WorldWideScience

Sample records for play illuminates issues

  1. Play Therapy: Practice, Issues, and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homeyer, Linda E.; Morrison, Mary O.

    2008-01-01

    Play therapy is an effective means of responding to the mental health needs of young children and is widely accepted as a valuable and developmentally appropriate intervention. The authors discuss the importance of play in development, the therapeutic benefits of play, the rich history of play therapy, and recent research and current issues and…

  2. Innovations in Play Therapy: Issues, Process, and Special Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landreth, Garry L., Ed.

    This book is a compilation of discussions on current issues in play therapy. It is designed to help therapists fill in the gaps about working with special populations, which is often not directly addressed in other play therapy resources. The object of the book is to bring together information related to issues and dynamics of the process of this…

  3. Genes and plays: bringing ELSI issues to life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Karen H; Bush, Lynn W

    2012-02-01

    Ethical complexities surround the promise of genomic technology and the power of genetic information as they alter conceptions of identity and dynamics within personal and professional relationships. Creative approaches such as dramatic vignettes offer a unique analytical stage for imagining the bioethical past and future. Dramatic narratives can bring to life images of differing perspectives and values when experiencing innovations in medicine. Although the scientific landscape shifts, concerns expressed in theatre from 50 years ago parallel many contemporary ELSI (ethical, legal, and social implications) issues, highlighting the ongoing struggle to appreciate the impact of emerging genetic technologies on relationships. To illuminate these enduring concerns, we explore how perceptions and relationships have influenced-and been influenced by-genetics as portrayed through dramatic vignettes. We build on the legacy of using case vignettes as a clinical teaching modality, and believe similar value exists within the research ethics domain. The selection of dialogue discussed encompasses abbreviated excerpts from two existing and one original vignette that we staged at the ELSI 2011 Congress and various academic and health institutions.

  4. Preface : Special Issue on Physical Movements and Playful Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Nijholt, A.; Reidsma, D.; Reidsma, Dennis; Unknown, [Unknown

    2010-01-01

    This Special Issue of IJART is devoted to the 3rd International Conference on Intelligent Technologies for Interactive Entertainment (INTETAIN 09). This 3rd conference was held in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, in June 2009. It was organized by the Human Media Interaction (HMI) department of the

  5. Psychology of Game Playing: Introduction to a Special Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Colman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Game theory has focused attention on different problems at different times in its history. Currently, attention is devoted to investigating how human decision makers with bounded rationality choose strategies in interactive decisions. Behavioral economics, and more generally experimental games, have appeared in the literature with accelerating frequency since 1990, and this cannot continue indefinitely without a proportional expansion of journal space. This Special Issue includes contributions to behavioral economics, experimental games, and evolutionary game theory, using theoretical, experimental, and agent-based modeling techniques.

  6. Young men's health promotion and new information communication technologies: illuminating the issues and research agendas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark; Robertson, Steve

    2010-09-01

    The article examines the use of newer, interactive information and communication technologies (ICTs) in young men's health promotion (HP), drawing on gender theory, HP research and evidence on young men's Internet usage. The focus is on highlighting an agenda for research in terms of emerging issues. New forms of social media ICT (for example 'web 2'-based on-line social networking sites, micro-blogging services, i-phones and podcasts) have the potential to enable young men to engage with health information in new and interesting ways. Given concerns about young men's engagement with health services, innovative ICT formats, particularly using the Internet, have been tried. However, issues persist around surfing 'addiction', quality control and equal access. Approaches to HP using new ICTs offer distributed control over information content and quality and a lay social context for accessing information. Online communities can potentially legitimize young men's participation in discourses around health, and support sustained engagement. The article discusses how this could support young men to re-conceptualize healthy choices in the context of masculine imperatives and responsible citizenship if specific conditions are met (for trusting engagement) and risks addressed (such as commercial disinformation). The skill requirements for young men to engage effectively with new ICTs are explored, focusing on health literacy (HL). It is predicted that social marketing approaches to HP for young men will increasingly include new ICTs, making specific requirements for HL. These approaches may appeal narrowly to hegemonic masculinities or broadly to multiple masculinities, including those historically marginalized. Recommendations are made for future research.

  7. American Illuminations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    Illuminated fêtes and civic celebrations began in Renaissance Italy and spread through the courts of Europe. Their fireworks, torches, lamps, and special effects glorified the monarch, marked the birth of a prince, or celebrated military victory. Nineteenth-century Americans rejected such monarch...

  8. Relations between Parenting Style and Children's Play Behavior. Issues in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clawson, Mellisa A.; Robila, Mihaela

    2001-01-01

    Studied Baumrind's approach to parenting style to examine the relations between parenting style and preschool children's social competence manifested through peer play. Found that mothers' and fathers' parenting style is related to children's play with peers, with an authoritative parenting style correlating to more complex levels of play. (SD)

  9. Hotsphere illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Bahar S.; Hoang, Duyen; Liu, Shibin; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2017-04-01

    Soils are the most heterogeneous parts of the biosphere, with an extremely high differentiation of properties and processes at all spatial and temporal scales. Importance of hotspheres- environment with abundant high microbial activity- i.e.: rhizosphere, detritusphere, biopores, spermosphere and hyphasphere calls for spatially explicit methods to illuminate distribution of microbial activities (Kuzyakov and Blagodatskaya, 2015). Zymography technique has previously been adapted to visualize the spatial dynamics of enzyme activities in rhizosphere. Here, we further developed soil zymography to obtain a higher resolution of enzyme activities by enabling direct contact of substrate-saturated membranes with soil. For the first time, we aimed at quantitative imaging of enzyme activities in various hotspheres. We calculated and compared percentage of enzymatic hotspots of four hotspheres: Spermosphere, rhizosphere, detritusphere and biopores. Spatial distribution of activities of two enzymes: β-glucosidase and phosphatase were analyzed in the spermosphere and rhizosphere of maize and lentil. Zymography has been done 3 days (spermosphere), 14 days (rhizosphere) after sowing. Further, manure was placed on surface of rhizoboxes to visualize spatio-temporal distribution of the enzyme activities in detritusphere after 25 days. Biopores were produced by earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) in transparent boxes for 2 weeks and enzyme distribution were measured by zymography thereafter. The developed in situ direct soil zymography visualized the heterogeneity of enzyme activities along and across the roots. Spatial patterns of enzyme activities as a function of distance along the root demonstrated plant specific patterns of enzyme distribution: it was uniform and homogenous along the lentil roots, whereas the enzyme activities in maize rhizosphere were higher at the apical or proximal root parts. For the first time were applied "spatial point pattern analysis" to determine

  10. Commentary: what role should physician organizations play in addressing social justice issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Cedric M

    2012-06-01

    A study by Peek and colleagues in this issue reveals that although racial and ethnic health disparities are recognized as a major national challenge, few physician organizations with both the influence and ability to change practice standards and address disparities appear to be effectively directing their resources to mitigate health disparities. In this commentary, the author examines the history of U.S. health disparities through the lens of social justice. He argues that today, physician organizations have the opportunity to change the paradigm of medicine from being a reactive industry to becoming a proactive industry through collaborations such as the Commission to End Health Disparities, which brings together more than 60 organizations, and the National Medical Association's "We Stand With You" program to improve health and combat disparities. Physician organizations can also address health disparities through advocacy for fair reimbursement policies, funding for pipeline programs to increase the diversity of the workforce, diversity in clinical trials, and other issues. Health disparities present to us in organized medicine a challenge that is cleverly disguised as an immovable object but that is truly a great opportunity for innovation, improvement, and growth. Physician organizations have a unique opportunity to provide avenues of innovation and accomplishment.

  11. The Games Radicals Play: Special Issue on Free Radicals and Radical Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Walton

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemistry and Physics have aptly been described as “most excellent children of Intellect and Art” [1]. Both these “children” engage with many playthings, and molecules rank as one of their first favorites, especially radicals, which are amongst the most lively and exciting. Checking out radicals dancing to the music of entropy round their potential energy ballrooms is surely both entertaining and enlightening. Radicals’ old favorite convolutions are noteworthy, but the new styles, modes and arrangements appearing on the scene are even more interesting. Some of these are ephemeral and enjoy only a brief appearance, others are retro-types reappearing in new guises, still others are genuinely new and “go viral” in the scientific world. This Special Issue of Molecules contains the observations and reflections of a select group of chemists and physicists fascinated by this spectacle. It contains an eclectic mix reflecting on new modes and advances as well as on permutations and combinations that revive mature themes. [...

  12. Addressing the Issue of Chronic, Inappropriate Benzodiazepine Use: How Can Pharmacists Play a Role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen C. Gallagher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prescribing guidelines do not recommend the long-term use of benzodiazepines since their effectiveness with chronic use is out-weighed by risks including dependence, memory and cognitive impairment, hip fractures and traffic accidents. Despite these guidelines, historical data points to an increasing proportion of inappropriate, repeat prescribing of benzodiazepines in Ireland and elsewhere, with up to 33% of patients who use these drugs doing so long-term. The typical long-term benzodiazepine user is an older, socio-economically disadvantaged patient who has been prescribed these medicines by their general practitioner (GP and dispensed them by their community pharmacist. Misuse of benzodiazepines in nursing homes and psychiatric institutions is also of concern, with one Irish study indicating that almost half of all admissions to a psychiatric hospital were prescribed these drugs, usually despite a lack of clear clinical need. Discontinuation of benzodiazepines has proven to be of benefit, as it is followed by improvements in cognitive and psychomotor function, particularly in elderly patients. It is obvious that an inter-professional effort, focusing on the primary care setting, is required to address benzodiazepine misuse and to ensure appropriate pharmaceutical care. Pharmacists must be an integral part of this inter-professional effort, not least because they are uniquely positioned as the health professional with most frequent patient contact. There is already some supporting evidence that pharmacists’ involvement in interventions to reduce benzodiazepine use can have positive effects on patient outcomes. Here, this evidence is reviewed and the potential for pharmacists to play an expanded role in ensuring the appropriate use of benzodiazepines is discussed.

  13. Fibre illumination system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Source: EP2426402A The invention relates to a fibre illumination module and system for the collection and delivery of daylight for illumination purposes. The fibre illumination module comprises a plurality of collector elements, each collector element comprising an input fibre having a first end......-directional arrangement. The fibre illumination system comprises a fibre illumination module of the above-mentioned type. By the invention, daylight may be exploited for the illumination of remote interior spaces of buildings in order to save energy, and improve the well-being of users in both housing and working...

  14. Wood's lamp illumination (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...

  15. The Child Abuse Matter and the Major Role Played by the Teacher: Issues Raised by a Pilot Focus Group Sample of Primary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitalaki, Elena

    2013-01-01

    A great deal of attention is now being paid to issues raised by child abuse. Recent reports, enquiries and relevant agencies have all recognized the important role played by teachers in aiding the detection and prevention of child abuse, due to their close everyday contact with children. The result of the ideas presented in the present work was…

  16. Play Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawver, Timothy; Blankenship, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Play therapy is a treatment modality in which the therapist engages in play with the child. Its use has been documented in a variety of settings and with a variety of diagnoses. Treating within the context of play brings the therapist and the therapy to the level of the child. By way of an introduction to this approach, a case is presented of a six-year-old boy with oppositional defiant disorder. The presentation focuses on the events and interactions of a typical session with an established patient. The primary issues of the session are aggression, self worth, and self efficacy. These themes manifest themselves through the content of the child’s play and narration of his actions. The therapist then reflects these back to the child while gently encouraging the child toward more positive play. Though the example is one of nondirective play therapy, a wide range of variation exists under the heading of play therapy. PMID:19724720

  17. Play Therapy: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Maggie L.; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Jessee, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the current issues in play therapy and its implications for play therapists. A brief history of play therapy is provided along with the current play therapy approaches and techniques. This article also touches on current issues or problems that play therapists may face, such as interpreting children's play, implementing…

  18. Color constancy by characterization of illumination chromaticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkanen, Jarno T.

    2011-05-01

    Computational color constancy algorithms play a key role in achieving desired color reproduction in digital cameras. Failure to estimate illumination chromaticity correctly will result in invalid overall colour cast in the image that will be easily detected by human observers. A new algorithm is presented for computational color constancy. Low computational complexity and low memory requirement make the algorithm suitable for resource-limited camera devices, such as consumer digital cameras and camera phones. Operation of the algorithm relies on characterization of the range of possible illumination chromaticities in terms of camera sensor response. The fact that only illumination chromaticity is characterized instead of the full color gamut, for example, increases robustness against variations in sensor characteristics and against failure of diagonal model of illumination change. Multiple databases are used in order to demonstrate the good performance of the algorithm in comparison to the state-of-the-art color constancy algorithms.

  19. Relationships among Play Behaviors Reported by College Students and Their Responses to Moral Issues: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Darrel R.; Bergen, Doris

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether the types and amount of playful activity and thought exhibited from early childhood to adulthood are related to aspects of moral development, such as empathy, behavior, and reasoning. It explored whether the assertions of theorists such as Piaget, Vygotsky, and Erikson regarding the facilitative effect of games with…

  20. Natural light illumination system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, Allen Jong-Woei; Chen, Yi-Yung; Yang, Shu-Hua; Pan, Po-Hsuan; Chou, Kao-Hsu; Lee, Yu-Chi; Lee, Zong-Yi; Chen, Chi-An; Chen, Cheng-Nan

    2010-12-10

    In recent years, green energy has undergone a lot of development and has been the subject of many applications. Many research studies have focused on illumination with sunlight as a means of saving energy and creating healthy lighting. Natural light illumination systems have collecting, transmitting, and lighting elements. Today, most daylight collectors use dynamic concentrators; these include Sun tracking systems. However, this design is too expensive to be cost effective. To create a low-cost collector that can be easily installed on a large building, we have designed a static concentrator, which is prismatic and cascadable, to collect sunlight for indoor illumination. The transmission component uses a large number of optical fibers. Because optical fibers are expensive, this means that most of the cost for the system will be related to transmission. In this paper, we also use a prismatic structure to design an optical coupler for coupling n to 1. With the n-to-1 coupler, the number of optical fibers necessary can be greatly reduced. Although this new natural light illumination system can effectively guide collected sunlight and send it to the basement or to other indoor places for healthy lighting, previously there has been no way to manage the collected sunlight when lighting was not desired. To solve this problem, we have designed an optical switch and a beam splitter to control and separate the transmitted light. When replacing traditional sources, the lighting should have similar characteristics, such as intensity distribution and geometric parameters, to those of traditional artificial sources. We have designed, simulated, and optimized an illumination lightpipe with a dot pattern to redistribute the collected sunlight from the natural light illumination system such that it equals the qualities of a traditional lighting system. We also provide an active lighting module that provides lighting from the natural light illumination system or LED auxiliary

  1. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston, R.; Ries, H.

    2000-02-01

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source, a light reflecting surface, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line with the reflecting surface defined in terms of the reference line 104 as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t) = k(t) + Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line 104, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line 104 to the reflection surface 108 along the desired edge ray through the point.

  2. Tailored reflectors for illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, D; Winston, R

    1996-04-01

    We report on tailored reflector design methods that allow the placement of general illumination patterns onto a target plane. The use of a new integral design method based on the edge-ray principle of nonimaging optics gives much more compact reflector shapes by eliminating the need for a gap between the source and the reflector profile. In addition, the reflectivity of the reflector is incorporated as a design parameter. We show the performance of design for constant irradiance on a distant plane, and we show how a leading-edge-ray method may be used to achieve general illumination patterns on nearby targets.

  3. AN ILLUMINATION INVARIANT TEXTURE BASED FACE RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Meena

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Automatic face recognition remains an interesting but challenging computer vision open problem. Poor illumination is considered as one of the major issue, since illumination changes cause large variation in the facial features. To resolve this, illumination normalization preprocessing techniques are employed in this paper to enhance the face recognition rate. The methods such as Histogram Equalization (HE, Gamma Intensity Correction (GIC, Normalization chain and Modified Homomorphic Filtering (MHF are used for preprocessing. Owing to great success, the texture features are commonly used for face recognition. But these features are severely affected by lighting changes. Hence texture based models Local Binary Pattern (LBP, Local Derivative Pattern (LDP, Local Texture Pattern (LTP and Local Tetra Patterns (LTrPs are experimented under different lighting conditions. In this paper, illumination invariant face recognition technique is developed based on the fusion of illumination preprocessing with local texture descriptors. The performance has been evaluated using YALE B and CMU-PIE databases containing more than 1500 images. The results demonstrate that MHF based normalization gives significant improvement in recognition rate for the face images with large illumination conditions.

  4. On play and playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, Dusko

    2013-12-01

    The paper offers a review of the development of the concept of play and playing. The true beginnings of the development of the theories of play are set as late as in the 19th century. It is difficult to define play as such; it may much more easily be defined through its antipode--work. In the beginning, play used to be connected with education; it was not before Freud's theory of psychoanalysis and Piaget's developmental psychology that the importance of play in a child's development began to be explained in more detail. The paper further tackles the role of play in the adult age. Detailed attention is paid to psychodynamic and psychoanalytic authors, in particular D. W. Winnicott and his understanding of playing in the intermediary (transitional) empirical or experiential space. In other words, playing occupies a space and time of its own. The neuroscientific concept of playing is also tackled, in the connection with development as well.

  5. Predicting Ground Illuminance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesniak, Michael V.; Tregoning, Brett D.; Hitchens, Alexandra E.

    2015-01-01

    Our Sun outputs 3.85 x 1026 W of radiation, of which roughly 37% is in the visible band. It is directly responsible for nearly all natural illuminance experienced on Earth's surface, either in the form of direct/refracted sunlight or in reflected light bouncing off the surfaces and/or atmospheres of our Moon and the visible planets. Ground illuminance, defined as the amount of visible light intercepting a unit area of surface (from all incident angles), varies over 7 orders of magnitude from day to night. It is highly dependent on well-modeled factors such as the relative positions of the Sun, Earth, and Moon. It is also dependent on less predictable factors such as local atmospheric conditions and weather.Several models have been proposed to predict ground illuminance, including Brown (1952) and Shapiro (1982, 1987). The Brown model is a set of empirical data collected from observation points around the world that has been reduced to a smooth fit of illuminance against a single variable, solar altitude. It provides limited applicability to the Moon and for cloudy conditions via multiplicative reduction factors. The Shapiro model is a theoretical model that treats the atmosphere as a three layer system of light reflectance and transmittance. It has different sets of reflectance and transmittance coefficients for various cloud types.In this paper we compare the models' predictions to ground illuminance data from an observing run at the White Sands missile range (data was obtained from the United Kingdom's Meteorology Office). Continuous illuminance readings were recorded under various cloud conditions, during both daytime and nighttime hours. We find that under clear skies, the Shapiro model tends to better fit the observations during daytime hours with typical discrepancies under 10%. Under cloudy skies, both models tend to poorly predict ground illuminance. However, the Shapiro model, with typical average daytime discrepancies of 25% or less in many cases

  6. Illuminating Chaucer through Poetry, Manuscript Illuminations, and a Critical Rap Album

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Tom Liam

    2007-01-01

    Drawing connections between Chaucer, Eminem, and social issues, New York City high school teacher Tom Liam Lynch helped students become familiar with "The Canterbury Tales." Students wrote poems of rhymed couplets about today's social and political issues, created illuminated manuscripts, and recorded a rap CD. A book and album were…

  7. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland; Ries, Harald

    1996-01-01

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source 102, a light reflecting surface 108, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line 104 with the reflecting surface 108 defined in terms of the reference line 104 as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line 104, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line 104 to the reflection surface 108 along the desired edge ray through the point.

  8. Illuminance: Computerized simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlow, A

    1991-03-01

    One of the main objectives of a graphics work-station is to create images that are as realistic as possible. This paper reviews and assesses the state-of-the-art in the field of illuminance simulation. The techniques examined are: ray tracing, in which illuminance in a given ambient is calculated in an approximate way by tracing individual rays of light; the 'radiosity' (a term combining surface radiancy and reflectivity) method, based on the calculation of the ambient's thermodynamics and which considers the effects of different surface colours; progressive improvement, in which 'radiosity' is calculated step by step with increasing levels of detail. The Gouraud and Phong methods of representing the effects of shade are also compared.

  9. Lighting system with illuminance control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an illumination control system comprising a plurality of outdoor luminaries and a motorized service vehicle. Each luminaire comprises a controllable light source producing a light illuminance. The motorized service vehicle comprises a light sensor configured...... to detect the light illuminance generated by the controllable light source at the motorized service vehicle. The motorized service vehicle computes light illuminance data based on the detected light illuminance and transmits these to the outdoor luminaire through a wireless communication link or stores...... the light illuminance data on a data recording device of the motorized service vehicle. The outdoor luminaire receives may use the light illuminance data to set or adjust a light illuminance of the controllable light source....

  10. Illumination and radiative cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Shanhui; Raman, Aaswath Pattabhi; Zhu, Linxiao; Rephaeli, Eden

    2018-03-20

    Aspects of the present disclosure are directed to providing and/or controlling electromagnetic radiation. As may be implemented in accordance with one or more embodiments, an apparatus includes a first structure that contains an object, and a second structure that is transparent at solar wavelengths and emissive in the atmospheric electromagnetic radiation transparency window. The second structure operates with the first structure to pass light into the first structure for illuminating the object, and to radiatively cool the object while preserving the object's color.

  11. Parallel hierarchical global illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snell, Quinn O. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1997-10-08

    Solving the global illumination problem is equivalent to determining the intensity of every wavelength of light in all directions at every point in a given scene. The complexity of the problem has led researchers to use approximation methods for solving the problem on serial computers. Rather than using an approximation method, such as backward ray tracing or radiosity, the authors have chosen to solve the Rendering Equation by direct simulation of light transport from the light sources. This paper presents an algorithm that solves the Rendering Equation to any desired accuracy, and can be run in parallel on distributed memory or shared memory computer systems with excellent scaling properties. It appears superior in both speed and physical correctness to recent published methods involving bidirectional ray tracing or hybrid treatments of diffuse and specular surfaces. Like progressive radiosity methods, it dynamically refines the geometry decomposition where required, but does so without the excessive storage requirements for ray histories. The algorithm, called Photon, produces a scene which converges to the global illumination solution. This amounts to a huge task for a 1997-vintage serial computer, but using the power of a parallel supercomputer significantly reduces the time required to generate a solution. Currently, Photon can be run on most parallel environments from a shared memory multiprocessor to a parallel supercomputer, as well as on clusters of heterogeneous workstations.

  12. Split-illumination electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Aizawa, Shinji; Suzuki, Takahiro; Park, Hyun Soon [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Inada, Yoshikatsu [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Matsuda, Tsuyoshi [Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Taniyama, Akira [Corporate Research and Development Laboratories, Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Amagasaki, Hyogo 660-0891 (Japan); Shindo, Daisuke [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Tonomura, Akira [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Graduate University, Onna-son, Okinawa 904-0495 (Japan); Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Hatoyama, Saitama 350-0395 (Japan)

    2012-07-23

    We developed a split-illumination electron holography that uses an electron biprism in the illuminating system and two biprisms (applicable to one biprism) in the imaging system, enabling holographic interference micrographs of regions far from the sample edge to be obtained. Using a condenser biprism, we split an electron wave into two coherent electron waves: one wave is to illuminate an observation area far from the sample edge in the sample plane and the other wave to pass through a vacuum space outside the sample. The split-illumination holography has the potential to greatly expand the breadth of applications of electron holography.

  13. Split-illumination electron holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Aizawa, Shinji; Suzuki, Takahiro; Park, Hyun Soon; Inada, Yoshikatsu; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Taniyama, Akira; Shindo, Daisuke; Tonomura, Akira

    2012-01-01

    We developed a split-illumination electron holography that uses an electron biprism in the illuminating system and two biprisms (applicable to one biprism) in the imaging system, enabling holographic interference micrographs of regions far from the sample edge to be obtained. Using a condenser biprism, we split an electron wave into two coherent electron waves: one wave is to illuminate an observation area far from the sample edge in the sample plane and the other wave to pass through a vacuum space outside the sample. The split-illumination holography has the potential to greatly expand the breadth of applications of electron holography.

  14. Group play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects of the v......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...... of group dynamics, the influence of the fictional game characters and the comparative play experience between the two formats. The results indicate that group dynamics and the relationship between the players and their digital characters, are integral to the quality of the gaming experience in multiplayer...

  15. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    ? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty...

  16. Image illumination enhancement with an objective no-reference measure of illumination assessment based on Gaussian distribution mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Anbarjafari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Illumination problems have been an important concern in many image processing applications. The pattern of the histogram on an image introduces meaningful features; hence within the process of illumination enhancement, it is important not to destroy such information. In this paper we propose a method to enhance image illumination using Gaussian distribution mapping which also keeps the information laid on the pattern of the histogram on the original image. First a Gaussian distribution based on the mean and standard deviation of the input image will be calculated. Simultaneously a Gaussian distribution with the desired mean and standard deviation will be calculated. Then a cumulative distribution function of each of the Gaussian distributions will be calculated and used in order to map the old pixel value onto the new pixel value. Another important issue in the field of illumination enhancement is absence of a quantitative measure for the assessment of the illumination of an image. In this research work, a quantitative measure indicating the illumination state, i.e. contrast level and brightness of an image, is also proposed. The measure utilizes the estimated Gaussian distribution of the input image and the Kullback-Leibler Divergence (KLD between the estimated Gaussian and the desired Gaussian distributions to calculate the quantitative measure. The experimental results show the effectiveness and the reliability of the proposed illumination enhancement technique, as well as the proposed illumination assessment measure over conventional and state-of-the-art techniques.

  17. Biological Effects Of Artificial Illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corth, Richard

    1980-10-01

    We are increasingly being warned of the possible effects of so called "polluted" light, that is light that differs in spectral content from that of sunlight. We should be concerned, we are told, because all animals and plants have evolved under this natural daylight and therefore any difference between that illuminant and the artificial illuminants that are on the market today, is suspect. The usual presentation of the differences between the sunlight and the artificial illuminants are as shown in Figure 1. Here we are shown the spectral power distribution of sunlight and Cool White fluorescent light. The spectral power distributions of each have been normalized to some convenient wavelength so that each can be seen and easily compared on the same figure. But this presentation is misleading for one does not experience artificial illuminants at the same intensity as one experiences sunlight. Sunlight intensities are ordinarily found to be in the 8000 to 10,000 footcandle range whereas artificial illuminants are rarely experienced at intensity levels greater than 100 footcandles. Therefore a representative difference between the two types of illumination conditions is more accurately represented as in Figure 2. Thus if evolutionary adaptations require that humans and other animals be exposed to sunlight to ensure wellbeing, it is clear that one must be exposed to sunlight intensities. It is not feasible to expect that artificially illuminated environments will be lit to the same intensity as sunlight

  18. Analysis of image plane's Illumination in Image-forming System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Lihua; Zeng Yan'an; Zhang Nanyangsheng; Wang Zhiguo; Yin Shiliang

    2011-01-01

    In the detection of optical radiation, the detecting accuracy is affected by optic power distribution of the detector's surface to a large extent. In addition, in the image-forming system, the quality of the image is greatly determined by the uniformity of the image's illumination distribution. However, in the practical optical system, affected by the factors such as field of view, false light and off axis and so on, the distribution of the image's illumination tends to be non uniform, so it is necessary to discuss the image plane's illumination in image-forming systems. In order to analyze the characteristics of the image-forming system at a full range, on the basis of photometry, the formulas to calculate the illumination of the imaging plane have been summarized by the numbers. Moreover, the relationship between the horizontal offset of the light source and the illumination of the image has been discussed in detail. After that, the influence of some key factors such as aperture angle, off-axis distance and horizontal offset on illumination of the image has been brought forward. Through numerical simulation, various theoretical curves of those key factors have been given. The results of the numerical simulation show that it is recommended to aggrandize the diameter of the exit pupil to increase the illumination of the image. The angle of view plays a negative role in the illumination distribution of the image, that is, the uniformity of the illumination distribution can be enhanced by compressing the angle of view. Lastly, it is proved that telecentric optical design is an effective way to advance the uniformity of the illumination distribution.

  19. Illuminating Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Ames Research Center awarded Ciencia, Inc., a Small Business Innovation Research contract to develop the Cell Fluorescence Analysis System (CFAS) to address the size, mass, and power constraints of using fluorescence spectroscopy in the International Space Station's Life Science Research Facility. The system will play an important role in studying biological specimen's long-term adaptation to microgravity. Commercial applications for the technology include diverse markets such as food safety, in situ environmental monitoring, online process analysis, genomics and DNA chips, and non-invasive diagnostics. Ciencia has already sold the system to the private sector for biosensor applications.

  20. Laser sources for object illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, G.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The considerations which formulate the specifications for a laser illuminator are explained, using the example of an underwater object. Depending on the parameters which define the scenario, widely varying laser requirements result.

  1. Predicting daylight illuminance on inclined surfaces using sky luminance data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.H.W.; Lau, C.C.S.; Lam, J.C. [City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Building and Construction

    2005-07-01

    Daylight illuminance, particularly on vertical surfaces, plays a major role in determining and evaluating the daylighting performance of a building. In many parts of the world, however, the basic daylight illuminance data for various vertical planes are not always readily available. The usual method to obtain diffuse illuminance on tilted planes would be based on inclined surface models using data from the horizontal measurements. Alternatively, the diffuse illuminance on a sloping plane can be computed by integrating the luminance distribution of the sky 'seen' by the plane. This paper presents an approach to estimate the vertical outdoor illuminance from sky luminance data and solar geometry. Sky luminance data recorded from January 1999 to December 2001 in Hong Kong and generated by two well-known sky luminance models (Kittler and Perez) were used to compute the outdoor illuminance for the four principal vertical planes (N, E, S and W). The performance of this approach was evaluated against data measured in the same period. Statistical analysis indicated that using sky luminance distributions to predict outdoor illuminance can give reasonably good agreement with measured data for all vertical surfaces. The findings provide an accurate alternative to determine the amount of daylight on vertical as well as other inclined surfaces when sky luminance data are available. (author)

  2. Playful Membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels; Pors, Justine Grønbæk

    2014-01-01

    This article studies the implications of current attempts by organizations to adapt to a world of constant change by introducing the notion of playful organizational membership. To this end we conduct a brief semantic history of organizational play and argue that when organizations play, employees...... are expected to engage in playful exploration of alternative selves. Drawing on Niklas Luhmann's theory of time and decision-making and Gregory Bateson's theory of play, the article analyses three empirical examples of how games play with conceptions of time. We explore how games represent an organizational...

  3. Play, Playfulness, Creativity and Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bateson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Play, as defined by biologists and psychologists, is probably heterogeneous. On the other hand, playfulness may be a unitary motivational state. Playful play as opposed to activities that merge into aggression is characterized by positive mood, intrinsic motivation, occurring in a protected context and easily disrupted by stress. Playful play is a good measure of positive welfare. It can occupy a substantial part of the waking-life of a young mammal or bird. Numerous functions for play have been proposed and they are by no means mutually exclusive, but some evidence indicates that those individual animals that play most are most likely to survive and reproduce. The link of playful play to creativity and hence to innovation in humans is strong. Considerable evidence suggests that coming up with new ideas requires a different mindset from usefully implementing a new idea.

  4. Ultra Deep Wave Equation Imaging and Illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander M. Popovici; Sergey Fomel; Paul Sava; Sean Crawley; Yining Li; Cristian Lupascu

    2006-09-30

    In this project we developed and tested a novel technology, designed to enhance seismic resolution and imaging of ultra-deep complex geologic structures by using state-of-the-art wave-equation depth migration and wave-equation velocity model building technology for deeper data penetration and recovery, steeper dip and ultra-deep structure imaging, accurate velocity estimation for imaging and pore pressure prediction and accurate illumination and amplitude processing for extending the AVO prediction window. Ultra-deep wave-equation imaging provides greater resolution and accuracy under complex geologic structures where energy multipathing occurs, than what can be accomplished today with standard imaging technology. The objective of the research effort was to examine the feasibility of imaging ultra-deep structures onshore and offshore, by using (1) wave-equation migration, (2) angle-gathers velocity model building, and (3) wave-equation illumination and amplitude compensation. The effort consisted of answering critical technical questions that determine the feasibility of the proposed methodology, testing the theory on synthetic data, and finally applying the technology for imaging ultra-deep real data. Some of the questions answered by this research addressed: (1) the handling of true amplitudes in the downward continuation and imaging algorithm and the preservation of the amplitude with offset or amplitude with angle information required for AVO studies, (2) the effect of several imaging conditions on amplitudes, (3) non-elastic attenuation and approaches for recovering the amplitude and frequency, (4) the effect of aperture and illumination on imaging steep dips and on discriminating the velocities in the ultra-deep structures. All these effects were incorporated in the final imaging step of a real data set acquired specifically to address ultra-deep imaging issues, with large offsets (12,500 m) and long recording time (20 s).

  5. Nonthermal Effects of Photon Illumination on Surface Diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditchfield, R.; Llera-Rodriguez, D.; Seebauer, E.G.

    1998-01-01

    Nonthermal influences of photon illumination on surface diffusion at high temperatures have been measured experimentally for the first time. Activation energies and preexponential factors for diffusion of germanium and indium on silicon change substantially in response to illumination by photons having energies greater than the substrate band gap. Results depend on doping type. Ionization of surface vacancies by photogenerated charge carriers seems to play a key role. The results have significant implications for aspects of microelectronics fabrication governed by surface mobility. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  6. Laser illuminated flat panel display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    A 10 inch laser illuminated flat panel Planar Optic Display (POD) screen has been constructed and tested. This POD screen technology is an entirely new concept in display technology. Although the initial display is flat and made of glass, this technology lends itself to applications where a plastic display might be wrapped around the viewer. The display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optical waveguides where each glass waveguide represents a vertical line of resolution. A black cladding layer, having a lower index of refraction, is placed between each waveguide layer. Since the cladding makes the screen surface black, the contrast is high. The prototype display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately I inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  7. Playful Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel

    these practices, which compose the taxonomy of tablet play. My contribution lies in identifying and proposing a series of theoretical concepts that complement recent theories related to play and digital literacy studies. The data collected through observations informed some noteworthy aspects, including how...... with tablets’ physical and digital affordances shape children’s digital play. This thesis presents how young children’s current practices when playing with tablets inform digital experiences in Denmark and Japan. Through an interdisciplinary lens and a grounded theory approach, I have identified and mapped...... vocabulary in children’s digital play experiences. These early digital experiences set the rules for the playgrounds and assert digital tablets as twenty-first-century toys, shaping young children’s playful literacy....

  8. Tolerancing a lens for LED uniform illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jieun; Sasian, Jose

    2017-08-01

    A method to evaluate tolerance sensitivities for lenses used to produce uniform illumination is presented. Closed form surfaces are used to define optical surfaces and relative illumination is calculated from light etendue considerations.

  9. Playful Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The video Playful Interaction describes a future architectural office, and envisions ideas and concepts for playful interactions between people, materials and appliances in a pervasive and augmented working environment. The video both describes existing developments, technologies and designs...... as well as ideas not yet implemented such as playful modes of interaction with an augmented ball. Playful Interaction has been used as a hybrid of a vision video and a video prototype (1). Externally the video has been used to visualising our new ideas, and internally the video has also worked to inspire...

  10. Mediatized play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    Children’s play must nowadays be understood as a mediatized field in society and culture. Media – understood in a very broad sense - holds severe explanatory power in describing and understanding the practice of play, since play happens both with, through and inspired by media of different sorts........ In this presentation the case of ‘playing soccer’ will be outlined through its different mediated manifestations, including soccer games and programs on TV, computer games, magazines, books, YouTube videos and soccer trading cards....

  11. Play Practices and Play Moods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop a view of play as a relation between play practices and play moods based on an empirical study of children's everyday life and by using Bateson's term of ‘framing’ [(1955/2001). In Steps to an ecology of mind (pp. 75–80). Chicago: University of Chicago Press......], Schmidt's notion of ‘commonness’ [(2005). Om respekten. København: Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitets Forlag; (2011). On respect. Copenhagen: Danish School of Education University Press] and Heidegger's term ‘mood’ [(1938/1996). Time and being. Cornwall: Wiley-Blackwell.]. Play mood is a state of being...... in which we are open and ready, both to others and their production of meaning and to new opportunities for producing meaning. This play mood is created when we engage with the world during play practices. The article points out four types of play moods – devotion, intensity, tension and euphorica – which...

  12. Illumination influences working memory: an EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Young; Min, Byoung-Kyong; Jung, Young-Chul; Pak, Hyensou; Jeong, Yeon-Hong; Kim, Eosu

    2013-09-05

    Illumination conditions appear to influence working efficacy in everyday life. In the present study, we obtained electroencephalogram (EEG) correlates of working-memory load, and investigated how these waveforms are modulated by illumination conditions. We hypothesized that illumination conditions may affect cognitive performance. We designed an EEG study to monitor and record participants' EEG during the Sternberg working memory task under four different illumination conditions. Illumination conditions were generated with a factorial design of two color-temperatures (3000 and 7100 K) by two illuminance levels (150 and 700 lx). During a working memory task, we observed that high illuminance led to significantly lower frontal EEG theta activity than did low illuminance. These differences persisted despite no significant difference in task performance between illumination conditions. We found that the latency of an early event-related potential component, such as N1, was significantly modulated by the illumination condition. The fact that the illumination condition affects brain activity but not behavioral performance suggests that the lighting conditions used in the present study did not influence the performance stage of behavioral processing. Nevertheless, our findings provide objective evidence that illumination conditions modulate brain activity. Further studies are necessary to refine the optimal lighting parameters for facilitating working memory. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Playing Shakespeare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashian, Kathleen Ryniker

    1993-01-01

    Describes a yearlong project at 12 Catholic middle schools in the Diocese of Arlington, Virginia, to incorporate the plays of William Shakespeare into the curriculum. Teachers attended university lectures and directed students in performances of the plays. Concludes that Shakespeare can be understood and enjoyed by middle school students. (BCY)

  14. Automatic residue removal for high-NA extreme illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, James; Nam, Byong-Sub; Jeong, Joo-Hong; Kong, Dong-Ho; Nam, Byung-Ho; Yim, Dong Gyu

    2007-10-01

    An epidemic for smaller node has been that, as the device architecture shrinks, lithography process requires high Numerical Aperture (NA), and extreme illumination system. This, in turn, creates many lithography problems such as low lithography process margin (Depth of Focus, Exposure Latitude), unstable Critical Dimension (CD) uniformity and restricted guideline for device design rule and so on. Especially for high NA, extreme illumination such as immersion illumination systems, above all the related problems, restricted design rule due to forbidden pitch is critical and crucial issue. This forbidden pitch is composed of numerous optical effects but majority of these forbidden pitch compose of photo resist residue and these residue must be removed to relieve some room for already tight design rule. In this study, we propose automated algorithm to remove photo resist residue due to high NA and extreme illumination condition. This algorithm automatically self assembles assist patterns based on the original design layout, therefore insuring the safety and simplicity of the generated assist pattern to the original design and removes any resist residue created by extreme illumination condition. Also we tested our automated algorithm on full chip FLASH memory device and showed the residue removal effect by using commercial verification tools as well as on actual test wafer.

  15. Quantum Illumination with Noiseless Linear Amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Sheng-Li; Wang -Kun; Guo Jian-Sheng; Shi Jian-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum illumination, that is, quantum target detection, is to detect the potential target with two-mode quantum entangled state. For a given transmitted energy, the quantum illumination can achieve a target-detection probability of error much lower than the illumination scheme without entanglement. We investigate the usefulness of noiseless linear amplification (NLA) for quantum illumination. Our result shows that NLA can help to substantially reduce the number of quantum entangled states collected for joint measurement of multi-copy quantum state. Our analysis on the NLA-assisted scheme could help to develop more efficient schemes for quantum illumination. (paper)

  16. Diffraction analysis of customized illumination technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chang-Moon; Kim, Seo-Min; Eom, Tae-Seung; Moon, Seung Chan; Shin, Ki S.

    2004-05-01

    Various enhancement techniques such as alternating PSM, chrome-less phase lithography, double exposure, etc. have been considered as driving forces to lead the production k1 factor towards below 0.35. Among them, a layer specific optimization of illumination mode, so-called customized illumination technique receives deep attentions from lithographers recently. A new approach for illumination customization based on diffraction spectrum analysis is suggested in this paper. Illumination pupil is divided into various diffraction domains by comparing the similarity of the confined diffraction spectrum. Singular imaging property of individual diffraction domain makes it easier to build and understand the customized illumination shape. By comparing the goodness of image in each domain, it was possible to achieve the customized shape of illumination. With the help from this technique, it was found that the layout change would not gives the change in the shape of customized illumination mode.

  17. An assessment of the role mass market demand response could play in contributing to the management of variable generation integration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappers, Peter; Mills, Andrew; Goldman, Charles; Wiser, Ryan; Eto, Joseph H.

    2012-01-01

    The penetration of wind and solar generating resources is expected to dramatically increase in the United States over the coming years. It is widely understood that large scale deployment of these types of renewable energy sources (e.g., wind, solar) that have variable and less predictable production characteristics than traditional thermal resources poses integration challenges for bulk power system operators. At present, bulk power system operators primarily utilize strategies that rely on existing thermal generation resources and improved wind and solar energy production forecasts to manage this uncertainty; a host of additional options are also envisioned for the near future including demand response (DR). There are well-established bodies of research that examine variable generation integration issues as well as demand response potential; but, the existing literature that provides a comparative assessment of the two neither treats this topic comprehensively nor in a highly integrated fashion. Thus, this paper seeks to address these missing pieces by considering the full range of opportunities and challenges for mass market DR rates and programs to support integration of variable renewable generation. - Highlights: ► Mass market demand response can help manage the integration of renewable resources. ► To be more effective, retail electricity rates must apply contemporaneous prices. ► Demand response programs will require shorter duration and more frequent events. ► Mass market customers will likely need to accept control technology. ► Market rules and regulatory policies must change to expand demand response's role.

  18. Understanding the role played by parents, culture and the school curriculum in socializing young women on sexual health issues in rural South African communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpondo, Feziwe; Schaafsma, Dilana; van den Borne, Bart; Reddy, Priscilla S.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: the decline in South Africa’s HIV infection rates especially among young women is encouraging. However, studies show that the 15–24-year-old cohort remains vulnerable. As they still report early sexual debut, being involved in sexual partnerships with older men as well as having unprotected sex. These risky sexual behaviors may be linked to factors such as the parent–child sexual health communication and the timing of the first talk. The quality of sexual health information received in school may also be important for enhancing healthier sexual behaviors. Aims and Objectives: to investigate the what, when and how sexual health communication occurs in rural South African families and to determine whether such communication patterns have changed over time. We also wanted to get an in-depth understanding of the roles played by culture, sexual health education and peers in the socialization of young women on sexual matters. Methods: a purposive sample of (n = 55) women who were 18–35 years old was selected and interviewed in focus group discussions (FGDs). Results: the FGD findings show that parent–child communication on sexual matters in rural communities is limited to messages that warn against pregnancy. It is also laden with cultural idioms that are not well explained. The school sexual health curriculum also fails to adequately equip adolescents to make informed decisions regarding sexual matters. All this seems to leave room for reception of misguided information from peers. Conclusions: findings highlight a need for designing interventions that can create awareness for parents on the current developmental needs and sexual behavior of adolescents. For adolescents programs would need to focus on providing skills on personal responsibility, and how to change behavior to enhance sexual health. PMID:29621922

  19. Postphenomenological Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammar, Emil

    This paper aims to identify an understanding of digital games in virtual environments by using Don Ihde’s (1990) postphenomenological approach to how technology mediates the world to human beings in conjunction with Hans-Georg Gadamer’s (1993) notion of play . Through this tentatively proposed am...... amalgamation of theories I point towards an alternative understanding of the relationship between play and game as not only dialectic, but also as socially and ethically relevant qua the design and implementation of the game as technology....

  20. Playful Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Justine Grønbæk; Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    intact. In its final sections, the article discusses what happens to conditions of decision-making when organisations do not just see undecidability as a given condition, but as a limited resource indispensable for change and renewal. The article advances discussions of organisational play by exploring...

  1. Clay Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Liz; Steffan, Dana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to use clay as a potential material for young children to explore. As teachers, the authors find that their dialogue about the potential of clay as a learning medium raises many questions: (1) What makes clay so enticing? (2) Why are teachers noticing different play and conversation around the clay table as compared to…

  2. Sweet Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Shuk-kwan S.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article features Sweet play math, a "math by the month" activity that involves decorating and making sugar cubes. Teachers may want to substitute straws, paper squares, alphabet blocks, or such commercially made manipulatives as Unifix[R] cubes for the real sweets. Given no allergy concerns, teachers and students alike would enjoy some sweet…

  3. Playing Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Juan E.

    The acceptance of animation technologies is increasing. Video games, such as Sony PlayStation (SONY, 2002), have become part of the culture for young people from kindergarten through undergraduate school. Animation technologies have been implemented into educational systems in the form of animated pedagogical agents (Johnson, 2000). The research…

  4. Aesthetic Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jytte Susanne

    2012-01-01

    The present article explores the role of music-related artefacts and technologies in children’s lives. More specifically, it analyzes how four 10- to 11-year old girls use CDs and DVD games in their music-play activities and which developmental themes and potentials may accrue from such activitie...

  5. Water Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Jane E.; Smith, Brandy A.

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of activities to develop sensory awareness, spatial thinking, and physical dexterity, operationalized through hands-on science lessons such as water play, have long been part of early childhood education. This practical article addresses Next Generation Science Standards K-2 ETS1-3 and K-2 ETS1-2 by having four-year-old…

  6. Real time global illumination using the GPU

    OpenAIRE

    Bengtsson, Morgan

    2010-01-01

    Global illumination is an important factor when striving for photo realism in computergraphics. This thesis describes why this is the case, and why global illumination is considered acomplex problem to solve. The problem becomes even more demanding when considering realtime purposes. Resent research has proven it possible to produce global illumination in realtime. Therefore the subject of this thesis is to compare and evaluate a number of those methods. An implementation is presented based o...

  7. Playing facilitator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmøller, Ellen; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    event called InnoEvent, addressed to students in the fields of multimedia and healthcare. Being interested in studying games and role-play as tools to support independent learning in the field of design thinking and team-building, following Dewey’s (1938) theory of learning experience, we ran two...... workshops based on two classic role-play games: The Silent Game (Brandt, 2006) and The Six Thinking Hats (de Bono, 1985). These games were created to support students in learning design thinking in groups and are assigned positive values in literature, hence we expected a smooth process. However, our...... experience was rather characterized by conflictual negotiations with the students. Data from our observations and from interviews with group representatives show that the students took a discontinuous learning path, characterised by a false start, failure, and a thorough reconsideration of their work...

