WorldWideScience

Sample records for play art imitation

  1. Art Imitating Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Brook

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Using as a contextual reference my experience of seeing the original and copy of Michelangelo's David in Florence, I briefly introduce how the Platonic legacy has affected that discourse. The Western preference in art and aesthetics is typically in favor of the original over the copy, despite whatever indiscernibility may exist between them. Since Arthur Danto has treated this phenomenon in his text The Transfiguration of the Commonplace, his relevant comments are considered and adapted for the purpose of working through how one understands the relationship between the original and copy in terms of a criterion for defining art.

  2. Art imitating high-energy physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Abbott, A

    2000-01-01

    Artists have been brought to CERN to learn about particle physics. In response they will each create an original piece of art which will be exhibited in "Signatures of the Invisible", a roadshow that will visit galleries across Europe next year (1/2 page).

  3. Art of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel Cristina G.; Walker, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Play is a key element in cultural development, according to the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga. Nowadays many of us interact with other people in online games and social networks, through multiple digital devices. But harnessing playful activities for museum learning is mostly undeveloped. In thi...

  4. Art of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel Cristina G.; Walker, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Play is a key element in cultural development, according to the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga. Nowadays many of us interact with other people in online games and social networks, through multiple digital devices. But harnessing playful activities for museum learning is mostly undeveloped. In thi...

  5. V838 Monocerotis revisited: Space phenomenon imitates art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    V838 Monocerotis revisited: Space phenomenon imitates art hi-res Size hi-res: 558 Kb Credits: NASA, the Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI) and ESA V838 Monocerotis revisited: Space phenomenon imitates art "Starry Night", Vincent van Gogh's famous painting, is renowned for its bold whorls of light sweeping across a raging night sky. Although this image of the heavens came only from the artist's restless imagination, a new picture from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope bears remarkable similarities to the van Gogh work, complete with never-before-seen spirals of dust swirling across trillions of kilometres of interstellar space. This image, obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on February 8, 2004, is Hubble's latest view of an expanding halo of light around a distant star, named V838 Monocerotis (V838 Mon). The illumination of interstellar dust comes from the red supergiant star at the middle of the image, which gave off a flashbulb-like pulse of light two years ago. V838 Mon is located about 20,000 light-years away from Earth in the direction of the constellation Monoceros, placing the star at the outer edge of our Milky Way galaxy V838 Monocerotis revisited: Space phenomenon imitates art hi-res Size hi-res: 1989 kb Credits: NASA, the Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI) and ESA V838 Monocerotis revisited: Space phenomenon imitates art "Starry Night", Vincent van Gogh's famous painting, is renowned for its bold whorls of light sweeping across a raging night sky. Although this image of the heavens came only from the artist's restless imagination, a new picture from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope bears remarkable similarities to the van Gogh work, complete with never-before-seen spirals of dust swirling across trillions of kilometres of interstellar space. This image, obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on February 8, 2004, is Hubble's latest view of an expanding halo of light around a distant star, named V838 Monocerotis (V838 Mon). The

  6. Pretend play, deferred imitation and parent-child interaction in speaking and non-speaking children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strid, Karin; Heimann, Mikael; Tjus, Tomas

    2013-02-01

    This study investigates spontaneous pretend play during a parent-child free play observation, and deferred imitation observed in an experimental setting in speaking and non-speaking children with autism in comparison to children with typical development. Both groups of children with autism showed a reduced level of deferred imitation compared to the typically developing group, but only the non-speaking children with autism spent significantly less time in pretend play compared to children with typical development. Deferred imitation was related to parents' verbal interaction in both groups. An analysis of the parent-child interaction revealed that parents of children with autism used less synchronized comments compared to parents of typically developing children. Parents of the speaking group with autism used more synchronized than unsynchronized comments, while parents of the non-speaking group used the same amount of synchronized and unsynchronized comments. These findings are discussed in terms of how the developmental level affects behavior and interaction in autism.

  7. Bluetooth as a Playful Public Art Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukoff, Maria N.

    This chapter investigates how the application of emergent communication technologies assisted in the design of playful art experience in a public place. Every Passing Moment (EPM), was a mobile public artwork that tracked and recorded any discoverable Bluetooth device to automatically seed a flower in a virtual garden projected onto an urban screen. The EPM was the first public art work to run blu_box, a custom-designed Bluetooth system for mobile telephony. The aim of blu_box was to build a system that supported playful interactions between the public and an urban screen, openly accessible to anyone with a Bluetooth-enabled mobile phone. This participatory engagement was observed in EPM on three levels, namely; unconscious, conscious, and dynamic play. Furthermore, this chapter highlights how sound and face-to-face communication proved imperative in the play dynamics of EPM. In conclusion, this chapter proposes ways in which the use of emergent communication technologies in public places, especially when interfaced with urban screening platforms, can construct playful city spaces for the public at large.

  8. Origins of Individual Differences in Imitation: Links with Language, Pretend Play, and Socially Insightful Behavior in Two-Year-Old Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Fiona; Happe, Francesca; Bolton, Patrick; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Ronald, Angelica; Dworzynski, Katharina; Plomin, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Imitation, vocabulary, pretend play, and socially insightful behavior were investigated in 5,206 same- and opposite-sex 2-year-old twin pairs in the United Kingdom. Individual differences in imitative ability were due to modest heritability (30%), while environmental factors shared between twins (42%) and unique to each twin (28%) also made…

  9. The Art of Playful Mobility in Museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel Cristina G.; Walker, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Many of us interact with other people in online games and social networks, through multiple digital devices. But harnessing playful and mobile activities for museum learning is mostly undeveloped. In this chapter we explore play as a structure to support visitor learning, drawing from international...... research in museums and interaction design. We argue that play and mobility provide museums with ready-made structures and concepts which help them plan for visitor learning....

  10. Playing With the City: Street Art and Videogames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazques Marquez, Israel; Pajares Tosca, Susana

    2017-01-01

    that street art encapsulates the act of playing videogames in a visual form. Digital play spills out of our computer screens and occupies the urban space with the explicit intention of involving spectators, who are invited to play in symbolic ways that actualize nostalgic memories of gaming and can be related...... to a more general "play turn" in our culture....

  11. Magical arts: the poetics of play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobus, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The paper argues that links between play and magic in British Object Relations point to the persistence of aesthetic concerns within psychoanalysis. Magical thinking is present in British Object Relations psychoanalysis from its beginnings in Klein's play technique and early aesthetic writings, surfacing elsewhere in Susan Isaac's educational experiments and her theories of metaphor. Marion Milner's clinical account of the overlapping areas of illusion and symbol-formation in a boy's war-games link the primitive rituals of Frazer's "The Golden Bough" with her patient's creativity. In Winnicott's concept of the transitional object, the theory of play achieves its apotheosis as a diffusive theory of culture or "private madness," and as a paradigm for psychoanalysis itself. Tracing the non-positivistic, mystical, and poetical elements in British Object Relations underlines the extent to which aesthetics is not just entangled with psychoanalysis, but constitutive of it in its mid-twentieth century manifestations.

  12. Teaching reciprocal imitation skills to young children with autism using a naturalistic behavioral approach: effects on language, pretend play, and joint attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Brooke; Schreibman, Laura

    2006-05-01

    Children with autism exhibit significant deficits in imitation skills which impede the acquisition of more complex behaviors and socialization, and are thus an important focus of early intervention programs for children with autism. This study used a multiple-baseline design across five young children with autism to assess the benefit of a naturalistic behavioral technique for teaching object imitation. Participants increased their imitation skills and generalized these skills to novel environments. In addition, participants exhibited increases in other social-communicative behaviors, including language, pretend play, and joint attention. These results provide support for the effectiveness of a naturalistic behavioral intervention for teaching imitation and offer a new and potentially important treatment option for young children who exhibit deficits in social-communicative behaviors.

  13. Social-communicative abilities as treatment goals for preschool children with autism spectrum disorder: the importance of imitation, joint attention, and play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warreyn, Petra; van der Paelt, Sara; Roeyers, Herbert

    2014-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive developmental disorder with a lifelong impact on multiple domains of functioning. Often, a diagnosis is possible by 3 years of age. Given the benefits of early intervention, it is advisable to start treatment as soon as possible after the diagnosis has been made. Among other factors, early intervention should focus on social-communicative abilities such as imitation, joint attention, and play. In this review, the typical developmental course and functions of these social-communicative abilities are described, and the problems young children with ASD experience in this domain. In addition, different approaches to promoting these abilities are explained. The authors recommend the inclusion of imitation, joint attention, and play as treatment goals in community settings for children with ASD.

  14. The New Art of Writing Plays in This Time: Spanish Golden Age Comedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Kalenić Ramšak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the context of Spanish Golden Age art, especially drama, in which Félix Lope de Vega played an indispensable role. His comedy defied the rules of classical drama and sought to find a new and independent path within Baroque aesthetics. The golden age of Spanish art, especially literature, began right at the transition between the fi fteenth and sixteenth centuries, when poets, writers, and playwrights created a number of excellent works that qualitatively placed Spanish literature in an entirely new light. Since then, its contribution to laying the foundations for the modern age of European literature has been indispensable. During the Baroque period the Spanish world turned into a theatrum mundi; reality was becoming increasingly apparent, and life was a dream. Artists were looking for refuge either in the spiritual aesthetic of extreme alienation or in hermetic mockery of burlesque reality, which often led to harsh grotesque. However, for the artist, the most important freedom was still creativity. Through the entire sixteenth century, the Spanish theater combined classical satirical theater and popular art. Various types of drama, all referred to by the generic term “comedy,” were performed in corrales ‘urban courtyards’. The Comedia de corral had a dual objective: to entertain a heterogeneous audience and to address those more educated about the deeper issues of human existence. The Spanish theater received a final image with the comedies of Lope de Vega, who was also the founder of a new dramatic style and the most fruitful playwright of all time worldwide. His comedy has become a new drama form, based on the Spanish literary tradition but also classified in Baroque art aesthetics. The New Art of Writing Plays in Th is Time (1609 is a theoretical text by Lope de Vega on a new comedy, which he finally separated from Aristotle’s Poetics. In the text he indicated a revolutionary position for his time; namely

  15. Guerilla Science: Mixing Science with Art, Music and Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosin, Mark; Koski, Olivia; Science, Guerilla

    2013-01-01

    Guerilla Science is an international organization at the boundaries of adult/teen science education and live entertainment. Dedicated to science by stealth we mix science with art, music and play in unconventional environments like music festivals, art galleries, banquets, department stores and theaters. Over the last five years, Guerilla Science has impacted over 11 thousand members of the public and worked with more than one hundred science-partners. Findings from three external evaluations confirm that these events have been successful, and Guerilla Science has been featured in international media including Wired, Scientific American, Getty Images, and the BBC. In this presentation, the US director, Mark Rosin, will discuss Guerilla Science's astronomical outreach efforts, including events like the Intergalactic Travel Bureau, Extra-Terrestrial Broadcasting, and Sex on other Planets. He will also discuss how to get involved with the project.

  16. Playing with the city: street art and videogames/Jugando con la ciudad: street art y videojuegos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Israel Márquez; Susana Tosca

    2017-01-01

    ... culture. Keywords: Street art; graffiti; videogames; play; city. [es] Jugando con la ciudad: street art y videojuegos Resumen. En este artículo se presenta y describe el fenómeno del street art inspirado en videojuegos como un tipo específico de street art. Se considera su materialidad e importancia, y se conceptualiza a partir de una doble mani...

  17. Art imitates life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, A

    2000-06-09

    Human cloning has fired the imaginations of many writers since Aldous Huxley published Brave New World in 1932, though no hint of cloning is seen in prior works such as the science fiction writings of H. G. Wells or Mary Shelley's Frankenstein. Where did Huxley's ideas come from?

  18. A imitação representativa no brincar da criança surda = Deaf Children representative imitation at play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Cristino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As crianças surdas, desde a mais tenra idade, necessitam de maiores estímulos para que possam desenvolver-se sem grandes problemas em nível cognitivo, psicológico, ainda que estes sejam inevitáveis, mas podem ser estabilizados. O presente estudo quer dar ênfase à importância da imitação representativa no contexto do brincar da criança surda, bem como suas implicações para o desenvolvimento. A imitação representativa leva à realização dos desejos e satisfaz a necessidade de interação da criança com o objeto e com as pessoas promovendo o seu desenvolvimento linguístico, cognitivo, social. Foi observado no estudo que ao brincar de ser alguém, por exemplo, brincar de ser professor, é estabelecida uma zona de desenvolvimento proximal em que o parceiro privilegiado promove situações de crescimento e aprendizagem. É por isso que a brincadeira tem importância fundamental no desenvolvimento das competências da criança.Deaf Children, since an early age, require stimulation to develop cognitive and psychological functions. This study aimed to emphasize the importance of representative imitation in deaf children in the context of playing and its implications on human development. The representative imitation leads to the achievement of desires and satisfies the need of interaction with the object and with people, promoting language, cognitive, social development. In the present study, we observed that when the child pretends being someone else she is playing a role, or experiencing another identity, assuming a character in her life, such as being a teacher. Then a zone of proximal development is established, where the privileged partner promotes situations of growth and learning. That is why playing is relevant to improve the skills and the development of the deaf children.

  19. Evolution of the Term "Imitation" in Philosophical-Islamic Writings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    سیّد مهدی زرقانی

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Imitation is a keyword in philosophical poetics that is the Fundamental element of poem. Concept of this term has changed since time of Aristotle to Qonnaee and then to other Muslim philosophers. This article is seeking the concept of Imitation Through philosophical writings and with Phenomenological method. Our Resources are Poetics’Aristotle translated by Qonnaee and then epistles of Farabi, Avicenna, Baqdadi, Ibn Rushd, Nasire Toosi and Qartajeni. Subject matters in this article are: The spiritual realm of Imitation, distinctions and likenesses of Imitation in arts, Imitation in poem, kinds of versicular Imitation, purposes of versicular Imitation, versicular Imitation and logical syllogism, versicular Imitation and rhetorical Techniques and finally versicular Imitation and Ultimate moral purpose of poem. Qartajeni isn’t philosopher but his work is affected by writings of Farabi and Avicenna. Key words: Philosophical Poetics, Imitation, Poem, Art, Muslim Philosophers.

  20. Piano Playing Reduces Stress More than Other Creative Art Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, Kumiko; Fukui, Hajime; Kuda, Kiyoto

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have been conducted on the physiological effects of creative art activities. In this study, the effects of creative art activities on human stress were investigated, and their effects were compared in 57 healthy college students (27 males and 30 females). Subjects were divided into four groups, each of which participated in 30-minute…

  1. Piano Playing Reduces Stress More than Other Creative Art Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, Kumiko; Fukui, Hajime; Kuda, Kiyoto

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have been conducted on the physiological effects of creative art activities. In this study, the effects of creative art activities on human stress were investigated, and their effects were compared in 57 healthy college students (27 males and 30 females). Subjects were divided into four groups, each of which participated in 30-minute…

  2. Children's Play in the Visual Arts and Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout history, society has expressed little interest in early childhood play. Still early literature authors and classical paintings portray childhood play experiences. The way play has been conceived in the past in child development, psychology and other disciplines relates to contemporary early childhood programmes. This article provides an…

  3. Aristotle and His Idea on Imitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭侃

    2009-01-01

    Aristode's contribution to art and literature is significant.His idea on imitation is a fundamental theory for further literacy critics.This paper compares Aristode's theory on imitation with plato's,and summaries Aristotle's contributions to the field of art.

  4. Playing Funny: An Introduction to "Commedia dell' Arte."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, Barry

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the use of "Commedia," a way of performing inspired by the historical "Commedia dell' Arte." Notes that it has proved a fertile source of inspiration for all types of physical and stylized theatre and a useful training tool for performers in many fields. Presents a series of exercises designed to introduce the student to Commedia…

  5. Playing Funny: An Introduction to "Commedia dell' Arte."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, Barry

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the use of "Commedia," a way of performing inspired by the historical "Commedia dell' Arte." Notes that it has proved a fertile source of inspiration for all types of physical and stylized theatre and a useful training tool for performers in many fields. Presents a series of exercises designed to introduce the student to Commedia…

  6. Power Play: Rethinking Roles in the Art Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, Melanie L.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how art teachers can work toward changing the power dynamics in their classrooms by using a student centered approach, as demonstrated by an example lesson about contemporary painter Kehinde Wiley. As the class unpacked the idea of power prevalent in Wiley's portraits, the students gave relevant examples of how power…

  7. The role-playing: the art to catch the eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Lanza, Tiziana

    2015-04-01

    We present some interactive, immersive, authentic role-plays simulation designed to teach to different public: tertiary, secondary and primary students and an experience with a teachers group, after April 6 2009 L'Aquila Earthquake. We will discuss about the basics of the role-play and its applications to the geosciences in outreach projects. Role-play is a powerful method to educate to risk mitigation with particular we will discuss our experience regarding seismic risk. Finally, we will present some data on the effectiveness of the role-play in different settings in which we used it.

  8. Imitation Games

    CERN Document Server

    Kaneko, K; Kaneko, Kunihiko; Suzuki, Junji

    1993-01-01

    Mutual imitation games among artificial birds are studied. By employing a variety of mappings and game rules, the evolution to the edge between chaos and windows is universally confirmed. Some other general features are observed, including punctuated equilibria, and successive alternations of dominant species with temporal complexity. Diversity of species aided by the symbolization of artificial birds' song are also shown.

  9. The plays and arts of surveillance: studying surveillance as entertainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Dubbeld, L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper suggests a direction in the development of Surveillance Studies that goes beyond current attention for the caring, productive and enabling aspects of surveillance practices. That is, surveillance could be considered not just as positively protective, but even as a comical, playful,

  10. Ethology, Interpersonal Neurobiology, and Play: Insights into the Evolutionary Origin of the Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    The author considers the biological basis of the arts in human evolution, which she holds to be grounded in ethology and interpersonal neurobiology. In the arts, she argues, ordinary reality becomes extraordinary by attention-getting, emotionally salient devices that also appear in ritualized animal behaviors, many kinds of play, and the playful…

  11. Re-play: Re-assessing the effectiveness of an arts partnership in teacher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Bernard W.

    2006-09-01

    RE-PLAY: RE-ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF AN ARTS PARTNERSHIP IN CANADIAN TEACHER EDUCATION - Elementary teachers in Canada are increasingly expected to deliver arts instruction in their classrooms, as financial exigencies have restricted the hiring of specialists. This study examines the effectiveness of an arts partnership between a Canadian university faculty of education and local-area school boards. In this partnership, university staff and specialist arts teachers together delivered the integrated arts component in teacher education. Findings indicate that specialist arts instruction, peer learning methods and theory/practice integration strengthen such training in the arts. Specialist arts teachers can enhance the instructional effectiveness of teacher-candidates by introducing current classroom teaching strategies, concrete activities, up-to-date resources and classroom management techniques. The confidence of beginning teachers to teach the arts can be promoted by observing colleagues, engaging in team learning activities, and obtaining peer feedback. The use of integrated arts theory and a focus on practical applications of concepts, coupled with reflective discussion, can also be seen to promote conceptual understanding. A further recommendation involves expanding the role of the arts in teacher education to foster cultural diversity.

  12. Games That Art Educators Play: Games in the Historical and Cultural Context of Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Ryan M.

    2014-01-01

    Games have played an important role in modern educational methodologies. Beginning with the work of luminaries like Froebel, Montessori, and Dewey and continuing through the Cold War, the counter-culture movement of the 1960s and '70s, and into the present day, shifts in educational practice can be traced historically using the lens of games,…

  13. Games That Art Educators Play: Games in the Historical and Cultural Context of Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Ryan M.

    2014-01-01

    Games have played an important role in modern educational methodologies. Beginning with the work of luminaries like Froebel, Montessori, and Dewey and continuing through the Cold War, the counter-culture movement of the 1960s and '70s, and into the present day, shifts in educational practice can be traced historically using the lens of games,…

  14. Imitation improves language comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adank, P.M.; Hagoort, P.; Bekkering, H.

    2010-01-01

    Humans imitate each other during social interaction. This imitative behavior streamlines social interaction and aids in learning to replicate actions. However, the effect of imitation on action comprehension is unclear. This study investigated whether vocal imitation of an unfamiliar accent improved

  15. Imitation improves language comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adank, Patti; Hagoort, Peter; Bekkering, Harold

    2010-12-01

    Humans imitate each other during social interaction. This imitative behavior streamlines social interaction and aids in learning to replicate actions. However, the effect of imitation on action comprehension is unclear. This study investigated whether vocal imitation of an unfamiliar accent improved spoken-language comprehension. Following a pretraining accent comprehension test, participants were assigned to one of six groups. The baseline group received no training, but participants in the other five groups listened to accented sentences, listened to and repeated accented sentences in their own accent, listened to and transcribed accented sentences, listened to and imitated accented sentences, or listened to and imitated accented sentences without being able to hear their own vocalizations. Posttraining measures showed that accent comprehension was most improved for participants who imitated the speaker's accent. These results show that imitation may aid in streamlining interaction by improving spoken-language comprehension under adverse listening conditions.

  16. UG in Imitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李香

    2007-01-01

    UG and imitation are two parallel hypotheses trying to answer how childrens language acquisition is realized. Imitation fails to explain how children acquire language; however, it helps a lot in childrens language acquisition.

  17. [The art of touch. Elisabeth Caland and the physio-aesthetics of piano playing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrgott, Gerhard

    2008-06-01

    The issue of how it is possible to play the piano without striking it was raised by Chopin: one must 'caresser' and not 'frapper' the piano. In her teachings on the art of piano playing, Elisabeth Caland (1862-1929) attempts to articulate a scientifically grounded solution to this complex (kin-)aesthetic problem. The solution turns on her intuitively discovered 'lowering of the shoulderblades' which was documented in 1904, through X-rays, by the Berlin physiologist René du Bois-Reymond, and recorded as a way of coordinating movement which had been unknown to physiology up to that time. Caland's physio-aesthetic of piano playing, which she worked out on the basis of du Bois-Reymond's observations, turns on the ideal of 'floating sound' put forward by her teacher Ludwig Deppe, and on Ferruccio Busoni's technique of piano playing. Her method makes essential use of what Feldenkrais would later call the 'sixth sense' (i.e. proprioceptive perception); in fact, it represents the first modern kinaesthetically based conception of piano playing. Caland's doctrine of touch was ahead of its time and it virtually disappeared from discussions of piano technique after 1930. But it has become accessible again through reprints of her most important writings: Deppe's doctrine of piano playing (1897), Sources of power in piano playing (1904), and Artistic piano playing (1910).

  18. Evolution of cooperative imitators in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yixiao

    2017-02-01

    Many evolutionary game models for network reciprocity are based on an imitation dynamics, yet how semirational imitators prevail has seldom been explained. Here we use a model to investigate the coevolutionary dynamics of cooperation and partnership adjustment in a polygenic population of semirational imitators and rational payoff maximizers. A rational individual chooses a strategy best responding to its neighbors when updating strategy and switches to a new partner who can bring it the maximal payoff from all candidates when adjusting the partnership. In contrast, a semirational individual imitates its neighbor's strategy directly and adjusts its partnership based upon a simple reputation rule. Individual-based simulations show that cooperation cannot evolve in a population of all best responders even if they can switch their partners to somebody who can reward them best in game playing. However, when imitators exist, a stable community that consists of cooperative imitators emerges. Further, we show that a birth-death selection mechanism can eliminate all best responders, cultivating a social regime of all cooperative imitators. Compared with parallel simulations that assume fixed networks, cooperative imitators are evolutionarily favored, provided they are able to adjust their partners.

  19. Import vs. Imitation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kölcze, Zsófia

    2012-01-01

    of our analysis and interpretation more explicit.In archaeology there has been a tradition of distinguishing between original objects and imitations. However, this distinction does not provide us with much information about the social function and symbolic meaning of an object in a cultural context......In recent years archaeological research has developed a radically new theoretical approach to prehistoric material culture. Objects are no longer regarded as simple products of human behavior, but rather as agents interacting with people on multiple levels. As such, artifacts play an active role...... in producing, maintaining and reproducing social identities, communicating new ideas and technological innovations and creating ideologies and cosmologies. Our understanding of material culture has obtained a social dimension, and we as archaeologists have become aware of the importance of making this aspect...

  20. Playthings as Art Objects: Ideas and Resources. Kites and Sound Making Objects and Playing Cards and Dolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    City of Birmingham Polytechnic (England). Dept. of Art.

    Five booklets focusing on playthings as art objects draw together information about historical, ethnographic, and play traditions of various cultures of the world. The first booklet provides an overview of ideas and resources about kites, sound making objects, playing cards, and dolls. The second booklet on kites discusses the distribution and…

  1. Generalized Imitative Affection: Relationship to Prior Kinds of Imitation Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, Loren E.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of physical contact imitative training and verbal contact imitative training on the degree to which first and second graders exhibited generalized imitative affectionate and aggressive behavior. The effects of punishment as well as extinction on imitative behavior were analyzed. (DP)

  2. AESTHETICS IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION: THE COMBINATION OF TECHNOLOGY INSTRUMENTS IN CHILDREN’S MUSIC, VISUAL ARTS AND PRETEND PLAY

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Hui Ko; Mei-Ju Chou

    2014-01-01

    With the importance of aesthetics in current preschool curriculum, children’s aesthetics development and deloading learning plays a special attention to the relationship between technology instruments and the three critical early childhood education activities, namely music teaching and learning, visual arts and children’s pretend play in early childhood education. A rigorous literature review in Dewey, Steiner and Vygotsky explore the argument that technology instruments play a c...

  3. Imitation and Variation: Reflections on Toddlers' Strategies for Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Marita; Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling

    2002-01-01

    Two observations, one of a toddler mastering a skill and one of a group of children playing, show how imitation and variation are interwoven in the strategies for learning used by children. Imitation is an entrance into learning, and variation gives insight into the cognitive world of young children. (SLD)

  4. How Would Theory of Mind Play a Role in Comprehending Art?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, B.

    2009-01-01

    The way theory of mind takes part in comprehension of art is examined in this article. Because theory of mind and understanding of artwork involves some symbolic competency, the link between comprehending art (i.e., drawing, painting, sculpture, and music) and theory of mind is explained through symbolism. To understand a piece of symbolic…

  5. AESTHETICS IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION: THE COMBINATION OF TECHNOLOGY INSTRUMENTS IN CHILDREN’S MUSIC, VISUAL ARTS AND PRETEND PLAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hui Ko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the importance of aesthetics in current preschool curriculum, children’s aesthetics development and deloading learning plays a special attention to the relationship between technology instruments and the three critical early childhood education activities, namely music teaching and learning, visual arts and children’s pretend play in early childhood education. A rigorous literature review in Dewey, Steiner and Vygotsky explore the argument that technology instruments play a crucial role in children’s daily lives. After carefully elaborating the relevant literature, this study arrives at three major conclusions firstly, indeed technology instruments in music teaching facilitate the quality and efficiency in the young children’s learning motivation. Secondly, technology instruments in visual arts facilitate the quality and efficiency in the learning motivation of children and finally, technology instruments of music facilitate children’s performance in their pretend play, especially in terms of emotional expression, emotional regulation, emotional utilization and interpersonal relationships. Further, the study reveals that during the application of technology instrument in children’s music, visual-arts and pretend play, adults’ scaffolding and assistance is no doubt necessary during children’s learning and development process.

  6. Whom Should We Imitate? Imitation Strategy and Industry Knowledge Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posen, Hart E.; Yi, Sangyoon; Lee, Jeho

    Imitation is a common practice within and across industries. Recent research has begun to explore the potential of imitation as a purposeful strategy. But the question of what constitutes a “good” imitation strategy is as yet not well understood. This study examines the efficacy of two canonical ...

  7. Autonomy, pluralism, play: Danto, Greenberg, Kant, and the philosophy of art history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Buckner

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Arthur Danto's celebrated declaration of “the end of art” might seem to accommodate well the apparently open-ended aesthetic diversity of contemporary art. However, in his philosophy of art history, Danto treats the pursuit of autonomy as a misdirected philosophical concern, and denigrates the aesthetic pluralism of contemporary art as a matter of empty indifference. As a result, Danto not only fails to do justice to the explosion of artistic forms in recent decades, he contributes to their misconstrual. Accordingly, this paper revisits the opposition between autonomy and pluralism on which Danto's philosophy of art history rests, arguing that artistic self-definition ought to be conceived, not as a misplaced conceptual problem, but rather as a distinctly aesthetic concern, integral to art practice and criticism. So understood, autonomy and pluralism do not stand opposed but rather mutually implicate one another, and the historical responsibility for artists to define the terms of their own work, rather than having been exhausted, persists amidst the broad field of formal possibilities presented by contemporary art's complication with everyday life.

  8. Playful Mindfulness: How Singapore Adolescent Students Embody Meaning with School Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Koon Hwee

    2011-01-01

    Drawn from Merleau-Ponty's embodiment theory and Vygotsky's sociocultural learning theory as conceptual framework, this research investigated how Singapore adolescent students accrued and embodied meaning with school art. Combining the methods of microethnographic observations and phenomenological interviews to document the process of artistic…

  9. Playing with Performance: The Use and Abuse of Beta-Blockers in the Performing Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patston, Tim; Loughlan, Terence

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the use of beta-blockers by performing artists, the reasons why they are taken, and the potential associated risks. We argue that there are high levels of usage within sectors of the professional performing arts community and that there may be high levels of risk in using these medications, particularly without medical…

  10. Playing Games in Logic and Reasoning in Liberal Arts Mathematics and Getting Students' Work Published

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Laura A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes two classroom activities and a project that supplement a Liberal Arts Mathematics course's coverage of logic and reasoning. The first classroom activity introduces the writing of inductive and deductive arguments, and the second activity involves analyzing a guest speaker's arguments. The project consists of using logic and…

  11. "More like a poem than a play" : towards a dramaturgy of performing arts for Early Years

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher-Watson, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims to further our understanding of the emergent phenomenon of Theatre for Early Years (TEY) in Scotland. It interrogates a series of artistic practices – traditional, postdramatic, participatory – with the aim of proposing a possible dramaturgy of arts for the very young. Practice typically precedes theory in new fields of performance. TEY currently lacks a coherent theoretical framework or dramaturgy, instead drawing on interdisciplinary strands of psychology, pedagogy and...

  12. Executive functioning and imitation: Increasing working memory load facilitates behavioural imitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, M.L. van; Baaren, R.B. van; Martin, D.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.; Bekkering, H.

    2009-01-01

    If perceptual and bodily states are closely linked and if perceiving action automatically leads to corresponding activations in one's own motor system, then why do not we imitate all the time? There is evidence suggesting that executive functioning (EF) may play a moderating role in inhibiting overt

  13. Executive functioning and imitation: Increasing working memory load facilitates behavioural imitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, M.L. van; Baaren, R.B. van; Martin, D.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.; Bekkering, H.

    2009-01-01

    If perceptual and bodily states are closely linked and if perceiving action automatically leads to corresponding activations in one's own motor system, then why do not we imitate all the time? There is evidence suggesting that executive functioning (EF) may play a moderating role in inhibiting overt

  14. The art of effectively teaching clinical interviewing skills using role-playing: a primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Christine; Shea, Shawn Christopher

    2007-06-01

    Time pressure on trainees and supervisors alike places a premium on efficiency in training students to master clinical skills. Through role-playing, a supervisor can create multiple iterations of the desired skill until competence is obtained. The skill training can be advanced in intensity and complexity until the trainer and trainee are confident that the interviewing skill is accessible on demand and that the trainee is comfortable with its use. This article focuses on practical methods of creating believable roles for role-playing and how to use them to teach specific interviewing skills strategically.

  15. Aesthetic Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jytte Susanne

    2012-01-01

    to the children’s complex life-worlds. Further, this leads to an analysis of music-play activities as play with an art-form (music), which includes aesthetic dimensions and gives the music-play activities its character of being aesthetic play. Following Lev Vygotsky’s insight that art is a way of building life...

  16. Imitation problems in children with autism spectrum disorders: A study of their nature, clinical significance and utility in diagnosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Vanvuchelen, Marleen

    2009-01-01

    Imitation is the natural aptitude to replicate an observed action, which plays a pivotal role in the development of a child. It involves the ability to transform perceptual information into a motor copy. Basically, imitation results from the interaction of selection and correspondence processes. Children’s imitation can be divided in two main levels depending on the content of the observed action and the means/ends structure: action- and program-level imitation. When young children do not ...

  17. Imitation problems in children with autism spectrum disorders: A study of their nature, clinical significance and utility in diagnosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Vanvuchelen, Marleen

    2009-01-01

    Imitation is the natural aptitude to replicate an observed action, which plays a pivotal role in the development of a child. It involves the ability to transform perceptual information into a motor copy. Basically, imitation results from the interaction of selection and correspondence processes. Children’s imitation can be divided in two main levels depending on the content of the observed action and the means/ends structure: action- and program-level imitation. When young children do not ...

  18. Automatic imitation? Imitative compatibility affects responses at high perceptual load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catmur, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    Imitation involves matching the visual representation of another's action onto the observer's own motor program for that action. However, there has been some debate regarding the extent to which imitation is "automatic"-that is, occurs without attention. Participants performed a perceptual load task in which images of finger movements were presented as distractors. Responses to target letter stimuli were performed via finger movements that could be imitatively compatible (requiring the same finger movement) or incompatible with the distractor movements: In this common stimulus-response compatibility manipulation, the stimulus set comprises images of the response movements, producing an imitative compatibility effect. Attention to the distractor movements was manipulated by altering perceptual load through increasing the number of nontarget letter stimuli. If imitation requires attention, then at high perceptual load, imitative compatibility should not affect response times. In contrast, imitative compatibility influenced response times at high perceptual load, demonstrating that distractor movements were processed. However, the compatibility effect was reversed, suggesting that longer response times at high perceptual load tap into an inhibitory stage of distractor movement processing. A follow-up experiment manipulating temporal delay between targets and distractor movements supported this explanation. Further experiments confirmed that nonmovement distractor stimuli in the same configuration produced standard perceptual load effects and that results were not solely due to effector compatibility. These data suggest that imitation can occur without attention. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Artfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    a collage of previously published materials on Artfulness, in this journal targeted teachers for dysfunctional behaviour children.......a collage of previously published materials on Artfulness, in this journal targeted teachers for dysfunctional behaviour children....

