WorldWideScience

Sample records for play difficult child

  1. Case Studies of Child Play Areas and Child Support Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    at the edge of the park 0 Adler introduces use of color * Adler introduces moving things including a triple tire swing and a Tarzan rope e Adler...Parent-child challenge play where the child tried to extend his or her a- bility to do something like the Tarzan Swing. 0 Infants and very young...Attached to the tree house is the pulley-ride that provides the excitement of feet-off-the-ground transportation and is connected to the Tarzan swing at the

  2. Child-Mother and Child-Father Play Interaction Patterns with Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Aesha; Halliburton, Amy; Humphrey, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    The study focused on qualitative and quantitative differences between maternal and paternal play interaction behaviours with their preschool children. Home observations of 18 child-mother and child-father play interactions were qualitatively analysed to derive interaction themes. In addition, the quality of child-mother and child-father…

  3. The role of play in Danish child care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    of child care. To illustrate how play is a developmental activitity for children, an example of a social fantasy play episode is analysed in order to substantiate the claim: that children’s self-organised play-activities propels social development, authenticity and democratic values.......Children’s play is an immensely central part of child care in Scandinavia. This chapter describes how children’s play with peers and friends is supported by the pedagogical environment of Danish child care. It is argued that play is an existential project for children and that opportunites to play...... freely teaches children to become part of the social order, to become good friends and to solve differences through negotiation. Throughout the chapter the environment facilitating children’s play is illustrated with reference to typical Danish child care practices and research results on quality...

  4. Evaluative Intervention Research in Child's Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawkey, Thomas Daniels; Fox, Franklin Daniel

    1981-01-01

    Evaluative intervention research studies in pretend play are investigations that examine the potential of imaginative play in young children to demonstrate a relationship between play and cognitive, social, and emotional growth. A review of the research indicates that children who engage in imaginative play yield higher test scores than those in…

  5. Parent-Child Play across Cultures: Advancing Play Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L.; Davidson, Kimberly L.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue for a greater understanding of children's play across cultures through better integration of scientific thinking about the developed and developing societies, through consideration of socialization beliefs and goals, and, finally, through the use of more complex models in research investigations. They draw on…

  6. Child-Centered Play Therapy in Management of Somatoform Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Renuka; Mehta, Manju

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Child-centered play therapy is a well recognized and research-supported form of child psychotherapy. Methods: Fifteen children in the age range of 5-11 years (eight girls and seven boys) with somatoform disorder were administered 25 sessions of non directive play therapy. Parents received 3 reflective counseling sessions. Children…

  7. A Child's Power in Game-Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Julie; Lin, Lin

    2010-01-01

    This paper is the first of its series that studies the power children have in game-play and examines its implications for teaching and learning. As a start, the paper describes a framework of power based on a synthesis of various types of power underlined in literature. The paper then looks into the power issue through observation and interviews…

  8. The Impact of Occupational Therapy on a Child's Playfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, J; Coker, P; Lynn, R; Suppinger, R; Pearigen, T; Rabon, S; St Aubin, M; Ward, A T

    2000-01-01

    The constant changing health care system has made it imperative for occupational therapists (OTs) to examine the effectiveness of treatment interventions with children. Few studies exist examining play as the desired outcome of the intervention. Previous studies in occupational therapy (OT) have focused on the motor aspects of play in children (Anderson, Hinojosa & Strauch, 1987; Florey, 1981; Morrison, Bundy, & Fisher, 1991). In these studies, the researchers hypothesize that improving motor skills will improve play skills in children. OTs frequently evaluate play using the Preschool Play Scale (PPS) (Bledsoe & Shephard, 1982; Knox, 1997) which provides a developmental age for play skills. Therapists also use developmental assessments designed to examine the skills used during play (Bundy, 1991). Skills used in play are important but fail to look at a child's approach or attitude during play. A child's approach to activities of play is termed "playfulness" (Bundy, 1997). The Test of Playfulness (TOP) (Bundy, 1997) was developed to measure this construct. The TOP provides information that can assist therapists working with children in designing measurable playfulness goals. This study examined the playfulness of four children who received OT intervention specifically designed to improve play behaviors in comparison to four children who did not receive this intervention. The results provide therapists with information and insight for treating children with play deficits. This information will help therapists design effective treatment to increase playfulness in children.

  9. Child's play: the creativity of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Donald

    2012-09-01

    In this article, I discuss Paul W. Pruyser's view presented in his article "An Essay on Creativity" (Pruyser in Bull Menninger Clin 43:294-353, 1979) that creative persons manifest early childhood qualities of playfulness, curiosity, and pleasure seeking and that adaptation is itself a form of creativity. I then discuss his article "Creativity in Aging Persons" (Pruyser in Bull Menninger Clin 51:425-435, 1987) in which he presents his view that aging itself is a potentially creative process, that creativity among older adults is not limited to the talented few, and that older adulthood has several specific features that are conducive to creativity. Significant among these features are object loss (especially involving human relationships) and functional loss (due to the vicissitudes of aging). Noting his particular emphasis on object loss and its role in late-life creativity, I focus on functional loss, and I emphasize the importance of adaptation in sustaining the creativity of older adults who experience such loss. I illustrate this adaptation by considering well-known painters who in late life suffered visual problems common to older adults. I suggest that in adapting to their visual problems these artists drew on the early childhood qualities (playfulness, curiosity and pleasure seeking) that all creative persons possess and that they are therefore illustrative for other older adults who are experiencing functional losses. I conclude with Erik H. Erikson's (Toys and reasons: stages in the ritualization of experience, W. W. Norton, New York, 1977) and Paul W. Pruyser's (Pastor Psychol 35:120-131, 1986) reflections on the relationship between seeing and hoping.

  10. Maxillary tumor in a child: An expected case of difficult airway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reena; Vikram, A

    2016-01-01

    Craniofacial abnormalities in pediatric population fall under the category of expected case of difficult airway. We present here a case of large maxillary tumor in a 9-year-old girl where the relative difficulty was further compounded due to her noncooperation which was again expected from a child. Local anesthetic topicalization of airway followed by slow inhalational induction with gradually increasing sevoflurane, while maintaining her spontaneous breathing, we secured her airway using fiber optic bronchoscopy. The surgery and the extubation went uneventful. In conclusion a planned airway management using fiber optic bronchoscope after airway topicalization and sevoflurane induction is the ideal technique in an expected case of difficult pediatric airway. PMID:27051379

  11. Child-Centered Play Therapy: Nancy from Baldness to Curls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Karen; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Presents a case study of a four-year-old girl who had pulled out all her hair. The child's responsiveness to play therapy is described, and implications for the use of play therapy in school counseling situations are described. (JAC)

  12. Literacy Is Child's Play: Making Sense in Khwezi Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsloo, Mastin

    2004-01-01

    The paper draws on ethnographic data on children's game-playing in Khwezi Park outside Cape Town. This unsupervised, child-choreographed play is seen as a site of meaning-making and identity work where children draw on a range of resources and influences to take and make meaning. These resources for semiosis and interaction are multilingual and…

  13. Maxillary tumor in a child: An expected case of difficult airway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial abnormalities in pediatric population fall under the category of expected case of difficult airway. We present here a case of large maxillary tumor in a 9-year-old girl where the relative difficulty was further compounded due to her noncooperation which was again expected from a child. Local anesthetic topicalization of airway followed by slow inhalational induction with gradually increasing sevoflurane, while maintaining her spontaneous breathing, we secured her airway using fiber optic bronchoscopy. The surgery and the extubation went uneventful. In conclusion a planned airway management using fiber optic bronchoscope after airway topicalization and sevoflurane induction is the ideal technique in an expected case of difficult pediatric airway.

  14. LETTING THE CHILD WORK: REAL LEARNING, REAL PLAY IN SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deb O’ROURKE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Unschoolers, and those who practice democratic, free, and progressive education philosophies, are often uncomfortable with a particular choice their children make: as Summerhill’s A. S. Neill observed: “Every child under freedom plays most of the time for years” (1964, p. 116. Those who see children as active, motivated learners can be disappointed when, given an environment rich with fascinating choices, their children spend most of their time in fantasy. The families’ discomfort can result in a reversion to more conventional schooling. Beginning with an early encounter with educational democracy during the 1970s at Toronto’s ALPHA Alternative School, supported with commentary from educators from schools that took a parallel path, and from psychologists and education critics both historic and contemporary, this article gathers arguments that support play as not only a pleasure but a necessity for growth, learning and mental health.

  15. Use of Child Centered Play Therapy Responses in a Child Care Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Joel H.; Muro, Lilia Lamar; Rose, Katherine Kensinger; Webster, Lindsey; Allen, Cassie

    2017-01-01

    The communication process between care providers and children can, at times, be complex. Young children typically lack the verbal language necessary for complex emotional expression. In this article, the authors contend that using some basic "child centered play therapy" (CCPT) techniques would be beneficial in enhancing communicative…

  16. Strengthening Parent-Child Relationships through Co-Playing Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Anneliese; Lin, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Parent-child relationships may be strengthened when parents and children play video games together. Literature is limited in addressing the impact of co-playing video games on parent-child relationships. Family systems theory, in particular, parental mediation through co-play, may provide insights into parent-child relationships. Parents who…

  17. Mother-Child Play: Children with Down Syndrome and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuti, P.; de Falco, S.; Esposito, G.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2009-01-01

    Child solitary and collaborative mother-child play with 21 children with Down syndrome and 33 mental-age-matched typically developing children were compared. In solitary play, children with Down syndrome showed less exploratory but similar symbolic play compared to typically developing children. From solitary to collaborative play, children with…

  18. Impact of Play Therapy on Parent-Child Relationship Stress at a Mental Health Training Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Dee C.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of Child-Centred Play Therapy (CCPT)/Non-Directive Play Therapy on parent-child relationship stress using archival data from 202 child clients divided into clinical behavioural groups over 3-74 sessions in a mental health training setting. Results demonstrated significant differences between pre and post testing…

  19. Interpretation and play: some aspects of the process of child analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Angela F

    2011-01-01

    Taking a combination of Anna Freudian and Winnicottian approaches to play and playing, this paper considers the nonlinear relationship between interpretation and play in the process of child analysis. Using extensive clinical material from the analysis of a late latency girl who had been adopted, the author revisits the technique of using the displacement in play and the variety of modalities within which a child's unconscious concerns can be approached when disruption of the setting threatens because of the child's fragile ego.

  20. Images of Play Experiences through a Child's Lens: An Exploration of Play and Digital Media with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhoff, Angela

    2017-01-01

    This research documents the use of digital media by young children in outdoor play spaces. The research was conducted at a child care center on an urban university campus in the southeastern USA. The research employed a participatory design and used a qualitative, reflexive approach to include the child's voice, ideas, and understandings of their…

  1. When Your Child Is Difficult: Solve Your Toughest Child-Raising Problems with a Four-Step Plan That Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Mel

    Written for parents, this book discusses four steps for dealing with children's difficult behavior. The book is divided into two parts. Part 1, "The Building Blocks," discusses baseline perspectives parents need to establish in order to effectively deal with difficult behavior. Topics covered include: (1) parents' dual roles as caregivers and…

  2. When Your Child Is Difficult: Solve Your Toughest Child-Raising Problems with a Four-Step Plan That Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Mel

    Written for parents, this book discusses four steps for dealing with children's difficult behavior. The book is divided into two parts. Part 1, "The Building Blocks," discusses baseline perspectives parents need to establish in order to effectively deal with difficult behavior. Topics covered include: (1) parents' dual roles as caregivers and…

  3. Treatment of psychological factors in a child with difficult asthma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, Ran D; Sachdeva, Shagun

    2011-07-01

    Difficult asthma is defined as the persistence of asthma symptoms, abnormal pulmonary function showing airway obstruction, and continued requirement for short-acting bronchodilator therapy, despite adequate treatment with inhaled corticosteroids. It calls for a thorough evaluation of the patient to look into alternate and complicating diagnoses. The authors report a case of a 9-year-old patient with difficult asthma who failed to respond to conventional therapy. Although it was recognized that he had a number of potential medical complicating factors including allergies, chronic sinusitis, and gastroesophageal reflux, a psychological intervention using hypnosis ultimately appeared to help alleviate his symptoms completely. Thus, psychological evaluation and intervention should be considered early in the course of management of a patient with difficult asthma, because it may help avoid time-consuming and expensive investigations of potential complicating factors, and it may yield rapid improvement in the patient's clinical condition.

  4. The role of preschool teacher in child structured and unstructured play

    OpenAIRE

    Bajde, Karmen

    2016-01-01

    The thesis entitled The Role of Preschool Teacher in Child Structured and Unstructured Play focuses on play, play materials and the role of preschool teacher in the preschool period. The theoretical part focuses on the meaning of child’s play and play materials as well as the role of the preschool professionals. Various types, factors and characteristics of child’s play were presented and play materials were defined. Toy quality criteria are also briefly described. The chapter dealing with th...

  5. Play and the older child: developmental and clinical opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersand, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the meaning and function of pretend play in older children. First, a review of the widely accepted developmental sequences, growth-promoting potential, and analytic uses of play for younger children is provided. Then the possible role for play in later childhood is explored through the presentation of Sarah, a twelve-year-old girl in analysis, whose play appeared to provide both clinical and developmental benefits. The suggestion is made to soften the existing developmental line for play in order to allow for its role with preadolescent children.

  6. playing games with rules in early child care and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, children’s playing games with rules is explored with the aim of understanding the social meaning of games and also determine their particular articulation in the developmental age of Early Care. In Huizinga’s famous book: Homo Ludens: A study of the play element in culture (1955......), the main point is that not only does play reflect human culture, play is at the core of cultural production, as our creative and competitive impulse to play also is the impulse to create. The recent technological development in digital games has generated a renewed and revitalised discussion about...

  7. Let's Stop Playing Monopoly with the Child Welfare Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Robin Ernest

    2016-01-01

    Although the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is a specific focus of Stoesz's article, a more expansive and thought-provoking critique is made of the NCWWI within the context of a purported overreliance and dependency on the Children's Bureau, concerns regarding the quality of social work education, and the development of a…

  8. Role Play in Nutrition Education for the Young Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbach, Ellen S.; Yawkey, Thomas Daniels

    1980-01-01

    Role-playing in nutrition has many advantages as an educational technique, including building thoughts, facilitating flexible thinking, promoting awareness, and providing opportunities for practicing food-related behavior. The Curry and Arnaud model for role play is presented in terms of its components and how each component relates to nutrition…

  9. The Playing Learning Child: Towards a Pedagogy of Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling; Carlsson, Maj Asplund

    2008-01-01

    From children's own perspective, play and learning are not always separate in practices during early years. The purpose of this article is, first, to scrutinise the background and character of early years education in terms of play and learning. Second, to elaborate the findings of several years of research about children's learning in preschool…

  10. The Powerful Effect of Play in a Child's Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Miquela

    2009-01-01

    Play is a great equalizer. It is a universal, natural human pursuit. It need not--and should not--be based on or require expensive toys. Instead, children need an atmosphere in which exploration and play are valued and encouraged, a print-rich environment in which books--these can be borrowed from a library--encourage verbal skills; materials…

  11. Some origins of the 'difficult' child: the Brazelton scale and the mother's view of her new-born's character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meares, R; Penman, R; Milgrom-Friedman, J; Baker, K

    1982-03-01

    Thirty-two mothers and their new-born babies were studied in order to consider, in a limited way, the manner in which a mother comes to attribute personality traits to her infant. The child's expected 'difficulty' was rated by means of a standardized inventory. In addition, a semi-structured interview was conducted with the mother, and her baby was examined by means which have been described by Brazelton. The circumstances of birth were taken from hospital records. Mothers who did not expect the child to be difficult showed a 'general flexibility' which probably related to coping ability. Babies who were seen as unlikely to be difficult had high scores on 'state control' and 'physiological response to stress'. These measures include ratings for habituation and seem to reflect an efficient means of dealing with stimuli. These infantile factors did not correlate with the maternal one, suggesting that a genetic explanation of the findings was not likely. The effect of the circumstances of birth was not strong, but medication level seemed important. The transcripts of the mothers' interviews were consistent with the view that the mother's assessment of her infant's character was not only influenced by a fine observation of the infant's behaviour but also by something like 'projective identification'. The transcripts also suggested that mechanisms which have been seen as important in the development of identity in adolescence may be operating from the first days of life.

  12. Rough and Tumble Play Quality: Theoretical Foundations for a New Measure of Father-Child Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Richard; StGeorge, Jennifer; Freeman, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Energetic, competitive, body-contact play (rough and tumble play (RTP)) is commonly observed among young children and is reported as an important feature of father-child relationships. Animal studies have demonstrated positive developmental effects of peer-peer play-wrestling, influencing cognitive and social outcomes. The purpose of this paper is…

  13. Mother-Child Play: A Comparison of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Down Syndrome, and Typical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentenuto, Arianna; De Falco, Simona; Venuti, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze mother-child collaborative play in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) compared to children with Down Syndrome (DS) and typical developing children (TD). Children with ASD are often described as having deficient play skills, particularly in the symbolic domain. Caregivers' involvement in child play activities increases the structural complexity of playing in both typically developing children and children with disabilities. Participants included 75 mothers and their children with ASD (n = 25), with down syndrome (n = 25) and with typical development (n = 25). Mother-child play sessions were analyzed using a coding system for exploratory and symbolic play. Results indicated that children with ASD showed more exploratory play compared to children in the other groups. No significant differences emerged between the three groups for child symbolic play or for mother play. These findings are discussed in relation to the debate about functional and symbolic play in children with ASD and in relation to the importance of setting and age for play assessment.

  14. The Masterson Approach with play therapy: a parallel process between mother and child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulherin, M A

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses a case in which the Masterson Approach was used with play therapy to treat a child with a developing personality disorder. It describes the parallel progression of the child and mother in adjunct therapy throughout a six-year period. The unique value of the Masterson Approach is that it provides the therapist with a framework and tool to diagnose and treat a child during the dynamic process of play. The case describes the mother-child dyad throughout therapy. It traces their parallel processes that involve separation, individuation, rapprochement, and the recovery of real self-capacities. Each stage of treatment is described, including verbal interventions. The child's internal affective state and intrapsychic structure during the various stages of treatment are illustrated by representative pictures.

  15. Learning to Play--Common Concerns for the Visually Impaired Preschool Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Susan L.

    Certain play situations are very difficult for young visually impaired children. This booklet focuses on three areas of play: exploring toys and materials, making transitions from one activity to another, and playing with other children. Through anecdotal descriptions of common situations encountered by caregivers, the booklet discusses why these…

  16. Emulating real-life situations with a play task to observe parenting skills and child behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusby, Julie C; Metzler, Carol W; Sanders, Matthew R; Crowley, Ryann

    2015-04-01

    Play tasks that use standardized procedures and materials are a practical way to assess parenting skills, child behaviors, and the ways in which parents and children interact. We describe a systematic process for developing the parent-child play task (PCPT) to assess mother-child interactions for a randomized controlled trial of a video-based parenting program. Participants were 307 mothers and their 3- to 6-year-old children who presented oppositional and disruptive behavior challenges. The validity of the PCPT was investigated by testing (a) the extent to which the tasks elicited the specific parent and child behaviors of interest, (b) the consistency of individuals' behavior across the play tasks, and (c) the concurrent associations of the PCPT-observed child behaviors and mother reports of child behavior. The different tasks elicited the mother and child behaviors that they were designed to elicit. Behavior consistency across tasks for individual mothers and children was fair to good, with the exception of 2 task-specific behaviors. Mother's guidance (provision of instructions to foster a skill) during the teaching task and children's interruptions while mother was busy during the questionnaire task were highly task specific. Modest associations were found between observed children's noncompliance and inappropriate behaviors and mother-reported conduct problems and oppositional behaviors. Implications for clinical and research assessments are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. A Different Approach to Mother and Child Interaction: Theraplay Play Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Akar Gencer

    Full Text Available Theraplay is an interaction and attachment based play therapy model which aims to increase self-esteem and confidence. It is also an approach that aims to lead healthy parent and child relationships with secure attachment and improvement in current relations.The prupose of this article is to introduce "Theraplay Play Therapy" approach which has been already used in many countries to support parent and child interactions. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(3.000: 244-254

  18. What works? Strategies to increase reproductive, maternal and child health in difficult to access mountainous locations: a systematic literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbey Byrne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Geography poses serious challenges to delivery of health services and is a well documented marker of inequity. Maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH outcomes are poorer in mountainous regions of low and lower-middle income countries due to geographical inaccessibility combined with other barriers: poorer quality services, persistent cultural and traditional practices and lower socioeconomic and educational status. Reaching universal coverage goals will require attention for remote mountain settings. This study aims to identify strategies to address barriers to reproductive MNCH (RMNCH service utilisation in difficult-to-reach mountainous regions in low and lower-middle income settings worldwide. METHODS: A systematic literature review drawing from MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Eldis. Inclusion was based on; testing an intervention for utilisation of RMNCH services; remote mountain settings of low- and lower-middle income countries; selected study designs. Studies were assessed for quality and analysed to present a narrative review of the key themes. FINDINGS: From 4,130 articles 34 studies were included, from Afghanistan, Bolivia, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Indonesia, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea and Tajikistan. Strategies fall into four broad categories: improving service delivery through selected, trained and supported community health workers (CHWs to act alongside formal health workers and the distribution of critical medicines to the home; improving the desirability of existing services by addressing the quality of care, innovative training and supervision of health workers; generating demand by engaging communities; and improving health knowledge for timely care-seeking. Task shifting, strengthened roles of CHWs and volunteers, mobile teams, and inclusive structured planning forums have proved effective. CONCLUSIONS: The review highlights where known evidence-based strategies have

  19. Play in the Sandpit: A University and a Child-Care Center Collaborate in Facilitated-Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Olga; French-Lee, Stacey; Bulunuz, Nermin; Bulunuz, Mizrap

    2010-01-01

    Sand play commonly occupies children at preschools, child-development centers, and school and park playgrounds. The authors review the research on sand play and present a small study on outdoor sand play conducted at a university-based, child-development center using a method they call "facilitated-action research." This study had four…

  20. An Examination of Language Practices during Mother-Child Play Activities among Mexican Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Natalia; Kibler, Amanda K.; Baird, Ashley Simpson; Parr, Alyssa; Bergey, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    We examined the language practices of five mother-child dyads during a structured play activity, particularly in relation to maternal question use. The study includes second-generation, 4-year-old children of Mexican immigrants who demonstrate either high vocabulary levels in English and Spanish or low levels of vocabulary in both languages.…

  1. Child-Centered Play Therapy in the Schools: Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Dee C.; Armstrong, Stephen A.; Balkin, Richard S.; Jayne, Kimberly M.

    2015-01-01

    The authors conducted a meta-analysis and systematic review that examined 23 studies evaluating the effectiveness of child centered play therapy (CCPT) conducted in elementary schools. Meta-analysis results were explored using a random effects model for mean difference and mean gain effect size estimates. Results revealed statistically significant…

  2. Exploring Child Play within the Framework of Cultural-Historical Psychology: Experience and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I. Elkoninova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper reconstructs the history of the problem of the development of mind on the example of child play. It reveals how researchers from the cultural-historical school of thought explored the developmental function of play, recorded quantitative leaps in its development and attempted to reconstruct it — from the works of L.S. Vygotsky and his followers (activity approach to role play: A.N. Leontiev, D.B. Elkonin, N.Ya. Mikhaylenko, N.A. Korotkova and others to the works of researchers who studied the very act of development in play (L.I. Elkoninova, T.V. Bazhanova, K.O. Yuryeva. It is argued that the concept of the cultural form of play that contains the Challenge (limited by possibilities of action, by risk and the Response to it serves as a foundation not only for role-playing games, but also for games with rules and computer games too. The Challenge is associated with action which transforms the situation of acting and is typical of all forms of play that are required to tie together everything that is separated in an everyday behavior of a child.

  3. Child, family, and neighborhood associations with parent and peer interactive play during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Mary Kay

    2012-04-01

    To examine national patterns of peer and parent interactive play opportunities that enhance early learning/socialization. Bivariate and multivariable analyses of cross-sectional data on 22,797 children aged 1-5 years from the National Survey of Children's Health 2007 were performed to determine the child, family, and neighborhood factors associated with four parent-initiated activities. Outcomes measures included time (days/week) children spent: participating in peer play; being read to; sung to/told stories; and taken on family outings. Covariates included race/ethnicity, poverty, TV watching, childcare, child and maternal physical and mental health, family factors (structure, size, language, stress, education), and neighborhood factors (amenities, support, physical condition, safety). According to adjusted regression models, minority children from lower income, non-English-speaking households with limited education, poorer maternal health and greater parenting stress were read to/told stories less than children without these characteristics, while neighborhood factors exerted less influence. In contrast, significant reductions in days/week of peer play were associated with unsupportive neighborhoods and those with the poorest physical conditions and limited amenities. Likewise, reductions in outings were associated with fewer neighborhood amenities. The findings of this study indicate that a variety of child, family, and neighborhood factors are associated with parent-initiated behaviors such as reading, storytelling, peer interactive play, and family outings. Appropriate evidence-based home visiting interventions targeting child health, parenting skills, early childhood education, and social services in at-risk communities would appear to be appropriate vehicles for addressing such parent-initiated play activities that have the potential to enhance development.

  4. An Exploratory Case Study of Young Children's Interactive Play Behaviours with a Non-English Speaking Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohi; Md-Yunus, Sham'ah; Son, Won In; Meadows, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This study is an examination of preschool-age English speaking children's interactive play behaviours with a non-English speaking child (NEC). The play types of a NEC were reported using the Parten's categories of solitary, parallel and interactive play. In addition, English-speaking children's interactive play with a NEC were reported in this…

  5. THE ROLE PLAY AND THE CHILD WITH AUTISM IN THE HISTORICAL-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica da Silva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the play of make-believe for children with autism, focusing on the symbolic resources it uses in asserting roles. It is based on the theoretical contributions of the historical-cultural perspective, with Vygotsky as its main exponent. The research was carried out in a public school of Early Childhood Education, in Brasília. From the microgenetic analysis, the research had six children diagnosed with autism, at the ages of 4 and 6 years, included in Special Class, as participants. The play situations were videotaped and later transcribed in episode format. In the data analysis, we identified two axes, namely: 1 The construction of the role play and; 2 Assumption of roles by the child with autism: set design and imagery resources. The results reveal the role of the other (intentional participation in the constitution of play activity, especially the role of the adult. In addition, they demonstrate that pedagogical mediation, including the creation of 'scenarios', is fundamental for the extension of the symbolic experience of the child with autism.

  6. Play Room as an psychological assessment method in cases of alleged child sexual abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagelskjær, Marie

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an example of how psychoanalytic theory can be implemented in practice. The aim is to introduce and discuss the semi-projective material ‘Play Room’ which was originally developed to support prevention of sexual abuse among vulnerable children in Denmark. However, a recent...... study has shown that, when measured with a scale called Ability to Answer, children exposed to sexual abuse talked about the illustrations in Play Room in a significantly different way than did a clinical sample and a normal control group. The finding indicates the potential for expanding the scope...... of Play Room from prevention into clinical assessment, in cases of alleged child sexual abuse. Taking its starting point in the theory of Jean Laplanche, this article will discuss how psychoanalytic concepts such as seduction, translation, asymmetry, absence, and listening to listening can be used...

  7. Fiberoptic intubation through laryngeal mask airway for management of difficult airway in a child with Klippel–Feil syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Ravi; Mane, Rajesh S.; Patil, Manjunath C.; Suresh, S. N.

    2014-01-01

    The ideal airway management modality in pediatric patients with syndromes like Klippel-Feil syndrome is a great challenge and is technically difficult for an anesthesiologist. Half of the patients present with the classic triad of short neck, low hairline, and fusion of cervical vertebra. Numerous associated anomalies like scoliosis or kyphosis, cleft palate, respiratory problems, deafness, genitourinary abnormalities, Sprengel's deformity (wherein the scapulae ride high on the back), synkinesia, cervical ribs, and congenital heart diseases may further add to the difficulty. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy alone can be technically difficult and patient cooperation also becomes very important, which is difficult in pediatric patients. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy with the aid of supraglottic airway devices is a viable alternative in the management of difficult airway in children. We report a case of Klippel-Feil syndrome in an 18-month-old girl posted for cleft palate surgery. Imaging of spine revealed complete fusion of the cervical vertebrae with hypoplastic C3 and C6 vertebrae and thoracic kyphosis. We successfully managed airway in this patient by fiberoptic intubation through classic laryngeal mask airway (LMA). After intubation, we used second smaller endotracheal tube (ETT) to stabilize and elongate the first ETT while removing the LMA. PMID:25191201

  8. Fiberoptic intubation through laryngeal mask airway for management of difficult airway in a child with Klippel-Feil syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ideal airway management modality in pediatric patients with syndromes like Klippel-Feil syndrome is a great challenge and is technically difficult for an anesthesiologist. Half of the patients present with the classic triad of short neck, low hairline, and fusion of cervical vertebra. Numerous associated anomalies like scoliosis or kyphosis, cleft palate, respiratory problems, deafness, genitourinary abnormalities, Sprengel′s deformity (wherein the scapulae ride high on the back, synkinesia, cervical ribs, and congenital heart diseases may further add to the difficulty. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy alone can be technically difficult and patient cooperation also becomes very important, which is difficult in pediatric patients. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy with the aid of supraglottic airway devices is a viable alternative in the management of difficult airway in children. We report a case of Klippel-Feil syndrome in an 18-month-old girl posted for cleft palate surgery. Imaging of spine revealed complete fusion of the cervical vertebrae with hypoplastic C3 and C6 vertebrae and thoracic kyphosis. We successfully managed airway in this patient by fiberoptic intubation through classic laryngeal mask airway (LMA. After intubation, we used second smaller endotracheal tube (ETT to stabilize and elongate the first ETT while removing the LMA.

  9. Home environment as a predictor of child's language: A mediating role of family literacy activities and symbolic play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Fekonja-Peklaj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In our study, we explored the ways in which SES-related factors of family environment affect child's language across toddlerhood and early childhood. We proposed a mediational path model in which we presumed that family literacy activities and parental encouragement of symbolic play acted as mediating variables, mediating the effect of parental education, family possessions and parent-to-child speech on child's language. The sample included 99 families with children, aged from 1 to 6 years. The data were collected in the family home, mostly via direct observation and by using a semi-structured interview with parents. The findings suggest that high-SES parents and parents who used a more complex and supportive speech, more frequently involved their children in different literacy activities. The effect of the parent-to-child speech on child's language proved to be mediated by parental use of mental transformations during symbolic play with a child.

  10. Would You Let Your Child Play Football? Attitudes Toward Football Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, Andrew; Gunstad, John

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 1.6 million to 3.8 million sports-related concussions occur each year in the United States, and many are related to football. This has generated much discussion in the media on the perceived safety of the sport. In the current study, researchers asked 230 individuals various questions about attitudes toward safety in football. Approximately 92.6% of participants indicated they would allow their child to play football; these participants were more likely to be female (χ(2) = 5.23, p > .05), were slightly younger (t= -2.52, p football, and future studies are needed to clarify factors that inform this opinion.

  11. Management of Difficult Airway With Laryngeal Mask in a Child With Mucopolysaccharidosis and Mitral Regurgitation: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyaeifard, Mohsen; Azarfarin, Rasoul; Ferasatkish, Rasoul; Dashti, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are a group of heredity storage diseases, transmitted in an autosomal recessive manner, associated with the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in various tissues and organs. The concerned patients have multiple concomitant hereditary anomalies. Considering the craniofacial abnormality in these patients, airway management may be difficult for anesthesiologists. In these patients, preanesthetic assessment is necessary and performed with the accurate assessment of airways, consisting of the physical exam and radiography, MRI or CT of head and neck. An anesthesiologist should set up a “difficult intubation set” with a flexible fiber-optic bronchoscope and also, it may be necessary to discuss with an ear-nose and throat (ENT) specialist if required, for unpredicted emergency situations. Case Presentation: In this case-report we presented a 2-year-old boy with known MPSs with psychomotor retardation, bilateral corneal opacities, impaired hearing and vision, inguinal hernia, severe mitral regurgitation, micrognathia, coarse facial feature, stiff and short neck and restricted mouth opening. He scheduled for left inguinal hernia repair surgery. Discussion: The patient’s difficult airway was managed successfully and the anesthesia of his surgical procedure had an uneventful course. PMID:25478534

  12. Attributes of Child Care Centers and Outdoor Play Areas Associated with Preschoolers' Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Okely, Anthony D.; Masters, Jane M.; Moore, Gary T.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined characteristics of child care centers associated with preschoolers' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary behavior while in child care (MVPA-C, SB-C), and attributes of outdoor play areas associated with the same behaviors during outdoor time (MVPA-O, SB-O). Participants were 89 children (3 -5 years) recruited…

  13. Difficult Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Uslu

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Difficult asthma is a distinct entity of asthma, comprising approximately %5 of asthmatic patients. There is no agreed definition of difficult asthma. It will include asthma uncontrolled by new standard therapy, steroid dependent, steroid resistant and severe asthma. In this study difficult asthma; clinical features, risk factors, pathophysiology and novel therapies are summarized by literatures.

  14. Difficult asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Uslu; Tülay Özdemir

    1989-01-01

    Difficult asthma is a distinct entity of asthma, comprising approximately %5 of asthmatic patients. There is no agreed definition of difficult asthma. It will include asthma uncontrolled by new standard therapy, steroid dependent, steroid resistant and severe asthma. In this study difficult asthma; clinical features, risk factors, pathophysiology and novel therapies are summarized by literatures.

  15. Structured Parent-Child Observations Predict Development of Conduct Problems: the Importance of Parental Negative Attention in Child-Directed Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Andrew P; McMahon, Robert J; King, Kevin M

    2017-04-01

    Structured observations of parent-child interactions are commonly used in research and clinical settings, but require additional empirical support. The current study examined the capacity of child-directed play, parent-directed play, and parent-directed chore interaction analogs to uniquely predict the development of conduct problems across a 6-year follow-up period. Parent-child observations were collected from 338 families from high-risk neighborhoods during the summer following the child's first-grade year. Participating children were 49.2 % female, 54.4 % white, and 45.6 % black, and had an average age of 7.52 years at the first assessment. Conduct problems were assessed via parent report and teacher report at five assessment points between first grade and seventh grade. Latent growth curve modeling was used to analyze predictors of conduct problem trajectory across this 6-year follow-up period. When race, sex, socioeconomic status, and maternal depressive symptoms were controlled, parental negative attention during child-directed play predicted higher levels of parent-reported conduct problems concurrently and after a 6-year follow-up period. Parental negative attention during child-directed play also predicted higher teacher-reported conduct problems 6 years later. Findings support the use of child-directed play and parent-directed chore analogs in predicting longitudinal development of conduct problems. The presence of parental negative attention during child-directed play appears to be an especially important predictor of greater conduct problems over time and across multiple domains. Additionally, the potential importance of task-incongruent behavior is proposed for further study.

  16. [Playful strategies for data collection with child cancer patients: an integrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sposito, Amanda Mota Pacciulio; de Sparapani, Valéria Cássia; Pfeifer, Luzia Iara; de Lima, Regina Aparecida Garcia; Nascimento, Lucila Castanheira

    2013-09-01

    Children are the best sources of information on their experiences and opinions, and qualitative studies have favored the development and application of techniques that facilitate their self-expression and approaching the researcher. Through an integrative literature review, the objective of this research was to identify playful resources used in qualitative research data collection with child cancer patients, and their forms of application. Systemized searches of electronic databases and a virtual library were undertaken, which, combined with a non-systemized sample, totaled 15 studies spanning the period from 2000 and 2010. Drawing, toys, puppets, photography and creativity and sensitivity dynamics were identified which, in association with interviews or not, were shown to directly or indirectly facilitate data collection, thereby broadening the interaction with the children, and permitting further expression of their feelings. The advantages and limitations of using these resources are presented thus contributing to planning research with children.

  17. Digital Game Playing Motives among Adolescents: Relations to Parent-Child Communication, School Performance, Sleeping Habits, and Perceived Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenius, Marjut; Rimpela, Arja; Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Lintonen, Tomi

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this research were to describe Finnish adolescents' different motives for digital game playing, and to examine relations between digital game playing and parent-child communication, school performance, sleeping habits, and perceived health. A questionnaire was used to assess a nationwide postal sample of 12-18-year-old Finns (6761…

  18. The Power of Musical Play: The Value of Play-Based, Child-Centered Curriculum in Early Childhood Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niland, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Young children learn through play. This has long been acknowledged in the writings of educational theorists dating back as far as Rousseau, Pestalozzi, and Froebel and is strongly supported by current early childhood research. Play is at the heart of contemporary early childhood pedagogy, and this has led to a strong belief in the importance of an…

  19. Does Child Temperament Play a Role in the Association Between Parenting Practices and Child Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullsperger, Josie M; Nigg, Joel T; Nikolas, Molly A

    2016-01-01

    Ineffective parenting practices may maintain or exacerbate attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and shape subsequent development of disruptive behavior disorders (DBD's) in youth with ADHD. Recent theoretical models have suggested that parenting may exert effects on ADHD via its role in child temperament. The current study aimed to evaluate the indirect effects of parenting dimensions on child ADHD symptoms via child temperament. Youth ages 6-17 years (N = 498; 50.4 % ADHD, 55 % male) completed a multi-stage, multi-informant assessment that included parent, child, and teacher report measures of parenting practices, child temperament, and ADHD symptoms. Statistical models examined the direct and indirect effects of maternal and paternal involvement, poor supervision, and inconsistent discipline on inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity via child temperament and personality traits. Results indicated differential patterns of effect for negative and positive parenting dimensions. First, inconsistent discipline exerted indirect effects on both ADHD symptom dimensions via child conscientiousness, such that higher levels of inconsistency predicted lower levels of conscientiousness, which in turn, predicted greater ADHD symptomatology. Similarly, poor supervision also exerted indirect effects on inattention via child conscientiousness as well as significant indirect effects on hyperactivity-impulsivity via its impact on both child reactive control and conscientiousness. In contrast, primarily direct effects of positive parenting (i.e., involvement) on ADHD emerged. Secondary checks revealed that similar pathways may also emerge for comorbid disruptive behavior disorders. Current findings extend upon past work by examining how parenting practices influence child ADHD via with-in child mechanisms and provide support for multi-pathway models accounting for heterogeneity in the disorder.

  20. Children’s play culture and socialization: insights on being a child in a mozambican community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Di Napoli Pastore

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The number of studies involving children and their lifestyle is increasing, although still insufficient. Childhood specialists seek to understand a child’s lifestyle through the daily life and specific contexts of cultures to which they belong, seeking the non-universalization of childhood as a normative. African children, in turn, are set forth as “out of place”, for not following the standards and norms of European and North American children. In order to contribute to changing this paradigm, this article aims to discuss the child in a community located on the outskirts of a city of Mozambique, southern Africa. Objectives: To describe and discuss children’s socialization relationships and dynamics. Method: ethnography lasting five months in the city of Matola, Mozambique; A narrative discussion and analysis will be presented in this article. Discussion: Mozambican children have tasks and responsibilities guided by the social division of labor. Among its activities, whether domestic, communitarian or educational, there is time to play. The fun and laughter permeate the imagination and children’s worlds, producing ways of being, living and acting in the world that they share and belong. The play appears in this narrative as critical to the development and the construction of knowledge and expertise, along with cultural and social values, in addition to the accountabilities and relationships that children establish between peers and adults. Considerations: deconstruct the ways childhoods are imposed and break its universalization are the challenges encountered.

  1. Difficult Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Else

    The purpose of this paper is to put focus on families and children who have had contact to the social service department because of problems related children’s well-being, health or development. Problems that are recognized by the families themselves and by the authorities as problems that put...... the family in a poor position regarding the children’s well-being, health and development, but not so severe that the child is to be placed out of home. The paper concentrates attention on differences between families with and without contact to the social service department for reasons related to the child....... Especially on children and their development in social relations to children at the same age, on how the mothers experience their child and on the parent’s resources concerning health, education and job situation. The paper presents results from the first two data collections (1996 and 1999) in a prospective...

  2. Difficult Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Else

    The purpose of this paper is to put focus on families and children who have had contact to the social service department because of problems related children’s well-being, health or development. Problems that are recognized by the families themselves and by the authorities as problems that put...... the family in a poor position regarding the children’s well-being, health and development, but not so severe that the child is to be placed out of home. The paper concentrates attention on differences between families with and without contact to the social service department for reasons related to the child....... Especially on children and their development in social relations to children at the same age, on how the mothers experience their child and on the parent’s resources concerning health, education and job situation. The paper presents results from the first two data collections (1996 and 1999) in a prospective...

  3. Central Anticholinergic Syndrome due to Hypoxia-Induced Bradycardia in a Child with Difficult Intubation Undergoing Complete Dental Restoration: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharavifard, Mohamad; Razavi, Majid; Ghandehari Motlagh, Mehdi; Ziyaeifard, Mohsen

    2014-09-01

    Central anticholinergic syndrome (CAS) following general anesthesia (GA) is a well known syndrome in children and adults. Many cases of CAS have been previously reported in the literature. However, there are only two reports of post resuscitation CAS after administration of small doses of atropine. Hereby, we report a case of CAS in a child undergoing complete dental restoration under GA after receiving a small dose of atropine to reverse hypoxia induced bradycardia. Intraoperative events such as hypoxia or cardiac arrest may play a role as triggers for CAS. However, we cannot establish a causal relationship between the occurrence of CAS and such critical events.