  8. The possible ocular hazards of LED dental illumination applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatacos, Catherine; Harrison, Janet L

    2013-01-01

    The use of high-intensity illumination via Light-Emitting Diode (LED) headlamps is gaining in popularity with dentists and student dentists. Practitioners are using LED headlamps together with magnifying loupes, overhead LED illumination and fiber-optic dental handpieces for long periods of time. Although most manufacturers of these LED illuminators advertise that their devices emit "white" light, these still consist of two spectral bands--the blue spectral band, with its peak at 445 nm, and the green with its peak at 555 nm. While manufacturers suggest that their devices emit "white" light, spectral components of LED lights from different companies are significantly different. Dental headlamp manufacturers strive to create a white LED, and they advertise that this type of light emitted from their product offers bright white-light illumination. However, the manufacturing of a white LED light is done through selection of a white LED-type based on the peak blue strength in combination with the green peak strength and thus creating a beam-forming optic, which determines the beam quality. Some LED illuminators have a strong blue-light component versus the green-light component. Blue-light is highly energized and is close in the color spectrum to ultraviolet-light. The hazards of retinal damage with the use of high-intensity blue-lights has been well-documented. There is limited research regarding the possible ocular hazards of usage of high-intensity illuminating LED devices. Furthermore, the authors have found little research, standards, or guidelines examining the possible safety issues regarding the unique dental practice setting consisting of the combined use of LED illumination systems. Another unexamined component is the effect of high-intensity light reflective glare and magnification back to the practitioner's eyes due to the use of water during dental procedures. Based on the result of Dr. Janet Harrison's observations of beginning dental students in a

  9. Playing Possum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Euli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our society is drenched in the catastrophe; where the growth of financial crisis, environmental cataclysm and militarization represents its gaudiest and mortifying phenomena. Humans struggle with depression, sense of impotence, anguish towards a future considered a threat.  A possibility to keep us alive can be represented by the enhancement of our ability in ‘playing Possum’, an exercise of desisting and renitence: to firmly say ‘no’. To say no to a world that proposes just one way of being and living free, that imposes as the only unavoidable possible destiny.

  10. Playful Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv; Eriksson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the design of future services for children in Danish public libraries is discussed, in the light of new challenges and opportunities in relation to new media and technologies. The Danish government has over the last few years initiated and described a range of initiatives regarding...... in the library, the changing role of the librarians and the library space. We argue that intertwining traditional library services with new media forms and engaging play is the core challenge for future design in physical public libraries, but also that it is through new media and technology that new...

  11. Play Therapy in School Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trice-Black, Shannon; Bailey, Carrie Lynn; Kiper Riechel, Morgan E.

    2013-01-01

    Play therapy is an empirically supported intervention used to address a number of developmental issues faced in childhood. Through the natural language of play, children and adolescents communicate feelings, thoughts, and experiences. Schools provide an ideal setting for play therapy in many ways; however, several challenges exist in implementing…

  12. Illumination correction in psoriasis lesions images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2003-01-01

    An approach to automatically correct illumination problems in dermatological images is presented. The illumination function is estimated after combining the thematic map indicating skin-produced by an automated classification scheme- with the dermatological image data. The user is only required t...

  13. Weld pool visual sensing without external illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jinchao; Fan, Zhun; Olsen, Soren Ingvor

    2011-01-01

    Visual sensing in arc welding has become more and more important, but still remains challenging because of the harsh environment with extremely strong illumination from the arc. This paper presents a low-cost camera-based sensor system, without using external Illumination, but nevertheless able...

  14. Anisotropic Density Estimation in Global Illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Density estimation employed in multi-pass global illumination algorithms gives cause to a trade-off problem between bias and noise. The problem is seen most evident as blurring of strong illumination features. This thesis addresses the problem, presenting four methods that reduce both noise...

  15. Effect of illumination on photoluminescence properties of porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddaf, M.; Hamadeh, H.

    2008-11-01

    Porous silicon (PS) layers were formed by photo-electrochemical etching of both p-type and n-type single crystal wafers in HF based solution. During the etching process, the silicon wafer was illuminated by a halogen lamp light guided by an optical fiber through a monochromator or diode lasers at different power density and wavelengths (480,533,580 and 635 nm). The optical and structural properties of the prepared PS samples have been investigated by using temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, contact angle (CA) measurements, optical microscope and atomic force microscope (AFM). Beside the strong red-yellow PL band, a blue PL band has been observed only in the PS samples formed under the illumination with low power and short wavelengths (480-580 nm) light. In the near infrared (IR) spectral range, a new PL band at 850 nm was observed in p-type PS samples, which prepared under darkness or illumination with 635 nm of low power light. Temperature dependent PL measurements showed that, in contrast to the main IR PL band at around 1100 nm, the intensity of this new band increases on increasing the temperature. These changes in the PL properties was correlated with the illumination induced-structural and morphological modifications in the PS skeleton. In particular, the FTIR analysis showed that the chemical groups and bonds constituting the PS skeleton, such as, SiH, SiO bonds and silanol SiOH group play key role in deciding the PL emission intensity and blue shift. The study proved that the illumination parameters during the photo-electrochemical etching process can be utilized for tailoring a porous layer with novel optical and structural properties. (Authors)

  16. Effect of illumination on photoluminescence properties of porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddaf, M.; Hamadeh, H.

    2009-01-01

    Porous silicon (PS) layers were formed by photo-electrochemical etching of both p-type and n-type single crystal wafers in HF based solution. During the etching process, the silicon wafer was illuminated by a halogen lamp light guided by an optical fiber through a monochromator or diode lasers at different power density and wavelengths (480,533,580 and 635 nm). The optical and structural properties of the prepared PS samples have been investigated by using temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, contact angle (CA) measurements, optical microscope and atomic force microscope (AFM). Beside the strong red-yellow PL band, a blue PL band has been observed only in the PS samples formed under the illumination with low power and short wavelengths (480-580 nm) light. In the near infrared (IR) spectral range, a new PL band at 850 nm was observed in p-type PS samples, which prepared under darkness or illumination with 635 nm of low power light. Temperature dependent PL measurements showed that, in contrast to the main IR PL band at around 1100 nm, the intensity of this new band increases on increasing the temperature. These changes in the PL properties was correlated with the illumination induced-structural and morphological modifications in the PS skeleton. In particular, the FTIR analysis showed that the chemical groups and bonds constituting the PS skeleton, such as, SiH, SiO bonds and silanol SiOH group play key role in deciding the PL emission intensity and blue shift. The study proved that the illumination parameters during the photo-electrochemical etching process can be utilized for tailoring a porous layer with novel optical and structural properties. (Authors)

  17. Chromatic illumination discrimination ability reveals that human colour constancy is optimised for blue daylight illuminations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Pearce

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of colour constancy in human visual perception keeps surface colours constant, despite changes in their reflected light due to changing illumination. Although colour constancy has evolved under a constrained subset of illuminations, it is unknown whether its underlying mechanisms, thought to involve multiple components from retina to cortex, are optimised for particular environmental variations. Here we demonstrate a new method for investigating colour constancy using illumination matching in real scenes which, unlike previous methods using surface matching and simulated scenes, allows testing of multiple, real illuminations. We use real scenes consisting of solid familiar or unfamiliar objects against uniform or variegated backgrounds and compare discrimination performance for typical illuminations from the daylight chromaticity locus (approximately blue-yellow and atypical spectra from an orthogonal locus (approximately red-green, at correlated colour temperature 6700 K, all produced in real time by a 10-channel LED illuminator. We find that discrimination of illumination changes is poorer along the daylight locus than the atypical locus, and is poorest particularly for bluer illumination changes, demonstrating conversely that surface colour constancy is best for blue daylight illuminations. Illumination discrimination is also enhanced, and therefore colour constancy diminished, for uniform backgrounds, irrespective of the object type. These results are not explained by statistical properties of the scene signal changes at the retinal level. We conclude that high-level mechanisms of colour constancy are biased for the blue daylight illuminations and variegated backgrounds to which the human visual system has typically been exposed.

  18. Optical design applications for enhanced illumination performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilray, Carl; Lewin, Ian

    1995-08-01

    Nonimaging optical design techniques have been applied in the illumination industry for many years. Recently however, powerful software has been developed which allows accurate simulation and optimization of illumination devices. Wide experience has been obtained in using such design techniques for practical situations. These include automotive lighting where safety is of greatest importance, commercial lighting systems designed for energy efficiency, and numerous specialized applications. This presentation will discuss the performance requirements of a variety of illumination devices. It will further cover design methodology and present a variety of examples of practical applications for enhanced system performance.

  19. Iterative Adaptive Sampling For Accurate Direct Illumination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donikian, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This thesis introduces a new multipass algorithm, Iterative Adaptive Sampling, for efficiently computing the direct illumination in scenes with many lights, including area lights that cause realistic soft shadows...

  20. Catalyzed reactions at illuminated semiconductor interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrighton, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Many desirable minority carrier chemical redox processes are too slow to compete with e - -h + recombination at illuminated semiconductor/liquid electrolyte junction interfaces. Reductions of H 2 O to H 2 or CO 2 to compounds having C--H bonds are too slow to compete with e - -h + recombination at illuminated p-type semiconductors, for example. Approaches to improve the rate of the desired processes involving surface modification techniques are described. Photoanodes are plagued by the additional problem of oxidative decomposition under illumination with > or =E/sub g/ illumination. The photo-oxidation of Cl - , Br - , and H 2 O is considered to illustrate the concepts involved. Proof of concept experiments establish that catalysis can be effective in dramatically improving direct solar fuel production; efficiencies of >10% have been demonstrated

  1. Automated Field-of-View, Illumination, and Recognition Algorithm Design of a Vision System for Pick-and-Place Considering Colour Information in Illumination and Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yibing; Ogata, Taiki; Ueyama, Tsuyoshi; Takada, Toshiyuki; Ota, Jun

    2018-05-22

    Machine vision is playing an increasingly important role in industrial applications, and the automated design of image recognition systems has been a subject of intense research. This study has proposed a system for automatically designing the field-of-view (FOV) of a camera, the illumination strength and the parameters in a recognition algorithm. We formulated the design problem as an optimisation problem and used an experiment based on a hierarchical algorithm to solve it. The evaluation experiments using translucent plastics objects showed that the use of the proposed system resulted in an effective solution with a wide FOV, recognition of all objects and 0.32 mm and 0.4° maximal positional and angular errors when all the RGB (red, green and blue) for illumination and R channel image for recognition were used. Though all the RGB illumination and grey scale images also provided recognition of all the objects, only a narrow FOV was selected. Moreover, full recognition was not achieved by using only G illumination and a grey-scale image. The results showed that the proposed method can automatically design the FOV, illumination and parameters in the recognition algorithm and that tuning all the RGB illumination is desirable even when single-channel or grey-scale images are used for recognition.

  2. Spiritual Art: A Study of Illuminated Drawings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Kateb

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Illumination can be seen as a collection of exquisite and novel designs that painters and illumination-workers use to make religious, scientific, cultural, historical, and other collections of work beautiful. The professionals of illumination use these techniques in books to beautifully virtualize the golden pages of the eternal literature and the religious texts of their homeland. In this way, the sides and margins of the pages are decorated with designs of Islimi (arabesque branches, stems, flowers, and Cathay (Khataei leaves. Illuminations like paintings have various schools and periods, such as the Seljuk, Bukhara, Timurid, Safavid, Qajar schools, with further branches within each school. The illuminations of different periods represent the states and spirits of those eras. However, the illustrated paintings have been performed in the primary state in each school and era with some minor differences in colors and designs, and it can be said that the basis of the illustrated designs are three geometric shapes of the square, circle and triangle, and the combination of these three shapes. In this article, we try to study illumination drawings in terms of the spiritual dimension and its effect on the soul and psych. Furthermore; we will study the spiritual nature of the motifs in order to achieve a deeper understanding of the spirit of Islamic art.

  3. Surface color perception under two illuminants: the second illuminant reduces color constancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Joong Nam; Shevell, Steven K.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates color perception in a scene with two different illuminants. The two illuminants, in opposite corners, simultaneously shine on a (simulated) scene with an opaque dividing wall, which controls how much of the scene is illuminated by each source. In the first experiment, the height of the dividing wall was varied. This changed the amount of each illuminant reaching objects on the opposite side of the wall. Results showed that the degree of color constancy decreased when a region on one side of the wall had cues to both illuminants, suggesting that cues from the second illuminant are detrimental to color constancy. In a later experiment, color constancy was found to improve when the specular highlight cues from the second illuminant were altered to be consistent with the first illuminant. This corroborates the influence of specular highlights in surface color perception, and suggests that the reduced color constancy in the first experiment is due to the inconsistent, though physically correct, cues from the two illuminants.

  4. Illumination compensation in ground based hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Alexander; Underwood, James

    2017-07-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has emerged as an important tool for analysing vegetation data in agricultural applications. Recently, low altitude and ground based hyperspectral imaging solutions have come to the fore, providing very high resolution data for mapping and studying large areas of crops in detail. However, these platforms introduce a unique set of challenges that need to be overcome to ensure consistent, accurate and timely acquisition of data. One particular problem is dealing with changes in environmental illumination while operating with natural light under cloud cover, which can have considerable effects on spectral shape. In the past this has been commonly achieved by imaging known reference targets at the time of data acquisition, direct measurement of irradiance, or atmospheric modelling. While capturing a reference panel continuously or very frequently allows accurate compensation for illumination changes, this is often not practical with ground based platforms, and impossible in aerial applications. This paper examines the use of an autonomous unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) to gather high resolution hyperspectral imaging data of crops under natural illumination. A process of illumination compensation is performed to extract the inherent reflectance properties of the crops, despite variable illumination. This work adapts a previously developed subspace model approach to reflectance and illumination recovery. Though tested on a ground vehicle in this paper, it is applicable to low altitude unmanned aerial hyperspectral imagery also. The method uses occasional observations of reference panel training data from within the same or other datasets, which enables a practical field protocol that minimises in-field manual labour. This paper tests the new approach, comparing it against traditional methods. Several illumination compensation protocols for high volume ground based data collection are presented based on the results. The findings in this paper are

  5. Vision Systems Illuminate Industrial Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    When NASA designs a spacecraft to undertake a new mission, innovation does not stop after the design phase. In many cases, these spacecraft are firsts of their kind, requiring not only remarkable imagination and expertise in their conception but new technologies and methods for their manufacture. In the realm of manufacturing, NASA has from necessity worked on the cutting-edge, seeking new techniques and materials for creating unprecedented structures, as well as capabilities for reducing the cost and increasing the efficiency of existing manufacturing technologies. From friction stir welding enhancements (Spinoff 2009) to thermoset composites (Spinoff 2011), NASA s innovations in manufacturing have often transferred to the public in ways that enable the expansion of the Nation s industrial productivity. NASA has long pursued ways of improving upon and ensuring quality results from manufacturing processes ranging from arc welding to thermal coating applications. But many of these processes generate blinding light (hence the need for special eyewear during welding) that obscures the process while it is happening, making it difficult to monitor and evaluate. In the 1980s, NASA partnered with a company to develop technology to address this issue. Today, that collaboration has spawned multiple commercial products that not only support effective manufacturing for private industry but also may support NASA in the use of an exciting, rapidly growing field of manufacturing ideal for long-duration space missions.

  6. Realtime global illumination using compressed pre-computed indirect illumination textures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahnsen, Chris; Martin dit Neuville, Antoine; Pedersen, Casper

    2012-01-01

    and added to the direct illumination to produce the total illumination. Depending on the type of image produced, the algorithm allows a camera to move, and even objects to be added or modified at runtime to some extent. Finally, we will see that the amount of data to store and process can also be reduced...

  7. Content adaptive illumination for Fourier ptychography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Liheng; Suo, Jinli; Situ, Guohai; Zheng, Guoan; Chen, Feng; Dai, Qionghai

    2014-12-01

    Fourier ptychography (FP) is a recently reported technique, for large field-of-view and high-resolution imaging. Specifically, FP captures a set of low-resolution images, under angularly varying illuminations, and stitches them together in the Fourier domain. One of FP's main disadvantages is its long capturing process, due to the requisite large number of incident illumination angles. In this Letter, utilizing the sparsity of natural images in the Fourier domain, we propose a highly efficient method, termed adaptive Fourier ptychography (AFP), which applies content adaptive illumination for FP, to capture the most informative parts of the scene's spatial spectrum. We validate the effectiveness and efficiency of the reported framework, with both simulated and real experiments. Results show that the proposed AFP could shorten the acquisition time of conventional FP, by around 30%-60%.

  8. Dynamic Control Based Photovoltaic Illuminating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chengkai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart LED illumination system can use the power from whether the photovoltaic cell or the power grid automatically based on the SOC (State Of Charge of the photovoltaic cell. This paper proposes a feedback control of the photovoltaic cells and a dynamic control strategy for the Energy system. The dynamic control strategy is used to determine the switching state of the photovoltaic cell based on the illumination load in the past one hour and the battery capacity. These controls are manifested by experimental prototype that the control scheme is correct and effective.

  9. Illumination engineering design with nonimaging optics

    CERN Document Server

    Koshel, R John

    2012-01-01

    This book brings together experts in the field who present material on a number of important and growing topics including lighting, displays, solar concentrators. The first chapter provides an overview of the field of nonimagin and illumination optics. Included in this chapter are terminology, units, definitions, and descriptions of the optical components used in illumination systems. The next two chapters provide material within the theoretical domain, including etendue, etendue squeezing, and the skew invariant. The remaining chapters focus on growing applications. This entire field of

  10. Public illumination manual; Manual de iluminacao publica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This work aims to guide in the correct choice and usage of the adequate public illumination equipment. It also aims to help the public authorities in terms of the best economical and technical choice, as well as the adequate maintenance of the equipment in order to obtain the most efficiency and safety with minimum costs 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Measurement of illumination exposure in postpartum women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Martin T

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low levels of light exposure at critical times are thought to cause seasonal affective disorder. Investigators, in studies demonstrating the usefulness of bright light therapy, also have implicated light's role in non-seasonal depression. The precise cause of postpartum depression has not been delineated, but it seemed possible that new mothers would spend reduced time in daylight. The goal of this study was to examine the levels of illumination experienced by postpartum mothers and to discover any relationship between light exposure and mood levels experienced during the postpartum period. Methods Fifteen postpartum women, who did not have any baseline indication of depression, wore a wrist device (Actillume for 72 hours to measure their exposure to light. At the end of the recording period, they completed a self-reported measure of mood. The mean light exposure of these postpartum women (expressed as the 24-hour average logarithm of illumination in lux was compared with that of a representative sample of women of comparable age, residence, and seasonal months of recording. Mood levels were then rank-ordered and tested for correlation with light exposure levels. Results There was no significant difference between the amount of light [log10lux] experienced by postpartum (1.01 SD 0.236 and control women (1.06 SD 0.285. Mood was not correlated with illumination in the postpartum sample. Conclusions Postpartum women in San Diego did not receive reduced light, nor was low mood related to low illumination.

  12. Lighting design for globally illuminated volume rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yubo; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2013-12-01

    With the evolution of graphics hardware, high quality global illumination becomes available for real-time volume rendering. Compared to local illumination, global illumination can produce realistic shading effects which are closer to real world scenes, and has proven useful for enhancing volume data visualization to enable better depth and shape perception. However, setting up optimal lighting could be a nontrivial task for average users. There were lighting design works for volume visualization but they did not consider global light transportation. In this paper, we present a lighting design method for volume visualization employing global illumination. The resulting system takes into account view and transfer-function dependent content of the volume data to automatically generate an optimized three-point lighting environment. Our method fully exploits the back light which is not used by previous volume visualization systems. By also including global shadow and multiple scattering, our lighting system can effectively enhance the depth and shape perception of volumetric features of interest. In addition, we propose an automatic tone mapping operator which recovers visual details from overexposed areas while maintaining sufficient contrast in the dark areas. We show that our method is effective for visualizing volume datasets with complex structures. The structural information is more clearly and correctly presented under the automatically generated light sources.

  13. Diffuse-Illumination Systems for Growing Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, George; Ryan, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture in both terrestrial and space-controlled environments relies heavily on artificial illumination for efficient photosynthesis. Plant-growth illumination systems require high photon flux in the spectral range corresponding with plant photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) (400 700 nm), high spatial uniformity to promote uniform growth, and high energy efficiency to minimize electricity usage. The proposed plant-growth system takes advantage of the highly diffuse reflective surfaces on the interior of a sphere, hemisphere, or other nearly enclosed structure that is coated with highly reflective materials. This type of surface and structure uniformly mixes discrete light sources to produce highly uniform illumination. Multiple reflections from within the domelike structures are exploited to obtain diffuse illumination, which promotes the efficient reuse of photons that have not yet been absorbed by plants. The highly reflective surfaces encourage only the plant tissue (placed inside the sphere or enclosure) to absorb the light. Discrete light sources, such as light emitting diodes (LEDs), are typically used because of their high efficiency, wavelength selection, and electronically dimmable properties. The light sources are arranged to minimize shadowing and to improve uniformity. Different wavelengths of LEDs (typically blue, green, and red) are used for photosynthesis. Wavelengths outside the PAR range can be added for plant diagnostics or for growth regulation

  14. Illuminating Everyday Performances of Privilege and Oppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuman, Amy N.

    2018-01-01

    Courses: Intercultural Communication, Interracial Communication, Gender and Communication, Introduction to Communication Course (within a unit on culture), and any courses encouraging critical analyses of power. Objectives: This activity will: illuminate the ways in which everyday performances of privilege and resulting oppressions connect with…

  15. An illumination system for endoscopic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to an illumination system for endoscopic applications comprising at least one substantially monochromatic light source having a predefined central wavelength between 400 and 500 nm or between 500 and 550 nm, an optical transmission path adapted to guide light emanat...... for photodynamic diagnosis and/or therapy of bladder cancer is further disclosed herein....

  16. Public illumination manual; Manual de iluminacao publica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This work aims to guide in the correct choice and usage of the adequate public illumination equipment. It also aims to help the public authorities in terms of the best economical and technical choice, as well as the adequate maintenance of the equipment in order to obtain the most efficiency and safety with minimum costs 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Interactive indirect illumination using adaptive multiresolution splatting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Greg; Wyman, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Global illumination provides a visual richness not achievable with the direct illumination models used by most interactive applications. To generate global effects, numerous approximations attempt to reduce global illumination costs to levels feasible in interactive contexts. One such approximation, reflective shadow maps, samples a shadow map to identify secondary light sources whose contributions are splatted into eye space. This splatting introduces significant overdraw that is usually reduced by artificially shrinking each splat's radius of influence. This paper introduces a new multiresolution approach for interactively splatting indirect illumination. Instead of reducing GPU fill rate by reducing splat size, we reduce fill rate by rendering splats into a multiresolution buffer. This takes advantage of the low-frequency nature of diffuse and glossy indirect lighting, allowing rendering of indirect contributions at low resolution where lighting changes slowly and at high-resolution near discontinuities. Because this multiresolution rendering occurs on a per-splat basis, we can significantly reduce fill rate without arbitrarily clipping splat contributions below a given threshold-those regions simply are rendered at a coarse resolution.

  18. Scene independent real-time indirect illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Christensen, Niels Jørgen; Falster, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A novel method for real-time simulation of indirect illumination is presented in this paper. The method, which we call Direct Radiance Mapping (DRM), is based on basal radiance calculations and does not impose any restrictions on scene geometry or dynamics. This makes the method tractable for rea...

  19. Illuminance-based slat angle selection model for automated control of split blinds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jia; Olbina, Svetlana [Rinker School of Building Construction, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-5703 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Venetian blinds play an important role in controlling daylight in buildings. Automated blinds overcome some limitations of manual blinds; however, the existing automated systems mainly control the direct solar radiation and glare and cannot be used for controlling innovative blind systems such as split blinds. This research developed an Illuminance-based Slat Angle Selection (ISAS) model that predicts the optimum slat angles of split blinds to achieve the designed indoor illuminance. The model was constructed based on a series of multi-layer feed-forward artificial neural networks (ANNs). The illuminance values at the sensor points used to develop the ANNs were obtained by the software EnergyPlus trademark. The weather determinants (such as horizontal illuminance and sun angles) were used as the input variables for the ANNs. The illuminance level at a sensor point was the output variable for the ANNs. The ISAS model was validated by evaluating the errors in the calculation of the: 1) illuminance and 2) optimum slat angles. The validation results showed that the power of the ISAS model to predict illuminance was 94.7% while its power to calculate the optimum slat angles was 98.5%. For about 90% of time in the year, the illuminance percentage errors were less than 10%, and the percentage errors in calculating the optimum slat angles were less than 5%. This research offers a new approach for the automated control of split blinds and a guide for future research to utilize the adaptive nature of ANNs to develop a more practical and applicable blind control system. (author)

  20. Studies of the interaction of CS@ZnS:Mn with bovine serum albumin under illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Li, E-mail: 2476625723@qq.com [Institute of Agricultural Quality Standards and Testing Technology Research, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Science, Wuhan 430064 (China); Xiao, Ling [School of Resource and Environmental Science, Hubei Biomass-Resource Chemistry and Environmental Biotechnology Key Laboratory, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The interaction and illumination damages of CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots to BSA were studied. • The quenching mechanism of CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots with BSA belongs to dynamic quenching. • The hydrophobic interaction plays a major role; the binding processes are spontaneous. • The FL enhancement of CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots by BSA under UV illumination was observed. • The probable mechanism is mainly a photo-induced free radical procedure. - Abstract: In this study, chitosan coated Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots) were obtained in aqueous media under ambient pressure. The interaction and illumination damages of CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied by means of ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) and fluorescence (FL) spectra. It was found that the FL of BSA was quenched by CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots. The dominating quenching mechanism of CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots with BSA belongs to dynamic quenching. Hydrophobic interaction plays a major role in the CS@ZnS:Mn–BSA interaction; binding processes are spontaneous. Influencing factors such as illumination time and CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots concentrations were considered. The FL quenching effect of BSA by CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots is enhanced with the increase of illumination time and CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots concentration. The FL enhancement of CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots by BSA under UV illumination was also observed. It was proved that, the interaction of CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots with BSA under UV illumination is mainly a result of a photo-induced free radical procedure. CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots may be used as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy.

  1. Studies of the interaction of CS@ZnS:Mn with bovine serum albumin under illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Li; Xiao, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The interaction and illumination damages of CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots to BSA were studied. • The quenching mechanism of CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots with BSA belongs to dynamic quenching. • The hydrophobic interaction plays a major role; the binding processes are spontaneous. • The FL enhancement of CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots by BSA under UV illumination was observed. • The probable mechanism is mainly a photo-induced free radical procedure. - Abstract: In this study, chitosan coated Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots) were obtained in aqueous media under ambient pressure. The interaction and illumination damages of CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied by means of ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) and fluorescence (FL) spectra. It was found that the FL of BSA was quenched by CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots. The dominating quenching mechanism of CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots with BSA belongs to dynamic quenching. Hydrophobic interaction plays a major role in the CS@ZnS:Mn–BSA interaction; binding processes are spontaneous. Influencing factors such as illumination time and CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots concentrations were considered. The FL quenching effect of BSA by CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots is enhanced with the increase of illumination time and CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots concentration. The FL enhancement of CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots by BSA under UV illumination was also observed. It was proved that, the interaction of CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots with BSA under UV illumination is mainly a result of a photo-induced free radical procedure. CS@ZnS:Mn D-dots may be used as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy

  2. Daylight illumination-color-contrast tables for full-form objects naturally illuminated objects

    CERN Document Server

    Nagel, M

    1978-01-01

    Daylight Illumination-Color-Contrast Tables for Full-form Objects is the result of a major computational project concerning the illumination, color, and contrast conditions in naturally illuminated objects. The project from which this two-chapter book is derived is originally conceived in support of the various remote sensing and image processing activities of the Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Oberpfaffenhofen, West Germany DFVLR, in particular, those depending on the quantitative photometric and colorimetric evaluation of photographs and other environmental

  3. Reflectance, illumination, and appearance in color constancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, John J; Parraman, Carinna; Rizzi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    We studied color constancy using a pair of identical 3-D Color Mondrian displays. We viewed one 3-D Mondrian in nearly uniform illumination, and the other in directional, nonuniform illumination. We used the three dimensional structures to modulate the light falling on the painted surfaces. The 3-D structures in the displays were a matching set of wooden blocks. Across Mondrian displays, each corresponding facet had the same paint on its surface. We used only 6 chromatic, and 5 achromatic paints applied to 104 block facets. The 3-D blocks add shadows and multiple reflections not found in flat Mondrians. Both 3-D Mondrians were viewed simultaneously, side-by-side. We used two techniques to measure correlation of appearance with surface reflectance. First, observers made magnitude estimates of changes in the appearances of identical reflectances. Second, an author painted a watercolor of the 3-D Mondrians. The watercolor's reflectances quantified the changes in appearances. While constancy generalizations about illumination and reflectance hold for flat Mondrians, they do not for 3-D Mondrians. A constant paint does not exhibit perfect color constancy, but rather shows significant shifts in lightness, hue and chroma in response to the structure in the nonuniform illumination. Color appearance depends on the spatial information in both the illumination and the reflectances of objects. The spatial information of the quanta catch from the array of retinal receptors generates sensations that have variable correlation with surface reflectance. Models of appearance in humans need to calculate the departures from perfect constancy measured here. This article provides a dataset of measurements of color appearances for computational models of sensation.

  4. Reflectance, illumination, and appearance in color constancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. McCann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied color constancy using a pair of identical 3-D Color Mondrian displays. We viewed one 3-D Mondrian in nearly uniform illumination, and the other in directional, nonuniform illumination. We used the three dimensional structures to modulate the light falling on the painted surfaces. The 3-D structures in the displays were a matching set of wooden blocks. Across Mondrian displays, each corresponding facet had the same paint on its surface. We used only 6 chromatic, and 5 achromatic paints applied to 104 block facets. The 3-D blocks add shadows and multiple reflections not found in flat Mondrians. Both 3-D Mondrians were viewed simultaneously, side-by-side. We used two techniques to measure correlation of appearance with surface reflectance. First, observers made magnitude estimates of changes in the appearances of identical reflectances. Second, an author painted a watercolor of the 3-D Mondrians. The watercolor’s reflectances quantified the changes in appearances. While constancy generalizations about illumination and reflectance hold for flat Mondrians, they do not for 3-D Mondrians. A constant paint does not exhibit perfect color constancy, but rather shows significant shifts in lightness, hue and chroma in response to the structure in the nonuniform illumination. Color appearance depends on the spatial information in both the illumination and the reflectances of objects. The spatial information of the quanta catch from the array of retinal receptors generates sensations that have variable correlation with surface reflectance. Models of appearance in humans need to calculate the departures from perfect constancy measured here. This article provides a dataset of measurements of color appearances for computational models of sensation.

  5. Designing Out the Play: Accessibility and Playfulness in Inclusive Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Raymond; Beckett, Angharad

    2017-01-01

    Play is an important part of child development, yet disabled children are often excluded from the opportunity to play, either due to lack of accessible toys and games, or social pressures. This paper presents a case study reflecting on the development of Button Bash: a switch accessible game intended to encourage inclusive play between disabled and non-disabled children. In particular, the paper focuses on how changes intended to make the game more accessible tended to make it less playful, and reflects on the relationship between playfulness and accessibility.

  6. FATHER PLAY: IS IT SPECIAL?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Natasha J; Roggman, Lori

    2017-11-01

    Both mothers and fathers play with their children, but research on parent-child play interactions is conducted with mothers three times more often than it is with fathers. The articles in this special issue address this gap by focusing on the nature and quality of father-child play, across cultural contexts, and considering whether father play offers something unique and special for early human development, in infancy or early childhood. The studies show that fathers can be just as developmentally supportive as are mothers in terms of being playful and engaged with their children in ways that are related to greater child socioemotional competence, emotion regulation, and vocabulary, and to less aggression, anxiety, and negativity. We encourage future research to examine the cultural influences, family system dynamics, and specificity of timing and types of father-child play in relation to children's developmental competence. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  7. Comparison of two structured illumination techniques based on different 3D illumination patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, H.; Patwary, N.; Doblas, A.; Saavedra, G.; Preza, C.

    2017-02-01

    Manipulating the excitation pattern in optical microscopy has led to several super-resolution techniques. Among different patterns, the lateral sinusoidal excitation was used for the first demonstration of structured illumination microscopy (SIM), which provides the fastest SIM acquisition system (based on the number of raw images required) compared to the multi-spot illumination approach. Moreover, 3D patterns that include lateral and axial variations in the illumination have attracted more attention recently as they address resolution enhancement in three dimensions. A threewave (3W) interference technique based on coherent illumination has already been shown to provide super-resolution and optical sectioning in 3D-SIM. In this paper, we investigate a novel tunable technique that creates a 3D pattern from a set of multiple incoherently illuminated parallel slits that act as light sources for a Fresnel biprism. This setup is able to modulate the illumination pattern in the object space both axially and laterally with adjustable modulation frequencies. The 3D forward model for the new system is developed here to consider the effect of the axial modulation due to the 3D patterned illumination. The performance of 3D-SIM based on 3W interference and the tunable system are investigated in simulation and compared based on two different criteria. First, restored images obtained for both 3D-SIM systems using a generalized Wiener filter are compared to determine the effect of the illumination pattern on the reconstruction. Second, the effective frequency response of both systems is studied to determine the axial and lateral resolution enhancement that is obtained in each case.

  8. Illumination normalization of face image based on illuminant direction estimation and improved Retinex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jizheng; Mao, Xia; Chen, Lijiang; Xue, Yuli; Rovetta, Alberto; Caleanu, Catalin-Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Illumination normalization of face image for face recognition and facial expression recognition is one of the most frequent and difficult problems in image processing. In order to obtain a face image with normal illumination, our method firstly divides the input face image into sixteen local regions and calculates the edge level percentage in each of them. Secondly, three local regions, which meet the requirements of lower complexity and larger average gray value, are selected to calculate the final illuminant direction according to the error function between the measured intensity and the calculated intensity, and the constraint function for an infinite light source model. After knowing the final illuminant direction of the input face image, the Retinex algorithm is improved from two aspects: (1) we optimize the surround function; (2) we intercept the values in both ends of histogram of face image, determine the range of gray levels, and stretch the range of gray levels into the dynamic range of display device. Finally, we achieve illumination normalization and get the final face image. Unlike previous illumination normalization approaches, the method proposed in this paper does not require any training step or any knowledge of 3D face and reflective surface model. The experimental results using extended Yale face database B and CMU-PIE show that our method achieves better normalization effect comparing with the existing techniques.

  9. Illumination normalization of face image based on illuminant direction estimation and improved Retinex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizheng Yi

    Full Text Available Illumination normalization of face image for face recognition and facial expression recognition is one of the most frequent and difficult problems in image processing. In order to obtain a face image with normal illumination, our method firstly divides the input face image into sixteen local regions and calculates the edge level percentage in each of them. Secondly, three local regions, which meet the requirements of lower complexity and larger average gray value, are selected to calculate the final illuminant direction according to the error function between the measured intensity and the calculated intensity, and the constraint function for an infinite light source model. After knowing the final illuminant direction of the input face image, the Retinex algorithm is improved from two aspects: (1 we optimize the surround function; (2 we intercept the values in both ends of histogram of face image, determine the range of gray levels, and stretch the range of gray levels into the dynamic range of display device. Finally, we achieve illumination normalization and get the final face image. Unlike previous illumination normalization approaches, the method proposed in this paper does not require any training step or any knowledge of 3D face and reflective surface model. The experimental results using extended Yale face database B and CMU-PIE show that our method achieves better normalization effect comparing with the existing techniques.

  10. A review of daylight illuminance determinations and energy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Danny H.W. [Building Energy Research Group, Department of Building and Construction, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2010-07-15

    Daylighting is recognized as an important element in architecture and a useful strategy in energy-efficient building designs. Daylight gives a sense of cheeriness and brightness that can have a significant positive impact on the people. There is a scope for integrating daylight with electric light to reduce building energy use. The amount of daylight entering a building is mainly through window openings, which create in the indoor environment a more attractive and pleasing atmosphere, in addition to maximise visual access to the pleasant views of the outside world. Determinations of the exterior and interior daylight and lighting energy savings are key issues to demonstrate the benefits based on daylighting designs. This paper provides a review of daylight illuminance determinations and the lighting energy reductions due to daylighting schemes. The study includes daylight measurements, prediction of daylight illuminance under various sky conditions and potential electric lighting energy savings from daylight-linked lighting controls. The article aims at providing building professionals, practitioners and researchers more information and a better understanding of daylight for promoting effective daylighting designs and evaluations. (author)

  11. Structured illumination microscopy and its new developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianling Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical microscopy allows us to observe the biological structures and processes within living cells. However, the spatial resolution of the optical microscopy is limited to about half of the wavelength by the light diffraction. Structured illumination microscopy (SIM, a type of new emerging super-resolution microscopy, doubles the spatial resolution by illuminating the specimen with a patterned light, and the sample and light source requirements of SIM are not as strict as the other super-resolution microscopy. In addition, SIM is easier to combine with the other imaging techniques to improve their imaging resolution, leading to the developments of diverse types of SIM. SIM has great potential to meet the various requirements of living cells imaging. Here, we review the recent developments of SIM and its combination with other imaging techniques.

  12. Fast linear method of illumination classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ted J.; Baqai, Farhan A.

    2003-01-01

    We present a simple method for estimating the scene illuminant for images obtained by a Digital Still Camera (DSC). The proposed method utilizes basis vectors obtained from known memory color reflectance to identify the memory color objects in the image. Once the memory color pixels are identified, we use the ratios of the red/green and blue/green to determine the most likely illuminant in the image. The critical part of the method is to estimate the smallest set of basis vectors that closely represent the memory color reflectances. Basis vectors obtained from both Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) are used. We will show that only two ICA basis vectors are needed to get an acceptable estimate.

  13. Pulsed laser illumination of photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yater, Jane A.; Lowe, Roland A.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1995-01-01

    In future space missions, free electron lasers (FEL) may be used to illuminate photovoltaic receivers to provide remote power. Both the radio-frequency (RF) and induction FEL produce pulsed rather than continuous output. In this work we investigate cell response to pulsed laser light which simulates the RF FEL format. The results indicate that if the pulse repetition is high, cell efficiencies are only slightly reduced compared to constant illumination at the same wavelength. The frequency response of the cells is weak, with both voltage and current outputs essentially dc in nature. Comparison with previous experiments indicates that the RF FEL pulse format yields more efficient photovoltaic conversion than does an induction FEL format.

  14. Direct illumination LED calibration for telescope photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrelet, E.; Juramy, C.

    2008-01-01

    A calibration method for telescope photometry, based on the direct illumination of a telescope with a calibrated light source regrouping multiple LEDs, is proposed. Its purpose is to calibrate the instrument response. The main emphasis of the proposed method is the traceability of the calibration process and a continuous monitoring of the instrument in order to maintain a 0.2% accuracy over a period of years. Its specificity is to map finely the response of the telescope and its camera as a function of all light ray parameters. This feature is essential to implement a computer model of the instrument representing the variation of the overall light collection efficiency of each pixel for various filter configurations. We report on hardware developments done for SNDICE, the first application of this direct illumination calibration system which will be installed in Canada France Hawaii telescope (CFHT) for its leading supernova experiment (SNLS)

  15. Alternative Packaging for Back-Illuminated Imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Bedabrata

    2009-01-01

    An alternative scheme has been conceived for packaging of silicon-based back-illuminated, back-side-thinned complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) and charge-coupled-device image-detector integrated circuits, including an associated fabrication process. This scheme and process are complementary to those described in "Making a Back-Illuminated Imager With Back-Side Connections" (NPO-42839), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 7 (July 2008), page 38. To avoid misunderstanding, it should be noted that in the terminology of imaging integrated circuits, "front side" or "back side" does not necessarily refer to the side that, during operation, faces toward or away from a source of light or other object to be imaged. Instead, "front side" signifies that side of a semiconductor substrate upon which the pixel pattern and the associated semiconductor devices and metal conductor lines are initially formed during fabrication, and "back side" signifies the opposite side. If the imager is of the type called "back-illuminated," then the back side is the one that faces an object to be imaged. Initially, a back-illuminated, back-side-thinned image-detector is fabricated with its back side bonded to a silicon handle wafer. At a subsequent stage of fabrication, the front side is bonded to a glass wafer (for mechanical support) and the silicon handle wafer is etched away to expose the back side. The frontside integrated circuitry includes metal input/output contact pads, which are rendered inaccessible by the bonding of the front side to the glass wafer. Hence, one of the main problems is to make the input/output contact pads accessible from the back side, which is ultimately to be the side accessible to the external world. The present combination of an alternative packaging scheme and associated fabrication process constitute a solution of the problem.

  16. Downhole interferometric illumination diagnosis and balancing

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Neut, J.

    2012-01-01

    With seismic interferometry or the virtual source method, controlled sources can be redatumed from the Earth’s surface to generate so-called virtual sources at downhole receiver locations. Generally this is done by crosscorrelation of the recorded down-hole data and stacking over source locations. By studying the retrieved data at zero time lag, downhole illumination conditions that determine the virtual source radi- ation pattern can be analyzed without a velocity model. This can be benefici...

  17. Broadband spectrally dynamic solid state illumination source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, David B; Asghar, Ali; Gupta, Shalini; Kang, Hun; Pan, Ming [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332-0250 (United States); Strassburg, Martin [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332-0250 (United States); Georgia State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Atlanta, GA 30302-4106 (United States); Summers, Chris; Ferguson, Ian T [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Solid state lighting has done well recently in niche markets such as signage and displays, however, no available SSL technologies incorporate all the necessary attributes for general illumination. Development of a novel solid state general illumination source is discussed here. Two LEDs emitting at two distinct wavelengths can be monolithically grown and used to excite two or more phosphors with varied excitation spectra. The combined phosphorescence spectrum can then be controlled by adjusting the relative intensities of the two LED emissions. Preliminary phosphor analysis shows such a scheme to be viable for use in a spectrally dynamic broadband general illumination source. A tunnel junction is envisioned as a means of current spreading in a buried layer for three terminal operation. However, tunnel junction properties in GaN based materials are not well understood, and require further optimization to be practical devices. Preliminary results on GaN tunnel junctions are presented here as well. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Bessel light sheet structured illumination microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noshirvani Allahabadi, Golchehr

    Biomedical study researchers using animals to model disease and treatment need fast, deep, noninvasive, and inexpensive multi-channel imaging methods. Traditional fluorescence microscopy meets those criteria to an extent. Specifically, two-photon and confocal microscopy, the two most commonly used methods, are limited in penetration depth, cost, resolution, and field of view. In addition, two-photon microscopy has limited ability in multi-channel imaging. Light sheet microscopy, a fast developing 3D fluorescence imaging method, offers attractive advantages over traditional two-photon and confocal microscopy. Light sheet microscopy is much more applicable for in vivo 3D time-lapsed imaging, owing to its selective illumination of tissue layer, superior speed, low light exposure, high penetration depth, and low levels of photobleaching. However, standard light sheet microscopy using Gaussian beam excitation has two main disadvantages: 1) the field of view (FOV) of light sheet microscopy is limited by the depth of focus of the Gaussian beam. 2) Light-sheet images can be degraded by scattering, which limits the penetration of the excitation beam and blurs emission images in deep tissue layers. While two-sided sheet illumination, which doubles the field of view by illuminating the sample from opposite sides, offers a potential solution, the technique adds complexity and cost to the imaging system. We investigate a new technique to address these limitations: Bessel light sheet microscopy in combination with incoherent nonlinear Structured Illumination Microscopy (SIM). Results demonstrate that, at visible wavelengths, Bessel excitation penetrates up to 250 microns deep in the scattering media with single-side illumination. Bessel light sheet microscope achieves confocal level resolution at a lateral resolution of 0.3 micron and an axial resolution of 1 micron. Incoherent nonlinear SIM further reduces the diffused background in Bessel light sheet images, resulting in

  19. Generation of realistic scene using illuminant estimation and mixed chromatic adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Chul; Hong, Sang-Gi; Kim, Dong-Ho; Park, Jong-Hyun

    2003-12-01

    The algorithm of combining a real image with a virtual model was proposed to increase the reality of synthesized images. Currently, synthesizing a real image with a virtual model facilitated the surface reflection model and various geometric techniques. In the current methods, the characteristics of various illuminants in the real image are not sufficiently considered. In addition, despite the chromatic adaptation plays a vital role for accommodating different illuminants in the two media viewing conditions, it is not taken into account in the existing methods. Thus, it is hardly to get high-quality synthesized images. In this paper, we proposed the two-phase image synthesis algorithm. First, the surface reflectance of the maximum high-light region (MHR) was estimated using the three eigenvectors obtained from the principal component analysis (PCA) applied to the surface reflectances of 1269 Munsell samples. The combined spectral value, i.e., the product of surface reflectance and the spectral power distributions (SPDs) of an illuminant, of MHR was then estimated using the three eigenvectors obtained from PCA applied to the products of surface reflectances of Munsell 1269 samples and the SPDs of four CIE Standard Illuminants (A, C, D50, D65). By dividing the average combined spectral values of MHR by the average surface reflectances of MHR, we could estimate the illuminant of a real image. Second, the mixed chromatic adaptation (S-LMS) using an estimated and an external illuminants was applied to the virtual-model image. For evaluating the proposed algorithm, experiments with synthetic and real scenes were performed. It was shown that the proposed method was effective in synthesizing the real and the virtual scenes under various illuminants.

  20. Stereoscopic augmented reality with pseudo-realistic global illumination effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sorbier, Francois; Saito, Hideo

    2014-03-01

    Recently, augmented reality has become very popular and has appeared in our daily life with gaming, guiding systems or mobile phone applications. However, inserting object in such a way their appearance seems natural is still an issue, especially in an unknown environment. This paper presents a framework that demonstrates the capabilities of Kinect for convincing augmented reality in an unknown environment. Rather than pre-computing a reconstruction of the scene like proposed by most of the previous method, we propose a dynamic capture of the scene that allows adapting to live changes of the environment. Our approach, based on the update of an environment map, can also detect the position of the light sources. Combining information from the environment map, the light sources and the camera tracking, we can display virtual objects using stereoscopic devices with global illumination effects such as diffuse and mirror reflections, refractions and shadows in real time.

  1. Optimal LED-based illumination control via distributed convex optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, Muhammad; Hermans, R.M.; Pandharipande, A.; Lazar, M.; Boje, Edward; Xia, Xiaohua

    2014-01-01

    Achieving illumination and energy consumption targets is essential in indoor lighting design. The provision of localized illumination to occupants, and the utilization of natural light and energy-efficient light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires can help meet both objectives. Localized illumination

  2. Love Games that Insects Play

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 1. Love Games that Insects Play - The Evolution of Sexual Behaviours in Insects ... Author Affiliations. K N Ganeshaiah1. Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK Bangalore 560 065, India ...

  3. New reversing freeform lens design method for LED uniform illumination with extended source and near field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhili; Zhang, Honghai; Zheng, Huai; Liu, Sheng

    2018-03-01

    In light-emitting diode (LED) array illumination (e.g. LED backlighting), obtainment of high uniformity in the harsh condition of the large distance height ratio (DHR), extended source and near field is a key as well as challenging issue. In this study, we present a new reversing freeform lens design algorithm based on the illuminance distribution function (IDF) instead of the traditional light intensity distribution, which allows uniform LED illumination in the above mentioned harsh conditions. IDF of freeform lens can be obtained by the proposed mathematical method, considering the effects of large DHR, extended source and near field target at the same time. In order to prove the claims, a slim direct-lit LED backlighting with DHR equal to 4 is designed. In comparison with the traditional lenses, illuminance uniformity of LED backlighting with the new lens increases significantly from 0.45 to 0.84, and CV(RMSE) decreases dramatically from 0.24 to 0.03 in the harsh condition. Meanwhile, luminance uniformity of LED backlighting with the new lens is obtained as high as 0.92 at the condition of extended source and near field. This new method provides a practical and effective way to solve the problem of large DHR, extended source and near field for LED array illumination.