  20. Artfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    a collage of previously published materials on Artfulness, in this journal targeted teachers for dysfunctional behaviour children.......a collage of previously published materials on Artfulness, in this journal targeted teachers for dysfunctional behaviour children....

  1. 游戏精神与空间设计--从伽达默尔的艺术游戏理论说起%Play Spirit and Art Design--From Gadamer’s Viewpoint of Art-Play Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海波; 吴家炜

    2014-01-01

    从解读伽达默尔的游戏的概念出发,试析其理论中的游戏涵义及引申的精神内涵。同时通过对经典设计案例的分析,探讨游戏精神与艺术规律的内在联系,探寻游戏精神对空间设计的影响规律。如此,既可以丰富游戏与艺术(设计)的理论,达成对游戏概念、精神于空间设计的重要意义和关键价值的深入理解;又能指导设计实践,为生活创造出舒适宜人、充满自由活力、富有趣味性和创造力的空间环境。解读伽达默尔的游戏概念及引申的游戏精神与空间设计的关联,不仅为把握伽达默尔的诠释学理论提供一条新途径,而且为设计从业者理解两者关系提供了重要的理论依据和实践指导。%From the concept of the Play interpretation of ”Gadamer” ,this paper analyzes the theoretical meaning of play and its extended spiritual connotation .Through analysis of classic design cases ,this paper explores the play spirit and artistic laws ,probes the impact of the play spirit on space design .On the one hand ,the analysis can enrich the theory of play and art in order to deeply understand the signifi-cance and the critical value of the play concept and spirit on space design ;on the other hand ,it creates a comfortable and pleasant full free-dom of vitality ,creative space environment for life .Understanding the play meaning and spirit of the extended connotation of Gadamer , raising the relationship between the play spirit and space design ,not only provide a way for correct understanding of Gadamer ’s hermeneuti-cal theory ,but also give an important theoretical reference and practical basis for design practitioners to correctly understand the relationship .

  2. Brief Report: Effect of a focused imitation intervention on social functioning in children with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Ingersoll, Brooke

    2012-01-01

    Imitation is an early skill thought to play a role in social development, leading some to suggest that teaching imitation to children with autism should lead to improvements in social functioning. This study used a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a focused imitation intervention on initiation of joint attention and social-emotional functioning in 27 young children with autism. Results indicated the treatment group made significantly more gains in joint attention initiati...

  3. Cervical deciduosis imitating dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diepen, Diederik Anthony; Hellebrekers, Bart; van Haaften, Anne-Marie; Natté, Remco

    2015-09-22

    Ectopic cervical deciduosis is generally an accidental finding during pregnancy, and usually presents without any symptoms or need for therapeutic intervention. However, it can sometimes imitate dysplasia or carcinoma. We report a case of a 34-year-old G2P0, with a history of cervical dysplasia, presenting at 11 weeks of gestation, with vaginal blood loss. During examination, lesions mimicking dysplasia were found on the cervix. Histological examination reported cervical deciduosis. Deciduosis is a benign change during pregnancy and will resolve spontaneously. With the increasing use of cytology and colposcopy, the reported incidence is growing. When it is hard to differentiate between dysplasia and deciduosis, histological confirmation should be considered.

  4. Imitation and Representational Development in Young Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ingram; Lewis, Vicky; Collis, Glyn M.

    2006-01-01

    Competence in object search and pretend play are argued to reflect young children's representational abilities and appear delayed in children with Down syndrome relative to social and imitative skills. This paper explores the effects on object search and play of this social strength in children with Down syndrome. Three experiments compared…

  5. Imitation, Awareness, and Folk Linguistic Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Elizabeth Gentry

    2010-01-01

    Imitations are sophisticated performances displaying regular patterns. The study of imitation allows linguists to understand speakers' perceptions of sociolinguistic variation. In this dissertation, I analyze imitations of non-native accents in order to answer two questions: what can imitation reveal about perception, and how are "folk linguistic…

  6. Optimality of Imitative Behavior in Cournot Oligopoly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Possajennikov, A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper considers a model of imitation in the context of Cournot oligopoly. Purely imitative behavior can lead to an outcome inconsistent with Nash equilibrium. The question is when we can reconcile imitation with the concept of Nash equilibrium. The paper extends purely imitative behavior in two

  7. PLAYING RELATED HEALTH RISK´S AMONG STUDENTS AND TEACHERS OF MUSIC DEPARTMENT AT THE KOPER ART SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Plevnik

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study of a musical instrument demands several hours of practicing on a daily basis as well as playing and performing. Consequently, the musician can be subjected to various health risks during his or her study process but also afterwards. Health problems depend on the individual physical and mental fitness, but also on the features and structure of the instrument as well as on the playing technique, which consists of repeated movements and mainly of static body position. Because of the possibility of chronic injuries, especially neuromuscular disorders but also others, it is important for the musician to regularly maintain his or her physical and mental fitness and movement performance by preventive and compensating activities and immediate action in case of pain or when noticing the first signs of medical problems or limitations. The study included 43 students (16.7 ± 1.5 year, 31 females and 12 males and 15 teachers (36.9 ± 8.8 years, 7 females and 8 males that attend and teach at the Music Department of The Koper Art School, which is a part of The Koper High School. The aim of the study was to recognize the risk factors in health status that occur as a consequence of playing a music instrument. A questionnaire consisting of 26 questions was used in the research. The results of the study showed that a half of the interviewed students practices every day but teachers practice less (p = 0.04. Therefore, teachers value the importance of physical (p = 0.013 and mental (p = 0.000 fitness more than students. Teachers also estimate their current physical and mental fitness to be higher (p = 0.003. 89.7 % of the respondents feel pain of discomfort during or after playing, out of these 95.3 % are students, and 73.3 % are teachers. These musicians state that they most frequently feel pain in the back and neck area and in the shoulders and wrists. 36.2 % of the musicians, 41.9 % of students and 20 % of teachers, affirmed to have had strains or pain

  8. Children's Faithfulness in Imitating Language Use Varies Cross-culturally, Contingent on Prior Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Jörn; Mayor, Julien; Bannard, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Despite its recognized importance for cultural transmission, little is known about the role imitation plays in language learning. Three experiments examine how rates of imitation vary as a function of qualitative differences in the way language is used in a small indigenous community in Oaxaca, Mexico and three Western comparison groups. Data from…

  9. Children's Faithfulness in Imitating Language Use Varies Cross-culturally, Contingent on Prior Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Jörn; Mayor, Julien; Bannard, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Despite its recognized importance for cultural transmission, little is known about the role imitation plays in language learning. Three experiments examine how rates of imitation vary as a function of qualitative differences in the way language is used in a small indigenous community in Oaxaca, Mexico and three Western comparison groups. Data from…

  10. ARTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahadevan, Shankar; Virk, Kashif M.; Madsen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    . We present an abstract system-level modelling and simulation framework (ARTS) which allows for cross-layer modelling and analysis covering the application layer, middleware layer, and hardware layer. ARTS allows MPSoC designers to explore and analyze the network performance under different traffic...... and load conditions, consequences of different task mappings to processors (software or hardware) including memory and power usage, and effects of RTOS selection, including scheduling, synchronization and resource allocation policies. We present the application and platform models of ARTS as well...... as their implementation in SystemC. We present the usage of the ARTS framework as seen from platform developers’ point of view, where new components may be created and integrated into the framework, and from application designers’ point of view, where existing components are used to explore possible implementations...

  11. Application of integrated yoga therapy to increase imitation skills in children with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishna Shantha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Children with autism exhibit significant deficits in imitation skills, which impede the acquisition of more complex behavior and socialization. Imitation is often targeted early in intervention plans and continues to be addressed throughout the child′s treatment. The use of integrated approach to yoga therapy (IAYT as a complementary therapy for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD is rarely reported and little is known on the effectiveness of such therapies. This study investigated IAYT as a treatment method with children with ASD to increase imitative skills. Materials and Methods: Parents and six children with ASD participated in a 10-month program of 5-weekly sessions and regular practice at home. Pre, mid and post treatment assessments included observers and parent ratings of children′s imitation skills in tasks related to imitation skills such as gross motor actions, vocalization, complex imitation, oral facial movements and imitating breathing exercises. Results: Improvement in children′s imitation skills especially pointing to body, postural and oral facial movements. Parents reported change in the play pattern of these children with toys, peers and objects at home. Conclusions: This study indicates that IAYT may offer benefits as an effective tool to increase imitation, cognitive skills and social-communicative behaviors in children with ASD. In addition, children exhibited increased skills in eye contact, sitting tolerance, non-verbal communication and receptive skills to verbal commands related to spatial relationship.

  12. Biased imitation in coupled evolutionary games in interdependent networks

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, M D; Mendes, J F F

    2014-01-01

    We explore the evolutionary dynamics of two games - the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game - played within distinct networks (layers) of interdependent networks. In these networks imitation and interaction between individuals of opposite layers is established through interlinks. We explore an update rule in which revision of strategies is a biased imitation process: individuals imitate neighbors from the same layer with probability p, and neighbors from the second layer with complementary probability 1 - p. We demonstrate that a small decrease of p from p = 1 (which corresponds to forbidding strategy transfer between layers) is sufficient to promote cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma subpopulation. This, on the other hand, is detrimental for cooperation in the Snowdrift Game subpopulation. We provide results of extensive computer simulations for the case in which layers are modelled as regular random networks, and support this study with analytical results for coupled well-mixed populations.

  13. Biased imitation in coupled evolutionary games in interdependent networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M. D.; Dorogovtsev, S. N.; Mendes, J. F. F.

    2014-03-01

    We explore the evolutionary dynamics of two games--the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game--played within distinct networks (layers) of interdependent networks. In these networks imitation and interaction between individuals of opposite layers is established through interlinks. We explore an update rule in which revision of strategies is a biased imitation process: individuals imitate neighbors from the same layer with probability p, and neighbors from the second layer with complementary probability 1 - p. We demonstrate that a small decrease of p from p = 1 (which corresponds to forbidding strategy transfer between layers) is sufficient to promote cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma subpopulation. This, on the other hand, is detrimental for cooperation in the Snowdrift Game subpopulation. We provide results of extensive computer simulations for the case in which layers are modelled as regular random networks, and support this study with analytical results for coupled well-mixed populations.

  14. Innovate or imitate? Behavioural technological change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Zeppini, P.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a behavioural model of technological change with evolutionary switching between boundedly rational costly innovators and free imitators, and study the endogenous interplay of innovation decisions, market price dynamics and technological progress. Innovation and imitation are strategic sub

  15. Innovate or imitate? Behavioural technological change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Zeppini, P.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a behavioural model of technological change with evolutionary switching between costly innovators and free imitators, and study the endogenous interplay of innovation decisions, market price dynamics and technological progress. Innovation and imitation are strategic substitutes and exhibi

  16. The Monosyllable Imitation Test for Toddlers: Influence of Stimulus Characteristics on Imitation, Compliance and Diagnostic Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Rosemary; Munro, Natalie; Baker, Elise; McGregor, Karla; Heard, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although verbal imitation can provide a valuable window into the developing language abilities of toddlers, some toddlers find verbal imitation challenging and will not comply with tests that involve elicited verbal imitation. The characteristics of stimuli that are offered to toddlers for imitation may influence how easy or hard it is…

  17. How and why do infants imitate? An ideomotor approach to social and imitative learning in infancy (and beyond).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Markus

    2014-10-01

    It has been proposed that already in infancy, imitative learning plays a pivotal role in the acquisition of knowledge and abilities. Yet the cognitive mechanisms underlying the acquisition of novel action knowledge through social learning have remained unclear. The present contribution presents an ideomotor approach to imitative learning (IMAIL) in infancy (and beyond) that draws on the ideomotor theory of action control and on recent findings of perception-action matching. According to IMAIL, the central mechanism of imitative and social learning is the acquisition of cascading bidirectional action-effect associations through observation of own and others' actions. First, the observation of the visual effect of own actions leads to the acquisition of first-order action-effect associations, linking motor codes to the action's typical visual effects. Second, observing another person's action leads to motor activation (i.e., motor resonance) due to the first-order associations. This activated motor code then becomes linked to the other salient effects produced by the observed action, leading to the acquisition of (second-order) action-effect associations. These novel action-effect associations enable later imitation of the observed actions. The article reviews recent behavioral and neurophysiological studies with infants and adults that provide empirical support for the model. Furthermore, it is discussed how the model relates to other approaches on social-cognitive development and how developmental changes in imitative abilities can be conceptualized.

  18. Aesthetic Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jytte Susanne

    2012-01-01

    The present article explores the role of music-related artefacts and technologies in children’s lives. More specifically, it analyzes how four 10- to 11-year old girls use CDs and DVD games in their music-play activities and which developmental themes and potentials may accrue from such activities...... to the children’s complex life-worlds. Further, this leads to an analysis of music-play activities as play with an art-form (music), which includes aesthetic dimensions and gives the music-play activities its character of being aesthetic play. Following Lev Vygotsky’s insight that art is a way of building life...

  19. From Imitation to Conversation: The First Dialogues with Human Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Emese

    2006-01-01

    The functional maturity of the newborn infant's brain, the resemblances between neonatal imitation and imitation in adults and the possibly lateralized neonatal imitation suggest that the mirror neuron system may contribute to neonatal imitation. Newborn infants not only imitate but also initiate previously imitated gestures, and are able to…

  20. The Fuzzy Set Called 'Imitations.'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerk, Ernst L.

    This investigation addresses problems of defining verbal imitation, and suggests solutions by analyzing verbal interactions between two children and their mothers. Children were between 18 and 35 months old, with a mean length of utterance between 1.4 and 4.2 morphemes. Analyses focus upon the uses these children made of maternal models; 10…

  1. Imitation dynamics with time delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-Chang; Yu, Jie-Ru; Kurokawa, Shun; Tao, Yi

    2017-05-07

    Based on the classic imitation dynamics (Hofbauer and Sigmund, 1998, Evolutionary Games and Population Dynamics, Cambridge University Press), the imitation dynamics with time delay is investigated, where the probability that an individual will imitate its opponent's own strategy is assumed to depend on the comparison between the past expected payoff of this individual's own strategy and the past expected payoff of its opponent's own strategy, i.e. there is a time delay effect. For the two-phenotype model, we show that if the system has an interior equilibrium and this interior equilibrium is stable when there is no time delay, then there must be a critical value of time delay such that the system tends to a stable periodic solution when the time delay is larger than the critical value. On the other hand, for three-phenotype (rock-scissors-paper) model, the numerical analysis shows that for the stable periodic solution induced by the time delay, the amplitude and the period will increase with the increase of the time delay. These results should help to understand the evolution of behavior based on the imitation dynamics with time delay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An Imitation Game concerning gravitational wave physics

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The 'Imitation Game' is a Turing Test played with a human participant instead of a computer. Here the author, a sociologist, who has been immersed in the field of gravitational wave physics since 1972, tried to pass an Imitation Game as a gravitational wave physicist. He already passed such a test in mid-2000s but this test was more elaborate and compared his performance with that of other kinds of physicists and with other sociologists as well as gravitational wave physicists. The test was based on 8 technical questions about gravitational wave physics asked by Professor Sathyprakash of Cardiff University. Collins marks compared well with that of the other gravitational wave physicists and were markedly better than that of other classes of respondent. Collins also marked the test and it can be seen that the way he marked was also much closer to the gravitational wave physicists than other categories. Though Collins's expertise can be shown to have degraded a little in the last ten years it seems not to have ...

  3. Import vs. Imitation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kölcze, Zsófia

    2012-01-01

    In recent years archaeological research has developed a radically new theoretical approach to prehistoric material culture. Objects are no longer regarded as simple products of human behavior, but rather as agents interacting with people on multiple levels. As such, artifacts play an active role ...... of swords of the type Hajdúsámson-Apa from Stensgård, Torupgårde and Dystrup in Denmark....

  4. Intimate imitation: Automatic motor imitation in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maister, Lara; Tsakiris, Manos

    2016-07-01

    Our relationships with romantic partners are often some of the closest and most important relationships that we experience in our adult lives. Interpersonal closeness in romantic relationships is characterised by an increased overlap between cognitive representations of oneself and one's partner. Importantly, this type of self-other overlap also occurs in the bodily domain, whereby we can represent another's embodied experiences in the same way as we represent our own. However, as yet this bodily self-other overlap has only been investigated in individuals unfamiliar to each other. Here, we investigate bodily self-other overlap between romantic partners, using automatic imitation as an example case of bodily overlap in the motor domain. We found that participants automatically imitated romantic partners significantly more than close others with whom they had a platonic relationship. Furthermore, imitation in these relationships was related to key aspects of relationship quality, as indicated by adult attachment style. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The development of artistic creativity of children and the possibility of applying art plays in the free time pedagogy (aimed at pre-school age)

    OpenAIRE

    HOIDEKROVÁ, Hana

    2012-01-01

    The work deals with the creativity of preschool children, using art plays in the education of free time. The theoretical part focuses on creativity, its elements and levels. It describes the creative process and the factors influencing creativity. It looks at why it is important to develop creativity, what are the methods and the development of creativity. Characterizes the development of creativity of children, and what enhances their creative thinking and perception. Furthermore, it defines...

  6. First Things First: Infants Make Good Use of the Sympathetic Rhythm of Imitation, without Reason or Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevarthen, Colwyn

    2005-01-01

    Research on communication with infants, including newborns, has demonstrated that imitations in great variety play many different parts, and with emotions of interest and pleasure. Matching another's actions may seek attention and provoke reply, accept or reject advances, express admiration or mockery. It seems best to regard imitating as one way…

  7. Innovation, imitation, and problem-solving in a networked group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisdom, Thomas N; Goldstone, Robert L

    2011-04-01

    We implemented a problem-solving task in which groups of participants simultaneously played a simple innovation game in a complex problem space, with score feedback provided after each of a number of rounds. Each participant in a group was allowed to view and imitate the guesses of others during the game. The results showed the use of social learning strategies previously studied in other species, and demonstrated benefits of social learning and nonlinear effects of group size on strategy and performance. Rather than simply encouraging conformity, groups provided information to each individual about the distribution of useful innovations in the problem space. Imitation facilitated innovation rather than displacing it, because the former allowed good solutions to be propagated and preserved for further cumulative innovations in the group. Participants generally improved their solutions through the use of fairly conservative strategies, such as changing only a small portion of one's solution at a time, and tending to imitate solutions similar to one's own. Changes in these strategies over time had the effect of making solutions increasingly entrenched, both at individual and group levels. These results showed evidence of nonlinear dynamics in the decentralization of innovation, the emergence of group phenomena from complex interactions of individual efforts, stigmergy in the use of social information, and dynamic tradeoffs between exploration and exploitation of solutions. These results also support the idea that innovation and creativity can be recognized at the group level even when group members are generally cautious and imitative.

  8. Let Cognitive Radios Imitate: Imitation-based Spectrum Access for Cognitive Radio Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Iellamo, Stefano; Coupechoux, Marceau

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we tackle the problem of opportunistic spectrum access in large-scale cognitive radio networks, where the unlicensed Secondary Users (SU) access the frequency channels partially occupied by the licensed Primary Users (PU). Each channel is characterized by an availability probability unknown to the SUs. We apply evolutionary game theory to model the spectrum access problem and develop distributed spectrum access policies based on imitation, a behavior rule widely applied in human societies consisting of imitating successful behavior. We first develop two imitation-based spectrum access policies based on the basic Proportional Imitation (PI) rule and the more advanced Double Imitation (DI) rule given that a SU can imitate any other SUs. We then adapt the proposed policies to a more practical scenario where a SU can only imitate the other SUs operating on the same channel. A systematic theoretical analysis is presented for both scenarios on the induced imitation dynamics and the convergence proper...

  9. Age-related changes in learning across early childhood: a new imitation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Kelly; Gerhardstein, Peter; Zack, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel

    2013-11-01

    Imitation plays a critical role in social and cognitive development, but the social learning mechanisms contributing to the development of imitation are not well understood. We developed a new imitation task designed to examine social learning mechanisms across the early childhood period. The new task involves assembly of abstract-shaped puzzle pieces in an arbitrary sequence on a magnet board. Additionally, we introduce a new scoring system that extends traditional goal-directed imitation scoring to include measures of both children's success at copying gestures (sliding the puzzle pieces) and goals (connecting the puzzle pieces). In Experiment 1, we demonstrated an age-invariant baseline from 1.5 to 3.5 years of age, accompanied by age-related changes in success at copying goals and gestures from a live demonstrator. In Experiment 2, we applied our new task to learning following a video demonstration. Imitation performance in the video demonstration group lagged behind that of the live demonstration group, showing a protracted video deficit effect. Across both experiments, children were more likely to copy gestures at earlier ages, suggesting mimicry, and only later copy both goals and gestures, suggesting imitation. Taken together, the findings suggest that different social learning strategies may predominate in imitation learning dependent upon the degree of object affordance, task novelty, and task complexity. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. "I Look Cool; He's Dead Now": Reconsidering Children's Violent Play Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinquemani, Shana

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses some of the photographs and videos that her students produced, and shares how their artwork serves as one way that, when given freedom and choice, children will incorporate violent play into their artmaking activities. The author argues that these images are not evidence of inherently violent, dangerous, or…

  11. "Mye Pa Spill" (A Lot at Stake) Role-Playing and Student Support: A Challenge to Both Arts and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Bjorn; Khachik, Shereen

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes a three-year action research project in a Norwegian upper secondary school, which used drama techniques and role playing to support learning for at risk students. Discusses finding a place for their program in the school context and getting this population of students to learn to trust one another, take risks, and ultimately take…

  12. The Grube Method: The Art of Teaching and Learning Useful Information by Designing and Playing a Simulation Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Karl W.

    The Grube Method of Instruction is a teaching and learning system for the acquisition and reinforcement of essential learned skills necessary for school success. The system consists of an illustrated book of useful information, a deck of standard playing cards, and an educationally designed gameboard. It is appropriate for students aged three…

  13. Turing on the "Imitation Game"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomsky, Noam

    Turing's paper has modest objectives. He dismisses the question of whether machines think as "too meaningless to deserve discussion". His "imitation game", he suggests, might stimulate inquiry into cognitive function and development of computers and software. His proposals are reminiscent of 17th century tests to investigate "other minds", but unlike Turing's, these fall within normal science, on Cartesian assumptions that minds have properties distinct from mechanism, assumptions that collapsed with Newton's undermining of "the mechanical philosophy", soon leading to the conclusion that thinking is a property of organized matter, on a par with other properties of the natural world.

  14. Imitation et communication chez le jeune enfant avec autisme

    OpenAIRE

    Bendiouis, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Our study tests the effects of training to imitation on the development of imitative and communicative skills of children with autism spectrum disorder. We selected a group of 21 children, aged between 4 and 10 years, diagnosed according to ICD-10, the ADOS and ADI-R. We followed a three-step procedure: assessment of imitative performance, learning by imitation, nonverbal communication and intensity of the disorder; training in imitation using a protocol based on the development of imitation;...

  15. Imitating human playing styles in Super Mario Bros

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortega, Juan; Shaker, Noor; Togelius, Julian

    2012-01-01

    in terms of the instrumental similarity measure and in phenomenological evaluation by human spectators. A version of the classic platform game “Super Mario Bros” is used as the testbed game in this study but the methods are applicable to other games that are based on character movement in space....

  16. Accent imitation positively affects language attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adank, Patti; Stewart, Andrew J; Connell, Louise; Wood, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    People in conversation tend to accommodate the way they speak. It has been assumed that this tendency to imitate each other's speech patterns serves to increase liking between partners in a conversation. Previous experiments examined the effect of perceived social attractiveness on the tendency to imitate someone else's speech and found that vocal imitation increased when perceived attractiveness was higher. The present experiment extends this research by examining the inverse relationship and examines how overt vocal imitation affects attitudes. Participants listened to sentences spoken by two speakers of a regional accent (Glaswegian) of English. They vocally repeated (speaking in their own accent without imitating) the sentences spoken by a Glaswegian speaker, and subsequently imitated sentences spoken by a second Glaswegian speaker (order counterbalanced across participants). After each repeating or imitation session, participants completed a questionnaire probing the speakers' perceived power, competence, and social attractiveness. Imitating had a positive effect on the perceived social attractiveness of the speaker compared to repeating. These results are interpreted in light of Communication Accommodation Theory.

  17. Action perception and imitation : a tutorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, H; Wohlschlager, A; Prinz, W; Hommel, B

    2002-01-01

    Currently, imitation, or performing an act after perceiving it, is in the focus of attention of researchers from many different disciplines. Although this tutorial attempts to provide some interdisciplinary background, it will concentrate on possible cognitive mechanisms that underlie imitation perf

  18. Imitation and speech: commonalities within Broca's area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Simone; Brass, Marcel; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2013-11-01

    The so-called embodiment of communication has attracted considerable interest. Recently a growing number of studies have proposed a link between Broca's area's involvement in action processing and its involvement in speech. The present quantitative meta-analysis set out to test whether neuroimaging studies on imitation and overt speech show overlap within inferior frontal gyrus. By means of activation likelihood estimation (ALE), we investigated concurrence of brain regions activated by object-free hand imitation studies as well as overt speech studies including simple syllable and more complex word production. We found direct overlap between imitation and speech in bilateral pars opercularis (BA 44) within Broca's area. Subtraction analyses revealed no unique localization neither for speech nor for imitation. To verify the potential of ALE subtraction analysis to detect unique involvement within Broca's area, we contrasted the results of a meta-analysis on motor inhibition and imitation and found separable regions involved for imitation. This is the first meta-analysis to compare the neural correlates of imitation and overt speech. The results are in line with the proposed evolutionary roots of speech in imitation.

  19. Jomon pottery: cord-imitating decoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Zhushchikhovskaya

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the decoration of pottery of the Neolithic Jomon culture (Japanese Archipelago, 13600–900 BC. The comb-impressed pattern produced by various kinds of cord or rope stamps is considered as the ‘calling card’ of Jomon pottery from the earliest cultural periods to the latest. Another kind of decoration recognized recently uses the cord not as a patterning tool, but as an essential motif of decorative composition. High relief elements imitate cordage forms and structures – knots, loops, hanging cord, net, etc. This kind of decoration corresponds to the pottery of Mid-dle Jomon period (3500–2500 BC sites located in northern and north-eastern Honshu and southern Hokkaido. It is supposed that the introduction of images of real material object into the field of decorative art was reasoned by the meaning of cord and cordage as cultural signs during the Middle Jomon period. Interesting parallels to some cordage structures reconstructed on Middle Jomon pottery decoration are well known in traditional Japanese culture of VI–XX cc. Analytical interpretation of this resemblance may became the subject of special research.

  20. Concurrent Imitation Dynamics in Congestion Games

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, Heiner; Fischer, Simon; Hoefer, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Imitating successful behavior is a natural and frequently applied approach to trust in when facing scenarios for which we have little or no experience upon which we can base our decision. In this paper, we consider such behavior in atomic congestion games. We propose to study concurrent imitation dynamics that emerge when each player samples another player and possibly imitates this agents' strategy if the anticipated latency gain is sufficiently large. Our main focus is on convergence properties. Using a potential function argument, we how that our dynamics converge in a monotonic fashion to stable states. In such a state none of the players can improve its latency by imitating somebody else. As our main result, we show rapid convergence to approximate equilibria. At an approximate equilibrium only a small fraction of agents sustains a latency significantly above or below average. In particular, imitation dynamics behave like fully polynomial time approximation schemes (FPTAS). Fixing all other parameters, t...

  1. Reinforcement of vocalizations through contingent vocal imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L

    2011-01-01

    Maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations is highly prevalent during face-to-face interactions of infants and their caregivers. Although maternal vocal imitation has been associated with later verbal development, its potentially reinforcing effect on infant vocalizations has not been explored experimentally. This study examined the reinforcing effect of maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations using a reversal probe BAB design. Eleven 3- to 8-month-old infants at high risk for developmental delays experienced contingent maternal vocal imitation during reinforcement conditions. Differential reinforcement of other behavior served as the control condition. The behavior of 10 infants showed evidence of a reinforcement effect. Results indicated that vocal imitations can serve to reinforce early infant vocalizations.

  2. Imitation explains the propagation, not the stability of animal culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claidière, Nicolas; Sperber, Dan

    2010-02-22

    For acquired behaviour to count as cultural, two conditions must be met: it must propagate in a social group, and it must remain stable across generations in the process of propagation. It is commonly assumed that imitation is the mechanism that explains both the spread of animal culture and its stability. We review the literature on transmission chain studies in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and other animals, and we use a formal model to argue that imitation, which may well play a major role in the propagation of animal culture, cannot be considered faithful enough to explain its stability. We consider the contribution that other psychological and ecological factors might make to the stability of animal culture observed in the wild.

  3. Dossier Imitation - Introduction générale Special section on Imitation – General introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Petit

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Dans ce dossier spécial, nous nous sommes intéressés à l’aspect ontogénique et phylogénique de l’imitation. Nous avons invité des spécialistes du développement de l’enfant et des primatologues à discuter de ce que l’imitation représente pour l’espèce humaine, de sa présence chez des espèces de primates non humains et des éventuelles similarités observées au sein de l’ordre des primates. L’imitation possède une double dimension, cognitive et sociale. En effet, les processus d’imitation impliquent des compétences cognitives qui s’inscrivent dans des contextes sociaux et culturels. Ce mode d’apprentissage soulève de nombreuses questions : Peut-on considérer l’imitation comme une compétence innée ? L’étude de son développement permet-elle de comprendre les mécanismes du fonctionnement cognitif ? L’imitation est-elle uniquement humaine ?This special issue is interested in the ontogeny and the phylogeny of imitation. We have invited experts in developmental psychology and in primatology to discuss the definition of imitation in Human, its existence in non human primate species and to address the question of similarities between the different primate species. Imitation has both a cognitive and a social dimension. Imitation involves, indeed, cognitive processes that are part of social and cultural life. Learning occurs via imitation and several questions can be asked: Is imitation innate? Will studying its ontogeny help understanding its cognitive processes? Finally, is imitation human specific?

  4. Conteúdos lúdicos, expressivos e artísticos na educação formal Playful, expressive and artistic content in formal education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline C. Castilho Moreira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A prática de atividades lúdicas ou o incentivo ao fluir expressivo e artístico são propostas que permeiam a Educação, desde a Antiguidade Clássica. Atualmente, a necessidade premente de atentar para a inclusão contextualizada dessas práticas, vem sendo convalidada pelas diretrizes propostas pelos Parâmetros Curriculares tanto das disciplinas de Educação Física, como da Educação Artística. Entretanto esse espaço, ainda sutil, merece enfoque mais incisivo, por meio de estudos mais aprofundados acompanhados de práticas direcionadas que convalidem sua relevância. Assim, este estudo, de natureza qualitativa, objetivou investigar se essas variáveis estão disponíveis dentro dos conteúdos disseminados pelos professores e se possuem um espaço destinado ou não dentro da Educação formal. Para tanto, foi realizado um estudo exploratório com trinta professores voluntários, de ambos os sexos, pesquisados in loco, com consentimento livre e esclarecido, das disciplinas de Educação Física e Artística, utilizando como instrumento, para a coleta de dados, um questionário com perguntas mistas. Os dados foram analisados descritivamente, indicando que é possível notar a presença do lúdico e da arte, em ambas as disciplinas; mediando os processos de aprendizagem. Além disso, que os professores utilizam amplamente desses recursos, no entanto, nem sempre, de forma consciente e contextualizada, e que, apesar da implantação dos parâmetros curriculares desde 1998, esse espaço ainda não está consolidado.The practices of playing activities or the incentive to the flow of artistic expression are proposals related to education, since classical antiquity. Nowadays, the crying needs to consider the contextual inclusion of these practices have been consolidated by the proposed plans for curricular standard, either in the subjects Physical Education or Arts. However, this space, tenuous, deserves a more incisive focus, by deep studies

  5. Hemisphere asymmetries for imitation of novel gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Georg; Strauss, Stefan

    2002-09-24

    Disorders of imitation are traditionally considered as a symptom of apraxia, but defective imitation of gestures can contrast with intact performance of gestures to verbal command and vice versa. It thus seems worthwhile to explore the neural basis of imitation of gestures independently of other manifestations of apraxia. To assess body part specificity of disturbances of imitation for meaningless gestures of fingers, hand, and foot. Imitation of meaningless gestures involving fingers (internal hand configuration), hand (external hand position), or foot was examined in 30 patients with left brain damage (LBD), 20 patients with right brain damage (RBD), and 20 normal control subjects. LBD affected imitation of hand and foot gestures more than imitation of finger gestures, whereas RBD had the strongest effect on finger gestures and affected foot gestures more than hand gestures. These results can be accounted for by the assumption that body part coding of gestures depends on left hemisphere function and that additional right hemisphere contributions are afforded when demands on perceptual discrimination rise.

  6. The perils of the imitation age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonabeau, Eric

    2004-06-01

    Imitation exerts enormous influence over society, and business and finance in particular. And its influence has grown as the avenues by which people imitate--and are imitated--have multiplied and the process has gotten faster. Thousands of communications channels make it possible for virtually anyone in the developed world to know, almost instantaneously, what others do, think, believe, claim, or predict. More significantly, we can and do act upon such knowledge. The resulting fads and fashions, bubbles and crashes are ever more frequent, severe, and complex. The information age has cast up more than its share of paradoxes, including this one: When information is plentiful, we often use it not to make better decisions but to imitate others--and their mistakes. In consumer purchases, financial markets, and corporate strategy, what others do matters more to us than the facts. When there's too much information, imitation becomes a convenient heuristic. This is the basis for a self-referential society. Imitation has its virtues, but it also promotes instability and unpredictability. That's because, by definition a multiplier, it can swell a single opinion into a mass movement or catapult the smallest player to the forefront of a market. Mastering the dynamics of self-reference won't ensure mastery of its consequences. But businesses that understand how imitation works can at least attempt to gird themselves against its worst effects--by accounting for it in their forecasts and risk-management plans, by becoming more sensitive to unexpectedly changing circumstances, and by avoiding mindless imitation of other companies' moves. In some instances, they may even be able to build strategies around self-reference and use the tools of imitation to capture new business. That won't make the world any less confusing. But it may make it more profitable.

