustav

    2016-11-10

    Previous studies have reported own-age biases in younger and older adults in gaze following. We investigated own-age biases in social attentional processes between adults and children by focusing on two aspects of the joint attention process; the extent to which people attend towards an individual's face, and the extent to which they fixate objects that are looked at by this person (i.e., gaze following). Participants viewed images that always contained a child and an adult who either looked towards each other or each looked at objects located to their side. Observers consistently, and rapidly fixated the actor's faces, though the children were faster to fixate the child's face than the adult's faces, whilst the adults were faster to fixate on the adult's face than the child's face. The children also spent significantly more time fixating the child's face than the adult's face, and the opposite pattern of results was found for the adults. Whilst both adults and children prioritized objects when they were looked at by the actor, both groups showed equivalent levels of gaze following, and there was no own-age bias for gaze following. Our results show an own-age bias for prioritizing faces, but not gaze following.

  3. Problematic video game play in a college sample and its relationship to time management skills and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolchinsky, Anatol; Jefferson, Stephen D

    2011-09-01

    Although numerous benefits have been uncovered related to moderate video game play, research suggests that problematic video game playing behaviors can cause problems in the lives of some video game players. To further our understanding of this phenomenon, we investigated how problematic video game playing symptoms are related to an assortment of variables, including time management skills and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Additionally, we tested several simple mediation/moderation models to better explain previous theories that posit simple correlations between these variables. As expected, the results from the present study indicated that time management skills appeared to mediate the relationship between ADHD symptoms and problematic play endorsement (though only for men). Unexpectedly, we found that ADHD symptoms appeared to mediate the relation between time management skills and problematic play behaviors; however, this was only found for women in our sample. Finally, future implications are discussed.

  4. A novel Brain Computer Interface for classification of social joint attention in autism and comparison of 3 experimental setups: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Carlos P; Simões, Marco A; Mouga, Susana; Andrade, João; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2017-10-01

    We present a novel virtual-reality P300-based Brain Computer Interface (BCI) paradigm using social cues to direct the focus of attention. We combined interactive immersive virtual-reality (VR) technology with the properties of P300 signals in a training tool which can be used in social attention disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We tested the novel social attention training paradigm (P300-based BCI paradigm for rehabilitation of joint-attention skills) in 13 healthy participants, in 3 EEG systems. The more suitable setup was tested online with 4 ASD subjects. Statistical accuracy was assessed based on the detection of P300, using spatial filtering and a Naïve-Bayes classifier. We compared: 1 - g.Mobilab+ (active dry-electrodes, wireless transmission); 2 - g.Nautilus (active electrodes, wireless transmission); 3 - V-Amp with actiCAP Xpress dry-electrodes. Significant statistical classification was achieved in all systems. g.Nautilus proved to be the best performing system in terms of accuracy in the detection of P300, preparation time, speed and reported comfort. Proof of concept tests in ASD participants proved that this setup is feasible for training joint attention skills in ASD. This work provides a unique combination of 'easy-to-use' BCI systems with new technologies such as VR to train joint-attention skills in autism. Our P300 BCI paradigm is feasible for future Phase I/II clinical trials to train joint-attention skills, with successful classification within few trials, online in ASD participants. The g.Nautilus system is the best performing one to use with the developed BCI setup. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Structured Parent-Child Observations Predict Development of Conduct Problems: the Importance of Parental Negative Attention in Child-Directed Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Andrew P; McMahon, Robert J; King, Kevin M

    2017-04-01

    Structured observations of parent-child interactions are commonly used in research and clinical settings, but require additional empirical support. The current study examined the capacity of child-directed play, parent-directed play, and parent-directed chore interaction analogs to uniquely predict the development of conduct problems across a 6-year follow-up period. Parent-child observations were collected from 338 families from high-risk neighborhoods during the summer following the child's first-grade year. Participating children were 49.2 % female, 54.4 % white, and 45.6 % black, and had an average age of 7.52 years at the first assessment. Conduct problems were assessed via parent report and teacher report at five assessment points between first grade and seventh grade. Latent growth curve modeling was used to analyze predictors of conduct problem trajectory across this 6-year follow-up period. When race, sex, socioeconomic status, and maternal depressive symptoms were controlled, parental negative attention during child-directed play predicted higher levels of parent-reported conduct problems concurrently and after a 6-year follow-up period. Parental negative attention during child-directed play also predicted higher teacher-reported conduct problems 6 years later. Findings support the use of child-directed play and parent-directed chore analogs in predicting longitudinal development of conduct problems. The presence of parental negative attention during child-directed play appears to be an especially important predictor of greater conduct problems over time and across multiple domains. Additionally, the potential importance of task-incongruent behavior is proposed for further study.

  6. Phenomenology of Joint Attention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    other persons. This paper addresses a shortcoming of both contemporary psychological research and the .... as perception, judgment, memory or imagination. Every noesis also has ..... “Making Music Together” (1951/1964a). 38. This volume ...

  7. Does Child Temperament Play a Role in the Association Between Parenting Practices and Child Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullsperger, Josie M; Nigg, Joel T; Nikolas, Molly A

    2016-01-01

    Ineffective parenting practices may maintain or exacerbate attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and shape subsequent development of disruptive behavior disorders (DBD's) in youth with ADHD. Recent theoretical models have suggested that parenting may exert effects on ADHD via its role in child temperament. The current study aimed to evaluate the indirect effects of parenting dimensions on child ADHD symptoms via child temperament. Youth ages 6-17 years (N = 498; 50.4 % ADHD, 55 % male) completed a multi-stage, multi-informant assessment that included parent, child, and teacher report measures of parenting practices, child temperament, and ADHD symptoms. Statistical models examined the direct and indirect effects of maternal and paternal involvement, poor supervision, and inconsistent discipline on inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity via child temperament and personality traits. Results indicated differential patterns of effect for negative and positive parenting dimensions. First, inconsistent discipline exerted indirect effects on both ADHD symptom dimensions via child conscientiousness, such that higher levels of inconsistency predicted lower levels of conscientiousness, which in turn, predicted greater ADHD symptomatology. Similarly, poor supervision also exerted indirect effects on inattention via child conscientiousness as well as significant indirect effects on hyperactivity-impulsivity via its impact on both child reactive control and conscientiousness. In contrast, primarily direct effects of positive parenting (i.e., involvement) on ADHD emerged. Secondary checks revealed that similar pathways may also emerge for comorbid disruptive behavior disorders. Current findings extend upon past work by examining how parenting practices influence child ADHD via with-in child mechanisms and provide support for multi-pathway models accounting for heterogeneity in the disorder.

  8. Impaired target detection in schizophrenia and the ventral attentional network: Findings from a joint event-related potential-functional MRI analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jonathan K; Jimenez, Amy M; Roach, Brian J; Korb, Alexander; Lee, Junghee; Horan, William P; Ford, Judith M; Green, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients have abnormal neural responses to salient, infrequent events. We integrated event-related potentials (ERP) and fMRI to examine the contributions of the ventral (salience) and dorsal (sustained) attention networks to this dysfunctional neural activation. Twenty-one schizophrenia patients and 22 healthy controls were assessed in separate sessions with ERP and fMRI during a visual oddball task. Visual P100, N100, and P300 ERP waveforms and fMRI activation were assessed. A joint independent components analysis (jICA) on the ERP and fMRI data were conducted. Patients exhibited reduced P300, but not P100 or N100, amplitudes to targets and reduced fMRI neural activation in both dorsal and ventral attentional networks compared with controls. However, the jICA revealed that the P300 was linked specifically to activation in the ventral (salience) network, including anterior cingulate, anterior insula, and temporal parietal junction, with patients exhibiting significantly lower activation. The P100 and N100 were linked to activation in the dorsal (sustained) network, with no group differences in level of activation. This joint analysis approach revealed the nature of target detection deficits that were not discernable by either imaging methodology alone, highlighting the utility of a multimodal fMRI and ERP approach to understand attentional network deficits in schizophrenia.

  9. Impaired target detection in schizophrenia and the ventral attentional network: Findings from a joint event-related potential–functional MRI analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jonathan K.; Jimenez, Amy M.; Roach, Brian J.; Korb, Alexander; Lee, Junghee; Horan, William P.; Ford, Judith M.; Green, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients have abnormal neural responses to salient, infrequent events. We integrated event-related potentials (ERP) and fMRI to examine the contributions of the ventral (salience) and dorsal (sustained) attention networks to this dysfunctional neural activation. Twenty-one schizophrenia patients and 22 healthy controls were assessed in separate sessions with ERP and fMRI during a visual oddball task. Visual P100, N100, and P300 ERP waveforms and fMRI activation were assessed. A joint independent components analysis (jICA) on the ERP and fMRI data were conducted. Patients exhibited reduced P300, but not P100 or N100, amplitudes to targets and reduced fMRI neural activation in both dorsal and ventral attentional networks compared with controls. However, the jICA revealed that the P300 was linked specifically to activation in the ventral (salience) network, including anterior cingulate, anterior insula, and temporal parietal junction, with patients exhibiting significantly lower activation. The P100 and N100 were linked to activation in the dorsal (sustained) network, with no group differences in level of activation. This joint analysis approach revealed the nature of target detection deficits that were not discernable by either imaging methodology alone, highlighting the utility of a multimodal fMRI and ERP approach to understand attentional network deficits in schizophrenia. PMID:26448909

  10. Impaired target detection in schizophrenia and the ventral attentional network: Findings from a joint event-related potential–functional MRI analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan K. Wynn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia patients have abnormal neural responses to salient, infrequent events. We integrated event-related potentials (ERP and fMRI to examine the contributions of the ventral (salience and dorsal (sustained attention networks to this dysfunctional neural activation. Twenty-one schizophrenia patients and 22 healthy controls were assessed in separate sessions with ERP and fMRI during a visual oddball task. Visual P100, N100, and P300 ERP waveforms and fMRI activation were assessed. A joint independent components analysis (jICA on the ERP and fMRI data were conducted. Patients exhibited reduced P300, but not P100 or N100, amplitudes to targets and reduced fMRI neural activation in both dorsal and ventral attentional networks compared with controls. However, the jICA revealed that the P300 was linked specifically to activation in the ventral (salience network, including anterior cingulate, anterior insula, and temporal parietal junction, with patients exhibiting significantly lower activation. The P100 and N100 were linked to activation in the dorsal (sustained network, with no group differences in level of activation. This joint analysis approach revealed the nature of target detection deficits that were not discernable by either imaging methodology alone, highlighting the utility of a multimodal fMRI and ERP approach to understand attentional network deficits in schizophrenia.

  11. Readers as overhearers and texts as objects: joint attention in reading communities DOI - 10.5752/P.2358-3428.2014v18n34p179

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Tobin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Models of language that emphasize the interactive dimension of meaning construction tend to talk about published texts such as the novel as an arena of language use in which writers and readers occupy the positions of speaker and addressee. This paper argues that readers of published texts function in many ways more like overhearers than addressees. It uses tools from Conversation Analysis and Mental Spaces Theory to examine several case study interactions, drawn from the Michigan Corpus of Spoken Academic English and videotaped data from gesture research, as well as illustrative examples from literary history. The overhearer model that emerges suggests that the interactions between different readers of the same text are a more important locus of collaboration in literary discourse than is typically assumed, and shows that joint activities between readers also often exclude authors in interesting and important ways.Keywords: Interaction. Literature. Overhearers. Addressees. Joint attention. Mental spaces

  12. The effects of attentional focus on jump performance and knee joint kinematics in patients after ACL reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gokeler, Alli; Benjaminse, Anne; Welling, Wouter; Alferink, Malou; Eppinga, Peter; Otten, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an internal and external attentional focus on single leg hop jump distance and knee kinematics in patients after ACL reconstruction (ACLR). Design: Experimental. Setting: Outpatient physical therapy facility. Participants: Sixteen

  13. The effects of attentional focus on jump performance and knee joint kinematics in patients after ACL reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gokeler, Alli; Benjaminse, Anne; Welling, Wouter; Alferink, Malou; Eppinga, Peter; Otten, Bert

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an internal and external attentional focus on single leg hop jump distance and knee kinematics in patients after ACL reconstruction (ACLR). DESIGN: Experimental. SETTING: Outpatient physical therapy facility. PARTICIPANTS: Sixteen

  14. Brief Report: Broad Autism Phenotype in Adults Is Associated with Performance on an Eye-Tracking Measure of Joint Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Meghan R.; Siller, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The current study takes advantage of modern eye-tracking technology and evaluates how individuals allocate their attention when viewing social videos that display an adult model who is gazing at a series of targets that appear and disappear in the four corners of the screen (congruent condition), or gazing elsewhere (incongruent condition). Data…

  15. Phenotypic variability in developmental coordination disorder: Clustering of generalized joint hypermobility with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, atypical swallowing and narrative difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celletti, Claudia; Mari, Giorgia; Ghibellini, Giulia; Celli, Mauro; Castori, Marco; Camerota, Filippo

    2015-03-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a recognized childhood disorder mostly characterized by motor coordination difficulties. Joint hypermobility syndrome, alternatively termed Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT), is a hereditary connective tissue disorder mainly featuring generalized joint hypermobility (gJHM), musculoskeletal pain, and minor skin features. Although these two conditions seem apparently unrelated, recent evidence highlights a high rate of motor and coordination findings in children with gJHM or JHS/EDS-HT. Here, we investigated the prevalence of gJHM in 41 Italian children with DCD in order to check for the existence of recognizable phenotypic subgroups of DCD in relation to the presence/absence of gJHM. All patients were screened for Beighton score and a set of neuropsychological tests for motor competences (Movement Assessment Battery for Children and Visual-Motor Integration tests), and language and learning difficulties (Linguistic Comprehension Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Boston Naming Test, Bus Story Test, and Memoria-Training tests). All patients were also screening for selected JHS/EDS-HT-associated features and swallowing problems. Nineteen (46%) children showed gJHM and 22 (54%) did not. Children with DCD and gJHM showed a significant excess of frequent falls (95 vs. 18%), easy bruising (74 vs. 0%), motor impersistence (89 vs. 23%), sore hands for writing (53 vs. 9%), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (89 vs. 36%), constipation (53 vs. 0%), arthralgias/myalgias (58 vs. 4%), narrative difficulties (74 vs. 32%), and atypical swallowing (74 vs. 18%). This study confirms the non-causal association between DCD and gJHM, which, in turn, seems to increase the risk for non-random additional features. The excess of language, learning, and swallowing difficulties in patients with DCD and gJHM suggests a wider effect of lax tissues in the development of the nervous system.

  16. Fish oil-supplementation from 9 to 12 months of age affects infant attention in a free-play test and is related to change in blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbild, Helle Liliegren; Harsløf, Laurine Bente Schram; Christensen, J. H.;

    2013-01-01

    This intervention examined whether fish-oil-supplementation in late infancy modifies free-play test scores and if this is related to blood pressure (BP) and mean RR interval.......This intervention examined whether fish-oil-supplementation in late infancy modifies free-play test scores and if this is related to blood pressure (BP) and mean RR interval....

  17. Poor Receptive Joint Attention Skills Are Associated with Atypical Grey Matter Asymmetry in the Posterior Superior Temporal Gyrus of Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eHopkins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental data have implicated the posterior superior temporal gyrus as an important cortical region in the processing of socially relevant stimuli such as gaze following, eye direction, and head orientation. Gaze following and responding to different socio-communicative signals is an important and highly adaptive skill in primates, including humans. Here, we examined whether individual differences in responding to socio-communicative cues was associated with variation in either grey matter volume and asymmetry in a sample of chimpanzees. MRI scans and behavioral data on receptive joint attention (RJA was obtained from a sample of 191 chimpanzees. We found that chimpanzees that performed poorly on the RJA task had more rightward asymmetries in the posterior but not anterior superior temporal gyrus. We further found that middle-aged and elderly chimpanzee performed more poorly on the RJA task and had significantly less grey matter than young-adult and sub-adult chimpanzees. The results are consistent with previous studies implicating the posterior temporal gyrus in the processing of socially relevant information.

  18. 孤独症儿童共同注意的神经基础及早期干预%The Neural Basis of Joint Attention and Early Intervention in Children with Autism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈璐; 张婷; 李泉; 冯廷勇

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are viewed as a pervasive developmental disorder with complex neural basis, displayed marked deficits in joint attention in early infancy. Joint attention (JA) is a skill in which two people share attention with respect to interesting objects or events, and it is crucial for social cognitive development. Firstly, we compared the developmental characteristics of joint attention in autistic and typical developing children from the perspective of social cognitive development. The differences are mainly embodied in behavioral deficits, such as gaze shifting, showing and sharing. Based on the parallel and distributed information processing model of JA, we focused on the neural basis of two types of joint attention in autism: responding to joint attention (RJA) involves the posterior cortical attention network (parietal and temporal cortex mostly, e.g. pSTS and IPS); Initiating joint attention (IJA) involves the anterior cortical attention network (frontal cortex mostly, e.g. cingulate cortex and MPFC). In addition, we summarized two basic approaches: discrete trail teaching (DTT) and pivotal response training (PRT), and discussed the advanced model and effectiveness evaluation of joint attention intervention. Future studies should focus on the development, brain networks and functional connections of joint attention in children with autism, as well as providing useful early interventions.%共同注意是指两个人共同对某一事物加以注意,分享对该事物的兴趣,它是儿童社会认知发展的奠基性能力。首先,孤独症儿童共同注意发展主要体现在注视转换、主动展示、分享等能力发展滞后及缺陷;孤独症儿童共同注意的神经基础:应答性共同注意主要涉及后部皮层注意网络(如颞上沟后部、顶内沟等),自发性共同注意涉及前部皮层注意网络(如前扣带皮层、背内侧额叶等);最后,以回合式教法和关键反应训练为基本方

  19. Effects of lurasidone on ketamine-induced joint visual attention dysfunction as a possible disease model of autism spectrum disorders in common marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakako, Tomokazu; Murai, Takeshi; Ikejiri, Masaru; Hashimoto, Takashi; Kotani, Manato; Matsumoto, Kenji; Manabe, Shoji; Ogi, Yuji; Konoike, Naho; Nakamura, Katsuki; Ikeda, Kazuhito

    2014-11-01

    Infants with autism have difficulties performing joint visual attention (JVA), defined as following another person's pointing gesture and gaze. Some non-human primates (NHPs) can also perform JVA. Most preclinical research on autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has used rodents as animal models of this social interaction disorder. However, models using rodents fail to capture the complexity of social interactions that are disrupted in ASD. Therefore, JVA impairment in NHPs might be a more useful model of ASD. The aim of this study was to develop an appropriate and convenient ASD model with common marmosets. We first tested whether marmosets were capable of performing JVA. Subsequently, we administered ketamine, an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, to induce JVA impairment and investigated the effects of lurasidone, a newer antipsychotic agent, on the JVA impairments. An apparatus was constructed using 4 white boxes, which were attached to the corners of a frame. All boxes had a hinged door, and marmosets could easily obtain a reward by pushing the door. An experimenter pointed and gazed at the boxes to inform the marmosets which box contained the reward. Their behavior was scored according to the number of incorrect choices. The JVA score was significantly higher in the cued vs. uncued tasks. Ketamine significantly decreased the JVA score, but lurasidone significantly reversed this effect. These findings suggest that this experimental system could be a useful animal model of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by NMDA-receptor signaling, including ASD, and that lurasidone might be effective for some aspects of ASD.

  20. The Effect of Animal-assisted Play Therapy (AAT on Improving the Life Quality of Parents having Children with ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in children Treated with Methylphenidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazila Motarabesoun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in children is considered to be one of the most widespread neuro-behavioral disorders in children, which is typically characterized by problems such as poor educational performance, communication difficulties and other social inconsistencies. Timely identification and treatment of this disorder can result in significant improvement in their individual and social performances and it can reduce the symptoms of this disorder. Nowadays, play therapy is regarded as one of the recent treatments. One type of play therapy is referred to as animal-assisted play therapy. Methodology: This study was based on a single case study in which two children with ADHD were studied. Before the treatment intervention, the life quality questionnaire (SF-36 was conducted on three consecutive days as the baseline. Then, based on the designed operational procedure, the stages of treatment intervention were carried out with a domestic animal (rabbit within six 45-minute sessions. At the end of the two treatment sessions and during the whole intervention period, the dependent variable, the effect size and improvement rate were measured. Results: the results of the study indicated that the experimented animal-assisted play therapy was statistically significant for both children (P< 0.05. However, the rate of improvement in clinical terms was not meaningfully significant. Conclusion: with respect to the obtained significant differences in eye diagrams and the calculated physical and mental health indexes and the statistical significance of the effect size, it can be concluded that animal-assisted play therapy can contribute to the relative improvement of the life quality of these children’s parents.   Keywords: ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in children; animal-assisted play therapy; life quality of ADHD children’s parents;

  1. The Communication of Culturally Dominant Modes of Attention from Parents to Children: A Comparison of Canadian and Japanese Parent-Child Conversations during a Joint Scene Description Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senzaki, Sawa; Masuda, Takahiko; Takada, Akira; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Previous findings have indicated that, when presented with visual information, North American undergraduate students selectively attend to focal objects, whereas East Asian undergraduate students are more sensitive to background information. However, little is known about how these differences are driven by culture and socialization processes. In this study, two experiments investigated how young children and their parents used culturally unique modes of attention (selective vs. context sensitive attention). We expected that children would slowly learn culturally unique modes of attention, and the experience of communicating with their parents would aid the development of such modes of attention. Study 1 tested children's solitary performance by examining Canadian and Japanese children's (4-6 vs. 7-9 years old) modes of attention during a scene description task, whereby children watched short animations by themselves and then described their observations. The results confirmed that children did not demonstrate significant cross-cultural differences in attention during the scene description task while working independently, although results did show rudimentary signs of culturally unique modes of attention in this task scenario by age 9. Study 2 examined parent-child (4-6 and 7-9 years old) dyads using the same task. The results indicated that parents communicated to their children differently across cultures, replicating attentional differences among undergraduate students in previous cross-cultural studies. Study 2 also demonstrated that children's culturally unique description styles increased significantly with age. The descriptions made by the older group (7-9 years old) showed significant cross-cultural variances in attention, while descriptions among the younger group (4-6 years old) did not. The significance of parental roles in the development of culturally unique modes of attention is discussed in addition to other possible facilitators of this

  2. Joint Attention for a Kind of Facial Expression Robots with the Same Structure%一类具有相同结构的表情机器人共同注意方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王巍; 王志良; 郑思仪; 谷学静

    2012-01-01

    为了提高使用者与机器人人机合作过程中的社交和认知能力,针对一类具有相同结构的表情机器人,提出了一种基于静态视觉的人机共同注意实现方法.首先,获取使用者注意焦点的影像像素坐标和焦点到摄像机的距离;其次,通过坐标系变换,求解使用者注意焦点的世界坐标;再次,基于几何法求解机器人本体运动学逆解;最后,根据求得的关节角控制舵机,实现人机共同注意.通过仿真与物理平台的实验,验证了方法的有效性和准确性,为人机交互与合作中共同注意的实现提供了解决方案.%In order to improve the abilities of social interaction and cognition in human-robot cooperation between the user and the robot, a static vision based joint attention skill is implemented for a kind of facial expression robots with the same structure. Firstly, the image pixel coordinate of the user's attention focus and the distance between the focus and the video camera are acquired. Secondly, world coordinate of the user's attention focus is solved with coordinate transformation technology. Thirdly, inverse kinematics of the robot body is computed based on geometry method. Fourthly, servo motors are controlled with joint angle acquired above to realize human-robot joint attention. Some experiments are carried out on simulation and physical platform at last to verify the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method. It provides a solution for realizing joint attention skill in human-robot interaction and cooperation.

  3. Attention to Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper; Paulsen, Michael Eric

    In these years digital media and wireless networks are introduced in upper secondary schools in Denmark. This implies new “attentional objects” like updates on Facebook or tweets on Twitter within instant reach of the pupils and teachers. Also it implies new kinds of attention (awareness) like when...... pupils try to listen to the teacher and simultaneously participate in online games. To this new social setting the teachers has reacted with either prohibition or unconcern. What has not been realised is that the introduction of new media profoundly challenges the way attention hitherto has functioned...... as a psychic prerequisite for the social interaction between pupils and teachers. New kinds of “split attention” arise and new kinds of social mediation (regulation and “use”) of psychic attention become necessary if teaching in the new digital medium milieu shall be beneficial. In this paper we qualify...

  4. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    , but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty......, the aesthetics of play through action; political play -- from Maradona's goal against England in the 1986 World Cup to the hactivist activities of Anonymous; the political, aesthetic, and moral activity of game design; and why play and computers get along so well....

  5. Playful Gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makedon, Alexander

    A philosophical analysis of play and games is undertaken in this paper. Playful gaming, which is shown to be a synthesis of play and games, is utilized as a category for undertaking the examination of play and games. The significance of playful gaming to education is demonstrated through analyses of Plato's, Dewey's, Sartre's, and Marcuse's…

  6. Recent Corrosion Research Trends in Weld Joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hwan Tae; Kil, Sang Cheol [Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Woon Suk [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    The increasing interest in the corrosion properties of weld joints in the corrosive environment is placing stringent demands on the manufacturing techniques and performance requirements, and the manufacture employs the high quality and efficiency welding process to produce welds. Welding plays an important role in the fabrication of chemical plants, nuclear power plant, ship construction, and this has led to an increasing attention to the corrosion resistant weld joints. This paper covers recent technical trends of welding technologies for corrosion resistance properties including the COMPENDEX DB analysis of welding materials, welding process, and welding fabrications

  7. Treatment of distal radioulnar joint disorders with a modified Sauvé-Kapandji procedure: long-term outcome with special attention to the DASH Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Robert; Gschwentner, Martin; Arora, Rohit; Harpf, Christoph; Gabl, Markus; Pechlaner, Sigurd

    2003-07-01

    An intact distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) is essential for normal functioning of the upper limb. Osteoarthritis of the DRUJ often leads to ulnar wrist pain, limitation of forearm rotation and reduced grip strength, all of which limit activities of daily living. Once the joint is damaged, salvage procedures are recommended. Between 1986 and 1996 a modified Sauvé-Kapandji procedure was performed in 117 patients with painfully limited forearm rotation and osteoarthritis of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). Of the 117 patients, 73 women and 32 men, whose ages at operation ranged from 22 to 74 years (average 58 years), were retrospectively reviewed clinically and radiologically 8 years (range 5-12 years) after the operation. The DASH questionnaire was used with 53 patients, 43 patients were accepted for the study, and 10 were excluded. Forearm rotation improved in all patients, ulnar wrist pain was reduced in 97% of the patients, and 9% had mild pain at the proximal ulnar stump. Grip strength improved from a preoperative mean of 38% to a postoperative mean of 55% compared with the contralateral side. The mean DASH score was 28 points (range 0-53 points). In all cases the arthrodesis fused within 8 weeks. The radiographs showed approximation between the proximal ulna stump and the radius compared with the preoperative situation in 74% of the patients. Our clinical and radiological findings suggest that the Sauvé-Kapandji procedure is indicated in symptomatic, non-reconstructable disorders of the DRUJ. The DASH questionnaire provides a general view of the functional outcome after the Sauvé-Kapandji procedure. The DASH questionnaire is very helpful in evaluating the effect of the Sauvé-Kapandji procedure on the entire upper limb.

  8. Fair Play

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China reassures foreign companies they are still welcome to invest in government-funded projects Nine Chinese ministries,including the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC),jointly issued a notice on June

  9. Aesthetic Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jytte Susanne

    2012-01-01

    to the children’s complex life-worlds. Further, this leads to an analysis of music-play activities as play with an art-form (music), which includes aesthetic dimensions and gives the music-play activities its character of being aesthetic play. Following Lev Vygotsky’s insight that art is a way of building life...

  10. Announcements to Attentive Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; van Ditmarsch, Hans; Herzig, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    In public announcement logic it is assumed that all agents pay attention to the announcement. Weaker observational conditions can be modelled in action model logic. In this work, we propose a version of public announcement logic wherein it is encoded in the states of the epistemic model which...... agents pay attention to the announcement. This logic is called attention-based announcement logic. We give an axiomatization of the logic and prove that complexity of satisfiability is the same as that of public announcement logic, and therefore lower than that of action model logic. An attention......-based announcement can also be described as an action model. We extend our logic by integrating attention change. Finally, we add the notion of common belief to the language, we exploit this to formalize the concept of joint attention, that has been widely discussed in the philosophical and cognitive science...