  4. Open LED Illuminator: A Simple and Inexpensive LED Illuminator for Fast Multicolor Particle Tracking in Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Jens B.; Tanneti, Nikhila S.; Hogue, Ian B.; Enquist, Lynn W.

    2015-01-01

    Dual-color live cell fluorescence microscopy of fast intracellular trafficking processes, such as axonal transport, requires rapid switching of illumination channels. Typical broad-spectrum sources necessitate the use of mechanical filter switching, which introduces delays between acquisition of different fluorescence channels, impeding the interpretation and quantification of highly dynamic processes. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), however, allow modulation of excitation light in microseconds. Here we provide a step-by-step protocol to enable any scientist to build a research-grade LED illuminator for live cell microscopy, even without prior experience with electronics or optics. We quantify and compare components, discuss our design considerations, and demonstrate the performance of our LED illuminator by imaging axonal transport of herpes virus particles with high temporal resolution. PMID:26600461

  5. Open LED Illuminator: A Simple and Inexpensive LED Illuminator for Fast Multicolor Particle Tracking in Neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens B Bosse

    Full Text Available Dual-color live cell fluorescence microscopy of fast intracellular trafficking processes, such as axonal transport, requires rapid switching of illumination channels. Typical broad-spectrum sources necessitate the use of mechanical filter switching, which introduces delays between acquisition of different fluorescence channels, impeding the interpretation and quantification of highly dynamic processes. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs, however, allow modulation of excitation light in microseconds. Here we provide a step-by-step protocol to enable any scientist to build a research-grade LED illuminator for live cell microscopy, even without prior experience with electronics or optics. We quantify and compare components, discuss our design considerations, and demonstrate the performance of our LED illuminator by imaging axonal transport of herpes virus particles with high temporal resolution.

  6. Design for Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feder, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of the new Design for Play initiative is to inspire and educate designers to design for the future of play. To create “play ambassadors” equipped with excellent tools, methods, approaches and mind-sets to design for the playful human being in an ever-changing world. To teach...... and inspire children to grow up to be creative designers of their own life and the world around them. The Design for Play research team will study the interplay between people, processes and products in design for play and support the development of playful designers, playful solutions and playful experiences...

  7. Hybrid illumination systems for a brigth future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli

    Problem to be adressed: Even with the implementation of the Eco-design directive (2005/32/EC) it is projected that the 20% energy reduction goal will not be reached in 2020. as a matter of fact, the electricity consumption in the illumination sector will not be changed from the levels of cosnsump...... of an interdisciplinary group, we aim to make a prototype of a test system. for this we will merge Solid State and Fiber optic technologies. The overall project will be assessed under  the viewpoints of environmental, socio-economic and esthetical parameters...

  8. Light engine for an illumination device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of a light engine for an illumination device, the light engine defining an output gate and being configured to output light from said output gate; wherein the light engine comprises: one or more light sources defining a light-emitting area; a concave reflector con...... configured to receive light from the light-emitting area and to direct light from respective portions of the light-emitting area to form a converging beam that converges towards a beam spot at the output gate....

  9. Nonimaging reflectors for efficient uniform illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J M; Kashin, P; Rabl, A

    1992-10-01

    Nonimaging reflectors that are an extension of the design principle that was developed for compound parabolic concentrator type devices are proposed for illumination applications. The optical designs presented offer maximal lighting efficiency while they retain sharp angular control of the radiation and highly uniform flux densities on distant target planes. Our results are presented for symmetrical configurations in two dimensions (troughlike reflectors) for flat and for tubular sources. For fields of view of practical interest (half-angle in the 30-60 degrees range), these devices can achieve minimum-tomaximum intensity ratios of 0.7, while they remain compact and incur low reflective losses.

  10. How to make illuminating type poster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Sun; Kang, Duk Sik

    1986-01-01

    Illuminating type poster looks very impressive and one may feel as if it were on the view box in his reading room. Some difficulties and nuisances really exist in making them and a few of demerits can also be encountered that of contrast enhancement and of rough graininess. Contact print renders the best quality, though, Kodak Technical-Pan film with HC-100 (Dil. F) developer, llford XP 1-400 with Kodak C-41 color developer and Kodak Plus-X with Microdiol-X developer combinations also work in minimizing the deterioration of resolution and grains which can almost always occur in enlargement prints.

  11. Freeform lens design for LED collimating illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Jia; Wang, Te-Yuan; Huang, Kuang-Lung; Liu, Te-Shu; Tsai, Ming-Da; Lin, Chin-Tang

    2012-05-07

    We present a simple freeform lens design method for an application to LED collimating illumination. The method is derived from a basic geometric-optics analysis and construction approach. By using this method, a highly collimating lens with LED chip size of 1.0 mm × 1.0 mm and optical simulation efficiency of 86.5% under a view angle of ± 5 deg is constructed. To verify the practical performance of the lens, a prototype of the collimator lens is also made, and an optical efficiency of 90.3% with a beam angle of 4.75 deg is measured.

  12. Development of flying spot illumination system for stage lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Hisashi; Ishii, Katsunori; Koshiro, Hikari; Baba, Junko; Wakaki, Moriaki

    2014-02-01

    The system to control the area of illumination is important for the luminaires used for stages and TV studios. Presently the methods to change the distance between a lamp and lenses, or to use a zooming projection of the aperture illuminated by the lamp are used to control the area. However, these methods require many optical components or mechanical components. Moreover, the energy of the light source is partially consumed by the absorption of the shutter on adjusting the illumination area. On the other hand, the control of the illuminance over the illuminated area is not possible by the methods. In this study, we developed the lighting system which enables to control both the illuminated area and the illuminance distribution within the area by scanning the beam from a LED array light source. The area of illumination was expanded along one dimension by scanning the LED beam using a rotating polygon mirror. The selection of the illuminated width and the control of the illuminance distribution were achieved by synchronizing the pulse width modulation (PWM) control of the LED with the rotation of the mirror using a time sharing control. As a result, various illuminance distributions can be realized at real time by using software control for the luminaire. The developed system has the merits of compact and high efficiency.

  13. Illumination estimation via thin-plate spline interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lilong; Xiong, Weihua; Funt, Brian

    2011-05-01

    Thin-plate spline interpolation is used to interpolate the chromaticity of the color of the incident scene illumination across a training set of images. Given the image of a scene under unknown illumination, the chromaticity of the scene illumination can be found from the interpolated function. The resulting illumination-estimation method can be used to provide color constancy under changing illumination conditions and automatic white balancing for digital cameras. A thin-plate spline interpolates over a nonuniformly sampled input space, which in this case is a training set of image thumbnails and associated illumination chromaticities. To reduce the size of the training set, incremental k medians are applied. Tests on real images demonstrate that the thin-plate spline method can estimate the color of the incident illumination quite accurately, and the proposed training set pruning significantly decreases the computation.

  14. Active illumination and appearance model for face alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahraman, Fatih; Gokmen, M.; Darkner, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Illumination conditions have an explicit effect on the performance of face recognition systems. In particular, varying the illumination upon the face imposes such, complex effects that the identification often fails to provide a stable performance level. In this paper, we propose an approach......, integrating face identity and illumination models in order to reach acceptable and stable face recognition rates. For this purpose, Active Appearance Model (A AM) and illumination model of faces are combined in order to obtain an illumination invariant face localization. The proposed method is an integrated......, is sufficient. There is no need to build complex models for illumination. As a result, this paper has presented a simple and efficient method for face modeling and face alignment in order to increase the performance of face localization by means of the proposed illumination invariant AIA method for face...

  15. Effects of illuminants and illumination time on lettuce growth, yield and nutritional quality in a controlled environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y. Z.; Guo, S. S.; Ai, W. D.; Tang, Y. K.

    2014-07-01

    Effects of illuminants and illumination time on the growth of lettuce were researched. Red-blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs, 90% red light +10% blue light) and white light fluorescent (WF) lamps were compared as the illuminants for plant cultivation. Under each type of illuminant, lettuce was grown at 4 illumination times: 12 h, 16 h, 20 h and 24 h, with the same light intensity of 600 μmolm-2s-1. The leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) under the two illuminants was comparable but the shape of lettuce was obviously affected by the illuminant. The WF lamps produced more compact plant, while red-blue LED resulted in less but longer leaves. However, the total leaf area was not significantly affected by the illuminant. The red-blue LED produced nearly same aboveground biomass with far less energy consumption relative to WF lamps. The underground biomass was lowered under red-blue LED in comparison with WF lamps. Red-blue LED could improve the nutritional quality of lettuce by increasing the concentration of soluble sugar and vitamin C (VC) and reducing the concentration of nitrate. Under each type of illuminant, longer illumination time resulted in higher Pn, more leaves and larger leaf area. The total chlorophyll concentration increased while the concentration ratio of chlorophyll a/b decreased with the extension of illumination time. Illumination time had highly significant positive correlation with biomass. Moreover, when total daily light input was kept the same, longer illumination time increased the biomass significantly as well. In addition, longer illumination time increased the concentration of crude fiber, soluble sugar and VC and reduced the concentration of nitrate. In summary, red-blue LEDs and 24 h illumination time were demonstrated to be more suitable for lettuce cultivation in the controlled environment.

  16. Gaussian Hypothesis Testing and Quantum Illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Mark M; Tomamichel, Marco; Lloyd, Seth; Berta, Mario

    2017-09-22

    Quantum hypothesis testing is one of the most basic tasks in quantum information theory and has fundamental links with quantum communication and estimation theory. In this paper, we establish a formula that characterizes the decay rate of the minimal type-II error probability in a quantum hypothesis test of two Gaussian states given a fixed constraint on the type-I error probability. This formula is a direct function of the mean vectors and covariance matrices of the quantum Gaussian states in question. We give an application to quantum illumination, which is the task of determining whether there is a low-reflectivity object embedded in a target region with a bright thermal-noise bath. For the asymmetric-error setting, we find that a quantum illumination transmitter can achieve an error probability exponent stronger than a coherent-state transmitter of the same mean photon number, and furthermore, that it requires far fewer trials to do so. This occurs when the background thermal noise is either low or bright, which means that a quantum advantage is even easier to witness than in the symmetric-error setting because it occurs for a larger range of parameters. Going forward from here, we expect our formula to have applications in settings well beyond those considered in this paper, especially to quantum communication tasks involving quantum Gaussian channels.

  17. Multiscale Pigment Analysis of Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestak, Erica; Manukyan, Khachatur; Wiescher, Michael; Gura, David

    2017-09-01

    Three medieval illuminated manuscripts (codd. Lat. b. 1; Lat. b. 2; Lat. e. 4), housed at the University of Notre Dame's Hesburgh Library, vary in style, pigments, scribes, and regions, despite all three being Psalters used in the Late Middle Ages. XRF and Raman spectroscopy, which provided the elemental and molecular composition of the pigments, respectively, were used to analyze the pigments' compositions in an attempt to narrow further the manuscripts' possible origins. This experimental investigation emphasizes the importance of understanding the history of the manuscript through their pigments. Codd. Lat. b. 1 and Lat. b. 2 are Latinate German Psalters from the fifteenth century likely used in Katharinenkloster in Nuremberg. While there are visible differences in style within each Psalter, the variations in some of the pigment compositions, such as the inconstant presence of zinc, suggest different admixtures. Cod. Lat. e. 4 is a Latinate English Psalter from the fourteenth century, and it was written by two scribes and illuminated by two distinct painters. It is currently being tested to determine whether there are any correlations between the scribes and painters. These physical analyses will clarify the origins and provenances of the manuscripts.

  18. Play at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier Sørensen, Bent; Spoelstra, Sverre

    2012-01-01

    The interest in organizational play is growing, both in popular business discourse and organization studies. As the presumption that play is dysfunctional for organizations is increasingly discarded, the existing positions may be divided into two camps; one proposes ‘serious play’ as an engine fo...... workplaces engage in play: play as a (serious) continuation of work, play as a (critical) intervention into work and play as an (uninvited) usurpation of work....

  19. Playing on the edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak-Sassenrath, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    and specific ways. For instance, gambling for money, party and drinking games, professional play and show sports, art installations, violent and military propaganda computer games, pervasive/mobile gaming, live-action role playing, festivals, performances, and games such as Ghosting and Planking. It is argued......Everything gets more interesting, challenging, or intense the closer it gets to the edge, and so does play. How edgy can play become and still be play? Based on Huizinga’s notion of play, this chapter discusses how a wide range of playful activities pushes the boundaries of play in different...... that in concert with a number of characteristics that mark an activity as play, play is essentially a subjective perspective and individual decision of the player. Huizinga calls this attitude the play spirit, which informs a player’s actions and is in turn sustained by them. Edgy digital or mobile games do...

  20. Scalable imaging of scattering organisms with hybrid selective plane illumination microscopy and optoacoustic tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Hsiao Chun Amy

    2017-01-01

    Biomedical imaging plays a key role in the advancement of medical research. While high-resolution microscopy enables the harvest of molecular and cellular information, a holistic picture on organ level can only be provided by means of macroscopic imaging. Wedged in between Micro-macro, the mesoscopic regime offers important bridging of the information transfer. The focus of the research presented in this thesis centers around the application of selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM) a...

  1. The Play of Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry

    2012-01-01

    The author reviews the role of play within psychotherapy. She does not discuss the formal play therapy especially popular for young children, nor play from the Jungian perspective that encourages the use of the sand tray with adults. Instead, she focuses on the informal use of play during psychotherapy as it is orchestrated intuitively. Because…

  2. Play Therapy. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landreth, Garry; Bratton, Sue

    Play therapy is based on developmental principles and, thus, provides, through play, developmentally appropriate means of expression and communication for children. Therefore, skill in using play therapy is an essential tool for mental health professionals who work with children. Therapeutic play allows children the opportunity to express…

  3. The role of play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, B.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Play is seen as an activity that is fun, voluntary, offers escape, and is fundamentally exciting. Play is however, more than that; it is a working model of flexibility! There is a vital link between play, psychological development and learning. Moreover, the importance of play has gained importance

  4. Enhanced xylene removal by photocatalytic oxidation using fiber-illuminated honeycomb reactor at ppb level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yi-Ting [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Yu, Yi-Hui [Department of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Nguyen, Van-Huy [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lu, Kung-Te [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Wu, Jeffrey Chi-Sheng, E-mail: cswu@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chang, Luh-Maan [Department of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Chi-Wen [Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Hsinchu 30078, Taiwan (China)

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: We have designed a fiber-illuminated honeycomb reactor (FIHR) in which the removal efficiency of m-xylene is significantly enhanced to 96.5% as compared to 22.0% for UV irradiation only. The results indicate that photocatalysts not only play the role to substantially oxidize m-xylene, but also alter the chemical properties of xylene under UV illumination. -- Highlights: • The combination of optical fiber and honeycomb significantly enhanced the performance of VOCs photodegradation. • The removal efficiency of m-xylene is enhanced to 96.5% as compared to 22.0% for UV irradiation alone. • Fiber-illuminated honeycomb reactor is the first step toward an industrial-scale technology on the removal of xylene. -- Abstract: The removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at ppb level is one of the most critical challenges in clean rooms for the semiconductor industry. Photocatalytic oxidation is an innovative and promising technology for ppb-level VOCs degradation. We have designed a fiber-illuminated honeycomb reactor (FIHR) in which the removal efficiency of m-xylene is significantly enhanced to 96.5% as compared to 22.0% for UV irradiation only. The results indicate that photocatalysts not only play the role to substantially oxidize m-xylene, but also alter the chemical properties of xylene under UV illumination. Using the FIHR with Mn-TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst not only increased the m-xylene removal efficiency, but also increased the CO{sub 2} selectivity. Interestingly, Mn-TiO{sub 2} in FIHR also showed a very good reusability, 93% removal efficiency was still achieved in 72-h in reaction. Thus, the FIHR gave very high removal efficiency for xylene at ppb level under room temperature. The FIHR has great potential application in the clean room for the air purification system in the future.

  5. Enhanced xylene removal by photocatalytic oxidation using fiber-illuminated honeycomb reactor at ppb level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yi-Ting; Yu, Yi-Hui; Nguyen, Van-Huy; Lu, Kung-Te; Wu, Jeffrey Chi-Sheng; Chang, Luh-Maan; Kuo, Chi-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: We have designed a fiber-illuminated honeycomb reactor (FIHR) in which the removal efficiency of m-xylene is significantly enhanced to 96.5% as compared to 22.0% for UV irradiation only. The results indicate that photocatalysts not only play the role to substantially oxidize m-xylene, but also alter the chemical properties of xylene under UV illumination. -- Highlights: • The combination of optical fiber and honeycomb significantly enhanced the performance of VOCs photodegradation. • The removal efficiency of m-xylene is enhanced to 96.5% as compared to 22.0% for UV irradiation alone. • Fiber-illuminated honeycomb reactor is the first step toward an industrial-scale technology on the removal of xylene. -- Abstract: The removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at ppb level is one of the most critical challenges in clean rooms for the semiconductor industry. Photocatalytic oxidation is an innovative and promising technology for ppb-level VOCs degradation. We have designed a fiber-illuminated honeycomb reactor (FIHR) in which the removal efficiency of m-xylene is significantly enhanced to 96.5% as compared to 22.0% for UV irradiation only. The results indicate that photocatalysts not only play the role to substantially oxidize m-xylene, but also alter the chemical properties of xylene under UV illumination. Using the FIHR with Mn-TiO 2 photocatalyst not only increased the m-xylene removal efficiency, but also increased the CO 2 selectivity. Interestingly, Mn-TiO 2 in FIHR also showed a very good reusability, 93% removal efficiency was still achieved in 72-h in reaction. Thus, the FIHR gave very high removal efficiency for xylene at ppb level under room temperature. The FIHR has great potential application in the clean room for the air purification system in the future

  6. Carrier illumination measurement of dopant lateral diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budiarto, E.; Segovia, M.; Borden, P.; Felch, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the carrier illumination technique to non-destructively measure the lateral diffusion of implanted dopants after annealing. Experiments to validate the feasibility of this method employed test structures with a constant line width of 300 nm and varying undoped spaces of 100-5000 nm. The test patterns were implanted with a p-type dopant and annealed in a 3 x 3 matrix. For each implant condition, the measured lateral diffusion was found to increase with annealing temperature, as expected. More interestingly, the lateral diffusion was not observed to relate to the vertical diffusion by a fixed proportionality factor, as is usually assumed. The ratio of lateral to vertical diffusion varies with annealing temperature, with a trend that depends on the implant condition

  7. Uniform LED illuminator for miniature displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Vladimir; Pelka, David G.; Parkyn, William A.

    1998-10-01

    The Total Internally Reflecting (TIR) lens is a faceted structure composed of prismatic elements that collect a source's light over a much larger angular range than a conventional Fresnel lens. It has been successfully applied to the efficient collimation of light from incandescent and fluorescent lamps, and from light-emitting diodes (LEDs). A novel LED-powered collimating backlight is presented here, for uniformly illuminating 0.25'-diagonal miniature liquid- crystal displays, which are a burgeoning market for pagers, cellular phones, digital cameras, camcorders, and virtual- reality displays. The backlight lens consists of a central dual-asphere refracting section and an outer TIR section, properly curved with a curved exit face.

  8. Illuminating magma shearing processes via synchrotron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée, Yan; Cai, Biao; Coats, Rebecca; Kendrick, Jackie E.; von Aulock, Felix W.; Wallace, Paul A.; Le Gall, Nolwenn; Godinho, Jose; Dobson, Katherine; Atwood, Robert; Holness, Marian; Lee, Peter D.

    2017-04-01

    Our understanding of geomaterial behaviour and processes has long fallen short due to inaccessibility into material as "something" happens. In volcanology, research strategies have increasingly sought to illuminate the subsurface of materials at all scales, from the use of muon tomography to image the inside of volcanoes to the use of seismic tomography to image magmatic bodies in the crust, and most recently, we have added synchrotron-based x-ray tomography to image the inside of material as we test it under controlled conditions. Here, we will explore some of the novel findings made on the evolution of magma during shearing. These will include observations and discussions of magma flow and failure as well as petrological reaction kinetics.

  9. Optimization of laboratory illumination in optical dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew; Lindvold, Lars René

    2017-01-01

    As part of the development of new laboratory lighting, we present a methodological approach applicable to the characterization of any light source intended for illumination in optical dating laboratories. We derive optical absorption cross-sections for quartz and feldspar from published data......-emitting diodes (LEDs); this comparison demonstrates the significant advantage of the LED sources over the filtered light sources, because essentially all of the reduction of both OSL and IRSL signals by the LEDs occurs at wavelengths to which the human eye is most sensitive. We conclude that exposure of quartz...... and feldspar extracts from various samples to the light from an LED with emission peak at 594 nm results in a 1% OSL or IRSL signal loss for a 48-h exposure at a power density of ~0.2 mW.cm-2....

  10. Child's Play: Therapist's Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Rajakumari P.; Hirisave, Uma

    2014-01-01

    Play has been recognized as an essential component to children's healthy development. Schools of play therapy differ philosophically and technically, but they all embrace the therapeutic and developmental properties of play. This case report is an illustration of how a 6-year-old child with emotional disorder was facilitated to express concerns in child-centered play therapy. The paper discusses the therapist's narration of the child's play. PMID:24860228

  11. Multiple Illuminant Colour Estimation via Statistical Inference on Factor Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutimbu, Lawrence; Robles-Kelly, Antonio

    2016-08-31

    This paper presents a method to recover a spatially varying illuminant colour estimate from scenes lit by multiple light sources. Starting with the image formation process, we formulate the illuminant recovery problem in a statistically datadriven setting. To do this, we use a factor graph defined across the scale space of the input image. In the graph, we utilise a set of illuminant prototypes computed using a data driven approach. As a result, our method delivers a pixelwise illuminant colour estimate being devoid of libraries or user input. The use of a factor graph also allows for the illuminant estimates to be recovered making use of a maximum a posteriori (MAP) inference process. Moreover, we compute the probability marginals by performing a Delaunay triangulation on our factor graph. We illustrate the utility of our method for pixelwise illuminant colour recovery on widely available datasets and compare against a number of alternatives. We also show sample colour correction results on real-world images.

  12. Alibis for Adult Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The social meanings of play sit at odds with norms of responsible and productive adult conduct. To be “caught” playing as an adult therefore risks embarrassment. Still, many designers want to create enjoyable, nonembarrassing play experiences for adults. To address this need, this article reads instances of spontaneous adult play through the lens of Erving Goffman’s theory of the interaction order to unpack conditions and strategies for nonembarrassing adult play. It identifies established frames, segregated audiences, scripts supporting smooth performance, managing audience awareness, role distancing, and, particularly, alibis for play: Adults routinely provide alternative, adult-appropriate motives to account for their play, such as child care, professional duties, creative expression, or health. Once legitimized, the norms and rules of play themselves then provide an alibi for behavior that would risk being embarrassing outside play.

  13. Pretending to Play or Playing to Pretend: The Case of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasari, Connie; Chang, Ya-Chih; Patterson, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    An article by Angeline S. Lillard and others published in the January 2013 issue of "Psychological Bulletin" about the impact of pretend play on child development raised a number of issues about play studies and child psychology. The article claimed that, contrary to current theories on the subject, the evidence of many studies does not…

  14. Energy efficient LED layout optimization for near-uniform illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ramy E.; Elgala, Hany

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of designing energy efficient light emitting diodes (LEDs) layout while satisfying the illumination constraints. Towards this objective, we present a simple approach to the illumination design problem based on the concept of the virtual LED. We formulate a constrained optimization problem for minimizing the power consumption while maintaining a near-uniform illumination throughout the room. By solving the resulting constrained linear program, we obtain the number of required LEDs and the optimal output luminous intensities that achieve the desired illumination constraints.

  15. An Active Illumination and Appearance (AIA) Model for Face Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahraman, Fatih; Gokmen, Muhittin; Darkner, Sune

    2007-01-01

    Face recognition systems are typically required to work under highly varying illumination conditions. This leads to complex effects imposed on the acquired face image that pertains little to the actual identity. Consequently, illumination normalization is required to reach acceptable recognition...... rates in face recognition systems. In this paper, we propose an approach that integrates the face identity and illumination models under the widely used Active Appearance Model framework as an extension to the texture model in order to obtain illumination-invariant face localization...

  16. Determination of illuminants representing typical white light emitting diodes sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jost, S.; Ngo, M.; Ferrero, A.

    2017-01-01

    is to develop LED-based illuminants that describe typical white LED products based on their Spectral Power Distributions (SPDs). Some of these new illuminants will be recommended in the update of the CIE publication 15 on colorimetry with the other typical illuminants, and among them, some could be used......Solid-state lighting (SSL) products are already in use by consumers and are rapidly gaining the lighting market. Especially, white Light Emitting Diode (LED) sources are replacing banned incandescent lamps and other lighting technologies in most general lighting applications. The aim of this work...... to complement the CIE standard illuminant A for calibration use in photometry....

  17. High Efficiency, Illumination Quality OLEDs for Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Shiang; James Cella; Kelly Chichak; Anil Duggal; Kevin Janora; Chris Heller; Gautam Parthasarathy; Jeffery Youmans; Joseph Shiang

    2008-03-31

    The goal of the program was to demonstrate a 45 lumen per watt white light device based upon the use of multiple emission colors through the use of solution processing. This performance level is a dramatic extension of the team's previous 15 LPW large area illumination device. The fundamental material system was based upon commercial polymer materials. The team was largely able to achieve these goals, and was able to deliver to DOE a 90 lumen illumination source that had an average performance of 34 LPW a 1000 cd/m{sup 2} with peak performances near 40LPW. The average color temperature is 3200K and the calculated CRI 85. The device operated at a brightness of approximately 1000cd/m{sup 2}. The use of multiple emission colors particularly red and blue, provided additional degrees of design flexibility in achieving white light, but also required the use of a multilayered structure to separate the different recombination zones and prevent interconversion of blue emission to red emission. The use of commercial materials had the advantage that improvements by the chemical manufacturers in charge transport efficiency, operating life and material purity could be rapidly incorporated without the expenditure of additional effort. The program was designed to take maximum advantage of the known characteristics of these material and proceeded in seven steps. (1) Identify the most promising materials, (2) assemble them into multi-layer structures to control excitation and transport within the OLED, (3) identify materials development needs that would optimize performance within multilayer structures, (4) build a prototype that demonstrates the potential entitlement of the novel multilayer OLED architecture (5) integrate all of the developments to find the single best materials set to implement the novel multilayer architecture, (6) further optimize the best materials set, (7) make a large area high illumination quality white OLED. A photo of the final deliverable is shown

  18. Children, Time, and Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkind, David; Rinaldi, Carla; Flemmert Jensen, Anne

    Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003.......Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003....

  19. Role-Playing Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)

  20. Play the MRI Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teachers' Questionnaire MRI Play MRI the Magnetic Miracle Game About the game In the MRI imaging technique, strong magnets and ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  1. Play the Tuberculosis Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questionnaire Tuberculosis Play Tuberculosis Experiments & Discoveries About the game Discover and experience some of the classic methods ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  2. Play the Electrocardiogram Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Electrocardiogram Play the ECG Game About the game ECG is used for diagnosing heart conditions by ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  3. Transmission issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, J.; Wilson, L.; Thon, S.; Millar, N.

    2005-01-01

    This session on transmission issues focused on the role that transmission plays in electricity markets and the importance of getting the market structure right in terms of generation divestiture with buy back contracts, demand side responsive programs, transmission upgrades and long term contracts. The difficulties of distinguishing between market power and scarcity were examined along with some of the complications that ensue if transmission experiences congestion, as exemplified by the August 2003 blackout in eastern North America. The presentations described the best ways to handle transmission issues, and debated whether transmission should be deregulated or follow market forces. Issues of interconnections and reliability of connections were also debated along with the attempt to integrate renewables into the grid. Some presentations identified what new transmission must be built and what must be done to ensure that transmission gets built. The challenges and business opportunities for transmission in Alberta were discussed with reference to plans to invest in new infrastructure, where it is going outside of the province and how it works with other jurisdictions. Manitoba's Conawapa Hydro Project and its 2000 MW tie line to Ontario was also discussed. Some examples of non-optimal use of interconnections in Europe were also discussed in an effort to learn from these mistakes and avoid them in Canada. tabs., figs

  4. [Play therapy in hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Katharina; Grothues, Dirk; Leitzmann, Michael; Gruber, Hans; Melter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The following article presents an overview of current research studies on play therapy in the hospital. It highlights individual diagnoses for which play therapy has shown reasonable success. The aim of this review is to describe the current status of the scientific debate on play therapy for sick children in order to allow conclusions regarding the indications for which play therapy is or might be useful.

  5. Ouroboros - Playing A Biochemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Rodrigues

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ouroboros: Playing A Biochemical RODRIGUES,D.T.1,2;GAYER, M.C.1,2; ESCOTO, D.F.1; DENARDIN, E.L.G.2, ROEHRS, R.1,2 1Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil 2Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil Introduction: Currently, teachers seek different alternatives to enhance the teaching-learning process. Innovative teaching methodologies are increasingly common tools in educational routine. The use of games, electronic or conventional, is an effective tool to assist in learning and also to raise the social interaction between students. Objective: In this sense our work aims to evaluate the card game and "Ouroboros" board as a teaching and learning tool in biochemistry for a graduating class in Natural Sciences. Materials and methods: The class gathered 22 students of BSc in Natural Sciences. Each letter contained a question across the board that was drawn to a group to answer within the allotted time. The questions related concepts of metabolism, organic and inorganic chemical reactions, bioenergetics, etc.. Before the game application, students underwent a pre-test with four issues involving the content that was being developed. Soon after, the game was applied. Then again questions were asked. Data analysis was performed from the ratio of the number of correct pre-test and post-test answers. Results and discussion: In the pre-test 18.1% of the students knew all issues, 18.1% got 3 correct answers, 40.9% answered only 2 questions correctly and 22.7% did not hit any. In post-test 45.4% answered all the questions right, 31.8% got 3 questions and 22.7% got 2 correct answers. The results show a significant improvement of the students about the field of content taught through the game. Conclusion: Generally, traditional approaches of chemistry and biochemistry are abstract and complex. Thus, through games

  6. "Enlivening and - Dividing": An Aporia of Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Christian Hönes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Verdana;} In 1798, Karl August Böttiger paid a nocturnal visit to the Gallery of Antiques in Dresden, illuminating the statues with a torch. At first glance, this seems to be yet another example of a popular practice for visiting galleries c.1800. Illuminating the sculptures by torchlight was a popular means of enlivening the objects, set in motion by the light flickering on their surfaces. The collections were thus meant to become a place where cold, white stone comes to life, and where the beholder becomes part of a revived antiquity.This was precisely what Böttiger intended, too. But to him, the effect of the torchlight appeared to be, as he wrote, “enlivening and – dividing!” The torchlight highlighted not only the beauty of the sculptures but also their modern restorations. Böttiger apparently failed to experience the living presence of the antique celebrated by many of his contemporaries (e.g. Goethe, Moritz.This essay focuses on the consequence of such a perception of sculptures as historically multi-layered objects. Böttiger’s experience resulted in a problematic situation. In trying to view the sculptures as contemporaries, he hoped to become ancient himself. But this operation failed in the moment when the sculptures themselves appeared to be anachronistic, impure palimpsests. In consequence, galleries may not only be the place were art history as chronological Stilgeschichte was born. They may also be the site where this perception changed into the experience of a more chaotic shape of time.

  7. A Brief Introduction to Competition and Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Scanlan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This introduction sets the stage for a NANO special issue on how competition and play revolutionized Victorian work, how these ideas operate in endurance sports, and how they might get remade in digital spaces.

  8. The Pedagogy of Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    Play is important. Environmental educators Sobel and Louv write about the relationship between children and outside play and suggest that early transcendental experiences within nature allow children to develop empathetic orientations towards the natural world. Children who play out-of-doors develop an appreciation for the environment and…

  9. The play grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh, Rune; Johansen, Asger

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose The Play Grid, a model for systemizing different play types. The approach is psychological by nature and the actual Play Grid is based, therefore, on two pairs of fundamental and widely acknowledged distinguishing characteristics of the ego, namely: extraversion vs. intro...

  10. Play the Mosquito Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Malaria Play the Mosquito Game Play the Parasite Game About the games Malaria is one of the world's most common ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  11. Playing with the city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosca, Susana; Marquez, Israel

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and describe the phenomenon of videogame street art as a specific kind of street art. We consider its materiality and significance, and conceptualize it in the light of a double manifestation of play: the playful appropriation of the city by the artist and the fact...... that street art encapsulates the act of playing videogames in a visual form. Digital play spills out of our computer screens and occupies the urban space with the explicit intention of involving spectators, who are invited to play in symbolic ways that actualize nostalgic memories of gaming and can be related...

  12. Structured illumination to spatially map chromatin motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Keith; Smelser, Amanda; Moreno, Naike Salvador; Holzwarth, George; Wang, Kevin; Levy, Preston; Vidi, Pierre-Alexandre

    2018-05-01

    We describe a simple optical method that creates structured illumination of a photoactivatable probe and apply this method to characterize chromatin motions in nuclei of live cells. A laser beam coupled to a diffractive optical element at the back focal plane of an excitation objective generates an array of near diffraction-limited beamlets with FWHM of 340  ±  30  nm, which simultaneously photoactivate a 7  ×  7 matrix pattern of GFP-labeled histones, with spots 1.70  μm apart. From the movements of the photoactivated spots, we map chromatin diffusion coefficients at multiple microdomains of the cell nucleus. The results show correlated motions of nearest chromatin microdomain neighbors, whereas chromatin movements are uncorrelated at the global scale of the nucleus. The method also reveals a DNA damage-dependent decrease in chromatin diffusion. The diffractive optical element instrumentation can be easily and cheaply implemented on commercial inverted fluorescence microscopes to analyze adherent cell culture models. A protocol to measure chromatin motions in nonadherent human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells is also described. We anticipate that the method will contribute to the identification of the mechanisms regulating chromatin mobility, which influences most genomic processes and may underlie the biogenesis of genomic translocations associated with hematologic malignancies. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  13. Solar Illumination Control of the Polar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, L.; Maggiolo, R.; De Keyser, J.; André, M.; Eriksson, A. I.; Haaland, S.; Li, K.; Poedts, S.

    2017-11-01

    Polar wind outflow is an important process through which the ionosphere supplies plasma to the magnetosphere. The main source of energy driving the polar wind is solar illumination of the ionosphere. As a result, many studies have found a relation between polar wind flux densities and solar EUV intensity, but less is known about their relation to the solar zenith angle at the ionospheric origin, certainly at higher altitudes. The low energy of the outflowing particles and spacecraft charging means it is very difficult to measure the polar wind at high altitudes. We take advantage of an alternative method that allows estimations of the polar wind flux densities far in the lobes. We analyze measurements made by the Cluster spacecraft at altitudes from 4 up to 20 RE. We observe a strong dependence on the solar zenith angle in the ion flux density and see that both the ion velocity and density exhibit a solar zenith angle dependence as well. We also find a seasonal variation of the flux density.

  14. Junction depth measurement using carrier illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borden, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Carrier Illumination [trade mark] (CI) is a new method recently developed to meet the need for a non-destructive, high throughput junction depth measurement on patterned wafers. A laser beam creates a quasi-static excess carrier profile in the semiconductor underlying the activated junction. The excess carrier profile is fairly constant below the junction, and drops rapidly in the junction, creating a steep index of refraction gradient at the junction edge. Interference with light reflected from this index gradient provides a signal that is analyzed to determine the junction depth. The paper summarizes evaluation of performance in full NMOS and PMOS process flows, on both bare and patterned wafers. The aims have been to validate (1) performance in the presence of underlying layers typically found at the source/drain (S/D) process steps and (2) measurement on patterned wafers. Correlation of CI measurements to SIMS and transistor drive current are shown. The data were obtained from NMOS structures using As S/D and LDD implants. Correlations to SRP, SIMS and sheet resistance are shown for PMOS structures using B 11 LDD implants. Gage capability measurements are also presented

  15. Tachistoscopic illumination and masking of real scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichka, David; Philbeck, John W; Gajewski, Daniel A

    2015-03-01

    Tachistoscopic presentation of scenes has been valuable for studying the emerging properties of visual scene representations. The spatial aspects of this work have generally been focused on the conceptual locations (e.g., next to the refrigerator) and directional locations of objects in 2-D arrays and/or images. Less is known about how the perceived egocentric distance of objects develops. Here we describe a novel system for presenting brief glimpses of a real-world environment, followed by a mask. The system includes projectors with mechanical shutters for projecting the fixation and masking images, a set of LED floodlights for illuminating the environment, and computer-controlled electronics to set the timing and initiate the process. Because a real environment is used, most visual distance and depth cues can be manipulated using traditional methods. The system is inexpensive, robust, and its components are readily available in the marketplace. This article describes the system and the timing characteristics of each component. We verified the system's ability to control exposure to time scales as low as a few milliseconds.

  16. Illuminating the chirality of Weyl fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiong; Xu, Su-Yang; Chan, Ching-Kit; Zhang, Cheng-Long; Chang, Guoqing; Lin, Hsin; Jia, Shuang; Lee, Patrick; Gedik, Nuh; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo

    In particle physics, Weyl fermions (WF) are elementary particles that travel at the speed of light and have a definite chirality. In condensed matter, it has been recently realized that WFs can arise as magnetic monopoles in the momentum space of a novel topological metal, the Weyl semimetal (WSM). Their chirality, given by the sign of the monopole charge, is the defining property of a WSM, since it directly serves as the topological number and gives rise to exotic properties such as Fermi arcs and the chiral anomaly. Moreover, the two chiralities, analogous to the two valleys in 2D materials, lead to a new degree of freedom in a 3D crystal, suggesting novel pathways to store and carry information. By shining circularly polarized light on the WSM TaAs, we illuminate the chirality of the WFs and achieve an electrical current that is highly controllable based on the WFs' chirality. Our results open up a wide range of new possibilities for experimentally studying and controlling the WFs and their associated quantum anomalies by optical and electrical means, which suggest the exciting prospect of ``Weyltronics''.

  17. Playing with social identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    as pretence, children’s play is understood as an activity involving rules of the social order (roles and positions) as well as identification processes (imagined situations). The theoretical argumentation builds on empirical examples obtained in two different Danish day-care centres. The chapter is informed...... by ethnographic observations and draws on illustrative examples with symbolic group play as well as game-play with rules (soccer) among 5 year old boys. Findings suggest that day-care children’s play, involves negotiation of roles, positioning and identification, and rules – and that these negotiations......This chapter offers support for Vygotsky’s claim that all play involves both an imagined situation as well as rules. Synthesising Schousboe’s comprehensive model of spheres of realities in playing (see Chapter 1, this volume) with Lev Vygotskys insight that all playing involve rules as well...

  18. Combining Illumination Normalization Methods for Better Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, B.J.; Tao, Q.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2009-01-01

    Face Recognition under uncontrolled illumination conditions is partly an unsolved problem. There are two categories of illumination normalization methods. The first category performs a local preprocessing, where they correct a pixel value based on a local neighborhood in the images. The second

  19. Adaptive Ambient Illumination Based on Color Harmony Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Ayano; Hirai, Keita; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Tsumura, Norimichi; Miyake, Yoichi

    We investigated the relationship between ambient illumination and psychological effect by applying a modified color harmony model. We verified the proposed model by analyzing correlation between psychological value and modified color harmony score. Experimental results showed the possibility to obtain the best color for illumination using this model.

  20. Transfer between Pose and Illumination Training in Face Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang Hong; Bhuiyan, Md. Al-Amin; Ward, James; Sui, Jie

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between pose and illumination learning in face recognition was examined in a yes-no recognition paradigm. The authors assessed whether pose training can transfer to a new illumination or vice versa. Results show that an extensive level of pose training through a face-name association task was able to generalize to a new…

  1. Infrared Illuminated CdZnTe detectors with improved performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.; Loutchanski, A.; Dorogov, P.; Khinoverov, S.

    2013-06-01

    It was found that IR illumination of a properly chosen wavelength and intensity can significantly improve spectrometric characteristics of CdZnTe quasi-hemispherical detectors [1]. Improving of the spectrometric characteristics is due to improvement of uniformity of charge collection by the detector volume. For operation at room temperature the optimal wavelength of IR illumination is about 940 nm, but for operation at lower temperature of -20 deg. C the optimal wavelengths of IR illumination is about 1050 nm. Infrared illumination can be performed using conventional low-power IR LEDs. Application of SMD LEDs allows produce miniature detection probes with IR illuminated CdZnTe detectors. We have fabricated and tested a variety of detection probes with CdZnTe quasi-hemispherical detectors from the smallest with volumes of 1-5 mm 3 to larger with volumes of 1.5 cm 3 and 4.0 cm 3 . The use of IR illumination significantly improves spectrometric characteristics of the probes operating at room temperature, especially probes with detectors of large volumes. The probe with the detector of 4 cm 3 without IR illumination had energy resolution of 24.2 keV at 662 keV and of 12.5 keV with IR illumination. (authors)

  2. Using Role Play to Debate Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agell, Laia; Soria, Vanessa; Carrió, Mar

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals in biomedical research is a socio-scientific issue in which decision-making is complicated. In this article, we describe an experience involving a role play activity performed during school visits to the Barcelona Biomedical Research Park (PRBB) to debate animal testing. Role playing games require students to defend different…

  3. Teaching Peace: Alternatives to Violent Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurek, Dianne Miller; Velazquez, Michaela

    1995-01-01

    To help combat the effects of violence on children and improve the quality and nature of play, early childhood teachers can: define violence by helping children become aware of the issue, help children resolve their own conflicts, create a peace place in the classroom, intervene when violent play occurs, evaluate media and toys, and educate…

  4. The effect of illumination and electrode adjustment on the carrier behavior in special multilayer devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yanhong; Ou, Qingdong; Wang, Jinjiang; Zhang, Dengyu; Chen, Liezun; Li, Yanqing

    2017-08-01

    Intermediate connectors play an important role in semiconductor devices, especially in tandem devices. In this paper, four types of different intermediate connectors (e.g. Mg:Alq3/MoO3, MoO3, Mg:Alq3, and none) and two kinds of modified electrode materials (LiF and MoO3) integrated into the special multilayer devices are proposed, with the aim of studying the impact of light illumination and electrode adjustment on the carrier behavior of intermediate connectors through the current density-voltage characteristics, interfacial electronic structures, and capacitance-voltage characteristics. The results show that the illumination enhances the charge generation and separation in intermediate connectors, and further electrode interface modifications enhance the functionality of intermediate connectors. In addition, the device with an efficient intermediate connector structure shows a photoelectric effect, which paves the way for organic photovoltaic devices to realize optical-electrical integration transformation.

  5. Ground reaction forces and frictional demands during stair descent: effects of age and illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina, Kathryn A; Cavanagh, Peter R

    2002-04-01

    Stair descent is an inherently risky and demanding task that older adults often encounter in everyday life. It is believed that slip between the foot or shoe sole and the stair surface may play a role in stair related falls, however, there are no reports on slip resistance requirements for stair descent. The aim of this study was to determine the required coefficient of friction (RCOF) necessary for safe stair descent in 12 young and 12 older adults, under varied illuminance conditions. The RCOF during stair descent was found to be comparable in magnitude and time to that for overground walking, and thus, with adequate footwear and dry stair surfaces, friction does not appear to be a major determinant of stair safety. Illuminance level had little effect on the dependent variables quantified in this study. However, the older participants demonstrated safer strategies than the young during stair descent, as reflected by differences in the ground reaction forces and lower RCOF.

  6. FairyPlay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Herdis

    2018-01-01

    in a play culture where children recycle them in transmitted, transformed and transgressive modes. His fairy tales function as raw materials – trash – for play-production, and these contemporary children muddle, mingle, remix their formulas and elements with other materials and adjust them to a play context......Hans Christian Andersen is a cultural icon in the Danish community, and his fairy tales are canonized as treasured Danish cultural heritage. However, situated as they are today in a crosscultural mix between folklore, booklore and medialore, they also may be analysed as useful, treasured trash...... through improvisations. So they perform what we shall name FairyPlay - just like Hans Christian Andersen himself did. We show Hans Christian Andersen as an intimate connoisseur of play culture, a homo ludens, a trash-sculptor and a thing-finder, like Pippi Longstocking and like children in play. Examples...

  7. Illuminate Knowledge Elements in Geoscience Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X.; Zheng, J. G.; Wang, H.; Fox, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    There are numerous dark data hidden in geoscience literature. Efficient retrieval and reuse of those data will greatly benefit geoscience researches of nowadays. Among the works of data rescue, a topic of interest is illuminating the knowledge framework, i.e. entities and relationships, embedded in documents. Entity recognition and linking have received extensive attention in news and social media analysis, as well as in bioinformatics. In the domain of geoscience, however, such works are limited. We will present our work on how to use knowledge bases on the Web, such as ontologies and vocabularies, to facilitate entity recognition and linking in geoscience literature. The work deploys an un-supervised collective inference approach [1] to link entity mentions in unstructured texts to a knowledge base, which leverages the meaningful information and structures in ontologies and vocabularies for similarity computation and entity ranking. Our work is still in the initial stage towards the detection of knowledge frameworks in literature, and we have been collecting geoscience ontologies and vocabularies in order to build a comprehensive geoscience knowledge base [2]. We hope the work will initiate new ideas and collaborations on dark data rescue, as well as on the synthesis of data and knowledge from geoscience literature. References: 1. Zheng, J., Howsmon, D., Zhang, B., Hahn, J., McGuinness, D.L., Hendler, J., and Ji, H. 2014. Entity linking for biomedical literature. In Proceedings of ACM 8th International Workshop on Data and Text Mining in Bioinformatics, Shanghai, China. 2. Ma, X. Zheng, J., 2015. Linking geoscience entity mentions to the Web of Data. ESIP 2015 Summer Meeting, Pacific Grove, CA.

  8. Why do Dolphins Play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan A. Kuczaj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Play is an important aspect of dolphin life, perhaps even an essential one. Play provides opportunities for dolphin calves to practice and perfect locomotor skills, including those involved in foraging and mating strategies and behaviors. Play also allows dolphin calves to learn important social skills and acquire information about the characteristics and predispositions of members of their social group, particularly their peers. In addition to helping dolphin calves learn how to behave, play also provides valuable opportunities for them to learn how to think. The ability to create and control play contexts enables dolphins to create novel experiences for themselves and their playmates under relatively safe conditions. The behavioral variability and individual creativity that characterize dolphin play yield ample opportunities for individual cognitive development as well as social learning, and sometimes result in innovations that are reproduced by other members of the group. Although adults sometimes produce innovative play, calves are the primary source of such innovations. Calves are also more likely to imitate novel play behaviors than are adults, and so calves contribute significantly to both the creation and transmission of novel play behaviors within a group. Not unexpectedly, then, the complexity of dolphin play increases with the involvement of peers. As a result, the opportunity to observe and/or interact with other dolphin calves enhances the effects of play on the acquisition and maintenance of flexible problem solving skills, the emergence and strengthening of social and communicative competencies, and the establishment of social relationships. It seems that play may have evolved to help young dolphins learn to adapt to novel situations in both their physical and social worlds, the beneficial result being a set of abilities that increases the likelihood that an individual survives and reproduces.