  7. A Mozart is not a Pavarotti: singers outperform instrumentalists on foreign accent imitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eChristiner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings have shown that people with higher musical aptitude were also better in oral language imitation tasks. However, whether singing capacity and instrument playing contribute differently to the imitation of speech has been ignored so far. Research has just recently started to understand that instrumentalists develop quite distinct skills when compared to vocalists. In the same vein the role of the vocal motor system in language acquisition processes has poorly been investigated as most investigations (neurobiological and behavioral favor to examine speech perception. We set out to test whether the vocal motor system can influence an ability to learn, produce and perceive new languages by contrasting instrumentalists and vocalists. Therefore, we investigated 96 participants, twenty-seven instrumentalists, thirty-three vocalists and thirty-six non-musicians/non-singers. They were tested for their abilities to imitate foreign speech: unknown language (Hindi, second language (English and their musical aptitude. Results revealed that both instrumentalists and vocalists have a higher ability to imitate unintelligible speech and foreign accents than non-musicians/non-singers. Within the musician group, vocalists outperformed instrumentalists significantly. Conclusion: first, adaptive plasticity for speech imitation is not reliant on audition alone but also on vocal-motor induced processes. Second, vocal flexibility of singers goes together with higher speech imitation aptitude. Third, vocal motor training, as of singers, may speed up foreign language acquisition processes.

  8. A Mozart is not a Pavarotti: singers outperform instrumentalists on foreign accent imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiner, Markus; Reiterer, Susanne Maria

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings have shown that people with higher musical aptitude were also better in oral language imitation tasks. However, whether singing capacity and instrument playing contribute differently to the imitation of speech has been ignored so far. Research has just recently started to understand that instrumentalists develop quite distinct skills when compared to vocalists. In the same vein the role of the vocal motor system in language acquisition processes has poorly been investigated as most investigations (neurobiological and behavioral) favor to examine speech perception. We set out to test whether the vocal motor system can influence an ability to learn, produce and perceive new languages by contrasting instrumentalists and vocalists. Therefore, we investigated 96 participants, 27 instrumentalists, 33 vocalists and 36 non-musicians/non-singers. They were tested for their abilities to imitate foreign speech: unknown language (Hindi), second language (English) and their musical aptitude. Results revealed that both instrumentalists and vocalists have a higher ability to imitate unintelligible speech and foreign accents than non-musicians/non-singers. Within the musician group, vocalists outperformed instrumentalists significantly. First, adaptive plasticity for speech imitation is not reliant on audition alone but also on vocal-motor induced processes. Second, vocal flexibility of singers goes together with higher speech imitation aptitude. Third, vocal motor training, as of singers, may speed up foreign language acquisition processes.

  9. Kinematic analysis of movement imitation in apraxia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hermsdörfer, J; Mai, N; Spatt, J; Marquardt, C; Veltkamp, R; Goldenberg, G

    1996-01-01

    Accuracy of the final position and kinematics of movement were analysed during the imitation of meaningless gestures in patients with unilateral brain lesions who performed with the hand ipsilateral...

  10. Does visual perspective matter in imitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambrook, T D

    1998-01-01

    Theories purporting to explain the cognitive processes underlying imitation and its taxonomic distribution have proliferated in recent years but a common assumption is that imitators must adopt a model's mental or visual perspective. Data on thirty-six adult subjects were used to test the hypothesis that imitative learning of knots would suffer a decrement proportional to the disparity of visual perspectives on the task that the subject held between observation and performance. There was no significant effect of visual perspective on performance, nor was there a trend in the predicted direction. This was in spite of significant preferences on the part of subjects for minimising the angle of disparity, assessed both by their behaviour and introspective report. The cognitive basis for human imitation is discussed in the light of these findings.

  11. Cooperation under indirect reciprocity and imitative trust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei Saavedra

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors.

  12. Cooperation under indirect reciprocity and imitative trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Smith, David; Reed-Tsochas, Felix

    2010-10-27

    Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating) does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors.

  13. Bimanual Gesture Imitation in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin, G Nter; Benke, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Unimanual gesture production or imitation has often been studied in Alzheimer's disease (AD) during apraxia testing. In the present study, it was hypothesized that bimanual motor tasks may be a sensitive method to detect impairments of motor cognition in AD due to increased demands on the cognitive system. We investigated bimanual, meaningless gesture imitation in 45 AD outpatients, 38 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 50 normal controls (NC) attending a memory clinic. Participants performed neuropsychological background testing and three tasks: the Interlocking Finger Test (ILF), Imitation of Alternating Hand Movements (AHM), and Bimanual Rhythm Tapping (BRT). The tasks were short and easy to administer. Inter-rater reliability was high across all three tests. AD patients performed significantly poorer than NC and MCI participants; a deficit to imitate bimanual gestures was rarely found in MCI and NC participants. Sensitivity to detect AD ranged from 0.5 and 0.7, specificity beyond 0.9. ROC analyses revealed good diagnostic accuracy (0.77 to 0.92). Impairment to imitate bimanual gestures was mainly predicted by diagnosis and disease severity. Our findings suggest that an impairment to imitate bimanual, meaningless gestures is a valid disease marker of mild to moderate AD and can easily be assessed in memory clinic settings. Based on our preliminary findings, it appears to be a separate impairment which can be distinguished from other cognitive deficits.

  14. INNOVATION, IMITATION, AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP: THE INTRODUCTION AND DIFFUSION OF THE HOMEOWNERS POLICY, 1944-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paul Rossi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the introduction of the homeowners policy in the United States insurance market in the I950s to explore the process of innovation and the role that innovators (entrepreneurs and imitators play within it through an examination of Schumpeter’s theory of innovation and its discussion in the recent economic literature on innovation and imitation. Schumpeter’s model of entrepreneurial innovation is tested through a case study of the homeowners policy’s introduction in 1950 and its subsequent diffusion throughout the decade. The policy was an innovative product which helped transform the property-casualty sector of the insurance industry. Thus, this case study supports Schumpeter’s model of entrepreneurial innovation and illustrates the significant role that imitation plays within it.

  15. Chladni's clavicylinder and some imitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, B.

    2007-06-01

    Chladni's accomplishments in the field of instrument making were until recently not nearly as well-respected as his studies on the modes of vibration of plates and rods. However, he had developed his own friction instruments based on the glass harmonica, a popular instrument of his time. The instruments, which he partially built himself, had keys, which distinguished them from the glass harmonica. Additionally, these instruments differed from traditional keyboard instruments as they enabled the crescendo and decrescendo of individual notes after the key had been struck. Although Chladni's clavicylinder fascinated audiences and prompted imitations by many instrument makers, it was largely ignored by composers and pianists and therefore never became part of standard orchestration. The Museum of Musical Instruments of the University of Leipzig features three rare examples of friction instruments which have outlasted the centuries. These instruments were built according to the Chladni principle. After a thorough analysis, including the production of individual notes, these instruments will be presented in their cultural-historical as well as their technical context, followed by a discussion of their advantages and disadvantages. These originals exhibits allow for a conclusive comprehension of Chladni's ideas and his quest for new, unusual tone colors.

  16. Into the Curriculum. Art: Worm Art; Reading/Language Arts: Writer's Briefcase; Reading/Language Arts: Word Play with "Kid Pix"; Science/Language Arts: Wiggle into the Library Media Center; Science: From a Seed to a Plant; Science: Seed Growth; Social Studies: Ancient Greece and Rome: Crossword Puzzle Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazergian, Carol; Marine, Cathy; Humphrey, Mary; Craig, Mary; Parker, Meredith L.; Palomaki, Julie; Willingham, Susan L.

    2002-01-01

    Provides seven fully developed library media activities that are designed for use with specific curriculum units in art, reading, language arts, science, and social studies. Library media skills, curriculum objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, procedures, evaluations, and follow-up are described for each activity. (LRW)

  17. Promoting Imitation in Young Children with Autism: A Comparison of Reciprocal Imitation Training and Video Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Teresa A.; Wilcox, M. Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    The inability to imitate is a salient diagnostic marker for autism. It has been suggested that for children with autism, imitation may be a prerequisite skill that can assist in the development of various skills. Using a multiple baseline design across subjects, the purpose of this research was to determine if two interventions, reciprocal…

  18. Arte en la Clase para Personas Incapacitadas (Art in the Classroom for Handicapped Persons).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Committee, Arts for the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    The Spanish translation contains a collection of arts strategies intended to stimulate, motivate, and teach basic skills to handicapped children. The lessons involve one or more of the basic art forms (movement, music, drama, and art) and are further divided into five levels of aesthetic development: awareness, imitation, self-initiation, skill…

  19. Arte en la Clase para Personas Incapacitadas (Art in the Classroom for Handicapped Persons).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Committee, Arts for the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    The Spanish translation contains a collection of arts strategies intended to stimulate, motivate, and teach basic skills to handicapped children. The lessons involve one or more of the basic art forms (movement, music, drama, and art) and are further divided into five levels of aesthetic development: awareness, imitation, self-initiation, skill…

  20. Song and speech: examining the link between singing talent and speech imitation ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiner, Markus; Reiterer, Susanne M

    2013-01-01

    In previous research on speech imitation, musicality, and an ability to sing were isolated as the strongest indicators of good pronunciation skills in foreign languages. We, therefore, wanted to take a closer look at the nature of the ability to sing, which shares a common ground with the ability to imitate speech. This study focuses on whether good singing performance predicts good speech imitation. Forty-one singers of different levels of proficiency were selected for the study and their ability to sing, to imitate speech, their musical talent and working memory were tested. Results indicated that singing performance is a better indicator of the ability to imitate speech than the playing of a musical instrument. A multiple regression revealed that 64% of the speech imitation score variance could be explained by working memory together with educational background and singing performance. A second multiple regression showed that 66% of the speech imitation variance of completely unintelligible and unfamiliar language stimuli (Hindi) could be explained by working memory together with a singer's sense of rhythm and quality of voice. This supports the idea that both vocal behaviors have a common grounding in terms of vocal and motor flexibility, ontogenetic and phylogenetic development, neural orchestration and auditory memory with singing fitting better into the category of "speech" on the productive level and "music" on the acoustic level. As a result, good singers benefit from vocal and motor flexibility, productively and cognitively, in three ways. (1) Motor flexibility and the ability to sing improve language and musical function. (2) Good singers retain a certain plasticity and are open to new and unusual sound combinations during adulthood both perceptually and productively. (3) The ability to sing improves the memory span of the auditory working memory.

  1. Song and speech: examining the link between singing talent and speech imitation ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eChristiner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In previous research on speech imitation, musicality and an ability to sing were isolated as the strongest indicators of good pronunciation skills in foreign languages. We, therefore, wanted to take a closer look at the nature of the ability to sing, which shares a common ground with the ability to imitate speech. This study focuses on whether good singing performance predicts good speech imitation. Fourty-one singers of different levels of proficiency were selected for the study and their ability to sing, to imitate speech, their musical talent and working memory were tested. Results indicated that singing performance is a better indicator of the ability to imitate speech than the playing of a musical instrument. A multiple regression revealed that 64 % of the speech imitation score variance could be explained by working memory together with educational background and singing performance. A second multiple regression showed that 66 % of the speech imitation variance of completely unintelligible and unfamiliar language stimuli (Hindi could be explained by working memory together with a singer’s sense of rhythm and quality of voice. This supports the idea that both vocal behaviors have a common grounding in terms of vocal and motor flexibility, ontogenetic and phylogenetic development, neural orchestration and sound memory with singing fitting better into the category of "speech" on the productive level and "music" on the acoustic level. As a result, good singers benefit from vocal and motor flexibility, productively and cognitively, in three ways. 1. Motor flexibility and the ability to sing improve language and musical function. 2. Good singers retain a certain plasticity and are open to new and unusual sound combinations during adulthood both perceptually and productively. 3. The ability to sing improves the memory span of the auditory short term memory.

  2. Song and speech: examining the link between singing talent and speech imitation ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiner, Markus; Reiterer, Susanne M.

    2013-01-01

    In previous research on speech imitation, musicality, and an ability to sing were isolated as the strongest indicators of good pronunciation skills in foreign languages. We, therefore, wanted to take a closer look at the nature of the ability to sing, which shares a common ground with the ability to imitate speech. This study focuses on whether good singing performance predicts good speech imitation. Forty-one singers of different levels of proficiency were selected for the study and their ability to sing, to imitate speech, their musical talent and working memory were tested. Results indicated that singing performance is a better indicator of the ability to imitate speech than the playing of a musical instrument. A multiple regression revealed that 64% of the speech imitation score variance could be explained by working memory together with educational background and singing performance. A second multiple regression showed that 66% of the speech imitation variance of completely unintelligible and unfamiliar language stimuli (Hindi) could be explained by working memory together with a singer's sense of rhythm and quality of voice. This supports the idea that both vocal behaviors have a common grounding in terms of vocal and motor flexibility, ontogenetic and phylogenetic development, neural orchestration and auditory memory with singing fitting better into the category of “speech” on the productive level and “music” on the acoustic level. As a result, good singers benefit from vocal and motor flexibility, productively and cognitively, in three ways. (1) Motor flexibility and the ability to sing improve language and musical function. (2) Good singers retain a certain plasticity and are open to new and unusual sound combinations during adulthood both perceptually and productively. (3) The ability to sing improves the memory span of the auditory working memory. PMID:24319438

  3. Preschool-aged children's jumps: imitation performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labiadh, Lazhar; Ramanantsoa, Marie-Martine; Golomer, Eveline

    2010-04-01

    Imitative behavior underlaid by perception and action links during children's development in complex locomotor skills has been the object of relatively few studies. In order to explore children's motor coordination modes, 130 children divided into five age groups from 3.5 to 7.5 years were instructed to imitate jumping tasks in spontaneous motor situation and in various imitative contexts by an adult providing verbal orders and gestural demonstrations. Their conformity to the model, stability and variability scores were coded from a video analysis when they performed jumps with obstacles. To evaluate their postural-motor control level, the durations of the preparatory phase and jumping flights were also timed. Results showed that all age groups generated the demonstrator's goal but not necessarily the same coordination modes of jumping. In imitation with temporal proximity, the model helped the youngest age groups to adopt his coordination modes and stabilized only the oldest age groups' performances starting from 5.5 years old, without effect on learning imitation. Differences between the youngest and oldest children in the jump duration suggested that the reproduction of a complex motor activity such as jumping with a one foot take-off would require resolution and adjustment of main postural stability.

  4. An automated procedure for evaluating song imitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Mandelblat-Cerf

    Full Text Available Songbirds have emerged as an excellent model system to understand the neural basis of vocal and motor learning. Like humans, songbirds learn to imitate the vocalizations of their parents or other conspecific "tutors." Young songbirds learn by comparing their own vocalizations to the memory of their tutor song, slowly improving until over the course of several weeks they can achieve an excellent imitation of the tutor. Because of the slow progression of vocal learning, and the large amounts of singing generated, automated algorithms for quantifying vocal imitation have become increasingly important for studying the mechanisms underlying this process. However, methodologies for quantifying song imitation are complicated by the highly variable songs of either juvenile birds or those that learn poorly because of experimental manipulations. Here we present a method for the evaluation of song imitation that incorporates two innovations: First, an automated procedure for selecting pupil song segments, and, second, a new algorithm, implemented in Matlab, for computing both song acoustic and sequence similarity. We tested our procedure using zebra finch song and determined a set of acoustic features for which the algorithm optimally differentiates between similar and non-similar songs.

  5. Teaching Generalized Imitation Skills to a Preschooler with Autism Using Video Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeberger, Vickie; Mirenda, Pat

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of video modeling to teach a preschooler with autism to imitate previously mastered and not mastered actions during song and toy play activities. A general case approach was used to examine the instructional universe of preschool songs and select exemplars that were most likely to facilitate generalization.…

  6. Social Context Effects in 2- and 4-Year-Olds' Selective versus Faithful Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    This study asked whether children's tendency to imitate selectively (ignore causally unnecessary actions) versus faithfully ("overimitate" causally unnecessary actions) varies across ages and social contexts. In the first experiment, 2-year-olds and 4-year-olds were randomly assigned to play 1 of 3 prior games with a demonstrator: a…

  7. Infants prefer to imitate a reliable person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Brooker, Ivy; Polonia, Alexandra

    2011-04-01

    Research has shown that preschoolers prefer to learn from individuals who are a reliable source of information. The current study examined whether the past reliability of a person's emotional signals influences infants' willingness to imitate that person. An emotional referencing task was first administered to infants in order to demonstrate the experimenter's credibility or lack thereof. Next, infants in both conditions watched as the same experimenter turned on a touch light using her forehead. Infants were then given the opportunity to reproduce this novel action. As expected, infants in the unreliable condition developed the expectation that the person's emotional cues were misleading. Thus, these infants were subsequently more likely to use their hands than their foreheads when attempting to turn on the light. In contrast, infants in the reliable group were more likely to imitate the experimenter's action using their foreheads. These results suggest that the reliability of the model influences infants' imitation.

  8. Accelerating Reinforcement Learning through Implicit Imitation

    CERN Document Server

    Boutilier, C; 10.1613/jair.898

    2011-01-01

    Imitation can be viewed as a means of enhancing learning in multiagent environments. It augments an agent's ability to learn useful behaviors by making intelligent use of the knowledge implicit in behaviors demonstrated by cooperative teachers or other more experienced agents. We propose and study a formal model of implicit imitation that can accelerate reinforcement learning dramatically in certain cases. Roughly, by observing a mentor, a reinforcement-learning agent can extract information about its own capabilities in, and the relative value of, unvisited parts of the state space. We study two specific instantiations of this model, one in which the learning agent and the mentor have identical abilities, and one designed to deal with agents and mentors with different action sets. We illustrate the benefits of implicit imitation by integrating it with prioritized sweeping, and demonstrating improved performance and convergence through observation of single and multiple mentors. Though we make some stringent ...

  9. Does art imitate death? Depictions of suicide in fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; Walter, Garry

    2013-02-01

    To determine whether fiction (narrative products) deals with the issue of suicide and, if so, what it tells us about suicide "drivers". Accounts of suicide in narrative products were sought through web-based lists, book club members, other active readers and a prize-winning film writer and producer. Seventy-one depictions of fictional suicidal events were identified. In 12 suicides, the author appeared to indicate that the death was directly or indirectly due to mental disorder. In 15 suicides, the motivation could not be determined by the reader, and in 44 cases the motivation was social/situational factors. Suicidal events are depicted in fiction, and the features are broadly similar to the features of suicide in the real world. Should it be determined that cultural influences, including fiction, are important in suicide, any preventive activities aimed at modifying cultural influences will need to consider all forms of narrative product.

  10. The Imitation Game: Alan Turings enigmatiske imitationsspil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2015-01-01

    Alan Turing revolutionerede computervidenskaben og modtog først verdens anerkendelse længe efter sin død. Nu sætter filmen 'The Imitation Game', der har premiere i Danmark 29. januar 2015, fokus på det oversete geni.......Alan Turing revolutionerede computervidenskaben og modtog først verdens anerkendelse længe efter sin død. Nu sætter filmen 'The Imitation Game', der har premiere i Danmark 29. januar 2015, fokus på det oversete geni....

  11. Children's Representation and Imitation of Events: How Goal Organization Influences 3-Year-Old Children's Memory for Action Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Jeff; Mutschler, Christina; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2016-11-24

    Children's imitation of adults plays a prominent role in human cognitive development. However, few studies have investigated how children represent the complex structure of observed actions which underlies their imitation. We integrate theories of action segmentation, memory, and imitation to investigate whether children's event representation is organized according to veridical serial order or a higher level goal structure. Children were randomly assigned to learn novel event sequences either through interactive hands-on experience (Study 1) or via storybook (Study 2). Results demonstrate that children's representation of observed actions is organized according to higher level goals, even at the cost of representing the veridical temporal ordering of the sequence. We argue that prioritizing goal structure enhances event memory, and that this mental organization is a key mechanism of social-cognitive development in real-world, dynamic environments. It supports cultural learning and imitation in ecologically valid settings when social agents are multitasking and not demonstrating one isolated goal at a time.

  12. Play: Dormant Issues and New Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Brian

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the role of play in development from both cultural-evolutionary and ontogenetic-historical perspectives. These perspectives illuminate how play and imitation are important for the developing individual who is seen as influencing a changing cultural environment. (Author/RH)

  13. Imitation and Creativity: Beneficial Effects of Propulsion Strategies and Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecca, Jensen T.; Mumford, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Prior studies examining imitation of exemplar solutions have produced a mixed pattern of findings with some studies indicating that exemplar imitation contributes to creative problem-solving and other studies indicating that it may inhibit creative problem-solving. In the present effort, it is argued that the effects of exemplar imitation on…

  14. Nurturance and Imitation: The Mediating Role of Attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, David A.; Siebold, James R.

    1975-01-01

    Describes two experiments which examine the relationship between nurturance, attraction, and imitation. The results showed a significant relationship between nurturance and attraction and no relationship between nurturance and imitation. This suggests that positive relationships between nurturance and imitation are mediated by the child's…

  15. Time Course Analyses Confirm Independence of Imitative and Spatial Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catmur, Caroline; Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Imitative compatibility, or automatic imitation, has been used as a measure of imitative performance and as a behavioral index of the functioning of the human mirror system (e.g., Brass, Bekkering, Wohlschlager, & Prinz, 2000; Heyes, Bird, Johnson, & Haggard, 2005; Kilner, Paulignan, & Blakemore, 2003). However, the use of imitative…

  16. Are Automatic Imitation and Spatial Compatibility Mediated by Different Processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard P.; Catmur, Caroline; Heyes, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Automatic imitation or "imitative compatibility" is thought to be mediated by the mirror neuron system and to be a laboratory model of the motor mimicry that occurs spontaneously in naturalistic social interaction. Imitative compatibility and spatial compatibility effects are known to depend on different stimulus dimensions--body…

  17. Tom Sawyer,an Imitated Autobiographical Book

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐廷君

    2009-01-01

    Mark Twain's masterpiece children novel The Adventures of Tom Sawyer is critically agreed autobiographical novel.The author has left behind a wealth of autobiographical materials supposing it.But the novel is not an original one.The author also has also borrowed many from other writers.So it is considered an imitated autobiographical book.

  18. The Effects of Race on Imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Andrea; Stephan, Walter

    1978-01-01

    Examines the effects of the race of a model and the consequences of his behavior on children's imitation. White and Black first, third, and fifth grade boys and girls were exposed to filmed tasks performed by both White and Black peer models. (BD)

  19. Imitative Behavior by Down's Syndrome Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Silverstein, A. B.

    1979-01-01

    Three Scales of imitative behavior (nonverbal, vocal, and verbal) were administered to 28 Down's syndrome Ss (mean age 26 years) and 56 Ss (mean age 26.8 years) with other diagnoses in order to test the hypothesis that Down's syndrome individuals "are outstanding in their mimicry". (Author/PHR)

  20. Effect of meaning on apraxic finger imitation deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles, E I S; Fink, G R; Fischer, M H; Dovern, A; Held, A; Timpert, D C; Schroeter, C; Schuetz, K; Kloetzsch, C; Weiss, P H

    2016-02-01

    Apraxia typically results from left-hemispheric (LH), but also from right-hemispheric (RH) stroke, and often impairs gesture imitation. Especially in LH stroke, it is important to differentiate apraxia-induced gesture imitation deficits from those due to co-morbid aphasia and associated semantic deficits, possibly influencing the imitation of meaningful (MF) gestures. To explore this issue, we first investigated if the 10 supposedly meaningless (ML) gestures of a widely used finger imitation test really carry no meaning, or if the test also contains MF gestures, by asking healthy subjects (n=45) to classify these gestures as MF or ML. Most healthy subjects (98%) classified three of the 10 gestures as clearly MF. Only two gestures were considered predominantly ML. We next assessed how imitation in stroke patients (255 LH, 113 RH stroke) is influenced by gesture meaning and how aphasia influences imitation of LH stroke patients (n=208). All patients and especially patients with imitation deficits (17% of LH, 27% of RH stroke patients) imitated MF gestures significantly better than ML gestures. Importantly, meaningfulness-scores of all 10 gestures significantly predicted imitation scores of patients with imitation deficits. Furthermore, especially in LH stroke patients with imitation deficits, the severity of aphasia significantly influenced the imitation of MF, but not ML gestures. Our findings in a large patient cohort support current cognitive models of imitation and strongly suggest that ML gestures are particularly sensitive to detect imitation deficits while minimising confounding effects of aphasia which affect the imitation of MF gestures in LH stroke patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. La sofferenza nell'arte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Bonito Oliva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between art and suffering is determined by art’s ability to represent its subjects without defining them. It is a process of subtraction rather than one of sheer imitation. This practice allows access to the core of suffering as the defining trait of human existence. The cathartic nature of art translates into a therapeutic experience, creating new emotional and interpersonal bounds.

  2. Imitation and Innovation: The Dual Engines of Cultural Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Cristine H; Nielsen, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Imitation and innovation work in tandem to support cultural learning in children and facilitate our capacity for cumulative culture. Here we propose an integrated theoretical account of how the unique demands of acquiring instrumental skills and cultural conventions provide insight into when children imitate, when they innovate, and to what degree. For instrumental learning, with an increase in experience, high fidelity imitation decreases and innovation increases. By contrast, for conventional learning, imitative fidelity stays high, regardless of experience, and innovation stays low. We synthesize cutting edge research on the development of imitative flexibility and innovation to provide insight into the social learning mechanisms underpinning the uniquely human mind.

  3. Imitation in infancy: the development of mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan S

    2007-07-01

    Parents of 162 infants ages 6 to 20 months modeled subsets of four of the same set of eight behaviors, each for a maximum of 3 min, and encouraged their infants to imitate. Proportions of infants producing each behavior (a) when it was modeled and (b) during modeling of a different behavior were compared to estimate the age at which infants mimicked each kind of behavior. No reproduction of these motor acts--that is, no mimicry--was observed at 6 months. Mimicry appeared to develop slowly through most of the 2nd year, emerging at different ages for different behaviors. The findings suggest that newborns' behavioral matching may not be continuous with mimicry later in infancy. Imitation is probably not one behavioral competency with one underlying mechanism. It is more likely a category of different ways of combining and using different types of knowledge, some of which develop across the first 2 years of life.

  4. Facial Expression Synthesis Based on Imitation

    OpenAIRE

    Yihjia Tsai; Hwei Jen Lin; Fu Wen Yang

    2012-01-01

    It is an interesting and challenging problem to synthesise vivid facial expression images. In this paper, we propose a facial expression synthesis system which imitates a reference facial expression image according to the difference between shape feature vectors of the neutral image and expression image. To improve the result, two stages of postprocessing are involved. We focus on the facial expressions of happiness, sadness, and surprise. Experimental results show vivid and flexible results.

  5. Innovation, Imitation and Competitive Value Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Corniani, Margherita

    2012-01-01

    The most widespread kind of innovation in global markets is incremental innovation, which modifies business processes, typically without visible manifestations outside the company. Incremental innovation is also applied to products, bringing changes to their characteristics, and/or impacting on the supply profile, with the aim of attracting customers and even of stealing them from competitors. These incremental innovations are usually the result of imitation processes that are the effect of t...

  6. Emulation, imitation, over-imitation and the scope of culture for child and chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Andrew; McGuigan, Nicola; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Hopper, Lydia M

    2009-08-27

    We describe our recent studies of imitation and cultural transmission in chimpanzees and children, which question late twentieth-century characterizations of children as imitators, but chimpanzees as emulators. As emulation entails learning only about the results of others' actions, it has been thought to curtail any capacity to sustain cultures. Recent chimpanzee diffusion experiments have by contrast documented a significant capacity for copying local behavioural traditions. Additionally, in recent 'ghost' experiments with no model visible, chimpanzees failed to replicate the object movements on which emulation is supposed to focus. We conclude that chimpanzees rely more on imitation and have greater cultural capacities than previously acknowledged. However, we also find that they selectively apply a range of social learning processes that include emulation. Recent studies demonstrating surprisingly unselective 'over-imitation' in children suggest that children's propensity to imitate has been underestimated too. We discuss the implications of these developments for the nature of social learning and culture in the two species. Finally, our new experiments directly address cumulative cultural learning. Initial results demonstrate a relative conservatism and conformity in chimpanzees' learning, contrasting with cumulative cultural learning in young children. This difference may contribute much to the contrast in these species' capacities for cultural evolution.

  7. Investigating the Relationship between Stable Personality Characteristics and Automatic Imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Emily E; Ward, Robert; Ramsey, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Automatic imitation is a cornerstone of nonverbal communication that fosters rapport between interaction partners. Recent research has suggested that stable dimensions of personality are antecedents to automatic imitation, but the empirical evidence linking imitation with personality traits is restricted to a few studies with modest sample sizes. Additionally, atypical imitation has been documented in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but the mechanisms underpinning these behavioural profiles remain unclear. Using a larger sample than prior studies (N=243), the current study tested whether performance on a computer-based automatic imitation task could be predicted by personality traits associated with social behaviour (extraversion and agreeableness) and with disorders of social cognition (autistic-like and schizotypal traits). Further personality traits (narcissism and empathy) were assessed in a subsample of participants (N=57). Multiple regression analyses showed that personality measures did not predict automatic imitation. In addition, using a similar analytical approach to prior studies, no differences in imitation performance emerged when only the highest and lowest 20 participants on each trait variable were compared. These data weaken support for the view that stable personality traits are antecedents to automatic imitation and that neural mechanisms thought to support automatic imitation, such as the mirror neuron system, are dysfunctional in autism spectrum disorders or schizophrenia. In sum, the impact that personality variables have on automatic imitation is less universal than initial reports suggest.

  8. Investigating the Relationship between Stable Personality Characteristics and Automatic Imitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily E Butler

    Full Text Available Automatic imitation is a cornerstone of nonverbal communication that fosters rapport between interaction partners. Recent research has suggested that stable dimensions of personality are antecedents to automatic imitation, but the empirical evidence linking imitation with personality traits is restricted to a few studies with modest sample sizes. Additionally, atypical imitation has been documented in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but the mechanisms underpinning these behavioural profiles remain unclear. Using a larger sample than prior studies (N=243, the current study tested whether performance on a computer-based automatic imitation task could be predicted by personality traits associated with social behaviour (extraversion and agreeableness and with disorders of social cognition (autistic-like and schizotypal traits. Further personality traits (narcissism and empathy were assessed in a subsample of participants (N=57. Multiple regression analyses showed that personality measures did not predict automatic imitation. In addition, using a similar analytical approach to prior studies, no differences in imitation performance emerged when only the highest and lowest 20 participants on each trait variable were compared. These data weaken support for the view that stable personality traits are antecedents to automatic imitation and that neural mechanisms thought to support automatic imitation, such as the mirror neuron system, are dysfunctional in autism spectrum disorders or schizophrenia. In sum, the impact that personality variables have on automatic imitation is less universal than initial reports suggest.

  9. Object-directed imitation in children with high-functioning autism: testing the social motivation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Mark; Slaughter, Virginia; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2013-02-01

    Children with autism show clear deficits in copying others' bodily oriented actions whereas their capacity for replicating others' object-directed actions appears relatively spared. One explanation is that unlike bodily oriented actions, object-directed actions have tangible, functional outcomes and hence rely far less on social motivations for their production. To investigate this, we compared the performance of a group of children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and a group of typically developing (TD) children on two distinct object-directed tasks that are considered highly social: overimitation and synchronic imitation. Our findings were surprising. The HFA children copied all of a modeling adult's actions, including those that had no function or purpose (i.e. they overimitated), and they entered into extended bouts repeating an arbitrary action along with the adult who had a similar object to play with (i.e. they engaged in synchronic imitation). Moreover, they did so at rates indistinguishable from the TD children. This work demonstrates that the capacity and propensity for overimitation and synchronic imitation are intact in children with HFA, and questions whether socially based imitation should be considered an autism-specific deficit.

  10. CONVERGING TOWARDS A COMMON SPEECH CODE: IMITATIVE AND PERCEPTUO-MOTOR RECALIBRATION PROCESSES IN SPEECH PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eSato

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Auditory and somatosensory systems play a key role in speech motor control. In the act of speaking, segmental speech movements are programmed to reach phonemic sensory goals, which in turn are used to estimate actual sensory feedback in order to further control production. The adult’s tendency to automatically imitate a number of acoustic-phonetic characteristics in another speaker's speech however suggests that speech production not only relies on the intended phonemic sensory goals and actual sensory feedback but also on the processing of external speech inputs. These online adaptive changes in speech production, or phonetic convergence effects, are thought to facilitate conversational exchange by contributing to setting a common perceptuo-motor ground between the speaker and the listener. In line with previous studies on phonetic convergence, we here demonstrate, in a non-interactive situation of communication, online unintentional and voluntary imitative changes in relevant acoustic features of acoustic vowel targets (fundamental and first formant frequencies during speech production and imitation. In addition, perceptuo-motor recalibration processes, or after-effects, occurred not only after vowel production and imitation but also after auditory categorization of the acoustic vowel targets. Altogether, these findings demonstrate adaptive plasticity of phonemic sensory-motor goals and suggest that, apart from sensory-motor knowledge, speech production continuously draws on perceptual learning from the external speech environment.

  11. Why do Dolphins Play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan A. Kuczaj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Play is an important aspect of dolphin life, perhaps even an essential one. Play provides opportunities for dolphin calves to practice and perfect locomotor skills, including those involved in foraging and mating strategies and behaviors. Play also allows dolphin calves to learn important social skills and acquire information about the characteristics and predispositions of members of their social group, particularly their peers. In addition to helping dolphin calves learn how to behave, play also provides valuable opportunities for them to learn how to think. The ability to create and control play contexts enables dolphins to create novel experiences for themselves and their playmates under relatively safe conditions. The behavioral variability and individual creativity that characterize dolphin play yield ample opportunities for individual cognitive development as well as social learning, and sometimes result in innovations that are reproduced by other members of the group. Although adults sometimes produce innovative play, calves are the primary source of such innovations. Calves are also more likely to imitate novel play behaviors than are adults, and so calves contribute significantly to both the creation and transmission of novel play behaviors within a group. Not unexpectedly, then, the complexity of dolphin play increases with the involvement of peers. As a result, the opportunity to observe and/or interact with other dolphin calves enhances the effects of play on the acquisition and maintenance of flexible problem solving skills, the emergence and strengthening of social and communicative competencies, and the establishment of social relationships. It seems that play may have evolved to help young dolphins learn to adapt to novel situations in both their physical and social worlds, the beneficial result being a set of abilities that increases the likelihood that an individual survives and reproduces.