  11. Estudo longitudinal da atenção compartilhada em crianças autistas não-verbais Longitudinal study of joint attention in non-verbal autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Sandra Damião Farah

    2009-12-01

    desenvolvimento da comunicação das crianças autistas.PURPOSE: to identify and characterize abilities of Joint Attention of non-verbal autistic children through the observation of communicative behaviors. METHODS: the research involved 5 boys, between 5,9 and 8,6-year old, diagnosed as Autistic Disorder (DSM IV, 2002, recorded in two instances with a four months interval. Meanwhile, the children were submitted to a language therapy mediation based on Joint Attention stimulation. Each recording was 15 minutes long and involved one child or group of 2-3 children with the therapist within non-directed and semi-directed interaction situations, at school where they studied. We observed and registered behaviors regarding Joint Attention abilities. The used material involved percussion instruments. Data were analyzed in relation to time, interaction and interlocutor. RESULTS: the gaze behavior showed the greatest growth in each subject. Data analysis revealed that the subjects showed qualitative trends for evolution of the Joint Attention ability revealing important clinical meaning although there was lack of statistical significance. Each subject showed characteristics and evolution of the communicative behaviors regarding Joint Attention in an individualized manner. After the period of language therapy intervention, we observed a quantitative behavioral growth in the 5 subjects, specifically under child-therapist interaction. CONCLUSIONS: the gaze behavior is an important step for the development of others behaviors toward Joint Attention. The adult-child interaction situation facilitates the appearance of communication behaviors and sharing. Language therapy with focus on the Joint Attention abilities seems to contribute positively for communication development of autistic children.

  12. Efficacy of caregiver-mediated joint engagement intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chung-Hsin; Chu, Ching-Lin; Lee, Tsung-Chin

    2016-02-01

    Joint attention intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders was focused on improving joint engagement and joint attention skills. The purpose of this study was to develop a caregiver-mediated joint engagement intervention program combined with body movement play to investigate the effects of joint engagement/joint attention skills in young children with autism spectrum disorders. A quasi-experimental research design was conducted. A total of 34 young children with autism spectrum disorders aged 2-4 years were separated into an intervention and a control group. The program consisted of 20 sessions, 60 min per session, twice a week, for the target child and his or her parent. The results indicated that child-initiated supportive and coordinated joint engagement was greater for the intervention group compared with the control group at 3-month follow-up. This demonstrated that our joint engagement intervention could enhance joint engagement, especially coordinated joint engagement for young children with autism spectrum disorders. The limitations of the study and future directions were discussed.

  13. Aesthetic Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jytte Susanne

    2012-01-01

    The present article explores the role of music-related artefacts and technologies in children’s lives. More specifically, it analyzes how four 10- to 11-year old girls use CDs and DVD games in their music-play activities and which developmental themes and potentials may accrue from such activities...... to the children’s complex life-worlds. Further, this leads to an analysis of music-play activities as play with an art-form (music), which includes aesthetic dimensions and gives the music-play activities its character of being aesthetic play. Following Lev Vygotsky’s insight that art is a way of building life...

  14. Playful Membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels; Pors, Justine Grønbæk

    2014-01-01

    This article studies the implications of current attempts by organizations to adapt to a world of constant change by introducing the notion of playful organizational membership. To this end we conduct a brief semantic history of organizational play and argue that when organizations play, employees...... are expected to engage in playful exploration of alternative selves. Drawing on Niklas Luhmann's theory of time and decision-making and Gregory Bateson's theory of play, the article analyses three empirical examples of how games play with conceptions of time. We explore how games represent an organizational...... desire to reach out - not just to the future - but to futures beyond the future presently imaginable. The article concludes that playful membership is membership through which employees are expected to develop a surplus of potential identities and continuously cross boundaries between real and virtual...

  15. Playful Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    these practices, which compose the taxonomy of tablet play. My contribution lies in identifying and proposing a series of theoretical concepts that complement recent theories related to play and digital literacy studies. The data collected through observations informed some noteworthy aspects, including how...... with tablets’ physical and digital affordances shape children’s digital play. This thesis presents how young children’s current practices when playing with tablets inform digital experiences in Denmark and Japan. Through an interdisciplinary lens and a grounded theory approach, I have identified and mapped...... vocabulary in children’s digital play experiences. These early digital experiences set the rules for the playgrounds and assert digital tablets as twenty-first-century toys, shaping young children’s playful literacy....

  16. Pretend play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Deena Skolnick

    2015-01-01

    Pretend play is a form of playful behavior that involves nonliteral action. Although on the surface this activity appears to be merely for fun, recent research has discovered that children's pretend play has connections to important cognitive and social skills, such as symbolic thinking, theory of mind, and counterfactual reasoning. The current article first defines pretend play and then reviews the arguments and evidence for these three connections. Pretend play has a nonliteral correspondence to reality, hence pretending may provide children with practice with navigating symbolic relationships, which may strengthen their language skills. Pretend play and theory of mind reasoning share a focus on others' mental states in order to correctly interpret their behavior, hence pretending and theory of mind may be mutually supportive in development. Pretend play and counterfactual reasoning both involve representing nonreal states of affairs, hence pretending may facilitate children's counterfactual abilities. These connections make pretend play an important phenomenon in cognitive science: Studying children's pretend play can provide insight into these other abilities and their developmental trajectories, and thereby into human cognitive architecture and its development.

  17. Playful Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The video Playful Interaction describes a future architectural office, and envisions ideas and concepts for playful interactions between people, materials and appliances in a pervasive and augmented working environment. The video both describes existing developments, technologies and designs...... as well as ideas not yet implemented such as playful modes of interaction with an augmented ball. Playful Interaction has been used as a hybrid of a vision video and a video prototype (1). Externally the video has been used to visualising our new ideas, and internally the video has also worked to inspire...

  18. Mediatized play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    Children’s play must nowadays be understood as a mediatized field in society and culture. Media – understood in a very broad sense - holds severe explanatory power in describing and understanding the practice of play, since play happens both with, through and inspired by media of different sorts....... In this presentation the case of ‘playing soccer’ will be outlined through its different mediated manifestations, including soccer games and programs on TV, computer games, magazines, books, YouTube videos and soccer trading cards....

  19. Play practices and play moods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop a view of play as a relation between play practices and play moods based on an empirical study of children's everyday life and by using Bateson's term of ‘framing’ [(1955/2001). In Steps to an ecology of mind (pp. 75–80). Chicago: University of Chicago Press......], Schmidt's notion of ‘commonness’ [(2005). Om respekten. København: Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitets Forlag; (2011). On respect. Copenhagen: Danish School of Education University Press] and Heidegger's term ‘mood’ [(1938/1996). Time and being. Cornwall: Wiley-Blackwell.]. Play mood is a state of being...... in which we are open and ready, both to others and their production of meaning and to new opportunities for producing meaning. This play mood is created when we engage with the world during play practices. The article points out four types of play moods – devotion, intensity, tension and euphorica – which...

  20. Playful Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Justine Grønbæk; Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    and undecidability. With an empirical point of departure in Danish public school policy and two concrete examples of games utilised in school development, the article analyses how play is a way for organisations to simultaneously decide and also avoid making a decision, thus keeping flexibility and possibilities...... intact. In its final sections, the article discusses what happens to conditions of decision-making when organisations do not just see undecidability as a given condition, but as a limited resource indispensable for change and renewal. The article advances discussions of organisational play by exploring......This article explores how organisational play becomes a managerial tool to increase and benefit from undecidability. The article draws on Niklas Luhmann's concept of decision and on Gregory Bateson's theory of play to create a conceptual framework for analysing the relation between decision...

  1. Attention Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Falkinger, Josef

    2003-01-01

    Attracting attention is a basic feature of economic life but no standard economic problem. A new theoretical model is developed which describes the general structure of competition for attention and characterizes equilibria. The exogenous fundamentals of an attention economy are the space of receiving subjects with their attention capacity, and the potential set of competing companies (senders) with their radiation technologies. The endogenous variables explained by the theory are equilibrium...

  2. Group play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    of group dynamics, the influence of the fictional game characters and the comparative play experience between the two formats. The results indicate that group dynamics and the relationship between the players and their digital characters, are integral to the quality of the gaming experience in multiplayer......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...

  3. Postphenomenological Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammar, Emil

    This paper aims to identify an understanding of digital games in virtual environments by using Don Ihde’s (1990) postphenomenological approach to how technology mediates the world to human beings in conjunction with Hans-Georg Gadamer’s (1993) notion of play . Through this tentatively proposed...... amalgamation of theories I point towards an alternative understanding of the relationship between play and game as not only dialectic, but also as socially and ethically relevant qua the design and implementation of the game as technology....

  4. Clay Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Liz; Steffan, Dana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to use clay as a potential material for young children to explore. As teachers, the authors find that their dialogue about the potential of clay as a learning medium raises many questions: (1) What makes clay so enticing? (2) Why are teachers noticing different play and conversation around the clay table as compared to…

  5. Can Robotic Interaction Improve Joint Attention Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Zachary E.; Zheng, Zhi; Swanson, Amy R.; Bekele, Esubalew; Zhang, Lian; Crittendon, Julie A.; Weitlauf, Amy F.; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2015-01-01

    Although it has often been argued that clinical applications of advanced technology may hold promise for addressing impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), relatively few investigations have indexed the impact of intervention and feedback approaches. This pilot study investigated the application of a novel robotic interaction…

  6. Group play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects of the v......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...... RPGs, with the first being of greater importance to digital games and the latter to the tabletop version....

  7. Attention and choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Mueller Loose, Simone

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews studies on eye movements in decision making, and compares their observations to theoretical predictions concerning the role of attention in decision making. Four decision theories are examined: rational models, bounded rationality, evidence accumulation, and parallel constraint...... satisfaction models. Although most theories were confirmed with regard to certain predictions, none of the theories adequately accounted for the role of attention during decision making. Several observations emerged concerning the drivers and down-stream effects of attention on choice, suggesting...... that attention processes plays an active role in constructing decisions. So far, decision theories have largely ignored the constructive role of attention by assuming that it is entirely determined by heuristics, or that it consists of stochastic information sampling. The empirical observations reveal...

  8. Shifting Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  9. Shifting Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  10. Playing Possum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Euli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our society is drenched in the catastrophe; where the growth of financial crisis, environmental cataclysm and militarization represents its gaudiest and mortifying phenomena. Humans struggle with depression, sense of impotence, anguish towards a future considered a threat.  A possibility to keep us alive can be represented by the enhancement of our ability in ‘playing Possum’, an exercise of desisting and renitence: to firmly say ‘no’. To say no to a world that proposes just one way of being and living free, that imposes as the only unavoidable possible destiny.

  11. Playful Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv; Eriksson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the design of future services for children in Danish public libraries is discussed, in the light of new challenges and opportunities in relation to new media and technologies. The Danish government has over the last few years initiated and described a range of initiatives regarding...... in the library, the changing role of the librarians and the library space. We argue that intertwining traditional library services with new media forms and engaging play is the core challenge for future design in physical public libraries, but also that it is through new media and technology that new...

  12. Playful Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv; Eriksson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    in the library, the changing role of the librarians and the library space. We argue that intertwining traditional library services with new media forms and engaging play is the core challenge for future design in physical public libraries, but also that it is through new media and technology that new......In this paper, the design of future services for children in Danish public libraries is discussed, in the light of new challenges and opportunities in relation to new media and technologies. The Danish government has over the last few years initiated and described a range of initiatives regarding...

  13. Playing cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Mrs. Zahia Marzouk, vice-president of the Alexandria Family Planning Association and a living legend of Egyptian family planning, does not believe in talking about problems. She is far too busy learning from people and teaching them. Her latest brainstorm is a set of playing cards designed to help girls and women to read and learn about family planning at the same time. The 5 packs of cards, representing familiar words and sounds, and each with a family planning joker, took Mrs. Marzouk 6 months to design and paint by hand. They have now been printed, packed into packets provided by UNICEF, and distributed to some 2000 literacy groups in factories and family planning clinics. Each woman who succeeds in learning to read is encouraged to teach 4 others. They then go to the family planning clinic to be examined and gain a certificate. For the teacher who has made them proficient there is a special prize. Girls at El Brinth village outside Alexandria are pictured playing cards at the family planning center where they are learning various skills including how to read.

  14. The Social Origins of Sustained Attention in One-Year-Old Human Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chen; Smith, Linda B

    2016-05-09

    The ability to sustain attention is a major achievement in human development and is generally believed to be the developmental product of increasing self-regulatory and endogenous (i.e., internal, top-down, voluntary) control over one's attention and cognitive systems [1-5]. Because sustained attention in late infancy is predictive of future development, and because early deficits in sustained attention are markers for later diagnoses of attentional disorders [6], sustained attention is often viewed as a constitutional and individual property of the infant [6-9]. However, humans are social animals; developmental pathways for seemingly non-social competencies evolved within the social group and therefore may be dependent on social experience [10-13]. Here, we show that social context matters for the duration of sustained attention episodes in one-year-old infants during toy play. Using head-mounted eye tracking to record moment-by-moment gaze data from both parents and infants, we found that when the social partner (parent) visually attended to the object to which infant attention was directed, infants, after the parent's look, extended their duration of visual attention to the object. Looks to the same object by two social partners is a well-studied phenomenon known as joint attention, which has been shown to be critical to early learning and to the development of social skills [14, 15]. The present findings implicate joint attention in the development of the child's own sustained attention and thus challenge the current understanding of the origins of individual differences in sustained attention, providing a new and potentially malleable developmental pathway to the self-regulation of attention.

  15. The Effect of Animal-assisted Play Therapy (AAT) on Improving the Life Quality of Parents having Children with ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in children) Treated with Methylphenidate

    OpenAIRE

    Nazila Motarabesoun; Seyed Mahmoud Tabatabaei

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in children) is considered to be one of the most widespread neuro-behavioral disorders in children, which is typically characterized by problems such as poor educational performance, communication difficulties and other social inconsistencies. Timely identification and treatment of this disorder can result in significant improvement in their individual and social performances and it can reduce the symptoms of this disorder...

  16. Shared Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shteynberg, Garriy

    2015-09-01

    Shared attention is extremely common. In stadiums, public squares, and private living rooms, people attend to the world with others. Humans do so across all sensory modalities-sharing the sights, sounds, tastes, smells, and textures of everyday life with one another. The potential for attending with others has grown considerably with the emergence of mass media technologies, which allow for the sharing of attention in the absence of physical co-presence. In the last several years, studies have begun to outline the conditions under which attending together is consequential for human memory, motivation, judgment, emotion, and behavior. Here, I advance a psychological theory of shared attention, defining its properties as a mental state and outlining its cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences. I review empirical findings that are uniquely predicted by shared-attention theory and discuss the possibility of integrating shared-attention, social-facilitation, and social-loafing perspectives. Finally, I reflect on what shared-attention theory implies for living in the digital world.

  17. Mechanical Behavior of CFRP Lattice Core Sandwich Bolted Corner Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaolei; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yana; Lu, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Lingxue

    2017-02-01

    The lattice core sandwich structures have drawn more attention for the integration of load capacity and multifunctional applications. However, the connection of carbon fibers reinforced polymer composite (CFRP) lattice core sandwich structure hinders its application. In this paper, a typical connection of two lattice core sandwich panels, named as corner joint or L-joint, was investigated by experiment and finite element method (FEM). The mechanical behavior and failure mode of the corner joints were discussed. The results showed that the main deformation pattern and failure mode of the lattice core sandwich bolted corner joints structure were the deformation of metal connector and indentation of the face sheet in the bolt holes. The metal connectors played an important role in bolted corner joints structure. In order to save the calculation resource, a continuum model of pyramid lattice core was used to replace the exact structure. The computation results were consistent with experiment, and the maximum error was 19%. The FEM demonstrated the deflection process of the bolted corner joints structure visually. So the simplified FEM can be used for further analysis of the bolted corner joints structure in engineering.

  18. Attention Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketch was used in the context of an experiment for the PhD project “Ambient Learning Displays”. The sketch comprises a custom-built attention sensor. The sensor measured (during the experiment) whether a participant looked at and thus attended a public display. The sensor was built us

  19. Attention Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketch was used in the context of an experiment for the PhD project “Ambient Learning Displays”. The sketch comprises a custom-built attention sensor. The sensor measured (during the experiment) whether a participant looked at and thus attended a public display. The sensor was built us

  20. Hand kinematics of piano playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Shinichi; Flanders, Martha; Soechting, John F

    2011-12-01

    Dexterous use of the hand represents a sophisticated sensorimotor function. In behaviors such as playing the piano, it can involve strong temporal and spatial constraints. The purpose of this study was to determine fundamental patterns of covariation of motion across joints and digits of the human hand. Joint motion was recorded while 5 expert pianists played 30 excerpts from musical pieces, which featured ∼50 different tone sequences and fingering. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis using an expectation-maximization algorithm revealed that joint velocities could be categorized into several patterns, which help to simplify the description of the movements of the multiple degrees of freedom of the hand. For the thumb keystroke, two distinct patterns of joint movement covariation emerged and they depended on the spatiotemporal patterns of the task. For example, the thumb-under maneuver was clearly separated into two clusters based on the direction of hand translation along the keyboard. While the pattern of the thumb joint velocities differed between these clusters, the motions at the metacarpo-phalangeal and proximal-phalangeal joints of the four fingers were more consistent. For a keystroke executed with one of the fingers, there were three distinct patterns of joint rotations, across which motion at the striking finger was fairly consistent, but motion of the other fingers was more variable. Furthermore, the amount of movement spillover of the striking finger to the adjacent fingers was small irrespective of the finger used for the keystroke. These findings describe an unparalleled amount of independent motion of the fingers.

  1. Joint ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    Afhandlingen analysere de konkurrenceretlige og selskabsretlige regler som er bestemmende for hvordan et joint venture samarbejde er struktureret......Afhandlingen analysere de konkurrenceretlige og selskabsretlige regler som er bestemmende for hvordan et joint venture samarbejde er struktureret...

  2. Joint swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap 275. Raftery AT, Lim E, Ostor AJK. Joint disorders. In: Raftery AT, Lim E, Ostor AJK, eds. ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Joint Disorders Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  3. Joint ventures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.N. Hoogendoorn (Martin)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractEen veel voorkomende wijze van samenwerking tussen ondernemingen is het uitvoeren van activiteiten in de vorm van een joint venture. Een joint venture is bijna altijd een afzonderlijke juridische entiteit. De partners in de joint venture voeren gezamenlijk de zeggenschap uit. In internat

  4. Joint ventures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.N. Hoogendoorn (Martin)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractEen veel voorkomende wijze van samenwerking tussen ondernemingen is het uitvoeren van activiteiten in de vorm van een joint venture. Een joint venture is bijna altijd een afzonderlijke juridische entiteit. De partners in de joint venture voeren gezamenlijk de zeggenschap uit. In internat

  5. Playing it Real

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grubert, Jens; Morrison, Ann; Munz, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Magic lens and static peephole interfaces are used in numerous consumer mobile phone applications such as Augmented Reality browsers, games or digital map applications in a variety of contexts including public spaces. Interface performance has been evaluated for various interaction tasks involving...... spatial relationships in a scene. However, interface usage outside laboratory conditions has not been considered in depth in the evaluation of these interfaces. We present findings about the usage of magic lens and static peephole interfaces for playing a find-and-select game in a public space and report...... on the reactions of the public audience to participants’ interactions. Contrary to our expectations participants favored the magic lens over a static peephole interface despite tracking errors, fatigue and potentially conspicuous gestures. Most passersby did not pay attention to the participants and vice versa...

  6. Sustained attention, attentional selectivity, and attentional capacity across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvinue, Laura P; Habekost, Thomas; Johnson, Katherine A; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Vangkilde, Signe; Bundesen, Claus; Robertson, Ian H

    2012-11-01

    Changes in sustained attention, attentional selectivity, and attentional capacity were examined in a sample of 113 participants between the ages of 12 and 75. To measure sustained attention, we employed the sustained-attention-to-response task (Robertson, Manly, Andrade, Baddeley, & Yiend, Neuropsychologia 35:747-58, 1997), a short continuous-performance test designed to capture fluctuations in sustained attention. To measure attentional selectivity and capacity, we employed a paradigm based on the theory of visual attention (Bundesen, Psychological Review 97:523-547, 1990), which enabled the estimation of parameters related to attentional selection, perceptual threshold, visual short-term memory capacity, and processing capacity. We found evidence of age-related decline in each of the measured variables, but the declines varied markedly in terms of magnitude and lifespan trajectory. Variables relating to attentional capacity showed declines of very large effect sizes, while variables relating to attentional selectivity and sustained attention showed declines of medium to large effect sizes, suggesting that attentional control is relatively preserved in older adults. The variables relating to sustained attention followed a U-shaped, curvilinear trend, and the variables relating to attentional selectivity and capacity showed linear decline from early adulthood, providing further support for the differentiation of attentional functions.

  7. IRS memorandum limits joint ventures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, A W

    1992-08-01

    Based on a new memorandum, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) will be looking at joint hospital/physician activities with greater attention to the nuances of public versus private benefit. As a result, hospitals face greater risk of losing their tax-exempt status in the maze of joint ventures, physician recruitment, and practice acquisition. To be successful, ventures will have to be backed by sound reasoning and thorough documentation.

  8. "Playing Attention": Contemporary Aesthetics and Performing Arts Audience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Monica

    2004-01-01

    This essay draws on the contemporary aesthetic theories of four writers -Hans-Georg Gadamer, Paul Ricoeur, Paul Thom, and James O. Young-who represent both the continental and analytic contemporary philosophical schools of thought. Each writer offers valuable perspectives on issues in aesthetic education pertaining to a key question in my…

  9. "Playing Attention": Contemporary Aesthetics and Performing Arts Audience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Monica

    2004-01-01

    This essay draws on the contemporary aesthetic theories of four writers -Hans-Georg Gadamer, Paul Ricoeur, Paul Thom, and James O. Young-who represent both the continental and analytic contemporary philosophical schools of thought. Each writer offers valuable perspectives on issues in aesthetic education pertaining to a key question in my…

  10. Ceramic joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bradley J.; Patten, Jr., Donald O.

    1991-01-01

    Butt joints between materials having different coefficients of thermal expansion are prepared having a reduced probability of failure of stress facture. This is accomplished by narrowing/tapering the material having the lower coefficient of thermal expansion in a direction away from the joint interface and not joining the narrow-tapered surface to the material having the higher coefficient of thermal expansion.

  11. Temporomandibular Joint, Closed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gallery > Oral Health > The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed Main Content Title: The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed Description: The temporomandibular joint connects the lower ...

  12. I Play Roles, Therefore I Am

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Waade, Anne Marit

    2007-01-01

    -reflecting activity is getting an increasingly growing attention from the media, and the fact that educators, teachers, and development consultants have discovered the potential inherent in role-playing, both as an idea and a strategy. In this essay, we place leisure role-playing in a broader perspective, not only...... in relation to actual phenomena in mediatized popular culture (such as computer games) or to storytelling in organizations, but also in relation to role-playing as a tradition and theoretical consideration within education, theatre, and the social sciences. The points and discussions are based on our book......The attention paid to live-action role-playing and other forms of leisure role-playing has exploded over the past few years, both due to the fact that the role-playing community continues to attract a lot of new members, the fact that role-playing as a creative, self-organizing and self...

  13. Joint pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or conditions. It may be linked to arthritis , bursitis , and muscle pain . No matter what causes it, ... Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus Bursitis Chondromalacia patellae Crystals in the joint: Gout (especially ...

  14. Now, Pay Attention! The Effects of Instruction on Children's Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannass, Kathleen N.; Colombo, John; Wyss, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of instructions to "stay on task" on preschoolers' attention and cognitive performance in the face of either incomprehensible or comprehensible distraction. Three- and 4-year-olds completed problem-solving tasks while a distracting event played continuously in the background under conditions of (a) no instruction, (b)…

  15. Playing by Ear: Foundation or Frill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Many people divide musicians into two types: those who can read music and those who play by ear. Formal music education tends to place great emphasis on producing musically literate performers but devotes much less attention to teaching students to make music without notation. Some would suggest that playing by ear is a specialized skill that is…

  16. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a former member of the personnel, a beneficiary of the CERN Pension Fund, against the calculation of his pension in the framework of the Progressive Retirement Programme.   The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the attention of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be available from 26 July to 11 August 2013 at the following link. HR Department Head Office

  17. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel against the decision to grant him only a periodic one-step advancement for the 2006 reference year. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the attention of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main Building (Bldg. 500) from 1 September to 14 September 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  18. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel against the decision to grant him only a periodic one-step advancement for the 2006 reference year. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the attention of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main building (bldg. 500) from 1 September to 14 September 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  19. Contribuições da habilidade de atenção conjunta para a cognição social infantil Contribución de la habilidad de atención conjunta para la cognición social infantil Contributions of the joint attention ability to the infant social cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola de Sousa Braz Aquino

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse artigo é demonstrar a importância da habilidade da atenção conjunta e suas repercussões na cognição social e na aquisição da linguagem. Defende-se especificamente a ideia de que, no primeiro ano de vida, os bebês desenvolvem, através de atividades compartilhadas e da inserção na cultura, uma forma de comunicação intencional, alicerçada nas primeiras trocas intersubjetivas estabelecidas com adultos. Os debates em torno dessa temática recaem em pontos de vista divergentes. Discute-se, nesse aspecto, qual seria o marco evolutivo a partir do qual a criança se tornaria capaz de estabelecer períodos de atenção conjunta, bem como o momento em que tal habilidade estaria consolidada. Ressalta-se a necessidade de estudos que investiguem a atenção conjunta no primeiro ano de vida da criança, objetivando uma maior compreensão dessa habilidade, dadas as suas implicações no desenvolvimento comunicativo e da linguagem.En este artículo se discute la importancia de la habilidad de la atención conjunta y sus representaciones en la cognición social y en la adquisición del lenguaje. Plantease precisamente la idea de que en el primer año de vida los niños construyen, a través de actividades compartidas y de la inserción en la cultura, una forma de comunicación intencional, basada en los primeros cambios intersubjetivos establecidos con los adultos. Los debates en torno de esa temática recaen en distintos planteamientos acerca de cuál sería el punto evolutivo en el cual el niño se tornaría capaz de establecer periodos de atención conjunta, y en que momento esta habilidad estaría consolidada. Resaltase la necesidad de estudios que investiguen la atención conjunta en el primero año de vida, objetivando una mayor comprensión de esa habilidad y sus implicaciones en el desarrollo comunicativo y del lenguaje.This article aims to discuss the relevance of joint attention skills and its contribution to social

  20. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Madhuri

    2015-03-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder in children. It is characterized by motor hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention inappropriate for the age. Approximately 5-10 % of school age children are diagnosed to have ADHD. The affected children show significant impairment in social behavior and academic performance. The DSM-5 criteria are useful in diagnosing three subtypes of ADHD based on presence of symptoms described in 3 domains viz ., inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Co-morbidities like specific learning disability, anxiety disorder, oppositional defiant disorder are commonly associated with ADHD.Education of parents and teachers, behavioral therapy and medication are main components of management. Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine are effective in controlling symptoms of ADHD in most children. Research studies estimated that 30-60 % of children continue to show symptoms of ADHD in adulthood. The general practitioner can play an important role in early diagnosis, appropriate assessment and guiding parents for management of children with ADHD.

  1. Children's Empowerment in Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Natalie

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the level of empowerment and autonomy children can create in their play experiences. It examines the play discourses that children build and maintain and considers the importance of play contexts in supporting children's emotional and social development. These aspects of play are often unseen or misunderstood by the adult…

  2. The Play of Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry

    2012-01-01

    The author reviews the role of play within psychotherapy. She does not discuss the formal play therapy especially popular for young children, nor play from the Jungian perspective that encourages the use of the sand tray with adults. Instead, she focuses on the informal use of play during psychotherapy as it is orchestrated intuitively. Because…

  3. Two people playing together: some thoughts on play, playing, and playfulness in psychoanalytic work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vliegen, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Children's play and the playfulness of adolescents and adults are important indicators of personal growth and development. When a child is not able to play, or an adolescent/adult is not able to be playful with thoughts and ideas, psychotherapy can help to find a more playful and creative stance. Elaborating Winnicott's (1968, p. 591) statement that "psychotherapy has to do with two people playing together," three perspectives on play in psychotherapy are discussed. In the first point of view, the child gets in touch with and can work through aspects of his or her inner world, while playing in the presence of the therapist. The power of play is then rooted in the playful communication with the self In a second perspective, in play the child is communicating aspects of his or her inner world to the therapist as a significant other. In a third view, in "playing together" child and therapist are coconstructing new meanings. These three perspectives on play are valid at different moments of a therapy process or for different children, depending on the complex vicissitudes of the child's constitution, life experiences, development, and psychic structure. Concerning these three perspectives, a parallel can be drawn between the therapist's attitude toward the child's play and the way the therapist responds to the verbal play of an adolescent or adult. We illustrate this with the case of Jacob, a late adolescent hardly able to play with ideas.