  4. Central Anticholinergic Syndrome due to Hypoxia-Induced Bradycardia in a Child with Difficult Intubation Undergoing Complete Dental Restoration: A Case Report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Gharavifard

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Central anticholinergic syndrome (CAS following general anesthesia (GA is a well known syndrome in children and adults. Many cases of CAS have been previously reported in the literature. However, there are only two reports of post resuscitation CAS after administration of small doses of atropine. Hereby, we report a case of CAS in a child undergoing complete dental restoration under GA after receiving a small dose of atropine to reverse hypoxia induced bradycardia. Intraoperative events such as hypoxia or cardiac arrest may play a role as triggers for CAS. However, we cannot establish a causal relationship between the occurrence of CAS and such critical events.

  5. [Paraquat-induced acute dermatitis in a child after playing with a discarded container].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, L; Pizzini, L; Viganò, G; Ferioli, A; Maroni, M; Ruggeri, R; Barlassina, C; Vannini, P; Salacrist, L

    1995-01-01

    The improper use of pesticide waste containers is a significant risk in rural areas, especially where appropriate systems of draining off refuse are lacking. A case is reported of an eight-year-old child who had played with the abandoned Paraquat container. After contamination with the pesticide she showed several II degree caustic lesions on both thighs and knees, associated with a mild erythemato-desquamative cheilitis and a "strawberry tongue". Common laboratory findings did not reveal any kidney, liver and/or red/white cell alterations and the chest X-ray was normal even several months after the accident. No physical consequences ensued, except for hyperchromic pigmentation on the legs. Where empty pesticide containers are not properly collected, they can represent a risk of pesticide exposure for the general population. They can also be a potential source of pollution for superficial water and soil. In the district where the accident was reported it was estimated that empty containers made up 7% of the weight of the 146,330 kg of pesticides sold to local farmers in 1993, of which about 10,400 kg was burned, buried and dispersed in the soil. Within the framework of a global pesticide prevention programme launched by the Regional Government of Lombardy, local health authorities, with the contribution of farmers, are carrying out a project for the proper collection of empty pesticide containers.

  6. Can Attribution of a Neutral Emotional State in Child Discipline Play an Adaptive Role in Child Internalising Behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Patricia; de Oliveira, Ebenezer A.; Dazzani, Maria Virginia

    2011-01-01

    Maternal rates of child internalising behaviour were compared across children's emotion attributions (neutral, fear, anger, sadness and happiness) to others in a discipline situation, after controlling for socio-demographic covariates. Sixty-five Brazilian mothers provided socio-demographic information and rated their preschool children's…

  7. Perceived security, self-representation, and dyadic child-parent and child-peer play interactions : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to increase our understanding and knowledge of the relation between children's two social worlds, that of parents and that of peers. This dissertation contains a number of articles reporting on the relation between perceived security, self-representation, and dyadic child-

  8. Pretend play, deferred imitation and parent-child interaction in speaking and non-speaking children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strid, Karin; Heimann, Mikael; Tjus, Tomas

    2013-02-01

    This study investigates spontaneous pretend play during a parent-child free play observation, and deferred imitation observed in an experimental setting in speaking and non-speaking children with autism in comparison to children with typical development. Both groups of children with autism showed a reduced level of deferred imitation compared to the typically developing group, but only the non-speaking children with autism spent significantly less time in pretend play compared to children with typical development. Deferred imitation was related to parents' verbal interaction in both groups. An analysis of the parent-child interaction revealed that parents of children with autism used less synchronized comments compared to parents of typically developing children. Parents of the speaking group with autism used more synchronized than unsynchronized comments, while parents of the non-speaking group used the same amount of synchronized and unsynchronized comments. These findings are discussed in terms of how the developmental level affects behavior and interaction in autism.

  9. A new mother-child play activity program to decrease parenting stress and improve child cognitive abilities: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Yoshiyuki; Fukushima, Ai; Saito, Hitomi; Yoneyama, Satoshi; Ushida, Kazuo; Yoneyama, Susumu; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new play activity intervention program for mothers and children. Our interdisciplinary program integrates four fields of child-related sciences: neuroscience, preschool pedagogy, developmental psychology, and child and maternal psychiatry. To determine the effect of this intervention on child and mother psychosocial problems related to parenting stress and on the children's cognitive abilities, we performed a cluster randomized controlled trial. Participants were 238 pairs of mothers and typically developing preschool children (ages 4-6 years old) from Wakakusa kindergarten in Japan. The pairs were asked to play at home for about 10 min a day, 5 days a week for 3 months. Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group by class unit. The Parenting Stress Index (PSI) (for mothers), the Goodenough Draw-a-Man intelligence test (DAM), and the new S-S intelligence test (NS-SIT) (for children) were administered prior to and 3 months after the intervention period. Pre-post changes in test scores were compared between the groups using a linear mixed-effects model analysis. The primary outcomes were the Total score on the child domain of the PSI (for child psychosocial problems related to parenting stress), Total score on the parent domain of the PSI (for maternal psychosocial problems related to parenting stress), and the score on the DAM (for child cognitive abilities). The results of the PSI suggested that the program may reduce parenting stress. The results of the cognitive tests suggested that the program may improve the children's fluid intelligence, working memory, and processing speed. Our intervention program may ameliorate the children's psychosocial problems related to parenting stress and increase their cognitive abilities. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000002265.

  10. A new mother-child play activity program to decrease parenting stress and improve child cognitive abilities: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Tachibana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We propose a new play activity intervention program for mothers and children. Our interdisciplinary program integrates four fields of child-related sciences: neuroscience, preschool pedagogy, developmental psychology, and child and maternal psychiatry. To determine the effect of this intervention on child and mother psychosocial problems related to parenting stress and on the children's cognitive abilities, we performed a cluster randomized controlled trial. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants were 238 pairs of mothers and typically developing preschool children (ages 4-6 years old from Wakakusa kindergarten in Japan. The pairs were asked to play at home for about 10 min a day, 5 days a week for 3 months. Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group by class unit. The Parenting Stress Index (PSI (for mothers, the Goodenough Draw-a-Man intelligence test (DAM, and the new S-S intelligence test (NS-SIT (for children were administered prior to and 3 months after the intervention period. Pre-post changes in test scores were compared between the groups using a linear mixed-effects model analysis. The primary outcomes were the Total score on the child domain of the PSI (for child psychosocial problems related to parenting stress, Total score on the parent domain of the PSI (for maternal psychosocial problems related to parenting stress, and the score on the DAM (for child cognitive abilities. The results of the PSI suggested that the program may reduce parenting stress. The results of the cognitive tests suggested that the program may improve the children's fluid intelligence, working memory, and processing speed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our intervention program may ameliorate the children's psychosocial problems related to parenting stress and increase their cognitive abilities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000002265.

  11. The Attachment Doll Play Assessment: Predictive Validity with Concurrent Mother-Child Interaction and Maternal Caregiving Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Carol; Solomon, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Attachment is central to the development of children’s regulatory processes. It has been associated with developmental and psychiatric health across the life span, especially emotional and behavioral regulation of negative affect when stressed (Schore, 2001; Schore and Schore, 2008). Assessment of attachment patterns provides a critical frame for understanding emerging developmental competencies and formulating treatment and intervention. Play-based attachment assessments provide access to representational models of attachment, which are regarded in attachment theory as the central organizing mechanisms associated with stability or change (Bowlby, 1969/1982; Bretherton and Munholland, 2008). The Attachment Doll Play Assessment (ADPA, George and Solomon, 1990–2016; Solomon et al., 1995) is a prominent established representational attachment measure for children aged early latency through childhood. This study examines the predictive validity of the ADPA to caregiving accessibility and responsiveness assessed from mother-child interaction and maternal representation. Sixty nine mothers and their 5–7-year-old children participated in this study. Mother-child interaction was observed during a pre-separation dyadic interaction task. Caregiving representations were rated from the Caregiving Interview (George and Solomon, 1988/1993/2005/2007). Child security with mother was associated with positive dyadic interaction and flexibly integrated maternal caregiving representations. Child controlling/disorganized attachments were significantly associated with problematic dyadic interaction and dysregulated-helpless maternal caregiving representations. The clinical implications and the use of the ADPA in clinical and educational settings are discussed. PMID:27803683

  12. The Attachment Doll Play Assessment: Predictive Validity with Concurrent Mother-Child Interaction and Maternal Caregiving Representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol George

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Attachment is central to the development of children’s regulatory processes. It has been associated with developmental and psychiatric health across the life span, especially emotional and behavioral regulation of negative affect when stressed (Schore, 2001; Schore & Schore, 2008. Assessment of attachment patterns provides a critical frame for understanding emerging developmental competencies and formulating treatment and intervention. Play-based attachment assessments provide access to representational models of attachment, which are regarded in attachment theory as the central organizing mechanisms associated with stability or change (Bowlby, 1969/1982; Bretherton & Munholland, 2008. The Attachment Doll Play Assessment (ADPA, George & Solomon, 1990-2016; Solomon, George, & De Jong, 1995 is a prominent established representational attachment measure for children aged early latency through childhood. This study examines the predictive validity of the ADPA to caregiving accessibility and responsiveness assessed from mother-child interaction and maternal representation. Sixty nine mothers and their 5-7-year-old children participated in this study. Mother-child interaction was observed during a pre-separation dyadic interaction task. Caregiving representations were rated from the Caregiving Interview (George & Solomon, 1988/1993/2005/2007. Child security with mother was associated with positive dyadic interaction and flexibly integrated maternal caregiving representations. Child controlling/disorganized attachments were significantly associated with problematic dyadic interaction and dysregulated-helpless maternal caregiving representations. The clinical implications and the use of the ADPA in clinical and educational settings are discussed.

  13. Effectiveness of Play Therapy with CPR (Child-Parent-Relationship approach on reducing Depression and Anxiety in children with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Sadat Ojagh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Depression and anxiety are known as most common Psychiatric disorders among psychological problems posed by childhood cancer. Depression and anxiety with cancer are risk factors for reduced survival in cancer patients and they are major factors in the rejection therapy. The aim of play therapy is to reduce the depression and anxiety in these children and it improves their mental health status. The study population was children 6 to 11 years that referred to Mahak and Mofid hospitals with cancer diagnosis in 2015. Sampling method was on the available sampling. To select the participants, Child's Behavioral Check List (CBCL was completed by parents and 40 children with cancer that gained more than 69 score in isolation-depression and anxiety-depression scales were randomly assigned to two groups of 20 persons experimental and control groups. The experimental group received 10 sessions of play therapy with CPR approach. CBCL test was conducted to follow up a week before and after the play therapy, and two months after the treatment. Play therapy with child-parent-relationship (CPR approach caused significant reduction in depression in experimental group compare with control group but anxiety reduction between 2 groups was not significant. Results showed that play therapy training to parents of children with cancer caused better compliance with painful treatments and stressful hospital environment.

  14. How Much Do We Know about the Importance of Play in Child Development? Review of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Ling-Ling

    2002-01-01

    Discusses children's play in conjunction with intellectual development, language, and social benefits. Suggests that play develops personality, encourages personal relations, stimulates creativity, adds to happiness, and advances learning. Encourages parents and teachers to provide children with richly varied play experiences to promote cognition,…

  15. Simulation modeling analysis of sequential relations among therapeutic alliance, symptoms, and adherence to child-centered play therapy between a child with autism spectrum disorder and two therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Geoff; Chung, Hyewon; Fischel, Leah; Athey-Lloyd, Laura

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the sequential relations among three pertinent variables in child psychotherapy: therapeutic alliance (TA) (including ruptures and repairs), autism symptoms, and adherence to child-centered play therapy (CCPT) process. A 2-year CCPT of a 6-year-old Caucasian boy diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder was conducted weekly with two doctoral-student therapists, working consecutively for 1 year each, in a university-based community mental-health clinic. Sessions were video-recorded and coded using the Child Psychotherapy Process Q-Set (CPQ), a measure of the TA, and an autism symptom measure. Sequential relations among these variables were examined using simulation modeling analysis (SMA). In Therapist 1's treatment, unexpectedly, autism symptoms decreased three sessions after a rupture occurred in the therapeutic dyad. In Therapist 2's treatment, adherence to CCPT process increased 2 weeks after a repair occurred in the therapeutic dyad. The TA decreased 1 week after autism symptoms increased. Finally, adherence to CCPT process decreased 1 week after autism symptoms increased. The authors concluded that (1) sequential relations differ by therapist even though the child remains constant, (2) therapeutic ruptures can have an unexpected effect on autism symptoms, and (3) changes in autism symptoms can precede as well as follow changes in process variables.

  16. Associations between children's video game playing and psychosocial health: Information from both parent and child reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobel, A.M.; Granic, I.; Stone, L.L.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Video games are a highly heterogeneous form of entertainment. As recent reviews highlight, this heterogeneity makes likely that video games have both positive and negative consequences for child development. This study investigated the associations between gaming frequency and psychosocial health am

  17. Ending preventable child deaths in South Africa: What role can ward-based outreach teams play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Tanya; Kroon, Max; Rhoda, Natasha; Sanders, David

    2016-06-17

    South Africa (SA) has emerged from the Millennium Development Goal era with a mixture of success and failure. The successful national scale-up of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV services with increasingly efficacious antiretroviral regimens has reduced the mother-to-child transmission rate dramatically; however, over the same period there appears to have been no progress in coverage of high-impact interventions for pneumonia and diarrhoea, which are now leading causes of under-5 mortality. SA embarked on a strategy to re-engineer the primary healthcare system in 2011, which included the creation of ward-based outreach teams consisting of community health workers (CHWs). In this article we argue that the proposed ratio of CHWs to population is too low for public health impact and that the role and scope of CHWs should be extended beyond giving of health information to include assessment and treatment of childhood illnesses (particularly diarrhoea and suspected pneumonia). Evidence and experience amply demonstrate that CHWs in sufficient density can have a rapid and positive impact on neonatal and young child mortality, especially when they are allowed to treat common acute conditions. SA's mediocre performance in child survival could be dramatically improved if there were more CHWs who were allowed to do more.

  18. A Case Study Using Child-Centered Play Therapy Approach to Treat Enuresis and Encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy-Casey, Maria

    1997-01-01

    Demonstrates an alternative method (nondirective child-centered therapy) in treating enuresis and encopresis resulting from emotional disturbances. Examines various etiologies and approaches to treating these conditions. Provides a case study example. Claims that professionals must differentiate between primary and secondary occurrences of these…

  19. Robert Louis Stevenson and Children's Play: The Contexts of "A Child's Garden of Verses."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Examines a classic text, Robert Louis Stevenson's "A Child's Garden of Verses," within the context of several of Stevenson's own essays. Suggests that unlike many children's books, it was an experiment and one that Stevenson, for various reasons, including his premature death, was never able to adapt for future use. (RS)

  20. Psychotherapy with a 3-Year-Old Child: The Role of Play in the Unfolding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcuni, Silvia; Di Riso, Daniela; Mabilia, Diana; Lis, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the outcomes and process of psychodynamic psychotherapies with children. Among the limited number of studies, some only paid attention to play and verbal production, as they are fundamental aspects in assessing the psychotherapy process. This paper focuses on an empirical investigation of a 3-year, once-a-week psychodynamic psychotherapy carried out with a 3-year-old girl. A process-outcome design was implemented to evaluate play and verbal discourse in in the initial, middle, and final parts of 30 psychotherapy sessions. Repeated measurements of standardized play categories (the Play Category System and the Affect in Play Scale—Preschool version) and verbal discourse (Verbal Production) were analyzed. To increase the clinical validity of the study, data from the assessment phase and vignettes from the sessions were reported to deepen the patient’s picture during the unfolding therapy process. Parent reports before and after the therapy were also included. Empirically measured changes in play and verbal production were fundamental in evaluating the young patient’s psychotherapy process. Verbal production and discourse ability progressively increased and took the place of play, which instead became more symbolic. Developmental issues as well as psychotherapy’s influence on the patient’s change, were discussed in relation to the role of play in enhancing the development of verbal dialog and the expression of the child’s emotions, needs, and desires. PMID:28101070

  1. Parents of preschool fire setters: perceptions of the child-play fire hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack-Nelson, Carol; Faranda, Donna M; Porth, Don; Lim, Nicholas K

    2006-09-01

    The present study sought to learn about risk perceptions held by parents of preschool fire-setters. A 41-item survey was distributed to 60 parents whose children, aged 6 years and younger, had previously set fires and who were involved in intervention programmes throughout the US. Most parents did not think their children would play with matches/lighters, or knew how to use these items, although some had witnessed their children playing with matches/lighters previously. Most parents reported having taken precautions to keep matches/lighters out of reach and also educating their children about fire. Regardless, children not only set fires, but in 40% of cases climbed to access the match/lighter. Parents' perceptions of their children's proclivity for fire play were not consistent with their actual fire-play behaviour. Parents underestimated the likelihood that their children would play with matches/lighters. Although most reportedly undertook preventative measures aimed at thwarting fire play, these strategies were ineffective. Traditionally relied upon precautionary techniques, such as storing lighters out of reach and discussing the dangers of fire, were not sufficient to stem interest and resultant fire play.

  2. Playing with a child with ADHD: a focus on the playmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Reinie; Bundy, Anita; Hocking, Clare; Einfeld, Stewart

    2010-09-01

    Play is the context for acquiring social skills. While it is logical to suspect that the difficulties associated with ADHD would affect play, there is surprisingly little work in that area. Further, there is almost no previous research describing the playmates of children with ADHD. This study involved children with ADHD (n = 112) playing with a usual playmate (n = 112), and pairs of age-, ethnicity-, and sex-matched children (n = 126) playing together. In this paper, the authors interpret the data from the perspective of the playmates. The overall finding was that the play behavior of the playmates closely resembled that of the children with ADHD; it was characterized by low levels of empathy. A primary purpose of this paper is to explore possible explanations for this surprising finding. Two possible explanations are explored. First, children with ADHD are demanding playmates so that children who play with them mirror their negative behaviors. Second, although the playmates did not have ADHD, their play behaviors might reflect the known risk of negative behaviors reported amongst siblings and peers of children with ADHD. Evidence to support both explanations is presented and new lines of research are proposed to examine each possibility.

  3. Assessing play-based activities, child talk, and single session outcome in family therapy with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Amber B; Walters, Lynda H; Crane, D Russell

    2014-07-01

    This exploratory, observational study was designed to reveal descriptive information regarding therapists' actual practices with preschool- and school-aged children in a single session of family therapy and to investigate change mechanisms in family play therapy that have been proposed to make this approach effective. A purposive sample of 30 families receiving family therapy was recruited and video-taped during a family session where at least one child between the ages of 4 and 12 was present. Following the session, the therapist and parent(s) completed questionnaires while one of the children (aged 4-12) was interviewed. Session recordings were coded, minute-by-minute, for participant talk time, visual aids or props used, and therapy technique type (e.g., play-based/activity vs. talk-only techniques). Hierarchical regression and canonical correlational analyses revealed evidence supporting the theory that play-based techniques promote young children's participation, enhance the quality of the child-therapist relationship, and build positive emotional experiences in family therapy.

  4. FORM AND CONTENT OF TEACHING IN EARLY CHILHOOD EDUCATION: THE ROLE OF PLAY AND THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF CHILD LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Campregher Pasqualini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches the relation between school education and psychic development in the light of cultural-historical theory and critical-historical pedagogy, discussing the triad form-content-receiver of teaching in the context of early childhood education. Considering the goal of developing the bases of theoretical thinking in children, the paper analyses role-play as leading activity in preschool and explores the contributions of child literature, highlighting the importance of providing access to artistic works which depict reality in an imaginative form as multisided and in permanent movement.

  5. The Child Abuse Matter and the Major Role Played by the Teacher: Issues Raised by a Pilot Focus Group Sample of Primary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitalaki, Elena

    2013-01-01

    A great deal of attention is now being paid to issues raised by child abuse. Recent reports, enquiries and relevant agencies have all recognized the important role played by teachers in aiding the detection and prevention of child abuse, due to their close everyday contact with children. The result of the ideas presented in the present work was…

  6. The Role of Child Negative Affect in the Relations between Parenting Styles and Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagace-Seguin, Daniel G.; d'Entremont, Marc-Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    Interactions between parenting styles and children's negative affect in the prediction of reticent, solitary-active, and rough-and-tumble play behaviours were examined. The present study involved 98 children, their mothers and their preschool teachers. Participants (53 boys and 45 girls) were a mean age of 3.83 years (standard deviation = 0.69).…

  7. Video game play, child diet, and physical activity behavior change: A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Video games designed to promote behavior change are a promising venue to enable children to learn healthier behaviors. The purpose is to evaluate the outcome from playing "Escape from Diab" (Diab) and "Nanoswarm: Invasion from Inner Space" (Nano) video games on children's diet, physical activity, an...

  8. Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Problems in Child Instrumentalists: The Influence of Gender, Age and Instrument Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranelli, Sonia; Smith, Anne; Straker, Leon

    2011-01-01

    Playing-related musculoskeletal problems (PRMP) are common in adult musicians. The limited available evidence suggests PRMP are common in children and adolescents and that risk factors may be similar. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PRMP in children and adolescents and their associations with female gender, age and…

  9. The Role of Child Negative Affect in the Relations between Parenting Styles and Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagace-Seguin, Daniel G.; d'Entremont, Marc-Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    Interactions between parenting styles and children's negative affect in the prediction of reticent, solitary-active, and rough-and-tumble play behaviours were examined. The present study involved 98 children, their mothers and their preschool teachers. Participants (53 boys and 45 girls) were a mean age of 3.83 years (standard deviation = 0.69).…

  10. Is Teaching a Child to Read Like Teaching a Mouse to Play Basketball?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rycik, Jim

    1996-01-01

    Compares children's literacy learning to a mouse playing basketball--namely, that children are doing what they have been trained to do, and do not understand the rules of the game. Discusses behaviorist theory in both examples, and contrasts behaviorist theory with constructivist theory. (PA)

  11. Child's Play 3: Games for Life for Children and Teenagers. Lifeways Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haren, Wil; Kischnick, Rudolph

    This book contains descriptions of 128 games for children and adolescents and is designed as a guide for parents, teachers, and play leaders. Following an introduction summarizing the educational background for each type of game, the book is organized into seven areas: (1) races; (2) duels; (3) small wrestling matches; (4) games of ability and…

  12. Associations between children’s video game playing and psychosocial health: information from both parent and child reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobel, Adam; Granic, Isabela; Stone, Lisanne L; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-10-01

    Video games are a highly heterogeneous form of entertainment. As recent reviews highlight, this heterogeneity makes likely that video games have both positive and negative consequences for child development. This study investigated the associations between gaming frequency and psychosocial health among children younger than 12 years of age, an understudied cohort in this field. Both parents and children reported children's gaming frequency, with parents also reporting on children's psychosocial health. Given that children may be too young to report the time they spend playing video games accurately, children's reports were scaffolded by a developmentally appropriate measure. We further investigated the potential bias of having parents report both their children's gaming frequency and their children's psychosocial health (i.e., a single source bias). Parental reports of children's gaming frequency were higher than their children's reports. However, a direct test of the potential single source bias rendered null results. Notably, however, while parental reports showed negative associations between gaming and psychosocial health, children's reports showed no associations. Specifically, based on parent reports, children's gaming was associated with more conduct and peer problems, and less prosocial behavior. As children's reports produced no associations between gaming and psychosocial health, parental reports in this study may belie an erroneous set of conclusions. We therefore caution against relying on just one reporter when assessing children's gaming frequency.

  13. [The use of therapeutic play in the intensive care of a preschool child with virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-Hua; Feng, Jui-Ying

    2015-04-01

    Hospitalization is a stressful experience for children that increases their anxiety and fears, generates resistance and noncompliance, and, as a result, delays necessary treatments. Developing an age-appropriate intervention to reduce the hospitalization-related stress perceived by children is an important component of pediatric nursing. This case study used therapeutic play and drawing to care for a virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome preschooler who stayed in our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) between 11/13/2012 and 11/19/2012. Stressors faced by the patient included separation from primary caregiver, unfamiliarity with the medical environment and equipment, non-comprehension of the treatment and medication regimens, and loss of control. The patient displayed incorporative behaviors such as crying, screaming, refusing to be touched, and requesting parental accompaniment. Painting and picture books were used as developmentally appropriate interventions to understand the patient's feelings and to provide a means for him to project and release emotions. This strategy successfully assisted the child to overcome the perceived stress of hospitalization and to cooperate with healthcare providers on his treatment.

  14. Didactic Approaches to Child-Managed Play: Analyses of Teacher's Interaction Styles in Kindergartens and After-School Programmes in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løndal, Knut; Greve, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the nature of teachers' involvement in child-managed play. We approached this didactic issue through analysis of interactional situations in a kindergarten and an after-school programme and by drawing on relational theory and the concept of "pedagogical tact". Qualitative material was gathered from observations and…

  15. Digital Game Playing and Direct and Indirect Aggression in Early Adolescence: The Roles of Age, Social Intelligence, and Parent-Child Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenius, Marjut; Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Rimpela, Arja

    2007-01-01

    The roles of age, social intelligence and parent-child communication in moderating the association between digital game playing and direct and indirect aggression were examined in 478 Finnish 10- and 13-year-old schoolchildren based on self-reports. The results confirmed that digital game violence was directly associated with direct aggression,…

  16. [Evaluation of the theatre play Have Courage! A powerful play about feelings, boundaries and trust in the frame of the national campaign for the prevention of child sexual abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firnges, Christiane; Amann, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the evaluation of the effectiveness of a school-based preventive theatre play. The play is part of a national campaign for the prevention of child sexual abuse called Trau dich! (Have courage!). A total of 639 students in third to sixth grade from Schleswig-Holstein and Saxony participated in the study. Scenarios in the play imparted prevention messages and self-protective skills regarding situations of sexual assault or abuse, targeting children aged 8 to 12. Acquisition of knowledge about access to help systems and children's rights were measured pre- and post viewing as well as at a follow-up point two to six months later. Children estimated their competences regarding sensibility, sensing/setting boundaries, social support/to entrust oneself to somebody and knowledge. Based on cognitive empathy, children suggested self-protective skills for situations of conflict. The theatre play contributed to the acquisition of knowledge and an increase of children's self-assessed knowledge and competences. They estimated their competences of distinguishing between good and bad secrets, safe and unsafe touching, and disclosing oneself to somebody; their suggestions for self-protective skills improved compared to baseline data. The effects were still present at follow-up. Girls estimated their competences and self-protective skills to have improved more than boys. Measured negative effects were only temporary. The results indicate that the interactive educative theatre play contributed effectively to the prevention of child sexual abuse through imparting knowledge, self-protective skills, and sensitization.

  17. Vivenciando com o filho uma passagem difícil e reveladora: a experiência da mãe acompanhante Experiencing a difficult and revealing passage with her child: the live-in mother experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma de Oliveira

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado com mães acompanhantes em um hospital escola. Os objetivos foram: compreender as interações vivenciadas, identificar os significados que o familiar acompanhante atribui à experiência de vivenciar a hospitalização da criança, identificar o que essa vivência provoca na vida do familiar e construir um modelo teórico representativo da experiência. Utilizou-se como Referencial Teórico o Interacionismo Simbólico e Referencial Metodológico a "Grounded Theory". Identificou-se os fenômenos Indo em busca de solução e Atravessando uma situação difícil. A partir desses fenômenos emergiu a categoria central Vivenciando com o filho uma passagem difícil e reveladora.This study was conducted with live-in mother in university hospital. The objectives were as follows: to understand the experienced interactions, to identify the meanings that a family attribute to the experience of going through the child's hospitalization, to identify what the experience of hospitalization provokes in the family life and construct a model theory representative of the experience. Reference Theory the Symbolic Interactionism and Reference Methodology Grounded Theory had been utilized. From results appeared the phenomenon Going in search of solution, and Going through a difficult situation. Through these phenomena, the main category Experiencing a difficult and revealing passage with her child was identified.

  18. Conflict Management: Difficult Conversations with Difficult People

    OpenAIRE

    Overton, Amy R.; Lowry, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    Conflict occurs frequently in any workplace; health care is not an exception. The negative consequences include dysfunctional team work, decreased patient satisfaction, and increased employee turnover. Research demonstrates that training in conflict resolution skills can result in improved teamwork, productivity, and patient and employee satisfaction. Strategies to address a disruptive physician, a particularly difficult conflict situation in healthcare, are addressed.

  19. Conflict management: difficult conversations with difficult people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Amy R; Lowry, Ann C

    2013-12-01

    Conflict occurs frequently in any workplace; health care is not an exception. The negative consequences include dysfunctional team work, decreased patient satisfaction, and increased employee turnover. Research demonstrates that training in conflict resolution skills can result in improved teamwork, productivity, and patient and employee satisfaction. Strategies to address a disruptive physician, a particularly difficult conflict situation in healthcare, are addressed.

  20. TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF PLAY THERAPY AND CHILD FRIENDLY CONSTRAINT INDUCED MOMEMENT THERAPY TO IMPROVE HAND FUNCTION IN SPASTIC HEMIPLEGIC CEREBRAL PALSY CHILDREN: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjuman Nahar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral Palsy (CP is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by nonprogressive lesion in the developing brain. The early central nervous system (CNS damage results in chronic physical disabilities and often includes sensory impairments. In addition CP is often associated with epilepsy and abnormalities of speech, vision, and intellect; it is the selective vulnerability of the brains motor systems that defines the disorder. Child friendly CIMT involves intensive targeted practice with the involved extremity coordination above and beyond their unilateral impairments. Ply Therapy is designed for active involvement of child in performing various tasks. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of constraint induced movement therapy and play therapy to improve hand function in spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy children. Methods: A sample of 30 patients was divided in two groups, each group having 15 children. Convenient sampling was done on the basis of base line assessment and diagnosis of their condition. Duration of the study was 3 months and data collection started at day 0 and at the end of 90 days. Children in group A wore a bivalve plaster cast on the non-involved upper extremity from shoulder to finger tips for the entire time during the session lasting for 2 hours and the plaster cast was removed at the end of the session. B group consists of 15 subjects who received play therapy. The treatment program was conducted individually and adjusted to current needs and abilities of each of the patients. Outcomes: Box and Block test, QOM scale and AOU scale. Results: It was found that there is an improvement in the hand function on application of child friendly CIMT in the patients with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy which was found significant using the Mann-Whitney U test (p≤0.005. Conclusion: In this study it has been found that the use of Child friendly CIMT and PLAY THERAPY produces significant improvement in hand

  1. Digital Game Playing and Direct and Indirect Aggression in Early Adolescence: The Roles of Age, Social Intelligence, and Parent-Child Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenius, Marjut; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Rimpelä, Arja

    2007-04-01

    The roles of age, social intelligence and parent-child communication in moderating the association between digital game playing and direct and indirect aggression were examined in 478 Finnish 10- and 13-year-old schoolchildren based on self-reports. The results confirmed that digital game violence was directly associated with direct aggression, especially at age 10, but only among boys. The moderating role of social intelligence was substantiated among older boys: game violence was associated with indirect aggression among those with high level of social intelligence. Further, as hypothesized, digital game playing was associated with direct aggression especially when parent-child communication was poor, but only among boys. Our findings emphasize the importance of individual and situational factors as moderators of the link between game violence and aggression.

  2. Mothers and Fathers at Play with Their Children with Down Syndrome: Influence on Child Exploratory and Symbolic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Falco, Simona; Esposito, Gianluca; Venuti, Paola; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Through play children exercise their emerging mental abilities, and for their part, when in collaborative play, caregivers often adjust their behaviours to assist their children's progress. In this study, we focused on comparisons between play of Down Syndrome (DS) children with their two parents as well as on comparisons between the…

  3. Associations between children’s video game playing and psychosocial health: information from both parent and child reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobel, A.M.; Granic, I.; Stone, L.L.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Video games are a highly heterogeneous form of entertainment. As recent reviews highlight, this heterogeneity makes likely that video games have both positive and negative consequences for child development. This study investigated the associations between gaming frequency and psychosocial health am

  4. CABAS Parent Education: Increasing Child Compliance via Parental Emission of Unflawed Commands and Contingent Consequations during Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadourian, Ara J.; Greer, R. Douglas

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of the parent education/training program of the Comprehensive Application of behavior Analysis to Schooling (CABAS) model (Greer, 2000) in increasing rates of child compliance. Five parents of children attending a CABAS special needs preschool received both didactic instruction and home-based in vivo training in…

  5. Policy at play: The implementation of Healthy Eating and Active Living Guidelines in municipal child care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Kelly; Nigro, Sherry

    2017-03-01

    In 2012, Ottawa Public Health (OPH) partnered with the City of Ottawa Municipal Child Care (MCC) Services to develop Healthy Eating and Active Living (HEAL) Guidelines. The Guidelines aim to promote consistent standards of practice in child care settings related to healthy environments and food, physical activity, physical literacy, decreased sedentary behaviours, and positive role modeling by staff. The Guidelines targeted 498 children aged 18 months to 5 years, attending MCC centres. Resources and training were provided to 10 supervisors, 63 child care educators and 9 cooks. Components of the Guidelines were piloted in 5 MCC sites prior to being launched in 10 MCC sites across Ottawa, Ontario. Two project Advisory Groups supported the development of the Guidelines. Staff training, resources, recipes and menus were provided. An evaluation was conducted and has informed the Guidelines' subsequent community implementation. In 2015, accompanying web-based resources and e-modules were developed. The evaluation demonstrated environmental and programming changes. Parent satisfaction was high and preliminary findings showed no real changes in food costs. Following implementation, the cooks reported high compliance to the 6-week menu plans provided, and the number of sites offering 120 minutes or more of daily physical activity increased. Through novel intersectoral partnerships, OPH was able to implement and evaluate HEAL Guidelines in tandem. The interdisciplinary project Advisory Groups, training of cooks, and engagement of the Ontario Coaches Association were all innovative elements of this project and may influence future public health activity in this area.

  6. Understanding Pretend Play. A Guide for Parents and Teachers To Accompany the Documentary Video "When a Child Pretends."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Jan; Franklin, Margery B.; Wilford, Sara

    Pretend play is often undervalued and ignored. This videotape and accompanying booklet highlight how the dramatic scenarios, microworlds, storytelling, and block building of pretend play provide young children the opportunity to develop skills for a lifetime of intellectual, social, emotional, and creative development. The booklet describes the…

  7. Effectiveness of Parent-Child Number Board Game Playing in Promoting Chinese Kindergarteners' Numeracy Skills and Mathematics Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Sum Kwing; McBride, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: In Study 1, we observed 32 Chinese kindergarteners playing a number board game with their caregivers in dyads. Number board game playing provided important opportunities for kindergarteners and their caregivers to talk about an array of number concepts, but their numeracy-related exchanges rarely went beyond counting. In Study…

  8. What Makes Physics Difficult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornek, Funda; Robinson, William R.; Haugan, Mark P.

    2008-01-01

    According to many students, introductory physics is difficult. We are investigating what students believe makes physics difficult and what can be done to overcome these difficulties. Our investigation includes an initial free-response survey given to approximately 1400 students in an introductory physics course and a second survey, which was given…

  9. Psychopathology in difficult asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, L.C.; van Son, M.J.M.; Keimpema, A.R.; van Ranst, D; Pommer, A; Meijer, J.W.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed

  10. WHAT MAKES CHEMISTRY DIFFICULT?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    regarded as a difficult subject for students by many researchers, teachers and science educators. [7-8] because ... Learning difficulties are important for both teaching and learning. Both ..... Concept –Cartoons as a strategy in teaching, learning.

  11. Psychopathology in difficult asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, L.C.; van Son, M.J.M.; Keimpema, A.R.; van Ranst, D; Pommer, A; Meijer, J.W.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed

  12. Two people playing together: some thoughts on play, playing, and playfulness in psychoanalytic work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vliegen, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Children's play and the playfulness of adolescents and adults are important indicators of personal growth and development. When a child is not able to play, or an adolescent/adult is not able to be playful with thoughts and ideas, psychotherapy can help to find a more playful and creative stance. Elaborating Winnicott's (1968, p. 591) statement that "psychotherapy has to do with two people playing together," three perspectives on play in psychotherapy are discussed. In the first point of view, the child gets in touch with and can work through aspects of his or her inner world, while playing in the presence of the therapist. The power of play is then rooted in the playful communication with the self In a second perspective, in play the child is communicating aspects of his or her inner world to the therapist as a significant other. In a third view, in "playing together" child and therapist are coconstructing new meanings. These three perspectives on play are valid at different moments of a therapy process or for different children, depending on the complex vicissitudes of the child's constitution, life experiences, development, and psychic structure. Concerning these three perspectives, a parallel can be drawn between the therapist's attitude toward the child's play and the way the therapist responds to the verbal play of an adolescent or adult. We illustrate this with the case of Jacob, a late adolescent hardly able to play with ideas.