  12. Towards art content in original graphic arts

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary Graphic art defines numerous graphic art techniques; from classical original graphic art techniques to the new media techniques. The new media reproduction and communication capacity influences contemporary art works in such way that more attention is on non-artistic content, while artistic content with its visual efficiency becomes less important. Reproductibility is one of the non-artistic contents which plays a key role in original graphic arts, where it is a means of making o...

  13. Modeling the neural correlates of imitation from a neuropsychological perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Petreska, Biljana

    2009-01-01

    Imitation is a fundamental mechanism by which humans learn and understand the actions of others. This thesis addresses the low-level neural mechanisms underlying the imitation of meaningless gestures, using tools from computational neuroscience. We investigate how the human brain perceives these gestures and translates them into appropriate motor commands. In addition, we take a relatively unexplored neuropsychological perspective, which looks at imitation following a brain lesion. The analys...

  14. The influence of goals on movement kinematics during imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Kelly S; Poliakoff, Ellen; Jerrison, Andrew; Gowen, Emma

    2010-07-01

    This study took a quantitative approach to investigate movement kinematics during the imitation of goal-directed and non-goal directed movements. Motion tracking equipment was used to record the hand movements of 15 healthy participants during an imitation task involving aiming movements that varied in speed. We predicted that movement kinematics would be most similar to the observed movements in the non-goal condition, as a result of direct visuomotor mapping of the action, and least similar in the goal-directed condition because more importance would be given to the end goal. We also predicted that precues (prior information about the movement) would increase imitation accuracy in the non-goal condition by reducing cognitive demand, and that precues would reduce accuracy in the goal-directed condition, as less attention would be paid to the movement. Results showed that imitation was modulated by the speed of the observed action in the non-goal condition only. Contrary to predictions, precues did not improve imitation in the non-goal condition or improve imitation accuracy in the goal-directed condition. These results demonstrate that visuomotor mapping is favoured in non-goal imitation, regardless of prior information, and that accurate imitation of movement detail is compromised by the presence of goals. Such differences in movement kinematics indicate that different processes mediate the imitation of non-goal and goal-directed actions.

  15. Behavioral approaches to promoting play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahmer, Aubyn C; Ingersoll, Brooke; Carter, Cynthia

    2003-12-01

    A variety of techniques grounded in behavioral psychology, and more specifically in applied behavior analysis, have been established to increase and improve play skills in children with autistic spectrum disorders. This article introduces a set of efficacious methods, which range from highly structured techniques to more naturalistic strategies. It focuses on object play as other authors in the issue discuss social play in greater depth. Behavioral techniques that are reviewed include: discrete trial training, use of stereotyped behaviors to increase play skills, pivotal response training, reciprocal imitation training, differential reinforcement of appropriate behavior, in vivo modeling and play scripts, and video modeling. A discussion of expanding behavior techniques to teach more complex play as well as training in varied environments is also presented. References are provided to allow the reader to obtain more in-depth information about each technique.

  16. Identification of Imitation Cheese and Imitation Ice Cream Based on Vegetable Fat Using NMR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Monakhova, Yulia B.; Rolf Godelmann; Claudia Andlauer; Thomas Kuballa; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetable oils and fats may be used as cheap substitutes for milk fat to manufacture imitation cheese or imitation ice cream. In this study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of the fat fraction of the products was used in the context of food surveillance to validate the labeling of milk-based products. For sample preparation, the fat was extracted using an automated Weibull-Stoldt methodology. Using principal component analysis (PCA), imitation products can be easily dete...

  17. Neuroprosthetic Decoder Training as Imitation Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Merel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuroprosthetic brain-computer interfaces function via an algorithm which decodes neural activity of the user into movements of an end effector, such as a cursor or robotic arm. In practice, the decoder is often learned by updating its parameters while the user performs a task. When the user's intention is not directly observable, recent methods have demonstrated value in training the decoder against a surrogate for the user's intended movement. Here we show that training a decoder in this way is a novel variant of an imitation learning problem, where an oracle or expert is employed for supervised training in lieu of direct observations, which are not available. Specifically, we describe how a generic imitation learning meta-algorithm, dataset aggregation (DAgger, can be adapted to train a generic brain-computer interface. By deriving existing learning algorithms for brain-computer interfaces in this framework, we provide a novel analysis of regret (an important metric of learning efficacy for brain-computer interfaces. This analysis allows us to characterize the space of algorithmic variants and bounds on their regret rates. Existing approaches for decoder learning have been performed in the cursor control setting, but the available design principles for these decoders are such that it has been impossible to scale them to naturalistic settings. Leveraging our findings, we then offer an algorithm that combines imitation learning with optimal control, which should allow for training of arbitrary effectors for which optimal control can generate goal-oriented control. We demonstrate this novel and general BCI algorithm with simulated neuroprosthetic control of a 26 degree-of-freedom model of an arm, a sophisticated and realistic end effector.

  18. On the Optimization of Sentence Imitation in Primary School English Teaching from the Perspective of Strong Memes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wang

    2017-01-01

    A sentence is an important unit in English language, and plays a crucial role in language teaching and learning as well. For many years, sentence teaching is always worth discussion in English teaching, because sentence imitation is very important for students' construction of logical discourse. This paper, based on memetics, proposes some certain…

  19. Virtual Battlespace Behavior Generation Through Class Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Recognizing and Predicting Agent Behavior with Case Based Reasoning, volume 3020 of RoboCup 2003: Robot Soccer World Cup VII, 729–738. Springer , Berlin... Soccer World Cup IV, 108–118. Springer -Verlag, London, UK, 2001. ISBN 3-540-42185-8. URL http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=646585.698842. 66 REPORT...Robo- Soccer agents and coaches [1, 27]. 2.3.2 Limitations of the Framework. The Behavior Imitation Framework does have limitations. As Webb et. al

  20. IMITATION OF STANDARD VOLUMETRIC ACTIVITY METAL SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Zhukouski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the specific character of problems in the field of ionizing radiation spectroscopy, the R&D and making process of standard volumetric activity metal samples (standard samples for calibration and verification of spectrometric equipment is not only expensive, but also requires the use of highly qualified experts and a unique specific equipment. Theoretical and experimental studies performed have shown the possibility to use imitators as a set of alternating point sources of gamma radiation and metal plates and their use along with standard volumetric activity metal samples for calibration of scintillation-based detectors used in radiation control in metallurgy. Response functions or instrumental spectra of such spectrometer to radionuclides like 137Cs, 134Cs, 152Eu, 154Eu, 60Co, 54Mn, 232Th, 226Ra, 65Zn, 125Sb+125mTe, 106Ru+106Rh, 94Nb, 110mAg, 233U, 234U, 235U and 238U are required for calibration in a given measurement geometry. Standard samples in the form of a probe made of melt metal of a certain diameter and height are used in such measurements. However, the production of reference materials is costly and even problematic for such radionuclides as 94Nb, 125Sb+125mTe, 234U, 235U  etc. A recognized solution to solve this problem is to use the Monte-Carlo simulation method. Instrumental experimental and theoretical spectra obtained by using standard samples and their imitators show a high compliance between experimental spectra of real samples and the theoretical ones of their Monte-Carlo models, between spectra of real samples and the ones of their imitators and finally, between experimental spectra of real sample imitators and the theoretical ones of their Monte-Carlo models. They also have shown the adequacy and consistency of the approach in using a combination of metal scattering layers and reference point gamma-ray sources instead of standard volumetric activity metal samples. As for using several reference point gamma-ray sources

  1. Is automatic imitation a specialized form of stimulus-response compatibility? Dissociating imitative and spatial compatibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Ty W; Longo, Matthew R; Bertenthal, Bennett I

    2012-03-01

    In recent years research on automatic imitation has received considerable attention because it represents an experimental platform for investigating a number of interrelated theories suggesting that the perception of action automatically activates corresponding motor programs. A key debate within this research centers on whether automatic imitation is any different than other long-term S-R associations, such as spatial stimulus-response compatibility. One approach to resolving this issue is to examine whether automatic imitation shows similar response characteristics as other classes of stimulus-response compatibility. This hypothesis was tested by comparing imitative and spatial compatibility effects with a two alternative forced-choice stimulus-response compatibility paradigm. The stimulus on each trial was a left or right hand with either the index or middle finger tapping down. Speeded responses were performed with the index or middle finger of the right hand in response to the identity or the left-right spatial position of the stimulus finger. Two different tasks were administered: one that involved responding to the stimulus (S-R) and one that involved responding to the opposite stimulus (OS-R; i.e., the one not presented on that trial). Based on previous research and a connectionist model, we predicted standard compatibility effects for both spatial and imitative compatibility in the S-R task, and a reverse compatibility effect for spatial compatibility, but not for imitative compatibility, in the OS-R task. The results from the mean response times, mean percentage of errors, and response time distributions all converged to support these predictions. A second noteworthy result was that the recoding of the finger identity in the OS-R task required significantly more time than the recoding of the left-right spatial position, but the encoding time for the two stimuli in the S-R task was equivalent. In sum, this evidence suggests that the processing of spatial

  2. Wanna play?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderhoff, Merete

    2015-01-01

    Part of the online publication series CODE | WORDS. Technology and Theory in the Museum, edited by Ed Rodley (Peabody Essex Museum), Robert Stein (Dallas Museum of Art) and Susan Cairns (Baltimore Museum of Art)...

  3. Ritual, Imitation and Education in R. S. Peters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, Bryan R.

    2009-01-01

    This article reconstructs R. S. Peters' underlying theory of ritual in education, highlighting his proposed link between ritual and the imitation of teachers. Rituals set the stage for the imitation of teachers and they invite students to experience practices whose value is not easily discernable from the outside. For Peters, rituals facilitate…

  4. Reinforcement of Infant Vocalizations through Contingent Vocal Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations is highly prevalent during face-to-face interactions of infants and their caregivers. Although maternal vocal imitation has been associated with later verbal development, its potentially reinforcing effect on infant vocalizations has not been explored experimentally. This study examined the…

  5. Cooperation in the Mixed Population Minority Game with Imitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全宏俊; 汪秉宏; 许伯铭; 罗晓曙

    2001-01-01

    After studying the effects of imitation on the mixed population of adaptive agents with different memories competing in a minority game, we have found that when the pure population lies in a crowded regime, the introduction of imitation can considerably improve cooperation among agents in a money market.

  6. Costly innovators versus cheap imitators: a discrete choice model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Zeppini, P.

    2010-01-01

    Two alternative ways to an innovative product or process are R&D investment or imitation of others’ innovation. In this article we propose a discrete choice model with costly innovators and free imitators and study the endogenous dynamics of price and demand in a market with many firms producing a h

  7. Learning by experience and learning by imitating successful others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offerman, T.J.S.; Sonnemans, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    It is examined whether individuals learn from experience and/or by imitation. Usually individual judgmental learning displays systematic biases against the ideal Bayesian model. Imitation of successful others may decrease such effects. In an experiment, subjects make investment decisions and report

  8. Learning by experience and learning by imitating successful others.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnemans, J.; Schram, A.; Offermans, T.

    1998-01-01

    It is examined whether individuals learn from experience and/or by imitation. Usually individual judgmental learning displays systematic biases against the ideal Bayesian model. Imitation of successful others may decrease such effects. In an experiment, subjects make investment decisions and report

  9. Contingency, Imitation, and Affect Sharing: Foundations of Infants' Social Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Gabriela; Legerstee, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Predictions about the role of contingency, imitation, and affect sharing in the development of social awareness were tested in infants during natural, imitative, and yoked conditions with their mothers at 5 and 13 weeks of age. Results showed that at both ages, infants of highly attuned mothers gazed, smiled, and vocalized positively more during…

  10. A specific deficit of imitation in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Hannah J; McIntosh, Rob D; Williams, Justin H G

    2013-12-01

    Imitation is a potentially crucial aspect of social cognitive development. Although deficits in imitation ability have been widely demonstrated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the specificity and significance of the findings is unclear, due largely to methodological limitations. We developed a novel assessment of imitation ability, using objective movement parameters (path length and action duration) derived from a touch-sensitive tablet laptop during drawing actions on an identical tablet. By direct comparison of the kinematics of a model's actions with those of the participant who observed them, measures of imitation accuracy were obtained. By replaying the end-point of the movement as a spot on the screen, imitation accuracy was compared against a "ghost control" condition, with no human actor but only the end-point of the movement seen [object movement reenactment (OMR)]. Hence, demands of the control task were closely matched to the experimental task with respect to motor, memory, and attentional abilities. Adolescents with ASD showed poorer accuracy for copying object size and action duration on both the imitation and OMR tasks, but were significantly more impaired for imitation of object size. Our results provide evidence that some of the imitation deficit in ASD is specific to a self-other mapping problem, and cannot be explained by general factors such as memory, spatial reasoning, motor control, or attention, nor related to the social demands of the testing situation.

  11. When imitation falls short : The case of complementary actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, T.W.

    2017-01-01

    Imitation is seen by many researchers as the driving force of human evolution and as a primary factor controlling the development of culture (Legare & Nielsen, 2015). The ontogeny of imitative behavior has been heavenly debated and has inspired a host of theoretical accounts. While an inborn mechani

  12. Unintended imitation affects success in a competitive game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, Marnix; Vaziri Pashkam, Maryam; Nakayama, Ken

    2013-12-10

    Imitation typically occurs in social contexts where people interact and have common goals. Here, we show that people are also highly susceptible to imitate each other in a competitive context. Pairs of players performed a competitive and fast-reaching task (a variant of the arcade whac-a-mole game) in which money could be earned if players hit brief-appearing visual targets on a large touchscreen before their opponents. In three separate experiments, we demonstrate that reaction times and movements were highly correlated within pairs of players. Players affected their success by imitating each other, and imitation depended on the visibility of the opponent's behavior. Imitation persisted, despite the competitive and demanding nature of the game, even if this resulted in lower scores and payoffs and even when there was no need to counteract the opponent's actions.

  13. Goal-directed imitation in patients with Ideomotor Apraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkering, Harold; Brass, Marcel; Woschina, Susanne; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2005-05-01

    The present study compared imitation performance in patients with ideomotor apraxia (IMA), eight right hemispheric-damaged patients, and eight control participants without neurological damage in three experiments. Experiment 1 confirmed in the Goldenberg test that IMA patients were particularly impaired in hand gestures and combined finger and hand gestures, but not in the imitation of finger gestures, compared to the other two groups. Experiment 2, however, demonstrated that finger selection is not per se preserved in imitative behaviour in patients with IMA. Experiment 3 confirmed this finding in an experiment under visual control. Together, the results add evidence to the idea that imitation should be viewed from a goal-directed rather than a body-mapping perspective, and that highest priority is given to more distal aspects of imitation as reaching for the correct object, rather than the means used to achieve the goal of a modelled action.

  14. Application of Chinese shadow play art in the modern silk home textile design%皮影造型艺术在现代丝绸家纺中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏淼; 鲁佳亮; 林海雷

    2012-01-01

    研究了具有鲜明地域特色的陕西皮影民间艺术,概括了皮影造型艺术的造型特点,阐述了将皮影造型运用于现代丝绸家纺设计之中的设计理念和设计方法.以靠垫为例,从图案设计、组织设计和造型设计等方面讨论了陕西皮影的造型艺术在现代丝绸家纺的设计之中应用.该研究不仅是以另一种方式继承和发扬一个濒临消失的民族艺术,同时也在诠释一个新的现代丝绸设计作品.%This paper studies the Shanxi shadow play, a folk art with the distinctive geographical features, summarizes the shape characteristics of the shadow play, and describes the design concept and method of applying the shapes of the shadow play into the modern silk home textile design. Taking the cushion as an example, it makes the discussions from pattern design, weave design and style design. This study not only inherits and carries forward a disappearing folk art in another way, but also interprets a new modern silk design work.

  15. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    , but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty......, the aesthetics of play through action; political play -- from Maradona's goal against England in the 1986 World Cup to the hactivist activities of Anonymous; the political, aesthetic, and moral activity of game design; and why play and computers get along so well....

  16. Imitation dynamics in a game of traffic

    CERN Document Server

    Paissan, Gabriel H

    2013-01-01

    We study a model of traffic where drivers adopt different behavioral strategies. These can be cooperative or defective according to a driver abiding or not by a traffic rule. Drivers can change their strategy by imitating the majority, with a rule that depends on the strategies with which they have interacted. These interactions occur at intersections, where vehicles pay a temporal cost according to their strategy. We analyze the conditions under which different strategy compositions represent an advantage in the system velocity. We found that the cooperators' mean speed is higher than the defectors' even when the vehicle density is large. However, defectors can obtain benefits in their mean speed when they are a minority in an essentially cooperative population. The presence of a core of educated drivers, who persist firmly in a cooperative behavior, optimizes the speed in the system, especially for intermediate values of vehicular density and higher temporal costs.

  17. Neural correlates of phonetic convergence and speech imitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeva eGarnier

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Speakers unconsciously tend to mimic their interlocutor’s speech during communicative interaction. This study aims at examining the neural correlates of phonetic convergence and deliberate imitation, in order to explore whether imitation of phonetic features, deliberate or unconscious, might reflect a sensory-motor recalibration process.Sixteen participants listened to vowels with pitch varying around the average pitch of their own voice, and then produced the identified vowels, while their speech was recorded and their brain activity was imaged using fMRI. Three degrees and types of imitation were compared (unconscious, deliberate and inhibited using a go-nogo paradigm, which enabled the comparison of brain activations during the whole imitation process, its active perception step, and its production. Speakers followed the pitch of voices they were exposed to, even unconsciously, without being instructed to do so. After being informed about this phenomenon, fourteen participants were able to inhibit it, at least partially. The results of whole brain and ROI analyses support the fact that both deliberate and unconscious imitations are based on similar neural mechanisms and networks, involving regions of the dorsal stream, during both perception and production steps of the imitation process. While no significant difference in brain activation was found between unconscious and deliberate imitations, the degree of imitation however appears to be determined by processes occurring during the perception step. Four regions of the dorsal stream: bilateral auditory cortex, bilateral supramarginal gyrus, and left Wernicke’s area, indeed showed an activity that correlated significantly with the degree of imitation during the perception step.

  18. Neonatal imitation predicts infant rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) social and anxiety-related behaviours at one year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Paukner, Annika; Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Pier F.

    2016-01-01

    The identification of early markers that predict the development of specific social trajectories is critical to understand the developmental and neurobiological underpinnings of healthy social development. We investigated, in infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), whether newborns’ capacity to imitate facial gestures is a valid predictive marker for the emergence of social competencies later in development, at one year of age. Here we first assessed whether infant macaques (N = 126) imitate lipsmacking gestures (a macaque affiliative expression) performed by a human experimenter in their first week of life. We then collected data on infants’ social interactions (aggression, grooming, and play) and self-scratching (a proxy indicator of anxiety) at 11–14 months when infants were transferred into a new enclosure with a large social group. Our results show that neonatal imitators exhibit more dominant behaviours, are less anxious, and, for males only, spend more time in play at one year old. These findings suggest that neonatal imitation may be an early predictor of infant sociality and may help identify infants at risk of neurodevelopmental social deficits. PMID:27725768

  19. Finger recognition and gesture imitation in Gerstmann's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, V; Pernigo, S; Urgesi, C; Zapparoli, P; Aglioti, S M

    2008-01-01

    We report the association between finger agnosia and gesture imitation deficits in a right-handed, right-hemisphere damaged patient with Gerstmann's syndrome (GS), a neuropsychological syndrome characterized by finger and toe agnosia, left-right disorientation and dyscalculia. No language deficits were found. The patient showed a gestural imitation deficit that specifically involved finger movements and postures. The association between finger recognition and imitation deficits suggests that both static and dynamic aspects of finger representations are impaired in GS. We suggest that GS is a disorder of body representation that involves hands and fingers, that is, the non-facial body parts most involved in social interactions.

  20. Playful Gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makedon, Alexander

    A philosophical analysis of play and games is undertaken in this paper. Playful gaming, which is shown to be a synthesis of play and games, is utilized as a category for undertaking the examination of play and games. The significance of playful gaming to education is demonstrated through analyses of Plato's, Dewey's, Sartre's, and Marcuse's…

  1. Teaching Imitation to Young Children with Disabilities: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Jennifer R.; Wolery, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Imitation is a primary means through which children learn new skills. Most children learn to imitate without being taught but some children with disabilities fail to develop or use imitation in the absence of direct instruction. The importance of teaching imitation to children with disabilities has been acknowledged, with studies appearing as…

  2. Action generation and action perception in imitation: An instance of the ideomotor principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wohlschläger, A.; Gattis, M.; Bekkering, H.

    2003-01-01

    We review a series of behavioural experiments on imitation in children and adults that test the predictions of a new theory of imitation. Most of the recent theories of imitation assume a direct visual-to-motor mapping between perceived and imitated movements. Based on our findings of systematic err

  3. L1 Shapes L2 Auditory Representation Elicited Imitation of Arabic-Speaking Learners of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaa Aquil

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available L1 interference plays a major role in second language acquisition, as evidenced by empirical studies (Kellerman & Sharwood Smith, 1986. The interference could result from a learner's conscious or unconscious judgment that some linguistic features in L1 and L2 are similar (Odlin, 1989, particularly in phonology (MacKain, Best, & Strange, 1981. This paper reports on two experiments using Elicited Imitation and Reading Tasks to investigate whether L1, Cairene Arabic prosodic strategy of epenthesis to break up consonant clusters is transferred to the participants' English output. Results of Experiment A showed that epenthesis took place more in reading than in repetition, as tested by the Elicited Imitation and Reading Tasks. Mimicking was suspected to be behind the results. To control for mimicking, a second experiment (Experiment B was conducted following the same design, but with the addition of a familiarity task to ensure that the participants knew and understood the words of an utterance and did not just mimic them. Results of Experiment B showed that epenthesis instances were the same in repetition as in reading. Epenthesis of a vowel to break consonant clusters suggests that participants of the study reconstructed the utterances based not only on how English words are stored in their mental representation, but also on Cairene Arabic syllable structure rules. This study, through the usage of Elicited Imitation Task, is able to tap into L2 Arabic speaking learners’ auditory mental representation of L2 input and demonstrate the influence of L1 transfer.

  4. Neonatal Imitation in Context: Sensory-Motor Development in the Perinatal Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keven, Nazim; Akins, Kathleen A

    2016-07-14

    Over 35 years ago, Meltzoff and Moore (1977) published their famous article 'Imitation of facial and manual gestures by human neonates'. Their central conclusion, that neonates can imitate, was and continues to be controversial. Here we focus on an often neglected aspect of this debate, namely on neonatal spontaneous behaviors themselves. We present a case study of a paradigmatic orofacial 'gesture', namely tongue protrusion and retraction (TP/R). Against the background of new research on mammalian aerodigestive development, we ask: How does the human aerodigestive system develop and what role does TP/R play in the neonate's emerging system of aerodigestion? We show that mammalian aerodigestion develops in two phases: (1) from the onset of isolated orofacial movements in utero to the post-natal mastery of suckling at 4 months after birth, and; (2) thereafter, from preparation to the mastery of mastication and deglutition of solid foods. Like other orofacial stereotypies, TP/R emerges in the first phase and vanishes prior to the second. Based upon recent advances in activity-driven early neural development, we suggest a sequence of three developmental events in which TP/R might participate: the acquisition of tongue control, the integration of the central pattern generator for TP/R with other aerodigestive CPGs, and the formation of connections within the cortical maps of S1 and M1. If correct, orofacial stereotypies are crucial to the maturation of aerodigestion in the neonatal period but also unlikely to co-occur with imitative behavior.

  5. Imitating winner or sympathizing loser? Quadratic effects on cooperative behavior in prisoners' dilemma games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng

    2015-10-01

    Cooperation is vital in human societies and therefore is widely investigated in the evolutionary game theory. Varieties of mechanisms have been proposed to overcome temptation and promote cooperation. Existing studies usually believe that agents are rational, but irrationalism such as emotions and feelings matters as well. Winner and loser are defined by their payoffs. In addition to admiring and imitating winners, the mechanism of sympathizing and imitating losers is introduced into the model as an alternative action rule, and each one plays the prisoners' dilemma game with eight neighbors under the influence of both irrationalism and rationalism. Rationalism refers to imitating winner to get highest payoff, and irrationalism means that people sympathize and adopt the actions of losers. As it is widely recognized that temptation reduces cooperation, this study focuses on the effect of sympathy on cooperation within a certain group or society. If it overcomes temptation that leads to defection, sympathy will be a powerful mechanism to promote cooperative behavior. Simulation results indicate that sympathy and temptation shares similar quadratic relationships with cooperation. Both sympathy and temptation undermine cooperation below their thresholds, and they both promote cooperation above their thresholds. Temptation not only reduces cooperation but also promote it as temptation goes beyond the threshold. Although sympathy is a good merit or human nature that is beneficial to society, a crisis or collapse of cooperation is inevitable when the sympathy propensity is relatively smaller. After cooperation reaches a minimal bottom, it then rises increasingly and dramatically, which brings a much brighter future of the society.

  6. Examining functional mechanisms of imitative learning in infancy: does teleological reasoning affect infants' imitation beyond motor resonance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Markus; Hunnius, Sabine; Bekkering, Harold

    2013-10-01

    Recently, researchers have been debating whether infants' selective imitative learning is primarily based on sensorimotor processes (e.g., motor resonance through action perception) or whether inferential processes such as teleological reasoning (i.e., reasoning about the efficiency of others' actions) predominantly explain selective imitation in infancy. The current study directly investigated two different theoretical notions employing the seminal and widely used head touch paradigm. In two conditions, we manipulated whether the action appeared to be efficient while motor resonance was optimized to enhance imitation performance in general. The results showed that infants imitated the target action to the same extent in both conditions irrespective of the action's efficiency. In addition, in both conditions, more infants imitated the head action than in an additional baseline condition or in a condition where the target action was performed by another effector. The results suggest that 14-month-olds do not imitate novel actions according to their apparent efficiency but that motor resonance is an important factor in infants' imitation.

  7. Artful creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darsø, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    An introduction to the field of Arts-in-Business outlining 4 different approaches: 1) Art as decoration, 2) Art as intertainment, 3) Arts as instrumental, 4) Art as strategic......An introduction to the field of Arts-in-Business outlining 4 different approaches: 1) Art as decoration, 2) Art as intertainment, 3) Arts as instrumental, 4) Art as strategic...

  8. "Technique" and Artistic Imitation and Invention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Samir

    2012-01-01

    Contrary to the general belief that modernist art and architecture reflect the technological society, Jacques Ellul maintains in his "L'empire du non-sens" that they are justifications for the integration of humankind into what he called the technicist complex. Modernism in art and architecture meant that every product must be qualified by a…

  9. "Technique" and Artistic Imitation and Invention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Samir

    2012-01-01

    Contrary to the general belief that modernist art and architecture reflect the technological society, Jacques Ellul maintains in his "L'empire du non-sens" that they are justifications for the integration of humankind into what he called the technicist complex. Modernism in art and architecture meant that every product must be qualified by a…

  10. L1 Shapes L2 Auditory Representation Elicited Imitation of Arabic-Speaking Learners of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaa Aquil

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available L1 interference plays a major role in second language acquisition, as evidenced by empirical studies (Kellerman & Sharwood Smith, 1986. The interference could result from a learner's conscious or unconscious judgment that some linguistic features in L1 and L2 are similar (Odlin, 1989, particularly in phonology (MacKain, Best, & Strange, 1981. This paper reports on two experiments using Elicited Imitation and Reading Tasks to investigate whether L1, Cairene Arabic prosodic strategy of epenthesis to break up consonant clusters is transferred to the participants' English output. Results of Experiment A showed that epenthesis took place more in reading than in repetition, as tested by the Elicited Imitation and Reading Tasks. Mimicking was suspected to be behind the results. To control for mimicking, a second experiment (Experiment B was conducted following the same design, but with the addition of a familiarity task to ensure that the participants knew and understood the words of an utterance and did not just mimic them. Results of Experiment B showed that epenthesis instances were the same in repetition as in reading. Epenthesis of a vowel to break consonant clusters suggests that participants of the study reconstructed the utterances based not only on how English words are stored in their mental representation, but also on Cairene Arabic syllable structure rules. This study, through the usage of Elicited Imitation Task, is able to tap into L2 Arabic speaking learners’ auditory mental representation of L2 input and demonstrate the influence of L1 transfer. Keywords: Elicited imitation, L1 transfer, epenthesis, L2 listening, auditory mental representation

  11. Exploring NK Fitness Landscapes Using an Imitative Learning Search

    CERN Document Server

    Fontanari, José F

    2015-01-01

    The idea that a group of cooperating agents can solve problems more efficiently than when those agents work independently is hardly controversial, despite the little quantitative groundwork to support it. Here we investigate the performance of a group of agents in locating the global maxima of NK fitness landscapes with varying degrees of ruggedness. Cooperation is taken into account through imitative learning and the broadcasting of messages informing on the fitness of each agent. We find a trade-off between the group size and the frequency of imitation: for rugged landscapes, too much imitation or too large a group yield a performance poorer than that of independent agents. By decreasing the diversity of the group, imitative learning may lead to duplication of work and hence to a decrease of its effective size. However, when the parameters are set to optimal values the cooperative group substantially outperforms the independent agents.

  12. Goal-directed imitation in patients with ideomotor apraxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, Harold; Brass, Marcel; Woschina, Susanne; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2005-01-01

    The present study compared imitation performance in patients with ideomotor apraxia (IMA), eight right hemispheric-damaged patients, and eight control participants without neurological damage in three experiments. Experiment 1 confirmed in the Goldenberg test that IMA patients were particularly

  13. Goal-directed imitation in patients with Ideomotor Apraxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, H.; Brass, M.; Woschina, S.; Jacobs, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The present study compared imitation performance in patients with ideomotor apraxia (IMA), eight right hemispheric-damaged patients, and eight control participants without neurological damage in three experiments. Experiment 1 confirmed in the Goldenberg test that IMA patients were particularly

  14. Juegos artísticos con imágenes recicladas. El collage y el fotomontaje = Artistics plays using recycled images. The collage and the pohotomontage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Gutiérrez Párraga

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El fotomontaje y el collage en sí mismos son un ensamblaje de fotografías, dibujos, colores y algunas veces textos reciclados de publicaciones ya desechadas, en el que lo más importante es transmitir una idea imaginativa; crear una imagen nueva que surja partir de la exploración de las propiedades de las fotografías encontradas, en la que podemos o bien resaltar el valor semántico de las imágenes iniciales o por el contrario descomponer las imágenes buscando nuevos significados. Las asociaciones que se producen al jugar con las imágenes y los materiales reciclados, poseen una gran ductilidad que hace que estas sean unas actividades dinámicas ricas en ideas y simbolismos, de forma que en su parte educativa facilitan la creatividad y la comprensión del lenguaje visual. Abstract Collage and photomontage are by definition an assemblage of photographs, drawings, colors and texts, sometimes recycled and disposed of publications in wich the most important is to convey an imaginative idea, create a new image arising from the exploration of the properties of the photos found. They can either highlight the semantic value of the initial images or otherwise decompose images looking for new meanings. Associations that occur when playing with images and recycled materials have a high ductility, which makes them dynamic activities, rich in ideas and symbolism. That is why their educational aspects facilitate creativity and understanding of visual language.

  15. [Lipid peroxidation and antioxidative system in imitation diving].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrakhovich, E A; Vdovin, A V; Biziukin, A V; Pavlov, B N; Smolin, V V; Meshkov, D O

    1998-01-01

    Plasma lipid oxidation (LPO) and antioxidative system were examined in test divers who made imitation diving in the pressure chamber to the depth of 250 meters. Imitation diving showed higher iron levels, followed by a rise in the concentration of primary LPO products. There were no increases in the levels of secondary LPO products probably due to the fact that the ceruloplasmin-transferrin system released active iron from the reaction and that peroxy radicals were inactivated by SH groups.

  16. Disentangling imitation and dyspraxia in individuals with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Ham, Heidi Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Imitation deficits are well-documented in autism although the specific nature of these deficits is not completely understood. Researchers have attempted to account for imitation deficits within the context of cognitive theories of autism but these theories have not been successful in explaining all of the gestural disturbances reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The types of gestural impairments along with error patterns observed in autism are simila...

  17. Nonverbal imitation skills in children with specific language delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohmen, Andrea; Chiat, Shula; Roy, Penny

    2013-10-01

    Research in children with language problems has focussed on verbal deficits, and we have less understanding of children's deficits with nonverbal sociocognitive skills which have been proposed to be important for language acquisition. This study was designed to investigate elicited nonverbal imitation in children with specific language delay (SLD). It is argued that difficulties in nonverbal imitation, which do not involve the processing of structural aspects of language, may be indicative of sociocognitive deficits. Participants were German-speaking typically developing children (n=60) and children with SLD (n=45) aged 2-3 ½ years. A novel battery of tasks measured their ability to imitate a range of nonverbal target acts that to a greater or lesser extent involve sociocognitive skills (body movements, instrumental acts on objects, pretend acts). Significant group differences were found for all body movement and pretend act tasks, but not for the instrumental act tasks. The poorer imitative performance of the SLD sample was not explained by motor or nonverbal cognitive skills. Thus, it appeared that the nature of the task affected children's imitation performance. It is argued that the ability to establish a sense of connectedness with the demonstrator was at the core of children's imitation difficulty in the SLD sample. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental evidence for action imitation in killer whales (Orcinus orca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, José Z; Hernández-Lloreda, Victoria; Call, Josep; Colmenares, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Comparative experimental studies of imitative learning have focused mainly on primates and birds. However, cetaceans are promising candidates to display imitative learning as they have evolved in socioecological settings that have selected for large brains, complex sociality, and coordinated predatory tactics. Here we tested imitative learning in killer whales, Orcinus orca. We used a 'do-as-other-does' paradigm in which 3 subjects witnessed a conspecific demonstrator's performance that included 15 familiar and 4 novel behaviours. The three subjects (1) learned the copy command signal 'Do that' very quickly, that is, 20 trials on average; (2) copied 100 % of the demonstrator's familiar and novel actions; (3) achieved full matches in the first attempt for 8-13 familiar behaviours (out of 15) and for the 2 novel behaviours (out of 2) in one subject; and (4) took no longer than 8 trials to accurately copy any familiar behaviour, and no longer than 16 trials to copy any novel behaviour. This study provides experimental evidence for body imitation, including production imitation, in killer whales that is comparable to that observed in dolphins tested under similar conditions. These findings suggest that imitative learning may underpin some of the group-specific traditions reported in killer whales in the field.