  4. Applying Play to Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Patricia S.; Fokes, Joann

    The objectives of this paper are (1) to present the relationship of play to language and cognition, (2) to describe the stages of play and discuss recent literature about the characteristics of play, and (3) to describe the use of play with the multifaceted goals of cognition, pragmatics, semantics, syntax, and morphology as an intervention…

  5. Infant visual attention and object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Greg D

    2015-05-15

    This paper explores the role visual attention plays in the recognition of objects in infancy. Research and theory on the development of infant attention and recognition memory are reviewed in three major sections. The first section reviews some of the major findings and theory emerging from a rich tradition of behavioral research utilizing preferential looking tasks to examine visual attention and recognition memory in infancy. The second section examines research utilizing neural measures of attention and object recognition in infancy as well as research on brain-behavior relations in the early development of attention and recognition memory. The third section addresses potential areas of the brain involved in infant object recognition and visual attention. An integrated synthesis of some of the existing models of the development of visual attention is presented which may account for the observed changes in behavioral and neural measures of visual attention and object recognition that occur across infancy.

  6. Joint purpose?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    2013-01-01

    Starting from Crenshaw´s point that antiracism often fails to interrogate patriarchy and that feminism often reproduces racist practices (1991: 1252), this paper asks: What are the theoretical reasons for believing that feminism and anti-racism can be regarded as fighting for the joint purpose of...

  7. The Development of Attention Skills in Action Video Game Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, M. W. G.; Green, C. S.; Bavelier, D.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests that action video game play improves attentional resources, allowing gamers to better allocate their attention across both space and time. In order to further characterize the plastic changes resulting from playing these video games, we administered the Attentional Network Test (ANT) to action game players and…

  8. Joints in deployable space truss structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, M.

    1988-01-01

    Since the response of deployable structural concepts being considered for the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) backup structure will be dominated by the response of joints, the joint characteristics are significant. An overview is given of the research activities at LaRC on the static behavior of joints for deployable space truss structures. Since a pin-clevis-type joint will be utilized in deployable structures, an experimental research program to characterize the joint parameters which affect stiffness was conducted. An experimental research program was conducted on a second type of joint, referred to as a near-center latch joint. It was used in the center of members on the deployable truss structure for the Control of Flexible Structures (COFS) flight experiment. The test results of the near-center latch joint and the member with the joints indicated that the stiffness of the near-center joint is linear and stiffer than the stiffness of the total member, and that non-linearities in the stiffness characteristics of the total member were due to bending introduced at the ends of the member. The resulting data indicates that stiff linear folding joints can be designed and that bending load paths should be avoided whenever possible. In summary, for deployable structures, special attention to the joint and the structure design is required to minimize the undesirable structural non-linearities.

  9. Attention and Olfactory Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas eKeller

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the relation between attention and consciousness is an important part of our understanding of consciousness. Attention, unlike consciousness, can be systematically manipulated in psychophysical experiments and a law-like relation between attention and consciousness is waiting to be discovered. Most attempts to discover the nature of this relation are focused on a special type of attention: spatial visual attention. In this review I want to introduce another type of attention to ...

  10. Attention and Olfactory Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eKeller

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relation between attention and consciousness is an important part of our understanding of consciousness. Attention, unlike consciousness, can be systematically manipulated in psychophysical experiments and a law-like relation between attention and consciousness is waiting to be discovered. Most attempts to discover the nature of this relation are focused on a special type of attention: spatial visual attention. In this review I want to introduce another type of attention to the discussion: attention to the olfactory modality. I will first clarify the position of attention to smells in a general taxonomy of attention. I will then review the mechanisms and neuroanatomy of attention and consciousness in the olfactory system before using the newly introduced system to provide evidence that attention is necessary for consciousness.

  11. The play grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh, Rune; Johansen, Asger

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose The Play Grid, a model for systemizing different play types. The approach is psychological by nature and the actual Play Grid is based, therefore, on two pairs of fundamental and widely acknowledged distinguishing characteristics of the ego, namely: extraversion vs...... at the Play Grid. Thus, the model has four quadrants, each of them describing one of four play types: the Assembler, the Director, the Explorer, and the Improviser. It is our hope that the Play Grid can be a useful design tool for making entertainment products for children....

  12. Attentional Networks and Biological Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandramouli Chandrasekaran

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to see meaningful actions when presented with pointlight traces of human movement is commonly referred to as the perception of biological motion. While traditionalexplanations have emphasized the spontaneous and automatic nature of this ability, morerecent findings suggest that attention may play a larger role than is typically assumed. Intwo studies we show that the speed and accuracy of responding to point-light stimuli is highly correlated with the ability to control selective attention. In our first experiment we measured thresholds for determining the walking direction of a masked point-light figure, and performance on a range of attention-related tasks in the same set of observers. Mask-density thresholds for the direction discrimination task varied quite considerably from observer to observer and this variation was highly correlated with performance on both Stroop and flanker interference tasks. Other components of attention, such as orienting, alerting and visual search efficiency, showed no such relationship. In a second experiment, we examined the relationship between the ability to determine the orientation of unmasked point-light actions and Stroop interference, again finding a strong correlation. Our results are consistent with previous research suggesting that biological motion processing may requite attention, and specifically implicate networks of attention related to executive control and selection.

  13. Joint engagement in infants and its relationship to their visual impairment measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urqueta Alfaro, Andrea; Morash, Valerie S; Lei, Daisy; Orel-Bixler, Deborah

    2017-06-12

    Coordination of attention between a social partner and an external focus of shared interest, called joint engagement, is associated with positive developmental outcomes such as better language, socio-emotional, and theory of mind skills in sighted infants. Current measures of joint engagement rely on an infant's visual behaviors, making it difficult to study joint engagement in infants with low or no vision. In a naturalistic observational study, 20 infants with various levels of visual impairments - mean ages: 1.08 years (N=9) and 1.62 years (N=18), were videotaped during 30-min free play sessions with their caregivers. Seven infants were tested at both ages. Videos were coded to determine the percentage of time the dyads participated in joint engagement. Results showed that all visually impaired infants participated in joint engagement, with a significant increase between earlier and later ages. Infants' visual impairment levels were described in terms of visual acuity and contrast sensitivity as measured using both visual evoked potential and preferential looking techniques. Of the visual measurements, infants' reduction in contrast sensitivity measured with preferential looking, alone, predicted the infants' percentage of time in joint engagement across ages. Contrary to prior research that exclusively focused on visual acuity, this finding supports the need to include contrast sensitivity measurements in studies with visually impaired infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Learning More about Those Who Play in Session: The National Play Therapy in Counseling Practices Project (Phase I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Simone F.; LeBlanc, Michael; Mullen, Jodi Ann; Ray, Dee; Baggerly, Jennifer; White, JoAnna; Kaplan, David

    2007-01-01

    Through a joint research committee sponsored by the Association for Play Therapy (APT) and the American Counseling Association (ACA), The National Play Therapy in Counseling Practices Project conducted the first phase of investigation. Findings offered a snapshot of mental health providers of play therapy, regarding the nature of who they are and…

  15. Role-Playing Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)

  16. Play the Tuberculosis Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questionnaire Tuberculosis Play Tuberculosis Experiments & Discoveries About the game Discover and experience some of the classic methods ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  17. Play the MRI Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teachers' Questionnaire MRI Play MRI the Magnetic Miracle Game About the game In the MRI imaging technique, strong magnets and ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  18. Play the Electrocardiogram Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Electrocardiogram Play the ECG Game About the game ECG is used for diagnosing heart conditions by ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  19. Learning Through Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... play, such as using play dough, LEGOs, and board games. Toys such as puzzles, pegboards, beads, and lacing ... Building sets, books, bicycles, roller skates, ice skates, board games, checkers, beginning sports • Middle Schoolers and Adolescents: Athletics, ...

  20. Children, Time, and Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkind, David; Rinaldi, Carla; Flemmert Jensen, Anne;

    Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003.......Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003....

  1. Role-Playing Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)

  2. Play at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier Sørensen, Bent; Spoelstra, Sverre

    2012-01-01

    for business and the other insists that work and play are largely indistinguishable in the postindustrial organization. Our field study of a design and communications company in Denmark shows that organizational play can be much more than just functional to the organization. We identify three ways in which......The interest in organizational play is growing, both in popular business discourse and organization studies. As the presumption that play is dysfunctional for organizations is increasingly discarded, the existing positions may be divided into two camps; one proposes ‘serious play’ as an engine...... workplaces engage in play: play as a (serious) continuation of work, play as a (critical) intervention into work and play as an (uninvited) usurpation of work....

  3. Playing with social identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This chapter offers support for Vygotsky’s claim that all play involves both an imagined situation as well as rules. Synthesising Schousboe’s comprehensive model of spheres of realities in playing (see Chapter 1, this volume) with Lev Vygotskys insight that all playing involve rules as well...

  4. Toddlers: Learning by Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Toddlers: Learning by Playing KidsHealth > For Parents > Toddlers: Learning by Playing Print A A A What's in ... child's play, but toddlers are hard at work learning important physical skills as they gain muscle control, ...

  5. Playing against the Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmele, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    The paper first outlines a differentiation of play/game-motivations that include "negative" attitudes against the play/game itself like cheating or spoilsporting. This problem is of particular importance in concern of learning games because they are not "played" for themselves--at least in the first place--but due to an…

  6. Play the Mosquito Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Malaria Play the Mosquito Game Play the Parasite Game About the games Malaria is one of the world's most common ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  7. (Steering) interactive play behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delden, van Robertus Wilhelmus

    2017-01-01

    Play is a powerful means to have an impact on the cognitive, social-emotional, and/or motor skills development. The introduction of technology brings new possibilities to provide engaging and entertaining whole-body play activities. Technology mediates the play activities and in this way changes how

  8. (Steering) interactive play behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Delden, Robertus Wilhelmus

    2017-01-01

    Play is a powerful means to have an impact on the cognitive, social-emotional, and/or motor skills development. The introduction of technology brings new possibilities to provide engaging and entertaining whole-body play activities. Technology mediates the play activities and in this way changes how

  9. Effects of Static Stretching and Playing Soccer on Knee Laxity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgart, Christian; Gokeler, Alli; Donath, Lars; Hoppe, Matthias W.; Freiwald, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated exercise-induced effects of static stretching and playing soccer on anterior tibial translation (ATT) of the knee joint. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: University biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Thirty-one athletes were randomly assigned into

  10. Effects of Static Stretching and Playing Soccer on Knee Laxity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgart, Christian; Gokeler, Alli; Donath, Lars; Hoppe, Matthias W.; Freiwald, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated exercise-induced effects of static stretching and playing soccer on anterior tibial translation (ATT) of the knee joint. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: University biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Thirty-one athletes were randomly assigned into

  11. A Real Attention-Getter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    While most parents would agree that playing videos games is the antithesis of time well spent for their children, recent advances involving NASA biofeedback technology are proving otherwise. The same techniques used to measure brain activity in NASA pilots during flight simulation exercises are now a part of a revolutionary video game system that is helping to improve overall mental awareness for Americans of all ages, including those who suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

  12. Playing with social identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This chapter offers support for Vygotsky’s claim that all play involves both an imagined situation as well as rules. Synthesising Schousboe’s comprehensive model of spheres of realities in playing (see Chapter 1, this volume) with Lev Vygotskys insight that all playing involve rules as well...... as pretence, children’s play is understood as an activity involving rules of the social order (roles and positions) as well as identification processes (imagined situations). The theoretical argumentation builds on empirical examples obtained in two different Danish day-care centres. The chapter is informed...... by ethnographic observations and draws on illustrative examples with symbolic group play as well as game-play with rules (soccer) among 5 year old boys. Findings suggest that day-care children’s play, involves negotiation of roles, positioning and identification, and rules – and that these negotiations...

  13. Joint purpose?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    2013-01-01

    of anti-discrimination in Europe today? And what empirical evidence may be found for such a joint approach? The paper discusses how the contemporary EU context differs from the American context which prompted Crenshaw to raise the point about intersectionality, and it analyses documents and interviews...... from each of the two European umbrella organisations the European Women´s Lobby and the European Network against Racism, as well as a number of their national member organisations from across Europe, both within EU and non-EU member states....

  14. Multiple Sensory-Motor Pathways Lead to Coordinated Visual Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chen; Smith, Linda B.

    2017-01-01

    Joint attention has been extensively studied in the developmental literature because of overwhelming evidence that the ability to socially coordinate visual attention to an object is essential to healthy developmental outcomes, including language learning. The goal of this study was to understand the complex system of sensory-motor behaviors that…

  15. Multiple Sensory-Motor Pathways Lead to Coordinated Visual Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chen; Smith, Linda B.

    2017-01-01

    Joint attention has been extensively studied in the developmental literature because of overwhelming evidence that the ability to socially coordinate visual attention to an object is essential to healthy developmental outcomes, including language learning. The goal of this study was to understand the complex system of sensory-motor behaviors that…

  16. Effects of a Coactor's Focus of Attention on Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockler, Anne; Knoblich, Gunther; Sebanz, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Coactors take into account certain aspects of each other's tasks even when this is not required to perform their own task. The present experiments investigated whether the way a coactor allocates attention affects one's own attentional relation to stimuli that are attended jointly (Experiment 1), individually (Experiment 2), or in parallel…

  17. Late Modern Play Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg-Karoff, Helle

    2008-01-01

    Children's play and culture have changed over the recent years, and it is possible to understand the changes as a result of a more general change in society. We witness a large degree of changes connected to demographical aspects of children's lives. First of all it is a fact that large groups....... They are changing play arenas in order to find the identity, which suits them. In order to play children must know and be conscious of the cultural heritage, which contains knowledge of the way to organize in the playing session, the aesthetics, the techniques of playing, and this is something that is handed down...... from one generation to the next. Because older children are no longer present as younger children grow up, the traditional "cultural leaders" are gone. They have taken with them much of the inspiration for play as well as important knowledge about how to organise a game. In that sense we can say...

  18. Play, dreams, and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, J D

    1998-01-01

    Viewed ontogenetically, creating, dreaming, and playing are a variant of object relatedness. It is suggested that in recapitulating the ontogenetic sequence, creating, dreaming, and playing each as a process initiates by de-differentiation to primal union, evolves into transitional functioning, and consummates in tertiary cognitive discourse. The products of the triad--the created object, the dream, and play--are viewed as synergistic psychodynamic composites of topical, personal, and arche-typical imperatives. Creating, dreaming, and playing are easily overburdened by events, becoming stereotypical and repetitious. Nowhere is this more clearly seen than in the play of chronically ill, hospitalized children. It is suggested that with development generally, playing is replaced by formalized games; only dreaming continues as the vestige of early creative abilities.

  19. Play and virtuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein Sando

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The similarities between virtuality and play are obvious, beginning with, for instance, the ubiquitous character of both. This paper deals with how insights from research on play can be used to enlighten our understanding of the ethical dimensions of activities in cyberspace, and vice versa. In particular, a central claim that play is beyond vice and virtue is debated and contested.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v4i2.1762

  20. Why do Dolphins Play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan A. Kuczaj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Play is an important aspect of dolphin life, perhaps even an essential one. Play provides opportunities for dolphin calves to practice and perfect locomotor skills, including those involved in foraging and mating strategies and behaviors. Play also allows dolphin calves to learn important social skills and acquire information about the characteristics and predispositions of members of their social group, particularly their peers. In addition to helping dolphin calves learn how to behave, play also provides valuable opportunities for them to learn how to think. The ability to create and control play contexts enables dolphins to create novel experiences for themselves and their playmates under relatively safe conditions. The behavioral variability and individual creativity that characterize dolphin play yield ample opportunities for individual cognitive development as well as social learning, and sometimes result in innovations that are reproduced by other members of the group. Although adults sometimes produce innovative play, calves are the primary source of such innovations. Calves are also more likely to imitate novel play behaviors than are adults, and so calves contribute significantly to both the creation and transmission of novel play behaviors within a group. Not unexpectedly, then, the complexity of dolphin play increases with the involvement of peers. As a result, the opportunity to observe and/or interact with other dolphin calves enhances the effects of play on the acquisition and maintenance of flexible problem solving skills, the emergence and strengthening of social and communicative competencies, and the establishment of social relationships. It seems that play may have evolved to help young dolphins learn to adapt to novel situations in both their physical and social worlds, the beneficial result being a set of abilities that increases the likelihood that an individual survives and reproduces.

  1. PlayBook三人行

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黑莓时光

    2011-01-01

    PlayBook,来自非苹果的另外一个水果——黑莓,它不是iPad,却也是平板。PBer,这个并不完美的平板——PlayBook的用户,他们开朗、认真、执着。热爱PlayBook的三人,拥有各自的人生轨迹,却挂着同样的嘴角上扬。

  2. Attention Mosaics: Studies of Organizational Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho de Mesquita Ferreira, Luciana

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOrganizational studies emphasizing the role of attention in organizational behavior depart from the idea that organizations, like individuals, have limited capacity to attend to environmental stimuli. The bounded capacity of the organizations to respond to stimuli is conditioned by the limited cognitions of individuals and by the limited capability of organizations to distribute, coordinate and integrate those cognitions. The cross-level nature of organizational attention, its dua...

  3. Understanding Attention Deficit Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Orlando; And Others

    This booklet provides basic information regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), in their separate modalities, with hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Explanations are offered concerning short attention span, impulsive behavior, hyperactivity, and beginning new activities before completing the previous one. Theories…

  4. Attention Breaks in Lectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, A. H.; Percival, F.

    1976-01-01

    Describes research into student attention patterns during lectures that suggests that student attention declines steadily during a lecture, and that the rate of decrease is dependent upon several variables including subject difficulty. (MLH)

  5. Attention Competition with Advertisement

    OpenAIRE

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2012-01-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when a...

  6. Neural substrates of shared attention as social memory: A hyperscanning functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Takahiko; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Okazaki, Shuntaro; Nakagawa, Eri; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Shimada, Koji; Sugawara, Sho K; Takahashi, Haruka K; Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Bosch-Bayard, Jorge; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-01-15

    During a dyadic social interaction, two individuals can share visual attention through gaze, directed to each other (mutual gaze) or to a third person or an object (joint attention). Shared attention is fundamental to dyadic face-to-face interaction, but how attention is shared, retained, and neutrally represented in a pair-specific manner has not been well studied. Here, we conducted a two-day hyperscanning functional magnetic resonance imaging study in which pairs of participants performed a real-time mutual gaze task followed by a joint attention task on the first day, and mutual gaze tasks several days later. The joint attention task enhanced eye-blink synchronization, which is believed to be a behavioral index of shared attention. When the same participant pairs underwent mutual gaze without joint attention on the second day, enhanced eye-blink synchronization persisted, and this was positively correlated with inter-individual neural synchronization within the right inferior frontal gyrus. Neural synchronization was also positively correlated with enhanced eye-blink synchronization during the previous joint attention task session. Consistent with the Hebbian association hypothesis, the right inferior frontal gyrus had been activated both by initiating and responding to joint attention. These results indicate that shared attention is represented and retained by pair-specific neural synchronization that cannot be reduced to the individual level.

  7. Clevis joint for deployable space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marvin D. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    This invention relates generally to pin clevis joints, and more particularly, to zero play pin clevis joints for connecting structural members of a deployable space structure. A joint includes a pin, a tang, and a shackle. The pin is tapered at the same angle as the bores extending through the projections of the shackle and the tang. A spring washer biases the tang onto the tapered sidewall of the pin. The invention solves the free play problem associated with deployable space structures by using a tapered pin which is held in tapered holes by the spring washers.

  8. Play your part

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsey, Gaynor

    1978-01-01

    Play your part is a collection of then situations in which students have to take on the roles of particular people and express their opinions, feelings or arguments about the situation. Play your part is intended for use with advanced students of English.

  9. Role Playing and Skits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letwin, Robert, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Explores non-scripted role playing, dialogue role playing, sociodrama, and skits as variations of simulation techniques. Provides step-by-step guidelines for conducting such sessions. Successful Meetings, Bill Communications, Inc., 1422 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 19102. Subscription Rates: yearly (US, Canada, Mexico) $14.00; elsewhere,…

  10. The Play's the Thing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    The modern special education theater in the United States has hosted many plays, none with a larger or more diverse cast than the learning disabilities (LD) play. During the prologue, the children with LD were waiting in the wings, not yet identified as LD but there, nonetheless. With the advent of compulsory education in this country, awareness…

  11. Playfulness and Openness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela; Petersson, Eva

    2011-01-01

    What does it mean to design a playful learning tool? What is needed for a learning tool to be perceived by potential users as playful? These questions emerged reflecting on a Participatory Design process aimed at enhancing museum-learning practice from the perspective of primary school children. ...

  12. Play as Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henricks, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    The author investigates what he believes one of the more important aspects of play--the experience it generates in its participants. He considers the quality of this experience in relation to five ways of viewing play--as action, interaction, activity, disposition, and within a context. He treats broadly the different forms of affect, including…

  13. Art of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel Cristina G.; Walker, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Play is a key element in cultural development, according to the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga. Nowadays many of us interact with other people in online games and social networks, through multiple digital devices. But harnessing playful activities for museum learning is mostly undeveloped. In thi...

  14. Family Play Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Shlomo

    This paper examines a case study of family play therapy in Israel. The unique contributions of play therapy are evaluated including the therapy's accessibility to young children, its richness and flexibility, its exposure of covert patterns, its wealth of therapeutic means, and its therapeutic economy. The systematization of the therapy attempts…

  15. Return to Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Call it physical activity, call it games, or call it play. Whatever its name, it's a place we all need to return to. In the physical education, recreation, and dance professions, we need to redesign programs to address the need for and want of play that is inherent in all of us.

  16. Playful Collaboration (Or Not)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Marcel; Sproedt, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how playing games can be used to teach intangible social interaction across boundaries, in particular within open collaborative innovation. We present an exploratory case study of how students learned from playing a board game in a graduate course of the international...... imply several opportunities and challenges within education and beyond....

  17. Art of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel Cristina G.; Walker, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Play is a key element in cultural development, according to the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga. Nowadays many of us interact with other people in online games and social networks, through multiple digital devices. But harnessing playful activities for museum learning is mostly undeveloped. In thi...

  18. Play framework cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Reelsen, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at advanced developers who are looking to harness the power of Play 2.x. This book will also be useful for professionals looking to dive deeper into web development. Play 2 .x is an excellent framework to accelerate your learning of advanced topics.

  19. Let's Just Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Children have a right to play. The idea is so simple it seems self-evident. But a stroll through any toy superstore, or any half-hour of so-called "children's" programming on commercial TV, makes it clear that violence, not play, dominates what's being sold. In this article, the author discusses how teachers and parents share the responsibility in…

  20. Attentional Processes in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Gerald; Johnson, Cynthia R.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2001-01-01

    Attention processes in 103 children and adults with high functioning autism were compared with a matched control group using a battery of attention measures. Differences were found only on tasks which placed demands on cognitive flexibility or psychomotor speed, suggesting that purported attention deficits in autism may actually be primary…

  1. I Play Roles, Therefore I Am

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Waade, Anne Marit

    2007-01-01

    -reflecting activity is getting an increasingly growing attention from the media, and the fact that educators, teachers, and development consultants have discovered the potential inherent in role-playing, both as an idea and a strategy. In this essay, we place leisure role-playing in a broader perspective, not only...... in relation to actual phenomena in mediatized popular culture (such as computer games) or to storytelling in organizations, but also in relation to role-playing as a tradition and theoretical consideration within education, theatre, and the social sciences. The points and discussions are based on our book...

  2. Attention competition with advertisement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  3. Attention competition with advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  4. Plant intelligence and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Michael

    2013-05-01

    This article applies the phenomenological model of attention to plant monitoring of environmental stimuli and signal perception. Three complementary definitions of attention as selectivity, modulation and perdurance are explained with reference to plant signaling and behaviors, including foraging, ramet placement and abiotic stress communication. Elements of animal and human attentive attitudes are compared with plant attention at the levels of cognitive focus, context and margin. It is argued that the concept of attention holds the potential of becoming a cornerstone of plant intelligence studies.

  5. Is trait resilience characterized by specific patterns of attentional bias to emotional stimuli and attentional control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Judith; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Höfler, Michael; Heinrich, Anke; Zimmermann, Peter; Siegel, Stefan; Schönfeld, Sabine

    2015-09-01

    Attentional processes have been suggested to play a crucial role in resilience defined as positive adaptation facing adversity. However, research is lacking on associations between attentional biases to positive and threat-related stimuli, attentional control and trait resilience. Data stem from the follow-up assessment of a longitudinal study investigating mental health and related factors among German soldiers. Trait resilience was assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale and attentional control with the Attentional Control Scale. A subset of n = 198 soldiers also completed a dot probe task with happy, neutral and threatening faces. Attentional control was positively related to trait resilience. Results revealed no associations between both attentional biases and trait resilience. However, there was a negative association between attentional bias to threat and trait resilience when attentional control was low and a positive association between attentional bias to threat and trait resilience when attentional control was high. No such associations were found for attentional bias to positive stimuli. Generalizability to other populations may be limited since we exclusively focused on male soldiers. Also, the cross-sectional design does not allow for causal conclusions. Findings suggest that attentional processing may promote trait resilience. Future research on preventive interventions should consider these findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another.

  7. Principles of visual attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundesen, Claus; Habekost, Thomas

    The nature of attention is one of the oldest and most central problems in psychology. A huge amount of research has been produced on this subject in the last half century, especially on attention in the visual modality, but a general explanation has remained elusive. Many still view attention...... research as a field that is fundamentally fragmented. This book takes a different perspective and presents a unified theory of visual attention: the TVA model. The TVA model explains the many aspects of visual attention by just two mechanisms for selection of information: filtering and pigeonholing....... These mechanisms are described in a set of simple equations, which allow TVA to mathematically model a large number of classical results in the attention literature. The theory explains psychological and neuroscientific findings by the same equations; TVA is a complete theory of visual attention, linking mind...

  8. Play vs. Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammar, Emil

    Through the theories of play by Gadamer (2004) and Henricks (2006), I will show how the relationship between play and game can be understood as dialectic and disruptive, thus challenging understandings of how the procedures of games determine player activity and vice versa. As such, I posit some...... analytical consequences for understandings of digital games as procedurally fixed (Boghost, 2006; Flannagan, 2009; Bathwaite & Sharp, 2010). That is, if digital games are argued to be procedurally fixed and if play is an appropriative and dialectic activity, then it could be argued that the latter affects...

  9. Playing the 'Silence' Card

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantelli, Niki; Lee, Joyce y. H.; Bülow, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that the international business (IB) literature has given only limited attention to the technologymediated context of language. We find, through a case study of an international inter-organizational partnership where the use of English language was the lingua franca, that ...

  10. Efficacy of play therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    healing process, to improve the academic performance, increase the attentive level, and to ensure ... Goodman's Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire-a standardized instrument) were obtained from 17 children ... Psychology Department E-mail:brexnigussie83@yahoo.com ... sand, music, movement, drama therapy, etc.

  11. Playing on Two Chessboards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hond, Frank den; Rehbein, Kaithleen A.; de Bakker, Frank

    2014-01-01

    -alignment – affect the firm's reputation beyond the separate reputation effects of CSR and CPA. This model has important implications for understanding how and why firms should pay attention to their CPA and CSR configurations, and thereby contributes to the broader issue of why firms should make sure...

  12. Investigating Joint Attention Mechanisms through Spoken Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudte, Maria; Crocker, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    Referential gaze during situated language production and comprehension is tightly coupled with the unfolding speech stream (Griffin, 2001; Meyer, Sleiderink, & Levelt, 1998; Tanenhaus, Spivey-Knowlton, Eberhard, & Sedivy, 1995). In a shared environment, utterance comprehension may further be facilitated when the listener can exploit the speaker's…

  13. Investigating Joint Attention Mechanisms through Spoken Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudte, Maria; Crocker, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    Referential gaze during situated language production and comprehension is tightly coupled with the unfolding speech stream (Griffin, 2001; Meyer, Sleiderink, & Levelt, 1998; Tanenhaus, Spivey-Knowlton, Eberhard, & Sedivy, 1995). In a shared environment, utterance comprehension may further be facilitated when the listener can exploit the speaker's…

  14. Play and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The power of play, so central to psychoanalytic theory and practice, is conjoined to the social psychological or socio-politically coloured concept of power, giving rise to many fruitful discussions of how these concepts manifest themselves in clinical work with children, groups and adults....... The inspiration for this book was the 3-section EFPP conference in Copenhagen in May 2007 with the main theme "Play and Power". At the conference and in the book, this theme is presented both inside and outside the therapeutic space. It is amply illustrated in clinical cases from individual psychotherapies....... Play and power are also explored in the broader context of the community, however. In relation to society at large, psychoanalytic psychotherapy has important contributions to offer society, and we need playful creativity and power to bring forward our knowledge about it....

  15. Joint Replacement (Finger and Wrist Joints)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... artificial joint Damage to vessels, nerves or other structures in the region of the surgery Alternatives Some alternate procedures for treating arthritis include: Joint injections Oral medications such as aspirin or anti-inflammatory medicines Hand therapy exercises and ...