  9. Work Hard / Play Hard

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, J.; Johnson, V.; Henckel, D.

    2016-01-01

    Work Hard / Play Hard was a participatory performance/workshop or CPD experience hosted by interdisciplinary arts atelier WeAreCodeX, in association with AntiUniversity.org. As a socially/economically engaged arts practice, Work Hard / Play Hard challenged employees/players to get playful, or go to work. 'The game changes you, you never change the game'. Employee PLAYER A 'The faster the better.' Employer PLAYER B

  10. Free riders play fair

    OpenAIRE

    Takikawa, Hirohide

    2012-01-01

    After the demise of the social contract theory, the argument from fair play, which employs the principle of fair play, has been widely acknowledged as one of the most promising ways of justifying political obligation. First, I articulate the most promising version of the principle of fair play. Then, I show that free riders play fair, that is, that their moral fault lies not in unfairness but in the violation of a rule by appealing to the example of three-in-a-boat. Finally, I conclude that e...

  11. Designing for Immediate Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichlmair, Martin; Mech, Lena; Sicart, Miguel Angel

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with designing for immediate play, the experience that a player has when joining a game designed for being played without particular preparation. Museum games, urban games, casual sports, and ad-hoc multiplayer video games are kinds of games that facilitate immediate play...... offer using examples and expert opinions. While most practices and game examples mentioned in this paper are from non-digital games, a special focus is put on the role of technology in immediately playable experiences. Still, the examined design dimensions are independent of the technological foundation...... of the game. This paper provides a starting point for designing better immediate play situations....

  12. Late Modern Play Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg

    2008-01-01

    and the Danish University of Education (among others) have been working with different kind of products, all referred to as PlAYWARE. Playware combines modern technology and knowledge about play culture in order to produce playful experiences for its players. This paper will exemplify how the concept of play can...... from one generation to the next. Because older children are no longer present as younger children grow up, the traditional "cultural leaders" are gone. They have taken with them much of the inspiration for play as well as important knowledge about how to organise a game. In that sense we can say...

  13. Musical Instrument-Associated Health Issues and Their Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoshi, Kae; Minami, Taro; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Tomizawa, Yasuko

    2017-09-01

    Playing musical instruments can bring joy to people, but can also cause a wide variety of health issues that range from mild disorders to potentially fatal conditions. Although sports medicine is an established medical subspecialty, relatively few studies have investigated the health issues associated with musical instruments. Here we present an overview of these health issues. These include infections due to microorganisms, allergic reactions, as well as mechanical injuries from sustained high pressures within the oral, mediastinal, thoracic, and abdominal cavities. For example, wind instruments can potentially harbor thousands of pathogenic organisms. If several players share the same instrument, these instruments present potential hazards in the spread of infections. A fatal case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a bagpiper is particularly noteworthy. Similarly, a case of gastrointestinal anthrax in an animal-hide drummer is a reminder of this rare but highly fatal disease. Although not fatal, hearing-related disorders, neuromuscular issues, musculoskeletal problems, and contact dermatitis are also very common among instrumentalists. This review aims to illuminate these under-recognized health issues by highlighting both the common conditions and the rare but fatal cases.

  14. High collimated coherent illumination for reconstruction of digitally calculated holograms: design and experimental realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Alexander; Dubinin, German; Dubynin, Sergey; Yanusik, Igor; Kim, Sun Il; Choi, Chil-Sung; Song, Hoon; Lee, Hong-Seok; Putilin, Andrey; Kopenkin, Sergey; Borodin, Yuriy

    2017-06-01

    Future commercialization of glasses-free holographic real 3D displays requires not only appropriate image quality but also slim design of backlight unit and whole display device to match market needs. While a lot of research aimed to solve computational issues of forming Computer Generated Holograms for 3D Holographic displays, less focus on development of backlight units suitable for 3D holographic display applications with form-factor of conventional 2D display systems. Thereby, we report coherent backlight unit for 3D holographic display with thickness comparable to commercially available 2D displays (cell phones, tablets, laptops, etc.). Coherent backlight unit forms uniform, high-collimated and effective illumination of spatial light modulator. Realization of such backlight unit is possible due to holographic optical elements, based on volume gratings, constructing coherent collimated beam to illuminate display plane. Design, recording and measurement of 5.5 inch coherent backlight unit based on two holographic optical elements are presented in this paper.

  15. Joint Optimization of Receiver Placement and Illuminator Selection for a Multiband Passive Radar Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Rui; Wan, Xianrong; Hong, Sheng; Yi, Jianxin

    2017-06-14

    The performance of a passive radar network can be greatly improved by an optimal radar network structure. Generally, radar network structure optimization consists of two aspects, namely the placement of receivers in suitable places and selection of appropriate illuminators. The present study investigates issues concerning the joint optimization of receiver placement and illuminator selection for a passive radar network. Firstly, the required radar cross section (RCS) for target detection is chosen as the performance metric, and the joint optimization model boils down to the partition p -center problem (PPCP). The PPCP is then solved by a proposed bisection algorithm. The key of the bisection algorithm lies in solving the partition set covering problem (PSCP), which can be solved by a hybrid algorithm developed by coupling the convex optimization with the greedy dropping algorithm. In the end, the performance of the proposed algorithm is validated via numerical simulations.

  16. Designing and Evaluating an Online Role Play in Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrastinski, Stefan; Watson, Jason

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify, through a literature review, key issues regarding how online role plays can be designed and to apply them when designing a role play on conflict management. Design/methodology/approach: By drawing on the key issues identified in the literature review, a role play on conflict management was designed and…

  17. Improved illumination system of laparoscopes using an aspherical lens array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rengmao; Qin, Yi; Hua, Hong

    2016-06-01

    The current fiber-based illumination systems of laparoscopes are unable to uniformly illuminate a large enough area in abdomen due to the limited numerical aperture (NA) of the fiber bundle. Most energy is concentrated in a small region at the center of the illumination area. This limitation becomes problematic in laparoscopes which require capturing a wide field of view. In this paper, we propose an aspherical lens array which is used to direct the outgoing rays from the fiber bundle of laparoscope to produce a more uniformly illuminated, substantially larger field coverage than standalone fiber source. An intensity feedback method is developed to design the aspherical lens unit for extended non-Lambertian sources, which is the key to the design of this lens array. By this method, the lens unit is obtained after only one iteration, and the lens array is constructed by Boolean operation. Then, the ray-tracing technique is used to verify the design. Further, the lens array is fabricated and experimental tests are performed. The results clearly show that the well-illuminated area is increased to about 0.107m(2) from 0.02m(2) (about 5x larger than a standard fiber illumination source). More details of the internal organs can be clearly observed under this improved illumination condition, which also reflects the significant improvement in the optical performance of the laparoscope.

  18. Design and simulation of double annular illumination mode for microlithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qiang; Zhu, Jing; Yang, Baoxi; Liu, Lei; Wang, Jun; Huang, Huijie

    2013-08-01

    Methods of generating various illumination patterns remain as an attractive and important micro-optics research area for the development of resolution enhancement in advanced lithography system. In the current illumination system of lithography machine, off-axis illumination is widely used as an effective approach to enhance the resolution and increase the depth of focus (DOF). This paper proposes a novel illumination mode generation unit, which transform conventional mode to double annular shaped radial polarized (DARP) mode for improving the resolution of micro-lithography. Through LightToolsTM software simulation, double annular shaped mode is obtained from the proposed generation unit. The mathematical expressions of the radius variation of inner and outer rings are deduced. The impacts of conventional and dual concentric annular illumination pattern on critical dimension uniformity were simulated on an isolated line, square hole and corner. Lithography performance was compared between DARP illumination mode and corresponding single annular modes under critical dimension of 45nm. As a result, DARP illumination mode can improve the uniformity of aerial image at 45nm node through pitch varied in 300-500 nm to a certain extent.

  19. Real-time global illumination on mobile device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Minsu; Ha, Inwoo; Lee, Hyong-Euk; Kim, James D. K.

    2014-02-01

    We propose a novel method for real-time global illumination on mobile devices. Our approach is based on instant radiosity, which uses a sequence of virtual point lights in order to represent the e ect of indirect illumination. Our rendering process consists of three stages. With the primary light, the rst stage generates a local illumination with the shadow map on GPU The second stage of the global illumination uses the re ective shadow map on GPU and generates the sequence of virtual point lights on CPU. Finally, we use the splatting method of Dachsbacher et al 1 and add the indirect illumination to the local illumination on GPU. With the limited computing resources in mobile devices, a small number of virtual point lights are allowed for real-time rendering. Our approach uses the multi-resolution sampling method with 3D geometry and attributes simultaneously and reduce the total number of virtual point lights. We also use the hybrid strategy, which collaboratively combines the CPUs and GPUs available in a mobile SoC due to the limited computing resources in mobile devices. Experimental results demonstrate the global illumination performance of the proposed method.

  20. Nonuniformity mitigation of beam illumination in heavy ion inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, S; Noguchi, K; Suzuki, T; Kurosaki, T; Barada, D; Ogoyski, A I; Zhang, W; Xie, J; Zhang, H; Dai, D

    2014-01-01

    In inertial fusion, a target DT fuel should be compressed to typically 1000 times the solid density. The target implosion nonuniformity is introduced by a driver beam’s illumination nonuniformity, for example. The target implosion should be robust against the implosion nonuniformities. In this paper, the requirement for implosion uniformity is first discussed. The implosion non-uniformity should be less than a few percent. The implosion dynamics is also briefly reviewed in heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF). Heavy ions deposit their energy inside the target energy absorber, and the energy deposition layer is rather thick, depending on the ion particle energy. Then nonuniformity mitigation mechanisms of the heavy ion beam (HIB) illumination in HIF are discussed. A density valley appears in the energy absorber, and the large-scale density valley also works as a radiation energy confinement layer, which contributes to a radiation energy smoothing. In HIF, wobbling heavy ion beam illumination was also introduced to realize a uniform implosion. The wobbling HIB axis oscillation is precisely controlled. In the wobbling HIBs’ illumination, the illumination nonuniformity oscillates in time and space on an HIF target. The oscillating-HIB energy deposition may contribute to the reduction of the HIBs’ illumination nonuniformity by its smoothing effect on the HIB illumination nonuniformity and also by a growth mitigation effect on the Rayleigh–Taylor instability. (invited comment)

  1. Playfulness and Openness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela; Petersson, Eva

    2011-01-01

    What does it mean to design a playful learning tool? What is needed for a learning tool to be perceived by potential users as playful? These questions emerged reflecting on a Participatory Design process aimed at enhancing museum-learning practice from the perspective of primary school children...

  2. Play framework cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Reelsen, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at advanced developers who are looking to harness the power of Play 2.x. This book will also be useful for professionals looking to dive deeper into web development. Play 2 .x is an excellent framework to accelerate your learning of advanced topics.

  3. Five recent play dates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Mette Simonsen; Birkbak, Andreas; Jensen, Torben Elgaard

    2017-01-01

    An advantage of the playground metaphor is that it comes with the activity of going out on ‘play dates’ and developing friendships. In such playful relationships, there is always something at stake, but the interaction is also fun and inherently exploratory. In the following, we take a tour of five...

  4. Communication in Symbolic Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umek, Ljubica Marjanovic; Musek, Petra Lesnik; Kranjc, Simona

    2001-01-01

    Analyzed records of Slovene children's speech from a linguistic point of view and established differences in communication patterns with regard to the children's ages and the type of symbolic play. Found a shift in play from make-believe with regard to objects to roleplay related to social context. The older the child, the more language functions…

  5. Art of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel Cristina G.; Walker, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Play is a key element in cultural development, according to the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga. Nowadays many of us interact with other people in online games and social networks, through multiple digital devices. But harnessing playful activities for museum learning is mostly undeveloped. In thi...

  6. Play your part

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsey, Gaynor

    1978-01-01

    Play your part is a collection of then situations in which students have to take on the roles of particular people and express their opinions, feelings or arguments about the situation. Play your part is intended for use with advanced students of English.

  7. Return to Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Call it physical activity, call it games, or call it play. Whatever its name, it's a place we all need to return to. In the physical education, recreation, and dance professions, we need to redesign programs to address the need for and want of play that is inherent in all of us.

  8. Effects of chromatic image statistics on illumination induced color differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucassen, Marcel P; Gevers, Theo; Gijsenij, Arjan; Dekker, Niels

    2013-09-01

    We measure the color fidelity of visual scenes that are rendered under different (simulated) illuminants and shown on a calibrated LCD display. Observers make triad illuminant comparisons involving the renderings from two chromatic test illuminants and one achromatic reference illuminant shown simultaneously. Four chromatic test illuminants are used: two along the daylight locus (yellow and blue), and two perpendicular to it (red and green). The observers select the rendering having the best color fidelity, thereby indirectly judging which of the two test illuminants induces the smallest color differences compared to the reference. Both multicolor test scenes and natural scenes are studied. The multicolor scenes are synthesized and represent ellipsoidal distributions in CIELAB chromaticity space having the same mean chromaticity but different chromatic orientations. We show that, for those distributions, color fidelity is best when the vector of the illuminant change (pointing from neutral to chromatic) is parallel to the major axis of the scene's chromatic distribution. For our selection of natural scenes, which generally have much broader chromatic distributions, we measure a higher color fidelity for the yellow and blue illuminants than for red and green. Scrambled versions of the natural images are also studied to exclude possible semantic effects. We quantitatively predict the average observer response (i.e., the illuminant probability) with four types of models, differing in the extent to which they incorporate information processing by the visual system. Results show different levels of performance for the models, and different levels for the multicolor scenes and the natural scenes. Overall, models based on the scene averaged color difference have the best performance. We discuss how color constancy algorithms may be improved by exploiting knowledge of the chromatic distribution of the visual scene.

  9. IODC 2014 Illumination design problem: the Cinderella Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassarly, William J.

    2014-12-01

    For the 3rd time, the International Optical Design Conference (IODC) included an Illumination Design contest. This year, the contest involved designing the illuminator to project the 1950 Walt Disney "Cinderella" movie using a box of optical knick-knacks. The goal of the problem was to provide the highest screen lumens with greater than 30% uniformity. There were 12 entries from 3 different countries. Three different commercial optical/illumination design packages were used. The winning solution, provided by Alois Herkommer, provided 371 screen lumens.

  10. Effect of ultraviolet illumination on metal oxide resistive memory

    KAUST Repository

    Duran Retamal, Jose Ramon

    2014-12-22

    We investigate the photoelectrical and resistive switching properties of Pt/ZnO/Pt capacitor operated in unipolar mode under ultraviolet (UV) illumination. The oxygen photodesorption under UV illumination explains the photoconduction observed in initial and high resistance states. Meanwhile, oxygen readsorption at surface-related defects justifies the different photoresponses dynamics in both states. Finally, UV illumination significantly reduces the variations of resistance in high resistance state, set voltage and reset voltage by 58%, 33%, and 25%, respectively, stabilizing Pt/ZnO/Pt capacitor. Our findings in improved switching uniformity via UV light give physical insight into designing resistive memory devices.

  11. Interactive Dynamic Volume Illumination with Refraction and Caustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Jens G; Bruckner, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, significant progress has been made in developing high-quality interactive methods for realistic volume illumination. However, refraction - despite being an important aspect of light propagation in participating media - has so far only received little attention. In this paper, we present a novel approach for refractive volume illumination including caustics capable of interactive frame rates. By interleaving light and viewing ray propagation, our technique avoids memory-intensive storage of illumination information and does not require any precomputation. It is fully dynamic and all parameters such as light position and transfer function can be modified interactively without a performance penalty.

  12. Effect of ultraviolet illumination on metal oxide resistive memory

    KAUST Repository

    Duran Retamal, Jose Ramon; Kang, Chen-Fang; Ho, Chih-Hsiang; Ke, Jr-Jian; Chang, Wen-Yuan; He, Jr-Hau

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the photoelectrical and resistive switching properties of Pt/ZnO/Pt capacitor operated in unipolar mode under ultraviolet (UV) illumination. The oxygen photodesorption under UV illumination explains the photoconduction observed in initial and high resistance states. Meanwhile, oxygen readsorption at surface-related defects justifies the different photoresponses dynamics in both states. Finally, UV illumination significantly reduces the variations of resistance in high resistance state, set voltage and reset voltage by 58%, 33%, and 25%, respectively, stabilizing Pt/ZnO/Pt capacitor. Our findings in improved switching uniformity via UV light give physical insight into designing resistive memory devices.

  13. Morphology Evolution and Degradation of CsPbBr3 Nanocrystals under Blue Light-Emitting Diode Illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shouqiang; Li, Zhichun; Wang, Bo; Zhu, Nanwen; Zhang, Congyang; Kong, Long; Zhang, Qi; Shan, Aidang; Li, Liang

    2017-03-01

    Under illumination of light-emitting diode (LED) or sunlight, the green color of all-inorganic CsPbBr 3 perovskite nanocrystals (CPB-NCs) often quickly changes to yellow, followed by large photoluminescence (PL) loss. To figure out what is happening on CPB-NCs during the color change process, the morphology, structure, and PL evolutions are systematically investigated by varying the influence factors of illumination, moisture, oxygen, and temperature. We find that the yellow color is mainly originated from the large CPB crystals formed in the illumination process. With maximized isolation of oxygen for the sandwiched film or the uncovered film stored in nitrogen, the color change can be dramatically slowed down whether there is water vapor or not. Under dark condition, the PL emissions are not significantly influenced by the varied relative humidity (RH) levels and temperatures up to 60 °C. Under the precondition of oxygen or air, color change and PL loss become more obvious when increasing the illumination power or RH level, and the large-sized cubic CPB crystals are further evolved into the oval-shaped crystals. We confirm that oxygen is the crucial factor to drive the color change, which has the strong synergistic effect with the illumination and moisture for the degradation of the CPB film. Meanwhile, the surface decomposition and the increased charge trap states occurred in the formed large CPB crystals play important roles for the PL loss.

  14. Playful Collaboration (Or Not)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Marcel; Sproedt, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how playing games can be used to teach intangible social interaction across boundaries, in particular within open collaborative innovation. We present an exploratory case study of how students learned from playing a board game in a graduate course of the international...... and interdisciplinary Innovation and Business master's program in Denmark. We identify several important themes related to the process of learning through playing and the social dynamics of open collaborative innovation, while we also highlight possible caveats of “playing” and practicing open innovation. Our findings...

  15. Local Relation Map: A Novel Illumination Invariant Face Recognition Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Zhichao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel illumination invariant face recognition approach is proposed. Different from most existing methods, an additive term as noise is considered in the face model under varying illuminations in addition to a multiplicative illumination term. High frequency coefficients of Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT are discarded to eliminate the effect caused by noise. Based on the local characteristics of the human face, a simple but effective illumination invariant feature local relation map is proposed. Experimental results on the Yale B, Extended Yale B and CMU PIE demonstrate the outperformance and lower computational burden of the proposed method compared to other existing methods. The results also demonstrate the validity of the proposed face model and the assumption on noise.

  16. Improving Shadow Suppression for Illumination Robust Face Recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Wuming; Zhao, Xi; Morvan, Jean-Marie; Chen, Liming

    2017-01-01

    surface, lighting source and camera sensor, and elaborates the formation of face color appearance. Specifically, the proposed illumination processing pipeline enables the generation of Chromaticity Intrinsic Image (CII) in a log chromaticity space which

  17. Optics, illumination, and image sensing for machine vision II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetkoff, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    These proceedings collect papers on the general subject of machine vision. Topics include illumination and viewing systems, x-ray imaging, automatic SMT inspection with x-ray vision, and 3-D sensing for machine vision

  18. Circular, explosion-proof lamp provides uniform illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Circular explosion-proof fluorescent lamp is fitted around a TV camera lens to provide shadowless illumination with a low radiant heat flux. The lamp is mounted in a transparent acrylic housing sealed with clear silicone rubber.

  19. Advanced split-illumination electron holography without Fresnel fringes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki, E-mail: tanigaki-toshiaki@riken.jp [Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aizawa, Shinji; Park, Hyun Soon [Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Matsuda, Tsuyoshi [Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Harada, Ken [Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Hatoyama, Saitama 350-0395 (Japan); Shindo, Daisuke [Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-02-01

    Advanced split-illumination electron holography was developed by employing two biprisms in the illuminating system to split an electron wave into two coherent waves and two biprisms in the imaging system to overlap them. A focused image of an upper condenser-biprism filament was formed on the sample plane, and all other filaments were placed in its shadow. This developed system makes it possible to obtain precise reconstructed object waves without modulations due to Fresnel fringes, in addition to holograms of distant objects from reference waves. - Highlights: • Advanced split-illumination electron holography without Fresnel fringes is developed. • Two biprisms are installed in illuminating system of microscope. • High-precision holographic observations of an area locating far from the sample edge become possible.

  20. Advanced split-illumination electron holography without Fresnel fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Aizawa, Shinji; Park, Hyun Soon; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Harada, Ken; Shindo, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Advanced split-illumination electron holography was developed by employing two biprisms in the illuminating system to split an electron wave into two coherent waves and two biprisms in the imaging system to overlap them. A focused image of an upper condenser-biprism filament was formed on the sample plane, and all other filaments were placed in its shadow. This developed system makes it possible to obtain precise reconstructed object waves without modulations due to Fresnel fringes, in addition to holograms of distant objects from reference waves. - Highlights: • Advanced split-illumination electron holography without Fresnel fringes is developed. • Two biprisms are installed in illuminating system of microscope. • High-precision holographic observations of an area locating far from the sample edge become possible

  1. Play vs. Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammar, Emil

    Through the theories of play by Gadamer (2004) and Henricks (2006), I will show how the relationship between play and game can be understood as dialectic and disruptive, thus challenging understandings of how the procedures of games determine player activity and vice versa. As such, I posit some...... analytical consequences for understandings of digital games as procedurally fixed (Boghost, 2006; Flannagan, 2009; Bathwaite & Sharp, 2010). That is, if digital games are argued to be procedurally fixed and if play is an appropriative and dialectic activity, then it could be argued that the latter affects...... and alters the former, and vice versa. Consequently, if the appointed procedures of a game are no longer fixed and rigid in their conveyance of meaning, qua the appropriative and dissolving nature of play, then understandings of games as conveying a fixed meaning through their procedures are inadequate...

  2. Illuminant direction estimation for a single image based on local region complexity analysis and average gray value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jizheng; Mao, Xia; Chen, Lijiang; Xue, Yuli; Compare, Angelo

    2014-01-10

    Illuminant direction estimation is an important research issue in the field of image processing. Due to low cost for getting texture information from a single image, it is worthwhile to estimate illuminant direction by employing scenario texture information. This paper proposes a novel computation method to estimate illuminant direction on both color outdoor images and the extended Yale face database B. In our paper, the luminance component is separated from the resized YCbCr image and its edges are detected with the Canny edge detector. Then, we divide the binary edge image into 16 local regions and calculate the edge level percentage in each of them. Afterward, we use the edge level percentage to analyze the complexity of each local region included in the luminance component. Finally, according to the error function between the measured intensity and the calculated intensity, and the constraint function for an infinite light source model, we calculate the illuminant directions of the luminance component's three local regions, which meet the requirements of lower complexity and larger average gray value, and synthesize them as the final illuminant direction. Unlike previous works, the proposed method requires neither all of the information of the image nor the texture that is included in the training set. Experimental results show that the proposed method works better at the correct rate and execution time than the existing ones.

  3. Can play be defined?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Can play be defined? There is reason to raise critical questions about the established academic demand that at phenomenon – also in humanist studies – should first of all be defined, i.e. de-lineated and by neat lines limited to a “little box” that can be handled. The following chapter develops....... Human beings can very well understand play – or whatever phenomenon in human life – without defining it....

  4. Effect of different illumination sources on reading and visual performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Male Shiva Ram

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrates the influence of illumination on reading rate; there were no significant differences between males and females under different illuminations, however, males preferred CFL and females preferred FLUO for faster reading and visual comfort. Interestingly, neither preferred LED or TUNG. Although energy-efficient, visual performance under LED is poor; it is uncomfortable for prolonged reading and causes early symptoms of fatigue.

  5. Geometry of illumination, luminance contrast, and gloss perception

    OpenAIRE

    Leloup, Frédéric; Pointer, Michael R.; Dutré, Philip; Hanselaer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The influence of both the geometry of illumination and luminance contrast on gloss perception has been examined using the method of paired comparison. Six achromatic glass samples having different lightness were illuminated by two light sources. Only one of these light sources was visible in reflection by the observer. By separate adjustment of the intensity of both light sources, the luminance of both the reflected image and the adjacent off-specular surroundings could be individually varied...

  6. Illumination normalization based on simplified local binary patterns for a face verification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Q.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2007-01-01

    Illumination normalization is a very important step in face recognition. In this paper we propose a simple implementation of Local Binary Patterns, which effectively reduces the variability caused by illumination changes. In combination with a likelihood ratio classifier, this illumination

  7. Spiral wobbling beam illumination uniformity in HIF fuel target implosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawata S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A few % wobbling-beam illumination nonuniformity is realized in heavy ion inertial confinement fusion (HIF throughout the heavy ion beam (HIB driver pulse by a newly introduced spiraling beam axis motion in the first two rotations. The wobbling HIB illumination was proposed to realize a uniform implosion in HIF. However, the initial imprint of the wobbling HIBs was a serious problem and introduces a large unacceptable energy deposition nonuniformity. In the wobbling HIBs illumination, the illumination nonuniformity oscillates in time and space. The oscillating-HIB energy deposition may produce a time-dependent implosion acceleration, which reduces the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T growth [Laser Part. Beams 11, 757 (1993, Nuclear Inst. Methods in Phys. Res. A 606, 152 (2009, Phys. Plasmas 19, 024503 (2012] and the implosion nonuniformity. The wobbling HIBs can be generated in HIB accelerators and the oscillating frequency may be several 100 MHz ∼ 1 GHz [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 254801 (2010]. Three-dimensional HIBs illumination computations present that the few % wobbling HIBs illumination nonuniformity oscillates with the same wobbling HIBs frequency.

  8. Real-time Global Illumination by Simulating Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bent Dalgaard

    2004-01-01

    This thesis introduces a new method for simulating photon mapping in realtime. The method uses a variety of both CPU and GPU based algorithms for speeding up the different elements in global illumination. The idea behind the method is to calculate each illumination element individually in a progr......This thesis introduces a new method for simulating photon mapping in realtime. The method uses a variety of both CPU and GPU based algorithms for speeding up the different elements in global illumination. The idea behind the method is to calculate each illumination element individually...... in a progressive and efficient manner. This has been done by analyzing the photon mapping method and by selecting efficient methods, either CPU based or GPU based, which replaces the original photon mapping algorithms. We have chosen to focus on the indirect illumination and the caustics. In our method we first...... divide the photon map into several photon maps in order to make local updates possible. Then indirect illumination is added using light maps that are selectively updated by using selective photon tracing on the CPU. The final gathering step is calculated by using fragment programs and GPU based...

  9. Advanced illumination control algorithm for medical endoscopy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ricardo M.; Wäny, Martin; Santos, Pedro; Morgado-Dias, F.

    2015-05-01

    CMOS image sensor manufacturer, AWAIBA, is providing the world's smallest digital camera modules to the world market for minimally invasive surgery and one time use endoscopic equipment. Based on the world's smallest digital camera head and the evaluation board provided to it, the aim of this paper is to demonstrate an advanced fast response dynamic control algorithm of the illumination LED source coupled to the camera head, over the LED drivers embedded on the evaluation board. Cost efficient and small size endoscopic camera modules nowadays embed minimal size image sensors capable of not only adjusting gain and exposure time but also LED illumination with adjustable illumination power. The LED illumination power has to be dynamically adjusted while navigating the endoscope over changing illumination conditions of several orders of magnitude within fractions of the second to guarantee a smooth viewing experience. The algorithm is centered on the pixel analysis of selected ROIs enabling it to dynamically adjust the illumination intensity based on the measured pixel saturation level. The control core was developed in VHDL and tested in a laboratory environment over changing light conditions. The obtained results show that it is capable of achieving correction speeds under 1 s while maintaining a static error below 3% relative to the total number of pixels on the image. The result of this work will allow the integration of millimeter sized high brightness LED sources on minimal form factor cameras enabling its use in endoscopic surgical robotic or micro invasive surgery.

  10. Lunar South Pole Illumination: Review, Reassessment, and Power System Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincannon, James

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews past analyses and research related to lunar south pole illumination and presents results of independent illumination analyses using an analytical tool and a radar digital elevation model. The analysis tool enables assessment at most locations near the lunar poles for any time and any year. Average illumination fraction, energy storage duration, solar/horizon terrain elevation profiles and illumination fraction profiles are presented for various highly illuminated sites which have been identified for manned or unmanned operations. The format of the data can be used by power system designers to develop mass optimized solar and energy storage systems. Data are presented for the worse case lunar day (a critical power planning bottleneck) as well as three lunar days during lunar south pole winter. The main site under consideration by present lunar mission planners (on the Crater Shackleton rim) is shown to have, for the worse case lunar day, a 0.71 average illumination fraction and 73 to 117 hours required for energy storage (depending on power system type). Linking other sites and including towers at either site are shown to not completely eliminate the need for energy storage.

  11. Analyzing nitrogen concentration using carrier illumination (CI) technology for DPN ultra-thin gate oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.S.; Wu, Bill; Fan, Aki; Kuo, C.W.; Segovia, M.; Kek, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Nitrogen concentration in the gate oxide plays a key role for 90 nm and below ULSI technology. Techniques like secondary ionization mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are commonly used for understanding N concentration. This paper describes the application of the carrier illuminationTM (CI) technique to measure the nitrogen concentration in ultra-thin gate oxides. A set of ultra-thin gate oxide wafers with different DPN (decoupled plasma nitridation) treatment conditions were measured using the CI technique. The CI signal has excellent correlation with the N concentration as measured by XPS

  12. Serious Play, Serious Problems: Issues with eBook Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Baird

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an investigation into the accessibility of emerging interactive, multi-touch narratives, which are designed and developed to be used on Apple’s iPad device. Universal access to technology culturally, physically, mentally and socially is vital to the ethical and moral sustainability of society. The importance of this is particularly vital to the development of a child’s development of basic literacy, numeracy and reading skills, as technology becomes a predominant mode in their lives. Narratives designed and developed for the iPad device offer a multimodal, interactive environment of text, image, sound, animation and touch; yet they render the accessibility tools and functions, embedded within the iPad for users with disabilities, useless. Whilst some narratives counter this in a variety of ways in their design, there are still major areas where the concept of “universal access for all” is neglected, leaving a significant portion of users in the dark.

  13. Playing and gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg; Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hanghøj, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    The paper develops an approach of playing and gaming activities through the perspective of both activities as mood activities . The point of departure is that a game - is a tool with which we, through our practices, achieve different moods. This based on an empirical study of children's everyday...... lives, where the differences emerge through actual practices, i.e. through the creation of meaning in the specific situations. The overall argument is that it is not that important whether it is a playing or a gaming activity - it is however crucial to be aware of how moods occur and what their optimal...... dimensions: practices and moods. Practice is the concept of all the doing in the activities. Moods are the particular concept of sense and feeling of being, which is what we are drawn to when we are playing or gaming....

  14. To play is necessary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Vargas

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This work tries to contemplate on playing, leaving of the observations on the children's games accomplished during the apprenticeship and the articulation of those with some theoretical ones that have been dedicating if to the study of the game, of the childhood and of the Infantile Education. It was possible, through the apprenticeship registrations and of the observations to live many moments in that the two groups, 3A and 3B, they played incorporating objects and creating characters in your games. He/she gave way, we sought focar the game of the do-of-bill, contemplating on your importance for the children in the first childhood, and that possibilities she brings us in the amplification of the infantile experiences. Another important aspect in this article is to contemplate on the teacher's practice in the Infantile Education, and, through our observations on playing of the children noticed the teachers' involvement in the children's games.

  15. Transitional issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This discussion paper, the fifth in the series developed at the IPPSO Market Design Conference, addressed the issue of the need to prevent Ontario Hydro from taking unfair advantage of independent producers and other stakeholders through activities and investments in new power generating capacity in the transitional period leading up to deregulation. The need for controls is predicated on the assumption that the short-term actions and investments of Ontario Hydro could seriously compromise the position of independent generators, and that without such controls the level playing field essential to the operation of a competitive market, does not exist. Various actual and potential actions of Ontario Hydro were discussed, all of which point to the need for strict controls over Ontario Hydro exercising its dominant market power in an unfair way. It was recommended that as a minimum, the provincial government should no longer provide guarantees for Ontario Hydro capital projects, and that Ontario Hydro be instructed to defer any investment on new or returning generating capacity until the new market is in place. Limits could also be placed on Ontario Hydro's marketing efforts to enter into contracts during the transition period, and Ontario Hydro and municipal utilities should be required to keep separate accounts of their commercial preparation, and to settle such accounts separate from ratepayer revenue

  16. Rapid manufacturing of low-noise membranes for nanopore sensors by trans-chip illumination lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Xander J A; Jonsson, Magnus P; Plesa, Calin; Soni, Gautam V; Dekker, Cees; Dekker, Nynke H

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of nanopore sensing has matured from a proof-of-principle method to a widespread, versatile technique for the study of biomolecular properties and interactions. While traditional nanopore devices based on a nanopore in a single layer membrane supported on a silicon chip can be rapidly fabricated using standard microfabrication methods, chips with additional insulating layers beyond the membrane region can provide significantly lower noise levels, but at the expense of requiring more costly and time-consuming fabrication steps. Here we present a novel fabrication protocol that overcomes this issue by enabling rapid and reproducible manufacturing of low-noise membranes for nanopore experiments. The fabrication protocol, termed trans-chip illumination lithography, is based on illuminating a membrane-containing wafer from its backside such that a photoresist (applied on the wafer’s top side) is exposed exclusively in the membrane regions. Trans-chip illumination lithography permits the local modification of membrane regions and hence the fabrication of nanopore chips containing locally patterned insulating layers. This is achieved while maintaining a well-defined area containing a single thin membrane for nanopore drilling. The trans-chip illumination lithography method achieves this without relying on separate masks, thereby eliminating time-consuming alignment steps as well as the need for a mask aligner. Using the presented approach, we demonstrate rapid and reproducible fabrication of nanopore chips that contain small (12 μm × 12 μm) free-standing silicon nitride membranes surrounded by insulating layers. The electrical noise characteristics of these nanopore chips are shown to be superior to those of simpler designs without insulating layers and comparable in quality to more complex designs that are more challenging to fabricate. (paper)

  17. Play to Learn, Learn to Play: Language Learning through Gaming Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Dongwan

    2013-01-01

    Many researchers have investigated learning through playing games. However, after playing games, players often go online to establish and participate in the online community where they enrich their game experiences, discuss game-related issues, and create fan-fictions, screenshots, or scenarios. Although these emerging activities are an essential…

  18. General game playing

    CERN Document Server

    Genesereth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    General game players are computer systems able to play strategy games based solely on formal game descriptions supplied at ""runtime"" (n other words, they don't know the rules until the game starts). Unlike specialized game players, such as Deep Blue, general game players cannot rely on algorithms designed in advance for specific games; they must discover such algorithms themselves. General game playing expertise depends on intelligence on the part of the game player and not just intelligence of the programmer of the game player.GGP is an interesting application in its own right. It is intell

  19. Motivation, Creativity, Play & Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    on their needs and desires. This paper presents results from SoundScapes body of research which is utilising technology in assistive (re)habilitation from Virtual Interactive Space (VIS); furthermore the paper describes what emerges in play scenarios that utilise enabling technology. The involved study exhibits...... implementation of robotic physical movement synchronously manipulated from sourced data movement information of a human. SoundScapes is a concept based on non-verbal communication and stimulation through interactive play with sounds and images, which is being realised in the production of a non-wearable sensor...

  20. Illumination Conditions of the Lunar Polar Regions Using LOLA Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Torrence, M. H.

    2011-01-01

    We use high-resolution altimetry data obtained by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter instrument onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter to characterize present illumination conditions in the polar regions of the Moon. Compared to previous studies, both the spatial and temporal extent of the simulations are increased significantly, as well as the coverage (fill ratio) of the topographic maps used, thanks to the 28 Hz firing rate of the five-beam instrument. We determine the horizon elevation in a number of directions based on 240 m-resolution polar digital elevation models reaching down to 75 latitude. The illumination of both polar regions extending to 80 can be calculated for any geometry from those horizon longitudinal profiles. We validated our modeling with recent Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide-Angle Camera images. We assessed the extent of permanently shadowed regions (PSRs, defined as areas that never receive direct solar illumination), and obtained total areas generally larger than previous studies (12,866 and 16,055 km2, in the north and south respectively). We extended our direct illumination model to account for singly-scattered light, and found that every PSR does receive some amount of scattered light during the year. We conducted simulations over long periods (several 18.6-years lunar precession cycles) with a high temporal resolution (6 h), and identified the most illuminated locations in the vicinity of both poles. Because of the importance of those sites for exploration and engineering considerations, we characterized their illumination more precisely over the near future. Every year, a location near the Shackleton crater rim in the south polar region is sunlit continuously for 240 days, and its longest continuous period in total darkness is about 1.5 days. For some locations small height gains ( 10 m) can dramatically improve their average illumination and reduce the night duration, rendering some of those particularly attractive energy-wise as

  1. Issues and Trends in Higher Education Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietjen-Smith, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Public speculation about bioterrorism and the increasing obesity epidemic are examples of current public health issues that continue to be illuminated in the spotlight. Major public health threats continue to drive the health job market and impact higher education health curricula (e.g., public health, health promotion, community health). Also,…

  2. HOW STAR WARS ILLUMINATES CONSTITUTIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cass R. Sunstein

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Human beings often see coherence and planned design when neither exists. This is so in movies, literature, history, economics, and psychoanalysis – and constitutional law. Contrary to the repeated claims of George Lucas, its principal author, the Star Wars series was hardly planned in advance; it involved a great deal of improvisation and surprise, even to Lucas himself. Serendipity and happenstance, sometimes in the forms of eruptions of new thinking, play a pervasive and overlooked role in the creative imagination, certainly in single authored works, and even more in multi-authored ones extending over time. Serendipity imposes serious demands on the search for coherence in art, literature, history, and law. That search leads many people (including Lucas to misdescribe the nature of their own creativity and authorship. The misdescription appears to respond to a serious human need for sense-making and pattern-finding, but it is a significant obstacle to understanding and critical reflection. Whether Jedi or Sith, many authors of constitutional law are a lot like the author of Star Wars, disguising the essential nature of their own creative processes.

  3. Play and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The power of play, so central to psychoanalytic theory and practice, is conjoined to the social psychological or socio-politically coloured concept of power, giving rise to many fruitful discussions of how these concepts manifest themselves in clinical work with children, groups and adults...

  4. Play's Importance in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Anette; Heden, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute knowledge on and gain an understanding of elementary school teachers' perspectives on the function of play in children's learning processes. The study is qualitative with a hermeneutical approach and has George Herbert Mead as a theoretical frame of reference. Interviews have been carried out with seven…

  5. Play framework essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Richard-Foy, Julien

    2014-01-01

    This book targets Java and Scala developers who already have some experience in web development and who want to master Play framework quickly and efficiently. This book assumes you have a good level of knowledge and understanding of efficient Java and Scala code.

  6. Efficacy of play therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Life-skills of Children Under Difficult Circumstances: The. Case of Two ... Goodman's Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire-a standardized instrument) were obtained from 17 ... From a developmental point of view, play ... preventing mild problems becoming worse, .... records) and a socially withdrawn child-for example ...

  7. The Activity of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichlmair, Martin

    This paper presents Activity Theory as a framework for understanding the action of playing games with the intention of building a foundation for the creation of new game design tools and methods. Activity Theory, an epistemological framework rooted in Soviet psychology of the first half of the 20...

  8. stage/page/play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    context. Contributors: Per Brask, Dario Fo, Jette Barnholdt Hansen, Pil Hansen, Sven Åke Heed, Ulla Kallenbach, Sofie Kluge, Annelis Kuhlmann, Kela Kvam, Anna Lawaetz, Bent Flemming Nielsen, Franco Perrelli, Magnus Tessing Schneider, Antonio Scuderi. stage/page/play is published as a festschrift...

  9. Wide-area SWIR arrays and active illuminators

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougal, Michael; Hood, Andrew; Geske, Jon; Wang, Chad; Renner, Daniel; Follman, David; Heu, Paula

    2012-01-01

    We describe the factors that go into the component choices for a short wavelength (SWIR) imager, which include the SWIR sensor, the lens, and the illuminator. We have shown the factors for reducing dark current, and shown that we can achieve well below 1.5 nA/cm2 for 15 μm devices at 7°C. We have mated our InGaAs detector arrays to 640x512 readout integrated integrated circuits (ROICs) to make focal plane arrays (FPAs). In addition, we have fabricated high definition 1920x1080 FPAs for wide field of view imaging. The resulting FPAs are capable of imaging photon fluxes with wavelengths between 1 and 1.6 microns at low light levels. The dark current associated with these FPAs is extremely low, exhibiting a mean dark current density of 0.26 nA/cm2 at 0°C. FLIR has also developed a high definition, 1920x1080, 15 um pitch SWIR sensor. In addition, FLIR has developed laser arrays that provide flat illumination in scenes that are normally light-starved. The illuminators have 40% wall-plug efficiency and provide low-speckle illumination, provide artifact-free imagery versus conventional laser illuminators.

  10. Accommodating multiple illumination sources in an imaging colorimetry environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Kenneth W., Jr.; Goddard, James S., Jr.; Hunt, Martin A.; Hylton, Kathy W.; Karnowski, Thomas P.; Simpson, Marc L.; Richards, Roger K.; Treece, Dale A.

    2000-03-01

    Researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been developing a method for measuring color quality in textile products using a tri-stimulus color camera system. Initial results of the Imaging Tristimulus Colorimeter (ITC) were reported during 1999. These results showed that the projection onto convex sets (POCS) approach to color estimation could be applied to complex printed patterns on textile products with high accuracy and repeatability. Image-based color sensors used for on-line measurement are not colorimetric by nature and require a non-linear transformation of the component colors based on the spectral properties of the incident illumination, imaging sensor, and the actual textile color. Our earlier work reports these results for a broad-band, smoothly varying D65 standard illuminant. To move the measurement to the on-line environment with continuously manufactured textile webs, the illumination source becomes problematic. The spectral content of these light sources varies substantially from the D65 standard illuminant and can greatly impact the measurement performance of the POCS system. Although absolute color measurements are difficult to make under different illumination, referential measurements to monitor color drift provide a useful indication of product quality. Modifications to the ITC system have been implemented to enable the study of different light sources. These results and the subsequent analysis of relative color measurements will be reported for textile products.

  11. Spectrally optimal illuminations for diabetic retinopathy detection in retinal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartczak, Piotr; Fält, Pauli; Penttinen, Niko; Ylitepsa, Pasi; Laaksonen, Lauri; Lensu, Lasse; Hauta-Kasari, Markku; Uusitalo, Hannu

    2017-04-01

    Retinal photography is a standard method for recording retinal diseases for subsequent analysis and diagnosis. However, the currently used white light or red-free retinal imaging does not necessarily provide the best possible visibility of different types of retinal lesions, important when developing diagnostic tools for handheld devices, such as smartphones. Using specifically designed illumination, the visibility and contrast of retinal lesions could be improved. In this study, spectrally optimal illuminations for diabetic retinopathy lesion visualization are implemented using a spectrally tunable light source based on digital micromirror device. The applicability of this method was tested in vivo by taking retinal monochrome images from the eyes of five diabetic volunteers and two non-diabetic control subjects. For comparison to existing methods, we evaluated the contrast of retinal images taken with our method and red-free illumination. The preliminary results show that the use of optimal illuminations improved the contrast of diabetic lesions in retinal images by 30-70%, compared to the traditional red-free illumination imaging.

  12. Comparative analysis of face recognition techniques with illumination variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jondhale, K C; Waghmare, L M

    2010-01-01

    Illumination variation is one of the major challenges in the face recognition. To deal with this problem, this paper presents comparative analysis of three different techniques. First, the DCT is employed to compensate for illumination variations in the logarithm domain. Since illumination variation lies mainly in the low frequency band, an appropriate number of DCT coefficients are truncated to reduce the variations under different lighting conditions. The nearest neighbor classifier based on Euclidean distance is employed for classification. Second, the performance of PCA is checked on normalized image. PCA is a technique used to reduce multidimensional data sets to a lower dimension for analysis. Third, LDA based methods gives a satisfactory result under controlled lighting condition. But its performance under large illumination variation is not satisfactory. So, the performance of LDA is checked on normalized image. Experimental results on the Yale B and ORL database show that the proposed approach of application of PCA and LDA on normalized dataset improves the performance significantly for the face images with large illumination variations.

  13. Effects of illumination on image reconstruction via Fourier ptychography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xinrui; Sinzinger, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    The Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) technique provides high-resolution images by combining a traditional imaging system, e.g. a microscope or a 4f-imaging system, with a multiplexing illumination system, e.g. an LED array and numerical image processing for enhanced image reconstruction. In order to numerically combine images that are captured under varying illumination angles, an iterative phase-retrieval algorithm is often applied. However, in practice, the performance of the FPM algorithm degrades due to the imperfections of the optical system, the image noise caused by the camera, etc. To eliminate the influence of the aberrations of the imaging system, an embedded pupil function recovery (EPRY)-FPM algorithm has been proposed [Opt. Express 22, 4960-4972 (2014)]. In this paper, we study how the performance of FPM and EPRY-FPM algorithms are affected by imperfections of the illumination system using both numerical simulations and experiments. The investigated imperfections include varying and non-uniform intensities, and wavefront aberrations. Our study shows that the aberrations of the illumination system significantly affect the performance of both FPM and EPRY-FPM algorithms. Hence, in practice, aberrations in the illumination system gain significant influence on the resulting image quality.

  14. Play or science?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieberoth, Andreas; Pedersen, Mads Kock; Sherson, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Crowdscience games may hold unique potentials as learning opportunities compared to games made for fun or education. They are part of an actual science problem solving process: By playing, players help scientists, and thereby interact with real continuous research processes. This mixes the two...... worlds of play and science in new ways. During usability testing we discovered that users of the crowdscience game Quantum Dreams tended to answer questions in game terms, even when directed explicitly to give science explanations. We then examined these competing frames of understanding though a mixed...... correlational and grounded theory analysis. This essay presents the core ideas of crowdscience games as learning opportunities, and reports how a group of players used “game”, “science” and “conceptual” frames to interpret their experience. Our results suggest that oscillating between the frames instead...

  15. Understanding Games as Played

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leino, Olli Tapio

    2009-01-01

    Researchers interested in player’s experience would assumedly, across disciplines, agree that the goal behind enquiries into player’s experience is to understand the how games’ features end up affecting the player’s experience. Much of the contemporary interdisciplinary research into player......’s experience leans toward the empirical-scientific, in the forms (neuro)psychology, sociology and cognitive science, to name a few. In such approaches, for example demonstrating correlation between physiological symptoms and an in-game event may amount to ‘understanding’. However, the experience of computer...... game play is a viable topic also for computer game studies within the general tradition of humanities. In such context, the idea of ‘understanding an experience’ invites an approach focusing on the experienced significance of events and objects within computer game play. This focus, in turn, suggests...