  19. Enhancing voluntary imitation through attention and motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bek, Judith; Poliakoff, Ellen; Marshall, Hannah; Trueman, Sophie; Gowen, Emma

    2016-07-01

    Action observation activates brain areas involved in performing the same action and has been shown to increase motor learning, with potential implications for neurorehabilitation. Recent work indicates that the effects of action observation on movement can be increased by motor imagery or by directing attention to observed actions. In voluntary imitation, activation of the motor system during action observation is already increased. We therefore explored whether imitation could be further enhanced by imagery or attention. Healthy participants observed and then immediately imitated videos of human hand movement sequences, while movement kinematics were recorded. Two blocks of trials were completed, and after the first block participants were instructed to imagine performing the observed movement (Imagery group, N = 18) or attend closely to the characteristics of the movement (Attention group, N = 15), or received no further instructions (Control group, N = 17). Kinematics of the imitated movements were modulated by instructions, with both Imagery and Attention groups being closer in duration, peak velocity and amplitude to the observed model compared with controls. These findings show that both attention and motor imagery can increase the accuracy of imitation and have implications for motor learning and rehabilitation. Future work is required to understand the mechanisms by which these two strategies influence imitation accuracy.

  20. Childhood epileptic seizures imitating migraine and encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravljanac Ružica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Paroxismal events can resemble epileptic seizures, however, some epileptic seizures, especially benign occipital childhood epilepsies can imitate migraine, cycling vomiting or encephalitis. Objective. The aim of this study was evaluation of clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG features and outcome in children with benign occipital childhood epilepsies. Methods. Investigation included 18 patients with benign occipital childhood epilepsies hospitalized in the period from 2007 to 2010. The diagnosis was based on clinical and EEG characteristics of seizures, while treatment included acute therapy for seizures and chronic antiepileptic drugs. Prognosis was analyzed in terms of neurological outcome and seizure recurrence rate. Results. Benign occipital childhood epilepsy with early onset was diagnosed in 15 children. Vegetative symptoms, mostly ictal vomiting (13, eye deviation and loss of consciousness (13 dominated in the clinical presentation. The most frequent EEG findings showed occipital epileptic discharges. Benign occipital childhood epilepsy with late onset was diagnosed in three cases. Seizures were manifested by visual hallucinations, headache and secondary generalized convulsions. All three patients were administered chronic antiepileptic drugs and had good outcome. Conclusion. In our patients, clinical manifestations of benign occipital epilepsies had some similarities with clinical features of migraine and encephalitis. It could explain misdiagnosis in some of them. Knowledge about main features and differences between each of these disorders is crucial for making appropriate diagnosis.

  1. Working memory constraints on imitation and emulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiaul, Francys; Schilder, Brian

    2014-12-01

    Does working memory (WM) constrain the amount and type of information children copy from a model? To answer this question, preschool-age children (N=165) were trained and then tested on a touch-screen task that involved touching simultaneously presented pictures. Prior to responding, children saw a model generate two target responses: Order (touching all of the pictures on the screen in a target sequence three consecutive times) and Multi-Tap (consistently touching one of the pictures two times). Children's accuracy copying Order and Multi-Tap was assessed on two types of sequences: low WM load (2 pictures) and high WM load (3 pictures). Results showed that more children copied both Order and Multi-Tap on 2-picture sequences than on 3-picture sequences. Children who copied only one of the two target responses tended to copy only Order on 2-picture sequences but only Multi-Tap on 3-picture sequences. Instructions to either copy or ignore the Multi-Tap response did not affect this overall pattern of results. In sum, results are consistent with the hypothesis that WM constrains not just the amount but also the type of information children copy from models, potentially modulating whether children imitate or emulate in a given task.

  2. Beyond Imitation and Representation: Extended Comprehension of Mimesis in Drama Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Bjorn

    2008-01-01

    In order to understand the complexity of mimesis and dramatic playing, and to perhaps acknowledge a great variety of play forms and modes in theatre art and drama education, one may look beyond hegemonic and highly restricted understandings of mimesis in arts and society. This article will suggest different models of mimesis that provide possible…

  3. Indoor imitation experimental study on driving factors of rainfall-runoff process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shifeng; LIU Changming; XIA Jun; TAN Ge; LI Lin; LIU Caitang; ZHOU Changqing; GUO Lei

    2005-01-01

    The driving actions of rainfall-runoff process can be attributed to two aspects. The first is the influence of precipitation process, and the second is that of the ground pad. The research results of 179 indoor experiments conducted to imitate rainfall-runoff process indicate that both precipitation duration and intensity play important roles in affecting confluence lag time,which is obviously inconsistent with the traditional hypotheses. The nonlinear relationship is of great significance to the confluence curve especially when the precipitation duration is less than the total confluence time or the precipitation intensity is small. Therefore it can be concluded that the unit hydrograph (UH) can be applied to rainfall-runoff process imitation in the humid areas in the south China region. However, the UH application should be strictly modified in accordance with precipitation conditions in the arid and semiarid region of north China where the precipitation duration is short and the intensity is unstable. It will be hard to get ideal imitation results if the UH is applied blindly without considering specific conditions in the north China region. This also explains the unsatisfactory imitation results caused by using various hydrological models in the north China region. When the precipitation duration is short, and the watershed has not reached total watershed concentration, the characteristics of confluence change greatly, which reflects the actual situation in the north China region. Therefore necessary nonlinear corrections should be made when UH is applied. If the duration is longer than the total confluence time and the balance between pondage and discharge is stricken, the imitation research results will be applicable to both rainfall-runoff relation with longer duration in the south China region and the basic theoretical research on runoff generation and concentration. On conditions of adequate rainfall, peak discharge is in linear relationship with intensity

  4. Phase diagram of Symmetric Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma of Two-Companies with Partial Imitation Rule

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Liangsheng; Antony, Mathis; Szeto, K Y

    2011-01-01

    The problem of two companies of agents with one-step memory playing game is investigated in the context of the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma under the partial imitation rule, where a player can imitate only those moves that he has observed in his games with his opponent. We limit our study to the special case where the players in the two groups enjoy the same conditions on a fully connected network, so that there are only two payoff matrices required: one for players playing games with members of the same company, and the other one for players playing games with members from a different company. We show that this symmetric case of two companies of players can be reduced to the one-company case with an effective payoff matrix, from which a phase diagram for the players using the two dominant strategies, Pavlov and Grim Trigger can be constructed. The phase diagram is computed by numerical integration of the approximate mean value equations. The results are in good agreement with simulations of the two-company mo...

  5. Self-imitation and Environmental Scaffolding for Robot Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrystopher L. Nehaniv

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Imitative learning and learning by observation are social mechanisms that allow a robot to acquire knowledge from a human or another robot. However to be able to obtain skills in this way the robot faces many complex issues, one of which is that of finding solutions to the correspondence problem. Evolutionary predecessors to observational imitation may have been self-imitation where an agent avoids the complexities of the correspondence problem by learning and replicating actions it has experienced through the manipulation of its body. We investigate how a robotic control and teaching system using self-imitation can be constructed with reference to psychological models of motor control and ideas from social scaffolding seen in animals. Within these scaffolded environments sets of competencies can be built by constructing hierarchical state/action memory maps of the robot's interaction within that environment. The scaffolding process provides a mechanism to enable learning to be scaled up. The resulting system allows a human trainer to teach a robot new skills and modify skills that the robot may possess. Additionally the system allows the robot to notify the trainer when it is being taught skills it already has in its repertoire and to direct and focus its attention and sensor resources to relevant parts of the skill being executed. We argue that these mechanisms may be a first step towards the transformation from self-imitation to observational imitation. The system is validated on a physical pioneer robot that is taught using self-imitation to track, follow and point to a patterned object.

  6. Self-Imitation and Environmental Scaffolding for Robot Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Saunders

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Imitative learning and learning by observation are social mechanisms that allow a robot to acquire knowledge from a human or another robot. However to be able to obtain skills in this way the robot faces many complex issues, one of which is that of finding solutions to the correspondence problem. Evolutionary predecessors to observational imitation may have been self-imitation where an agent avoids the complexities of the correspondence problem by learning and replicating actions it has experienced through the manipulation of its body. We investigate how a robotic control and teaching system using self-imitation can be constructed with reference to psychological models of motor control and ideas from social scaffolding seen in animals. Within these scaffolded environments sets of competencies can be built by constructing hierarchical state/action memory maps of the robot's interaction within that environment. The scaffolding process provides a mechanism to enable learning to be scaled up. The resulting system allows a human trainer to teach a robot new skills and modify skills that the robot may possess. Additionally the system allows the robot to notify the trainer when it is being taught skills it already has in its repertoire and to direct and focus its attention and sensor resources to relevant parts of the skill being executed. We argue that these mechanisms may be a first step towards the transformation from self-imitation to observational imitation. The system is validated on a physical pioneer robot that is taught using self-imitation to track, follow and point to a patterned object.

  7. Enactivism and neonatal imitation: conceptual and empirical considerations and clarifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eLodder

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently within social cognition it has been argued that understanding others is primarily characterised by dynamic and second person interactive processes, rather than by taking a third person observational stance. Within this enactivist view of intersubjective understanding, researchers differ in their claims regarding the innateness of such processes. Here we proposed to distinguish nativist enactivists - who argue that studies on neonatal imitation support the view that infants already have a non-mentalistic embodied form of intersubjective understanding present at birth - from empiricist enactivists, who claim that those intersubjective processes are learned through social interaction.In this article, we critically examine the empirical studies on neonate imitation and conclude that the available evidence is at least mixed for most types of specific gesture imitations. In the end, only the tongue protrusion imitation appears to be consistent across different studies. If neonates imitate only one single gesture, then a more parsimonious explanation for the tongue protrusion effect could be put forward. Consequently, the nativist enactivist claim that understanding others depends on second person interactive processes already present at birth seems no longer plausible. Although other strands of evidence provide converging evidence for the importance of intersubjective processes in adult social cognition, the available evidence on neonatal imitation calls for a more careful view on the innateness of such processes and suggests that this way of interacting needs to be learned over time. Therefore the available empirical evidence on neonate imitation is in our view compatible with the empiricist enactivist position, but not with the nativist enactivist position.

  8. A kinematic study on (unintentional imitation in bottlenose dolphins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa eSartori

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of observing other’s movements on subsequent performance in bottlenose dolphins. The imitative ability of non-human animals has intrigued a number of researchers. So far, however, studies in dolphins have been confined to intentional imitation concerned with the explicit request to imitate other agents. In the absence of instruction to imitate, do dolphins (unintentionally replicate other’s movement features? To test this, dolphins were filmed while reaching and touching a stimulus before and after observing another dolphin (i.e., model performing the same action. All videos were reviewed and segmented in order to extract the relevant movements. A marker was inserted post-hoc via software on the videos upon the anatomical landmark of interest (i.e. rostrum and was tracked throughout the time course of the movement sequence. The movement was analyzed using an in-house software developed to perform two-dimensional (2D post-hoc kinematic analysis. The results indicate that dolphins’ kinematics is sensitive to other’s movement features. Movements performed for the ‘visuomotor priming’ condition were characterized by a kinematic pattern similar to that performed by the observed dolphin (i.e., model. Addressing the issue of spontaneous imitation in bottlenose dolphins might allow ascertaining whether the potential or impulse to produce an imitative action is generated, not just when they intend to imitate, but whenever they watch another conspecific’s behavior. In closing, this will clarify whether motor representational capacity is a by-product of factors specific to humans or whether more general characteristics such as processes of associative learning prompted by high level of encephalization could help to explain the evolution of this ability.

  9. Playful Membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels; Pors, Justine Grønbæk

    2014-01-01

    This article studies the implications of current attempts by organizations to adapt to a world of constant change by introducing the notion of playful organizational membership. To this end we conduct a brief semantic history of organizational play and argue that when organizations play, employees...... are expected to engage in playful exploration of alternative selves. Drawing on Niklas Luhmann's theory of time and decision-making and Gregory Bateson's theory of play, the article analyses three empirical examples of how games play with conceptions of time. We explore how games represent an organizational...... desire to reach out - not just to the future - but to futures beyond the future presently imaginable. The article concludes that playful membership is membership through which employees are expected to develop a surplus of potential identities and continuously cross boundaries between real and virtual...

  10. Play and the Art of Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Journal of Play, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Terry Marks-Tarlow is a clinical and consulting psychologist and psychotherapist and a member of the teaching faculty at the Reiss Davis Child Study Center in Los Angeles. She is the author of "Awakening Clinical Intuition: An Experiential Workbook for Psychotherapists"; "Psyche's Veil: Psychotherapy, Fractals, and…

  11. 破译戏剧象征艺术的一把钥匙--读《尤金·奥尼尔戏剧象征艺术研究》%A Key to Decipher Drama’s Symbolic Art---On Symbolic Art Research of Eugene O’Neill Plays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冉英

    2014-01-01

    文章对詹虎、赵学斌、于立得最近出版的学术专著《尤金·奥尼尔戏剧象征艺术研究》进行评述。通过阅读这部专著,不但可窥一斑而知全豹地为欣赏戏剧艺术打开一扇窗户,而且可以推而广之地以象征艺术的视觉方法,去破译自然、社会、人生的诸多生命密码。%This article evaluates Symbolic Art Research of Eugene O’Neill Plays, a newly published monograph jointly written by Zhan Hu, Zhao Xuebin and Yu Lide. It concludes that the monograph not only opens a window to enjoy the dramatic arts, but also decipher the life codes concerning nature, society and human life by means of the symbolic art of visual methods.

  12. Gaze, goals and growing up: Effects on imitative grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubacher, Sonja P; Roberts, Kim P; Obhi, Sukhvinder S

    2013-09-01

    Developmental differences in the use of social-attention cues to imitation were examined among children aged 3 and 6 years old (n = 58) and adults (n = 29). In each of 20 trials, participants watched a model grasp two objects simultaneously and move them together. On every trial, the model directed her gaze towards only one of the objects. Some object pairs were related and had a clear functional relationship (e.g., flower, vase), while others were functionally unrelated (e.g., cardboard square, ladybug). Owing to attentional effects of eye gaze, it was expected that all participants would more faithfully imitate the grasp on the gazed-at object than the object not gazed-at. Children were expected to imitate less faithfully on trials with functionally related objects than those without, due to goal-hierarchy effects. Results support effects of eye gaze on imitation of grasping. Children's grasping accuracy on functionally related and functionally unrelated trials was similar, but they were more likely to only use one hand on trials where the object pairs were functionally related than unrelated. Implications for theories of imitation are discussed. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  13. The perception of musical spontaneity in improvised and imitated jazz performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annerose eEngel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to evaluate spontaneity in human behavior is called upon in the aesthetic appreciation of dramatic arts and music. The current study addresses the behavioral and brain mechanisms that mediate the perception of spontaneity in music performance. In a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging experiment, 22 jazz musicians listened to piano melodies and judged whether they were improvised or imitated. Judgment accuracy (mean 55%; range 44-65%, which was low but above chance, was positively correlated with musical experience and empathy. Analysis of listeners’ hemodynamic responses revealed that amygdala activation was stronger for improvisations than imitations. This activation correlated with the variability of performance timing and intensity (loudness in the melodies, suggesting that the amygdala is involved in the detection of behavioral uncertainty. An analysis based on the subjective classification of melodies according to listeners’ judgments revealed that a network including the pre-supplementary motor area, frontal operculum, and anterior insula was most strongly activated for melodies judged to be improvised. This may reflect the increased engagement of an action simulation network when melodic predictions are rendered challenging due to perceived instability in the performer’s actions. Taken together, our results suggest that, while certain brain regions in skilled individuals may be generally sensitive to objective cues to spontaneity in human behavior, the ability to evaluate spontaneity accurately depends upon whether an individual’s action-related experience and perspective taking skills enable faithful internal simulation of the given behavior.

  14. The perception of musical spontaneity in improvised and imitated jazz performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Annerose; Keller, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    The ability to evaluate spontaneity in human behavior is called upon in the esthetic appreciation of dramatic arts and music. The current study addresses the behavioral and brain mechanisms that mediate the perception of spontaneity in music performance. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, 22 jazz musicians listened to piano melodies and judged whether they were improvised or imitated. Judgment accuracy (mean 55%; range 44-65%), which was low but above chance, was positively correlated with musical experience and empathy. Analysis of listeners' hemodynamic responses revealed that amygdala activation was stronger for improvisations than imitations. This activation correlated with the variability of performance timing and intensity (loudness) in the melodies, suggesting that the amygdala is involved in the detection of behavioral uncertainty. An analysis based on the subjective classification of melodies according to listeners' judgments revealed that a network including the pre-supplementary motor area, frontal operculum, and anterior insula was most strongly activated for melodies judged to be improvised. This may reflect the increased engagement of an action simulation network when melodic predictions are rendered challenging due to perceived instability in the performer's actions. Taken together, our results suggest that, while certain brain regions in skilled individuals may be generally sensitive to objective cues to spontaneity in human behavior, the ability to evaluate spontaneity accurately depends upon whether an individual's action-related experience and perspective taking skills enable faithful internal simulation of the given behavior.

  15. Playful Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    these practices, which compose the taxonomy of tablet play. My contribution lies in identifying and proposing a series of theoretical concepts that complement recent theories related to play and digital literacy studies. The data collected through observations informed some noteworthy aspects, including how...... with tablets’ physical and digital affordances shape children’s digital play. This thesis presents how young children’s current practices when playing with tablets inform digital experiences in Denmark and Japan. Through an interdisciplinary lens and a grounded theory approach, I have identified and mapped...... vocabulary in children’s digital play experiences. These early digital experiences set the rules for the playgrounds and assert digital tablets as twenty-first-century toys, shaping young children’s playful literacy....

  16. Material interaction in art therapy assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penzes-Driessen, I.J.N.J.; Hooren, S. van; Dokter, D.; Smeijsters, H.; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Diverse approaches to art therapy assessment agree that art materials should play a central role. However, relatively little research is done on the role of different art materials. This article describes the results of a qualitative study on the use of art materials by art therapists in art therapy

  17. Material interaction in art therapy assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penzes-Driessen, I.J.N.J.; Hooren, S. van; Dokter, D.; Smeijsters, H.; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Diverse approaches to art therapy assessment agree that art materials should play a central role. However, relatively little research is done on the role of different art materials. This article describes the results of a qualitative study on the use of art materials by art therapists in art therapy

  18. Pretend play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Deena Skolnick

    2015-01-01

    Pretend play is a form of playful behavior that involves nonliteral action. Although on the surface this activity appears to be merely for fun, recent research has discovered that children's pretend play has connections to important cognitive and social skills, such as symbolic thinking, theory of mind, and counterfactual reasoning. The current article first defines pretend play and then reviews the arguments and evidence for these three connections. Pretend play has a nonliteral correspondence to reality, hence pretending may provide children with practice with navigating symbolic relationships, which may strengthen their language skills. Pretend play and theory of mind reasoning share a focus on others' mental states in order to correctly interpret their behavior, hence pretending and theory of mind may be mutually supportive in development. Pretend play and counterfactual reasoning both involve representing nonreal states of affairs, hence pretending may facilitate children's counterfactual abilities. These connections make pretend play an important phenomenon in cognitive science: Studying children's pretend play can provide insight into these other abilities and their developmental trajectories, and thereby into human cognitive architecture and its development.

  19. Playful Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The video Playful Interaction describes a future architectural office, and envisions ideas and concepts for playful interactions between people, materials and appliances in a pervasive and augmented working environment. The video both describes existing developments, technologies and designs...... as well as ideas not yet implemented such as playful modes of interaction with an augmented ball. Playful Interaction has been used as a hybrid of a vision video and a video prototype (1). Externally the video has been used to visualising our new ideas, and internally the video has also worked to inspire...

  20. Mediatized play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    Children’s play must nowadays be understood as a mediatized field in society and culture. Media – understood in a very broad sense - holds severe explanatory power in describing and understanding the practice of play, since play happens both with, through and inspired by media of different sorts....... In this presentation the case of ‘playing soccer’ will be outlined through its different mediated manifestations, including soccer games and programs on TV, computer games, magazines, books, YouTube videos and soccer trading cards....

  1. Play practices and play moods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop a view of play as a relation between play practices and play moods based on an empirical study of children's everyday life and by using Bateson's term of ‘framing’ [(1955/2001). In Steps to an ecology of mind (pp. 75–80). Chicago: University of Chicago Press......], Schmidt's notion of ‘commonness’ [(2005). Om respekten. København: Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitets Forlag; (2011). On respect. Copenhagen: Danish School of Education University Press] and Heidegger's term ‘mood’ [(1938/1996). Time and being. Cornwall: Wiley-Blackwell.]. Play mood is a state of being...... in which we are open and ready, both to others and their production of meaning and to new opportunities for producing meaning. This play mood is created when we engage with the world during play practices. The article points out four types of play moods – devotion, intensity, tension and euphorica – which...

  2. A learning program that ensures prompt and versatile vocal imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan-Chun; Nottebohm, Fernando

    2007-12-18

    Here we show how a migratory songbird, the chipping sparrow (Spizella passerina), achieves prompt and precise vocal imitation. Juvenile chipping sparrow males develop five to seven potential precursor songs; the normal development of these songs requires intact hearing but not imitation from external models. The potential precursor songs conform with general species-typical song parameters but differ from the song of wild, adult territorial males. As chipping sparrow males return from migration to start their first breeding season, they settle close to an older adult. The young male then stops producing all but one of its precursor songs, retaining the one that most resembles that of its neighbor. This single song then becomes more variable and, in a matter of days, is altered to closely match the neighbor's song. This elegant solution ensures species specificity and promptness of imitation.

  3. Experimental study on performance of imitative RPC for sulphate leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-guang Tang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a manufacturing process to make an imitative RPC material. The blend was regularly composed of cement, silica fume, and certain content of rubber powder. The granular size distribution of dry blend was optimized to reduce the porosity of set material and the imitative RPC material was characterized by high silica fume content and with very low water to binder ratio. Furthermore, fine crushed aggregate and local natural medium crude sand were used to form mineral skeleton. Properties of various reference concrete series were investigated by conducting multiple tests, including permeability and mechanical strength test, the salt solution absorption test, the accelerated sulphate attack test, etc. The results show that the imitative RPC is an environmental-friendly civil engineering material which owns favorable mechanical strength, high impermeability and qualified excellent durability in sulphate contained environment.

  4. Application of Electronic Watermark in Presswork Anti-Imitations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; XU Taiyuan

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces the application of electronic watermark in presswork anti-imitation.There are two parts:creating and embedding the electronic watermark.The approach is to hide the watermark which is formed by chaos sequence used logistic algorithms into a color image,using the theory of visual sensitivity difference towards concolorous light.The other is the intellectualizing electronic watermark test device,which contains charge coupled device array and digital signal processing processor.This low cost test device together with electronic watermark printed on press products formed a sophisticated technical system of anti-imitation on presswork.The method and application system have been tested and the Anti-imitation effect is good.

  5. Imitation-Induced Criticality: Network Reciprocity and Psycho-logical Reward

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoodi, Korosh

    2015-01-01

    The nodes of a regular two-dimensional lattice play a game based on the joint action of two distinct levels. At the first step of the game, using a random prescription half players are assigned the cooperation and half the defection state. At the bottom level the strategy choice is done on the mere basis of imitation according to the homo imitans principle, generating a form of collective intelligence that makes the system sensitive to the criteria determining the strategy choice adopted at the top level. The units of the top level, in fact, play the prisoner's dilemma game and are allowed to update their strategy either by selecting the strategy of the most successful nearest neighbor, success model, or merely on the basis of the criterion of the best financial benefit, selfishness model. The intelligence emerging from imitation-induced criticality leads in the former case to the extinction of defection and in the latter case to the extinction of cooperation. The former case is interpreted as a form of netwo...

  6. Children's synchrony and rhythmicity in imitation of peers: toward a developmental model of empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Jean; Tilmont, Elodie; Bonnot, Olivier

    2013-09-01

    The main mechanisms of children's imitative exchanges with peers are highlighted here through a developmental approach taking into account the importance of rhythmicity and synchrony. We focused on spontaneous motor imitation to describe a playful dynamic that is paradoxical: in the experience of play in which roles are not clearly distributed, mutual discovery of the self and others gradually arises. From an integrative perspective, this form of interaction, produced by positional reversal and turn taking, is apprehended through two axis. On the temporal plan, it can be considered as a rhythmic pattern with repetition and synchrony. Moreover, these mutual exchanges between the self and others challenge visuo-spatial abilities in children who must be able to change their reference point through an operation of mental rotation. Based on this description of the intersubjective experience produced through a succession of spatial and symbolic viewpoint changes, a developmental model of empathy is offered and discussed. According to this model, the capacity of empathy has two dimensions, emotional and cognitive, and is understood as a process involved in child development. In this article, we propose that empathy is more than the "mere" capacity of decentration corresponding to the acquisition of a theory of mind. It involves an individual in relationship with others and who has the ability to integrate perspectives.

  7. The Control of Animate and Inanimate Components in Pretend Play and Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Roberta

    1982-01-01

    The cognitive skills required in pretend play and language were examined in two studies in which children imitated pretend-play behaviors and sentences. As hypothesized, the control of animate and inanimate components in play and language were significantly related. (Author/MP)

  8. Selective imitation impairments differentially interact with language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengotti, Paola; Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Corrado; Negri, Gioia A L; Ukmar, Maja; Pesavento, Valentina; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2013-08-01

    Whether motor and linguistic representations of actions share common neural structures has recently been the focus of an animated debate in cognitive neuroscience. Group studies with brain-damaged patients reported association patterns of praxic and linguistic deficits whereas single case studies documented double dissociations between the correct execution of gestures and their comprehension in verbal contexts. When the relationship between language and imitation was investigated, each ability was analysed as a unique process without distinguishing between possible subprocesses. However, recent cognitive models can be successfully used to account for these inconsistencies in the extant literature. In the present study, in 57 patients with left brain damage, we tested whether a deficit at imitating either meaningful or meaningless gestures differentially impinges on three distinct linguistic abilities (comprehension, naming and repetition). Based on the dual-pathway models, we predicted that praxic and linguistic performance would be associated when meaningful gestures are processed, and would dissociate for meaningless gestures. We used partial correlations to assess the association between patients' scores while accounting for potential confounding effects of aspecific factors such age, education and lesion size. We found that imitation of meaningful gestures significantly correlated with patients' performance on naming and repetition (but not on comprehension). This was not the case for the imitation of meaningless gestures. Moreover, voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analysis revealed that damage to the angular gyrus specifically affected imitation of meaningless gestures, independent of patients' performance on linguistic tests. Instead, damage to the supramarginal gyrus affected not only imitation of meaningful gestures, but also patients' performance on naming and repetition. Our findings clarify the apparent conflict between associations and dissociations

  9. Chameleons: Electrocardiogram Imitators of ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nable, Jose V; Lawner, Benjamin J

    2015-08-01

    The imperative for timely reperfusion therapy for patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) underscores the need for clinicians to have an understanding of how to distinguish patterns of STEMI from its imitators. These imitating diagnoses may confound an evaluation, potentially delaying necessary therapy. Although numerous diagnoses may mimic STEMI, several morphologic clues may allow the physician to determine if the pattern is concerning for either STEMI or a mimicking diagnosis. Furthermore, obtaining a satisfactory history, comparing previous electrocardiograms, and assessing serial tests may provide valuable clues.

  10. The role of accent imitation in sensorimotor integration during processing of intelligible speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adank, P.M.; Rüschemeyer, S.A.; Bekkering, H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent theories on how listeners maintain perceptual invariance despite variation in the speech signal allocate a prominent role to imitation mechanisms. Notably, these simulation accounts propose that motor mechanisms support perception of ambiguous or noisy signals. Indeed, imitation of ambiguous

  11. 安徽省蚌埠余家皮影戏的造型艺术考略%Research on the Art of Puppet Figure Design of Yu Family Shadow Play in Bengbu of Anhui

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋蔚; 王倩

    2016-01-01

    Shadow play ’ s history and the evolution of shadow puppet are a synchronous process of develop -ment.Generations of artists gradually developed a set of convention and characteristics of creating puppet figures . Over a hundred odd years of inheriting and adjusting , carrying on the opera culture ’ s tradition of distinguishing the good and evil characters with different designs of puppet figures , as well as folk artists ’ aesthetic notions and styles of folk fine arts, Yu Family Shadow Play has developed a full set of formulaic puppet figure artistic models and graphic patterns , which are not the creation of a single individual , but a artistic convention passed on , developed and perfected by three generations of artists .Yu Family Shadow Play reflects substantially folk artists ’ figure desig-ning style where concrete life experiences and abstract notions are mingled together , vividly representing the history of Yu Family Shadow play ’ s development over a hundred odd years .%影偶的造型与影戏的演变历史是一个同步发展的过程。历代艺人通过不断的经验积累,受寺庙雕塑、壁画和戏剧的影响,吸收小说中人物的描写,逐步形成了一整套适用于影戏的造型规律和特征。在历经百余年的传承与腾挪变化后,蚌埠余家皮影戏除沿袭戏曲文化中对忠奸、正邪角色寓褒贬、别善恶于其上的造型传统外,糅合艺人的审美理念和民间美术等诸多元素,形成了一整套程式化的造型谱式和图案纹样,这种谱式并非某个人的独创,而是历经了三代艺人的学习、积累和创造逐渐完善定型的艺术程式。它质朴生动地折射出民间艺人集具象的生活经验和意象的审美理念于一体的造型艺术特征,生动地折射出蚌埠余家皮影戏百余年来的发展历程。

  12. Arte precolombino, arte moderno y arte latinoamericano

    OpenAIRE

    Gamboa Hinestrosa, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    ¿Cuál es la vigencia del arte precolombino? ¿Qué ha aportado ala corriente del arte universal? ¿Qué se deben mutuamente arte modernoy arte precolombino? Estos planteamientos nos sirven para establecerla vigencia del arte precolombino en Latinoamérica, buscandoantecedentes desde los tiempos de la Conquista hasta nuestros días.

  13. Arte precolombino, arte moderno y arte latinoamericano

    OpenAIRE

    Gamboa Hinestrosa, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    ¿Cuál es la vigencia del arte precolombino? ¿Qué ha aportado ala corriente del arte universal? ¿Qué se deben mutuamente arte modernoy arte precolombino? Estos planteamientos nos sirven para establecerla vigencia del arte precolombino en Latinoamérica, buscandoantecedentes desde los tiempos de la Conquista hasta nuestros días.

  14. "Playing" with our users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2014-01-01

    was from the amazing Dr Anthony Lewis Brooks (aka Tony) who has conceived the concepts GameAbilitation, ArtAbilitation, and Ludic Engagement Designs for All. While presenting some of his work on GameAbilitation and ArtAbilitation he brought up the subject of conducting research with users with disabilities......, about what happens to our users when research is over, funds are gone and the curtain of experiments has fallen. Dr Brooks presented the case of a young user who while unable to move and communicate had to part with the test device that provided him with interactive playful experience. We’ve all been...... confined in a house. For researchers that work with people with disabilities and in my case with playful interactions and positive immersive experience, we might have to think harder when we write project proposals or sketch our methodology. Devices, software and experience should be available to the users...

  15. Playful Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Justine Grønbæk; Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    and undecidability. With an empirical point of departure in Danish public school policy and two concrete examples of games utilised in school development, the article analyses how play is a way for organisations to simultaneously decide and also avoid making a decision, thus keeping flexibility and possibilities...... intact. In its final sections, the article discusses what happens to conditions of decision-making when organisations do not just see undecidability as a given condition, but as a limited resource indispensable for change and renewal. The article advances discussions of organisational play by exploring......This article explores how organisational play becomes a managerial tool to increase and benefit from undecidability. The article draws on Niklas Luhmann's concept of decision and on Gregory Bateson's theory of play to create a conceptual framework for analysing the relation between decision...

  16. The Effects on Adults of Being Imitated by Children: A Review and Methodological Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael C.

    Only recently have imitation researchers turned their attention to the effects on the model of being imitated by observers. This report outlines and reviews the findings of research in the developing paradigms. Four paradigms into the effects of being imitated are examined briefly: (1) operant strengthening paradigm; (2) classical conditioning…

  17. The Effect of Social Engagement on 24-Month-Olds' Imitation from Live and Televised Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Mark; Simcock, Gabrielle; Jenkins, Linda

    2008-01-01

    To date, developmental research has rarely addressed the notion that imitation serves an interpersonal, socially based function. The present research thus examined the role of social engagement on 24-month-olds' imitation by manipulating the social availability of the model. In Experiment 1, the children were more likely to imitate the exact…

  18. Goal-Directed and Goal-Less Imitation in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Kelly S.; Poliakoff, Ellen; Jerrison, Andrew; Gowen, Emma

    2012-01-01

    To investigate how people with Autism are affected by the presence of goals during imitation, we conducted a study to measure movement kinematics and eye movements during the imitation of goal-directed and goal-less hand movements. Our results showed that a control group imitated changes in movement kinematics and increased the level that they…

  19. Modulation of motor and premotor activity during imitation of target-directed actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koski, L; Wohlschlager, A; Bekkering, H; Woods, RP; Dubeau, MC; Mazziotta, JC; Iacoboni, M

    2002-01-01

    Behavioral studies reveal that imitation performance and the motor system are strongly influenced by the goal of the action to be performed. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess the effect of explicit action goals on neural activity during imitation. Subjects imitated index

  20. It's Not What You Know, It's Who You Know: Older Siblings Facilitate Imitation during Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Rachel; Hayne, Harlene

    2003-01-01

    Investigated effects of older siblings on imitation by 12-, 15-, and 18-month-olds. Found that all age groups acquired one to two new behaviors per day through imitation. Older infants imitated more multi-step sequences and substituted more objects during reenactment than younger. Compared to infants without siblings, infants with siblings…

  1. Deferred Imitation and Social Communication in Speaking and Nonspeaking Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strid, Karin; Heimann, Mikael; Gillberg, Christopher; Smith, Lars; Tjus, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Deferred imitation and early social communication skills were compared among speaking and nonspeaking children with autism and children developing typically. Overall, the children with autism showed a lower frequency on measures of deferred imitation and social communication compared with typically developing children. Deferred imitation was…

  2. A Parent-Implemented Intervention to Improve Imitation Skills by Children with Autism: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghlawan, Hasan Y.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the effects of a modified reciprocal imitation training (RIT) on the imitation skills of children with autism. Two parents were trained and coached to use the modified RIT with their young children with autism in home settings. The modified RIT was composed of contingent imitation, descriptive…

  3. Triggering social interactions: chimpanzees respond to imitation by a humanoid robot and request responses from it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila-Ross, Marina; Hutchinson, Johanna; Russell, Jamie L; Schaeffer, Jennifer; Billard, Aude; Hopkins, William D; Bard, Kim A

    2014-05-01

    Even the most rudimentary social cues may evoke affiliative responses in humans and promote social communication and cohesion. The present work tested whether such cues of an agent may also promote communicative interactions in a nonhuman primate species, by examining interaction-promoting behaviours in chimpanzees. Here, chimpanzees were tested during interactions with an interactive humanoid robot, which showed simple bodily movements and sent out calls. The results revealed that chimpanzees exhibited two types of interaction-promoting behaviours during relaxed or playful contexts. First, the chimpanzees showed prolonged active interest when they were imitated by the robot. Second, the subjects requested 'social' responses from the robot, i.e. by showing play invitations and offering toys or other objects. This study thus provides evidence that even rudimentary cues of a robotic agent may promote social interactions in chimpanzees, like in humans. Such simple and frequent social interactions most likely provided a foundation for sophisticated forms of affiliative communication to emerge.