  16. Attention Mosaics: Studies of Organizational Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Carvalho de Mesquita Ferreira (Luciana)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOrganizational studies emphasizing the role of attention in organizational behavior depart from the idea that organizations, like individuals, have limited capacity to attend to environmental stimuli. The bounded capacity of the organizations to respond to stimuli is conditioned by the l

  17. Attention Mosaics: Studies of Organizational Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Carvalho de Mesquita Ferreira (Luciana)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOrganizational studies emphasizing the role of attention in organizational behavior depart from the idea that organizations, like individuals, have limited capacity to attend to environmental stimuli. The bounded capacity of the organizations to respond to stimuli is conditioned by the

  18. Spacesuit mobility knee joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vykukal, H. C. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Pressure suit mobility joints are for use in interconnecting adjacent segments of an hermetically sealed spacesuit in which low torques, low leakage and a high degree of reliability are required. Each of the joints is a special purpose joint characterized by substantially constant volume and low torque characteristics and includes linkages which restrain the joint from longitudinal distension and includes a flexible, substantially impermeable diaphragm of tubular configuration spanning the distance between pivotally supported annuli. The diaphragms of selected joints include rolling convolutions for balancing the joints, while various joints include wedge-shaped sections which enhance the range of motion for the joints.

  19. ECAKP: Encrypt Collect Authenticate Kill Play

    CERN Document Server

    El-Khouly, Mahmoud Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    We are taught from a young age that plagiarism (copying other's work) is wrong. However, the problem of Illegal copies of multimedia data is exacerbated by the widespread availability of circumvention devices, which enable people to make infringing copies of multimedia data. Recently, Joint Video Compression and Encryption (JVCE) has gained increased attention to reduce the computational complexity of video compression, as well as provide encryption of multimedia data. In this paper, a novel protection method for multimedia data (ECAKP) is proposed. It combines encryption process and compression with authenticating process. The method had been implemented and the results are discussed in detail.

  20. Control of International Joint-ventures:A Literature Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Ding

    2013-01-01

    Joint-venture,which is considered as an important hybrid govern-ance structure between markets and hierarchy,has gained increasing popularity among firms that attempt to improve their competitive advantage through collabo-ration.This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical studies on control of joint-ventures with an emphasis on the specific control mechanisms used in practice to manage joint-ventures.Furthermore,special attention is given to how performance of joint-venture is measured and what determines its performance.This paper con-cludes with some suggestions for future research on control of joint-ventures.

  1. Pain and attention

    OpenAIRE

    Blom, J.H.G.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to sense pain may be considered as a prerequisite for human survival. The experience of pain helps humans to avoid the execution of actions that can seriously endanger their lives; pain is therefore evolutionarily predisposed to interrupt and capture attention. However, this supposed interconnectedness between pain and attention is still sparsely examined. The aim of this dissertation was to gain further insight in this relation between pain and attention, and more specifically th...

  2. The joint choice of tenure, dwelling type and size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenkel, Amnon; Bendit, Eduard; Kaplan, Sigal

    Real-estate market trends regarding housing preferences for tenure, dwelling type and size carry long term implications for cities’ spatial development and compactness. Much attention have been given to the impact of household demographics and socio-economic characteristics on joint housing choices...... that active versus home-oriented lifestyle plays an important role in housing preferences of tenure, dwelling type and size, while controlling for household socio-economic characteristics. The choice model employed for tenure and dwelling type coupled with dwelling unit size is the multinomial logit ordered...... regarding housing preferences, socio-economic characteristics, and activity patterns. The empirical findings show that the tendency of knowledge-workers to reside in owned large dwelling units, preferably single detached houses, increases with high engagement in home-oriented activities, while the tendency...

  3. The Sequential Relationship between Parent Attentional Cues and Sustained Attention to Objects in Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, Nicolette Bainbridge; Yoder, Paul J.; Jarzynka, Melanie A.; Tapp, Jon

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the sequential relationship between parent attentional cues and sustained attention to objects in young children with autism during a 20 min free-play interaction session. Twenty-five parent-child dyads with a preschool child with autism participated. Results indicated that (a) parent attentional cues that maintained the…

  4. Can play be defined?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Can play be defined? There is reason to raise critical questions about the established academic demand that at phenomenon – also in humanist studies – should first of all be defined, i.e. de-lineated and by neat lines limited to a “little box” that can be handled. The following chapter develops t....... Human beings can very well understand play – or whatever phenomenon in human life – without defining it........ The academic imperative of definition seems to be linked to the positivistic attempts – and produces sometimes monstrous definitions. Have they any philosophical value for our knowledge of what play is? Definition is not a universal instrument of knowledge-building, but a culturally specific construction...

  5. Playing and gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg; Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hanghøj, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    The paper develops an approach of playing and gaming activities through the perspective of both activities as mood activities . The point of departure is that a game - is a tool with which we, through our practices, achieve different moods. This based on an empirical study of children's everyday...... lives, where the differences emerge through actual practices, i.e. through the creation of meaning in the specific situations. The overall argument is that it is not that important whether it is a playing or a gaming activity - it is however crucial to be aware of how moods occur and what their optimal...... dimensions: practices and moods. Practice is the concept of all the doing in the activities. Moods are the particular concept of sense and feeling of being, which is what we are drawn to when we are playing or gaming....

  6. Playing and gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg; Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hanghøj, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    The paper develops an approach of playing and gaming activities through the perspective of both activities as mood activities . The point of departure is that a game - is a tool with which we, through our practices, achieve different moods. This based on an empirical study of children's everyday...... lives, where the differences emerge through actual practices, i.e. through the creation of meaning in the specific situations. The overall argument is that it is not that important whether it is a playing or a gaming activity - it is however crucial to be aware of how moods occur and what their optimal...... dimensions: practices and moods. Practice is the concept of all the doing in the activities. Moods are the particular concept of sense and feeling of being, which is what we are drawn to when we are playing or gaming....

  7. General game playing

    CERN Document Server

    Genesereth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    General game players are computer systems able to play strategy games based solely on formal game descriptions supplied at ""runtime"" (n other words, they don't know the rules until the game starts). Unlike specialized game players, such as Deep Blue, general game players cannot rely on algorithms designed in advance for specific games; they must discover such algorithms themselves. General game playing expertise depends on intelligence on the part of the game player and not just intelligence of the programmer of the game player.GGP is an interesting application in its own right. It is intell

  8. Playful Collaboration (or Not)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Marcel; Sproedt, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    also be conducive to deep learning. As such, a game can engage different dimensions of learning and embed elements of active, collaborative, cooperative and problem-based learning. Building on this logic, we present an exploratory case study of the use of a particular board game in a class of a course......This paper explores how games and play, which are deeply rooted in human beings as a way to learn and interact, can be used to teach certain concepts and practices related to open collaborative innovation. We discuss how playing games can be a source of creativity, imagination and fun, while it can...

  9. Five recent play dates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Mette Simonsen; Birkbak, Andreas; Jensen, Torben Elgaard

    2017-01-01

    An advantage of the playground metaphor is that it comes with the activity of going out on ‘play dates’ and developing friendships. In such playful relationships, there is always something at stake, but the interaction is also fun and inherently exploratory. In the following, we take a tour of five...... recent collaborative projects that the TANTlab has participated in. The projects differ widely and testify to different experiences with collaboration and intervention – from a data print on obesity with other researchers to a Facebook-driven intervention in Aalborg municipality’s primary school reform...

  10. Attentional performance, age and scholastic achievement in healthy children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Trautmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attentional processes in children play a critical role in daily school demands and accomplishments. Studies on the association of attentional processes with school achievement and age in healthy school children are scarce. The aim of the present study was to identify correlations between dimensions of attentional performance, scholastic achievement and age. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An extensive testing battery was used to assess a wide range of attentional dimensions. A principal component analysis revealed three factors that are related to attentional performance (distractibility, lapses of attention, cognitive speed. Age was negatively associated with distractibility, lapses of attention and cognitive speed, indicating that distractibility and lapses of attention decreased with age in healthy children and resulted in lower cognitive speed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Attentional processes in healthy children should be measured in relation to distractibility, lapses of attention and cognitive speed.

  11. Attentional mechanisms in the generation of sympathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Dickert

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Empathic responses, such as sympathy towards others, are a key ingredient in the decision to provide help to those in need. The determinants of empathic responses are usually thought to be the vividness, similarity, and proximity of the victim. However, recent research highlights the role that attention plays in the generation of feelings. We expanded on this idea by investigating whether sympathy depends on cognitive mechanisms such as attention. In two studies we found that sympathy responses were lower and reaction times were longer when targets were presented with distractors. In addition, online sympathy judgments that allow attentional focusing on a target lead to greater affective responses than judgments made from memory. We conclude that attention is an ingredient in the generation of sympathy, and discuss implications for research on prosocial behaviour and the interaction between attention and emotions.

  12. Background music: effects on attention performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yi-Nuo; Huang, Rong-Hwa; Chiang, Hsin-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that noise may affect worker attention. However, some background music in the work environment can increase worker satisfaction and productivity. This study compared how music with, and without, lyrics affects human attention. One hundred and two participants, aged 20-24 years, were recruited into this study. Fifty-six males and 46 females participated in this study. Background music with, and without lyrics, was tested for effects on listener concentration in attention testing using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) study. The comparison results revealed that background music with lyrics had significant negative effects on concentration and attention. The findings suggest that, if background music is played in the work environment, music without lyrics is preferable because songs with lyrics are likely to reduce worker attention and performance.

  13. Cartilage repair and joint preservation: medical and surgical treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madry, Henning; Grün, Ulrich Wolfgang; Knutsen, Gunnar

    2011-10-01

    Articular cartilage defects are most often caused by trauma and osteoarthritis and less commonly by metabolic disorders of the subchondral bone, such as osteonecrosis and osteochondritis dissecans. Such defects do not heal spontaneously in adults and can lead to secondary osteoarthritis. Medications are indicated for symptomatic relief. Slow-acting drugs in osteoarthritis (SADOA), such as glucosamine and chondroitin, are thought to prevent cartilage degeneration. Reconstructive surgical treatment strategies aim to form a repair tissue or to unload compartments of the joint with articular cartilage damage. In this article, we selectively review the pertinent literature, focusing on original publications of the past 5 years and older standard texts. Particular attention is paid to guidelines and clinical studies with a high level of evidence, along with review articles, clinical trials, and book chapters. There have been only a few randomized trials of medical versus surgical treatments. Pharmacological therapies are now available that are intended to treat the cartilage defect per se, rather than the associated symptoms, yet none of them has yet been shown to slow or reverse the progression of cartilage destruction. Surgical débridement of cartilage does not prevent the progression of osteoarthritis and is thus not recommended as the sole treatment. Marrow-stimulating procedures and osteochondral grafts are indicated for small focal articular cartilage defects, while autologous chondrocyte implantationis mainly indicated for larger cartilage defects. These surgical reconstructive techniques play a lesser role in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Osteotomy near the knee joint is indicated for axial realignment when unilateral osteoarthritis of the knee causes axis deviation. Surgical reconstructive techniques can improve joint function and thereby postpone the need for replacement of the articular surface with an artificial joint.

  14. The Activity of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichlmair, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents Activity Theory as a framework for understanding the action of playing games with the intention of building a foundation for the creation of new game design tools and methods. Activity Theory, an epistemological framework rooted in Soviet psychology of the first half of the 20...

  15. Playing the Role

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The G20 London summit made history. While applauding the summit’s productive communique, Ni Xiaoling, senior financial observer with Xinhua News Agency, warns of the gap between the greater responsibilities the International Monetary Fund shoulders and its limited capabilities to play the role of coordinator in economic globalization.

  16. Abstraction through Game Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraamidou, Antri; Monaghan, John; Walker, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the computer game play of an 11-year-old boy. In the course of building a virtual house he developed and used, without assistance, an artefact and an accompanying strategy to ensure that his house was symmetric. We argue that the creation and use of this artefact-strategy is a mathematical abstraction. The discussion…

  17. Mobilities at Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ungruhe, Christian

    2017-01-01

    -level perspective there is still an analytical gap between the ambitions and experiences of migrating players and economic power relations at play on the one hand and the socio-cultural embedding of the transnational connections in football migration on the other. In order to understand why and how football...

  18. Play's Importance in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Anette; Heden, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute knowledge on and gain an understanding of elementary school teachers' perspectives on the function of play in children's learning processes. The study is qualitative with a hermeneutical approach and has George Herbert Mead as a theoretical frame of reference. Interviews have been carried out with seven…

  19. Play framework essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Richard-Foy, Julien

    2014-01-01

    This book targets Java and Scala developers who already have some experience in web development and who want to master Play framework quickly and efficiently. This book assumes you have a good level of knowledge and understanding of efficient Java and Scala code.

  20. A Significant Play

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁海光; 陈明

    2002-01-01

    Yesterday evening, I went to see a play. It was really significant. It was about Zheng Xiaoyue, a very clever and diligent middle school student. Unfortunately, her mother died when she and her brother were very young. Her father was out of work and,

  1. Embodied Infant Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Steven S.; Johnson, Sarah L.

    2009-01-01

    Does real time coupling between mental and physical activity early in development have functional significance? To address this question, we examined the habituation of visual attention and the subsequent response to change in two groups of 3-month-olds with different patterns of movement-attention coupling. In suppressors, the typical decrease in…

  2. Attention and Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    1981-01-01

    The authors discuss methodological and theoretical issues in psychological investigations of infant attention, fixation times, habituation, and intelligence. A consensus on how to measure individual differences in habituation has not been reached. The relation between IQ and attention is discussed. (RD)

  3. Social traits modulate attention to affiliative cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Moore

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurobehavioral models of personality suggest that the salience assigned to particular classes of stimuli vary as a function of traits that reflect both the activity of neurobiological encoding and relevant social experience. In turn, this joint influence modulates the extent that salience influences attentional processes, and hence learning about and responding to those stimuli. Applying this model to the domain of social valuation, we assessed the differential effects on attentional guidance by affiliative cues of (i a higher-order temperament trait (Social Closeness, and (ii attachment style in a sample of 57 women. Attention to affiliative pictures paired with either incentive or neutral pictures was assessed using camera eye-tracking. Trait social closeness and attachment avoidance interacted to modulate fixation frequency on affiliative but not on incentive pictures, suggesting that both traits influence the salience assigned to affiliative cues specifically.

  4. Social traits modulate attention to affiliative cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sarah R; Fu, Yu; Depue, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Neurobehavioral models of personality suggest that the salience assigned to particular classes of stimuli vary as a function of traits that reflect both the activity of neurobiological encoding and relevant social experience. In turn, this joint influence modulates the extent that salience influences attentional processes, and hence learning about and responding to those stimuli. Applying this model to the domain of social valuation, we assessed the differential effects on attentional guidance by affiliative cues of (i) a higher-order temperament trait (Social Closeness), and (ii) attachment style in a sample of 57 women. Attention to affiliative pictures paired with either incentive or neutral pictures was assessed using camera eye-tracking. Trait social closeness and attachment avoidance interacted to modulate fixation frequency on affiliative but not on incentive pictures, suggesting that both traits influence the salience assigned to affiliative cues specifically.

  5. Dynamics of Media Attention

    CERN Document Server

    Traag, V A; Hicks, J; van Klinken, G

    2014-01-01

    Studies of human attention dynamics analyses how attention is focused on specific topics, issues or people. In online social media, there are clear signs of exogenous shocks, bursty dynamics, and an exponential or powerlaw lifetime distribution. We here analyse the attention dynamics of traditional media, focussing on co-occurrence of people in newspaper articles. The results are quite different from online social networks and attention. Different regimes seem to be operating at two different time scales. At short time scales we see evidence of bursty dynamics and fast decaying edge lifetimes and attention. This behaviour disappears for longer time scales, and in that regime we find Poissonian dynamics and slower decaying lifetimes. We propose that a cascading Poisson process may take place, with issues arising at a constant rate over a long time scale, and faster dynamics at a shorter time scale.

  6. International joint ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2001-01-01

    The article analysis problems connected with corporate joint ventures. Among others the possible conflicts between the joint venture agreement and the statutes of the companies is examined, as well as certain problems connected to the fact that the joint venture partners have created commen control...... over their joint company....

  7. Psychological Research on Joint Action: Theory and Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoblich, G.K.; Butterfill, S.; Sebanz, N.

    2011-01-01

    When two or more people coordinate their actions in space and time to produce a joint outcome, they perform a joint action. The perceptual, cognitive, and motor processes that enable individuals to coordinate their actions with others have been receiving increasing attention during the last decade,

  8. Joint hypermobility syndrome in rheumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Satybaldyev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS is a disease characterized by symptoms of locomotor system involvement in the absence of obvious systemic rheumatic diseases (RDs. JHS accompanied by the symptomatology of RDs should be distinguished from isolated joint hypermobility, in which there are no complaints even in cases of its generalized manifestations and the patients feel virtually healthy. The paper provides an overview of the literature on the JHS. It gives diagnostic criteria for JHS (the Brighton criteria encompasses the Beighton score and the clinical manifestation of damages to the locomotor apparatus, visceral organs, and skin in this syndrome. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction as a possible manifestation of JHS and its impact on the daily life of patients are discussed. Attention is paid to the prevention and treatment of JHS. 

  9. Play or science?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieberoth, Andreas; Pedersen, Mads Kock; Sherson, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Crowdscience games may hold unique potentials as learning opportunities compared to games made for fun or education. They are part of an actual science problem solving process: By playing, players help scientists, and thereby interact with real continuous research processes. This mixes the two...... worlds of play and science in new ways. During usability testing we discovered that users of the crowdscience game Quantum Dreams tended to answer questions in game terms, even when directed explicitly to give science explanations. We then examined these competing frames of understanding though a mixed...... correlational and grounded theory analysis. This essay presents the core ideas of crowdscience games as learning opportunities, and reports how a group of players used “game”, “science” and “conceptual” frames to interpret their experience. Our results suggest that oscillating between the frames instead...

  10. Understanding Games as Played

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leino, Olli Tapio

    2009-01-01

    Researchers interested in player’s experience would assumedly, across disciplines, agree that the goal behind enquiries into player’s experience is to understand the how games’ features end up affecting the player’s experience. Much of the contemporary interdisciplinary research into player......’s experience leans toward the empirical-scientific, in the forms (neuro)psychology, sociology and cognitive science, to name a few. In such approaches, for example demonstrating correlation between physiological symptoms and an in-game event may amount to ‘understanding’. However, the experience of computer...... game play is a viable topic also for computer game studies within the general tradition of humanities. In such context, the idea of ‘understanding an experience’ invites an approach focusing on the experienced significance of events and objects within computer game play. This focus, in turn, suggests...

  11. Ravens at Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Bird Rose

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available ‘We were driving through Death Valley, an American-Australian and two Aussies, taking the scenic route from Las Vegas to Santa Cruz.’ This multi-voiced account of multispecies encounters along a highway takes up the challenge of playful and humorous writing that is as well deeply serious and theoretically provocative. Our travels brought us into what Donna Haraway calls the contact zone: a region of recognition and response. The contact zone is a place of significant questions: ‘Who are you, and so who are we? Here we are, and so what are we to become?’ Events were everything in this ecology of play, in which the movements of all the actors involved the material field in its entirety. We were brought into dances of approach and withdrawal, dances emerging directly, to paraphrase Brian Massumi, from the dynamic relation between a myriad of charged particles.

  12. Public Computation & Boundary Play

    CERN Document Server

    Sengupta, Pratim

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce 'public computation' as a genre of learning environments that can be used to radically broaden public participation in authentic, computation-enabled STEM disciplinary practices. Our paradigmatic approach utilizes open source software designed for professional scientists, engineers and digital artists, and situates them in an undiluted form, alongside live and archived expert support, in a public space. We present a case study of DigiPlay, a prototypical public computation space we designed at the University of Calgary, where users can interact directly with scientific simulations as well as the underlying open source code using an array of massive multi- touch screens. We argue that in such a space, public interactions with the code can be thought of as boundary work and play, through which public participation becomes legitimate scientific act, as the public engages in scientific creation through truly open-ended explorations with the code.

  13. Play. Learn. Innovate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sproedt, Henrik

    evidence that play and games could be interesting perspectives to take in order to understand complex social interaction. I come to the conclusion that – in innovation settings – the social dynamics that affect the process are essentially about transformation of knowledge across boundaries. I propose......„Play. Learn. Innovate. – Grasping the Social Dynamics of Participatory Innovation“ the title of this thesis describes how the complex interplay of unexpected events led to some burning questions and eventually to this thesis, which one could call an innovation*1*. During several years...... study were to better understand the theoretical foundations and practical implications of complex social interaction in organizational innovation settings. As I did not find any existing models or hypotheses that I was interested in testing I set out to discover how I could grasp complex social...

  14. "Playing" with our users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2014-01-01

    was from the amazing Dr Anthony Lewis Brooks (aka Tony) who has conceived the concepts GameAbilitation, ArtAbilitation, and Ludic Engagement Designs for All. While presenting some of his work on GameAbilitation and ArtAbilitation he brought up the subject of conducting research with users with disabilities......, about what happens to our users when research is over, funds are gone and the curtain of experiments has fallen. Dr Brooks presented the case of a young user who while unable to move and communicate had to part with the test device that provided him with interactive playful experience. We’ve all been...... confined in a house. For researchers that work with people with disabilities and in my case with playful interactions and positive immersive experience, we might have to think harder when we write project proposals or sketch our methodology. Devices, software and experience should be available to the users...

  15. Creativity and Playfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Skovbjerg, Helle Marie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This article explores how student behavior and interactions change when teachers use “producing games” as a primary pedagogical strategy (Papert, 1980; Ejsing-Duun and Karoff, 2014). Based on student and teacher actions and responses, as well as on students' production—observed during f...... fieldwork—this paper emphasizes the importance of understanding how students explore creativity and playfulness while producing in learning situations....

  16. Creativity and Playfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Skovbjerg, Helle Marie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This article explores how student behavior and interactions change when teachers use “producing games” as a primary pedagogical strategy (Papert, 1980; Ejsing-Duun and Karoff, 2014). Based on student and teacher actions and responses, as well as on students' production—observed during f...... fieldwork—this paper emphasizes the importance of understanding how students explore creativity and playfulness while producing in learning situations....

  17. Anatomy and histology of the sacroiliac joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egund, Niels; Jurik, Anne Grethe

    2014-07-01

    The anatomy of joints provides an important basis for understanding the nature and imaging of pathologic lesions and their imaging appearance. This applies especially to the sacroiliac (SI) joints, which play a major role in the diagnosis of spondyloarthritis. They are composed of two different joint portions, a cartilage-covered portion ventrally and a ligamentous portion dorsally, and thus rather complex anatomically. Knowledge of anatomy and the corresponding normal imaging findings are important in the imaging diagnosis of sacroiliitis, especially by MR imaging. A certain distinction between the two joint portions by MR imaging is only obtainable by axial slice orientation. Together with a perpendicular coronal slice orientation, it provides adequate anatomical information and thereby a possibility for detecting the anatomical site of disease-specific characteristics and normal variants simulating disease. This overview describes current knowledge about the normal macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the SI joints.

  18. Attention Sensitive Web Browsing

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    With a number of cheap commercial dry EEG kits available today, it is possible to look at user attention driven scenarios for interaction with the web browser. Using EEG to determine the user's attention level is preferable to using methods such as gaze tracking or time spent on the webpage. In this paper we use the attention level in three different ways. First, as a control mechanism, to control user interface elements such as menus or buttons. Second, to make the web browser responsive to ...

  19. Are You Paying Attention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    A still understudied area in media research is how people pay attention to news in daily life. To do so, the chapter develops a theoretical framework grounded in news audience research and practice theory. This framework conceptualizes practices as different ways in which attention is directed....... In the concluding discussion, the chapter relates the findings to further perspectives on attention to news specifically and media content more generally. Accordingly, this chapter contributes to cross-media news research by analyzing ways in which people attend to news and how these ways of attending vary across...

  20. Interactions between working memory and selective attention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) was used to examine the interactions between working memory and selective attention. We combined two unrelated tasks, one requiring working memory and the other selective attention, which were performed by some undergraduates. The ERP results revealed that both congruent and incongruent stimuli in the selective attention task evoked an N400 component, reaching the peak point at around 500 ms. The N400 evoked by incongruent stimuli was more negative than that of congruent, which indicated the difference of semantic N400. Furthermore, working memory load had a significant influence on the N400 evoked by selective attention task in parietal region. And working memory load showed difference in the ERPs of working memory retrieval in central and parietal regions. The ERPs of probe under high working memory load were more positive from 350 to 550 ms post-stimulus; however, stimulus type of selective attention had no influence on working memory retrieval. The present study shows that working memory does not play a major role in the selective attention, especially in ignoring distracter, but it influences the performance of the selective attention as the background. The congruency of target and distracter in the selective attention task does not influence the working memory retrieval.

  1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If so, your child may have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nearly everyone shows some of these ... children. The main features of ADHD are Inattention Hyperactivity Impulsivity No one knows exactly what causes ADHD. ...

  2. Adaptive visual attention model

    OpenAIRE

    Hügli, Heinz; Bur, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    Visual attention, defined as the ability of a biological or artificial vision system to rapidly detect potentially relevant parts of a visual scene, provides a general purpose solution for low level feature detection in a vision architecture. Well considered for its universal detection behaviour, the general model of visual attention is suited for any environment but inferior to dedicated feature detectors in more specific environments. The goal of the development presented in this paper is t...

  3. Celadon Figurines Play Instruments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    This group of figurines, each 0.15m tall, were unearthed from a Tang Dynasty tomb in Changsha in 1977. Music was very developed in the Tang Dynasty. Colorful musical instruments and dances were popular both among the people and in the palace. These vivid-looking figurines wear pleated skirts with small sleeves and open chest, a style influenced by the non-Han nationalities living in the north and west of China. Some of the musical instruments were brought from the Western Regions. The figurines are playing the xiao (a vertical bamboo flute), the konghou (an

  4. Motivation, Creativity, Play & Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    implementation of robotic physical movement synchronously manipulated from sourced data movement information of a human. SoundScapes is a concept based on non-verbal communication and stimulation through interactive play with sounds and images, which is being realised in the production of a non-wearable sensor...... groups of children, including children with severe physical/multi disabilities. The sourced capture of the human data is from enhanced virtual interactive space created from sensors. The data is constituted of the situated multimodal communication and forms of expression. The ‘VIS’ is considered...

  5. Motivation, Creativity, Play & Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    implementation of robotic physical movement synchronously manipulated from sourced data movement information of a human. SoundScapes is a concept based on non-verbal communication and stimulation through interactive play with sounds and images, which is being realised in the production of a non-wearable sensor...... groups of children, including children with severe physical/multi disabilities. The sourced capture of the human data is from enhanced virtual interactive space created from sensors. The data is constituted of the situated multimodal communication and forms of expression. The ‘VIS’ is considered...

  6. "Playing" with our users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2014-01-01

    . Unfortunately if donated in the school they are rarely being used by the students. In the case of virtual reality or artistic installations it is extremely difficult to provide such equipment to users. Last but not least we are not sure how the software will be used and if the experience will continue...... after the conduct of the research. If not due to restrictions, user should at least continue to be part of the research’s debrief and next steps. While I was in Nottingham I realised that sometimes our research, our playful educational experience, our DIY VR helmet, our beta, glitchy, research-only game...

  7. Turning training into play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarhus, Rikke; Grönvall, Erik; Larsen, Simon Bo;

    2011-01-01

    Embodied gaming has been adopted and gained credibility in the field of physical rehabilitation. In this paper, we report on findings from a six-month-long study of three groups of senior citizens, and their use of Nintendo Wii Fit in a supervised physical training context. We argue that the study...... participants generally found physical training both fun and socially engaging, and experienced improved fitness. We also argue that embodied gaming motivates seniors to do more than they think themselves capable of, and allows seniors with different mental and physical capabilities to play together. However...

  8. Play and playfulness, basic features of early childhood education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singer, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education, but that play curricula can have serious drawbacks. The starting point is the play theory of the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga, a radical critic of the focus on the educational benefits of play. According

  9. Play and playfulness, basic features of early childhood education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singer, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education, but that play curricula can have serious drawbacks. The starting point is the play theory of the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga, a radical critic of the focus on the educational benefits of play. According

  10. The joint flanker effect and the joint Simon effect: On the comparability of processes underlying joint compatibility effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Kerstin; Bossert, Marie-Luise; Rothe-Wulf, Annelie; Klauer, Karl Christoph

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies observed compatibility effects in different interference paradigms such as the Simon and flanker task even when the task was distributed across two co-actors. In both Simon and flanker tasks, performance is improved in compatible trials relative to incompatible trials if one actor works on the task alone as well as if two co-actors share the task. These findings have been taken to indicate that actors automatically co-represent their co-actor's task. However, recent research on the joint Simon and joint flanker effect suggests alternative non-social interpretations. To which degree both joint effects are driven by the same underlying processes is the question of the present study, and it was scrutinized by manipulating the visibility of the co-actor. While the joint Simon effect was not affected by the visibility of the co-actor, the joint flanker effect was reduced when participants did not see their co-actors but knew where the co-actors were seated. These findings provide further evidence for a spatial interpretation of the joint Simon effect. In contrast to recent claims, however, we propose a new explanation of the joint flanker effect that attributes the effect to an impairment in the focusing of spatial attention contingent on the visibility of the co-actor.