  16. Ravens at Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Bird Rose

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available  ‘We were driving through Death Valley, an American-Australian and two Aussies, taking the scenic route from Las Vegas to Santa Cruz.’ This multi-voiced account of multispecies encounters along a highway takes up the challenge of playful and humorous writing that is as well deeply serious and theoretically provocative. Our travels brought us into what Donna Haraway calls the contact zone: a region of recognition and response. The contact zone is a place of significant questions: ‘Who are you, and so who are we? Here we are, and so what are we to become?’ Events were everything in this ecology of play, in which the movements of all the actors involved the material field in its entirety. We were brought into dances of approach and withdrawal, dances emerging directly, to paraphrase Brian Massumi, from the dynamic relation between a myriad of charged particles.

  17. Playful Collaboration (or Not)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores how games and play, which are deeply rooted in human beings as a way to learn and interact, can be used to teach certain concepts and practices related to open collaborative innovation. We discuss how playing games can be a source of creativity, imagination and fun, while it can...... also be conducive to deep learning. As such, a game can engage different dimensions of learning and embed elements of active, collaborative, cooperative and problem-based learning. Building on this logic, we present an exploratory case study of the use of a particular board game in a class of a course...... collaboration at the cost of individual performance and possible long-term collective performance as well....

  18. Play. Learn. Innovate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sproedt, Henrik

    study were to better understand the theoretical foundations and practical implications of complex social interaction in organizational innovation settings. As I did not find any existing models or hypotheses that I was interested in testing I set out to discover how I could grasp complex social...... evidence that play and games could be interesting perspectives to take in order to understand complex social interaction. I come to the conclusion that – in innovation settings – the social dynamics that affect the process are essentially about transformation of knowledge across boundaries. I propose......„Play. Learn. Innovate. – Grasping the Social Dynamics of Participatory Innovation“ the title of this thesis describes how the complex interplay of unexpected events led to some burning questions and eventually to this thesis, which one could call an innovation*1*. During several years...

  19. Creativity and Playfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Skovbjerg, Helle Marie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This article explores how student behavior and interactions change when teachers use “producing games” as a primary pedagogical strategy (Papert, 1980; Ejsing-Duun and Karoff, 2014). Based on student and teacher actions and responses, as well as on students' production—observed during f...... fieldwork—this paper emphasizes the importance of understanding how students explore creativity and playfulness while producing in learning situations....

  20. Achieving uniform efficient illumination with multiple asymmetric compound parabolic luminaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jeffrey M.; Kashin, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Luminaire designs based on multiple asymmetric nonimaging compound parabolic reflectors are proposed for 2-D illumination applications that require highly uniform far-field illuminance, while ensuring maximal lighting efficiency and sharp angular cutoffs. The new designs derive from recent advances in nonimaging secondary concentrators for line-focus solar collectors. The light source is not treated as a single entity, but rather is divided into two or more separate adjoining sources. An asymmetric compound parabolic luminaire is then designed around each half-source. Attaining sharp cutoffs requires relatively large reflectors. However, severe truncation of the reflectors renders these devices as compact as many conventional luminaires, at the penalty of a small fraction of the radiation being emitted outside the nominal cutoff. The configurations that maximize the uniformity of far-field illuminance offer significant improvements in flux homogeneity relative to alternative designs to date.

  1. Anti-glare LED lamps with adjustable illumination light field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Sheng; Lin, Chung-Yi; Yeh, Chun-Ming; Kuo, Chie-Tong; Hsu, Chih-Wei; Wang, Hsiang-Chen

    2014-03-10

    We introduce a type of LED light-gauge steel frame lamp with an adjustable illumination light field that does not require a diffusion plate. Base on the Monte Carlo ray tracing method, this lamp has a good glare rating (GR) of 17.5 at 3050 lm. Compared with the traditional LED light-gauge steel frame lamp (without diffusion plate), the new type has low GR. The adjustability of the illumination light field could improve the zebra effect caused by the inadequate illumination light field of the lamp. Meanwhile, we adopt the retinal image analysis to discuss the influence of GR on vision. High GR could reflect stray light on the retinal image, which will reduce vision clarity and hasten the feeling of eye fatigue.

  2. Video repairing under variable illumination using cyclic motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jiaya; Tai, Yu-Wing; Wu, Tai-Pang; Tang, Chi-Keung

    2006-05-01

    This paper presents a complete system capable of synthesizing a large number of pixels that are missing due to occlusion or damage in an uncalibrated input video. These missing pixels may correspond to the static background or cyclic motions of the captured scene. Our system employs user-assisted video layer segmentation, while the main processing in video repair is fully automatic. The input video is first decomposed into the color and illumination videos. The necessary temporal consistency is maintained by tensor voting in the spatio-temporal domain. Missing colors and illumination of the background are synthesized by applying image repairing. Finally, the occluded motions are inferred by spatio-temporal alignment of collected samples at multiple scales. We experimented on our system with some difficult examples with variable illumination, where the capturing camera can be stationary or in motion.

  3. Separate effects of background and illumination on lightness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Sunčica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Four experiments attempted to establish an effect of context on lightness. Lightness is one of the dimensions of color and it varies from black to white. Most of our stimuli were inspired by simultaneous lightness contrast illusion. First two experiments contrast the size of an effect produced by the change of background color vs. the change in illumination. The third experiment deals with different type of illusions, where the effect is obtained through the appearance of multiple illumination levels. The last experiment takes into account the ratio of the target and the background. The results reveal the size of effects produced separately by the background color and illumination level and suggest the prime importance of background. Also there are other factors such as reflectance range in the scene, incremental and decremental targets, and 2D vs. 3D representation.

  4. A back-illuminated megapixel CMOS image sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Bedabrata; Cunningham, Thomas; Nikzad, Shouleh; Hoenk, Michael; Jones, Todd; Wrigley, Chris; Hancock, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present the test and characterization results for a back-illuminated megapixel CMOS imager. The imager pixel consists of a standard junction photodiode coupled to a three transistor-per-pixel switched source-follower readout [1]. The imager also consists of integrated timing and control and bias generation circuits, and provides analog output. The analog column-scan circuits were implemented in such a way that the imager could be configured to run in off-chip correlated double-sampling (CDS) mode. The imager was originally designed for normal front-illuminated operation, and was fabricated in a commercially available 0.5 pn triple-metal CMOS-imager compatible process. For backside illumination, the imager was thinned by etching away the substrate was etched away in a post-fabrication processing step.

  5. Numerical analysis of lateral illumination lightpipes using elliptical grooves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Guerrero, Guillermo E.; Viera-González, Perla M.; Martínez-Guerra, Edgar; Ceballos-Herrera, Daniel E.

    2017-09-01

    Lightpipes are used for illumination in applications such as back-lighting or solar cell concentrators due to the high irradiance uniformity, but its optimal design requires several parameters. This work presents a procedure to design a square lightpipe to control the light-extraction on its lateral face using commercial LEDs placed symmetrically in the lightpipe frontal face. We propose the use of grooves using total internal reflection placed successively in the same face of extraction to control the area of emission. The LED area of emission is small compared with the illuminated area, and, as expected, the lateral face total power is attenuated. These grooves reduce the optical elements in the system and can control areas of illumination. A mathematical and numerical analysis are presented to determine the dependencies on the light-extraction.

  6. Local and Global Illumination in the Volume Rendering Integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N; Chen, M

    2005-10-21

    This article is intended as an update of the major survey by Max [1] on optical models for direct volume rendering. It provides a brief overview of the subject scope covered by [1], and brings recent developments, such as new shadow algorithms and refraction rendering, into the perspective. In particular, we examine three fundamentals aspects of direct volume rendering, namely the volume rendering integral, local illumination models and global illumination models, in a wavelength-independent manner. We review the developments on spectral volume rendering, in which visible light are considered as a form of electromagnetic radiation, optical models are implemented in conjunction with representations of spectral power distribution. This survey can provide a basis for, and encourage, new efforts for developing and using complex illumination models to achieve better realism and perception through optical correctness.

  7. Geometry of illumination, luminance contrast, and gloss perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leloup, Frédéric B; Pointer, Michael R; Dutré, Philip; Hanselaer, Peter

    2010-09-01

    The influence of both the geometry of illumination and luminance contrast on gloss perception has been examined using the method of paired comparison. Six achromatic glass samples having different lightness were illuminated by two light sources. Only one of these light sources was visible in reflection by the observer. By separate adjustment of the intensity of both light sources, the luminance of both the reflected image and the adjacent off-specular surroundings could be individually varied. It was found that visual gloss appraisal did not correlate with instrumentally measured specular gloss; however, psychometric contrast seemed to be a much better correlate. It has become clear that not only the sample surface characteristics determine gloss perception: the illumination geometry could be an even more important factor.

  8. Difference in opalescence of restorative materials by the illuminant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2009-08-01

    To determine the differences in the opalescence parameter (OP) of indirect and direct resin composites, veneer ceramics and bovine enamel relative to the CIE standard illuminants D65, A and F2. BelleGlass NG (indirect resin; 10 shades) and Estelite Sigma (direct resin; 12 shades), and 4 shades of veneer ceramics were investigated. Bovine enamel was used as a reference. Reflected and transmitted colors of specimens were measured relative to the illuminants D65, A and F2 with a reflection spectrophotometer. OP values relative to the three illuminants [OP(D65), OP(A) and OP(F2)], difference in OP (DeltaOP) and OP difference ratio relative to OP(D65) [DeltaOP/OP(D65)] by the change of illuminants were calculated. Within each restorative material, DeltaOP and DeltaOP/OP(D65) values were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), with the fixed factors of the shade designation and the combination of illuminants (alpha=0.05). DeltaOP and DeltaOP/OP(D65) values were influenced by the two factors within each restorative material based on two-way ANOVA. High opalescent materials showed higher DeltaOP values. OP(D65) was lower than OP(F2) and OP(A) values. Restorative materials showed lower DeltaOP/OP(D65) values than bovine enamel. Correlation coefficients between OP values relative to different illuminants were higher than 0.961 (Popalescence properties as compared with natural tooth enamel.

  9. Illuminating a neglected clinical issue: societal costs of interpersonal dependency and dependent personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Robert F

    2012-07-01

    To determine the degree to which patients with high levels of trait dependency or dependent personality disorder (DPD) engage in behaviors that harm themselves and others (e.g., domestic violence, child abuse). Six domains of literature were reviewed: (a) dependency as a risk factor for physical illness; (b) health care utilization and expenditures; (c) global and domain-specific functional impairment; (d) violence toward others; (e) victimization by others; and (f) self-harm. High levels of trait dependency and DPD are associated with elevated risk for physical illness, partner and child abuse, and suicidality, as well as with high levels of functional impairment and increased health care expenditure. Contrary to clinical lore, trait dependency and DPD are associated with behaviors that lead to myriad negative consequences for the dependent person, those close to them, and society as a whole. These patterns have noteworthy implications for assessment and treatment of dependent patients and suggest that DPD should be included as a diagnostic category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Work hard, play hard

    OpenAIRE

    Selby, Mark; Bradley, William

    2014-01-01

    Existing cultural and sociological research cites ‘play’ as a commonly used tactic for developing specific ‘practices’ (or behaviours) and knowledge, where it can then be offset by the more serious notion of ‘work’. Parodying the conceptual stringency of Modernism, both in approaches to painting and issues of authenticity in the age of mechanical (and digital) reproduction, the project took a collaborative methodology – working with abstract painter William Bradley. Art production can be...

  11. Three-dimensional illumination procedure for photodynamic therapy of dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-ming; Zhang, Feng-juan; Dong, Fei; Zhou, Ya

    2014-09-01

    Light dosimetry is an important parameter that affects the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, the irregular morphologies of lesions complicate lesion segmentation and light irradiance adjustment. Therefore, this study developed an illumination demo system comprising a camera, a digital projector, and a computing unit to solve these problems. A three-dimensional model of a lesion was reconstructed using the developed system. Hierarchical segmentation was achieved with the superpixel algorithm. The expected light dosimetry on the targeted lesion was achieved with the proposed illumination procedure. Accurate control and optimization of light delivery can improve the efficacy of PDT.

  12. 3D Imaging with Structured Illumination for Advanced Security Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dagel, Amber Lynn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kast, Brian A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, Collin S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) information in a physical security system is a highly useful dis- criminator. The two-dimensional data from an imaging systems fails to provide target dis- tance and three-dimensional motion vector, which can be used to reduce nuisance alarm rates and increase system effectiveness. However, 3D imaging devices designed primarily for use in physical security systems are uncommon. This report discusses an architecture favorable to physical security systems; an inexpensive snapshot 3D imaging system utilizing a simple illumination system. The method of acquiring 3D data, tests to understand illumination de- sign, and software modifications possible to maximize information gathering capability are discussed.

  13. Estimating Outdoor Illumination Conditions Based on Detection of Dynamic Shadows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus B.; Lal, Brajesh Behari

    2013-01-01

    into the image stream to achieve realistic Augmented Reality where the shading and the shadowing of virtual objects is consistent with the real scene. Other techniques require the presence of a known object, a light probe, in the scene for estimating illumination. The technique proposed here works in general......The paper proposes a technique for estimation outdoor illumination conditions in terms of sun and sky radiances directly from pixel values of dynamic shadows detected in video sequences produved by a commercial stereo camera. The technique is applied to the rendering of virtual object...

  14. Coating strategy for enhancing illumination uniformity in a lithographic condenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, D.P.; Vernon, S.P.; Sommargren, G.E.; Kania, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    A three-element Koehler condenser system has been fabricated, characterized, and integrated into an EUV lithographic system. The multilayer coatings deposited on the optics were designed to provide optimal radiation transport efficiency and illumination uniformity. Extensive EUV characterization measurements performed on the individual optics and follow-on system measurements indicated that the condenser was operating close to design goals. Multilayer d-spacings were within 0.05 nm of specifications, and reflectances were approximately 60%. Illumination uniformity was better than ±10%. The broadband transport efficiency was 11%

  15. Multiple projection optical diffusion tomography with plane wave illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markel, Vadim A; Schotland, John C

    2005-01-01

    We describe a new data collection scheme for optical diffusion tomography in which plane wave illumination is combined with multiple projections in the slab imaging geometry. Multiple projection measurements are performed by rotating the slab around the sample. The advantage of the proposed method is that the measured data are more compatible with the dynamic range of most commonly used detectors. At the same time, multiple projections improve image quality by mutually interchanging the depth and transverse directions, and the scanned (detection) and integrated (illumination) surfaces. Inversion methods are derived for image reconstructions with extremely large data sets. Numerical simulations are performed for fixed and rotated slabs

  16. Illuminance Level in the Urban Fabric and in the Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Anne; Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    The decisions made on the urban planning level could influence the building design at later stages. Many studies have shown that the utilisation of daylight in buildings would result in significant savings in electricity consumption for lighting, while creating a higher quality indoor environment...... of the exterior illuminance levels on fac¸ades with the interior illuminance levels on the working plane. The paper also explains an easy to use tool (EvUrbanplan) developed by the authors, which was applied to their findings in the early stages of urban planning to ensure daylight optimisation in the buildings....

  17. Play and playfulness, basic features of early childhood education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singer, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education, but that play curricula can have serious drawbacks. The starting point is the play theory of the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga, a radical critic of the focus on the educational benefits of play. According

  18. A Child's Power in Game-Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Julie; Lin, Lin

    2010-01-01

    This paper is the first of its series that studies the power children have in game-play and examines its implications for teaching and learning. As a start, the paper describes a framework of power based on a synthesis of various types of power underlined in literature. The paper then looks into the power issue through observation and interviews…

  19. Considering play : From method to analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vught, J.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413532682; Glas, M.A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330981447

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with play as an important methodological issue when studying games as texts and is intended as a practical methodological guide. After considering text as both the structuring object as well as its plural processual activations, we argue that different methodological considerations

  20. Turning training into play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarhus, Rikke; Grönvall, Erik; Larsen, Simon Bo

    2011-01-01

    participants generally found physical training both fun and socially engaging, and experienced improved fitness. We also argue that embodied gaming motivates seniors to do more than they think themselves capable of, and allows seniors with different mental and physical capabilities to play together. However......, there are also certain barriers, when seniors interact with the system. Speed and complexity of what is displayed on the screen are examples of barriers that affect the seniors’ satisfactory use of the technology. Based on these findings, we discuss how physical rehabilitation may be facilitated by computer...

  1. Playing Second Fiddle?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book poses the inconvenient question whether he European Union has become a secondary actor on the global arena, or whether it has perhaps for a long time already been playing second fiddle without wishing to admit it. What indicators would today, after a prolonged economic and socio......-political crisis in the Eurozone, imply that the EU can challenge the United States, China, or for that matter Russia, and take a position as a true global powerhouse? Has the train already left the station for what is still a very unique experiment, the European Union? Four different visions of Europes’s future...

  2. PlayStation purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Susan J; Leonard, Jane; Chamberlain, Alex J

    2010-08-01

    A 16-year-old boy presented with a number of asymptomatic pigmented macules on the volar aspect of his index fingers. Dermoscopy of each macule revealed a parallel ridge pattern of homogenous reddish-brown pigment. We propose that these lesions were induced by repetitive trauma from a Sony PlayStation 3 (Sony Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) vibration feedback controller. The lesions completely resolved following abstinence from gaming over a number of weeks. Although the parallel ridge pattern is typically the hallmark for early acral lentiginous melanoma, it may be observed in a limited number of benign entities, including subcorneal haematoma.

  3. Celadon Figurines Play Instruments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    This group of figurines, each 0.15m tall, were unearthed from a Tang Dynasty tomb in Changsha in 1977. Music was very developed in the Tang Dynasty. Colorful musical instruments and dances were popular both among the people and in the palace. These vivid-looking figurines wear pleated skirts with small sleeves and open chest, a style influenced by the non-Han nationalities living in the north and west of China. Some of the musical instruments were brought from the Western Regions. The figurines are playing the xiao (a vertical bamboo flute), the konghou (an

  4. Playful hyper responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hanne; Andersen, Niels Åkerstrøm

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 10–15 years, state-funded schools have begun to require parents to assume an undefined and infinite personal responsibility. In this article, we investigate how schools organize responsibility games to respond to this challenge and how these games affect the concept of responsibility....... We point to a dislocation in the way parents are assigned responsibility, because the definition of responsibility is not only a question of formulating rules or providing advice. We argue that what emerges is a kind of playful hyper responsibility that identifies responsibility as the participation...

  5. Simulation and comparison of the illuminance, uniformity, and efficiency of different forms of lighting used in basketball court illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Shing; Tien, Chuen-Lin; Tsuei, Chih-Hsuan; Pan, Jui-Wen

    2014-10-10

    We simulate and compare the illuminance, uniformity, and efficiency of metal-halide lamps, white LED light sources, and hybrid light box designs combining sunlight and white LED lighting used for indoor basketball court illumination. According to the optical simulation results and our examination of real situations, we find that hybrid light box designs combining sunlight and white LEDs do perform better than either metal-halide lamps or white LED lights. An evaluation of the sunlight concentrator system used in our inverted solar cell shows that the energy consumption of stadium lighting can be reduced significantly.

  6. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-07

    Mar 7, 2018 ... Labor deployment issues play an important role in analyzing their use at the country or regional level .... The growth of employment in the service sector since the 50s, as a result of the rapid ... Hotels and restaurants. 23,0 ..... for the better, its number decreases and the quality of labor resources deteriorates.

  7. Molecular basis of photochromism of a fluorescent protein revealed by direct 13C detection under laser illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Hideaki; Mal, Tapas Kumar; Waelchli, Markus; Fukano, Takashi; Ikura, Mitsuhiko; Miyawaki, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Dronpa is a green fluorescent protein homologue with a photochromic property. A green laser illumination reversibly converts Dronpa from a green-emissive bright state to a non-emissive dark state, and ultraviolet illumination converts it to the bright state. We have employed solution NMR to understand the underlying molecular mechanism of the photochromism. The detail characterization of Dronpa is hindered as it is metastable in the dark state and spontaneously converts to the bright state. To circumvent this issue, we have designed in magnet laser illumination device. By combining the device with a 150-mW argon laser at 514.5 nm, we have successfully converted and maintained Dronpa in the dark state in the NMR tube by continuous illumination during the NMR experiments. We have employed direct-detection of 13 C nuclei from the carbon skeleton of the chromophore for detailed characterization of chromophore in both states of Dronpa by using the Bruker TCI cryoprobe. The results from NMR data have provided direct evidence of the double bond formation between C α and C β of Y63 in the chromophore, the β-barrel structure in solution, and the ionized and protonated state of Y63 hydroxyl group in the bright and dark states, respectively. These studies have also revealed that a part of β-barrel around the chromophore becomes polymorphic only in the dark state, which may be critical to make the fluorescence dim by increasing the contribution of non-emissive vibrational relaxation pathways.

  8. Color fidelity of chromatic distributions by triad illuminant comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.; Gevers, T.; Gijsenij, A.

    2011-01-01

    Performance measures for quantifying human color constancy and computational color constancy are very different. The former relate to measurements on individual object colors whereas the latter relate to the accuracy of the estimated illuminant. To bridge this gap, we propose a psychophysical method

  9. Review of the illumination problems pertaining to South African collieries.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pardoe, DR

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1992, a proposal was submitted to SIMRAC for a two year programme of work with the overall objective of conducting a general review of problems and techniques related to underground colliery illumination, particular emphasis on identifying means...

  10. Noise tolerant illumination optimization applied to display devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassarly, William J.; Irving, Bruce

    2005-02-01

    Display devices have historically been designed through an iterative process using numerous hardware prototypes. This process is effective but the number of iterations is limited by the time and cost to make the prototypes. In recent years, virtual prototyping using illumination software modeling tools has replaced many of the hardware prototypes. Typically, the designer specifies the design parameters, builds the software model, predicts the performance using a Monte Carlo simulation, and uses the performance results to repeat this process until an acceptable design is obtained. What is highly desired, and now possible, is to use illumination optimization to automate the design process. Illumination optimization provides the ability to explore a wider range of design options while also providing improved performance. Since Monte Carlo simulations are often used to calculate the system performance but those predictions have statistical uncertainty, the use of noise tolerant optimization algorithms is important. The use of noise tolerant illumination optimization is demonstrated by considering display device designs that extract light using 2D paint patterns as well as 3D textured surfaces. A hybrid optimization approach that combines a mesh feedback optimization with a classical optimizer is demonstrated. Displays with LED sources and cold cathode fluorescent lamps are considered.

  11. Stroboscopic effect : Contrast threshold function and dependence on illumination level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perz, M.; Sekulovski, D.; Vogels, I.; Heynderickx, I.

    2018-01-01

    The stroboscopic visibility measure (SVM) is a method used to quantify the stroboscopic effect visibility in general illumination application. SVM has been defined previously based on a limited number of frequencies and participants. To validate and extend SVM, five perception experiments are

  12. Illumination Profile & Dispersion Variation Effects on Radial Velocity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieves, Nolan; Ge, Jian; Thomas, Neil B.; Ma, Bo; Li, Rui; SDSS-III

    2015-01-01

    The Multi-object APO Radial-Velocity Exoplanet Large-Area Survey (MARVELS) measures radial velocities using a fiber-fed dispersed fixed-delay interferometer (DFDI) with a moderate dispersion spectrograph. This setup allows a unique insight into the 2D illumination profile from the fiber on to the dispersion grating. Illumination profile investigations show large changes in the profile over time and fiber location. These profile changes are correlated with dispersion changes and long-term radial velocity offsets, a major problem within the MARVELS radial velocity data. Characterizing illumination profiles creates a method to both detect and correct radial velocity offsets, allowing for better planet detection. Here we report our early results from this study including improvement of radial velocity data points from detected giant planet candidates. We also report an illumination profile experiment conducted at the Kitt Peak National Observatory using the EXPERT instrument, which has a DFDI mode similar to MARVELS. Using profile controlling octagonal-shaped fibers, long term offsets over a 3 month time period were reduced from ~50 m/s to within the photon limit of ~4 m/s.

  13. Husserl's Illumination of the Breakthrough of Logical Investigations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    the example Husserl offers of the room where the lights go off in order to illuminate the breakthrough for ... correspondence theory of truth, and his main concern seems to be to ..... The advantage of Husserl's example is that it tries to situate the ...

  14. On the illumination of neutron star accretion discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, D. R.

    2018-03-01

    The illumination of the accretion disc in a neutron star X-ray binary by X-rays emitted from (or close to) the neutron star surface is explored through general relativistic ray tracing simulations. The applicability of the canonical suite of relativistically broadened emission line models (developed for black holes) to discs around neutron stars is evaluated. These models were found to describe well emission lines from neutron star accretion discs unless the neutron star radius is larger than the innermost stable orbit of the accretion disc at 6 rg or the disc is viewed at high inclination, above 60° where shadowing of the back side of the disc becomes important. Theoretical emissivity profiles were computed for accretion discs illuminated by hotspots on the neutron star surfaces, bands of emission and emission by the entirety of the hot, spherical star surface and in all cases, the emissivity profile of the accretion disc was found to be well represented by a single power law falling off slightly steeper than r-3. Steepening of the emissivity index was found where the emission is close to the disc plane and the disc can appear truncated when illuminated by a hotspot at high latitude. The emissivity profile of the accretion disc in Serpens X-1 was measured and found to be consistent with a single unbroken power law with index q=3.5_{-0.4}^{+0.3}, suggestive of illumination by the boundary layer between the disc and neutron star surface.

  15. Electrical Power and Illumination Systems. Energy Technology Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This course in electrical power and illumination systems is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in…

  16. Improving Shadow Suppression for Illumination Robust Face Recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Wuming

    2017-10-13

    2D face analysis techniques, such as face landmarking, face recognition and face verification, are reasonably dependent on illumination conditions which are usually uncontrolled and unpredictable in the real world. An illumination robust preprocessing method thus remains a significant challenge in reliable face analysis. In this paper we propose a novel approach for improving lighting normalization through building the underlying reflectance model which characterizes interactions between skin surface, lighting source and camera sensor, and elaborates the formation of face color appearance. Specifically, the proposed illumination processing pipeline enables the generation of Chromaticity Intrinsic Image (CII) in a log chromaticity space which is robust to illumination variations. Moreover, as an advantage over most prevailing methods, a photo-realistic color face image is subsequently reconstructed which eliminates a wide variety of shadows whilst retaining the color information and identity details. Experimental results under different scenarios and using various face databases show the effectiveness of the proposed approach to deal with lighting variations, including both soft and hard shadows, in face recognition.

  17. Quantum Illumination-Based Target Detection and Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-30

    photodiode with an estimated quantum efficiency of 85% and an ultralow-noise transimpedance amplifier . Compared with to our initial QI measurements...demonstrated high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) quantum-illumination target detection in a lossy, noisy environment using an optical parametric amplifier ...Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 quantum communication, target detection, entanglement, parametric downconversion, optical parametric amplifiers

  18. Novel technique for solar power illumination using plastic optical fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munisami, J.; Kalymnios, D.

    2008-09-01

    Plastic Optical Fibres (POF) were developed almost 3 decades ago. They are mainly used for short haul data communications (up to 1 km with data rates up to 1 Gbps). Over the years, POF has found applications in many other areas including solar energy transport for illumination. In such an application, light is collected from the sun and is directed into a space which needs to be illuminated. The use of fibres and more specifically POF, in daylighting systems, started only a few years ago. Several approaches have been investigated and we have seen the development of a few commercial products. The market however, has not really taken off for these technologies simply because of their enormous price tags. It is important to note that the use of POF in these designs has been limited to the function of POF as the transmission medium only. We propose a novel solar illumination technique using POF as both the light collecting/concentrating mechanism and the transmission medium. By modifying the structure of the fibre, solar light can be directed into the fibre by using an analogous process to fibre side emission but, in the reverse. We shall report on the solar light capturing efficiency of POF as modified by several types of external imperfections introduced onto the fibre. One major advantage of our proposed approach lies in the fact that we aim to eliminate at least one of the two axes of sun tracking that is currently used in existing solar illumination systems.

  19. Super-resolution thermographic imaging using blind structured illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgholzer, Peter; Berer, Thomas; Gruber, Jürgen; Mayr, Günther

    2017-07-01

    Using an infrared camera for thermographic imaging allows the contactless temperature measurement of many surface pixels simultaneously. From the measured surface data, the structure below the surface, embedded inside a sample or tissue, can be reconstructed and imaged, if heated by an excitation light pulse. The main drawback in active thermographic imaging is the degradation of the spatial resolution with the imaging depth, which results in blurred images for deeper lying structures. We circumvent this degradation by using blind structured illumination combined with a non-linear joint sparsity reconstruction algorithm. We demonstrate imaging of a line pattern and a star-shaped structure through a 3 mm thick steel sheet with a resolution four times better than the width of the thermal point-spread-function. The structured illumination is realized by parallel slits cut in an aluminum foil, where the excitation coming from a flashlight can penetrate. This realization of super-resolution thermographic imaging demonstrates that blind structured illumination allows thermographic imaging without high degradation of the spatial resolution for deeper lying structures. The groundbreaking concept of super-resolution can be transferred from optics to diffusive imaging by defining a thermal point-spread-function, which gives the principle resolution limit for a certain signal-to-noise ratio, similar to the Abbe limit for a certain optical wavelength. In future work, the unknown illumination pattern could be the speckle pattern generated by a short laser pulse inside a light scattering sample or tissue.

  20. System for illuminating a region for isotopically selective photoexcitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debaryshe, P.G.; Janes, G.S.; Levy, R.H.; Lindenmeier, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described to improve laser beam utilization in isotope separation techniques (using laser induced isotopically selective photoexcitation) by increasing the probability of photon absorption without extreme beam propagation lengths. For this purpose an optical reflection system has been designed for illuminating substantially all of three-dimensional space of a transversely flowing vapor with multiple traversals of a beam of radiation. (UK)

  1. All-solution processed organic solar cells with top illumination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, B.R.; Shanmugam, S.; Teunissen, J.P.; Galagan, Y.

    2015-01-01

    All-solution processed organic solar cells with inverted device architecture were demonstrated. Devices contain opaque bottom electrodes and semitransparent top electrodes, resulting in top illuminated devices. Nanoparticles-based Ag ink was used for inkjet printing both top and bottom electrodes.

  2. Occupancy-based illumination control of LED lighting systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caicedo Fernandez, D.R.; Pandharipande, A.; Leus, G.

    2011-01-01

    Light emitting diode (LED)-based systems are considered to be the future of lighting. We consider the problem of energy-efficient illumination control of such systems. Energy-efficient system design is based on two aspects: localised information on occupancy and optimisation of dimming levels of the

  3. Two-way visible light communication and illumination with LEDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, S.; Pandharipande, A.; Willems, F.M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Visible light communications (VLC) with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has attracted applications, such as data communications, lighting control, and light interaction. In this paper, we propose a system by which two LED devices are used for two-way VLC while also providing illumination. We consider

  4. LED power consumption in joint illumination and communication system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, X.; Wu, Y.; Khalid, A.M.; Long, X.; Linnartz, J.-P.M.G.

    This paper addresses the power penalty in an illumination LED caused by visible light communication (VLC). This study models the extra power consumption of the LED by taking into account the convex relation between the dissipated electrical power versus the LED current on one hand and the concave

  5. Multiple speckle illumination for optical-resolution photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, Florian; Stasio, Nicolino; Moser, Christophe; Psaltis, Demetri; Bossy, Emmanuel

    2017-03-01

    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy offers exquisite and specific contrast to optical absorption. Conventional approaches generally involves raster scanning a focused spot over the sample. Here, we demonstrate that a full-field illumination approach with multiple speckle illumination can also provide diffraction-limited optical-resolution photoacoustic images. Two different proof-of-concepts are demonstrated with micro-structured test samples. The first approach follows the principle of correlation/ghost imaging,1, 2 and is based on cross-correlating photoacoustic signals under multiple speckle illumination with known speckle patterns measured during a calibration step. The second approach is a speckle scanning microscopy technique, which adapts the technique proposed in fluorescence microscopy by Bertolotti and al.:3 in our work, spatially unresolved photoacoustic measurements are performed for various translations of unknown speckle patterns. A phase-retrieval algorithm is used to reconstruct the object from the knowledge of the modulus of its Fourier Transform yielded by the measurements. Because speckle patterns naturally appear in many various situations, including propagation through biological tissue or multi-mode fibers (for which focusing light is either very demanding if not impossible), speckle-illumination-based photoacoustic microscopy provides a powerful framework for the development of novel reconstruction approaches, well-suited to compressed sensing approaches.2

  6. Learning Arabic through play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Ibrahim, Zeinab; Karatsolis, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the use of educational games in the context of the “Arabiyyatii” research project, a three-year project funded through Qatar National Research Fund. The scope of the project is teaching Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) to kindergarten students (5-6 years old) that are native...... speakers of the Qatari dialect. Part of the new curriculum envisioned in the project includes the use of simple educational games, specifically designed and developed for tabletop surface computers. The paper presents a naturalistic study design, following the activities of 18 students for a period of 9...... weeks in the project. The paper presents three of the most played games by the students, along with analysis on collected data, focusing on students’ performance and attitudes towards the new curriculum. Results analysis provided an encouraging image, suggesting that the conducted activity was able...

  7. Farm Hall: The Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, David C.

    2013-03-01

    It's July 1945. Germany is in defeat and the atomic bombs are on their way to Japan. Under the direction of Samuel Goudsmit, the Allies are holding some of the top German nuclear scientists-among them Heisenberg, Hahn, and Gerlach-captive in Farm Hall, an English country manor near Cambridge, England. As secret microphones record their conversations, the scientists are unaware of why they are being held or for how long. Thinking themselves far ahead of the Allies, how will they react to the news of the atomic bombs? How will these famous scientists explain to themselves and to the world their failure to achieve even a chain reaction? How will they come to terms with the horror of the Third Reich, their work for such a regime, and their behavior during that period? This one-act play is based upon the transcripts of their conversations as well as the author's historical work on the subject.

  8. Mobilities at Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ungruhe, Christian

    2017-01-01

    So far, academic contributions have widely framed football in Africa as a means for migration from a western point of view. At a time, they presented particular and one-dimensional understandings of transnational links in the realm of football migration between Africa and Europe. Macro......-level perspective there is still an analytical gap between the ambitions and experiences of migrating players and economic power relations at play on the one hand and the socio-cultural embedding of the transnational connections in football migration on the other. In order to understand why and how football...... mobilities are indeed linked to ‘the transnational’ in migration there is a need to localize the phenomenon and investigate how local understandings of migration and mobility are lived and expressed in a transnational sport like football. By taking data from fieldwork among West African football migrants...

  9. Free time, play and game

    OpenAIRE

    Božović Ratko R.

    2008-01-01

    Free time and play are mutually dependent categories that are always realized together. We either play because we have free time or we have free time because we play (E. Fink). Play, no matter whether it is children's or artistic play or a spontaneous sports game (excluding professional sports) most fully complements human existence and thereby realizes free time as a time in freedom and freedom of time. Therefore, free time exists and is most prominent in play. Moreover, one game releases it...

  10. Imagination, Playfulness, and Creativity in Children's Play with Different Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo????ller, Signe?? Juhl?

    2015-01-01

    Based on a four-month experimental study of preschool children's play with creative-construction and social-fantasy toys, the author examines the in?uence of both types of toys on the play of preschool children. Her comparative analysis considers the impact of transformative play on the development of imagination during play activities and…

  11. Word Play: Scaffolding Language Development through Child-Directed Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasik, Barbara A.; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill L.

    2017-01-01

    Play is an important activity in young children's lives. It is how children explore their world and build knowledge. Although free play, which is play that is totally child directed, contributes to children's learning, self-regulation and motivation, adults' participation in children's play is critical in their development, especially their…

  12. Application of spectroscopic techniques to the study of illuminated manuscripts: A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessanha, S.; Manso, M.; Carvalho, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    This work focused on the application of the most relevant spectroscopic techniques used for the characterization of illuminated manuscripts. The historical value of these unique and invaluable artworks, together with the increased awareness concerning the conservation of cultural heritage, prompted the application of analytical techniques to the study of these illuminations. This is essential for the understanding of the artist's working methods, which aids conservation–restoration. The characterization of the pigments may also help assign a probable date to the manuscript. For these purposes, the spectroscopic techniques used so far include those that provide information on the elemental content: X-ray fluorescence, total reflection X-ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Complementary techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy, reveal information regarding the compounds present in the samples. The techniques, suitability, technological evolution and development of high-performance detectors, as well as the possibility of microanalysis and the higher sensitivity of the equipment, will also be discussed. Furthermore, issues such as the necessity of sampling, the portability of the equipment and the overall advantages and disadvantages of different techniques will be analyzed. - Highlights: ► The techniques used for studying illuminated manuscripts are described and compared. ► For in situ, non-destructive analysis the most suitable technique is EDXRF. ► For quantitative analysis TXRF is more appropriate. ► Raman spectroscopy is mostly used for pigments identification. ► FTIR was used for the characterization of binders and parchment.

  13. Atomic physics issues in fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    Atomic physics issues have played a large role in controlled fusion research. A general introduction to the present role of atomic processes in both inertial and magnetic controlled fusion work is presented. (Auth.)

  14. Play the European card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, O.

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Otto Majewski, Chief Executive Officer of the Bayernwerk AG utility, in his capacity as Chairman of the European Nuclear Council pointed out at ENC 98 in Nice that national energy policies constituted a major danger to the use of nuclear power. At the same time, he indicated ways and means by which to evade that danger. The decisions taken in Sweden and in the Federal Republic of Germany to opt out of the use of nuclear power show that national energy policies can seriously jeopardize the use of nuclear power. Bayernwerk CEO Dr. Majewski urged nuclear power plant operators to counteract these tendencies by playing the European card. Nuclear power anyway was a classical topic of European cooperation which, in the past, had resulted in higher safety standards and in the development of the EPR. It should also be attempted, by working on European institutions, to strengthen the use of nuclear power, even on a national level. He invoked economic arguments against nuclear opponents, especially the preservation of competitiveness by means of lower electricity prices, and arguments of climate protection. (orig.) [de

  15. Enhanced xylene removal by photocatalytic oxidation using fiber-illuminated honeycomb reactor at ppb level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Ting; Yu, Yi-Hui; Nguyen, Van-Huy; Lu, Kung-Te; Wu, Jeffrey Chi-Sheng; Chang, Luh-Maan; Kuo, Chi-Wen

    2013-11-15

    The removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at ppb level is one of the most critical challenges in clean rooms for the semiconductor industry. Photocatalytic oxidation is an innovative and promising technology for ppb-level VOCs degradation. We have designed a fiber-illuminated honeycomb reactor (FIHR) in which the removal efficiency of m-xylene is significantly enhanced to 96.5% as compared to 22.0% for UV irradiation only. The results indicate that photocatalysts not only play the role to substantially oxidize m-xylene, but also alter the chemical properties of xylene under UV illumination. Using the FIHR with Mn-TiO2 photocatalyst not only increased the m-xylene removal efficiency, but also increased the CO2 selectivity. Interestingly, Mn-TiO2 in FIHR also showed a very good reusability, 93% removal efficiency was still achieved in 72-h in reaction. Thus, the FIHR gave very high removal efficiency for xylene at ppb level under room temperature. The FIHR has great potential application in the clean room for the air purification system in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A study on the operator performance to the drastic change of illumination of MCR in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Kwang Hyeon; Lee, Yong Hee

    2012-01-01

    Lighting has been an essential material at a nuclear power plant, which is very much need for working process of a worker. Intensity illumination, brightness, contrast and glare are all found to have a direct influence on visual working process and, designing and managing of such factors are considered important. As long as it satisfies the minimum visual requirements, lighting would directly affect changes of a worker's moves by about 1∼3%. However, for factors with indirect influences are psychological and biological states of an individual worker and, these have been playing a significant role in deciding moves of the worker. For this reason, control of a proper lighting environment is definitely an important part in designing and managing of a nuclear power plant. In this study, how to respond to visual problems of an operator in a main control room of a nuclear power plant in emergency as well as human error causing dangers was investigated while experimentations on changes of visual working performances were carried out which would occur by a sharp change of intensity illumination

  17. Family Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... es Autismo? Family Issues Home / Living with Autism / Family Issues Stress Siblings A child’s autism diagnosis affects every member of the family in different ways. Parents/caregivers must now place their ... may put stress on their marriage, other children, work, finances, and ...

  18. A spectral image processing algorithm for evaluating the influence of the illuminants on the reconstructed reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toadere, Florin

    2017-12-01

    A spectral image processing algorithm that allows the illumination of the scene with different illuminants together with the reconstruction of the scene's reflectance is presented. Color checker spectral image and CIE A (warm light 2700 K), D65 (cold light 6500 K) and Cree TW Series LED T8 (4000 K) are employed for scene illumination. Illuminants used in the simulations have different spectra and, as a result of their illumination, the colors of the scene change. The influence of the illuminants on the reconstruction of the scene's reflectance is estimated. Demonstrative images and reflectance showing the operation of the algorithm are illustrated.

  19. Playful Learning and Montessori Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S.

    2013-01-01

    Although Montessori education is often considered a form of playful learning, Maria Montessori herself spoke negatively about a major component of playful learning--pretend play, or fantasy--for young children. In this essay, the author discusses this apparent contradiction: how and why Montessori education includes elements of playful learning…

  20. Play Therapy in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landreth, Garry L.; Ray, Dee C.; Bratton, Sue C.

    2009-01-01

    Because the child's world is a world of action and activity, play therapy provides the psychologist in elementary-school settings with an opportunity to enter the child's world. In the play therapy relationship, toys are like the child's words and play is the child's language. Therefore, children play out their problems, experiences, concerns, and…

  1. Enhanced reality live role playing

    OpenAIRE

    Söderberg, Jonas; Waern, Annika; Åkesson, Karl-Petter; Björk, Staffan; Falk, Jennica

    2004-01-01

    Live role-playing is a form of improvisational theatre played for the experience of the performers and without an audience. These games form a challenging application domain for ubiquitous technology. We discuss the design options for enhanced reality live role-playing and the role of technology in live role-playing games.

  2. The Upside of Videogame Playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Linda A

    2012-12-01

    In our research on the relationship between videogame playing and cognitive outcomes we found that children (n=481, 12 year olds) who played videogames more were more creative than those who played them less. Here we summarize these findings and propose new research to identify mediating cognitive factors influenced by videogame playing.

  3. Global Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, J.L.

    2001-10-15

    Global Issues is an introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. This new edition of this text has been fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. Fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. An introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. Covers a range of perspectives on a variety of societies, developed and developing. Extensively illustrated with diagrams and photographs, contains guides to further reading, media, and internet resources, and includes suggestions for discussion and studying the material. (author)

  4. Play and playfulness in early childhood education and care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer E.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education. The elements of play are pleasure, a sense of freedom, and the co-construction of shared meaning through the use of rules or rhythms. Play and learning are closely related in early childhood. But when the focus on the educational benefits of play becomes too strong, the most essential feature of play is lost: children’s pleasure. Young children in group settings often have to adapt to the teachers’ demands related to security, hygiene, and social norms and values. But the playfulness of the teachers helps to overcome differences in power in the caregiver-child relationship and prevents young children from becoming overburdened with strict rules and group discipline. Play and playfulness are a resource of shared pleasure and creativity in learning processes.

  5. Live action role-playing games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2006-01-01

    Live action role-playing games share a range of characteristics with massively multi-player online games (MMOGs). Because these games have existed for more than 20 years, players of these games have a substantial amount of experience in handling issues pertinent to MMOGs. Survey and review of live...... action role-playing games, whose participant count can be in the thousands, reveal that features such as size, theme, game master-to-player ratio, and others interact to form complex systems that require several different groups of control tools to manage. The way that these games are managed offers...

  6. An overview of LED applications for general illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelka, David G.; Patel, Kavita

    2003-11-01

    This paper begins by reviewing the current state of development of LEDs, their existing markets as well as their potential for energy conservation and their potential for gaining market share in the general illumination market. It discusses LED metrics such as chip size, lumens per watt, thermal resistance, and the recommended maximum current rating. The paper then goes on to consider the importance of non-imaging optics for both optically efficient and extremely compact LED lighting systems. Finally, microstructures useful for controlling the fields-of-view of LED lighting systems are considered and described in some detail. An extremely efficient and cost effective microstructure, called kinoform diffusers, is shown to have very unique properties that make this technology almost ideal for shaping the output beams of LED lighting systems. It concludes by illustrating some general illumination LED lighting systems

  7. The Direct Lighting Computation in Global Illumination Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changyaw Allen

    1994-01-01

    Creating realistic images is a computationally expensive process, but it is very important for applications such as interior design, product design, education, virtual reality, and movie special effects. To generate realistic images, state-of-art rendering techniques are employed to simulate global illumination, which accounts for the interreflection of light among objects. In this document, we formalize the global illumination problem into a eight -dimensional integral and discuss various methods that can accelerate the process of approximating this integral. We focus on the direct lighting computation, which accounts for the light reaching the viewer from the emitting sources after exactly one reflection, Monte Carlo sampling methods, and light source simplification. Results include a new sample generation method, a framework for the prediction of the total number of samples used in a solution, and a generalized Monte Carlo approach for computing the direct lighting from an environment which for the first time makes ray tracing feasible for highly complex environments.

  8. Illuminating the Effects of Dynamic Lighting on Student Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Mott

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Light is universally understood as essential to the human condition. Yet light quality varies substantially in nature and in controlled environments leading to questions of which artificial light characteristics facilitate maximum learning. Recent research has examined lighting variables of color temperature, and illumination for affecting sleep, mood, focus, motivation, concentration, and work and school performance. This has resulted in artificial light systems intended to support human beings in their actualization through dynamic lighting technology allowing for different lighting conditions per task. A total of 84 third graders were exposed to either focus (6000K-100fc average maintained or normal lighting. Focus lighting led to a higher percentage increase in oral reading fluency performance (36% than did control lighting (17%. No lighting effects were found for motivation or concentration, possibly attributable to the younger age level of respondents as compared with European studies. These findings illuminate the need for further research on artificial light and learning.

  9. Simplied formula for the illuminance in an optical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhard, D.G.; Shealy, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    A formula is derived for the illuminance at any surface in an optical system. By tracing a single ray one can compute the flux density at the image plane or any other position along the ray. The formula involves the ratio of the products of the principal curvatures of the wave front as it approaches each surface to products of the same qualitities after the wave front is refracted at each surface. A procedure is presented for determining the required principal curvatures by generalizing the Coddinton equations to multiple surfaces for both meridional and skew rays. Results are applicable to both sphreical and aspherical surfaces. Since principal radii of curvature specify points on the caustic surfaces, the formula and computation procedure automatically yields the equations for caustic surfaces as a by-product. To illustrate the computation procedure the illuminance and caustic surfaces are derived for an aspherical singlet

  10. Semiconductor surface diffusion: Nonthermal effects of photon illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditchfield, R.; Llera-Rodriguez, D.; Seebauer, E. G.

