WorldWideScience

Sample records for play background information

  1. Italian: Area Background Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This booklet has been assembled in order to provide students of Italian with a compact source of cultural information on their target area. Chapters include discussion of: (1) introduction to Italian; (2) origins of the Italian population; (3) geography; (4) history including the Roman Era, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the "Risorgimento," and…

  2. Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use a Latin name made up of the genus and species of the plant. Under this system ... form of a botanical preparation also play important roles in its safety. Teas, tinctures, and extracts have ...

  3. Foreign Energy Company Competitiveness: Background information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimar, M.R.; Freund, K.A.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-10-01

    This report provides background information to the report Energy Company Competitiveness: Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994). The main body of this publication consists of data uncovered during the course of research on this DOE report. This data pertains to major government energy policies in each country studied. This report also provides a summary of the DOE report. In October 1993, the Office of Energy Intelligence, US Department of Energy (formerly the Office of Foreign Intelligence), requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepare a report addressing policies and actions used by foreign governments to enhance the competitiveness of their energy firms. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared the report Energy Company Competitiveness Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994), which provided the analysis requested by DOE. An appendix was also prepared, which provided extensive background documentation to the analysis. Because of the length of the appendix, Pacific Northwest Laboratory decided to publish this information separately, as contained in this report.

  4. Background Television and Infants' Allocation of Their Attention during Toy Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setliff, Alissa E.; Courage, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of background television on 6- and 12-month-olds' attention during 20 min of toy play was examined. During the first or second half of the session, a clip from a variety of commonly available television programs was presented. The duration and frequency of infants' looks to the toys and to the television indicated that regardless of age…

  5. Background information on the SSC project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, J.

    1991-10-01

    This report discusses the following information about the Superconducting Super Collider: Goals and milestones; civil construction; ring components; cryogenics; vacuum and cooling water systems; electrical power; instrumentation and control systems; and installation planning

  6. Lewis Information Network (LINK): Background and overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Roger R.

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center supports many research facilities with many isolated buildings, including wind tunnels, test cells, and research laboratories. These facilities are all located on a 350 acre campus adjacent to the Cleveland Hopkins Airport. The function of NASA-Lewis is to do basic and applied research in all areas of aeronautics, fluid mechanics, materials and structures, space propulsion, and energy systems. These functions require a great variety of remote high speed, high volume data communications for computing and interactive graphic capabilities. In addition, new requirements for local distribution of intercenter video teleconferencing and data communications via satellite have developed. To address these and future communications requirements for the next 15 yrs, a project team was organized to design and implement a new high speed communication system that would handle both data and video information in a common lab-wide Local Area Network. The project team selected cable television broadband coaxial cable technology as the communications medium and first installation of in-ground cable began in the summer of 1980. The Lewis Information Network (LINK) became operational in August 1982 and has become the backbone of all data communications and video.

  7. The Institute of American Indian Arts Background Information (Task One of the Transition Evaluation). Background Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippeconnic, John W., Jr.

    The paper, prepared as Task One of the Institute of American Indian Arts Transition Evaluation, provides pertinent background information about the Institute of American Indian Arts in Santa Fe, New Mexico. A brief history of the Institute is given, with information about its philosophy and purpose; objectives; organization and administration; the…

  8. Infants' Background Television Exposure during Play: Negative Relations to the Quantity and Quality of Mothers' Speech and Infants' Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masur, Elise Frank; Flynn, Valerie; Olson, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Research on immediate effects of background television during mother-infant toy play shows that an operating television in the room disrupts maternal communicative behaviors crucial for infants' vocabulary acquisition. This study is the first to examine associations between frequent background TV/video exposure during mother-infant toy play at…

  9. 42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 82.0 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY... EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Introduction § 82.0 Background information on this part. The Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act (EEOICPA), 42 U.S.C...

  10. Memory for facial expression is influenced by the background music playing during study

    OpenAIRE

    Woloszyn, Michael R.; Ewert, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the emotional quality of study-phase background music on subsequent recall for happy and sad facial expressions was investigated. Undergraduates (N = 48) viewed a series of line drawings depicting a happy or sad child in a variety of environments that were each accompanied by happy or sad music. Although memory for faces was very accurate, emotionally incongruent background music biased subsequent memory for facial expressions, increasing the likelihood that happy faces were rec...

  11. Thermalization of mutual information in hyperscaling violating backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanhayi, M. Reza [Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Science,Islamic Azad University Central Tehran Branch (IAUCTB),P.O. Box 14676-86831, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM),P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-31

    We study certain features of scaling behaviors of the mutual information during a process of thermalization, more precisely we extend the time scaling behavior of mutual information which has been discussed in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP09(2015)165 to time-dependent hyperscaling violating geometries. We use the holographic description of entanglement entropy for two disjoint system consisting of two parallel strips whose widths are much larger than the separation between them. We show that during the thermalization process, the dynamical exponent plays a crucial rule in reading the general time scaling behavior of mutual information (e.g., at the pre-local-equilibration regime). It is shown that the scaling violating parameter can be employed to define an effective dimension.

  12. Study on the background information for the geological disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Murano, Tohru; Hirusawa, Shigenobu; Komoto, Harumi

    2000-03-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has published first R and D report in 1992, in which the fruits of the R and D work were compiled. Since then, JNC, has been promoting the second R and D progress report until before 2000, in which the background information on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste (HLW) was to be presented as well as the technical basis. Recognizing the importance of the social consensus to the geological disposal, understanding and consensus by the society are essential to the development and realization of the geological disposal of HLW. In this fiscal year, studies were divided into 2 phases, considering the time schedule of the second R and D progress report. 1. Phase 1: Analysis of the background information on the geological disposal concept. Based on the recent informations and the research works of last 2 years, final version of the study was made to contribute to the background informations for the second R and D progress report. (This was published in Nov. 1999 as the intermediate report: JNC TJ 1420 2000-006). 2. Phase 2: Following 2 specific items were selected for the candidate issues which need to be studied, considering the present circumstances around the R and D of geological disposal. (1) Educational materials and strategies related to nuclear energy and nuclear waste. Specific strategies and approaches in the area of nuclear energy and nuclear waste educational outreach and curriculum activities by the nuclear industry, government and other entities in 6 countries were surveyed and summarized. (2) Alternatives to geological disposal of HLW: Past national/international consideration and current status. The alternatives for the disposal of HLW have been discussed in the past and the major waste-producing countries have almost all chosen deep geological disposal as preferred method. Here past histories and recent discussions on the variations to geological disposal were studied. (author)

  13. Memory for facial expression is influenced by the background music playing during study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloszyn, Michael R; Ewert, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the emotional quality of study-phase background music on subsequent recall for happy and sad facial expressions was investigated. Undergraduates (N = 48) viewed a series of line drawings depicting a happy or sad child in a variety of environments that were each accompanied by happy or sad music. Although memory for faces was very accurate, emotionally incongruent background music biased subsequent memory for facial expressions, increasing the likelihood that happy faces were recalled as sad when sad music was previously heard, and that sad faces were recalled as happy when happy music was previously heard. Overall, the results indicated that when recalling a scene, the emotional tone is set by an integration of stimulus features from several modalities.

  14. The information content of cosmic microwave background anisotropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Douglas; Contreras, Dagoberto; Narimani, Ali; Ma, Yin-Zhe

    2016-06-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) contains perturbations that are close to Gaussian and isotropic. This means that its information content, in the sense of the ability to constrain cosmological models, is closely related to the number of modes probed in CMB power spectra. Rather than making forecasts for specific experimental setups, here we take a more pedagogical approach and ask how much information we can extract from the CMB if we are only limited by sample variance. We show that, compared with temperature measurements, the addition of E-mode polarization doubles the number of modes available out to a fixed maximum multipole, provided that all of the TT, TE, and EE power spectra are measured. However, the situation in terms of constraints on particular parameters is more complicated, as we explain and illustrate graphically. We also discuss the enhancements in information that can come from adding B-mode polarization and gravitational lensing. We show how well one could ever determine the basic cosmological parameters from CMB data compared with what has been achieved with Planck, which has already probed a substantial fraction of the TT information. Lastly, we look at constraints on neutrino mass as a specific example of how lensing information improves future prospects beyond the current 6-parameter model.

  15. The information content of cosmic microwave background anisotropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Douglas; Contreras, Dagoberto; Narimani, Ali; Ma, Yin-Zhe

    2016-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) contains perturbations that are close to Gaussian and isotropic. This means that its information content, in the sense of the ability to constrain cosmological models, is closely related to the number of modes probed in CMB power spectra. Rather than making forecasts for specific experimental setups, here we take a more pedagogical approach and ask how much information we can extract from the CMB if we are only limited by sample variance. We show that, compared with temperature measurements, the addition of E -mode polarization doubles the number of modes available out to a fixed maximum multipole, provided that all of the TT , TE , and EE power spectra are measured. However, the situation in terms of constraints on particular parameters is more complicated, as we explain and illustrate graphically. We also discuss the enhancements in information that can come from adding B -mode polarization and gravitational lensing. We show how well one could ever determine the basic cosmological parameters from CMB data compared with what has been achieved with Planck , which has already probed a substantial fraction of the TT information. Lastly, we look at constraints on neutrino mass as a specific example of how lensing information improves future prospects beyond the current 6-parameter model.

  16. Having to versus wanting to play: background and consequences of harmonious versus obsessive engagement in video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Andrew K; Weinstein, Netta; Ryan, Richard M; Rigby, C Scott

    2009-10-01

    The present research examined the background and consequences of different styles of engagement in video game play. Based on self-determination theory(1) and the dualistic model of passion,(2) the authors hypothesized that high levels of basic psychological need satisfaction would foster harmonious passion for video play, supporting the subjective sense that play is something one wants to do. It was also predicted that low levels of need satisfaction would promote obsessive passion for games and contribute to the feeling that game play is something one feels compelled to or has to do. It was expected, in turn, that passion for play would directly influence player outcomes closely tied to games, moderate links between play and well-being, and relate to overall levels of well-being as a function of basic need satisfaction. As expected, results showed that low levels of basic need satisfaction were associated with more obsessive passion, higher amounts of play, greater tension following play, and low game enjoyment, whereas high levels of need satisfaction did not predict hours of play but were associated with more harmonious passion, game enjoyment, and energy following play. Moderation analyses showed that high amounts of play related negatively to well-being only to the extent that players reported an obsessive passion and that the unique relations between passion and overall levels of player well-being were quite small once controlling for their basic need satisfaction in daily life. Discussion of the current findings focuses on their significance for understanding disordered play and the value of applying a theory-based approach to study motivation for virtual contexts.

  17. Study on the background information for the geological disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Murano, Tohru; Hirusawa, Shigenobu; Komoto, Harumi

    1999-11-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has published the first R and D progress report in 1992. In which the fruits of the R and D works were compiled. Since then the next step of R and D has been developing progressively in Japan. Now JNC has a plan to make the second R and D progress report until before 2000, in which information on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste(HLW) will be presented to show the technical reliability and technical basis to contribute for the site selection or the safety-standard developments. Recognizing the importance of the social consensus to the geological disposal of international discussions in 1990's, understanding and consensus by the society are essential to the development and realization of the geological disposal of HLW. For getting social understanding and consensus, it is quite important to present the broad basis background information on the geological disposal of HLW, together with the technical basis and also the international discussion of the issues. In this report, the following studies have been done to help to prepare the background information for the 2nd R and D progress report, based on the recent informations and research and assessment works of last 2 years. These are, (1) As the part of general discussion, characteristics of HLW disposal and several issues to be considered for establishing the measures of the disposal of HLW were identified and analyzed from both practical and logical points of view. Those issues were the concept and image of the long term safety measures, the concept and criteria of geological disposal, and, safety assessment and performance assessment. (2) As the part of specific discussion, questions and concerns frequently raised by the non-specialists were taken up and 10 topics in relation to the geological disposal have been identified based on the discussion. Scientific and technical facts, consensus by the specialists on the issues, and international

  18. Backgrounder

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Center for Mountain Ecosystem Studies, Kunming Institute of Botany of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, China: $1,526,000 to inform effective water governance in the Asian highlands of China, Nepal, and Pakistan. • Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), India: $1,499,300 for research on ...

  19. Negative ratings play a positive role in information filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Lü, Linyuan; Zhou, Tao

    2011-11-01

    The explosive growth of information asks for advanced information filtering techniques to solve the so-called information overload problem. A promising way is the recommender system which analyzes the historical records of users’ activities and accordingly provides personalized recommendations. Most recommender systems can be represented by user-object bipartite networks where users can evaluate and vote for objects, and ratings such as “dislike” and “I hate it” are treated straightforwardly as negative factors or are completely ignored in traditional approaches. Applying a local diffusion algorithm on three benchmark data sets, MovieLens, Netflix and Amazon, our study arrives at a very surprising result, namely the negative ratings may play a positive role especially for very sparse data sets. In-depth analysis at the microscopic level indicates that the negative ratings from less active users to less popular objects could probably have positive impacts on the recommendations, while the ones connecting active users and popular objects mostly should be treated negatively. We finally outline the significant relevance of our results to the two long-term challenges in information filtering: the sparsity problem and the cold-start problem.

  20. Background risk information to assist in risk management decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; White, R.K.; Miller, D.B.

    1992-10-01

    The evaluation of the need for remedial activities at hazardous waste sites requires quantification of risks of adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem resulting from the presence of chemical and radioactive substances at these sites. The health risks from exposure to these substances are in addition to risks encountered because of the virtually unavoidable exposure to naturally occurring chemicals and radioactive materials that are present in air, water, soil, building materials, and food products. To provide a frame of reference for interpreting risks quantified for hazardous waste sites, it is useful to identify the relative magnitude of risks of both a voluntary and involuntary nature that are ubiquitous throughout east Tennessee. In addition to discussing risks from the ubiquitous presence of background carcinogens in the east Tennessee environment, this report also presents risks resulting from common, everyday activities. Such information should, not be used to discount or trivialize risks from hazardous waste contamination, but rather, to create a sensitivity to general risk issues, thus providing a context for better interpretation of risk information

  1. A monitored retrievable storage facility: Technical background information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The US government is seeking a site for a monitored retrievable storage facility (MRS). Employing proven technologies used in this country and abroad, the MRS will be an integral part of the federal system for safe and permanent disposal of the nation's high-level radioactive wastes. The MRS will accept shipments of spent fuel from commercial nuclear power plants, temporarily store the spent fuel above ground, and stage shipments of it to a geologic repository for permanent disposal. The law authorizing the MRS provides an opportunity for a state or an Indian tribe to volunteer to host the MRS. The law establishes the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator, who is to seek a state or an Indian tribe willing to host an MRS at a technically-qualified site on reasonable terms, and is to negotiate a proposed agreement specifying the terms and conditions under which the MRS would be developed and operated at that site. This agreement can ensure that the MRS is acceptable to -- and benefits -- the host community. The proposed agreement must be submitted to Congress and enacted into law to become effective. This technical background information presents an overview of various aspects of a monitored retrievable storage facility, including the process by which it will be developed

  2. Information visualization courses for students with a computer science background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerren, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Linnaeus University offers two master's courses in information visualization for computer science students with programming experience. This article briefly describes the syllabi, exercises, and practices developed for these courses.

  3. Resonances and background: A decomposition of scattering information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engdahl, E.; Braendas, E.; Rittby, M.; Elander, N.

    1988-01-01

    An analytic representation of the full Green's function including bound states, resonances, and remaining contributions has been obtained for a class of dilatation analytic potentials, including the superimposed Coulomb potential. It is demonstrated how to obtain the locations and residues of the poles of the Green's function as well as the associated generalized spectral density. For a model potential which has a barrier and decreases exponentially at infinity we have found a certain deflation property of the generalized spectral density. A qualitative explanation of this phenomenon is suggested. This constitutes the motivation for an approximation that explicitly shows a decomposition of the (real) continuum, corresponding to scattering data, into resonances and background contributions. The present representation is also shown to incorporate the appropriate pole-background interferences. Numerical residue strings are computed and analyzed. Results for the Coulomb potential plus the above-mentioned model potential are reported and compared with the previous non-Coulomb case. A similar deflation effect is seen to occur, as well as basically the same pole- and residue-string behavior. The relevance of the present analysis in relation to recently planned experiments with electron-cooled beams of highly charged ions is briefly discussed

  4. Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblatt, D.H.

    1996-11-01

    This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.

  5. Clustering document fragments using background color and texture information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Sukalpa; Franke, Katrin; Pal, Umapada

    2012-01-01

    Forensic analysis of questioned documents sometimes can be extensively data intensive. A forensic expert might need to analyze a heap of document fragments and in such cases to ensure reliability he/she should focus only on relevant evidences hidden in those document fragments. Relevant document retrieval needs finding of similar document fragments. One notion of obtaining such similar documents could be by using document fragment's physical characteristics like color, texture, etc. In this article we propose an automatic scheme to retrieve similar document fragments based on visual appearance of document paper and texture. Multispectral color characteristics using biologically inspired color differentiation techniques are implemented here. This is done by projecting document color characteristics to Lab color space. Gabor filter-based texture analysis is used to identify document texture. It is desired that document fragments from same source will have similar color and texture. For clustering similar document fragments of our test dataset we use a Self Organizing Map (SOM) of dimension 5×5, where the document color and texture information are used as features. We obtained an encouraging accuracy of 97.17% from 1063 test images.

  6. Let the music play! A short-term but no long-term detrimental effect of vocal background music with familiar language lyrics on foreign language vocabulary learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, A.M.B.; Smedinga, H.E.

    2014-01-01

    Participants learned foreign vocabulary by means of the paired-associates learning procedure in three conditions: (a) in silence, (b) with vocal music with lyrics in a familiar language playing in the background, or (c) with vocal music with lyrics in an unfamiliar language playing in the

  7. 77 FR 21992 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: Applicant Background Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... customers. By including employees of all backgrounds, all DOI employees gain a measure of knowledge... barriers in our recruitment and selection processes, DOI must track the demographic groups that apply for... need and use of the information: This information is required to obtain the source of recruitment...

  8. [Effects of exposure frequency and background information on preferences for photographs of cars in different locations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ken; Kusumi, Takashi; Hosomi, Naohiro; Osa, Atsushi; Miike, Hidetoshi

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the influence of familiarity and novelty on the mere exposure effect while manipulating the presentation of background information. We selected presentation stimuli that integrated cars and backgrounds based on the results of pilot studies. During the exposure phase, we displayed the stimuli successively for 3 seconds, manipulating the background information (same or different backgrounds with each presentation) and exposure frequency (3, 6, and 9 times). In the judgment phase, 18 participants judged the cars in terms of preference, familiarity, and novelty on a 7-point scale. As the number of stimulus presentations increased, the preference for the cars increased during the different background condition and decreased during the same background condition. This increased preference may be due to the increase in familiarity caused by the higher exposure frequency and novelty resulting from the background changes per exposure session. The rise in preference judgments was not seen when cars and backgrounds were presented independently. Therefore, the addition of novel features to each exposure session facilitated the mere exposure effect.

  9. Enhancing Information Systems Auditing Knowledge with Role-Playing Game: An Experimental Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongpinunwatana, Nitaya

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the use and effect of a role-playing game on learners' ability in information systems audit. The study is based on experimental research. Information systems control and audit case study and video had been developed. A total of 75 graduate students undertaking a Master's degree in accounting participated in the experiment. The…

  10. Impact of information technology on the role of medical libraries in information managment: normative background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamarija Rožić-Hristovski

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Exponential growth of biomedical knowledge and information technology development is changing the infrastructure of health care systems, education and research. So medical libraries roles have shifted from managing containers of information toward influencing biomedical information resource content and education. These new tasks are formalised in modem American standards for medical libraries, stressing information management role in evolving environment.In Slovenia medical libraries also are aware of development imperative of information activities for advances in medicine. At one side they are faced with lack of specific guidelines for proactive action and on the other with inadequate assessment in legal documents and insufficient funding.

  11. Background Information on Crimes against Children Study. Information Memorandum 86-20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Shaun

    This document was prepared to assist the Wisconsin Legislative Council's Special Committee on Crimes Against Children in its study of current laws relating to crimes against children. It provides the background of the origin of the study and describes the characteristics of the Criminal Code, upon which much of the committee review will center.…

  12. E-mail Writing: Providing Background Information in the Core of Computer Assisted Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad NAZARI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study highly supported the effective role of providing background information via e-mail by the teacher to write e-mail by the students in learners’ writing ability. A total number of 50 EFL advanced male students aged between 25 and 40 at different branches of Iran Language Institute in Tehran, Tehran. Through the placement test of Oxford English Language Placement Test (OELPT the students' proficiency level seems to be nearly the same. Participants were randomly assign into two groups of experimental and control, each consisting of 25 students. After the administration of the proficiency test, all groups were assigned to write topic 1 as the pre-test. Next, the teacher involved the learners in the new instruction (treatment. During writing topics 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 experimental group’s background knowledge was activated through e-mail before writing and e-mailing topics while the control group received no background knowledge activation through e-mail. After the treatment was given to the experimental group, the students in both groups were required to write another composition about the last topic, topic 8. Again, in this phase, none of the groups received any background information. The results indicated that providing background information via e-mail by the teacher to write e-mail by the students significantly improved learners’ writing ability.

  13. Identification and summary characterization of materials potentially requiring vitrification: Background information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croff, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    This document contains background information for the Workshop in general and the presentation entitled 'Identification and Summary Characterization of Materials Potentially Requiring Vitrification' that was given during the first morning of the workshop. summary characteristics of 9 categories of US materials having some potential to be vitrified are given. This is followed by a 1-2 page elaborations for each of these 9 categories. References to more detailed information are included

  14. Judicial decision making: order of evidence presentation and availability of background information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstholt, J.H.; Jackson, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate both the effect of the order of presentation of defence and prosecution evidence and the prior availability of background information on assessment of guilt. Subjects were required to judge the defendant's probability of guilt either after each witness

  15. Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

    1982-03-01

    This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail

  16. Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

    1982-03-01

    This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail.

  17. E-Mail Writing: Providing Background Information in the Core of Computer Assisted Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Behzad; Ninknejad, Sahar

    2015-01-01

    The present study highly supported the effective role of providing background information via email by the teacher to write e-mail by the students in learners' writing ability. A total number of 50 EFL advanced male students aged between 25 and 40 at different branches of Iran Language Institute in Tehran, Tehran. Through the placement test of…

  18. Presenting and processing information in background noise: A combined speaker-listener perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockstael, Annelies; Samyn, Laurie; Corthals, Paul; Botteldooren, Dick

    2018-01-01

    Transferring information orally in background noise is challenging, for both speaker and listener. Successful transfer depends on complex interaction between characteristics related to listener, speaker, task, background noise, and context. To fully assess the underlying real-life mechanisms, experimental design has to mimic this complex reality. In the current study, the effects of different types of background noise have been studied in an ecologically valid test design. Documentary-style information had to be presented by the speaker and simultaneously acquired by the listener in four conditions: quiet, unintelligible multitalker babble, fluctuating city street noise, and little varying highway noise. For both speaker and listener, the primary task was to focus on the content that had to be transferred. In addition, for the speakers, the occurrence of hesitation phenomena was assessed. The listener had to perform an additional secondary task to address listening effort. For the listener the condition with the most eventful background noise, i.e., fluctuating city street noise, appeared to be the most difficult with markedly longer duration of the secondary task. In the same fluctuating background noise, speech appeared to be less disfluent, suggesting a higher level of concentration from the speaker's side.

  19. An analysis of the Bonn agreement. Background information for evaluating business implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern

    2001-01-01

    This report has been commissioned by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development and written in August 2001. The aim of the report is to present and analyze the newest developments in the climate negotiations, particularly from part two of the sixth Conference of the Parties to the Climate Convention in Bonn in July 2001, and to provide background information to evaluate what the ''Bonn agreement'' means for business. The report is organized as a collection of slides with supporting text explaining the background and contents of each slide. (author)

  20. Background information and technical basis for assessment of environmental implications of magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, J.B.

    1983-08-01

    This report contains background information for assessing the potential environmental implications of fusion-based central electric power stations. It was developed as part of an environmental review of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program. Transition of the program from demonstration of purely scientific feasibility (breakeven conditions) to exploration of engineering feasibility suggests that formal program environmental review under the National Environmental Policy Act is timely. This report is the principal reference upon which an environmental impact statement on magnetic fusion will be based

  1. Innovation Management by Promoting the Informal Artistic, Experience-based, Playful

    CERN Document Server

    Bürgermeister, Markus; Porschen, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This book explores new approaches to successful innovation - with all uncertainty. Its focal points are management of the informal and a new perspective of human work: innovation work is based on artistic, experience-based and playful action. The book helps recognize and utilize new success potentials for innovation in enterprises. It addresses managers and experts who are interested in promoting innovation in practice. Moreover, scientists will gather new interdisciplinary insights into innovation management and work organization from this book.

  2. Background information document to support NESHAPS rulemaking on nuclear power reactors. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colli, A.; Conklin, C.; Hoffmeyer, D.

    1991-08-01

    The purpose of this Background Information Document (BID) is to present information relevant to the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) reconsideration of the need for a NESHAP to control radionuclides emitted to the air from commercial nuclear power reactors. The BID presents information on the relevant portions of the regulatory framework that NRC has implemented for nuclear power plant licensees, under the authority of the Atomic Energy Act, as amended, to protect the public's health and safety. To provide context, it summarizes the rulemaking history for Subpart I. It then describes NRC's regulatory program for routine atmospheric emissions of radionuclides and evaluates the doses caused by actual airborne emissions from nuclear power plants, including releases resulting from anticipated operational occurrences

  3. Natural background radioactivity of the earth's surface -- essential information for environmental impact studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauchid, M.; Grasty, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    An environmental impact study is basically a study of change. This change is compared to the preexisting conditions that are usually perceived to be the original one or the 'pristine' stage. Unfortunately reliable information on the 'so called' pristine stage is far from adequate. One of the essential parts of this information is a good knowledge of the earth's chemical make up, or its geochemistry. Presently available data on the geochemistry of the earth's surface, including those related to radioactive elements, are incomplete and inconsistent. The main reason why a number of regulations are judged to be too strict and disproportional to the risks that might be caused by some human activities, is the lack of reliable information on the natural global geochemical background on which environmental regulations should be based. The main objective of this paper is to present a view on the need for complete baseline information on the earth's surface environment and in particular its geochemical character. It is only through the availability of complete information, including reliable baseline information on the natural radioactivity, that an appropriate study on the potential effect of the various naturally occurring elements on human health be carried out. Presented here are a number of examples where the natural radioactivity of an entire country has been mapped, or is in progress. Also described are the ways these undertakings were accomplished. There is a general misconception that elevated radioactivity can be found only around uranium mines, nuclear power reactors and similar nuclear installations. As can be seen from some of these maps, the natural background radioactivity of the earth's surface closely reflects the underlying geological formations and their alteration products. In reality, properly regulated and managed facilities, the levels of radioactivity associated with many of these facilities are generally quite low relative to those associated with

  4. Let the Music Play!--A Short-Term but No Long-Term Detrimental Effect of Vocal Background Music with Familiar Language Lyrics on Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Annette M. B.; Smedinga, Hilde E.

    2014-01-01

    Participants learned foreign vocabulary by means of the paired-associates learning procedure in three conditions: (a) in silence, (b) with vocal music with lyrics in a familiar language playing in the background, or (c) with vocal music with lyrics in an unfamiliar language playing in the background. The vocabulary to learn varied in concreteness…

  5. Perceiving patterns of play in dynamic sport tasks: investigating the essential information underlying skilled performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willams, A Mark; Hodges, Nicola J; North, Jamie S; Barton, Gabor

    2006-01-01

    The perceptual-cognitive information used to support pattern-recognition skill in soccer was examined. In experiment 1, skilled players were quicker and more accurate than less-skilled players at recognising familiar and unfamiliar soccer action sequences presented on film. In experiment 2, these action sequences were converted into point-light displays, with superficial display features removed and the positions of players and the relational information between them made more salient. Skilled players were more accurate than less-skilled players in recognising sequences presented in point-light form, implying that each pattern of play can be defined by the unique relations between players. In experiment 3, various offensive and defensive players were occluded for the duration of each trial in an attempt to identify the most important sources of information underpinning successful performance. A decrease in response accuracy was observed under occluded compared with non-occluded conditions and the expertise effect was no longer observed. The relational information between certain key players, team-mates and their defensive counterparts may provide the essential information for effective pattern-recognition skill in soccer. Structural feature analysis, temporal phase relations, and knowledge-based information are effectively integrated to facilitate pattern recognition in dynamic sport tasks.

  6. Background information to the installers guide for small scale mains connected PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report contains background information used by BRE, EA Technology, Halcrows and Sundog when compiling guidance for the UK's New and Renewable Energy Programme on the installation of small-scale photovoltaics (PV) in buildings. The report considers: relevant standards; general safety issues; fire and safety issues, including the fire resistance of PV modules; PV module ratings such as maximum voltage and maximum current; DC cabling; the DC disconnect; the DC junction box; fault analysis; general and AC side earthing; DC earthing; lightning and surge suppression; inverters; AC modules; AC systems; getting connection; mounting options; and installation issues.

  7. Background Information for the Nevada National Security Site Integrated Sampling Plan, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnham, Irene; Marutzky, Sam

    2014-12-01

    This document describes the process followed to develop the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Integrated Sampling Plan (referred to herein as the Plan). It provides the Plan’s purpose and objectives, and briefly describes the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity, including the conceptual model and regulatory requirements as they pertain to groundwater sampling. Background information on other NNSS groundwater monitoring programs—the Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan (RREMP) and Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP)—and their integration with the Plan are presented. Descriptions of the evaluations, comments, and responses of two Sampling Plan topical committees are also included.

  8. Background information on a multimedia nitrogen emission reduction strategy; Hintergrundpapier zu einer multimedialen Stickstoffemissionsminderungsstrategie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geupel; Jering; Frey (and others)

    2009-04-15

    The background information report on a multimedia nitrogen reduction strategy covers the following chapters: 1. Introduction: the nitrogen cascade and the anthropogenic influence, environmental impact of increased nitrogen emissions and effects on human health. 2. Sources and balancing of anthropogenic nitrogen emissions in Germany. 3. Environmental quality targets, activity goals of environmental measures and instruments of an integrated nitrogen reduction strategy. 4. Conclusions and perspectives. The attachments include emission sources, nitrogen release and nitrogen transport in Germany; catalogue of measures and instruments according the criteria efficiency and cost-efficacy.

  9. Chemical Source Localization Fusing Concentration Information in the Presence of Chemical Background Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomareda, Víctor; Magrans, Rudys; Jiménez-Soto, Juan M; Martínez, Dani; Tresánchez, Marcel; Burgués, Javier; Palacín, Jordi; Marco, Santiago

    2017-04-20

    We present the estimation of a likelihood map for the location of the source of a chemical plume dispersed under atmospheric turbulence under uniform wind conditions. The main contribution of this work is to extend previous proposals based on Bayesian inference with binary detections to the use of concentration information while at the same time being robust against the presence of background chemical noise. For that, the algorithm builds a background model with robust statistics measurements to assess the posterior probability that a given chemical concentration reading comes from the background or from a source emitting at a distance with a specific release rate. In addition, our algorithm allows multiple mobile gas sensors to be used. Ten realistic simulations and ten real data experiments are used for evaluation purposes. For the simulations, we have supposed that sensors are mounted on cars which do not have among its main tasks navigating toward the source. To collect the real dataset, a special arena with induced wind is built, and an autonomous vehicle equipped with several sensors, including a photo ionization detector (PID) for sensing chemical concentration, is used. Simulation results show that our algorithm, provides a better estimation of the source location even for a low background level that benefits the performance of binary version. The improvement is clear for the synthetic data while for real data the estimation is only slightly better, probably because our exploration arena is not able to provide uniform wind conditions. Finally, an estimation of the computational cost of the algorithmic proposal is presented.

  10. Pricing Power of Agricultural Products under the Background of Small Peasant Management and Information Asymmetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dexuan LI

    2016-01-01

    From the background of small peasant management and information asymmetry,this paper introduced the middle profit sharing model and discussed influence factors and ownership of pricing power of agricultural products. It obtained following results:( i) the transaction scale has positive effect on farmer’s pricing power of agricultural products,while the competitor’s transaction scale has negative effect on it,so does the cost for information search;( ii) under the condition of small peasant management system,farmer is in a relatively weak position in the distribution of pricing power of agricultural products,due to factors such as small transaction scale,information asymmetry and farmer’s weak negotiation ability;( iii) through cooperative game,farmer and buyers can share cooperative surplus at the agreed ratio;( iv) the introduction of self-organizing specialized farmers cooperatives is favorable for solving the problem of pricing power of agricultural products,and possible problems,such as " collective action dilemma" and " fake cooperatives" in the cooperative development process can be solved by internal and external division of labor and specialization of cooperatives.

  11. Opportunities for renewable biomass in the Dutch province of Zeeland. Background information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Buck, A.; Croezen, H.

    2009-04-01

    The Dutch province of Zeeland is organizing three bio-debates to map economically attractive and renewable biomass opportunities. Participants included industrial businesses, ZLTO, ZMF, Zeeland Seaports, Impuls Zeeland, Hogeschool Zeeland and the University of Ghent. CE Delft is organizing the debates and provides the expertise in this field. In the first debate (Goes, 22 January 2009) the main lines for deployment of biomass in Zeeland were established. One of the conclusions was that there are opportunities for existing industry to implement new technology for large-scale use of (imported) biomass. As for agriculture, there may be opportunities for high-quality chemicals from agricultural crops. Agriculture and industry have opportunities in the short term for better and more high-quality utilization of existing residual flows of biomass. The second and third debate should address concrete opportunities for the industry and agriculture in Zeeland. This report is background information to support the debates. [nl

  12. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search and Background Rejection with Event Position Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Gen-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Evidence from observational cosmology and astrophysics indicates that about one third of the universe is matter, but that the known baryonic matter only contributes to the universe at 4%. A large fraction of the universe is cold and non-baryonic matter, which has important role in the universe structure formation and its evolution. The leading candidate for the non-baryonic dark matter is Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), which naturally occurs in the supersymmetry theory in particle physics. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is searching for evidence of a WIMP interaction off an atomic nucleus in crystals of Ge and Si by measuring simultaneously the phonon energy and ionization energy of the interaction in the CDMS detectors. The WIMP interaction energy is from a few keV to tens of keV with a rate less than 0.1 events/kg/day. To reach the goal of WIMP detection, the CDMS experiment has been conducted in the Soudan mine with an active muon veto and multistage passive background shields. The CDMS detectors have a low energy threshold and background rejection capabilities based on ionization yield. However, betas from contamination and other radioactive sources produce surface interactions, which have low ionization yield, comparable to that of bulk nuclear interactions. The low-ionization surface electron recoils must be removed in the WIMP search data analysis. An emphasis of this thesis is on developing the method of the surface-interaction rejection using location information of the interactions, phonon energy distributions and phonon timing parameters. The result of the CDMS Soudan run118 92.3 live day WIMP search data analysis is presented, and represents the most sensitive search yet performed

  13. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search and Background Rejection with Event Position Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Gensheng [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2005-01-01

    Evidence from observational cosmology and astrophysics indicates that about one third of the universe is matter, but that the known baryonic matter only contributes to the universe at 4%. A large fraction of the universe is cold and non-baryonic matter, which has important role in the universe structure formation and its evolution. The leading candidate for the non-baryonic dark matter is Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), which naturally occurs in the supersymmetry theory in particle physics. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is searching for evidence of a WIMP interaction off an atomic nucleus in crystals of Ge and Si by measuring simultaneously the phonon energy and ionization energy of the interaction in the CDMS detectors. The WIMP interaction energy is from a few keV to tens of keV with a rate less than 0.1 events/kg/day. To reach the goal of WIMP detection, the CDMS experiment has been conducted in the Soudan mine with an active muon veto and multistage passive background shields. The CDMS detectors have a low energy threshold and background rejection capabilities based on ionization yield. However, betas from contamination and other radioactive sources produce surface interactions, which have low ionization yield, comparable to that of bulk nuclear interactions. The low-ionization surface electron recoils must be removed in the WIMP search data analysis. An emphasis of this thesis is on developing the method of the surface-interaction rejection using location information of the interactions, phonon energy distributions and phonon timing parameters. The result of the CDMS Soudan run118 92.3 live day WIMP search data analysis is presented, and represents the most sensitive search yet performed.

  14. Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaser, Richard

    1980-11-01

    This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

  15. Thin-shell bubbles and information loss problem in anti de Sitter background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Misao [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics,Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tomsk State Pedagogical University,634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Yeom, Dong-han [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics,Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University,Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2014-12-24

    We study the motion of thin-shell bubbles and their tunneling in anti de Sitter (AdS) background. We are interested in the case when the outside of a shell is a Schwarzschild-AdS space (false vacuum) and the inside of it is an AdS space with a lower vacuum energy (true vacuum). If a collapsing true vacuum bubble is created, classically it will form a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole. However, this collapsing bubble can tunnel to a bouncing bubble that moves out to spatial infinity. Then, although the classical causal structure of a collapsing true vacuum bubble has the singularity and the event horizon, quantum mechanically the wavefunction has support for a history without any singularity nor event horizon which is mediated by the non-perturbative, quantum tunneling effect. This may be regarded an explicit example that shows the unitarity of an asymptotic observer in AdS, while a classical observer who only follows the most probable history effectively lose information due to the formation of an event horizon.

  16. Thin-shell bubbles and information loss problem in anti de Sitter background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Misao; Yeom, Dong-han

    2014-01-01

    We study the motion of thin-shell bubbles and their tunneling in anti de Sitter (AdS) background. We are interested in the case when the outside of a shell is a Schwarzschild-AdS space (false vacuum) and the inside of it is an AdS space with a lower vacuum energy (true vacuum). If a collapsing true vacuum bubble is created, classically it will form a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole. However, this collapsing bubble can tunnel to a bouncing bubble that moves out to spatial infinity. Then, although the classical causal structure of a collapsing true vacuum bubble has the singularity and the event horizon, quantum mechanically the wavefunction has support for a history without any singularity nor event horizon which is mediated by the non-perturbative, quantum tunneling effect. This may be regarded an explicit example that shows the unitarity of an asymptotic observer in AdS, while a classical observer who only follows the most probable history effectively lose information due to the formation of an event horizon.