  11. Attention allocation before antisaccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapetek, Anna; Jonikaitis, Donatas; Deubel, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the distribution of attention before antisaccades. We used a dual task paradigm, in which participants made prosaccades or antisaccades and discriminated the orientation of a visual probe shown at the saccade goal, the visual cue location (antisaccade condition), or a neutral location. Moreover, participants indicated whether they had made a correct antisaccade or an erroneous prosaccade. We observed that, while spatial attention in the prosaccade task was allocated only to the saccade goal, attention in the antisaccade task was allocated both to the cued location and to the antisaccade goal. This suggests parallel attentional selection of the cued and antisaccade locations. We further observed that in error trials--in which participants made an incorrect prosaccade instead of an antisaccade--spatial attention was biased towards the prosaccade goal. These erroneous prosaccades were mostly unnoticed and were often followed by corrective antisaccades with very short latencies (parallel programming of the reflexive prosaccade to the cue and the antisaccade to the intended location. Taken together, our results suggest that attention allocation and saccade goal selection in the antisaccade task are mediated by a common competitive process.

  12. Playing The Lobby

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Playing a game can be defined as, in a fun way, to reach a goal by means of helpers and challenged by obstacles and opponents. In this workshop we will gain a new understanding of the lobby by making it into a game. The lobby of the museum can be understood as a game in which the players (the....... The object is surprisingly not to play the games, but to design them. Through the design process we are forced to discuss: What are the challenges of a particular lobby (e.g. ticketing, queueing, other visitors, guards, getting lost)? Which properties do the players have (e.g. patience, expectations, need...... of a toilet)? what boosters may they obtain in the lobby (e.g. coffee, help, souvenirs, signs)? And how can we make this an enjoyable experience? The object of the games is to understand the lobby in a new way to identify problems, and think of ways to improve the functions, flow, and services of the lobby....

  13. Effectiveness of Interventions to Improve Social Participation, Play, Leisure, and Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in People With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Kelly; Hand, Brittany N; O'Toole, Gjyn; Lane, Alison E

    2015-01-01

    People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) commonly experience difficulties with social participation, play, and leisure along with restricted and repetitive behaviors that can interfere with occupational performance. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate current evidence for interventions within the occupational therapy scope of practice that address these difficulties. Strong evidence was found that social skills groups, the Picture Exchange Communication System, joint attention interventions, and parent-mediated strategies can improve social participation. The findings were less conclusive for interventions to improve play and leisure performance and to decrease restricted and repetitive behaviors, but several strategies showed promise with moderately strong supporting evidence. Occupational therapists should be guided by evidence when considering interventions to improve social participation, play, leisure, and restricted and repetitive behaviors in people with ASD. Additional research using more robust scientific methods is needed for many of the currently available strategies.

  14. On The Performance Comparison of Gradient Type Joint-Process Est

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In adaptive signal processing, joint process estimation plays an important role in various estimation problems. It is well known that a joint process estimator...

  15. Selective Attention and Attention Switching: Towards a Unified Developmental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children's performances in an attention-switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control…

  16. Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita D. Barber

    2015-01-01

    While CON–DMN anti-correlation is associated with improved attention in ADHD, other circuitry supports improved attention in TD children. Greater CON–DMN anti-correlation supported better attentional control in children with ADHD, but worse attentional control in TD children. On the other hand, greater DMN–occipital anti-correlation supported better attentional control in TD children.

  17. Selective Attention and Attention Switching: Towards a Unified Developmental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children's performances in an attention-switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control…

  18. Social Computing and the Attention Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberman, Bernardo A.

    2013-04-01

    Social computing focuses on the interaction between social behavior and information, especially on how the latter propagates across social networks and is consumed and transformed in the process. At the same time the ubiquity of information has left it devoid of much monetary value. The scarce, and therefore valuable, resource is now attention, and its allocation gives rise to an attention economy that determines how content is consumed and propagated. Since two major factors involved in getting attention are novelty and popularity, we analyze the role that both play in attracting attention to web content and how to prioritize them in order to maximize it. We also demonstrate that the relative performance of strategies based on prioritizing either popularity or novelty exhibit an abrupt change around a critical value of the novelty decay time, resembling a phase transition.

  19. Modeling of Human Joint Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    Radial Lateral " epicondyle Olecranon Radius Ulna Figure 3. Lateral aspect of the right elbow joint. -17- Annular Ligament This strong band encircles... elbow joint, knee joint, human joints, shoulder joint, ankle joint, joint models, hip joint, ligaments. 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side If...ligaments. -A rather extended discussion of the articulations and anatomical descriptions of the elbow , shoulder, hip, knee and ankle joints are

  20. Spontaneous Play and Imagination in Everyday Science Classroom Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrée, Maria; Lager-Nyqvist, Lotta

    2013-01-01

    In science education, students sometimes create and engage in spontaneous science-oriented play where ideas about science and scientists are put to use. However, in previous research, little attention has been given to the role of informal spontaneous play in school science classrooms. We argue that, in order to enhance our understanding of…

  1. Two systems drive attention to rewards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher K Kovach

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available How options are framed can dramatically influence choice preference. While salience of information plays a central role in this effect, precisely how it is mediated by attentional processes remains unknown. Current models assume a simple relationship between attention and choice, according to which attention should uniformly bias preference towards the attended item over the whole time-course of a decision between similarly valued items. To test this prediction we considered how framing alters attention during a simple choice between two options, using eye movements as a sensitive online measure of attention. In one condition participants selected the less preferred item to discard and in the other, the more preferred item to keep. We replicated the well-known observation that gaze gravitates towards the item ultimately selected, but did not observe the effect to be uniform over time. Instead, we found evidence for distinct early and late processes that guide attention according to preference in the first case and task demands in the second. We conclude that multiple time-dependent processes govern attention during choice, and that these may contribute to framing effects in different ways.

  2. Inhibition of saccades elicits attentional suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Saurabh; Deubel, Heiner; Jonikaitis, Donatas

    2013-05-17

    Visuospatial attention has been shown to have a central role in planning and generation of saccades but what role, if any, it plays in inhibition of saccades remains unclear. In this study, we used an oculomotor delayed match- or nonmatch-to-sample task in which a cued location has to be encoded and memorized for one of two very different goals-to plan a saccade to it or to avoid making a saccade to it. We measured the spatial allocation of attention during the delay and found that while marking a location as a future saccade target resulted in an attentional benefit at that location, marking it as forbidden to saccades led to an attentional cost. Additionally, saccade trajectories were found to deviate away more from the "don't look" location than from a saccade-irrelevant distractor confirming greater inhibition of an actively forbidden location in oculomotor programming. Our finding that attention is suppressed at locations forbidden to saccades confirms and complements the claim of a selective and obligatory coupling between saccades and attention-saccades at the memorized location could neither be planned nor suppressed independent of a corresponding effect on attentional performance.

  3. MP Joint Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy MP Joint Arthritis Email to a friend * required fields From * To * ... important for both pinching and gripping. MP joint arthritis is most common in the thumb and index ...

  4. Culture - joint fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint fluid culture ... fungi, or viruses grow. This is called a culture. If these germs are detected, other tests may ... is no special preparation needed for the lab culture. How to prepare for the removal of joint ...

  5. Sacroiliac joint pain - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000610.htm Sacroiliac joint pain - aftercare To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is a term used to describe the ...

  6. Knee joint replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100088.htm Knee joint replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... to slide 4 out of 4 Overview The knee is a complex joint. It contains the distal ...

  7. Representing Space through the Interplay between Attention and Multisensory Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Macaluso

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Multisensory integration has been traditionally thought to rely on a restricted set of multisensory brain areas, and to occur automatically and pre-attentively. More recently, it has become evident that multisensory interactions can be found almost everywhere in the brain, including areas involved in attention control and areas modulated by attention. In a series of fMRI experiments, we manipulated concurrently the position of multisensory stimuli and the distribution of spatial attention. This enabled us to highlight the role of high-order fronto-parietal areas, as well as sensory-specific occipital cortex, for multisensory processing and spatial attention control. We found that specific task constraints regarding the nature of attentional deployment (endogenous vs. exogenous, the spatial relationship between stimulus position and attended location, and attentional load shape the interplay between attention and multisensory processing. We suggest that multisensory integration acts as a saliency-defining process that can interact with attentional control beyond any within-modality mechanism. We propose that an anatomically-distributed, but functionally-integrated, representation of space makes use of multisensory interactions to help attention selecting relevant spatial locations. Stimuli at the attended location undergo enhanced processing, including boosting of multisensory signals there. In this perspective, attention and multisensory integration operate in an interactive manner jointly determining the activity of a wide-spread network that includes high-order fronto-parietal regions and sensory-specific areas.

  8. Playful Learning and Montessori Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Angeline S Lillard

    2013-01-01

      Although Montessori education is often considered a form of playful learning, Maria Montessori herself spoke negatively about a major component of playful learning-pretend play, or fantasy-for young children...

  9. Managing Joint Production Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindenberg, Siegwart; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2011-01-01

    We contribute to the microfoundations of organizational performance by proffering the construct of joint production motivation. Under such motivational conditions individuals see themselves as part of a joint endeavor, each with his or her own roles and responsibilities; generate shared represent...... representations of actions and tasks; cognitively coordinate cooperation; and choose their own behaviors in terms of joint goals. Using goal-framing theory, we explain how motivation for joint production can be managed by cognitive/symbolic management and organizational design....

  10. Nonretinotopic exogenous attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boi, Marco; Vergeer, Mark; Ogmen, Haluk; Herzog, Michael H

    2011-10-25

    Attention is crucial for visual perception because it allows the visual system to effectively use its limited resources by selecting behaviorally and cognitively relevant stimuli from the large amount of information impinging on the eyes. Reflexive, stimulus-driven attention is essential for successful interactions with the environment because it can, for example, speed up responses to life-threatening events. It is commonly believed that exogenous attention operates in the retinotopic coordinates of the early visual system. Here, using a novel experimental paradigm [1], we show that a nonretinotopic cue improves both accuracy and reaction times in a visual search task. Furthermore, the influence of the cue is limited both in space and time, a characteristic typical of exogenous cueing. These and other recent findings show that many more aspects of vision are processed nonretinotopically than previously thought.

  11. Attention in Urban Foraging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm McCullough

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This position paper argues how there has to be much more to smart city learning than just wayshowing, and something better as augmented reality than covering the world with instructions. Attention has become something for many people to know better in an age of information superabundance. Embodied cognition explains how the work-ings of attention are not solely a foreground task, as if attention is something to pay. As digital media appear in ever more formats and contexts, their hybrids with physical form increasing influence how habitual engagement with persistent situations creates learning. Ambient information can just add to the distraction by multitasking, or it can support more favorable processes of shifting among different kinds of information with a particular intent. As one word for this latter process, foraging deserves more consideration in smart city learning

  12. Reliability of Tubular Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    of the test is partly to obtain empirical data for the ultimate load-carrying capacity of tubular T-joints and partly to obtain some experience in performing tests with tubular joints. It is well known that tubular joints are usually designed in offshore engineering on the basis of empirical formulas obtained...

  13. A Topic Model Approach to Representing and Classifying Football Plays

    KAUST Repository

    Varadarajan, Jagannadan

    2013-09-09

    We address the problem of modeling and classifying American Football offense teams’ plays in video, a challenging example of group activity analysis. Automatic play classification will allow coaches to infer patterns and tendencies of opponents more ef- ficiently, resulting in better strategy planning in a game. We define a football play as a unique combination of player trajectories. To this end, we develop a framework that uses player trajectories as inputs to MedLDA, a supervised topic model. The joint maximiza- tion of both likelihood and inter-class margins of MedLDA in learning the topics allows us to learn semantically meaningful play type templates, as well as, classify different play types with 70% average accuracy. Furthermore, this method is extended to analyze individual player roles in classifying each play type. We validate our method on a large dataset comprising 271 play clips from real-world football games, which will be made publicly available for future comparisons.

  14. Imagination, Playfulness, and Creativity in Children's Play with Different Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo????ller, Signe?? Juhl?

    2015-01-01

    Based on a four-month experimental study of preschool children's play with creative-construction and social-fantasy toys, the author examines the in?uence of both types of toys on the play of preschool children. Her comparative analysis considers the impact of transformative play on the development of imagination during play activities and…

  15. Individualism-collectivism and interpersonal memory guidance of attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, X.; Sebanz, N.; Sui, J.; Humphreys, G.W.

    2014-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that the allocation of attention by a participant in a visual search task can be affected by memory items that have to be maintained by a co-actor, when similar tasks are jointly engaged by dyads (He, Lever, & Humphreys, 2011). In the present study we examined the contribu

  16. Managerial Attention in International SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Jiasi

    2017-01-01

    Managerial attention affects organizational strategies and the resulting consequences. In the international business context, it is noted that how much attention managers give to the international marketplace, i.e., international attention, has profound implications for large global companies’

  17. Attentional Control and Intelligence: MRI Orbital Frontal Gray Matter and Neuropsychological Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul G. Nestor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attentional control is a key function of working memory that is hypothesized to play an important role in psychometric intelligence. To test the neuropsychological underpinnings of this hypothesis, we examined full-scale IQ, as measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III, and attentional control, as measured by Trails B response time and Wisconsin Card Sorting (WCS test perseverative errors in 78 healthy participants, 25 of whom also had available magnetic resonance imaging (MRI gray matter volume studies of the orbital frontal cortex (OFC parcellated into three regions: gyrus rectus, middle orbital gyrus, and lateral orbital gyrus. Hierarchical regression indicated that Trails B response time specifically explained 15.13% to 19.18% of the variation in IQ and WCS perseverative errors accounted for an additional 8.12% to 11.29% of the variance. Full-scale IQ correlated very strongly with right middle orbital gyrus gray matter volume (r=0.610, p=0.002, as did Trails B response time with left middle orbital gyrus gray matter volume (r=-0.608, p=0.003. Trails B response time and right middle orbital gyrus gray matter volume jointly accounted for approximately 32.95% to 54.82% of the variance in IQ scores. These results provided evidence of the unique contributions of attentional control and OFC gray matter to intelligence.

  18. Attention to neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, John D E; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2007-03-15

    Patients with spatial neglect fail to attend to stimuli in the contralesional visual world. He et al. used fMRI to reveal how disrupted functional connectivity, independent of task-evoked activation, in ventral and dorsal attentional networks may explain behavioral impairment in neglect and recovery from acute neglect.

  19. Pain and attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Jorian Hendry Gerwin

    2017-01-01

    The ability to sense pain may be considered as a prerequisite for human survival. The experience of pain helps humans to avoid the execution of actions that can seriously endanger their lives; pain is therefore evolutionarily predisposed to interrupt and capture attention. However, this supposed int

  20. Attention and Distraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to examine the interrelationship between attention and distraction in the reception of video installation art, a genre which is commonly associated with "immersion" and an intensified feeling of presence in the discourses on new media art and installation art. This tends to veil...

  1. Visual attention and stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathot, Sebastiaan; Theeuwes, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In the present review, we address the relationship between attention and visual stability. Even though with each eye, head and body movement the retinal image changes dramatically, we perceive the world as stable and are able to perform visually guided actions. However, visual stability is not as co

  2. Personality and Selective Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-28

    1977) have integrated information processing models of attention with social learning theory in order to conoeptualize the behavior change process...consistency at these loci. ’M Nielsen & Sarason 35 References Bandura, A. Social learning theory . Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice- Hall, Inc

  3. Pain and attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, J.H.G.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to sense pain may be considered as a prerequisite for human survival. The experience of pain helps humans to avoid the execution of actions that can seriously endanger their lives; pain is therefore evolutionarily predisposed to interrupt and capture attention. However, this supposed

  4. Playful Learning and Montessori Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S.

    2013-01-01

    Although Montessori education is often considered a form of playful learning, Maria Montessori herself spoke negatively about a major component of playful learning--pretend play, or fantasy--for young children. In this essay, the author discusses this apparent contradiction: how and why Montessori education includes elements of playful learning…

  5. Play and Positive Group Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Pam; White, Samantha

    2010-01-01

    Play is an important part of a child's life and essential to learning and development (Vygotsky, 1978). It is vital that students participate in play and that play be conducted in a restorative manner. Play allows a variety of group dynamics to emerge. Irvin Yalom (1995) identifies 11 curative factors of the group experience. These factors include…

  6. Play and playfulness in early childhood education and care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer E.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education. The elements of play are pleasure, a sense of freedom, and the co-construction of shared meaning through the use of rules or rhythms. Play and learning are closely related in early childhood. But when the focus on the educational benefits of play becomes too strong, the most essential feature of play is lost: children’s pleasure. Young children in group settings often have to adapt to the teachers’ demands related to security, hygiene, and social norms and values. But the playfulness of the teachers helps to overcome differences in power in the caregiver-child relationship and prevents young children from becoming overburdened with strict rules and group discipline. Play and playfulness are a resource of shared pleasure and creativity in learning processes.

  7. Joint Engagement and the Emergence of Language in Children with Autism and Down Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson, Lauren B.; Bakeman, Roger; Deckner, Deborah F.; Romski, MaryAnn

    2008-01-01

    Systematic longitudinal observations were made as typically-developing toddlers and young children with autism and with Down syndrome interacted with their caregivers in order to document how joint engagement developed over a year-long period and how variations in joint engagement experiences predicted language outcome. Children with autism displayed a persistent deficit in coordinated joint attention; children with Down syndrome were significantly less able to infuse symbols into joint engag...

  8. Ouroboros - Playing A Biochemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Rodrigues

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ouroboros: Playing A Biochemical RODRIGUES,D.T.1,2;GAYER, M.C.1,2; ESCOTO, D.F.1; DENARDIN, E.L.G.2, ROEHRS, R.1,2 1Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil 2Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil Introduction: Currently, teachers seek different alternatives to enhance the teaching-learning process. Innovative teaching methodologies are increasingly common tools in educational routine. The use of games, electronic or conventional, is an effective tool to assist in learning and also to raise the social interaction between students. Objective: In this sense our work aims to evaluate the card game and "Ouroboros" board as a teaching and learning tool in biochemistry for a graduating class in Natural Sciences. Materials and methods: The class gathered 22 students of BSc in Natural Sciences. Each letter contained a question across the board that was drawn to a group to answer within the allotted time. The questions related concepts of metabolism, organic and inorganic chemical reactions, bioenergetics, etc.. Before the game application, students underwent a pre-test with four issues involving the content that was being developed. Soon after, the game was applied. Then again questions were asked. Data analysis was performed from the ratio of the number of correct pre-test and post-test answers. Results and discussion: In the pre-test 18.1% of the students knew all issues, 18.1% got 3 correct answers, 40.9% answered only 2 questions correctly and 22.7% did not hit any. In post-test 45.4% answered all the questions right, 31.8% got 3 questions and 22.7% got 2 correct answers. The results show a significant improvement of the students about the field of content taught through the game. Conclusion: Generally, traditional approaches of chemistry and biochemistry are abstract and complex. Thus, through games

  9. Versican Expression during Synovial Joint Morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Shepard, Heidi A. Krug, Brooklynn A. LaFoon, Stanley Hoffman, Anthony A. Capehart

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix (ECM plays a critical role in governing cell behavior and phenotype during limb skeletogenesis. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (Cspgs are highly expressed in the ECM of precartilage mesenchymal condensations and are important to limb chondrogenesis and cartilage structure, but little is known regarding their involvement in formation of synovial joints in the embryonic limb. Matrix versican Cspg expression has previously been reported in the epiphysis of developing long bones and presumptive joint; however, detailed analysis has not yet been conducted. In the present study we immunolocalized versican and aggrecan Cspgs during chick elbow joint morphogenesis between HH st25-41 of development. In this study we show that versican and aggrecan expression initially overlapped in the incipient cartilage model of long bones in the wing, but versican was also highly expressed in the perichondrium and presumptive joint interzone during early stages of morphogenesis (HH st25-34. By HH st36-41 versican localization was restricted to the future articular surfaces of the developing joint and surrounding joint capsule while aggrecan localized in an immediately adjacent and predominately non-overlapping region of chondrogenic cells at the epiphyses. These results suggest a potential role for versican proteoglycan in development and maintenance of the synovial joint interzone.

  10. Motivations for play in computer role-playing games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the motivations for play in the context of single-and multi-player digital Role-Playing Games (RPGs) are examined. Survey data were drawn from respondents online and participants in a related experimental study. The results indicate that motivations for play are not simple constructs......, but rather composed of multiple motivational drivers that are heavily interrelated and act in concert. Character uniqueness and Discovery & Immersion were the highest ranked motivational categories. Different levels of detail in motivations for playing single-/multi- Player RPGs were located......, with mechanistic/tactical play and character-based/social play being the two overall motivational factors. Copyright 2008 ACM....

  11. Strapping for temporomandibular joint dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Abraham

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD is a common problem seen in many of the dental clinics. Management of this depends on an accurate diagnosis of the cause for the TMJD. Physical therapy and rehabilitation play a vital role in the management of these dysfunctions. Physical therapy is useful in treating post-traumatic stiffness of the TMJ while strapping of the TMJ for a dysfunction along with conventional physical therapy is of benefit in terms of reduction in click, decrease in pain, and an improvement in function.

  12. Strapping for temporomandibular joint dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Abraham Samuel; John, Sandhya Mary; Unni, Amith

    2008-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD) is a common problem seen in many of the dental clinics. Management of this depends on an accurate diagnosis of the cause for the TMJD. Physical therapy and rehabilitation play a vital role in the management of these dysfunctions. Physical therapy is useful in treating post-traumatic stiffness of the TMJ while strapping of the TMJ for a dysfunction along with conventional physical therapy is of benefit in terms of reduction in click, decrease in pain, and an improvement in function.

  13. Interactions of attention, emotion and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Although successful visually guided action begins with sensory processes and ends with motor control, the intervening processes related to the appropriate selection of information for processing are especially critical because of the brain's limited capacity to handle information. Three important mechanisms--attention, emotion and motivation--contribute to the prioritization and selection of information. In this chapter, the interplay between these systems is discussed with emphasis placed on interactions between attention (or immediate task relevance of stimuli) and emotion (or affective evaluation of stimuli), and between attention and motivation (or the predicted value of stimuli). Although numerous studies have shown that emotional stimuli modulate mechanisms of selective attention in humans, little work has been directed at exploring whether such interactions can be reciprocal, that is, whether attention can influence emotional response. Recent work on this question (showing that distracting information is typically devalued upon later encounters) is reviewed in the first half of the chapter. In the second half, some recent experiments exploring how prior value-prediction learning (i.e., learning to associate potential outcomes, good or bad, with specific stimuli) plays a role in visual selection and conscious perception. The results indicate that some aspects of motivation act on selection independently of traditionally defined attention and other aspects interact with it.

  14. Attentional and perceptual impairments in Parkinson's disease with visual hallucinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerts, Janneke; Borg, Maarten A. J. P.; Meppelink, Anne Marthe; Leenders, Klaus L.; van Beilen, Marije; van Laar, Teus

    2010-01-01

    Visual hallucinations (VH) are common in Parkinson's Disease (PD). Both deficits of perception and attention seem to play a role in the pathogenesis of VH in PD. However, the possible coexistence of impairments in attention and visual perception in PD with VH is not known. This study investigated bo

  15. Manubriosternal joint dislocation in contact sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M; Lenehan, B; O'Keefe, D; Martin, A

    2001-11-01

    A 17 year old man developed chest pain and shortness of breath immediately after a scrummage while playing rugby football. A lateral chest radiograph showed a dislocated manubriosternal joint, with no associated injuries. This has not been previously reported in a sporting setting. This injury should be considered in flexion-compression injury of the thorax.

  16. Joint Local Quasinilpotence and Common Invariant Subspaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Fernández Valles

    2006-08-01

    In this article we obtain some positive results about the existence of a common nontrivial invariant subspace for -tuples of not necessarily commuting operators on Banach spaces with a Schauder basis. The concept of joint quasinilpotence plays a basic role. Our results complement recent work by Kosiek [6] and Ptak [8].

  17. Ampliando o campo de atenção psicossocial: a articulação dos centros de atenção psicossocial com a saúde da família Ampliando el campo de la atención de psicosocial: la articulación de los centros de atención psicosocial con la salud de la familia Extending the field of the psychosocial attention: the joint of the centers of psychosocial attention with the health of the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ândréa Cardoso de Souza

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma reflexão sobre a articulação entre o Centro de Atenção Psicossocial e as equipes de Saúde da Família no que se refere à ampliação das ações no campo da saúde mental. Tem como objetivo discutir a implementação da política de saúde mental no âmbito da atenção básica de saúde. Para tanto, foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica. Entre os resultados, observa-se que a orientação das políticas de atenção à saúde mental aponta para a consolidação de novas estratégias de cuidado à medida que propõe redirecionar as ações para serviços de base territorial. Conclui-se que tanto a Saúde da Família quanto os Centros de Atenção Psicossocial constituem dispositivos privilegiados para transformações das práticas de atenção em saúde mental. Possibilitam a construção de outras formas de convivência com as diferenças, ampliando as redes de solidariedade em um dado território.Tratase de una reflexión sobre la articulación entre el Centro de Atención Psicosocial y el equipo de Salud de la Familia en qué se refiere en la ampliación de las acciones en el campo de la Salud Mental. Tiene como objetivo discutir la implementación de la política de salud mental en el ámbito de la atención básica de salud. Para tanto, fue realizada una investigación bibliográfica. Entre los resultados, se observa que la orientación de las políticas de atención a la salud mental señala la consolidación de nuevas estrategias de cuidado conforme propone redireccionar las acciones para los servicios de base territorial. Concluyese que tanto la Salud de la Familia como para los Centros de Atención Psicosocial constituyen dispositivos privilegiados para transformaciones de las prácticas de atención en salud mental. Hacen posible la construcción de otras formas de convivencia con las diferencias, extendiendo la red de solidaridad en un territorio determinado.It is a reflection about the joint between the

  18. Selective Attention and Attention Switching: Toward a Unified Developmental Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children’s performances in an attention switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control during the preschool years. The second literature encompasses a large and robust set of phenomena for the same developmental period that indicate a ...

  19. Neural Mechanisms of Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-21

    young rat’s ability to modify its response when changing from food to water deprivation. Behavioural Brain Research , 19,89-92. Brenner, E., & Mirmiran, M...environmental stimuli in rabbits. Behavioural Brain Research , j3,231-240. Fontani, G., Grazzi, F., & Meucci, M. (1984b). Effect of piracetam plus... Behavioural Brain Research , 23,147-157. Meck, W. H. (1991). Modality-specific circadian rhythmicities influence mechanisms of attention and memory

  20. Individual Differences in Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Psychology Technical Report, August, 1977. It Attention 50 References Atkinson , R.C., & Shiffrin , R.M. Human memory : A proposed system and its control...referred to as a continuous paired assoc- iates task. The present form was developed by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968), who used it to test their buffer...They found that digit memori - zation Interfered with sentence comprehension. Baddeley and Hitch’s inter- pretation was that the two tasks competed for

  1. Solar Power at Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    For the very first time, astronomers have witnessed the speeding up of an asteroid's rotation, and have shown that it is due to a theoretical effect predicted but never seen before. The international team of scientists used an armada of telescopes to discover that the asteroid's rotation period currently decreases by 1 millisecond every year, as a consequence of the heating of the asteroid's surface by the Sun. Eventually it may spin faster than any known asteroid in the solar system and even break apart. ESO PR Photo 11a/07 ESO PR Photo 11a/07 Asteroid 2000 PH5 "The Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect is believed to alter the way small bodies in the Solar System rotate," said Stephen Lowry (Queens University Belfast, UK), lead-author of one of the two companion papers in which this work is reported [1, 2]. "The warming caused by sunlight hitting the surfaces of asteroids and meteoroids leads to a gentle recoil effect as the heat is released," he added. "By analogy, if one were to shine light on a propeller over a long enough period, it would start spinning." Although this is an almost immeasurably weak force, its effect over millions of years is far from negligible. Astronomers believe the YORP effect may be responsible for spinning some asteroids up so fast that they break apart, perhaps leading to the formation of double asteroids. Others may be slowed down so that they take many days to complete a full turn. The YORP effect also plays an important role in changing the orbits of asteroids between Mars and Jupiter, including their delivery to planet-crossing orbits, such as those of near-Earth asteroids. Despite its importance, the effect has never been seen acting on a solar system body, until now. Using extensive optical and radar imaging from powerful Earth-based observatories, astronomers have directly observed the YORP effect in action on a small near-Earth asteroid, known as (54509) 2000 PH5. Shortly after its discovery in 2000, it was

  2. Play technique in psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanof, Judith A

    2013-04-01

    Imaginary play is often a child's best way of communicating affects, fantasies, and internal states. In play children are freer to express their forbidden and conflicted thoughts. Consequently, one of the best ways for the therapist to enter the child's world is to do so from within the displacement of the play process. For children who cannot play, the therapist's goal is to teach the child to use play as a means of communication and to create meaning. This article present clinical examples to illustrate how the author uses play in the clinical situation.