  13. Soreness during non-music activities is associated with playing-related musculoskeletal problems: an observational study of 731 child and adolescent instrumentalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ranelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Question: Is exposure to non-music-related activities associated with playing-related musculoskeletal problems in young instrumentalists? Is non-music-activity-related soreness associated with playing-related musculoskeletal problems in this group of instrumentalists? Design: Observational study using a questionnaire and physical measures. Participants: 859 instrumentalists aged 7 to 17 years from the School of Instrumental Music program. Results: Of the 731 respondents who completed the questionnaire adequately, 412 (56% experienced instrument-playing problems; 219 (30% had symptoms severe enough to interfere with normal playing. Children commonly reported moderate exposure to non-music-related activities, such as watching television (61%, vigorous physical activity (57%, writing (51% and computer use (45%. Greater exposure to any non-music activity was not associated with playing problems, with odds ratios ranging from 1.01 (95% CI 0.7 to 1.5 for watching television to 2.08 (95% CI 0.5 to 3.3 for intensive hand activities. Four hundred and seventy eight (65% children reported soreness related to non-music activities, such as vigorous physical activity (52%, writing (40%, computer use (28%, intensive hand activities (22%, electronic game use (17% and watching television (15%. Non-music-activity-related soreness was significantly associated with instrument playing problems, adjusting for gender and age, with odds ratios ranging from 2.6 (95% CI 1.7 to 3.9 for soreness whilst watching television, to 4.3 (95% CI 2.6 to 7.1 for soreness during intensive hand activities. Conclusion: Non-music-activity-related soreness co-occurs significantly with playing problems in young instrumentalists. The finding of significant co-occurrence of music and non-music-related soreness in respondents in this study suggests that intervention targets for young instrumentalists could include risk factors previously identified in the general child and adolescent

  14. The influence of maternal language responsiveness on the expressive speech production of children with autism spectrum disorders: a microanalysis of mother-child play interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Katherine M; Ingersoll, Brooke R

    2015-05-01

    Adult responsiveness is related to language development both in young typically developing children and in children with autism spectrum disorders, such that parents who use more responsive language with their children have children who develop better language skills over time. This study used a micro-analytic technique to examine how two facets of maternal utterances, relationship to child focus of attention and degree of demandingness, influenced the immediate use of appropriate expressive language of preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (n = 28) and toddlers with typical development (n = 16) within a naturalistic mother-child play session. Mothers' use of follow-in demanding language was most likely to elicit appropriate expressive speech in both children with autism spectrum disorders and children with typical development. For children with autism spectrum disorders, but not children with typical development, mothers' use of orienting cues conferred an additional benefit for expressive speech production. These findings are consistent with the naturalistic behavioral intervention philosophy and suggest that following a child's lead while prompting for language is likely to elicit speech production in children with autism spectrum disorders and children with typical development. Furthermore, using orienting cues may help children with autism spectrum disorders to verbally respond. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Bibliography on Children and the Physical Environment. Child Care Centers, Outdoor Play Environments, and Other Children’s Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    Spain: Universidad De Barcelona, Catediza De Geografia Humana, Departamento De Geografia, 1977. Caprio , R.J., Margulis, H. Residential location...2: Social and Environmental Issues. The Hague: Mouton, 1975, and Chicago: Al di ne, 1976. Runyon, D.K. (1977) A history of play and recreation in the

  16. Canadian Female and Male Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Child Aggression and Rough-and-Tumble Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosacki, Sandra; Woods, Heather; Coplan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated female and male early childhood educators' (ECEs) perceptions of young children's aggression and rough-and-tumble play in the Canadian early childhood classroom. Participants were drawn from a larger sample of ECEs who completed an online questionnaire regarding their perceptions of young children's behaviours in the…

  17. "Play to Learn": A Case-Study of Parent/Carer and Child Engagement with a Physical Activity Website Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Helen; Fleming, Scott

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, Sport Wales produced guidance for practitioners delivering the new Foundation Phase curriculum for children aged three to seven years. A focus was on physical development and in 2009 a resource entitled "Play to Learn" was developed supported by a website launched in 2011. The present study addresses (non-)engagement with the…

  18. Increasing physical activity in young primary school children--it's child's play: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, Lina; Bundy, Anita C; Naughton, Geraldine; Simpson, Judy M; Bauman, Adrian; Ragen, Jo; Baur, Louise; Wyver, Shirley; Tranter, Paul; Niehues, Anita; Schiller, Wendy; Perry, Gabrielle; Jessup, Glenda; van der Ploeg, Hidde P

    2013-05-01

    To explore the effects of an innovative school-based intervention for increasing physical activity. 226 children (5-7 years old) randomly selected from 12 Australian primary schools were recruited to a cluster randomised trial with schools randomly allocated to intervention or control conditions. The 13-week intervention comprised: (1) altering the school playground by introducing loose materials and (2) a teacher-parent intervention exploring perceptions of risk associated with children's free play. The primary outcomes were total accelerometer counts and moderate-vigorous physical activity during break times. Testing took place in Sydney, 2009-2010. 221 participants were tested at baseline. Mixed-effect multilevel regression revealed a small but significant increase from the intervention on total counts (9400 counts, 95% CI 3.5-15.2, p=0.002) and minutes of MVPA (1.8 min, 95% CI 0.5-3.1, p=0.006); and a decrease in sedentary activity (2.1 min, 95% CI 0.5-3.8, p=0.01) during break times. We retested children in one intervention school after 2 years; they maintained the gains. Capturing children's intrinsic motivations to play while simultaneously helping adults reconsider views of free play as risky provided increases in physical activity during break times. Using accelerometry as the sole measure of physical activity may underestimate the effect. ACTRN12611000089932. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Brincar no hospital: estratégia de enfrentamento da hospitalização infantil Playing in the hospital: coping strategy in child hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Brunoro Motta

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudos indicam que a hospitalização pode afetar o desenvolvimento da criança, interferindo na qualidade de vida. Para lidar com essa situação, o brincar tem funcionado como estratégia de enfrentamento. Procurando-se avaliar a importância dada ao brincar pela criança e caracterizar atividades lúdicas possíveis no hospital, 28 crianças hospitalizadas com câncer (6-12 anos, em Vitória/ES, foram entrevistadas e responderam a um instrumento especialmente elaborado (AEH - Avaliação das Estratégias de Enfrentamento da Hospitalização - Conjunto B: Brincar no hospital, contendo 20 desenhos de brinquedos e brincadeiras, classificados em jogos de Exercícios, Simbólicos, de Acoplagem, de Regras e Atividades Diversas. 78,6% das crianças relataram que gostariam de brincar no hospital, o que é justificado principalmente pela sua função lúdica, na companhia de outras crianças internadas. Não houve diferenças significativas nas escolhas entre as categorias de brincadeiras. O instrumento mostrou que o brincar pode ser um recurso adequado para a adaptação da criança hospitalizada, permitindo personalizar a intervenção.Studies have shown that the hospitalization can affect a child development interfering with his/her quality of life. In order to deal with this situation, the act of playing has worked as a coping strategy. With the purpose to assess of the importance children give to play and to characterize possible playful activities in the hospital, 28 children hospitalized with cancer (6-12 years in Vitória, ES, were interviewed and took part on an instrument specially developed (AEH Evaluation of the Coping Strategies of the Hospitalization - group B: Playing in the hospital, consisting of 20 drawings of toys and games classified in games of Exercises, Symbolic Game, Game of Connection, Game of Rules and a variety of Activities. 78,6% of the children said that they would like playing in the hospital, which is justified mainly

  20. Associations between children's video game playing and psychosocial health: Information from both parent and child reports. [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobel, Adam; Granic, Isabela; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-04-01

    Healthy emotion regulation is crucial for navigating stressful situations. Interoceptive awareness-the awareness of one's internal states-is important for such healthy regulation. Given the propensity for video games to induce stress, the associations between in-game and real world emotion regulation strategies during duress are worth exploring. We therefore present a method for measuring the interoceptive awareness of negative affect during stressful video game play, and investigate whether individual differences in this ability relate to emotion regulation strategies. Twenty-six proficient video game players were recruited to play a session of the video game Starcraft II in the lab. Players' physiological and subjective states of in-game negative arousal were measured consecutively. A comparison of these measures was used to calculate players' interoceptive awareness of real time in-game arousal. The relation between interoceptive awareness and a suite of emotion regulation strategies was then investigated. We observed a positive relation between in-game interoceptive awareness and the self-reported tendency to actively seek a resolution to negative affect. A positive trend was also observed between interoceptive awareness and the self-reported tendency to seek instrumental social support. Findings are discussed in terms of the relative effectiveness of different emotion regulation strategies for aiding in-game success. We further discuss the benefits and limitations of this pilot testing. In all, we hope to inspire future research into the associations between in-game arousal and emotion regulation strategies used in everyday life.

  1. Symbolic play and the narrative organization of the child's life experience / O brincar simbólico e a organização narrativa da experiência de vida na criança

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Guirland Vieira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work studies the narrative and the image as elements of the language of symbolic play. With this objective a child was observed during approximately one year while in a psychotherapeutic process. The child's symbolic play in the sandplay was analyzed concerning narrative organization and construction of meaning based on Jung's Analytical Psychology theory and method, and Bruner's narrative theory. The study shows that symbolic play is a form of language, and through it the child constructs a text that presents itself as a narrative or as an image; that this text is filled with cultural elements which show themselves as new narratives or images that mix with the ones the child had constructed. Also, it shows that the child organizes his/her life experience and that of the world by means of this text; that the narratives produced by symbolic play are similar to those produced by the cultural history of mankind; and, finally, that symbolic play has a cognitive function of organizing the child's life experience.

  2. TABLET DEVICES, SMARTPHONES, GAME CONSOLES INFLUENCE ON CHILDREN’S SOCIALIZATION, PLAY ACTIVITY AND CHILD-PARENT RELATIONSHIPS OF CHILDREN IN TENDER AGE AND PRESCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belousova, M.V.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Results of research of 130 families having children of early and preschool age are given. The contingent of investigated has been divided into 2 groups: group №1 - children without speech and cognitive violations (n=80, group № 2 - are diagnosed manifestations of the general underdevelopment of the speech combined with like-autistic disturbances (n=50. All the children were divided into 2 groups: group №1 (n = 80, children are without speech disorders, group №2 (n = 50: signs of general underdevelopment of children’s speech are diagnosed, combined with like-autistic disturbances. Features of formation of skills of social interaction, development of a subject role-playing game and the child parent relations at against the active use of tablet devices and smartphones by them are studied. In both groups intensive and unfairly early game interaction with gadgets is marked. There is a clear hierarchy transformation of the family system towards the loss of parents dominant influence on children without an ability to use gadget as an obedience and encourage. Patterns of parental behavior in the study families demonstrate the priority of spending time with the gadget to joint leisure time and active integration of the gadget into child's life with delegating him an authority of development and game interaction with him.

  3. Making marketing difficult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Gitte

    2005-01-01

    embraced by the market-place, while maintaining the old scientific alienation from political life. The case is made that modern science was born ambiguous towards the market-place, and that such ambivalence - relating to different interpretations of the idea of knowledge as a common good - is still...... to be encountered among scientists. Drawing on series of interviews with scientists from bioscience and biotechnology it is argued that, on the one hand, scientists are into marketing and PR exercises; but, on the other hand, they also voice a demand that journalists should make such marketing difficult...

  4. A Difficult Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primholdt, Nina; Primdahl, Jette; Hendricks, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    the onset of symptoms to diagnosis of 5.4 years. The analysis resulted in the following three themes: 'Daily living and psychological reactions', 'A difficult diagnosis' and 'Working life and identity'. CONCLUSIONS: It took a long time to make the correct diagnosis, and the period before diagnosis...... framework was grounded in critical psychology, and the analysis was based on Kvale and Brinkmann's meaning condensation. RESULTS: The five men interviewed were 21-37 years old. At the time of the interview, the participants had been diagnosed with AS for an average of 2.6 years, with an average time from...

  5. Making marketing difficult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Gitte

    2005-01-01

    embraced by the market-place, while maintaining the old scientific alienation from political life. The case is made that modern science was born ambiguous towards the market-place, and that such ambivalence - relating to different interpretations of the idea of knowledge as a common good - is still...... to be encountered among scientists. Drawing on series of interviews with scientists from bioscience and biotechnology it is argued that, on the one hand, scientists are into marketing and PR exercises; but, on the other hand, they also voice a demand that journalists should make such marketing difficult...

  6. Dealing with difficult pasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura

    2013-01-01

    with in the post-conflict context differs dramatically. Robben Island, in South Africa, closed in 1996 and was quickly transformed into a museum (1997) and then World Heritage site (1999), thus confirming its significance to both the national and international community as a symbolic cornerstone of the new...... ‘Rainbow’ nation. In comparison, the best known political prison in Northern Ireland – Long Kesh / Maze – closed in 2000 and despite three different proposals for its future ‘regeneration’ its remains are closed to the public whilst plans for a conflict transformation centre based at the site tentatively...... develop. I argue that such politically loaded manifestations of difficult pasts are highly significant during post-conflict renegotiations of society. They act as reminders of what happened, a commentary on how far society has – or has not moved on – and the potential for future relations and directions...

  7. Difficult childhood asthma: management and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillie-Leblond, Isabelle; Deschildre, Antoine; Gosset, Philippe; de Blic, Jacques

    2012-09-01

    Diagnosis and management of severe asthma implies the definition of different entities, that is, difficult asthma and refractory severe asthma, but also the different phenotypes included in the term refractory severe asthma. A complete evaluation by a physician expert in asthma is necessary, adapted for each child. Identification of mechanisms involved in different phenotypes in refractory severe asthma may improve the therapeutic approach. The quality of care and monitoring of children with severe asthma is as important as the prescription drug, and is also crucial for differentiating between severe asthma and difficult asthma, whereby expertise is required.

  8. Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice: Federal Agencies Could Play a Stronger Role in Helping States Reduce the Number of Children Placed Solely To Obtain Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Child welfare directors in 19 states and juvenile justice officials in 30 counties estimated that in fiscal year 2001 parents placed over 12,700 children into the child welfare or juvenile justice systems so that these children could receive mental health services. Neither the child welfare nor the juvenile justice system was designed to serve…

  9. Phonological Awareness Is Child's Play!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopp, Hallie Kay; Yopp, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Noticing and being able to manipulate the sounds of spoken language-phonological awareness-is highly related to later success in reading and spelling. The authors define and explain the levels of phonological awareness-syllable awareness, onset-rime awareness, phoneme awareness. They give teachers step-by-step instructions for implementing a…

  10. Toddlers: Learning by Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Toddlers: Learning by Playing KidsHealth > For Parents > Toddlers: Learning by Playing Print A A A What's in ... child's play, but toddlers are hard at work learning important physical skills as they gain muscle control, ...

  11. A difficult beginning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneth Agampodi

    2013-10-01

    receives. But the manuscripts are submitted according to the quality of the journal (impact factor, indexation, circulation,. This is a vicious circle almost similar to what we and many others faced as start up researchers yesteryear. Without a grant, it is difficult to do research but to receive a grant you have to show research (publications. Journal impact factors should not be used to assess individual researcher’s contribution to science and for hiring, promotion, or funding decisions (2. Impact factors can be manipulated by journal editors and Thomson Scientific (the private company who creates impact factors is neither transparent about the process or have a clear policy (3.We are determined to elevate the quality of the journal. You will be the jury, but don’t be a silent assassin. Please let us know what you think at least by an E-mail. Otherwise, same fate that happened to our ancient kingdom of Rajarata will befall on the AMJ!

  12. Play technique in psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanof, Judith A

    2013-04-01

    Imaginary play is often a child's best way of communicating affects, fantasies, and internal states. In play children are freer to express their forbidden and conflicted thoughts. Consequently, one of the best ways for the therapist to enter the child's world is to do so from within the displacement of the play process. For children who cannot play, the therapist's goal is to teach the child to use play as a means of communication and to create meaning. This article present clinical examples to illustrate how the author uses play in the clinical situation.

  13. What role can child-care settings play in obesity prevention? A review of the evidence and call for research efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Ward, Dianne S; Neelon, Sara Benjamin; Story, Mary

    2011-09-01

    Given the widespread use of out-of-home child care and an all-time high prevalence of obesity among US preschool-aged children, it is imperative to consider the opportunities that child-care facilities may provide to reduce childhood obesity. This review examines the scientific literature on state regulations, practices and policies, and interventions for promoting healthy eating and physical activity, and for preventing obesity in preschool-aged children attending child care. Research published between January 2000 and July 2010 was identified by searching PubMed and MEDLINE databases, and by examining the bibliographies of relevant studies. Although the review focused on US child-care settings, interventions implemented in international settings were also included. In total, 42 studies were identified for inclusion in this review: four reviews of state regulations, 18 studies of child-care practices and policies that may influence eating or physical activity behaviors, two studies of parental perceptions and practices relevant to obesity prevention, and 18 evaluated interventions. Findings from this review reveal that most states lack strong regulations for child-care settings related to healthy eating and physical activity. Recent assessments of child-care settings suggest opportunities for improving the nutritional quality of food provided to children, the time children are engaged in physical activity, and caregivers' promotion of children's health behaviors and use of health education resources. A limited number of interventions have been designed to address these concerns, and only two interventions have successfully demonstrated an effect on child weight status. Recommendations are provided for future research addressing opportunities to prevent obesity in child-care settings.

  14. Cystic hygroma: A difficult airway and its anaesthetic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurulingappa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2-month-old child presented with gross and huge swelling on the left side of the neck with difficulty in feeding. It was diagnosed to be cystic hygroma and a decision was made to excise the swelling to enable the child thrive better. Difficult intubation was anticipated and the child was intubated with inhalation induction. The intra-operative period was smooth and the tumour was excised completely. Post-operatively, it was decided to ventilate the child because of airway difficulties.

  15. Play and Positive Group Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Pam; White, Samantha

    2010-01-01

    Play is an important part of a child's life and essential to learning and development (Vygotsky, 1978). It is vital that students participate in play and that play be conducted in a restorative manner. Play allows a variety of group dynamics to emerge. Irvin Yalom (1995) identifies 11 curative factors of the group experience. These factors include…

  16. Effective communication during difficult conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, Jacquelyn M

    2013-06-01

    A strong interest and need exist in the workplace today to master the skills of conducting difficult conversations. Theories and strategies abound, yet none seem to have found the magic formula with universal appeal and success. If it is such an uncomfortable skill to master is it better to avoid or initiate such conversations with employees? Best practices and evidence-based management guide us to the decision that quality improvement dictates effective communication, even when difficult. This brief paper will offer some suggestions for strategies to manage difficult conversations with employees. Mastering the skills of conducting difficult conversations is clearly important to keeping lines of communication open and productive. Successful communication skills may actually help to avert confrontation through employee engagement, commitment and appropriate corresponding behavior

  17. Psychopathology in difficult asthma : Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, L.C.J.; van Son, M.A.C.; van Keimpema, A.R.J.; van Ranst, D.; Antonissen-Pommer, A.M.; Meijer, J.W.G.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed

  18. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    , but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty......, the aesthetics of play through action; political play -- from Maradona's goal against England in the 1986 World Cup to the hactivist activities of Anonymous; the political, aesthetic, and moral activity of game design; and why play and computers get along so well....

  19. Playful Gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makedon, Alexander

    A philosophical analysis of play and games is undertaken in this paper. Playful gaming, which is shown to be a synthesis of play and games, is utilized as a category for undertaking the examination of play and games. The significance of playful gaming to education is demonstrated through analyses of Plato's, Dewey's, Sartre's, and Marcuse's…

  20. Drastic Measures for Difficult Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuszka, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses how colleges and universities are taking drastic measure for difficult times. Hit hard by the global financial crisis, colleges are cutting their budgets in ways that prompt fears about access and retention for minority students. Schools are considering layoffs, unpaid furloughs for faculty and staff, hiring freezes and…

  1. A novel rescue technique for difficult intubation and difficult ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zestos, Maria M; Daaboul, Dima; Ahmed, Zulfiqar; Durgham, Nasser; Kaddoum, Roland

    2011-01-17

    We describe a novel non surgical technique to maintain oxygenation and ventilation in a case of difficult intubation and difficult ventilation, which works especially well with poor mask fit. Can not intubate, can not ventilate" (CICV) is a potentially life threatening situation. In this video we present a simulation of the technique we used in a case of CICV where oxygenation and ventilation were maintained by inserting an endotracheal tube (ETT) nasally down to the level of the naso-pharynx while sealing the mouth and nares for successful positive pressure ventilation. A 13 year old patient was taken to the operating room for incision and drainage of a neck abscess and direct laryngobronchoscopy. After preoxygenation, anesthesia was induced intravenously. Mask ventilation was found to be extremely difficult because of the swelling of the soft tissue. The face mask could not fit properly on the face due to significant facial swelling as well. A direct laryngoscopy was attempted with no visualization of the larynx. Oxygen saturation was difficult to maintain, with saturations falling to 80%. In order to oxygenate and ventilate the patient, an endotracheal tube was then inserted nasally after nasal spray with nasal decongestant and lubricant. The tube was pushed gently and blindly into the hypopharynx. The mouth and nose of the patient were sealed by hand and positive pressure ventilation was possible with 100% O2 with good oxygen saturation during that period of time. Once the patient was stable and well sedated, a rigid bronchoscope was introduced by the otolaryngologist showing extensive subglottic and epiglottic edema, and a mass effect from the abscess, contributing to the airway compromise. The airway was secured with an ETT tube by the otolaryngologist.This video will show a simulation of the technique on a patient undergoing general anesthesia for dental restorations.

  2. Caregiver Beliefs and Dysphoric Affect Directed to Difficult Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugental, Daphne Blunt; And Others

    1990-01-01

    When sibling pairs interacted with unrelated mothers, facial and vocal affect directed to the difficult child in the pair was more dysphoric than that directed to the other. This was particularly the case among women who attributed relatively high control to children and low control to adults. A similar relation between affect and attributions was…

  3. O brincar simbólico e a organização narrativa da experiência de vida na criança Symbolic play and the narrative organization of the child's life experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Guirland Vieira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho estuda a narrativa e a imagem como elementos da linguagem do brincar simbólico. Para isto, uma criança foi acompanhada em um processo de psicoterapia por um período aproximado de um ano. O brincar simbólico da criança na caixa de areia - sandplay - foi analisado em termos da organização narrativa e da construção de significado a partir da teoria e do método de Psicologia Analítica de C. G. Jung e da teoria narrativa de J. Bruner. Nosso estudo demonstra que o brincar simbólico é uma forma de linguagem e que através dele a criança constrói um texto o qual apresenta-se como uma narrativa ou como uma imagem; que este texto está repleto de elementos os quais aparecem como outras narrativas ou imagens que se interpõem às narrativas construídas pela criança. Mostra que a criança organiza a sua experiência do mundo e a sua experiência da vida através deste texto. Mostra também que as narrativas produzidas através do brincar simbólico da criança possuem uma relação com as narrativas produzidas ao longo da história cultural da humanidade. Finalmente, indica que o brincar simbólico tem uma função cognitiva de organizar a experiência de vida da criança.The present work studies the narrative and the image as elements of the language of symbolic play. With this objective a child was observed during approximately one year while in a psychotherapeutic process. The child's symbolic play in the sandplay was analyzed concerning narrative organization and construction of meaning based on Jung's Analytical Psychology theory and method, and Bruner's narrative theory. The study shows that symbolic play is a form of language, and through it the child constructs a text that presents itself as a narrative or as an image; that this text is filled with cultural elements which show themselves as new narratives or images that mix with the ones the child had constructed. Also, it shows that the child organizes his

  4. Aesthetic Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jytte Susanne

    2012-01-01

    to the children’s complex life-worlds. Further, this leads to an analysis of music-play activities as play with an art-form (music), which includes aesthetic dimensions and gives the music-play activities its character of being aesthetic play. Following Lev Vygotsky’s insight that art is a way of building life...

  5. Moving Young Children's Play Away from TV Violence. A How-to Guide for Early Childhood Educators: Child Care Providers, Head Start Instructors, Preschool and Kindergarten Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diane

    Research concerning the effects of television violence on children--particularly young children under the age of six--has found that it tends to desensitize them to aggressive behavior and, in some children, promotes aggressive behavior in their play and other interactions with children and adults. This guide is designed to assist early childhood…

  6. Several difficult problems in lubrication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Whether in industry or in our human life, we will encounter many lubrication problems. A goodlubricant not only should have good performance, but also should meet the needs of the specific condi-tions. Here we give some examples about the difficult problems in lubrication and their solutions. Theseexamples are: (i) hydrolysis and emulsion of ZDTP; (ii) corrosion of chlorowax; (iii) coexistence of greencompressor oil and cryogen (R-134A); (iv) lubrication of cystoscope and catheter. On the same time,some achievements in lubrication field provided by Lubrication Chemistry Laboratory of Shanghai Uni-versity will be introduced in this paper.

  7. [Difficult to control severe asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnan, Antoine; Pipet, Anaïs

    2011-03-01

    Difficult to control severe asthma is characterized by the persistence of inacceptable symptoms of asthma despite a continuous treatment with at least high doses of inhaled steroids and long acting bronchodilators. The diagnosis is done after a period of observation and some investigations that will allow confirm the diagnosis of asthma, eliminate alternative diagnosis and etiological forms that would be difficult to treat intrinsically (allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis, Churg and Strauss disease, chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, occupational asthma). At the end of this period devoted to diagnosis a systematic approach is set up to take care of these patients. Therapeutic education includes action plans and measures for triggering factors avoidance in order to prevent exacerbations. Comorbidities such as rhinitis, nasal polyposis, gastro-oesophageal reflux and obesity are taken into account. Lastly, the treatment must be adapted according to the patient's preferences and aims, and to the asthma severity. Ultimately in steroid-dependent asthma, the lowest efficient dose is tracked continuously. For these patients, new molecules are needed.

  8. Intramuscular triamcinolone for difficult asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panickar, Jayachandran R; Kenia, Priti; Silverman, Michael; Grigg, Jonathan

    2005-05-01

    We treated a selected group of children attending a difficult asthma clinic with intramuscular triamcinolone acetonide. This study retrospectively reviews markers of asthma severity in those who received one or more monthly doses for three periods: 1) 3 months preceding the first injection (pretreatment), 2) from the first injection to 1 month after the last injection (treatment period), and 3) 3 months after the treatment period (follow-up period). Severity markers during the treatment and follow-up periods were compared with the pretreatment period by paired t-test. Five children (5-13 years old) received a single dose, and 8 children (12-15 years old) received multiple doses. Multiple doses of triamcinolone (n = 3-5) were associated with a fall in the number of asthma exacerbations (P < 0.01) and hospital admissions (P < 0.01) in both the treatment and follow-up periods. A single dose reduced exacerbations (P < 0.05, treatment vs. pretreatment) but not hospital admissions. We conclude that intramuscular triamcinolone is a useful short-term therapy in difficult asthma. Whether its efficacy is due to improved compliance, or an improved anti-inflammatory profile compared with oral steroids, remains unclear. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  9. Chronology of a Difficult Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menger, Fredric M.; Sorrells, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a short synthesis and many of the difficulties experienced while carrying it out (e.g., low yields, impurities, racemization, nonrepeatable literature preps, etc.). As such, students will be educated in aspects of synthetic organic chemistry that are often down-played, or even not mentioned, in published syntheses. (Contains…

  10. Aesthetic Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jytte Susanne

    2012-01-01

    The present article explores the role of music-related artefacts and technologies in children’s lives. More specifically, it analyzes how four 10- to 11-year old girls use CDs and DVD games in their music-play activities and which developmental themes and potentials may accrue from such activities...... to the children’s complex life-worlds. Further, this leads to an analysis of music-play activities as play with an art-form (music), which includes aesthetic dimensions and gives the music-play activities its character of being aesthetic play. Following Lev Vygotsky’s insight that art is a way of building life...

  11. 电脑游戏世界--不只吸引小孩子%Not Just Child's Play: The World of Uideo and Computer Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeriln Watson

    2006-01-01

    @@ Millions of Americans play video and computer games.The reasons are no mystery. The games can provide fun,action and,in some cases,education. Players can lead their favorite sports team to victory1.They can imagine they are secret agents like James Bond.They can form a nation and lead peace.They can develop their skills at card games like poker.Game players may improve their reaction time and thinking skills.They may improve their ability to direct their thoughts,or learn word and numar skills.

  12. THE REFLECTION OF BALKAN WARS ON CHILDREN’S PLAYS SAMPLE OF “ THE JOURNAL OF CHILD EMOTION”/BALKAN SAVAŞLARININ ÇOCUK OYUNLARINA YANSIMASI “ÇOCUK DUYGUSU” DERGİSİ ÖRNEĞİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ÖZDEMİR

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available War and literatüre are both concepts regarding society. The bigger share the literature has in forming cultural identity and rising of social sensitivity, the higher effectuating ratio the war has in society and literature. Our recent past history is full of spectacular samples of this mutual interaction. In this study, the reflection of war conditions on children and children’s plays was examined, which is based on the Journal Of Child Emotion. The party of Union and Progress (İttihat ve Terakki, which seized the power in the wake of Balkan Wars, tried to affect the society and by the way the children in line withit sown ideology evenunder these hard circumstances. It is remarkable that these efforts of effectuating and direction even got to the plays which have an important place in the education of children. The policies of Party of Union and Progress, which was not homogeneous but had a Turkist concept in the passage of time, regarding education underwent change accordingly. Necessitating of teaching Turkish with the law of Primary Education, even if it was enacted temporarily, had not only an influence on the primary schools, but also on the journals and newspapers published at those times. Indeed, the fact that the word ‘Ottoman’ that took place in the plays of the first issues of The Journal Of Child Emotion’ was replaced by the word ‘Turk’ in the following issues manifests thein fluence of the administration of The party of Union and Progress, which fluctuated from Ottomanness toTurkism, on the press clearly. It is also remarkable that the writings of well-known artists suchs as Baha Tevfik, Şahabettin Süleyman, Ahmed Edib, Selim Sırrı, Faik Ali and Philosopher Rıza Tevfik, and photographs of Sultan V. Mehmet Reşat Han, the Grandvizier Said Halim Pasha, the Minister of Internal Affairs Talat Pasha, the Minister of War Enver Pasha, the Minister of Navy Cemal Pasha, Mahmut Şevket Pasha and the great poet Recaizade

  13. Playful Membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels; Pors, Justine Grønbæk

    2014-01-01

    This article studies the implications of current attempts by organizations to adapt to a world of constant change by introducing the notion of playful organizational membership. To this end we conduct a brief semantic history of organizational play and argue that when organizations play, employees...... are expected to engage in playful exploration of alternative selves. Drawing on Niklas Luhmann's theory of time and decision-making and Gregory Bateson's theory of play, the article analyses three empirical examples of how games play with conceptions of time. We explore how games represent an organizational...... desire to reach out - not just to the future - but to futures beyond the future presently imaginable. The article concludes that playful membership is membership through which employees are expected to develop a surplus of potential identities and continuously cross boundaries between real and virtual...

  14. O brincar de uma criança autista sob a ótica da perspectiva histórico-cultural An autistic child's play from the cultural-historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Bagarollo

    2013-03-01

    historical-cultural perspective of human development - which conceives of subjects as social beings, culturally constituted in and through language - this statement is no longer sustainable, since play is a socially constituted activity. From this standpoint, this study aimed to analyze the peculiarities of play in a child with autism, immersed in rich experiences with other children, with toys and games. Data collection was carried out using video recordings of speech therapy sessions with a group of four autistic children. The focus was on one child's play activities (S1, four years. The recordings were transcribed and data was analyzed based on the microgenetic analysis perspective. The data showed that when autistic children experience positive social interactions, it is possible to develop play, imaginative processes and sequences of actions such as those observed in the group's social and cultural use of toys. We conclude that therapist intervention is critical during the interaction process, assigning meanings to the child's actions, enabling the possibility of constitution of cultural being and of interacting with others. This process helps build the basis for internalizations derived from playing with others. As observed, experiences outside the institution provided opportunities to play and develop during the process, albeit more slowly and more specifically.

  15. Playful Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    these practices, which compose the taxonomy of tablet play. My contribution lies in identifying and proposing a series of theoretical concepts that complement recent theories related to play and digital literacy studies. The data collected through observations informed some noteworthy aspects, including how...... with tablets’ physical and digital affordances shape children’s digital play. This thesis presents how young children’s current practices when playing with tablets inform digital experiences in Denmark and Japan. Through an interdisciplinary lens and a grounded theory approach, I have identified and mapped...... vocabulary in children’s digital play experiences. These early digital experiences set the rules for the playgrounds and assert digital tablets as twenty-first-century toys, shaping young children’s playful literacy....

  16. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  17. Pretend play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Deena Skolnick

    2015-01-01

    Pretend play is a form of playful behavior that involves nonliteral action. Although on the surface this activity appears to be merely for fun, recent research has discovered that children's pretend play has connections to important cognitive and social skills, such as symbolic thinking, theory of mind, and counterfactual reasoning. The current article first defines pretend play and then reviews the arguments and evidence for these three connections. Pretend play has a nonliteral correspondence to reality, hence pretending may provide children with practice with navigating symbolic relationships, which may strengthen their language skills. Pretend play and theory of mind reasoning share a focus on others' mental states in order to correctly interpret their behavior, hence pretending and theory of mind may be mutually supportive in development. Pretend play and counterfactual reasoning both involve representing nonreal states of affairs, hence pretending may facilitate children's counterfactual abilities. These connections make pretend play an important phenomenon in cognitive science: Studying children's pretend play can provide insight into these other abilities and their developmental trajectories, and thereby into human cognitive architecture and its development.

  18. Playful Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The video Playful Interaction describes a future architectural office, and envisions ideas and concepts for playful interactions between people, materials and appliances in a pervasive and augmented working environment. The video both describes existing developments, technologies and designs...... as well as ideas not yet implemented such as playful modes of interaction with an augmented ball. Playful Interaction has been used as a hybrid of a vision video and a video prototype (1). Externally the video has been used to visualising our new ideas, and internally the video has also worked to inspire...

  19. Mediatized play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    Children’s play must nowadays be understood as a mediatized field in society and culture. Media – understood in a very broad sense - holds severe explanatory power in describing and understanding the practice of play, since play happens both with, through and inspired by media of different sorts....... In this presentation the case of ‘playing soccer’ will be outlined through its different mediated manifestations, including soccer games and programs on TV, computer games, magazines, books, YouTube videos and soccer trading cards....

  20. Play practices and play moods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop a view of play as a relation between play practices and play moods based on an empirical study of children's everyday life and by using Bateson's term of ‘framing’ [(1955/2001). In Steps to an ecology of mind (pp. 75–80). Chicago: University of Chicago Press......], Schmidt's notion of ‘commonness’ [(2005). Om respekten. København: Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitets Forlag; (2011). On respect. Copenhagen: Danish School of Education University Press] and Heidegger's term ‘mood’ [(1938/1996). Time and being. Cornwall: Wiley-Blackwell.]. Play mood is a state of being...... in which we are open and ready, both to others and their production of meaning and to new opportunities for producing meaning. This play mood is created when we engage with the world during play practices. The article points out four types of play moods – devotion, intensity, tension and euphorica – which...

  1. Let's Play: Teaching Play Skills to Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutot, E. Amanda; Guenther, Tracee; Crozier, Shannon

    2005-01-01

    Watch any young child and you will likely see him or her engaged in some form of play. Play is an integral part of early childhood development in which typically developing children learn social and language skills, as well as appropriate behaviors, problem solving, and a variety of other cognitive skills. By its very definition, autism is a…

  2. The pragmatic language, communication skills, parent-child relationships, and symptoms of children with ADHD and their playmates 18-months after a parent-delivered play-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes-Gillan, Sarah; Cantrill, Alycia; Parsons, Lauren; Smith, Cally; Cordier, Reinie

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the communication skills, pragmatic language, parent-child relationships, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms of children with ADHD and their playmates 18-months after a pilot parent-delivered intervention for improving social play skills and pragmatic language. Participants were five children with ADHD, their parents, and five typically-developing playmates. Outcomes were measured immediately post and 18-months following the intervention. Parent-rated norm-based assessments and an observational measure were used. Differences within and between the ADHD and playmate groups were examined. Children maintained all skills gained 18-months following the intervention. Compared to a normative sample, children with ADHD remained below the average range on aspects of communication skills, parent-child relationships, and ADHD symptom levels 18-months following intervention. After intervention, children with ADHD still experienced pragmatic language skills below those of their peers on norm-based assessments that measure their skills across contexts. School-based interventions are needed to facilitate ongoing skill development and generalization.

  3. What do mentors find difficult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Laurence G; Davies, Moira

    2008-06-01

    (i) To assess whether mentors had a positive or negative attitude towards their role; and (ii) to discover what aspects of the role they found easy or difficult. The fact that mentorship is an important element in nurse training was recognized by Sir Leonard Peach, the United Kingdom Central Council for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting and the Nursing and Midwifery Council which has recently published new standards to support learning and assessment in practice, which include standards for the preparation of Mentors, to be implemented by September 2007. There are many anecdotal reports of the problems which face mentors, but little firm evidence. This paper reports a study of those problems. It used a Thurstone scale to assess role satisfaction among mentors (n = 86, response rate 89%) and two Likert scales to assess where problems, if any, lay. Unlike anecdotal reports, the Thurstone scale found that, overall, mentors regarded the role positively. In addition, a principal components analysis of responses to the Likert scales showed that there were two clearly delineated factors. The first (interpersonal/organisational factors) had been widely discussed in the literature. The second (cognitive/intellectual factors) has been rarely discussed and could with profit be more strongly stressed in mentor training. (i) Mentors had a positive attitude towards their role and enjoyed it. (ii) When looking at what caused mentors difficulty, in addition to the commonly discussed dimensions of organisational constraints (workload, skill mix) and interpersonal factors, there was clearly an additional cognitive one. Knowledge, not just personality, mattered. Mentors and those who train them could with profit pay more attention to cognitive components of the role, even if that meant laying a lesser stress on the interpersonal ones.

  4. Playful Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Justine Grønbæk; Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    and undecidability. With an empirical point of departure in Danish public school policy and two concrete examples of games utilised in school development, the article analyses how play is a way for organisations to simultaneously decide and also avoid making a decision, thus keeping flexibility and possibilities...... intact. In its final sections, the article discusses what happens to conditions of decision-making when organisations do not just see undecidability as a given condition, but as a limited resource indispensable for change and renewal. The article advances discussions of organisational play by exploring......This article explores how organisational play becomes a managerial tool to increase and benefit from undecidability. The article draws on Niklas Luhmann's concept of decision and on Gregory Bateson's theory of play to create a conceptual framework for analysing the relation between decision...

  5. Play and playfulness in early childhood education and care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer E.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education. The elements of play are pleasure, a sense of freedom, and the co-construction of shared meaning through the use of rules or rhythms. Play and learning are closely related in early childhood. But when the focus on the educational benefits of play becomes too strong, the most essential feature of play is lost: children’s pleasure. Young children in group settings often have to adapt to the teachers’ demands related to security, hygiene, and social norms and values. But the playfulness of the teachers helps to overcome differences in power in the caregiver-child relationship and prevents young children from becoming overburdened with strict rules and group discipline. Play and playfulness are a resource of shared pleasure and creativity in learning processes.

  6. Group play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    of group dynamics, the influence of the fictional game characters and the comparative play experience between the two formats. The results indicate that group dynamics and the relationship between the players and their digital characters, are integral to the quality of the gaming experience in multiplayer......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...

  7. Postphenomenological Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammar, Emil

    This paper aims to identify an understanding of digital games in virtual environments by using Don Ihde’s (1990) postphenomenological approach to how technology mediates the world to human beings in conjunction with Hans-Georg Gadamer’s (1993) notion of play . Through this tentatively proposed...... amalgamation of theories I point towards an alternative understanding of the relationship between play and game as not only dialectic, but also as socially and ethically relevant qua the design and implementation of the game as technology....

  8. Clay Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Liz; Steffan, Dana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to use clay as a potential material for young children to explore. As teachers, the authors find that their dialogue about the potential of clay as a learning medium raises many questions: (1) What makes clay so enticing? (2) Why are teachers noticing different play and conversation around the clay table as compared to…

  9. Anaesthesia for MRI: ….child's play?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    ing for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Attention will be fo- ... The clinical applications for MRI continue to ... Nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) is a phenomenon that was .... Electrical power consists of isolated circuits with filtered 120V.

  10. Superman Comes to Preschool: Superhero TV Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Kathleen E.; Johnson, Zita M.

    Systematic efforts at the Arizona State Child Study Laboratory were successful in replacing children's undesirable superhero play with other types of sociodramatic play. Teachers found superhero play undesirable because it was aggressive and noisy and was accompanied by an increase in random activity. Observations indicated that superhero play had…

  11. Group play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects of the v......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...... RPGs, with the first being of greater importance to digital games and the latter to the tabletop version....

  12. Playing Possum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Euli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our society is drenched in the catastrophe; where the growth of financial crisis, environmental cataclysm and militarization represents its gaudiest and mortifying phenomena. Humans struggle with depression, sense of impotence, anguish towards a future considered a threat.  A possibility to keep us alive can be represented by the enhancement of our ability in ‘playing Possum’, an exercise of desisting and renitence: to firmly say ‘no’. To say no to a world that proposes just one way of being and living free, that imposes as the only unavoidable possible destiny.

  13. Playful Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv; Eriksson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the design of future services for children in Danish public libraries is discussed, in the light of new challenges and opportunities in relation to new media and technologies. The Danish government has over the last few years initiated and described a range of initiatives regarding...... in the library, the changing role of the librarians and the library space. We argue that intertwining traditional library services with new media forms and engaging play is the core challenge for future design in physical public libraries, but also that it is through new media and technology that new...

  14. Playful Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv; Eriksson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    in the library, the changing role of the librarians and the library space. We argue that intertwining traditional library services with new media forms and engaging play is the core challenge for future design in physical public libraries, but also that it is through new media and technology that new......In this paper, the design of future services for children in Danish public libraries is discussed, in the light of new challenges and opportunities in relation to new media and technologies. The Danish government has over the last few years initiated and described a range of initiatives regarding...

  15. Playing cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Mrs. Zahia Marzouk, vice-president of the Alexandria Family Planning Association and a living legend of Egyptian family planning, does not believe in talking about problems. She is far too busy learning from people and teaching them. Her latest brainstorm is a set of playing cards designed to help girls and women to read and learn about family planning at the same time. The 5 packs of cards, representing familiar words and sounds, and each with a family planning joker, took Mrs. Marzouk 6 months to design and paint by hand. They have now been printed, packed into packets provided by UNICEF, and distributed to some 2000 literacy groups in factories and family planning clinics. Each woman who succeeds in learning to read is encouraged to teach 4 others. They then go to the family planning clinic to be examined and gain a certificate. For the teacher who has made them proficient there is a special prize. Girls at El Brinth village outside Alexandria are pictured playing cards at the family planning center where they are learning various skills including how to read.

  16. Taking Play Seriously in the Pre-Primary English Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão, Sandie

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on experience and the emerging results of a research project, this article examines the role of play, in particular child-initiated play, when learning languages in pre-primary settings. It begins by characterizing play and highlights the importance of a balanced relationship between adult-led and child-initiated play activities. It…

  17. Abstracts on Child Play Areas and Child Support Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-01

    more carefully, but those he used heavily are given within the text (e.g., Margaret Mead, Jean Piaget , etc.). I Ki Lo UM 151kx -M 46 DOWN THE RABBIT HOLE...o5 ti A YWA kI, v .~ ., NOiT HLA~AMU k Lf A$L t- k. . E1974.i LALk , A. v. V .ul a 3±J PRESCUITtL DAV1lD 1.6G. LlylcJ 6L(LLGICAL kKATIQNS PIAGET , J. Ll

  18. "We Should Be Playing, Not Talking": Play, Self-Agency and Moving towards Depressive Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poynton, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the use of play in the psychotherapy of a latency child from a severely traumatised background. It considers the meaning of play in relation to the role of the psychotherapist and to psychotherapeutic technique and explores its functions in terms of the child's development. The paper documents the psychotherapist's learning…

  19. Pretending to Play or Playing to Pretend: The Case of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasari, Connie; Chang, Ya-Chih; Patterson, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    An article by Angeline S. Lillard and others published in the January 2013 issue of "Psychological Bulletin" about the impact of pretend play on child development raised a number of issues about play studies and child psychology. The article claimed that, contrary to current theories on the subject, the evidence of many studies does not…

  20. Management of the difficult airway in children. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magaly Álvarez Bárzaga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The anesthesiologist plays a unique role in the health care of all patients who will undergo a surgical procedure. In this sense, he is a key factor in the appropriate and timely management of the airway. There are special situations that condition a difficult airway and can have a profound impact on anesthetic morbidity and mortality. These risks increases in the case of children, that is why the case of a pediatric patient with a difficult airway caused by limitation of mouth opening, scheduled for elective surgery in order to treat this condition in the Pediatric University Hospital ¨Paquito González Cueto " in Cienfuegos, is presented.

  1. "Playing" with our users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2014-01-01

    . Unfortunately if donated in the school they are rarely being used by the students. In the case of virtual reality or artistic installations it is extremely difficult to provide such equipment to users. Last but not least we are not sure how the software will be used and if the experience will continue...... after the conduct of the research. If not due to restrictions, user should at least continue to be part of the research’s debrief and next steps. While I was in Nottingham I realised that sometimes our research, our playful educational experience, our DIY VR helmet, our beta, glitchy, research-only game...