  4. Imitation, Interaction and Dialogue Using Intensive Interaction: Tea Party Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Intensive Interaction has become widely used when building up communication with children with profound learning difficulties. Often practitioners understand Intensive Interaction to be primarily about imitation and Mark Barber shows how this can be a "mis"understanding that limits the kinds of interactions that can be enjoyed by conversation…

  5. Imitative learning as a connector of collective brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F Fontanari

    Full Text Available The notion that cooperation can aid a group of agents to solve problems more efficiently than if those agents worked in isolation is prevalent in computer science and business circles. Here we consider a primordial form of cooperation - imitative learning - that allows an effective exchange of information between agents, which are viewed as the processing units of a social intelligence system or collective brain. In particular, we use agent-based simulations to study the performance of a group of agents in solving a cryptarithmetic problem. An agent can either perform local random moves to explore the solution space of the problem or imitate a model agent - the best performing agent in its influence network. There is a trade-off between the number of agents N and the imitation probability p, and for the optimal balance between these parameters we observe a thirtyfold diminution in the computational cost to find the solution of the cryptarithmetic problem as compared with the independent search. If those parameters are chosen far from the optimal setting, however, then imitative learning can impair greatly the performance of the group.

  6. Coordination under global random interaction and local imitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, A.

    2013-01-01

    We study stochastically stable behaviour in 2 x 2 coordination games where the risk-dominant equilibrium differs from the Pareto-efficient equilibrium. Individuals are randomly matched to another individual in the population (with full support) and they choose strategies by imitating the most succes

  7. Accelerating Imitation Learning in Relational Domains via Transfer by Initialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    Warcraft , regulation of traffic lights, logistics, and a variety of planning domains. A supervised learning method for imitation learning was recently...strategy (RTS) game engine written in C based off the Warcraft series of games. Like all RTS games, it allows multiple agents to be controlled

  8. A Research Framework for Creative and Imitative Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithner, Johan

    2008-01-01

    This conceptual research framework addresses the problem of rote learning by characterising key aspects of the dominating imitative reasoning and the lack of creative mathematical reasoning found in empirical data. By relating reasoning to thinking processes, student competencies, and the learning milieu it explains origins and consequences of…

  9. Advancing Imitation and Requesting Skills in Toddlers with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Kathleen M.; Jones, Emily A.; Blackburn, Catherine; Bauer, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon information about the Down syndrome behavioral phenotype and empirically based intervention strategies, we examined intervention addressing early communication impairments in young children with Down syndrome. Intervention involved multiple opportunities, shaping, prompting, and reinforcement to address both verbal imitation and…

  10. Voluntary imitation in Alzheimer’s disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambra eBisio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although Alzheimer's disease (AD primarily manifests as cognitive deficits, the implicit sensorimotor processes that underlie social interactions, such as automatic imitation, seem to be preserved in mild and moderate stages of the disease, as is the ability to communicate with other persons. Nevertheless, when AD patients face more challenging tasks, which do not rely on automatic processes but on explicit voluntary mechanisms and require the patient to pay attention to external events, the cognitive deficits resulting from the disease might negatively affect patients’ behaviour. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether voluntary motor imitation, i.e. a volitional mechanism that involves observing another person’s action and translating this perception into one’s own action, was affected in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Further, we tested whether this ability was modulated by the nature of the observed stimulus by comparing the ability to reproduce the kinematic features of a human demonstrator with that of a computerized-stimulus. AD patients showed an intact ability to reproduce the velocity of the observed movements, particularly when the stimulus was a human agent. This result suggests that high-level cognitive processes involved in voluntary imitation might be preserved in mild and moderate stages of AD and that voluntary imitation abilities might benefit from the implicit interpersonal communication established between the patient and the human demonstrator.

  11. Breaking the mould on copycats : When are imitation strategies successful

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Horen, F.

    2010-01-01

    Consumer product companies and retailers often imitate the appearance (or “trade-dress”) of a leader brand to profit from the positive associations attached to the leader brand. Such a copycatting strategy is deliberate and frequently used, as evidenced by the plethora of copycats one can find in th

  12. Imitating Cooperation and the Formation of long-term Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Heiner

    2013-01-01

    We study the infinitely repeated prisoner’s dilemma with the option to maintain or to quit relationships. We show that if agents imitate successful strategies infrequently, defection is not dynamically stable and cooperation emerges regardless of the initial distribution of strategies....

  13. Gestural Imitation and Limb Apraxia in Corticobasal Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Jennifer E.; Roy, Eric A.; Black, Sandra E.; Joshi, Anish; Almeida, Quincy

    2004-01-01

    Limb apraxia is a common symptom of corticobasal degeneration (CBD). While previous research has shown that individuals with CBD have difficulty imitating transitive (tool-use actions) and intransitive non-representational gestures (nonsense actions), intransitive representational gestures (actions without a tool) have not been examined. In the…

  14. [Alterations in the imitation of gestures (conduction apraxia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, D G

    The aim of this presentation is to report the performance pattern of a patient who suffered ideomotor apraxia with a disorder pattern of the conduction apraxia (CA) type. This clinical picture was originally reported by Ochipa et al. in 1994 as an alteration in the pathway that joins the two lexicons; later, in 2000, Cubelli et al. claimed that there is no evidence for the existence of such a pathway and suggested that the symptoms were due to an alteration affecting the mechanisms governing visuomotor conversion. A 51 year old patient who, following a traumatic head injury, presented aphasia and apraxia with 40% errors in the imitation of familiar gestures test, 50% errors in the imitation of non familiar gestures (NFG), 0% errors in the visual admission of objects test and 0% in the tool usage test. The differences between the performance in the imitation tests and in the other tests are statistically significant. Although the patient displayed slight alterations in the gesture decision test (20% mistakes), alterations to the action input lexicon would not account for the patient's performance since there is a significant difference between his performance in the imitation of NFG test and the gesture decision test. Moreover, he did not present alterations in the discrimination of gestures. From the above, it can be said that the patient seems to present CA due to alterations in the non semantic interlexical pathway and in the perilexical pathway, as originally postulated by Ochipa et al.

  15. Coordination under global random interaction and local imitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, A.

    2013-01-01

    We study stochastically stable behaviour in 2 x 2 coordination games where the risk-dominant equilibrium differs from the Pareto-efficient equilibrium. Individuals are randomly matched to another individual in the population (with full support) and they choose strategies by imitating the most succes

  16. Imitation model of destruction of aviation fibrous polymeric composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Синеглазов

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Considered are models imitating influence of lighting on dielectric construction materials with elements of lighting protection. Described are models of current spreading in multilayer materials and thermal destruction of fibrous polymeric composite materials caused by lighting current flowing on such materials

  17. Improving Spelling Performance by Imitating a Child's Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nulman, Jo Ann Hiroshige; Gerber, Michael M.

    1984-01-01

    When a contingent imitation and modeling procedure was used with a learning disabled eight-year-old, results indicated significant improvement in the number of correctly spelled words. On a transfer test, performance was slightly improved over pretest performance. However, analysis of error quality revealed substantial improvement in ability.…

  18. Advancing Imitation and Requesting Skills in Toddlers with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Kathleen M.; Jones, Emily A.; Blackburn, Catherine; Bauer, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon information about the Down syndrome behavioral phenotype and empirically based intervention strategies, we examined intervention addressing early communication impairments in young children with Down syndrome. Intervention involved multiple opportunities, shaping, prompting, and reinforcement to address both verbal imitation and…

  19. Spatial affects and imitations in OWS and Distortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    the notions of affect (Thrift 2008, Ash & Amin 2002, Anderson & Holden 2008) and imitation (Tarde 1903), the paper will discuss recent urban crowd movements. OWS has spread a global social activist movement using affective bodily means of communication, whereas Distortion is a cultural street festival taking...

  20. Mirror Me: Imitative Responses in Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunke, Odette; Schöttle, Daniel; Vettorazzi, Eik; Brandt, Valerie; Kahl, Ursula; Bäumer, Tobias; Ganos, Christos; David, Nicole; Peiker, Ina; Engel, Andreas K; Brass, Marcel; Münchau, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunctions of the human mirror neuron system have been postulated to underlie some deficits in autism spectrum disorders including poor imitative performance and impaired social skills. Using three reaction time experiments addressing mirror neuron system functions under simple and complex conditions, we examined 20 adult autism spectrum…

  1. Imitation by Second-Borns in Adult-Sibling Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodapp, Albert F.; LaVoie, Joseph C.

    Five- to seven-year-old second-born children from white, middle-class, intact families were the subjects for this study. Older siblings served as role model for each child, and the parent surrogate models were selected from a pool and trained to act as the child's real parent. The imitation task emphasized verbal, postural, and motor responses of…

  2. Acquisition of Automatic Imitation Is Sensitive to Sensorimotor Contingency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Richard; Press, Clare; Dickinson, Anthony; Heyes, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    The associative sequence learning model proposes that the development of the mirror system depends on the same mechanisms of associative learning that mediate Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning. To test this model, two experiments used the reduction of automatic imitation through incompatible sensorimotor training to assess whether mirror…

  3. Goal-directed imitation in patients with ideomotor apraxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, H; Brass, M; Woschina, S; Jacobs, AM

    2005-01-01

    The present study compared imitation performance in patients with ideomotor apraxia (IMA), eight right hemispheric-damaged patients, and eight control participants without neurological damage in three experiments. Experiment 1 confirmed in the Goldenberg test that IMA patients were particularly impa

  4. Breaking the mould on copycats : When are imitation strategies successful

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Horen, F.

    2010-01-01

    Consumer product companies and retailers often imitate the appearance (or “trade-dress”) of a leader brand to profit from the positive associations attached to the leader brand. Such a copycatting strategy is deliberate and frequently used, as evidenced by the plethora of copycats one can find in

  5. Discrimination and Imitation of Facial Expressions by Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany

    Findings of a series of studies on individual differences and maturational changes in expressivity at the neonatal stage and during early infancy are reported. Research results indicate that newborns are able to discriminate and imitate the basic emotional expressions: happy, sad, and surprised. Results show widened infant lips when the happy…

  6. Seeing How It Sounds: Observation, Imitation, and Improved Learning in Piano Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simones, Lilian; Rodger, Matthew; Schroeder, Franziska

    2017-01-01

    This study centers upon a piano learning and teaching environment in which beginners and intermediate piano students (N = 48) learning to perform a specific type of staccato were submitted to three different (group-exclusive) teaching conditions: "audio-only" demonstration of the musical task; observation of the teacher's action…

  7. Group play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    of group dynamics, the influence of the fictional game characters and the comparative play experience between the two formats. The results indicate that group dynamics and the relationship between the players and their digital characters, are integral to the quality of the gaming experience in multiplayer......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...

  8. Postphenomenological Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammar, Emil

    This paper aims to identify an understanding of digital games in virtual environments by using Don Ihde’s (1990) postphenomenological approach to how technology mediates the world to human beings in conjunction with Hans-Georg Gadamer’s (1993) notion of play . Through this tentatively proposed...... amalgamation of theories I point towards an alternative understanding of the relationship between play and game as not only dialectic, but also as socially and ethically relevant qua the design and implementation of the game as technology....

  9. Perception, production, and imitation of time ratios by skilled musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, S; Knoll, R L

    1984-01-01

    We have described our exploration of the judgment, production, and imitation of fractions of a beat by skilled musicians, illustrating our findings with data from violinist and conductor Paul Zukofsky. For small fractions we found systematic and substantial errors. In the judgment task small stimulus fractions are associated with names that are too large (overestimation). In both production and imitation tasks the fractions produced were too large (overproduction, overimitation). A summary of our findings and of the expectations they violate is provided in Figure 7. The temporal patterns we used are perhaps the simplest that qualify as rhythms, incorporating just a beat interval and a fraction. The phenomena we discovered in relation to these simple patterns, and their implications for underlying mechanisms, must be considered in attempts to understand the perception and production of more complex rhythms, as in actual music. We explored and rejected several plausible explanations for the overestimation and overproduction of small fractions. Although we have as yet no satisfactory explanations of the errors themselves, relations among the errors have powerful implications for human timing mechanisms. The relation between the errors in judgment and production requires us to reject a feedback model of production, in which a subject uses the same processes as in the judgment task to evaluate and adjust his performance in the production task. An explanation of the inconsistency between judgment and production seems most likely to lie in a change in time perception induced by the production task. Together with the existence of systematic errors in judgment, the equality of the errors in production and imitation argues that imitation is not accomplished by concatenating all the processes used in judgment and production. Our results are instead consistent with a model containing four internal transformation processes, in which judgment and production share no process, but

  10. Clay Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Liz; Steffan, Dana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to use clay as a potential material for young children to explore. As teachers, the authors find that their dialogue about the potential of clay as a learning medium raises many questions: (1) What makes clay so enticing? (2) Why are teachers noticing different play and conversation around the clay table as compared to…

  11. Identification of Imitation Cheese and Imitation Ice Cream Based on Vegetable Fat Using NMR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia B. Monakhova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils and fats may be used as cheap substitutes for milk fat to manufacture imitation cheese or imitation ice cream. In this study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy of the fat fraction of the products was used in the context of food surveillance to validate the labeling of milk-based products. For sample preparation, the fat was extracted using an automated Weibull-Stoldt methodology. Using principal component analysis (PCA, imitation products can be easily detected. In both cheese and ice cream, a differentiation according to the type of raw material (milk fat and vegetable fat was possible. The loadings plot shows that imitation products were distinguishable by differences in their fatty acid ratios. Furthermore, a differentiation of several types of cheese (Edamer, Gouda, Emmentaler, and Feta was possible. Quantitative data regarding the composition of the investigated products can also be predicted from the same spectra using partial least squares (PLS regression. The models obtained for 13 compounds in cheese (R2 0.75–0.95 and 17 compounds in ice cream (R2 0.83–0.99 (e.g., fatty acids and esters were suitable for a screening analysis. NMR spectroscopy was judged as suitable for the routine analysis of dairy products based on milk or on vegetable fat substitutes.

  12. Identification of Imitation Cheese and Imitation Ice Cream Based on Vegetable Fat Using NMR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Godelmann, Rolf; Andlauer, Claudia; Kuballa, Thomas; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2013-01-01

    Vegetable oils and fats may be used as cheap substitutes for milk fat to manufacture imitation cheese or imitation ice cream. In this study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of the fat fraction of the products was used in the context of food surveillance to validate the labeling of milk-based products. For sample preparation, the fat was extracted using an automated Weibull-Stoldt methodology. Using principal component analysis (PCA), imitation products can be easily detected. In both cheese and ice cream, a differentiation according to the type of raw material (milk fat and vegetable fat) was possible. The loadings plot shows that imitation products were distinguishable by differences in their fatty acid ratios. Furthermore, a differentiation of several types of cheese (Edamer, Gouda, Emmentaler, and Feta) was possible. Quantitative data regarding the composition of the investigated products can also be predicted from the same spectra using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The models obtained for 13 compounds in cheese (R (2) 0.75-0.95) and 17 compounds in ice cream (R (2) 0.83-0.99) (e.g., fatty acids and esters) were suitable for a screening analysis. NMR spectroscopy was judged as suitable for the routine analysis of dairy products based on milk or on vegetable fat substitutes.

  13. Identification of Imitation Cheese and Imitation Ice Cream Based on Vegetable Fat Using NMR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakhova, Yulia B.; Godelmann, Rolf; Andlauer, Claudia; Kuballa, Thomas; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetable oils and fats may be used as cheap substitutes for milk fat to manufacture imitation cheese or imitation ice cream. In this study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of the fat fraction of the products was used in the context of food surveillance to validate the labeling of milk-based products. For sample preparation, the fat was extracted using an automated Weibull-Stoldt methodology. Using principal component analysis (PCA), imitation products can be easily detected. In both cheese and ice cream, a differentiation according to the type of raw material (milk fat and vegetable fat) was possible. The loadings plot shows that imitation products were distinguishable by differences in their fatty acid ratios. Furthermore, a differentiation of several types of cheese (Edamer, Gouda, Emmentaler, and Feta) was possible. Quantitative data regarding the composition of the investigated products can also be predicted from the same spectra using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The models obtained for 13 compounds in cheese (R 2 0.75–0.95) and 17 compounds in ice cream (R 2 0.83–0.99) (e.g., fatty acids and esters) were suitable for a screening analysis. NMR spectroscopy was judged as suitable for the routine analysis of dairy products based on milk or on vegetable fat substitutes. PMID:26904597

  14. Programming Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth; Muphey, Todd

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses the Pygmalion Project, a collaboration between Northwestern University, the Georgia Institute for Technology, the University of Colorado, and Disney Research to develop a robotic platform for controlling marionettes. Efforts to combine robots and puppets have typically...... focused on using mechanical limbs to reproduce human and animal motions exactly. These automated "puppets" often appear rigid and perfunctory and fail to stimulate the imagination in the same way that puppets operated directly by live puppeteers can. In the Pygmalion Project the robots are not the puppets......, where puppets create the illusion of life through the art of indication rather than precise mechanical reproduction, we anticipate that our robotic marionette platform will allow for a wider, more artistic range of automated motions for robots used in education and entertainment....

  15. The temporal relationship between reduction of early imitative responses and the development of attention mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benga Oana

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine whether early imitative responses fade out following the maturation of attentional mechanisms, the relationship between primitive imitation behaviors and the development of attention was examined in 4-month-old infants. They were divided into high and low imitators, based on an index of imitation. The status of attention was assessed by studying inhibition of return (IOR. Nine-month-old infants were also tested to confirm the hypothesis. Results The IOR latency data replicate previous results that infants get faster to produce a covert shift of attention with increasing age. However, those 4-month-olds who showed less imitation had more rapid saccades to the cue before target presentation. Conclusion The cortical control of saccade planning appears to be related to an apparent drop in early imitation. We interpret the results as suggesting a relationship between the status of imitation and the neural development of attention-related eye movement.

  16. Group play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects of the v......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...... RPGs, with the first being of greater importance to digital games and the latter to the tabletop version....

  17. The Evaluation of Role-Playing in the Context of Teaching Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belova, Nadja; Eilks, Ingo; Feierabend, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Role-plays are a common pedagogical tool in the Social Sciences. As an imitation of societal practices, role-plays are thought to support the development of argumentation and decision-making skills among learners. However, argumentation and decision making are also goals in science education in general and in socioscientific issues-oriented…

  18. Playing Possum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Euli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our society is drenched in the catastrophe; where the growth of financial crisis, environmental cataclysm and militarization represents its gaudiest and mortifying phenomena. Humans struggle with depression, sense of impotence, anguish towards a future considered a threat.  A possibility to keep us alive can be represented by the enhancement of our ability in ‘playing Possum’, an exercise of desisting and renitence: to firmly say ‘no’. To say no to a world that proposes just one way of being and living free, that imposes as the only unavoidable possible destiny.

  19. Playful Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv; Eriksson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the design of future services for children in Danish public libraries is discussed, in the light of new challenges and opportunities in relation to new media and technologies. The Danish government has over the last few years initiated and described a range of initiatives regarding...... in the library, the changing role of the librarians and the library space. We argue that intertwining traditional library services with new media forms and engaging play is the core challenge for future design in physical public libraries, but also that it is through new media and technology that new...

  20. Playful Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv; Eriksson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    in the library, the changing role of the librarians and the library space. We argue that intertwining traditional library services with new media forms and engaging play is the core challenge for future design in physical public libraries, but also that it is through new media and technology that new......In this paper, the design of future services for children in Danish public libraries is discussed, in the light of new challenges and opportunities in relation to new media and technologies. The Danish government has over the last few years initiated and described a range of initiatives regarding...

  1. Counseling as an Art: The Creative Arts in Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladding, Samuel T.

    In this book counseling approaches with a variety of populations are examined using these creative arts: music; dance/movement; imagery; visual arts; literature; drama; and play and humor. It is noted that all of these arts are process-oriented, emotionally sensitive, socially directed, and awareness-focused. Chapter 1 discusses the history,…

  2. Comparative study of"imitation theory"--from Platon to Aristotle%“模仿说”比较研究——从柏拉图到亚里士多德

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡安奇

    2012-01-01

      “模仿”历来是西方文论和美学史的一条主线,它贯穿于文论和美学的始终。众多的模仿说当中,古希腊柏拉图建立在“理念论”之上的模仿说和亚里士多德“艺术模仿现实”的唯物主义模仿说尤其光彩夺目,他们共同奠定了西方美学、文论的理论基础。本文简要回顾了柏拉图和亚氏模仿说的基本内涵,并对这两种模仿说进行简略的比较,最后小结柏拉图和亚氏师徒二人在模仿说理论上产生分歧的原因。%  "Imitation"has always been the masterstroke of western literary theory and aesthetics history, it runs through in literary theory and aesthetics. In many imitation, ancient Greek Platon’s"imitation theory"built on the"theory of idea"and Aristotle’s materialism imitating of"art imitating reality"is especially bright, together they laid the theory foundation of western aesthetics and literary theory. This paper presents the basic connotation of Platon and Asia 's imitation theory, and a simple comparison between the two kind of imitation theory, finally summarizes the reasons of divergence.

  3. Playing cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Mrs. Zahia Marzouk, vice-president of the Alexandria Family Planning Association and a living legend of Egyptian family planning, does not believe in talking about problems. She is far too busy learning from people and teaching them. Her latest brainstorm is a set of playing cards designed to help girls and women to read and learn about family planning at the same time. The 5 packs of cards, representing familiar words and sounds, and each with a family planning joker, took Mrs. Marzouk 6 months to design and paint by hand. They have now been printed, packed into packets provided by UNICEF, and distributed to some 2000 literacy groups in factories and family planning clinics. Each woman who succeeds in learning to read is encouraged to teach 4 others. They then go to the family planning clinic to be examined and gain a certificate. For the teacher who has made them proficient there is a special prize. Girls at El Brinth village outside Alexandria are pictured playing cards at the family planning center where they are learning various skills including how to read.

  4. [Neurodynamic Bases of Imitation Learning and Episodic Memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukerman, V D

    2016-01-01

    In this review, three essentially important processes in development of cognitive behavior are considered: knowledge of a spatial environment by means of physical activity, coding and a call of an existential context of episodic memory and imitation learning based on the mirror neural mechanism. The data show that the parietal and frontal system of learning by imitation, allows the developing organism to seize skills of management and motive synergies in perisomatic space, to understand intentions and the purposes of observed actions of other individuals. At the same time a widely distributed parietal and frontal and entorhinal-hippocampal system mediates spatial knowledge and the solution of the navigation tasks important for creation of an existential context of episodic memory.

  5. The problematic estimation of "imitation effects" in multilevel models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available It seems plausible that a person's demographic behaviour may be influenced by that among other people in the community, for example because of an inclination to imitate. When estimating multilevel models from clustered individual data, some investigators might perhaps feel tempted to try to capture this effect by simply including on the right-hand side the average of the dependent variable, constructed by aggregation within the clusters. However, such modelling must be avoided. According to simulation experiments based on real fertility data from India, the estimated effect of this obviously endogenous variable can be very different from the true effect. Also the other community effect estimates can be strongly biased. An "imitation effect" can only be estimated under very special assumptions that in practice will be hard to defend.

  6. Defining Elemental Imitation Mechanisms: A Comparison of Cognitive and Motor-Spatial Imitation Learning across Object- and Computer-Based Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiaul, Francys; Zimmermann, Laura; Renner, Elizabeth; Schilder, Brian; Barr, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    During the first 5 years of life, the versatility, breadth, and fidelity with which children imitate change dramatically. Currently, there is no model to explain what underlies such significant changes. To that end, the present study examined whether task-independent but domain-specific--elemental--imitation mechanism explains performance across…

  7. A model NOT to be imitated?: Recent criticisms of Paul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Strijdom

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article recent criticisms of Paul are summarised under the headings of ethnicity (Mack, social class (Theissen, gender (Wire and homoeroticism (Nissinen. Horsley's positive appraisal of Paul's anti-imperial stance is  also surveyed. These views are introduced by means of the concept of imitation as a category of social ethics in Paul, the article, concludes with a statement on the morality of reading.

  8. An Analysis of British Tourists’ Purchasing Behavior of Imitation Products: A Case of Fethiye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydan Bekar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The trade of imitation products is increasing rapidly in global scale due to some reasons such as globalization and branding, advancing production technology, high-profit, low risk and low legal sanctions. Manufacturers of imitation products use the advantages of the brand name they produce without a budget of development and promotion activities. Tourists are among consumer group of imitation products. In Fethiye where this study was conducted, it was observed that the number of stores and markets in which imitation products were sold increased with the beginning of holiday season and this number decreased with the end of the season. This observation led to the thought that the target group of dealers of imitation products was foreign tThis study was carried out with 109 British tourists taking their holiday in Fethiye, to examine their purchase behavior towards imitation products. The research data was collected by a questionnaire. According to the study results, it was determined that price was an important factor in tourists’ purchasing imitation products; more than half of the tourists thought imitation products would contribute to the economy of Turkey; that they approved trade of imitation products and they were satisfied with the quality of imitation products

  9. Automatic imitation in a rich social context with virtual characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xueni; Hamilton, Antonia F de C

    2015-01-01

    It has been well established that people respond faster when they perform an action that is congruent with an observed action than when they respond with an incongruent action. Here we propose a new method of using interactive Virtual Characters (VCs) to test if social congruency effects can be obtained in a richer social context with sequential hand-arm actions. Two separate experiments were conducted, exploring if it is feasible to measure spatial congruency (Experiment 1) and anatomical congruency (Experiment 2) in response to a VC, compared to the same action sequence indicated by three virtual balls. In Experiment 1, we found a robust spatial congruency effect for both VC and virtual balls, modulated by a social facilitation effect for participants who felt the VC was human. In Experiment 2 which allowed for anatomical congruency, a form by congruency interaction provided evidence that participants automatically imitate the actions of the VC but do not imitate the balls. Our method and results build a bridge between studies using minimal stimuli in automatic interaction and studies of mimicry in a rich social interaction, and open new research venue for future research in the area of automatic imitation with a more ecologically valid social interaction.

  10. Imitation learning of motor primitives and language bootstrapping in robots

    CERN Document Server

    Cederborg, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Imitation learning in robots, also called programing by demonstration, has made important advances in recent years, allowing humans to teach context dependant motor skills/tasks to robots. We propose to extend the usual contexts investigated to also include acoustic linguistic expressions that might denote a given motor skill, and thus we target joint learning of the motor skills and their potential acoustic linguistic name. In addition to this, a modification of a class of existing algorithms within the imitation learning framework is made so that they can handle the unlabeled demonstration of several tasks/motor primitives without having to inform the imitator of what task is being demonstrated or what the number of tasks are, which is a necessity for language learning, i.e; if one wants to teach naturally an open number of new motor skills together with their acoustic names. Finally, a mechanism for detecting whether or not linguistic input is relevant to the task is also proposed, and our architecture als...

  11. Mirror me: Imitative responses in adults with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunke, Odette; Schöttle, Daniel; Vettorazzi, Eik; Brandt, Valerie; Kahl, Ursula; Bäumer, Tobias; Ganos, Christos; David, Nicole; Peiker, Ina; Engel, Andreas K; Brass, Marcel; Münchau, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    Dysfunctions of the human mirror neuron system have been postulated to underlie some deficits in autism spectrum disorders including poor imitative performance and impaired social skills. Using three reaction time experiments addressing mirror neuron system functions under simple and complex conditions, we examined 20 adult autism spectrum disorder participants and 20 healthy controls matched for age, gender and education. Participants performed simple finger-lifting movements in response to (1) biological finger and non-biological dot movement stimuli, (2) acoustic stimuli and (3) combined visual-acoustic stimuli with different contextual (compatible/incompatible) and temporal (simultaneous/asynchronous) relation. Mixed model analyses revealed slower reaction times in autism spectrum disorder. Both groups responded faster to biological compared to non-biological stimuli (Experiment 1) implying intact processing advantage for biological stimuli in autism spectrum disorder. In Experiment 3, both groups had similar 'interference effects' when stimuli were presented simultaneously. However, autism spectrum disorder participants had abnormally slow responses particularly when incompatible stimuli were presented consecutively. Our results suggest imitative control deficits rather than global imitative system impairments.

  12. Automatic imitation in a rich social context with virtual characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueni ePan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been well established that people respond faster when they perform an action that is congruent with an observed action than when they respond with an incongruent action. Here we propose a new method of using interactive Virtual Characters (VCs to test if social congruency effects can be obtained in a richer social context with sequential hand-arm actions. Two separate experiments were conducted, exploring if it is feasible to measure spatial congruency (experiment 1 and anatomical congruency (experiment 2 in response to a virtual character, compared to the same action sequence indicated by three virtual balls. In experiment 1, we found a robust spatial congruency effect for both VC and virtual balls, modulated by a social facilitation effect for participants who felt the VC was human. In experiment 2 which allowed for anatomical congruency, a form by congruency interaction provided evidence that participants automatically imitate the actions of the VC but do not imitate the balls. Our method and results build a bridge between studies using minimal stimuli in automatic interaction and studies of mimicry in a rich social interaction, and open new research venue for future research in the area of automatic imitation with a more ecologically valid social interaction.

  13. A comprehensive account of sound sequence imitation in the songbird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Westkott

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The amazing imitation capabilities of songbirds show that they can memorize sensory sequences and transform them into motor activities which in turn generate the original sound sequences. This suggests that the bird's brain can learn 1. to reliably reproduce spatio-temporal sensory representations and 2. to transform them into corresponding spatio-temporal motor activations by using an inverse mapping. Neither the synaptic mechanisms nor the network architecture enabling these two fundamental aspects of imitation learning are known. We propose an architecture of coupled neuronal modules that mimick areas in the song bird and show that a unique synaptic plasticity mechanism can serve to learn both, sensory sequences in a recurrent neuronal network, as well as an inverse model that transforms the sensory memories into the corresponding motor activations. The proposed membrane potential dependent learning rule together with the architecture that includes basic features of the bird's brain represents the first comprehensive account of bird imitation learning based on spiking neurons.

  14. Social learning by imitation in a reptile (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Anna; Huber, Ludwig; Wilkinson, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The ability to learn through imitation is thought to be the basis of cultural transmission and was long considered a distinctive characteristic of humans. There is now evidence that both mammals and birds are capable of imitation. However, nothing is known about these abilities in the third amniotic class-reptiles. Here, we use a bidirectional control procedure to show that a reptile species, the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps), is capable of social learning that cannot be explained by simple mechanisms such as local enhancement or goal emulation. Subjects in the experimental group opened a trap door to the side that had been demonstrated, while subjects in the ghost control group, who observed the door move without the intervention of a conspecific, were unsuccessful. This, together with differences in behaviour between experimental and control groups, provides compelling evidence that reptiles possess cognitive abilities that are comparable to those observed in mammals and birds and suggests that learning by imitation is likely to be based on ancient mechanisms.

  15. Imitation of the characteristics of the wind turbine based on DC motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qihui; HE Yikang; ZHAO Rende

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzed the operating principles and power and torque characteristics of the wind turbine and the direct current motor(DC motor),and investigated the operating characteristics of the wind turbine compared to that of the DC motor.The torque imitation scheme,which has good performance and high feasibility,together with the whole wind turbine imitation system,was provided.The wind turbine imitation system includes not only a hardware platform composed of PC,data-collection board and thyristor-based velocity-regulator,but also monitor software of wind turbine imitation.The experimental results of different occasions verify the correctness and feasibility of the wind turbine imitation scheme proposed in this paper,which provided a valid idea for wind turbine imitation and investigation of wind power generation techniques in the laboratory.

  16. IMITATION STRATEGIES FOR SME’S LEARNING PROCESS TOWARDS INNOVATION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Sulistiyani

    2013-01-01

    The research results are as follow: the learning experience to use imitation strategy which covers stages of imitation, research, development and  creation. This learning process is the result of interaction between personal and behavior factors, as well as the enabler and barriers. The owners of leather small industries which leave the imitation strategy and switch to innovation strategy are craftsmen who have an entrepreneurial spirit. they are able to balance entrepreneurial and business aspects.

  17. The history of imitation in learning theory: the language acquisition process.

    OpenAIRE

    Kymissis, E; Poulson, C L

    1990-01-01

    The concept of imitation has undergone different analyses in the hands of different learning theorists throughout the history of psychology. From Thorndike's connectionism to Pavlov's classical conditioning, Hull's monistic theory, Mowrer's two-factor theory, and Skinner's operant theory, there have been several divergent accounts of the conditions that produce imitation and the conditions under which imitation itself may facilitate language acquisition. In tracing the roots of the concept of...