    2000-01-01

    Nonthermal influences of photon illumination on surface diffusion at high temperatures have been measured experimentally. Activation energies and pre-exponential factors for diffusion of germanium, indium, and antimony on silicon change by up to 0.3 eV and two orders of magnitude, respectively, in response to illumination by photons having energies greater than the substrate band gap. The parameters decrease for n-type material and increase for p-type material. Aided by results from photoreflectance spectroscopy, we suggest that motion of the surface quasi-Fermi-level for minority carriers accounts for much of the effect by changing the charge states of surface vacancies. An additional adatom-vacancy complexation mechanism appears to operate on p-type substrates. The results have significant implications for aspects of microelectronics fabrication by rapid thermal processing that are governed by surface mobility. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  11. Topology optimization for optical microlithography with partially coherent illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Mingdong; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Sigmund, Ole

    2017-01-01

    in microlithography/nanolithography. The key steps include (i) modeling the physical inputs of the fabrication process, including the ultraviolet light illumination source and the mask, as the design variables in optimization and (ii) applying physical filtering and heaviside projection for topology optimization......This article revisits a topology optimization design approach for micro-manufacturing and extends it to optical microlithography with partially coherent illumination. The solution is based on a combination of two technologies, the topology optimization and the proximity error correction....... Meanwhile, the performance of the device is optimized and robust with respect to process variations, such as dose/photo-resist variations and lens defocus. A compliant micro-gripper design example is considered to demonstrate the applicability of this approach....

  12. Virtual fringe projection system with nonparallel illumination based on iteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Duo; Wang, Zhangying; Gao, Nan; Zhang, Zonghua; Jiang, Xiangqian

    2017-01-01

    Fringe projection profilometry has been widely applied in many fields. To set up an ideal measuring system, a virtual fringe projection technique has been studied to assist in the design of hardware configurations. However, existing virtual fringe projection systems use parallel illumination and have a fixed optical framework. This paper presents a virtual fringe projection system with nonparallel illumination. Using an iterative method to calculate intersection points between rays and reference planes or object surfaces, the proposed system can simulate projected fringe patterns and captured images. A new explicit calibration method has been presented to validate the precision of the system. Simulated results indicate that the proposed iterative method outperforms previous systems. Our virtual system can be applied to error analysis, algorithm optimization, and help operators to find ideal system parameter settings for actual measurements. (paper)

  13. 'No blue' LED solution for photolithography room illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Corell, Dennis Dan; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    This paper explored the feasibility of using a LED-based bulb as the illumination light source for photolithography room. A no-blue LED was designed, and the prototype was fabricated. The spectral power distribution of both the LED bulb and the yellow fluorescent tube was measured. Based on that...... color rendering ability than the YFT. Furthermore, LED solution has design flexibility to improve it further. The prototype has been tested with photoresist SU8-2005. Even after 15 days of illumination, no effect was observed. So this LED-based solution was demonstrated to be a very promising light......, colorimetric values were calculated and compared on terms of chromatic coordinates, correlated color temperature, color rendering index, and chromatic deviation. Gretagmacbeth color charts were used as a more visional way to compare the two light sources, which shows that our no-blue LED bulb has much better...

  14. Microfluidic mixing triggered by an external LED illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venancio-Marques, Anna; Barbaud, Fanny; Baigl, Damien

    2013-02-27

    The mixing of confined liquids is a central yet challenging operation in miniaturized devices. Microfluidic mixing is usually achieved with passive mixers that are robust but poorly flexible, or active mixers that offer dynamic control but mainly rely on electrical or mechanical transducers, which increase the fragility, cost, and complexity of the device. Here, we describe the first remote and reversible control of microfluidic mixing triggered by a light illumination simply provided by an external LED illumination device. The approach is based on the light-induced generation of water microdroplets acting as reversible stirrers of two continuous oil phase flows containing samples to be mixed. We demonstrate many cycles of reversible photoinduced transitions between a nonmixing behavior and full homogenization of the two oil phases. The method is cheap, portable, and adaptable to many device configurations, thus constituting an essential brick for the generation of future all-optofluidic chip.

  15. Fully depleted back-illuminated p-channel CCD development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bebek, Chris J.; Bercovitz, John H.; Groom, Donald E.; Holland, Stephen E.; Kadel, Richard W.; Karcher, Armin; Kolbe, William F.; Oluseyi, Hakeem M.; Palaio, Nicholas P.; Prasad, Val; Turko, Bojan T.; Wang, Guobin

    2003-07-08

    An overview of CCD development efforts at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is presented. Operation of fully-depleted, back-illuminated CCD's fabricated on high resistivity silicon is described, along with results on the use of such CCD's at ground-based observatories. Radiation damage and point-spread function measurements are described, as well as discussion of CCD fabrication technologies.

  16. Illumination adaptation with rapid-response color sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinchi; Wang, Quan; Boyer, Kim L.

    2014-09-01

    Smart lighting solutions based on imaging sensors such as webcams or time-of-flight sensors suffer from rising privacy concerns. In this work, we use low-cost non-imaging color sensors to measure local luminous flux of different colors in an indoor space. These sensors have much higher data acquisition rate and are much cheaper than many o_-the-shelf commercial products. We have developed several applications with these sensors, including illumination feedback control and occupancy-driven lighting.

  17. Talbot self-imaging phenomenon under Bessel beam illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rijuparna; Chowdhury, Subhajit Dutta; Chakraborty, Ajoy Kumar

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we report the results of our theoretical studies on the phenomenon of self-imaging of periodic object under the illumination of zero-order Bessel beam. Our theoretical analysis indicates that the self-images are visible only after the walk-off distance of the Bessel beam used. It is also observed that the self-images bend around the optical axis of the setup. Besides, the present study justifies the importance of the conditions stipulated by Montgomery.

  18. Illuminating a dialectical transformative activist stance in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Stephen M.

    2008-07-01

    In this essay I comment on Stetsenko's (2008) essay that draws together the work of Vygotsky, Piaget and Dewey, as she attempts to counter the `new' reductionist synthesis in public educational policy. While this theoretical work is helpful, it could be enhanced further by illuminating everyday practices of learners. I pose some questions that might provoke ongoing discussions by researchers as they transform collaboratively cultural-historical activity theory.

  19. A new radiometric unit of measure to characterize SWIR illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, A.; Hübner, M.

    2017-05-01

    We propose a new radiometric unit of measure we call the `swux' to unambiguously characterize scene illumination in the SWIR spectral band between 0.8μm-1.8μm, where most of the ever-increasing numbers of deployed SWIR cameras (based on standard InGaAs focal plane arrays) are sensitive. Both military and surveillance applications in the SWIR currently suffer from a lack of a standardized SWIR radiometric unit of measure that can be used to definitively compare or predict SWIR camera performance with respect to SNR and range metrics. We propose a unit comparable to the photometric illuminance lux unit; see Ref. [1]. The lack of a SWIR radiometric unit becomes even more critical if one uses lux levels to describe SWIR sensor performance at twilight or even low light condition, since in clear, no-moon conditions in rural areas, the naturally-occurring SWIR radiation from nightglow produces a much higher irradiance than visible starlight. Thus, even well-intentioned efforts to characterize a test site's ambient illumination levels in the SWIR band may fail based on photometric instruments that only measure visible light. A study of this by one of the authors in Ref. [2] showed that the correspondence between lux values and total SWIR irradiance in typical illumination conditions can vary by more than two orders of magnitude, depending on the spectrum of the ambient background. In analogy to the photometric lux definition, we propose the SWIR irradiance equivalent `swux' level, derived by integration over the scene SWIR spectral irradiance weighted by a spectral sensitivity function S(λ), a SWIR analog of the V(λ) photopic response function.

  20. Design of High Efficiency Illumination for LED Lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Yong-Nong; Cheng, Hung-Liang; Kuo, Chih-Ming

    2013-01-01

    A high efficiency illumination for LED street lighting is proposed. For energy saving, this paper uses Class-E resonant inverter as main electric circuit to improve efficiency. In addition, single dimming control has the best efficiency, simplest control scheme and lowest circuit cost among other types of dimming techniques. Multiple serial-connected transformers used to drive the LED strings as they can provide galvanic isolation and have the advantage of good current distribution against de...

  1. A novel method for surface defect inspection of optic cable with short-wave infrared illuminance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaohong; Liu, Ning; You, Bo; Xiao, Bin

    2016-07-01

    Intelligent on-line detection of cable quality is a crucial issue in optic cable factory, and defects on the surface of optic cable can dramatically depress cable grade. Manual inspection in optic cable quality cannot catch up with the development of optic cable industry due to its low detection efficiency and huge human cost. Therefore, real-time is highly demanded by industry in order to replace the subjective and repetitive process of manual inspection. For this reason, automatic cable defect inspection has been a trend. In this paper, a novel method for surface defect inspection of optic cable with short-wave infrared illuminance is presented. The special condition of short-wave infrared cannot only provide illumination compensation for the weak illumination environment, but also can avoid the problem of exposure when using visible light illuminance, which affects the accuracy of inspection algorithm. A series of image processing algorithms are set up to analyze cable image for the verification of real-time and veracity of the detection method. Unlike some existing detection algorithms which concentrate on the characteristics of defects with an active search way, the proposed method removes the non-defective areas of the image passively at the same time of image processing, which reduces a large amount of computation. OTSU algorithm is used to convert the gray image to the binary image. Furthermore, a threshold window is designed to eliminate the fake defects, and the threshold represents the considered minimum size of defects ε . Besides, a new regional suppression method is proposed to deal with the edge burrs of the cable, which shows the superior performance compared with that of Open-Close operation of mathematical morphological in the boundary processing. Experimental results of 10,000 samples show that the rates of miss detection and false detection are 2.35% and 0.78% respectively when ε equals to 0.5 mm, and the average processing period of one frame

  2. Random laser illumination: an ideal source for biomedical polarization imaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Mariana T.; Lotay, Amrit S.; Kenny, Fiona M.; Girkin, John M.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2016-03-01

    Imaging applications increasingly require light sources with high spectral density (power over spectral bandwidth. This has led in many cases to the replacement of conventional thermal light sources with bright light-emitting diodes (LEDs), lasers and superluminescent diodes. Although lasers and superluminescent diodes appear to be ideal light sources due to their narrow bandwidth and power, however, in the case of full-field imaging, their spatial coherence leads to coherent artefacts, such as speckle, that corrupt the image. LEDs, in contrast, have lower spatial coherence and thus seem the natural choice, but they have low spectral density. Random Lasers are an unconventional type of laser that can be engineered to provide low spatial coherence with high spectral density. These characteristics makes them potential sources for biological imaging applications where specific absorption and reflection are the characteristics required for state of the art imaging. In this work, a Random Laser (RL) is used to demonstrate speckle-free full-field imaging for polarization-dependent imaging in an epi-illumination configuration. We compare LED and RL illumination analysing the resulting images demonstrating that the RL illumination produces an imaging system with higher performance (image quality and spectral density) than that provided by LEDs.

  3. Skin image illumination modeling and chromophore identification for melanoma diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Zerubia, Josiane

    2015-05-01

    The presence of illumination variation in dermatological images has a negative impact on the automatic detection and analysis of cutaneous lesions. This paper proposes a new illumination modeling and chromophore identification method to correct lighting variation in skin lesion images, as well as to extract melanin and hemoglobin concentrations of human skin, based on an adaptive bilateral decomposition and a weighted polynomial curve fitting, with the knowledge of a multi-layered skin model. Different from state-of-the-art approaches based on the Lambert law, the proposed method, considering both specular reflection and diffuse reflection of the skin, enables us to address highlight and strong shading effects usually existing in skin color images captured in an uncontrolled environment. The derived melanin and hemoglobin indices, directly relating to the pathological tissue conditions, tend to be less influenced by external imaging factors and are more efficient in describing pigmentation distributions. Experiments show that the proposed method gave better visual results and superior lesion segmentation, when compared to two other illumination correction algorithms, both designed specifically for dermatological images. For computer-aided diagnosis of melanoma, sensitivity achieves 85.52% when using our chromophore descriptors, which is 8~20% higher than those derived from other color descriptors. This demonstrates the benefit of the proposed method for automatic skin disease analysis.

  4. Robust Crop and Weed Segmentation under Uncontrolled Outdoor Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Y. Jeon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An image processing algorithm for detecting individual weeds was developed and evaluated. Weed detection processes included were normalized excessive green conversion, statistical threshold value estimation, adaptive image segmentation, median filter, morphological feature calculation and Artificial Neural Network (ANN. The developed algorithm was validated for its ability to identify and detect weeds and crop plants under uncontrolled outdoor illuminations. A machine vision implementing field robot captured field images under outdoor illuminations and the image processing algorithm automatically processed them without manual adjustment. The errors of the algorithm, when processing 666 field images, ranged from 2.1 to 2.9%. The ANN correctly detected 72.6% of crop plants from the identified plants, and considered the rest as weeds. However, the ANN identification rates for crop plants were improved up to 95.1% by addressing the error sources in the algorithm. The developed weed detection and image processing algorithm provides a novel method to identify plants against soil background under the uncontrolled outdoor illuminations, and to differentiate weeds from crop plants. Thus, the proposed new machine vision and processing algorithm may be useful for outdoor applications including plant specific direct applications (PSDA.

  5. Standards for illumination of digital prints and photographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Phil

    2010-01-01

    Standards for illuminating digital prints and photographs have a number of quite different applications. In the graphic arts industry, the main applications are defined as appraisal and critical comparison, for which 500lux and 2000lux are specified in ISO 3664. In the museum world much lower levels of illumination are imposed when artefacts are considered to be prone to damage from such exposure. For display and storage of photographic prints, BS 5454:2000 is applicable and specifies maximum levels of 50 lux and 200 lux respectively. While these standards provide recommendations for exposure to radiant energy with the goal of limiting damage to materials and maximising visual discrimination, there is a need for more data on the radiative damage spectrum for the materials used in digital prints and photographs and other artefacts, and on the viewing conditions which can maximise visual performance for specific tasks. It is recommended that radiative exposure is measured in watts per square metre instead of lux to give a better indication of the propensity for radiative damage of a given illumination source.

  6. Illumination Invariant Change Detection (iicd): from Earth to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, X.; Liu, J.; Qin, M.; Li, S. Y.

    2018-04-01

    Multi-temporal Earth Observation and Mars orbital imagery data with frequent repeat coverage provide great capability for planetary surface change detection. When comparing two images taken at different times of day or in different seasons for change detection, the variation of topographic shades and shadows caused by the change of sunlight angle can be so significant that it overwhelms the real object and environmental changes, making automatic detection unreliable. An effective change detection algorithm therefore has to be robust to the illumination variation. This paper presents our research on developing and testing an Illumination Invariant Change Detection (IICD) method based on the robustness of phase correlation (PC) to the variation of solar illumination for image matching. The IICD is based on two key functions: i) initial change detection based on a saliency map derived from pixel-wise dense PC matching and ii) change quantization which combines change type identification, motion estimation and precise appearance change identification. Experiment using multi-temporal Landsat 7 ETM+ satellite images, Rapid eye satellite images and Mars HiRiSE images demonstrate that our frequency based image matching method can reach sub-pixel accuracy and thus the proposed IICD method can effectively detect and precisely segment large scale change such as landslide as well as small object change such as Mars rover, under daily and seasonal sunlight changes.

  7. Light pollution: the possible consequences of excessive illumination on retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contín, M A; Benedetto, M M; Quinteros-Quintana, M L; Guido, M E

    2016-02-01

    Light is the visible part of the electromagnetic radiation within a range of 380-780 nm; (400-700 on primates retina). In vertebrates, the retina is adapted to capturing light photons and transmitting this information to other structures in the central nervous system. In mammals, light acts directly on the retina to fulfill two important roles: (1) the visual function through rod and cone photoreceptor cells and (2) non-image forming tasks, such as the synchronization of circadian rhythms to a 24 h solar cycle, pineal melatonin suppression and pupil light reflexes. However, the excess of illumination may cause retinal degeneration or accelerate genetic retinal diseases. In the last century human society has increased its exposure to artificial illumination, producing changes in the Light/Dark cycle, as well as in light wavelengths and intensities. Although, the consequences of unnatural illumination or light pollution have been underestimated by modern society in its way of life, light pollution may have a strong impact on people's health. The effects of artificial light sources could have direct consequences on retinal health. Constant exposure to different wavelengths and intensities of light promoted by light pollution may produce retinal degeneration as a consequence of photoreceptor or retinal pigment epithelium cells death. In this review we summarize the different mechanisms of retinal damage related to the light exposure, which generates light pollution.

  8. Improving positive and negative bias illumination stress stability in parylene passivated IGZO transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiazadeh, Asal [Department of Materials Science, i3N/CENIMAT, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa and CEMOP/UNINOVA, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Universidade do Algarve, FCT, 8000-139 Faro (Portugal); Gomes, Henrique L. [Universidade do Algarve, FCT, 8000-139 Faro (Portugal); IT-Instituto de Telecomunicações, Av. Rovisco, Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Barquinha, Pedro; Martins, Jorge; Rovisco, Ana; Pinto, Joana V.; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira [Department of Materials Science, i3N/CENIMAT, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa and CEMOP/UNINOVA, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2016-08-01

    The impact of a parylene top-coating layer on the illumination and bias stress instabilities of indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) is presented and discussed. The parylene coating substantially reduces the threshold voltage shift caused by continuous application of a gate bias and light exposure. The operational stability improves by 75%, and the light induced instability is reduced by 35%. The operational stability is quantified by fitting the threshold voltage shift with a stretched exponential model. Storage time as long as 7 months does not cause any measurable degradation on the electrical performance. It is proposed that parylene plays not only the role of an encapsulation layer but also of a defect passivation on the top semiconductor surface. It is also reported that depletion-mode TFTs are less sensitive to light induced instabilities. This is attributed to a defect neutralization process in the presence of free electrons.

  9. Comparison of carrier transport mechanism under UV/Vis illumination in an AZO photodetector and an AZO/p-Si heterojunction photodiode produced by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shasti, M.; Mortezaali, A., E-mail: mortezaali@alzahra.ac.ir; Dariani, R. S. [Department of Physics, Alzahra University, Tehran 1993893973 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-14

    In this study, Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide (AZO) layer is deposited on p-type silicon (p-Si) by spray pyrolysis method to fabricate ultraviolet-visible (UV/Vis) photodetector as Al doping process can have positive effect on the photodetector performance. Morphology, crystalline structure, and Al concentration of AZO layer are investigated by SEM, XRD, and EDX. The goal of this study is to analyze the mechanism of carrier transport by means of current-voltage characteristics under UV/Vis illumination in two cases: (a) electrodes connected to the surface of AZO layer and (b) electrodes connected to cross section of heterojunction (AZO/p-Si). Measurements indicate that the AZO/p-Si photodiode exhibits a higher photocurrent and lower photoresponse time under visible illumination with respect to AZO photodetector; while under UV illumination, the above result is inversed. Besides, the internal junction field of AZO/p-Si heterojunction plays an important role on this mechanism.

  10. Comparison of carrier transport mechanism under UV/Vis illumination in an AZO photodetector and an AZO/p-Si heterojunction photodiode produced by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shasti, M.; Mortezaali, A.; Dariani, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide (AZO) layer is deposited on p-type silicon (p-Si) by spray pyrolysis method to fabricate ultraviolet-visible (UV/Vis) photodetector as Al doping process can have positive effect on the photodetector performance. Morphology, crystalline structure, and Al concentration of AZO layer are investigated by SEM, XRD, and EDX. The goal of this study is to analyze the mechanism of carrier transport by means of current-voltage characteristics under UV/Vis illumination in two cases: (a) electrodes connected to the surface of AZO layer and (b) electrodes connected to cross section of heterojunction (AZO/p-Si). Measurements indicate that the AZO/p-Si photodiode exhibits a higher photocurrent and lower photoresponse time under visible illumination with respect to AZO photodetector; while under UV illumination, the above result is inversed. Besides, the internal junction field of AZO/p-Si heterojunction plays an important role on this mechanism

  11. Spectral-Efficiency - Illumination Pareto Front for Energy Harvesting Enabled VLC System

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr Mohamed Abdelaziz; Amin, Osama; Chaaban, Anas; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    . The adopted optical system provides users with illumination and data communication services. The outdoor optical design objective is to maximize the illumination, while the communication design objective is to maximize the spectral efficiency (SE). The design

  12. Influence of illumination on the output characteristics in pentacene thin film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yow-Jon, E-mail: rzr2390@yahoo.com.tw; Huang, Bo-Chieh

    2013-10-01

    The influence of illumination on the output characteristics of pentacene-based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) was researched in this study. It is shown that light illumination may lead to an increase in the drain current, shifting the threshold voltage towards positive gate–source voltages. This is because of the light-induced acceptor activation, which is a new concept for illumination-dependent output characteristics of OTFTs. However, the field-effect mobility is insensitive to light illumination. It is found that electron trapping is responsible for the experimentally observed illumination-dependent output behavior of charge transport in OTFTs. - Highlights: • Light illumination may lead to an increase in the drain current. • This is because of the light-induced acceptor activation. • The field-effect mobility is insensitive to light illumination. • Electron trapping is responsible for the illumination-dependent output behavior.

  13. The experiences of context on role play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justina Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue in question relates to the preparation that has the staff, for the use of the experiences of the context of children of preschool grade of primary school, in the role plays, for evidence that the social aspect that own the game, being a prerequisite for the formation and development of the child's personality, and being a problem under investigation in educational practice in all aspects of Early Childhood Education.

  14. Investigating the performance of reconstruction methods used in structured illumination microscopy as a function of the illumination pattern's modulation frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, H.; Sánchez-Ortiga, E.; Preza, C.

    2016-03-01

    Surpassing the resolution of optical microscopy defined by the Abbe diffraction limit, while simultaneously achieving optical sectioning, is a challenging problem particularly for live cell imaging of thick samples. Among a few developing techniques, structured illumination microscopy (SIM) addresses this challenge by imposing higher frequency information into the observable frequency band confined by the optical transfer function (OTF) of a conventional microscope either doubling the spatial resolution or filling the missing cone based on the spatial frequency of the pattern when the patterned illumination is two-dimensional. Standard reconstruction methods for SIM decompose the low and high frequency components from the recorded low-resolution images and then combine them to reach a high-resolution image. In contrast, model-based approaches rely on iterative optimization approaches to minimize the error between estimated and forward images. In this paper, we study the performance of both groups of methods by simulating fluorescence microscopy images from different type of objects (ranging from simulated two-point sources to extended objects). These simulations are used to investigate the methods' effectiveness on restoring objects with various types of power spectrum when modulation frequency of the patterned illumination is changing from zero to the incoherent cut-off frequency of the imaging system. Our results show that increasing the amount of imposed information by using a higher modulation frequency of the illumination pattern does not always yield a better restoration performance, which was found to be depended on the underlying object. Results from model-based restoration show performance improvement, quantified by an up to 62% drop in the mean square error compared to standard reconstruction, with increasing modulation frequency. However, we found cases for which results obtained with standard reconstruction methods do not always follow the same trend.

  15. Illumination non-uniformity of spirally wobbling beam in heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Noguchi, K.; Kurosaki, T.; Barada, D.; Kawata, S.; Ma, Y. Y.; Ogoyski, A.I.

    2016-01-01

    In inertial confinement fusion, the driver beam illumination non-uniformity leads a degradation of fusion energy output. The illumination non-uniformity allowed is less than a few percent in inertial fusion target implosion. Heavy ion beam (HIB) accelerator provides a capability to oscillate a beam axis with a high frequency. The wobbling beams may provide a new method to reduce or smooth the beam illumination non-uniformity. In this paper the HIBs wobbling illumination scheme was optimized. (paper)

  16. A Curious Problem with Using the Colour Checker Dataset for Illuminant Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Finlayson, Graham; Hemrit, Ghalia; Gijsenij, Arjan; Gehler, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In illuminant estimation, we attempt to estimate the RGB of the light. We then use this estimate on an image to correct for the light's colour bias. Illuminant estimation is an essential component of all camera reproduction pipelines. How well an illuminant estimation algorithm works is determined by how well it predicts the ground truth illuminant colour. Typically, the ground truth is the RGB of a white surface placed in a scene. Over a large set of images an estimation error is calculated ...

  17. Freud on play, games, and sports fanaticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holowchak, M Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Much has been written in the secondary literature on Freud's aggression-release perspective vis-à-vis competitive sports. Very little has been written, however, on Freud's own explicit contribution to play, games, and sport. That is likely the result of Freud's reluctance to take up them--especially from the gamesman's and sportsman's points of view. One can, however, tease out the development of Freud's thoughts on games, play, and sport through a careful examination of his corpus over time. In doing so, one finds an early view of play and games, where the drives behind those activities are self- and other-preservative, and a later view, where Freud introduces his death drive. The article ends with some notions on what Freud might have said on the fanaticism that accompanies competitive sport, had he expressly taken up the issue.

  18. Parental Involvement In Play Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlson, E. Lamonte

    1976-01-01

    Play therapy acts as a medium of expression for children. The purpose of this article is to outline a methodological approach as well as to emphasize the necessity of including the parent in the play therapy situation. (Author)

  19. Learning, Play, and Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning, Play, and Your Newborn KidsHealth / For Parents / Learning, ... Some Other Ideas Print What Is My Newborn Learning? Play is the chief way that infants learn ...

  20. Model-Based Illumination Correction for Face Images in Uncontrolled Scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, B.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2009-01-01

    Face Recognition under uncontrolled illumination conditions is partly an unsolved problem. Several illumination correction methods have been proposed, but these are usually tested on illumination conditions created in a laboratory. Our focus is more on uncontrolled conditions. We use the Phong model

  1. Macular photostress and visual experience between microscope and intracameral illumination during cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyejin; Nam, Dong Heun; Lee, Jong Yeon; Park, Su Jin; Kim, Yu Jeong; Kim, Seong-Woo; Chung, Tae-Young; Inoue, Makoto; Kim, Terry

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate macular photostress and visual experience between coaxial microscope illumination versus oblique intracameral illumination during cataract surgery. Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon, South Korea. Prospective case series. Consecutive patients who had cataract surgery using microscope illumination and intracameral illumination were included. The patients were asked to complete a questionnaire (seeing strong lights, feeling photophobia, feeling startled (fright) when seeing lights, seeing any colors, seeing any instruments or surgical procedures, and estimating intraoperative visual function) designed to describe their cataract surgery experience. The images projected on the retina of the model eye (rear view) with artificial opaque fragments in the anterior chamber during simulating cataract surgery were compared between the 2 illumination types. Sixty patients completed the questionnaire. Scores for strong lights, photophobia, fright, and color perception were significantly higher with microscope illumination than with intracameral illumination (all P microscope illumination (13 [21.7%]). In the rear-view images created in a model eye, only the bright microscope light in the center was seen without any lens image in the microscope illumination. However, in the intracameral illumination, the less bright light from the light pipe in the periphery and the lens fragments were seen more clearly. In a view of the patients' visual experience, oblique intracameral illumination caused less subjective photostress and was preferred over coaxial microscope illumination. Objective findings from the model-eye experiment correlated to the result of visual experience. Copyright © 2018 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Problematic game play: the diagnostic value of playing motives, passion, and playing time in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneer, Julia; Rieger, Diana

    2015-04-30

    Internet gaming disorder is currently listed in the DSM-not in order to diagnose such a disorder but to encourage research to investigate this phenomenon. Even whether it is still questionable if Internet Gaming Disorder exists and can be judged as a form of addiction, problematic game play is already very well researched to cause problems in daily life. Approaches trying to predict problematic tendencies in digital game play have mainly focused on playing time as a diagnostic criterion. However, motives to engage in digital game play and obsessive passion for game play have also been found to predict problematic game play but have not yet been investigated together. The present study aims at (1) analyzing if obsessive passion can be distinguished from problematic game play as separate concepts, and (2) testing motives of game play, passion, and playing time for their predictive values for problematic tendencies. We found (N = 99 males, Age: M = 22.80, SD = 3.81) that obsessive passion can be conceptually separated from problematic game play. In addition, the results suggest that compared to solely playing time immersion as playing motive and obsessive passion have added predictive value for problematic game play. The implications focus on broadening the criteria in order to diagnose problematic playing.

  3. Problematic Game Play: The Diagnostic Value of Playing Motives, Passion, and Playing Time in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kneer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Internet gaming disorder is currently listed in the DSM—not in order to diagnose such a disorder but to encourage research to investigate this phenomenon. Even whether it is still questionable if Internet Gaming Disorder exists and can be judged as a form of addiction, problematic game play is already very well researched to cause problems in daily life. Approaches trying to predict problematic tendencies in digital game play have mainly focused on playing time as a diagnostic criterion. However, motives to engage in digital game play and obsessive passion for game play have also been found to predict problematic game play but have not yet been investigated together. The present study aims at (1 analyzing if obsessive passion can be distinguished from problematic game play as separate concepts, and (2 testing motives of game play, passion, and playing time for their predictive values for problematic tendencies. We found (N = 99 males, Age: M = 22.80, SD = 3.81 that obsessive passion can be conceptually separated from problematic game play. In addition, the results suggest that compared to solely playing time immersion as playing motive and obsessive passion have added predictive value for problematic game play. The implications focus on broadening the criteria in order to diagnose problematic playing.

  4. Play Therapy: Basics and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottman, Terry

    This book provides an atheoretical orientation to basic concepts involved in play therapy and an introduction to different skills used in play therapy. The demand for mental professionals and school counselors who have training and expertise in using play as a therapeutic tool when working with children has increased tremendously. In response to…

  5. Play Memories and Place Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Anette

    2003-01-01

    This retrospective study examined play memories from childhood to adulthood of 478 university students between ages 20 and 62 as exhibited in drawings of play memories and questionnaire responses. The study focused on the role of the physical environment and place identity in play memories and individual identity development. Findings showed that…

  6. Pretend Play and Creative Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Sandra W.; Wallace, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    The authors contend that many cognitive abilities and affective processes important in creativity also occur in pretend play and that pretend play in childhood affects the development of creativity in adulthood. They discuss a variety of theories and observations that attempt to explain the importance of pretend play to creativity. They argue that…

  7. Effect of NICU Illumination upon Behaviors in Preterm Infants

    OpenAIRE

    白岩, 義夫; 河合, 優年; 犬飼, 和久; 鬼頭, 秀行; 小川, 次郎

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of illumination in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) on behaviors and behavioral states in preterm infants. The Ss were individually observed twice in a day for a period of one hour by a video recording system. The results showed that rates of awakening and eye-opening during the awake state were higher, and their eyes were opened more widely under the dark condition than the bright. The bright condition increased the rate of Behavior ...

  8. Light induced modulation instability of surfaces under intense illumination

    KAUST Repository

    Burlakov, V. M.

    2013-12-17

    We show that a flat surface of a polymer in rubber state illuminated with intense electromagnetic radiation is unstable with respect to periodic modulation. Initial periodic perturbation is amplified due to periodic thermal expansion of the material heated by radiation. Periodic heating is due to focusing-defocusing effects caused by the initial surface modulation. The surface modulation has a period longer than the excitation wavelength and does not require coherent light source. Therefore, it is not related to the well-known laser induced periodic structures on polymer surfaces but may contribute to their formation and to other phenomena of light-matter interaction.

  9. Restoration of uneven illumination in light sheet microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Mohammad Shorif; Lee, Hwee Kuan; Preibisch, Stephan; Tomancak, Pavel

    2011-08-01

    Light microscopy images suffer from poor contrast due to light absorption and scattering by the media. The resulting decay in contrast varies exponentially across the image along the incident light path. Classical space invariant deconvolution approaches, while very effective in deblurring, are not designed for the restoration of uneven illumination in microscopy images. In this article, we present a modified radiative transfer theory approach to solve the contrast degradation problem of light sheet microscopy (LSM) images. We confirmed the effectiveness of our approach through simulation as well as real LSM images.

  10. Redundant information from thermal illumination: quantum Darwinism in scattered photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jess Riedel, C; Zurek, Wojciech H, E-mail: criedel@physics.ucsb.edu [Theory Division, LANL, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    We study quantum Darwinism, the redundant recording of information about the preferred states of a decohering system by its environment, for an object illuminated by a blackbody. We calculate the quantum mutual information between the object and its photon environment for blackbodies that cover an arbitrary section of the sky. In particular, we demonstrate that more extended sources have a reduced ability to create redundant information about the system, in agreement with previous evidence that initial mixedness of an environment slows-but does not stop-the production of records. We also show that the qualitative results are robust for more general initial states of the system.

  11. Redundant information from thermal illumination: quantum Darwinism in scattered photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jess Riedel, C.; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2011-07-01

    We study quantum Darwinism, the redundant recording of information about the preferred states of a decohering system by its environment, for an object illuminated by a blackbody. We calculate the quantum mutual information between the object and its photon environment for blackbodies that cover an arbitrary section of the sky. In particular, we demonstrate that more extended sources have a reduced ability to create redundant information about the system, in agreement with previous evidence that initial mixedness of an environment slows—but does not stop—the production of records. We also show that the qualitative results are robust for more general initial states of the system.

  12. GPU-Based Techniques for Global Illumination Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Szirmay-Kalos, László; Sbert, Mateu

    2008-01-01

    This book presents techniques to render photo-realistic images by programming the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). We discuss effects such as mirror reflections, refractions, caustics, diffuse or glossy indirect illumination, radiosity, single or multiple scattering in participating media, tone reproduction, glow, and depth of field. This book targets game developers, graphics programmers, and also students with some basic understanding of computer graphics algorithms, rendering APIs like Direct3D or OpenGL, and shader programming. In order to make this book self-contained, the most important c

  13. Near spherical illumination of ion-beam and laser targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, J.W.K.

    1985-01-01

    A procedure is developed for reducing energy-deposition asymmetry in spherical targets driven directly by ion or laser beams. This work is part of a strategy for achieving illumination symmetry in such targets, which is proposed as an alternative to those in the literature. This strategy allows an axially symmetric placement of beamlets, which would be convenient for some driven or reactor scenarios. It also allows the use of beam currents or energy fluxes and beam transverse profiles to help reduce deposition asymmetry with fewer beamlets. In the ideal limit of thin deposition layers and controlled beam profiles, at most six beamlets are needed for target symmetry

  14. BCB Bonding Technology of Back-Side Illuminated COMS Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Jiang, G. Q.; Jia, S. X.; Shi, Y. M.

    2018-03-01

    Back-side illuminated CMOS(BSI) sensor is a key device in spaceborne hyperspectral imaging technology. Compared with traditional devices, the path of incident light is simplified and the spectral response is planarized by BSI sensors, which meets the requirements of quantitative hyperspectral imaging applications. Wafer bonding is the basic technology and key process of the fabrication of BSI sensors. 6 inch bonding of CMOS wafer and glass wafer was fabricated based on the low bonding temperature and high stability of BCB. The influence of different thickness of BCB on bonding strength was studied. Wafer bonding with high strength, high stability and no bubbles was fabricated by changing bonding conditions.

  15. Cartesian oval representation of freeform optics in illumination systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, D; Schreiber, P; Bräuer, A

    2011-03-15

    The geometrical method for constructing optical surfaces for illumination purpose developed by Oliker and co-workers [Trends in Nonlinear Analysis (Springer, 2003)] is generalized in order to obtain freeform designs in arbitrary optical systems. The freeform is created by a set of primitive surface elements, which are generalized Cartesian ovals adapted to the given optical system. Those primitives are determined by Hamiltonian theory of ray optics. The potential of this approach is demonstrated by some examples, e.g., freeform lenses with collimating front elements.

  16. Design of High Efficiency Illumination for LED Lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Nong Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A high efficiency illumination for LED street lighting is proposed. For energy saving, this paper uses Class-E resonant inverter as main electric circuit to improve efficiency. In addition, single dimming control has the best efficiency, simplest control scheme and lowest circuit cost among other types of dimming techniques. Multiple serial-connected transformers used to drive the LED strings as they can provide galvanic isolation and have the advantage of good current distribution against device difference. Finally, a prototype circuit for driving 112 W LEDs in total was built and tested to verify the theoretical analysis.

  17. Why do adult dogs 'play'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, John W S; Pullen, Anne J; Rooney, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Among the Carnivora, play behaviour is usually made up of motor patterns characteristic of predatory, agonistic and courtship behaviour. Domestic dogs are unusual in that play is routinely performed by adults, both socially, with conspecifics and with humans, and also asocially, with objects. This enhanced playfulness is commonly thought to be a side effect of paedomorphosis, the perpetuation of juvenile traits into adulthood, but here we suggest that the functions of the different types of play are sufficiently distinct that they are unlikely to have arisen through a single evolutionary mechanism. Solitary play with objects appears to be derived from predatory behaviour: preferred toys are those that can be dismembered, and a complex habituation-like feedback system inhibits play with objects that are resistant to alteration. Intraspecific social play is structurally different from interspecific play and may therefore be motivationally distinct and serve different goals; for example, dogs often compete over objects when playing with other dogs, but are usually more cooperative when the play partner is human. The majority of dogs do not seem to regard competitive games played with a human partner as "dominance" contests: rather, winning possession of objects during games appears to be simply rewarding. Play may be an important factor in sociality, since dogs are capable of extracting social information not only from games in which they participate, but also from games that they observe between third parties. We suggest that the domestic dog's characteristic playfulness in social contexts is an adaptive trait, selected during domestication to facilitate both training for specific purposes, and the formation of emotionally-based bonds between dog and owner. Play frequency and form may therefore be an indicator of the quality of dog-owner relationships. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Workforce Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996

    This document consists of four papers presented during a symposium on work force issues moderated by Jan DeJong at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Rethinking the Ties that Bind: An Exploratory Study of Employee Development in Utilities in Canada and the United States" (Michael Aherne, David…

  19. Sanskrit Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Barbara Stoler, Ed.

    1971-01-01

    This issue of "Mahfil" is devoted to Sanskrit literature and contains a note on Sanskrit pronunciation and selections of Sanskrit literature. It also contains articles analyzing and discussing various aspects of the literature, including "Sanskrit Rhetoric and Poetic,""The Creative Role of the Goddess Vac in the…

  20. Bond Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Rachel H.

    2000-01-01

    Notes trends toward increased borrowing by colleges and universities and offers guidelines for institutions that are considering issuing bonds to raise money for capital projects. Discussion covers advantages of using bond financing, how use of bonds impacts on traditional fund raising, other cautions and concerns, and some troubling aspects of…

  1. 3D-Printed, All-in-One Evaporator for High-Efficiency Solar Steam Generation under 1 Sun Illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiju; Gao, Tingting; Yang, Zhi; Chen, Chaoji; Luo, Wei; Song, Jianwei; Hitz, Emily; Jia, Chao; Zhou, Yubing; Liu, Boyang; Yang, Bao; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-07-01

    Using solar energy to generate steam is a clean and sustainable approach to addressing the issue of water shortage. The current challenge for solar steam generation is to develop easy-to-manufacture and scalable methods which can convert solar irradiation into exploitable thermal energy with high efficiency. Although various material and structure designs have been reported, high efficiency in solar steam generation usually can be achieved only at concentrated solar illumination. For the first time, 3D printing to construct an all-in-one evaporator with a concave structure for high-efficiency solar steam generation under 1 sun illumination is used. The solar-steam-generation device has a high porosity (97.3%) and efficient broadband solar absorption (>97%). The 3D-printed porous evaporator with intrinsic low thermal conductivity enables heat localization and effectively alleviates thermal dissipation to the bulk water. As a result, the 3D-printed evaporator has a high solar steam efficiency of 85.6% under 1 sun illumination (1 kW m -2 ), which is among the best compared with other reported evaporators. The all-in-one structure design using the advanced 3D printing fabrication technique offers a new approach to solar energy harvesting for high-efficiency steam generation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Performance of Series Connected GaAs Photovoltaic Converters under Multimode Optical Fiber Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiqiang Shan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In many military and industrial applications, GaAs photovoltaic (PV converters are connected in series in order to generate the required voltage compatible with most common electronics. Multimode optical fibers are usually used to carry high-intensity laser and illuminate the series connected GaAs PV converters in real time. However, multimode optical fiber illumination has a speckled intensity pattern. The series connected PV array is extremely sensitive to nonuniform illumination; its performance is limited severely by the converter that is illuminated the least. This paper quantifies the effects of multimode optical fiber illumination on the performance of series connected GaAs PV converters, analyzes the loss mechanisms due to speckles, and discusses the maximum illumination efficiency. In order to describe the illumination dependent behavior detailedly, modeling of the series connected PV array is accomplished based on the equivalent circuit for PV cells. Finally, a series of experiments are carried out to demonstrate the theory analysis.

  3. Feminist issues in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antrobus, P

    1987-01-01

    The United Nations Decade for the Advancement of Women, from 1975 to 1985, leaves a legacy of a deeper understanding of the issues, and the emergence of new networks with the experience and commitment to work for further changes. However, the role and status of women did not improve. There is a new commitment to struggle for the ending of all oppression, injustice and violence of all kinds at all levels. Feminism is a consciousness of all forms of women's oppression and a commitment to work against them. Feminist critiques illuminate the larger structures that oppress both women and men. New development theories embracing feminism are necessary to understand how patriarchy and economic systems propogate oppression. The production-oriented approach to rural development is flawed n failing to address women's lack of access to land, credit, training and new technologies. Overwhelming household tasks, cultural norms, and traditional attitudes limit women's involvement in training programs and other development activities. The basic needs approach to rural development provides access to vital services to meet a family's basic needs for nutrition, housing and clothing, and allows people's participation in decision making. However, women have little actual role in decision making so their needs, concerns and perspectives are not taken into account. Women are treated as instruments to achieve goals without appreciating their perspective. Project-based approached emphasize short term goals rather than laying the foundation for longterm changes. Few projects address structural issues or empower women. Projects must include education to increase personal growth and self reliance. Development planning can be enormously enhanced by taking gender differences into account and recognizing that people, specially poor women, can promote their own devleopment. Longterm strategies that challenge existing structures, address the existing economic order, and, most of all, recognize

  4. Combined mask and illumination scheme optimization for robust contact patterning on 45nm technology node flash memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaglio Pret, Alessandro; Capetti, Gianfranco; Bollin, Maddalena; Cotti, Gina; De Simone, Danilo; Cantù, Pietro; Vaccaro, Alessandro; Soma, Laura

    2008-03-01

    Immersion Lithography is the most important technique for extending optical lithography's capabilities and meeting the requirements of Semiconductor Roadmap. The introduction of immersion tools has recently allowed the development of 45nm technology node in single exposure. Nevertheless the usage of hyper-high NA scanners (NA > 1), some levels still remain very critical to be imaged with sufficient process performances. For memory devices, contact mask is for sure the most challenging layer. Aim of this paper is to present the lithographic assessment of 193nm contact holes process, with k I value of ~0.30 using NA 1.20 immersion lithography (minimum pitch is 100nm). Different issues will be reported, related to mask choices (Binary or Attenuated Phase Shift) and illuminator configurations. First phase of the work will be dedicated to a preliminary experimental screening on a simple test case in order to reduce the variables in the following optimization sections. Based on this analysis we will discard X-Y symmetrical illuminators (Annular, C-Quad) due to poor contrast. Second phase will be dedicated to a full simulation assessment. Different illuminators will be compared, with both mask type and several mask biases. From this study, we will identify some general trends of lithography performances that can be used for the fine tuning of the RET settings. The last phase of the work will be dedicated to find the sensitivity trends for one of the analyzed illuminators. In particular we study the effect of Numerical Aperture, mask bias in both X and Y direction and poles sigma ring-width and centre.

  5. Exomoon habitability constrained by illumination and tidal heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, René; Barnes, Rory

    2013-01-01

    The detection of moons orbiting extrasolar planets ("exomoons") has now become feasible. Once they are discovered in the circumstellar habitable zone, questions about their habitability will emerge. Exomoons are likely to be tidally locked to their planet and hence experience days much shorter than their orbital period around the star and have seasons, all of which works in favor of habitability. These satellites can receive more illumination per area than their host planets, as the planet reflects stellar light and emits thermal photons. On the contrary, eclipses can significantly alter local climates on exomoons by reducing stellar illumination. In addition to radiative heating, tidal heating can be very large on exomoons, possibly even large enough for sterilization. We identify combinations of physical and orbital parameters for which radiative and tidal heating are strong enough to trigger a runaway greenhouse. By analogy with the circumstellar habitable zone, these constraints define a circumplanetary "habitable edge." We apply our model to hypothetical moons around the recently discovered exoplanet Kepler-22b and the giant planet candidate KOI211.01 and describe, for the first time, the orbits of habitable exomoons. If either planet hosted a satellite at a distance greater than 10 planetary radii, then this could indicate the presence of a habitable moon.

  6. Bifurcations in two-image photometric stereo for orthogonal illuminations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozera, R.; Prokopenya, A.; Noakes, L.; Śluzek, A.

    2017-07-01

    This paper discusses the ambiguous shape recovery in two-image photometric stereo for a Lambertian surface. The current uniqueness analysis refers to linearly independent light-source directions p = (0, 0, -1) and q arbitrary. For this case necessary and sufficient condition determining ambiguous reconstruction is governed by a second-order linear partial differential equation with constant coefficients. In contrast, a general position of both non-colinear illumination directions p and q leads to a highly non-linear PDE which raises a number of technical difficulties. As recently shown, the latter can also be handled for another family of orthogonal illuminations parallel to the OXZ-plane. For the special case of p = (0, 0, -1) a potential ambiguity stems also from the possible bifurcations of sub-local solutions glued together along a curve defined by an algebraic equation in terms of the data. This paper discusses the occurrence of similar bifurcations for such configurations of orthogonal light-source directions. The discussion to follow is supplemented with examples based on continuous reflectance map model and generated synthetic images.

  7. Microplasma light tiles: thin sheet lamps for general illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eden, J G; Park, S-J [Laboratory for Optical Physics and Engineering, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Herring, C M; Bulson, J M [Eden Park Illumination, 903 North Country Fair Drive, Champaign, IL 61821 (United States)

    2011-06-08

    Flat, thin and lightweight lamps providing spatially uniform and dimmable illumination from active areas as large as 400 cm{sup 2} are being developed for general illumination and specialty applications. Comprising an array of low-temperature, nonequilibrium microplasmas driven by a dielectric barrier structure and operating at pressures of typically 400-700 Torr, these lamps have a packaged thickness <4 mm and yet produce luminance values beyond 26 000 cd m{sup -2} with a luminous efficacy approaching 30 lm W{sup -1}. Third generation lamps, presently in limited production, offer a correlated colour temperature in the 3000-4100 K interval and a colour rendering index of 80. Current lamps employ Xe{sub 2} ({lambda} {approx} 172 nm) as the primary emitter photoexciting a mixture of phosphors, and the pressure dependence of the wavelength-integrated fluorescence from the electronically excited dimer has been investigated with a vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer. In contrast to other promising lighting technologies, the decline in luminous efficacy of microplasma lamps with increasing power delivered to the lamp is small. For a 6 x 6 inch{sup 2} ({approx}225 cm{sup 2}) lamp, efficacy falls <16% when the radiant output (luminance) is raised from 2000 cd m{sup -2} to > 10 000 cd m{sup -2}.