  2. Play in adulthood. A developmental consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarusso, C A

    1993-01-01

    This paper is about normal development, addressing the basic characteristics and evolution of play throughout life, with particular emphasis on the nature of play in adulthood. Although the psychoanalytic literature on play in childhood is extensive, undoubtedly because of its relevance to child analysis, very little has been written on the subject of adult play or on the relationship between adult play and its childhood antecedents.

  3. Pretend Play of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Luzia Iara; Pacciulio, Amanda Mota; dos Santos, Camila Abrao; dos Santos, Jair Licio; Stagnitti, Karen Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Evaluate self-initiated pretend play of children with cerebral palsy. Method: Twenty preschool children participated in the study. Pretend play ability was measured by using the child-initiated pretend play assessment culturally adapted to Brazil. Results: There were significant negative correlations between the children's…

  4. Pretend Play of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Luzia Iara; Pacciulio, Amanda Mota; dos Santos, Camila Abrao; dos Santos, Jair Licio; Stagnitti, Karen Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Evaluate self-initiated pretend play of children with cerebral palsy. Method: Twenty preschool children participated in the study. Pretend play ability was measured by using the child-initiated pretend play assessment culturally adapted to Brazil. Results: There were significant negative correlations between the children's…

  5. Child neglect identification: The health visitor's role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akehurst, Rachel

    2015-11-01

    Child neglect is a significant public health issue, with impact often persisting into adulthood. However, neglect is not easily identifiable and may go undetected for many years. This library-based literature review critically analyses the research to uncover effective practices to aid neglect identification. The literature identifies that professionals may observe particular risk factors in a child's life that make neglect more probable. Additionally, children who suffer neglect, and parents who neglect their children, may display signs that practitioners can be alert to. However, a number of barriers exist that make identification difficult. The literature highlights that health visitors have a significant role to play in identifying neglect. Final conclusions relate to the need for professional supervision, use of assessment tools and frameworks, multi-agency training, and timely interventions to safeguard children.

  6. Nigeria: child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amobi, I

    The child in Nigeria is loved and pampered but food may be scarce or inadequate in nutrients, and he/she has overcrowding and poor sanitation to deal with as well as a maze of conflicting and hybrid values and way of life. Statistics show that in black Africa 1 child out of 5 will survive up to his 5th birthday. The infant mortality rate is high primarily because of inadequate nutrition and communicable diseases. The 10 most common diseases in Africa from 4 sample countries, i.e., Ethiopia, Nigeria, Uganda, and Kenya are: malaria; gastroenteritis, measles; respiratory tract infections; malnutrition; intestinal worm, anemias; tetanus; meningitis; and tuberuclosis. All these diseases are preventable, but prevention is more difficult because there are few health workers and inadequate facilities. 80 pediatricians and a few unrecognized pediatric trained nurses look after about 40 million children in Nigeria. Nutrition plays a prominent role in both growth and development. Local food may be plentiful but some families are unable to balance their diets. There is malnutrition or undernutrition because of ignorance, poverty, and feeding habits. In Africa the effect of malnutrition is most marked during weaning. In a traditional African society a child does not lack for love and affection. There are no unwanted pregnancies, no motherless children, no unmarried women, for the extended family system absorbs many of these shocks. The circumstances of the family are related to the incidence of child abuse, which is increasing. Children are used as cheap labor by both parents and guardians. In the current 5-year development plan, the government is making a bold step in health care. Some of the major goals of this 4th 5-year development plan in health care delivery include: rapid expansion of facilities to achieve 100% primary health care coverage by the year 2000; emphasizing preventive care; decentralization so that the local government areas are implementation units

  7. Difficult asthma: assessment and management, Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Aidan A; Fanta, Christopher H

    2012-01-01

    A minority of asthma patients have disease that proves difficult to control with usual medications and experience ongoing symptoms, poor quality of life, and limitations in activity and/or frequent asthma exacerbations. This group of patients accounts for much of the expense associated with asthma care and is the focus of national and international collaborative study groups. Distinguishing between "difficult-to-manage asthma" and truly "therapy-resistant asthma" is helpful and promotes a systematic consideration of contributory factors. Critical evaluation of factors contributing to difficult-to-manage asthma including adverse environment, comorbidities, nonadherence, and incorrect diagnosis is recommended in a systematic fashion in Part 1 of this contribution.

  8. Parents' Perceptions of Play: A Comparative Study of Spousal Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warash, Barbara G.; Root, Amy E.; Devito Doris, Meghan

    2017-01-01

    Play is essential for growth and learning during early childhood. However, the current focus on academics in preschool education has resulted in less emphasis placed on play as a learning tool. In the current study, parents' value of play was investigated. Parent gender, child gender, and child age were examined as potential influences on parents'…

  9. Overcoming difficult conversations in clinical supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams B

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Brett Williams,1 Christine King,1 Tanya Edlington,21Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, Monash University, Franskton, VIC, 2The Conversation Clinic Pty Ltd, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Background: Clinical supervisors are responsible for managing many facets of clinical learning and face a range of challenges when the need for "difficult" conversations arises, including the need to manage conflict and relationships. Methods: Spotlight on Conversations Workshop was developed to improve the capacity of clinical supervisors to engage in difficult conversations. They were designed to challenge the mindset of clinical supervisors about difficult conversations with students, the consequences of avoiding difficult conversations, and to offer activities for practicing difficult conversations. Preworkshop, postworkshop, and 4-month follow-up evaluations assessed improvements in knowledge, intent to improve, and confidence along with workshop satisfaction. Results: Nine workshops were delivered in a range of locations across Victoria, Australia, involving a total of 117 clinical supervisors. Preworkshop evaluations illustrated that more than half of the participants had avoided up to two difficult conversations in the last month in their workplace. Postworkshop evaluation at 4 months showed very high levels of satisfaction with the workshop's relevancy, content, and training, as well as participants' intention to apply knowledge and skills. Also shown were significant changes in participants' confidence to have difficult conversations not only with students but also with other peers and colleagues. In follow-up in-depth interviews with 20 of the 117 participants, 75% said they had made definite changes in their practice because of what they learned in the workshop and another 10% said they would make changes to their practice, but had not had the opportunity yet to do so. Conclusion: We conclude that the Spotlight on

  10. Play and video effects on mood and procedure behaviors in school-aged children visiting the pediatrician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns-Nader, Sherwood; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Thoma, Stephen J

    2013-10-01

    This study examines how different types of activities, including medical play, typical play, and videos, affect the mood and behaviors of children visiting a pediatric office. Seventy-two school-aged children visiting a pediatrician's office were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: medical play, medical information video, typical play, and nonmedical information video control. Children completed a mood self-report measure and their behaviors were recorded during triage by nurses. The medical information video improved the school-aged children's mood. Children in the medical information video displayed less difficult behaviors during procedures than the medical play group. The findings suggest that providing information about medical equipment through a video of a child engaging in medical play may benefit children visiting the pediatrician.

  11. Research for the Classroom: Playing with Difficult Poetry--High School Seniors and Arthur Sze's "Quipu"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogle, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The author had been assigned two sections of Contemporary Literature, a semester-long senior elective, and he wanted to do something new with poetry. He planned to teach Arthur Sze's "Quipu." Sze's poetry is nonlinear, adopting principles from science, anthropology, and history into a multilayered poetic texture--text unlike anything students…

  12. Braving difficult choices alone: children's and adolescents' medical decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzurra Ruggeri

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: What role should minors play in making medical decisions? The authors examined children's and adolescents' desire to be involved in serious medical decisions and the emotional consequences associated with them. METHODS: Sixty-three children and 76 adolescents were presented with a cover story about a difficult medical choice. Participants were tested in one of four conditions: (1 own informed choice; (2 informed parents' choice to amputate; (3 informed parents' choice to continue a treatment; and (4 uninformed parents' choice to amputate. In a questionnaire, participants were asked about their choices, preference for autonomy, confidence, and emotional reactions when faced with a difficult hypothetical medical choice. RESULTS: Children and adolescents made different choices and participants, especially adolescents, preferred to make the difficult choice themselves, rather than having a parent make it. Children expressed fewer negative emotions than adolescents. Providing information about the alternatives did not affect participants' responses. CONCLUSIONS: Minors, especially adolescents, want to be responsible for their own medical decisions, even when the choice is a difficult one. For the adolescents, results suggest that the decision to be made, instead of the agent making the decision, is the main element influencing their emotional responses and decision confidence. For children, results suggest that they might be less able than adolescents to project how they would feel. The results, overall, draw attention to the need to further investigate how we can better involve minors in the medical decision-making process.

  13. Playing with Technology: Mother-Toddler Interaction Scores Lower during Play with Electronic Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Michaela B.; Shapka, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    To investigate play with electronic toys (battery-operated or digital), 25 mother-toddler (16-24 months old) dyads were videotaped in their homes playing with sets of age-appropriate electronic and non-electronic toys for approximately 10 min each. Parent-child interactions were coded from recorded segments of both of the play conditions using the…

  14. Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  15. Child Poverty and Child Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evidence on the prevalence of child poverty in Britain including: (1) how child poverty has changed over the last 20 years; (2) how child poverty in Britain compares with that in other countries; (3) characteristics of poor children; (4) impact of poverty on child well-being; and (5) government attempts to abolish child poverty. (SD)

  16. Polishing Difficult-To-Reach Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinzak, R. Michael; Booth, Gary N.

    1990-01-01

    Springy abrasive tool used to finish surfaces of narrow cavities made by electrical-discharge machining. Robot arm moves vibrator around perimeters of cavities, polishing walls of cavities as it does so. Tool needed because such cavities inaccessible or at least difficult to reach with most surface-finishing tools.

  17. Qualitative analysis of unanticipated difficult airway management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstock, C; Hansen, E G; Kristensen, M S

    2006-01-01

    Unanticipated difficult airway management (DAM) is a major challenge for the anaesthesiologist and is associated with a risk of severe patient damage. We analysed 24 cases of unanticipated DAM for actual case management and anaesthesiologists knowledge, technical and non-technical skills...

  18. The difficult encounter between inspector and farmer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anneberg, Inger; Sørensen, Jan Tind; Vaarst, Mette

    2012-01-01

    When the inspector drives into the farmyard and asks to see the animal barns to inspect the welfare of the animals, a tense situation may arise because inspections transcend limits and are complex and difficult for many farmers to relate to. A new research project is examining the interaction...... between authorities and farmers....

  19. Panel Conditioning in Difficult Attitudinal Questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binswanger, J.; Schunk, D.; Toepoel, V.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate whether survey answers of trained respondents differ systematically from answers of novice respondents. Focusing on difficult attitudinal or preference questions, we find that novice respondents answer “don’t know” significantly more often. Importantly, however, there is no systematic

  20. Questions That Science Teachers Find Difficult (II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Presents some questions that science teachers find difficult. Focuses on three further questions relating to "simple" everyday situations that are normally explained in terms of the kinetic theory of matter. Identifies looking at the difference between chemical and physical changes as the most problematic question. (Author/YDS)

  1. Teaching Difficult Topics with Primary Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2011-01-01

    "Difficult" or "challenging" topics to teach include racism, violence, genocide, bullying, gangs, abuse (physical, emotional, and substance), slavery, suffering, hatred, terrorism, war, disease, loss, addiction, and more. But by confronting them with students, in the safety of a classroom through thoughtfully constructed lessons (ones that take…

  2. Qualitative analysis of unanticipated difficult airway management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstock, C; Hansen, E G; Kristensen, M S;

    2006-01-01

    Unanticipated difficult airway management (DAM) is a major challenge for the anaesthesiologist and is associated with a risk of severe patient damage. We analysed 24 cases of unanticipated DAM for actual case management and anaesthesiologists knowledge, technical and non-technical skills. Anaesth...

  3. Engaging Men in Difficult Dialogues about Privilege

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loschiavo, Chris; Miller, David S.; Davies, Jon

    2007-01-01

    Male privilege is one aspect of social inequality that underlies much of the oppression and violence that occurs on college campuses. Mad Skills, a program addressing power and privilege with college men, is described along with general recommendations about how to engage men in difficult dialogues. The PIE Model is used to describe defensive…

  4. [Partnership around difficult teenagers in Brest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-André, Stéphane; Botbol, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The issues surrounding difficult teenagers results in professionals formalising a partnership. Certain areas of focus are identified such as getting to know each other better in order to understand each other better, working in a "common language", understanding professional identities, or embracing long term partnership. Pressure to assess and rationalise spending, as well as political challenges, must be taken into consideration.

  5. Questions That Science Teachers Find Difficult (II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Presents some questions that science teachers find difficult. Focuses on three further questions relating to "simple" everyday situations that are normally explained in terms of the kinetic theory of matter. Identifies looking at the difference between chemical and physical changes as the most problematic question. (Author/YDS)

  6. The Role of Classroom Quality in Ameliorating the Academic and Social Risks Associated with Difficult Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curby, Timothy W.; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Edwards, Taylor; Perez-Edgar, Koraly

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the moderating role first grade classroom quality may have on the relations between children's difficult temperament (assessed in infancy) and their academic and social outcomes in early elementary school (first grade). Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child…

  7. Predictors of mother–child interaction quality and child attachment security in at-risk families

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Child healthy development is largely influenced by parent–child interaction and a secure parent–child attachment is predictively associated with positive outcomes in numerous domains of child development. However, the parent–child relationship can be affected by several psychosocial and socio-demographic risk factors that undermine its quality and in turn play a negative role in short and long term child psychological health. Prevention and intervention programs that support parenting skills ...

  8. What healthcare teams find ethically difficult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoal, Dara; Kihlgren, Annica; James, Inger; Svantesson, Mia

    2016-12-01

    Ethically difficult situations are frequently encountered by healthcare professionals. Moral case deliberation is one form of clinical ethics support, which has the goal to support staff to manage ethical difficulties. However, little is known which difficult situations healthcare teams need to discuss. To explore which kinds of ethically difficult situations interprofessional healthcare teams raise during moral case deliberation. A series of 70 moral case deliberation sessions were audio-recorded in 10 Swedish workplaces. A descriptive, qualitative approach was applied, using thematic content analysis. Ethical considerations: An advisory statement specifying no objections to the study was provided from an Ethical Review Board, and consent to be recorded was assumed by virtue of participation in the moral case deliberation. Three themes emerged: powerlessness over managing difficult interactions with patients and next-of-kin, unease over unsafe and unequal care, and uncertainty over who should have power over care decisions. The powerlessness comprised feelings of insufficiency, difficulties to respond or manage patient's/next-of-kin's emotional needs or emotional outbursts and discouragement over motivating patients not taking responsibility for themselves. They could be uncertain over the patient's autonomy, who should have power over life and death, disclosing the truth or how much power next-of-kin should have. The findings suggest that the nature of the ethically difficult situations brought to moral case deliberations contained more relational-oriented ethics than principle-based ethics, were permeated by emotions and the uncertainties were pervaded by power aspects between stakeholders. MCD can be useful in understanding the connection between ethical issues and emotions from a team perspective.

  9. Child maltreatment in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot

    2013-11-01

    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem.

  10. Space Situational Awareness: Difficult, Expensive and Necessary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Senior Leader Perspective November–December 2014 Air & Space Power Journal | 6 Space Situational Awareness Difficult, Expensive—and Necessary Dr...authors thank Gen William Shelton for his thoughtful and insightful comments. Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed or implied in the Journal ...permission. If it is reproduced, the Air and Space Power Journal requests a courtesy line. Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188

  11. Difficult treatment decisions in autoimmune hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Albert; J; Czaja

    2010-01-01

    Treatment decisions in autoimmune hepatitis are complicated by the diversity of its clinical presentations,uncertainties about its natural history,evolving opinions regarding treatment end points,varied nature of refractory disease,and plethora of alternative immu-nosuppressive agents. The goals of this article are to review the difficult treatment decisions and to provide the bases for making sound therapeutic judgments. The English literature on the treatment problems in au-toimmune hepatitis were identif...

  12. From child to child: children as communicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, R; Evans, J

    1993-01-01

    Older children commonly care for their younger siblings while parents work to provide for the household. Through play, dance, and talk, children tend to interact with each other more intensely than do adults. In so doing, messages and awareness are exchanged more effectively. Child-to-Child is an active, child-centered learning approach which aims to capitalize on this phenomenon by training older siblings to be effective communicators. This approach has been formally practiced in over 70 countries since 1979. Child-to-Child encourages children to learn the meaning and importance of health messages on their own. Children will then be most likely to retain and communicate information throughout the family, to neighbors, and to the general community. No blueprint exists, however, on which program planners may base the design of new programs. Programs should instead be adapted by those living within the community and culture to fit local needs and circumstances. Nonetheless, the Aga Khan Foundation supported the study of 7 highly different Child-to-Child projects over 3 years in India to obtain some sense of which program elements are successful and potentially useful in other settings. The study revealed that all of the programs helped increase the health knowledge of children and teachers. Little information was obtained on the extent to which information was diffused by children within the community. Overall, the study produced the following results: planners should consider using Child-to-Child projects in schools; teacher training should be made a priority; administrative support should be provided; entire staffs should be made to feel involved in the decision making process; obstacles to changing teaching methods should not be underestimated; teaching materials should be locally made; projects should be integrated into official curricula; program topics should be relevant to local realities; respected authorities should be called upon to reinforce the validity

  13. Difficult ("heartsink" patients and clinical communication difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustino R Pérez-López

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Faustino R Pérez-LópezDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital Clínico de Zaragoza, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, SpainAbstract: Managing the difficult patient requires a set of skills or strategies oriented at improving the physician–patient relationship and avoiding conflictive situations. There are different types of difficult patients who should be precisely identified for their management. These patients seek appropriate medical care which is not always provided. However, some may have unrecognized pathological illnesses, especially personality or psychiatry disorders. Clinical communications may be altered by professional and situational factors. In some circumstances, clinical symptoms are medically unexplainable or poorly defined as part of a disease or syndrome. Organic disease should be ruled out before patients are classified as having a somatoform disorder. Diagnosis may be delayed when symptoms are not properly evaluated therefore causing serious health consequences. Clinical competence, empathy, and high quality communication is required to succeed in difficult clinical encounters.Keywords: physician–patient communication, barriers to communication, expert patient

  14. Parents' Perceptions of Preschool Activities: Exploring Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya, Avanthi; Williams, Marcia; Edwards, Todd; Tandon, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Outdoor play is important for children's health and development, yet many preschool-age children in child care settings do not receive the recommended 60 min/day of outdoor play. Child care providers have previously described parent-related barriers to increasing outdoor playtime, including parents not providing appropriate…

  15. Parents' Perceptions of Preschool Activities: Exploring Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya, Avanthi; Williams, Marcia; Edwards, Todd; Tandon, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Outdoor play is important for children's health and development, yet many preschool-age children in child care settings do not receive the recommended 60 min/day of outdoor play. Child care providers have previously described parent-related barriers to increasing outdoor playtime, including parents not providing appropriate…

  16. Attachment and Symbolic Play in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Inbal; Oppenheim, David; Koren-Karie, Nina; Dolev, Smadar; Yirmiya, Nurit

    2009-01-01

    The association between attachment and symbolic play was examined in a sample of 45 preschool age boys with autism spectrum disorders. Attachment was assessed using the strange situation procedure, and the frequency, duration, diversity and complexity of child-initiated symbolic play was assessed from observations of mother-child interactions…

  17. The long shadows of the difficult past?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolnik, Kevin; Busse, Britta; Tholen, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the question of how young people today evaluate the Second World War today and how this ‘difficult past’ determines their political attitudes. Furthermore, the channels through which the current young generation in Europe is informed about the events dating back to the first...... World War. The evidence highlights the different perceptions of history among youth and points to the absence of a common European understanding of what happened between 1939 and 1945. The empirical evidence comes from a research project (2011–2015) funded by the European Commission and covering 14...

  18. [Difficult teenagers: the challenges of interdisciplinarity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Andrté, Stéphane; Botbola, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The adolescents in great distress, because of ruptures in the course of their lives and of their chaotic family environment, need educational and social actions. The consensual point of view is that responding to the needs of the so called "difficult adolescents" implies the involvement of educational, therapeutic and judicial services. Nevertheless, the usual tendency to categorize the users with the idea it will permit to guide them to the appropriate skill field and the transgressive characteristic of these adolescents' behaviours lead all these services to reject them and send them to the two other services.

  19. [Prisoners in units for difficult patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Jean-Pierre; Brulin-Solignac, Diane; Lodetti, Célia

    2016-01-01

    Prisoners, on remand or convicted, can be placed for a variable amount of time in a unit for difficult patients if their pathological mental state so requires. For the most part, their therapeutic care does not depend on their status as prisoner. The treatments provided are those indicated for their psychological pathologies and their potential or known dangerousness. However, some administrative measures make a distinction between their treatment and that of non-prisoner patients placed in these secure psychiatric units. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Unexpected difficult intubation due to subglottic ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Atım

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Airway damages encountered during endotracheal intubationor tracheostomy may cause some complicationssuch as severe dyspnea. Upper airway diagnostic endoscopywas planned to find the etiology of effort dyspnea ina 5 years old girl who had endotracheal intubation beenperformed during newborn period. Her ASA score was 1,and Mallampati score for preoperative airway evaluationwas 1. Physical examination revealed neither dyspneanor stridor while the patient was not exerting effort. Herchest radiograms were normal. She had no history of previoussurgical or anesthetical intervention. In this reportwe presented a difficult intubation during the endoscopicexamination of upper airway in a patient who had dyspneawhile exerting effort.

  1. Restaurant Role-Play in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borya, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Research methods is perceived as a technical and difficult topic by some students. Using role-play to teach it can make it more accessible, meaningful and engaging. Role-playing the familiar roles of customer and waiting staff at a restaurant and discussing the variables that may affect the size of tips can help students to learn some of the key…

  2. Biomarkers in the Management of Difficult Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleich, Florence; Demarche, Sophie; Louis, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    Difficult asthma is a heterogeneous disease of the airways including various types of bronchial inflammation and various degrees of airway remodeling. Therapeutic response of severe asthmatics can be predicted by the use of biomarkers of Type2-high or Type2-low inflammation. Based on sputum cell analysis, four inflammatory phenotypes have been described. As induced sputum is timeconsuming and expensive technique, surrogate biomarkers are useful in clinical practice. Eosinophilic phenotype is likely to reflect ongoing adaptive immunity in response to allergen. Several biomarkers of eosinophilic asthma are easily available in clinical practice (blood eosinophils, serum IgE, exhaled nitric oxyde, serum periostin). Neutrophilic asthma is thought to reflect innate immune system activation in response to pollutants or infectious agents while paucigranulocytic asthma is thought to be not inflammatory and characterized by smooth muscle dysfunction. We currently lack of user-friendly biomarkers of neutrophilic asthma and airway remodeling. In this review, we summarize the biomarkers available for the management of difficult asthma.

  3. Honey bees selectively avoid difficult choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Clint J; Barron, Andrew B

    2013-11-19

    Human decision-making strategies are strongly influenced by an awareness of certainty or uncertainty (a form of metacognition) to increase the chances of making a right choice. Humans seek more information and defer choosing when they realize they have insufficient information to make an accurate decision, but whether animals are aware of uncertainty is currently highly contentious. To explore this issue, we examined how honey bees (Apis mellifera) responded to a visual discrimination task that varied in difficulty between trials. Free-flying bees were rewarded for a correct choice, punished for an incorrect choice, or could avoid choosing by exiting the trial (opting out). Bees opted out more often on difficult trials, and opting out improved their proportion of successful trials. Bees could also transfer the concept of opting out to a novel task. Our data show that bees selectively avoid difficult tasks they lack the information to solve. This finding has been considered as evidence that nonhuman animals can assess the certainty of a predicted outcome, and bees' performance was comparable to that of primates in a similar paradigm. We discuss whether these behavioral results prove bees react to uncertainty or whether associative mechanisms can explain such findings. To better frame metacognition as an issue for neurobiological investigation, we propose a neurobiological hypothesis of uncertainty monitoring based on the known circuitry of the honey bee brain.

  4. Play for learning and learning for play: Children’s play in a toddler group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Greve

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a concern that children’s right to play is restricted as a result of the governments’ narrow focus on school preparatory activities and learning. Play and learning are rights embodied in the United Nations convention on the rights of the child. This article discusses how play and learning are organized in the everyday life of a Norwegian toddler group. Critical voices claim that there is not enough structure and that there should be more teaching and mapping to facilitate early intervention in Norwegian kindergartens. The article suggests that the critics’ claim can be countered by asking if there are too few teachers with adequate education and too large groups of children.

  5. Play Therapy: Client-Centered Counseling for Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaagd, Joan

    The value and importance of creative activities and play opportunities in play therapy is reviewed and discussed. Play therapy is considered to be part of the non-directive client-centered approach to counseling developed by Carl Rogers. The importance of giving the child the opportunity to play out his feelings and explore his thoughts and…

  6. Assessment of difficult airway predictors for predicting difficult laryngoscopy and intubation

    OpenAIRE

    S, Srinivasa; Oza, Vrinda; Kumar, Vasantha; Parmar, Vandana; Chhaya, V. A.

    2014-01-01

    Title: Assessment of difficult airway predictors for predicting difficult laryngoscopy and intubationObjectives: The aims and objectives of this study was to study and compare the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, odds ratio, relative risk, likelihood ratio and accuracy of the following parameters, modified Mallampati grading, interincisor gap, thyromental distance (TMD), ratio of height to thyromental distance (RHTMD), sternomental distance, neck...

  7. O brinquedo terapêutico na assistência à criança hospitalizada: significado da experiência para o aluno de graduação em enfermagem The therapeutic play used for caring a hospitalized child: meaning of the experience of a nursing under graduated student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Circéa Amalia Ribeiro

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo consiste na análise fenomenológica do discurso de unia aluna do curso de graduação em Enfermagem, que utilizou o brinquedo terapêutico para assistir a uma criança hospitalizada. O objetivo do estudo é compreender o significado da experiência para esta estudante.This study describes a phenomenological analysis of a nursing under graduated student's discourse, who used the therapeutic play for caring a hospitalized child. The goal of the study was to understand the meaning of the experience for this student.

  8. Forms of vitality play and symbolic play during the third year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Español, Silvia; Bordoni, Mariana; Martínez, Mauricio; Camarasa, Rosario; Carretero, Soledad

    2015-08-01

    This article focuses on the development of forms of vitality play, a recently described type of play, and links it to the development of symbolic play, one of the most studied types of play in developmental psychology. Two adult-infant dyads were videotaped longitudinally during in-house free play meetings every 15 days during the third year of life. Convergence technique was applied in order to accelerate the longitudinal study. A total of 17h 48min were registered in 28 sessions. An observational code with categories of forms of vitality play (a non-figurative play frame in which child and adult play together with the dynamics of their own movements and sounds in a repetition-variation form), symbolic play, and categories of combined patterns of both types of play was applied. The rate of each play was calculated for different age periods. Forms of vitality play is present at a constant rate during the third year of life. Symbolic play flourishes during this period. Combined play patterns are not the most frequent but are present from the beginning to the end of the third year. We suggest that FoVP favours intimate and intersubjective experiences essential to the understanding and the development of the interpersonal world; that it can be thought of as a good runway for the development of symbolic play; and that it prepares the child to participate in the temporal arts that belong to his culture.

  9. Child Development: An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, LaVerne Thornton, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on recent publications dealing with factors that influence child growth and development, rather than the developmental processes themselves. Topics include: general sources on child development; physical and perceptual-motor development; cognitive development; social and personality development; and play.…

  10. Difficult weaning in delayed onset diaphragmatic hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Syed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Diaphragmatic injuries are relatively rare and result from either blunt or penetrating trauma. Regardless of the mechanism, diagnosis is often missed and high index of suspicion is vital. The clinical signs associated with a diaphragmatic hernia can range from no outward signs to immediately life-threatening respiratory compromise. Establishing the clinical diagnosis of diaphragmatic injuries (DI can be challenging as it is often clinically occult. Accurate diagnosis is critical since missed DI may result in grave sequelae due to herniation and strangulation of displaced intra-abdominal organs. We present a case of polytrauma with rib fracture and delayed appearance of diaphragmatic hernia manifesting as difficult weaning from ventilatory support.

  11. Effective Climate Communication with Difficult Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, S.

    2015-12-01

    Climate communication is often fraught with ideological baggage ("noise") that makes it very difficult to connect to audiences. In these cases, it is helpful to use "best practices" known from other fields of communication. Engaging audiences with authenticity, using plain language, respecting cultural and political differences, and a sprinkling of humor can go a long way toward establishing a connection. It's important to avoid common but polarizing tropes from popular media, and often quite helpful to frame climate issues in novel or unexpected ways that cut across entrenched political discourse. Emerging social science research Beyond ideology, climate change is Simple, Serious, and Solvable. Effective communication of these three key ideas can succeed when the science argument is carefully framed to avoid attack of the audience's ethical identity. Simple arguments from common sense and everyday experience are more successful than data. Serious consequences to values that resonate with the audience can be avoided by solutions that don't threaten those values.

  12. Foreign body aspiration masquerading as difficult asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rai S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to assess patients of difficult/therapy resistant asthma carefully in order to identify whether there are any correctable factors that may contribute to their poor control. It is critical to make a diagnosis of asthma and to exclude other airway diseases. A 65-years-old lady presented with repeated acute episodes of dyspnoea and wheezing. She was on regular medication for bronchial asthma for 18 years. There was no history of foreign body aspiration or loss of consciousness. Her chest radiograph was normal. She showed poor response to corticosteroids and bronchodilators. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy (FOB showed intracordal cyst of the left vocal cord and 1cm size irregular piece of betel nut in right main bronchus, which was removed endoscopically with the help of dormia basket, following which her condition improved and asthma was controlled on inhaled bronchodilators.

  13. Crowd sourcing difficult problems in protein science().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Nathan S; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2017-08-01

    Dedicated computing resources are expensive to develop, maintain, and administrate. Frequently, research groups require bursts of computing power, during which progress is still limited by available computing resources. One way to alleviate this bottleneck would be to use additional computing resources. Today, many computing devices remain idle most of the time. Passive volunteer computing exploits this unemployed reserve of computing power by allowing device-owners to donate computing time on their own devices. Another complementary way to alleviate bottlenecks in computing resources is to use more efficient algorithms. Engaging volunteer computing employs human intuition to help solve challenging problems for which efficient algorithms are difficult to develop or unavailable. Designing engaging volunteer computing projects is challenging but can result in high-quality solutions. Here, we highlight four examples. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  14. Cuffed oropharyngeal airway for difficult airway management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaishi, Kazumi; Kawahito, Shinji; Tomioka, Shigemasa; Eguchi, Satoru; Kitahata, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Difficulties with airway management are often caused by anatomic abnormalities due to previous oral surgery. We performed general anesthesia for a patient who had undergone several operations such as hemisection of the mandible and reconstructive surgery with a deltopectoralis flap, resulting in severe maxillofacial deformation. This made it impossible to ventilate with a face mask and to intubate in the normal way. An attempt at oral awake intubation using fiberoptic bronchoscopy was unsuccessful because of severe anatomical abnormality of the neck. We therefore decided to perform retrograde intubation and selected the cuffed oropharyngeal airway (COPA) for airway management. We inserted the COPA, not through the patient's mouth but through the abnormal oropharyngeal space. Retrograde nasal intubation was accomplished with controlled ventilation through the COPA, which proved to be very useful for this difficult airway management during tracheal intubation even though the method was unusual.

  15. The Role of Play in Children's Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Sue; Downing, Julia; Shemilt, Rise

    2014-10-01

    Play is the universal language of childhood and the time and opportunity to play is every child's right. The role of play as a vehicle for communication, a tool for distraction and its value in the holistic development of a normal child is without dispute. The role and value of play increase proportionately when a child is made more vulnerable through illness or disability. Despite this, providing time and opportunities to play can be overlooked or considered to be of little importance or relevance when the focus of the adult carers is the amelioration of clinical symptoms of the illness and on lessening the psychological impact the illness may have on the child. This paper outlines the role and the value of play as an integral component in the provision of palliative care for children with chronic, life-threatening and life-limiting conditions. It will show how providing appropriate equipment, sufficient time and relevant play opportunities not only improves the very sick child's psychological wellbeing, but also allows the child to cast aside the confines and restrictions imposed upon them by their illness and for a few golden moments to be nothing more than a child at play.

  16. Anesthetizing the obese child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Anette; Lenz, Katja; Abildstrøm, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing. The focus of this review is the special anesthetic considerations regarding the perioperative management of obese children. With obesity the risk of comorbidity such as asthma, obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension, and diabetes increases....... The obese child has an increased risk of perioperative complications especially related to airway management and ventilation. There is a significantly increased risk of difficult mask ventilation and perioperative desaturation. Furthermore, obesity has an impact on the pharmacokinetics of most anesthetic...

  17. Children's Engagement in Play at Home: A Parent's Role in Supporting Play Opportunities during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForett, Doré R.; Mendez, Julia L.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined parents' developmentally appropriate beliefs about young children's play and parents' views on their child's play skills. This exploratory secondary data analysis was drawn from data on low-income African-American and Latino parents and their children (n = 109) participating in Head Start programmes in the USA. Compared with…

  18. Edward’s syndrome: A rare cause of difficult intubation-utility of left molar approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teena Bansal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Edward’s syndrome (trisomy 18 is an autosomal abnormality with dysmorphic face, visceral deformities and delayed mental and motor development including congenital heart disease. Challenges may arise during mask ventilation, laryngoscopy and/or intubation of the trachea due to dysmorphic face. Difficult airway cart should be kept ready. Left molar approach using a standard Macintosh blade improves the laryngoscopic view in patients with difficult midline laryngoscopy. We hereby present a case report of a 2 year old male child with Edward’s syndrome posted for evacuation and drainage of brain abscess, intubated successfully using left molar approach.

  19. Difficult airway and difficult intubation in postintubation tracheal stenosis: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarogoulidis P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Paul Zarogoulidis,1 Theodoros Kontakiotis,1 Kosmas Tsakiridis,2 Michael Karanikas,3 Christos Simoglou,4 Konstantinos Porpodis,1 Alexandros Mitrakas,3 Agisilaos Esebidis, 3 Maria Konoglou,5 Nikolaos Katsikogiannis,6 Vasilis Zervas,1 Christina Aggelopoulou,7 Dimitrios Mikroulis,4 Konstantinos Zarogoulidis11Pulmonary Department, "G Papanikolaou" General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Cardiothoracic Department, Saint Luke Private Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece; 31st University Surgery Department, 4Cardiothoracic Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece; 51st Pulmonary Department, "G Papanikolaou" General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 6Surgery Department (NHS, 7Neurology Department (NHS, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, GreeceAbstract: Management of a "difficult airway" remains one of the most relevant and challenging tasks for anesthesiologists and pulmonary physicians. Several conditions, such as inflammation, trauma, tumor, and immunologic and metabolic diseases, are considered responsible for the difficult intubation of a critically ill patient. In this case report we present the case of a 46-year-old male with postintubation tracheal stenosis. We will focus on the method of intubation used, since the patient had a "difficult airway" and had to be intubated immediately because he was in a life-threatening situation. Although technology is of utter importance, clinical examination and history-taking remain invaluable for the appropriate evaluation of the critically ill patient in everyday medical life. Every physician who will be required to perform intubation has to be familiar with the evaluation of the difficult airway and, in the event of the unanticipated difficult airway, to be able to use a wide variety of tools and

  20. Difficult-to-treat asthma in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Alexandra; Saglani, Sejal

    2013-06-01

    Asthma continues to be one of the greatest burdens to healthcare resources throughout the developed world. In most cases, good symptom control can be achieved with low-dose inhaled corticosteroids, and can be cared for in the primary and secondary healthcare systems. However, there is a group in whom control is not achieved despite high-dose inhaled corticosteroids and maximal add-on therapies; these are children with problematic severe asthma that should be referred to a specialist team for further investigation and management. In this review we aimed to provide an evidence-based guide for pediatricians providing care for children with asthma in secondary healthcare settings. The review focuses on a proposed investigation and management strategy for children aged between 6 and 16 years with problematic severe asthma, and is supported as far as possible by evidence from the literature. We first address recent advances in nomenclature and then discuss our proposed course of investigation and management of these children. Distinction of children with true, severe, therapy-resistant asthma from those with asthma that is difficult to treat because of unaddressed underlying modifiable factors is critical and is discussed in detail.

  1. Control of roofs difficult to break down

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukashov, V.G.; Suslyakov, V.P.; Korobov, A.N.

    1981-03-01

    This paper describes a method of advanced torpedoing a roof difficult to break down at the Polysaevskaya coal mine. It consists in placing explosive charges in the roof ahead of the coal face. Three schemes were tested: boreholes were drilled parallel to the face, perpendicular or inclined at an angle to the face. Boreholes were 112 mm in diameter and their length ranged from 30 to 100 m, distance between the boreholes amounted to 20 m. 6ZhV ammonite explosive, 90 mm in diameter and 500 mm long, were used. Torpedos were 2 m long, and separated by 3 to 4 m long air pockets. When a roof characterized by a high compressive strength coefficient (about 10 on the Protod'yakonov scale) was torpedoed, 250 kg of ammonite were used for a borehole 80 m long, and 160 kg for a borehole 50 m long. When borehole length was reduced to 40 m explosive consumption decreased to 117 kg. In the case of rocks with compressive strength coefficient of 6, explosive amount was two times lower. In a coal mine in which an OKP-70 face system was used applying advanced torpedoing increased labor productivity of the face by 30% and reduced cost of mining by 42%. Number of work accidents was reduced 13 times. (In Russian)

  2. Why behavior change is difficult to sustain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Mark E

    2014-11-01

    Unhealthy behavior is responsible for much human disease, and a common goal of contemporary preventive medicine is therefore to encourage behavior change. However, while behavior change often seems easy in the short run, it can be difficult to sustain. This article provides a selective review of research from the basic learning and behavior laboratory that provides some insight into why. The research suggests that methods used to create behavior change (including extinction, counterconditioning, punishment, reinforcement of alternative behavior, and abstinence reinforcement) tend to inhibit, rather than erase, the original behavior. Importantly, the inhibition, and thus behavior change more generally, is often specific to the "context" in which it is learned. In support of this view, the article discusses a number of lapse and relapse phenomena that occur after behavior has been changed (renewal, spontaneous recovery, reinstatement, rapid reacquisition, and resurgence). The findings suggest that changing a behavior can be an inherently unstable and unsteady process; frequent lapses should be expected. In the long run, behavior-change therapies might benefit from paying attention to the context in which behavior change occurs.

  3. Navigating language barriers under difficult circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Yael; Lo, Bernard; Ettinger, Katharine M; Fernandez, Alicia

    2008-08-19

    The proportion of the U.S. population with limited English proficiency is growing. Physicians often find themselves caring for patients with limited English proficiency in settings with limited language services. There has been little exploration of the decisions physicians face when providing care across language barriers. The authors offer a conceptual framework to aid physicians in thinking through difficult choices about language services and provide responses to common questions encountered in the care of patients with limited English proficiency. Specifically, they describe 4 factors that should inform the decision to call an interpreter (the clinical situation, degree of language gap, available resources, and patient preference), discuss who may be an appropriate interpreter, and offer strategies for when a professional interpreter is not available. The authors use a hypothetical case to illustrate how decisions about language services may evolve over the course of an interaction. This conceptual and practical approach can help clinicians to improve the quality of care provided to patients with limited English proficiency.

  4. Definitions of Complexity are Notoriously Difficult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Peter

    Definitions of complexity are notoriously difficult if not impossible at all. A good working hypothesis might be: Everything is complex that is not simple. This is precisely the way in which we define nonlinear behavior. Things appear complex for different reasons: i) Complexity may result from lack of insight, ii) complexity may result from lack of methods, and (iii) complexity may be inherent to the system. The best known example for i) is celestial mechanics: The highly complex Pythagorean epicycles become obsolete by the introduction of Newton's law of universal gravitation. To give an example for ii), pattern formation and deterministic chaos became not really understandable before extensive computer simulations became possible. Cellular metabolism may serve as an example for iii) and is caused by the enormous complexity of biochemical reaction networks with up to one hundred individual reaction fluxes. Nevertheless, only few fluxes are dominant in the sense that using Pareto optimal values for them provides near optimal values for all the others...