  18. Artful Resources: Adaptation and Reconstruction in Drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Friedman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There is an obvious relation between the imitation and adaptation of literary works. The focus of the essay is the adaptation of early Spanish modern works —including Don Quijote and plays by Cervantes, Lope de Vega, and Juan Ruiz de Alarcón— and Miguel de Unamuno’s Niebla into dramatic texts in English. Adaptation becomes a method of reading, analysis, and interpretation, as well as a form of communication among authors.

  19. Vocal imitation in parrots allows addressing of specific individuals in a dynamic communication network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten J S Balsby

    Full Text Available Parrots in captivity are known for their ability to vocally imitate humans and recently it has been shown that wild-living orange-fronted conures are able to immediately imitate other individuals' contact calls. The function of this exceptional ability to imitate remains unclear. However, orange-fronted conures live in fission-fusion flocks where they encounter many different individuals every day, and it is possible that their vocal imitation ability is a flexible means to address a specific individual within a flock. We tested this via playback to short-term captive wild conures. Test birds were placed together in pairs in outdoor aviaries to form simple flocks. To simulate imitation of a specific individual these pairs received playback of contact calls that primarily imitate one of the two birds. Overall, individuals that received simulated vocal imitations of its calls responded more frequently and faster than the other individual. This suggests that orange-fronted conures can use imitations of contact calls to address specific individuals of a flock. In the discussion we argue that the fission-fusion flock dynamics of many parrot species has been an important factor in evolving conures' and other parrots' exceptional ability to imitate.

  20. Vocal imitation in parrots allows addressing of specific individuals in a dynamic communication network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsby, Thorsten J S; Momberg, Jane Vestergaard; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Parrots in captivity are known for their ability to vocally imitate humans and recently it has been shown that wild-living orange-fronted conures are able to immediately imitate other individuals' contact calls. The function of this exceptional ability to imitate remains unclear. However, orange-fronted conures live in fission-fusion flocks where they encounter many different individuals every day, and it is possible that their vocal imitation ability is a flexible means to address a specific individual within a flock. We tested this via playback to short-term captive wild conures. Test birds were placed together in pairs in outdoor aviaries to form simple flocks. To simulate imitation of a specific individual these pairs received playback of contact calls that primarily imitate one of the two birds. Overall, individuals that received simulated vocal imitations of its calls responded more frequently and faster than the other individual. This suggests that orange-fronted conures can use imitations of contact calls to address specific individuals of a flock. In the discussion we argue that the fission-fusion flock dynamics of many parrot species has been an important factor in evolving conures' and other parrots' exceptional ability to imitate.

  1. Neural processing of race during imitation: self-similarity versus social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losin, Elizabeth A Reynolds; Cross, Katy A; Iacoboni, Marco; Dapretto, Mirella

    2014-04-01

    People preferentially imitate others who are similar to them or have high social status. Such imitative biases are thought to have evolved because they increase the efficiency of cultural acquisition. Here we focused on distinguishing between self-similarity and social status as two candidate mechanisms underlying neural responses to a person's race during imitation. We used fMRI to measure neural responses when 20 African American (AA) and 20 European American (EA) young adults imitated AA, EA and Chinese American (CA) models and also passively observed their gestures and faces. We found that both AA and EA participants exhibited more activity in lateral frontoparietal and visual regions when imitating AAs compared with EAs or CAs. These results suggest that racial self-similarity is not likely to modulate neural responses to race during imitation, in contrast with findings from previous neuroimaging studies of face perception and action observation. Furthermore, AA and EA participants associated AAs with lower social status than EAs or CAs, suggesting that the social status associated with different racial groups may instead modulate neural activity during imitation of individuals from those groups. Taken together, these findings suggest that neural responses to race during imitation are driven by socially learned associations rather than self-similarity. This may reflect the adaptive role of imitation in social learning, where learning from higher status models can be more beneficial. This study provides neural evidence consistent with evolutionary theories of cultural acquisition.

  2. Is selective attention the basis for selective imitation in infants? An eye-tracking study of deferred imitation with 12-month-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolling, Thorsten; Oturai, Gabriella; Knopf, Monika

    2014-08-01

    Infants and children do not blindly copy every action they observe during imitation tasks. Research demonstrated that infants are efficient selective imitators. The impact of selective perceptual processes (selective attention) for selective deferred imitation, however, is still poorly described. The current study, therefore, analyzed 12-month-old infants' looking behavior during demonstration of two types of target actions: arbitrary versus functional actions. A fully automated remote eye tracker was used to assess infants' looking behavior during action demonstration. After a 30-min delay, infants' deferred imitation performance was assessed. Next to replicating a memory effect, results demonstrate that infants do imitate significantly more functional actions than arbitrary actions (functionality effect). Eye-tracking data show that whereas infants do not fixate significantly longer on functional actions than on arbitrary actions, amount of fixations and amount of saccades differ between functional and arbitrary actions, indicating different encoding mechanisms. In addition, item-level findings differ from overall findings, indicating that perceptual and conceptual item features influence looking behavior. Looking behavior on both the overall and item levels, however, does not relate to deferred imitation performance. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that, on the one hand, selective imitation is not explainable merely by selective attention processes. On the other hand, notwithstanding this reasoning, attention processes on the item level are important for encoding processes during target action demonstration. Limitations and future studies are discussed.

  3. Memories of art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirstein, William

    2013-04-01

    Although the art-historical context of a work of art is important to our appreciation of it, it is our knowledge of that history that plays causal roles in producing the experience itself. This knowledge is in the form of memories, both semantic memories about the historical circumstances, but also episodic memories concerning our personal connections with an artwork. We also create representations of minds in order to understand the emotions that artworks express.

  4. The uses of art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    In recent years aesthetics and cosmopolitanism has been linked in new ways. On the one hand contemporary research in sociology of art appears to indicate an increasing openness and a potential cosmopolitanism in aesthetic taste and consumption. On the other hand aesthetic concepts and ideals play...... implications of the apparent new openness. Does it indicate an increasing tolerance and commonality? Or does it rather point towards a new and more individualized understanding of the social function and legitimacy of art?...

  5. The trouble with memes : Inference versus imitation in cultural creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atran, S

    2001-12-01

    Memes are hypothetical cultural units passed on by imitation; although nonbiological, they undergo Darwinian selection like genes. Cognitive study of multimodular human minds undermines memetics: unlike in genetic replication, high-fidelity transmission of cultural information is the exception, not the rule. Constant, rapid "mutation" of information during communication generates endlessly varied creations that nevertheless adhere to modular input conditions. The sort of cultural information most susceptible to modular processing is that most readily acquired by children, most easily transmitted across individuals, most apt to survive within a culture, most likely to recur in different cultures, and most disposed to cultural variation and elaboration.

  6. Art Toys in the contemporary art scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sernissi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Art Toys phenomenon, better known as Art Toy Movement, was born in China in the mid-nineties and quickly spread out to the rest of the world. The toys are an artistic production of serial sculpture, made by handcrafts or on an industrial scale. There are several types of toys, such as custom toys and canvas toys, synonyms of designer toys, although they are often defined according to the constituent material, such as vinyl toys (plastic and plush toys (fabric. Art toys are the heirs of an already pop-surrealist and neo-pop circuit, which since the eighties of the twentieth century has pervaded the Japanese-American art scene, winking to the playful spirit of the avant-garde of the early century. Some psychoanalytic, pedagogical and anthropological studies about “play theories”, may also help us to understand and identify these heterogeneous products as real works of art and not simply as collectible toys.

  7. Imitation, Sign Language Skill and the Developmental Ease of Language Understanding (D-ELU) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmer, Emil; Heimann, Mikael; Rudner, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Imitation and language processing are closely connected. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) pre-existing mental representation of lexical items facilitates language understanding. Thus, imitation of manual gestures is likely to be enhanced by experience of sign language. We tested this by eliciting imitation of manual gestures from deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing and hearing non-signing children at a similar level of language and cognitive development. We predicted that the DHH signing children would be better at imitating gestures lexicalized in their own sign language (Swedish Sign Language, SSL) than unfamiliar British Sign Language (BSL) signs, and that both groups would be better at imitating lexical signs (SSL and BSL) than non-signs. We also predicted that the hearing non-signing children would perform worse than DHH signing children with all types of gestures the first time (T1) we elicited imitation, but that the performance gap between groups would be reduced when imitation was elicited a second time (T2). Finally, we predicted that imitation performance on both occasions would be associated with linguistic skills, especially in the manual modality. A split-plot repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that DHH signers imitated manual gestures with greater precision than non-signing children when imitation was elicited the second but not the first time. Manual gestures were easier to imitate for both groups when they were lexicalized than when they were not; but there was no difference in performance between familiar and unfamiliar gestures. For both groups, language skills at T1 predicted imitation at T2. Specifically, for DHH children, word reading skills, comprehension and phonological awareness of sign language predicted imitation at T2. For the hearing participants, language comprehension predicted imitation at T2, even after the effects of working memory capacity and motor skills were taken into

  8. Imitation, sign language skill and the Developmental Ease of Language Understanding (D-ELU model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil eHolmer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Imitation and language processing are closely connected. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU model (Rönnberg et al., 2013 pre-existing mental representation of lexical items facilitates language understanding. Thus, imitation of manual gestures is likely to be enhanced by experience of sign language. We tested this by eliciting imitation of manual gestures from deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH signing and hearing non-signing children at a similar level of language and cognitive development. We predicted that the DHH signing children would be better at imitating gestures lexicalized in their own sign language (Swedish Sign Language, SSL than unfamiliar British Sign Language (BSL signs, and that both groups would be better at imitating lexical signs (SSL and BSL than non-signs. We also predicted that the hearing non-signing children would perform worse than DHH signing children with all types of gestures the first time (T1 we elicited imitation, but that the performance gap between groups would be reduced when imitation was elicited a second time (T2. Finally, we predicted that imitation performance on both occasions would be associated with linguistic skills, especially in the manual modality. A split-plot repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that DHH signers imitated manual gestures with greater precision than non-signing children when imitation was elicited the second but not the first time. Manual gestures were easier to imitate for both groups when they were lexicalized than when they were not; but there was no difference in performance between familiar and unfamiliar gestures. For both groups, language skills at the T1 predicted imitation at T2. Specifically, for DHH children, word reading skills, comprehension and phonological awareness of sign language predicted imitation at T2. For the hearing participants, language comprehension predicted imitation at T2, even after the effects of working memory capacity and motor skills

  9. Anatomical and spatial matching in imitation: Evidence from left and right brain-damaged patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengotti, Paola; Ripamonti, Enrico; Pesavento, Valentina; Rumiati, Raffaella Ida

    2015-12-01

    Imitation is a sensorimotor process whereby the visual information present in the model's movement has to be coupled with the activation of the motor system in the observer. This also implies that greater the similarity between the seen and the produced movement, the easier it will be to execute the movement, a process also known as ideomotor compatibility. Two components can influence the degree of similarity between two movements: the anatomical and the spatial component. The anatomical component is present when the model and imitator move the same body part (e.g., the right hand) while the spatial component is present when the movement of the model and that of the imitator occur at the same spatial position. Imitation can be achieved by relying on both components, but typically the model's and imitator's movements are matched either anatomically or spatially. The aim of this study was to ascertain the contribution of the left and right hemisphere to the imitation accomplished either with anatomical or spatial matching (or with both). Patients with unilateral left and right brain damage performed an ideomotor task and a gesture imitation task. Lesions in the left and right hemispheres gave rise to different performance deficits. Patients with lesions in the left hemisphere showed impaired imitation when anatomical matching was required, and patients with lesions in the right hemisphere showed impaired imitation when spatial matching was required. Lesion analysis further revealed a differential involvement of left and right hemispheric regions, such as the parietal opercula, in supporting imitation in the ideomotor task. Similarly, gesture imitation seemed to rely on different regions in the left and right hemisphere, such as parietal regions in the left hemisphere and premotor, somatosensory and subcortical regions in the right hemisphere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nowhere, Somewhere, Everywhere: The Arts in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jessica Hoffman

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes eight roles that the arts can play in education, focusing on the "arts cultura" model. Describes the Harvard University Graduate School of Education program that explores the arts from a variety of perspectives. Discusses the arts' place in the curriculum. (CMK)

  11. A cross-cultural comparison of tonal synchrony and pitch imitation in the vocal dialogs of Belgian Flemish-speaking and Mexican Spanish-speaking mother-infant dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Puyvelde, Martine; Loots, Gerrit; Gillisjans, Lobcke; Pattyn, Nathalie; Quintana, Carmen

    2015-08-01

    This study reports a cross-cultural comparison of the vocal pitch patterns of 15 Mexican Spanish-speaking and 15 Belgian Flemish-speaking dyads, recorded during 5min of free-play in a laboratory setting. Both cultures have a tradition of dyadic face-to-face interaction but differ in language origins (i.e., Romanic versus Germanic). In total, 374 Mexican and 558 Flemish vocal exchanges were identified, analyzed and compared for their incidence of tonal synchrony (harmonic/pentatonic series), non-tonal synchrony (with/without imitations) and pitch and/or interval imitations. The main findings revealed that dyads in both cultures rely on tonal synchrony using similar pitch ratios and timing patterns. However, there were significant differences in the infants' vocal pitch imitation behavior. Additional video-analyzes on the contingency patterns involved in pitch imitation showed a cross-cultural difference in the maternal selective reinforcement of pitch imitation. The results are interpreted with regard to linguistic, developmental and cultural aspects and the 'musilanguage' model.

  12. Organisational Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferro-Thomsen, Martin

    creation of a practical utopia (?heterotopia?) in the organisational context. The case study makes use of both art- and organisational theory. The thesis concludes with an outline of a framework for OA that is derived from contemporary theory of mainly Relational Aesthetics (Bourriaud), Conceptual Art......University of Copenhagen / Learning Lab Denmark. 2005 Kort beskrivelse: Organisational Art is a tentative title for an art form that works together with organisations to produce art. This is most often done together with non-artist members of the organisation and on-site in their social context. OA...... is characterised as socially engaged, conceptual, discursive, site-specific and contextual. Abstract: This investigation is about Organisational Art (OA), which is a tentative title for an art form that works together with organisations (companies, institutions, communities, governments and NGOs) to produce art...

  13. Art imitates life: Déjà vu experiences in prose and poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sno, H N; Linszen, D H; de Jonghe, F

    1992-04-01

    the déjà vu experience is a subjective phenomenon that has been described in many novels and poems. Here we review over 20 literary descriptions. These accounts are consistent with the data obtained from psychiatric literature, including various phenomenological, aetiological and psychopathogenetic aspects of the déjà vu experience. The explanations, explicitly formulated by creative authors, include reincarnation, dreams, organic factors and unconscious memories. Not infrequently, an association with defence or organic factors is demonstrable on the basis of psychoanalytic or clinical psychiatric interpretation. The authors recommend that psychiatrists be encouraged to overstep the limits of psychiatric literature and read prose and poetry as well.

  14. Does Exposure Imitate Art: Exposure Science for 21st Century Toxicity Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Issues Session will continue the dialog begun at the highly successful 2008 NRC session in which the Annual Meeting participants were provided an overview of the three National Academy reports addressing key issues impacting the Society and the profession of toxicology. Thes...

  15. Mirror neurons and imitation: a computationally guided review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztop, Erhan; Kawato, Mitsuo; Arbib, Michael

    2006-04-01

    Neurophysiology reveals the properties of individual mirror neurons in the macaque while brain imaging reveals the presence of 'mirror systems' (not individual neurons) in the human. Current conceptual models attribute high level functions such as action understanding, imitation, and language to mirror neurons. However, only the first of these three functions is well-developed in monkeys. We thus distinguish current opinions (conceptual models) on mirror neuron function from more detailed computational models. We assess the strengths and weaknesses of current computational models in addressing the data and speculations on mirror neurons (macaque) and mirror systems (human). In particular, our mirror neuron system (MNS), mental state inference (MSI) and modular selection and identification for control (MOSAIC) models are analyzed in more detail. Conceptual models often overlook the computational requirements for posited functions, while too many computational models adopt the erroneous hypothesis that mirror neurons are interchangeable with imitation ability. Our meta-analysis underlines the gap between conceptual and computational models and points out the research effort required from both sides to reduce this gap.

  16. The historicity of the physics class: enactments, mimes and imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergwik, Staffan

    2014-06-01

    This essay discusses Anna Danielsson's article "In the physics class: university physics students' enactments of class and gender in the context of laboratory work". The situated co-construction of knowledge and identity forms the crucial vantage point and I argue that it is a point of intersection between the history of science and research in science education. The former can provide a valuable understanding of the historicity of learning science. I thus highlight the importance of knowledge as situated in time and space, for instance the importance of the historical division between "head and hand" clearly visible in the discourse of Danielsson's informants. Moreover, the article discusses how identity is produced in specific knowledge contexts through repeated performances. The article closes by briefly suggesting analytical alternatives, in particular "belonging" and "imitation". Both draw on post-structuralist ideas about the citational nature of identity. Belonging is created by citing and reinstating norms. Imitating knowledge, identity and norms is an issue that should be brought to the fore when we speak of education and training.

  17. The Foundations of Human Cooperation in Teaching and Imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laland, Kevin N

    2017-01-09

    Humans exhibit extensive large-scale cooperation, of a form unprecedented in the natural world. Here I suggest that this cooperation arises in our species alone because of our uniquely potent capacities for social learning, imitation and teaching, combined with the co-evolutionary feedbacks that these capabilities have generated on the human mind. Culture took human populations down evolutionary pathways not available to non-cultural species, either by creating conditions that promoted established cooperative mechanisms, such as indirect reciprocity and mutualism, or by generating novel cooperative mechanisms not seen in other taxa, such as cultural group selection. In the process, gene-culture co-evolution seemingly generated an evolved psychology, comprising an enhanced ability and motivation to learn, teach, communicate through language, imitate and emulate, as well as predispositions to docility, social tolerance, and the sharing of goals, intentions and attention. This evolved psychology is entirely different from that observed in any other animal, or that could have evolved through conventional selection on genes alone.

  18. Imitation of alcohol consumption in same-sex and other-sex dyads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, H.; Overbeek, G.J.; Granic, I.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Being exposed to other people's drinking behavior has been demonstrated to influence individual's drinking levels. Imitation of alcohol consumption has mainly been investigated among same-sex drinking partners. This study examined whether imitation of alcohol consumption differs when people

  19. Out-of-category brand imitation : Product categorization determines copycat evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Horen, F.; Pieters, Rik

    Copycat brands imitate the trade dress of other brands, such as their brand name, logo, and packaging design. Copycats typically operate in the core product category of the imitated brand under the assumption that such “in-category imitation” is most effective. In contrast, four experiments

  20. Effects of reputational sanctions on the competitive imitation of design innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemser, G.; Wijnberg, N.M.

    2001-01-01

    This study examines whether and under what conditions reputational sanctions are a strong deterrent to imitative firm behaviour. Results indicate that reputational sanctions can be an effective barrier to imitation, in particular when firms perceive a reputation for innovation to be a factor in thei

  1. Imitation of Tongue Protrusion in Human Neonates: Specificity of the Response in a Large Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Emese; Pilling, Karen; Orvos, Hajnalka; Molnar, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Although a large body of evidence has accumulated on the young human infant's ability to imitate, the phenomenon has failed to gain unanimous acceptance. Imitation of tongue protrusion, the most tested gesture to date, was examined in a sample of 115 newborns in the first 5 days of life in 3 seating positions. An ethologically based…

  2. Effects of Context and Facial Expression on Imitation Tasks in Preschool Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markodimitraki, Maria; Kypriotaki, Maria; Ampartzaki, Maria; Manolitsis, George

    2013-01-01

    The present study explored the effect of the context in which an imitation act occurs (elicited/spontaneous) and the experimenter's facial expression (neutral or smiling) during the imitation task with young children with autism and typically developing children. The participants were 10 typically developing children and 10 children with autism…

  3. Robots Learn to Recognize Individuals from Imitative Encounters with People and Avatars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucenna, Sofiane; Cohen, David; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Gaussier, Philippe; Chetouani, Mohamed

    2016-02-01

    Prior to language, human infants are prolific imitators. Developmental science grounds infant imitation in the neural coding of actions, and highlights the use of imitation for learning from and about people. Here, we used computational modeling and a robot implementation to explore the functional value of action imitation. We report 3 experiments using a mutual imitation task between robots, adults, typically developing children, and children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. We show that a particular learning architecture - specifically one combining artificial neural nets for (i) extraction of visual features, (ii) the robot’s motor internal state, (iii) posture recognition, and (iv) novelty detection - is able to learn from an interactive experience involving mutual imitation. This mutual imitation experience allowed the robot to recognize the interactive agent in a subsequent encounter. These experiments using robots as tools for modeling human cognitive development, based on developmental theory, confirm the promise of developmental robotics. Additionally, findings illustrate how person recognition may emerge through imitative experience, intercorporeal mapping, and statistical learning.

  4. Empathy is a beautiful thing: Empathy predicts imitation only for attractive others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, B.C.N.; Leeuwen, M.L. van; Baaren, R.B. van; Bekkering, H.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that we spontaneously imitate people. Moreover, empathy predicts the degree of this non-conscious imitation. Little is known, however, if or how this expression of empathy is influenced by stable physical characteristics of our interaction-partners. In two studies, we tested whether

  5. Screening suspected counterfeit Viagra and imitations of Viagra with near-infrared spectroscopy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vredenbregt, M J; Blok-Tip, L; Hoogerbrugge, Ronald; Barends, D M; Kaste, D de

    2006-01-01

    We describe a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) method for fast-screening Viagra tablets, counterfeit Viagra tablets, and imitations of Viagra. The method can (1) check the homogeneity of a batch; (2) distinguish counterfeits and imitations from authentic Viagra; (3) screen for the presence of silde

  6. Imitation of alcohol consumption in same-sex and other-sex dyads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, H.; Overbeek, G.J.; Granic, I.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Being exposed to other people's drinking behavior has been demonstrated to influence individual's drinking levels. Imitation of alcohol consumption has mainly been investigated among same-sex drinking partners. This study examined whether imitation of alcohol consumption differs when people dri

  7. Physical and Interpersonal Attractiveness of the Model and Imitation in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Gerald R.; LaVoie, Joseph C.

    The effects of physical attractiveness, warmth, and sex of an adult model on imitation behavior of adult males and females were investigated. Subjects were randomly paired with confederates of low or high facial attractiveness who interacted with the subject in a cold-unfriendly or warm-friendly manner. The imitation task involved the confederate…

  8. Effects of reputational sanctions on the competitive imitation of design innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemser, G.; Wijnberg, N.M.

    2001-01-01

    This study examines whether and under what conditions reputational sanctions are a strong deterrent to imitative firm behaviour. Results indicate that reputational sanctions can be an effective barrier to imitation, in particular when firms perceive a reputation for innovation to be a factor in

  9. "Imitation of similar beings": social mimesis as an argument in evolutionary theory around 1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willer, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The article analyzes imitation as both a fascinating and irritating phenomenon in "classical" evolutionary theory. Evolutionists situate imitation on the threshold between the natural and the socio-cultural, hence between the animal and the human. This intermediate position can be regarded as a symptom for the unresolved and maybe unresolvable problem of intentionality and teleology in nature. To elaborate this problem, I examine the ways in which imitation was conceived of by the German Africologist Wilhelm Bleek in his treatise On the Origin of Language and by Charles Darwin in The Descent of Man. Bleek and Darwin share a high esteem of imitation, which they see as the mainspring of human mental capacities, including language. But at the same time, imitation for them is the epitome of a low level of consciousness, embodied in the figures of the idiot, the savage, and the ape. Thus, the problem of similarity comes to the fore: similarity produced by imitation, but also being at the basis of every act of imitation. This problem is further evidenced with a side glance on Darwin's remarks about mimicry in The Origin of Species. The article closes with a literary reading of Franz Kafka's Report to an Academy, in which imitation and similarity represent survival strategies and motivate a strange shift from ape to man.

  10. Spontaneous and Imitated Productions in Spanish-Speaking Children with Phonological Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Brian; Fabiano, Leah; Iglesias, Aquiles

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Research examining the relationship between spontaneous and imitated productions for phonological analysis has indicated that the inclusion of imitated productions may overestimate children's phonological abilities. Previous research in this area has included only English-speaking children. The purpose of this study was to determine what,…

  11. Robots Learn to Recognize Individuals from Imitative Encounters with People and Avatars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucenna, Sofiane; Cohen, David; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Gaussier, Philippe; Chetouani, Mohamed

    2016-02-04

    Prior to language, human infants are prolific imitators. Developmental science grounds infant imitation in the neural coding of actions, and highlights the use of imitation for learning from and about people. Here, we used computational modeling and a robot implementation to explore the functional value of action imitation. We report 3 experiments using a mutual imitation task between robots, adults, typically developing children, and children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. We show that a particular learning architecture--specifically one combining artificial neural nets for (i) extraction of visual features, (ii) the robot's motor internal state, (iii) posture recognition, and (iv) novelty detection--is able to learn from an interactive experience involving mutual imitation. This mutual imitation experience allowed the robot to recognize the interactive agent in a subsequent encounter. These experiments using robots as tools for modeling human cognitive development, based on developmental theory, confirm the promise of developmental robotics. Additionally, findings illustrate how person recognition may emerge through imitative experience, intercorporeal mapping, and statistical learning.

  12. Interindividual Differences in Neonatal Imitation and the Development of Action Chains in Rhesus Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Paukner, Annika; Ruggiero, Angela; Darcey, Lisa; Unbehagen, Sarah; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    The capacity to imitate facial gestures is highly variable in rhesus macaques and this variability may be related to differences in specific neurobehavioral patterns of development. This study evaluated the differential neonatal imitative response of 41 macaques in relation to the development of sensory, motor, and cognitive skills throughout the…

  13. The Left, The Better: White-Matter Brain Integrity Predicts Foreign Language Imitation Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, Lucía; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Reiterer, Susanne M

    2016-07-26

    Speech imitation is crucial for language acquisition and second-language learning. Interestingly, large individual differences regarding the ability in imitating foreign-language sounds have been observed. The origin of this interindividual diversity remains unknown, although it might be partially explained by structural predispositions. Here we correlated white-matter structural properties of the arcuate fasciculus (AF) with the performance of 52 German-speakers in a Hindi sentence- and word-imitation task. First, a manual reconstruction was performed, permitting us to extract the mean values along the three branches of the AF. We found that a larger lateralization of the AF volume toward the left hemisphere predicted the performance of our participants in the imitation task. Second, an automatic reconstruction was carried out, allowing us to localize the specific region within the AF that exhibited the largest correlation with foreign language imitation. Results of this reconstruction also showed a left lateralization trend: greater fractional anisotropy values in the anterior half of the left AF correlated with the performance in the Hindi-imitation task. From the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that foreign language imitation aptitude is tested using a more ecological imitation task and correlated with DTI tractography, using both a manual and an automatic method.

  14. The Ghost Condition: Imitation Versus Emulation in Young Children's Observational Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Doreen E.; Russell, James

    2004-01-01

    Although observational learning by children may occur through imitating a modeler's actions, it can also occur through learning about an object's dynamic affordances- a process that M. Tomasello (1996) calls "emulation." The relative contributions of imitation and emulation within observational learning were examined in a study with 14- to…

  15. The Effects of Reciprocal Imitation on Teacher-Student Relationships and Student Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiangyuan

    2012-01-01

    Neuroscientific and developmental psychological research in imitation has yielded important insights into building teacher-student relationships and enhancing students' learning. This study investigated the effects of reciprocal imitation on teacher-student relationships and students' learning outcomes in one-on-one teacher-student interactions.…

  16. Exploring the Relationship between Gestural Recognition and Imitation: Evidence of Dyspraxia in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Heidi Stieglitz; Bartolo, Angela; Corley, Martin; Rajendran, Gnanathusharan; Szabo, Aniko; Swanson, Sara

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between gesture recognition and imitation was explored. Nineteen individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) were compared to a control group of 23 typically developing children on their ability to imitate and recognize three gesture types (transitive, intransitive, and pantomimes). The ASD group performed more…

  17. Becoming a high-fidelity - super - imitator: what are the contributions of social and individual learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiaul, Francys; Patterson, Eric M; Schilder, Brian; Renner, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel

    2015-11-01

    In contrast to other primates, human children's imitation performance goes from low to high fidelity soon after infancy. Are such changes associated with the development of other forms of learning? We addressed this question by testing 215 children (26-59 months) on two social conditions (imitation, emulation) - involving a demonstration - and two asocial conditions (trial-and-error, recall) - involving individual learning - using two touchscreen tasks. The tasks required responding to either three different pictures in a specific picture order (Cognitive: Airplane→Ball→Cow) or three identical pictures in a specific spatial order (Motor-Spatial: Up→Down→Right). There were age-related improvements across all conditions and imitation, emulation and recall performance were significantly better than trial-and-error learning. Generalized linear models demonstrated that motor-spatial imitation fidelity was associated with age and motor-spatial emulation performance, but cognitive imitation fidelity was only associated with age. While this study provides evidence for multiple imitation mechanisms, the development of one of those mechanisms - motor-spatial imitation - may be bootstrapped by the development of another social learning skill - motor-spatial emulation. Together, these findings provide important clues about the development of imitation, which is arguably a distinctive feature of the human species.

  18. Wall Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Connie Q.

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article, an art teacher at Monarch High School in Louisville, Colorado, describes how her experience teaching in a new school presented an exciting visual challenge for an art teacher--monotonous brick walls just waiting for decoration. This school experienced only minimal instances of graffiti, but as an art teacher, she did…

  19. Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  20. Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  1. Aspiration promotes cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game with the imitation rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuesong; He, Mingfeng; Kang, Yibin; Pan, Qiuhui

    2016-07-01

    A model of stochastic evolutionary game dynamics with finite population of size N +M was built. Among these individuals, N individuals update strategies with aspiration updating, while the other M individuals update strategies with imitation updating. In the proposed model, we obtain the expression of the mean fraction of cooperators and analyze some concrete cases. Compared with the standard imitation dynamics, there is always a positive probability to support the formation of cooperation in the system with the aspiration and imitation rules. Moreover, the numerical results indicate that more aspiration-driven individuals lead to a higher mean fraction of imitation-driven cooperators, which means the invasion of the aspiration-driven individuals is conducive to promoting the cooperation of the imitation-driven individuals.

  2. The peer model advantage in infants’ imitation of familiar gestures performed by differently aged models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert eZmyj

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on infant´s imitation of differently aged models, which has predominantly studied object- related actions, has so far lead to mixed evidence. Whereas some studies reported an increased likelihood of imitating peer models in contrast to adult models, other studies reported the opposite pattern of results. In the present study, 14-month-old infants were presented with four familiar gestures (e.g., clapping that were demonstrated by differently aged televised models (peer, older child, adult. Results revealed that infants were more likely to imitate the peer model than the older child or the adult. This result is discussed with respect to a social function of imitation and the cognitive mechanism of imitating familiar behavior.

  3. Do as I … Did! Long-term memory of imitative actions in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugazza, Claudia; Pogány, Ákos; Miklósi, Ádám

    2016-03-01

    This study demonstrates long-term declarative memory of imitative actions in a non-human animal species. We tested 12 pet dogs for their ability to imitate human actions after retention intervals ranging from 1 to 24 h. For comparison, another 12 dogs were tested for the same actions without delay between demonstration and recall. Our test consisted of a modified version of the Do as I Do paradigm, combined with the two-action procedure to control for non-imitative processes. Imitative performance of dogs remained consistently high independent of increasing retention intervals, supporting the idea that dogs are able to retain mental representations of human actions for an extended period of time. The ability to imitate after such delays supports the use of long-term declarative memory.

  4. Vocal Imitation in Parrots Allows Addressing of Specific Individuals in a Dynamic Communication Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balsby, T.J.S.; Momberg, J.V.; Dabelsteen, T.

    2012-01-01

    and faster than the other individual. This suggests that orange-fronted conures can use imitations of contact calls to address specific individuals of a flock. In the discussion we argue that the fission-fusion flock dynamics of many parrot species has been an important factor in evolving conures´ and other......Parrots in captivity are known for their ability to vocally imitate humans and recently it has been shown that wild-living orange-fronted conures are able to immediately imitate other individuals´ contact calls. The function of this exceptional ability to imitate remains unclear. However, orangeâ......€“fronted conures live in fission-fusion flocks where they encounter many different individuals every day, and it is possible that their vocal imitation ability is a flexible means to address a specific individual within a flock. We tested this via playback to short-term captive wild conures. Test birds were placed...

  5. The Methodological Framework of Occupational Training in Culture and Art High Schools of Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulbekova, ?igul K.; Tleubayeva, Balzhan S.; Tleubayev, Seraly Sh.; Saparova, Yulduz A.; Dildebayeva, Gulmira R.; Daribayeva, Raushan D.; Omar, Esen O.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine specific features of the traditional Kazakh dances as the methodological foundation of training specialists in the culture and art universities. The article describes the main typologies of Kazakh dances, such as ritual and ceremonial, combative-hunting, work dances, household-imitative dances, festive and…

  6. The Beauty of Alliteration and the Art of Its English Chinese Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赫妍

    2009-01-01

    Alliteration,a figure of English,has showed its aesthetic effect through its rhetorical effects.In Chinese,the translation methods of alliteration mainly include homonymous imitation,borrowing of Chinese onomatopoeia,rhythm,meter,parallelism,four-character structure,etc,which fully reflects the art of English Chinese translation.