  8. Holographically generated structured illumination for cell stimulation in optogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, Felix; Büttner, Lars; Czarske, Jürgen; Torres, Maria Leilani; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Klapper, Simon; Busskamp, Volker

    2017-06-01

    In Optogenetics, cells, e.g. neurons or cardiac cells, are genetically altered to produce for example the lightsensitive protein Channelrhodopsin-2. Illuminating these cells induces action potentials or contractions and therefore allows to control electrical activity. Thus, light-induced cell stimulation can be used to gain insight to various biological processes. Many optogenetics studies, however, use only full field illumination and thus gain no local information about their specimen. But using modern spatial light modulators (SLM) in conjunction with computer-generated holograms (CGH), cells may be stimulated locally, thus enabling the research of the foundations of cell networks and cell communications. In our contribution, we present a digital holographic system for the patterned, spatially resolved stimulation of cell networks. We employ a fast ferroelectric liquid crystal on silicon SLM to display CGH at up to 1.7 kHz. With an effective working distance of 33 mm, we achieve a focus of 10 μm at a positioning accuracy of the individual foci of about 8 μm. We utilized our setup for the optogenetic stimulation of clusters of cardiac cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells and were able to observe contractions correlated to both temporal frequency and spatial power distribution of the light incident on the cell clusters.

  9. Modeling illumination performance of plastic optical fiber passive daylighting system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulaiman, F; Ahmad, A [Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam (Malaysia). Faculty of Electrical Engineering; Ahmed, A Z [Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam (Malaysia). Bureau of Reseaarch and Consultancy

    2006-12-15

    of the most direct methods of utilizing solar energy for energy conservation is to bring natural light indoors to light up an area. This paper reports on the investigation of the feasibility to utilize large core optical fibers to convey and distribute solar light passively throughout residential or commercial structures. The focus of this study is on the mathematical modeling of the illumination performance and the light transmission efficiency of solid core end light fiber for optical day lighting systems. The Meatball simulations features the optical fiber transmittance for glass and plastic fibers, illumination performance over lengths of plastic end-lit fiber, spectral transmission, light intensity loss through the large diameter solid core optical fibers as well as the transmission efficiency of the optical fiber itself. It was found that plastic optical fiber has less transmission loss over the distance of the fiber run which clearly shows that the Plastic Optical Fiber should be optimized for emitting visible light. The findings from the analysis on the performance of large diameter optical fibers for day lighting systems seems feasible for energy efficient lighting system in commercial or residential buildings.

  10. Modeling illumination performance of plastic optical fiber passive daylighting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiman, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, A.Z.

    2006-01-01

    One of the most direct methods of utilizing solar energy for energy conservation is to bring natural light indoors to light up an area. This paper reports on the investigation of the feasibility to utilize large core optical fibers to convey and distribute solar light passively throughout residential or commercial structures. The focus of this study is on the mathematical modeling of the illumination performance and the light transmission efficiency of solid core end light fiber for optical day lighting systems. The Meatball simulations features the optical fiber transmittance for glass and plastic fibers, illumination performance over lengths of plastic end-lit fiber, spectral transmission, light intensity loss through the large diameter solid core optical fibers as well as the transmission efficiency of the optical fiber itself. It was found that plastic optical fiber has less transmission loss over the distance of the fiber run which clearly shows that the Plastic Optical Fiber should be optimized for emitting visible light. The findings from the analysis on the performance of large diameter optical fibers for day lighting systems seems feasible for energy efficient lighting system in commercial or residential buildings

  11. Sirius-T, a symmetrically illuminated ICF tritium production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sviatoslavsky, I.N.; Sawan, M.E.; Moses, G.A.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Engelstad, R.L.; Larsen, E.; Lovell, E.; MacFarlane, J.; Peterson, R.R.; Wittenberg, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    A scoping study of a symmetrically illuminated ICF tritium production facility utilizing a KrF laser is presented. A single shell ICF target is illuminated by 92 beams symmetrically distributed around a spherical cavity filled with xenon gas at 1.0 torr. The driver energy and target gain are taken to be 2 MJ and 50 for the optimistic case and 1 MJ and 100 for the conservative case. Based on a graphite dry wall evaporation rate of 0.1 cm/y for a 100 MJ yield, the authors estimate a cavity radius of 3.5 m for a rep-rate of 10 Hz and 3.0 m for 5 Hz. A spherical structural frame has been scoped out capable of supporting 92 blanket modules, each with a beam port in the center. They have selected liquid lithium in vanadium structure as the primary breeding concept utilizing beryllium as a neutron multiplier. A tritium breeding ratio of 1.83 can be achieved in the 3 m radius cavity which at 10 Hz and an availability of 75% provides an annual tritium surplus of 32.6 kg. Assuming 100% debt financing over a 30 year reactor lifetime, the production cost of T 2 for the 2 MJ driver case is $7,325/g for a 5% interest rate and $12,370/g for a 10% interest rate. 8 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Dynamic thermal model of photovoltaic cell illuminated by laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoguang; Hua, Wenshen; Guo, Tong

    2015-07-01

    Photovoltaic cell is one of the most important components of laser powered unmanned aerial vehicle. Illuminated by high power laser beam, photovoltaic cell temperature increases significantly, which leads to efficiency drop, or even physical damage. To avoid such situation, the temperature of photovoltaic cell must be predicted precisely. A dynamic thermal model of photovoltaic cell is established in this paper, and the relationships between photovoltaic cell temperature and laser power, wind speed, ambient temperature are also analyzed. Simulation result indicates that illuminated by a laser beam, the temperature of photovoltaic cell rises gradually and reach to a constant maximum value. There is an approximately linear rise in photovoltaic cell temperature as the laser flux gets higher. The higher wind speed is, the stronger forced convection is, and then the lower photovoltaic cell temperature is. But the relationship between photovoltaic cell temperature and wind speed is not linear. Photovoltaic cell temperature is proportional to the ambient temperature. For each increase of 1 degree of ambient temperature, there is approximate 1 degree increase in photovoltaic cell temperature. The result will provide fundamentals to take reasonable measures to control photovoltaic cell temperature.

  13. Assessing resolution in live cell structured illumination microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospíšil, Jakub; Fliegel, Karel; Klíma, Miloš

    2017-12-01

    Structured Illumination Microscopy (SIM) is a powerful super-resolution technique, which is able to enhance the resolution of optical microscope beyond the Abbe diffraction limit. In the last decade, numerous SIM methods that achieve the resolution of 100 nm in the lateral dimension have been developed. The SIM setups with new high-speed cameras and illumination pattern generators allow rapid acquisition of the live specimen. Therefore, SIM is widely used for investigation of the live structures in molecular and live cell biology. Quantitative evaluation of resolution enhancement in a real sample is essential to describe the efficiency of super-resolution microscopy technique. However, measuring the resolution of a live cell sample is a challenging task. Based on our experimental findings, the widely used Fourier ring correlation (FRC) method does not seem to be well suited for measuring the resolution of SIM live cell video sequences. Therefore, the resolution assessing methods based on Fourier spectrum analysis are often used. We introduce a measure based on circular average power spectral density (PSDca) estimated from a single SIM image (one video frame). PSDca describes the distribution of the power of a signal with respect to its spatial frequency. Spatial resolution corresponds to the cut-off frequency in Fourier space. In order to estimate the cut-off frequency from a noisy signal, we use a spectral subtraction method for noise suppression. In the future, this resolution assessment approach might prove useful also for single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) live cell imaging.

  14. Exomoon Habitability Constrained by Illumination and Tidal Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The detection of moons orbiting extrasolar planets (“exomoons”) has now become feasible. Once they are discovered in the circumstellar habitable zone, questions about their habitability will emerge. Exomoons are likely to be tidally locked to their planet and hence experience days much shorter than their orbital period around the star and have seasons, all of which works in favor of habitability. These satellites can receive more illumination per area than their host planets, as the planet reflects stellar light and emits thermal photons. On the contrary, eclipses can significantly alter local climates on exomoons by reducing stellar illumination. In addition to radiative heating, tidal heating can be very large on exomoons, possibly even large enough for sterilization. We identify combinations of physical and orbital parameters for which radiative and tidal heating are strong enough to trigger a runaway greenhouse. By analogy with the circumstellar habitable zone, these constraints define a circumplanetary “habitable edge.” We apply our model to hypothetical moons around the recently discovered exoplanet Kepler-22b and the giant planet candidate KOI211.01 and describe, for the first time, the orbits of habitable exomoons. If either planet hosted a satellite at a distance greater than 10 planetary radii, then this could indicate the presence of a habitable moon. Key Words: Astrobiology—Extrasolar planets—Habitability—Habitable zone—Tides. Astrobiology 13, 18–46. PMID:23305357

  15. Optical image encryption based on interference under convergent random illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pramod; Joseph, Joby; Singh, Kehar

    2010-01-01

    In an optical image encryption system based on the interference principle, two pure phase masks are designed analytically to hide an image. These two masks are illuminated with a plane wavefront to retrieve the original image in the form of an interference pattern at the decryption plane. Replacement of the plane wavefront with convergent random illumination in the proposed scheme leads to an improvement in the security of interference based encryption. The proposed encryption scheme retains the simplicity of an interference based method, as the two pure masks are generated with an analytical method without any iterative algorithm. In addition to the free-space propagation distance and the two pure phase masks, the convergence distance and the randomized lens phase function are two new encryption parameters to enhance the system security. The robustness of this scheme against occlusion of the random phase mask of the randomized lens phase function is investigated. The feasibility of the proposed scheme is demonstrated with numerical simulation results

  16. QR code optical encryption using spatially incoherent illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheremkhin, P. A.; Krasnov, V. V.; Rodin, V. G.; Starikov, R. S.

    2017-02-01

    Optical encryption is an actively developing field of science. The majority of encryption techniques use coherent illumination and suffer from speckle noise, which severely limits their applicability. The spatially incoherent encryption technique does not have this drawback, but its effectiveness is dependent on the Fourier spectrum properties of the image to be encrypted. The application of a quick response (QR) code in the capacity of a data container solves this problem, and the embedded error correction code also enables errorless decryption. The optical encryption of digital information in the form of QR codes using spatially incoherent illumination was implemented experimentally. The encryption is based on the optical convolution of the image to be encrypted with the kinoform point spread function, which serves as an encryption key. Two liquid crystal spatial light modulators were used in the experimental setup for the QR code and the kinoform imaging, respectively. The quality of the encryption and decryption was analyzed in relation to the QR code size. Decryption was conducted digitally. The successful decryption of encrypted QR codes of up to 129  ×  129 pixels was demonstrated. A comparison with the coherent QR code encryption technique showed that the proposed technique has a signal-to-noise ratio that is at least two times higher.

  17. Well Played: The Origins and Future of Playfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gwen

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author synthesizes research from several disciplines to shed light on play's central role in healthy development. Gordon builds on research in attachment theory that correlates secure attachment in infancy with adult well-being to demonstrate how playfulness might be a lifelong outcome of secure attachment and a primary…

  18. Playing with the Multiple Intelligences: How Play Helps Them Grow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Scott G.

    2011-01-01

    Howard Gardner first posited a list of "multiple intelligences" as a liberating alternative to the assumptions underlying traditional IQ testing in his widely read study "Frames of Mind" (1983). Play has appeared only in passing in Gardner's thinking about intelligence, however, even though play instructs and trains the verbal, interpersonal,…

  19. The Power of Outdoor Play and Play in Natural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemple, Kristen M.; Oh, JiHyun; Kenney, Elizabeth; Smith-Bonahue, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Young children's outdoor play serves important and diverse purposes, including physical exercise and opportunities for growth in all developmental areas. Unfortunately, the amount of time that children spend engaged in unstructured, child-directed outdoor play has diminished significantly in the past generation. In this article, the authors…

  20. Multispecies methods, technologies for play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ida Kathrine Hammeleff; Wirman, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses methodological considerations of user-centred design for non-human animals. These considerations are illustrated through a design research project that aims to apply digital technology to build games for orangutans’ enrichment. The article argues that design for other species......-human contributions in design. This method applies play as an interspecies co-creative act and can be used as a starting point for addressing questions of difference in play and designing games that allow for ambiguous play....

  1. Theoretical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-04-01

    The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

  2. Playing with a digital swing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Helle Marie

    2017-01-01

    Based on a field study in a kindergarten among children in Denmark, this paper explores playing activities on a digital swing, the SON-X Octavia (SON-X) and its Applause application. SON-X is an interactive sound unit that can be attached to any swing chain. Here, I explore the relationship between...... to highlight the features of swing play that children develop using the SON-X technology in terms of the danger-safety continuum. The feedback provided, it is found, enables children to independently manage risk and security within the limits of their playing activities; the digital swing supports play...

  3. Nosing Around: Play in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Horback

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The predominant method of measuring welfare in swine focuses on overt physical ailments, such as skin lesions, lameness, and body condition. An alternative metric for assessing welfare in swine can be to measure the frequency and duration of positive behavioral states, such as play. Given that play occurs only when an animal's primary needs (food, comfort, safety, etc. have been satisfied, it has been suggested that play may be a sensitive indicator for assessing the welfare of non-human animals. Play has primarily been described in young piglets and is assessed via the occurrence of specific play markers. These play markers include overt bursts of energy like scamper, or more subtle social behaviors like nose-to-body contact. This review describes four areas of play for swine: locomotor, object, sow-piglet, and, peer play. From sporadic leaping to combative wrestling, play behavior allows for the fine-tuning of reflexive behavior which can enhance physical development, enrich cognitive abilities, and facilitate the maintenance of social bonds.

  4. The Internet of Playful Things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyeth, Peta; Brereton, Margot; Roe, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This one-day workshop brings together researchers and practitioners to share knowledge and practices on how people can connect and interact with the Internet of Things in a playful way. Open to participants with a diverse range of interests and expertise, and by exploring novel ways to playfully...... will be a road map to support the development of a Model of Playful Connectedness, focusing on how best to design and make playful networks of things, identifying the challenges that need to be addressed in order to do so....

  5. Miscellaneous issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The New Brunswick Market Design Committee has examined several issues regarding the restructuring of the province's electricity sector. This report presents issues that require guidance for implementation, with particular focus on options available for their resolutions. The issues include: (1) rate principles for stranded offer service (SOS) supply, (2) the ability of contestable customers to return to SOS after having left it, (3) whether loads embedded in distribution systems are eligible to participate in the bilateral contract market, (4) whether generators or suppliers can offer capacity and energy to SOS suppliers in competition with the SOS supplier, and (5) details for the balancing market, including pricing, bidding protocols, settlements and how intermittent power sources can participate in the market. A section on pricing for SOS explains pricing principles, the use of export profits, pricing for SOS capacity, and time of use pricing. The Committee has made recommendations for the electricity system in the province to have an energy imbalance service that can move towards a market in order to develop an efficient and effective service. This report also explains pricing in the balancing market, penalties, and settlements. 7 refs

  6. Radiative Transfer in a Translucent Cloud Illuminated by an Extended Background Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biganzoli, Davide; Potenza, Marco A. C.; Robberto, Massimo

    2017-05-01

    We discuss the radiative transfer theory for translucent clouds illuminated by an extended background source. First, we derive a rigorous solution based on the assumption that multiple scatterings produce an isotropic flux. Then we derive a more manageable analytic approximation showing that it nicely matches the results of the rigorous approach. To validate our model, we compare our predictions with accurate laboratory measurements for various types of well-characterized grains, including purely dielectric and strongly absorbing materials representative of astronomical icy and metallic grains, respectively, finding excellent agreement without the need to add free parameters. We use our model to explore the behavior of an astrophysical cloud illuminated by a diffuse source with dust grains having parameters typical of the classic ISM grains of Draine & Lee and protoplanetary disks, with an application to the dark silhouette disk 114-426 in Orion Nebula. We find that the scattering term modifies the transmitted radiation, both in terms of intensity (extinction) and shape (reddening) of the spectral distribution. In particular, for small optical thickness, our results show that scattering makes reddening almost negligible at visible wavelengths. Once the optical thickness increases enough and the probability of scattering events becomes close to or larger than 1, reddening becomes present but is appreciably modified with respect to the standard expression for line-of-sight absorption. Moreover, variations of the grain refractive index, in particular the amount of absorption, also play an important role in changing the shape of the spectral transmission curve, with dielectric grains showing the minimum amount of reddening.

  7. Radiative Transfer in a Translucent Cloud Illuminated by an Extended Background Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biganzoli, Davide [Università degli Studi dell’Insubria Dept. of Science and High Technology Via Valleggio, 11, I-22100 Como (Italy); Potenza, Marco A. C. [Universitá degli Studi di Milano Dept. of Physics Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Robberto, Massimo, E-mail: robberto@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    We discuss the radiative transfer theory for translucent clouds illuminated by an extended background source. First, we derive a rigorous solution based on the assumption that multiple scatterings produce an isotropic flux. Then we derive a more manageable analytic approximation showing that it nicely matches the results of the rigorous approach. To validate our model, we compare our predictions with accurate laboratory measurements for various types of well-characterized grains, including purely dielectric and strongly absorbing materials representative of astronomical icy and metallic grains, respectively, finding excellent agreement without the need to add free parameters. We use our model to explore the behavior of an astrophysical cloud illuminated by a diffuse source with dust grains having parameters typical of the classic ISM grains of Draine and Lee and protoplanetary disks, with an application to the dark silhouette disk 114–426 in Orion Nebula. We find that the scattering term modifies the transmitted radiation, both in terms of intensity (extinction) and shape (reddening) of the spectral distribution. In particular, for small optical thickness, our results show that scattering makes reddening almost negligible at visible wavelengths. Once the optical thickness increases enough and the probability of scattering events becomes close to or larger than 1, reddening becomes present but is appreciably modified with respect to the standard expression for line-of-sight absorption. Moreover, variations of the grain refractive index, in particular the amount of absorption, also play an important role in changing the shape of the spectral transmission curve, with dielectric grains showing the minimum amount of reddening.

  8. Defect detection and classification of machined surfaces under multiple illuminant directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yi; Weng, Xin; Swonger, C. W.; Ni, Jun

    2010-08-01

    Continuous improvement of product quality is crucial to the successful and competitive automotive manufacturing industry in the 21st century. The presence of surface porosity located on flat machined surfaces such as cylinder heads/blocks and transmission cases may allow leaks of coolant, oil, or combustion gas between critical mating surfaces, thus causing damage to the engine or transmission. Therefore 100% inline inspection plays an important role for improving product quality. Although the techniques of image processing and machine vision have been applied to machined surface inspection and well improved in the past 20 years, in today's automotive industry, surface porosity inspection is still done by skilled humans, which is costly, tedious, time consuming and not capable of reliably detecting small defects. In our study, an automated defect detection and classification system for flat machined surfaces has been designed and constructed. In this paper, the importance of the illuminant direction in a machine vision system was first emphasized and then the surface defect inspection system under multiple directional illuminations was designed and constructed. After that, image processing algorithms were developed to realize 5 types of 2D or 3D surface defects (pore, 2D blemish, residue dirt, scratch, and gouge) detection and classification. The steps of image processing include: (1) image acquisition and contrast enhancement (2) defect segmentation and feature extraction (3) defect classification. An artificial machined surface and an actual automotive part: cylinder head surface were tested and, as a result, microscopic surface defects can be accurately detected and assigned to a surface defect class. The cycle time of this system can be sufficiently fast that implementation of 100% inline inspection is feasible. The field of view of this system is 150mm×225mm and the surfaces larger than the field of view can be stitched together in software.

  9. Structural Pathways of Cytokines May Illuminate Their Roles in Regulation of Cancer Development and Immunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guven-Maiorov, Emine; Acuner-Ozbabacan, Saliha Ece; Keskin, Ozlem; Gursoy, Attila; Nussinov, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Cytokines are messengers between tissues and the immune system. They play essential roles in cancer initiation, promotion, metastasis, and immunotherapy. Structural pathways of cytokine signaling which contain their interactions can help understand their action in the tumor microenvironment. Here, our aim is to provide an overview of the role of cytokines in tumor development from a structural perspective. Atomic details of protein-protein interactions can help in understanding how an upstream signal is transduced; how higher-order oligomerization modes of proteins can influence their function; how mutations, inhibitors or antagonists can change cellular consequences; why the same protein can lead to distinct outcomes, and which alternative parallel pathways can take over. They also help to design drugs/inhibitors against proteins de novo or by mimicking natural antagonists as in the case of interferon-γ. Since the structural database (PDB) is limited, structural pathways are largely built from a series of predicted binary protein-protein interactions. Below, to illustrate how protein-protein interactions can help illuminate roles played by cytokines, we model some cytokine interaction complexes exploiting a powerful algorithm (PRotein Interactions by Structural Matching—PRISM)

  10. Structural Pathways of Cytokines May Illuminate Their Roles in Regulation of Cancer Development and Immunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guven-Maiorov, Emine; Acuner-Ozbabacan, Saliha Ece; Keskin, Ozlem; Gursoy, Attila [Center for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics and College of Engineering, Koc University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, 34450 Sariyer Istanbul (Turkey); Nussinov, Ruth, E-mail: nussinor@helix.nih.gov [Cancer and Inflammation Program, Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc., Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Sackler Institute of Molecular Medicine, Department of Human Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2014-03-25

    Cytokines are messengers between tissues and the immune system. They play essential roles in cancer initiation, promotion, metastasis, and immunotherapy. Structural pathways of cytokine signaling which contain their interactions can help understand their action in the tumor microenvironment. Here, our aim is to provide an overview of the role of cytokines in tumor development from a structural perspective. Atomic details of protein-protein interactions can help in understanding how an upstream signal is transduced; how higher-order oligomerization modes of proteins can influence their function; how mutations, inhibitors or antagonists can change cellular consequences; why the same protein can lead to distinct outcomes, and which alternative parallel pathways can take over. They also help to design drugs/inhibitors against proteins de novo or by mimicking natural antagonists as in the case of interferon-γ. Since the structural database (PDB) is limited, structural pathways are largely built from a series of predicted binary protein-protein interactions. Below, to illustrate how protein-protein interactions can help illuminate roles played by cytokines, we model some cytokine interaction complexes exploiting a powerful algorithm (PRotein Interactions by Structural Matching—PRISM)

  11. Structural Pathways of Cytokines May Illuminate Their Roles in Regulation of Cancer Development and Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Guven-Maiorov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines are messengers between tissues and the immune system. They play essential roles in cancer initiation, promotion, metastasis, and immunotherapy. Structural pathways of cytokine signaling which contain their interactions can help understand their action in the tumor microenvironment. Here, our aim is to provide an overview of the role of cytokines in tumor development from a structural perspective. Atomic details of protein-protein interactions can help in understanding how an upstream signal is transduced; how higher-order oligomerization modes of proteins can influence their function; how mutations, inhibitors or antagonists can change cellular consequences; why the same protein can lead to distinct outcomes, and which alternative parallel pathways can take over. They also help to design drugs/inhibitors against proteins de novo or by mimicking natural antagonists as in the case of interferon-γ. Since the structural database (PDB is limited, structural pathways are largely built from a series of predicted binary protein-protein interactions. Below, to illustrate how protein-protein interactions can help illuminate roles played by cytokines, we model some cytokine interaction complexes exploiting a powerful algorithm (PRotein Interactions by Structural Matching—PRISM.

  12. Children's expression through play therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubomirović Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Play as a child's expression, is a skill through which children speaks to adults. Play therapy is a broad field of therapeutic intervention based on the play in order to help the child to cope with problems. Through play, children learn to communicate with others, to express their feelings. Through play they learn and can improve their cognitive, emotional and social capabilities. Play therapy is a nondirective technique focused on the child. It is not focused on the problem, at present even the past, but focused on the expression of the child feelings, accepting the child, rather than correction. The focus has been on the wisdom of a child, not on expertise therapists, guiding the child through play rather than instructing. The aim of play therapy is to encourage healthy growth and development, developing skills in problem solving, reduction of undesirable behavior, confidence building and the development of self-control. This method is effective for a wide range of children's problems, such as the state of stress, anxiety, problem behavior, hyperkinetic syndrome, depression, loss, trauma, the problem of bonding situations parents divorced, somatic disorders, autism spectrum disorders, social problems.

  13. Young Children and War Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson-Paige, Nancy; Levin, Diane E.

    1988-01-01

    In a recent survey of parents and early childhood professionals the prevalence of war play among children and an increase in the amount of violence in children's play was noted. Outlines how the deregulation of children's television during the Reagan administration has affected children's exposure to violence in children's television programming.…

  14. Solitary Play: Some Functional Reconsiderations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Nancy V.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Solitary play in six kindergarten children was observed and coded for frequency and type in order to resolve iscrepancies in a Sex Birth Order interaction. Several facts concerning solitary play as indicative of independence and maturity are noted. (Author/ED)

  15. Playful Interfaces : Introduction and History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Nijholt, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this short survey we have some historical notes about human-computer interface development with an emphasis on interface technology that has allowed us to design playful interactions with applications. The applications do not necessarily have to be entertainment applications. We can have playful

  16. Analysing playing using the note-time playing path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaff, Deborah L E; Schubert, Emery

    2011-03-01

    This article introduces a new method of data analysis that represents the playing of written music as a graph. The method, inspired by Miklaszewski, charts low-level note timings from a sound recording of a single-line instrument using high-precision audio-to-MIDI conversion software. Note onset times of pitch sequences are then plotted against the score-predicted timings to produce a Note-Time Playing Path (NTPP). The score-predicted onset time of each sequentially performed note (horizontal axis) unfolds in performed time down the page (vertical axis). NTPPs provide a visualisation that shows (1) tempo variations, (2) repetitive practice behaviours, (3) segmenting of material, (4) precise note time positions, and (5) time spent on playing or not playing. The NTPP can provide significant new insights into behaviour and cognition of music performance and may also be used to complement established traditional approaches such as think-alouds, interviews, and video coding.

  17. Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydersen, Lars; Wiechers, Carlos; Wittmann, Christoffer; Elser, Dominique; Skaar, Johannes; Makarov, Vadim

    2010-10-01

    The peculiar properties of quantum mechanics allow two remote parties to communicate a private, secret key, which is protected from eavesdropping by the laws of physics. So-called quantum key distribution (QKD) implementations always rely on detectors to measure the relevant quantum property of single photons. Here we demonstrate experimentally that the detectors in two commercially available QKD systems can be fully remote-controlled using specially tailored bright illumination. This makes it possible to tracelessly acquire the full secret key; we propose an eavesdropping apparatus built from off-the-shelf components. The loophole is likely to be present in most QKD systems using avalanche photodiodes to detect single photons. We believe that our findings are crucial for strengthening the security of practical QKD, by identifying and patching technological deficiencies.

  18. Edge detection based on computational ghost imaging with structured illuminations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Sheng; Xiang, Dong; Liu, Xuemei; Zhou, Xin; Bing, Pibin

    2018-03-01

    Edge detection is one of the most important tools to recognize the features of an object. In this paper, we propose an optical edge detection method based on computational ghost imaging (CGI) with structured illuminations which are generated by an interference system. The structured intensity patterns are designed to make the edge of an object be directly imaged from detected data in CGI. This edge detection method can extract the boundaries for both binary and grayscale objects in any direction at one time. We also numerically test the influence of distance deviations in the interference system on edge extraction, i.e., the tolerance of the optical edge detection system to distance deviation. Hopefully, it may provide a guideline for scholars to build an experimental system.

  19. Illuminating the Decision Path: The Yucca Mountain Site Recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, E.; Slothouber, L.

    2003-02-25

    On February 14, 2002, U.S. Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham provided to the President the ''Recommendation by the Secretary of Energy Regarding the Suitability of the Yucca Mountain Site for a Repository Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982.'' This Recommendation, along with supporting materials, complied with statutory requirements for communicating a site recommendation to the President, and it did more: in 49 pages, the Recommendation also spoke directly to the Nation, illuminating the methodology and considerations that led toward the decision to recommend the site. Addressing technical suitability, national interests, and public concerns, the Recommendation helped the public understand the potential risks and benefits of repository development and placed those risks and benefits in a meaningful national context.

  20. Reconstruction of Sky Illumination Domes from Ground-Based Panoramas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coubard, F.; Lelégard, L.; Brédif, M.; Paparoditis, N.; Briottet, X.

    2012-07-01

    The knowledge of the sky illumination is important for radiometric corrections and for computer graphics applications such as relighting or augmented reality. We propose an approach to compute environment maps, representing the sky radiance, from a set of ground-based images acquired by a panoramic acquisition system, for instance a mobile-mapping system. These images can be affected by important radiometric artifacts, such as bloom or overexposure. A Perez radiance model is estimated with the blue sky pixels of the images, and used to compute additive corrections in order to reduce these radiometric artifacts. The sky pixels are then aggregated in an environment map, which still suffers from discontinuities on stitching edges. The influence of the quality of estimated sky radiance on the simulated light signal is measured quantitatively on a simple synthetic urban scene; in our case, the maximal error for the total sensor radiance is about 10%.

  1. Plasmonic leak-free focusing lens under radially polarized illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaowei; Tan, Qiaofeng; Bai, Benfeng; Jin, Guofan

    2010-01-01

    A plasmonic leak-free focusing lens with two asymmetric concentric ring slits under radially polarized illumination is proposed. Each ring slit in the plasmonic lens is designed to generate surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) with a relative initial phase controlled by the ring slit parameters. Through mutual interference of the SPPs with different phases excited by the two concentric ring slits at the output metal–dielectric interface, the field intensity towards the center of the focusing lens can be enhanced while that leaking to the counter-focus direction is effectively suppressed. The optimal parameters of the plasmonic leak-free lens are theoretically obtained by satisfying the above condition and its focusing performance is demonstrated by numerical simulation. Furthermore, a plasmonic leak-free lens with multiple double-slit groups is proposed and discussed, which exhibits a higher energy density at the focusing spot of the output interface

  2. Cities of light two centuries of urban illumination

    CERN Document Server

    Isenstadt, Sandy; Neumann, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    Cities of Light is the first global overview of modern urban illumination, a development that allows human wakefulness to colonize the night, doubling the hours available for purposeful and industrious activities.  Urban lighting is undergoing a revolution due to recent developments in lighting technology, and increased focus on sustainability and human-scaled environments. Cities of Light is expansive in coverage, spanning two centuries and touching on developments on six continents, without diluting its central focus on architectural and urban lighting.  Covering history, geography, theory, and speculation in urban lighting, readers will have numerous points of entry into the book, finding it easy to navigate for a quick reference and or a coherent narrative if read straight through. With chapters written by respected scholars and highly-regarded contemporary practitioners, this book will delight students and practitioners of architectural and urban history, area and cultural studies, and lighting desig...

  3. Illuminating the Decision Path: The Yucca Mountain Site Recommendation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, E.; Slothouber, L.

    2003-01-01

    On February 14, 2002, U.S. Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham provided to the President the ''Recommendation by the Secretary of Energy Regarding the Suitability of the Yucca Mountain Site for a Repository Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982.'' This Recommendation, along with supporting materials, complied with statutory requirements for communicating a site recommendation to the President, and it did more: in 49 pages, the Recommendation also spoke directly to the Nation, illuminating the methodology and considerations that led toward the decision to recommend the site. Addressing technical suitability, national interests, and public concerns, the Recommendation helped the public understand the potential risks and benefits of repository development and placed those risks and benefits in a meaningful national context

  4. X-ray total reflection mirrors for coherent illumination

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, T; Yabashi, M; Souvorov, A; Yamauchi, K; Yamamura, K; Mimura, H; Saito, A; Mori, Y

    2002-01-01

    X-ray mirrors for coherent illumination demand much higher surface quality than is achievable with the conventional polishing techniques. Plasma chemical vaporization machining (CVM) and elastic emission machining (EEM) have been applied for x-ray mirror manufacturing. Figure error of a flat silicon single crystal mirrors made with CVM+EEM process was reduced to 2.0 nm peak-to-valley and 0.2 nm RMS. The machining process was also applied to make elliptical mirrors. One-dimensional focusing with a single elliptical mirror showed diffraction-limited properties with the focal width of 200 nm. Two-dimensional focusing with Kirkpatric-Baez configuration gave a focal spot size of 200 nm x 200 nm. (author)

  5. RECONSTRUCTION OF SKY ILLUMINATION DOMES FROM GROUND-BASED PANORAMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Coubard

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the sky illumination is important for radiometric corrections and for computer graphics applications such as relighting or augmented reality. We propose an approach to compute environment maps, representing the sky radiance, from a set of ground-based images acquired by a panoramic acquisition system, for instance a mobile-mapping system. These images can be affected by important radiometric artifacts, such as bloom or overexposure. A Perez radiance model is estimated with the blue sky pixels of the images, and used to compute additive corrections in order to reduce these radiometric artifacts. The sky pixels are then aggregated in an environment map, which still suffers from discontinuities on stitching edges. The influence of the quality of estimated sky radiance on the simulated light signal is measured quantitatively on a simple synthetic urban scene; in our case, the maximal error for the total sensor radiance is about 10%.

  6. Imaging of Phase Objects using Partially Coherent Illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravizza, F. L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Screening high-power laser optics for light intensifying phase objects that cause laserinduced damage on downstream optics is critical to sustaining laser operation. Identifying such flaws on large-apertures is quite challenging since they are relatively small and invisible to conventional inspection methods. A Linescan Phase Differential Imaging (LPDI) system was developed to rapidly identify these flaws on large-aperture optics within a single full-aperture dark-field image. We describe a two-step production phase object screening process consisting of LPDI mapping and image analysis, followed by high-resolution interferometry and propagation based evaluation of the downstream damage potential of identified flaws. An image simulation code capable of modeling the LPDI partially coherent illumination was used to optimize its phase object sensitivity.

  7. Novel cylindrical illuminator tip for ultraviolet light delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, HanQun; Haw, Thomas E.; Gregory, Kenton W.; Casperson, Lee W.

    1993-06-01

    The design, processing, and sequential testing of a novel cylindrical diffusing optical fiber tip for ultraviolet light delivery is described. This device has been shown to uniformly (+/- 15%) illuminate angioplasty balloons, 20 mm in length, that are used in an experimental photochemotherapeutic treatment of swine intimal hyperplasia. Our experiments show that uniform diffusing tips of epoxy mixed with Al2O3 powder. To improve the uniformity and ease of fabrication, we have evaluated a new device configuration where the tip is etched into a modified conical shape, and the distal end face is polished and then coated with an optically opaque epoxy. This is shown to uniformly scatter approximately 70% of the light launched into the fiber without forward transmission.

  8. Re-designing illumination level in printing working area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, D.; Tambunan, M.; Panjaitan, N.; Budiman, I.

    2018-02-01

    This research was conducted in four printing business in Medan city. The illumination level on the research object is very low around 30 Lux far below the required value of government regulation at 200 Lux. Poor lighting has an impact on the number of defective products that pass the inspection, so we need to improve the workspace lighting to improve the quality of work. The method of determining the measuring point follows SNI 16-7062-2004, and the measuring instrument used is 4 in 1 Environment Meter. The results show that almost all workspaces under study require improved lighting, because the light bulbs used are not able to meet the lighting needs. This research recommends improving the workspace lighting using LED (Light Emitting Diode) lights because it has high energy efficiency and relatively more lifetime compared to the existing lamp.

  9. Magneto-controlled illumination with opto-fluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malynych, Serhiy Z.; Tokarev, Alexander; Hudson, Stephen; Chumanov, George; Ballato, John; Kornev, Konstantin G.

    2010-01-01

    Imaging of micro- and nanofluidics is a challenge since the size of the channels is so small that the installment of additional optical and mechanical switches is very difficult. The size of the device and associated increase in viscous dissipation constitute another constraint. In response to these limitations, this work proposes and demonstrates the manipulation of light by adding a functional lens to control the light on demand. In the present work, this lens is realized by filling a hollow fiber with a colloid of superparamagnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. When the propagation of light is perpendicular to the magnetic field, this lens stretches the circular beam into a ribbon yielding a larger visible area. Potentially, one can apply a rotating magnetic field thus illuminating a larger spot size or creating other beam geometries. Such composite fibers might also be of value for Faraday isolation and other magneto-optic effects in optical fibers.

  10. Plane parallel radiance transport for global illumination in vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N.; Mobley, C.; Keating, B.; Wu, E.H.

    1997-01-05

    This paper applies plane parallel radiance transport techniques to scattering from vegetation. The leaves, stems, and branches are represented as a volume density of scattering surfaces, depending only on height and the vertical component of the surface normal. Ordinary differential equations are written for the multiply scattered radiance as a function of the height above the ground, with the sky radiance and ground reflectance as boundary conditions. They are solved using a two-pass integration scheme to unify the two-point boundary conditions, and Fourier series for the dependence on the azimuthal angle. The resulting radiance distribution is used to precompute diffuse and specular `ambient` shading tables, as a function of height and surface normal, to be used in rendering, together with a z-buffer shadow algorithm for direct solar illumination.

  11. An Asynchronous Cellular Automata-Based Adaptive Illumination Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandini, Stefania; Bonomi, Andrea; Vizzari, Giuseppe; Acconci, Vito

    The term Ambient Intelligence refers to electronic environments that are sensitive and responsive to the presence of people; in the described scenario the environment itself is endowed with a set of sensors (to perceive humans or other physical entities such as dogs, bicycles, etc.), interacting with a set of actuators (lights) that choose their actions (i.e. state of illumination) in an attempt improve the overall experience of these users. The model for the interaction and action of sensors and actuators is an asynchronous Cellular Automata (CA) with memory, supporting a self-organization of the system as a response to the presence and movements of people inside it. The paper will introduce the model, as well as an ad hoc user interface for the specification of the relevant parameters of the CA transition rule that determines the overall system behaviour.

  12. Liability Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Donoghue, K.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear liability conventions try to provide a set of rules to govern third party liability. Not all States are parties to one of the existing liability conventions. There are a number of reasons why individual States may choose not to join one of the existing conventions. These include limits of compensation, jurisdiction issues, complexity, cost and definition of damage among others. This paper looks at the existing conventions and identifies some of the main issues in the existing conventions which prevent some States from signing them. The paper attempts to tease out some of the perceived gaps in the existing conventions and give a brief description of the reasons why non-Contracting Parties have difficulty with the provisions of the conventions. The paper recognizes that there has been work done in this area previously by the International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (INLEX) and others to try to develop the existing frameworks to enhance global adherence by nuclear and non-nuclear States to an effective nuclear liability regime. (author)

  13. Mirror Illumination and Spillover Measurements of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Patricio; Dunner, Rolando; Wollack, Ed; Jerez-Hanckes, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) is a 6 m telescope designed to map the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) simultaneously at 145 GHz, 220GHz and 280GHz, The receiver in ACT, the Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera, features 1000 TES bolometers in each band, The detector performance depends critically on the total optical loading, requiring the spmover contributions from the optics to be minimal. This inspired the use of a cold Lyot stop to limit the illumination of the primary and the use of guard rings surrounding the primary and secondary reflectors. Here, we present a direct measurement of the illumination aperture for both reflectors and of the attenuation level outside the main optical path. We used a 145 GHz, 1 m W source and a chopper wheel to produce a time-varying signal with a broad heam proflle, We sampled the response of the camera for different locations of the source, placed in front and beside the primary and secondary mirrors. The aperture of the primary was measured to be 5,72 plus or minus 0,17m in diameter (95 plus or minus 3% of its geometrical size), while the aperture of the secondary yielded 2 plus or minus 0.12m in diameter. Both apertures are consistent with the optical design. Comparing to previous measurements of the beam solid angle from planet observations, we estimate an optical efficiency of 72.3 plus or minus 4,8%. We found that the attenuation outside the primary aperture was -16 plus or minus 2dB, which is below the theoretical expectations, and -22 plus or minus 1 dB outside the secondary aperture, which is consistent with simulations. These results motivated the extension of the baffles surrounding the secondary mirror, with the following reduction in detector optical loading from 2,24 pW to 188pW.

  14. Retrieval of reflections from ambient noise using illumination diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, C. Almagro; Draganov, D.; van der Neut, J.; Drijkoningen, G.; Wapenaar, K.

    2014-09-01

    Seismic interferometry (SI) enables the retrieval of virtual sources at the location of receivers. In the case of passive SI, no active sources are used for the retrieval of the reflection response of the subsurface, but ambient-noise recordings only. The resulting retrieved response is determined by the illumination characteristics of the recorded ambient noise. Characteristics like geometrical distribution and signature of the noise sources, together with the complexity of the medium and the length of the noise records, determine the quality of the retrieved virtual-shot events. To retrieve body wave reflections, one needs to correlate body-wave noise. A source of such noise might be regional seismicity. In regions with notable human presence, the dominant noise sources are generally located at or close to the surface. In the latter case, the noise will be dominated by surface waves and consequently also the retrieved virtual common-source panels will contain dominant retrieved surface waves, drowning out possible retrieved reflections. In order to retrieve reflection events, suppression of the surface waves becomes the most important pre-processing goal. Because of the reasons mentioned above, we propose a fast method to evaluate the illumination characteristics of ambient noise using the correlation results from ambient-noise records. The method is based on the analysis of the so-called source function of the retrieved virtual-shot panel, and evaluates the apparent slowness of arrivals in the correlation results that pass through the position of the virtual source and at zero time. The results of the diagnosis are used to suppress the retrieval of surface waves and therefore to improve the quality of the retrieved reflection response. We explain the approach using modelled data from transient and continuous noise sources and an example from a passive field data set recorded at Annerveen, Northern Netherlands.

  15. Playful biometrics: controversial technology through the lens of play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerbrok, Ariane

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the role of play in the context of technological emergence and expansion, particularly as it relates to recently emerging surveillance technologies. As a case study, I consider the trajectory of automated face recognition—a biometric technology of numerous applications, from its more controversial manifestations under the rubric of national security to a clearly emerging orientation toward play. This shift toward “playful” biometrics—or from a technology traditionally coded as “hard” to one now increasingly coded as “soft”—is critical insofar as it renders problematic the traditional modes of critique that have, up until this point, challenged the expansion of biometric systems into increasingly ubiquitous realms of everyday life. In response to this dynamic, I propose theorizing the expansion of face recognition specifically in relation to “play,” a step that allows us to broaden the critical space around newly emerging playful biometrics, as well as playful surveillance more generally. In addition, play may also have relevance for theorizing other forms of controversial technology, particularly given its potential role in processes of obfuscation, normalization, and marginalization.

  16. Color of illumination during growth affects LHCII chiral macroaggregates in pea plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussakovsky, Eugene E; Shahak, Yosepha; Schroeder, Dana F

    2007-02-01

    To determine whether the color of illumination under which plants are grown, affects the structure of photosynthetic antennae, pea plants were grown under either blue-enriched, red-enriched, or white light. Carotenoid content of isolated chloroplasts was found to be insensitive to the color of illumination during growth, while chlorophyll a/b ratio in chloroplasts isolated from young illuminated leaves showed susceptibility to color. Color of illumination affects the LHCII chiral macroaggregates in intact leaves and isolated chloroplasts, providing light-induced alteration of the handedness of the LHCII chiral macroaggregate, as measured with circular dichroism and circularly polarized luminescence. The susceptibility of handedness to current illumination (red light excitation of chlorophyll fluorescence) is dependent on the color under which the plants were grown, and was maximal for the red-enriched illumination. We propose the existence of a long-term (growth period) color memory, which influences the susceptibility of the handedness of LHCII chiral macroaggregates to current light.

  17. Establishment Of Illumination System For Investigation Of Monochromatic Lights Combination Effects On In Vitro Plant Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Tien Thanh; Le Ngoc Trieu; Nguyen Tuong Mien; Huynh Thi Trung; Phan Quoc Minh

    2014-01-01

    Super blue and red light LEDs and other electric, electronic components are used to design and establish 11 independent illumination systems, each system can arbitrarily control to operate at 55 molarities of illumination which are different from together in monochromatic lights combination and total illumination intensity based on the microcontrollers. Programs for loading to microcontrollers were created to base on theoretical calculation and experimental correction. The illumination cycles can be controlled by setting the timer. These 11 systems and another fluorescent light illumination were used to execute the experiment for investigation the effects of monochromatic lights combination on in vitro shoot proliferation stage in Chrysanthemum and Phalaenopsis orchid. Results from this experiment showed that illumination intensity of 400 lux is suitable for chrysanthemum, 750 lux is suitable for Phalaenopsis orchid and rate of 70% red light-30% blue light are suitable for both kinds of these plants. (author)

  18. Laser fusion target illumination optimization with consideration of the beam divergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grzanna, J.; Schoennagel, H.

    1982-09-01

    Using a focusing system with a great focal length it is demonstrated that the radiation divergence considerably influences the illumination optimization. If the channel beam is composed of several single beams, there are two optimum illumination variants: the channel beam tangent and the single beam tangent illumination. Further, it is shown that the illumination channel distribution function can vary in the central region without any effect on the illumination uniformity. The deviation at the periphery is more critical. The most homogeneous illumination and favourable energy transfer would be obtained by low radiation divergence and optimum lateral and axial defocusing of the single beam imaging a suitable near-field intensity pattern on the target surface. It is emphasized that the estimation was made without considering the plasma parameters and the dynamic variation in time. (author)

  19. Playful mediation and virtual sociality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihem NAJJAR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a space of sociability, virtual games, especially online role playing games, allow us to capture the interest of the playfulness in social life, but they are means by which users are able to experiment their relationship to others. The virtual games as a mediation device, constitute a "pretext" to forge friendships, develop love relationships, improve language skills, discover other cultures, etc. Based on a sociological survey of Tunisian Internet users (both sexes fans of virtual games we try to show how playful mediation is producing a multifaceted virtual sociality inherent in our contemporary societies.

  20. Saudi Arabia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper on Saudi Arabia assesses Saudi Arabia’s role in the oil market and global economy. Saudi Arabia, the world’s largest producer and exporter of oil, has long played a systemically important role in the global oil market. Short-term fluctuations in Saudi Arabia’s oil production have partially reflected attempts to stabilize the global oil market. Saudi Arabia has on several occasions used its systemic role to raise production to fill global demand gaps created by large...

  1. Licensing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.P.; Desell, L.J.; Birch, M.L.; Berkowitz, L.; Bader, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    To provide guidance for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued a draft regulatory guide on the Format and Content for the License Application for the High-Level Waste Repository (FCRG). To facilitate the development of the FCRG, NRC suggested that DOE use the draft guide as the basis for preparing an annotated outline for a license application. DOE is doing so using an iterative process called the Annotated Outline Initiative. DOE;s use of the Initiative will assist in achieving the desired incorporation of actual experience in the FCRG, contribute to the development of shared interpretation and understanding of NRC regulations, and provide other important programmatic benefits described in this paper

  2. A multiverse play divides opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2015-03-01

    The stage lights rise. A man and woman meet in a cute way - "Do you know why it's impossible to lick the tips of your elbows?" she asks - they chat momentarily, and separate. The play is Constellations by Nick Payne.

  3. Play the Blood Typing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nobel's Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire The Blood Typing Game What happens if you get a blood ... learn about human blood types! Play the Blood Typing Game 28 September 2017 The mission based game ...

  4. Free-to-Play -liiketoimintamalli

    OpenAIRE

    Tähtö, E. (Elias)

    2016-01-01

    Tiivistelmä Tutkielmani tarkoitus on tutustua erilaisiin pelejen sisäisiin mikrotransaktioihin sekä monetisaatioon. Peliteollisuuden tämän hetken suosituimpana pelimuotona on niin sanotut Free-To-Play -pelit, joiden liikevaihto perustuu täysin käyttäjien suorittamiin mikrotransaktioihin, joilla ostetaan erilaisia pelin sisäisiä hyödykkeitä. Free-to-play -malli on ansaintamallina vielä aika uusi, vaikkakin mikrotransaktioita...