  17. 77 FR 31017 - Office of Facilities Management and Program Services; Information Collection; Background...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... 3090-0287, Background Investigations for Child Care Workers. Instructions: Please submit comments only... request for review and approval for background check investigations of child care workers, form GSA 176C... Child Care Workers AGENCY: Office of Facilities Management and Program Services, Public Building Service...

  18. Study on the background information for the R and D of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Hirusawa, Shigenobu; Komoto, Harumi

    2001-02-01

    It is quite important for Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) to analyze the R and D items after 'H12 report' and also provide their results of R and D activities to general public effectively. Recognizing the importance of the social consensus to the geological disposal, relating background informations were to be picked up. In this fiscal year, following two main topics were selected and studied. 1. Research and analysis on the options for the geological disposal concept. The major nuclear power-generating countries have almost all chosen deep geological disposal as preferred method for HLW disposal. Since 1990's, to make the geological disposal flexible, the alternative concepts for the disposal of HLW have been discussed promoting the social acceptance. In this context, recent optional discussions and international evaluations on the following topics were studied and summarized. (1) Reversibility of waste disposal/Retrievability of waste/Waste monitoring, (2) Long-term storage concept and its effectiveness, (3) Present position and role of international disposal. 2. Research and analysis on some educational materials collected from foreign countries. Although geological disposals is scheduled to start still in future, it is quite important to study the procedures to attract younger generation and get their proper perceptions on the nuclear energy and waste problems. As the supporting analysis to implement strategically the public relational activities for JNC's geological disposal R and D, particular attention was focused on the educational materials obtained in the last year's survey. Representative educational materials were selected and following items were studied and summarized. (1) Basic approach, positioning and characteristics of the educational materials, (2) Detailed analysis of the representatively selected educational materials, (3) Comparison of the analyzed characteristics and study on its feedback to Japanese materials. (author)

  19. Report: Management Alert - EPA Has Not Initiated Required Background Investigations for Information Systems Contractor Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #17-P-0409, September 27, 2017. Not vetting contractor personnel before granting them network access exposes the EPA to risks. Contractor personnel with potentially questionable backgrounds who access sensitive agency data could cause harm.

  20. Surfing for health: user evaluation of a health information website. Part one: Background and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peter; Nicholas, David; Huntington, Paul; McLean, Fiona

    2002-06-01

    The Government in Britain is set on using the Internet to expand the provision of health information to the general public. Concerns over the quality of the health information have preoccupied commentators and organizations rather than the way users interact with health information systems. This report examines the issues surrounding the provision of electronic health information, and describes an evaluation undertaken of a commercial health website-that of Surgerydoor (http://www.surgerydoor.co.uk/), and comprises two parts. Part one outlines the literature on electronic health information evaluation. It discusses quality issues, but also redresses the imbalance by exploring other evaluative perspectives. Part two describes an evaluation of a health information Internet site in terms of its usability and appeal, undertaken as part of a Department of Health funded study on the impact of such systems.

  1. Playful Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel

    these practices, which compose the taxonomy of tablet play. My contribution lies in identifying and proposing a series of theoretical concepts that complement recent theories related to play and digital literacy studies. The data collected through observations informed some noteworthy aspects, including how...... with tablets’ physical and digital affordances shape children’s digital play. This thesis presents how young children’s current practices when playing with tablets inform digital experiences in Denmark and Japan. Through an interdisciplinary lens and a grounded theory approach, I have identified and mapped...... vocabulary in children’s digital play experiences. These early digital experiences set the rules for the playgrounds and assert digital tablets as twenty-first-century toys, shaping young children’s playful literacy....

  2. On play and playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, Dusko

    2013-12-01

    The paper offers a review of the development of the concept of play and playing. The true beginnings of the development of the theories of play are set as late as in the 19th century. It is difficult to define play as such; it may much more easily be defined through its antipode--work. In the beginning, play used to be connected with education; it was not before Freud's theory of psychoanalysis and Piaget's developmental psychology that the importance of play in a child's development began to be explained in more detail. The paper further tackles the role of play in the adult age. Detailed attention is paid to psychodynamic and psychoanalytic authors, in particular D. W. Winnicott and his understanding of playing in the intermediary (transitional) empirical or experiential space. In other words, playing occupies a space and time of its own. The neuroscientific concept of playing is also tackled, in the connection with development as well.

  3. Traceability information carriers. The technology backgrounds and consumers' perceptions of the technological solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Chryssochoidis, George; Kehagia, Olga

    2009-01-01

    of and confidence in the information provided, perceived levels of convenience, impact on product quality and safety, impact on consumers' health and the environment, and potential consequences on ethical and privacy liberties constitute important factors influencing consumers' perceptions of technologies......The implementation of traceability in the food supply chain has reinforced adoption of technologies with the ability to track forward and trace back product-related information. Based on the premise that these technologies can be used as a means to provide product-related information to consumers...... in their production lines. For the purposes of the study, a focus group study was conducted across 12 European countries, while a set of four different technologies used as a means to provide traceability information to consumers was the focal point of the discussions in each focus group. Results show that the amount...

  4. Financial Information Source, Knowledge, and Practices of College Students from Diverse Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Yoko; Koonce, Joan; Plunkett, Scott W.; Pleskus, Lindsey

    2015-01-01

    Using cross-sectional data, we examined the financial information sources, financial knowledge, and financial practices of young adults, many of whom are first generation college students, ethnic minorities, and immigrants or children of immigrants. Participants (n = 1,249) were undergraduate students at a large regional comprehensive university.…

  5. Traceability information carriers. The technology backgrounds and consumers' perceptions of the technological solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Chryssochoidis, George; Kehagia, Olga

    2009-12-01

    The implementation of traceability in the food supply chain has reinforced adoption of technologies with the ability to track forward and trace back product-related information. Based on the premise that these technologies can be used as a means to provide product-related information to consumers, this paper explores the perceived benefits and drawbacks of such technologies. The aim is to identify factors that influence consumers' perceptions of such technologies, and furthermore to advise the agri-food business on issues that they should consider prior to the implementation of such technologies in their production lines. For the purposes of the study, a focus group study was conducted across 12 European countries, while a set of four different technologies used as a means to provide traceability information to consumers was the focal point of the discussions in each focus group. Results show that the amount of and confidence in the information provided, perceived levels of convenience, impact on product quality and safety, impact on consumers' health and the environment, and potential consequences on ethical and privacy liberties constitute important factors influencing consumers' perceptions of technologies that provide traceability.

  6. Developing written information for cancer survivors from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds: Lessons learnt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Wiley

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Australia is a multicultural nation with a large migrant population. Migrants with cancer report inferior quality of life and the need for more information in their own language. This paper describes lessons learnt from developing culturally appropriate written information resources with and for Arabic, Italian, and Vietnamese cancer survivors and carers. The information needs of survivors from these language groups as well as guidelines for the development of written resources for culturally diverse populations were identified through literature review. Community consultation was undertaken with focus groups. The content was developed and tested with health professionals who spoke the appropriate language and focus group participants, ensuring relevance and appropriateness. Resource design and dissemination were informed through community consultation. A number of key tasks for developing resources were identified as follows: (1 community engagement and consultation; (2 culturally sensitive data collection; (3 focus group facilitators (recruitment and training; (4 content development; (5 translation and review process; (6 design; and (7 sustainability. This project reinforced literature review findings on the importance of cultural sensitivity in the development of resources. Engaging with community groups and incorporating culturally appropriate recruitment strategies optimises recruitment to focus groups and facilitates content development. Stakeholders and lay persons from the intended ethnic-minority communities should be involved in the development and formative evaluation of resources to ensure appropriateness and relevance and in the dissemination strategy to optimize penetration. We believe the lessons we have learnt will be relevant to any group intending to develop health information for culturally and linguistic diverse groups.

  7. The Games People Play: Information and Media Literacies in the Hunger Games Trilogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Don; Hollister, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Katniss Everdeen, the narrator and protagonist of Suzanne Collins' Hunger Games Trilogy, survives the grueling ordeal of forced participation in two games to the death through both physical prowess and mental agility. Both within and outside of the Games, she demonstrates information and media literacies. By becoming adept at interpreting and…

  8. Leveling the playing field : The selection and motivation effects of tournament prize spread information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardinaels, Eddy; Chen, C.X.; Yin, Huaxiang

    Many companies administer wage policies based on tournaments or have different salaries attached to various promotion-based ranks within the company. Employees, however, do not always receive information about pay level differences at higher ranks prior to joining the company. While some companies

  9. Playful Mobility Choices: Motivating informed mobility decision making by applying game mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Millonig

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Motivating people to change their mobility behaviour patterns towards more sustainable forms of mobility is one of the major challenges regarding climate change and quality of life. Recently, an increasing amount of attempts to use gamification for triggering such behavioural changes can be observed. However, little is known about the actual impact of using game elements. This contribution describes a concept for systematically analysing the group-specific effects of different game mechanics on mobility decision processes (e.g. mode and route choice. Based on theoretical findings concerning player types and mobility styles we developed a framework for identifying effective game mechanics motivating users to explore mobility alternatives and take more informed and more sustainable mode or route choice decisions. The results will form the basis for implementing game mechanics in mobility information services motivating users to explore unfamiliar but more sustainable mobility options.

  10. Selective Exposure to and Acquisition of Information from Educational Television Programs as a Function of Appeal and Tempo of Background Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakshlag, Jacob J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The effect of educational television background music on selective exposure and information acquisition was studied. Background music of slow tempo, regardless of its appeal, had negligible effects on attention and information acquisition. Rhythmic, fast-tempo background music, especially when appealing, significantly reduced visual attention to…

  11. Monitor Clean and Efficient. Background information. Methods and references as applied in the Monitor in April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdes, J.; De Ligt, T.

    2010-01-01

    This report contains background information about the Monitor Clean and Efficient that was published in April 2009. The goal and approach of the Monitor are clarified, as well as the methods and data that are used. The structure of this report resembles the structure of the Monitor. Sources and dates of availability are mentioned along with the data, as are the parties collecting and processing the information. The results that were found using this methodology have been published in the Monitor Clean and Efficient. [nl

  12. Background information for the development of a low-level waste performance assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.

    1989-12-01

    This document identifies and describes the potential postclosure pathways of radionuclide release, migration, and exposure from low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Each pathway identified is composed of a combination of migration pathways (air, surface water, ground water, food chain) and exposure pathways (direct gamma, inhalation, ingestion, surface contact). The pathway identification is based on a review and evaluation of existing information, and not all pathways presented in the document would necessarily be of importance at a given low-level waste disposal site. This document presents pathways associated with undisturbed (ground water, gas generation), naturally disturbed (erosion, bathtubbing, earth creep, frost heave, plant and animal intruder), and inadvertent intruder (construction, agriculture) scenarios of a low-level waste disposal facility. 20 refs., 1 fig

  13. Effects of video-game play on information processing: a meta-analytic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Kasey L; Brooks, Patricia J; Aldrich, Naomi J; Palladino, Melissa A; Alfieri, Louis

    2013-12-01

    Do video games enhance cognitive functioning? We conducted two meta-analyses based on different research designs to investigate how video games impact information-processing skills (auditory processing, executive functions, motor skills, spatial imagery, and visual processing). Quasi-experimental studies (72 studies, 318 comparisons) compare habitual gamers with controls; true experiments (46 studies, 251 comparisons) use commercial video games in training. Using random-effects models, video games led to improved information processing in both the quasi-experimental studies, d = 0.61, 95% CI [0.50, 0.73], and the true experiments, d = 0.48, 95% CI [0.35, 0.60]. Whereas the quasi-experimental studies yielded small to large effect sizes across domains, the true experiments yielded negligible effects for executive functions, which contrasted with the small to medium effect sizes in other domains. The quasi-experimental studies appeared more susceptible to bias than were the true experiments, with larger effects being reported in higher-tier than in lower-tier journals, and larger effects reported by the most active research groups in comparison with other labs. The results are further discussed with respect to other moderators and limitations in the extant literature.

  14. Performance analysis of supply chains under customer demand information sharing using role play game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chinna Pamulety

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain is a network of organizations that work together and performs various business functions such as procurement of raw materials, converting the raw material into semi-finished or finished goods and distributing the same to their ultimate customers. Presence of bullwhip effect in a supply chain is costly and degrades the performance of the supply chain. Reduction in bullwhip effect can improve the efficiency or profitability of a supply chain. The objective of this paper is to know the impact of imperfect Advance Demand Information (ADI sharing on bullwhip effect in a four-stage serial supply chain and to evaluate the supply chain performance by conducting an experiment similar to the beer distribution game. The performance measures used are variance of orders placed by each stage, fill rate, total inventory at each stage and total holding cost of the supply chain. Results show that imperfect ADI improves the performance of the supply chain. The performance of the supply chain is also evaluated under order up to level (R, S policy with safety stock and it is found that the performance of supply chain is better when inventory policy used.

  15. Albania; Background Information

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a evolution of the financial system in Albania. The paper highlights that a two-tier banking system was created following passage of a new Central Bank Law and Commercial Banking Law in April 1992. The State Bank of Albania became the Bank of Albania and retained only the functions of a central bank. Its commercial operations were hived off to become the National Bank of Albania in July 1992, which was subsequently merged with the Albanian Commercial Bank to form the Nati...

  16. 基于AU6850C芯片的智能家居背景音乐播放模块的设计%Design of intelligent Home Furnishing background music playing module based on AU6850C chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡建聪

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the design of hardware and software of intelligent Home Furnishing background music to STC12C5A60S2 decoding chip and MP3 AU6850C as the core of the playing module.This module provides USB and SD card interface, with liquid crystal display,serial communication and power-off memory function,intelligent Home Furnishing control board can realize the background music playing through the control of the music playing module.%本文介绍了以STC12C5A60S2单片机和MP3解码芯片AU6850C为核心的智能家居背景音乐播放模块的硬件及软件设计。该模块提供了USB和SD卡的接口,具有液晶显示、串口通讯及断电记忆功能,智能家居控制板可通过对音乐播放模块的控制实现背景音乐的播放。

  17. Increasing Power by Sharing Information from Genetic Background and Treatment in Clustering of Gene Expression Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sura Zaki Alrashid

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Clustering of gene expression time series gives insight into which genes may be co-regulated, allowing us to discern the activity of pathways in a given microarray experiment. Of particular interest is how a given group of genes varies with different conditions or genetic background. This paper develops
a new clustering method that allows each cluster to be parameterised according to whether the behaviour of the genes across conditions is correlated or anti-correlated. By specifying correlation between such genes,more information is gain within the cluster about how the genes interrelate. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is an irreversible neurodegenerative disorder that kills the motor neurons and results in death within 2 to 3 years from the symptom onset. Speed of progression for different patients are heterogeneous with significant variability. The SOD1G93A transgenic mice from different backgrounds (129Sv and C57 showed consistent phenotypic differences for disease progression. A hierarchy of Gaussian isused processes to model condition-specific and gene-specific temporal co-variances. This study demonstrated about finding some significant gene expression profiles and clusters of associated or co-regulated gene expressions together from four groups of data (SOD1G93A and Ntg from 129Sv and C57 backgrounds. Our study shows the effectiveness of sharing information between replicates and different model conditions when modelling gene expression time series. Further gene enrichment score analysis and ontology pathway analysis of some specified clusters for a particular group may lead toward identifying features underlying the differential speed of disease progression.

  18. Orientations in adolescent use of information and communication technology: a digital divide by sociodemographic background, educational career, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivusilta, Leena K; Lintonen, Tomi P; Rimpelä, Arja H

    2007-01-01

    The role of information and communication technology (ICT) in adolescents' lives was studied, with emphasis on whether there exists a digital divide based on sociodemographic background, educational career, and health. The assumption was that some groups of adolescents use ICT more so that their information utilization skills improve (computer use), while others use it primarily for entertainment (digital gaming, contacting friends by mobile phone). Data were collected by mailed survey from a nationally representative sample of 12- to 18-year-olds (n=7,292; response 70%) in 2001 and analysed using ANOVA. Computer use was most frequent among adolescents whose fathers had higher education or socioeconomic status, who came from nuclear families, and who continued studies after compulsory education. Digital gaming was associated with poor school achievement and attending vocational rather than upper secondary school. Mobile phone use was frequent among adolescents whose fathers had lower education or socioeconomic status, who came from non-nuclear families, and whose educational prospects were poor. Intensive use of each ICT form, especially of mobile phones, was associated with health problems. High social position, nuclear family, and a successful educational career signified good health in general, independently of the diverse usage of ICT. There exists a digital divide among adolescents: orientation to computer use is more common in educated well-off families while digital gaming and mobile phone use accumulate at the opposite end of the spectrum. Poorest health was reported by mobile phone users. High social background and success at school signify better health, independently of the ways of using ICT.

  19. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    ? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty...

  20. Agricultural practice and water quality in the Netherlands in the 1992-2002 period. Background information for the third EU Nitrate Directive Member States report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraters B; Hotsma PH; Langenberg VT; Leeuwen TC van; Mol APA; Olsthoorn CSM; Schotten CGJ; Willems WJ; EC-LNV; RIKZ; LEI; RIZA; CBS; LDL

    2004-01-01

    This overview provides the background information for the Netherlands Member State report, 'Nitrate Directive, status and trends of aquatic environment and agricultural practice' to be submitted to the European Commission mid-2004. It documents current agricultural practice, and groundwater and

  1. Playing with/as Systems: Short Paper, Discussion and Demonstration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Straeubig

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Complex phenomena such as play, creativity or innovation are familiar, yet difficult to describe in a systematic manner. In this short article I propose six necessary conditions for any comprehensive description of play. Against this background I discuss my systems-theoretic, constructivist and practice-informed approach to play.

  2. The Play of Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry

    2012-01-01

    The author reviews the role of play within psychotherapy. She does not discuss the formal play therapy especially popular for young children, nor play from the Jungian perspective that encourages the use of the sand tray with adults. Instead, she focuses on the informal use of play during psychotherapy as it is orchestrated intuitively. Because…

  3. Experiences with nutrition-related information during antenatal care of pregnant women of different ethnic backgrounds residing in the area of Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnweidner, Lisa M; Sverre Pettersen, Kjell; Mosdøl, Annhild

    2013-12-01

    to explore experiences with nutrition-related information during routine antenatal care among women of different ethnical backgrounds. individual interviews with seventeen participants were conducted twice during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis were inspired by an interpretative phenomenological approach. participants were purposively recruited at eight Mother and Child Health Centres in the area of Oslo, Norway, where they received antenatal care. participants had either immigrant backgrounds from African and Asian countries (n=12) or were ethnic Norwegian (n=5). Participants were pregnant with their first child and had a pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index above 25 kg/m(2). participants experienced that they were provided with little nutrition-related information in antenatal care. The information was perceived as presented in very general terms and focused on food safety. Weight management and the long-term prevention of diet-related chronic diseases had hardly been discussed. Participants with immigrant backgrounds appeared to be confused about information given by the midwife which was incongruent with their original food culture. The participants were actively seeking for nutrition-related information and had to navigate between various sources of information. the midwife is considered a trustworthy source of nutrition-related information. Therefore, antenatal care may have considerable potential to promote a healthy diet to pregnant women. Findings suggest that nutrition communication in antenatal care should be more tailored towards women's dietary habits and cultural background, nutritional knowledge as well as level of nutrition literacy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Virtual plagues and real-world pandemics: reflecting on the potential for online computer role-playing games to inform real world epidemic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oultram, Stuart

    2013-12-01

    In the wake of the Corrupted Blood incident, which afflicted the massively multiplayer online computer role-playing game World of Warcraft in 2005, it has been suggested that both, the incident itself and massively multiplayer online computer role-playing games in general, can be utilised to inform and assist real-world epidemic and public health research. In this paper, I engage critically with these claims.

  5. Role-Playing Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)

  6. NATO mission in Kosovo: historical backgrounds and informations of working as radiologist in the German field hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelk, M.; Danz, B.

    2005-01-01

    The first part of this article describes how the NATO mission in Kosovo came into existence and focuses on the historical background and ethnical problems. The second part deals with the working conditions of a radiologist in the German field hospital in Prizren and focuses on the personnel and technical equipment in the radiological department. (orig.) [de

  7. Playful Membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels; Pors, Justine Grønbæk

    2014-01-01

    This article studies the implications of current attempts by organizations to adapt to a world of constant change by introducing the notion of playful organizational membership. To this end we conduct a brief semantic history of organizational play and argue that when organizations play, employees...... are expected to engage in playful exploration of alternative selves. Drawing on Niklas Luhmann's theory of time and decision-making and Gregory Bateson's theory of play, the article analyses three empirical examples of how games play with conceptions of time. We explore how games represent an organizational...

  8. Play, Playfulness, Creativity and Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bateson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Play, as defined by biologists and psychologists, is probably heterogeneous. On the other hand, playfulness may be a unitary motivational state. Playful play as opposed to activities that merge into aggression is characterized by positive mood, intrinsic motivation, occurring in a protected context and easily disrupted by stress. Playful play is a good measure of positive welfare. It can occupy a substantial part of the waking-life of a young mammal or bird. Numerous functions for play have been proposed and they are by no means mutually exclusive, but some evidence indicates that those individual animals that play most are most likely to survive and reproduce. The link of playful play to creativity and hence to innovation in humans is strong. Considerable evidence suggests that coming up with new ideas requires a different mindset from usefully implementing a new idea.

  9. Playing on the edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak-Sassenrath, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    and specific ways. For instance, gambling for money, party and drinking games, professional play and show sports, art installations, violent and military propaganda computer games, pervasive/mobile gaming, live-action role playing, festivals, performances, and games such as Ghosting and Planking. It is argued......Everything gets more interesting, challenging, or intense the closer it gets to the edge, and so does play. How edgy can play become and still be play? Based on Huizinga’s notion of play, this chapter discusses how a wide range of playful activities pushes the boundaries of play in different...... that in concert with a number of characteristics that mark an activity as play, play is essentially a subjective perspective and individual decision of the player. Huizinga calls this attitude the play spirit, which informs a player’s actions and is in turn sustained by them. Edgy digital or mobile games do...

  10. Informing Active Play and Screen Time Behaviour Change Interventions for Low Socioeconomic Position Mothers of Young Children: What Do Mothers Want?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine L. Downing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study investigated views of mothers from disadvantaged urban and regional areas (i.e., beyond major capital cities as potential end users of child active play and screen time behaviour change interventions, with a focus on text messaging and web-based delivery platforms. Methods. Thirty-two mothers (22 urban; 10 regional were interviewed. Purpose-designed questions covered topics regarding mothers’ preferences for accessing and receiving information related to parenting and child active play and screen time. Data from transcribed interviews were analysed to identify responses and key themes. Results. Mothers reported frequently accessing parenting- and child-related information online. Regional mothers reported seeking information by talking with other people less frequently than urban mothers and seemed to have a stronger preference for receiving information online. There were few differences between responses from low and high educated mothers. The majority of mothers reported that they would be happy to receive text messages containing information about active play and screen time and that they would find a dedicated website with this information useful. Conclusions. Mothers in this study held favourable views on the potential of receiving information via new communication technologies. Future interventions targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers may benefit from delivering intervention messages via these technologies.

  11. The effects of problem content and scientific background on information search and the assessment and valuation of correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer, Shira; Kareev, Yaakov

    2011-01-01

    The effects of problem contents and one's scientific background on the detection of correlations and the assessment of their strength were studied using a task that required active data search, assessment of the strength of a correlation, and monetary valuation of the correlation's predictive utility. Participants (N = 72) who were trained either in the natural sciences or in the social sciences and humanities explored data sets differing in contents and actual strength of correlation. Data search was consistent across all variables: Participants drew relatively small samples whose relative sizes would favor the detection of a correlation, if one existed. In contrast, the assessment of the correlation strength and the valuation of its predictive utility were strongly related not only to its objective strength, but also to the correspondence between problem contents and one's scientific background: When the two matched, correlations were judged to be stronger and more valuable than when they did not.

  12. Increasing Power by Sharing Information from Genetic Background and Treatment in Clustering of Gene Expression Time Series

    OpenAIRE

    Sura Zaki Alrashid; Muhammad Arifur Rahman; Nabeel H Al-Aaraji; Neil D Lawrence; Paul R Heath

    2018-01-01

    Clustering of gene expression time series gives insight into which genes may be co-regulated, allowing us to discern the activity of pathways in a given microarray experiment. Of particular interest is how a given group of genes varies with different conditions or genetic background. This paper develops
a new clustering method that allows each cluster to be parameterised according to whether the behaviour of the genes across conditions is correlated or anti-correlated. By specifying correlati...

  13. Teaching Speaking Skills from Role-play to Communicative Competence via Information-gap and Opinion-gap Activities. One Teacher's Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullard, Sue

    1986-01-01

    The task of the teacher of foreign languages is to enable the students to progress gradually from teacher/coursebook controlled utterances to complete linguistic autonomy. Role play and a progression of information-gap activities are discussed in terms of developing students' personal autonomy at each level of linguistic competence. (Author/LMO)

  14. Play Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawver, Timothy; Blankenship, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Play therapy is a treatment modality in which the therapist engages in play with the child. Its use has been documented in a variety of settings and with a variety of diagnoses. Treating within the context of play brings the therapist and the therapy to the level of the child. By way of an introduction to this approach, a case is presented of a six-year-old boy with oppositional defiant disorder. The presentation focuses on the events and interactions of a typical session with an established patient. The primary issues of the session are aggression, self worth, and self efficacy. These themes manifest themselves through the content of the child’s play and narration of his actions. The therapist then reflects these back to the child while gently encouraging the child toward more positive play. Though the example is one of nondirective play therapy, a wide range of variation exists under the heading of play therapy. PMID:19724720

  15. You don't have to believe everything you read: background knowledge permits fast and efficient validation of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Tobias; Schroeder, Sascha; Wöhrmann, Britta

    2009-03-01

    In social cognition, knowledge-based validation of information is usually regarded as relying on strategic and resource-demanding processes. Research on language comprehension, in contrast, suggests that validation processes are involved in the construction of a referential representation of the communicated information. This view implies that individuals can use their knowledge to validate incoming information in a routine and efficient manner. Consistent with this idea, Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that individuals are able to reject false assertions efficiently when they have validity-relevant beliefs. Validation processes were carried out routinely even when individuals were put under additional cognitive load during comprehension. Experiment 3 demonstrated that the rejection of false information occurs automatically and interferes with affirmative responses in a nonsemantic task (epistemic Stroop effect). Experiment 4 also revealed complementary interference effects of true information with negative responses in a nonsemantic task. These results suggest the existence of fast and efficient validation processes that protect mental representations from being contaminated by false and inaccurate information.

  16. What role can information play in improved equity in Pakistan's irrigation system? Evidence from an experimental game in Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Reid. Bell

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Indus Basin Irrigation System suffers significant inequity in access to surface water across its millions of users. Information, i.e., monitoring and reporting of water availability, may be of value in improving conditions across the basin, and we investigated this via an experimental game of water distribution in Punjab, Pakistan. We found evidence that flow information allowed players to take more effective action to target overuse, and that overall activities that might bring social disapproval were reduced with information. However, we did not find any overall improvement in equity across the system, suggesting that information on its own might not be sufficient to lead to better water distribution among irrigators.

  17. Associations between children's video game playing and psychosocial health: Information from both parent and child reports. [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobel, Adam; Granic, Isabela; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-04-01

    Healthy emotion regulation is crucial for navigating stressful situations. Interoceptive awareness-the awareness of one's internal states-is important for such healthy regulation. Given the propensity for video games to induce stress, the associations between in-game and real world emotion regulation strategies during duress are worth exploring. We therefore present a method for measuring the interoceptive awareness of negative affect during stressful video game play, and investigate whether individual differences in this ability relate to emotion regulation strategies. Twenty-six proficient video game players were recruited to play a session of the video game Starcraft II in the lab. Players' physiological and subjective states of in-game negative arousal were measured consecutively. A comparison of these measures was used to calculate players' interoceptive awareness of real time in-game arousal. The relation between interoceptive awareness and a suite of emotion regulation strategies was then investigated. We observed a positive relation between in-game interoceptive awareness and the self-reported tendency to actively seek a resolution to negative affect. A positive trend was also observed between interoceptive awareness and the self-reported tendency to seek instrumental social support. Findings are discussed in terms of the relative effectiveness of different emotion regulation strategies for aiding in-game success. We further discuss the benefits and limitations of this pilot testing. In all, we hope to inspire future research into the associations between in-game arousal and emotion regulation strategies used in everyday life.

  18. METHODOLOGICAL BACKGROUND OF EXPERT ESTIMATION OF INITIAL DATA COMPLETENESS AND QUALITY ACCORDING TO THE CERTIFIED INFORMATION SECURITY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Fisenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem of information security systems certification is analyzed and the tasks of initial data analysis are carried out. The objectives, indices and decision making criteria, as well as the challenges to be addressed are formulated. It is shown that, in order to improve quality, reduce time and cost of preparation for certification, it is reasonable to use software system for automatization of the process of initial data analysis, presented by the owner of the information system.

  19. Radiological assessment of residences in the Oak Ridge area. Volume 1. Background information for ORNL environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsakeres, F.S.; Shank, K.E.; Chaudhry, M.Y.; Ahmad, S.; DiZillo-Benoit, P.M.; Oakes, T.W.

    1980-10-01

    Measurements of exposure rates using thermoluminescent dosimeters placed within residences in the Oak Ridge/Knoxville area are presented. The objective of this investigation was to determine the radiation component acquired by Oak Ridge National Laboratory employee personnel dosimeter-security badges during residential badge storage and to develop a model to predict the radiation exposure rate in Oak Ridge/Knoxville-area homes. The exposure rates varied according to building material used and geographic location. Exposure rates were higher in the fall and lower in the spring; stone residences had a higher average dose equivalent rate than residences made of wood. An average yearly exposure rate was determined to be 78 millirems per year for the Oak Ridge-area homes. This value can be compared to the natural background radiation dose equivalent rate in the United States of 80 to 200 millirems per year

  20. Playful Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The video Playful Interaction describes a future architectural office, and envisions ideas and concepts for playful interactions between people, materials and appliances in a pervasive and augmented working environment. The video both describes existing developments, technologies and designs...... as well as ideas not yet implemented such as playful modes of interaction with an augmented ball. Playful Interaction has been used as a hybrid of a vision video and a video prototype (1). Externally the video has been used to visualising our new ideas, and internally the video has also worked to inspire...

  1. Mediatized play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    Children’s play must nowadays be understood as a mediatized field in society and culture. Media – understood in a very broad sense - holds severe explanatory power in describing and understanding the practice of play, since play happens both with, through and inspired by media of different sorts........ In this presentation the case of ‘playing soccer’ will be outlined through its different mediated manifestations, including soccer games and programs on TV, computer games, magazines, books, YouTube videos and soccer trading cards....

  2. Play Practices and Play Moods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop a view of play as a relation between play practices and play moods based on an empirical study of children's everyday life and by using Bateson's term of ‘framing’ [(1955/2001). In Steps to an ecology of mind (pp. 75–80). Chicago: University of Chicago Press......], Schmidt's notion of ‘commonness’ [(2005). Om respekten. København: Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitets Forlag; (2011). On respect. Copenhagen: Danish School of Education University Press] and Heidegger's term ‘mood’ [(1938/1996). Time and being. Cornwall: Wiley-Blackwell.]. Play mood is a state of being...... in which we are open and ready, both to others and their production of meaning and to new opportunities for producing meaning. This play mood is created when we engage with the world during play practices. The article points out four types of play moods – devotion, intensity, tension and euphorica – which...

  3. Playing Shakespeare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashian, Kathleen Ryniker

    1993-01-01

    Describes a yearlong project at 12 Catholic middle schools in the Diocese of Arlington, Virginia, to incorporate the plays of William Shakespeare into the curriculum. Teachers attended university lectures and directed students in performances of the plays. Concludes that Shakespeare can be understood and enjoyed by middle school students. (BCY)

  4. Prohibiting and Preventing Nuclear Explosions: Background Information for Parliamentarians on the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    The object and purpose of the CTBT is to ban comprehensively nuclear weapon test explosions and any other nuclear explosion in any environment in an effectively verifiable manner. The CTBT aims at eliminating nuclear weapons by constraining the development and qualitative improvement of new or more advanced nuclear weapons. It plays a crucial role in the prevention of nuclear proliferation and in nuclear disarmament, thus contributing to a safer and more secure world. When the Treaty enters into force it will establish a treaty-implementing body (the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO)), including an on-site inspection mechanism and confidence-building measures as well as an International Monitoring System (IMS) and International Data Centre (IDC). The IMS and IDC are already being created and are being provisionally operated during the preparatory phase by the Preparatory Commission for the CTBTO and its Provisional Technical Secretariat in Vienna. Seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide data are collected through the stations of the IMS and transmitted to Member States via the IDC. The IDC also processes the raw data received from the stations to derive objective products and services which will support the Treaty verification responsibilities. If the collected and analysed data indicate an ambiguous event, States may address concerns about possible noncompliance with the Treaty through a consultation and clarification process after it enters into force and may request an on-site inspection by the CTBTO.

  5. What role does performance information play in securing improvement in healthcare? a conceptual framework for levers of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Jean-Frederic; Sutherland, Kim

    2017-08-28

    Across healthcare systems, there is consensus on the need for independent and impartial assessment of performance. There is less agreement about how measurement and reporting performance improves healthcare. This paper draws on academic theories to develop a conceptual framework-one that classifies in an integrated manner the ways in which change can be leveraged by healthcare performance information. A synthesis of published frameworks. The framework identifies eight levers for change enabled by performance information, spanning internal and external drivers, and emergent and planned processes: (1) cognitive levers provide awareness and understanding; (2) mimetic levers inform about the performance of others to encourage emulation; (3) supportive levers provide facilitation, implementation tools or models of care to actively support change; (4) formative levers develop capabilities and skills through teaching, mentoring and feedback; (5) normative levers set performance against guidelines, standards, certification and accreditation processes; (6) coercive levers use policies, regulations incentives and disincentives to force change; (7) structural levers modify the physical environment or professional cultures and routines; (8) competitive levers attract patients or funders. This framework highlights how performance measurement and reporting can contribute to eight different levers for change. It provides guidance into how to align performance measurement and reporting into quality improvement programme. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. From Cleanup to Stewardship. A companion report to Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure and background information to support the scoping process required for the 1998 PEIS Settlement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1999-10-01

    Long-term stewardship is expected to be needed at more than 100 DOE sites after DOE's Environmental Management program completes disposal, stabilization, and restoration operations to address waste and contamination resulting from nuclear research and nuclear weapons production conducted over the past 50 years. From Cleanup to stewardship provides background information on the Department of Energy (DOE) long-term stewardship obligations and activities. This document begins to examine the transition from cleanup to long-term stewardship, and it fulfills the Secretary's commitment to the President in the 1999 Performance Agreement to provide a companion report to the Department's Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure report. It also provides background information to support the scoping process required for a study on long-term stewardship required by a 1998 Settlement Agreement.

  7. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders.......This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  8. Associations between children’s video game playing and psychosocial health: information from both parent and child reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobel, Adam; Granic, Isabela; Stone, Lisanne L; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-10-01

    Video games are a highly heterogeneous form of entertainment. As recent reviews highlight, this heterogeneity makes likely that video games have both positive and negative consequences for child development. This study investigated the associations between gaming frequency and psychosocial health among children younger than 12 years of age, an understudied cohort in this field. Both parents and children reported children's gaming frequency, with parents also reporting on children's psychosocial health. Given that children may be too young to report the time they spend playing video games accurately, children's reports were scaffolded by a developmentally appropriate measure. We further investigated the potential bias of having parents report both their children's gaming frequency and their children's psychosocial health (i.e., a single source bias). Parental reports of children's gaming frequency were higher than their children's reports. However, a direct test of the potential single source bias rendered null results. Notably, however, while parental reports showed negative associations between gaming and psychosocial health, children's reports showed no associations. Specifically, based on parent reports, children's gaming was associated with more conduct and peer problems, and less prosocial behavior. As children's reports produced no associations between gaming and psychosocial health, parental reports in this study may belie an erroneous set of conclusions. We therefore caution against relying on just one reporter when assessing children's gaming frequency.

  9. Librarians Aren’t Born with Information Superpowers: Leveling the Playing Field for Incoming Library Science Graduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Lamb

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Students enter the library science graduate program with a wide range of information and technology skills. Today’s graduate courses require students to be able to build web-based pathfinders, use social media, and search databases. This article examines the design and development of an introductory course for incoming library science graduate students that personalizes instruction and ensures that each student is ready for the rigors of graduate school. Taken during the first semester of the program, this introductory course teaches information and technology skills and concepts that are core to library science. The author explores the process of creating a computer-based course that addresses the diverse needs of this student population. Using a systematic approach to instructional design and development, the author outlines the steps in designing, developing, implementing, and evaluating an online, self-paced graduate course. Based on the Dick and Carey model, the process included identifying the instructional goals, conducting an instructional analysis, analyzing learners and contexts, writing performance objectives, developing assessment instruments, developing instructional strategies, developing and selecting instructional materials, designing and conducting formative evaluation of instruction, revising instruction, and designing and conducting summative evaluation. This process produced effective, efficient, and appealing instructional materials. Les étudiants entament un programme d’études supérieures en sciences de l’information avec une panoplie d’habiletés en matière d’information et de technologie. Les cours d’études supérieures requièrent aujourd’hui que les étudiants puissent créer des guides en ligne, utiliser des médias sociaux et interroger des bases de données. Cet article porte sur la conception et le développement d’un cours d’introduction qui est offert aux nouveaux étudiants diplômés en

  10. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for proposed standards. Volume 1B. Control technologies. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    A draft rule for the regulation of emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAP's) from chemical processes of the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry (SOCMI) is being proposed under the authority of Sections 112, 114, 116, and 301 of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990. The volume of the Background Information Document presents discussions of control technologies used in the industry and the costs of those technologies

  11. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for proposed standards. Volume 1A. National impacts assessment. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    A draft rule for the regulation of emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAP's) from chemical processes of the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry (SOCMI) is being proposed under the authority of Sections 112, 114, 116, and 301 of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990. The volume of the Background Information Document presents the results of the national impacts assessment for the proposed rule

  12. Effects of ivermectin application on the diversity and function of dung and soil fauna: Regulatory and scientific background information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, Nicole; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Bachmann, Jean

    2016-01-01

    for veterinary medicinal products in the European Union includes a requirement for higher-tier tests when adverse effects on dung organisms are observed in single-species toxicity tests. However, no guidance documents for the performance of higher-tier tests are available. Hence, an international research...... on communities of dung-breeding insects and soil fauna under field conditions, the test method meets the requirements of a higher-tier test as mandated by the European Union. The present study provides contextual information on authorization requirements for veterinary medicinal products and on the structure...... project was undertaken to develop and validate a proposed test method under varying field conditions of climate, soil, and endemic coprophilous fauna at Lethbridge (Canada), Montpellier (France), Zurich (Switzerland), and Wageningen (The Netherlands). The specific objectives were to determine if fecal...