  3. Joint diseases in animal paleopathology: Veterinary approach

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Animal paleopathology is not a very well known scientific discipline within veterinary science, but it has great importance for historical and archaeological investigations. In this paper, authors attention is focused on the description of one of the most common findings on the skeletal remains of animals - osteoarthropathies. This review particularly emphasizes the description and classification of the most common pathological changes in synovial joints. The authors have provided their obser...

  4. Joint Program Management Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    the Engieermg and Manufacuring Devopment Phase. Nfilestoae HI- Develommen Annros Devopment approval marks a significant step for any program, but it is...to review concept formulaton. Systems Engilneertn As with service programs, systems engineering in joint program management is an essential tool . I...MANAGEMENT HANDBOOK On=e wd Umawtaiutt As discussed in Chapter 7, systems analysis of relationships is a usef tool for joint program managers. The joint

  5. Jointly Poisson processes

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, D H

    2009-01-01

    What constitutes jointly Poisson processes remains an unresolved issue. This report reviews the current state of the theory and indicates how the accepted but unproven model equals that resulting from the small time-interval limit of jointly Bernoulli processes. One intriguing consequence of these models is that jointly Poisson processes can only be positively correlated as measured by the correlation coefficient defined by cumulants of the probability generating functional.

  6. Learning, Play, and Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Learning, Play, and Your Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Learning, ... juega su recién nacido What Is My Newborn Learning? Play is the chief way that infants learn ...

  7. CROSSWORD PUZZLE INCREASE ATTENTION OF CHILDREN WITH ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah. Yusuf

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit is one of three main problems of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. Children experience difficulty of paying attention and concentrating to one or more things or objects. As a results these children cannot perform the task well. Crossword puzzle is one of games that may increase attention and concentration. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of crossword puzzle to increase attention of children with ADHD. Method: Pre-experimental design was employed in this study. The population was ADHD students in Cakra Autisme Therapy. Seven students were recruited by means of purposive sampling. The independent variable was crossword puzzle and the dependent variable was the increase of attention. Data were collected using observation sheet and analyzed using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with level of significance of α≤ 0.05. Result: Result showed that crossword puzzle could increase attention. Respondent’s attention improved from less to good attention, particularly in playing activities (p=0.014. Analysis: This finding suggests that there was differences of attention between pre and post-test. It can be concluded that crossword puzzle can increase attention of the students with ADHD. Discussion: It is recommended for teachers and parents of ADHD children to give them crossword puzzle game everyday at school or at home. Further studies should involve larger sample size and employs another game not only to increase attention, but also reduce hyperactivity and impulsivity of ADHD child.

  8. [Total temporomandibular joint prostheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwetyenga, N; Amroun, S; Wajszczak, B-L; Moris, V

    2016-09-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is probably the most complex human joint. As in all joints, its prosthetic replacement may be indicated in selected cases. Significant advances have been made in the design of TMJ prostheses during the last three decades and the indications have been clarified. The aim of our work was to make an update on the current total TMJ total joint replacement. Indications, contraindications, prosthetic components, advantages, disadvantages, reasons for failure or reoperation, virtual planning and surgical protocol have been exposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Subtalar joint arthrodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Ramon; Singh, Tarika; Banga, Samantha; Hasan, Nafisa

    2012-01-01

    Isolated subtalar joint arthrodesis has gained popularity more recently. Research has shown that it preserves rearfoot motion, does not increase the risk of arthritis in adjacent joints, and is not an especially complex operative procedure. It decreases the chance of midtarsal joint nonunion and malunion postoperatively. This article takes an in-depth approach to isolated talocalcaneal fusions. Anatomy and biomechanics of the subtalar joint are reviewed. Clinical presentation and radiologic evaluation are discussed. Conservative treatment, operative technique, and postoperative management are included. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Problematic Game Play: The Diagnostic Value of Playing Motives, Passion, and Playing Time in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kneer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Internet gaming disorder is currently listed in the DSM—not in order to diagnose such a disorder but to encourage research to investigate this phenomenon. Even whether it is still questionable if Internet Gaming Disorder exists and can be judged as a form of addiction, problematic game play is already very well researched to cause problems in daily life. Approaches trying to predict problematic tendencies in digital game play have mainly focused on playing time as a diagnostic criterion. However, motives to engage in digital game play and obsessive passion for game play have also been found to predict problematic game play but have not yet been investigated together. The present study aims at (1 analyzing if obsessive passion can be distinguished from problematic game play as separate concepts, and (2 testing motives of game play, passion, and playing time for their predictive values for problematic tendencies. We found (N = 99 males, Age: M = 22.80, SD = 3.81 that obsessive passion can be conceptually separated from problematic game play. In addition, the results suggest that compared to solely playing time immersion as playing motive and obsessive passion have added predictive value for problematic game play. The implications focus on broadening the criteria in order to diagnose problematic playing.

  11. Double-composite rectangular truss bridge and its joint analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjian Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel composite tubular truss bridge with concrete slab and concrete-filled rectangular chords. With concrete slab plus truss system and joints reinforced with concrete and Perfobond Leiste rib, double composite truss bridge proved to be a fairly suitable solution in negative moment area. Perfobond Leiste shear connector (PBL is widely implemented in the composite structure for its outstanding fatigue resistance. In this pilot bridge, Perfobond Leister ribs (PBR were installed in the truss girder's joints, which played double roles as shear connector and stiffener. An erection method and overall bridge structural analysis were then presented. Typical joints in the pilot bridge were selected to analyze the effect of PBR. Investigation of the effect of PBR in concrete-filled tubular joints was elaborated. Comparison has revealed that concrete-filled tubular joints with PBR have much higher constraint capability than joints without PBR. For rectangular tubular truss, the punching shear force of the concrete filled joint with PBR is approximately 43% larger than that of the joint without PBR. Fatigue performance of the joint installed with PBR was improved, which was found through analysis of the stress concentration factor of joint. The PBR installed in the joints mitigated the stress concentration factor in the chord face. Therefore, the advantages of this new type of bridge are demonstrated, including the convenience of construction using rectangular truss, innovative concept of structural design and better global and local performances.

  12. The Importance of Being Playful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodrova, Elena; Leong, Deborah J.

    2003-01-01

    Recent research provides evidence of the strong connections between quality of play in preschool years and children's readiness for school instruction. Mature play, characterized by imaginary situations, multiple roles, clearly defined rules, flexible themes, language development, length of play, helps students' cognitive development. (Contains 12…

  13. Play in Evolution and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Anthony D.; Dupuis, Danielle; Smith, Peter K.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we examine the role of play in human ontogeny and phylogeny, following Surplus Resource Theory. We consider how juveniles use play to sample their environment in order to develop adaptive behaviors. We speculate about how innovative behaviors developed in play in response to environmental novelty may influence subsequent evolutionary…

  14. Pretend Play and Creative Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Sandra W.; Wallace, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    The authors contend that many cognitive abilities and affective processes important in creativity also occur in pretend play and that pretend play in childhood affects the development of creativity in adulthood. They discuss a variety of theories and observations that attempt to explain the importance of pretend play to creativity. They argue that…

  15. Attention, Predation, Counterintuition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clasen, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    Bram Stoker’s seminal horror novel Dracula (1897) has been subjected to a vast number of different critical readings, many of which are deeply flawed, e.g. by proceeding from defunct psychological theories. Incorporating recent advances in evolutionary social science, I offer a biocultural reading...... of Dracula to account for the novel’s impact and resilience. Dracula connected squarely with late-Victorian anxieties, but the novel also appeals to trans-historical adaptive dispositions. I analyze Stoker’s use of narrative strategies to grab and sustain attention, and Count Dracula as a supercharged...

  16. Neurofibromatozis and Attention Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ERYILMAZ et al.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type VI, a disease characterized by the presence of café-au-lait spots withoutthe presence of neurofibromas typically present in neurofibromatosis, as well as cognitivefunction and speech problems, often shows neurological involvement. We describe a case of a14-year-old child who has speech problems and isolated cafè-au-lait macules. We performedan IQ test on him and he scored 70 points. His problems started when he was approximately 5years old (school age. He was diagnosed with attention deficit disorder syndrome withouthyperactivity after neuropsychiatric investigation. We reported this case to improve recognitionof NF VI in children who have cognitive function problems.

  17. The immediate effects of therapeutic keyboard music playing for finger training in adults undergoing hand rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Liu, Songhuai; Yang, Degang; Du, Liangjie; Wang, Ziyuan

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the immediate effects of therapeutic keyboard music playing on the finger function of subjects’ hands through measurements of the joint position error test, surface electromyography, probe reaction time, and writing time. [Subjects and Methods] Ten subjects were divided randomly into experimental and control groups. The experimental group used therapeutic keyboard music playing and the control group used grip training. All subjects were assessed and evaluated by the joint position error test, surface electromyography, probe reaction time, and writing time. [Results] After accomplishing therapeutic keyboard music playing and grip training, surface electromyography of the two groups showed no significant change, but joint position error test, probe reaction time, and writing time obviously improved. [Conclusion] These results suggest that therapeutic keyboard music playing is an effective and novel treatment for improving joint position error test scores, probe reaction time, and writing time, and it should be promoted widely in clinics. PMID:27630419

  18. The immediate effects of therapeutic keyboard music playing for finger training in adults undergoing hand rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Liu, Songhuai; Yang, Degang; Du, Liangjie; Wang, Ziyuan

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the immediate effects of therapeutic keyboard music playing on the finger function of subjects' hands through measurements of the joint position error test, surface electromyography, probe reaction time, and writing time. [Subjects and Methods] Ten subjects were divided randomly into experimental and control groups. The experimental group used therapeutic keyboard music playing and the control group used grip training. All subjects were assessed and evaluated by the joint position error test, surface electromyography, probe reaction time, and writing time. [Results] After accomplishing therapeutic keyboard music playing and grip training, surface electromyography of the two groups showed no significant change, but joint position error test, probe reaction time, and writing time obviously improved. [Conclusion] These results suggest that therapeutic keyboard music playing is an effective and novel treatment for improving joint position error test scores, probe reaction time, and writing time, and it should be promoted widely in clinics.

  19. [Tinnitus and temporomandibular joint: State of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lina-Granade, G; Truy, E; Ionescu, E; Garnier, P; Thai Van, H

    2016-12-01

    Tinnitus has been described in temporomandibular joint dysfunction for a long time. Yet, other disorders, such as hearing loss, stress, anxiety and depression, play a major role in the pathophysiology of tinnitus. Temporomandibular joint dysfunctions seem to increase the risk of tinnitus in patients with other predisposing factors. Especially somatosensory tinnitus, which is characterized by sound modulations with neck or mandible movements, is frequently associated with temporomandibular joint dysfunction, but it is not pathognomonic of such a disorder. In such cases, functional therapy of the temporomandibular joint should be part of the multidisciplinary rehabilitation of patients with tinnitus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. China-Brazil Joint Laboratory for Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengyu

    2016-07-01

    The Joint Laboratory for Space Weather in South America, jointly constructed by National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NSSC, CAS) and Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) plays a key role in the formation of International Space Weather Meridian Circle Programme (ISWMCP). This Lab is responsible for the joint Meridian chains observation and data converging in the west hemisphere, the joint space environment exploration and research in the low latitude area both in the east and west hemisphere, as well as the bridge for Sino-Brazilian culture exchanges.

  1. Fluid flow in discrete joint sets: Field observations and numerical simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, W. Lansing [Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Pollard, David D. [Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Aydin, Atilla [Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)

    1999-12-10

    The distribution of flow within conductive joint sets is influenced by the geometric arrangement of joints and the hydraulic properties of both joints and matrix. We use finite element simulations with an equivalent porous media joint representation to understand the distribution of flow through joints and porous matrix. Isolated joints in a porous media create characteristic flow perturbations in the matrix with reduced fluid potentials near the upstream joint tip, elevated potentials near the downstream tip, and flow shadows adjacent to the joint. In more complex joint systems, flow in any given joint is influenced by its proximity to other joints, resulting in characteristic enhancement or reduction of flow velocities. The permeability ratio (equivalent joint permeability divided by matrix permeability) plays a major role in determining the distribution of flow within complex joint systems. When the permeability ratio is <3.0 orders of magnitude, all joints are indirectly connected to the flow system through the matrix. As joint conductivity increases, flow becomes increasingly localized into directly connected joints. When the permeability ratio exceeds 6.5 orders of magnitude, significant flow occurs only in the directly connected joints. We compare these numerical results with field observations from an ancient reactive flow system now exposed at the Earth's surface. In the field, 32% of joints are associated with chemically altered halos. By explicitly representing mapped joint distributions in numerical simulations, we estimate that 32% of the joints would conduct significant volumes of fluid if joint permeability is 5 orders of magnitude greater than the matrix permeability. This corresponds to an insitu joint aperture of 2.3 mm, closely resembling the 1.8-mm average joint aperture measured on the present-day outcrop. (c) 1999 American Geophysical Union.

  2. Mechanics of Sheeting Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Physical breakdown of rock across a broad scale spectrum involves fracturing. In many areas large fractures develop near the topographic surface, with sheeting joints being among the most impressive. Sheeting joints share many geometric, textural, and kinematic features with other joints (opening-mode fractures) but differ in that they are (a) discernibly curved, (b) open near the topographic surface, and (c) form subparallel to the topographic surface. Where sheeting joints are geologically young, the surface-parallel compressive stresses are typically several MPa or greater. Sheeting joints are best developed beneath domes, ridges, and saddles; they also are reported, albeit rarely, beneath valleys or bowls. A mechanism that accounts for all these associations has been sought for more than a century: neither erosion of overburden nor high lateral compressive stresses alone suffices. Sheeting joints are not accounted for by Mohr-Coulomb shear failure criteria. Principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics, together with the mechanical effect of a curved topographic surface, do provide a basis for understanding sheeting joint growth and the pattern sheeting joints form. Compressive stresses parallel to a singly or doubly convex topographic surface induce a tensile stress perpendicular to the surface at shallow depths; in some cases this alone could overcome the weight of overburden to open sheeting joints. If regional horizontal compressive stresses, augmented by thermal stresses, are an order of magnitude or so greater than a characteristic vertical stress that scales with topographic amplitude, then topographic stress perturbations can cause sheeting joints to open near the top of a ridge. This topographic effect can be augmented by pressure within sheeting joints arising from water, ice, or salt. Water pressure could be particularly important in helping drive sheeting joints downslope beneath valleys. Once sheeting joints have formed, the rock sheets between

  3. Attention decay in science

    CERN Document Server

    Parolo, Pietro Della Briotta; Ghosh, Rumi; Huberman, Bernardo A; Kaski, Kimmo; Fortunato, Santo

    2015-01-01

    The exponential growth in the number of scientific papers makes it increasingly difficult for researchers to keep track of all the publications relevant to their work. Consequently, the attention that can be devoted to individual papers, measured by their citation counts, is bound to decay rapidly. In this work we make a thorough study of the life-cycle of papers in different disciplines. Typically, the citation rate of a paper increases up to a few years after its publication, reaches a peak and then decreases rapidly. This decay can be described by an exponential or a power law behavior, as in ultradiffusive processes, with exponential fitting better than power law for the majority of cases. The decay is also becoming faster over the years, signaling that nowadays papers are forgotten more quickly. However, when time is counted in terms of the number of published papers, the rate of decay of citations is fairly independent of the period considered. This indicates that the attention of scholars depends on th...

  4. Impairment of Unconscious, but Not Conscious, Gaze-Triggered Attention Orienting in Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Uono, Shota; Okada, Takashi; Toichi, Motomi

    2010-01-01

    Impairment of joint attention represents the core clinical features of pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs), including autism and Asperger's disorder. However, experimental studies reported intact gaze-triggered attentional orienting in PDD. Since all previous studies employed supraliminal presentation of gaze stimuli, we hypothesized that…

  5. Resolution of focus of attention using gaze direction estimation and saliency computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yücel, Z.; Salah, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Modeling the user's attention is useful for responsive and interactive systems. This paper proposes a method for establishing joint visual attention between an experimenter and an intelligent agent. A rapid procedure is described to track the 3D head pose of the experimenter, which is used to approx

  6. Impairment of Unconscious, but Not Conscious, Gaze-Triggered Attention Orienting in Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Uono, Shota; Okada, Takashi; Toichi, Motomi

    2010-01-01

    Impairment of joint attention represents the core clinical features of pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs), including autism and Asperger's disorder. However, experimental studies reported intact gaze-triggered attentional orienting in PDD. Since all previous studies employed supraliminal presentation of gaze stimuli, we hypothesized that…

  7. Distal interphalangeal joint implant arthroplasty in a musician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, D A; Peimer, C A

    1998-01-01

    Degenerative joint disease commonly affects the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints, causing articular destruction and marginal bone formation. Treatment for pain relief and function is most often done through arthrodesis. The case of a 70-year-old concert violinist with left index finger DIP joint osteoarthritis is presented. Arthritis in the involved joint caused pain and deformity and interfered with the patient's ability to play music. Trial arthrodesis with K-wires proved impossible because of the patient's need for continued mobility. Swanson hinge implant arthroplasty was performed on the affected DIP joint. The patient eventually achieved an excellent result and was able to return to playing the violin professionally. Treatment and therapy guidelines are presented.

  8. Nonlinear transient analysis of joint dominated structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, J. M.; Shaw, F. H.; Russell, W. C.

    1987-01-01

    A residual force technique is presented that can perform the transient analyses of large, flexible, and joint dominated structures. The technique permits substantial size reduction in the number of degrees of freedom describing the nonlinear structural models and can account for such nonlinear joint phenomena as free-play and hysteresis. In general, joints can have arbitrary force-state map representations but these are used in the form of residual force maps. One essential feature of the technique is to replace the arbitrary force-state maps describing the nonlinear joints with residual force maps describing the truss links. The main advantage of this replacement is that the incrementally small relative displacements and velocities across a joint are not monitored directly thereby avoiding numerical difficulties. Instead, very small and 'soft' residual forces are defined giving a numerically attractive form for the equations of motion and thereby permitting numerically stable integration algorithms. The technique was successfully applied to the transient analyses of a large 58 bay, 60 meter truss having nonlinear joints. A method to perform link testing is also presented.

  9. Perceptual learning during action video game playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C Shawn; Li, Renjie; Bavelier, Daphne

    2010-04-01

    Action video games have been shown to enhance behavioral performance on a wide variety of perceptual tasks, from those that require effective allocation of attentional resources across the visual scene, to those that demand the successful identification of fleetingly presented stimuli. Importantly, these effects have not only been shown in expert action video game players, but a causative link has been established between action video game play and enhanced processing through training studies. Although an account based solely on attention fails to capture the variety of enhancements observed after action game playing, a number of models of perceptual learning are consistent with the observed results, with behavioral modeling favoring the hypothesis that avid video game players are better able to form templates for, or extract the relevant statistics of, the task at hand. This may suggest that the neural site of learning is in areas where information is integrated and actions are selected; yet changes in low-level sensory areas cannot be ruled out. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. A Geometric Representation of Collective Attention Flows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiteng Shi

    Full Text Available With the fast development of Internet and WWW, "information overload" has become an overwhelming problem, and collective attention of users will play a more important role nowadays. As a result, knowing how collective attention distributes and flows among different websites is the first step to understand the underlying dynamics of attention on WWW. In this paper, we propose a method to embed a large number of web sites into a high dimensional Euclidean space according to the novel concept of flow distance, which both considers connection topology between sites and collective click behaviors of users. With this geometric representation, we visualize the attention flow in the data set of Indiana university clickstream over one day. It turns out that all the websites can be embedded into a 20 dimensional ball, in which, close sites are always visited by users sequentially. The distributions of websites, attention flows, and dissipations can be divided into three spherical crowns (core, interim, and periphery. 20% popular sites (Google.com, Myspace.com, Facebook.com, etc. attracting 75% attention flows with only 55% dissipations (log off users locate in the central layer with the radius 4.1. While 60% sites attracting only about 22% traffics with almost 38% dissipations locate in the middle area with radius between 4.1 and 6.3. Other 20% sites are far from the central area. All the cumulative distributions of variables can be well fitted by "S"-shaped curves. And the patterns are stable across different periods. Thus, the overall distribution and the dynamics of collective attention on websites can be well exhibited by this geometric representation.

  11. A Geometric Representation of Collective Attention Flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peiteng; Huang, Xiaohan; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jiang; Deng, Su; Wu, Yahui

    2015-01-01

    With the fast development of Internet and WWW, "information overload" has become an overwhelming problem, and collective attention of users will play a more important role nowadays. As a result, knowing how collective attention distributes and flows among different websites is the first step to understand the underlying dynamics of attention on WWW. In this paper, we propose a method to embed a large number of web sites into a high dimensional Euclidean space according to the novel concept of flow distance, which both considers connection topology between sites and collective click behaviors of users. With this geometric representation, we visualize the attention flow in the data set of Indiana university clickstream over one day. It turns out that all the websites can be embedded into a 20 dimensional ball, in which, close sites are always visited by users sequentially. The distributions of websites, attention flows, and dissipations can be divided into three spherical crowns (core, interim, and periphery). 20% popular sites (Google.com, Myspace.com, Facebook.com, etc.) attracting 75% attention flows with only 55% dissipations (log off users) locate in the central layer with the radius 4.1. While 60% sites attracting only about 22% traffics with almost 38% dissipations locate in the middle area with radius between 4.1 and 6.3. Other 20% sites are far from the central area. All the cumulative distributions of variables can be well fitted by "S"-shaped curves. And the patterns are stable across different periods. Thus, the overall distribution and the dynamics of collective attention on websites can be well exhibited by this geometric representation.

  12. MR diagnosis of temporomandibular joint. A study of joint effusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneda, Takashi; Yamashiro, Mitsuaki; Ozawa, Kaoru; Suzuki, Hiromi; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu [Nihon Univ., Matsudo, Chiba (Japan). School of Dentistry

    1998-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the relationship between correlation of MR joint effusion of the temporomandibular joint and disk position, to evaluate the relationship between joint effusion and aging, and to assess the frequency of MR joint effusion of bilateral temporomandibular joints. The temporomandibular joints of 192 patients with clinical symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorders were imaged bilaterally using high field, surface-coil MR imaging. Oblique sagittal and coronal proton density-weighted and T2-weighted images were obtained. Imaging findings of joint effusion were correlated with disk position, aging, and bilateral temporomandibular joints. MR showed effusion in 4% of the joints with normal superior disk position, 36% of the joints with disk displacement with reduction, and 45% of the joints with disk displacement without reduction. There were significant differences in the incidence of joint effusion between normal disk position and anterior disk displacement with or without reduction. Younger patients less than 40 years were significant higher the incidence of joint effusion than those of older patients. A significant association was seen between joint effusion and aging. MR showed effusion in 17% of the unilateral temporomandibular joint, 24% of the bilateral temporomandibular joints. There was no significant difference between unilateral and bilateral case. These results indicated that joint effusion using MR imaging was associated with varied temporomandibular joint pathologic states. (author)

  13. Creep of timber joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Kuilen, J.W.G.

    2008-01-01

    A creep analysis has been performed on nailed, toothed-plates and split-ring joints in a varying uncontrolled climate. The load levels varied between 30% and 50% of the average ultimate short term strength of these joints, tested in accordance with ISO 6891. The climate in which the tests were

  14. Acromioclavicular Joint Separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Published online: 16 December 2012 # Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012 Abstract Acromioclavicular (AC) joint separations are common...injuries. The sports most likely to cause AC joint dislocations are football, soccer , hockey, rugby, and skiing, among others [9, 28, 29]. The major cause

  15. Motivations for play in computer role-playing games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the motivations for play in the context of single-and multi-player digital Role-Playing Games (RPGs) are examined. Survey data were drawn from respondents online and participants in a related experimental study. The results indicate that motivations for play are not simple constructs......, but rather composed of multiple motivational drivers that are heavily interrelated and act in concert. Character uniqueness and Discovery & Immersion were the highest ranked motivational categories. Different levels of detail in motivations for playing single-/multi- Player RPGs were located...

  16. Septic arthritis in the temporomandibular joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mahdi Al-Khalisy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Septic arthritis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ is a rare event that has only been reported a few dozen times worldwide. This case is remarkable for septic arthritis of the TMJ joint in an otherwise healthy male. Case Report: A 24-year-old male presented to the emergency department with periauricular swelling, erythema, fever, myalgia′s and generalized joint pain. He had previously sought medical attention and was placed on ciprofloxacin. However, he developed facial swelling and a rash and had to discontinue the antibiotic. On physical exam the patient had a large swelling and tenderness in his left periauricular area, with erythema and deviation of the right mandible which limited his ability to open the mouth. A computed tomography showed mild asymmetric soft tissue swelling in the left pharyngeal region but did not show joint effusion. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging did show effusion of the joint space. The effusion was drained, and the synovial fluid was submitted for gram stain, culture, and sensitivity. The cultures grew menthicillin sensitive Staphyloccocus Aureus. The patient was discharged to complete a two week course of intravenous (IV Ceftriaxone and IV Vancomycin via home infusion. Conclusion: Septic Arthritis of the TMJ is a rare event with very specific clinical symptoms. Due to the low sensitivity of the computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging should be considered when computed tomography scan is negative for TMJ effusion.

  17. Tribological aspects of joint intraaricular therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniakova, Yu M; Pinchuk, L S

    2011-01-01

    The condition of synovial joints affected by synovitis or degeneration dystrophy has been usually normalized by drugs of antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating and/or lubricating-protective action injected into the joint cavity. These preparations influence, but in different way, the friction in joints and wear of cartilages, even if they belong to the same pharmacological group and follow the same medication mechanism. With the development of a large group of lubricating-and-protective substitutes for the synovial fluid the tribological efficiency of injection drugs has begun to attract attention, whereas no information is available in the literature on pharmacopoeia or orthopedics about the lubricity of anti-inflammatory and antibacterial drugs commonly used as injections. The mechanisms by which structure and properties of lubricating films containing drugs undergo transformation under the influence of biological field in joints remain in fact unknown. In vitro experiments have been conducted to simulate a biofield of a joint; the lubricity of some injection drugs used in orthopedics has been evaluated.

  18. Strategies for joint appointments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, J; Crooks, D L

    1985-01-01

    The structure and policies governing joint appointments discussed above, are developed primarily through cooperation and collaboration between nursing service and education institutions. The joint appointee participates in the process of negotiation of salary, benefits and role responsibilities and exploration of the implications of the appointment for personal career development. Implementation and maintenance of the appointment requires the collaborative efforts of the joint appointee with both contracting agencies. Factors influencing the functioning of joint appointees have been identified and strategies to facilitate functioning presented. The joint appointee must be independent in thought and action yet adaptable to work within the boundaries of two social systems with differing values and expectations. Nursing management, peers and students can provide the support needed to overcome the frustrations and to achieve the rewards inherent in successful implementation of an exciting and innovative role.

  19. An empirical investigation of for-profit and tax-exempt nonprofit hospitals engaged in joint ventures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pamela C

    2004-01-01

    Joint ventures between nonprofit and for-profit hospitals offer opportunities for collaboration to increase efficiency. These transactions have attracted the attention of the Internal Revenue Service, which may threaten tax-exempt status. This article analyzes inherent financial characteristics of nonprofit hospitals that joint venture with for-profit hospitals and those that choose not to joint venture.

  20. Nonlinear dynamic characteristic analysis of jointed beam with clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Guo, Hong-Wei; Liu, Rong-Qiang; Wu, Juan; Kou, Zi-Ming; Deng, Zong-Quan

    2016-12-01

    The impact and elasticity of discontinuous beams with clearance frequently affect the dynamic response of structures used in space missions. This study investigates the dynamic response of jointed beams which are the periodic units of deployable structures. The vibration process of jointed beams includes free-play and impact stages. A method for the dynamic analysis of jointed beams with clearance is proposed based on mode superposition and instantaneous static deformation. Transfer matrix, which expresses the relationship of the responses before and after the impact of jointed beams, is derived to calculate the response of the jointed beams after a critical position. The dynamic responses of jointed beams are then simulated. The effects of various parameters on the displacement and velocity of beams are investigated.

  1. Dissociating Attention Effects from Categorical Perception with ERP Functional Microstates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dering, Benjamin; Donaldson, David I.