  5. The Life Mission Theory IV. Theory on Child Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren Ventegodt

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We can identify five important needs that children have: the need for acknowledgment, acceptance, awareness or attention, respect, and care. If these needs are not met, children will modify themselves by denying central parts of their nature in order to adjust to their parents and the situation at large. When a child denies his or her talents, powers, and gender or aspects thereof, he or she loses quality of life, the ability to function, and physical or mental health. The loss of ability takes the form of diminished social ability, psychosexual potency, joy, energy, and fantasy while playing, as well as diminished ability to concentrate, focus, and learn. Many modifications result in a child with severely damaged self-confidence, self-worth, and poor performance. A child more or less deprived of self-worth cannot enjoy, give, or receive. A child deprived of emotions turns cold, rational, asocial, socially stiff, uncomfortable, and in the extreme case…... intentionally “evil”. When a child denies his or her own sex, it becomes invisible, uninteresting, and vague or becomes like the opposite sex in behavior and appearance. The general holistic solution to the vast diversity of symptoms in children with low quality of life is to improve the situation for the child and give the child the holding and support he or she needs. It is very important to realize that a negative belief often has survival value to the child as it helps the child to avoid taking responsibility for problems, which really belong to the parents or other adults. Children have a fine capability for spontaneous healing, and seem to enter this process more easily than adults, given sufficient holding. The symptoms of children with poor thriving ability are often difficult to understand, as they are caused by a complex combination of self-modification in five existential dimensions. This often leads to complex medical diagnosis, giving the idea that the child is sick and

  6. Simple solution for difficult face mask ventilation in children with orofacial clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerabathula, Prardhana; Patil, Manajeet; Upputuri, Omkar; Durga, Padmaja

    2014-10-01

    Significant air leak from the facial cleft predisposes to difficult mask ventilation. The reported techniques of use of sterile gauze, larger face mask and laryngeal mask airway after intravenous induction have limited application in uncooperative children. We describe the use of dental impression material molded to the facial contour to cover the facial defect and aid ventilation with an appropriate size face mask in a child with a bilateral Tessier 3 anomaly.

  7. Use of Adult Fibreoptic Bronchoscope for Difficult Paediatric Intubation: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundan Sandugir Gosavi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Difficult airway management in paediatric patients may require a technique different from the standard one. We report the use of an adult fibreoptic bronchoscope and J tipped guidewire to intubate a child having temporo-mandibular joint ankylosis. Spontaneous respiration was maintained and local anaesthesia was provided to the upper airway during the procedure and the successful use of this technique avoided the requirement of surgical airway.

  8. Associations among Head Start Fathers' Involvement with Their Preschoolers and Child Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay; Iglesias, Aquiles; Kaufman, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the associations among child language competence during father-child play interactions, fathers' time spent volunteering in their preschool-age child's Head Start classroom over the course of one school year, amount of father play and reading to the child at home, and fathers' positive control during play. The sample of 68…

  9. Associations among Head Start Fathers' Involvement with Their Preschoolers and Child Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay; Iglesias, Aquiles; Kaufman, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the associations among child language competence during father-child play interactions, fathers' time spent volunteering in their preschool-age child's Head Start classroom over the course of one school year, amount of father play and reading to the child at home, and fathers' positive control during play. The sample of 68…

  10. Combined precut in difficult biliary cannulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Espinel-Díez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: precut sphincterotomy refers to a variety of endoscopic techniques that are used in order to access the bile duct when conventional methods of cannulation have failed. There are not significant data (such as efficacy, safety about the use of different techniques of precutting at the same session. We have described our experience with combined precut sphincterotomy (CPS and we have compared our results to the use of an isolated precut. Patients and methods: we have performed 247 precuts of a total of 2.390 ERCPs. Patients were distributed according to the type of precut practiced: Needle-knife, transpancreatic and combined precut sphincterotomies. "Combined precut" consisted in performing first a transpancreatic sphincterotomy and, if the access was not achieved, then performing a needle-knife sphincterotomy in the same session. The data about safety and efficacy were prospectively collected. The complications were defined according to the consensus criteria. Results: we performed precutting techniques in 247 patients. Needle-knife, transpancreatic, and combined precuts were performed in 125 (6.9%, 74 (4.1% and 48 (2.6% patients, respectively. Bile duct cannulation was successful in 48 patients (100% in the group of combined precut, 121 patients (96.8% in the transpancreatic group, and 67 patients (90.5% in the needle-knife group (p = 0.03. There were not differences in complications rates between the three groups. There was no pancreatitis in the combined precut group. The complications were successfully managed with conservative treatment. Conclusions: combined precut sphincterotomy seems to be a safe and successful technique in those cases of difficult bile duct cannulation.

  11. Pen Torch Transillumination: Difficult Venepuncture Made Easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Elijah Zhengyang; Sankaran, Kalarani; Tan, Monica; Chan, Yiong Huak; Lim, Thiam Chye

    2017-09-01

    Our novel technique of pen torch transillumination (PTI) uses a cheap and easily available instrument (Penlite-LP212(®), Energizer(®), Missouri, USA) to visualize superficial veins invisible to the naked eye. We evaluate the efficacy of PTI in improving venepuncture success rate (SR) for patients with poor venous access. This prospective randomized controlled trial looked at adult patients (n = 69) aged 21-90 with difficult venous access (history of ≥3 consecutive attempts required for successful cannulation during the current admission) requiring non-emergent venepuncture. Patients underwent venepuncture over the upper-limb using one of the following: conventional venepuncture (control); Veinlite(®) EMS (TransLite(®), Texas, USA), a commercial transillumination device; PTI. Outcome measures were: successful cannulation within 2 attempts and total duration of venepuncture. Fisher's exact and Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed. A significantly larger number of patients had successful venepuncture within 2 attempts using PTI (22/23, 95.7%) and Veinlite (23/23, 100%), compared to the controls (7/23, 30.4%) (p < 0.05). The total duration required for successful venepuncture was significantly shorter for Veinlite (mean 3.7 min, 1.0-5.3 min) and PTI (mean 8.5 min, range 1.08-27 min) compared to the controls (mean 23.2 min, range 1.88-46.5 min) (p < 0.05). PTI allows users to visualize veins invisible to the naked eye. Thrombosed/tortuous veins, branch points and valves, are easily identified and avoided. It has comparable efficacy to Veinlite(®) and is cheaper (Veinlite(®)-USD 227 vs. Penlite-LP212(®)-USD 7.00) and more easily available. PTI improves patient care, especially in developing regions where costs are a concern.

  12. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Tremblay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9 and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17, and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908. More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  13. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Bradstreet, Christa Costas; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-06-08

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3-12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N=9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N=17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N=1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: "Access to active play in nature and outdoors--with its risks--is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children's opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings--at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature." The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  14. Forms of vitality play in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Español, Silvia; Martínez, Mauricio; Bordoni, Mariana; Camarasa, Rosario; Carretero, Soledad

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we report a qualitative study based on the constant comparative method to initiate the systematic study of forms of vitality play. This is an unnoticed non-figurative play frame linked to early social play and temporal arts in which child and adult elaborate the dynamics of their own movements and sounds in a repetition-variation form. In the introduction we present the theoretical underpinnings and the sporadic observations we have done in previous studies. Then, by the iterative observations of the recorded material of a longitudinal case study on play during the third year of life, we generated the general category of forms of vitality play and four subcategories of display modes of forms of vitality play (improvised forms of vitality play, ritualized forms of vitality play, forms of vitality play combined with pretend play, and forms of vitality play combined with role playing) which are illustrated with descriptive narratives. We discuss the properties of the developed categories, the limits of the present study, and the need to continue systematizing the research on this playful activity.

  15. [Pretend play ability in pre-school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, M; Ptok, M

    2009-11-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) are confronted with limitations in their language abilities that cannot be attributed to cognition, hearing impairments, or neurological deficits. However, there is evidence that children with SLI also have impairments. These include, for example, an impaired ability to pretend play. The current article aims to present firstly normal development of play behavior in children, followed by the Child-Initiated Pretend Play Assessment (ChIPPA). This test enables an objective and standardized assessment of whether a child's ability to initiate and sustain pretend play is age-appropriate. SLI children with impaired play behavior should receive structured individual therapy.

  16. Child Labor, Crop Shocks, and Credit Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen Beegle; Rajeev Dehejia; Roberta Gatti

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between household income shocks and child labor. In particular, we investigate the extent to which transitory income shocks lead to increases in child labor and whether household access to credit mitigates the effects of these shocks. Using panel data from a survey in Tanzania, we find that both relationships are significant. Our results suggest that credit constraints play a role in explaining child labor and consequently that child labor is inefficient, ...

  17. Playing the Catch-Up Game: Accelerating the Scale-Up of Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) Services to Eliminate New Pediatric HIV Infection in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladele, Edward Adekola; Khamofu, Hadiza; Asala, Seun; Saleh, Mariya; Ralph-Opara, Uche; Nwosisi, Charles; Anyaike, Chukwuma; Gana, Catherine; Adedokun, Oluwasanmi; Dirks, Rebecca; Adebayo, Olufunsho; Oduwole, Modupe; Mandala, Justin; Torpey, Kwasi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction As the world is making progress towards elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, poor coverage of PMTCT services in Nigeria remains a major challenge. In order to address this, scale-up was planned with activities organized into 3 phases. This paper describes the process undertaken in eight high burden Nigerian states to rapidly close PMTCT coverage gaps at facility and population levels between February 2013 and March 2014. Methods Activities were grouped into three phases–pre-assessment phase (engagement of a wide range of stakeholders), assessment (rapid health facility assessment, a cross sectional survey using mixed methods conducted in the various states between Feb and May 2013 and impact modelling), and post-assessment (drawing up costed state operational plans to achieve eMTCT by 2015, data-driven smart scale-up). Results Over a period of 10 months starting June 2013, 2044 facilities were supported to begin provision of PMTCT services. This increased facility coverage from 8% to 50%. A 246% increase was also recorded in the number of pregnant women and their families who have access to HIV testing and counselling in the context of PMTCT. Similarly, access to antiretrovirals for PMTCT has witnessed a 152% increase in these eight states between October 2013 and October 2014. Conclusion A data-driven and participatory approach can be used to rapidly scale-up PMTCT services at community and facility levels in this region. These results present us with hope for real progress in Nigeria. We are confident that the efforts described here will contribute significantly to eliminating new pediatric HIV infection in Nigeria. PMID:28046045

  18. Children's Empowerment in Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Natalie

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the level of empowerment and autonomy children can create in their play experiences. It examines the play discourses that children build and maintain and considers the importance of play contexts in supporting children's emotional and social development. These aspects of play are often unseen or misunderstood by the adult…

  19. The Play of Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry

    2012-01-01

    The author reviews the role of play within psychotherapy. She does not discuss the formal play therapy especially popular for young children, nor play from the Jungian perspective that encourages the use of the sand tray with adults. Instead, she focuses on the informal use of play during psychotherapy as it is orchestrated intuitively. Because…

  20. Applying Play to Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Patricia S.; Fokes, Joann

    The objectives of this paper are (1) to present the relationship of play to language and cognition, (2) to describe the stages of play and discuss recent literature about the characteristics of play, and (3) to describe the use of play with the multifaceted goals of cognition, pragmatics, semantics, syntax, and morphology as an intervention…

  1. Terrible Twos: Why Are 2-Year-Olds So Difficult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... activity. Also, consider avoiding challenging situations — such as going shopping during your child's nap time — and be sure to praise your child for appropriate behavior. By accepting the changes your child is going through and showing him or her love and ...

  2. Aggression in Pretend Play and Aggressive Behavior in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…

  3. Running on Empty? Observing Causal Relationships of Play and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul L.; Jalloul, Malak

    2013-01-01

    In an article in the January 2013 "Psychological Review," Lillard, Lemer, Hopkins, Dore, Smith, and Palmquist set out to critique the customary claim that pretend play contributes to healthy child development. Following Peter Smith, they distinguished three possibilities for the impact of pretend play. Pretend play, they proposed, might…

  4. Children's Play in the Visual Arts and Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout history, society has expressed little interest in early childhood play. Still early literature authors and classical paintings portray childhood play experiences. The way play has been conceived in the past in child development, psychology and other disciplines relates to contemporary early childhood programmes. This article provides an…

  5. Difficult Airway Management in Field Conditions: Somalia Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Ahmet Selim; Nasır, Serdar Nazif

    2015-10-01

    Difficult airway is defined as having the patient's mask ventilation or difficult tracheal intubation of an experienced anaesthesiologist. A number of reasons, such as congenital or acquired anatomical anomalies, can cause difficult intubation and difficult ventilation. Keeping all equipment ready for airway management of patients will reduce mortality and complications. In this case, it is intended that the submission of difficult airway management who encountered in mandibular reconstruction for mandible bone defect repairing with reconstruction plates before at the field conditions in Somalia.

  6. HMM adaptation for child speech synthesis using ASR data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, N

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring large amounts of child speech data is a particularly difficult task. One could therefore consider the possibility to add existing corpora of child speech data to the severely limited resources that are available for developing child voices...

  7. The relationship between creativity and variety of play material in the context of symbolic play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelka Fric Jekovec

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During children's symbolic play many cognitive, emotional and social processes take place. A child develops her potential through symbolic play, and creativity is one such potential. Our research focused on investigating the relationship between creativity in early childhood and physical representation of play material in the context of symbolic play. 59 children were included in the study, aged from five to six years. We assessed their creativity before and after ten play-sessions using the Test for Creative Thinking TCT-DP. Each child played individually with one of six types of play material that varied with respect to three characteristics: structure, realism, and complexity. We hypothesized that creativity would increase for all types of play material but that it would not increase evenly across play materials. Due to statistically insignificant differences in creativity measures over time, we could not validate these hypotheses. We did however find a small increase in creativity for a group that played with low-structured, low-realism and low-complexity play material. This result is consistent with other similar research in the field.

  8. Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    As children grow older, they develop in several different ways. Child development includes physical, intellectual, social, and emotional changes. Children grow and mature at very different rates. It's ...

  9. Exploring Pedagogical Relationships in the Context of Free Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.; Rosborough, Alessandro A.

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood advocates agree that positive teacher-child relationships are critical to classroom quality. Much research has emphasized quantifiable teacher characteristics and child outcomes without fully capturing the complexity of these relationships. Drawing on extensive classroom observations, two video-recorded free play sessions and…

  10. Let's 'play' with molecular pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Supriyo; Pradhan, Richeek; Sengupta, Gairik; Das, Manisha; Chatterjee, Manojit; Roy, Ranendra Kumar; Chatterjee, Suparna

    2015-01-01

    Understanding concepts of molecular mechanisms of drug action involves sequential visualization of physiological processes and drug effects, a task that can be difficult at an undergraduate level. Role-play is a teaching-learning methodology whereby active participation of students as well as clear visualization of the phenomenon is used to convey complex physiological concepts. However, its use in teaching drug action, a process that demands understanding of a second level of complexity over the physiological process, has not been investigated. We hypothesized that role-play can be an effective and well accepted method for teaching molecular pharmacology. In an observational study, students were guided to perform a role-play on a selected topic involving drug activity. Students' gain in knowledge was assessed comparing validated pre- and post-test questionnaires as well as class average normalized gain. The acceptance of role-play among undergraduate medical students was evaluated by Likert scale analysis and thematic analysis of their open-ended written responses. Significant improvement in knowledge (P pharmacology in undergraduate medical curricula.

  11. The play grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh, Rune; Johansen, Asger

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose The Play Grid, a model for systemizing different play types. The approach is psychological by nature and the actual Play Grid is based, therefore, on two pairs of fundamental and widely acknowledged distinguishing characteristics of the ego, namely: extraversion vs...... at the Play Grid. Thus, the model has four quadrants, each of them describing one of four play types: the Assembler, the Director, the Explorer, and the Improviser. It is our hope that the Play Grid can be a useful design tool for making entertainment products for children....

  12. Play for All Children: The Toy Library Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sara C; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Discusses difficulties parents encounter when they play with their disabled child and the inappropriateness of some commercial toys for disabled children. Also describes the development of adapted toys and of toy lending libraries for young disabled children. (BB)

  13. Negotiation Games: Acquiring Skills by Playing

    OpenAIRE

    Pacios Alvarez, Antonia; Cobo Benita, José Ramón; Ortiz Marcos, Isabel; Vargas Funes, Jose María

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows the research done at the School of Industrial Engineers (ETSII) of the Technical University of Madrid (UPM), in two consecutive academic courses. In this negotiation game each team is formed by three students playing different roles, with a different degree of complexity. The game is played three different times changing the conditions and doing the Zones of Possible Agreement (ZOPA) smaller so the negotiation is going “harder” and it was more difficult for the team to achiev...

  14. Role-Playing Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)

  15. Play the Tuberculosis Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questionnaire Tuberculosis Play Tuberculosis Experiments & Discoveries About the game Discover and experience some of the classic methods ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  16. Play the MRI Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teachers' Questionnaire MRI Play MRI the Magnetic Miracle Game About the game In the MRI imaging technique, strong magnets and ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  17. Play the Electrocardiogram Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Electrocardiogram Play the ECG Game About the game ECG is used for diagnosing heart conditions by ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  18. Learning Through Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... play, such as using play dough, LEGOs, and board games. Toys such as puzzles, pegboards, beads, and lacing ... Building sets, books, bicycles, roller skates, ice skates, board games, checkers, beginning sports • Middle Schoolers and Adolescents: Athletics, ...

  19. Children, Time, and Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkind, David; Rinaldi, Carla; Flemmert Jensen, Anne;

    Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003.......Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003....

  20. Role-Playing Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)

  1. Play at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier Sørensen, Bent; Spoelstra, Sverre

    2012-01-01

    for business and the other insists that work and play are largely indistinguishable in the postindustrial organization. Our field study of a design and communications company in Denmark shows that organizational play can be much more than just functional to the organization. We identify three ways in which......The interest in organizational play is growing, both in popular business discourse and organization studies. As the presumption that play is dysfunctional for organizations is increasingly discarded, the existing positions may be divided into two camps; one proposes ‘serious play’ as an engine...... workplaces engage in play: play as a (serious) continuation of work, play as a (critical) intervention into work and play as an (uninvited) usurpation of work....

  2. Playing with social identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This chapter offers support for Vygotsky’s claim that all play involves both an imagined situation as well as rules. Synthesising Schousboe’s comprehensive model of spheres of realities in playing (see Chapter 1, this volume) with Lev Vygotskys insight that all playing involve rules as well...

  3. Playing against the Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmele, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    The paper first outlines a differentiation of play/game-motivations that include "negative" attitudes against the play/game itself like cheating or spoilsporting. This problem is of particular importance in concern of learning games because they are not "played" for themselves--at least in the first place--but due to an…

  4. Play the Mosquito Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Malaria Play the Mosquito Game Play the Parasite Game About the games Malaria is one of the world's most common ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  5. (Steering) interactive play behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delden, van Robertus Wilhelmus

    2017-01-01

    Play is a powerful means to have an impact on the cognitive, social-emotional, and/or motor skills development. The introduction of technology brings new possibilities to provide engaging and entertaining whole-body play activities. Technology mediates the play activities and in this way changes how

  6. (Steering) interactive play behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Delden, Robertus Wilhelmus

    2017-01-01

    Play is a powerful means to have an impact on the cognitive, social-emotional, and/or motor skills development. The introduction of technology brings new possibilities to provide engaging and entertaining whole-body play activities. Technology mediates the play activities and in this way changes how

  7. The Role of Play in Children’s Palliative Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Boucher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Play is the universal language of childhood and the time and opportunity to play is every child’s right. The role of play as a vehicle for communication, a tool for distraction and its value in the holistic development of a normal child is without dispute. The role and value of play increase proportionately when a child is made more vulnerable through illness or disability. Despite this, providing time and opportunities to play can be overlooked or considered to be of little importance or relevance when the focus of the adult carers is the amelioration of clinical symptoms of the illness and on lessening the psychological impact the illness may have on the child. This paper outlines the role and the value of play as an integral component in the provision of palliative care for children with chronic, life-threatening and life-limiting conditions. It will show how providing appropriate equipment, sufficient time and relevant play opportunities not only improves the very sick child’s psychological wellbeing, but also allows the child to cast aside the confines and restrictions imposed upon them by their illness and for a few golden moments to be nothing more than a child at play.

  8. [Parent-child relationships and mindfulness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimasu, Kouichi; Oga, Hidefumi; Kagaya, Ryo; Kitabayashi, Makiko; Kanaya, Yuki

    2012-01-01

    Psychological approaches such as mindfulness-based stress reduction or mindfulness-based cognitive therapy could be effective for relieving a wide range of psychosocial stresses or frictions between parents and children. Several interventional approaches based on mindfulness have been shown to be useful for improving parent-child relationships not only among healthy families but also among those with difficult psychopathologies. Particularly in the relationships of parents with their children with developmental disorders such as autism or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders, these approaches may play an important role in that the motivations of both parents and children could be enhanced because they can actually feel that their mental condition improves through meaningful parent-child interactions that they experience in their daily lives. These approaches are also expected to improve communications between mothers and children through the development of a finely honed sensitivity. One practical example is shown for the mental growth of children by the mindfulness-based dietary education and the secondary effects of this education on the parents. We can also apply these effective methods to the improvement of general interpersonal relationships.

  9. Virtual patients: an effective educational intervention to improve paediatric basic specialist trainee education in the management of suspected child abuse?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McEvoy, M M

    2011-09-01

    Child abuse is a particularly difficult subject to teach at both undergraduate and postgraduate level. Most doctors are dissatisfied with their training in child abuse recognition and management. We developed an interactive video based Virtual Patient to provide formal training for paediatric Basic Specialist Trainees in the recognition of suspected child abuse. The Virtual Patient case revolves around the management of suspected physical abuse in a seven month old child, who initially presents to the Emergency Department with viral upper respiratory tract symptoms. This Virtual Patient was used to facilitate a case discussion with Basic Specialist Trainees. A questionnaire was developed to determine their perception of the value of the Virtual Patient as an educational tool. Twenty five Basic Specialist Trainees completed the questionnaire. Upon completion of the case, 23\\/25 (92%) participants reported greater self confidence in their ability to recognize cases of suspected child abuse and 24\\/25 (96%) of participants reported greater self confidence in their ability to report cases of suspected child abuse. Basic Specialist Trainees perceived the Virtual Patient to be a useful educational tool. Virtual Patients may have a role to play in enhancing postgraduate training in the recognition of suspected child abuse.

  10. Playing with social identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This chapter offers support for Vygotsky’s claim that all play involves both an imagined situation as well as rules. Synthesising Schousboe’s comprehensive model of spheres of realities in playing (see Chapter 1, this volume) with Lev Vygotskys insight that all playing involve rules as well...... as pretence, children’s play is understood as an activity involving rules of the social order (roles and positions) as well as identification processes (imagined situations). The theoretical argumentation builds on empirical examples obtained in two different Danish day-care centres. The chapter is informed...... by ethnographic observations and draws on illustrative examples with symbolic group play as well as game-play with rules (soccer) among 5 year old boys. Findings suggest that day-care children’s play, involves negotiation of roles, positioning and identification, and rules – and that these negotiations...

  11. Why Are the Mathematics National Examination Items Difficult and What Is Teachers' Strategy to Overcome It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnawati, Heri; Kartowagiran, Badrun; Arlinwibowo, Janu; Sulistyaningsih, Eny

    2017-01-01

    The quality of national examination items plays an enormous role in identifying students' competencies mastery and their difficulties. This study aims to identify the difficult items in the Junior High School Mathematics National Examination, to find the factors that cause students' difficulty and to reveal the strategies that the teachers and the…

  12. Child Care and Child Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  13. Child Care and Child Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  14. Parenting with Positive Behavior Support: A Practical Guide to Resolving Your Child's Difficult Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieneman, Meme; Childs, Karen; Sergay, Jane

    2006-01-01

    Now the theory and research behind the positive behavior support (PBS) process--an approach already proven effective in schools and community programs--has been transformed into a practical, easy-to-use guide that's perfect for sharing with parents. Developed by educators and families, this user-friendly handbook offers parents easy-to-follow…

  15. Difficult intubation management in a child with I-cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfouz Abdul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available I-cell disease (mucolipidosis II is a rare metabolic disorder resulting from the deficiency of a specific lysosomal enzyme, N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferease. Developmental delay and growth failure are common presentations of I-cell disease. Psychomotor deterioration is rapid and progressive. Some physical signs such as hip dislocations, inguinal hernia, hepatomegaly, joint limitation, and skin changes may be present at birth. Coarse facial features and skeletal abnormalities become more conspicuous with time. The life expectancy of children with this condition is poor, with death usually occurring around the fifth year. A case report of the anesthetic management of gingivectomy with multiple dental extractions in a 5-year-old Omani female with I-cell disease is presented. The problems faced and their management during anesthesia are described.

  16. Flowers, Fruits, & Fingers: Preservice Teachers Write about Difficult Topics for a Child Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian; May, Laura A.; Williams, Rhina Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    The authors of this article work in a university-based teacher preparation program designed to prepare teachers to serve in urban, historically underserved schools. Entrance to the program is competitive. Preservice teachers are selected, in part, for their rich life experiences and interest in working in high-needs schools. Even with this…

  17. Differential Susceptibility to the Effects of Child Temperament on Maternal Warmth and Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunju J.

    2013-01-01

    A child's difficult temperament can elicit negative parenting and inhibit positive parenting behavior. However, mothers appear to be differentially susceptible to child temperament. The author examined the differential susceptibility to the effects of a child's temperament on the mother-child interaction style (i.e., maternal warmth and…

  18. Child Development & Behavior Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Child Topics Commentaries Featured Links Contact Us Child Development & Behavior Topics A B C D E F ... Seat Safety Carbon Monoxide Chewing Tobacco Child Care Child Development Milestones Child Development, What Do Grown-Ups Know ...

  19. Improving oncology nurses' communication skills for difficult conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Linda; Weinstein, Elizabeth

    2013-06-01

    When oncology nurses have strong communication skills, they play a pivotal role in influencing patient satisfaction, adherence to plans of care, and overall clinical outcomes. However, research studies indicate that nurses tend to keep communication with patients and families at a superficial, nontherapeutic level. Processes for teaching goals-of-care communication skills and for implementing skills into clinical practice are not clearly defined. Nurses at a large comprehensive cancer center recognized the need for help with this skill set and sought out communication experts to assist in providing the needed education. An educational project was developed to improve therapeutic communication skills in oncology nurses during goals-of-care discussions and giving bad news. The program was tailored to nurses and social workers providing care to patients in a busy, urban, academic, outpatient oncology setting. Program topics included exploring the patient's world, eliciting hopes and concerns, and dealing with conflict about goals. Sharing and discussing specific difficult questions and scenarios were encouraged throughout the program. The program was well attended and well received by oncology nurses and social workers. Participants expressed interest in the continuation of communication programs to further enhance skills.

  20. "Play and Culture Studies, Vol. 2: Play Contexts Revisited," by Stuart Reifel, Ed. Book Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Doris

    2000-01-01

    Notes that variety and difference in writing styles, methodology, and theoretical perspectives are both the greatest strength and greatest limitation of this book containing articles on child, adult, and animal play written by authors from education, psychology, anthropology, and sociology. Suggests that readers can gain theoretical and…

  1. Etiological contributions to the covariation between children's perceptions of inter-parental conflict and child behavioral problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolas, Molly; Klump, Kelly L; Burt, S Alexandra

    2013-02-01

    Prior work has suggested that inter-parental conflict likely plays an etiological role in child behavior problems. However, family-level measurement of inter-parental conflict in most traditional child twin studies has made it difficult to tease apart the specific causal mechanisms underlying this association. The Children's Perception of Inter-parental Conflict scale (CPIC) provides a child-specific measurement tool for examining these questions, as its subscales tap multiple dimensions of conflict assessed from the child's (rather than the parent's) perspective. The current study examined (1) the degree of genetic and environmental influence on each of the CPIC subscales, and (2) etiological contributions to the covariation between the CPIC scales and parental reports of child behavioral problems. The CPIC was completed by 1,200 child twins (aged 6-11 years) from the Michigan State University Twin Registry (MSUTR). Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to assess child internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Multivariate models were examined to evaluate the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to both the CPIC scales and to their overlap with child behavioral outcomes. Modeling results indicated no significant moderation of sex or age. Significant environmental overlap emerged between the CPIC conflict properties scale and child internalizing and externalizing problems. By contrast, significant genetic correlations emerged between the CPIC self-blame scale and externalizing problems as well as between the CPIC threat scale and internalizing problems. Overall, findings suggest that the subscales of the CPIC are somewhat etiologically diverse and may provide a useful tool for future investigations of possible gene-environment interplay.

  2. Late Modern Play Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg-Karoff, Helle

    2008-01-01

    Children's play and culture have changed over the recent years, and it is possible to understand the changes as a result of a more general change in society. We witness a large degree of changes connected to demographical aspects of children's lives. First of all it is a fact that large groups....... They are changing play arenas in order to find the identity, which suits them. In order to play children must know and be conscious of the cultural heritage, which contains knowledge of the way to organize in the playing session, the aesthetics, the techniques of playing, and this is something that is handed down...... from one generation to the next. Because older children are no longer present as younger children grow up, the traditional "cultural leaders" are gone. They have taken with them much of the inspiration for play as well as important knowledge about how to organise a game. In that sense we can say...

  3. Play, dreams, and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, J D

    1998-01-01

    Viewed ontogenetically, creating, dreaming, and playing are a variant of object relatedness. It is suggested that in recapitulating the ontogenetic sequence, creating, dreaming, and playing each as a process initiates by de-differentiation to primal union, evolves into transitional functioning, and consummates in tertiary cognitive discourse. The products of the triad--the created object, the dream, and play--are viewed as synergistic psychodynamic composites of topical, personal, and arche-typical imperatives. Creating, dreaming, and playing are easily overburdened by events, becoming stereotypical and repetitious. Nowhere is this more clearly seen than in the play of chronically ill, hospitalized children. It is suggested that with development generally, playing is replaced by formalized games; only dreaming continues as the vestige of early creative abilities.

  4. Play and virtuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein Sando

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The similarities between virtuality and play are obvious, beginning with, for instance, the ubiquitous character of both. This paper deals with how insights from research on play can be used to enlighten our understanding of the ethical dimensions of activities in cyberspace, and vice versa. In particular, a central claim that play is beyond vice and virtue is debated and contested.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v4i2.1762

  5. Why do Dolphins Play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan A. Kuczaj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Play is an important aspect of dolphin life, perhaps even an essential one. Play provides opportunities for dolphin calves to practice and perfect locomotor skills, including those involved in foraging and mating strategies and behaviors. Play also allows dolphin calves to learn important social skills and acquire information about the characteristics and predispositions of members of their social group, particularly their peers. In addition to helping dolphin calves learn how to behave, play also provides valuable opportunities for them to learn how to think. The ability to create and control play contexts enables dolphins to create novel experiences for themselves and their playmates under relatively safe conditions. The behavioral variability and individual creativity that characterize dolphin play yield ample opportunities for individual cognitive development as well as social learning, and sometimes result in innovations that are reproduced by other members of the group. Although adults sometimes produce innovative play, calves are the primary source of such innovations. Calves are also more likely to imitate novel play behaviors than are adults, and so calves contribute significantly to both the creation and transmission of novel play behaviors within a group. Not unexpectedly, then, the complexity of dolphin play increases with the involvement of peers. As a result, the opportunity to observe and/or interact with other dolphin calves enhances the effects of play on the acquisition and maintenance of flexible problem solving skills, the emergence and strengthening of social and communicative competencies, and the establishment of social relationships. It seems that play may have evolved to help young dolphins learn to adapt to novel situations in both their physical and social worlds, the beneficial result being a set of abilities that increases the likelihood that an individual survives and reproduces.

  6. PlayBook三人行

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黑莓时光

    2011-01-01

    PlayBook,来自非苹果的另外一个水果——黑莓,它不是iPad,却也是平板。PBer,这个并不完美的平板——PlayBook的用户,他们开朗、认真、执着。热爱PlayBook的三人,拥有各自的人生轨迹,却挂着同样的嘴角上扬。

  7. Parent-Child Interactions and Obesity Prevention: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouteris, Helen; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.; Aksan, Nazan; Dell'Aquila, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Child obesity research has generally not examined multiple layers of parent-child relationships during weight-related activities such as feeding, eating and play. A literature review was conducted to locate empirical studies that measured parent-child interactions and child eating and child weight variables; five papers met the inclusion criteria…

  8. Play your part

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsey, Gaynor

    1978-01-01

    Play your part is a collection of then situations in which students have to take on the roles of particular people and express their opinions, feelings or arguments about the situation. Play your part is intended for use with advanced students of English.

  9. Role Playing and Skits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letwin, Robert, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Explores non-scripted role playing, dialogue role playing, sociodrama, and skits as variations of simulation techniques. Provides step-by-step guidelines for conducting such sessions. Successful Meetings, Bill Communications, Inc., 1422 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 19102. Subscription Rates: yearly (US, Canada, Mexico) $14.00; elsewhere,…

  10. The Play's the Thing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    The modern special education theater in the United States has hosted many plays, none with a larger or more diverse cast than the learning disabilities (LD) play. During the prologue, the children with LD were waiting in the wings, not yet identified as LD but there, nonetheless. With the advent of compulsory education in this country, awareness…

  11. Playfulness and Openness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela; Petersson, Eva

    2011-01-01

    What does it mean to design a playful learning tool? What is needed for a learning tool to be perceived by potential users as playful? These questions emerged reflecting on a Participatory Design process aimed at enhancing museum-learning practice from the perspective of primary school children. ...

  12. Play as Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henricks, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    The author investigates what he believes one of the more important aspects of play--the experience it generates in its participants. He considers the quality of this experience in relation to five ways of viewing play--as action, interaction, activity, disposition, and within a context. He treats broadly the different forms of affect, including…

  13. Art of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel Cristina G.; Walker, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Play is a key element in cultural development, according to the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga. Nowadays many of us interact with other people in online games and social networks, through multiple digital devices. But harnessing playful activities for museum learning is mostly undeveloped. In thi...

  14. Family Play Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Shlomo

    This paper examines a case study of family play therapy in Israel. The unique contributions of play therapy are evaluated including the therapy's accessibility to young children, its richness and flexibility, its exposure of covert patterns, its wealth of therapeutic means, and its therapeutic economy. The systematization of the therapy attempts…

  15. Return to Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Call it physical activity, call it games, or call it play. Whatever its name, it's a place we all need to return to. In the physical education, recreation, and dance professions, we need to redesign programs to address the need for and want of play that is inherent in all of us.

  16. Playful Collaboration (Or Not)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Marcel; Sproedt, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how playing games can be used to teach intangible social interaction across boundaries, in particular within open collaborative innovation. We present an exploratory case study of how students learned from playing a board game in a graduate course of the international...... imply several opportunities and challenges within education and beyond....

  17. Art of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel Cristina G.; Walker, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Play is a key element in cultural development, according to the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga. Nowadays many of us interact with other people in online games and social networks, through multiple digital devices. But harnessing playful activities for museum learning is mostly undeveloped. In thi...

  18. Play framework cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Reelsen, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at advanced developers who are looking to harness the power of Play 2.x. This book will also be useful for professionals looking to dive deeper into web development. Play 2 .x is an excellent framework to accelerate your learning of advanced topics.

  19. Let's Just Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Children have a right to play. The idea is so simple it seems self-evident. But a stroll through any toy superstore, or any half-hour of so-called "children's" programming on commercial TV, makes it clear that violence, not play, dominates what's being sold. In this article, the author discusses how teachers and parents share the responsibility in…

  20. Difficult Airway Society 2015 guidelines for management of unanticipated difficult intubation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerk, C; Mitchell, V S; McNarry, A F; Mendonca, C; Bhagrath, R; Patel, A; O'Sullivan, E P; Woodall, N M; Ahmad, I

    2015-12-01

    These guidelines provide a strategy to manage unanticipated difficulty with tracheal intubation. They are founded on published evidence. Where evidence is lacking, they have been directed by feedback from members of the Difficult Airway Society and based on expert opinion. These guidelines have been informed by advances in the understanding of crisis management; they emphasize the recognition and declaration of difficulty during airway management. A simplified, single algorithm now covers unanticipated difficulties in both routine intubation and rapid sequence induction. Planning for failed intubation should form part of the pre-induction briefing, particularly for urgent surgery. Emphasis is placed on assessment, preparation, positioning, preoxygenation, maintenance of oxygenation, and minimizing trauma from airway interventions. It is recommended that the number of airway interventions are limited, and blind techniques using a bougie or through supraglottic airway devices have been superseded by video- or fibre-optically guided intubation. If tracheal intubation fails, supraglottic airway devices are recommended to provide a route for oxygenation while reviewing how to proceed. Second-generation devices have advantages and are recommended. When both tracheal intubation and supraglottic airway device insertion have failed, waking the patient is the default option. If at this stage, face-mask oxygenation is impossible in the presence of muscle relaxation, cricothyroidotomy should follow immediately. Scalpel cricothyroidotomy is recommended as the preferred rescue technique and should be practised by all anaesthetists. The plans outlined are designed to be simple and easy to follow. They should be regularly rehearsed and made familiar to the whole theatre team.

  1. Hospital Clowning as Play Stimulus in Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Anes; Marianne Obi

    2014-01-01

    A serious illness, a chronic medical condition or a hospital bed should not deny any child her/his basic right to play, a right essential for children’s development and general wellbeing. In fact, it is in these frightening and anxious moments that play and the stimulus that it provides can help the most. This article will focus on the impacts and benefits of professional hospital clowning for the wellbeing and recovery process of ill and hospitalized children. Our experience has shown that t...

  2. Toddlers' Emerging Symbolic Play: A First-Born Advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Helen; Wyver, Shirley; Masselos, Grace; De Lacey, Philip

    2004-01-01

    The influence of older peers on younger children's emerging symbolic play was examined for 24 young children in eight participating long-day child-care centres. Toddler participants (aged from 17 to 31 months) were observed and video-taped in three conditions in free play in the outdoor environment as follows: condition one, with their same-age…

  3. Difficult Airway Society 2015 guidelines for management of unanticipated difficult intubation in adults†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerk, C.; Mitchell, V. S.; McNarry, A. F.; Mendonca, C.; Bhagrath, R.; Patel, A.; O'Sullivan, E. P.; Woodall, N. M.; Ahmad, I.

    2015-01-01

    These guidelines provide a strategy to manage unanticipated difficulty with tracheal intubation. They are founded on published evidence. Where evidence is lacking, they have been directed by feedback from members of the Difficult Airway Society and based on expert opinion. These guidelines have been informed by advances in the understanding of crisis management; they emphasize the recognition and declaration of difficulty during airway management. A simplified, single algorithm now covers unanticipated difficulties in both routine intubation and rapid sequence induction. Planning for failed intubation should form part of the pre-induction briefing, particularly for urgent surgery. Emphasis is placed on assessment, preparation, positioning, preoxygenation, maintenance of oxygenation, and minimizing trauma from airway interventions. It is recommended that the number of airway interventions are limited, and blind techniques using a bougie or through supraglottic airway devices have been superseded by video- or fibre-optically guided intubation. If tracheal intubation fails, supraglottic airway devices are recommended to provide a route for oxygenation while reviewing how to proceed. Second-generation devices have advantages and are recommended. When both tracheal intubation and supraglottic airway device insertion have failed, waking the patient is the default option. If at this stage, face-mask oxygenation is impossible in the presence of muscle relaxation, cricothyroidotomy should follow immediately. Scalpel cricothyroidotomy is recommended as the preferred rescue technique and should be practised by all anaesthetists. The plans outlined are designed to be simple and easy to follow. They should be regularly rehearsed and made familiar to the whole theatre team. PMID:26556848

  4. Personalising game difficulty to keep children motivated to play with a social robot: A Bayesian approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schadenberg, Bob Rinse; Aly, A.; Neerincx, M.A.; Griffiths, S.; Cnossen, F.; Stramandinoli, F.; Tapus, A.; Looije, R.; Nori, F.

    2016-01-01

    For effective child education, playing games with a social robot should be motivating for a longer period of time. One aspect that can affect the motivation of a child is the difficulty of a game. The game should be perceived as challenging, while at the same time, the child should be confident to

  5. Play vs. Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammar, Emil

    Through the theories of play by Gadamer (2004) and Henricks (2006), I will show how the relationship between play and game can be understood as dialectic and disruptive, thus challenging understandings of how the procedures of games determine player activity and vice versa. As such, I posit some...... analytical consequences for understandings of digital games as procedurally fixed (Boghost, 2006; Flannagan, 2009; Bathwaite & Sharp, 2010). That is, if digital games are argued to be procedurally fixed and if play is an appropriative and dialectic activity, then it could be argued that the latter affects...

  6. Non-adherence in difficult asthma and advances in detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, John T; Heaney, Liam G

    2013-12-01

    Non-adherence to anti-inflammatory therapies is common in patients referred for specialist assessment at difficult-to-treat asthma services. In the difficult asthma setting, non-adherence to treatment is associated with poor baseline asthma control, increased frequency of exacerbations and asthma-related hospitalizations, as well as increased risk of death. Here, we present a review of the current literature surrounding the prevalence and risks of non-adherence in difficult asthma and we report on current methods of measuring treatment adherence and advances in the detection of non-adherence. We will also explore methods by which non-adherence in difficult asthma can be addressed.

  7. Incidence and predictors of difficult mask ventilation and intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerana N Shah

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The predictive score may lead to a better anticipation of difficult airway management, potentially deceasing the morbidity and mortality resulting from hypoxia or anoxia with failed ventilation.