  13. Effects of ivermectin application on the diversity and function of dung and soil fauna: Regulatory and scientific background information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Nicole; Bachmann, Jean; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Floate, Kevin D; Jensen, John; Römbke, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    The application of veterinary medical products to livestock can impact soil organisms in manure-amended fields or adversely affect organisms that colonize dung pats of treated animals and potentially retard the degradation of dung on pastures. For this reason, the authorization process for veterinary medicinal products in the European Union includes a requirement for higher-tier tests when adverse effects on dung organisms are observed in single-species toxicity tests. However, no guidance documents for the performance of higher-tier tests are available. Hence, an international research project was undertaken to develop and validate a proposed test method under varying field conditions of climate, soil, and endemic coprophilous fauna at Lethbridge (Canada), Montpellier (France), Zurich (Switzerland), and Wageningen (The Netherlands). The specific objectives were to determine if fecal residues of an anthelmintic with known insecticidal activity (ivermectin) showed similar effects across sites on 1) insects breeding in dung of treated animals, 2) coprophilous organisms in the soil beneath the dung, and 3) rates of dung degradation. By evaluating the effects of parasiticides on communities of dung-breeding insects and soil fauna under field conditions, the test method meets the requirements of a higher-tier test as mandated by the European Union. The present study provides contextual information on authorization requirements for veterinary medicinal products and on the structure and function of dung and soil organism communities. It also provides a summary of the main findings. Subsequent studies on this issue provide detailed information on different aspects of this overall project. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1914-1923. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  14. Assessment of technical strengths and information flow of energy conservation research in Japan. Volume 2. Background document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hane, G.J.; Lewis, P.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Rubinger, B.; Willis, A.

    1985-06-01

    Purpose of this study is to explore the status of R and D in Japan and the ability of US researchers to keep abreast of Japanese technical advances. US researchers familiar with R and D activities in Japan were interviewed in ten fields that are relevant to the more efficient use of energy: amorphous metals, biotechnology, ceramics, combustion, electrochemical energy storage, heat engines, heat transfer, high-temperature sensors, thermal and chemical energy storage, and tribology. The researchers were questioned about their perceptions of the strengths of R and D in Japan, comparative aspects of US work, and the quality of available information sources describing R and D in Japan. Of the ten related fields, the researchers expressed a strong perception that significant R and D is under way in amorphous metals, biotechnology, and ceramics, and that the US competitive position in these technologies will be significantly challenged. Researchers also identified alternative emphases in Japanese R and D programs in these areas that provide Japan with stronger technical capabilities. For example, in biotechnology, researchers noted the significant Japanese emphasis on industrial-scale bioprocess engineering, which contrasts with a more meager effort in the US. In tribology, researchers also noted the strength of the chemical tribology research in Japan and commented on the effective mix of chemical and mechanical tribology research. This approach contrasts with the emphasis on mechanical tribology in the US.

  15. Background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of background radiation, whether natural or caused by man's activities, are discussed. The known biological effects of radiation in causing cancers or genetic mutations are explained. The statement that there is a threshold below which there is no risk is examined critically. (U.K.)

  16. Multimodal cues provide redundant information for bumblebees when the stimulus is visually salient, but facilitate red target detection in a naturalistic background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcobado, Guadalupe; Trillo, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Our understanding of how floral visitors integrate visual and olfactory cues when seeking food, and how background complexity affects flower detection is limited. Here, we aimed to understand the use of visual and olfactory information for bumblebees (Bombus terrestris terrestris L.) when seeking flowers in a visually complex background. To explore this issue, we first evaluated the effect of flower colour (red and blue), size (8, 16 and 32 mm), scent (presence or absence) and the amount of training on the foraging strategy of bumblebees (accuracy, search time and flight behaviour), considering the visual complexity of our background, to later explore whether experienced bumblebees, previously trained in the presence of scent, can recall and make use of odour information when foraging in the presence of novel visual stimuli carrying a familiar scent. Of all the variables analysed, flower colour had the strongest effect on the foraging strategy. Bumblebees searching for blue flowers were more accurate, flew faster, followed more direct paths between flowers and needed less time to find them, than bumblebees searching for red flowers. In turn, training and the presence of odour helped bees to find inconspicuous (red) flowers. When bees foraged on red flowers, search time increased with flower size; but search time was independent of flower size when bees foraged on blue flowers. Previous experience with floral scent enhances the capacity of detection of a novel colour carrying a familiar scent, probably by elemental association influencing attention. PMID:28898287

  17. Postphenomenological Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammar, Emil

    This paper aims to identify an understanding of digital games in virtual environments by using Don Ihde’s (1990) postphenomenological approach to how technology mediates the world to human beings in conjunction with Hans-Georg Gadamer’s (1993) notion of play . Through this tentatively proposed am...... amalgamation of theories I point towards an alternative understanding of the relationship between play and game as not only dialectic, but also as socially and ethically relevant qua the design and implementation of the game as technology....

  18. Playful Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Justine Grønbæk; Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    intact. In its final sections, the article discusses what happens to conditions of decision-making when organisations do not just see undecidability as a given condition, but as a limited resource indispensable for change and renewal. The article advances discussions of organisational play by exploring...

  19. Clay Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Liz; Steffan, Dana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to use clay as a potential material for young children to explore. As teachers, the authors find that their dialogue about the potential of clay as a learning medium raises many questions: (1) What makes clay so enticing? (2) Why are teachers noticing different play and conversation around the clay table as compared to…

  20. Sweet Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Shuk-kwan S.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article features Sweet play math, a "math by the month" activity that involves decorating and making sugar cubes. Teachers may want to substitute straws, paper squares, alphabet blocks, or such commercially made manipulatives as Unifix[R] cubes for the real sweets. Given no allergy concerns, teachers and students alike would enjoy some sweet…

  1. Group play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects of the v......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...... of group dynamics, the influence of the fictional game characters and the comparative play experience between the two formats. The results indicate that group dynamics and the relationship between the players and their digital characters, are integral to the quality of the gaming experience in multiplayer...

  2. Playing Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Juan E.

    The acceptance of animation technologies is increasing. Video games, such as Sony PlayStation (SONY, 2002), have become part of the culture for young people from kindergarten through undergraduate school. Animation technologies have been implemented into educational systems in the form of animated pedagogical agents (Johnson, 2000). The research…

  3. Aesthetic Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jytte Susanne

    2012-01-01

    The present article explores the role of music-related artefacts and technologies in children’s lives. More specifically, it analyzes how four 10- to 11-year old girls use CDs and DVD games in their music-play activities and which developmental themes and potentials may accrue from such activitie...

  4. Water Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Jane E.; Smith, Brandy A.

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of activities to develop sensory awareness, spatial thinking, and physical dexterity, operationalized through hands-on science lessons such as water play, have long been part of early childhood education. This practical article addresses Next Generation Science Standards K-2 ETS1-3 and K-2 ETS1-2 by having four-year-old…

  5. Playing with social identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    as pretence, children’s play is understood as an activity involving rules of the social order (roles and positions) as well as identification processes (imagined situations). The theoretical argumentation builds on empirical examples obtained in two different Danish day-care centres. The chapter is informed...... by ethnographic observations and draws on illustrative examples with symbolic group play as well as game-play with rules (soccer) among 5 year old boys. Findings suggest that day-care children’s play, involves negotiation of roles, positioning and identification, and rules – and that these negotiations......This chapter offers support for Vygotsky’s claim that all play involves both an imagined situation as well as rules. Synthesising Schousboe’s comprehensive model of spheres of realities in playing (see Chapter 1, this volume) with Lev Vygotskys insight that all playing involve rules as well...

  6. Background information for the SER Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth calculations. Sectors Industry, Agriculture and Horticulture; Achtergronddocument bij doorrekening Energieakkoord. Sectoren industrie en land- en tuinbouw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzels, W. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    On September 4, 2013, representatives of employers' associations, trade union federations, environmental organizations, the Dutch government and civil society have signed an Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth. ECN and PBL have been asked to evaluate this agreement. This report gives background information on the evaluation of the measures aimed at improving energy efficiency in industry and agriculture [Dutch] Op 4 september 2013 is het 'Energieakkoord voor duurzame groei' getekend. ECN en PBL zijn gevraagd het akkoord te beoordelen en door te rekenen. Dit rapport dient als achtergronddocument bij de doorrekening van de maatregelen gericht op energiebesparing in de industrie en land- en tuinbouw.

  7. The Alaskan mineral resource assessment program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Ambler River Quadrangle, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Charles F.; Tailleur, I.L.; Albert, N.R.; Ellersieck, Inyo; Grybeck, Donald; Hackett, S.W.

    1983-01-01

    The Ambler River quadrangle, consisting of 14,290 km2 (5,520 mi2) in northwest Alaska, was investigated by an interdisciplinary research team for the purpose of assessing the mineral resource potential of the quadrangle. This report provides background information for a folio of maps on the geology, reconnaissance geochemistry, aeromagnetics, Landsat imagery, and mineral resource evaluation of the quadrangle. A summary of the geologic history, radiometric dates, and fossil localities and a comprehensive bibliography are also included. The quadrangle contains jade reserves, now being mined, and potentially significant resources of copper, zinc, lead, and silver.

  8. Playing facilitator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmøller, Ellen; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    event called InnoEvent, addressed to students in the fields of multimedia and healthcare. Being interested in studying games and role-play as tools to support independent learning in the field of design thinking and team-building, following Dewey’s (1938) theory of learning experience, we ran two...... workshops based on two classic role-play games: The Silent Game (Brandt, 2006) and The Six Thinking Hats (de Bono, 1985). These games were created to support students in learning design thinking in groups and are assigned positive values in literature, hence we expected a smooth process. However, our...... experience was rather characterized by conflictual negotiations with the students. Data from our observations and from interviews with group representatives show that the students took a discontinuous learning path, characterised by a false start, failure, and a thorough reconsideration of their work...

  9. Zambia Country Background Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, Søren; Kragelund, Peter

    This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change).......This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change)....

  10. Playing Possum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Euli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our society is drenched in the catastrophe; where the growth of financial crisis, environmental cataclysm and militarization represents its gaudiest and mortifying phenomena. Humans struggle with depression, sense of impotence, anguish towards a future considered a threat.  A possibility to keep us alive can be represented by the enhancement of our ability in ‘playing Possum’, an exercise of desisting and renitence: to firmly say ‘no’. To say no to a world that proposes just one way of being and living free, that imposes as the only unavoidable possible destiny.

  11. Playful Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv; Eriksson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the design of future services for children in Danish public libraries is discussed, in the light of new challenges and opportunities in relation to new media and technologies. The Danish government has over the last few years initiated and described a range of initiatives regarding...... in the library, the changing role of the librarians and the library space. We argue that intertwining traditional library services with new media forms and engaging play is the core challenge for future design in physical public libraries, but also that it is through new media and technology that new...

  12. Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyard, Pierre.

    1981-01-01

    The fear for nuclear energy and more particularly for radioactive wastes is analyzed in the sociological context. Everybody agree on the information need, information is available but there is a problem for their diffusion. Reactions of the public are analyzed and journalists, scientists and teachers have a role to play [fr

  13. Background information for the SER Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth calculations. Sector Built Environment; Achtergronddocument bij doorrekening SER Energieakkoord. Sector Gebouwde omgeving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menkveld, M.; Tigchelaar, C. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    This publication is part of the support given by ECN and PBL in the development of a national energy agreement between March and September 2013 as initiated by the SER (Social and Economic Council of the Netherlands). The report gives background information on the evaluation of measures in the agreement aimed at the built environment. It is an annex of the general evaluation of PBL/ECN [Dutch] Dit rapport is geschreven als onderdeel van de ondersteuning door ECN en PBL bij het tot stand komen van het energieakkoord in de periode maart tot september 2013. Dit rapport dient als achtergrond bij de doorrekening van de maatregelen gericht op energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving.

  14. Learning by Playing with Digital Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benjaminsen, Nana

    2006-01-01

    This paper presupposes the notion that there is potential for the integration of play into primary and secondary school activities, because it can stimulate and support the formal as well as informal learning that takes place in school. Digital technology could be a driver for this integration...... Construction Games in Schools. The project is an exploration of how elements of play can be integrated in a technology-based learning environment. I will use examples of empirical data gathered during spring 2006 to demonstrate that play can function as a useful learning strategy, and also point out barriers......, because many of children's play activities already takes place on, and through, digital platforms. The focus for this paper is on how playorientated environmental qualities can be used and might change the current school structure. The background for the paper is the PhD project entitled Computer based...

  15. Why do Dolphins Play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan A. Kuczaj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Play is an important aspect of dolphin life, perhaps even an essential one. Play provides opportunities for dolphin calves to practice and perfect locomotor skills, including those involved in foraging and mating strategies and behaviors. Play also allows dolphin calves to learn important social skills and acquire information about the characteristics and predispositions of members of their social group, particularly their peers. In addition to helping dolphin calves learn how to behave, play also provides valuable opportunities for them to learn how to think. The ability to create and control play contexts enables dolphins to create novel experiences for themselves and their playmates under relatively safe conditions. The behavioral variability and individual creativity that characterize dolphin play yield ample opportunities for individual cognitive development as well as social learning, and sometimes result in innovations that are reproduced by other members of the group. Although adults sometimes produce innovative play, calves are the primary source of such innovations. Calves are also more likely to imitate novel play behaviors than are adults, and so calves contribute significantly to both the creation and transmission of novel play behaviors within a group. Not unexpectedly, then, the complexity of dolphin play increases with the involvement of peers. As a result, the opportunity to observe and/or interact with other dolphin calves enhances the effects of play on the acquisition and maintenance of flexible problem solving skills, the emergence and strengthening of social and communicative competencies, and the establishment of social relationships. It seems that play may have evolved to help young dolphins learn to adapt to novel situations in both their physical and social worlds, the beneficial result being a set of abilities that increases the likelihood that an individual survives and reproduces.

  16. Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group to play a leading role in guiding the production of informed high-quality, timely research evidence syntheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garritty, Chantelle; Stevens, Adrienne; Gartlehner, Gerald; King, Valerie; Kamel, Chris

    2016-10-28

    Policymakers and healthcare stakeholders are increasingly seeking evidence to inform the policymaking process, and often use existing or commissioned systematic reviews to inform decisions. However, the methodologies that make systematic reviews authoritative take time, typically 1 to 2 years to complete. Outside the traditional SR timeline, "rapid reviews" have emerged as an efficient tool to get evidence to decision-makers more quickly. However, the use of rapid reviews does present challenges. To date, there has been limited published empirical information about this approach to compiling evidence. Thus, it remains a poorly understood and ill-defined set of diverse methodologies with various labels. In recent years, the need to further explore rapid review methods, characteristics, and their use has been recognized by a growing network of healthcare researchers, policymakers, and organizations, several with ties to Cochrane, which is recognized as representing an international gold standard for high-quality, systematic reviews. In this commentary, we introduce the newly established Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group developed to play a leading role in guiding the production of rapid reviews given they are increasingly employed as a research synthesis tool to support timely evidence-informed decision-making. We discuss how the group was formed and outline the group's structure and remit. We also discuss the need to establish a more robust evidence base for rapid reviews in the published literature, and the importance of promoting registration of rapid review protocols in an effort to promote efficiency and transparency in research. As with standard systematic reviews, the core principles of evidence-based synthesis should apply to rapid reviews in order to minimize bias to the extent possible. The Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group will serve to establish a network of rapid review stakeholders and provide a forum for discussion and training. By facilitating

  17. Background modeling for the GERDA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Gerda Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    The neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0νββ decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Qββ come from 214Bi, 228Th, 42K, 60Co and α emitting isotopes in the 226Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

  18. Background modeling for the GERDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becerici-Schmidt, N. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    The neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0νββ decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Q{sub ββ} come from {sup 214}Bi, {sup 228}Th, {sup 42}K, {sup 60}Co and α emitting isotopes in the {sup 226}Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

  19. Family Background and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, Matthew J.; Sol, Joeri; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Vast amounts of money are currently being spent on policies aimed at promoting entrepreneurship. The success of such policies, however, rests in part on the assumption that individuals are not ‘born entrepreneurs’. In this paper, we assess the importance of family background and neighborhood...... effects as determinants of entrepreneurship. We start by estimating sibling correlations in entrepreneurship. We find that between 20 and 50 percent of the variance in different entrepreneurial outcomes is explained by factors that siblings share. The average is 28 percent. Allowing for differential...... entrepreneurship does play a large role, as do shared genes....

  20. Motivation, Creativity, Play & Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    on their needs and desires. This paper presents results from SoundScapes body of research which is utilising technology in assistive (re)habilitation from Virtual Interactive Space (VIS); furthermore the paper describes what emerges in play scenarios that utilise enabling technology. The involved study exhibits...... implementation of robotic physical movement synchronously manipulated from sourced data movement information of a human. SoundScapes is a concept based on non-verbal communication and stimulation through interactive play with sounds and images, which is being realised in the production of a non-wearable sensor...

  1. Imaginary Play Companions: Characteristics and Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyan-Masih, V.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates some of the following characteristics associated with young children playing with imaginary play companions (IPCs): intelligence, parental and socioeconomic and educational background, family size, and birth order. Compares these children to those without IPCs. (HOD)

  2. Children of ethnic minority backgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    2010-01-01

    media products and toys just as they will have knowledge of different media texts, play genres, rhymes etc. This has consequences for their ability to access social settings, for instance in play. New research in this field will focus on how children themselves make sense of this balancing of cultures......Children of ethnic minority background balance their everyday life between a cultural background rooted in their ethnic origin and a daily life in day care, schools and with peers that is founded in a majority culture. This means, among other things, that they often will have access to different...

  3. Designing Out the Play: Accessibility and Playfulness in Inclusive Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Raymond; Beckett, Angharad

    2017-01-01

    Play is an important part of child development, yet disabled children are often excluded from the opportunity to play, either due to lack of accessible toys and games, or social pressures. This paper presents a case study reflecting on the development of Button Bash: a switch accessible game intended to encourage inclusive play between disabled and non-disabled children. In particular, the paper focuses on how changes intended to make the game more accessible tended to make it less playful, and reflects on the relationship between playfulness and accessibility.

  4. Play Therapy: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Maggie L.; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Jessee, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the current issues in play therapy and its implications for play therapists. A brief history of play therapy is provided along with the current play therapy approaches and techniques. This article also touches on current issues or problems that play therapists may face, such as interpreting children's play, implementing…

  5. In- and Out-of-Character: The Digital Literacy Practices and Emergent Information Worlds of Active Role-Players in a New Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollister, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation explores and describes the in-character and out-of-character information worlds and digital literacy practices of role-players, those that create and enact their characters' or avatars' stories, both within and outside of WildStar, a Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game (MMORPG) (Carbine Studios, 2015). Utilizing Jaeger…

  6. Power generation from renewable energy sources. Climate-friendly and economically efficient. Background information; Stromerzeugung aus erneuerbaren Energien. Klimafreundlich und oekonomisch sinnvoll. Hintergrund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-02-15

    As the publication shows, the public discussion in Germany is increasingly focusing on the cost of the promotion of renewable energy sources. Critical comments state that the EEG (Renewables Act) accounts for most of the recent electricity rate increases and also does not contribute to climate protection. This background paper of the Federal Environmental Office stresses the role of the EEC for climate protection and its effects on price trends in electricity supply. The resulting financial burden for the German citizens and industry is investigated, and it is discussed whether public funding of renewable energy sources is indeed beneficial for the German economy on the whole.

  7. Pretend Play of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Luzia Iara; Pacciulio, Amanda Mota; dos Santos, Camila Abrao; dos Santos, Jair Licio; Stagnitti, Karen Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Evaluate self-initiated pretend play of children with cerebral palsy. Method: Twenty preschool children participated in the study. Pretend play ability was measured by using the child-initiated pretend play assessment culturally adapted to Brazil. Results: There were significant negative correlations between the children's…

  8. Recovery of native genetic background in admixed populations using haplotypes, phenotypes, and pedigree information--using Cika cattle as a case breed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Simčič

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain unbiased estimates of the diversity parameters, the population history, and the degree of admixture in Cika cattle which represents the local admixed breeds at risk of extinction undergoing challenging conservation programs. Genetic analyses were performed on the genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP Illumina Bovine SNP50 array data of 76 Cika animals and 531 animals from 14 reference populations. To obtain unbiased estimates we used short haplotypes spanning four markers instead of single SNPs to avoid an ascertainment bias of the BovineSNP50 array. Genome-wide haplotypes combined with partial pedigree and type trait classification show the potential to improve identification of purebred animals with a low degree of admixture. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated unique genetic identity of Cika animals. Genetic distance matrix presented by rooted Neighbour-Net suggested long and broad phylogenetic connection between Cika and Pinzgauer. Unsupervised clustering performed by the admixture analysis and two-dimensional presentation of the genetic distances between individuals also suggest Cika is a distinct breed despite being similar in appearance to Pinzgauer. Animals identified as the most purebred could be used as a nucleus for a recovery of the native genetic background in the current admixed population. The results show that local well-adapted strains, which have never been intensively managed and differentiated into specific breeds, exhibit large haplotype diversity. They suggest a conservation and recovery approach that does not rely exclusively on the search for the original native genetic background but rather on the identification and removal of common introgressed haplotypes would be more powerful. Successful implementation of such an approach should be based on combining phenotype, pedigree, and genome-wide haplotype data of the breed of interest and a spectrum of reference breeds which

  9. Design for Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feder, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of the new Design for Play initiative is to inspire and educate designers to design for the future of play. To create “play ambassadors” equipped with excellent tools, methods, approaches and mind-sets to design for the playful human being in an ever-changing world. To teach...... and inspire children to grow up to be creative designers of their own life and the world around them. The Design for Play research team will study the interplay between people, processes and products in design for play and support the development of playful designers, playful solutions and playful experiences...

  10. Why do adult dogs 'play'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, John W S; Pullen, Anne J; Rooney, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Among the Carnivora, play behaviour is usually made up of motor patterns characteristic of predatory, agonistic and courtship behaviour. Domestic dogs are unusual in that play is routinely performed by adults, both socially, with conspecifics and with humans, and also asocially, with objects. This enhanced playfulness is commonly thought to be a side effect of paedomorphosis, the perpetuation of juvenile traits into adulthood, but here we suggest that the functions of the different types of play are sufficiently distinct that they are unlikely to have arisen through a single evolutionary mechanism. Solitary play with objects appears to be derived from predatory behaviour: preferred toys are those that can be dismembered, and a complex habituation-like feedback system inhibits play with objects that are resistant to alteration. Intraspecific social play is structurally different from interspecific play and may therefore be motivationally distinct and serve different goals; for example, dogs often compete over objects when playing with other dogs, but are usually more cooperative when the play partner is human. The majority of dogs do not seem to regard competitive games played with a human partner as "dominance" contests: rather, winning possession of objects during games appears to be simply rewarding. Play may be an important factor in sociality, since dogs are capable of extracting social information not only from games in which they participate, but also from games that they observe between third parties. We suggest that the domestic dog's characteristic playfulness in social contexts is an adaptive trait, selected during domestication to facilitate both training for specific purposes, and the formation of emotionally-based bonds between dog and owner. Play frequency and form may therefore be an indicator of the quality of dog-owner relationships. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Undergraduate Students' Perceptions and Use Patterns of the University Libraries Web Portal: Does Information Literacy Instruction Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Hui

    2012-01-01

    As the availability of digital resources increased exponentially over the last two decades, academic libraries have heavily invested in electronic resources and made them accessible via library Web portals. Yet, underutilization of library Web portals is a common concern among academic libraries. According to the information systems (IS)…

  12. Play at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier Sørensen, Bent; Spoelstra, Sverre

    2012-01-01

    The interest in organizational play is growing, both in popular business discourse and organization studies. As the presumption that play is dysfunctional for organizations is increasingly discarded, the existing positions may be divided into two camps; one proposes ‘serious play’ as an engine fo...... workplaces engage in play: play as a (serious) continuation of work, play as a (critical) intervention into work and play as an (uninvited) usurpation of work....

  13. Emission and costs up to and including 2030 for the current environmental policy. Background information for the National Environmental Outlook 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Wee, G.P.; Kuijpers-Linde, M.A.J.; Van Gerwen, O.J.

    2001-03-01

    Every four years the Dutch National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) publishes an Environmental Outlook in preparation for the National Environmental Policy Plan (NEPP). The fifth National Environmental Outlook (NEOS) describes developments in the quality of the environment in the Netherlands for 2000-2030 against a background of developments on the European and global scales. The two macro-economic scenarios of the Netherlands Bureau for Economic and Policy Analysis (CPB) used are the European Coordination (EC) scenario and the Global Competition scenario (GC). Consequences for public health, nature and the human physical environment are also indicated. 'Fixed policy' scenarios are used in the Environmental Outlook for the Netherlands. In 'fixed policy' scenarios it is assumed that all policy measures agreed on by the year 2000 will be implemented, but no new measures taken. In this way the Outlook offers baseline scenarios that can be compared with targets and objectives to facilitate the development of new policy. The Fifth National Environmental Outlook was realised with the assistance of many other Dutch research institutes. This background document to NEOS presents estimated levels of energy use, emissions and costs of environmental measures for the 1995-2020 period. The main conclusions are: The environmental problems most difficult to tackle are climate change and noise nuisance. These problems are highly related to energy use and transportation; The policy as presented in the 'Uitvoeringsnota Klimaatbeleid', a document describing the Dutch Kyoto-related climate policy, results in a reduction of greenhouse gases of 15 Mton CO2 equivalents (GS scenario) with respect to the pre-Kyoto policy in 2010. To meet the Kyoto agreements a further reduction of approximately 45 Mton CO2 equivalents is needed. If policies in the 'Uitvoeringsnota Klimaatbeleid' are further instrumentalised and made concrete, an extra reduction of 10 Mton is possible

  14. Backgrounded but not peripheral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmark, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    .e. the schema enters into apparently contradictory constructions of the informants’ local home-base and, possibly, of their identity (cf. Hovmark, 2010). Second, I discuss the status and role of the specific linguistic category in question, i.e. the directional adverbs. On the one hand we claim that the DDAs......In this paper I pay a closer look at the use of the CENTRE-PERIPHERY schema in context. I address two specific issues: first, I show how the CENTRE-PERIPHERY schema, encoded in the DDAs, enters into discourses that conceptualize and characterize a local community as both CENTRE and PERIPHERY, i......; furthermore, the DDAs are backgrounded in discourse. Is it reasonable to claim, rather boldly, that “the informants express their identity in the use of the directional adverb ud ‘out’ etc.”? In the course of this article, however, I suggest that the DDAs in question do contribute to the socio...

  15. The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Tonopah 1 by 2 degree Quadrangle, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, David A.; Nash, J.T.; Plouff, Donald; Whitebread, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle in south-central Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The appraisal is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle.

  16. Nuclear atlas. After Chernobyl: Nuclear energy between fear and hope. Figures - facts - background information. Der Atomatlas. Nach Tschernobyl: Kernenergie zwischen Angst und Hoffnung. Zahlen - Fakten - Hintergruende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, M; Schmidt, A

    1986-01-01

    Chernobyl has become the catchword that reveals the profound difference of opinions among experts and the population on the issue of nuclear energy. In the many discussions in the public media and elsewhere after the Chernobyl accident, technical terms and scientific terminology and analytic data have been used that induced a feeling of helplessness in the general public, simply because people are not familiar with this terminology and subject. What does 'radioactivity' really mean. What damage to health is done by ionizing radiation. Who finds his way through the muddle of measuring units for radiation, such as rem, Becquerel, or Curie. How does a nuclear power plant work. What kind of reactors are operating in Europe. How safe are they. Where are they. What is a reprocessing plant. These are only a few of the many questions the book answers. The information is intended for the general reader, and supplemented by numerous illustrations, maps, tables and graphs.

  17. Play Therapy. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landreth, Garry; Bratton, Sue

    Play therapy is based on developmental principles and, thus, provides, through play, developmentally appropriate means of expression and communication for children. Therefore, skill in using play therapy is an essential tool for mental health professionals who work with children. Therapeutic play allows children the opportunity to express…

  18. The role of play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, B.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Play is seen as an activity that is fun, voluntary, offers escape, and is fundamentally exciting. Play is however, more than that; it is a working model of flexibility! There is a vital link between play, psychological development and learning. Moreover, the importance of play has gained importance

  19. Child's Play: Therapist's Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Rajakumari P.; Hirisave, Uma

    2014-01-01

    Play has been recognized as an essential component to children's healthy development. Schools of play therapy differ philosophically and technically, but they all embrace the therapeutic and developmental properties of play. This case report is an illustration of how a 6-year-old child with emotional disorder was facilitated to express concerns in child-centered play therapy. The paper discusses the therapist's narration of the child's play. PMID:24860228

  20. Alibis for Adult Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The social meanings of play sit at odds with norms of responsible and productive adult conduct. To be “caught” playing as an adult therefore risks embarrassment. Still, many designers want to create enjoyable, nonembarrassing play experiences for adults. To address this need, this article reads instances of spontaneous adult play through the lens of Erving Goffman’s theory of the interaction order to unpack conditions and strategies for nonembarrassing adult play. It identifies established frames, segregated audiences, scripts supporting smooth performance, managing audience awareness, role distancing, and, particularly, alibis for play: Adults routinely provide alternative, adult-appropriate motives to account for their play, such as child care, professional duties, creative expression, or health. Once legitimized, the norms and rules of play themselves then provide an alibi for behavior that would risk being embarrassing outside play.

  1. Background sources at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, γ-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Plato and Play: Taking Education Seriously in Ancient Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angour, Armand

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines Plato's notions of play in ancient Greek culture and shows how the philosopher's views on play can be best appreciated against the background of shifting meanings and evaluations of play in classical Greece. Play--in various forms such as word play, ritual, and music--proved central to the development of…

  3. Cosmic Microwave Background Timeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmic Microwave Background Timeline 1934 : Richard Tolman shows that blackbody radiation in an will have a blackbody cosmic microwave background with temperature about 5 K 1955: Tigran Shmaonov anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background, this strongly supports the big bang model with gravitational

  4. Children, Time, and Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkind, David; Rinaldi, Carla; Flemmert Jensen, Anne

    Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003.......Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003....

  5. Play the MRI Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teachers' Questionnaire MRI Play MRI the Magnetic Miracle Game About the game In the MRI imaging technique, strong magnets and ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  6. Play the Tuberculosis Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questionnaire Tuberculosis Play Tuberculosis Experiments & Discoveries About the game Discover and experience some of the classic methods ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  7. Play the Electrocardiogram Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Electrocardiogram Play the ECG Game About the game ECG is used for diagnosing heart conditions by ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  8. [Play therapy in hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Katharina; Grothues, Dirk; Leitzmann, Michael; Gruber, Hans; Melter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The following article presents an overview of current research studies on play therapy in the hospital. It highlights individual diagnoses for which play therapy has shown reasonable success. The aim of this review is to describe the current status of the scientific debate on play therapy for sick children in order to allow conclusions regarding the indications for which play therapy is or might be useful.

  9. The Pedagogy of Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    Play is important. Environmental educators Sobel and Louv write about the relationship between children and outside play and suggest that early transcendental experiences within nature allow children to develop empathetic orientations towards the natural world. Children who play out-of-doors develop an appreciation for the environment and…

  10. The play grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh, Rune; Johansen, Asger

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose The Play Grid, a model for systemizing different play types. The approach is psychological by nature and the actual Play Grid is based, therefore, on two pairs of fundamental and widely acknowledged distinguishing characteristics of the ego, namely: extraversion vs. intro...

  11. Play the Mosquito Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Malaria Play the Mosquito Game Play the Parasite Game About the games Malaria is one of the world's most common ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  12. Playing with the city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosca, Susana; Marquez, Israel

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and describe the phenomenon of videogame street art as a specific kind of street art. We consider its materiality and significance, and conceptualize it in the light of a double manifestation of play: the playful appropriation of the city by the artist and the fact...... that street art encapsulates the act of playing videogames in a visual form. Digital play spills out of our computer screens and occupies the urban space with the explicit intention of involving spectators, who are invited to play in symbolic ways that actualize nostalgic memories of gaming and can be related...

  13. Background information on the estimation of short-term effects of the Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth on renewable energy; Toelichting inschatting korte-termijneffecten Energieakkoord op hernieuwbare energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hekkenberg, M.; Londo, H.M.; Lensink, S.M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    On September 4, 2013, representatives of employers' associations, trade union federations, environmental organizations, the Dutch government and civil society have signed an Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth. ECN and PBL have been asked to evaluate this agreement. This report gives background information on the evaluation of the measures aimed at improving energy efficiency in industry and agriculture [Dutch] Op 4 september 2013 is het 'Energieakkoord voor duurzame groei' getekend. ECN en PBL zijn gevraagd het akkoord te beoordelen en door te rekenen. Dit rapport dient als achtergronddocument bij de doorrekening van de maatregelen gericht op energiebesparing in de industrie en land- en tuinbouw.

  14. Background Information on the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    example that of Orlov, are coming had such a hot exchange at the Manege exhibition more and more to resemble those under Stalin. To in December 1962... Manege affair and his While Stalin’s heirs walk thisearth, Stalin, I fancy, still lurksbecame ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i good frensustrtholeum.fai a i widow

  15. Designing Play for Dark Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada-Rice, Dylan

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a knowledge-exchange network project that had the core aim of informing the development of a video game for hospitalized children. In order to do this, it brought together hospital play specialists, academics and representatives from the digital games industry to co-produce knowledge that could be used in the future…

  16. FairyPlay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Herdis

    2018-01-01

    in a play culture where children recycle them in transmitted, transformed and transgressive modes. His fairy tales function as raw materials – trash – for play-production, and these contemporary children muddle, mingle, remix their formulas and elements with other materials and adjust them to a play context......Hans Christian Andersen is a cultural icon in the Danish community, and his fairy tales are canonized as treasured Danish cultural heritage. However, situated as they are today in a crosscultural mix between folklore, booklore and medialore, they also may be analysed as useful, treasured trash...... through improvisations. So they perform what we shall name FairyPlay - just like Hans Christian Andersen himself did. We show Hans Christian Andersen as an intimate connoisseur of play culture, a homo ludens, a trash-sculptor and a thing-finder, like Pippi Longstocking and like children in play. Examples...

  17. Looking for Cosmic Neutrino Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki eYanagisawa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of neutrino oscillation in atmospheric neutrinos by the Super-Kamiokande experiment in 1998, study of neutrinos has been one of exciting fields in high-energy physics. All the mixing angles were measured. Quests for 1 measurements of the remaining parameters, the lightest neutrino mass, the CP violating phase(s, and the sign of mass splitting between the mass eigenstates m3 and m1, and 2 better measurements to determine whether the mixing angle theta23 is less than pi/4, are in progress in a well-controlled manner. Determining the nature of neutrinos, whether they are Dirac or Majorana particles is also in progress with continuous improvement. On the other hand, although the ideas of detecting cosmic neutrino background have been discussed since 1960s, there has not been a serious concerted effort to achieve this goal. One of the reasons is that it is extremely difficult to detect such low energy neutrinos from the Big Bang. While there has been tremendous accumulation of information on Cosmic Microwave Background since its discovery in 1965, there is no direct evidence for Cosmic Neutrino Background. The importance of detecting Cosmic Neutrino Background is that, although detailed studies of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and Cosmic Microwave Background give information of the early Universe at ~a few minutes old and ~300 k years old, respectively, observation of Cosmic Neutrino Background allows us to study the early Universe at $sim$ 1 sec old. This article reviews progress made in the past 50 years on detection methods of Cosmic Neutrino Background.

  18. Work Hard / Play Hard

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, J.; Johnson, V.; Henckel, D.

    2016-01-01

    Work Hard / Play Hard was a participatory performance/workshop or CPD experience hosted by interdisciplinary arts atelier WeAreCodeX, in association with AntiUniversity.org. As a socially/economically engaged arts practice, Work Hard / Play Hard challenged employees/players to get playful, or go to work. 'The game changes you, you never change the game'. Employee PLAYER A 'The faster the better.' Employer PLAYER B

  19. Playing-Related Health Problems Among Instrumental Music Students at a University in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Karen; Boon, Ong Kuan

    2016-09-01

    Musicians from a wide range of backgrounds experience playing-related health problems including musculoskeletal disorders, hearing loss, and performance anxiety. Few studies have focused specifically on the health concerns of musicians in Malaysia. This study aimed to investigate playing-related health problems among student musicians at a university in Malaysia as well as their knowledge and awareness of playing-related health problems. Instrumental music students enrolled in undergraduate and post-graduate university music courses (n=98) participated in a self-report online survey which addressed aspects such as educational background, playing experience, knowledge and awareness of musicians' health issues, history of physical problems, lifestyle factors, and prevention and management strategies. Of the total participants, 28.9% reported that they were currently experiencing playing-related pain in a body part, and 46.4% had experienced playing-related pain at some time. More than half (56.7%) felt that they have not received enough information or advice on playing-related health during their current studies. Musicians who experienced playing-related pain, tension, and discomfort reported the main problem sites to be the fingers and hands, arms, neck, and shoulders. The study results demonstrate that Malaysian university music students are affected by similar types of playing-related physical problems as their counterparts around the world. A greater awareness and knowledge of injury prevention and management strategies is needed so that these music students can sustain healthy playing careers.

  20. Free riders play fair

    OpenAIRE

    Takikawa, Hirohide

    2012-01-01

    After the demise of the social contract theory, the argument from fair play, which employs the principle of fair play, has been widely acknowledged as one of the most promising ways of justifying political obligation. First, I articulate the most promising version of the principle of fair play. Then, I show that free riders play fair, that is, that their moral fault lies not in unfairness but in the violation of a rule by appealing to the example of three-in-a-boat. Finally, I conclude that e...