    2016-01-01

    When faces appear in our visual environment we naturally attend to them, possibly to the detriment of other visual information. Evidence from behavioural studies suggests that faces capture attention because they are more salient than other types of visual stimuli, reflecting a category-dependent modulation of attention. By contrast, neuroimaging data has led to a domain-specific account of face perception that rules out the direct contribution of attention, suggesting a dedicated neural network for face perception. Here we sought to dissociate effects of attention from categorical perception using Event Related Potentials. Participants viewed physically matched face and butterfly images, with each category acting as a target stimulus during different blocks in an oddball paradigm. Using a data-driven approach based on functional microstates, we show that the locus of endogenous attention effects with ERPs occurs in the N1 time range. Earlier categorical effects were also found around the level of the P1, reflecting either an exogenous increase in attention towards face stimuli, or a putative face-selective measure. Both category and attention effects were dissociable from one another hinting at the role that faces may play in early capturing of attention before top-down control of attention is observed. Our data support the conclusion that certain object categories, in this experiment, faces, may capture attention before top-down voluntary control of attention is initiated. PMID:27657921

  2. Culture, attention, and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Igor; Ellsworth, Phoebe C; Hong, Ying-yi

    2012-02-01

    This research provides experimental evidence for cultural influence on one of the most basic elements of emotional processing: attention to positive versus negative stimuli. To this end, we focused on Russian culture, which is characterized by brooding and melancholy. In Study 1, Russians spent significantly more time looking at negative than positive pictures, whereas Americans did not show this tendency. In Study 2, Russian Latvians were randomly primed with symbols of each culture, after which we measured the speed of recognition for positive versus negative trait words. Biculturals were significantly faster in recognizing negative words (as compared with baseline) when primed with Russian versus Latvian cultural symbols. Greater identification with Russian culture facilitated this effect. We provide a theoretical discussion of mental processes underlying cultural differences in emotion research.

  3. Developmental attentional dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Naama; Kerbel, Noa; Shvimer, Lilach

    2010-01-01

    Attentional dyslexia is a reading deficit in which letters migrate between neighboring words, but are correctly identified and keep their correct relative position within the word. Thus, for example, fig tree can be read as fig free or even tie free. This study reports on 10 Hebrew-speaking individuals with developmental attentional dyslexia and explores in detail the characteristics of their between-word errors. Each participant read 2290 words, presented in word pairs: 845 horizontally presented word pairs, 240 vertically presented word pairs, and 60 nonword pairs. The main results are that almost all migrations preserve the relative position of the migrating letter within the word, indicating that the between-word position can be impaired while the within-word position encoding remains intact. This result is also supported by the finding that the participants did not make many letter position errors within words. Further analyses indicated that more errors occur in longer words, that most migrations occur in final letters (which are the leftmost letters in Hebrew), and that letters migrate both horizontally and vertically, and more frequently from the first to the second word in horizontal presentation. More migrations occurred when the result of migration was an existing word. Similarity between words in a pair did not increase error rates, and more migrations occurred when the words shared fewer letters. The between-word errors included the classic errors of migration of a letter between words, but also omission of one instance of a letter that appeared in the same position in the two words, an error that constituted a considerable percentage of the between-word errors, and intrusion of a letter from one word to the corresponding position in the neighboring word without erasing the original letter in the same position.

  4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001551.htm Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem caused ...

  5. Estimation of passive ankle joint moment during standing and walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Tetsuro; Muramatsu, Tadashi; Takeshita, Daisuke; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2005-02-01

    This study estimated the passive ankle joint moment during standing and walking initiation and its contribution to total ankle joint moment during that time. The decrement of passive joint moment due to muscle fascicle shortening upon contraction was taken into account. Muscle fascicle length in the medial gastrocnemius, which was assumed to represent muscle fascicle length in plantarflexors, was measured using ultrasonography during standing, walking initiation, and cyclical slow passive ankle joint motion. Total ankle joint moment during standing and walking initiation was calculated from ground reaction forces and joint kinematics. Passive ankle joint moment during the cyclical ankle joint motion was measured via a dynamometer. Passive ankle joint moment during standing and at the time (Tp) when the MG muscle-tendon complex length was longest in the stance phase during walking initiation were 2.3 and 5.4 Nm, respectively. The muscle fascicle shortened by 2.9 mm during standing compared with the length at rest, which decreased the contribution of passive joint moment from 19.9% to 17.4%. The muscle fascicle shortened by 4.3 mm at Tp compared with the length at rest, which decreased the contribution of passive joint moment from 8.0% to 5.8%. These findings suggest that (a) passive ankle joint moment plays an important role during standing and walking initiation even in view of the decrement of passive joint moment due to muscle fascicle shortening upon muscle contraction, and (b) muscle fascicle shortening upon muscle contraction must be taken into account when estimating passive joint moment during movements.

  6. Behavioral approaches to promoting play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahmer, Aubyn C; Ingersoll, Brooke; Carter, Cynthia

    2003-12-01

    A variety of techniques grounded in behavioral psychology, and more specifically in applied behavior analysis, have been established to increase and improve play skills in children with autistic spectrum disorders. This article introduces a set of efficacious methods, which range from highly structured techniques to more naturalistic strategies. It focuses on object play as other authors in the issue discuss social play in greater depth. Behavioral techniques that are reviewed include: discrete trial training, use of stereotyped behaviors to increase play skills, pivotal response training, reciprocal imitation training, differential reinforcement of appropriate behavior, in vivo modeling and play scripts, and video modeling. A discussion of expanding behavior techniques to teach more complex play as well as training in varied environments is also presented. References are provided to allow the reader to obtain more in-depth information about each technique.

  7. Playing with the Multiple Intelligences: How Play Helps Them Grow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Scott G.

    2011-01-01

    Howard Gardner first posited a list of "multiple intelligences" as a liberating alternative to the assumptions underlying traditional IQ testing in his widely read study "Frames of Mind" (1983). Play has appeared only in passing in Gardner's thinking about intelligence, however, even though play instructs and trains the verbal, interpersonal,…

  8. Let's Play: Teaching Play Skills to Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutot, E. Amanda; Guenther, Tracee; Crozier, Shannon

    2005-01-01

    Watch any young child and you will likely see him or her engaged in some form of play. Play is an integral part of early childhood development in which typically developing children learn social and language skills, as well as appropriate behaviors, problem solving, and a variety of other cognitive skills. By its very definition, autism is a…

  9. PlayFit: Designing playful activity interventions for teenagers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. M. Deen; Rob Tieben; Dr. Tilde Bekker; Dr. Janienke Sturm; B.A.M. Ben Schouten

    2011-01-01

    Young people spend a large part of their day sedentary, both at school and at home. The aim of the PlayFit project is to persuade teenagers to lead a more active lifestyle by using digital as well as non-digital games and play. In this position paper, we describe in detail the three key principles o

  10. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Hirano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64% showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5% showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23% showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9% showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  11. Chewing and attention: a positive effect on sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64%) showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5%) showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23%) showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9%) showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  12. Assessment of attention in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E M; Schneider, H E

    2012-12-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of "disordered" attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child's history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention--including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures.

  13. The Internet of Playful Things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyeth, Peta; Brereton, Margot; Roe, Paul;

    2015-01-01

    This one-day workshop brings together researchers and practitioners to share knowledge and practices on how people can connect and interact with the Internet of Things in a playful way. Open to participants with a diverse range of interests and expertise, and by exploring novel ways to playfully...... will be a road map to support the development of a Model of Playful Connectedness, focusing on how best to design and make playful networks of things, identifying the challenges that need to be addressed in order to do so....

  14. Symbolic play and language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Edna; Geva, Ronny

    2015-02-01

    Symbolic play and language are known to be highly interrelated, but the developmental process involved in this relationship is not clear. Three hypothetical paths were postulated to explore how play and language drive each other: (1) direct paths, whereby initiation of basic forms in symbolic action or babbling, will be directly related to all later emerging language and motor outputs; (2) an indirect interactive path, whereby basic forms in symbolic action will be associated with more complex forms in symbolic play, as well as with babbling, and babbling mediates the relationship between symbolic play and speech; and (3) a dual path, whereby basic forms in symbolic play will be associated with basic forms of language, and complex forms of symbolic play will be associated with complex forms of language. We micro-coded 288 symbolic vignettes gathered during a yearlong prospective bi-weekly examination (N=14; from 6 to 18 months of age). Results showed that the age of initiation of single-object symbolic play correlates strongly with the age of initiation of later-emerging symbolic and vocal outputs; its frequency at initiation is correlated with frequency at initiation of babbling, later-emerging speech, and multi-object play in initiation. Results support the notion that a single-object play relates to the development of other symbolic forms via a direct relationship and an indirect relationship, rather than a dual-path hypothesis.

  15. Multispecies methods, technologies for play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ida Kathrine Hammeleff; Wirman, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    reveals limitations of designers’ knowledge of prospected users. The article explores how to approach participants who cannot express themselves verbally and how to recognise play that may not look familiar to the designer. The article finally presents a participatory design method that allows for non......-human contributions in design. This method applies play as an interspecies co-creative act and can be used as a starting point for addressing questions of difference in play and designing games that allow for ambiguous play....

  16. Attentional networks functioning, age, and attentional lapses while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ramón, María Fernanda; Castro, Cándida; Roca, Javier; Ledesma, Rubén; Lupiañez, Juan

    2011-10-01

    Based on Posner's (1994) model of attentional functions, the relationship between age and personal proneness to attention-related errors while driving and the functioning of the 3 attentional networks were explored by means of attentional behavioral measures and self-report data. A sample of 55 drivers was drawn from the general population of Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina. The Attention Network Test for Interactions (ANTI) (Callejas et al. 2004) task was used to obtain behavioral measures of the attentional networks, and we used the Attention-Related Driving Error Scale (ARDES) (Ledesma et al. 2010) questionnaire to obtain a self-report measure of attention-related driving errors. Drivers reporting the greatest propensity to experience attention-related errors showed an overall slowdown in performance, less endogenous preparation for high = priority warning signs, and a better response to conflict in the presence of valid cues than drivers less prone to attention-related errors while driving. Older participants showed a slowdown in performance, less endogenous preparation for high-priority warning signs, and worse cognitive control when solving conflict in comparison with younger drivers. We suggest that each group variable, attention-related error proneness and age, shows a particular combination of attentional network functioning that implies different ways of being distracted, which have different practical implications for safe driving. It can be inferred that drivers who are more prone to commit attentional errors while driving run less risk in situations in which they can deal with response conflict in the presence of valid cues because of the particular way in which their attentional networks are combined when a valid cue is present, could serve to compensate, with a better response conflict, their general slowdown and less endogenous preparedness for high-priority signs. It can be inferred that older drivers might show a reduction of the general

  17. Emotional attention for erotic stimuli: Cognitive and brain mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennwald, Vanessa; Pool, Eva; Brosch, Tobias; Delplanque, Sylvain; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Sander, David

    2016-06-01

    It has long been posited that among emotional stimuli, only negative threatening information modulates early shifts of attention. However, in the last few decades there has been an increase in research showing that attention is also involuntarily oriented toward positive rewarding stimuli such as babies, food, and erotic information. Because reproduction-related stimuli have some of the largest effects among positive stimuli on emotional attention, the present work reviews recent literature and proposes that the cognitive and cerebral mechanisms underlying the involuntarily attentional orientation toward threat-related information are also sensitive to erotic information. More specifically, the recent research suggests that both types of information involuntarily orient attention due to their concern relevance and that the amygdala plays an important role in detecting concern-relevant stimuli, thereby enhancing perceptual processing and influencing emotional attentional processes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Acute Effects of Exercise, Physically Active Video Game Play, and Inactive Video Game Play on Executive Functioning Skills in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Flynn, Rachel Marie

    2013-01-01

    Interactive media plays a central role in children's lives, however limited research has examined the impact of interactive media on children's cognitive development. Past research has suggested that exercise and video game play can improve executive functioning (EF) skills in both the short and long term. EF is a cluster of higher order cognitive skills, including selective attention and inhibition, which work together to coordinate higher order functioning. Interventions that improve EF ...

  19. Attentional Lapses of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Tasks of Sustained Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Walther, Stephan; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show attentional dysfunction such as distractibility and mind-wandering, especially in lengthy tasks. However, fundamentals of dysfunction are ambiguous and relationships of neuropsychological test parameters with self-report measures of AD

  20. Joint disease in children of Asiatic origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, T.H.; Ong, K.L

    2000-02-01

    Joint disorders in Asian children are varied due to the diversity of the Asian population and show some ethnic trends. The ethnic diversity, socio-economic and geographic factors in Asia have limited the availability of data from some of the ethnic groups, many of whom live in remote and relatively underdeveloped areas, are not subjected to epidemiological surveillance and have little awareness of these diseases and their consequences. Geographic and socio-economic factors also play a significant role in some of the joint diseases peculiar to Asian children. In general, the current available data suggests that there are no large differences in the epidemiology and clinical features between the Western and Asian children. This article reviews the available literature on joint diseases in Asian children.

  1. Joint Robotics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-23

    Åèìáëáíáçå= oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=póãéçëáìã= JOINT ROBOTICS PROGRAM Published: 23 April 2008 by Joel Brown and Paul Varian 5th Annual Acquisition Research...3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Joint Robotics Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...ëóåÉêÖó=Ñçê=áåÑçêãÉÇ=ÅÜ~åÖÉ=======- 464 - = = Joint Robotics Program Presenter: Joel Brown, Defense Acquisition University Author: Paul Varian

  2. Total ankle joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications.

  3. Joints in steel buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel F. Valencia Clement

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Masonry and steel components used in constructing buildings are in a constant state of motion. Volumetric changes are produced by temperature variation and deformation resulting from static or dynamic loading and in some materials, such as masonry, due to moisture content. This article addresses means of determining when expansion and seismic joints are required and how to proportion and design appropriate joints, specifically in steel buildings. It does not cover the study of expansion joints in concrete structures, in masonry construction or in non-structural (architectural elements.

  4. Pathology of articular cartilage and synovial membrane from elbow joints with and without degenerative joint disease in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, M; Meuten, D; Lascelles, D

    2014-09-01

    The elbow joint is one of the feline appendicular joints most commonly and severely affected by degenerative joint disease. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions of the elbow joints of 30 adult cats were evaluated immediately after euthanasia. Macroscopic evidence of degenerative joint disease was found in 22 of 30 cats (39 elbow joints) (73.33% cats; 65% elbow joints), and macroscopic cartilage erosion ranged from mild fibrillation to complete ulceration of the hyaline cartilage with exposure of the subchondral bone. Distribution of the lesions in the cartilage indicated the presence of medial compartment joint disease (most severe lesions located in the medial coronoid process of the ulna and medial humeral epicondyle). Synovitis scores were mild overall and correlated only weakly with macroscopic cartilage damage. Intra-articular osteochondral fragments either free or attached to the synovium were found in 10 joints. Macroscopic or histologic evidence of a fragmented coronoid process was not found even in those cases with intra-articular osteochondral fragments. Lesions observed in these animals are most consistent with synovial osteochondromatosis secondary to degenerative joint disease. The pathogenesis for the medial compartmentalization of these lesions has not been established, but a fragmented medial coronoid process or osteochondritis dissecans does not appear to play a role. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. The role of somatic threat feature detectors in the attentional bias toward pain: effects of spatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowman, Robert

    2011-03-01

    Our previous work suggests that somatic threat feature detectors indexed by a pain-evoked midlatency negative scalp potential play an important role in the attentional bias toward pain. In these studies the somatic threat feature detectors facilitated the shift in attention to a somatic threat when attention was focused on another stimulus modality but not when it was focused on another spatial location. This experiment used the Posner cuing paradigm to investigate possible explanations for this discrepancy. The results demonstrate that the different somatic threat effects observed in previous modal and spatial cuing studies are not due to attentional set. Rather, this discrepancy may be related to differences in contingent attention capture. This study also verifies earlier findings suggesting that some of the pain-related P2 component generators are involved in stimulus-driven shifts in spatial attention toward task-relevant stimuli.

  6. Seductive play in digital games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ida Kathrine Hammeleff

    2015-01-01

    seduction is meaningless because it is nothing but appearances – a sign without reference. In his conceptualization of seduction Baudrillard draws heavily upon Huizinga’s (1950) and Callois’ (1961) theory of play. To Baudrillard play is the mode of the seductive. But in contrast to both Callois and Huizinga...

  7. Making Play Work for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Deena Skolnick; Kittredge, Audrey K.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Klahr, David

    2015-01-01

    Children, especially in the preschool years, learn a tremendous amount through play. Research on guided play demonstrates how schools can couple a curriculum-centered preschool program with a developmentally appropriate pedagogical approach to classroom teaching. However, to fully test this claim, we need a clear definition of the term…

  8. Transmedia Play: Literacy across Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Meryl; Herr-Stephenson, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Transmedia play is a new way to understand how children develop critical media literacy and new media literacies through their interactions with contemporary media that links stories and structures across platforms. This essay highlights five characteristics of transmedia play that make it particularly useful for learning:…

  9. Sand and Water Table Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ann H.; White, Mary J.; Stone, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    The authors observed preschoolers engaged at the sand and water table to determine if math could be found within their play. Wanting to understand how children interact with provided materials and what kinds of math ideas they explore during these interactions, the authors offer practical examples of how such play can promote mathematical…

  10. Playful Interfaces: Introduction and History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Nijholt, Anton

    2014-01-01

    In this short survey we have some historical notes about human-computer interface development with an emphasis on interface technology that has allowed us to design playful interactions with applications. The applications do not necessarily have to be entertainment applications. We can have playful

  11. Young Children and War Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson-Paige, Nancy; Levin, Diane E.

    1988-01-01

    In a recent survey of parents and early childhood professionals the prevalence of war play among children and an increase in the amount of violence in children's play was noted. Outlines how the deregulation of children's television during the Reagan administration has affected children's exposure to violence in children's television programming.…

  12. Sand and Water Table Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ann H.; White, Mary J.; Stone, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    The authors observed preschoolers engaged at the sand and water table to determine if math could be found within their play. Wanting to understand how children interact with provided materials and what kinds of math ideas they explore during these interactions, the authors offer practical examples of how such play can promote mathematical…

  13. The Fractal Self at Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author draws on contemporary science to illuminate the relationship between early play experiences, processes of self-development, and the later emergence of the fractal self. She argues that orientation within social space is a primary function of early play and developmentally a two-step process. With other people and with…

  14. The Play of Socratic Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Proponents of philosophy for children generally see themselves as heirs to the "Socratic" tradition. They often claim too that children's aptitude for play leads them naturally to play with abstract, philosophical ideas. However in Plato's dialogues we find in the mouth of "Socrates" many warnings against philosophising with the young. Those…

  15. Empowering Groups that Enable Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David Sloan; Marshall, Danielle; Iserhott, Hindi

    2011-01-01

    Creating play environments for children usually requires groups of adults working together. An extensive scientific literature describes how groups function to achieve shared goals in general terms, and groups attempting to empower play may find this literature useful. Design principles for managing natural resources, identified by Elinor Ostrom…

  16. Let's Play Three on Three!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jack; Calleja, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Over the course of nine years as a supervisor of intern teachers, the first author collected observations of game play during lessons taught by intern teachers or their mentors. In general, the observations indicated that the majority of students got limited practice opportunities during game play. A close look at the data revealed an interesting…

  17. Assessment of Attention in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E.M.; Schneider, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of “disordered” attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child’s history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention—including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures. PMID:23090646

  18. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunill, Ruth; Castells, Xavier

    2015-04-20

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders and can persist into the adulthood. ADHD has important social, academic and occupational consequences. ADHD diagnosis is based on the fulfillment of several clinical criteria, which can vary depending on the diagnostic system used. The clinical presentation can show great between-patient variability and it has been related to a dysfunction in the fronto-striatal and meso-limbic circuits. Recent investigations support a model in which multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to create a neurobiological susceptibility to develop the disorder. However, no clear causal association has yet been identified. Although multimodal treatment including both pharmacological and psychosocial interventions is usually recommended, no convincing evidence exists to support this recommendation. Pharmacological treatment has fundamentally shown to improve ADHD symptoms in the short term, while efficacy data for psychosocial interventions are scarce and inconsistent. Yet, drug treatment is increasingly popular and the last 2 decades have witnessed a sharp increase in the prescription of anti-ADHD medications coinciding with the marketing of new drugs to treat ADHD.

  19. Attention Networks and Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael ePosner

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The term consciousness is an important one in the vernacular of the western literature in many fields. It is no wonder that scientists have assumed that consciousness will be found as a component of the human brain and that we will come to understand its neural basis. However, there is rather little in common between consciousness as the neurologist would use it to diagnose the vegetative state, how the feminist would use it to support raising male consciousness of the economic plight of women and as the philosopher would use it when defining the really hard question of the subjective state of awareness induced by sensory qualities. When faced with this kind of problem it is usual to subdivide the term into more manageable perhaps partly operational definitions. Three meanings that capture aspects of consciousness are: (1 the neurology of the state of mind allowing coherent orientation to time and place (2 the selection of sensory or memorial information for awareness and (3 the voluntary control over overt responses. In each of these cases the mechanisms of consciousness overlap with one or more of the attentional networks that have been studied with the methods of cognitive neuroscience. In this paper we explore t

  20. Lectures given at the Banach Center and C.I.M.E. Joint Summer School

    CERN Document Server

    Lachowicz, Mirosław

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this volume that presents Lectures given at a joint CIME and Banach Center Summer School, is to offer a broad presentation of a class of updated methods providing a mathematical framework for the development of a hierarchy of models of complex systems in the natural sciences, with a special attention to Biology and Medicine. Mastering complexity implies sharing different tools requiring much higher level of communication between different mathematical and scientific schools, for solving classes of problems of the same nature. Today more than ever, one of the most important challenges derives from the need to bridge parts of a system evolving at different time and space scales, especially with respect to computational affordability. As a result the content has a rather general character; the main role is played by stochastic processes, positive semigroups, asymptotic analysis, kinetic theory, continuum theory and game theory.

  1. The plays and arts of surveillance: studying surveillance as entertainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Dubbeld, L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper suggests a direction in the development of Surveillance Studies that goes beyond current attention for the caring, productive and enabling aspects of surveillance practices. That is, surveillance could be considered not just as positively protective, but even as a comical, playful,

  2. Visual attention: The past 25 years

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carrasco, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on covert attention and how it alters early vision. I explain why attention is considered a selective process, the constructs of covert attention, spatial endogenous and exogenous attention, and feature-based attention...

  3. Attention-Modulating Effects of Cognitive Enhancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attention can be readily measured in experimental animal models. Animal models of attention have been used to better understand the neural systems involved in attention, how attention is impaired, and how therapeutic treatments can ameliorate attentional deficits. This review fo...

  4. The play's the thing: a clinical-developmental perspective on video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfond, Holly S; Salonius-Pasternak, Dorothy E

    2005-07-01

    In this article, computer and video games are discussed as electronic play. Major perspectives on play and salient developmental issues are presented, along with similarities and differences between electronic play and other types of play. The authors consider possible benefits and risks associated with this type of play, with particular attention paid to cognitive and socioemotional development. Recommendations for clinicians in their work with children, adolescents, and parents are discussed, as are future directions for research.

  5. Selective visual attention in object detection processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paletta, Lucas; Goyal, Anurag; Greindl, Christian

    2003-03-01

    Object detection is an enabling technology that plays a key role in many application areas, such as content based media retrieval. Attentive cognitive vision systems are here proposed where the focus of attention is directed towards the most relevant target. The most promising information is interpreted in a sequential process that dynamically makes use of knowledge and that enables spatial reasoning on the local object information. The presented work proposes an innovative application of attention mechanisms for object detection which is most general in its understanding of information and action selection. The attentive detection system uses a cascade of increasingly complex classifiers for the stepwise identification of regions of interest (ROIs) and recursively refined object hypotheses. While the most coarse classifiers are used to determine first approximations on a region of interest in the input image, more complex classifiers are used for more refined ROIs to give more confident estimates. Objects are modelled by local appearance based representations and in terms of posterior distributions of the object samples in eigenspace. The discrimination function to discern between objects is modeled by a radial basis functions (RBF) network that has been compared with alternative networks and been proved consistent and superior to other artifical neural networks for appearance based object recognition. The experiments were led for the automatic detection of brand objects in Formula One broadcasts within the European Commission's cognitive vision project DETECT.

  6. Improved orthopedic arm joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, D. H.

    1971-01-01

    Joint permits smooth and easy movement of disabled arm and is smaller, lighter and less expensive than previous models. Device is interchangeable and may be used on either arm at the shoulder or at the elbow.

  7. Healthy Joints Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... my joints more healthy? Definitions What can go wrong? Although you might think arthritis affects only older ... Discovery Into Health ® Home | Health Information | Research | Funding | News & Events | About Us | Portal en español | Asian-Language ...

  8. Joint Quantum Institute

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Joint Quantum Institute (JQI) is pursuing that goal through the work of leading quantum scientists from the Department of Physics of the University of Maryland...

  9. On the Fair Play Spirit%论Fair Play

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维; 林琳

    2011-01-01

    采用文献资料法,历史分析了"Fair Play"精神的起源,并结合Fair Play精神面临的时代压力,探讨现代体育生命力延续的议题,提出"人"才是体育及其"Fair Play"精神继续生存或走向毁灭的主宰者.

  10. Playful biometrics: controversial technology through the lens of play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerbrok, Ariane

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the role of play in the context of technological emergence and expansion, particularly as it relates to recently emerging surveillance technologies. As a case study, I consider the trajectory of automated face recognition—a biometric technology of numerous applications, from its more controversial manifestations under the rubric of national security to a clearly emerging orientation toward play. This shift toward “playful” biometrics—or from a technology traditionally coded as “hard” to one now increasingly coded as “soft”—is critical insofar as it renders problematic the traditional modes of critique that have, up until this point, challenged the expansion of biometric systems into increasingly ubiquitous realms of everyday life. In response to this dynamic, I propose theorizing the expansion of face recognition specifically in relation to “play,” a step that allows us to broaden the critical space around newly emerging playful biometrics, as well as playful surveillance more generally. In addition, play may also have relevance for theorizing other forms of controversial technology, particularly given its potential role in processes of obfuscation, normalization, and marginalization.

  11. Concrete Pavement Joint Deterioration

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Concrete pavements are an important part of our national infrastructure. In recent years the relatively small number of reported joints deteriorating prematurely in concrete pavements around Indiana has increased. Changes over the past 45 years in INDOT specification, pavement materials, designs and construction practices, and current de-icing materials were examined and related to the durability of concrete at the joints of existing pavements. A survey of concrete pavements across the state ...

  12. Joint involvement in Ochronosis

    OpenAIRE

    Biehl, Christoph; Thormann, U.; Madera, N.; Heiß, C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Ochronosis is a metabolic disorder that is usually associated with the typical brown-black colored urine and retention of phenol complexes in sclera and skin. Kidney and heart are also checked, the disease can also cause damage in these organs. The disease is less associated with degenerative changes in the joints of the limbs and the spine. Methods: We report on the progress of a patient with documented family history on alcaptonuria and joint involvement. In the age of 69 ...

  13. High pressure ceramic joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michael E.; Harkins, Bruce D.

    1993-01-01

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

  14. Child attention to pain and pain tolerance are dependent upon anxiety and attention control: An eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, L C; Lau, J Y F; Mueller, S C; Eccleston, C; Fox, E; Bosmans, M; Vervoort, T

    2017-02-01

    Pain is common and can be debilitating in childhood. Theoretical models propose that attention to pain plays a key role in pain outcomes, however, very little research has investigated this in youth. This study examined how anxiety-related variables and attention control interacted to predict children's attention to pain cues using eye-tracking methodology, and their pain tolerance on the cold pressor test (CPT). Children aged 8-17 years had their eye-gaze tracked whilst they viewed photographs of other children displaying painful facial expressions during the CPT, before completing the CPT themselves. Children also completed self-report measures of anxiety and attention control. Findings indicated that anxiety and attention control did not impact children's initial fixations on pain or neutral faces, but did impact how long they dwelled on pain versus neutral faces. For children reporting low levels of attention control, higher anxiety was associated with less dwell time on pain faces as opposed to neutral faces, and the opposite pattern was observed for children with high attention control. Anxiety and attention control also interacted to predict pain outcomes. For children with low attention control, increasing anxiety was associated with anticipating more pain and tolerating pain for less time. This is the first study to examine children's attention to pain cues using eye-tracking technology in the context of a salient painful experience. Data suggest that attention control is an important moderator of anxiety on multiple outcomes relevant to young people's pain experiences. This study uses eye tracking to study attention to pain cues in children. Attention control is an important moderator of anxiety on attention bias to pain and tolerance of cold pressor pain in youth. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  15. Attentional Lapses of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Tasks of Sustained Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Walther, Stephan; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show attentional dysfunction such as distractibility and mind-wandering, especially in lengthy tasks. However, fundamentals of dysfunction are ambiguous and relationships of neuropsychological test parameters with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms are marginal. We hypothesize that basic deficits in sustaining attention explain more complex attentional dysfunction in persons with ADHD and relate to ADHD symptoms. Attentional function was analyzed by computing ex-Gaussian parameters for 3 time Blocks in a 20 min test of sustained alertness. Changes in performance across these blocks were analyzed by comparing adult persons with ADHD (n = 24) with healthy matched controls (n = 24) and correlated with neuropsychological measures of selective and divided attention as well as self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. We found a significantly steeper increase in the number of slow responses (ex-Gaussian parameter τ) in persons with ADHD with time on task in basic sustained alertness. They also performed significantly worse in tasks of sustained selective and divided attention. However, after controlling for an increase in τ during the alertness task, significant differences between groups disappeared for divided and partly selective attention. Increases in τ in the sustained alertness task correlated significantly with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. Our results provide evidence that very basic deficits in sustaining attention in adults with ADHD are related to infrequent slow responses (=attentional lapses), with changes over time being relevant for more complex attentional function and experienced ADHD symptoms in everyday life.