  8. Culture-specific views of child maltreatment and parenting styles in a Pacific-Island community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, A F; McClure, F H; Collier, J; Otto, C; Polloi, A

    1999-03-01

    Providing culturally sensitive definitions of child abuse is difficult as perceptions of what constitutes abuse can vary around the world. This study was undertaken to assess how teachers in the Republic of Palau perceived the severity of potentially abusive incidents and what types of recommendations, if any, they would have for situations judged as severely abusive. Attitudes about child rearing practices were also evaluated. Teachers (n = 141 ) were given: (1) a questionnaire consisting of 25 vignettes describing parent/child interactions that were potentially abusive and asked to rate the severity of abuse and recommended interventions for each vignette; and (2) a 40-item parenting styles questionnaires to evaluate attitudes about child-rearing practices. Teachers identified and recommended interventions for more severe forms of abuse at rates similar to other international samples. For less severe parental misconduct, teachers were reluctant to involve nonfamily and outside agencies. Sexual abuse was rated as the most serious type of abuse and when identified, intervention was highly recommended. Some traditional Palauan parenting practices that might be considered maltreatment by other cultures were not considered abusive. For parenting styles, older individuals were more likely to use guilt induction and less likely to use methods of acceptance. Aggressive parenting styles were negatively correlated with all forms of abuse, suggesting that teachers who used aggressive disciplinary styles were less likely to perceive abusive situations as harmful. These results indicate that cultural values and practices play important roles in shaping the definition and interpretation of child maltreatment.

  9. A longitudinal model of maternal self-efficacy, depression, and difficult temperament during toddlerhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, D; Conrad, B; Fogg, L; Wothke, W

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a model of maternal self-efficacy during toddlerhood using a longitudinal sequential design. Participants were 126 mothers of 1-year olds (Cohort 1) and 126 mothers of 2-year olds (Cohort 2) who completed questionnaires measuring maternal self-efficacy, depression, and perceived difficult toddler temperament three times over 1 year. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling and maximum likelihood estimation. Findings support a model whereby (a) the more depressed the mother feels, the more likely she is to rate her toddler's temperament as difficult, (b) the more difficult the child's temperament is perceived to be, the lower the mother's estimates of her parenting self-efficacy, (c) the lower the mother's self-efficacy, the greater her depression, and (d) the more depressed the mother feels at one point in time, the more likely she is to remain depressed 6 months later. Implications of the findings are discussed as they relate to self-efficacy theory and nursing intervention with parents of difficult toddlers.

  10. Difficult airway management of children in ambulatory anesthesia: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang AS

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Andrea S Huang,1 Lindsey Rutland,2 John Hajduk,1 Narasimhan Jagannathan1,2 1Department of Pediatric Anesthesia, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: As the field of pediatric ambulatory anesthesia expands, anesthesiologists can anticipate encountering an increasing number of patients with expected and unexpected difficult airways. This unique setting and patient population both present challenges in making a decision whether and how to safely proceed in the case of a child with a difficult airway. A host of patient, provider, procedure, and facility-specific factors should be considered. Providers should understand the differences between the pediatric and adult airway, recognize common features and syndromes associated with difficult airways, and be comfortable with different airway equipment and techniques available in the ambulatory setting. Early anticipation, a comprehensive patient assessment, and a clear decision-making algorithm with multiple airway management plans are all critical in safely and effectively managing these patients. These issues and recommendations will be discussed in this comprehensive narrative review. Keywords: difficult airway, pediatrics, ambulatory surgery, airway devices, children

  11. Predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in at-risk families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Falco, Simona; Emer, Alessandra; Martini, Laura; Rigo, Paola; Pruner, Sonia; Venuti, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Child healthy development is largely influenced by parent-child interaction and a secure parent-child attachment is predictively associated with positive outcomes in numerous domains of child development. However, the parent-child relationship can be affected by several psychosocial and socio-demographic risk factors that undermine its quality and in turn play a negative role in short and long term child psychological health. Prevention and intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families can efficiently reduce the impact of risk factors on mother and child psychological health. This study examines predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in a sample of first-time mothers with psychosocial and/or socio-demographic risk factors. Forty primiparous women satisfying specific risk criteria participated in a longitudinal study with their children from pregnancy until 18 month of child age. A multiple psychological and socioeconomic assessment was performed. The Emotional Availability Scales were used to measure the quality of emotional exchanges between mother and child at 12 months and the Attachment Q-Sort served as a measure of child attachment security at 18 months. Results highlight both the effect of specific single factors, considered at a continuous level, and the cumulative risk effect of different co-occurring factors, considered at binary level, on mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security. Implication for the selection of inclusion criteria of intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families are discussed.

  12. How difficult is inference of mammalian causal gene regulatory networks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djordje Djordjevic

    Full Text Available Gene regulatory networks (GRNs play a central role in systems biology, especially in the study of mammalian organ development. One key question remains largely unanswered: Is it possible to infer mammalian causal GRNs using observable gene co-expression patterns alone? We assembled two mouse GRN datasets (embryonic tooth and heart and matching microarray gene expression profiles to systematically investigate the difficulties of mammalian causal GRN inference. The GRNs were assembled based on > 2,000 pieces of experimental genetic perturbation evidence from manually reading > 150 primary research articles. Each piece of perturbation evidence records the qualitative change of the expression of one gene following knock-down or over-expression of another gene. Our data have thorough annotation of tissue types and embryonic stages, as well as the type of regulation (activation, inhibition and no effect, which uniquely allows us to estimate both sensitivity and specificity of the inference of tissue specific causal GRN edges. Using these unprecedented datasets, we found that gene co-expression does not reliably distinguish true positive from false positive interactions, making inference of GRN in mammalian development very difficult. Nonetheless, if we have expression profiling data from genetic or molecular perturbation experiments, such as gene knock-out or signalling stimulation, it is possible to use the set of differentially expressed genes to recover causal regulatory relationships with good sensitivity and specificity. Our result supports the importance of using perturbation experimental data in causal network reconstruction. Furthermore, we showed that causal gene regulatory relationship can be highly cell type or developmental stage specific, suggesting the importance of employing expression profiles from homogeneous cell populations. This study provides essential datasets and empirical evidence to guide the development of new GRN inference

  13. How difficult is inference of mammalian causal gene regulatory networks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Djordje; Yang, Andrian; Zadoorian, Armella; Rungrugeecharoen, Kevin; Ho, Joshua W K

    2014-01-01

    Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) play a central role in systems biology, especially in the study of mammalian organ development. One key question remains largely unanswered: Is it possible to infer mammalian causal GRNs using observable gene co-expression patterns alone? We assembled two mouse GRN datasets (embryonic tooth and heart) and matching microarray gene expression profiles to systematically investigate the difficulties of mammalian causal GRN inference. The GRNs were assembled based on > 2,000 pieces of experimental genetic perturbation evidence from manually reading > 150 primary research articles. Each piece of perturbation evidence records the qualitative change of the expression of one gene following knock-down or over-expression of another gene. Our data have thorough annotation of tissue types and embryonic stages, as well as the type of regulation (activation, inhibition and no effect), which uniquely allows us to estimate both sensitivity and specificity of the inference of tissue specific causal GRN edges. Using these unprecedented datasets, we found that gene co-expression does not reliably distinguish true positive from false positive interactions, making inference of GRN in mammalian development very difficult. Nonetheless, if we have expression profiling data from genetic or molecular perturbation experiments, such as gene knock-out or signalling stimulation, it is possible to use the set of differentially expressed genes to recover causal regulatory relationships with good sensitivity and specificity. Our result supports the importance of using perturbation experimental data in causal network reconstruction. Furthermore, we showed that causal gene regulatory relationship can be highly cell type or developmental stage specific, suggesting the importance of employing expression profiles from homogeneous cell populations. This study provides essential datasets and empirical evidence to guide the development of new GRN inference methods for

  14. Play and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The power of play, so central to psychoanalytic theory and practice, is conjoined to the social psychological or socio-politically coloured concept of power, giving rise to many fruitful discussions of how these concepts manifest themselves in clinical work with children, groups and adults....... The inspiration for this book was the 3-section EFPP conference in Copenhagen in May 2007 with the main theme "Play and Power". At the conference and in the book, this theme is presented both inside and outside the therapeutic space. It is amply illustrated in clinical cases from individual psychotherapies....... Play and power are also explored in the broader context of the community, however. In relation to society at large, psychoanalytic psychotherapy has important contributions to offer society, and we need playful creativity and power to bring forward our knowledge about it....

  15. "They Get Fed up with Playing": Parents' Views on Play-Based Learning in the Preparatory Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Lyndal; Ailwood, Jo

    2012-01-01

    Within early childhood education two ideas are firmly held: that play is the best way for children to learn, and that parents are partners in the child's learning. While these ideas have been explored, limited research to date has investigated the confluence of the two--how parents of young children view the concept of play. This article…

  16. Early Parental Depression and Child Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, James F.; Keefe, Heather A.; Leiferman, Jenn A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of early maternal and paternal depression on child expressive language at age 24 months and the role that parent-to-child reading may play in this pathway. Participants and methods: The 9-month and 24-month waves from a national prospective study of children and their families, the Early Childhood Longitudinal…

  17. Child-Directed Interaction Training for Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: Parent and Child Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginn, Nicole C; Clionsky, Leah N; Eyberg, Sheila M; Warner-Metzger, Christina; Abner, John-Paul

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of the Child-Directed Interaction Training (CDIT) phase of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Thirty mother-child dyads with children ages 3-7 years with a diagnosis of ASD participated in this randomized controlled study. Following manualized CDIT, statistically significant and meaningful improvements in child disruptive behavior and social awareness as well as maternal distress associated with child disruptive behavior occurred. Across 8 sessions, mothers learned to provide positive attention to their children's appropriate social and play behaviors. Both child and parent changes were maintained at 6-week follow-up. A relatively brief, time-limited, and accessible intervention may be efficacious for improving child and parent behaviors in families of young children with ASD. By decreasing child disruptive behaviors, CDIT may also help to prepare children to benefit further from future interventions.

  18. Use of music and play in pediatric nursing care in the hospital context

    OpenAIRE

    Tondatti, Paula Chadi; Corrêa, Ione

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To identify and analyze scientific publications on the use of music and play in pediatric nursing care in the hospital context. Method. In this bibliographic study, papers were sought that were published in Portuguese or English between 2004 and 2009 and included the descriptors: hospitalized child, childhood, child recreation, nursing team, nursing, pediatric nursing, alternatives therapies, music, music therapy, play and playthings, play therapy, playing. For the review, the bibl...

  19. Management of difficult airway patients and the use of a difficult airway registry at a tertiary care pediatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeran, Paul W; Walsh, Brian K; Finley, Andre M; Martin, Aleta K; Brenski, Amy C

    2014-08-01

    Appropriate recognition and management of the pediatric difficult airway is essential. Two patient deaths in a 2-year period involving children with a known difficult airway led to the formation of the institution's multidisciplinary Difficult Airway Committee. Patients with a suspected difficult airway or a known difficult airway are entered into a registry of difficult airway patients. A note describing the airway and any experiences at airway manipulation is entered as part of a difficult airway note in the patient's electronic medical record as soon as the patient is recognized as having a difficult airway. A call system has been developed to mobilize expert emergency airway assistance for these patients. Multiple additional methods are employed to ensure that all hospital personnel are aware that these patients are difficult to intubate. Since inception almost 6 years ago, 164 patients (mean age 9.2 years) have been enrolled in the difficult airway registry. Eighty-seven patients (53%) had one of 28 identified syndromes or diagnoses. The most common reasons for airway obstruction were mandibular hypoplasia/micrognathia, decreased neck extension, and limited temporomandibular joint mobility. One hundred sixty-one patients (98%) in the registry were predicted by history or physical to have a difficult airway. The mortality of registry patients was 9.8% (n = 16) and was most commonly due to co-existing diseases. During the time period reviewed, there was one in-hospital death of a known difficult airway patient, in which expert airway assistance was not obtained in a timely fashion. The institution's difficult airway registry identifies patients with a suspected or known difficult airway. The presence of a difficult airway in children can usually be predicted based on history and physical examination by anesthesiologists and otolaryngologists. Providers without advanced airway skills, however, may not appreciate that an airway is difficult to intubate until

  20. Clinical Judgments of Easy vs. Difficult Clients by Counselor Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Allen; Morrison, Thomas L.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated responses of counselor trainees (N=31) to easy versus difficult clients in terms of clinical judgments. Results indicated that clients with a difficult interpersonal style were not regarded as more psychologically disturbed, but were rated as having less potential for change and less ego strength. (LLL)

  1. Can difficult intubation be easily and rapidly predicted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritscherova, Sarka; Adamus, Milan; Dostalova, Katerina; Koutna, Jirina; Hrabalek, Lumir; Zapletalova, Jana; Uvizl, Radovan; Janout, Vladimir

    2011-06-01

    Failed endotracheal intubation and inadequate ventilation with subsequent insufficient oxygenation can result in serious complications potentially leading to permanent health damage. Difficult intubation may occur not only in patients with apparent pathologies in the orofacial region but also, unexpectedly, in those without abnormalities. This study aimed at finding anthropometric parameters that are easy to examine and that would aid in predicting difficult intubation. A case-control study was undertaken. Based on defined criteria, 15 parameters were examined in patients with unanticipated difficult intubation. The parameters included a previous history of difficult intubation, pathologies associated with difficult intubation, clinical symptoms of airway pathology, the Mallampati score, upper lip bite test, receding mandible, and cervical spine and temporomandibular joint movement. Thyromental, hyomental and sternomental distances and inter-incisor gap were measured. The methods were precisely defined and the measurements were carried out by a trained anesthesiologist. Statistical analysis was performed on data from 74 patients with difficult intubation and 74 control patients with easy intubation. Significant predictors of difficult intubation were inter-incisor gap (IIG), thyromental distance (TMD) and class 3 limited movement of the temporomandibular joint. The IIG and TMD cut-offs were set at 42 mm and 93 mm, respectively. The results will be used to confirm these predictors in an anesthesiology clinic along with the aid of the laryngoscopic findings to improve the prediction of unanticipated difficult intubation.

  2. Validated Questionnaires heighten detection of Difficult Asthma Comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishna, Naghmeh; Tay, Tunn Ren; Hore-Lacy, Fiona; Stirling, Robert; Hoy, R; Dabscheck, Eli; Hew, Mark

    2016-10-07

    Objective Multiple extra-pulmonary comorbidities contribute to difficult asthma, but their diagnosis can be challenging and time consuming. Previous data on comorbidity detection have focused on clinical assessment, which may miss certain conditions. We aimed to locate relevant validated screening questionnaires to identify extra-pulmonary comorbidities that contribute to difficult asthma, and evaluate their performance during a difficult asthma evaluation. Methods MEDLINE was searched to identify key extra-pulmonary comorbidities that contribute to difficult asthma. Screening questionnaires were chosen based on ease of use, presence of a cut off score, and adequate validation to help systematically identify comorbidities. In a consecutive series of 86 patients referred for systematic evaluation of difficult asthma, questionnaires were administered prior to clinical consultation. Results Six difficult asthma comorbidities and corresponding screening questionnaires were found: sinonasal disease (allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis), vocal cord dysfunction, dysfunctional breathing, obstructive sleep apnea, anxiety and depression, and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. When the questionnaires were added to the referring clinician's impression, the detection of all six comorbidities was significantly enhanced. The average time for questionnaire administration was approximately 40 minutes. Conclusions The use of validated screening questionnaires heightens detection of comorbidities in difficult asthma. The availability of data from a battery of questionnaires prior to consultation can save time and allow clinicians to systematically assess difficult asthma patients and to focus on areas of particular concern. Such an approach would ensure that all contributing comorbidities have been addressed before significant treatment escalation is considered.

  3. Unusual tumour ablations: report of difficult and interesting cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, Giovanni; Nicosia, Luca; Varano, Gianluca Maria; Shyn, Paul; Sartori, Sergio; Tombesi, Paola; Di Vece, Francesca; Orsi, Franco; Solbiati, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Image-guided ablations are nowadays applied in the treatment of a wide group of diseases and in different organs and regions, and every day interventional radiologists have to face more difficult and unusual cases of tumour ablation. In the present case review, we report four difficult and unusual cases, reporting some tips and tricks for a successful image-guided treatment. PMID:28487751

  4. Difficult Tracheal Intubation in Obese Gastric Bypass patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohrn, Niclas; Sommer, Thorbjørn; Bisgaard, J.

    2016-01-01

    Endotracheal intubation is commonly perceived to be more difficult in obese patients than in lean patients. Primarily, we investigated the association between difficult tracheal intubation (DTI) and obesity, and secondarily, the association between DTI and validated scoring systems used to assess...

  5. CHILD ALLOWANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  6. Child Labor in Ghana: A multidimensional analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sam, Victoria Nyarkoah

    2016-01-01

    Child labor is a threatening evil. It is particularly dangerous because it involves the sacrifice of a child’s future welfare in exchange for immediate benefit; it is a difficult phenomenon to combat because it involves questions of power within the households. This study attempts to comprehensively investigate various dimensions of child labor in Ghana and show whether its ban will be beneficial to the country.

  7. Play and Learning: How the Two Leading Activities Meet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukerman G.A.,

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The transition from preschool to school age is a period when conceptual play may become the source of initiative and independence for a child — the very elements that learning activity lacks in its origins. The narrative plot of conceptual play helps children yet not capable of system thinking; it maintains the integrity and coherence of separate tasks given by a teacher, makes them more emotionally significant and provides new meanings for the child’s actions. However, if the teacher employs play and narrative only as the powerful motivators for learning, without the conceptual content, then cognitive and learning interests would generally develop in those children who came to school with a desire for knowledge and intellectual efforts. In conceptual play the child, acting on behalf of characters representing concepts, carries out the operations necessary for the formation of these concepts. The means of actions for the characters are instructional (schemes. Basing on the reading and writing lessons in primary school, the paper shows how conceptual play helps the child to keep in mind the simultaneously and equally existing (equally right points of view on the studied subject. This lays the foundations for the future conceptual thinking, positional in its nature as it implies the ability to hold and coordinate various aspects of conceptual contradiction. Narrative plots of conceptual play enable the child to introduce his/her own connotations into the plot of a learning play and to become a co-author of the lesson, contributing to its direction.

  8. 'Serious thigh muscle strains': beware the intramuscular tendon which plays an important role in difficult hamstring and quadriceps muscle strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brukner, Peter; Connell, David

    2016-02-01

    Why do some hamstring and quadriceps strains take much longer to repair than others? Which injuries are more prone to recurrence? Intramuscular tendon injuries have received little attention as an element in 'muscle strain'. In thigh muscles, such as rectus femoris and biceps femoris, the attached tendon extends for a significant distance within the muscle belly. While the pathology of most muscle injures occurs at a musculotendinous junction, at first glance the athlete appears to report pain within a muscle belly. In addition to the musculotendinous injury being a site of pathology, the intramuscular tendon itself is occasionally injured. These injuries have a variety of appearances on MRIs. There is some evidence that these injuries require a prolonged rehabilitation time and may have higher recurrence rates. Therefore, it is important to recognise the tendon component of a thigh 'muscle strain'.

  9. Child Health in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, Teresa; Ferreira, Ricardo; Azevedo, Inês

    2016-10-01

    Portugal has experienced rapid decline of neonatal and infant mortality in the last century, similar to that of other western European states. The joint venture of pediatricians and obstetricians with adequate top-down government commissions for maternal and child health for the decision making by health administrators and a well-defined schedule of preventive and managerial measures in the community and in hospitals are the most likely explanations for this success. Another achievement of child health care services is the registry for special diseases. Education of health care workers plays a fundamental role in improving health statistics. Portugal has a reasonable number of doctors, nurses, and health technicians per capita. Quality assurance monitoring systems and implementation of evidence-based clinical guidelines with digital records, including international coding, are essential steps to improve health care systems.

  10. Mother-child communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    Communication with children plays a crucial role not only for cognitive and social-emotional development but also in a more general sense for an understanding of self and self in relation to others. Research from linguistic anthropology and cultural developmental psychology have shown...... will therefore ultimately lead to different cultural developmental pathways. While traditional research in developmental psychology has focused on mother–child dyads and experimental designs there is an increasing recognition of the need for naturalistic studies of everyday communication with children including...... that there exists a great variety of cultural genres of communicating with children that are in line with the relevant broader cultural ideologies of good child care. Culture, communication, and self- development are inextricably intertwined. Culturally distinct communicative practices in which children participate...

  11. Mother-child communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    Communication with children plays a crucial role not only for cognitive and social-emotional development but also in a more general sense for an understanding of self and self in relation to others. Research from linguistic anthropology and cultural developmental psychology have shown...... that there exists a great variety of cultural genres of communicating with children that are in line with the relevant broader cultural ideologies of good child care. Culture, communication, and self- development are inextricably intertwined. Culturally distinct communicative practices in which children participate...... will therefore ultimately lead to different cultural developmental pathways. While traditional research in developmental psychology has focused on mother–child dyads and experimental designs there is an increasing recognition of the need for naturalistic studies of everyday communication with children including...

  12. Child temperament and maternal predictors of preschool children's eating and body mass index. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmeier, Heidi; Skouteris, Helen; Horwood, Sharon; Hooley, Merrilyn; Richardson, Ben

    2014-03-01

    Research has previously identified relationships between child temperament and BMI during childhood. However, few studies have addressed the broader implications of child temperament on the development of obesogenic risk factors, such as maternal feeding, child eating and body mass index (BMI) of pre-schoolers. Hence, the current study evaluated cross-sectional and prospective associations between child temperament, maternal feeding, maternal parenting styles, mother-child interaction, preschoolers' eating behaviours and BMI. Child irritability, cooperation-manageability and easy-difficult temperaments, mother-child dysfunctional interaction, maternal pressure to eat and restriction were significantly cross-sectionally associated with child eating behaviours. Child enjoyment of food was significantly associated with child BMI. Child easy-difficult temperament and mother-child dysfunctional interaction predicted child eating behaviours longitudinally and baseline child BMI measures predicted child BMI longitudinally. Average maternal ratings of child temperament were relatively neutral, potentially explaining why most associations were not robust longitudinally. Future research should include a sample of greater socio-economic and BMI diversity as well as objective measures of child temperament, diet composition, maternal feeding practices, and mother-child interaction.

  13. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  14. Your Child's Development: Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: Newborn ...

  15. Playing in Operations Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Guitart-Tarrés

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The current model of competency-based learning requires new tools that allow students to develop these competencies and become active subjects of their learning (rather than passive receivers of a contents. Gamification or ludification is becoming an innovative trend in many areas, also in higher education. Games can provide a useful environment for students to acquire professional skills, a fact that is much more difficult to acquire through traditional learning methods. In that sense, this paper presents the experience of designing a game for Operations Management students.

  16. The unwanted child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trias, M

    1982-12-01

    The problem of the unwanted child is a most grievous aspect of the complex of negative factors associated with underdevelopment. Although the problem of the unwanted child exists in industrialized countries as well, the incidence is much higher in the 3rd world. In industrialized nations modern contraceptives are widely available, public awareness of them is high, and legal abortion may be an option in the event of contraceptive failure or nonuse. In Colombia alone, nearly 1 million women are living in immediate danger of an unwanted pregnancy. In the 3rd world as a whole there are an estimated 150 million who do not want another pregnancy but who lack access to contraceptive information and services. Research from a variety of sources suggests that being unwanted and unloved can have a lasting effect on a child's development. Sociological research confirms the need to preserve the bond between mother and child. Studies of adopted children have established a clear relationship between their physical and psychological development and the age at which they were adopted. If this affective bond is not established in the early months of life, the negative effects which result may prove difficult to overcome. Yet, however late it comes, adoption is always preferable to the relative deprivation a child experiences when institutionalized. Studies conducted in Eastern Europe comparing children whose parents had requested an abortion but had not been granted permission with a control group of children revealed a pattern of inferior physical development and social adjustment in the 1st group. Intelligence, in addition to its important genetic foundation, requires physical nurturing and psychological stimulation from the surrounding environment, provided during the final months of pregnancy or the 1st few years of life. Religious doctrine postulates that universal maternal instinct allows the mother to overcome her problems, but this is often not the case. Infanticide dates

  17. Can play be defined?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Can play be defined? There is reason to raise critical questions about the established academic demand that at phenomenon – also in humanist studies – should first of all be defined, i.e. de-lineated and by neat lines limited to a “little box” that can be handled. The following chapter develops t....... Human beings can very well understand play – or whatever phenomenon in human life – without defining it........ The academic imperative of definition seems to be linked to the positivistic attempts – and produces sometimes monstrous definitions. Have they any philosophical value for our knowledge of what play is? Definition is not a universal instrument of knowledge-building, but a culturally specific construction...

  18. Playing and gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg; Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hanghøj, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    The paper develops an approach of playing and gaming activities through the perspective of both activities as mood activities . The point of departure is that a game - is a tool with which we, through our practices, achieve different moods. This based on an empirical study of children's everyday...... lives, where the differences emerge through actual practices, i.e. through the creation of meaning in the specific situations. The overall argument is that it is not that important whether it is a playing or a gaming activity - it is however crucial to be aware of how moods occur and what their optimal...... dimensions: practices and moods. Practice is the concept of all the doing in the activities. Moods are the particular concept of sense and feeling of being, which is what we are drawn to when we are playing or gaming....

  19. Playing and gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg; Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hanghøj, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    The paper develops an approach of playing and gaming activities through the perspective of both activities as mood activities . The point of departure is that a game - is a tool with which we, through our practices, achieve different moods. This based on an empirical study of children's everyday...... lives, where the differences emerge through actual practices, i.e. through the creation of meaning in the specific situations. The overall argument is that it is not that important whether it is a playing or a gaming activity - it is however crucial to be aware of how moods occur and what their optimal...... dimensions: practices and moods. Practice is the concept of all the doing in the activities. Moods are the particular concept of sense and feeling of being, which is what we are drawn to when we are playing or gaming....

  20. Child Laborers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    "When I was 12, I started working in a cotton mill as a child laborer." Fan Xiaofeng, the former vice-director of the Labor Protection Department of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions, wrote this sentence in one of her books. In 1932, she came to

  1. General game playing

    CERN Document Server

    Genesereth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    General game players are computer systems able to play strategy games based solely on formal game descriptions supplied at ""runtime"" (n other words, they don't know the rules until the game starts). Unlike specialized game players, such as Deep Blue, general game players cannot rely on algorithms designed in advance for specific games; they must discover such algorithms themselves. General game playing expertise depends on intelligence on the part of the game player and not just intelligence of the programmer of the game player.GGP is an interesting application in its own right. It is intell

  2. Playful Collaboration (or Not)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Marcel; Sproedt, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    also be conducive to deep learning. As such, a game can engage different dimensions of learning and embed elements of active, collaborative, cooperative and problem-based learning. Building on this logic, we present an exploratory case study of the use of a particular board game in a class of a course......This paper explores how games and play, which are deeply rooted in human beings as a way to learn and interact, can be used to teach certain concepts and practices related to open collaborative innovation. We discuss how playing games can be a source of creativity, imagination and fun, while it can...

  3. Five recent play dates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Mette Simonsen; Birkbak, Andreas; Jensen, Torben Elgaard

    2017-01-01

    An advantage of the playground metaphor is that it comes with the activity of going out on ‘play dates’ and developing friendships. In such playful relationships, there is always something at stake, but the interaction is also fun and inherently exploratory. In the following, we take a tour of five...... recent collaborative projects that the TANTlab has participated in. The projects differ widely and testify to different experiences with collaboration and intervention – from a data print on obesity with other researchers to a Facebook-driven intervention in Aalborg municipality’s primary school reform...

  4. Helping Your Child Manage Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... concerns you have with your child in school. Work closely with teachers, counselors, and other school staff ... be difficult for them to participate in the classroom, or attend school on a regular basis. With ...

  5. Helping Your Child to Read.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust, Betty Jean

    This booklet provides suggestions for parents in helping their children to learn how to read. The first section provides 34 suggestions and activities for parents to use with preschool children, such as reciting nursery rhymes, reading aloud, respecting the child's mood, and playing listening games. The second section offers 25 suggestions and…

  6. New techniques and devices for difficult airway management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirgoska, Biljana; Netkovski, Jane

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to compare old conventional techniques and devices for difficult airway management and new sophisticated techniques and devices. Recent techniques and devices are defined as the American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) practice guidelines for the management of difficult airway, published in 1992, reviewed in 1993 and updated in 2003. According to ASA, the techniques for difficult airway management are divided into techniques for difficult intubation and techniques for difficult ventilation. Awake fiberoptic intubation is the technique of choice for difficult airway management prescribed by the World Health Organization document for patient safety in the operating theater. Conventional techniques for intubation used direct visualization. The new generation of devices does not require direct visualization of the vocal cords for endotracheal tube placement. They allow better glottis view and successful endotracheal placement of the tube with indirect laryngoscopy. New intubation devices such as video laryngoscopes facilitate endotracheal intubation by indirect visualization of glottis structures without aligning the oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal axes in patients with cervical spine abnormality. Video laryngoscopes such as V-Mac and C-Mac, Glide scope, McGrath, Airway Scope, Airtraq, Bonfils and Bullard laryngoscope are widely available at the market. Airway gadgets are lighted stylets and endotracheal tube guides. The principal conclusion of this review is that utilization of these devices can be easily learned. The technique of indirect laryngoscopy is currently used for managing difficult airway in the operating room as well as for securing the airway in daily anesthesia routine.

  7. Tell me! The right of the child to information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koren, A.M.Th.L.

    1996-01-01

    Tell me! considers the child as a seeker, an information seeker, and researches the role information plays in the child's developmental process. Information on how to become a full-grown human being is essential. Which sources are important to the child? Tell me! examines the extent to which these

  8. Missed cases of multiple forms of child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Feyza; Oral, Resmiye; Butteris, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect is a public health problem and usually associated with family dysfunction due to multiple psychosocial, individual, and environmental factors. The diagnosis of child abuse may be difficult and require a high index of suspicion on the part of the practitioners encountering the child and the family. System-related factors may also enable abuse or prevent the early recognition of abuse. Child abuse and neglect that goes undiagnosed may give rise to chronic abuse and increased morbidity-mortality. In this report, we present two siblings who missed early diagnosis and we emphasize the importance of systems issues to allow early recognition of child abuse and neglect.

  9. The Activity of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichlmair, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents Activity Theory as a framework for understanding the action of playing games with the intention of building a foundation for the creation of new game design tools and methods. Activity Theory, an epistemological framework rooted in Soviet psychology of the first half of the 20...

  10. Playing the Role

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The G20 London summit made history. While applauding the summit’s productive communique, Ni Xiaoling, senior financial observer with Xinhua News Agency, warns of the gap between the greater responsibilities the International Monetary Fund shoulders and its limited capabilities to play the role of coordinator in economic globalization.

  11. Abstraction through Game Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraamidou, Antri; Monaghan, John; Walker, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the computer game play of an 11-year-old boy. In the course of building a virtual house he developed and used, without assistance, an artefact and an accompanying strategy to ensure that his house was symmetric. We argue that the creation and use of this artefact-strategy is a mathematical abstraction. The discussion…

  12. Mobilities at Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ungruhe, Christian

    2017-01-01

    -level perspective there is still an analytical gap between the ambitions and experiences of migrating players and economic power relations at play on the one hand and the socio-cultural embedding of the transnational connections in football migration on the other. In order to understand why and how football...

  13. Play's Importance in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Anette; Heden, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute knowledge on and gain an understanding of elementary school teachers' perspectives on the function of play in children's learning processes. The study is qualitative with a hermeneutical approach and has George Herbert Mead as a theoretical frame of reference. Interviews have been carried out with seven…

  14. Play framework essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Richard-Foy, Julien

    2014-01-01

    This book targets Java and Scala developers who already have some experience in web development and who want to master Play framework quickly and efficiently. This book assumes you have a good level of knowledge and understanding of efficient Java and Scala code.

  15. A Significant Play

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁海光; 陈明

    2002-01-01

    Yesterday evening, I went to see a play. It was really significant. It was about Zheng Xiaoyue, a very clever and diligent middle school student. Unfortunately, her mother died when she and her brother were very young. Her father was out of work and,

  16. How libraries make tough choices in difficult times purposeful abandonment

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, David

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary library managers face the need to make difficult choices regarding resource allocation in the modern business environment. How Libraries Make Tough Choices in Difficult Times is a practical guide for library managers, offering techniques to analyze existing and potential services, implement best practices for maximizing existing resources, and utilize pressing financial scenarios in order to justify making difficult reallocation decisions. The book begins by asking the fundamental questions of why, what, and how, moving on to look at how to manage expectations and report to both a

  17. Refugee children's play: Before and after migration to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Kelli K; Ohan, Jeneva; Cherian, Sarah; Mutch, Raewyn C

    2015-08-01

    Play is vital to children's development, health and resilience. Play modulates cognitive, emotional and social well-being. Children constitute approximately half of all humanitarian refugee entrants resettled in Australia. Refugee children are commonly victims and witnesses of war and persecution, living across resource-poor environs during transit. Little is known about the effects of refugee migration on play. This study explores how refugee children engaged in play pre-migration (in their home country) and post-migration (Australia). Refugee children attending the Refugee Health Clinic of a tertiary children's hospital were invited to complete a qualitative descriptive study of play. The children were asked to draw how they played pre- and post-migration. Drawings were analysed for (i) the presence of play; (ii) location of play; and (iii) drawing detail. Nineteen refugee children were recruited (mean age 8.5 years ± standard deviation 6.4 months). Significantly fewer children drew play pre- versus post-migration (11/19, 58% vs. 18/19, 95% P refugee children, especially girls, demonstrated limited play pre-migration, with higher levels of engagement post-resettlement. Facilitating opportunities for variety of play may strengthen positive resettlement outcomes for children and parents. Larger longitudinal studies examining play in refugee children and associations with physical, development and psychological well-being are warranted. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  18. How do public child healthcare professionals and primary school teachers identify and handle child abuse cases? A quilitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schols, M.W.A.; Ruiter, C. de; Ory, F.G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Public child healthcare doctors and nurses, and primary school teachers play a pivotal role in the detection and reporting of child abuse, because they encounter almost all children in the population during their daily work. However, they report relatively few cases of suspected child

  19. How do public child healthcare professionals and primary school teachers identify and handle child abuse cases? A quilitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schols, M.W.A.; Ruiter, C. de; Ory, F.G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Public child healthcare doctors and nurses, and primary school teachers play a pivotal role in the detection and reporting of child abuse, because they encounter almost all children in the population during their daily work. However, they report relatively few cases of suspected child abu

  20. [Retrovesical pseudocyst : difficult diagnosis of one case and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarf, I; Dahami, Z; Dakir, M; Joual, A; Bennani, S; Elmrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    2002-03-01

    Retrovesical localization of a cystic mass is rare. The authors report one observation of hematic retrovesical pseudocystic formation having a difficult diagnosis. In the light of this observation, different diagnostic patterns of cystic and pseudocystic retrovesical formation are discussed.

  1. PREDICTORS OF DIFFICULT INTUBATION: STUDY IN KASHMIRI POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta A K

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Airway assessment is the most important aspect of Anaesthesia practice as a difficult intubation may be unanticipated. A prospective study was done to compare the efficacy of airway parameters to predict difficult intubation viz; degree of head extension, thyromental distance, inter incisor gap, grading ofprognathism, obesity and modified mallampati test. Six hundred patients with ASA I& ASA II grade were enrolled in study. All patients were preoperatively assessed for airway parameters. Intra-operatively all patients were classified according to Cormack and Lehane laryngoscopic view. Clinical data of each test was collected, tabulated and analyzed to obtain the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value & negative predictive value. Results obtained showed incidence of difficult intubation in 3.3%. Head&neck movements had the highest sensitivity (86.36%; high arched palate had highest specificity (99.38%.Head & neck movements had highest sensitivity; high arched palate had highest specificity, however, head & neck movements strongly correlated for patients with difficult intubation.

  2. Clinicians' strategies for managing their emotions during difficult healthcare conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luff, Donna; Martin, Elliott B; Mills, Kelsey; Mazzola, Natalia M; Bell, Sigall K; Meyer, Elaine C

    2016-09-01

    To examine strategies employed by clinicians from different disciplines to manage their emotions during difficult healthcare conversations. Self-report questionnaires were collected prior to simulation-based Program to Enhance Relational and Communication Skills (PERCS) workshops for professionals representing a range of experience and specialties at a tertiary pediatric hospital. In response to an open-ended prompt, clinicians qualitatively described their own strategies for managing their emotions during difficult healthcare conversations. 126 respondents reported emotion management strategies. Respondents included physicians (42%), nurses (29%), medical interpreters (16%), psychosocial professionals (9%), and other (4%). Respondents identified 1-4 strategies. Five strategy categories were identified: Self-Care (51%), Preparatory and Relational Skills, (29%), Empathic Presence (28%), Team Approach (26%), and Professional Identity (20%). Across disciplines and experience levels, clinicians have developed strategies to manage their emotions when holding difficult healthcare conversations. These strategies support clinicians before, during and after difficult conversations. Understanding what strategies clinicians already employ to manage their emotions when holding difficult conversations has implications for educational planning and implementation. This study has potential to inform the development of education to support clinicians' awareness of their emotions and to enhance the range and effectiveness of emotion management during difficult healthcare conversations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. CHILD LABOR ABUSE: LEGAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Majhoshev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of child labor and ways of protection from child labor abuse. Child labor is a negative social phenomenon that is widespread throughout the world, and also in Republic of Macedonia. International and national institutions and organizations are making serious efforts to eradicate this negative phenomenon, through the adoption of numerous international legal instruments (conventions, recommendations, declarations, etc.. Child labor as a phenomenon refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability of education, and that is socially, mentally, physically, or morally dangerous and harmful. All international organizations define this practice as exploitative and destructive to the development of the whole society. With international legal instruments of the UN, ILO, Council of Europe and the EU child labor is strictly prohibited. There are some important differences which exist between the many kinds of work that is done by children. Some of them are demanding and difficult, others are hazardous and morally reprehensible. Children are doing a very wide range of activities and tasks when they work.

  4. Play or science?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieberoth, Andreas; Pedersen, Mads Kock; Sherson, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Crowdscience games may hold unique potentials as learning opportunities compared to games made for fun or education. They are part of an actual science problem solving process: By playing, players help scientists, and thereby interact with real continuous research processes. This mixes the two...... worlds of play and science in new ways. During usability testing we discovered that users of the crowdscience game Quantum Dreams tended to answer questions in game terms, even when directed explicitly to give science explanations. We then examined these competing frames of understanding though a mixed...... correlational and grounded theory analysis. This essay presents the core ideas of crowdscience games as learning opportunities, and reports how a group of players used “game”, “science” and “conceptual” frames to interpret their experience. Our results suggest that oscillating between the frames instead...

  5. Understanding Games as Played

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leino, Olli Tapio

    2009-01-01

    Researchers interested in player’s experience would assumedly, across disciplines, agree that the goal behind enquiries into player’s experience is to understand the how games’ features end up affecting the player’s experience. Much of the contemporary interdisciplinary research into player......’s experience leans toward the empirical-scientific, in the forms (neuro)psychology, sociology and cognitive science, to name a few. In such approaches, for example demonstrating correlation between physiological symptoms and an in-game event may amount to ‘understanding’. However, the experience of computer...... game play is a viable topic also for computer game studies within the general tradition of humanities. In such context, the idea of ‘understanding an experience’ invites an approach focusing on the experienced significance of events and objects within computer game play. This focus, in turn, suggests...

  6. Ravens at Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Bird Rose

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available ‘We were driving through Death Valley, an American-Australian and two Aussies, taking the scenic route from Las Vegas to Santa Cruz.’ This multi-voiced account of multispecies encounters along a highway takes up the challenge of playful and humorous writing that is as well deeply serious and theoretically provocative. Our travels brought us into what Donna Haraway calls the contact zone: a region of recognition and response. The contact zone is a place of significant questions: ‘Who are you, and so who are we? Here we are, and so what are we to become?’ Events were everything in this ecology of play, in which the movements of all the actors involved the material field in its entirety. We were brought into dances of approach and withdrawal, dances emerging directly, to paraphrase Brian Massumi, from the dynamic relation between a myriad of charged particles.

  7. Public Computation & Boundary Play

    CERN Document Server

    Sengupta, Pratim

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce 'public computation' as a genre of learning environments that can be used to radically broaden public participation in authentic, computation-enabled STEM disciplinary practices. Our paradigmatic approach utilizes open source software designed for professional scientists, engineers and digital artists, and situates them in an undiluted form, alongside live and archived expert support, in a public space. We present a case study of DigiPlay, a prototypical public computation space we designed at the University of Calgary, where users can interact directly with scientific simulations as well as the underlying open source code using an array of massive multi- touch screens. We argue that in such a space, public interactions with the code can be thought of as boundary work and play, through which public participation becomes legitimate scientific act, as the public engages in scientific creation through truly open-ended explorations with the code.

  8. Play. Learn. Innovate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sproedt, Henrik

    evidence that play and games could be interesting perspectives to take in order to understand complex social interaction. I come to the conclusion that – in innovation settings – the social dynamics that affect the process are essentially about transformation of knowledge across boundaries. I propose......„Play. Learn. Innovate. – Grasping the Social Dynamics of Participatory Innovation“ the title of this thesis describes how the complex interplay of unexpected events led to some burning questions and eventually to this thesis, which one could call an innovation*1*. During several years...... study were to better understand the theoretical foundations and practical implications of complex social interaction in organizational innovation settings. As I did not find any existing models or hypotheses that I was interested in testing I set out to discover how I could grasp complex social...