  1. Designing for Immediate Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichlmair, Martin; Mech, Lena; Sicart, Miguel Angel

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with designing for immediate play, the experience that a player has when joining a game designed for being played without particular preparation. Museum games, urban games, casual sports, and ad-hoc multiplayer video games are kinds of games that facilitate immediate play...... offer using examples and expert opinions. While most practices and game examples mentioned in this paper are from non-digital games, a special focus is put on the role of technology in immediately playable experiences. Still, the examined design dimensions are independent of the technological foundation...... of the game. This paper provides a starting point for designing better immediate play situations....

  2. Late Modern Play Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg

    2008-01-01

    and the Danish University of Education (among others) have been working with different kind of products, all referred to as PlAYWARE. Playware combines modern technology and knowledge about play culture in order to produce playful experiences for its players. This paper will exemplify how the concept of play can...... from one generation to the next. Because older children are no longer present as younger children grow up, the traditional "cultural leaders" are gone. They have taken with them much of the inspiration for play as well as important knowledge about how to organise a game. In that sense we can say...

  3. Optimal background matching camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalis, Constantine; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Gibson, David P; Cuthill, Innes C

    2017-07-12

    Background matching is the most familiar and widespread camouflage strategy: avoiding detection by having a similar colour and pattern to the background. Optimizing background matching is straightforward in a homogeneous environment, or when the habitat has very distinct sub-types and there is divergent selection leading to polymorphism. However, most backgrounds have continuous variation in colour and texture, so what is the best solution? Not all samples of the background are likely to be equally inconspicuous, and laboratory experiments on birds and humans support this view. Theory suggests that the most probable background sample (in the statistical sense), at the size of the prey, would, on average, be the most cryptic. We present an analysis, based on realistic assumptions about low-level vision, that estimates the distribution of background colours and visual textures, and predicts the best camouflage. We present data from a field experiment that tests and supports our predictions, using artificial moth-like targets under bird predation. Additionally, we present analogous data for humans, under tightly controlled viewing conditions, searching for targets on a computer screen. These data show that, in the absence of predator learning, the best single camouflage pattern for heterogeneous backgrounds is the most probable sample. © 2017 The Authors.

  4. Playfulness and Openness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela; Petersson, Eva

    2011-01-01

    What does it mean to design a playful learning tool? What is needed for a learning tool to be perceived by potential users as playful? These questions emerged reflecting on a Participatory Design process aimed at enhancing museum-learning practice from the perspective of primary school children...

  5. Play framework cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Reelsen, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at advanced developers who are looking to harness the power of Play 2.x. This book will also be useful for professionals looking to dive deeper into web development. Play 2 .x is an excellent framework to accelerate your learning of advanced topics.

  6. Five recent play dates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Mette Simonsen; Birkbak, Andreas; Jensen, Torben Elgaard

    2017-01-01

    An advantage of the playground metaphor is that it comes with the activity of going out on ‘play dates’ and developing friendships. In such playful relationships, there is always something at stake, but the interaction is also fun and inherently exploratory. In the following, we take a tour of five...

  7. Communication in Symbolic Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umek, Ljubica Marjanovic; Musek, Petra Lesnik; Kranjc, Simona

    2001-01-01

    Analyzed records of Slovene children's speech from a linguistic point of view and established differences in communication patterns with regard to the children's ages and the type of symbolic play. Found a shift in play from make-believe with regard to objects to roleplay related to social context. The older the child, the more language functions…

  8. Art of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel Cristina G.; Walker, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Play is a key element in cultural development, according to the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga. Nowadays many of us interact with other people in online games and social networks, through multiple digital devices. But harnessing playful activities for museum learning is mostly undeveloped. In thi...

  9. Play your part

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsey, Gaynor

    1978-01-01

    Play your part is a collection of then situations in which students have to take on the roles of particular people and express their opinions, feelings or arguments about the situation. Play your part is intended for use with advanced students of English.

  10. Return to Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Call it physical activity, call it games, or call it play. Whatever its name, it's a place we all need to return to. In the physical education, recreation, and dance professions, we need to redesign programs to address the need for and want of play that is inherent in all of us.

  11. Play in Other Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Susan

    2007-01-01

    How do children from different cultural backgrounds who are learning to speak English respond to the Reggio Emilia approach? This article builds on the author's research into Reggio Emilia and children from diverse cultural backgrounds. She describes the strategies the teachers used to enable the children to express their ideas verbally and…

  12. Cosmic microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The 20-ft horn-reflector antenna at Bell Laboratories is discussed in detail with emphasis on the 7.35 cm radiometer. The circumstances leading to the detection of the cosmic microwave background radiation are explored

  13. Playful Collaboration (Or Not)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Marcel; Sproedt, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how playing games can be used to teach intangible social interaction across boundaries, in particular within open collaborative innovation. We present an exploratory case study of how students learned from playing a board game in a graduate course of the international...... and interdisciplinary Innovation and Business master's program in Denmark. We identify several important themes related to the process of learning through playing and the social dynamics of open collaborative innovation, while we also highlight possible caveats of “playing” and practicing open innovation. Our findings...

  14. Background radioactivity in environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, P.R.; O'Hara, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a literature search to identify information on concentrations of 'background' radioactivity in foodstuffs and other commonly available environmental materials. The review has concentrated on naturally occurring radioactivity in foods and on UK data, although results from other countries have also been considered where appropriate. The data are compared with established definitions of a 'radioactive' substance and radionuclides which do not appear to be adequately covered in the literature are noted. (author)

  15. Background paper on aquaculture research

    OpenAIRE

    Wenblad, Axel; Jokumsen, Alfred; Eskelinen, Unto; Torrissen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The Board of MISTRA established in 2012 a Working Group (WG) on Aquaculture to provide the Board with background information for its upcoming decision on whether the foundation should invest in aquaculture research. The WG included Senior Advisor Axel Wenblad, Sweden (Chairman), Professor Ole Torrissen, Norway, Senior Advisory Scientist Unto Eskelinen, Finland and Senior Advisory Scientist Alfred Jokumsen, Denmark. The WG performed an investigation of the Swedish aquaculture sector including ...

  16. Play vs. Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammar, Emil

    Through the theories of play by Gadamer (2004) and Henricks (2006), I will show how the relationship between play and game can be understood as dialectic and disruptive, thus challenging understandings of how the procedures of games determine player activity and vice versa. As such, I posit some...... analytical consequences for understandings of digital games as procedurally fixed (Boghost, 2006; Flannagan, 2009; Bathwaite & Sharp, 2010). That is, if digital games are argued to be procedurally fixed and if play is an appropriative and dialectic activity, then it could be argued that the latter affects...... and alters the former, and vice versa. Consequently, if the appointed procedures of a game are no longer fixed and rigid in their conveyance of meaning, qua the appropriative and dissolving nature of play, then understandings of games as conveying a fixed meaning through their procedures are inadequate...

  17. Can play be defined?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Can play be defined? There is reason to raise critical questions about the established academic demand that at phenomenon – also in humanist studies – should first of all be defined, i.e. de-lineated and by neat lines limited to a “little box” that can be handled. The following chapter develops....... Human beings can very well understand play – or whatever phenomenon in human life – without defining it....

  18. Backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labree, Wim; Nijman, Henk; van Marle, Hjalmar; Rassin, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists. For this, the psychiatric, psychological, personal, and criminal backgrounds of all arsonists (n=25), sentenced to forced treatment in the maximum security forensic hospital "De Kijvelanden", were compared to the characteristics of a control group of patients (n=50), incarcerated at the same institution for other severe crimes. Apart from DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders, family backgrounds, level of education, treatment history, intelligence (WAIS scores), and PCL-R scores were included in the comparisons. Furthermore, the apparent motives for the arson offences were explored. It was found that arsonists had more often received psychiatric treatment, prior to committing their index offence, and had a history of severe alcohol abuse more often in comparison to the controls. The arsonists turned out to be less likely to suffer from a major psychotic disorder. Both groups did not differ significantly on the other variables, among which the PCL-R total scores and factor scores. Exploratory analyses however, did suggest that arsonists may differentiate from non-arsonists on three items of the PCL-R, namely impulsivity (higher scores), superficial charm (lower scores), and juvenile delinquency (lower scores). Although the number of arsonists with a major psychotic disorder was relatively low (28%), delusional thinking of some form was judged to play a role in causing arson crimes in about half of the cases (52%).

  19. Does man end up as a final disposal site for radioactive substances. Analyses, facts, background information. Life after the Chernobyl accident - and the consequences with regard to food. Endlagerstaette Mensch. Analysen, Tatsachen, Hintergruende. Nach Tschernobyl - Konsequenzen fuer unsere Ernaehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, H

    1986-01-01

    The fire in the Russian reactor that spread sparks of fear and panic into millions of homes also is a challenge: We have to cope with the reality of life after the Chernobyl disaster, and what we first need is sound and proper information. What is to be learnt from the disaster. From the embarassing quarrel between our Government and Land governments about dose limits. Will politicians draw consequences. How good and efficient are current food quality controls. What do the consumers' associations say. What will anti-nuclear power groups do. The book in hand critically reviews the events and activities that followed the Chernobyl accident. It denounces the scandalous behaviour of authorities who created confusion rather than confidence, and the behaviour of those people who are playing a foul game with the people's fear. The author presents information in order to make the complex mechanisms of radioactivity and its effects comprehensible to the general public. He also discusses the problem of 'legally' irradiated food imported from other countries.

  20. The natural radiation background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggleby, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The components of the natural background radiation and their variations are described. Cosmic radiation is a major contributor to the external dose to the human body whilst naturally-occurring radionuclides of primordial and cosmogenic origin contribute to both the external and internal doses, with the primordial radionuclides being the major contributor in both cases. Man has continually modified the radiation dose to which he has been subjected. The two traditional methods of measuring background radiation, ionisation chamber measurements and scintillation counting, are looked at and the prospect of using thermoluminescent dosimetry is considered

  1. Effects of background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, E.G.; Stewart, A.M.; Gilman, E.A.; Kneale, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is to measure the relationship between exposure to different levels of background gamma radiation in different parts of the country, and different Relative Risks for leukaemias and cancers in children. The investigation is linked to an earlier analysis of the effects of prenatal medical x-rays upon leukaemia and cancer risk; the prior hypothesis on which the background-study was based, is derived from the earlier results. In a third analysis, the authors attempted to measure varying potency of medical x-rays delivered at different stages of gestation and the results supply a link between the other two estimates. (author)

  2. The cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent limits on spectral distortions and angular anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background are reviewed. The various backgrounds are described, and the theoretical implications are assessed. Constraints on inflationary cosmology dominated by cold dark matter (CDM) and on open cosmological models dominated by baryonic dark matter (BDM), with, respectively, primordial random phase scale-invariant curvature fluctuations or non-gaussian isocurvature fluctuations are described. More exotic theories are addressed, and I conclude with the 'bottom line': what theories expect experimentalists to be measuring within the next two to three years without having to abandon their most cherished theorists. (orig.)

  3. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  4. RECORDED-ROLE PLAY IN EFL CLASSROOM: A WAY OF MAXIMIZING STUDENTS‟ POTENTIAL IN SPEAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krismiyati Krismiyati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Teaching English for non English Department students will be quite a challenge as the students have various background and interest. Handling those students in a big number in a class that requires them to speak is another impending challenge. This is an action research on role-play in English classroom for Information Technology students. This study tries to see whether recorded-role play could maximize students‘ potential in speaking. This study involved 30 students taking English course in Information Technology Faculty. The students were given a situation in which they had to act the role play. They drafted the role -play before they recorded it. The result shows that students felt less tense in acting the role. They also got more time to practice their pronunciation before recording. It even gave students who felt reluctant and shy in the class to actively participate. In addition, students could play around with the supporting background sound to show their creativity. Surprisingly, most students do their best to show their effort in their speaking as the end-product would be played in the classroom, even the most quiet students performed really well. Finally, this recorded-role play proved to be an effective way to maximize students‘ potential in speaking.

  5. Playing and gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg; Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hanghøj, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    The paper develops an approach of playing and gaming activities through the perspective of both activities as mood activities . The point of departure is that a game - is a tool with which we, through our practices, achieve different moods. This based on an empirical study of children's everyday...... lives, where the differences emerge through actual practices, i.e. through the creation of meaning in the specific situations. The overall argument is that it is not that important whether it is a playing or a gaming activity - it is however crucial to be aware of how moods occur and what their optimal...... dimensions: practices and moods. Practice is the concept of all the doing in the activities. Moods are the particular concept of sense and feeling of being, which is what we are drawn to when we are playing or gaming....

  6. To play is necessary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Vargas

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This work tries to contemplate on playing, leaving of the observations on the children's games accomplished during the apprenticeship and the articulation of those with some theoretical ones that have been dedicating if to the study of the game, of the childhood and of the Infantile Education. It was possible, through the apprenticeship registrations and of the observations to live many moments in that the two groups, 3A and 3B, they played incorporating objects and creating characters in your games. He/she gave way, we sought focar the game of the do-of-bill, contemplating on your importance for the children in the first childhood, and that possibilities she brings us in the amplification of the infantile experiences. Another important aspect in this article is to contemplate on the teacher's practice in the Infantile Education, and, through our observations on playing of the children noticed the teachers' involvement in the children's games.

  7. Executive Summary - Historical background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    countries. The INP had an important role to play during and after the Chernobyl accident, by serving the population with measurements of radioactive contamination of air, soil and food. This work is being continued, with a permanent early-warning and monitoring station at the INP, an element of the national radiation monitoring system. After 38 years of operation the U-120 cyclotron was replaced by an inhouse constructed 144 cm pole-piece AIC-144 one able to accelerate protons up to 60 MeV, which is now used to produce short-lived beta-plus isotopes and will be able to provide a proton beam for treating ocular melanoma. The small 48-cm cyclotron was replaced by a 2.5 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator. With a microbeam capacity, it serves to continue and further develop the interdisciplinary research in cell biology, archaeology and material structure. The particle and high energy physics group, which joined the INP in 1970 (and had originated from the Cosmic Ray Studies group initiated in 1938 by Professor Marian Miesowicz at the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy) was initially connected with accelerators of the JINR and later was able to expand to CERN and DESY. The theoretical physics group had also expanded, engaging in particle theory and astrophysics. We take part in assembling the LHC. We entered the ATLAS, ALICE, and LHCb collaborations and may possibly join the CASTOR project. We took part in constructing the HERA collider and are collaborators in the large ZEUS and H1 projects. We joined the TESLA project. Within the ZEUS collaboration we built the luminosity detector. At the RHIC collider we constructed a large part of the PHOBOS detector and within this collaboration we made a contribution to the discovery of the new state of hadronic matter. Within the BELLE collaboration at KEK we took part in the measurements of the CP violation effects in the B mesons decay. Our scientists participate in experiments performed at GANIL, Legnaro and GSI. We carry out condensed

  8. Thermal background noise limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulkis, S.

    1982-01-01

    Modern detection systems are increasingly limited in sensitivity by the background thermal photons which enter the receiving system. Expressions for the fluctuations of detected thermal radiation are derived. Incoherent and heterodyne detection processes are considered. References to the subject of photon detection statistics are given.

  9. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.

    2015-01-01

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects

  10. Modelling of plug and play interface for energy router based on IEC61850

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y. F.; Yang, F.; Gan, L.; He, H. L.

    2017-11-01

    Under the background of the “Internet Plus”, as the energy internet infrastructure equipment, energy router will be widely developed. The IEC61850 standard is the only universal standard in the field of power system automation which realizes the standardization of engineering operation of intelligent substation. To eliminate the lack of International unified standard for communication of energy router, this paper proposes to apply IEC61850 to plug and play interface and establishes the plug and play interface information model and information transfer services. This paper provides a research approach for the establishment of energy router communication standards, and promotes the development of energy router.

  11. General game playing

    CERN Document Server

    Genesereth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    General game players are computer systems able to play strategy games based solely on formal game descriptions supplied at ""runtime"" (n other words, they don't know the rules until the game starts). Unlike specialized game players, such as Deep Blue, general game players cannot rely on algorithms designed in advance for specific games; they must discover such algorithms themselves. General game playing expertise depends on intelligence on the part of the game player and not just intelligence of the programmer of the game player.GGP is an interesting application in its own right. It is intell

  12. The Effects of Background Music on the Middle School Students' Recognition of the Expository Text Information%背景音乐对中学生说明文文本信息再认的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明; 张裕鼎; 张立春

    2012-01-01

    以某中学一年级221名学生为被试,考察了不同类型及不同声压水平的背景音乐对中学生说明文文本信息再认过程的影响。实验结果表明:(1)音乐类型主效应显著,声压水平主效应不显著,两者交互作用显著,高音条件下不同音乐类型产生显著的再认成绩差异,而低音条件下未产生显著性差异。(2)高音条件下,不同类型的背景音乐对中学生的说明文文本信息再认成绩产生不同程度的影响。与无音乐环境相比,古典音乐对成绩产生显著的促进作用;流行音乐含中文歌词、流行音乐含日语歌词两个水平均产生显著的干扰作用;流行音乐不含歌词对再认无显著影响;此外,流行音乐含中文歌词干扰作用最大,但与流行音乐含日文歌词相比差异不显著。%We investigate the effects of different types of background music on recognition of the expository text information. The 221 participants are from 5 classes of Grade 1 of one middle school, with the likely same level of the Chinese course. The results of the experiments are as follows: (1) The main effect of the type of background music is significant while that of sound pressure level is not, and the interactive effect is significant: on the condition of high sound pressure level, the type of background music significant effect on the recognition score, but it has no effect on condition of the low sound pressure level. (2) On the condition of high sound pressure level, different types of background music take significantly different effect on the recognition score of the expository text information: comparing with no sound level, the classic music take significant facilitation effect, both the pop music with Chinese lyric and with Japanese lyric produce significant interference effect, and the pop music without lyric produces no effect. Besides, the interference effect taken by the pop music with Chinese is the

  13. Play and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The power of play, so central to psychoanalytic theory and practice, is conjoined to the social psychological or socio-politically coloured concept of power, giving rise to many fruitful discussions of how these concepts manifest themselves in clinical work with children, groups and adults...

  14. Play's Importance in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Anette; Heden, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute knowledge on and gain an understanding of elementary school teachers' perspectives on the function of play in children's learning processes. The study is qualitative with a hermeneutical approach and has George Herbert Mead as a theoretical frame of reference. Interviews have been carried out with seven…

  15. Play framework essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Richard-Foy, Julien

    2014-01-01

    This book targets Java and Scala developers who already have some experience in web development and who want to master Play framework quickly and efficiently. This book assumes you have a good level of knowledge and understanding of efficient Java and Scala code.

  16. Efficacy of play therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Life-skills of Children Under Difficult Circumstances: The. Case of Two ... Goodman's Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire-a standardized instrument) were obtained from 17 ... From a developmental point of view, play ... preventing mild problems becoming worse, .... records) and a socially withdrawn child-for example ...

  17. The Activity of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichlmair, Martin

    This paper presents Activity Theory as a framework for understanding the action of playing games with the intention of building a foundation for the creation of new game design tools and methods. Activity Theory, an epistemological framework rooted in Soviet psychology of the first half of the 20...

  18. stage/page/play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    context. Contributors: Per Brask, Dario Fo, Jette Barnholdt Hansen, Pil Hansen, Sven Åke Heed, Ulla Kallenbach, Sofie Kluge, Annelis Kuhlmann, Kela Kvam, Anna Lawaetz, Bent Flemming Nielsen, Franco Perrelli, Magnus Tessing Schneider, Antonio Scuderi. stage/page/play is published as a festschrift...

  19. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Aled

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a brief review of current theory and observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB. New predictions for cosmological defect theories and an overview of the inflationary theory are discussed. Recent results from various observations of the anisotropies of the microwave background are described and a summary of the proposed experiments is presented. A new analysis technique based on Bayesian statistics that can be used to reconstruct the underlying sky fluctuations is summarised. Current CMB data is used to set some preliminary constraints on the values of fundamental cosmological parameters $Omega$ and $H_circ$ using the maximum likelihood technique. In addition, secondary anisotropies due to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect are described.

  20. What is the meaning and nature of active play for today's children in the UK?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jago Russell

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventing the decline in physical activity which occurs around 10-11 years of age is a public health priority. Physically active play can make unique contributions to children's development which cannot be obtained from more structured forms of physical activity. Encouraging active play in children's leisure time has potential to increase physical activity levels while promoting optimal child development. Aspired wisdom states that contemporary British children no longer play outdoors, but systematic evidence for this is lacking. We need to build a more informed picture of contemporary children's play before we consider interventions to increase it. Methods Eleven focus groups were conducted with 77, 10-11 year old children from four primary schools in Bristol, UK. Focus groups examined: 1 children's perceptions of 'play'; 2 how much of their play is active play; and 3 contexts of children's active play. All focus groups were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. Results Children's perceptions of play were broad and included both physically active and sedentary behaviours. Children reported that they frequently engaged in active play and valued both the physical and social benefits it provided. Whereas boys frequently reported having a 'kick about' or riding bikes as their preferred forms of active play, girls were less likely to report a specific activity. Additionally, boys reported greater independent mobility in their active play compared to girls. Finally, boys were more likely to report playing with neighbourhood friends but girls more frequently reported playing with family members. Conclusions Promoting active play in children's leisure time may increase the physical activity of children, but interventions may need to be tailored according to gender.

  1. Population distribution of flexible molecules from maximum entropy analysis using different priors as background information: application to the Φ, Ψ-conformational space of the α-(1-->2)-linked mannose disaccharide present in N- and O-linked glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säwén, Elin; Massad, Tariq; Landersjö, Clas; Damberg, Peter; Widmalm, Göran

    2010-08-21

    The conformational space available to the flexible molecule α-D-Manp-(1-->2)-α-D-Manp-OMe, a model for the α-(1-->2)-linked mannose disaccharide in N- or O-linked glycoproteins, is determined using experimental data and molecular simulation combined with a maximum entropy approach that leads to a converged population distribution utilizing different input information. A database survey of the Protein Data Bank where structures having the constituent disaccharide were retrieved resulted in an ensemble with >200 structures. Subsequent filtering removed erroneous structures and gave the database (DB) ensemble having three classes of mannose-containing compounds, viz., N- and O-linked structures, and ligands to proteins. A molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of the disaccharide revealed a two-state equilibrium with a major and a minor conformational state, i.e., the MD ensemble. These two different conformation ensembles of the disaccharide were compared to measured experimental spectroscopic data for the molecule in water solution. However, neither of the two populations were compatible with experimental data from optical rotation, NMR (1)H,(1)H cross-relaxation rates as well as homo- and heteronuclear (3)J couplings. The conformational distributions were subsequently used as background information to generate priors that were used in a maximum entropy analysis. The resulting posteriors, i.e., the population distributions after the application of the maximum entropy analysis, still showed notable deviations that were not anticipated based on the prior information. Therefore, reparameterization of homo- and heteronuclear Karplus relationships for the glycosidic torsion angles Φ and Ψ were carried out in which the importance of electronegative substituents on the coupling pathway was deemed essential resulting in four derived equations, two (3)J(COCC) and two (3)J(COCH) being different for the Φ and Ψ torsions, respectively. These Karplus relationships are denoted

  2. 16 CFR 1404.2 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Background. 1404.2 Section 1404.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CELLULOSE INSULATION § 1404.2 Background. Based on available fire incident information, engineering analysis of the probable...

  3. On the microwave background spectrum and noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bernardis, P.; Masi, S.

    1982-01-01

    We show that the combined measurement of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) intensity and noise can provide direct information on the temperature and the emissivity of the source responsible for the CBR. (orig.)

  4. 47 CFR 215.1 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is part of the complex environment produced by nuclear explosions. It consists of transient...

  5. Play or science?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieberoth, Andreas; Pedersen, Mads Kock; Sherson, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Crowdscience games may hold unique potentials as learning opportunities compared to games made for fun or education. They are part of an actual science problem solving process: By playing, players help scientists, and thereby interact with real continuous research processes. This mixes the two...... worlds of play and science in new ways. During usability testing we discovered that users of the crowdscience game Quantum Dreams tended to answer questions in game terms, even when directed explicitly to give science explanations. We then examined these competing frames of understanding though a mixed...... correlational and grounded theory analysis. This essay presents the core ideas of crowdscience games as learning opportunities, and reports how a group of players used “game”, “science” and “conceptual” frames to interpret their experience. Our results suggest that oscillating between the frames instead...

  6. Understanding Games as Played

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leino, Olli Tapio

    2009-01-01

    Researchers interested in player’s experience would assumedly, across disciplines, agree that the goal behind enquiries into player’s experience is to understand the how games’ features end up affecting the player’s experience. Much of the contemporary interdisciplinary research into player......’s experience leans toward the empirical-scientific, in the forms (neuro)psychology, sociology and cognitive science, to name a few. In such approaches, for example demonstrating correlation between physiological symptoms and an in-game event may amount to ‘understanding’. However, the experience of computer...... game play is a viable topic also for computer game studies within the general tradition of humanities. In such context, the idea of ‘understanding an experience’ invites an approach focusing on the experienced significance of events and objects within computer game play. This focus, in turn, suggests...

  7. Ravens at Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Bird Rose

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available  ‘We were driving through Death Valley, an American-Australian and two Aussies, taking the scenic route from Las Vegas to Santa Cruz.’ This multi-voiced account of multispecies encounters along a highway takes up the challenge of playful and humorous writing that is as well deeply serious and theoretically provocative. Our travels brought us into what Donna Haraway calls the contact zone: a region of recognition and response. The contact zone is a place of significant questions: ‘Who are you, and so who are we? Here we are, and so what are we to become?’ Events were everything in this ecology of play, in which the movements of all the actors involved the material field in its entirety. We were brought into dances of approach and withdrawal, dances emerging directly, to paraphrase Brian Massumi, from the dynamic relation between a myriad of charged particles.

  8. Playful Collaboration (or Not)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores how games and play, which are deeply rooted in human beings as a way to learn and interact, can be used to teach certain concepts and practices related to open collaborative innovation. We discuss how playing games can be a source of creativity, imagination and fun, while it can...... also be conducive to deep learning. As such, a game can engage different dimensions of learning and embed elements of active, collaborative, cooperative and problem-based learning. Building on this logic, we present an exploratory case study of the use of a particular board game in a class of a course...... collaboration at the cost of individual performance and possible long-term collective performance as well....

  9. Play. Learn. Innovate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sproedt, Henrik

    study were to better understand the theoretical foundations and practical implications of complex social interaction in organizational innovation settings. As I did not find any existing models or hypotheses that I was interested in testing I set out to discover how I could grasp complex social...... evidence that play and games could be interesting perspectives to take in order to understand complex social interaction. I come to the conclusion that – in innovation settings – the social dynamics that affect the process are essentially about transformation of knowledge across boundaries. I propose......„Play. Learn. Innovate. – Grasping the Social Dynamics of Participatory Innovation“ the title of this thesis describes how the complex interplay of unexpected events led to some burning questions and eventually to this thesis, which one could call an innovation*1*. During several years...

  10. Creativity and Playfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Skovbjerg, Helle Marie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This article explores how student behavior and interactions change when teachers use “producing games” as a primary pedagogical strategy (Papert, 1980; Ejsing-Duun and Karoff, 2014). Based on student and teacher actions and responses, as well as on students' production—observed during f...... fieldwork—this paper emphasizes the importance of understanding how students explore creativity and playfulness while producing in learning situations....

  11. Polarimeter Arrays for Cosmic Microwave Background Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Thomas; Cao, Nga; Chuss, David; Fixsen, Dale; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Kogut, Alan; Limon, Michele; Moseley, S. Harvey; Phillips, Nicholas; Schneider, Gideon

    2006-01-01

    We discuss general system architectures and specific work towards precision measurements of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization. The CMB and its polarization carry fundamental information on the origin, structure, and evolution of the universe. Detecting the imprint of primordial gravitational radiation on the faint polarization of the CMB will be difficult. The two primary challenges will be achieving both the required sensitivity and precise control over systematic errors. At anisotropy levels possibly as small as a few nanokelvin, the gravity-wave signal is faint compared to the fundamental sensitivity limit imposed by photon arrival statistics, and one must make simultaneous measurements with large numbers, hundreds to thousands, of independent background-limited direct detectors. Highly integrated focal plane architectures, and multiplexing of detector outputs, will be essential. Because the detectors, optics, and even the CMB itself are brighter than the faint gravity-wave signal by six to nine orders of magnitude, even a tiny leakage of polarized light reflected or diffracted from warm objects could overwhelm the primordial signal. Advanced methods of modulating only the polarized component of the incident radiation will play an essential role in measurements of CMB polarization. One promising general polarimeter concept that is under investigation by a number of institutions is to first use planar antennas to separate millimeter-wave radiation collected by a lens or horn into two polarization channels. Then the signals can be fed to a pair of direct detectors through a planar circuit consisting of superconducting niobium microstrip transmission lines, hybrid couplers, band-pass filters, and phase modulators to measure the Stokes parameters of the incoming radiation.

  12. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    OpenAIRE

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critic...

  13. Malaysia; Background Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1996-01-01

    This Background Paper on Malaysia examines developments and trends in the labor market since the mid-1980s. The paper describes the changes in the employment structure and the labor force. It reviews wages and productivity trends and their effects on unit labor cost. The paper highlights that Malaysia’s rapid growth, sustained since 1987, has had a major impact on the labor market. The paper outlines the major policy measures to address the labor constraints. It also analyzes Malaysia’s recen...

  14. Play and playfulness, basic features of early childhood education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singer, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education, but that play curricula can have serious drawbacks. The starting point is the play theory of the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga, a radical critic of the focus on the educational benefits of play. According

  15. Teaching Play Skills to Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunhwa; Sainato, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Play is critical for the development of young children and is an important part of their daily routine. However, children with autism often exhibit deficits in play skills and engage in stereotypic behaviour. We reviewed studies to identify effective instructional strategies for teaching play skills to young children with autism.…

  16. Turning training into play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarhus, Rikke; Grönvall, Erik; Larsen, Simon Bo

    2011-01-01

    participants generally found physical training both fun and socially engaging, and experienced improved fitness. We also argue that embodied gaming motivates seniors to do more than they think themselves capable of, and allows seniors with different mental and physical capabilities to play together. However......, there are also certain barriers, when seniors interact with the system. Speed and complexity of what is displayed on the screen are examples of barriers that affect the seniors’ satisfactory use of the technology. Based on these findings, we discuss how physical rehabilitation may be facilitated by computer...

  17. Playing Second Fiddle?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book poses the inconvenient question whether he European Union has become a secondary actor on the global arena, or whether it has perhaps for a long time already been playing second fiddle without wishing to admit it. What indicators would today, after a prolonged economic and socio......-political crisis in the Eurozone, imply that the EU can challenge the United States, China, or for that matter Russia, and take a position as a true global powerhouse? Has the train already left the station for what is still a very unique experiment, the European Union? Four different visions of Europes’s future...

  18. PlayStation purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Susan J; Leonard, Jane; Chamberlain, Alex J

    2010-08-01

    A 16-year-old boy presented with a number of asymptomatic pigmented macules on the volar aspect of his index fingers. Dermoscopy of each macule revealed a parallel ridge pattern of homogenous reddish-brown pigment. We propose that these lesions were induced by repetitive trauma from a Sony PlayStation 3 (Sony Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) vibration feedback controller. The lesions completely resolved following abstinence from gaming over a number of weeks. Although the parallel ridge pattern is typically the hallmark for early acral lentiginous melanoma, it may be observed in a limited number of benign entities, including subcorneal haematoma.

  19. Celadon Figurines Play Instruments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    This group of figurines, each 0.15m tall, were unearthed from a Tang Dynasty tomb in Changsha in 1977. Music was very developed in the Tang Dynasty. Colorful musical instruments and dances were popular both among the people and in the palace. These vivid-looking figurines wear pleated skirts with small sleeves and open chest, a style influenced by the non-Han nationalities living in the north and west of China. Some of the musical instruments were brought from the Western Regions. The figurines are playing the xiao (a vertical bamboo flute), the konghou (an

  20. Playful hyper responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hanne; Andersen, Niels Åkerstrøm

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 10–15 years, state-funded schools have begun to require parents to assume an undefined and infinite personal responsibility. In this article, we investigate how schools organize responsibility games to respond to this challenge and how these games affect the concept of responsibility....... We point to a dislocation in the way parents are assigned responsibility, because the definition of responsibility is not only a question of formulating rules or providing advice. We argue that what emerges is a kind of playful hyper responsibility that identifies responsibility as the participation...

  1. OCRWM Backgrounder, January 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) assigns to the US Department of Energy (DOE) responsibility for developing a system to safely and economically transport spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from various storage sites to geologic repositories or other facilities that constitute elements of the waste management program. This transportation system will evolve from technologies and capabilities already developed. Shipments of spent fuel to a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility could begin as early as 1996 if Congress authorizes its construction. Shipments of spent fuel to a geologic repository are scheduled to begin in 1998. The backgrounder provides an overview of DOE's cask development program. Transportation casks are a major element in the DOE nuclear waste transportation system because they are the primary protection against any potential radiation exposure to the public and transportation workers in the event an accident occurs

  2. Monitored background radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruel, C.

    1988-01-01

    A monitored background radiometer is described comprising: a thermally conductive housing; low conductivity support means mounted on the housing; a sensing plate mounted on the low conductivity support means and spaced from the housing so as to be thermally insulated from the housing and having an outwardly facing first surface; the sensing plate being disposed relative to the housing to receive direct electromagnetic radiation from sources exterior to the radiometer upon the first surface only; means for controllably heating the sensing plate; first temperature sensitive means to measure the temperature of the housing; and second temperature sensitive means to measure the temperature of the sensing plate, so that the heat flux at the sensing plate may be determined from the temperatures of the housing and sensing plate after calibration of the radiometer by measuring the temperatures of the housing and sensing plate while controllably heating the sensing plate

  3. Informe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egon Lichetenberger

    1950-10-01

    Full Text Available Informe del doctor Egon Lichetenberger ante el Consejo Directivo de la Facultad, sobre el  curso de especialización en Anatomía Patológica patrocinado por la Kellogg Foundation (Departamento de Patología

  4. Background music: effects on attention performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yi-Nuo; Huang, Rong-Hwa; Chiang, Hsin-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that noise may affect worker attention. However, some background music in the work environment can increase worker satisfaction and productivity. This study compared how music with, and without, lyrics affects human attention. One hundred and two participants, aged 20-24 years, were recruited into this study. Fifty-six males and 46 females participated in this study. Background music with, and without lyrics, was tested for effects on listener concentration in attention testing using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) study. The comparison results revealed that background music with lyrics had significant negative effects on concentration and attention. The findings suggest that, if background music is played in the work environment, music without lyrics is preferable because songs with lyrics are likely to reduce worker attention and performance.

  5. Learning Arabic through play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Ibrahim, Zeinab; Karatsolis, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the use of educational games in the context of the “Arabiyyatii” research project, a three-year project funded through Qatar National Research Fund. The scope of the project is teaching Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) to kindergarten students (5-6 years old) that are native...... speakers of the Qatari dialect. Part of the new curriculum envisioned in the project includes the use of simple educational games, specifically designed and developed for tabletop surface computers. The paper presents a naturalistic study design, following the activities of 18 students for a period of 9...... weeks in the project. The paper presents three of the most played games by the students, along with analysis on collected data, focusing on students’ performance and attitudes towards the new curriculum. Results analysis provided an encouraging image, suggesting that the conducted activity was able...

  6. Farm Hall: The Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, David C.

    2013-03-01

    It's July 1945. Germany is in defeat and the atomic bombs are on their way to Japan. Under the direction of Samuel Goudsmit, the Allies are holding some of the top German nuclear scientists-among them Heisenberg, Hahn, and Gerlach-captive in Farm Hall, an English country manor near Cambridge, England. As secret microphones record their conversations, the scientists are unaware of why they are being held or for how long. Thinking themselves far ahead of the Allies, how will they react to the news of the atomic bombs? How will these famous scientists explain to themselves and to the world their failure to achieve even a chain reaction? How will they come to terms with the horror of the Third Reich, their work for such a regime, and their behavior during that period? This one-act play is based upon the transcripts of their conversations as well as the author's historical work on the subject.

  7. Mobilities at Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ungruhe, Christian

    2017-01-01

    So far, academic contributions have widely framed football in Africa as a means for migration from a western point of view. At a time, they presented particular and one-dimensional understandings of transnational links in the realm of football migration between Africa and Europe. Macro......-level perspective there is still an analytical gap between the ambitions and experiences of migrating players and economic power relations at play on the one hand and the socio-cultural embedding of the transnational connections in football migration on the other. In order to understand why and how football...... mobilities are indeed linked to ‘the transnational’ in migration there is a need to localize the phenomenon and investigate how local understandings of migration and mobility are lived and expressed in a transnational sport like football. By taking data from fieldwork among West African football migrants...

  8. Low background infrared (LBIR) facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Low background infrared (LBIR) facility was originally designed to calibrate user supplied blackbody sources and to characterize low-background IR detectors and...

  9. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site

  10. Free time, play and game

    OpenAIRE

    Božović Ratko R.

    2008-01-01

    Free time and play are mutually dependent categories that are always realized together. We either play because we have free time or we have free time because we play (E. Fink). Play, no matter whether it is children's or artistic play or a spontaneous sports game (excluding professional sports) most fully complements human existence and thereby realizes free time as a time in freedom and freedom of time. Therefore, free time exists and is most prominent in play. Moreover, one game releases it...

  11. The psychological background about human error and safety in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li

    1992-01-01

    A human error is one of the factors which cause an accident in NPP. The in-situ psychological background plays an important role in inducing it. The author analyzes the structure of one's psychological background when one is at work, and gives a few examples of typical psychological background resulting in human errors. Finally it points out that the fundamental way to eliminate the unfavourable psychological background of safety production is to establish the safety culture in NPP along with its characteristics

  12. Imagination, Playfulness, and Creativity in Children's Play with Different Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo????ller, Signe?? Juhl?

    2015-01-01

    Based on a four-month experimental study of preschool children's play with creative-construction and social-fantasy toys, the author examines the in?uence of both types of toys on the play of preschool children. Her comparative analysis considers the impact of transformative play on the development of imagination during play activities and…

  13. Word Play: Scaffolding Language Development through Child-Directed Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasik, Barbara A.; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill L.