  5. The relationship between ambient illumination and psychological factors in viewing of display Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanami, Takuya; Kikuchi, Ayano; Kaneko, Takashi; Hirai, Keita; Yano, Natsumi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Tsumura, Norimichi; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Miyake, Yoichi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we have clarified the relationship between ambient illumination and psychological factors in viewing of display images. Psychological factors were obtained by the factor analysis with the results of the semantic differential (SD) method. In the psychological experiments, subjects evaluated the impressions of displayed images with changing ambient illuminating conditions. The illumination conditions were controlled by a fluorescent ceiling light and a color LED illumination which was located behind the display. We experimented under two kinds of conditions. One was the experiment with changing brightness of the ambient illumination. The other was the experiment with changing the colors of the background illumination. In the results of the experiment, two factors "realistic sensation, dynamism" and "comfortable," were extracted under different brightness of the ambient illumination of the display surroundings. It was shown that the "comfortable" was improved by the brightness of display surroundings. On the other hand, when the illumination color of surroundings was changed, three factors "comfortable," "realistic sensation, dynamism" and "activity" were extracted. It was also shown that the value of "comfortable" and "realistic sensation, dynamism" increased when the display surroundings were illuminated by the average color of the image contents.

  6. A fundamental study on the influence of the illuminant conditions for the visibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Hirokazu; Ohuchi, Hiroko; Akagi, Sigefumi; Natori, Kazuyuki

    2002-01-01

    This research was done to explain the way of color combinations for the signs that are excellent in the visibility. The research was composed by three experiments, color naming experiment and the visibility experiment 1 and 2. In the color naming experiment, what kind of color combinations investigated whether a target color could be judged precisely under the various lighting illuminant. The visibility experiment 1 examined the various color combinations that became effective for the visibility under the illuminant. And, the visibility experiment 2 examined the color combinations that were effective for the visibility from the lighting illuminant and the illuminance. Yellow in white background, white in yellow background, purple in red background, purple in green background, as for these 4 color combinations, it became clear that it is the color combination which needed attention under all the lighting illuminants from the color naming experiment and the visibility experiment 1. In the visibility experiment 2, relative visual acuity became more than 0.7 in all the lighting illuminants if there was a ΔL * from the background and the target beyond 30 in the case of the illuminance of 5001x. And, when illuminance was 501x, it became clear that it become less than 0.7 by all the color schemes as for the relative visual acuity in all the lighting illuminants. (author)

  7. Effect of Illumination on Ocular Status Modifications Induced by Short-Term 3D TV Viewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aimed to compare changes in ocular status after 3D TV viewing under three modes of illumination and thereby identify optimal illumination for 3D TV viewing. Methods. The following measures of ocular status were assessed: the accommodative response, accommodative microfluctuation, accommodative facility, relative accommodation, gradient accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A ratio, phoria, and fusional vergence. The observers watched 3D television for 90 minutes through 3D shutter glasses under three illumination modes: A, complete darkness; B, back illumination (50 lx; and C, front illumination (130 lx. The ocular status of the observers was assessed both before and after the viewing. Results. After 3D TV viewing, the accommodative response and accommodative microfluctuation were significantly changed under illumination Modes A and B. The near positive fusional vergence decreased significantly after the 90-minute 3D viewing session under each illumination mode, and this effect was not significantly different among the three modes. Conclusions. Short-term 3D viewing modified the ocular status of adults. The least amount of such change occurred with front illumination, suggesting that this type of illumination is an appropriate mode for 3D shutter TV viewing.

  8. A fundamental study on the influence of the illuminant conditions for the visibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Hirokazu [Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan); Ohuchi, Hiroko; Akagi, Sigefumi; Natori, Kazuyuki [Japan Color Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    This research was done to explain the way of color combinations for the signs that are excellent in the visibility. The research was composed by three experiments, color naming experiment and the visibility experiment 1 and 2. In the color naming experiment, what kind of color combinations investigated whether a target color could be judged precisely under the various lighting illuminant. The visibility experiment 1 examined the various color combinations that became effective for the visibility under the illuminant. And, the visibility experiment 2 examined the color combinations that were effective for the visibility from the lighting illuminant and the illuminance. Yellow in white background, white in yellow background, purple in red background, purple in green background, as for these 4 color combinations, it became clear that it is the color combination which needed attention under all the lighting illuminants from the color naming experiment and the visibility experiment 1. In the visibility experiment 2, relative visual acuity became more than 0.7 in all the lighting illuminants if there was a {delta}L{sup *} from the background and the target beyond 30 in the case of the illuminance of 5001x. And, when illuminance was 501x, it became clear that it become less than 0.7 by all the color schemes as for the relative visual acuity in all the lighting illuminants. (author)

  9. Uniform illumination rendering using an array of LEDs: a signal processing perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hongming; Bergmans, J.W.M.; Schenk, T.C.W.; Linnartz, J.P.M.G.; Rietman, R.

    2009-01-01

    An array of a large number of LEDs will be widely used in future indoor illumination systems. In this paper, we investigate the problem of rendering uniform illumination by a regular LED array on the ceiling of a room. We first present two general results on the scaling property of the basic illumination pattern, i.e., the light pattern of a single LED, and the setting of LED illumination levels, respectively. Thereafter, we propose to use the relative mean squared error as the cost function ...

  10. Disparity Map Generation from Illumination Variant Stereo Images Using Efficient Hierarchical Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viral H. Borisagar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel hierarchical stereo matching algorithm is presented which gives disparity map as output from illumination variant stereo pair. Illumination difference between two stereo images can lead to undesirable output. Stereo image pair often experience illumination variations due to many factors like real and practical situation, spatially and temporally separated camera positions, environmental illumination fluctuation, and the change in the strength or position of the light sources. Window matching and dynamic programming techniques are employed for disparity map estimation. Good quality disparity map is obtained with the optimized path. Homomorphic filtering is used as a preprocessing step to lessen illumination variation between the stereo images. Anisotropic diffusion is used to refine disparity map to give high quality disparity map as a final output. The robust performance of the proposed approach is suitable for real life circumstances where there will be always illumination variation between the images. The matching is carried out in a sequence of images representing the same scene, however in different resolutions. The hierarchical approach adopted decreases the computation time of the stereo matching problem. This algorithm can be helpful in applications like robot navigation, extraction of information from aerial surveys, 3D scene reconstruction, and military and security applications. Similarity measure SAD is often sensitive to illumination variation. It produces unacceptable disparity map results for illumination variant left and right images. Experimental results show that our proposed algorithm produces quality disparity maps for both wide range of illumination variant and invariant stereo image pair.

  11. Low light illumination study on commercially available homojunction photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, Johnny; Ray, William; Litz, Marc S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • COTS PV cells are tested under indoor and narrow light spectra. • InGaP is the most efficient under low light conditions (0.5–100 μW_o_p_t/cm"2). • InGaP is selected for isotope battery. • Optimal incident wavelength (614 nm) for InGaP is identified in model. - Abstract: Low illumination (10"−"4 suns) and indoor light energy harvesting is needed to meet the demands of zero net energy (ZNE) building, Internet of Things (IoT), and beta-photovoltaic energy harvesting systems to power remote sensors. Photovoltaic (PV) solar cells under low intensity and narrow (±40 nm) light spectrum conditions are not well characterized nor developed, especially for commercially available devices and scalable systems. PV operating characteristics under 1 sun illumination decrease at lower light intensity and narrow spectrum conditions (efficiency drops from ∼25% at 100 mW_o_p_t/cm"2 to 2% at 1 μW_o_p_t/cm"2). By choosing a PV with a bandgap that matches the light source operating wavelength, the total system efficiency can be improved. By quantifying losses on homojunction photovoltaics (thermalization and leakage current), we have determined the theoretical optimized efficiency for a set of PV material and a selected set of light sources. We measure single-junction solar cells’ parameters under three different light sources (indoor light and narrow spectrum LED sources) with light intensities ranging from 0.5 to 100 μW_o_p_t/cm"2. Measurements show that indium gallium phosphide (InGaP) PV has the highest surface power density and conversion efficiency (29% under ≈1 μW_o_p_t/cm"2 from a 523 nm central peak LED). A beta-photovoltaic experimental study identifies InGaP to be optimized for use with the ZnS:Cu, Al and tritium at STP. The results have guided the selection of PV material for scalable isotope batteries and other low-light energy harvesting systems.

  12. Negotiating succession in a family business - a role play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelzmann-Knafl, Sabine; Winkler, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    . The role-play offers you the possibility to flexibly address various succession-related aspects in family business. It requires a teacher, who is familiar with the family business literature and particularly the research of succession in family business. Furthermore, because role-plays have their own...... dynamics, the teacher should be familiar with applying role-plays in their teaching. In the teaching notes we offer a way to embed the role-play in a five-hour teaching and learning activity addressing the various issues of succession in family firms. You could, however, do only the role-play, for instance......Negotiating succession is crucial for a family business. This role-play will enable students to simulate a family conference of the Mayer & Huber Ltd, a German-based but internationally operating producer of mechanical and electrical locking systems for the automotive industry. During...

  13. Parent-Child Play across Cultures: Advancing Play Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L.; Davidson, Kimberly L.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue for a greater understanding of children's play across cultures through better integration of scientific thinking about the developed and developing societies, through consideration of socialization beliefs and goals, and, finally, through the use of more complex models in research investigations. They draw on…

  14. Why Play Outside? Problematising Outdoor Play as a Biopedagogical Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daniel B.; Barrett, Joe

    2017-01-01

    Although outdoor play has been widely recognised for the many benefits it affords children, some have rationalised the need for it based on goals related to physical health. More specifically, these instrumental goals have been closely related to obesity, overweight, and/or physical (in)activity. Adhering to obesity discourses and the notion of a…

  15. Motivations for Play in Computer Role-Playing Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    , but rather composed of multiple motivational drivers that are heavily interrelated and act in concert. Character uniqueness and Discovery & Immersion were the highest ranked motivational categories. Different levels of detail in motivations for playing single-/multi- Player RPGs were located...

  16. Key issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.

    1980-01-01

    Successful modeling of the thermo-mechanical and hydrochemical behavior of radioactive waste repositories in hard rock is possible in principle. Because such predictions lie outside the realm of experience, their adequacy depends entirely upon a thorough understanding of three fundamental questions: an understanding of the chemical and physical processess that determine the behavior of rock and all its complexities; accurate and realistic numerical models of the geologic media within which a repository may be built; and sufficient in-situ data covering the entire geologic region affected by, or effecting the behavior of a repository. At present sufficient is known to be able to identify most of those areas which require further attention. These areas extend all the way from a complete understanding of the chemical and physical processes determining the behavior of rock through to the exploration mapping and testing that must be done during the development of any potential repository. Many of the techniques, laboratory equipment, field instrumentation, and numerical methods needed to accomplish this do not exist at present. Therefore it is necessary to accept that a major investment in scientific research is required to generate this information over the next few years. The spectrum of scientific and engineering activities is wide extending from laboratory measurements through the development of numerical models to the measurement of data in-situ, but there is every prospect that sufficient can be done to resolve these key issues. However, to do so requires overt recognition of the many gaps which exist in our knowledge and abilities today, and of the need to bridge these gaps and of the significant costs involved in doing so

  17. Diffusive-light invisibility cloak for transient illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orazbayev, B.; Beruete, M.; Martínez, A.; García-Meca, C.

    2016-12-01

    Invisibility in a diffusive-light-scattering medium has been recently demonstrated by employing a scattering-cancellation core-shell cloak. Unlike nondiffusive cloaks, such a device can be simultaneously macroscopic, broadband, passive, polarization independent, and omnidirectional. Unfortunately, it has been verified that this cloak, as well as more sophisticated ones based on transformation optics, fail under pulsed illumination, invalidating their use for a variety of applications. Here, we introduce a different approach based on unimodular transformations that enables the construction of unidirectional diffusive-light cloaks exhibiting a perfect invisibility effect, even under transient conditions. Moreover, we demonstrate that a polygonal cloak can extend this functionality to multiple directions with a nearly ideal behavior, while preserving all other features. We propose and numerically verify a simple cloak realization based on a layered stack of two isotropic materials. The studied devices have several applications not addressable by any of the other cloaks proposed to date, including shielding from pulse-based detection techniques, cloaking undesired scattering elements in time-of-flight imaging or high-speed communication systems for diffusive environments, and building extreme optical security features. The discussed cloaking strategy could also be applied to simplify the implementation of thermal cloaks.

  18. Tip-enhanced Raman mapping with top-illumination AFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K L Andrew; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2011-04-29

    Tip-enhanced Raman mapping is a powerful, emerging technique that offers rich chemical information and high spatial resolution. Currently, most of the successes in tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) measurements are based on the inverted configuration where tips and laser are approaching the sample from opposite sides. This results in the limitation of measurement for transparent samples only. Several approaches have been developed to obtain tip-enhanced Raman mapping in reflection mode, many of which involve certain customisations of the system. We have demonstrated in this work that it is also possible to obtain TERS nano-images using an upright microscope (top-illumination) with a gold-coated Si atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever without significant modification to the existing integrated AFM/Raman system. A TERS image of a single-walled carbon nanotube has been achieved with a spatial resolution of ∼ 20-50 nm, demonstrating the potential of this technique for studying non-transparent nanoscale materials.

  19. Tip-enhanced Raman mapping with top-illumination AFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, K L Andrew; Kazarian, Sergei G, E-mail: s.kazarian@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-29

    Tip-enhanced Raman mapping is a powerful, emerging technique that offers rich chemical information and high spatial resolution. Currently, most of the successes in tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) measurements are based on the inverted configuration where tips and laser are approaching the sample from opposite sides. This results in the limitation of measurement for transparent samples only. Several approaches have been developed to obtain tip-enhanced Raman mapping in reflection mode, many of which involve certain customisations of the system. We have demonstrated in this work that it is also possible to obtain TERS nano-images using an upright microscope (top-illumination) with a gold-coated Si atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever without significant modification to the existing integrated AFM/Raman system. A TERS image of a single-walled carbon nanotube has been achieved with a spatial resolution of {approx} 20-50 nm, demonstrating the potential of this technique for studying non-transparent nanoscale materials.

  20. Tip-enhanced Raman mapping with top-illumination AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K L Andrew; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2011-01-01

    Tip-enhanced Raman mapping is a powerful, emerging technique that offers rich chemical information and high spatial resolution. Currently, most of the successes in tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) measurements are based on the inverted configuration where tips and laser are approaching the sample from opposite sides. This results in the limitation of measurement for transparent samples only. Several approaches have been developed to obtain tip-enhanced Raman mapping in reflection mode, many of which involve certain customisations of the system. We have demonstrated in this work that it is also possible to obtain TERS nano-images using an upright microscope (top-illumination) with a gold-coated Si atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever without significant modification to the existing integrated AFM/Raman system. A TERS image of a single-walled carbon nanotube has been achieved with a spatial resolution of ∼ 20-50 nm, demonstrating the potential of this technique for studying non-transparent nanoscale materials.

  1. Illuminating structural proteins in viral "dark matter" with metaproteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brum, Jennifer R; Ignacio-Espinoza, J Cesar; Kim, Eun-Hae; Trubl, Gareth; Jones, Robert M; Roux, Simon; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; Rich, Virginia I; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2016-03-01

    Viruses are ecologically important, yet environmental virology is limited by dominance of unannotated genomic sequences representing taxonomic and functional "viral dark matter." Although recent analytical advances are rapidly improving taxonomic annotations, identifying functional dark matter remains problematic. Here, we apply paired metaproteomics and dsDNA-targeted metagenomics to identify 1,875 virion-associated proteins from the ocean. Over one-half of these proteins were newly functionally annotated and represent abundant and widespread viral metagenome-derived protein clusters (PCs). One primarily unannotated PC dominated the dataset, but structural modeling and genomic context identified this PC as a previously unidentified capsid protein from multiple uncultivated tailed virus families. Furthermore, four of the five most abundant PCs in the metaproteome represent capsid proteins containing the HK97-like protein fold previously found in many viruses that infect all three domains of life. The dominance of these proteins within our dataset, as well as their global distribution throughout the world's oceans and seas, supports prior hypotheses that this HK97-like protein fold is the most abundant biological structure on Earth. Together, these culture-independent analyses improve virion-associated protein annotations, facilitate the investigation of proteins within natural viral communities, and offer a high-throughput means of illuminating functional viral dark matter.

  2. Structural and mechanistic studies of measles virus illuminate paramyxovirus entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K Plemper

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Measles virus (MeV, a member of the paramyxovirus family of enveloped RNA viruses and one of the most infectious viral pathogens identified, accounts for major pediatric morbidity and mortality worldwide although coordinated efforts to achieve global measles control are in place. Target cell entry is mediated by two viral envelope glycoproteins, the attachment (H and fusion (F proteins, which form a complex that achieves merger of the envelope with target cell membranes. Despite continually expanding knowledge of the entry strategies employed by enveloped viruses, our molecular insight into the organization of functional paramyxovirus fusion complexes and the mechanisms by which the receptor binding by the attachment protein triggers the required conformational rearrangements of the fusion protein remain incomplete. Recently reported crystal structures of the MeV attachment protein in complex with its cellular receptors CD46 or SLAM and newly developed functional assays have now illuminated some of the fundamental principles that govern cell entry by this archetype member of the paramyxovirus family. Here, we review these advances in our molecular understanding of MeV entry in the context of diverse entry strategies employed by other members of the paramyxovirus family.

  3. Broadband illumination of superconducting pair breaking photon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guruswamy, T; Goldie, D J; Withington, S

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the detailed behaviour of superconducting pair breaking photon detectors such as Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) requires knowledge of the nonequilibrium quasiparticle energy distributions. We have previously calculated the steady state distributions resulting from uniform absorption of monochromatic sub gap and above gap frequency radiation by thin films. In this work, we use the same methods to calculate the effect of illumination by broadband sources, such as thermal radiation from astrophysical phenomena or from the readout system. Absorption of photons at multiple above gap frequencies is shown to leave unchanged the structure of the quasiparticle energy distribution close to the superconducting gap. Hence for typical absorbed powers, we find the effects of absorption of broadband pair breaking radiation can simply be considered as the sum of the effects of absorption of many monochromatic sources. Distribution averaged quantities, like quasiparticle generation efficiency η, match exactly a weighted average over the bandwidth of the source of calculations assuming a monochromatic source. For sub gap frequencies, however, distributing the absorbed power across multiple frequencies does change the low energy quasiparticle distribution. For moderate and high absorbed powers, this results in a significantly larger η–a higher number of excess quasiparticles for a broadband source compared to a monochromatic source of equal total absorbed power. Typically in KIDs the microwave power absorbed has a very narrow bandwidth, but in devices with broad resonance characteristics (low quality factors), this increase in η may be measurable. (paper)

  4. Detection of Fish Bones in Cod Fillets by UV Illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Nian, Rui; Cao, Limin; Sui, Jianxin; Lin, Hong

    2015-07-01

    The presence of fish bones is now regarded as an important hazard in fishery products, and there is increasing demand for new analytical techniques to control it more effectively. Here, the fluorescent properties of cod bones under UV illumination were investigated, and the maximal wavelengths for excitation and emission were determined to be 320 nm and 515 nm, respectively, demonstrating significantly different fluorescence characteristics and much higher fluorescence intensity compared to those of fillet muscles. Based on the results, UV fluorescence-assisted candling for the detection of bones in fishery products was developed for the first time. Using cod fillets as samples, the detection ratio of this technique was calculated as 90.86%, significantly higher than that of traditional candling under daylight (76.78%). Moreover, the working efficiency of the new technique was about 26% higher than that of the traditional method. A UV fluorescence imaging framework was also developed, and a method for automatic identification of the fish bones in the cod fillets based on the linear discriminant analysis proposed by Fisher was preliminarily realized, but the detection ratio was demonstrated to be relatively poor compared to those of candling techniques. These results allow us to suggest UV-based methods as new and promising approaches for routine monitoring of bones in fishery products.

  5. Reducing flicker due to ambient illumination in camera captured images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minwoong; Bengtson, Kurt; Li, Lisa; Allebach, Jan P.

    2013-02-01

    The flicker artifact dealt with in this paper is the scanning distortion arising when an image is captured by a digital camera using a CMOS imaging sensor with an electronic rolling shutter under strong ambient light sources powered by AC. This type of camera scans a target line-by-line in a frame. Therefore, time differences exist between the lines. This mechanism causes a captured image to be corrupted by the change of illumination. This phenomenon is called the flicker artifact. The non-content area of the captured image is used to estimate a flicker signal that is a key to being able to compensate the flicker artifact. The average signal of the non-content area taken along the scan direction has local extrema where the peaks of flicker exist. The locations of the extrema are very useful information to estimate the desired distribution of pixel intensities assuming that the flicker artifact does not exist. The flicker-reduced images compensated by our approach clearly demonstrate the reduced flicker artifact, based on visual observation.

  6. Sub-nanometer glass surface dynamics induced by illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Duc; Nienhaus, Lea; Haasch, Richard T.; Lyding, Joseph; Gruebele, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Illumination is known to induce stress and morphology changes in opaque glasses. Amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC) has a smaller bandgap than the crystal. Thus, we were able to excite with 532 nm light a 1 μm amorphous surface layer on a SiC crystal while recording time-lapse movies of glass surface dynamics by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Photoexcitation of the a-SiC surface layer through the transparent crystal avoids heating the STM tip. Up to 6 × 10 4 s, long movies of surface dynamics with 40 s time resolution and sub-nanometer spatial resolution were obtained. Clusters of ca. 3-5 glass forming units diameter are seen to cooperatively hop between two states at the surface. Photoexcitation with green laser light recruits immobile clusters to hop, rather than increasing the rate at which already mobile clusters hop. No significant laser heating was observed. Thus, we favor an athermal mechanism whereby electronic excitation of a-SiC directly controls glassy surface dynamics. This mechanism is supported by an exciton migration-relaxation-thermal diffusion model. Individual clusters take ∼1 h to populate states differently after the light intensity has changed. We believe the surrounding matrix rearranges slowly when it is stressed by a change in laser intensity, and clusters serve as a diagnostic. Such cluster hopping and matrix rearrangement could underlie the microscopic mechanism of photoinduced aging of opaque glasses

  7. On the identification of folium and orchil on illuminated manuscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, Maurizio; Calà, Elisa; Agostino, Angelo; Fenoglio, Gaia; Idone, Ambra; Porter, Cheryl; Gulmini, Monica

    2017-01-15

    The identification of the two purple dyes folium and orchil has rarely been reported in the analysis of painted artworks, especially when analysing illuminated manuscripts. This is not consistent with the fact that ancient literary sources suggested their use as substitutes for the more expensive Tyrian purple dye. By employing non-invasive spectroscopic techniques, the present work demonstrates that these dyes were actually widely used in the production of ancient manuscripts. By employing UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry with optic fibres (FORS) and spectrofluorimetry, the abundant identification of both dyes on medieval manuscripts was performed by comparing the spectra recorded on ancient codices with those obtained on accurate replicas of dyed or painted parchment. Moreover, examples are also reported whereby the considered purple dyes were used in mixtures with other colourants. The overall information obtained here allowed us to define new boundaries for the time range in which orchil and folium dyes were used which is wider than previously thought, and to focus on their particular uses in the decoration of books. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficient visibility encoding for dynamic illumination in direct volume rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronander, Joel; Jönsson, Daniel; Löw, Joakim; Ljung, Patric; Ynnerman, Anders; Unger, Jonas

    2012-03-01

    We present an algorithm that enables real-time dynamic shading in direct volume rendering using general lighting, including directional lights, point lights, and environment maps. Real-time performance is achieved by encoding local and global volumetric visibility using spherical harmonic (SH) basis functions stored in an efficient multiresolution grid over the extent of the volume. Our method enables high-frequency shadows in the spatial domain, but is limited to a low-frequency approximation of visibility and illumination in the angular domain. In a first pass, level of detail (LOD) selection in the grid is based on the current transfer function setting. This enables rapid online computation and SH projection of the local spherical distribution of visibility information. Using a piecewise integration of the SH coefficients over the local regions, the global visibility within the volume is then computed. By representing the light sources using their SH projections, the integral over lighting, visibility, and isotropic phase functions can be efficiently computed during rendering. The utility of our method is demonstrated in several examples showing the generality and interactive performance of the approach.

  9. Fast Fourier single-pixel imaging via binary illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zibang; Wang, Xueying; Zheng, Guoan; Zhong, Jingang

    2017-09-20

    Fourier single-pixel imaging (FSI) employs Fourier basis patterns for encoding spatial information and is capable of reconstructing high-quality two-dimensional and three-dimensional images. Fourier-domain sparsity in natural scenes allows FSI to recover sharp images from undersampled data. The original FSI demonstration, however, requires grayscale Fourier basis patterns for illumination. This requirement imposes a limitation on the imaging speed as digital micro-mirror devices (DMDs) generate grayscale patterns at a low refreshing rate. In this paper, we report a new strategy to increase the speed of FSI by two orders of magnitude. In this strategy, we binarize the Fourier basis patterns based on upsampling and error diffusion dithering. We demonstrate a 20,000 Hz projection rate using a DMD and capture 256-by-256-pixel dynamic scenes at a speed of 10 frames per second. The reported technique substantially accelerates image acquisition speed of FSI. It may find broad imaging applications at wavebands that are not accessible using conventional two-dimensional image sensors.

  10. Multiobjective generalized extremal optimization algorithm for simulation of daylight illuminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Srividya Ravindra; Kurian, Ciji Pearl; Gomes-Borges, Marcos Eduardo

    2017-10-01

    Daylight illuminants are widely used as references for color quality testing and optical vision testing applications. Presently used daylight simulators make use of fluorescent bulbs that are not tunable and occupy more space inside the quality testing chambers. By designing a spectrally tunable LED light source with an optimal number of LEDs, cost, space, and energy can be saved. This paper describes an application of the generalized extremal optimization (GEO) algorithm for selection of the appropriate quantity and quality of LEDs that compose the light source. The multiobjective approach of this algorithm tries to get the best spectral simulation with minimum fitness error toward the target spectrum, correlated color temperature (CCT) the same as the target spectrum, high color rendering index (CRI), and luminous flux as required for testing applications. GEO is a global search algorithm based on phenomena of natural evolution and is especially designed to be used in complex optimization problems. Several simulations have been conducted to validate the performance of the algorithm. The methodology applied to model the LEDs, together with the theoretical basis for CCT and CRI calculation, is presented in this paper. A comparative result analysis of M-GEO evolutionary algorithm with the Levenberg-Marquardt conventional deterministic algorithm is also presented.

  11. Modular robotics for playful physiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2009-01-01

    We developed modular robotic tiles to be used for playful physiotherapy, which is supposed to motivate patients to engage in and perform physical rehabilitation exercises. We tested the modular robotic tiles for an extensive period of time (3 years) in daily use in a hospital rehabilitation unit e.......g. for cardiac patients. Also, the tiles were tested for performing physical rehabilitation of stroke patients in their private home. In all pilot test cases qualitative feedback indicate that the patients find the playful use of modular robotic tiles engaging and motivating for them to perform...

  12. Rapport. Play and Learn Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Maria Neumann; Søgaard, Karoline

    Erfaringer og anbefalinger fra innovationsprojektet Play and Learn, hvor pædagoger har arbejdet med sprogstimulering af børn fra 3-9 år. Legende læring i daglige rutiner og pædagogiske aktiviteter har været fokuspunktet.......Erfaringer og anbefalinger fra innovationsprojektet Play and Learn, hvor pædagoger har arbejdet med sprogstimulering af børn fra 3-9 år. Legende læring i daglige rutiner og pædagogiske aktiviteter har været fokuspunktet....

  13. PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    Sascha Wallentowitz), 2004 (Trieste, Italy, by Naseem Rahman and Sascha Wallentowitz), 2005 (Bilkent, Ankara, by Alexander Shumovsky), 2006 (Vienna, by Helmut Rauch), 2007 (Palermo, Italy, by Antonino Messina) and 2008 (Belgrade, by Mirjana Bozic). The CEWQO series developed in two directions following the rapid development of quantum optics and the transitional development of the scientific collaboration of Central European researchers with researchers from old and new emerging Central European countries, and from all over the world. The topics discussed at CEWQO 08 were divided into ten groups that aimed to cover the broad scope of modern quantum optics: Fundamental aspects of quantum optics and quantum mechanics Single photons and photon pairs Cavity and circuit QED Atoms in intense fields Neutron, atom and molecular quantum optics Quantum gases and fluids Coherence, entanglement and decoherence Optical properties of condensed matter and nanostructures Open quantum systems and chaos Quantum information processing Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics realize and are consistent with a wider idea, and a social, economical, cultural and political program promoted since 1989 by the Central European Initiative (CEI), the main goal of which was to help transition countries in Central Europe to become closer to the EU. The resulting support of the CEI, first obtained thanks to the scientific reputation, organizing activities, and efforts of Helmut Rauch, has been very important for the organization of the CEWQO in recent years, particularly in 2008. The support of the Sixth and Seventh Framework Programs of the European Commission was also very important. A short review of papers in this topical issue A principal role in this topical issue is played by the photon. Vuletic et al describe the mapping of the photon-polarization state onto a single collective-spin excitation (magnon) shared between two atomic ensembles. A heralded quantum memory based on this mapping is

  14. Word play, ritual insult, and volleyball in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Many gay men in the popular sectors of Lima, Peru participate in vóley callejero, or street volleyball. The ethnographic data presented in this article describes verbal and corporal mechanisms through which gay identity emerges within the particular context of the street volleyball game, ultimately highlighting the contextual nature of identity. The volleyball players are not just hitting a ball back and forth, they are engaging in a meaningful activity that illuminates intersections of language, sexuality, and identity. Through the manipulation of the street into a volleyball court, the volleyball players create a space conducive to the articulation of particular verbal and embodied practices that index gay identity. The challenge to the regulations of "proper" volleyball through the practice of ritual insulting and the cultivation of gay volleyball technique are playful reconfigurations of gendered practices prominent in the sites where fieldwork was carried out.

  15. Ethical Issues of Ethnography Method: A Comparative Approach to Subaltern, Self, and the Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeyemi, Christo

    2013-01-01

    Using urban and rural community settings, this review article focuses on ethical issues associated with ethnographer-participant interaction and draws from the ethnographic accounts of Bronislaw Malinowski and Susan Krieger. As such, the following sections intend to illuminate the issue of ethics in ethnography research. As case studies, the…

  16. Investigating the use of an adjustment task to set preferred illuminances in a workplace environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadóttir, Ásta; Christoffersen, Jens; Fotios, Steve

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to examine user preferences for light level using the method of adjustment. The study sought preferred illuminances under lighting from fluorescent lamps of different correlated colour temperature. It was hypothesised that the preferred illuminance would be influenced...

  17. Joint illumination and visible-light communication systems : data rates and extra power consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsiatmas, Anagnostis; Willems, Frans; Linnartz, Jean-Paul; Baggen, C.P.M.J.; Bergmans, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Visible Light Communications (VLC) have been promoted as an energy-efficient Gb/s-technology for indoor settings, since VLC can be merged with the illumination functionality. As a result, Joint Illumination and visible-light Communication (JIC) systems are perceived as a green technology and the

  18. Large Volume, Behaviorally-relevant Illumination for Optogenetics in Non-human Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, Leah C; Pino, Erica N; Boyden, Edward S; Desimone, Robert

    2017-10-03

    This protocol describes a large-volume illuminator, which was developed for optogenetic manipulations in the non-human primate brain. The illuminator is a modified plastic optical fiber with etched tip, such that the light emitting surface area is > 100x that of a conventional fiber. In addition to describing the construction of the large-volume illuminator, this protocol details the quality-control calibration used to ensure even light distribution. Further, this protocol describes techniques for inserting and removing the large volume illuminator. Both superficial and deep structures may be illuminated. This large volume illuminator does not need to be physically coupled to an electrode, and because the illuminator is made of plastic, not glass, it will simply bend in circumstances when traditional optical fibers would shatter. Because this illuminator delivers light over behaviorally-relevant tissue volumes (≈ 10 mm 3 ) with no greater penetration damage than a conventional optical fiber, it facilitates behavioral studies using optogenetics in non-human primates.

  19. [An assembly line lighting survey analysis and its optimal illumination range research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-ning; Xu, Yan; DU, Wei-wei; Cao, Lei; Wang, Sheng; Dong, Xue-mei; Lu, Hou-han; Chen, Song-gen; Cao, Xiao-ou; Zhang, Long-lian; He, Li-hua

    2011-06-18

    To investigate and analyze present conditions of the assembling line illumination in our country, and to set the recommended values of illuminance standard. Questionnaires and field surveys were used in this investigation. A total of 752 workers from seven factories in textile, shoes and electronics industries were selected for the questionnaire survey and site measurement, and corresponding analyses made with SPSS 13.0 statistic software. Uniformity of illumination, definition in working face, general satisfactory degrees, asthenopia were significantly correlated with each other. Assembly line illuminances for five different visual characteristics were recommended in this paper. The illuminances were 500-1 000-1 500 lx, 300-500-1 000 lx, 200-300-750 lx, 100-300-500 lx, 50-100-200 lx, respectively. Present conditions of the assembling line illumination are less than satisfactory, uniformity of illumination is on the low side, and there is no assembling line illuminance standard for general satisfactory degrees and asthenopia of workers. The related work should be further improved.

  20. An internally illuminated monolith reactor: Pros and cons relative to a slurry reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro, Joana T.; Carneiro, J.T.; Berger, Rob; Moulijn, Jacob A.; Mul, Guido

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, kinetic models for the photo-oxidation of cyclohexane in two different photoreactor systems are discussed: a top illumination reactor (TIR) representative of a slurry reactor, and the so-called internally illuminated monolith reactor (IIMR) representing a reactor containing

  1. Uniform illumination rendering using an array of LEDs: a signal processing perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Hongming; Bergmans, J.W.M.; Schenk, T.C.W.; Linnartz, J.P.M.G.; Rietman, R.

    2009-01-01

    An array of a large number of LEDs will be widely used in future indoor illumination systems. In this paper, we investigate the problem of rendering uniform illumination by a regular LED array on the ceiling of a room. We first present two general results on the scaling property of the basic

  2. Illumination sensing in LED lighting systems based on frequency-division multiplexing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Hongming; Bergmans, J.W.M.; Schenk, T.C.W.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, light emitting diode (LED) based illumination systems have attracted considerable research interest. Such systems normally consist of a large number of LEDs. In order to facilitate the control of such high-complexity system, a novel signal processing application, namely illumination

  3. Comparative phototoxicity of nanoparticulate and bulk ZnO to a free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans: The importance of illumination mode and primary particle size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, H.; Kabengi, N.J.; Bertsch, P.M.; Unrine, J.M.; Glenn, T.C.; Williams, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated phototoxicity of nanoparticulate ZnO and bulk-ZnO under natural sunlight (NSL) versus ambient artificial laboratory light (AALL) illumination to a free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Phototoxicity of nano-ZnO and bulk-ZnO was largely dependent on illumination method as 2-h exposure under NSL caused significantly greater mortality in C. elegans than under AALL. This phototoxicity was closely related to photocatalytic reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by the ZnO particles as indicated by concomitant methylene blue photodegradation. Both materials caused mortality in C. elegans under AALL during 24-h exposure although neither degraded methylene blue, suggesting mechanisms of toxicity other than photocatalytic ROS generation were involved. Particle dissolution of ZnO did not appear to play an important role in the toxicity observed in this study. Nano-ZnO showed greater phototoxicity than bulk-ZnO despite their similar size of aggregates, suggesting primary particle size is more important than aggregate size in determining phototoxicity. - Highlights: → Phototoxicity of nano- or bulk-ZnO was enhanced by natural sunlight illumination. → This phototoxicity was well-correlated to photocatalytic ROS generation. → Toxicity of ZnO particles not related to photocatalytic ROS generation was also observed. → Nano-ZnO showed greater phototoxicity than bulk-ZnO due to its greater total surface area per unit mass. → Primary particle size appeared to be more important than aggregate size in determining phototoxicity. - Phototoxicity of nanoparticulate and bulk ZnO was greatly enhanced by natural sunlight illumination compared to artificial laboratory light illumination.

  4. Comparative phototoxicity of nanoparticulate and bulk ZnO to a free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans: The importance of illumination mode and primary particle size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, H., E-mail: mah77@uga.edu [Department of Environmental Health Science, College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Kabengi, N.J.; Bertsch, P.M.; Unrine, J.M. [Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546 (United States); Glenn, T.C.; Williams, P.L. [Department of Environmental Health Science, College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    The present study evaluated phototoxicity of nanoparticulate ZnO and bulk-ZnO under natural sunlight (NSL) versus ambient artificial laboratory light (AALL) illumination to a free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Phototoxicity of nano-ZnO and bulk-ZnO was largely dependent on illumination method as 2-h exposure under NSL caused significantly greater mortality in C. elegans than under AALL. This phototoxicity was closely related to photocatalytic reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by the ZnO particles as indicated by concomitant methylene blue photodegradation. Both materials caused mortality in C. elegans under AALL during 24-h exposure although neither degraded methylene blue, suggesting mechanisms of toxicity other than photocatalytic ROS generation were involved. Particle dissolution of ZnO did not appear to play an important role in the toxicity observed in this study. Nano-ZnO showed greater phototoxicity than bulk-ZnO despite their similar size of aggregates, suggesting primary particle size is more important than aggregate size in determining phototoxicity. - Highlights: > Phototoxicity of nano- or bulk-ZnO was enhanced by natural sunlight illumination. > This phototoxicity was well-correlated to photocatalytic ROS generation. > Toxicity of ZnO particles not related to photocatalytic ROS generation was also observed. > Nano-ZnO showed greater phototoxicity than bulk-ZnO due to its greater total surface area per unit mass. > Primary particle size appeared to be more important than aggregate size in determining phototoxicity. - Phototoxicity of nanoparticulate and bulk ZnO was greatly enhanced by natural sunlight illumination compared to artificial laboratory light illumination.

  5. Combination of structured illumination and single molecule localization microscopy in one setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossberger, Sabrina; Best, Gerrit; Birk, Udo; Cremer, Christoph; Baddeley, David; Heintzmann, Rainer; Dithmar, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the positional and structural aspects of biological nanostructures simultaneously is as much a challenge as a desideratum. In recent years, highly accurate (20 nm) positional information of optically isolated targets down to the nanometer range has been obtained using single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM), while highly resolved (100 nm) spatial information has been achieved using structured illumination microscopy (SIM). In this paper, we present a high-resolution fluorescence microscope setup which combines the advantages of SMLM with SIM in order to provide high-precision localization and structural information in a single setup. Furthermore, the combination of the wide-field SIM image with the SMLM data allows us to identify artifacts produced during the visualization process of SMLM data, and potentially also during the reconstruction process of SIM images. We describe the SMLM–SIM combo and software, and apply the instrument in a first proof-of-principle to the same region of H3K293 cells to achieve SIM images with high structural resolution (in the 100 nm range) in overlay with the highly accurate position information of localized single fluorophores. Thus, with its robust control software, efficient switching between the SMLM and SIM mode, fully automated and user-friendly acquisition and evaluation software, the SMLM–SIM combo is superior over existing solutions. (special issue article)

  6. Dense and refined microstructure 3D measurement method based on an optical microscope and varying illuminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhongwei; Li, Y F

    2011-01-01

    We propose a novel microscopic photometric stereo (MPS) method based on a conventional optical microscope and varying illuminations for dense and refined microstructure 3D measurement. To guarantee the flexibility of the MPS, an uncalibrated photometric stereo (UPS) method, which does not require a priori knowledge of the light-source direction or the light-source intensity, is employed to recover surface normals and albedos from the captured multiple micro-images. Although the UPS has been studied before, there are some particular issues to be addressed to make it suitable for microscopic cases. For resolving the inherent generalized bas-relief (GBR) ambiguity of the UPS, we present a GBR disambiguation method based on a framework of entropy minimization, and extend it using a graph-cut energy minimization to decrease the influence of noise and further refine the recovered surface normal. The proposed MPS method has been tested on synthetic as well as real images and very encouraging results have been obtained. The experimental results show that this novel method can reconstruct dense and refined 3D points for the microstructure. It is an easy-to-implement yet effective alternative method for microstructure 3D measurement and can be applied to many potential fields

  7. Macroporous Double-Network Hydrogel for High-Efficiency Solar Steam Generation Under 1 sun Illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiangyu; Zhang, Yue; Guo, Qiuquan; Cai, Xiaobing; Xiao, Junfeng; Ding, Zhifeng; Yang, Jun

    2018-04-04

    Solar steam generation is one of the most promising solar-energy-harvesting technologies to address the issue of water shortage. Despite intensive efforts to develop high-efficiency solar steam generation devices, challenges remain in terms of the relatively low solar thermal efficiency, complicated fabrications, high cost, and difficulty in scaling up. Herein, a double-network hydrogel with a porous structure (p-PEGDA-PANi) is demonstrated for the first time as a flexible, recyclable, and efficient photothermal platform for low-cost and scalable solar steam generation. As a novel photothermal platform, the p-PEGDA-PANi involves all necessary properties of efficient broadband solar absorption, exceptional hydrophilicity, low heat conductivity, and porous structure for high-efficiency solar steam generation. As a result, the hydrogel-based solar steam generator exhibits a maximum solar thermal efficiency of 91.5% with an evaporation rate of 1.40 kg m -2 h -1 under 1 sun illumination, which is comparable to state-of-the-art solar steam generation devices. Furthermore, the good durability and environmental stability of the p-PEGDA-PANi hydrogel enables a convenient recycling and reusing process toward real-life applications. The present research not only provides a novel photothermal platform for solar energy harvest but also opens a new avenue for the application of the hydrogel materials in solar steam generation.

  8. Child-Centered Play Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanFleet, Rise; Sywulak, Andrea E.; Sniscak, Cynthia Caparosa

    2010-01-01

    Highly practical, instructive, and authoritative, this book vividly describes how to conduct child-centered play therapy. The authors are master clinicians who explain core therapeutic principles and techniques, using rich case material to illustrate treatment of a wide range of difficulties. The focus is on nondirective interventions that allow…

  9. Moral Education through Play Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalle, Salwa; Zakaria, Gamal Abdul Nasir; Nawi, Aliff

    2014-01-01

    This paper will discuss on how sand therapy (as one type of play therapies) can be applied as an additional technique or approach in counseling. The research questions for this study are to see what are the development, challenges faced by the therapist during the sessions given and how sand therapy can aid to the progress of the client. It is a…

  10. Playing Videogames: The Electronic Friend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selnow, Gary W.

    1984-01-01

    Concluded that the children in this study (ages 10-14) played video games in arcades for some of the same reasons they watched television: (1) escape; (2) a sense of personal involvement in the action; and (3) a source of or substitute for companionship. (PD)

  11. Building Curriculum during Block Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Blocks are not just for play! In this article, Nicole Andrews describes observing the interactions of three young boys enthusiastically engaged in the kindergarten block center of their classroom, using blocks in a building project that displayed their ability to use critical thinking skills, physics exploration, and the development of language…

  12. Teaching Shakespeare Through Play Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodder, Joseph H.

    1995-01-01

    A performance-oriented approach to teaching William Shakespeare's literature has been found to be effective and enthusiastically received by college students. Ten years of teaching Shakespeare through full play production has shown that the rewards, eloquently expressed in the testimony of students, more than compensate for extra work required of…

  13. Designing Play for Dark Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada-Rice, Dylan

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a knowledge-exchange network project that had the core aim of informing the development of a video game for hospitalized children. In order to do this, it brought together hospital play specialists, academics and representatives from the digital games industry to co-produce knowledge that could be used in the future…

  14. Interpretive Reproduction in Children's Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, William A.

    2012-01-01

    The author looks at children's play from the perspective of interpretive reproduction, emphasizing the way children create their own unique peer cultures, which he defines as a set of routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children engage in with their playmates. The article focuses on two types of routines in the peer culture of preschool…

  15. Obama Plays Cheerleader for STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2010-01-01

    Amid a struggling economy, a raft of foreign-policy headaches, and the tail end of a heated campaign season, President Barack Obama carved out time in his schedule last month to watch students in the State Dining Room demonstrate a solar-powered model car, a water-purification system, and a soccer-playing robot. The science fair was the fifth…

  16. Playing to (self-)rehabilitate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoche, Hendrik; Hald, Kasper; Richter, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    We designed and evaluated a whack-a-mole (WAM) style game (see Figure 1) in a clinical randomized controlled trial (RCT) with reminder-assisted but self-initiated use over the period of a month with 43 participants from a post-lesion pool. While game play did not moderate rehabilitative progress...

  17. Playing with Protons CREATIONS Demonstrator

    CERN Multimedia

    Alexopoulos, Angelos

    2017-01-01

    This document describes Playing with Protons, a CMS education initiative that seeks to enhance teachers’ pedagogical practice with creative, hands-on methodologies through which 10-12 year old students can, in turn, get engaged effectively with science, technology and innovation.

  18. The Illumination Model of the Valley Based on the Diffuse Reflect of Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Guoliang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, models are build to evaluate the impact of the forest on the valley’s illumination. Based on the assumes that all the light reach the ground comes from the diffuse reflection which comes from the sun directly and from the diffuse reflection of other points, One model is build to consider the impact of time and latitude on the direction of the sunlight. So we can get the direction of the sunlight at different time and latitude through the model. Besides, this paper develops a illumination model to evaluate the intensity of illumination of the ground. Combining the models above, this paper get a complete model which can not only evaluate the overall light intensity of the valley but also convert the light intensity to the intensity of illumination. Simulation of the intensity illumination of some basic terrains and finally gives a comprehensive results which is practical and close to the common sense.

  19. Measuring object shape by using in-plane electronic speckle pattern interferometry with divergent illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra-Michel, Jorge; Martínez, Amalia; Rayas, J A; Anguiano-Morales, Marcelino

    2010-01-01

    Electronic speckle pattern interferometry is a useful technique for displacement, deformation and contouring measurements. Traditionally, for contouring measurements, collimated illumination with a constant sensitivity vector is used, and the surface area analysis is limited to the illuminated area. In some industrial applications, large surfaces require to be analyzed in restricted space conditions. Considering this situation, an optical system with divergent illumination for whole-field measurements can be used. It is known that displacement fields and the optical phase are related by the sensitivity vector. Therefore, to compute the sensitivity vector, illumination position and superficial shape need to be considered, a condition that becomes an impediment for surface contouring if the superficial shape is unknown. In this work, a simple iterative algorithm based on the Gauss–Seidel technique is presented to compute contouring measurements. Contouring measurements from both ESPI and a coordinate-measuring machine (CMM) are compared. In addition, a measurement comparison considering supposed collimated and divergent illumination is presented

  20. Feasibility Study on Passive-radar Detection of Space Targets Using Spaceborne Illuminators of Opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Tie-zhen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Space target surveillance generally uses active radars. To take full advantage of passive radars, the idea of using spaceborne illuminators of opportunity for space target detection is presented in this paper. Analysis of the detectable time and direct wave suppression shows that passive radar using spaceborne illuminators of opportunity can effectively detect a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO target. Meanwhile, Ku and L band bi-static radar cross section of passive radars that use spaceborne illuminators of opportunity are presented by simulation, providing the basis of choosing space target forward scatter. Finally the key parameters, mainly system gain, accumulation time and radiation source selection are studied. Results show that system size using satellite TV signals as illuminators of opportunity is relatively small. These encouraging results should stimulate the development of passive radar detection of space targets using spaceborne illuminators of opportunity.