  9. "Playing" with our users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2014-01-01

    was from the amazing Dr Anthony Lewis Brooks (aka Tony) who has conceived the concepts GameAbilitation, ArtAbilitation, and Ludic Engagement Designs for All. While presenting some of his work on GameAbilitation and ArtAbilitation he brought up the subject of conducting research with users with disabilities......, about what happens to our users when research is over, funds are gone and the curtain of experiments has fallen. Dr Brooks presented the case of a young user who while unable to move and communicate had to part with the test device that provided him with interactive playful experience. We’ve all been...... confined in a house. For researchers that work with people with disabilities and in my case with playful interactions and positive immersive experience, we might have to think harder when we write project proposals or sketch our methodology. Devices, software and experience should be available to the users...

  10. Creativity and Playfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Skovbjerg, Helle Marie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This article explores how student behavior and interactions change when teachers use “producing games” as a primary pedagogical strategy (Papert, 1980; Ejsing-Duun and Karoff, 2014). Based on student and teacher actions and responses, as well as on students' production—observed during f...... fieldwork—this paper emphasizes the importance of understanding how students explore creativity and playfulness while producing in learning situations....

  11. Creativity and Playfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Skovbjerg, Helle Marie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This article explores how student behavior and interactions change when teachers use “producing games” as a primary pedagogical strategy (Papert, 1980; Ejsing-Duun and Karoff, 2014). Based on student and teacher actions and responses, as well as on students' production—observed during f...... fieldwork—this paper emphasizes the importance of understanding how students explore creativity and playfulness while producing in learning situations....

  12. Child rearing and child outcomes in Japan and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, P

    1998-04-01

    Japan and the UK are compared in relation to various child health outcomes. It is noted that in the rates of child abuse and criminal activity, Japan is in a more favorable position. Rates of behavior problems and suicide rates are very similar in the two countries. Consideration is given to the reasons for the differences. The rates of single parents and divorce are much lower in Japan. The rates of working mothers are about the same, but Japanese women work longer hours. However, it is suggested that more important differences may lie in the greater respect for authority and emphasis on discipline and conformity in Japan. The effects of industrialization on family life and on child development are summarized. It is suggested that the separation of the adolescent age group from the rest of the population has had especially negative results in Western industrialized countries. Various suggestions are made concerning the positive role that pediatricians can play in promoting child development. In particular, pediatricians are encouraged to support and not undermine parents, to involve fathers in management of illness and disability, to press for full implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, and for ready availability of good substitute child care facilities.

  13. Screening for child abuse at emergency departments : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwers, Eveline C. F. M.; Affourtit, Marjo J.; Moll, Henriette A.; de Koning, Harry J.; Korfage, Ida J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Child abuse is a serious problem worldwide and can be difficult to detect. Although children who experience the consequences of abuse will probably be treated at an emergency department, detection rates of child abuse at emergency departments remain low. Objective To identify effective

  14. Differential Susceptibility to Parenting and Quality Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluess, Michael; Belsky, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Research on differential susceptibility to rearing suggests that infants with difficult temperaments are disproportionately affected by parenting and child care quality, but a major U.S. child care study raises questions as to whether quality of care influences social adjustment. One thousand three hundred sixty-four American children from…

  15. The Limits of Child Effects: Evidence for Genetically Mediated Child Effects on Corporal Punishment but Not on Physical Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Sara R.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Polo-Tomas, Monica; Price, Thomas S.; Taylor, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Research on child effects has demonstrated that children's difficult and coercive behavior provokes harsh discipline from adults. Using a genetically sensitive design, the authors tested the limits of child effects on adult behavior that ranged from the normative (corporal punishment) to the nonnormative (physical maltreatment). The sample was a…

  16. The Use of Board Games in Child Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Ayala

    2008-01-01

    Playing checkers, football or more recently, computer games, is an important part of the latency child's culture. The ability to play games demands a level of emotional development similar to that needed to cope with the emotional/developmental demands characteristic of latency. A game shared by the therapist and child provides a picture of the…

  17. Using Internet Artifacts to Profile a Child Pornography Suspect

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus K. Rogers; Seigfried-Spellar, Kathryn C

    2014-01-01

    Digital evidence plays a crucial role in child pornography investigations. However, in the following case study, the authors argue that the behavioral analysis or “profiling” of digital evidence can also play a vital role in child pornography investigations. The following case study assessed the Internet Browsing History (Internet Explorer Bookmarks, Mozilla Bookmarks, and Mozilla History) from a suspected child pornography user’s computer. The suspect in this case claimed to be conducting an...

  18. Parents' Child-Directed Communication and Child Language Development: A Longitudinal Study with Italian Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorano, Marinella; Rainieri, Chiara; Corsano, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The present study focuses on the characteristics of parental child-directed communication and its relationship with child language development. For this purpose, thirty-six toddlers (18 males and 18 females) and their parents were observed in a laboratory during triadic free play at ages 1;3 and 1;9. The characteristics of the maternal and…

  19. Parents' Child-Directed Communication and Child Language Development: A Longitudinal Study with Italian Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorano, Marinella; Rainieri, Chiara; Corsano, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The present study focuses on the characteristics of parental child-directed communication and its relationship with child language development. For this purpose, thirty-six toddlers (18 males and 18 females) and their parents were observed in a laboratory during triadic free play at ages 1;3 and 1;9. The characteristics of the maternal and…

  20. [Clinical Validation of the Caregiver-Child Socioemotional and Relationship Rating Scale (SIRS) for Child Behavior in a Preschool-Age Sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esins, Svenja; Müller, Jörg Michael; Romer, Georg; Wagner, Katharina; Achtergarde, Sandra

    2017-03-01

    Clinical Validation of the Caregiver-Child Socioemotional and Relationship Rating Scale (SIRS) for Child Behavior in a Preschool-Age Sample The description of child behavior in mother-child-interaction is important in early detection and treatment of psychiatric disorders in preschool children. The Caregiver-Child Socioemotional and Relationship Rating Scale (SIRS) may serve this diagnostic purpose. We aim to examine interrater-reliability of SIRS and concurrent, convergent, and discriminant validity to maternal behavior by Play-PAB, and a measure of mother-child-relationsship by Parent-Infant-Global-Assessment-Scale (PIRGAS). Five raters assessed 47 ten-minute video sequences of parent-child-interaction recorded at the Family Day Hospital for Preschool Children with SIRS, Play-PAB, and PIRGAS. We report psychometric properties of SIRS, and present the association with Play-PAB and PIRGAS. SIRS shows a satisfying interrater-reliability for all items. Positive child behavior e. g. the SIRS' "child responsiveness" shows negative correlation to Play-PAB-scales' parental "hostility" and "intrusiveness", but independence of parental "involvement", "positive emotionality", and "discipline". Child and parental behavior show expected associations with the global relationship measure PIRGAS. The assessment of child behavior in parent-child-interaction with SIRS can be quickly learned and reliably applied without extensive training. SIRS shows meaningful relations to parental behavior and a clinical global measure of the caregiver-child-relationship. We recommend SIRS for clinical diagnostics to describe child behavior in mother-child-interaction.

  1. Child abuse by drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griest, K J; Zumwalt, R E

    1989-01-01

    Drowning as a form of subtle fatal child abuse is difficult to distinguish from accidental immersion or from sudden unexpected natural death when the circumstances of immersion are concealed. Homicidal drownings are unwitnessed, usually occurring in the home, and the victims are young, either infants or toddlers. Accidental drownings are more likely to involve toddlers or older children in public areas such as swimming pools, drainage ditches, lakes, and rivers. This is especially true in rural areas. In cities, bathtubs remain a major site of accidental childhood drownings. Perpetrators of deliberate drownings often fit the sociopathologic profile of a child abuser. Because there is often a survival interval between immersion and death, pathologic findings consistent with postimmersion syndrome suggest the cause of death. Foreign material in the lungs, if immersion was other than in clear tap water, and injuries of the face are other positive correlating factors. A thorough investigation of the circumstances and cooperation between the investigating agency and the pathologist are essential to determine the correct manner of death in these cases.

  2. Celadon Figurines Play Instruments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    This group of figurines, each 0.15m tall, were unearthed from a Tang Dynasty tomb in Changsha in 1977. Music was very developed in the Tang Dynasty. Colorful musical instruments and dances were popular both among the people and in the palace. These vivid-looking figurines wear pleated skirts with small sleeves and open chest, a style influenced by the non-Han nationalities living in the north and west of China. Some of the musical instruments were brought from the Western Regions. The figurines are playing the xiao (a vertical bamboo flute), the konghou (an

  3. Motivation, Creativity, Play & Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    implementation of robotic physical movement synchronously manipulated from sourced data movement information of a human. SoundScapes is a concept based on non-verbal communication and stimulation through interactive play with sounds and images, which is being realised in the production of a non-wearable sensor...... groups of children, including children with severe physical/multi disabilities. The sourced capture of the human data is from enhanced virtual interactive space created from sensors. The data is constituted of the situated multimodal communication and forms of expression. The ‘VIS’ is considered...

  4. Motivation, Creativity, Play & Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    implementation of robotic physical movement synchronously manipulated from sourced data movement information of a human. SoundScapes is a concept based on non-verbal communication and stimulation through interactive play with sounds and images, which is being realised in the production of a non-wearable sensor...... groups of children, including children with severe physical/multi disabilities. The sourced capture of the human data is from enhanced virtual interactive space created from sensors. The data is constituted of the situated multimodal communication and forms of expression. The ‘VIS’ is considered...

  5. Turning training into play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarhus, Rikke; Grönvall, Erik; Larsen, Simon Bo;

    2011-01-01

    Embodied gaming has been adopted and gained credibility in the field of physical rehabilitation. In this paper, we report on findings from a six-month-long study of three groups of senior citizens, and their use of Nintendo Wii Fit in a supervised physical training context. We argue that the study...... participants generally found physical training both fun and socially engaging, and experienced improved fitness. We also argue that embodied gaming motivates seniors to do more than they think themselves capable of, and allows seniors with different mental and physical capabilities to play together. However...

  6. Play and playfulness, basic features of early childhood education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singer, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education, but that play curricula can have serious drawbacks. The starting point is the play theory of the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga, a radical critic of the focus on the educational benefits of play. According

  7. Play and playfulness, basic features of early childhood education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singer, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education, but that play curricula can have serious drawbacks. The starting point is the play theory of the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga, a radical critic of the focus on the educational benefits of play. According

  8. [Domestic accident or child abuse?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Wolf-Rüdiger; Faller-Marquardt, Maria; Henke, Peter

    2006-01-01

    While playing, a 33/4-year-old girl was hiding in a tumble dryer, which had been running before and started the drying process with rotation of the drum again after the girl had climbed into the machine and shut the door. The child suffered multiple haematomas, especially on the back and the lower arms, as well as second-degree burns on body regions not covered by the clothing. The injury pattern was consistent with the properties of the appliance, and the initial suspicion that the child had been physically abused could not be maintained.

  9. Difficult airway equipment: a survey of standards across metropolitan Perth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakeson, N; Flett, T; Hunt, V; Ramgolam, A; Reynolds, W; Hartley, K; Hegarty, M; von Ungern-Sternberg, B S

    2014-09-01

    The importance of appropriate equipment to manage the difficult airway has been highlighted by the publication of the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists (ANZCA) guidelines in 2012. We set out to audit compliance with these guidelines in all public and private sites providing general anaesthesia in metropolitan Perth. Public and private health care websites identified 39 sites of which 37 were studied. Institutional and ethics approval was obtained. A tick-box design audit tool, based on the ANZCA guidelines, was used to collect information regarding the dedicated difficult airway container (DDAC) at each site. As recommended in the guidelines, only equipment within the DDAC was considered. Further data about each site, including the number of theatre suites, satellite anaesthetic areas, use of capnography and categories of patients treated (adult, obstetric and paediatric) were collected. An adult DDAC was found at 92% of all sites, but none of the sites had all the essential equipment listed in the ANZCA guidelines. There was limited provision of adult difficult airway equipment within private sites compared to public, and less provision of paediatric difficult airway equipment across all sites treating paediatric patients in metropolitan Perth. Capnography was available in 76% of post anaesthesia care units and used regularly in 27%. Adherence to the ANZCA guidelines regarding the DDAC could be improved. Standardised equipment across a metropolitan region would be of value in the management of the difficult airway.

  10. Child Obesity, Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkis Vicente Sánchez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Child obesity has become an important health problem worldwide, up to the point that World Health Organization has classified this disease as an epidemic. It is one of the most difficult challenges to face in the new century with a proportional increase among children and adolescents.

  11. Playing The Lobby

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Playing a game can be defined as, in a fun way, to reach a goal by means of helpers and challenged by obstacles and opponents. In this workshop we will gain a new understanding of the lobby by making it into a game. The lobby of the museum can be understood as a game in which the players (the....... The object is surprisingly not to play the games, but to design them. Through the design process we are forced to discuss: What are the challenges of a particular lobby (e.g. ticketing, queueing, other visitors, guards, getting lost)? Which properties do the players have (e.g. patience, expectations, need...... of a toilet)? what boosters may they obtain in the lobby (e.g. coffee, help, souvenirs, signs)? And how can we make this an enjoyable experience? The object of the games is to understand the lobby in a new way to identify problems, and think of ways to improve the functions, flow, and services of the lobby....

  12. Physical Activity Pattern of Malaysian Preschoolers: Environment, Barriers, and Motivators for Active Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Ong, Wei Wen; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Children's physical activity has been correlated with child characteristics and social or physical environment. This study aimed to compare preschoolers' physical activity among various sociodemographic characteristics and to determine barriers, motivators, and environmental factors for active play. A total of 835 preschoolers were included in this analysis. Time spent on active play, quiet play, and screen time was reported by parents. Boys spent significantly more time on active play and screen time than girls. Time spent on quiet play was highest in East Coast Peninsular Malaysia and lowest in Sarawak. Some 40% of children achieved active play recommendation while 27% exceeded daily screen time recommendation. Most parents reported that their child played actively in the house area; and that the main barrier and motivator to active play were safety and child's enjoyment, respectively. These findings demonstrate that sociodemographic characteristics and environment should be considered in designing physical activity intervention programs.

  13. Relationship between verbal language and symbolic play - A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Segal

    1980-08-01

    Full Text Available The linguistic ability and play of  a language-impaired child were analysed to determine whether a breakdown in symbolic play occurs together with a language deficit. Observation of  play was conducted at the child's nursery school (unstructured situation and in a situation designed to elicit specific  play behaviours (structured situation. Imaginative play and its concomitants — affect,  mood variability, concentration, aggression and interaction — were rated along descriptive scales, while each individual play unit was scored for  organization of  behaviour. Syntactic, semantic and phonological aspects of  language were recorded during free  play and analyzed within a syntactic framework.  The normal developmental sequence provided the baseline of comparison for  both language and play. Results indicated a developmental lag in play and a linguistic deviation from the normal pattern, which supported the possibility of a general representational deficit.  A method for  incorporating symbolic play into a language programme was suggested and the necessity for  normative studies in this area was stressed.

  14. A novel cannulation technique for difficult urethral catheterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kaynar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To propose a novel cannulation technique for difficult urethral catheterization procedures. Technique: The sheath tip of an intravenous catheter is cut off, replaced to the needle tip and pushed through the distal drainage side hole to Foley catheter tip, and finally withdrawn for cannulation. In situations making urethral catheterization difficult, a guide wire is placed under direct vision. The modified Foley catheter is slid successfully over the guide wire from its distal end throughout the urethral passage into the bladder. Results: The modified Foley catheter was used successfully in our clinic in cases requiring difficult urethral catheterization. Conclusions: This easy and rapid modification of a Foley catheter may minimize the potential complications of blind catheter placement in standard catheterization.

  15. Medical Students' Personal Determinants of Overcoming Strategies in Difficult Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veretelnikova Yu.Ya.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Goal of the research was to study conditionality of overcoming strategies in difficult situations of social interaction by personal representations of attitude to others among medical students. Material and methods. 134 first-year students of Saratov State Medical University n.a. V. I. Razumovsky took part in the comparative diagnostic study. Results. Comparison of average indices of various strategies evidence in coping behaviour allowed revealing statistically significant dependence of coping behaviour modi in difficult situations of social interaction upon types of personal representations of attitude toward others and gender features of forming effective strategies of coping behaviour among medical students. Conclusion. Correlation between coping behaviour modi in difficult situations of social interaction and typology of personal representations of attitudes toward others among medical students was marked.

  16. The difficult primary total knee arthroplasty: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, A; Castellani, L; Traverso, F; Balatri, A; Balato, G; Franceschini, V

    2015-10-01

    Primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a reliable procedure with reproducible long-term results. Nevertheless, there are conditions related to the type of patient or local conditions of the knee that can make it a difficult procedure. The most common scenarios that make it difficult are discussed in this review. These include patients with many previous operations and incisions, and those with severe coronal deformities, genu recurvatum, a stiff knee, extra-articular deformities and those who have previously undergone osteotomy around the knee and those with chronic dislocation of the patella. Each condition is analysed according to the characteristics of the patient, the pre-operative planning and the reported outcomes. When approaching the difficult primary TKA surgeons should use a systematic approach, which begins with the review of the existing literature for each specific clinical situation.

  17. [Play therapy in social work with children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvarionas, Dziugas

    2002-01-01

    This article introduces the results of scientific research performed in 1995-1997 in Kaunas primary school with 1st and 2nd grade children exhibiting behavioral disorders. Play therapy, a quite novel method in the country, seeks better improvement and an achievement of a better relationship for disadvantaged children in educational process. Play group counseling, or play media counseling, is shown as an important method in working with early primary grade children, especially those who present behavioral problems in the classroom. Another important aspect of group play therapy is the concentrated relationship with the counselor. Primary school children, especially those who are disadvantaged respond more to warmth than to praise for being right and doing well. Data analysis allow us to assume that behavioral difficulties of primary school children are connected with a low rate of self-esteem and dissatisfaction with their vital activities. Main conclusions to correspond with hypothesis held for the research are: a) children exhibiting behavioral problems are less active in educational process; b) by means of systematic use of play group counseling method in school, problematic children are able to solve their difficulties and to optimize their academic improvement; c) there is a complementary relationship between child's self-esteem and his/her satisfaction with his/her vital activity.

  18. Incidence and predictors of difficult nasotracheal intubation with airway scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Koyu; Goto, Tomoko; Nakai, Daishi; Ueki, Shuhei; Takenaka, Seiichiro; Moriya, Tomomi

    2014-10-01

    The airway scope (AWS) improves views of the larynx during orotracheal intubation. However, the role of the AWS in routine nasotracheal intubation has not been studied adequately. One hundred and three patients undergoing dental and maxillofacial surgery that required general anesthesia and nasotracheal intubation were enrolled. The study was approved by our Institution Review Board, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. We evaluated the success rate of AWS intubation and the incidence of difficult nasotracheal intubation using a modified intubation difficulty scale (IDS) to examine preoperative characteristics and intubation profiles. Categories were difficult intubation (IDS ≥5), mildly difficult (IDS = 1-4), and intubation without difficulty (IDS = 0). We also assessed the incidence of the use of Magill forceps or cuff inflation (the cuff of endotracheal tube is inflated with 10-15 ml air) to guide the endotracheal tube into the glottis. AWS nasotracheal intubation was 100% successful. The cuff inflation technique was used in 37 patients. Neither Magill forceps nor other devices were needed for any patient during AWS use. The incidence of difficult nasotracheal intubation was 10% (n = 10). Of the patients, 61% (n = 63) had mildly difficult intubation and 29% (n = 30) had no difficulty. Patients with difficult intubation were more likely to be male and to have a larger tongue and a higher Cormack grade than in the other two groups. Complications, involving minor soft tissue injury, were observed in only 1 patient (1%). The AWS achieves a high success rate for nasotracheal intubation with cuff inflation in patients undergoing dental and maxillofacial surgery.

  19. Difficult asthma in adults: recognition and approaches to management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, B D W

    2005-09-01

    Difficult asthma must be distinguished from severe asthma. It is then important in patients with suspected difficult asthma to ensure that the diagnosis is correct, and that if the patient has asthma that the attributed symptoms are indeed all genuinely due to the asthma and not to coexisting physical or psychogenic respiratory conditions. It is also important to be alert when there is discordance between symptoms and objective lung function in order to recognize both poor perceivers and over-reactors. Difficult asthma can occur in patients with objectively mild, moderate or severe disease, but the consequences are most dramatic in patients with severe asthma. Asthma may be difficult for the patient, for the clinician or both because of disease factors, doctor or nurse therapist factors, and/or patient factors. Investigation requires access to the full range of respiratory, imaging and allergy tests. It also requires a multidisciplinary approach involving ear, nose and throat specialists and speech therapists, and access to psychiatric and psychological assessment and therapies. Poor compliance is associated with significantly poorer asthma and asthma-related health outcomes. Poor compliance can be recognized in two-thirds of such patients by their not attending scheduled appointments. Poor compliance is significantly associated with anxiety, social deprivation and adverse family circumstances, and these characteristics and adversities probably contribute to the poorly compliant behaviour. In difficult asthma it is important to identify and manage the condition causing the symptoms rather than prescribing more and more asthma therapy. Recognizing psychosocial adversity is essential. A structured approach is essential. There remains a small number of patients with genuine steroid-resistant asthma, some with predominately neutrophilic rather than eosinophilic airway inflammation, and others for whom the secondary gain of continuing symptoms is overwhelming. There is

  20. Failure to predict difficult tracheal intubation for emergency caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaranoglu, Gokcen; Columb, Malachy; Lyons, Gordon

    2010-11-01

    Difficult tracheal intubation following induction of general anaesthesia for caesarean section is a cause of morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to evaluate five bedside predictors that might identify women with potential intubation difficulty immediately prior to emergency caesarean section. Women requiring emergency caesarean section with general anaesthesia and tracheal intubation who had been assessed by the same experienced anaesthesiologist preoperatively were included in this study. Mallampati score, sternomental distance, thyromental distance, interincisor gap and atlantooccipital extension were all measured. The same anaesthesiologist performed laryngoscopy and graded the laryngeal view according to Cormack and Lehane. Exact logistic regression was used to identify significant independent predictors for difficult intubation (Cormack and Lehane grades ≥ 3) with two-sided P value less than 0.05 considered as significant. In 3 years, 239 women were recruited. Cormack and Lehane grades of 2 or less (easy) were found in 225 and grade of at least 3 (difficult) in 14 women. Patients' characteristics (age, height, weight, BMI or weight gain) were not significantly associated with difficulty of intubation. The incidence of difficult intubation was 1/17 women [95% confidence interval (CI) from 1/31 to 1/10]. A positive result from any of the five predictors combined had a sensitivity of 0.21 (95%CI 0.05-0.51), a specificity of 0.92 (95%CI 0.88-0.96), a positive predictive value of 0.15 (95%CI 0.032-0.38) and a negative predictive value of 0.95 (95%CI 0.91-0.97) for a Cormack and Lehane grade of at least 3 at laryngoscopy. Airway assessment using these tests cannot be relied upon to predict a difficult intubation at emergency caesarean section as the low sensitivity means that 79% (95%CI 49-95) of difficult intubations will be missed.

  1. Foundations of Child Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Emanuel, Ed.; And Others

    Twenty-eight papers examine basic theories and clinical methods in child psychiatry. Theories and methods discussed concern child psychiatry and the World Health Organization, pediatrics, child disturbances, observation, the psychodiagnostic approach, longitudinal research in child development, the comparative approach to early child development,…

  2. Non-attendance at a difficult-asthma clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Beverley; Mault, Susan

    Increasing demand for our weekly difficult-asthma clinic means routine appointments are at a premium. This led us to explore the reasons why patients failed to attend for appointments and whether contacting them by telephone within a week of their missed scheduled appointment increased attendance. Memory lapses were the most common reason for non-attendance. Telephoning non-attenders led to a two-fold increase in attendance at subsequent clinics. Non-attendance may be a reflection of poor concordance, which, in itself, may contribute to a patient's difficult asthma.

  3. Transmyometrial embryo transfer after difficult immediate mock transcervical transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, K; Afnan, M; Lenton, W; Bilalis, D; Hunjan, M; Khalaf, Y

    1996-05-01

    To evaluate the place of ultrasound-directed transvaginal transmyometrial ET in a protocol using both the transcervical and transmyometrial routes in a step-wise fashion. A prospective descriptive clinical study. A university-based assisted conception unit. Thirteen patients who had difficult or impossible mock transcervical ET immediately before the real transfer. Ultrasound-directed transvaginal transmyometrial ET. Pregnancy and clinical pregnancy. Four patients became pregnant, including three with clinical pregnancies. In cases in which transcervical ET isd difficult or impossible, transvaginal transmyometrial ET is a viable option. The use of mock transcervical ET immediately before the real transfer would identify patients needing transmyometrial ET.

  4. The Child's Voice in School Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Steven; Walford, Geoffrey

    1997-01-01

    Explores the diverse roles that British children play in choosing a secondary school in England, based on interviews with parents drawn from contrasting socioeconomic areas. Some families actively "play the market;" others are relatively passive. Although the child's voice was more influential with "passive" families and played…

  5. Child health and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Arifeen, Shams

    2008-09-01

    Bangladesh is currently one of the very few countries in the world, which is on target for achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 relating to child mortality. There have been very rapid reductions in mortality, especially in recent years and among children aged over one month. However, this rate of reduction may be difficult to sustain and may impede the achievement of MDG 4. Neonatal deaths now contribute substantially (57%) to overall mortality of children aged less than five years, and reductions in neonatal mortality are difficult to achieve and have been slow in Bangladesh. There are some interesting attributes of the mortality decline in Bangladesh. Mortality has declined faster among girls than among boys, but the poorest have not benefited from the reduction in mortality. There has also been a relative absence of a decline in mortality in urban areas. The age and cause of death pattern of under-five mortality indicate certain interventions that need to be scaled up rapidly and reach high coverage to achieve MDG 4 in Bangladesh. These include skilled attendance at delivery, postnatal care for the newborn, appropriate feeding of the young infant and child, and prevention and management of childhood infections. The latest (2007) Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey shows that Bangladesh has made sustained and remarkable progress in many areas of child health. More than 80% of children are receiving all vaccines. The use of oral rehydration solution for diarrhoea is high, and the coverage of vitamin A among children aged 9-59 months has been consistently increasing. However, poor quality of care, misperceptions regarding the need for care, and other social barriers contribute to low levels of care-seeking for illnesses of the newborns and children. Improvements in the health system are essential for removing these barriers, as are effective strategies to reach families and communities with targeted messages and information. Finally, there are

  6. Musings: What child and adolescent psychiatry means to me

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Eugene Arnold

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available I have been a grandfather for only 12 years, but for 37 years I have lived a grandparent's dream: people pay me to tell them how to raise their children. This is only one of the many rewards child and adolescent psychiatry has offered me. Table 1 lists some more of them.Probably the greatest satisfaction in child psychiatry is the wide selection of options for specialization: psychotherapy, psychopharmacology, nutrition, biochemistry, genetics, family therapy, parent guidance, custody and visitation advice, epidemiology, disorder specialization, research, consultation, public education and best of all, the chance to integrate it all and play at being a comprehensive physician. The myriad challenges provoke learning and continued development that keep one young at heart and mind. Sometimes I think I should pay to practice child psychiatry.It should be obvious by now to even the casual reader that I enjoy the privilege of being a child and adolescent psychiatrist and that enjoyment manifests in a playful attitude. That playful attitude includes not taking myself too seriously. In fact, I'm proud of my humility! It was earned at the expense of repeated humbling experiences in two ways:Confronting tragic situations that I could not help, where all my education, training, experience and brilliant diagnostic insight seemed useless; and Witnessing real heroism by some parents who struggle with sick children's difficult problems without complaining and with indefatigable hope. They outshine any professional pretensions of mine. By showing me my limitations and forcing me to compare myself to patients and parents (and occasional colleagues of superior moral caliber, child psychiatry has made a better, more honest person of me and for this I'm grateful.On the other hand, there is the mind-blowing exhilaration of watching a child improve after some prescription, potion or psychotherapeutic intervention and being allowed to believe that I had something to

  7. Representational Abilities and the Hearing Status of Child/Mother Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Selmi, Ann M.; Haynes, O. M.; Painter, Kathleen M.; Marx, Eric S.

    1999-01-01

    Assessed representational abilities in hearing and deaf 2-year-old children of hearing and deaf mothers. Found group differences in expressive and receptive language based on maternal report and on experimenter assessment, but no differences emerged in child solitary symbolic play or in child- or mother-initiated child collaborative symbolic play.…

  8. Playing it Real

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grubert, Jens; Morrison, Ann; Munz, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Magic lens and static peephole interfaces are used in numerous consumer mobile phone applications such as Augmented Reality browsers, games or digital map applications in a variety of contexts including public spaces. Interface performance has been evaluated for various interaction tasks involving...... spatial relationships in a scene. However, interface usage outside laboratory conditions has not been considered in depth in the evaluation of these interfaces. We present findings about the usage of magic lens and static peephole interfaces for playing a find-and-select game in a public space and report...... on the reactions of the public audience to participants’ interactions. Contrary to our expectations participants favored the magic lens over a static peephole interface despite tracking errors, fatigue and potentially conspicuous gestures. Most passersby did not pay attention to the participants and vice versa...

  9. Empowered to Play: A Case Study Describing the Impact of Powered Mobility on the Exploratory Play of Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonday, Amshuda; Gretschel, Pam

    2016-03-01

    Exploratory play is one of the most vital ways in which children learn about their environment and develop. It is well documented that limited mobility restricts a child's ability to engage in their environment through exploratory play. In this study, a qualitative, collective case study design explored the impact of powered mobility on the exploratory play of two children with physical disabilities. Data were collected from the children, their parents and their siblings through participant observation and in-depth, informal interviews. This paper focuses on two themes: Opportunity to Play revealed how powered mobility increased opportunities for the children to become more actively engaged in exploratory play with others across a wider array of contexts, and My Child was Transformed highlighted significant changes in the affect and motivation of each child, which seemed to be linked to their increased internal control over their play choices. The findings suggest that the provision of powered mobility is a key contributor promoting the participation of physically disabled children in exploratory play. Because of undergraduate curricular constraints, a limitation of this study was that data were only confined to 2 months; affecting the depth of data gained that prolonged engagement would have offered. The study recommends for occupational therapy practice that occupational therapists advocate for easier access to powered mobility through governmental and policy means. The study also recommends further research be conducted on the experiences of the caregivers on how these powered mobility devices have influenced their day-to-day occupations.

  10. Why Is Leading School Improvement Such a Difficult Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Ronald A.

    2007-01-01

    Leading meaningful school improvement and reform has proven to be a difficult process. This article looks at some of the interactive, contextual variables that lend to the complexity of this challenge. These include complexities inherent in schools, in change processes and in the leadership role itself.

  11. Optimising the management of patients with difficult asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Evelyn; Higgins, Bernard

    2015-11-01

    Asthma affects 5.4 million people in the UK, around 1 in 12 of the population. Between 5 and 10% of asthma (depending on the definition used) is categorised as difficult asthma, a term which generally refers to patients who continue to experience symptoms and frequent exacerbations despite the prescription of high-dose asthma therapy. Difficult asthma is an indication for specialist review by an appropriate respiratory physician, but close liaison between primary, secondary and tertiary care is critical and it is therefore important that primary care health professionals should be aware of the principles of management. One of the most important questions to ask is whether the individual with difficult asthma is taking their treatment Identifying this, however, is not easy. GPs could assess prescription uptake, looking for low use of preventers and excess use of short-acting bronchodilators. Newer means of assessing adherence have been developed. Inhaler devices that can monitor completion and timing of actuations have been produced. Meters that measure FeNO are available. A recent UK study found that 12 out of 100 patients referred for difficult asthma did not have reversible airflow obstruction or a history suggestive of asthma. Diagnoses included COPD, cystic fibrosis, cardiomyopathy, respiratory muscle dysfunction and severe anxiety with vocal cord dysfunction.

  12. Why Reference to the Past Is Difficult for Agrammatic Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have shown that verb inflections are difficult to produce for agrammatic aphasic speakers: they are frequently omitted and substituted. The present article gives an overview of our search to understanding why this is the case. The hypothesis is that grammatical morphology referring to the past is selectively impaired in agrammatic…

  13. Complement Constructions in English: Fairly Difficult for EFL Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Fatemeh; Shokrpour, Nasrin

    2012-01-01

    Complement constructions vary significantly in English and Persian. There are more complementation structures in English than in Persian and a complement structure in Persian might have more than one equivalent in English. Producing complement structures (CSs) in English is very difficult for native speakers of Persian, especially in an EFL…

  14. Wagging the Dog: Managing Museum Priorities in a Difficult Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradburne, James M.

    2010-01-01

    In these difficult financial times, it is more important than ever to manage money carefully. Educators who don't do so are vulnerable, for despite a thirty-year history of increasing authority and status within and without the museum, education departments are still more expendable than curatorial or collections departments in some museums. This…

  15. Developing Difficult Dialogues: An Evaluation of Classroom Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placier, Peggy; Kroner, Crystal; Burgoyne, Suzanne; Worthington, Roger

    2012-01-01

    The University of Missouri (MU) participated in the Ford Foundation's Difficult Dialogues Initiative (DDI) supporting faculty development projects at over 40 institutions of higher education from 2006-2010. This paper reports findings from an evaluation conducted with instructors who not only engaged in faculty development workshops but also…

  16. A practical clinical approach to management of the difficult airway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eindhoven, GB; Dercksen, B; Regtien, JG; Borg, PAJ; Wierda, JMKH

    2001-01-01

    Difficult airway management represents a challenge in anaesthesia. In the last decades airway difficulty awareness has improved as a result of better anticipation and decision-making. Airway algorithms and protocols have a more prominent role in training and in clinical anaesthesia practice. In

  17. Disaffection and Inclusion: Merton's Mainstream Approach to Difficult Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Giles

    This booklet describes an inclusive approach to disaffection in Merton Education Authority, a school district southwest of London (England). Instead of concentrating on providing for students with emotional and behavior difficulties in an off-site behavior support center, Merton switched its main efforts to preventing difficult behavior through…

  18. Why is Danish so difficult to understand for fellow Scandinavians?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schüppert, Anja; Hilton, Nanna; Gooskens, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    It has consistently been shown that among the three mainland Scandinavian languages, Danish is most difficult to understand for fellow Scandinavians. Recent research suggests that Danish is spoken significantly faster than Norwegian and Swedish. This finding might partly explain the asymmetric intel

  19. Task Analyses for Difficult-to-Assess Collective Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Counterintelligence and Human Intelligence Analysis and Production (34-4-1305) • Conduct Counterintelligence and Human Intelligence Analysis (34-4...Research Product 2014-05 Task Analyses for Difficult-to-Assess Collective Tasks Jonathan J. Bryson Rachel D. Barney...Christina K. Curnow Trevor M. Conrad Arnold L. Leonard Heidi Keller-Glaze ICF International Jennifer S. Tucker Christopher L. Vowels

  20. Playful Learning and Montessori Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Angeline S Lillard

    2013-01-01

      Although Montessori education is often considered a form of playful learning, Maria Montessori herself spoke negatively about a major component of playful learning-pretend play, or fantasy-for young children...

  1. Facilitating Endotracheal Intubation in Difficult Cases Using an External Magnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Seyedhejazi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Difficult airway is conventionally defined as a medical scenario in which a trained examiner faces difficulty in either facemask ventilation or tracheal intubation (1. Unlike difficult intubation, the incidence of difficult mask ventilation in adults is considerable (2, 3. Anesthesiologists and those who practice intubation should be familiar with the management of airway and be able to recognize and identify potentially difficult airways including congenital craniofacial deformities with micrognathia (e.g. Pier Robin, Treacher Collins, Goldenhar's, and Crouzon's syndromes and metabolic diseases causing the deposition of accumulated by-products (e.g., Hurler's, Morquio's, and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndromes. Cormack and Lehane grades 3 and 4 at laryngoscopy are an indication for advanced techniques for intubation. Laryngeal mask airway (LMA and fiberscope with a directable tip are useful and important modalities in handling difficult airway and intubation (5. Even normal pediatric airway could become critical due to the anatomical and physiological differences between pediatric and adult airway; this particularly becomes a concern in infants, i.e. children younger than one year old. This hazard is augmented in the presence of congenital or acquired difficulties affecting airway. Consequently, proper preoperative assessment is considered as the cornerstone of pediatric difficult airway management. Every anesthetic plan should be tailored according to patients considering the scenario and also the expertise of the practitioner. Opting for spontaneous respiration maintenance and intervening in a step-wise manner are strongly suggested (6. Multiple airway devices have been and are developed that all of which can be placed under direct vision or blindly; most of these devices consistently both provide and maintain safe oxygenation and ventilation. Furthermore, a wide range of ancillary devices have also been introduced to be of assistance in the

  2. Derivation and Validation of The Prehospital Difficult Airway IdentificationTool (PreDAIT): A Predictive Model for Difficult Intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jestin N; Hostler, David; Guyette, Francis X; Pinchalk, Mark; Martin-Gill, Christian

    2017-06-01

    Endotracheal intubation (ETI) in the prehospital setting poses unique challenges where multiple ETI attempts are associated with adverse patient outcomes. Early identification of difficult ETI cases will allow providers to tailor airway-management efforts to minimize complications associated with ETI. We sought to derive and validate a prehospital difficult airway identification tool based on predictors of difficult ETI in other settings. We prospectively collected patient and airway data on all airway attempts from 16 Advanced Life Support (ALS) ground emergency medical services (EMS) agencies from January 2011 to October 2014. Cases that required more than two ETI attempts and cases where an alternative airway strategy (e.g. supraglottic airway) was employed after one unsuccessful ETI attempt were categorized as "difficult." We used a random allocation sequence to split the data into derivation and validation subsets. Using backward elimination, factors with a p3 (2.15, 1.19-3.88), limited neck movement (2.24, 1.28-3.93), trismus/jaw clenched (2.24, 1.09-4.6), inability to palpate the landmarks of the neck (5.92, 2.77-12.66), and fluid in the airway such as blood or emesis (2.25, 1.51-3.36). This was the most parsimonious model and exhibited good fit (Hosmer-Lemeshow test p = 0.167) with an AUC of 0.68 (95% CI [0.64-0.73]). When applied to the validation set, the model had an AUC of 0.63 (0.58-0.68) with high specificity for identifying difficult ETI if ≥2 factors were present (87.7% (95% CI [84.1-90.8])). We have developed a simple tool using five factors that may aid prehospital providers in the identification of difficult ETI.

  3. Office of Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Children & Families Office of Child Care By Office Administration for Native Americans (ANA) Administration on Children, ... Care Partnerships. Review the profiles. > What is the Office of Child Care (OCC)? The Office of Child ...

  4. Office of Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Children & Families Office of Child Care By Office Administration for Native Americans (ANA) Administration on Children, ... Learn more about this project > What is the Office of Child Care (OCC)? The Office of Child ...

  5. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexual abuse is one form of child abuse. It includes a wide range of actions between a child ... to children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual ...

  6. A comprehensive predictive scoring method for difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittalgodu Anantha Krishna Murthy Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC is the gold standard cholecystectomy. LC is the most common difficult laparoscopic surgery performed by surgeons today. The factors leading to difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be predicted. Aims: To develop a scoring method that predicts difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Settings and Design: Bidirectional prospective study in a medical college setup. Materials and Methods: Following approval from the institutional ethical committee, cases from the three associated hospitals in a medical college setup, were collected using a detailed proforma stating the parameters of difficulty in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Study period was between May 10 and June 12. Preoperative, sonographic and intraoperative criteria were considered. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi Square test and Receiver Operater Curve (ROC analysis. Results: Total 323 patients were included. On analysis, elderly patients, males, recurrent cholecystitis, obese patients, previous surgery, patients who needed preoperative Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP, abnormal serum hepatic and pancreatic enzyme profiles, distended or contracted gall bladder, intra-peritoneal adhesions, structural anomalies or distortions and the presence of a cirrhotic liver on ultrasonography (USG were identified as predictors of difficult LC. A scoring system tested against the same sample proved to be effective. A ROC analysis was done with area under receiver operator curve of 0.956. A score above 9 was considered difficult with sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 97.8%. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a scoring system predicting the difficulty in LC is feasible. There is scope for further refinement to make the same less cumbersome and easier to handle. Further studies are warranted in this direction.

  7. Mind wandering while reading easy and difficult texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shi; D'Mello, Sidney; Graesser, Arthur C

    2013-06-01

    Mind wandering is a phenomenon in which attention drifts away from the primary task to task-unrelated thoughts. Previous studies have used self-report methods to measure the frequency of mind wandering and its effects on task performance. Many of these studies have investigated mind wandering in simple perceptual and memory tasks, such as recognition memory, sustained attention, and choice reaction time tasks. Manipulations of task difficulty have revealed that mind wandering occurs more frequently in easy than in difficult conditions, but that it has a greater negative impact on performance in the difficult conditions. The goal of this study was to examine the relation between mind wandering and task difficulty in a high-level cognitive task, namely reading comprehension of standardized texts. We hypothesized that reading comprehension may yield a different relation between mind wandering and task difficulty than has been observed previously. Participants read easy or difficult versions of eight passages and then answered comprehension questions after reading each of the passages. Mind wandering was reported using the probe-caught method from several previous studies. In contrast to the previous results, but consistent with our hypothesis, mind wandering occurred more frequently when participants read difficult rather than easy texts. However, mind wandering had a more negative influence on comprehension for the difficult texts, which is consistent with the previous data. The results are interpreted from the perspectives of the executive-resources and control-failure theories of mind wandering, as well as with regard to situation models of text comprehension.