    2017-01-01

    Play is an important activity in young children's lives. It is how children explore their world and build knowledge. Although free play, which is play that is totally child directed, contributes to children's learning, self-regulation and motivation, adults' participation in children's play is critical in their development, especially their…

  14. Development and Reliability Evaluation of the Movement Rating Instrument for Virtual Reality Video Game Play

    OpenAIRE

    Levac, Danielle; Nawrotek, Joanna; Deschenes, Emilie; Giguere, Tia; Serafin, Julie; Bilodeau, Martin; Sveistrup, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Background Virtual reality active video games are increasingly popular physical therapy interventions for children with cerebral palsy. However, physical therapists require educational resources to support decision making about game selection to match individual patient goals. Quantifying the movements elicited during virtual reality active video game play can inform individualized game selection in pediatric rehabilitation. Objective The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate ...

  15. Summary of professional background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstykh, V.

    1990-01-01

    The main objectives of IAEA-IRS activity are to prevent repetition of unusual events in other NPPs, at other locations and to enhance the capability of the nuclear community to improve nuclear safety. This paper outlines the experience of international expertise in the analysis of data collection on unusual events in NPPs. Examples illustrate IAEA-IRS analysis activity in practice - trends and patterns identified by a human expert. The importance of the use of modern techniques simulating and supporting human decision-making processes for analysis of IRS information is briefly discussed

  16. Background to EOHSI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granville, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses ongoing public concerns regarding the health impacts of sour gas in Pincher Creek. A description of a 90 day toxicity study on hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) at the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology (CIIT) in 3 strains of rodents was presented. A decade by decade review of events concerning gas emissions was provided, including a description of the 1980s lodgepole blowout and an introduction of a sulphide network in Alberta. The creation of a joint proposal for a comprehensive health review from Alberta researchers and the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) was also outlined. The 1990s heralded an increased level of public participation in sour gas developments and health and odour issues. Details of the Ludwig saga were presented as well as further research studies and the Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) protocols, processes and hearings. In the 1990s, several human volunteer studies were conducted in response to public concerns about neurotoxicity and reproductive developmental effects. After the year 2000, continued public concern has been voiced at EUB hearings and at panel reviews of health effects. It was noted that development and research data has continued to be the cause of public concern and continued calls for additional work and reviews. However, no additional hazards have been identified with ongoing human volunteer studies, environmental levels and enhanced monitors research almost complete. It was concluded that current controversy seemed to downplay or ignore much of the available science. Human and animal data has consistently revealed that there is no evidence of neuro-developmental reproductive effects. It was recommended that power plays should be avoided and that the ongoing human volunteer study should eventually provide results. tabs, figs

  17. Background to EOHSI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granville, G. [Environmental Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2004-07-01

    This paper discusses ongoing public concerns regarding the health impacts of sour gas in Pincher Creek. A description of a 90 day toxicity study on hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) at the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology (CIIT) in 3 strains of rodents was presented. A decade by decade review of events concerning gas emissions was provided, including a description of the 1980s lodgepole blowout and an introduction of a sulphide network in Alberta. The creation of a joint proposal for a comprehensive health review from Alberta researchers and the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) was also outlined. The 1990s heralded an increased level of public participation in sour gas developments and health and odour issues. Details of the Ludwig saga were presented as well as further research studies and the Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) protocols, processes and hearings. In the 1990s, several human volunteer studies were conducted in response to public concerns about neurotoxicity and reproductive developmental effects. After the year 2000, continued public concern has been voiced at EUB hearings and at panel reviews of health effects. It was noted that development and research data has continued to be the cause of public concern and continued calls for additional work and reviews. However, no additional hazards have been identified with ongoing human volunteer studies, environmental levels and enhanced monitors research almost complete. It was concluded that current controversy seemed to downplay or ignore much of the available science. Human and animal data has consistently revealed that there is no evidence of neuro-developmental reproductive effects. It was recommended that power plays should be avoided and that the ongoing human volunteer study should eventually provide results. tabs, figs.

  18. Note on bouncing backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haro, Jaume; Pan, Supriya

    2018-05-01

    The theory of inflation is one of the fundamental and revolutionary developments of modern cosmology that became able to explain many issues of the early Universe in the context of the standard cosmological model (SCM). However, the initial singularity of the Universe, where physics is indefinite, is still obscure in the combined SCM +inflation scenario. An alternative to SCM +inflation without the initial singularity is thus always welcome, and bouncing cosmology is an attempt at that. The current work is thus motivated to investigate the bouncing solutions in modified gravity theories when the background universe is described by the spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) geometry. We show that the simplest way to obtain the bouncing cosmologies in such spacetime is to consider some kind of Lagrangian whose gravitational sector depends only on the square of the Hubble parameter of the FLRW universe. For these modified Lagrangians, the corresponding Friedmann equation, a constraint in the dynamics of the Universe, depicts a curve in the phase space (H ,ρ ), where H is the Hubble parameter and ρ is the energy density of the Universe. As a consequence, a bouncing cosmology is obtained when this curve is closed and crosses the axis H =0 at least twice, and whose simplest particular example is the ellipse depicting the well-known holonomy corrected Friedmann equation in loop quantum cosmology (LQC). Sometimes, a crucial point in such theories is the appearance of the Ostrogradski instability at the perturbative level; however, fortunately enough, in the present work, as long as the linear level of perturbations is concerned, this instability does not appear, although it may appear at the higher order of perturbations.

  19. Background radiation map of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angsuwathana, P.; Chotikanatis, P.

    1997-01-01

    The radioelement concentration in the natural environment as well as the radiation exposure to man in day-to-day life is now the most interesting topic. The natural radiation is frequently referred as a standard for comparing additional sources of man-made radiation such as atomic weapon fallout, nuclear power generation, radioactive waste disposal, etc. The Department of Mineral Resources commenced a five-year project of nationwide airborne geophysical survey by awarding to Kenting Earth Sciences International Limited in 1984. The original purpose of survey was to support mineral exploration and geological mapping. Subsequently, the data quantity has been proved to be suitable for natural radiation information. In 1993 the Department of Mineral Resources, with the assistance of IAEA, published a Background Radiation Map of Thailand at the scale of 1:1,000,000 from the existing airborne radiometric digital data. The production of Background Radiation Map of Thailand is the result of data compilation and correction procedure developed over the Canadian Shield. This end product will be used as a base map in environmental application not only for Thailand but also Southeast Asia region. (author)

  20. Optical polarization: background and camouflage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škerlind, Christina; Hallberg, Tomas; Eriksson, Johan; Kariis, Hans; Bergström, David

    2017-10-01

    Polarimetric imaging sensors in the electro-optical region, already military and commercially available in both the visual and infrared, show enhanced capabilities for advanced target detection and recognition. The capabilities arise due to the ability to discriminate between man-made and natural background surfaces using the polarization information of light. In the development of materials for signature management in the visible and infrared wavelength regions, different criteria need to be met to fulfil the requirements for a good camouflage against modern sensors. In conventional camouflage design, the aimed design of the surface properties of an object is to spectrally match or adapt it to a background and thereby minimizing the contrast given by a specific threat sensor. Examples will be shown from measurements of some relevant materials and how they in different ways affect the polarimetric signature. Dimensioning properties relevant in an optical camouflage from a polarimetric perspective, such as degree of polarization, the viewing or incident angle, and amount of diffuse reflection, mainly in the infrared region, will be discussed.

  1. Play the European card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, O.

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Otto Majewski, Chief Executive Officer of the Bayernwerk AG utility, in his capacity as Chairman of the European Nuclear Council pointed out at ENC 98 in Nice that national energy policies constituted a major danger to the use of nuclear power. At the same time, he indicated ways and means by which to evade that danger. The decisions taken in Sweden and in the Federal Republic of Germany to opt out of the use of nuclear power show that national energy policies can seriously jeopardize the use of nuclear power. Bayernwerk CEO Dr. Majewski urged nuclear power plant operators to counteract these tendencies by playing the European card. Nuclear power anyway was a classical topic of European cooperation which, in the past, had resulted in higher safety standards and in the development of the EPR. It should also be attempted, by working on European institutions, to strengthen the use of nuclear power, even on a national level. He invoked economic arguments against nuclear opponents, especially the preservation of competitiveness by means of lower electricity prices, and arguments of climate protection. (orig.) [de

  2. Playful Learning and Montessori Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S.

    2013-01-01

    Although Montessori education is often considered a form of playful learning, Maria Montessori herself spoke negatively about a major component of playful learning--pretend play, or fantasy--for young children. In this essay, the author discusses this apparent contradiction: how and why Montessori education includes elements of playful learning…

  3. Play Therapy in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landreth, Garry L.; Ray, Dee C.; Bratton, Sue C.

    2009-01-01

    Because the child's world is a world of action and activity, play therapy provides the psychologist in elementary-school settings with an opportunity to enter the child's world. In the play therapy relationship, toys are like the child's words and play is the child's language. Therefore, children play out their problems, experiences, concerns, and…

  4. Enhanced reality live role playing

    OpenAIRE

    Söderberg, Jonas; Waern, Annika; Åkesson, Karl-Petter; Björk, Staffan; Falk, Jennica

    2004-01-01

    Live role-playing is a form of improvisational theatre played for the experience of the performers and without an audience. These games form a challenging application domain for ubiquitous technology. We discuss the design options for enhanced reality live role-playing and the role of technology in live role-playing games.

  5. The Upside of Videogame Playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Linda A

    2012-12-01

    In our research on the relationship between videogame playing and cognitive outcomes we found that children (n=481, 12 year olds) who played videogames more were more creative than those who played them less. Here we summarize these findings and propose new research to identify mediating cognitive factors influenced by videogame playing.

  6. Participatory Simulation of Land-Use Changes in the Northern Mountains of Vietnam: the Combined Use of an Agent-Based Model, a Role-Playing Game, and a Geographic Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Castella

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In Vietnam, the remarkable economic growth that resulted from the doi moi (renovation reforms was based largely on the rural households that had become the new basic unit of agricultural production in the early 1990s. The technical, economic, and social changes that accompanied the decollectivization process transformed agricultural production, resource management, land use, and the institutions that defined access to resources and their distribution. Combined with the extreme biophysical, technical, and social heterogeneity encountered in the northern mountains, these rapid changes led to the extreme complexity of the agrarian dynamics that today challenges traditional diagnostic approaches. Since 1999, a participatory simulation method has been developed to disentangle the cause-and-effect relationships between the different driving forces and changes in land use observed at different scales. Several tools were combined to understand the interactions between human and natural systems, including a narrative conceptual model, an agent-based spatial computational model (ABM, a role-playing game, and a multiscale geographic information system (GIS. We synthesized into an ABM named SAMBA-GIS the knowledge generated from the above tools applied to a representative sample of research sites. The model takes explicitly into account the dynamic interactions among: (1 farmers' strategies, i.e., the individual decision-making process as a function of the farm's resource profile; (2 the institutions that define resource access and usage; and (3 changes in the biophysical and socioeconomic environment. The next step consisted of coupling the ABM with the GIS to extrapolate the application of local management rules to a whole landscape. Simulations are initialized using the layers of the GIS, e.g., land use in 1990, accessibility, soil characteristics, etc., and statistics available at the village level, e.g., population, ethnicity, livestock, etc. At each

  7. Play and playfulness in early childhood education and care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer E.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education. The elements of play are pleasure, a sense of freedom, and the co-construction of shared meaning through the use of rules or rhythms. Play and learning are closely related in early childhood. But when the focus on the educational benefits of play becomes too strong, the most essential feature of play is lost: children’s pleasure. Young children in group settings often have to adapt to the teachers’ demands related to security, hygiene, and social norms and values. But the playfulness of the teachers helps to overcome differences in power in the caregiver-child relationship and prevents young children from becoming overburdened with strict rules and group discipline. Play and playfulness are a resource of shared pleasure and creativity in learning processes.

  8. Teachers and Children Playing with Factorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    adventure game and a logic puzzle game. The game design was informed by the results obtained in a 1 year field study exploring and assessing techniques for transposing dynamic and complex domain-specific knowledge into games. Empirical results suggest that children may prefer different forms of play, mainly...... two were individuated: a competitive form of play, which was mapped into the 2D adventure game, and a designerly-creative play, which was mapped into a puzzle game (Valente and Marchetti 2011). This paper presents empirical results of a qualitative test, conducted with Danish primary school students......Teachers and children playing with factorization: putting Prime Slaughter to the test. Last year the prime slaughter game was designed and implemented, to enable primary and early secondary school students to play with prime numbers and factorization, within two different game contexts: a 2D...

  9. Puppet Visual Adaptation on Playing Cards as Educational Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Wiyoso

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at presenting an effective media in a form of puppet picture playing cards as a means to introduce traditional puppet to the society. Research and Development (R&D was chosen as the method to develop the playing cards. Results were presented in a form of the design of puppet picture playing cards as many as 54 cards as well as 54 puppet characters as the background pictures. The design of the playing cards is adjusted to the common playing cards which are distributed widely in the society, including both the sizes and symbols, like the pictures of spade, heart, diamond, and club. In detail, the design comprises: (1 the size of playing cards which is 6 cm width of the upper and lower sides and 9 cm length for the left and right sides. (2 The playing cards’ background is in a bright color so does the puppet picture on the card can be seen clearly.

  10. Ouroboros - Playing A Biochemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Rodrigues

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ouroboros: Playing A Biochemical RODRIGUES,D.T.1,2;GAYER, M.C.1,2; ESCOTO, D.F.1; DENARDIN, E.L.G.2, ROEHRS, R.1,2 1Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil 2Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil Introduction: Currently, teachers seek different alternatives to enhance the teaching-learning process. Innovative teaching methodologies are increasingly common tools in educational routine. The use of games, electronic or conventional, is an effective tool to assist in learning and also to raise the social interaction between students. Objective: In this sense our work aims to evaluate the card game and "Ouroboros" board as a teaching and learning tool in biochemistry for a graduating class in Natural Sciences. Materials and methods: The class gathered 22 students of BSc in Natural Sciences. Each letter contained a question across the board that was drawn to a group to answer within the allotted time. The questions related concepts of metabolism, organic and inorganic chemical reactions, bioenergetics, etc.. Before the game application, students underwent a pre-test with four issues involving the content that was being developed. Soon after, the game was applied. Then again questions were asked. Data analysis was performed from the ratio of the number of correct pre-test and post-test answers. Results and discussion: In the pre-test 18.1% of the students knew all issues, 18.1% got 3 correct answers, 40.9% answered only 2 questions correctly and 22.7% did not hit any. In post-test 45.4% answered all the questions right, 31.8% got 3 questions and 22.7% got 2 correct answers. The results show a significant improvement of the students about the field of content taught through the game. Conclusion: Generally, traditional approaches of chemistry and biochemistry are abstract and complex. Thus, through games

  11. Make and play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Having worked with transposition of domain knowledge in digital and card games, we propose a novel approach for enabling groups of primary school pupils to express their shared understanding of a topic; the group can represent their knowledge by creating a trading card game (with custom cards...... and rules) instead of using diagrammatical formalisms. A kit and a special design method have been devised to simplify the creation of card games, bringing the task in within the capabilities of pupils. The process of designing card games represents in itself a form of group reflection in action....... The resulting card games serve as boundary objects among learners and instructors (or other participating adults, in informal contexts). The games reify the group knowledge, making it tangible and playable: each of these games can be seen as a simulation or a presentation of knowledge, for the benefit of new...

  12. Jakob Kelemina on Shakespeare's plays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Jurak

    2007-12-01

    development of drama and theatre in Slovenia, particularly as regards pro­ ductions and early attempts oftranslating Shakespeare's plays into Slovene. This information,  which may be particularly  relevant for foreign readers, ends with the year 1922, when Kelemina's last writ­ing about Shakespeare's plays appeared. In 2007 we commemorate the one hundred and twenty-fifth anniversary of Kelemina's birth and fiftieth anniversary of his death, which is another reason why his work on Shakespeare should be finally researched and evaluated. This study should also help expand our knowledge about Jakob Kelemina's contribution regarding translations of Shakespeare's plays for the Slovene theatre and for Slovene culture generally.

  13. The effect of background music in auditory health persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbert, Sarah; Dijkstra, Arie

    2013-01-01

    In auditory health persuasion, threatening information regarding health is communicated by voice only. One relevant context of auditory persuasion is the addition of background music. There are different mechanisms through which background music might influence persuasion, for example through mood

  14. The Transfer of Learning from Play Practices to Game Play in Young Adult Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Josh E.; Ward, Phillip; Wallhead, Tristan L.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Physical educators and coaches face an ongoing problem of presenting fun and enjoyable practices that also provide efficient learning of technical and tactical sports skills. Effective instruction also promotes the transfer of learning from practice tasks to the real game. Play Practice (PP) describes a structure for teaching sports…

  15. Effect of combined teaching method (role playing and storytelling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of combined teaching method (role playing and storytelling) on creative ... Remember me ... Background and Purpose: Storytelling promotes imagination and satisfies curiosity in children and creates learning opportunities in them.

  16. The Power of Play: Fostering Creativity and Innovation in Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Ann Medaille; Will Kurt; Lisa Kurt

    2010-01-01

    Play is a powerful method of fostering creativity and innovation in organizations. As libraries confront a rapidly changing information landscape, the need for innovation in meeting user needs is paramount. Libraries can embrace organizational play as a means of stimulating employee creativity and developing innovative products and services. This article discusses the work-play dichotomy, the definition of play, and the Millennial generation’s attitude toward play. Several important character...

  17. Playing to Learn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda K. Schlosser

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to uncover teachers’ emerging beliefs and perceptions about developmentally oriented instruction as they participated in professional development workshops and applied the strategies learned with students in after-school clubs. Twenty experienced, urban teachers volunteered to attend monthly workshops where they engaged in math games, simulations, and problem-solving activities based on the Common Core and modeled by college faculty. Teachers used the activities to offer 90-min weekly math clubs for sixth-and seventh-grade students at their schools. Twelve pre-service teachers enrolled in a college course on adolescent development acted as volunteers at the clubs. Data were collected through (a questionnaires and rating scales, (b informal group interviews, and (c weekly electronic journals. Data collected revealed changes in teachers’ beliefs about and perceptions of effective instruction as they applied game-based activities in the after-school club settings. Eighty percent of the teachers reported high levels of student engagement and greater sustained interest in problem-solving, and connected their observations to beliefs about game-based learning as an effective and age-appropriate instructional strategy. Pre-service teacher volunteers reported similar observations: The majority of club members were actively engaged in solving complex problems during game-like activities, particularly when volunteers used scaffolding strategies to support students’ participation.

  18. Background noise levels in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Gjestland, Truls

    2008-01-01

    - This report gives a brief overview of typical background noise levels in Europe, and suggests a procedure for the prediction of background noise levels based on population density. A proposal for the production of background noise maps for Europe is included.

  19. Parental Involvement In Play Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlson, E. Lamonte

    1976-01-01

    Play therapy acts as a medium of expression for children. The purpose of this article is to outline a methodological approach as well as to emphasize the necessity of including the parent in the play therapy situation. (Author)

  20. Learning, Play, and Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning, Play, and Your Newborn KidsHealth / For Parents / Learning, ... Some Other Ideas Print What Is My Newborn Learning? Play is the chief way that infants learn ...

  1. Problematic game play: the diagnostic value of playing motives, passion, and playing time in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneer, Julia; Rieger, Diana

    2015-04-30

    Internet gaming disorder is currently listed in the DSM-not in order to diagnose such a disorder but to encourage research to investigate this phenomenon. Even whether it is still questionable if Internet Gaming Disorder exists and can be judged as a form of addiction, problematic game play is already very well researched to cause problems in daily life. Approaches trying to predict problematic tendencies in digital game play have mainly focused on playing time as a diagnostic criterion. However, motives to engage in digital game play and obsessive passion for game play have also been found to predict problematic game play but have not yet been investigated together. The present study aims at (1) analyzing if obsessive passion can be distinguished from problematic game play as separate concepts, and (2) testing motives of game play, passion, and playing time for their predictive values for problematic tendencies. We found (N = 99 males, Age: M = 22.80, SD = 3.81) that obsessive passion can be conceptually separated from problematic game play. In addition, the results suggest that compared to solely playing time immersion as playing motive and obsessive passion have added predictive value for problematic game play. The implications focus on broadening the criteria in order to diagnose problematic playing.

  2. Problematic Game Play: The Diagnostic Value of Playing Motives, Passion, and Playing Time in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kneer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Internet gaming disorder is currently listed in the DSM—not in order to diagnose such a disorder but to encourage research to investigate this phenomenon. Even whether it is still questionable if Internet Gaming Disorder exists and can be judged as a form of addiction, problematic game play is already very well researched to cause problems in daily life. Approaches trying to predict problematic tendencies in digital game play have mainly focused on playing time as a diagnostic criterion. However, motives to engage in digital game play and obsessive passion for game play have also been found to predict problematic game play but have not yet been investigated together. The present study aims at (1 analyzing if obsessive passion can be distinguished from problematic game play as separate concepts, and (2 testing motives of game play, passion, and playing time for their predictive values for problematic tendencies. We found (N = 99 males, Age: M = 22.80, SD = 3.81 that obsessive passion can be conceptually separated from problematic game play. In addition, the results suggest that compared to solely playing time immersion as playing motive and obsessive passion have added predictive value for problematic game play. The implications focus on broadening the criteria in order to diagnose problematic playing.

  3. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development. PMID:26062040

  4. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Bradstreet, Christa Costas; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-06-08

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3-12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N=9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N=17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N=1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: "Access to active play in nature and outdoors--with its risks--is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children's opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings--at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature." The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  5. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Tremblay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9 and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17, and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908. More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  6. Play Therapy: Basics and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottman, Terry

    This book provides an atheoretical orientation to basic concepts involved in play therapy and an introduction to different skills used in play therapy. The demand for mental professionals and school counselors who have training and expertise in using play as a therapeutic tool when working with children has increased tremendously. In response to…

  7. Play Therapy in School Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trice-Black, Shannon; Bailey, Carrie Lynn; Kiper Riechel, Morgan E.

    2013-01-01

    Play therapy is an empirically supported intervention used to address a number of developmental issues faced in childhood. Through the natural language of play, children and adolescents communicate feelings, thoughts, and experiences. Schools provide an ideal setting for play therapy in many ways; however, several challenges exist in implementing…

  8. Play Memories and Place Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Anette

    2003-01-01

    This retrospective study examined play memories from childhood to adulthood of 478 university students between ages 20 and 62 as exhibited in drawings of play memories and questionnaire responses. The study focused on the role of the physical environment and place identity in play memories and individual identity development. Findings showed that…

  9. Pretend Play and Creative Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Sandra W.; Wallace, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    The authors contend that many cognitive abilities and affective processes important in creativity also occur in pretend play and that pretend play in childhood affects the development of creativity in adulthood. They discuss a variety of theories and observations that attempt to explain the importance of pretend play to creativity. They argue that…

  10. Narrative Career Counselling for People with Refugee Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abkhezr, Peyman; McMahon, Mary

    2017-01-01

    For people with refugee backgrounds, pursuing a meaningful career in their country of resettlement is important for their successful integration. However, for many, achieving this is a challenging process. Career counsellors may have a role to play in facilitating the transition and integration of people with refugee backgrounds, and narrative…

  11. Background Music in Educational Games: Motivational Appeal and Cognitive Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linek, Stephanie B.; Marte, Birgit; Albert, Dietrich

    2011-01-01

    Most game-designers likely stick to the assumption that background music is a design feature for fostering fun and game play. From a psychological point of view, these (intuitive) aspects act upon the intrinsic motivation and the flow experience of players. However, from a pure cognitive perspective on instructional design, background music could…

  12. Racial background and possible relationships between physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research was to investigate possible relationships between physical activity and physical fitness of girls between the ages of 13 and 15 years and the role of different racial backgrounds in this relationship. A cross-sectional research design was used to obtain information from 290 girls between the ages of 13 ...

  13. 32 CFR 701.40 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC FOIA Fees § 701.40 Background. (a) The DON follows the uniform fee schedule... Freedom of Information Act Fee Schedule and Guidelines. (b) Fees reflect direct costs for search; review...

  14. BACKGROUNDER

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    demographic trends, socio-economic development pathways, and strong ... knowledge and experience, and encourage innovation. ... choices, and will work with stakeholders in government, business, civil society, and regional economic.

  15. Backgrounder

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Safe and Inclusive Cities: ... improving urban environments and public spaces might have on reducing the city's high ... violence against women among urban youth of working class neighbourhoods of Islamabad, Rawalpindi, and Karachi,.

  16. BACKGROUNDER

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    CARIAA's research agenda addresses gaps and priorities highlighted in the ... Research focuses on climate risk, institutional and regulatory frameworks, markets, and ... The researchers will identify relevant drivers and trends and use develop ...

  17. BACKGROUNDER

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    achieving long‐term food security in Africa, with a focus on post‐harvest loss, ... nutrion and health, and the socio‐economic factors that affect food supply ... Water use. Agricultural producvity in sub‐Saharan Africa is the lowest in the world.

  18. Diffuse Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli

    2002-01-01

    The diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) consists of the cumulative radiant energy released in the processes of structure formation that have occurred since the decoupling of matter and radiation following the Big Bang. In this lecture I will review the observational data that provided the first detections and limits on the CIB, and the theoretical studies explaining the origin of this background. Finally, I will also discuss the relevance of this background to the universe as seen in high energy gamma-rays.

  19. Background current of radioisotope manometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vydrik, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The technique for calculating the main component of the background current of radioisotopic monometers, current from direct collision of ionizing particles and a collector, is described. The reasons for appearance of background photoelectron current are clarified. The most effective way of eliminating background current components is collector protection from the source by a screen made of material with a high gamma-quanta absorption coefficient, such as lead, for example

  20. A reflection on using play to facilitate learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Martin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: At the South Eastern Sydney Local Health District Nursing and Midwifery Practice and Workforce Unit, we use the framework of CARE (a compound acronym of Capacity, cApability, collaboRation and culturE to inform all aspects of work. The principles of practice development (Manley et al., 2008 also inform our work, a major focus of which is the use of coaching, action learning sets and active learning techniques. The use of questions and questioning is key to these. These techniques are part of our person-centred approach to professional development and learning. This article describes my reflections, using Gibbs’ model (1988, on the development of a questioning tool aimed at enhancing learning through play. The tool is an origami ‘chatterbox’, which was originally developed as part of a ‘poster’ presentation at the 2014 International Practice Development Conference in Toronto. Aims and objectives: This article aims to share a critical reflection on developing and using the chatterbox and to describe how this experience led to deeper reflections on the role of play in adult learning. Conclusions and implications for practice: The chatterbox has provided a simple and effective tool for introducing, practising and reinforcing the use of enabling questions. Its development allowed the categorisation of enabling questions. Personal reflections undertaken as part of the development of the tool inspired me to explore the literature about the role of play in adult learning. It has implications for supporting the learning of people who are interested in using enabling questions, by increasing their skill and confidence.

  1. Active Play: Exploring the Influences on Children's School Playground Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, Brendon; Benson, Amanda; Telford, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Because children spend so much of their time in schools, their playgrounds offer a good setting for promoting active play in young lives. Teachers, instead of considering active play a taxing demand on their busy day, have begun to develop an informal curriculum for it. The authors review the research on children's active play and explores its…

  2. Background subtraction theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Elgammal, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Background subtraction is a widely used concept for detection of moving objects in videos. In the last two decades there has been a lot of development in designing algorithms for background subtraction, as well as wide use of these algorithms in various important applications, such as visual surveillance, sports video analysis, motion capture, etc. Various statistical approaches have been proposed to model scene backgrounds. The concept of background subtraction also has been extended to detect objects from videos captured from moving cameras. This book reviews the concept and practice of back

  3. FATHER PLAY: IS IT SPECIAL?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Natasha J; Roggman, Lori

    2017-11-01

    Both mothers and fathers play with their children, but research on parent-child play interactions is conducted with mothers three times more often than it is with fathers. The articles in this special issue address this gap by focusing on the nature and quality of father-child play, across cultural contexts, and considering whether father play offers something unique and special for early human development, in infancy or early childhood. The studies show that fathers can be just as developmentally supportive as are mothers in terms of being playful and engaged with their children in ways that are related to greater child socioemotional competence, emotion regulation, and vocabulary, and to less aggression, anxiety, and negativity. We encourage future research to examine the cultural influences, family system dynamics, and specificity of timing and types of father-child play in relation to children's developmental competence. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  4. George Smoot, Blackbody, and Anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Resources with Additional Information * Videos 'George Smoot anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation." '1 Smoot previously won the Ernest Orlando . Smoot, blackbody, and anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation is available in full

  5. Well Played: The Origins and Future of Playfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gwen

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author synthesizes research from several disciplines to shed light on play's central role in healthy development. Gordon builds on research in attachment theory that correlates secure attachment in infancy with adult well-being to demonstrate how playfulness might be a lifelong outcome of secure attachment and a primary…

  6. Playing with the Multiple Intelligences: How Play Helps Them Grow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Scott G.

    2011-01-01

    Howard Gardner first posited a list of "multiple intelligences" as a liberating alternative to the assumptions underlying traditional IQ testing in his widely read study "Frames of Mind" (1983). Play has appeared only in passing in Gardner's thinking about intelligence, however, even though play instructs and trains the verbal, interpersonal,…

  7. The Power of Outdoor Play and Play in Natural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemple, Kristen M.; Oh, JiHyun; Kenney, Elizabeth; Smith-Bonahue, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Young children's outdoor play serves important and diverse purposes, including physical exercise and opportunities for growth in all developmental areas. Unfortunately, the amount of time that children spend engaged in unstructured, child-directed outdoor play has diminished significantly in the past generation. In this article, the authors…

  8. Multispecies methods, technologies for play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ida Kathrine Hammeleff; Wirman, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses methodological considerations of user-centred design for non-human animals. These considerations are illustrated through a design research project that aims to apply digital technology to build games for orangutans’ enrichment. The article argues that design for other species......-human contributions in design. This method applies play as an interspecies co-creative act and can be used as a starting point for addressing questions of difference in play and designing games that allow for ambiguous play....

  9. Character Play – The use of game characters in multi- player Role Playing Games across platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, M.; Brolund, T.

    2008-01-01

    histories of game characters. This article presents results from a comprehensive empirical study of the way complex game characters are utilized by players in multiplayer role-playing games across two different media platforms. The results indicate that adult players are capable of comprehending...... and utilizing game characters with well-defined personalities and backgrounds, as well as rules-based components. Furthermore, that the game format plays a significant role in the pattern of usage of the character elements. This pattern appears directly linked with variations in the way that the different game...

  10. Facilitating play through communication: significance of teeth exposure in the gorilla play face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Bridget M; Cherry, Lyndsay

    2012-02-01

    Primate facial expressions (FEs) likely play an important role in primate society: through facial signals, individuals can potentially send and receive information and may benefit from coordinating their behavior accordingly. Many primates use a relaxed open mouth (ROM) facial display or “play face” (PF) during play behavior, where the mouth is open but teeth are covered. In addition to this conventional PF, however, Western Lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) also use a full PF where the upper teeth are exposed. As the teeth are similarly exposed in the bared-teeth expression (which is a signal of appeasement, submission and/or affiliation), the full PF may be a blend of the PF and bared-teeth face, and have a different signal function to the PF alone. Focal animal sampling of captive Western Lowland gorillas (N=10) showed that the full PF was more often observed in intense rather than gentle play, and intense play bouts that featured the full PF were longer than those that featured only the PF. Both expressions were associated with an increase in affinitive behavior between sender and receiver postplay, but only the full PF was associated with an increase higher than that of play alone. Overall, the findings suggest that the full PF has an additional role in coordinating and maintaining play, possibly though reducing uncertainty in the receiver and confirming that play is only play.

  11. Playing with a digital swing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Helle Marie

    2017-01-01

    Based on a field study in a kindergarten among children in Denmark, this paper explores playing activities on a digital swing, the SON-X Octavia (SON-X) and its Applause application. SON-X is an interactive sound unit that can be attached to any swing chain. Here, I explore the relationship between...... to highlight the features of swing play that children develop using the SON-X technology in terms of the danger-safety continuum. The feedback provided, it is found, enables children to independently manage risk and security within the limits of their playing activities; the digital swing supports play...

  12. Nosing Around: Play in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Horback

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The predominant method of measuring welfare in swine focuses on overt physical ailments, such as skin lesions, lameness, and body condition. An alternative metric for assessing welfare in swine can be to measure the frequency and duration of positive behavioral states, such as play. Given that play occurs only when an animal's primary needs (food, comfort, safety, etc. have been satisfied, it has been suggested that play may be a sensitive indicator for assessing the welfare of non-human animals. Play has primarily been described in young piglets and is assessed via the occurrence of specific play markers. These play markers include overt bursts of energy like scamper, or more subtle social behaviors like nose-to-body contact. This review describes four areas of play for swine: locomotor, object, sow-piglet, and, peer play. From sporadic leaping to combative wrestling, play behavior allows for the fine-tuning of reflexive behavior which can enhance physical development, enrich cognitive abilities, and facilitate the maintenance of social bonds.

  13. The Internet of Playful Things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyeth, Peta; Brereton, Margot; Roe, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This one-day workshop brings together researchers and practitioners to share knowledge and practices on how people can connect and interact with the Internet of Things in a playful way. Open to participants with a diverse range of interests and expertise, and by exploring novel ways to playfully...... will be a road map to support the development of a Model of Playful Connectedness, focusing on how best to design and make playful networks of things, identifying the challenges that need to be addressed in order to do so....

  14. Canonical differential geometry of string backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, Frederic P.; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R.

    2006-01-01

    String backgrounds and D-branes do not possess the structure of Lorentzian manifolds, but that of manifolds with area metric. Area metric geometry is a true generalization of metric geometry, which in particular may accommodate a B-field. While an area metric does not determine a connection, we identify the appropriate differential geometric structure which is of relevance for the minimal surface equation in such a generalized geometry. In particular the notion of a derivative action of areas on areas emerges naturally. Area metric geometry provides new tools in differential geometry, which promise to play a role in the description of gravitational dynamics on D-branes

  15. Conserved quantities in background independent theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markopoulou, Fotini [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 35 King Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2J 2W9 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2007-05-15

    We discuss the difficulties that background independent theories based on quantum geometry encounter in deriving general relativity as the low energy limit. We follow a geometrogenesis scenario of a phase transition from a pre-geometric theory to a geometric phase which suggests that a first step towards the low energy limit is searching for the effective collective excitations that will characterize it. Using the correspondence between the pre-geometric background independent theory and a quantum information processor, we are able to use the method of noiseless subsystems to extract such coherent collective excitations. We illustrate this in the case of locally evolving graphs.

  16. Natural background radiation and oncologic disease incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burenin, P.I.

    1982-01-01

    Cause and effect relationships between oncologic disease incidence in human population and environmental factors are examined using investigation materials of Soviet and foreign authors. The data concerning US white population are adduced. The role and contribution of natural background radiation oncologic disease prevalence have been determined with the help of system information analysis. The probable damage of oncologic disease is shown to decrease as the background radiation level diminishes. The linear nature of dose-response relationspip has been established. The necessity to include the life history of the studied population along with environmental factors in epidemiological study under conditions of multiplicity of cancerogenesis causes is emphasized

  17. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The determination of soil background is one of the most important activities supporting environmental restoration and waste management on the Hanford Site. Background compositions serve as the basis for identifying soil contamination, and also as a baseline in risk assessment processes used to determine soil cleanup and treatment levels. These uses of soil background require an understanding of the extent to which analytes of concern occur naturally in the soils. This report documents the results of sampling and analysis activities designed to characterize the composition of soil background at the Hanford Site, and to evaluate the feasibility for use as Sitewide background. The compositions of naturally occurring soils in the vadose Zone have been-determined for-nonradioactive inorganic and organic analytes and related physical properties. These results confirm that a Sitewide approach to the characterization of soil background is technically sound and is a viable alternative to the determination and use of numerous local or area backgrounds that yield inconsistent definitions of contamination. Sitewide soil background consists of several types of data and is appropriate for use in identifying contamination in all soils in the vadose zone on the Hanford Site. The natural concentrations of nearly every inorganic analyte extend to levels that exceed calculated health-based cleanup limits. The levels of most inorganic analytes, however, are well below these health-based limits. The highest measured background concentrations occur in three volumetrically minor soil types, the most important of which are topsoils adjacent to the Columbia River that are rich in organic carbon. No organic analyte levels above detection were found in any of the soil samples

  18. Effects of policy tools of the White Paper on Mobility. Reachability by car and public transport, traffic safety and living environment. Background information for the Dutch White Paper on Mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annema, J.A.; Van den Brink, R.; Hoen, A.; Geurs, K.; Van Beek, F.

    2005-11-01

    In the White Paper on Mobility ('Nota Mobiliteit'), the Dutch Ministry of Transport has presented the outline of its policy for improving traffic flows and journey time reliability. The new Dutch transport policy seeks to improve accessibility levels through the construction of new infrastructure, making better use of existing infrastructure, introducing a kilometre levy, and public transport improvements. In addition to the measures designed to achieve better transport connections, measures have been defined that have an impact on traffic safety and the environment. In this publication the impact of individual policy measures is described and explained, as well as the impact of these measures when combined in packages, and how they might contribute to meeting policy objectives. In this way the publication constitutes the background document for the 'Nota Mobiliteit' itself. [nl

  19. Backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labree, W.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Marle, H.J.C. van; Rassin, E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists. For this, the psychiatric, psychological, personal, and criminal backgrounds of all arsonists (n = 25), sentenced to forced treatment in the maximum security forensic hospital “De Kijvelanden”, were

  20. Measurement of natural background neutron

    CERN Document Server

    Li Jain, Ping; Tang Jin Hua; Tang, E S; Xie Yan Fong

    1982-01-01

    A high sensitive neutron monitor is described. It has an approximate counting rate of 20 cpm for natural background neutrons. The pulse amplitude resolution, sensitivity and direction dependence of the monitor were determined. This monitor has been used for natural background measurement in Beijing area. The yearly average dose is given and compared with the results of KEK and CERN.

  1. HCI Lessons From PlayStation VR

    OpenAIRE

    Habgood, Jacob; Wilson, David; Moore, David; Alapont, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    PlayStation VR has quickly built up a significant user-base of over a million headsets and its own ecosystem of games across a variety of genres. These games form part of a rapidly evolving testing ground for design solutions which can usefully inform HCI design for virtual reality. This paper reviews every PlayStation VR title released in the first three months of its lifecycle in order to identify emerging themes for locomotion. These themes are discussed with respect to the lessons learned...