  16. The West Indies play Wembley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom August

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available The Wembley British Empire Exhibition of 1924 familiarized the public with the resources and products of the Empire. In this decade of severe economic dislocation and indebtness attention was now focused on the commercial value of the colonies rather than on the jingoism of earlier exhibitions.

  17. The allocation of attention and working memory in visual crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacigalupo, Felix; Luck, Steven J

    2015-06-01

    When the distance between a visual target and nearby flankers falls below a critical distance, target discrimination declines precipitously. This is called "crowding." Many researchers have proposed that selective attention plays a role in crowding. However, although some research has examined the effects of directing attention toward versus away from the targets, no previous research has assessed how attentional allocation varies as a function of target-flanker distance in crowding. Here, we used ERPs to assess the operation of attention during crowding, focusing on the attention-related N2pc component. We used a typical crowding task in which participants were asked to report the category (vowel/consonant) of a lateralized target letter flanked by distractor letters at different distances. We tested the hypothesis that attention fails when the target-flanker distance becomes too small for attention to operate effectively. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that N2pc amplitude was maximal at intermediate target-flanker distances and decreased substantially when crowding became severe. In addition, we examined the sustained posterior contralateral negativity (SPCN), which reflects the amount of information being maintained in working memory. Unlike the N2pc component, the SPCN increased in amplitude at small target-flanker distances, suggesting that observers stored information about the target and flankers in working memory when attention failed to select the target. Together, the N2pc and SPCN results suggest that attention and working memory play distinctive roles in crowding: Attention operates to minimize interference from the flankers at intermediate target-flanker distances, whereas working memory may be recruited when attention fails to select the target at small target-flanker distances.

  18. The Role of Attention in the Affective Life of People with Severe or Profound Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Pieter; De Cock, Paul; Munde, Vera; Neerinckx, Heleen; Petry, Katja; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Maes, Bea

    2013-01-01

    Although it is shown that attention plays an important role both in the onset and in the regulation of emotions in people without disabilities there is no information about how attention is related to emotions in people with severe or profound intellectual disability (ID). Therefore, in our study, we investigated the role of attention in the onset…

  19. Selective Visual Attention at Twelve Months: Signs of Autism in Early Social Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutman, Ted; Chela, Mandeep K.; Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Sigman, Marian

    2012-01-01

    We examined social attention and attention shifting during (a) a play interaction between 12-month olds and an examiner and (b) after the examiner pretended to hurt herself. We coded the target and duration of infants' visual fixations and frequency of attention shifts. Siblings of children with autism and controls with no family history of autism…

  20. A multiverse play divides opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2015-03-01

    The stage lights rise. A man and woman meet in a cute way - "Do you know why it's impossible to lick the tips of your elbows?" she asks - they chat momentarily, and separate. The play is Constellations by Nick Payne.

  1. Play the Blood Typing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nobel's Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire The Blood Typing Game What happens if you get a blood ... learn about human blood types! Play the Blood Typing Game About this game Embed the Blood Typing ...

  2. Discussion of "interpretation and play".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, Irma Brenman

    2011-01-01

    This discussion addresses the conflict in technique between play versus interpretation. It further considers how the nature of the interpretation may be affected by a consideration of what is being projected into the analyst.

  3. Proximal Tibiofibular Joint: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tze Wang Chan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Proximal tibiofibular joint is a frequently neglected joint which can be a source of lateral knee pain. Open surgery is the current mainstay of surgical management of proximal tibiofibular joint disorders. The proximal tibiofibular arthroscopy allows access to the joint and adjacent important ligamentous structures. This forms the basis of further development of arthroscopic procedures for a variety of pathologies.

  4. How Attention Affects Spatial Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Marisa; Barbot, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    We summarize and discuss a series of psychophysical studies on the effects of spatial covert attention on spatial resolution, our ability to discriminate fine patterns. Heightened resolution is beneficial in most, but not all, visual tasks. We show how endogenous attention (voluntary, goal driven) and exogenous attention (involuntary, stimulus driven) affect performance on a variety of tasks mediated by spatial resolution, such as visual search, crowding, acuity, and texture segmentation. Exogenous attention is an automatic mechanism that increases resolution regardless of whether it helps or hinders performance. In contrast, endogenous attention flexibly adjusts resolution to optimize performance according to task demands. We illustrate how psychophysical studies can reveal the underlying mechanisms of these effects and allow us to draw linking hypotheses with known neurophysiological effects of attention. PMID:25948640

  5. THE VALUE OF ROLE PLAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    IntroductionIn China,the English as a foreign language (EFL) class for non-English majors at college levelprovides little opportunity for oral interaction among students.One solution to this problem is toadopt a series of communicative teaching techniques.Role play is one such technique.This paperattempts to assess the value of role play by analysing our experience of using it as a communicationactivity.

  6. Digital Play: A New Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jackie; Plowman, Lydia; Yamada-Rice, Dylan; Bishop, Julia; Scott, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws on an ESRC-funded study of play and creativity in preschool-aged children's use of apps in the UK. The main objectives of the study were to collect information about access to and use of apps in the home, establish the most popular apps and identify the features of those apps that are successful in promoting play and creativity. A…

  7. The effect of perceptual grouping on selective attention

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Hiu-mei.; 周曉薇.

    2013-01-01

    Perceptual grouping plays an indispensable role on attention distribution. An example of this interaction is the impaired visual search performance when the target overlaps with a task-irrelevant salient distractor organized to a snake-like configuration by collinear bars, and when the collinear distractor is long enough (Jingling & Tseng, 2013). This phenomenon is puzzling because it is opposite to our understanding of attention capture which predicts search facilitation instead of impairme...

  8. Advertising, Attention, and Financial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Focke, Florens; Ruenzi, Stefan; Ungeheuer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the impact of product market advertising on investor attention and financial market outcomes. Using daily advertising data allows us to identify short-term effects of advertising. We measure daily investor attention based the company's number of Wikipedia page views. We show that TV and newspaper advertising positively impacts short-term investor attention. It also positively impacts turnover and liquidity, but the effects are not economically significant. Most importantly, ass...

  9. When sustained attention impairs perception

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Sam; Carrasco, Marisa

    2006-01-01

    Virtually all behavioral and neurophysiological studies have shown that sustained (endogenous, conceptually driven) attention enhances perception. But can this enhancement be held indefinitely? We assessed the time course of attention’s effects on contrast sensitivity, reasoning that if attention does indeed boost stimulus strength, the strengthened representation could result in stronger adaptation over time. We found that attention initially enhances contrast sensitivity, but that over time...

  10. Be vigilant for secondary periprosthetic joint infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Paul J; Phillips, Sally-Anne; Gaston, Paul; Dave, Jayshree; Breusch, Steffen J

    2010-10-01

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is caused by haematogenous spread from a distant primary infection in 70% of deep infections. It can potentially be avoided by prompt recognition and treatment of the primary infection focus in susceptible patients. Streptococci are commonly implicated in such secondary infections. Group A, B, C and G streptococci can cause invasive, potentially life-threatening infection. Risk factors include diabetes, immunodeficiency and venous insufficiency Any patient with a joint replacement should be counselled to seek early attention for any soft tissue or dental infection. A course of antibiotics should be considered in any wound in which there has been significant contamination. Patients at risk of infection through impaired physical defences such as chronic venous insufficiency should be treated appropriately and consideration should be given to prophylactic treatment of varicose veins if there are early signs of chronic venous insufficiency. Mild, uncomplicated cellulitis can be treated with oral antibiotics, simple penicillin agents such as amoxicillin or flucloxacillin should be administered. Patients should be referred to hospital for consideration of parenteral antibiotics if they are exhibiting signs of systemic sepsis such as tachycardia, pyrexia or hypotension. PJI should be suspected if a patient with a joint replacement develops pain in that joint after a soft tissue, respiratory tract or dental infection. In cases of suspected PJI prompt orthopaedic advice should be sought and antibiotics withheld.

  11. Attentional networks in developmental dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henik Avishai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very little is known about attention deficits in developmental dyscalculia, hence, this study was designed to provide the missing information. We examined attention abilities of participants suffering from developmental dyscalculia using the attention networks test - interactions. This test was designed to examine three different attention networks--executive function, orienting and alerting--and the interactions between them. Methods Fourteen university students that were diagnosed as suffering from developmental dyscalculia--intelligence and reading abilities in the normal range and no indication of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder--and 14 matched controls were tested using the attention networks test - interactions. All participants were given preliminary tests to measure mathematical abilities, reading, attention and intelligence. Results The results revealed deficits in the alerting network--a larger alerting effect--and in the executive function networks--a larger congruity effect in developmental dyscalculia participants. The interaction between the alerting and executive function networks was also modulated by group. In addition, developmental dyscalculia participants were slower to respond in the non-cued conditions. Conclusions These results imply specific attentional deficits in pure developmental dyscalculia. Namely, those with developmental dyscalculia seem to be deficient in the executive function and alertness networks. They suffer from difficulty in recruiting attention, in addition to the deficits in numerical processing.

  12. Attention in a bayesian framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiteley, Louise Emma; Sahani, Maneesh

    2012-01-01

    , and include both selective phenomena, where attention is invoked by cues that point to particular stimuli, and integrative phenomena, where attention is invoked dynamically by endogenous processing. However, most previous Bayesian accounts of attention have focused on describing relatively simple experimental......The behavioral phenomena of sensory attention are thought to reflect the allocation of a limited processing resource, but there is little consensus on the nature of the resource or why it should be limited. Here we argue that a fundamental bottleneck emerges naturally within Bayesian models...

  13. Limited Attention and Discourse Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, M A

    1995-01-01

    This squib examines the role of limited attention in a theory of discourse structure and proposes a model of attentional state that relates current hierarchical theories of discourse structure to empirical evidence about human discourse processing capabilities. First, I present examples that are not predicted by Grosz and Sidner's stack model of attentional state. Then I consider an alternative model of attentional state, the cache model, which accounts for the examples, and which makes particular processing predictions. Finally I suggest a number of ways that future research could distinguish the predictions of the cache model and the stack model.

  14. Preparatory attention in visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistoni, Elisa; Stein, Timo; Peelen, Marius V

    2017-05-01

    Top-down attention is the mechanism that allows us to selectively process goal-relevant aspects of a scene while ignoring irrelevant aspects. A large body of research has characterized the effects of attention on neural activity evoked by a visual stimulus. However, attention also includes a preparatory phase before stimulus onset in which the attended dimension is internally represented. Here, we review neurophysiological, functional magnetic resonance imaging, magnetoencephalography, electroencephalography, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies investigating the neural basis of preparatory attention, both when attention is directed to a location in space and when it is directed to nonspatial stimulus attributes (content-based attention) ranging from low-level features to object categories. Results show that both spatial and content-based attention lead to increased baseline activity in neural populations that selectively code for the attended attribute. TMS studies provide evidence that this preparatory activity is causally related to subsequent attentional selection and behavioral performance. Attention thus acts by preactivating selective neurons in the visual cortex before stimulus onset. This appears to be a general mechanism that can operate on multiple levels of representation. We discuss the functional relevance of this mechanism, its limitations, and its relation to working memory, imagery, and expectation. We conclude by outlining open questions and future directions. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Joint Custody after Divorce: Major Issues and Goals for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clingempeel, W. Glenn; Reppucci, N. Dickon

    1982-01-01

    Giving specific attention to the debate on the advantages and disadvantages of joint custody, this article proposes multilevel-multivariable life cycle guidelines for future child custody research. Critical issues are discussed, empirical questions raised, and salient variables examined for both the divorced family and the social system.…

  16. Difficulty of Discrimination Modulates Attentional Capture by Regulating Attentional Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaki, Risa; Katayama, Jun'ichi

    2009-01-01

    Attentional capture for distractors is enhanced by increasing the difficulty of discrimination between the standard and the target in the three-stimulus oddball paradigm. In this study, we investigated the cognitive mechanism of this modulation of attentional capture. Event-related brain potentials were recorded from participants while they…

  17. Capture of exogenous attention modulates the attentional blink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon; Andersen, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    T1 processing time, this should cause a greater AB. Attention capture hypotheses suggest that T1 captures attention, which cannot be reallocated to T2 in time. Accordingly, if increasing T1 difficulty, decreases saliency, this should cause a smaller AB. Studies examining how T1 difficulty affects...

  18. Play and Space - Towards a Formal Definition of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a formal definition of the aspect of play generally known as ‘make-believe’. ‘Make-believe’ is defined in relation to theory of place and Dasein’s being- in-the-world as presented by Martin Heidegger in Being and time. From this point of view ‘make-believe’ can...... be defined as a uniform and situational spatial dyad where being is doubled, characterized by the presence of the physically absent. I will apply this definition after a survey of central and influential aspects of the history of the theory of play to demonstrate its relevance for a formal definition of play....

  19. The biology of lubricin: near frictionless joint motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Gregory D; Waller, Kimberly A

    2014-10-01

    Lubricin is a surface-active mucinous glycoprotein secreted in the synovial joint that plays an important role in cartilage integrity. In healthy joints, lubricin molecules coat the cartilage surface, providing boundary lubrication and preventing cell and protein adhesion. Arthropathy occurring in patients with joint trauma, inflammatory arthritis or genetically mediated lubricin deficiencies have insufficient lubricin to prevent damage to articular cartilage. Recent studies in lubricin null joints indicate that lubricin (Prg4) plays a role in preventing damage to the superficial zone and preservation of chondrocytes. Progress in the production of recombinant forms of lubricin and the successes of lubricin supplementation in small animal models identify rhPRG4 as a potential therapeutic for patients with transient lubricin deficiency in the setting of trauma or autoimmune arthritis.

  20. Effects of Punishment and Response-Independent Attention on Severe Problem Behavior and Appropriate Toy Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Shannon S.; Poe, Susannah G.; Anderson, Cynthia M.

    2005-01-01

    Problem behavior can interfere with learning, the development of appropriate skills, and socialization in persons with developmental disabilities. In severe cases, problem behavior could result in life-threatening injury. For one 21-month-old participant diagnosed with autism engaging in severe problem behavior for whom reinforcement-based…

  1. Attentional effects on rule extraction and consolidation from speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Barroso, Diana; Cucurell, David; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Incidental learning plays a crucial role in the initial phases of language acquisition. However the knowledge derived from implicit learning, which is based on prediction-based mechanisms, may become explicit. The role that attention plays in the formation of implicit and explicit knowledge of the learned material is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role that attention plays in the acquisition of non-adjacent rule learning from speech. In addition, we also tested whether the amount of attention during learning changes the representation of the learned material after a 24 h delay containing sleep. For that, we developed an experiment run on two consecutive days consisting on the exposure to an artificial language that contained non-adjacent dependencies (rules) between words whereas different conditions were established to manipulate the amount of attention given to the rules (target and non-target conditions). Furthermore, we used both indirect and direct measures of learning that are more sensitive to implicit and explicit knowledge, respectively. Whereas the indirect measures indicated that learning of the rules occurred regardless of attention, more explicit judgments after learning showed differences in the type of learning reached under the two attention conditions. 24 hours later, indirect measures showed no further improvements during additional language exposure and explicit judgments indicated that only the information more robustly learned in the previous day, was consolidated. PMID:27031495

  2. Joint ventures in medical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rublee, D A

    1987-01-01

    This paper is an overview of joint-venture activity in healthcare, describing trends in joint ventures and raising issues for physicians. The purposes are to discuss the major current facets of joint-venture alliances in healthcare and to identify policy issues that arise from the trend to use joint ventures as an organizational tool. Speculation is made about the future role of joint ventures in the organization of healthcare.

  3. Visual attention: The past 25 years

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on covert attention and how it alters early vision. I explain why attention is considered a selective process, the constructs of covert attention, spatial endogenous and exogenous attention, and feature-based attention. I explain how in the last 25 years research on attention has characterized the effects of covert attention on spatial filters and how attention influences the selection of stimuli of interest. This review includes the effects of spatial attention on discrim...

  4. Temporomandibular joint disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buescher, Jennifer J

    2007-11-15

    Temporomandibular joint disorders are common in adults; as many as one third of adults report having one or more symptoms, which include jaw or neck pain, headache, and clicking or grating within the joint. Most symptoms improve without treatment, but various noninvasive therapies may reduce pain for patients who have not experienced relief from self-care therapies. Physical therapy modalities (e.g., iontophoresis, phonophoresis), psychological therapies (e.g., cognitive behavior therapy), relaxation techniques, and complementary therapies (e.g., acupuncture, hypnosis) are all used for the treatment of temporomandibular joint disorders; however, no therapies have been shown to be uniformly superior for the treatment of pain or oral dysfunction. Noninvasive therapies should be attempted before pursuing invasive, permanent, or semi-permanent treatments that have the potential to cause irreparable harm. Dental occlusion therapy (e.g., oral splinting) is a common treatment for temporomandibular joint disorders, but a recent systematic review found insufficient evidence for or against its use. Some patients with intractable temporomandibular joint disorders develop chronic pain syndrome and may benefit from treatment, including antidepressants or cognitive behavior therapy.

  5. Temporomandibular joint examination reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Guarda Nardini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ it’s a joint closely related to the skull base, the spine, and the jaws; all these anatomical structures must be taken in consideration when evaluating pain involving the tmj. In order to detect patients affected by pathology or dysfunctions of the tmj, physical examination is of great value in orienting the diagnosis. Inspection must consider the symmetry of the body, the dental status and the type of occlusion. Palpation is a way to assess contractiont involving the muscles of the masticatory system and of the neck. Auscultation, based on articular noise provides means to determine whether we are dealing with degeneration of the joint or a dislocation of the intrarticular disc. In order to confirm the diagnosis obtained with the clinical evaluation, it’s useful to perform imaging techniques as opt, tomography and TC of the tmj and electromyokineosiography – index of the mandibular functionality and of the muscles status. MRI and dynamic MRI are among the non invasive exams which give the greatest amount of information, regarding the disc position and the joint degeneration. Arthroscopy is an invasive technique that allows early diagnosis of degeneration and is helpful to reveal early inflammatory processes of the joint.

  6. Distal radioulnar joint injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu P Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distal radioulnar joint is a trochoid joint relatively new in evolution. Along with proximal radioulnar joint , forearm bones and interosseous membrane, it allows pronosupination and load transmission across the wrist. Injuries around distal radioulnar joint are not uncommon, and are usually associated with distal radius fractures,fractures of the ulnar styloid and with the eponymous Galeazzi or Essex_Lopresti fractures. The injury can be purely involving the soft tissue especially the triangular fibrocartilage or the radioulnar ligaments.The patients usually present with ulnar sided wrist pain, features of instability, or restriction of rotation. Difficulty in carrying loads in the hand is a major constraint for these patients. Thorough clinical examination to localize point of tenderness and appropriate provocative tests help in diagnosis. Radiology and MRI are extremely useful, while arthroscopy is the gold standard for evaluation. The treatment protocols are continuously evolving and range from conservative, arthroscopic to open surgical methods. Isolated dislocation are uncommon. Basal fractures of the ulnar styloid tend to make the joint unstable and may require operative intervention. Chronic instability requires reconstruction of the stabilizing ligaments to avoid onset of arthritis. Prosthetic replacement in arthritis is gaining acceptance in the management of arthritis.

  7. A focused attention intervention for coping with ostracism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molet, Mikaël; Macquet, Benjamin; Lefebvre, Olivier; Williams, Kipling D

    2013-12-01

    Ostracism-being excluded and ignored-thwarts satisfaction of four fundamental needs: belonging, self-esteem, control, and meaningful existence. The current study investigated whether training participants to focus their attention on the here-and-now (i.e., focused attention) reduces distress from an ostracism experience. Participants were first trained in either focused or unfocused attention, and then played Cyberball, an online ball-tossing game for which half the participants were included or ostracized. Participants reported their levels of need satisfaction during the game, and after a short delay. Whereas both training groups experienced the same degree of need-threat in the immediate measure, participants who were trained in focused attention showed more recovery for the delayed measure. We reason that focused attention would not reduce the distress during the ostracism experience, but it aided in recovery by preventing participants from reliving the ostracism experience after it concludes.

  8. Media attention and the market for 'green' consumer products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2006-01-01

    . It is well documented that the mass media plays an important role in determining which issues receive high or low attention by the general public. However, not only does the media's assessment of what is newsworthy mean that green businesses will eventually lose the current of a rising issue attention cycle......There are signs that a general counter-attack is now being orchestrated against the greens. This paper surveys the evidence regarding an issue-attention cycle in environmental concern in Western Europe and North America. It furthermore discusses the role of the news media in creating the cycle...

  9. Adaptive Forgetting Factor Fictitious Play

    CERN Document Server

    Smyrnakis, Michalis

    2011-01-01

    It is now well known that decentralised optimisation can be formulated as a potential game, and game-theoretical learning algorithms can be used to find an optimum. One of the most common learning techniques in game theory is fictitious play. However fictitious play is founded on an implicit assumption that opponents' strategies are stationary. We present a novel variation of fictitious play that allows the use of a more realistic model of opponent strategy. It uses a heuristic approach, from the online streaming data literature, to adaptively update the weights assigned to recently observed actions. We compare the results of the proposed algorithm with those of stochastic and geometric fictitious play in a simple strategic form game, a vehicle target assignment game and a disaster management problem. In all the tests the rate of convergence of the proposed algorithm was similar or better than the variations of fictitious play we compared it with. The new algorithm therefore improves the performance of game-t...

  10. Visual attentional load influences plasticity in the human motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamke, Marc R; Hall, Michelle G; Lye, Hayley F; Sale, Martin V; Fenlon, Laura R; Carroll, Timothy J; Riek, Stephan; Mattingley, Jason B

    2012-05-16

    Neural plasticity plays a critical role in learning, memory, and recovery from injury to the nervous system. Although much is known about the physical and physiological determinants of plasticity, little is known about the influence of cognitive factors. In this study, we investigated whether selective attention plays a role in modifying changes in neural excitability reflecting long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity. We induced LTP-like effects in the hand area of the human motor cortex using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). During the induction of plasticity, participants engaged in a visual detection task with either low or high attentional demands. Changes in neural excitability were assessed by measuring motor-evoked potentials in a small hand muscle before and after the TMS procedures. In separate experiments plasticity was induced either by paired associative stimulation (PAS) or intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS). Because these procedures induce different forms of LTP-like effects, they allowed us to investigate the generality of any attentional influence on plasticity. In both experiments reliable changes in motor cortex excitability were evident under low-load conditions, but this effect was eliminated under high-attentional load. In a third experiment we investigated whether the attentional task was associated with ongoing changes in the excitability of motor cortex, but found no difference in evoked potentials across the levels of attentional load. Our findings indicate that in addition to their role in modifying sensory processing, mechanisms of attention can also be a potent modulator of cortical plasticity.

  11. Why Play Outside? Problematising Outdoor Play as a Biopedagogical Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daniel B.; Barrett, Joe

    2017-01-01

    Although outdoor play has been widely recognised for the many benefits it affords children, some have rationalised the need for it based on goals related to physical health. More specifically, these instrumental goals have been closely related to obesity, overweight, and/or physical (in)activity. Adhering to obesity discourses and the notion of a…

  12. Parent-Child Play across Cultures: Advancing Play Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L.; Davidson, Kimberly L.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue for a greater understanding of children's play across cultures through better integration of scientific thinking about the developed and developing societies, through consideration of socialization beliefs and goals, and, finally, through the use of more complex models in research investigations. They draw on…

  13. What Attracts Decision Makers' Attention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Eric; Christiansen, John K.; Varnes, Claus J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Managers' attention is a scarce resource in complex innovation settings. Prior research on the factors to which managers pay attention is mostly based on surveys. The present study aims to address the need for knowledge about the behavior of decision makers based on observations from po...

  14. Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-05-13

    Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention.

  15. Caffeine Modulates Attention Network Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunye, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Lieberman, Harris R.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigated the effects of caffeine (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg) on a flanker task designed to test Posner's three visual attention network functions: alerting, orienting, and executive control [Posner, M. I. (2004). "Cognitive neuroscience of attention". New York, NY: Guilford Press]. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind…

  16. Computational Attention for Event Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Mancas, Matei; Couvreur, Laurent; Gosselin, Bernard; Macq, Benoît

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with a biologically-motivated three-level computational attention model architecture based on the rarity and the information theory framework. It mainly focuses on low-level and medium-level steps and their application in pre-attentive detection of tumours in CT scans and unusual events in audio recordings.

  17. Caffeine Modulates Attention Network Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunye, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Lieberman, Harris R.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigated the effects of caffeine (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg) on a flanker task designed to test Posner's three visual attention network functions: alerting, orienting, and executive control [Posner, M. I. (2004). "Cognitive neuroscience of attention". New York, NY: Guilford Press]. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind…

  18. Modular robotics for playful physiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2009-01-01

    We developed modular robotic tiles to be used for playful physiotherapy, which is supposed to motivate patients to engage in and perform physical rehabilitation exercises. We tested the modular robotic tiles for an extensive period of time (3 years) in daily use in a hospital rehabilitation unit e.......g. for cardiac patients. Also, the tiles were tested for performing physical rehabilitation of stroke patients in their private home. In all pilot test cases qualitative feedback indicate that the patients find the playful use of modular robotic tiles engaging and motivating for them to perform...... the rehabilitation. Also, initial pilot test data suggest that some playful exercises on the tiles demand an average heart rate of 75% and 86% of the maximum heart rate....

  19. ERP characterization of sustained attention effects in visual lexical categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Clara D; Thierry, Guillaume; Démonet, Jean-François

    2010-03-25

    As our understanding of the basic processes underlying reading is growing, the key role played by attention in this process becomes evident. Two research topics are of particular interest in this domain: (1) it is still undetermined whether sustained attention affects lexical decision tasks; (2) the influence of attention on early visual processing (i.e., before orthographic or lexico-semantic processing stages) remains largely under-specified. Here we investigated early perceptual modulations by sustained attention using an ERP paradigm adapted from Thierry et al. [1]. Participants had to decide whether visual stimuli presented in pairs pertained to a pre-specified category (lexical categorization focus on word or pseudoword pairs). Depending on the lexical category of the first item of a pair, participants either needed to fully process the second item (hold condition) or could release their attention and make a decision without full processing of the second item (release condition). The P1 peak was unaffected by sustained attention. The N1 was delayed and reduced after the second item of a pair when participants released their attention. Release of sustained attention also reduced a P3 wave elicited by the first item of a pair and abolished the P3 wave elicited by the second. Our results are consistent with differential effects of sustained attention on early processing stages and working memory. Sustained attention modulated early processing stages during a lexical decision task without inhibiting the process of stimulus integration. On the contrary, working memory involvement/updating was highly dependent upon the allocation of sustained attention. Moreover, the influence of sustained attention on both early and late cognitive processes was independent of lexical categorization focus.

  20. ERP characterization of sustained attention effects in visual lexical categorization.

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    Clara D Martin

    Full Text Available As our understanding of the basic processes underlying reading is growing, the key role played by attention in this process becomes evident. Two research topics are of particular interest in this domain: (1 it is still undetermined whether sustained attention affects lexical decision tasks; (2 the influence of attention on early visual processing (i.e., before orthographic or lexico-semantic processing stages remains largely under-specified. Here we investigated early perceptual modulations by sustained attention using an ERP paradigm adapted from Thierry et al. [1]. Participants had to decide whether visual stimuli presented in pairs pertained to a pre-specified category (lexical categorization focus on word or pseudoword pairs. Depending on the lexical category of the first item of a pair, participants either needed to fully process the second item (hold condition or could release their attention and make a decision without full processing of the second item (release condition. The P1 peak was unaffected by sustained attention. The N1 was delayed and reduced after the second item of a pair when participants released their attention. Release of sustained attention also reduced a P3 wave elicited by the first item of a pair and abolished the P3 wave elicited by the second. Our results are consistent with differential effects of sustained attention on early processing stages and working memory. Sustained attention modulated early processing stages during a lexical decision task without inhibiting the process of stimulus integration. On the contrary, working memory involvement/updating was highly dependent upon the allocation of sustained attention. Moreover, the influence of sustained attention on both early and late cognitive processes was independent of lexical categorization focus.