  8. V. M. BEKHTEREV IN RUSSIAN CHILD SCIENCE, 1900S-1920S: "OBJECTIVE PSYCHOLOGY"/"REFLEXOLOGY" AS A SCIENTIFIC MOVEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byford, Andy

    2016-01-01

    In the early 20(th) century the child population became a major focus of scientific, professional and public interest. This led to the crystallization of a dynamic field of child science, encompassing developmental and educational psychology, child psychiatry and special education, school hygiene and mental testing, juvenile criminology and the anthropology of childhood. This article discusses the role played in child science by the eminent Russian neurologist and psychiatrist Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev. The latter's name is associated with a distinctive program for transforming the human sciences in general and psychology in particular that he in the 1900s labelled "objective psychology" and from the 1910s renamed "reflexology." The article examines the equivocal place that Bekhterev's "objective psychology" and "reflexology" occupied in Russian/Soviet child science in the first three decades of the 20(th) century. While Bekhterev's prominence in this field is beyond doubt, analysis shows that "objective psychology" and "reflexology" had much less success in mobilizing support within it than certain other movements in this arena (for example, "experimental pedagogy" in the pre-revolutionary era); it also found it difficult to compete with the variety of rival programs that arose within Soviet "pedology" during the 1920s. However, this article also demonstrates that the study of child development played a pivotal role in Bekhterev's program for the transformation of the human sciences: it was especially important to his efforts to ground in empirical phenomena and in concrete research practices a new ontology of the psychological, which, the article argues, underpinned "objective psychology"/"reflexology" as a transformative scientific movement.

  9. Imagination, Playfulness, and Creativity in Children's Play with Different Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo????ller, Signe?? Juhl?

    2015-01-01

    Based on a four-month experimental study of preschool children's play with creative-construction and social-fantasy toys, the author examines the in?uence of both types of toys on the play of preschool children. Her comparative analysis considers the impact of transformative play on the development of imagination during play activities and…

  10. Mighty Morphin Power Ranger Play: Research and Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosser, Sandra

    1995-01-01

    Explores the question of whether or not Mighty Morphin Power Rangers-type aggressive play is developmentally appropriate for the early childhood classroom. Compares results from research in child development to the reality of television programming, highlighting the relationship between television violence and children's aggressive behavior. (AA)

  11. Estonian and Russian Parental Attitudes to Childrearing and Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Aino; Niglas, Katrin

    2001-01-01

    Used Neukater and van der Kooji's parental attitude questionnaire to ask three groups of mothers (Estonian, non-Estonian in Estonia, Russians in Moscow) about their attitudes toward children's education and play. Found that Estonian mothers applied least control and that higher mother education resulted in less child control and instruction. (DLH)

  12. Increasing the Athletic Group Play of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltenberger, Catherine A.; Charlop, Marjorie H.

    2014-01-01

    A multiple baseline design across three children with autism and within child across activity was used to assess the effects of interventions designed to teach children with autism to play two common athletic group games, handball and 4-square. Treatment consisted of two phases. In Phase I, athletic skills training, the children participated in…

  13. The Relationship between Creativity, Social Play, and Children's Language Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robyn M.; Romeo, Lynn; Ciraola, Stephanie; Grushko, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we explore the interconnectedness between children's creativity, social play, and language abilities. The participants were 225 (109 girls, 116 boys) preschool children, from diverse European American, African American, and Hispanic ethnic heritages. We assessed the children in three ways. First, each child completed the Goodenough…

  14. Learning, Play, and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 8- to 12-Month-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Learning, Play, and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Print A A A What's in this article? What Is My Child Learning? Encouraging Learning en español Aprendizaje, juegos y su hijo de 8 a 12 meses de edad Your ...

  15. The Relationship between Creativity, Social Play, and Children's Language Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robyn M.; Romeo, Lynn; Ciraola, Stephanie; Grushko, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we explore the interconnectedness between children's creativity, social play, and language abilities. The participants were 225 (109 girls, 116 boys) preschool children, from diverse European American, African American, and Hispanic ethnic heritages. We assessed the children in three ways. First, each child completed the Goodenough…

  16. Pre-Service Preschool Teachers' Self Competency Evaluation of Challenging Play Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Gokhan

    2013-01-01

    Children play more vigorously and more productively when their teachers have formal education or training in the importance of play. Children with challenging play behavior in the play create a difficult situation for pre-service preschool teachers, affecting their achievement in the program objectives. Issues of challenging behavior in preschool…

  17. False allegation of child abduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Kathleen E; Hilts, Mark A; Muirhead, Yvonne E

    2011-05-01

    Cases in which a child has been falsely reported as missing or abducted can be extremely challenging to the law enforcement agencies responsible for their investigation. In the absence of a witnessed abduction or an obvious crime scene, it is difficult to determine whether a child has actually been abducted or has become a victim of a homicide and a false allegation. The purpose of this study was to examine falsely alleged kidnapping cases and identify successful investigative strategies. Sixty-one adjudicated false allegation cases involving 66 victims were analyzed. The mean age of the victim was 5 years. Victims came from generally unstable, high-risk family situations and were killed primarily by biological parents. Victims were killed because they were unwanted or viewed as an obstacle to a desired goal, or they were victims of abuse or maltreatment that ended in fatality.

  18. Drugs used in child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Between 2000 and 2008, the American Association of Poison Control Centers recorded 1439 cases in which drugs or alcohol were used to mistreat children under 7 years of age, representing an average of 160 reports per year. Median age was 2 years, and 57% of victims were boys. The substances included psychotropic drugs, analgesics, cold remedies, alcohol, and illicit drugs. 18 children died, while 32 children experienced life-threatening effects or residual disability. It is not clear whether these results can be extrapolated to the French population. In France, a yearly survey of the Centres for Evaluation and Information on Pharmacodependence (CEIP) identified 162 cases of "chemical submission", 3 of which involved children. In practice, it is often difficult to recognise when a child is being maltreated, especially when medications, illicit drugs or alcohol are used. Taking into consideration the known adverse effect profile of a drug may provide a clue, help to limit harms to the child and allow appropriate management.

  19. Psychodrama: group psychotherapy through role playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipper, D A

    1992-10-01

    The theory and the therapeutic procedure of classical psychodrama are described along with brief illustrations. Classical psychodrama and sociodrama stemmed from role theory, enactments, "tele," the reciprocity of choices, and the theory of spontaneity-robopathy and creativity. The discussion focuses on key concepts such as the therapeutic team, the structure of the session, transference and reality, countertransference, the here-and-now and the encounter, the group-as-a-whole, resistance and difficult clients, and affect and cognition. Also described are the neoclassical approaches of psychodrama, action methods, and clinical role playing, and the significance of the concept of behavioral simulation in group psychotherapy.

  20. An Integrated Playful Music Learning Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer; Frimodt-Møller, Søren

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated solution using IT technologies to help a (young) musician learn a piece of music, or learn how to play an instru- ment. The rehearsal process is organized in sequences, consisting of various ac- tivities to be 'passed'. Several games are investigated that help...... in learning espe- cially difficult parts, or in the learning of an instrument. The integrated solution, demonstrated on a tablet, proposed in this paper also includes tools that assist the musician in the rehearsal process. Feedback consists of computer tracking that supports self-assessment of rehearsal...

  1. Teatro infantil, gênero e direitos humanos: um olhar crítico sobre as peças Felizardo e O menino Teresa Child theatre, gender and Human Rights: an analysis of the plays Felizardo and O menino Teresa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Knijnik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A cultura infantil está cada vez mais permeada por um cotidiano generificado, isto é, a maior parte dos processos e produtos culturais possui conteúdos nos quais a questão de gênero é tratada, insistentemente, de forma binária e, consequentemente, excludente. O objetivo deste trabalho, assim, foi estudar o teatro infantil de Marcelo Romagnoli e da Banda Mirim, cujas peças possuem uma proposta de desmontar e questionar os estereótipos que dicotomizam a vida de meninos e meninas. Assistindo às encenações de Felizardo e de O menino Teresa, e analisando o conteúdo dos textos das peças, concluiu-se que as personagens propõem um modelo para meninas e meninos que está na contramão da cultura padronizada e oficial, estimulando novas relações sociais de gênero entre as crianças, contribuindo desse modo para a consecução dos "objetivos do milênio" propostos pela ONU e encampados pelo Brasil, sobretudo no que tange à igualdade entre os sexos.Child culture is increasingly more permeated by a gendered quotidian, i.e., most of the cultural processes and products portray content where the gender issue is insistently treated in a binary form and, consequently, excluding. The purpose of this paper, therefore, was to study Marcelo Romagnoli's children's theater and the Children's Band (Banda Mirim, whose plays are designed to take apart and question the stereotypes that dichotomize boys´ and girls´ lives. Watching the staging of Felizardo and O menino Teresa and analyzing the context of the texts, it was found that the characters propose a model for boys and girls that goes against the standard and official culture, encouraging new gender social relations among children, contributing, therefore, to the achievement of the "goals of the millennium" as proposed by the UN and adopted by Brazil, especially as equality between the sexes is regarded.

  2. Relations between parents' interactive style in dyadic and triadic play and toddlers' symbolic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, M; Feldman, R; Namdari-Weinbaum, I; Spitzer, S; Tyano, S

    2005-10-01

    Play has a major role in the evaluation and treatment of young children referred to mental health clinicians. The present study examined parental correlates of preschoolers' symbolic play during dyadic and triadic play interactions. Boys' play contained more aggressive themes, and girls' contained more nurturing themes. Mothers displayed more caring themes during play with both sons and daughters, and fathers displayed more repair and construction themes. Mothers' and fathers' facilitative- creative interaction style in dyadic play predicted the level of the child's symbolic play. Co-parenting style marked by cooperation and autonomy predicted symbolic play during a triadic family session. Child intelligence predicted symbolic play beyond the parent's style during triadic but not dyadic interactions. The findings have implications for early intervention directed at increasing symbolic play in young children.

  3. Hospital Clowning as Play Stimulus in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anes, Laura; Obi, Marianne

    2014-10-30

    A serious illness, a chronic medical condition or a hospital bed should not deny any child her/his basic right to play, a right essential for children's development and general wellbeing. In fact, it is in these frightening and anxious moments that play and the stimulus that it provides can help the most. This article will focus on the impacts and benefits of professional hospital clowning for the wellbeing and recovery process of ill and hospitalized children. Our experience has shown that through interactive play and humor, "clowndoctors" can create an enabling and supportive environment that facilitates children's adaptation to the hospital setting and improves their acceptance of medical procedures and staff. While moving from bedside to bedside, RED NOSES clowndoctors encourage children's active participation and support their natural instinct to play, fully including them in the interaction, if the children wish to do so. Therefore, clowndoctor performances offer ill children much needed stimulus, self-confidence and courage, elements fundamental to reducing their vulnerability. In this piece, a special emphasis will be put on the various approaches used by RED NOSES clowndoctors to bond and reach out to children suffering from different medical conditions.

  4. Hospital Clowning as Play Stimulus in Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Anes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A serious illness, a chronic medical condition or a hospital bed should not deny any child her/his basic right to play, a right essential for children’s development and general wellbeing. In fact, it is in these frightening and anxious moments that play and the stimulus that it provides can help the most. This article will focus on the impacts and benefits of professional hospital clowning for the wellbeing and recovery process of ill and hospitalized children. Our experience has shown that through interactive play and humor, “clowndoctors” can create an enabling and supportive environment that facilitates children’s adaptation to the hospital setting and improves their acceptance of medical procedures and staff. While moving from bedside to bedside, RED NOSES clowndoctors encourage children’s active participation and support their natural instinct to play, fully including them in the interaction, if the children wish to do so. Therefore, clowndoctor performances offer ill children much needed stimulus, self-confidence and courage, elements fundamental to reducing their vulnerability. In this piece, a special emphasis will be put on the various approaches used by RED NOSES clowndoctors to bond and reach out to children suffering from different medical conditions.

  5. ELECTRONIC MEDIA AND CHILD BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Dave

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In today’s society, electronic media are thoroughly integrated into the fabric of life, with television, movies, videos, music, video games, and computers, central to both work and play. While these media outlets can provide education and entertainment to children, many researches are concerned with the negative impact electronic media is having on children. Media is used as a third parent or servant. Lot of aspects are important related to media exposure and child behavior. Media exposure affects the neurodevelopment, nutrition and health and academic achievements of the child. Parent education plays an important role in the behavior modification of the children. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 87-89

  6. Playful Learning and Montessori Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S.

    2013-01-01

    Although Montessori education is often considered a form of playful learning, Maria Montessori herself spoke negatively about a major component of playful learning--pretend play, or fantasy--for young children. In this essay, the author discusses this apparent contradiction: how and why Montessori education includes elements of playful learning…

  7. [The clinical usefulness of predicting difficult endotracheal intubation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, H; Tsuno, S; Takeyoshi, S

    1999-01-01

    We conducted several tests for predicting the difficult intubation airway in 476 patients excluding those with neck disease and anatomical abnormalities. The evaluation was performed using four methods. 1. The size of the tongue in relation to the oral cavity (Mallampani test: M-T). 2. The hyomental distance (H-D). 3. The thyromental distance (T-D). 4. The atranto-occipital joint extension (AOJE). Of these four methods, M-T was the best predictor of a difficult airway. However, all of these four methods may be good predictors, employing modified criteria which include M-T = class 2, 3, 4, H-D = less than 3.0 cm, T-D = less than 6.0 cm, and AOJE = less than 35 degrees.

  8. Difficult airway management from Emergency Department till Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Debasis; Bhattacharyya, Prithwis

    2015-09-01

    We report a case of "can ventilate but can't intubate" situation which was successfully managed in the Emergency Department and Intensive Care Unit by the use of ProSeal laryngeal mask airway and Frova Intubating Introducer as bridging rescue devices. Use of appropriate technique while strictly following the difficult airway algorithm is the mainstay of airway management in unanticipated difficult airway situations. Although the multiple airway devices were used but each step took not more than 2 min and "don't struggle, skip to the next step principle" was followed. With the availability of many advanced airway management tools, the intensivists should have a training and experience along with preparedness in order to perform such lifesaving airway managements.

  9. Management of difficult airway during laryngectomy and thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngectomy is always a challenging surgery both from surgical and anaesthesiologist′s perspective. The situation can get worse when such patients present with advanced laryngeal cancerrequire a definite surgical intervention along with thyroid gland removal. Apart from anesthetic difficulties in managing the deranged anatomy and pathophysiology, management of difficult airway during peri-operative period can be a huge challenging task. We are reporting a case of laryngeal carcinoma that was posted for laryngectomy and thyroidectomy as the thyroid gland was also invaded to a small extent. A difficult airway situation was anticipated as during indirect laryngoscopy it was observed that the glottic covering was occluded to a large extent by a soft tissue growth.

  10. An unanticipated difficult airway in Lesch–Nyhan syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhotra, Rashmi; Sharma, Chhavi; Tyagi, Asha; Kumar, Surendra; Sethi, AK; Bhatt, Shuchi

    2012-01-01

    An 11-year-old boy with Lesch–Nyhan syndrome presented to the emergency for fixation of a fractured femur. During induction of general anesthesia, unexpected difficult intubation was encountered with a 6.5-mm ID endotracheal tube and successively smaller tubes, also failing to pass 1 cm beyond the vocal cords. Intubation was finally achieved with a 4.5-mm ID tube. The surgery was completed uneventfully. A tracheal diverticulum was found in the computerized tomography (CT) scan performed postoperatively to account for this unexpected difficult intubation. This case highlights the anesthetic concerns in Lesch-Nyhan syndrome and also reports the rare occurrence of a tracheal diverticulum associated with it. PMID:22557752

  11. An unanticipated difficult airway in Lesch-Nyhan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhotra, Rashmi; Sharma, Chhavi; Tyagi, Asha; Kumar, Surendra; Sethi, Ak; Bhatt, Shuchi

    2012-04-01

    An 11-year-old boy with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome presented to the emergency for fixation of a fractured femur. During induction of general anesthesia, unexpected difficult intubation was encountered with a 6.5-mm ID endotracheal tube and successively smaller tubes, also failing to pass 1 cm beyond the vocal cords. Intubation was finally achieved with a 4.5-mm ID tube. The surgery was completed uneventfully. A tracheal diverticulum was found in the computerized tomography (CT) scan performed postoperatively to account for this unexpected difficult intubation. This case highlights the anesthetic concerns in Lesch-Nyhan syndrome and also reports the rare occurrence of a tracheal diverticulum associated with it.

  12. An unanticipated difficult airway in Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Salhotra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An 11-year-old boy with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome presented to the emergency for fixation of a fractured femur. During induction of general anesthesia, unexpected difficult intubation was encountered with a 6.5-mm ID endotracheal tube and successively smaller tubes, also failing to pass 1 cm beyond the vocal cords. Intubation was finally achieved with a 4.5-mm ID tube. The surgery was completed uneventfully. A tracheal diverticulum was found in the computerized tomography (CT scan performed postoperatively to account for this unexpected difficult intubation. This case highlights the anesthetic concerns in Lesch-Nyhan syndrome and also reports the rare occurrence of a tracheal diverticulum associated with it.

  13. [Bipolar disorder in children and adolescents: a difficult diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Jardri, Renaud; Etain, Bruno; Thomas, Pierre; Rolland, Benjamin

    2014-09-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe mental condition with neurodevelopmental features that clinically results in pathological fluctuations of mood. Whereas it was classically or traditionally considered as an adult-onset disorder, recent findings suggest that BD may occur very early in the life course, thus, determining what is now called Juvenile bipolar disorder (JBD). One of the reasons for which JBD has been so difficult to identify is that JBD primary symptoms vary much from the typical adulthood BD clinical expression. Euphoric mood is rare in JBD, while irritability mood, aggressive temper, mixed manic state onset, rapid cycling, anger outbursts and chronic course of symptoms are much more frequent. This specific clinical presentation makes JBD difficult to differentiate from other diagnoses related to pathological externalizing behaviours, including conduct disorder, oppositional provocative disorder, and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Emotional distance to so-called difficult patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Jette Joost

    2012-01-01

    patient, the avoidance strategy did not necessarily represent the terminal stage, since a nurse could revert to the compromise strategy. Some of the nurses experienced painful emotions regarding these interactions. Conclusions: The avoidance strategy (emotional distance) resulted in important social......Scand J Caring Sci; 2011 Emotional distance to so-called difficult patients Purpose: To explore nurses' relationships with patients they regard as being difficult. How do nurses feel about such patients and relate to them, and what are the consequences for nurse and patient? Design and methods....... Patients' case records were studied and four meetings with the staff were arranged to discuss the findings. Data collection lasted 18 months in all. Findings: Three strategies were identified: persuasion, avoidance (emotional distance), and compromise. Interestingly, in the relationship with a particular...

  15. The road to the synthesis of "difficult peptides".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradís-Bas, Marta; Tulla-Puche, Judit; Albericio, Fernando

    2016-02-07

    The last decade has witnessed a renaissance of peptides as drugs. This progress, together with advances in the structural behavior of peptides, has attracted the interest of the pharmaceutical industry in these molecules as potential APIs. In the past, major peptide-based drugs were inspired by sequences extracted from natural structures of low molecular weight. In contrast, nowadays, the peptides being studied by academic and industrial groups comprise more sophisticated sequences. For instance, they consist of long amino acid chains and show a high tendency to form aggregates. Some researchers have claimed that preparing medium-sized proteins is now feasible with chemical ligation techniques, in contrast to medium-sized peptide syntheses. The complexity associated with the synthesis of certain peptides is exemplified by the so-called "difficult peptides", a concept introduced in the 80's. This refers to sequences that show inter- or intra-molecular β-sheet interactions significant enough to form aggregates during peptide synthesis. These structural associations are stabilized and mediated by non-covalent hydrogen bonds that arise on the backbone of the peptide and-depending on the sequence-are favored. The tendency of peptide chains to aggregate is translated into a list of common behavioral features attributed to "difficult peptides" which hinder their synthesis. In this regard, this manuscript summarizes the strategies used to overcome the inherent difficulties associated with the synthesis of known "difficult peptides". Here we evaluate several external factors, as well as methods to incorporate chemical modifications into sequences, in order to describe the strategies that are effective for the synthesis of "difficult peptides". These approaches have been classified and ordered to provide an extensive guide for achieving the synthesis of peptides with the aforementioned features.

  16. An improved method to spot-weld difficult junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrenz, Elizabeth E.; Amare, Andinet; Arumainayagam, Christopher R.

    2001-12-01

    Recent advances in spot-welding technology such as high frequency direct current inverter welders provide an improved and reproducible method to spot-weld difficult junctions. The importance of removing the oxide layers on metal surfaces, accurately delivering the weld pulse profile, and controlling the force applied to the materials during the welding process are discussed in the context of resistance spot-welding a molybdenum crystal to a tantalum loop and attaching a tungsten-rhenium thermocouple to the crystal.

  17. Families: from difficult to exceptional--one team's journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Marilyn Kay; Miers, Anne; Sulla, Stephanie; Vines, Heilia

    2007-01-01

    Families of patients need support when the hospital stay becomes more difficult than anticipated. Healthcare providers also need assistance when caring for them. A continuous improvement team, Caring for Exceptional Families, was initiated to develop a system with tools and interventions for a proactive multidisciplinary approach to identifying families at risk for negative behavior during the hospital experience. The process and outcomes of this team are described.

  18. Acute urinary retention and the difficult catheterization: current emergency management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwinski, Ania; D'Arcy, Frank T; Sultana, Ron; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2016-04-01

    Acute urinary retention (AUR) is a common presentation to emergency departments. This article updates the reader on the appropriate management, investigations and guidelines for AUR. It looks at the mechanism of normal micturition and describes the theories of AUR. It outlines urethral catheterization techniques for difficult cases, reviews suprapubic catheterization procedures and describes the management of AUR in polytrauma. Although emergency management is by bladder drainage, key points in the history and examination may expose significant, latent pathologies.

  19. Difficult factors in Management of Impacted Dental Prosthesis in Esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efiaty A. Soepardi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A dental prosthesis which ingested and impacted in esophagus, is an emergency case and life threatening, so require immediate esophagoscopy intervention for removing. The objective of this study is to assess some factors can caused dtfficulties in diagnosing and treating the ingested and impacted dental prosthesis in the esophagus and their complications. This retrospective study analyzed patient’s chart whose underwent esophagoscopy for removing the impacted dental prosthesis in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia during a period between January 1997 and December 2003. Neck-chest X-ray and esophagoscopy were performed in all patients to identify the existence of the dental prosthesis as a diagnostic and treatment procedure. The length of time for removing the dental prosthesis was recorded and stated as a less difficult esophagoscopy when it takes time less than 60 minutes and as a difficult  esophagoscopy takes 60 minutes or longer. Some risk difficulties factors were statistically analyzed. There were 53 patients of ingested dental prosthesis in esophagus. Only 51 cases were analyzed According to the length of time for removing the dental prosthesis by esophagoscopy, 22 patients were recorded as less difficult cases and 29 patients as difficult cases. Two cases among the cases needed cervicotomy after unsuccessful esophagoscopy removal. The difficulties to diagnose an impacted dental prosthesis in the esophagus caused by unreliable clinical history, unclear signs and symptoms, unable to be detected by X-ray and was not found during esophagoscopy. The difficulties in treating due to mucosal laceration, edema, bleeding, failure of the first extraction and conformity with the size and shape, the wire outside the dental prosthesis and the length of time stayed in the esophagus. (Med J Indones 2005; 14: 33-6Keywords: ingested dental prosthesis, radioluscent foreign body, length of time of esophagoscopy

  20. THE PREDICTION OF DIFFICULT INTUBATION WITH BEDSIDE SCORING SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Gerçek, Arzu; Lim, Sema; İşler, Banu; Eti, Zeynep; Göğüs, Yılmaz

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation of sex, age, bedside scoring systems and body mass index with laryngoscopic view in patients with clinically difficult intubation.Methods: Five hundred patients, aged 20-70 years, were included in the study. The age, sex, weight and height of the patients were recorded preoperatively and body mass index was calculated. The patients were examined for Mallampati classification, thyromental distance, mouth opening, neck mobility an...

  1. What do child psychotherapists know?

    OpenAIRE

    Rustin,Michael

    2009-01-01

    In the decades after the death of Freud in 1939, the psychoanalytic tradition in Britain was substantially shaped by child analysis. Melanie Klein’s discoveries emerged from psychoanalytic practice with children, which was based on ‘play technique’. Some of Donald Winnicott’s most important ideas were developed through work with children, and through study of the relationships between mothers and babies. In this book chapter Professor Rustin argues that the theoretical advances of the 1940s a...

  2. Predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in at-risk families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona eDe Falco

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Child healthy development is largely influenced by parent-child interaction and a secure parent-child attachment is predictively associated with positive outcomes in numerous domains of child development. However, the parent-child relationship can be affected by several psychosocial and socio-demographic risk factors that undermine its quality and in turn play a negative role in short and long term child psychological health. Prevention and intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families can efficiently reduce the impact of risk factors on mother and child psychological health. This study examines predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in a sample of first-time mothers with psychosocial and/or socio-demographic risk factors. Forty primiparous women satisfying specific risk criteria participated in a longitudinal study with their children from pregnancy until 18 month of child age. A multiple psychological and socioeconomic assessment was performed. The Emotional Availability Scales were used to measure the quality of emotional exchanges between mother and child at 12 months and the Attachment Q-Sort served as a measure of child attachment security at 18 months. Results highlight both the effect of specific single factors, considered at a continuous level, and the cumulative risk effect of different co-occurring factors, considered at binary level, on mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security. Implication for the selection of inclusion criteria of intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families are discussed.

  3. Ouroboros - Playing A Biochemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Rodrigues

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ouroboros: Playing A Biochemical RODRIGUES,D.T.1,2;GAYER, M.C.1,2; ESCOTO, D.F.1; DENARDIN, E.L.G.2, ROEHRS, R.1,2 1Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil 2Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil Introduction: Currently, teachers seek different alternatives to enhance the teaching-learning process. Innovative teaching methodologies are increasingly common tools in educational routine. The use of games, electronic or conventional, is an effective tool to assist in learning and also to raise the social interaction between students. Objective: In this sense our work aims to evaluate the card game and "Ouroboros" board as a teaching and learning tool in biochemistry for a graduating class in Natural Sciences. Materials and methods: The class gathered 22 students of BSc in Natural Sciences. Each letter contained a question across the board that was drawn to a group to answer within the allotted time. The questions related concepts of metabolism, organic and inorganic chemical reactions, bioenergetics, etc.. Before the game application, students underwent a pre-test with four issues involving the content that was being developed. Soon after, the game was applied. Then again questions were asked. Data analysis was performed from the ratio of the number of correct pre-test and post-test answers. Results and discussion: In the pre-test 18.1% of the students knew all issues, 18.1% got 3 correct answers, 40.9% answered only 2 questions correctly and 22.7% did not hit any. In post-test 45.4% answered all the questions right, 31.8% got 3 questions and 22.7% got 2 correct answers. The results show a significant improvement of the students about the field of content taught through the game. Conclusion: Generally, traditional approaches of chemistry and biochemistry are abstract and complex. Thus, through games

  4. Difficultly Extractable Fixed Ammonium in Some Soils of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENBIYUN; CHENGLILI; 等

    1999-01-01

    Ninety-three soil samples and 19 sedimentary rock samples collected from 21 provinces of China were analyzed for their contents of fixed ammonium and total N by Kjeldahl-HF method.Results showed that amount of difficultly extractable fixed ammonium(the fixed ammonium that is not determinable by Kjeldahl procedures commonly used for soils) in soils ranged from 0 to 202 mg kg-1,It was generally more than 50 mg kg-1 in soils in Changji and Turpan districts,Xinjiang,accounting for 3.2%-36.8% with an average of 13.9% of the total N.For some Orthents derived from purple shale and purple sandstone in Sichuan and Hunan provinces and Chao soils derived from secondary loess in Henan Province and Ningxia Autonomous Region it was generally around 30 mg kg-1,accounting for 4%-7% of the total soil N,and for most of the rest of soils studied,with the exception of some subsoils,no or trace difficultly extractable fixed ammonium could be detected.It was sugested that the difficultly extractable fixed ammonium was originated from parent rock,and for slightly weathered soils derived from parent materials rich in this form of N the Kjeldahl method might give underestimation of total soil N.

  5. Rigid fibrescope Bonfils: use in simulated difficult airway by novices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piepho Tim

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bonfils intubation fibrescope is a promising alternative device for securing the airway. We examined the success rate of intubation and the ease of use in standardized simulated difficult airway scenarios by physicians. We compared the Bonfils to a classical laryngoscope with Macintosh blade. Methods 30 physicians untrained in the use of rigid fibrescopes but experienced in airway management performed endotracheal intubation in an airway manikin (SimMan, Laerdal, Kent, UK with three different airway conditions. We evaluated the success rate using the Bonfils (Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany or the Macintosh laryngoscope, the time needed for securing the airway, and subjective rating of both techniques. Results In normal airway all intubations were successful using laryngoscope (100% vs. 82% using the Bonfils (p Conclusion The Bonfils can be successfully used by physicians unfamiliar with this technique in an airway manikin. The airway could be secured with at least the same success rate as using a Macintosh laryngoscope in difficult airway scenarios. Use of the Bonfils did not delay intubation in the presence of a difficult airway. These results indicate that intensive special training is advised to use the Bonfils effectively in airway management.

  6. Current Trends in the Management of Difficult Urinary Catheterizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Willette

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Routine urinary catheter placement may cause trauma and poses a risk of infection. Male catheterization, in particular, can be difficult, especially in patients with enlarged prostate glands or other potentially obstructive conditions in the lower urinary tract. Solutions to problematic urinary catheterization are not well known and when difficult catheterization occurs, the risk of failed catheterization and concomitant complications increase. Repeated and unsuccessful attempts at urinary catheterization induce stress and pain for the patient, injury to the urethra, potential urethral stricture requiring surgical reconstruction, and problematic subsequent catheterization. Improper insertion of catheters also can significantly increase healthcare costs due to added days of hospitalization, increased interventions, and increased complexity of follow-up evaluations. Improved techniques for catheter placement are essential for all healthcare personnel involved in the management of the patient with acute urinary retention, including attending emergency physicians who often are the first physicians to encounter such patients. Best practice methods for blind catheter placement are summarized in this review. In addition, for progressive clinical practice, an algorithm for the management of difficult urinary catheterizations that incorporates technology enabling direct visualization of the urethra during catheter insertion is presented. This algorithm will aid healthcare personnel in decision making and has the potential to improve quality of care of patients.

  7. Hydro-dissection - A simple Solution in Difficult Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubna, H; Masoom, M R

    2015-07-01

    This Quasi-experimental study was done to assess the effectiveness of hydro-dissection in difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomies in Hamdard University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, from April 2012 to March 2014. All consecutive patients who presented with cholelithiasis and planned for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled in this study. Per-operatively the degree of difficulty of the operation was assessed by Cuschieri's scale after grading; Grade II, III and IV cholecystectomies were included in this study. Hydro dissection with saline jet through 5mm simple irrigation and suction probe was used, Operative findings and the total number of patients, in whom anatomy of calot's triangle was clearly displayed with hydro-dissection, was recorded. A total 55 patients were included in the study after assessing the degree of difficulty per operatively by Cuschieri Scale. Thirty one (31) patients were in Group II, 22 in Group III and 02 were included in group IV of Cuschieri scale in which hydro-dissection was used. This method cleared the obscure anatomy in all patients in Group II but in 3 patients of Group III, dense adhesions required sharp dissection to clear the operative field. Two patients, in whom conversion was required, were grouped in Cuschieri's scale IV. Methods of dissection in difficult cholecystectomies are of paramount importance to avoid iatrogenic injuries. Hydro-dissection using suction irrigation probe is a safe and effective technique to clear the difficult anatomy.

  8. The Case for Play: How a Handful of Researchers Are Trying to Save Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Tom

    2011-01-01

    For play researchers, no one looms larger than Lev Vygotsky. Vygotsky viewed play, particularly pretend play, as a critical part of childhood, allowing a child to stand "a head taller than himself." His biggest theoretical contribution may have been the Zone of Proximal Development: the idea that children are capable of a range of achievement…

  9. The Case for Play: How a Handful of Researchers Are Trying to Save Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Tom

    2011-01-01

    For play researchers, no one looms larger than Lev Vygotsky. Vygotsky viewed play, particularly pretend play, as a critical part of childhood, allowing a child to stand "a head taller than himself." His biggest theoretical contribution may have been the Zone of Proximal Development: the idea that children are capable of a range of achievement…

  10. Using Video Modeling to Teach Reciprocal Pretend Play to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Rebecca; Sacramone, Shelly; Mansfield, Renee; Wiltz, Kristine; Ahearn, William H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to use video modeling to teach children with autism to engage in reciprocal pretend play with typically developing peers. Scripted play scenarios involving various verbalizations and play actions with adults as models were videotaped. Two children with autism were each paired with a typically developing child,…

  11. Singapore Preschoolers' Play in Relation to Social Class, Sex, and Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice S.; Lim, Swee Eng

    Noting that play varies as a function of culture, gender, setting, and parent or teacher valuing, a study examined the play of children in Singapore. Subjects were 56 middle- and working-class preschoolers between the ages of 46 and 72 months who were videotaped at play in their homes and in the child care centers that they attended and rated on…

  12. Motivations for play in computer role-playing games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the motivations for play in the context of single-and multi-player digital Role-Playing Games (RPGs) are examined. Survey data were drawn from respondents online and participants in a related experimental study. The results indicate that motivations for play are not simple constructs......, but rather composed of multiple motivational drivers that are heavily interrelated and act in concert. Character uniqueness and Discovery & Immersion were the highest ranked motivational categories. Different levels of detail in motivations for playing single-/multi- Player RPGs were located......, with mechanistic/tactical play and character-based/social play being the two overall motivational factors. Copyright 2008 ACM....

  13. Does playing pay? The fitness-effect of free play during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Werner; Thomsen, Tamara; Dehio, Cornelia

    2014-04-29

    Evolutionary developmental psychology claims that the sequences and processes of human development, in fact the mere fact of ontogeny itself, have to be viewed as evolutionary products. However, although the functional benefits of childish behavior (child playing) for cognitive and emotional development have been shown repeatedly, claiming evolutionary adaptiveness of playing in childhood suggests that childish play supports evolutionary success in mature stages of development. This hypothesis is tested in a study with N=134 adults (93 females; age range 20-66 years). Participants were asked to recollect their play experiences during childhood in detail, and to report their current developmental status with respect to several aspects of social success. Results show that the opportunity for and the promotion of free play in childhood significantly predict some indicators of social success. Additional analyses strive to explore mediating processes for this relationship. In particular, the mediating role of individual adaptivity (flexibility of goal adjustment) is investigated. Results suggest that freely playing in childhood promotes developmental resources, in particular individual adaptivity in adulthood, which, in turn, promote developmental success.

  14. Raising a gender non-conforming child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisnowski, Deborah L

    2011-10-01

    This article overviews the challenges parents face raising gender non-conforming children. The author is the mother of a fifteen year old gender non-conforming (GNC) child and co-founder of Stepping Stones Support Group which organizes support programs for families of GNC. The article discusses social challenges, educational challenges and internal conflicts the author has experienced while raising her child. The author also discusses the process of founding Stepping Stones and the importance having support has played in her and her child's life.

  15. Breaking difficult news in a cross-cultural setting: a qualitative study about Latina mothers of children with down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Kayla M; Baty, Bonnie J; Vázquez, Juan Carlos; Carey, John C; Hobson, Wendy L

    2012-08-01

    Giving difficult news to patients represents a common dilemma for health care professionals. Based on three decades of research, various authors have proposed guidelines outlining the ideal setting, delivery, and timing. Existing publications focus on patients of European descent and may not be applicable in cross-cultural settings. We explored perceptions of Spanish-speaking mothers who have a child with Down syndrome and how they preferred to receive the news of their child's diagnosis. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews (n = 14), which were coded and analyzed by thematic networks to identify common themes. Six significant themes emerged: Cultural Belief System, Communication, Support/Lack of Support, Feelings Engendered, Medical Issues, and Medical System. One overarching theme of mother-child bonding encompassed all sub-themes. The mothers desired the news in a more positive, balanced light and with more complete explanations about the condition. Mothers felt excluded from the diagnostic process and wanted to be better informed about the need for diagnostic studies. Participants used religious beliefs to explain the reason for their child's condition. Many factors influenced Latina mothers' ability to bond initially with their children with Down syndrome. Ideally, these factors should be acknowledged during informing interviews to assist Latino families in adjustment.

  16. Causes of Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Deveci,S.Erhan; Açık, Yasemin

    2014-01-01

    Child abuse is an important public health problem that is present almost in every society and environment at different level and intensities. For implementation of child abuse protection measures it is necessary to investigate its causes. In this review, causes of child abuse was attempted to investigate with respects to the society and institution, family and individual and child related factors.

  17. Low-Income Fathers' Speech to Toddlers during Book Reading versus Toy Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Virginia C.; Rowe, Meredith L.; Leech, Kathryn A.; Cabrera, Natasha J.

    2016-01-01

    Fathers' child-directed speech across two contexts was examined. Father-child dyads from sixty-nine low-income families were videotaped interacting during book reading and toy play when children were 2;0. Fathers used more diverse vocabulary and asked more questions during book reading while their mean length of utterance was longer during toy…

  18. The Prediction of Mothers' Behavior with their Hyperactive Children during Play and Task Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mash, Eric J.; Johnston, Charlotte

    1983-01-01

    Examines relations between observed child behavior, maternal self-ratings of self-esteem and stress, and mothers' behavior in a structured task and an unstructured play situation. Amounts of maternal interaction, control, and nonresponding were significantly correlated both with child's behavior and mother's self-ratings. (CMG)

  19. Solar Power at Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    For the very first time, astronomers have witnessed the speeding up of an asteroid's rotation, and have shown that it is due to a theoretical effect predicted but never seen before. The international team of scientists used an armada of telescopes to discover that the asteroid's rotation period currently decreases by 1 millisecond every year, as a consequence of the heating of the asteroid's surface by the Sun. Eventually it may spin faster than any known asteroid in the solar system and even break apart. ESO PR Photo 11a/07 ESO PR Photo 11a/07 Asteroid 2000 PH5 "The Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect is believed to alter the way small bodies in the Solar System rotate," said Stephen Lowry (Queens University Belfast, UK), lead-author of one of the two companion papers in which this work is reported [1, 2]. "The warming caused by sunlight hitting the surfaces of asteroids and meteoroids leads to a gentle recoil effect as the heat is released," he added. "By analogy, if one were to shine light on a propeller over a long enough period, it would start spinning." Although this is an almost immeasurably weak force, its effect over millions of years is far from negligible. Astronomers believe the YORP effect may be responsible for spinning some asteroids up so fast that they break apart, perhaps leading to the formation of double asteroids. Others may be slowed down so that they take many days to complete a full turn. The YORP effect also plays an important role in changing the orbits of asteroids between Mars and Jupiter, including their delivery to planet-crossing orbits, such as those of near-Earth asteroids. Despite its importance, the effect has never been seen acting on a solar system body, until now. Using extensive optical and radar imaging from powerful Earth-based observatories, astronomers have directly observed the YORP effect in action on a small near-Earth asteroid, known as (54509) 2000 PH5. Shortly after its discovery in 2000, it was

  20. Difficult Tracheal Intubation in Obese Gastric Bypass patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohrn, Niclas; Sommer, Thorbjørn; Bisgaard, Jannie; Rønholm, Ebbe; Larsen, Jens Fromholt

    2016-11-01

    Endotracheal intubation is commonly perceived to be more difficult in obese patients than in lean patients. Primarily, we investigated the association between difficult tracheal intubation (DTI) and obesity, and secondarily, the association between DTI and validated scoring systems used to assess the airways, the association between DTI and quantities of anesthetics used to induce general anesthesia, and the association between DTI and difficulties with venous and arterial cannulation. This is a monocentric prospective observational clinical study of a consecutive series of 539 obese patients undergoing gastric bypass. Tracheal intubation was done preoperatively together with scoring of Intubation Score (IS), Mallampati (MLP), and Cormack-Lehane classification (CLC) and registration of the quantities of anesthetics and total attempts on cannulation. The overall proportion of patients with DTI was 3.5 % and the patients with DTI were more frequently males, had higher CLC, higher American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification (ASA), and noticeably, a lower BMI compared to the patients with easy tracheal intubation. After adjustment with multivariable analyses body mass index (BMI) 2, ASA scores >2, and male gender were risk factors of DTI. Males generally had higher CLC, MLP, and ASA scores compared to females, but no difference in BMI. There was no difference in quantities of anesthetics used between the two groups with or without DTI. Intra-venous and intra-arterial cannulation was succeeded in first attempt in 85 and 86 % of the patients, respectively, and there were no association between BMI and difficult vascular access. We found no association between increasing BMI and DTI.