  2. Direction Dependent Background Fitting for the Fermi GBM Data

    OpenAIRE

    Szécsi, Dorottya; Bagoly, Zsolt; Kóbori, József; Horváth, István; Balázs, Lajos G.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for determining the background of Fermi GBM GRBs using the satellite positional information and a physical model. Since the polynomial fitting method typically used for GRBs is generally only indicative of the background over relatively short timescales, this method is particularly useful in the cases of long GRBs or those which have Autonomous Repoint Request (ARR) and a background with much variability on short timescales. We give a Direction Dependent Background Fitting...

  3. Children's expression through play therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubomirović Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Play as a child's expression, is a skill through which children speaks to adults. Play therapy is a broad field of therapeutic intervention based on the play in order to help the child to cope with problems. Through play, children learn to communicate with others, to express their feelings. Through play they learn and can improve their cognitive, emotional and social capabilities. Play therapy is a nondirective technique focused on the child. It is not focused on the problem, at present even the past, but focused on the expression of the child feelings, accepting the child, rather than correction. The focus has been on the wisdom of a child, not on expertise therapists, guiding the child through play rather than instructing. The aim of play therapy is to encourage healthy growth and development, developing skills in problem solving, reduction of undesirable behavior, confidence building and the development of self-control. This method is effective for a wide range of children's problems, such as the state of stress, anxiety, problem behavior, hyperkinetic syndrome, depression, loss, trauma, the problem of bonding situations parents divorced, somatic disorders, autism spectrum disorders, social problems.

  4. Young Children and War Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson-Paige, Nancy; Levin, Diane E.

    1988-01-01

    In a recent survey of parents and early childhood professionals the prevalence of war play among children and an increase in the amount of violence in children's play was noted. Outlines how the deregulation of children's television during the Reagan administration has affected children's exposure to violence in children's television programming.…

  5. Solitary Play: Some Functional Reconsiderations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Nancy V.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Solitary play in six kindergarten children was observed and coded for frequency and type in order to resolve iscrepancies in a Sex Birth Order interaction. Several facts concerning solitary play as indicative of independence and maturity are noted. (Author/ED)

  6. Playful Interfaces : Introduction and History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Nijholt, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this short survey we have some historical notes about human-computer interface development with an emphasis on interface technology that has allowed us to design playful interactions with applications. The applications do not necessarily have to be entertainment applications. We can have playful

  7. Aluminum as a source of background in low background experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majorovits, B., E-mail: bela@mppmu.mpg.de [MPI fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [MPI fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany); Laubenstein, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, INFN, S.S.17/bis, km 18 plus 910, I-67100 Assergi (Italy); Volynets, O. [MPI fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)

    2011-08-11

    Neutrinoless double beta decay would be a key to understanding the nature of neutrino masses. The next generation of High Purity Germanium experiments will have to be operated with a background rate of better than 10{sup -5} counts/(kg y keV) in the region of interest around the Q-value of the decay. Therefore, so far irrelevant sources of background have to be considered. The metalization of the surface of germanium detectors is in general done with aluminum. The background from the decays of {sup 22}Na, {sup 26}Al, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Th introduced by this metalization is discussed. It is shown that only a special selection of aluminum can keep these background contributions acceptable.

  8. JEM-X background models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huovelin, J.; Maisala, S.; Schultz, J.

    2003-01-01

    Background and determination of its components for the JEM-X X-ray telescope on INTEGRAL are discussed. A part of the first background observations by JEM-X are analysed and results are compared to predictions. The observations are based on extensive imaging of background near the Crab Nebula...... on revolution 41 of INTEGRAL. Total observing time used for the analysis was 216 502 s, with the average of 25 cps of background for each of the two JEM-X telescopes. JEM-X1 showed slightly higher average background intensity than JEM-X2. The detectors were stable during the long exposures, and weak orbital...... background was enhanced in the central area of a detector, and it decreased radially towards the edge, with a clear vignetting effect for both JEM-X units. The instrument background was weakest in the central area of a detector and showed a steep increase at the very edges of both JEM-X detectors...

  9. Analysing playing using the note-time playing path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaff, Deborah L E; Schubert, Emery

    2011-03-01

    This article introduces a new method of data analysis that represents the playing of written music as a graph. The method, inspired by Miklaszewski, charts low-level note timings from a sound recording of a single-line instrument using high-precision audio-to-MIDI conversion software. Note onset times of pitch sequences are then plotted against the score-predicted timings to produce a Note-Time Playing Path (NTPP). The score-predicted onset time of each sequentially performed note (horizontal axis) unfolds in performed time down the page (vertical axis). NTPPs provide a visualisation that shows (1) tempo variations, (2) repetitive practice behaviours, (3) segmenting of material, (4) precise note time positions, and (5) time spent on playing or not playing. The NTPP can provide significant new insights into behaviour and cognition of music performance and may also be used to complement established traditional approaches such as think-alouds, interviews, and video coding.

  10. Playful biometrics: controversial technology through the lens of play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerbrok, Ariane

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the role of play in the context of technological emergence and expansion, particularly as it relates to recently emerging surveillance technologies. As a case study, I consider the trajectory of automated face recognition—a biometric technology of numerous applications, from its more controversial manifestations under the rubric of national security to a clearly emerging orientation toward play. This shift toward “playful” biometrics—or from a technology traditionally coded as “hard” to one now increasingly coded as “soft”—is critical insofar as it renders problematic the traditional modes of critique that have, up until this point, challenged the expansion of biometric systems into increasingly ubiquitous realms of everyday life. In response to this dynamic, I propose theorizing the expansion of face recognition specifically in relation to “play,” a step that allows us to broaden the critical space around newly emerging playful biometrics, as well as playful surveillance more generally. In addition, play may also have relevance for theorizing other forms of controversial technology, particularly given its potential role in processes of obfuscation, normalization, and marginalization.

  11. 浅谈信息化背景下体育网络资源有效利用%The effective use of cyber source of information under the background of sports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓

    2014-01-01

    如今,信息化的发展是非常迅速的。对于资源的运用,特别是对网络资源的运用,已经逐渐成为人们生活中最不可缺少的一部分。所以,运用网络资源提高教学质量,也被学校提到了日程上来,运用信息资源组成信息化的实验班级,这是最好的体现。在蓬勃发展的网络资源时代,如何正确的引导学生利用资源是最为重要的。对网络体育资源的有效利用,既能促进对体育运动员的教育,还能提高训练水平。%Nowadays,the development of information technology is very rapid. For the use of resources, especially the use of cyber source,has gradually become the most indispensable part of people's life. Therefore,use of cyber source to improve the quality of teaching,the school was also referred to the agenda,the experimental class using the information resources of information,this is the best embodiment. In the era of rapid development of cyber source, how to correctly guide the students to use the resource is the most important.Effective use of network sports resource,which can promote the sports education,but also improve the level of training.

  12. Stochastic backgrounds of gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggiore, M.

    2001-01-01

    We review the motivations for the search for stochastic backgrounds of gravitational waves and we compare the experimental sensitivities that can be reached in the near future with the existing bounds and with the theoretical predictions. (author)

  13. Berkeley Low Background Counting Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Sensitive low background assay detectors and sample analysis are available for non-destructive direct gamma-ray assay of samples. Neutron activation analysis is also...

  14. Spectral characterization of natural backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Max

    2017-10-01

    As the distribution and use of hyperspectral sensors is constantly increasing, the exploitation of spectral features is a threat for camouflaged objects. To improve camouflage materials at first the spectral behavior of backgrounds has to be known to adjust and optimize the spectral reflectance of camouflage materials. In an international effort, the NATO CSO working group SCI-295 "Development of Methods for Measurements and Evaluation of Natural Background EO Signatures" is developing a method how this characterization of backgrounds has to be done. It is obvious that the spectral characterization of a background will be quite an effort. To compare and exchange data internationally the measurements will have to be done in a similar way. To test and further improve this method an international field trial has been performed in Storkow, Germany. In the following we present first impressions and lessons learned from this field campaign and describe the data that has been measured.

  15. Playful mediation and virtual sociality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihem NAJJAR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a space of sociability, virtual games, especially online role playing games, allow us to capture the interest of the playfulness in social life, but they are means by which users are able to experiment their relationship to others. The virtual games as a mediation device, constitute a "pretext" to forge friendships, develop love relationships, improve language skills, discover other cultures, etc. Based on a sociological survey of Tunisian Internet users (both sexes fans of virtual games we try to show how playful mediation is producing a multifaceted virtual sociality inherent in our contemporary societies.

  16. Cosmic microwave background, where next?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    Ground-based, balloon-borne and space-based experiments will observe the Cosmic Microwave Background in greater details to address open questions about the origin and the evolution of the Universe. In particular, detailed observations the polarization pattern of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation have the potential to directly probe physics at the GUT scale and illuminate aspects of the physics of the very early Universe.

  17. Durability 2007. Injection grout investigations. Background description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orantie, K.; Kuosa, H.

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this project was to evaluate the durability risks of injection grouts. The investigations were done with respect to the application conditions, materials and service life requirements at the ONKALO underground research facility. The study encompassed injection grout mixtures made of ultrafine cement with and without silica fume. Some of the mixtures hade a low pH and thus a high silica fume content. The project includes a background description on durability literature, laboratory testing programme, detailed analysis of results and recommendations for selecting of ideal grout mixtures. The background description was made for the experimental study of low-pH and reference rock injection grouts as regards pore- and microstructure, strength, shrinkage/swelling and thus versatile durability properties. A summary of test methods is presented as well as examples, i.e. literature information or former test results, of expected range of results from the tests. Also background information about how the test results correlate to other material properties and mix designs is presented. Besides the report provides basic information on the pore structure of cement based materials. Also the correlation between the pore structure of cement based materials and permeability is shortly discussed. The test methods included in the background description are compressive strength, measurement of bulk drying, autogenous and chemical shrinkage and swelling, hydraulic conductivity / permeability, capillary water uptake test, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and thin section analysis. Three main mixtures with water-binder ratio of 0.8, 1.0 and 1.4 and silica fume content of 0, 15 and 40% were studied in the laboratory. Besides two extra mixtures were studied to provide additional information about the effect of varying water-dry-material ratio and silica fume content on durability. The evaluation of water tightness based on water permeability coefficient and micro cracking was

  18. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-12

    contributions from Germany , Japan, and Switzerland. For more information on the MFO, see http://www.mfo.org/Default.asp?bhcp=1. Egypt: Background and...2008 Report, Egypt’s pace of business reforms and deregulation between 2006 and 2007 ranked first worldwide. In recent years, the state has...reinvigorated its privatization program by divesting shares in the state-dominated banking and insurance sectors. Additionally, the government removed import

  19. A multiverse play divides opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2015-03-01

    The stage lights rise. A man and woman meet in a cute way - "Do you know why it's impossible to lick the tips of your elbows?" she asks - they chat momentarily, and separate. The play is Constellations by Nick Payne.

  20. Play the Blood Typing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nobel's Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire The Blood Typing Game What happens if you get a blood ... learn about human blood types! Play the Blood Typing Game 28 September 2017 The mission based game ...

  1. Free-to-Play -liiketoimintamalli

    OpenAIRE

    Tähtö, E. (Elias)

    2016-01-01

    Tiivistelmä Tutkielmani tarkoitus on tutustua erilaisiin pelejen sisäisiin mikrotransaktioihin sekä monetisaatioon. Peliteollisuuden tämän hetken suosituimpana pelimuotona on niin sanotut Free-To-Play -pelit, joiden liikevaihto perustuu täysin käyttäjien suorittamiin mikrotransaktioihin, joilla ostetaan erilaisia pelin sisäisiä hyödykkeitä. Free-to-play -malli on ansaintamallina vielä aika uusi, vaikkakin mikrotransaktioita...

  2. Detecting the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colacino, Carlo Nicola

    2017-12-01

    The stochastic gravitational-wave background (SGWB) is by far the most difficult source of gravitational radiation detect. At the same time, it is the most interesting and intriguing one. This book describes the initial detection of the SGWB and describes the underlying mathematics behind one of the most amazing discoveries of the 21st century. On the experimental side it would mean that interferometric gravitational wave detectors work even better than expected. On the observational side, such a detection could give us information about the very early Universe, information that could not be obtained otherwise. Even negative results and improved upper bounds could put constraints on many cosmological and particle physics models.

  3. Effects of Face and Background Color on Facial Expression Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuto Minami

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Detecting others’ emotional states from their faces is an essential component of successful social interaction. However, the ability to perceive emotional expressions is reported to be modulated by a number of factors. We have previously found that facial color modulates the judgment of facial expression, while another study has shown that background color plays a modulatory role. Therefore, in this study, we directly compared the effects of face and background color on facial expression judgment within a single experiment. Fear-to-anger morphed faces were presented in face and background color conditions. Our results showed that judgments of facial expressions was influenced by both face and background color. However, facial color effects were significantly greater than background color effects, although the color saturation of faces was lower compared to background colors. These results suggest that facial color is intimately related to the judgment of facial expression, over and above the influence of simple color.

  4. Finger Forces in Clarinet Playing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Hofmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Clarinettists close and open multiple tone holes to alter the pitch of the tones. Their fingering technique must be fast, precise, and coordinated with the tongue articulation. In this empirical study, finger force profiles and tongue techniques of clarinet students (N = 17 and professional clarinettists (N = 6 were investigated under controlled performance conditions. First, in an expressive-performance task, eight selected excerpts from the first Weber Concerto were performed. These excerpts were chosen to fit in a 2 x 2 x 2 design (register: low--high; tempo: slow--fast, dynamics: soft--loud. There was an additional condition controlled by the experimenter, which determined the expression levels (low--high of the performers. Second, a technical-exercise task, an isochronous 23-tone melody was designed that required different effectors to produce the sequence (finger-only, tongue-only, combined tongue-finger actions. The melody was performed in three tempo conditions (slow, medium, fast in a synchronization-continuation paradigm. Participants played on a sensor-equipped Viennese clarinet, which tracked finger forces and reed oscillations simultaneously. From the data, average finger force (Fmean and peak force (Fmax were calculated. The overall finger forces were low (Fmean = 1.17 N, Fmax = 3.05 N compared to those on other musical instruments (e.g. guitar. Participants applied the largest finger forces during the high expression level performance conditions (Fmean = 1.21 N.For the technical exercise task, timing and articulation information were extracted from the reed signal. Here, the timing precision of the fingers deteriorated the timing precision of the tongue for combined tongue-finger actions, especially for faster tempi. Although individual finger force profiles were overlapping, the group of professional players applied less finger force overall (Fmean = 0.54 N. Such sensor instruments provide useful insights into player

  5. Correlation Between Ability on Playing Tetris and GPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprilia Ratna Christanti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to determine the correlation between ability on playing Tetris and GPA of Soegijapranata Catholic University, Department of Information System students against the dexterity in playing Tetris. The research has been done using experiment method on ten Information System students who have various grade points. They played Tetris, 30 minutes each, for three consecutive days. The results showed that: First, eight out of the ten students improved their agility. It can be seen from the increasing scores and levels; Second, the coefficient correlation between student grade point and dexterity in playing Tetris is by 62%. Keywords Ability, grade point average, Tetris

  6. Neutron background estimates in GESA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The SIMPLE project looks for nuclear recoil events generated by rare dark matter scattering interactions. Nuclear recoils are also produced by more prevalent cosmogenic neutron interactions. While the rock overburden shields against (μ,n neutrons to below 10−8 cm−2 s−1, it itself contributes via radio-impurities. Additional shielding of these is similar, both suppressing and contributing neutrons. We report on the Monte Carlo (MCNP estimation of the on-detector neutron backgrounds for the SIMPLE experiment located in the GESA facility of the Laboratoire Souterrain à Bas Bruit, and its use in defining additional shielding for measurements which have led to a reduction in the extrinsic neutron background to ∼ 5 × 10−3 evts/kgd. The calculated event rate induced by the neutron background is ∼ 0,3 evts/kgd, with a dominant contribution from the detector container.

  7. LOFT gamma densitometer background fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimesey, R.A.; McCracken, R.T.

    1978-01-01

    Background gamma-ray fluxes were calculated at the location of the γ densitometers without integral shielding at both the hot-leg and cold-leg primary piping locations. The principal sources for background radiation at the γ densitometers are 16 N activity from the primary piping H 2 O and γ radiation from reactor internal sources. The background radiation was calculated by the point-kernel codes QAD-BSA and QAD-P5A. Reasonable assumptions were required to convert the response functions calculated by point-kernel procedures into the gamma-ray spectrum from reactor internal sources. A brief summary of point-kernel equations and theory is included

  8. A definition of background independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryb, Sean

    2010-01-01

    We propose a definition for background (in)/dependence in dynamical theories of the evolution of configurations that have a continuous symmetry and test this definition on particle models and on gravity. Our definition draws from Barbour's best matching framework developed for the purpose of implementing spatial and temporal relationalism. Among other interesting theories, general relativity can be derived within this framework in novel ways. We study the detailed canonical structure of a wide range of best matching theories and show that their actions must have a local gauge symmetry. When gauge theory is derived in this way, we obtain at the same time a conceptual framework for distinguishing between background-dependent and -independent theories. Gauge invariant observables satisfying Kuchar's criterion are identified and, in simple cases, explicitly computed. We propose a procedure for inserting a global background time into temporally relational theories. Interestingly, using this procedure in general relativity leads to unimodular gravity.

  9. Archetype and object: primary deintegration and primary love in analytical play therapy with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peery, J Craig

    2002-07-01

    Jungian and post-Jungian theory of the development of the child's psyche is reviewed. A discrimination between primary and secondary deintegration is suggested. Post-Freudian theory regarding primary object relations is integrated with the Jungian model. The two approaches can contribute synergistically to inform and advance play therapy with young children. Patients from widely diverse cultural backgrounds use their relationship with the therapist as a helpful person (object), and engage in archetypal material from the collective unconscious, to help them work on and through their unresolved emotional issues.

  10. Generative electronic background music system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurowski, Lukasz [Faculty of Computer Science, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Zolnierska Street 49, Szczecin, PL (Poland)

    2015-03-10

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions.

  11. Background metric in supergravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneya, T.

    1978-01-01

    In supergravity theories, we investigate the conformal anomaly of the path-integral determinant and the problem of fermion zero modes in the presence of a nontrivial background metric. Except in SO(3) -invariant supergravity, there are nonvanishing conformal anomalies. As a consequence, amplitudes around the nontrivial background metric contain unpredictable arbitrariness. The fermion zero modes which are explicitly constructed for the Euclidean Schwarzschild metric are interpreted as an indication of the supersymmetric multiplet structure of a black hole. The degree of degeneracy of a black hole is 2/sup 4n/ in SO(n) supergravity

  12. Background music and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Leslie A; Polzella, Donald J; Elvers, Greg C

    2010-06-01

    The present experiment employed standardized test batteries to assess the effects of fast-tempo music on cognitive performance among 56 male and female university students. A linguistic processing task and a spatial processing task were selected from the Criterion Task Set developed to assess verbal and nonverbal performance. Ten excerpts from Mozart's music matched for tempo were selected. Background music increased the speed of spatial processing and the accuracy of linguistic processing. The findings suggest that background music can have predictable effects on cognitive performance.

  13. Generative electronic background music system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurowski, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions

  14. Parent-Child Play across Cultures: Advancing Play Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L.; Davidson, Kimberly L.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue for a greater understanding of children's play across cultures through better integration of scientific thinking about the developed and developing societies, through consideration of socialization beliefs and goals, and, finally, through the use of more complex models in research investigations. They draw on…

  15. Why Play Outside? Problematising Outdoor Play as a Biopedagogical Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daniel B.; Barrett, Joe

    2017-01-01

    Although outdoor play has been widely recognised for the many benefits it affords children, some have rationalised the need for it based on goals related to physical health. More specifically, these instrumental goals have been closely related to obesity, overweight, and/or physical (in)activity. Adhering to obesity discourses and the notion of a…

  16. Motivations for Play in Computer Role-Playing Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    , but rather composed of multiple motivational drivers that are heavily interrelated and act in concert. Character uniqueness and Discovery & Immersion were the highest ranked motivational categories. Different levels of detail in motivations for playing single-/multi- Player RPGs were located...

  17. On detecting the playing/non-playing activity of musicians in symphonic music videos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazzica, A.; Liem, C.C.S.; Hanjalic, A.

    2016-01-01

    Information on whether a musician in a large symphonic orchestra plays her instrument at a given time stamp or not is valuable for a wide variety of applications aiming at mimicking and enriching the classical music concert experience on modern multimedia platforms. In this work, we propose a novel

  18. Children's Pastimes and Play in Sixteen Nations: Is Free-Play Declining?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Dorothy G.; Singer, Jerome L.; D'Agnostino, Heidi; DeLong, Raeka

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on a study of the role of play and experiential-learning activities beyond formal schooling in sixteen nations. The study, supported by Unilever PLC, gathered information from the mothers of twenty-four hundred children in countries in North America, South America, Africa, Europe, and Asia who described and rated their…

  19. Reclaiming lost ground – the history play in Zulu

    OpenAIRE

    H.C. Groenewald

    2004-01-01

    This article briefly sketches the history of African-language literatures as initiated by missionaries and formed by Bantu education. Against this background the aim of this article is to establish what the objectives of Zulu dramatists were when they presented historical fact, flawed history, as well as ideological sentiment in their historical plays. Are history plays in Zulu simply the products of writers whose objective was to meet a publisher’s requirements, namely to extend the dramatic...

  20. Modular robotics for playful physiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2009-01-01

    We developed modular robotic tiles to be used for playful physiotherapy, which is supposed to motivate patients to engage in and perform physical rehabilitation exercises. We tested the modular robotic tiles for an extensive period of time (3 years) in daily use in a hospital rehabilitation unit e.......g. for cardiac patients. Also, the tiles were tested for performing physical rehabilitation of stroke patients in their private home. In all pilot test cases qualitative feedback indicate that the patients find the playful use of modular robotic tiles engaging and motivating for them to perform...

  1. Rapport. Play and Learn Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Maria Neumann; Søgaard, Karoline

    Erfaringer og anbefalinger fra innovationsprojektet Play and Learn, hvor pædagoger har arbejdet med sprogstimulering af børn fra 3-9 år. Legende læring i daglige rutiner og pædagogiske aktiviteter har været fokuspunktet.......Erfaringer og anbefalinger fra innovationsprojektet Play and Learn, hvor pædagoger har arbejdet med sprogstimulering af børn fra 3-9 år. Legende læring i daglige rutiner og pædagogiske aktiviteter har været fokuspunktet....

  2. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garza, J G; Aune, S.; Aznar, F.

    2014-01-01

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micr...

  3. Teaching about Natural Background Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

    2013-01-01

    Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also…

  4. Educational Choice. A Background Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality Education for Minorities Network, Washington, DC.

    This paper addresses school choice, one proposal to address parental involvement concerns, focusing on historical background, definitions, rationale for advocating choice, implementation strategies, and implications for minorities and low-income families. In the past, transfer payment programs such as tuition tax credits and vouchers were…

  5. Kerr metric in cosmological background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidya, P C [Gujarat Univ., Ahmedabad (India). Dept. of Mathematics

    1977-06-01

    A metric satisfying Einstein's equation is given which in the vicinity of the source reduces to the well-known Kerr metric and which at large distances reduces to the Robertson-Walker metric of a nomogeneous cosmological model. The radius of the event horizon of the Kerr black hole in the cosmological background is found out.

  6. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Garza, J.G.; Aznar, F.; Calvet, D.; Castel, J.F.; Christensen, F.E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Decker, T.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galán, J.; García, J.A.; Giomataris, I.; Hill, R.M.; Iguaz, F.J.; Irastorza, I.G.; Jakobsen, A.C.; Jourde, D.; Mirallas, H.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M.J.; Ruz, J.; Tomás, A.; Vafeiadis, T.; Vogel, J.K.

    2015-11-16

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10$^{-6}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10$^{-7}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as ...

  7. The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, James; Battle, J.; Cooray, A.; Hristov, V.; Kawada, M.; Keating, B.; Lee, D.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Nam, U.; Renbarger, T.; Sullivan, I.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T.; Zemcov, M.

    2009-01-01

    We are developing the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment (CIBER) to search for signatures of first-light galaxy emission in the extragalactic background. The first generation of stars produce characteristic signatures in the near-infrared extragalactic background, including a redshifted Ly-cutoff feature and a characteristic fluctuation power spectrum, that may be detectable with a specialized instrument. CIBER consists of two wide-field cameras to measure the fluctuation power spectrum, and a low-resolution and a narrow-band spectrometer to measure the absolute background. The cameras will search for fluctuations on angular scales from 7 arcseconds to 2 degrees, where the first-light galaxy spatial power spectrum peaks. The cameras have the necessary combination of sensitivity, wide field of view, spatial resolution, and multiple bands to make a definitive measurement. CIBER will determine if the fluctuations reported by Spitzer arise from first-light galaxies. The cameras observe in a single wide field of view, eliminating systematic errors associated with mosaicing. Two bands are chosen to maximize the first-light signal contrast, at 1.6 um near the expected spectral maximum, and at 1.0 um; the combination is a powerful discriminant against fluctuations arising from local sources. We will observe regions of the sky surveyed by Spitzer and Akari. The low-resolution spectrometer will search for the redshifted Lyman cutoff feature in the 0.7 - 1.8 um spectral region. The narrow-band spectrometer will measure the absolute Zodiacal brightness using the scattered 854.2 nm Ca II Fraunhofer line. The spectrometers will test if reports of a diffuse extragalactic background in the 1 - 2 um band continues into the optical, or is caused by an under estimation of the Zodiacal foreground. We report performance of the assembled and tested instrument as we prepare for a first sounding rocket flight in early 2009. CIBER is funded by the NASA/APRA sub-orbital program.

  8. Combining rules, background knowledge and change patterns to maintain semantic annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Silvio Domingos; Chantal, Reynaud-Delaître; Da Silveira, Marcos; Pruski, Cédric

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS) play a key role in enriching biomedical information in order to make it machine-understandable and shareable. This is done by annotating medical documents, or more specifically, associating concept labels from KOS with pieces of digital information, e.g., images or texts. However, the dynamic nature of KOS may impact the annotations, thus creating a mismatch between the evolved concept and the associated information. To solve this problem, methods to maintain the quality of the annotations are required. In this paper, we define a framework based on rules, background knowledge and change patterns to drive the annotation adaption process. We evaluate experimentally the proposed approach in realistic cases-studies and demonstrate the overall performance of our approach in different KOS considering the precision, recall, F1-score and AUC value of the system.

  9. Child-Centered Play Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanFleet, Rise; Sywulak, Andrea E.; Sniscak, Cynthia Caparosa

    2010-01-01

    Highly practical, instructive, and authoritative, this book vividly describes how to conduct child-centered play therapy. The authors are master clinicians who explain core therapeutic principles and techniques, using rich case material to illustrate treatment of a wide range of difficulties. The focus is on nondirective interventions that allow…

  10. Moral Education through Play Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalle, Salwa; Zakaria, Gamal Abdul Nasir; Nawi, Aliff

    2014-01-01

    This paper will discuss on how sand therapy (as one type of play therapies) can be applied as an additional technique or approach in counseling. The research questions for this study are to see what are the development, challenges faced by the therapist during the sessions given and how sand therapy can aid to the progress of the client. It is a…

  11. Playing Videogames: The Electronic Friend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selnow, Gary W.

    1984-01-01

    Concluded that the children in this study (ages 10-14) played video games in arcades for some of the same reasons they watched television: (1) escape; (2) a sense of personal involvement in the action; and (3) a source of or substitute for companionship. (PD)

  12. Building Curriculum during Block Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Blocks are not just for play! In this article, Nicole Andrews describes observing the interactions of three young boys enthusiastically engaged in the kindergarten block center of their classroom, using blocks in a building project that displayed their ability to use critical thinking skills, physics exploration, and the development of language…

  13. Love Games that Insects Play

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 1. Love Games that Insects Play - The Evolution of Sexual Behaviours in Insects ... Author Affiliations. K N Ganeshaiah1. Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK Bangalore 560 065, India ...

  14. Teaching Shakespeare Through Play Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodder, Joseph H.

    1995-01-01

    A performance-oriented approach to teaching William Shakespeare's literature has been found to be effective and enthusiastically received by college students. Ten years of teaching Shakespeare through full play production has shown that the rewards, eloquently expressed in the testimony of students, more than compensate for extra work required of…

  15. Interpretive Reproduction in Children's Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, William A.

    2012-01-01

    The author looks at children's play from the perspective of interpretive reproduction, emphasizing the way children create their own unique peer cultures, which he defines as a set of routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children engage in with their playmates. The article focuses on two types of routines in the peer culture of preschool…

  16. Obama Plays Cheerleader for STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2010-01-01

    Amid a struggling economy, a raft of foreign-policy headaches, and the tail end of a heated campaign season, President Barack Obama carved out time in his schedule last month to watch students in the State Dining Room demonstrate a solar-powered model car, a water-purification system, and a soccer-playing robot. The science fair was the fifth…

  17. Playing to (self-)rehabilitate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoche, Hendrik; Hald, Kasper; Richter, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    We designed and evaluated a whack-a-mole (WAM) style game (see Figure 1) in a clinical randomized controlled trial (RCT) with reminder-assisted but self-initiated use over the period of a month with 43 participants from a post-lesion pool. While game play did not moderate rehabilitative progress...

  18. Playing with Protons CREATIONS Demonstrator

    CERN Multimedia

    Alexopoulos, Angelos

    2017-01-01

    This document describes Playing with Protons, a CMS education initiative that seeks to enhance teachers’ pedagogical practice with creative, hands-on methodologies through which 10-12 year old students can, in turn, get engaged effectively with science, technology and innovation.

  19. Play and Space - Towards a Formal Definition of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a formal definition of the aspect of play generally known as ‘make-believe’. ‘Make-believe’ is defined in relation to theory of place and Dasein’s being- in-the-world as presented by Martin Heidegger in Being and time. From this point of view ‘make-believe’ can...

  20. Spontaneous Radiation Background Calculation for LCLS

    CERN Document Server

    Reiche, Sven

    2004-01-01

    The intensity of undulator radiation, not amplified by the FEL interaction, can be larger than the maximum FEL signal in the case of an X-ray FEL. In the commissioning of a SASE FEL it is essential to extract an amplified signal early to diagnose eventual misalignment of undulator modules or errors in the undulator field strength. We developed a numerical code to calculate the radiation pattern at any position behind a multi-segmented undulator with arbitrary spacing and field profiles. The output can be run through numerical spatial and frequency filters to model the radiation beam transport and diagnostic. In this presentation we estimate the expected background signal for the FEL diagnostic and at what point along the undulator the FEL signal can be separated from the background. We also discusses how much information on the undulator field and alignment can be obtained from the incoherent radiation signal itself.

  1. Personal Storytelling and Narrative as a Means for Climate Scientists to Engage and Inform Public Audiences - Illustrated by the Play '2071 - The World We'll Leave Our Grandchildren' Comissioned by the Royal Court Theatre, London and the Deutsches Schauspielhaus, Hamburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapley, C. G.

    2015-12-01

    In order to engage greater public interest in science it is necessary to move beyond the traditional academic "information deficit" mode of communication, with its emphasis on the delivery and explantion of 'facts'. This is especially the case for topics such as climate science, which have the potential to provoke strong conscious or unconscious emotional and ideological audience reactions. The use of personalised narrative and storytelling offers a means to draw in non-experts in a way that overcomes barriers of disinterest or prejudice. The talk will address the role of climate scientists in communicating within the public square, and will use the play '2071 - The World We'll Leave Our Grandchildren" as an example of how theatre can provide an effective means of communicating complex and provocative knowledge and understanding. The play was commissioned by the Royal Court Theatre, London and the Deutshes Schauspielhaus, Hamburg. It received positive reviews and sold out at the London venue.

  2. Expert Search Strategies: The Information Retrieval Practices of Healthcare Information Professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Russell-Rose, Tony; Chamberlain, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Background Healthcare information professionals play a key role in closing the knowledge gap between medical research and clinical practice. Their work involves meticulous searching of literature databases using complex search strategies that can consist of hundreds of keywords, operators, and ontology terms. This process is prone to error and can lead to inefficiency and bias if performed incorrectly. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the search behavior of healthcare inform...

  3. Neutron- and muon-induced background in underground physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryavtsev, V.A.; Tomasello, V.; Pandola, L.

    2008-01-01

    Background induced by neutrons in deep underground laboratories is a critical issue for all experiments looking for rare events, such as dark matter interactions or neutrinoless ββ decay. Neutrons can be produced either by natural radioactivity, via spontaneous fission or (α, n) reactions, or by interactions initiated by high-energy cosmic rays. In all underground experiments, Monte Carlo simulations of neutron background play a crucial role for the evaluation of the total background rate and for the optimization of rejection strategies. The Monte Carlo methods that are commonly employed to evaluate neutron-induced background and to optimize the experimental setup, are reviewed and discussed. Focus is given to the issue of reliability of Monte Carlo background estimates. (orig.)

  4. Neutron- and muon-induced background in underground physics experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudryavtsev, V.A.; Tomasello, V. [University of Sheffield, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Pandola, L. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, INFN, Assergi (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    Background induced by neutrons in deep underground laboratories is a critical issue for all experiments looking for rare events, such as dark matter interactions or neutrinoless {beta}{beta} decay. Neutrons can be produced either by natural radioactivity, via spontaneous fission or ({alpha}, n) reactions, or by interactions initiated by high-energy cosmic rays. In all underground experiments, Monte Carlo simulations of neutron background play a crucial role for the evaluation of the total background rate and for the optimization of rejection strategies. The Monte Carlo methods that are commonly employed to evaluate neutron-induced background and to optimize the experimental setup, are reviewed and discussed. Focus is given to the issue of reliability of Monte Carlo background estimates. (orig.)

  5. The isotropic radio background revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Università di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I–10125 Torino (Italy); Lineros, Roberto A. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular – CSIC/U. Valencia, Parc Científic, calle Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, E-46980 Paterna (Spain); Taoso, Marco, E-mail: fornengo@to.infn.it, E-mail: rlineros@ific.uv.es, E-mail: regis@to.infn.it, E-mail: taoso@cea.fr [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cédex (France)

    2014-04-01

    We present an extensive analysis on the determination of the isotropic radio background. We consider six different radio maps, ranging from 22 MHz to 2.3 GHz and covering a large fraction of the sky. The large scale emission is modeled as a linear combination of an isotropic component plus the Galactic synchrotron radiation and thermal bremsstrahlung. Point-like and extended sources are either masked or accounted for by means of a template. We find a robust estimate of the isotropic radio background, with limited scatter among different Galactic models. The level of the isotropic background lies significantly above the contribution obtained by integrating the number counts of observed extragalactic sources. Since the isotropic component dominates at high latitudes, thus making the profile of the total emission flat, a Galactic origin for such excess appears unlikely. We conclude that, unless a systematic offset is present in the maps, and provided that our current understanding of the Galactic synchrotron emission is reasonable, extragalactic sources well below the current experimental threshold seem to account for the majority of the brightness of the extragalactic radio sky.

  6. The isotropic radio background revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco; Lineros, Roberto A.; Taoso, Marco

    2014-01-01

    We present an extensive analysis on the determination of the isotropic radio background. We consider six different radio maps, ranging from 22 MHz to 2.3 GHz and covering a large fraction of the sky. The large scale emission is modeled as a linear combination of an isotropic component plus the Galactic synchrotron radiation and thermal bremsstrahlung. Point-like and extended sources are either masked or accounted for by means of a template. We find a robust estimate of the isotropic radio background, with limited scatter among different Galactic models. The level of the isotropic background lies significantly above the contribution obtained by integrating the number counts of observed extragalactic sources. Since the isotropic component dominates at high latitudes, thus making the profile of the total emission flat, a Galactic origin for such excess appears unlikely. We conclude that, unless a systematic offset is present in the maps, and provided that our current understanding of the Galactic synchrotron emission is reasonable, extragalactic sources well below the current experimental threshold seem to account for the majority of the brightness of the extragalactic radio sky

  7. The Impact of Background Television on Parent-Child Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkorian, Heather L.; Pempek, Tiffany A.; Murphy, Lauren A.; Schmidt, Marie E.; Anderson, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that background television affects interactions between parents and very young children. Fifty-one 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children, each accompanied by 1 parent, were observed for 1 hr of free play in a laboratory space resembling a family room. For half of the hour, an adult-directed television program…

  8. Preliminary background prediction for the INTEGRAL x-ray monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feroci, M.; Costa, E.; Budtz-Joergensen, C.

    1996-01-01

    The JEM-X (joint European x-ray monitor) experiment will be flown onboard the ESA's INTEGRAL satellite. The instrumental background level of the two JEM-X twin detectors will depend on several parameters, among which the satellite orbit and mass distribution, and the detectors materials play...

  9. Spontaneous Play and Imagination in Everyday Science Classroom Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrée, Maria; Lager-Nyqvist, Lotta

    2013-01-01

    In science education, students sometimes create and engage in spontaneous science-oriented play where ideas about science and scientists are put to use. However, in previous research, little attention has been given to the role of informal spontaneous play in school science classrooms. We argue that, in order to enhance our understanding of…

  10. Innovations in Play Therapy: Issues, Process, and Special Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landreth, Garry L., Ed.

    This book is a compilation of discussions on current issues in play therapy. It is designed to help therapists fill in the gaps about working with special populations, which is often not directly addressed in other play therapy resources. The object of the book is to bring together information related to issues and dynamics of the process of this…

  11. A Historical Journey in Science Education through Role Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Smita

    2013-01-01

    In order to avoid a routine classroom environment, teachers often employ the use of role-plays. This is an effective strategy because it is essential for teachers to engage their students with information through various methods. Role-playing provides the children with the opportunity to incorporate multiple senses into a knowledge-based, fun…

  12. Playful Invention and Exploration. Final Evaluation Report: Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John; Mark; Carroll, Becky; Helms, Jen; Smith, Anita

    2008-01-01

    PIE (Playful Invention and Exploration) is a unique approach to learning that centers on the use of technology and design challenges to create powerful learning experiences in informal education settings. The Playful Invention and Exploration (PIE) Institute project was funded in 2005 by the National Science Foundation (NSF). Overall, 150…

  13. Cognitive-behavioral play therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knell, S M

    1998-03-01

    Discusses cognitive-behavioral play therapy (CBPT), a developmentally sensitive treatment for young children that relies on flexibility, decreased expectation for verbalizations by the child, and increased reliance on experiential approaches. The development of CBPT for preschool-age children provides a relatively unique adaptation of cognitive therapy as it was originally developed for adults. CBPT typically contains a modeling component through which adaptive coping skills are demonstrated. Through the use of play, cognitive change is communicated indirectly, and more adaptive behaviors can be introduced to the child. Modeling is tailored for use with many specific cognitive and behavioral interventions. Generalization and response prevention are important features of CBPT. With minor modifications, many of the principles of cognitive therapy, as delineated for use with adults, are applicable to young children. Case examples are presented to highlight the application of CBPT. Although CBPT has a sound therapeutic base and utilizes proven techniques, more rigorous empirical scrutiny is needed.

  14. Playful learning in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Toft-Nielsen, Claus; Whitton, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    in higher education through the metaphor of the ‘magic circle’. This approach stimulates intrinsic motivation and educational drive, creates safe spaces for academic experimentation and exploration, and promotes reflective risk-taking, ideation, and participation in education. We present a model of playful......Increased focus on quantifiable performance and assessment in higher education is creating a learning culture characterised by fear of failing, avoidance of risk, and extrinsic goal-oriented behaviours. In this article, we explore possibilities of a more playful approach to teaching and learning...... learning, drawing on notions of signature pedagogies, field literature, and two qualitative studies on learner conceptions of enjoyment and reasons for disengagement. We highlight the potential of this approach to invite a different mind-set and environment, providing a formative space in which failure...

  15. TeV Blazars and Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Aharonian, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    The recent developments in studies of TeV radiation from blazars are highlighted and the implications of these results for derivation of cosmologically important information about the cosmic infrared background radiation are discussed.

  16. How to play Reverse Hex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Bjarne; Hayward, Ryan B.; Henderson, Philip

    2012-01-01

    We present new results on how to play Reverse Hex, also known as Rex, or Misère Hex, on n × n boards. We give new proofs – and strengthened versions – of Lagarias and Sleator’s theorem (for n × n boards, each player can prolong the game until the board is full, so the first/second player can alwa...

  17. Science with Future Cosmic Microwave Background Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardis, P. de; Calvo, M.; Giordano, C.; Masi, S.; Nati, F.; Piacentini, F.; Schillaci, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    After the successful measurements of many ground based, balloon-borne and satellite experiments, which started the era of 'Precision Cosmology', Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations are now focusing on two targets: the precision measurement of B-modes in the polarization field, and the measurement of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect in distant clusters of galaxies. Polarization measurements represent the best way to probe the very early universe, and the energy scale of inflation. Fine-scale anisotropy measurements, possibly with spectral capabilities, can provide important information on dark matter and dark energy. Here we describe original approaches to these measurements.

  18. Science with Future Cosmic Microwave Background Observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardis, P. de; Calvo, M.; Giordano, C.; Masi, S.; Nati, F.; Piacentini, F.; Schillaci, A.

    2009-01-01

    After the successful measurements of many ground based, balloon-borne and satellite experiments, which started the era of 'Precision Cosmology', Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations are now focusing on two targets: the precision measurement of B-modes in the polarization field, and the measurement of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect in distant clusters of galaxies. Polarization measurements represent the best way to probe the very early universe, and the energy scale of inflation. Fine-scale anisotropy measurements, possibly with spectral capabilities, can provide important information on dark matter and dark energy. Here we describe original approaches to these measurements.

  19. Playing Moderately Hard to Get

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Reysen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In two studies, we examined the effect of different degrees of attraction reciprocation on ratings of attraction toward a potential romantic partner. Undergraduate college student participants imagined a potential romantic partner who reciprocated a low (reciprocating attraction one day a week, moderate (reciprocating attraction three days a week, high (reciprocating attraction five days a week, or unspecified degree of attraction (no mention of reciprocation. Participants then rated their degree of attraction toward the potential partner. The results of Study 1 provided only partial support for Brehm’s emotion intensity theory. However, after revising the high reciprocation condition vignette in Study 2, supporting Brehm’s emotion intensity theory, results show that a potential partners’ display of reciprocation of attraction acted as a deterrent to participants’ intensity of experienced attraction to the potential partner. The results support the notion that playing moderately hard to get elicits more intense feelings of attraction from potential suitors than playing too easy or too hard to get. Discussion of previous research examining playing hard to get is also re-examined through an emotion intensity theory theoretical lens.

  20. Player-Character Dynamics in Multi- Player Role Playing Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; McIlwain, D.; Brolund, T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive empirical study of the impact of integrating complex game characters in multi-player Role Playing Games across tabletop and digital formats. Players were provided with characters that had detailed background history, personality and goals. Player...

  1. [Free play and setting limits in inpatient psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriebel, A

    1993-01-01

    Some neglected issues of therapeutic technique in psychoanalytic inpatient therapy are reflected including their developmental and social psychological backgrounds (playing, power). Questions of dealing with an obligatory therapeutic frame supporting structural development are discussed with regard to team processes (rules of the ward).

  2. Group Play Interventions for Children: Strategies for Teaching Prosocial Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Group play interventions are used to meet a broad range of developmental needs in children from various backgrounds. This book is for mental health practitioners working with children aged 5 through 12 to help them learn important social skills and self-control strategies such as making friends, asking for and offering help, controlling hands and…

  3. Background Information Relating to Southeast Asia and Vietnam (Revised Edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-06-16

    jet weapons and armoured vehicles, is prohibited. (b) It is understood, however, that war material, arms and munitions which have been destroyed...12-year Communist subversive effort. Indonesia was less well prepared; it gained its independence too, with our support, but with scars that have

  4. US uranium mining industry: background information on economics and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, G.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Jackson, P.O.; Young, J.K.

    1984-03-01

    A review of the US uranium mining industry has revealed a generally depressed industry situation. The 1982 U 3 O 8 production from both open-pit and underground mines declined to 3800 and 6300 tons respectively with the underground portion representing 46% of total production. US exploration and development has continued downward in 1982. Employment in the mining and milling sectors has dropped 31% and 17% respectively in 1982. Representative forecasts were developed for reactor fuel demand and U 3 O 8 production for the years 1983 and 1990. Reactor fuel demand is estimated to increase from 15,900 tons to 21,300 tons U 3 O 8 respectively. U 3 O 8 production, however, is estimated to decrease from 10,600 tons to 9600 tons respectively. A field examination was conducted of 29 selected underground uranium mines that represent 84% of the 1982 underground production. Data was gathered regarding population, land ownership and private property valuation. An analysis of the increased cost to production resulting from the installation of 20-meter high exhaust borehole vent stacks was conducted. An assessment was made of the current and future 222 Rn emission levels for a group of 27 uranium mines. It is shown that 222 Rn emission rates are increasing from 10 individual operating mines through 1990 by 1.2 to 3.8 times. But for the group of 27 mines as a whole, a reduction of total 222 Rn emissions is predicted due to 17 of the mines being shutdown and sealed. The estimated total 222 Rn emission rate for this group of mines will be 105 Ci/yr by year end 1983 or 70% of the 1978-79 measured rate and 124 Ci/yr by year end 1990 or 83% of the 1978-79 measured rate

  5. US uranium mining industry: background information on economics and emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, G.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Jackson, P.O.; Young, J.K.

    1984-03-01

    A review of the US uranium mining industry has revealed a generally depressed industry situation. The 1982 U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production from both open-pit and underground mines declined to 3800 and 6300 tons respectively with the underground portion representing 46% of total production. US exploration and development has continued downward in 1982. Employment in the mining and milling sectors has dropped 31% and 17% respectively in 1982. Representative forecasts were developed for reactor fuel demand and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production for the years 1983 and 1990. Reactor fuel demand is estimated to increase from 15,900 tons to 21,300 tons U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ respectively. U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production, however, is estimated to decrease from 10,600 tons to 9600 tons respectively. A field examination was conducted of 29 selected underground uranium mines that represent 84% of the 1982 underground production. Data was gathered regarding population, land ownership and private property valuation. An analysis of the increased cost to production resulting from the installation of 20-meter high exhaust borehole vent stacks was conducted. An assessment was made of the current and future /sup 222/Rn emission levels for a group of 27 uranium mines. It is shown that /sup 222/Rn emission rates are increasing from 10 individual operating mines through 1990 by 1.2 to 3.8 times. But for the group of 27 mines as a whole, a reduction of total /sup 222/Rn emissions is predicted due to 17 of the mines being shutdown and sealed. The estimated total /sup 222/Rn emission rate for this group of mines will be 105 Ci/yr by year end 1983 or 70% of the 1978-79 measured rate and 124 Ci/yr by year end 1990 or 83% of the 1978-79 measured rate.

  6. Drug Use and Abuse: Background Information for Security Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Neurotoxicity of methamphetamine : Mechanisms of action and issues related to aging. In Miller, M. A., & Kozel, N. J., (Eds.), op. cit. 99. Cox et al...lives. This presents a dilemma for clearance adjudicators. If clearance standards are too lax, security may not be protected . If standards are too...strict, many well-adjusted, adventuresome, and creative employees may be screened out. Drug use may weaken judgment and affect ability to protect

  7. Background information on labelling of electricity 2011; Achtergrondgegevens Stroometikettering 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bles, M.; Wielders, M.L.

    2012-02-15

    Since 1 January 2005 it has been mandatory in the Netherlands to specify the source of electricity supplied to consumers and for 2011 CE Delft again determined the Dutch electricity mix. This mix consisted of power generated from natural gas (47%), some of which derived from cogeneration plant (32%), some from pure power stations (15%), coal (15%), nuclear (4%), renewables (31%) and other (2%). The environmental impacts expressed in terms of CO2 emissions and radioactive waste are 300 g CO2/KWh and 0.0001 g nuclear waste/KWh [Dutch] Sinds 1 januari 2005 is etikettering van de herkomst van elektriciteit verplicht in Nederland. CE Delft heeft de mix vastgesteld van de elektriciteit die in Nederland in 2011 geleverd is. De Nederlandse leveringsmix bestaat uit elektriciteit opgewekt uit aardgas (47%), waarvan een deel met WKK (32%) en een deel zonder (15%), kolen (15%), kernenergie (4%), hernieuwbare bronnen (31%) en overige (2%). De milieuconsequenties uitgedrukt in termen van CO2 en radioactief afval zijn respectievelijk 300 g CO2/KWh en 0,0001 g kernafval/KWh.

  8. Background information for Van Aken on testing of NESTT product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-18

    Debris from explosives testing in a shot tank that contains 4 weight percent or less of explosive is shown to be non-reactive under the specified testing protocol in the Code of Federal Regulations. This debris can then be regarded as a non-hazardous waste on the basis of reactivity, when collected and packaged in a specified manner. If it is contaminated with radioactive components (e.g. depleted uranium), it can therefore be disposed of as radioactive waste or mixed waste, as appropriate (note that debris may contain other materials that render it hazardous, such as beryllium). We also discuss potential waste generation issues in contained firing operations that are applicable to the planned new Contained Firing Facility (CFF).

  9. WIS Implementation Study Report. Volume 3. Background Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    Stanely A. 47 Kramer, Dr. John F. 49 Larsen, Dr. Robert E. 55 Luenberger, Prof. David G. 58 Magliato, Mr. Frank J. 61 McQuillan, Dr. John M. 62 Miller...Sapp, Mr. John W. 88 Shelley, Mr. Stephen H. 89 Shrier , Dr. Stefan 94 Slusarczuk, Dr. Marko M.G. 96 Smeaton, Mr. Roger 99 Sykes, Mr. Wendell G. 100

  10. Rotavirus in the Netherlands : Background information for the Health Council

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, J D M; Bruijning, P.C.; de Melker, Hester

    2017-01-01

    Rotavirus can cause a gastrointestinal infection and is common in young children. There are two vaccines available; both have to be administered via the mouth. The Dutch Health Council will advise the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport on how childhood vaccination against rotavirus will be made

  11. Family Background and Educational Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, James; D. Munk, Martin

    enrollments, especially for females. Not only did the educational opportunities for individuals with disadvantaged backgrounds improve absolutely, but their relative position also improved. A similarly dramatic increase in attendance at university for the period 1985-2005 was found for these cohorts when......We examine the participation in secondary and tertiary education of five cohorts of Danish males and females who were aged twenty starting in 1982 and ending in 2002. We find that the large expansion of secondary education in this period was characterized by a phenomenal increase in gymnasium...

  12. Playing Goffman's Information Game: A Classroom Activity Involving Student Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Charles Allan

    2017-01-01

    Goffman's dramaturgical approach is frequently used to introduce undergraduate students to the sociological understanding of human interaction. While a number of scholars have designed engaging student activities that highlight Goffman's approach, most of these activities tend to involve atypical embarrassing interactions or norm-breaking…

  13. Background subtraction system for pulsed neutron logging of earth boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzog, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    The invention provides a method for determining the characteristics of earth formations surrounding a well borehole comprising the steps of: repetitively irradiating the earth formations surrounding the well bore with relatively short duration pulses of high energy neutrons; detecting during each pulse of high energy neutrons, gamma radiation due to the inelastic scattering of neutrons by materials comprising the earth formations surrounding the borehole and providing information representative thereof; detecting immediately following each such pulse of high energy neutrons, background gamma radiation due to thermal neutron capture and providing information representative thereof; and correcting the inelastic gamma representative information to compensate for said background representative information

  14. Effects of Socio-Economic Background Factors on Typewriting Speed and Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Lawrence W.

    The socioeconomic backgrounds of typewriting students as such backgrounds affect typewriting performance is evaluated in this research. There is convincing evidence that socioeconomic factors play a significant role in affecting typewriting performance. Students from low socioeconomic backgrounds are almost always associated with the poorest…

  15. A model independent safeguard against background mismodeling for statistical inference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priel, Nadav; Landsman, Hagar; Manfredini, Alessandro; Budnik, Ranny [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Herzl St. 234, Rehovot (Israel); Rauch, Ludwig, E-mail: nadav.priel@weizmann.ac.il, E-mail: rauch@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: hagar.landsman@weizmann.ac.il, E-mail: alessandro.manfredini@weizmann.ac.il, E-mail: ran.budnik@weizmann.ac.il [Teilchen- und Astroteilchenphysik, Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-05-01

    We propose a safeguard procedure for statistical inference that provides universal protection against mismodeling of the background. The method quantifies and incorporates the signal-like residuals of the background model into the likelihood function, using information available in a calibration dataset. This prevents possible false discovery claims that may arise through unknown mismodeling, and corrects the bias in limit setting created by overestimated or underestimated background. We demonstrate how the method removes the bias created by an incomplete background model using three realistic case studies.

  16. The role of background music in the experience of watching YouTube videos about death and dying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Pentaris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available YouTube is the largest video sharing site live at the moment. It has been used to communicate a vast array of information, while it allows for user-generated content. This paper will focus on YouTube videos that communicate death, and in particular will present findings from a preliminary study undertaken by the authors considering the role that background music plays in these videos. Specifically, this study explores the experiences of the viewers of death-related YouTube videos with and without background music while it makes comparisons in relation to the impact that music has on the viewers’ emotional experiences. We conclude that background music elicits emotions and enhances feelings of sadness and sympathy in relation to the visual content of videos while recommendations for future research are made.

  17. Canadian Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Young Children's Gender-Role Play and Cultural Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servos, Jennifer E.; Dewar, Brandy A.; Bosacki, Sandra L.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates early childhood educators' perceptions of children's gender-role play and the impact their cultural background plays in their gender identity and play behaviors. Through qualitative in-depth interviews, early childhood educators in Canada (n = 40) were asked questions relating to their experiences with children from…

  18. [Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    One of the main areas of research is the theory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and analysis of CMB data. Using the four year COBE data we were able to improve existing constraints on global shear and vorticity. We found that, in the flat case (which allows for greatest anisotropy), (omega/H)0 less than 10(exp -7), where omega is the vorticity and H is the Hubble constant. This is two orders of magnitude lower than the tightest, previous constraint. We have defined a new set of statistics which quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity in small field cosmic microwave background maps. By looking at the distribution of power around rings in Fourier space, and at the correlations between adjacent rings, one can identify non-Gaussian features which are masked by large scale Gaussian fluctuations. This may be particularly useful for identifying unresolved localized sources and line-like discontinuities. Levin and collaborators devised a method to determine the global geometry of the universe through observations of patterns in the hot and cold spots of the CMB. We have derived properties of the peaks (maxima) of the CMB anisotropies expected in flat and open CDM models. We represent results for angular resolutions ranging from 5 arcmin to 20 arcmin (antenna FWHM), scales that are relevant for the MAP and COBRA/SAMBA space missions and the ground-based interferometer. Results related to galaxy formation and evolution are also discussed.

  19. The Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C. L.

    1994-12-01

    The properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation provide unique constraints on the history and evolution of the universe. The first detection of anisotropy of the microwave radiation was reported by the COBE Team in 1992, based on the first year of flight data. The latest analyses of the first two years of COBE data are reviewed in this talk, including the amplitude of the microwave anisotropy as a function of angular scale and the statistical nature of the fluctuations. The two-year results are generally consistent with the earlier first year results, but the additional data allow for a better determination of the key cosmological parameters. In this talk the COBE results are compared with other observational anisotropy results and directions for future cosmic microwave anisotropy observations will be discussed. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC) is responsible for the design, development, and operation of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE). Scientific guidance is provided by the COBE Science Working Group.

  20. Information Processing in Adolescents with Bipolar I Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Jane; Joormann, Jutta; Gotlib, Ian H.; Kelley, Ryan G.; Acquaye, Tenah; Howe, Meghan; Chang, Kiki D.; Singh, Manpreet K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cognitive models of bipolar I disorder (BD) may aid in identification of children who are especially vulnerable to chronic mood dysregulation. Information-processing biases related to memory and attention likely play a role in the development and persistence of BD among adolescents; however, these biases have not been extensively…

  1. Supervising the uncanny: the play within the play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leader, Carol

    2015-11-01

    The writer offers a combined experience in analysis and the performing arts to explore uncanny aspects of the unconscious subtext of the patient's inner drama; subtext which can remain hidden from view in supervision. Freud and Jung's understanding of uncanny experience is considered together with a painting from medieval alchemy and Matte Blanco's conceptions concerning the symmetrical nature of unconscious process. Theatre and the work of the theatre director and actor in approaching the multidimensional aspects of a play are then introduced. Finally clinical case material from group supervision demonstrates how the 'theatre of therapy' and the work of the supervisory couple and group promote the emergence of a more authentic conscious asymmetrical response to the patient's 'script' that can break the 'spell' of the transference/countertransference relationship. This in turn brings meaning to the underlying and implicit 'stage directions' that the patient has been unconsciously communicating. © 2015, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  2. Informed consent, parental awareness, and reasons for participating in a randomised controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Stuijvenberg (Margriet); M.H. Suur (Marja); S. de Vos (Sandra); G.C.H. Tjiang (Gilbert); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); G. Derksen-Lubsen (Gerarda); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The informed consent procedure plays a central role in randomised controlled trials but has only been explored in a few studies on children. AIM: To assess the quality of the informed consent process in a paediatric setting. METHODS: A

  3. Low background aspects of GERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simgen, Hardy

    2011-01-01

    The GERDA experiment operates bare Germanium diodes enriched in 76 Ge in an environment of pure liquid argon to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. A very low radioactive background is essential for the success of the experiment. We present here the research done in order to remove radio-impurities coming from the liquid argon, the stainless steel cryostat and the front-end electronics. We found that liquid argon can be purified efficiently from 222 Rn. The main source of 222 Rn in GERDA is the cryostat which emanates about 55 mBq. A thin copper shroud in the center of the cryostat was implemented to prevent radon from approaching the diodes. Gamma ray screening of radio-pure components for front-end electronics resulted in the development of a pre-amplifier with a total activity of less than 1 mBq 228 Th.

  4. The cosmic microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The history is described of the discovery of microwave radiation of the cosmic background using the 20-foot horn antenna at the Bell Laboratories back in 1965. Ruby masers with travelling wave were used, featuring the lowest noise in the world. The measurement proceeded on 7 cm. In measuring microwave radiation from the regions outside the Milky Way continuous noise was discovered whose temperature exceeded the calculated contributions of the individual detection system elements by 3 K. A comparison with the theory showed that relict radiation from the Big Bang period was the source of the noise. The discovery was verified by measurements on the 20.1 cm wavelength and by other authors' measurements on 0.5 mm to 74 cm, and by optical measurements of the interstellar molecule spectrum. (Ha)

  5. Polarization of Cosmic Microwave Background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzzelli, A; Cabella, P; De Gasperis, G; Vittorio, N

    2016-01-01

    In this work we present an extension of the ROMA map-making code for data analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background polarization, with particular attention given to the inflationary polarization B-modes. The new algorithm takes into account a possible cross- correlated noise component among the different detectors of a CMB experiment. We tested the code on the observational data of the BOOMERanG (2003) experiment and we show that we are provided with a better estimate of the power spectra, in particular the error bars of the BB spectrum are smaller up to 20% for low multipoles. We point out the general validity of the new method. A possible future application is the LSPE balloon experiment, devoted to the observation of polarization at large angular scales. (paper)

  6. Playful participation in social games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Knutz, Eva

    2018-01-01

    genres, notably serious games and health games. To further increase knowledge of social games we introduce a typology of playful participation in social games. The typology is build up by using formal concepts from theories of participatory art. Its range of application is then demonstrated through......In this paper we introduce social games as a new terrain for studies in participatory culture. Social games defy easy classification and cannot be appropriately understood from existing research perspectives. Initially, we therefore attempt to define social games by comparing it with related game...... an empirical analysis of eight social game prototypes that are designed as part of an on-going 3-year research project called Social Games against Crime. The purpose of this project is to develop socialgames that can help children build resilience towards many of the personal and social problems...

  7. Biomechanical aspects of playing surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, B M; Yeadon, M R

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss some biomechanical aspects of playing surfaces with special focus on (a) surface induced injuries, (b) methodologies used to assess surfaces and (c) findings from various sports. The paper concentrates primarily on questions related to load on the athlete's body. Data from epidemiological studies suggest strongly that the surface is an important factor in the aetiology of injuries. Injury frequencies are reported to be significantly different for different surfaces in several sports. The methodologies used to assess surfaces with respect to load or performance include material tests and tests using experimental subjects. There is only little correlation between the results of these two approaches. Material tests used in many standardized test procedures are not validated which suggests that one should exercise restraint in the interpretation of these results. Point elastic surfaces are widely studied while area elastic surfaces have received little attention to date. Questions of energy losses on sport surfaces have rarely been studied scientifically.

  8. Information Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Marchionini, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Information is essential to all human activity, and information in electronic form both amplifies and augments human information interactions. This lecture surveys some of the different classical meanings of information, focuses on the ways that electronic technologies are affecting how we think about these senses of information, and introduces an emerging sense of information that has implications for how we work, play, and interact with others. The evolutions of computers and electronic networks and people's uses and adaptations of these tools manifesting a dynamic space called cyberspace. O

  9. Chin force in violin playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    Force generated between the left mandible of violinists and the chinrest of the violin was examined using a force-sensing chinrest developed in this study. A strain-gauge force sensor was built, and it was fixed between the violin's top plate and a chin cup. Fifteen professional/amateur violinists held the violin statically, played musical scales with different sound properties and sounding techniques, as well as an excerpt from a Max Bruch concerto. Peak and mean forces were evaluated for each task. In a separate experiment, lateral movement of the lower teeth due to different levels of voluntary chin force exertion was measured. Static holding forces observed were 15 and 22 N with and without the help of the left hand, respectively. Peak force increased from 16 N at soft dynamics to 20 N at strong dynamics during scales. The force further increased to 29 N with the use of vibrato technique and 35 N during shifts. Tempo and hand position did not affect the force. Playing a Bruch concerto induced a mean peak force of 52 N, ranging from 31 to 82 N among the violinists. The developed force-sensing chinrest could accurately record the generated chin force. Typical chin force to stabilize the violin during ordinary musical performance was less than 30 N, but it could momentarily exceed 50 N when technically demanding musical pieces were performed. The lateral shift of the mandible was fairly small (<0.4 mm) even with high chin-force exertion, possibly due to clenching of the molars.

  10. Background radiation and childhood cancer mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakka, Masatoshi

    1979-01-01

    Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancer estimated an ''extra'' cancer risk of 572 per million man-rad of juvenile cancer deaths under 10 years of age. In Hiroshima and Nagasaki 36.9 juvenile cancers were expected out of 64,490 man-rad of exposed mothers. Observed cancer was, however, only one. The discrepancy was explained partly by possible overlapping of confidence intervals of two samples and partly by excessive doses received by exposed fetuses in Japan. If A-bomb radiation sterilized preleukemic cells induced in fetuses, it must also killed those cells in irradiated adults. Leukemogenic efficiency in adults, about 2.10 -5 per rad, is not different either in A-bomb survivors or in irradiated patients. We examined a dose-effect relationship in childhood cancer mortality (0 - 4 yrs) in Miyagi Prefecture Japan. Ninety two cancers were detected out of 1,214,157 children from 1968 to 1975. They were allocated to 8 districts with different background levels. Population at risk was calculated every year for every district. About 4 deaths occurred every 10,000 man-rad, which is comparable with 572 per million man-rad in Oxford Survey. One out of one thousand infants died from severe malformation in every year when they received 9.8 rad in embryonic stage, the doubling dose is estimated as 20 rad. Clinical and biological significance of the statistical data must be examined in future. Fetal death decreased significantly from 110/1,000 in 1962 to 55/1,000 in 1975. Background radiation plays no role in fetal death in Miyagi Prefecture. (author)

  11. Playing with knowledge and belief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiutek, V.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the development of Soft Dynamic Epistemic Logic (Soft DEL). Soft DEL has been introduced to deal with a number of informational phenomena, including belief revision. The work in this thesis extends the scope of Soft DEL to belief contraction, providing as such a framework

  12. The information paradox and the locality bound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, Steven B.; Lippert, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Hawking's argument for information loss in black hole evaporation rests on the assumption of independent Hilbert spaces for the interior and exterior of a black hole. We argue that such independence cannot be established without incorporating strong gravitational effects that undermine locality and invalidate the use of quantum field theory in a semiclassical background geometry. These considerations should also play a role in a deeper understanding of horizon complementarity

  13. Pretend Play and the Cultural Foundations of Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Maulfry; van Oers, Bert

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to uncover the emergence of cultural mathematical understandings and communications in young children's spontaneous pretend play. It is based on Vygotskian cultural-historical perspectives and social-semiotic theory, informed by research into "funds of knowledge" and considers how children's informal knowledge of…

  14. Plenoptic background oriented schlieren imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemkowsky, Jenna N; Fahringer, Timothy W; Clifford, Christopher J; Thurow, Brian S; Bathel, Brett F

    2017-01-01

    The combination of the background oriented schlieren (BOS) technique with the unique imaging capabilities of a plenoptic camera, termed plenoptic BOS, is introduced as a new addition to the family of schlieren techniques. Compared to conventional single camera BOS, plenoptic BOS is capable of sampling multiple lines-of-sight simultaneously. Displacements from each line-of-sight are collectively used to build a four-dimensional displacement field, which is a vector function structured similarly to the original light field captured in a raw plenoptic image. The displacement field is used to render focused BOS images, which qualitatively are narrow depth of field slices of the density gradient field. Unlike focused schlieren methods that require manually changing the focal plane during data collection, plenoptic BOS synthetically changes the focal plane position during post-processing, such that all focal planes are captured in a single snapshot. Through two different experiments, this work demonstrates that plenoptic BOS is capable of isolating narrow depth of field features, qualitatively inferring depth, and quantitatively estimating the location of disturbances in 3D space. Such results motivate future work to transition this single-camera technique towards quantitative reconstructions of 3D density fields. (paper)

  15. Concerning background from calorimeter ports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digiacomo, N.J.

    1985-01-01

    Any detector system viewing a port or slit in a calorimeter wall will see, in addition to the primary particles of interest, a background of charged and neutral particles and photons generated by scattering from the port walls and by leakage from incompletely contained primary particle showers in the calorimeter near the port. The signal to noise ratio attainable outside the port is a complex function of the primary source spectrum, the calorimeter and port design and, of course, the nature and acceptance of the detector system that views the port. Rather than making general statements about the overall suitability (or lack thereof) of calorimeter ports, we offer here a specific example based on the external spectrometer and slit of the NA34 experiment. This combination of slit and spectrometer is designed for fixed-target work, so that the primary particle momentum spectrum contains higher momentum particles than expected in a heavy ion colliding beam environment. The results are, nevertheless, quite relevant for the collider case

  16. Natural background radiation in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoud, M.N.S.

    1997-01-01

    An Airborne Gamma Ray survey has been accomplished for Jordan since 1979. A complete report has been submitted to the Natural Resources Authority along with field and processed data ''digital and analogue''. Natural radioelements concentration is not provided with this report. From the corrected count rate data for each natural radioelement, Concentrations and exposure rates at the ground level were calculated. Contoured maps, showing the exposure rates and the dose rates were created. Both maps reflect the surface geology of Jordan, where the Phosphate areas are very well delineated by high-level contours. In southeastern Jordan the Ordovician sandstone, which contain high percentage of Th (around 2000 ppm in some places) and a moderate percentage of U (about 300 ppm), also show high gamma radiation exposures compared with the surrounding areas. Comparing the values of the exposure rates given in (μR/h) to those obtained from other countries such as United States, Canada, Germany, etc. Jordan shows higher background radiation which reach two folds and even more than those in these countries. More detailed studies should be performed in order to evaluate the radiological risk limits on people who are living in areas of high radiation such that the area of the phosphatic belt which covers a vast area of Jordan high Plateau. (author)

  17. Natural background radiation in Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daoud, M N.S. [National Resources Authority, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Amman (Jordan)

    1997-11-01

    An Airborne Gamma Ray survey has been accomplished for Jordan since 1979. A complete report has been submitted to the Natural Resources Authority along with field and processed data ``digital and analogue``. Natural radioelements concentration is not provided with this report. From the corrected count rate data for each natural radioelement, Concentrations and exposure rates at the ground level were calculated. Contoured maps, showing the exposure rates and the dose rates were created. Both maps reflect the surface geology of Jordan, where the Phosphate areas are very well delineated by high-level contours. In southeastern Jordan the Ordovician sandstone, which contain high percentage of Th (around 2000 ppm in some places) and a moderate percentage of U (about 300 ppm), also show high gamma radiation exposures compared with the surrounding areas. Comparing the values of the exposure rates given in ({mu}R/h) to those obtained from other countries such as United States, Canada, Germany, etc. Jordan shows higher background radiation which reach two folds and even more than those in these countries. More detailed studies should be performed in order to evaluate the radiological risk limits on people who are living in areas of high radiation such that the area of the phosphatic belt which covers a vast area of Jordan high Plateau. (author). 8 refs, 10 figs, 7 tabs.

  18. Description of background data in the SKB database GEOTAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, E.; Sehlstedt, S.

    1989-02-01

    During the research and development program performed by SKB for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, a large quantity of geoscientific data was collected. Most of this data was stored in a database called GEOTAB. This report describes data within the background data group. This data provides information on the location of areas studied, borehole positions and also some drilling information. The background data group (subject), called BGR, is divided into several subgroups (methods): BGAREA area background data; BGDRILL drilling information; BGDRILLP drill penetration data; BGHOLE borehole information; BGTABLES number of rows in a table, and BGTOLR data table tolerance. A method consists of one or several data tables. In each chapter a method and its data tables are described. (orig./HP)

  19. Effects of placement point of background music on shopping website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chien-Jung; Chiang, Chia-Chi

    2012-01-01

    Consumer on-line behaviors are more important than ever due to highly growth of on-line shopping. The purposes of this study were to design placement methods of background music for shopping website and examine the effect on browsers' emotional and cognitive response. Three placement points of background music during the browsing, i.e. 2 min., 4 min., and 6 min. from the start of browsing were considered for entry points. Both browsing without music (no music) and browsing with constant music volume (full music) were treated as control groups. Participants' emotional state, approach-avoidance behavior intention, and action to adjust music volume were collected. Results showed that participants had a higher level of pleasure, arousal and approach behavior intention for the three placement points than for no music and full music. Most of the participants for full music (5/6) adjusted the background music. Only 16.7% (3/18) participants for other levels turn off the background music. The results indicate that playing background music after the start of browsing is benefit for on-line shopping atmosphere. It is inappropriate to place background music at the start of browsing shopping website. The marketer must manipulated placement methods of background music for a web store carefully.

  20. Toward a Neuroscientific Understanding of Play: A Dimensional Coding Framework for Analyzing Infant–Adult Play Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Neale

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Play during early life is a ubiquitous activity, and an individual’s propensity for play is positively related to cognitive development and emotional well-being. Play behavior (which may be solitary or shared with a social partner is diverse and multi-faceted. A challenge for current research is to converge on a common definition and measurement system for play – whether examined at a behavioral, cognitive or neurological level. Combining these different approaches in a multimodal analysis could yield significant advances in understanding the neurocognitive mechanisms of play, and provide the basis for developing biologically grounded play models. However, there is currently no integrated framework for conducting a multimodal analysis of play that spans brain, cognition and behavior. The proposed coding framework uses grounded and observable behaviors along three dimensions (sensorimotor, cognitive and socio-emotional, to compute inferences about playful behavior in a social context, and related social interactional states. Here, we illustrate the sensitivity and utility of the proposed coding framework using two contrasting dyadic corpora (N = 5 of mother-infant object-oriented interactions during experimental conditions that were either non-conducive (Condition 1 or conducive (Condition 2 to the emergence of playful behavior. We find that the framework accurately identifies the modal form of social interaction as being either non-playful (Condition 1 or playful (Condition 2, and further provides useful insights about differences in the quality of social interaction and temporal synchronicity within the dyad. It is intended that this fine-grained coding of play behavior will be easily assimilated with, and inform, future analysis of neural data that is also collected during adult–infant play. In conclusion, here, we present a novel framework for analyzing the continuous time-evolution of adult–infant play patterns, underpinned by

  1. Toward a Neuroscientific Understanding of Play: A Dimensional Coding Framework for Analyzing Infant-Adult Play Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Dave; Clackson, Kaili; Georgieva, Stanimira; Dedetas, Hatice; Scarpate, Melissa; Wass, Sam; Leong, Victoria

    2018-01-01

    Play during early life is a ubiquitous activity, and an individual's propensity for play is positively related to cognitive development and emotional well-being. Play behavior (which may be solitary or shared with a social partner) is diverse and multi-faceted. A challenge for current research is to converge on a common definition and measurement system for play - whether examined at a behavioral, cognitive or neurological level. Combining these different approaches in a multimodal analysis could yield significant advances in understanding the neurocognitive mechanisms of play, and provide the basis for developing biologically grounded play models. However, there is currently no integrated framework for conducting a multimodal analysis of play that spans brain, cognition and behavior. The proposed coding framework uses grounded and observable behaviors along three dimensions (sensorimotor, cognitive and socio-emotional), to compute inferences about playful behavior in a social context, and related social interactional states. Here, we illustrate the sensitivity and utility of the proposed coding framework using two contrasting dyadic corpora ( N = 5) of mother-infant object-oriented interactions during experimental conditions that were either non-conducive (Condition 1) or conducive (Condition 2) to the emergence of playful behavior. We find that the framework accurately identifies the modal form of social interaction as being either non-playful (Condition 1) or playful (Condition 2), and further provides useful insights about differences in the quality of social interaction and temporal synchronicity within the dyad. It is intended that this fine-grained coding of play behavior will be easily assimilated with, and inform, future analysis of neural data that is also collected during adult-infant play. In conclusion, here, we present a novel framework for analyzing the continuous time-evolution of adult-infant play patterns, underpinned by biologically informed

  2. Gas leak detection in infrared video with background modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaoxia; Huang, Likun

    2018-03-01

    Background modeling plays an important role in the task of gas detection based on infrared video. VIBE algorithm is a widely used background modeling algorithm in recent years. However, the processing speed of the VIBE algorithm sometimes cannot meet the requirements of some real time detection applications. Therefore, based on the traditional VIBE algorithm, we propose a fast prospect model and optimize the results by combining the connected domain algorithm and the nine-spaces algorithm in the following processing steps. Experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. The background is remapped across saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Oakyoon; Chong, Sang Chul

    2014-02-01

    Physiological studies have found that neurons prepare for impending eye movements, showing anticipatory responses to stimuli presented at the location of the post-saccadic receptive fields (RFs) (Wurtz in Vis Res 48:2070-2089, 2008). These studies proposed that visual neurons with shifting RFs prepared for the stimuli they would process after an impending saccade. Additionally, psychophysical studies have shown behavioral consequences of those anticipatory responses, including the transfer of aftereffects (Melcher in Nat Neurosci 10:903-907, 2007) and the remapping of attention (Rolfs et al. in Nat Neurosci 14:252-258, 2011). As the physiological studies proposed, the shifting RF mechanism explains the transfer of aftereffects. Recently, a new mechanism based on activation transfer via a saliency map was proposed, which accounted for the remapping of attention (Cavanagh et al. in Trends Cogn Sci 14:147-153, 2010). We hypothesized that there would be different aspects of the remapping corresponding to these different neural mechanisms. This study found that the information in the background was remapped to a similar extent as the figure, provided that the visual context remained stable. We manipulated the status of the figure and the ground in the saliency map and showed that the manipulation modulated the remapping of the figure and the ground in different ways. These results suggest that the visual system has an ability to remap the background as well as the figure, but lacks the ability to modulate the remapping of the background based on the visual context, and that different neural mechanisms might work together to maintain visual stability across saccades.

  4. Scientific background of the project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christofidis, I.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of the proposed project is the development of radioimmunometric assay(s) for the determination of free and total PSA in serum samples from normal and pathological individuals (BPH, PCa). This will be achieved by: A. Selection of appropriate antibody pairs (capture and labelled antibody) for determination of total PSA (free and complex) and for determination of free PSA. From bibliography we have already spotted some antibody pairs. B. Radiolabelling of antibodies. Several labelling and purification procedures will be followed in order to obtain the required analytical sensitivity and dynamic range of the assays. Special attention will be given to the affinity constant as well as to the stability of the radiolabelled molecules. C. Development of protocols for immobilisation of capture antibodies. We will use several solid support formats (plastic tubes, beads and magnetizable particles). Direct adsorption or covalent binding will be used. Immunoadsorption through immobilised second antibody will be also tested in order to decrease the preparation cost of the solid phase reagents. D. Preparation of standards of suitable purity levels. We will test different PSA-free matrices (Bovine serum, buffer solutions etc.) in order to select the most appropriate among them in terms of low background determination and low reagents cost. E. Optimisation of the immunoassays conditions for the free PSA and total PSA (e.g. assay buffers, incubation time, temperature, one or two step procedure, washings). F. Optimisation and standardisation of assay protocols for kit production. G. Production of kits for distribution in clinical laboratories in Greece for comparison with commercial kits. H. Evaluation of the developed assays in real clinical conditions using well characterised human serum samples. This will be performed in co-operation with the Hellenic Society for Tumor Markers, and other anticancer institutions and hospital clinicians of long standing relation

  5. Seductive play in digital games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ida Kathrine Hammeleff

    2015-01-01

    play. It is important here to point towards Baudrillard’s distinction between rules and the law. Rules are upheld by a pact between seducer and seduced or between player and game whereas the law relies on an idea of an end that can be transgressed. Rules on the other hand cannot be transgressed...... they can only be observed. If a player fails to observe the rules the pact between the player and the game is void and no game takes place (Baudrillard, 1990 [1979], p 140). This is in stark contrast to Sicart’s description of the rules of digital games as non-negotiable and ultimately upheld...... by the computer (Sicart, 2009, p. 27). This paper argues that this is exactly what distinguishes a game like I don't even game from more conventional digital games. I don't even game is completely empty of significance, and there are no non-negotiable rules governed by the system. As such the game only exists...

  6. Chameleon scalar fields in relativistic gravitational backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujikawa, Shinji; Tamaki, Takashi; Tavakol, Reza

    2009-01-01

    We study the field profile of a scalar field φ that couples to a matter fluid (dubbed a chameleon field) in the relativistic gravitational background of a spherically symmetric spacetime. Employing a linear expansion in terms of the gravitational potential Φ c at the surface of a compact object with a constant density, we derive the thin-shell field profile both inside and outside the object, as well as the resulting effective coupling with matter, analytically. We also carry out numerical simulations for the class of inverse power-law potentials V(φ) = M 4+n φ −n by employing the information provided by our analytical solutions to set the boundary conditions around the centre of the object and show that thin-shell solutions in fact exist if the gravitational potential Φ c is smaller than 0.3, which marginally covers the case of neutron stars. Thus the chameleon mechanism is present in the relativistic gravitational backgrounds, capable of reducing the effective coupling. Since thin-shell solutions are sensitive to the choice of boundary conditions, our analytic field profile is very helpful to provide appropriate boundary conditions for Φ c ∼< O(0.1)

  7. Chameleon scalar fields in relativistic gravitational backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujikawa, Shinji [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3, Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Tamaki, Takashi [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Okubo 3-4-1, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Tavakol, Reza, E-mail: shinji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp, E-mail: tamaki@gravity.phys.waseda.ac.jp, E-mail: r.tavakol@qmul.ac.uk [Astronomy Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-15

    We study the field profile of a scalar field {phi} that couples to a matter fluid (dubbed a chameleon field) in the relativistic gravitational background of a spherically symmetric spacetime. Employing a linear expansion in terms of the gravitational potential {Phi}{sub c} at the surface of a compact object with a constant density, we derive the thin-shell field profile both inside and outside the object, as well as the resulting effective coupling with matter, analytically. We also carry out numerical simulations for the class of inverse power-law potentials V({phi}) = M{sup 4+n}{phi}{sup -n} by employing the information provided by our analytical solutions to set the boundary conditions around the centre of the object and show that thin-shell solutions in fact exist if the gravitational potential {Phi}{sub c} is smaller than 0.3, which marginally covers the case of neutron stars. Thus the chameleon mechanism is present in the relativistic gravitational backgrounds, capable of reducing the effective coupling. Since thin-shell solutions are sensitive to the choice of boundary conditions, our analytic field profile is very helpful to provide appropriate boundary conditions for {Phi}{sub c}{approx}

  8. Bayesian Analysis of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    There is a wealth of cosmological information encoded in the spatial power spectrum of temperature anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background! Experiments designed to map the microwave sky are returning a flood of data (time streams of instrument response as a beam is swept over the sky) at several different frequencies (from 30 to 900 GHz), all with different resolutions and noise properties. The resulting analysis challenge is to estimate, and quantify our uncertainty in, the spatial power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background given the complexities of "missing data", foreground emission, and complicated instrumental noise. Bayesian formulation of this problem allows consistent treatment of many complexities including complicated instrumental noise and foregrounds, and can be numerically implemented with Gibbs sampling. Gibbs sampling has now been validated as an efficient, statistically exact, and practically useful method for low-resolution (as demonstrated on WMAP 1 and 3 year temperature and polarization data). Continuing development for Planck - the goal is to exploit the unique capabilities of Gibbs sampling to directly propagate uncertainties in both foreground and instrument models to total uncertainty in cosmological parameters.

  9. Portuguese Coaches' Perceptions of and Preferences for Knowledge Sources Related to their Professional Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Isabel; Isidro, Sofia; Rosado, António

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse Portuguese coaches' perceptions of, and preferences for, knowledge sources as related to professional background; namely academic education level, coach education level and coaching experience. The study's participants comprised 336 Portuguese coaches from twenty-two sports. A questionnaire was used to identify coaches' demographic characteristics and representations about their preferred sources of coaching knowledge. MANOVA using Tukey's HSD test was used to compare groups. The results highlighted that coaches perceived that coaching knowledge is built from a broad range of sources from personal coaching and playing experiences to more explicit formal, informal and non-formal learning situations. Results indicated that the coaches ascribed more importance to experiential sources such as working with experts, learning by doing, interacting with peer coaches and attending informal seminars and clinics, than to the formal learning situations provided by the national coaching certification programs. Differences, however, were found in that coaches who had a greater background within higher education (physical) and sport valued informal and non-formal learning sources more than did coaches who were defined as not coming from an academic background. The findings point to the importance of developing new learning, experientially-based, opportunities within the Portuguese context, where curricula content continues to be delivered via didactic means. Key pointsCoaches recognized that learning is obtained from a broad range of sources of coaching knowledge and each source has a particular role in the development of a coach.Experiential guided sources reached more importance to coaches as working with experts, learning by doing, attending seminars/clinics outside of the formal system and interaction with peers were the most acknowledged.The only source that is related to formal learning, national certification programs, was

  10. Anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background: Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodelson, S.

    1998-02-01

    Anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) contain a wealth of information about the past history of the universe and the present values of cosmological parameters. I online some of the theoretical advances of the last few years. In particular, I emphasize that for a wide class of cosmological models, theorists can accurately calculate the spectrum to better than a percent. The spectrum of anisotropies today is directly related to the pattern of inhomogeneities present at the time of recombination. This recognition leads to a powerful argument that will enable us to distinguish inflationary models from other models of structure formation. If the inflationary models turn out to be correct, the free parameters in these models will be determined to unprecedented accuracy by the upcoming satellite missions

  11. Energy futures project : backgrounder for consultation sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, A.

    2006-05-01

    The National Energy Board periodically publishes a long-term energy and demand report as part of an ongoing monitoring program. The next report is planned for release in 2007. This background document provided background information to ensure that consultation participants have a common understanding of key issues to be addressed during the cross-country consultations that have been planned before the release of the final version of the report. An outline of the proposed analytical approach was presented, as well as details of major assumptions and scenario storylines. Scenario themes included: economic, energy and environmental sustainability; a security-focused world shaped by war and civil strife; and strong global economic growth fueled by the rapid growth of the Chinese and Indian economies. A methodology overview was provided as well as a reference case. Issues related to energy supply included oil; natural gas liquids; natural gas; and electricity. Issues related to energy demand included the residential sector; the commercial sector; the industrial sector; and the transportation sector. Historical trends and forecasts were outlined using the macroeconomic variable of interest. Supply, demand, and supporting infrastructure across all energy forms within a North American and global context were considered. The impact of environmental management strategies were reviewed, as well as the role of the government in shaping policies. It was concluded that the purpose of the final report is to serve as a standard of references for parties interested in Canadian energy issues and trends as well as to inform decision makers of key risks and uncertainties facing the energy future.9 tabs., 1 fig

  12. Perceptual learning during action video game playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C Shawn; Li, Renjie; Bavelier, Daphne

    2010-04-01

    Action video games have been shown to enhance behavioral performance on a wide variety of perceptual tasks, from those that require effective allocation of attentional resources across the visual scene, to those that demand the successful identification of fleetingly presented stimuli. Importantly, these effects have not only been shown in expert action video game players, but a causative link has been established between action video game play and enhanced processing through training studies. Although an account based solely on attention fails to capture the variety of enhancements observed after action game playing, a number of models of perceptual learning are consistent with the observed results, with behavioral modeling favoring the hypothesis that avid video game players are better able to form templates for, or extract the relevant statistics of, the task at hand. This may suggest that the neural site of learning is in areas where information is integrated and actions are selected; yet changes in low-level sensory areas cannot be ruled out. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  13. Play and Social Interaction in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Doris; Fromberg, Doris Pronin

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses traditional and contemporary definitions of middle childhood play, the value of such play for children's development and learning, the implications of home, school, and societal practices that have resulted in changing the play scenario of middle childhood, and suggestions for assuring that play's value will be maintained…

  14. Active Gaming: The Future of Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, Lisa; Manning, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine technology-driven games--especially active gaming--as an evolving form of children's play. They offer an overview of play and its developmental benefits, describe the literature on the emergence of technology-driven play, and reflect on the diminishment of physical play in contemporary culture. They suggest that active gaming,…

  15. Play Therapy: Voice of a Silent Scream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh, Annuradha; H, Uma; Srinath, Shoba

    2010-01-01

    Play Therapy is based upon the fact that play is the child's natural medium of self-expression. It is an opportunity that is given to the child to "play out" his/her feelings and problems just as, in certain types of adult therapy, an individual "talks out" his difficulties. Children use play to express feelings and thoughts.…

  16. Play Therapy: Practice, Issues, and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homeyer, Linda E.; Morrison, Mary O.

    2008-01-01

    Play therapy is an effective means of responding to the mental health needs of young children and is widely accepted as a valuable and developmentally appropriate intervention. The authors discuss the importance of play in development, the therapeutic benefits of play, the rich history of play therapy, and recent research and current issues and…

  17. Pretend Play in the Early Childhood Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntire, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This article presents and summarizes recent resources related to pretend play in the early childhood classroom. These include "Contemporary Perspectives on Play in Early Childhood Education" by Olivia N. Sarachoe and Bernard Spodek; "Dramatic Play: Bring It Back" by Tammy Benson; and "The Importance of Being Playful" by Elena Bodrova and Deborah…

  18. Level playing field with political tact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onderstal, S.; Appelman, M.

    2004-01-01

    Businesses, interest groups and policy administrators plead for a level playing field. However, those administrators interpret the level playing field notion in different ways and thus create confusion. In this article the level playing field is explained and a framework discussed by means of which the government can study policy problems in which the level playing field is of importance [nl

  19. The development of early sociodramatic play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deunk, M.I.; Berenst, J.; de Glopper, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we study the beginnings of sociodramatic play. We examine the pretend play interactions of a Dutch girl, Peggy, and focus on her transition into sociodramatic play. Initially, Peggy interprets only some elements of her play interactions at the pretend level. At age 2;9, Peggy shows

  20. The differences in physical activity levels in preschool children during free play recess and structured play recess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L. Frank

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Physical activity (PA is important in reducing childhood obesity, yet a majority of children are not meeting PA guidelines. Schools have been identified as a place to promote childhood PA. The purpose of this study was to determine the best type of physically active recess period to increase preschool-aged children's PA. Methods: PA was measured via accelerometers in preschool-aged children (n = 29 during three, 30-min recess conditions (control; structured play; free play on separate school days. Tertile splits were performed based on PA during the free play condition and children were divided into three groups: highly, moderately and least active. Results: For the aggregated sample, children were more (p ≤ 0.001 active during the free play (1282 ± 662 counts. min−1 and structured play (1416 ± 448 counts. min−1 recess versus the control condition (570 ± 460 counts. min−1 and activity was not different between the free play and structured conditions. However, children who were the most active during free play (1970 ± 647 counts·min−1 decreased (p ≤ 0.05 activity during structured play (1462 ± 535 counts·min−1, whereas children who were moderately active (1031 ± 112 counts·min−1 or the least (530 ± 239 counts·min−1 active during free play increased activity during structured play (1383 ± 345 counts·min−1 moderately active, 1313 ± 413 counts·min−1 least active. Conclusion: Providing a physically-active recess period will contribute to preschool-aged children meeting the recommended PA guidelines; however, different children may respond in a different way based upon the structure of the recess period.

  1. Genetic background of supernumerary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasioglu, Asli; Savas, Selcuk; Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Kesim, Servet; Yagci, Ahmet; Dundar, Munis

    2015-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth (ST) are odontostomatologic anomaly characterized by as the existence excessive number of teeth in relation to the normal dental formula. This condition is commonly seen with several congenital genetic disorders such as Gardner's syndrome, cleidocranial dysostosis and cleft lip and palate. Less common syndromes that are associated with ST are; Fabry Disease, Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, Nance-Horan syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome and Trico-Rhino-Phalangeal syndrome. ST can be an important component of a distinctive disorder and an important clue for early diagnosis. Certainly early detecting the abnormalities gives us to make correct management of the patient and also it is important for making well-informed decisions about long-term medical care and treatment. In this review, the genetic syndromes that are related with ST were discussed.

  2. Experimental plug and play quantum coin flipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, Anna; Jouguet, Paul; Lawson, Thomas; Chailloux, André; Legré, Matthieu; Trinkler, Patrick; Kerenidis, Iordanis; Diamanti, Eleni

    2014-04-01

    Performing complex cryptographic tasks will be an essential element in future quantum communication networks. These tasks are based on a handful of fundamental primitives, such as coin flipping, where two distrustful parties wish to agree on a randomly generated bit. Although it is known that quantum versions of these primitives can offer information-theoretic security advantages with respect to classical protocols, a demonstration of such an advantage in a practical communication scenario has remained elusive. Here we experimentally implement a quantum coin flipping protocol that performs strictly better than classically possible over a distance suitable for communication over metropolitan area optical networks. The implementation is based on a practical plug and play system, developed by significantly enhancing a commercial quantum key distribution device. Moreover, we provide combined quantum coin flipping protocols that are almost perfectly secure against bounded adversaries. Our results offer a useful toolbox for future secure quantum communications.

  3. The Many Faces of Role-Playing Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitchens, Michael; Drachen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Role-playing games have grown and evolved into a large number of forms in the last thirty years, spanning digital as well as non-digital media. They demonstrate a wide variety in the number of participants, style of play and the formal and informal systems that govern them. Despite this diversity...... players at least seem to think they know when something is a role-playing game. Yet there is no commonly accepted definition which both captures games generally accepted as role-playing games and distinguishes them from other, similar, games which begs the question, whether roleplaying games are united...... by anything more than a colloquial name. Additionally, research involving these games is hampered by lack of a widely accepted definition of what constitutes a roleplaying game, as it is then not even possible to clearly delineate the subject of such research. In this paper various example of role-playing...

  4. Psychiatrists' Perceptions of Role-Playing Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Eric; Chiniara, Carl; Biskin, Robert; Montoro, Richard

    2015-09-01

    The literature has seen a surge in research on the mental health impacts of technologies such as Facebook, video games, and massively-multiplayer online role-playing games such as World of Warcraft, but little is known regarding the mental health impact of non-video role-playing games, such as Dungeons & Dragons. The present study examines how psychiatrists' perceive role-playing games and whether they play them. Psychiatrists at a tertiary care centre in Canada completed a questionnaire assessing history of playing role-playing games and whether they associate them with psychopathology. Forty-eight psychiatrists responded. Twenty-three percent have played a role-playing game over their lifetimes. Twenty-two percent believed there was an association between psychopathology and role-playing games. A majority of psychiatrists who responded do not associate role-playing games with psychopathology. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  5. Little AI: Playing a constructivist robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgeon, Olivier L.

    Little AI is a pedagogical game aimed at presenting the founding concepts of constructivist learning and developmental Artificial Intelligence. It primarily targets students in computer science and cognitive science but it can also interest the general public curious about these topics. It requires no particular scientific background; even children can find it entertaining. Professors can use it as a pedagogical resource in class or in online courses. The player presses buttons to control a simulated "baby robot". The player cannot see the robot and its environment, and initially ignores the effects of the commands. The only information received by the player is feedback from the player's commands. The player must learn, at the same time, the functioning of the robot's body and the structure of the environment from patterns in the stream of commands and feedback. We argue that this situation is analogous to how infants engage in early-stage developmental learning (e.g., Piaget (1937), [1]).

  6. Machine Induced Background with BCM1F 2015

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    BCM1F provides information on the condition of the beam and ensures that the inner detector occupancy is sufficiently low for data-taking. Measurements of the machine induced background for beam 1 (BKGD1) and beam 2 (BKGD2) are displayed in the CMS and LHC control room. The background data correlates the with collimator settings as well as with the vacuum pressure.

  7. Background elimination methods for multidimensional coincidence γ-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morhac, M.

    1997-01-01

    In the paper new methods to separate useful information from background in one, two, three and multidimensional spectra (histograms) measured in large multidetector γ-ray arrays are derived. The sensitive nonlinear peak clipping algorithm is the basis of the methods for estimation of the background in multidimensional spectra. The derived procedures are simple and therefore have a very low cost in terms of computing time. (orig.)

  8. Play as Freedom : Implications for ICT4D

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Information and Communication Tech nologies for Development (ICT4D) deals with understanding the relationship between modern technology use and social and economic development. While play may not appear as an immediate concern to the field, a recent body of work has emerged questioning the role of play in ICT4D and the reasons behind its apparent dismissal. Some have even argued that aspects of pleasure and enjoyment get only marginal treatment within academic studies of technology more gener...

  9. The role of background music in the experience of watching YouTube videos about death and dying

    OpenAIRE

    Panagiotis Pentaris; Maria Yerosimou

    2015-01-01

    YouTube is the largest video-sharing site live at the moment. It has been used to communicate a vast array of information, while it allows for user-generated content. This paper will focus on YouTube videos that communicate death, and, in particular, will present findings from a preliminary study undertaken by the authors considering the role that background music plays in these videos. Specifically, this study explores the experiences of the viewers of death-related YouTube videos with and w...

  10. Are medical treatments for individuals and groups like single-play and multiple-play gambles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. DeKay

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available People are often more likely to accept risky monetary gambles with positive expected values when the gambles will be played more than once. We investigated whether this distinction between single-play and multiple-play gambles extends to medical treatments for individual patients and groups of patients. Resident physicians and medical students (extit{n} = 69 and undergraduates (extit{n} = 99 ranked 9 different flu shots and a no-flu-shot option in 1 of 4 combinations of perspective (individual patient vs. group of 1000 patients and uncertainty frame (probability vs. frequency. The rank of the no-flu-shot option (a measure of preference for treatment vs. no treatment was not significantly related to perspective or participant population. The main effect of uncertainty frame and the interaction between perspective and uncertainty frame approached significance (0.1 {extgreater} extit{p} {extgreater} 0.05, with the no-flu-shot option faring particularly poorly (treatment faring particularly well when decisions about many patients were based on frequency information. Undergraduate participants believed that the no-flu-shot option would be less attractive (treatment would be more attractive in decisions about many patients, but these intuitions were inconsistent with the actual ranks. These results and those of other studies suggest that medical treatments for individuals and groups are not analogous to single-play and multiple-play monetary gambles, perhaps because many people are unwilling to aggregate treatment outcomes over patients in the same way that they would compute net gains or losses over monetary gambles.

  11. A probabilistic cell model in background corrected image sequences for single cell analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fieguth Paul

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methods of manual cell localization and outlining are so onerous that automated tracking methods would seem mandatory for handling huge image sequences, nevertheless manual tracking is, astonishingly, still widely practiced in areas such as cell biology which are outside the influence of most image processing research. The goal of our research is to address this gap by developing automated methods of cell tracking, localization, and segmentation. Since even an optimal frame-to-frame association method cannot compensate and recover from poor detection, it is clear that the quality of cell tracking depends on the quality of cell detection within each frame. Methods Cell detection performs poorly where the background is not uniform and includes temporal illumination variations, spatial non-uniformities, and stationary objects such as well boundaries (which confine the cells under study. To improve cell detection, the signal to noise ratio of the input image can be increased via accurate background estimation. In this paper we investigate background estimation, for the purpose of cell detection. We propose a cell model and a method for background estimation, driven by the proposed cell model, such that well structure can be identified, and explicitly rejected, when estimating the background. Results The resulting background-removed images have fewer artifacts and allow cells to be localized and detected more reliably. The experimental results generated by applying the proposed method to different Hematopoietic Stem Cell (HSC image sequences are quite promising. Conclusion The understanding of cell behavior relies on precise information about the temporal dynamics and spatial distribution of cells. Such information may play a key role in disease research and regenerative medicine, so automated methods for observation and measurement of cells from microscopic images are in high demand. The proposed method in this paper is capable

  12. Natural background radiation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasty, R.L.; Carson, J.M.; Charbonneau, B.W.; Holman, P.B.

    1984-01-01

    Published airborne gamma ray survey data from 33 areas of Canada were used to compile information on the average ground level exposure from natural radiation. The exposures at ground level were calculated from the surface concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium. The highest levels of radioactivity were found in northern Canada and were generally related to granitic rocks; the lowest levels with the Athabasca sandstone. Summer outdoor exposure rates have a population-weighted average of 3.7 +- 2.3 μR.h -1 , of which 48 percent orginated from potassium, 43 percent from the thorium series and 9 percent from the uranium series. This low level of radioactivity, compared to worldwide data, has resulted from erosion of a geologically old continental crust in which radioactivity decreases with depth. When seasonal variations of soil moisture and snow cover are considered, the annual population-weighted average outdoor exposure rate decreases to 2.8 +- 1.7 μR.h -1 corresponding to an annual outdoor dose-equivalent of 150 +- 90 μSV. Factors increasing the annual outdoor dose-equivalent are cosmic radiation (320 +- 30 μSV) and the internal radioactivity of the body (190 μSV). Using the ratio between indoor and outdoor values for worldwide published data, the average annual Canadian whole-body dose-equivalent from all sources of natural radiation is estimated to be 690 +-130 μSV

  13. Play Therapy: Facilitative Use of Child's Play in Elementary School Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landreth, Garry L.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews five major developments in play therapy: psychoanalysis, release therapy, relationship therapy, nondirective therapy, and play therapy in school settings. Suggests ways school counselors can use play therapy. Describes play therapy facilities, location selection, and play materials. Lists objectives of play therapy and how teachers can aid…

  14. Return to Play in Athletes Following Ankle Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Clanton, Thomas O.; Matheny, Lauren M.; Jarvis, Hannah C.; Jeronimus, Anastasia B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The decision to return to play following an ankle injury is a multifactorial process involving both physical and psychological parameters. The current body of literature lacks evidence-based guidelines to assist in the decision. Objective: This article reviews the evidence to support such testing: the dorsiflexion lunge test, star excursion balance test, agility T-test, and sargent/vertical jump test. The importance of psychological factors is also highlighted. Evidence Acquisitio...

  15. Maternal attitude and child interest in various play activities before and after mother-child play sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soedjatmiko Soedjatmiko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Play stimulates children’s growth and development. When mothers and their children play, a positive attitude from the mother and adequate interest from the child is required. Little is known about the play activities that effectively stimulate such positive maternal attitude and child interest. Objective To assess for associations between various play activities with maternal attitude and child interest before and after mother-child play sessions. Methods Pre-post intervention questionnaires were distributed to mothers before and after playing with their children. Children were aged 1-5 years, from two play sites (in Surabaya and Makassar, and included using purposive sampling. Eight types of toys/play activities were provided. The allocated time for answering the 17-question survey was 15 minutes. Average scores before and after the mother-child play sessions were analyzed using paired T-test. Results We collected 264 valid questionnaires, 235 in Surabaya and 29 in Makassar. Improvement of maternal attitude after the mother-child play session was found in 132 mothers [mean diff. 0.07 (SD 0.42; 95%CI -0.117 to -0.015; P=0.011]. Play activities with significant improvements in maternal attitude were jigsaw puzzle [mean diff. 0.09 (SD 0.66; 95% CI 0.007 to 0.167;P= 0.033, Lego blocks (mean diff.-0.10 (SD 0.69; 95%CI -0.186 to -0.018; P=0.017, mini-gardening (mean diff. -0.15 (SD 0.75; 95%CI -0.238 to -0.057; P=0.002, sandbox [mean diff.-0.24 (SD 0.83; 95%CI -0.339 to – 0.138; P < 0.001], fishing [mean diff. -0.17 (SD 0.68; 95%CI -0.253 to -0.088; P < 0.001], and animal figurines [mean diff. -0.21 (SD 0.75; 95%CI -0.3 to -0.117;P <0.001]. Improvement of child interest was found in 161 children [mean diff. 0.20 (SD 0.52; 95%CI -0.264 to -0.116; P<0.001]. Play activities with significant improvements in child interest were jigsaw puzzle, Lego blocks, origami, mini-gardening, fishing, and animal figurines. Conclusion Some mother

  16. INTERVALS OF ACTIVE PLAY AND BREAK IN BASKETBALL GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavle Rubin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the research comes from the need for decomposition of a basketball game. The aim was to determine the intervals of active game (“live ball” - term defined by rules and break (“dead ball” - term defined by rules, by analyzing basketball games. In order to obtain the relevant information, basketball games from five different competitions (top level of quality were analyzed. The sample consists of seven games played in the 2006/2007 season: NCAA Play - Off Final game, Adriatic League finals, ULEB Cup final game, Euroleague (2 games and the NBA league (2 games. The most important information gained by this research is that the average interval of active play lasts approximately 47 seconds, while the average break interval lasts approximately 57 seconds. This information is significant for coaches and should be used in planning the training process.

  17. Association of Playing High School Football With Cognition and Mental Health Later in Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sameer K; Hasegawa, Raiden B; Rabinowitz, Amanda R; Whyte, John; Roan, Carol L; Tabatabaei, Andrew; Baiocchi, Michael; Karlawish, Jason H; Master, Christina L; Small, Dylan S

    2017-08-01

    American football is the largest participation sport in US high schools and is a leading cause of concussion among adolescents. Little is known about the long-term cognitive and mental health consequences of exposure to football-related head trauma at the high school level. To estimate the association of playing high school football with cognitive impairment and depression at 65 years of age. A representative sample of male high school students who graduated from high school in Wisconsin in 1957 was studied. In this cohort study using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, football players were matched between March 1 and July 1, 2017, with controls along several baseline covariates such as adolescent IQ, family background, and educational level. For robustness, 3 versions of the control condition were considered: all controls, those who played a noncollision sport, and those who did not play any sport. Athletic participation in high school football. A composite cognition measure of verbal fluency and memory and attention constructed from results of cognitive assessments administered at 65 years of age. A modified Center for Epidemiological Studies' Depression Scale score was used to measure depression. Secondary outcomes include results of individual cognitive tests, anger, anxiety, hostility, and heavy use of alcohol. Among the 3904 men (mean [SD] age, 64.4 [0.8] years at time of primary outcome measurement) in the study, after matching and model-based covariate adjustment, compared with each control condition, there was no statistically significant harmful association of playing football with a reduced composite cognition score (-0.04 reduction in cognition vs all controls; 97.5% CI, -0.14 to 0.05) or an increased modified Center for Epidemiological Studies' Depression Scale depression score (-1.75 reduction vs all controls; 97.5% CI, -3.24 to -0.26). After adjustment for multiple testing, playing football did not have a significant adverse association with

  18. Role Playing for Improving Women’s Knowledge of Breast Cancer Screening and Performance of Breast Self-Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savabi-Esfahani, Mitra; Taleghani, Fariba; Noroozi, Mahnaz; Tabatabaeian, Maryam

    2017-09-27

    Background: To enhance knowledge and performance of screening as a strategy to control breast cancer, use of effective teaching methods is necessary. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of role-playing on knowledge of breast cancer screening and performance of breast self-examination (BSE). Methods: A quasi experimental design was used. Women enrolled in community cultural centers (n=314) were randomly divided into two educational groups: role playing (intervention) and lecture (control). Data were collected using a structured questionnaire before and after intervention. Reliability of the questionnaire was determined as 0.80 by Cronbach’s alpha. The women were followed up regarding performance of BSE one month later. Results: Of the 314 women, 113 (36%) and 132 (42%) had low and medium levels of knowledge, respectively. More than a third (38.2%) reported that TV and radio were the most important information sources for breast cancer and screening. There were significant differences between mean scores of knowledge before and after the intervention in both groups, but change was greater with role playing (31.3±1.9 as compared to 23.5±1.3) (P=0.001). After a month of educational intervention, 75.7% and 69.8% of those in role playing and control groups had undergone BSE. Conclusion: It appears that application of a role playing method by providers improves women’s knowledge and behavior with respect to breast cancer screening. Creative Commons Attribution License

  19. Informational Urbanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang G. Stock

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary and future cities are often labeled as "smart cities," "ubiquitous cities," "knowledge cities" and "creative cities." Informational urbanism includes all aspects of information and knowledge with regard to urban regions. "Informational city" is an umbrella term uniting the divergent trends of information-related city research. Informational urbanism is an interdisciplinary endeavor incorporating on the one side computer science and information science and on the other side urbanism, architecture, (city economics, and (city sociology. In our research project on informational cities, we visited more than 40 metropolises and smaller towns all over the world. In this paper, we sketch the theoretical background on a journey from Max Weber to the Internet of Things, introduce our research methods, and describe main results on characteristics of informational cities as prototypical cities of the emerging knowledge society.

  20. Climate Impacts on Northern Canada: Regional Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowse, Terry D.; Peters, Daniel L. (Water and Climate Impacts Research Centre, Environment Canada, Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada)). e-mail: terry.prowse@ec.gc.caa; Furgal, Chris (Indigenous Environmental Studies Program, Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada)); Bonsal, Barrie R. (National Water Research Inst., National Hydrology Research Centre, Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada))

    2009-07-15

    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 deg C in the south to as low as -20 deg C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be >700 mm y-1 in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y-1 over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  1. Happy Festivus! Parody as playful consumer resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkonen, Ilona; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    Drawing upon literary theory, play and consumer resistance literature, we conceptualize consumer parodic resistance – a resistant form of play that critically refunctions dominant consumption discourses and marketplace ideologies. We explore parodic resistance empirically by analyzing Festivus, a...

  2. Play the Immune System Defender Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questionnaire The Immune System Play the Immune System Game About the game Granulocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells are immune cells ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  3. Play Therapy: Role in Reading Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla

    1991-01-01

    Reviews the literature concerning the role of play therapy (particularly sandplay and nondirected play therapy) in the improvement of reading. Suggests that the role of play therapy is to support the child, encourage the child, and build self-esteem thus creating the optimal learning environment for reading improvement. (RS)

  4. Play under Siege: A Historical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigler, Edward F.; Bishop-Josef, Sandra J.

    2009-01-01

    In this updated version of their chapter from "Children's Play: The Roots of Reading" (published by ZERO TO THREE in 2004), the authors describe the recent attack on play, in both early childhood and elementary education. They provide a historical overview of the contentious relationship between play and cognitive development. The authors stress…

  5. Play as Education in the School Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Friedrich Froebel, an early advocate of the use of play in kindergarten teaching, argued that the ultimate goal of education was developing the creative person. According to Froebel, teachers could promote creativity through play by using gifts, occupations, and mother play songs. By contrast, Johann Herbart called for a subject centered…

  6. Creative interactive play for disabled children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti, Patrizia; Pollini, Alessandro; Rullo, Alessia

    2009-01-01

    tools as well as interactive collaborative environments may represent a unique opportunity for disable children to full engage in play and have fun. The Creative Interactive Play workshop presents a collection of innovative interactive technologies and case studies for inclusive play and discusses...... the challenges and opportunities they can bid to disabled children....

  7. Play Therapy in Political Theory: Machiavelli's Mandragola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, Timothy J.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests that having political science college students perform in class Machiavelli's play "Mandragola" is an excellent way to expand student's appreciation of Machiavelli. Article provides a synopsis of the play, discusses Machiavelli's intent, examines the meaning of the play, and presents classroom logistics. (RM)

  8. Gender Differences in Students' Mathematics Game Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrie, Tom; Jorgensen, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    The investigation monitored the digital game-playing behaviours of 428 primary-aged students (aged 10-12 years). Chi-square analysis revealed that boys tend to spend more time playing digital games than girls while boys and girls play quite different game genres. Subsequent analysis revealed statistically significant gender differences in terms of…

  9. Participatory Republics: Play and the Political

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose a critical reading of Sicart’s concept of political play, and we suggest an alternative framework that expands his work. We will apply Chantal Mouffe’s political theory to the core ideas in Play Matters, with the purpose of focusing and further developing the understanding...... of the political in the play activity....

  10. Return to Play and Future ACL Injury Risk Following ACL Reconstruction In Soccer Athletes From the MOON Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Robert H.; Schmitz, Leah; Wright, Rick W.; Dunn, Warren R.; Parker, Richard D.; Andrish, Jack T.; McCarty, Eric C.; Spindler, Kurt P.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited information on outcomes and return to play (RTP) after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) in soccer athletes. Hypothesis The purpose of this study was to (i) test the hypotheses that player sex, side of injury and graft choice do not influence RTP, and (ii) define the risk for future ACL injury in soccer players after ACLR. Study design Retrospective cohort study, Level II. Methods Soccer players in a prospective cohort were contacted to determine RTP following ACLR. Information regarding if and when they returned to play, their current playing status, the primary reason they stopped playing soccer (if relevant) and incidence of subsequent ACL surgery was recorded. Results Initially, 72% of 100 soccer athletes (55 male, 45 female) with a mean age of 24.2 years at the time of ACL reconstruction returned to soccer. At average follow up of 7.0 years, 36% were still playing, a significant decrease compared to initial RTP (psoccer athletes had undergone further ACL surgery, including 9 on the contralateral knee and 3 on the ipsilateral knee. In a univariate analysis, females were more likely to have future ACL surgery (20% v. 5.5%, p=0.03). Soccer athletes who underwent ACLR on their non-dominant limb had a higher future rate of contra-lateral ACLR (16%) than soccer athletes who underwent ACLR on their dominant limb (3.5%) (p=0.03). Conclusion Younger and male soccer players are more likely to return to play after ACL reconstruction. Return to soccer following ACLR declines over time. PMID:23002201

  11. Process-Based Information Systems Development: Taking Advantage of a Component-Based Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira José Luís

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Owing to the highly competitive business environment in which contemporary organizations have to operate, a quick and effective way of developing and maintaining information systems is of utmost importance to their success. Obviously, the computerized information systems that support the everyday operations and management of organizations play a critical role in their competitiveness. For that reason, nowadays, more than ever, information systems have to be quickly developed, rapidly reconfigured, and easily maintained.

  12. Environmental determinants of outdoor play in children : A large-scale cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.J.; Wendel-Vos, W.; van Oers, J.A.M.; van de Goor, L.A.M.; Schuit, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Outdoor play is a cheap and natural way for children to be physically active. Purpose: This study aims to identify physical as well as social correlates of outdoor play in the home and neighborhood environment among children of different age groups. Methods: Cross-sectional data were

  13. Outdoor play among children in relation to neighborhood characteristics : A cross-sectional neighborhood observation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.J.; de Vries, Sanne I; van Oers, J.A.M.; Schuit, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although environmental characteristics as perceived by parents are known to be related to children's outdoor play behavior, less is known about the relation between independently measured neighborhood characteristics and outdoor play among children. The purpose of this study was to

  14. Outdoor play among children in reletion to neighborhood characteristics. A cross-sectional neighborhood observation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.J.; de Vries, S.I.; van Oers, J.A.M.; Schuit, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although environmental characteristics as perceived by parents are known to be related to children's outdoor play behavior, less is known about the relation between independently measured neighborhood characteristics and outdoor play among children. The purpose of this study was to

  15. Return to Play Guidelines Cannot Solve the Football-Related Concussion Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. Syd M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: High school football players are the single largest cohort of athletes playing tackle football, and account for the majority of sport-related concussions. Return to play guidelines (RTPs) have emerged as the preferred approach for addressing the problem of sport-related concussion in youth athletes. Methods: This article reviews…

  16. Allocation of Playing Time within Team Sports--A Problem for Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentzen, Torbjørn

    2017-01-01

    The background of the article is the recurrent discussion about allocation of playing time in team sports involving children and young athletes. The objective is to analyse "why" playing time is a topic for discussion among parents, coaches and athletes. The following question is addressed: Under which condition is it "fair" to…

  17. Being Social: Integrating Social Media into Public Information Support to Emergency Response #smem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    on Android Market” [mobile app ], Play Google. November 6, 2012, https://market.android.com/details?id=org.tema.readytn (accessed February 15, 2013...ready.ga.gov/mobileapp. Accessed February 16, 2012. “Ready TN— Apps on Android Market.” Play Google. November 6, 2012. https://market.android.com...moderating social media sites, expert technical advice and trouble -shooting will be necessary from someone with an information technology background. • Do

  18. Communities of Play - a collective unfolding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsted, Ann Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of play in organizations and its ability to create a community of play regarded as a group of people deeply engaged in play. The elaboration is based on an empirical study of adults playing in the Danish international toy company LEGO. The study confirms that play can...... support organizations in solving present day challenges, such as learning, communication, innovation and collaboration. But before talking about solving anything, this paper argues – primarily through the perspective of Gadamer – that it is equally intriguing to look into what play as a universal life....... By introducing the new term ‘community of play’ into the discussion of play among adults in organizational contexts, the paper tries to spark an existential inquiry into the more intangible and human aspects of organizations....

  19. Correlates of video games playing among adolescents in an Islamic country

    OpenAIRE

    Allahverdipour, Hamid; Bazargan, Mohsen; Farhadinasab, Abdollah; Moeini, Babak

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background No study has ever explored the prevalence and correlates of video game playing among children in the Islamic Republic of Iran. This study describes patterns and correlates of excessive video game use in a random sample of middle-school students in Iran. Specifically, we examine the relationship between video game playing and psychological well-being, aggressive behaviors, and adolescents' perceived threat of video-computer game playing. Methods This cross-sectional study w...

  20. Retrieval of reflections from seismic background?noise measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draganov, D.S.; Wapenaar, K.; Mulder, W.; Singer, J.; Verdel, A.

    2007-01-01

    The retrieval of the earth's reflection response from cross?correlations of seismic noise recordings can provide valuable information, which may otherwise not be available due to limited spatial distribution of seismic sources. We cross?correlated ten hours of seismic background?noise data acquired