  7. An exploration of imitation recognition in young children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Natalie I; Ingersoll, Brooke

    2013-10-01

    The ability to recognize when one is being imitated has been hypothesized to be an important developmental process related to the emergence of more advanced social-cognitive skills. While a series of behaviors indicating progressively more mature imitation recognition (IR) skills has been assessed in typically developing children, empirical work with children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has largely focused on basic social responses to an imitative adult (e.g. increases in eye contact). Limited work has explored more mature IR behaviors in this population. This study compared the degree to which children with ASD engage in different behaviors thought to be indicative of IR during a naturalistic imitation task and the relationship between different types of IR behaviors and social-cognitive skills (i.e. imitation, language, social reciprocity, and joint attention). Thirty children with ASD were administered standardized measures of cognitive level, language, joint attention, social reciprocity, and imitation. IR behaviors were observed during periods of contingent imitation by an adult. Participants engaged more frequently in less mature (e.g. looking at the experimenter's toy or face) than more mature IR behaviors (e.g. testing the experimenter's intent to imitate). After controlling for developmental level, social reciprocity, object imitation, and gesture imitation were positively correlated with more mature IR. These findings suggest that the development of more mature IR skills is related to the development of other social-cognitive skills in children with ASD and provide additional empirical support for reports of more mature IR observed in this population. , Inc. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Organisational Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferro-Thomsen, Martin

    University of Copenhagen / Learning Lab Denmark. 2005 Kort beskrivelse: Organisational Art is a tentative title for an art form that works together with organisations to produce art. This is most often done together with non-artist members of the organisation and on-site in their social context. OA...... is characterised as socially engaged, conceptual, discursive, site-specific and contextual. Abstract: This investigation is about Organisational Art (OA), which is a tentative title for an art form that works together with organisations (companies, institutions, communities, governments and NGOs) to produce art....... This is most often done together with non-artist members of the organisation and on-site in their social context. OA is characterised as socially engaged, conceptual, discursive, site-specific and contextual. It is argued that OA seeks to advance both art and the organisation of human work/life by crossing...

  9. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  10. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  11. [Art therapy and "art brut"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Emese; Simon, Lajos

    2010-01-01

    The authors in this article explor the most important steps of the development of the research on the psychopathology of expression. They introduce the development of Art Brut and it's place in art history. They deal with the characteristics of art therapy.

  12. Teaching Caregivers to Implement Video Modeling Imitation Training via iPad for Their Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Teresa A.

    2012-01-01

    Children with autism fail to imitate from an early age and this lack of imitation is a salient diagnostic marker for the disorder. For children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), increased imitation skills appear to be related to increased skill development in a variety of areas. Video modeling was recently validated as a technique to support…

  13. Playing with Their Heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Ed Ruscha's exhibit at the Museum of Modern Art in San Francisco presented a fantastic and challenging teaching approach not just to art creation, but also to the whole definition of art. Ruscha painted with pastels and drew with pencils, but he also made art using Pepto Bismol, carrots, and spinach. In this article, the author describes an art…

  14. Playing with Their Heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Ed Ruscha's exhibit at the Museum of Modern Art in San Francisco presented a fantastic and challenging teaching approach not just to art creation, but also to the whole definition of art. Ruscha painted with pastels and drew with pencils, but he also made art using Pepto Bismol, carrots, and spinach. In this article, the author describes an art…

  15. Neuropsychological evidence for a strategic control of multiple routes in imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessari, Alessia; Canessa, Nicola; Ukmar, Maja; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2007-04-01

    Previous studies have suggested that imitators can reproduce known gestures shown by a model using a semantic, indirect route, and novel gestures using a sublexical, direct route. In the present study we aimed at testing the validity of such a dual-route model of action imitation. Patients with either left-brain damage (LBD) or right-brain damage (RBD) were tested on an action imitation task. Actions were either meaningful (n = 20) or meaningless (n = 20), and were presented in an intermingled list and, on a different day, in separate lists. We predicted that, in the mixed condition, patients would use a direct route to imitate meaningful and meaningless actions, as it allows the imitation of both action types. In the blocked condition, patients were expected to select the semantic route for meaningful actions and the direct route for meaningless actions. As hypothesized, none of the 32 patients showed dissociations between imitation of meaningful and meaningless actions in the mixed presentation. In contrast, eight patients showed a dissociation between imitation of meaningful actions and imitation of meaningless actions in the blocked presentation. Moreover, two of these patients showed a classical double dissociation between the imitation of the two action types. Results were interpreted in support of the validity of a dual-route model for explaining action imitation. We argue that the decrease in imitation of meaningful actions, relative to meaningless actions, is caused by a damage of the semantic route, and that the decline in imitation of meaningless actions, relative to meaningful actions, is produced by a breakdown of the direct route. The brain areas that were lesioned in all six LBD patients who showed a dissociation were in the superior temporal gyrus and the angular gyrus, whereas the two RBD subjects had common lesions of the pallidum and of the putamen. The brain structures affected in our patients with selective apraxia are consistent with those

  16. Art at the Airport: An Exploration of New Art Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, Ilona

    2012-01-01

    Many airports have transformed empty waiting spaces into mini malls, children's play areas, and displays of beautiful art, making a long wait a bit more pleasant. For the modern airport, showcasing art has become an important component, with perks including a built-in global audience, as well as the vast spaces of modern architecture. For the art…

  17. Computer Programming: An Activity as Compelling as Game Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Goulding

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Game motif programming exercises (GM-Games were developed to help novices develop complex client server game systems within their freshman year. GM-Games foster a strong work ethic in as much as they reproduce the challenges and excitement associated with game play; yet their purpose is the development of advanced programming skills. We have found that young people are just as interested in mastering programming skills as they are in mastering the shooting, racing or strategy skills required in many entertainment games. We describe in this paper how GM-Games imitate many of the aspects of game play.

  18. Art Engineering and Kinetic Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış Yılmaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Performing an art, either by painting or by sculpturing, requires to be interdisciplinary. When an artist creates his/her work of art, the process he/she realizes is supported by different engineering disciplines. Therefore, especially modern artists need to understand engineering science and this results in transforming artists into engineers. Opportunities provided by technology and science enable artists to expand his/her vision and to improve his/her works. Especially kinetic art has become an approach that combines art with engineering. Kinetic art, which is nourished with varied disciplines, is an excellent example to prove that art is interdisciplinary and to show the relationship between artist/art and engineering.

  19. Beating Heart of Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelin, Daniel A., II

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a critical and comparative look at how two theatre programs help young people develop an artistic voice and sense of self as an artist. Each program begins with art. Individuals explore basic tenets of dramatic expression through foundational activities. As they play and experiment, the individuals discover their capacity for…

  20. Beating Heart of Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelin, Daniel A., II

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a critical and comparative look at how two theatre programs help young people develop an artistic voice and sense of self as an artist. Each program begins with art. Individuals explore basic tenets of dramatic expression through foundational activities. As they play and experiment, the individuals discover their capacity for…

  1. Art and Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berstein, Jane C.

    1995-01-01

    Relation of an art therapist's personal story concerning her struggle to overcome endometriosis, and how her artwork has played a vital role in coping with the disease. Illustrated with a chronology of artwork produced during a bout with the illness. (JPS)

  2. Situated robotics: from learning to teaching by imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdiales, Cristina; Cortés, Ulises

    2005-09-01

    This paper presents an approach to imitation learning in robotics focusing on low level behaviours, so that they do not need to be encoded into sets and rules, but learnt in an intuitive way. Its main novelty is that, rather than trying to analyse natural human actions and adapting them to robot kinematics, humans adapt themselves to the robot via a proper interface to make it perform the desired action. As an example, we present a successful experiment to learn a purely reactive navigation behaviour using robotic platforms. Using Case Based Reasoning, the platform learns from a human driver how to behave in the presence of obstacles, so that no kinematics studies or explicit rules are required.

  3. Tradition and Imitation in Spenser’s The Faerie Queene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Griffin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss Spenser’s use of imitation as a literary device in his allegorical epic poem The Faerie Queene, originally published in 1590. The paper begins with a synopsis of Spenser’s general intent behind the poem, as well as his use of the theoretical models of literary excellence proposed by his contemporary Sir Phillip Sidney. The paper then follows Spenser’s reinterpretation of Ariosto, his treatment of Virgil and Ovid, and chronicles his attempts to parody these imperious influences to create an epic that would give synthesis to the poetic tradition to which he belonged with his religious ethic and fervent nationalism, while paying tribute to his monarch, Elizabeth I.

  4. Limited Imitation Contagion on Random Networks: Chaos, Universality, and Unpredictability

    CERN Document Server

    Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Danforth, Christopher M

    2012-01-01

    We study a family of binary state, socially-inspired contagion models which incorporate imitation limited by an aversion to complete conformity. We uncover rich behavior in our models whether operating with probabilistic or deterministic individual response functions, both on dynamic or fixed random networks. In particular, we find significant variation in the limiting behavior of a population's infected fraction, ranging from steady-state to chaotic. We show that period doubling arises as we increase the average node degree, and that the universality class of this well known route to chaos depends on the interaction structure of random networks rather than the microscopic behavior of individual nodes. We find that increasing the fixedness of the system tends to stabilize the infected fraction, yet disjoint, multiple equilibria are possible depending solely on the choice of the initially infected node.

  5. Installation Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    Despite its large and growing popularity – to say nothing of its near-ubiquity in the world’s art scenes and international exhibitions of contemporary art –installation art remains a form whose artistic vocabulary and conceptual basis have rarely been subjected to thorough critical examination....... In Installation Art: Between Image and Stage, Anne Ring Petersen aims to change that. She begins by exploring how installation art developed into an interdisciplinary genre in the 1960s, and how its intertwining of the visual and the performative has acted as a catalyst for the generation of new artistic...... phenomena. It investigates how it became one of today’s most widely used art forms, increasingly expanding into consumer, popular and urban cultures, where installation’s often spectacular appearance ensures that it meets contemporary demands for sense-provoking and immersive cultural experiences. The main...

  6. Installation Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    Despite its large and growing popularity – to say nothing of its near-ubiquity in the world’s art scenes and international exhibitions of contemporary art –installation art remains a form whose artistic vocabulary and conceptual basis have rarely been subjected to thorough critical examination....... In Installation Art: Between Image and Stage, Anne Ring Petersen aims to change that. She begins by exploring how installation art developed into an interdisciplinary genre in the 1960s, and how its intertwining of the visual and the performative has acted as a catalyst for the generation of new artistic...... phenomena. It investigates how it became one of today’s most widely used art forms, increasingly expanding into consumer, popular and urban cultures, where installation’s often spectacular appearance ensures that it meets contemporary demands for sense-provoking and immersive cultural experiences. The main...

  7. Rethinking conformity and imitation: divergence, convergence, and social understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Bert H.

    2014-01-01

    Social and developmental psychologists have stressed the pervasiveness and strength of humans’ tendencies to conform and to imitate, and social anthropologists have argued that these tendencies are crucial to the formation of cultures. Research from four domains is reviewed and elaborated to show that divergence is also pervasive and potent, and it is interwoven with convergence in a complex set of dynamics that is often unnoticed or minimized. First, classic research in social conformity is reinterpreted in terms of truth, trust, and social solidarity, revealing that dissent is its most salient feature. Second, recent studies of children’s use of testimony to guide action reveal a surprisingly sophisticated balance of trust and prudence, and a concern for truth and charity. Third, new experiments indicate that people diverge from others even under conditions where conformity seems assured. Fourth, current studies of imitation provide strong evidence that children are both selective and faithful in who, what, and why they follow others. All of the evidence reviewed points toward children and adults as being engaged, embodied partners with others, motivated to learn and understand the world, others, and themselves in ways that go beyond goals and rules, prediction and control. Even young children act as if they are in a dialogical relationship with others and the world, rather than acting as if they are solo explorers or blind followers. Overall, the evidence supports the hypothesis that social understanding cannot be reduced to convergence or divergence, but includes ongoing activities that seek greater comprehensiveness and complexity in the ability to act and interact effectively, appropriately, and with integrity. PMID:25071687

  8. Rethinking conformity and imitation: divergence, convergence, and social understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Bert H

    2014-01-01

    Social and developmental psychologists have stressed the pervasiveness and strength of humans' tendencies to conform and to imitate, and social anthropologists have argued that these tendencies are crucial to the formation of cultures. Research from four domains is reviewed and elaborated to show that divergence is also pervasive and potent, and it is interwoven with convergence in a complex set of dynamics that is often unnoticed or minimized. First, classic research in social conformity is reinterpreted in terms of truth, trust, and social solidarity, revealing that dissent is its most salient feature. Second, recent studies of children's use of testimony to guide action reveal a surprisingly sophisticated balance of trust and prudence, and a concern for truth and charity. Third, new experiments indicate that people diverge from others even under conditions where conformity seems assured. Fourth, current studies of imitation provide strong evidence that children are both selective and faithful in who, what, and why they follow others. All of the evidence reviewed points toward children and adults as being engaged, embodied partners with others, motivated to learn and understand the world, others, and themselves in ways that go beyond goals and rules, prediction and control. Even young children act as if they are in a dialogical relationship with others and the world, rather than acting as if they are solo explorers or blind followers. Overall, the evidence supports the hypothesis that social understanding cannot be reduced to convergence or divergence, but includes ongoing activities that seek greater comprehensiveness and complexity in the ability to act and interact effectively, appropriately, and with integrity.

  9. Beyond rational imitation: learning arbitrary means actions from communicative demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, Ildikó; Csibra, Gergely; Gergely, György

    2013-10-01

    The principle of rationality has been invoked to explain that infants expect agents to perform the most efficient means action to attain a goal. It has also been demonstrated that infants take into account the efficiency of observed actions to achieve a goal outcome when deciding whether to reenact a specific behavior or not. It is puzzling, however, that they also tend to imitate an apparently suboptimal unfamiliar action even when they can bring about the same outcome more efficiently by applying a more rational action alternative available to them. We propose that this apparently paradoxical behavior is explained by infants' interpretation of action demonstrations as communicative manifestations of novel and culturally relevant means actions to be acquired, and we present empirical evidence supporting this proposal. In Experiment 1, we found that 14-month-olds reenacted novel arbitrary means actions only following a communicative demonstration. Experiment 2 showed that infants' inclination to reproduce communicatively manifested novel actions is restricted to behaviors they can construe as goal-directed instrumental acts. The study also provides evidence that infants' reenactment of the demonstrated novel actions reflects epistemic motives rather than purely social motives. We argue that ostensive communication enables infants to represent the teleological structure of novel actions even when the causal relations between means and end are cognitively opaque and apparently violate the efficiency expectation derived from the principle of rationality. This new account of imitative learning of novel means shows how the teleological stance and natural pedagogy--two separate cognitive adaptations to interpret instrumental versus communicative actions--are integrated as a system for learning socially constituted instrumental knowledge in humans.

  10. Mindful art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malafouris, Lambros

    2013-04-01

    Bullot & Reber (B&R) begin asking if the study of the mind's inner life can provide a foundation for a science of art. Clearly there are many epistemological problems involved in the study of the cognitive and affective basis of art appreciation. I argue that context is key. I also propose that as long as the "mind's life" continues to be perceived as an "inner" intracranial phenomenon, little progress can be made. Mind and art are one.

  11. The impact of imitation on vaccination behavior in social contact networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martial L Ndeffo Mbah

    Full Text Available Previous game-theoretic studies of vaccination behavior typically have often assumed that populations are homogeneously mixed and that individuals are fully rational. In reality, there is heterogeneity in the number of contacts per individual, and individuals tend to imitate others who appear to have adopted successful strategies. Here, we use network-based mathematical models to study the effects of both imitation behavior and contact heterogeneity on vaccination coverage and disease dynamics. We integrate contact network epidemiological models with a framework for decision-making, within which individuals make their decisions either based purely on payoff maximization or by imitating the vaccination behavior of a social contact. Simulations suggest that when the cost of vaccination is high imitation behavior may decrease vaccination coverage. However, when the cost of vaccination is small relative to that of infection, imitation behavior increases vaccination coverage, but, surprisingly, also increases the magnitude of epidemics through the clustering of non-vaccinators within the network. Thus, imitation behavior may impede the eradication of infectious diseases. Calculations that ignore behavioral clustering caused by imitation may significantly underestimate the levels of vaccination coverage required to attain herd immunity.

  12. Exploring Spontaneous Imitation in Infancy: A Three Generation Inter-Familial Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theano Kokkinaki

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to advance our understanding regarding the role of the extended family interactional context for early mother-infant communication, we compared spontaneous early imitative exchanges in dyadic interactions between mothers and infants (Group 1, N = 26 who had no frequent contact with maternal grandmothers, to imitations in two familial subgroups (Group 2, N = 48: (a dyadic interactions of infants with their mothers, and (b with their grandmothers–persons who had frequent contact with the infant. Spontaneous dyadic interactions of infants with their mothers and grandmothers were video-recorded at home from the 2nd to the 10th month of their life. Both comparisons provided evidence of similar frequency of imitative exchanges and developmental trajectories of infant imitations, but also differences in the structure of imitation, the kinds of imitated behaviors and the temporal patterns of imitative components. In the frame of the theory of Innate Intersubjectivity, we assume that differential early family interaction may be related to variations in three fundamental dimensions of infant-significant other communication: “kinematics” (temporal patterns, “physiognomics” (spatial patterns or forms and “energetics” (force or effort. These variations may affect the child’s ability for regulation and negotiation of interpersonal challenges within and outside the family context.

  13. Comparison of native and non-native phone imitation by English and Spanish speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Anne J; Viswanathan, Navin; Aivar, M Pilar; Manuel, Sarath

    2013-01-01

    Experiments investigating phonetic convergence in conversation often focus on interlocutors with similar phonetic inventories. Extending these experiments to those with dissimilar inventories requires understanding the capacity of speakers to imitate native and non-native phones. In the present study, we tested native Spanish and native English speakers to determine whether imitation of non-native tokens differs qualitatively from imitation of native tokens. Participants imitated a [ba]-[pa] continuum that varied in VOT from -60 ms (prevoiced, Spanish [b]) to +60 ms (long lag, English [p]) such that the continuum consisted of some tokens that were native to Spanish speakers and some that were native to English speakers. Analysis of the imitations showed two critical results. First, both groups of speakers demonstrated sensitivity to VOT differences in tokens that fell within their native regions of the VOT continuum (prevoiced region for Spanish and long lag region for English). Secondly, neither group of speakers demonstrated such sensitivity to VOT differences among tokens that fell in their non-native regions of the continuum. These results show that, even in an intentional imitation task, speakers cannot accurately imitate non-native tokens, but are clearly flexible in producing native tokens. Implications of these findings are discussed with reference to the constraints on convergence in interlocutors from different linguistic backgrounds.

  14. A Bayesian Developmental Approach to Robotic Goal-Based Imitation Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Jae-Yoon Chung

    Full Text Available A fundamental challenge in robotics today is building robots that can learn new skills by observing humans and imitating human actions. We propose a new Bayesian approach to robotic learning by imitation inspired by the developmental hypothesis that children use self-experience to bootstrap the process of intention recognition and goal-based imitation. Our approach allows an autonomous agent to: (i learn probabilistic models of actions through self-discovery and experience, (ii utilize these learned models for inferring the goals of human actions, and (iii perform goal-based imitation for robotic learning and human-robot collaboration. Such an approach allows a robot to leverage its increasing repertoire of learned behaviors to interpret increasingly complex human actions and use the inferred goals for imitation, even when the robot has very different actuators from humans. We demonstrate our approach using two different scenarios: (i a simulated robot that learns human-like gaze following behavior, and (ii a robot that learns to imitate human actions in a tabletop organization task. In both cases, the agent learns a probabilistic model of its own actions, and uses this model for goal inference and goal-based imitation. We also show that the robotic agent can use its probabilistic model to seek human assistance when it recognizes that its inferred actions are too uncertain, risky, or impossible to perform, thereby opening the door to human-robot collaboration.

  15. Phonetic imitation from an individual-difference perspective: subjective attitude, personality and "autistic" traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan C L Yu

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have documented the phenomenon of phonetic imitation: the process by which the production patterns of an individual become more similar on some phonetic or acoustic dimension to those of her interlocutor. Though social factors have been suggested as a motivator for imitation, few studies has established a tight connection between language-external factors and a speaker's likelihood to imitate. The present study investigated the phenomenon of phonetic imitation using a within-subject design embedded in an individual-differences framework. Participants were administered a phonetic imitation task, which included two speech production tasks separated by a perceptual learning task, and a battery of measures assessing traits associated with Autism-Spectrum Condition, working memory, and personality. To examine the effects of subjective attitude on phonetic imitation, participants were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions, where the perceived sexual orientation of the narrator (homosexual vs. heterosexual and the outcome (positive vs. negative of the story depicted in the exposure materials differed. The extent of phonetic imitation by an individual is significantly modulated by the story outcome, as well as by the participant's subjective attitude toward the model talker, the participant's personality trait of openness and the autistic-like trait associated with attention switching.

  16. Comparison of native and non-native phone imitation by English and Spanish speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie J Olmstead

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Experiments investigating phonetic convergence in conversation often focus on interlocutors with similar phonetic inventories. Extending these experiments to those with dissimilar inventories requires understanding the capacity of speakers to imitate native and non-native phones. In the present study, we tested native Spanish and native English speakers to determine whether imitation of non-native tokens differs qualitatively from imitation of native tokens. Participants imitated a [ba] -[pa] continuum that varied in VOT from -60 ms (prevoiced, Spanish [b] to +60 ms (long lag, English [p] such that the continuum consisted of some tokens that were native to Spanish speakers and some that were native to English speakers. Analysis of the imitations showed two critical results. First, both groups of speakers demonstrated sensitivity to VOT differences in tokens that fell within their native regions of the VOT continuum (prevoiced region for Spanish and long lag region for English. Secondly, neither group of speakers demonstrated such sensitivity to VOT differences among tokens that fell in their non-native regions of the continuum. These results show that, even in an intentional imitation task, speakers cannot accurately imitate non-native tokens, but are clearly flexible in producing native tokens. Implications of these findings are discussed with reference to the constraints on convergence in interlocutors from different linguistic backgrounds.

  17. A novel method testing the ability to imitate composite emotional expressions reveals an association with empathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin H G Williams

    Full Text Available Social communication relies on intentional control of emotional expression. Its variability across cultures suggests important roles for imitation in developing control over enactment of subtly different facial expressions and therefore skills in emotional communication. Both empathy and the imitation of an emotionally communicative expression may rely on a capacity to share both the experience of an emotion and the intention or motor plan associated with its expression. Therefore, we predicted that facial imitation ability would correlate with empathic traits. We built arrays of visual stimuli by systematically blending three basic emotional expressions in controlled proportions. Raters then assessed accuracy of imitation by reconstructing the same arrays using photographs of participants' attempts at imitations of the stimuli. Accuracy was measured as the mean proximity of the participant photographs to the target stimuli in the array. Levels of performance were high, and rating was highly reliable. More empathic participants, as measured by the empathy quotient (EQ, were better facial imitators and, in particular, performed better on the more complex, blended stimuli. This preliminary study offers a simple method for the measurement of facial imitation accuracy and supports the hypothesis that empathic functioning may utilise motor control mechanisms which are also used for emotional expression.

  18. Common Sense Approach to the Restoration of Sacred Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphonso Lopez Pinto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Sacred Art is examined as an imitation of historia. Historia interprets historical human events as empirical, material and real while seeking to understand their moral and spiritual significance. It is from historia that sacred art can be understood, where Christ and the saints are portrayed in the integrity of their human natures united to symbols representing Divinity or grace in order to present a visual/contemplative narrative. Mortimer Adler rightly sees that the vision of the beautiful is inherently contemplative, thus sacred iconography provides a language that can form the common sense of men and women.

  19. The Art of Irony in The Merchant of Venice as one of Sharespeares Plays%析莎士比亚喜剧《威尼斯商人》的反讽艺术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫朝晖

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: The Merchant of Venice, as one of the Shakespeare's plays, is considered as being of the deepest social implication. Application of a variety of ironic techniques, such as verbal irony, situational irony and dramatic irony, is one of the most conspicuous artistic features of this play, which endows the play with profound criticism, convoluted plots and elusive far-reaching implications.%摘要:《威尼斯商人》是莎士比亚喜剧中社会意义最为深刻的一部,反讽艺术的运用是其显著的艺术特色。剧中对言语反讽、情景反讽和戏剧反讽的娴熟运用使该剧具有深刻的批判性、跌宕起伏的故事情节和意蕴深远的多棱镜效果。

  20. Art Appreciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Zhuo Dehui graduated from Guangzhou Academy of Fine Arts in 1973 with a specialty in lacquer painting, and shortly thereafter began teaching at the school. Zhuo has conducted research and actively created decorative art for many decades, and has often led groups of students deep into the areas inhabited by minority nationalities, The two paintings shown here represent his impressions and depictions of

  1. Art Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal); F.R.R. Vermeylen (Filip)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe advent of digitization has had a profound impact on the art market and its institutions. In this chapter, we focus on the market for visual arts as it finds its expression in (among other) paintings, prints, drawings, photographs, sculpture and the like. These artistic disciplines cl

  2. Art Photography

    OpenAIRE

    Bate, D.

    2015-01-01

    The book introduces the key themes central to the interactions between photography and art, from the earliest days of photography in the 1830s to the present day, examining the many ways in which photography has become central to the development of modern and contemporary art.

  3. Art Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal); F.R.R. Vermeylen (Filip)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe advent of digitization has had a profound impact on the art market and its institutions. In this chapter, we focus on the market for visual arts as it finds its expression in (among other) paintings, prints, drawings, photographs, sculpture and the like. These artistic disciplines

  4. Las dos caras del “kitsch”: arte del mentir o mentira artística

    OpenAIRE

    Madriz Flores, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    This essay offers a general overview about the Kitsch, which refers to the counterfeit, imitation, copy, aesthetic disappointment and denial of itself to the boundaries of self deceit. It prosecutes the “bad art” as a part of their production and mass and commercial reproduction, registered within a canon of style as way of artistically lying that sells and privileges the vulgar in numerous art fields. However, it exists an audience which stands up for it with all their sides as a free and va...

  5. Art Appreciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Modern embossed forged copper has an elegant character. This art form works well as decoration for the walls of buildings. Chen Chuan, the designer, pursues a look of simplicity and powerfulness in his works Auspiciousness and Harmony, which is based on the themes of man and nature. Chen carefully plans the arrangement of convex and concave parts, adding texture by hammering or scraping in many small points and fine lines. With a steel pick, the artist creates a surface sometimes rough and matte, sometimes smooth and shiny. Chen Chuan graduated from the Hubei Institute of Arts in 1965, and was deputy director of the Shandong Provincial Art Gallery from 1984 to 1991. A member of the China Artists Association and the China Graphic Art Association, Chen Chuan is ranked as a first-class artisan, and currently serves as director of the forge copper art office of the Shandong Academy. He has won awards at exhibitions held both at home and abroad.

  6. Laboratory studies of imitation/field studies of tradition: towards a synthesis in animal social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galef, Bennett G

    2015-03-01

    Here I discuss: (1) historical precedents that have resulted in comparative psychologists accepting the two-action method as the "gold standard" in laboratory investigations of imitation learning, (2) evidence suggesting that the two-action procedure may not be adequate to answer questions concerning the role of imitation in the development of traditional behaviors of animals living in natural habitat, and (3) an alternative approach to the laboratory study of imitation that might increase the relevance of laboratory studies of imitation to the work of behavioral ecologists/primatologists interested in animal traditions and their relationship to human cumulative culture. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tribute to Tom Zentall.

  7. Recent developments in counterfeits and imitations of Viagra, Cialis and Levitra. A 2005-2006 update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venhuis BJ; Barends DM; Zwaagstra ME; Kaste D de; Douane Laboratorium; KCF

    2007-01-01

    A strong trend is observed towards increasingly professional counterfeits and imitations of Viagra, Cialis and Levitra, with regard to the appearance of tablets, capsules and packaging. The professional presentation will deceive potential consumers into assuming these products are legal, efficacious

  8. Imitation in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome--a behavioral study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonas, Melanie; Thomalla, Götz; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2010-01-01

    psychiatric comorbidity and healthy subjects. In experiment 1, participants imitated single biological finger movement stimuli or nonbiological dot movement stimuli immediately. In experiment 2, participants responded to a tone while viewing biological or nonbiological movement stimuli that were either...

  9. Statistical imitation system using relational interest points and Gaussian mixture models

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Claassens, J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The author proposes an imitation system that uses relational interest points (RIPs) and Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) to characterize a behaviour. The system's structure is inspired by the Robot Programming by Demonstration (RDP) paradigm...

  10. Recent developments in counterfeits and imitations of Viagra, Cialis and Levitra. A 2005-2006 update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venhuis BJ; Barends DM; Zwaagstra ME; Kaste D de; Douane Laboratorium; KCF

    2007-01-01

    A strong trend is observed towards increasingly professional counterfeits and imitations of Viagra, Cialis and Levitra, with regard to the appearance of tablets, capsules and packaging. The professional presentation will deceive potential consumers into assuming these products are legal, efficacious

  11. The Interface Circuit Design and Imitation Based on MAX+PLUSII

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces the design method of control system interface using VHDL hardware description language under the MAX+PLUSII working platform, Plans resources of the LPT circuit,and works out design programming of interface circuit and result imitation.

  12. Brain activation during ideomotor praxis: imitation and movements executed by verbal command

    OpenAIRE

    Makuuchi, M.; Kaminaga, T; Sugishita, M

    2005-01-01

    Background: Ideomotor apraxia is a disorder of both imitation movements and movements executed by verbal command. Lesion studies have identified the left parietal lobe as the neural correlate for ideomotor praxis (IP), although there are opposing views.

  13. Are you a good mimic? Neuro-acoustic signatures for speech imitation ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiterer, Susanne M; Hu, Xiaochen; Sumathi, T A; Singh, Nandini C

    2013-01-01

    We investigated individual differences in speech imitation ability in late bilinguals using a neuro-acoustic approach. One hundred and thirty-eight German-English bilinguals matched on various behavioral measures were tested for "speech imitation ability" in a foreign language, Hindi, and categorized into "high" and "low ability" groups. Brain activations and speech recordings were obtained from 26 participants from the two extreme groups as they performed a functional neuroimaging experiment which required them to "imitate" sentences in three conditions: (A) German, (B) English, and (C) German with fake English accent. We used recently developed novel acoustic analysis, namely the "articulation space" as a metric to compare speech imitation abilities of the two groups. Across all three conditions, direct comparisons between the two groups, revealed brain activations (FWE corrected, p learning.

  14. Arts Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gartner, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Contribution to the opinion series “Perspectives” on arts entrepreneurship; how arts entrepreneurship is situated in relation to other disciplines or fields; what problems we are grappling with as scholars, practitioners, teachers, and artists; and what are the research questions we are attempting...... to answer individually or as a field. Under the headline “Perspectives on Arts Entrepreneurship, part 2”, are responses from: William B. Gartner, Professor of Entrepreneurship at Copenhagen Business School and California Lutheran University; Joseph Roberts, Director of the Coleman Fellows Program, Associate...

  15. Application of integrated yoga therapy to increase imitation skills in children with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Radhakrishna Shantha

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aim: Children with autism exhibit significant deficits in imitation skills, which impede the acquisition of more complex behavior and socialization. Imitation is often targeted early in intervention plans and continues to be addressed throughout the child′s treatment. The use of integrated approach to yoga therapy (IAYT) as a complementary therapy for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is rarely reported and little is known on the effectiveness of such th...

  16. Phonetic and phonological imitation of intonation in two varieties of Italian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Imperio, Mariapaola; Cavone, Rossana; Petrone, Caterina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether both phonetic and phonological representations of intonation can be rapidly modified when imitating utterances belonging to a different regional variety of the same language. Our main hypothesis was that tonal alignment, just as other phonetic features of speech, would be rapidly modified by Italian speakers when imitating pitch accents of a different (Southern) variety of Italian. In particular, we tested whether Bari Italian (BI) speakers would produce later peaks for their native rising L + H(*) (question pitch accent) in the process of imitating Neapolitan Italian (NI) rising L(*) + H accents. Also, we tested whether BI speakers are able to modify other phonetic properties (pitch level) as well as phonological characteristics (changes in tonal composition) of the same contour. In a follow-up study, we tested if the reverse was also true, i.e., whether NI speakers would produce earlier peaks within the L(*) + H accent in the process of imitating the L + H(*) of BI questions, despite the presence of a contrast between two rising accents in this variety. Our results show that phonetic detail of tonal alignment can be successfully modified by both BI and NI speakers when imitating a model speaker of the other variety. The hypothesis of a selective imitation process preventing alignment modifications in NI was hence not supported. Moreover the effect was significantly stronger for low frequency words. Participants were also able to imitate other phonetic cues, in that they modified global utterance pitch level. Concerning phonological convergence, speakers modified the tonal specification of the edge tones in order to resemble that of the other variety by either suppressing or increasing the presence of a final H%. Hence, our data show that intonation imitation leads to fast modification of both phonetic and phonological intonation representations including detail of tonal alignment and pitch scaling.

  17. Controlling automatic imitative tendencies: interactions between mirror neuron and cognitive control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Katy A; Torrisi, Salvatore; Reynolds Losin, Elizabeth A; Iacoboni, Marco

    2013-12-01

    Humans have an automatic tendency to imitate others. Although several regions commonly observed in social tasks have been shown to be involved in imitation control, there is little work exploring how these regions interact with one another. We used fMRI and dynamic causal modeling to identify imitation-specific control mechanisms and examine functional interactions between regions. Participants performed a pre-specified action (lifting their index or middle finger) in response to videos depicting the same two actions (biological cues) or dots moving with similar trajectories (non-biological cues). On congruent trials, the stimulus and response were similar (e.g. index finger response to index finger or left side dot stimulus), while on incongruent trials the stimulus and response were dissimilar (e.g. index finger response to middle finger or right side dot stimulus). Reaction times were slower on incongruent compared to congruent trials for both biological and non-biological stimuli, replicating previous findings that suggest the automatic imitative or spatially compatible (congruent) response must be controlled on incongruent trials. Neural correlates of the congruency effects were different depending on the cue type. The medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus pars opercularis (IFGpo) and the left anterior insula were involved specifically in controlling imitation. In addition, the IFGpo was also more active for biological compared to non-biological stimuli, suggesting that the region represents the frontal node of the human mirror neuron system (MNS). Effective connectivity analysis exploring the interactions between these regions, suggests a role for the mPFC and ACC in imitative conflict detection and the anterior insula in conflict resolution processes, which may occur through interactions with the frontal node of the MNS. We suggest an extension of the previous models of imitation control involving interactions between imitation

  18. Phonetic and phonological imitation of intonation in two varieties of Italian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariapaola eD'Imperio

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test whether both phonetic and phonological representations of intonation can be rapidly modified when imitating utterances belonging to a different regional variety of the same language. Our main hypothesis was that tonal alignment, just as other phonetic features of speech, would be rapidly modified by Italian speakers when imitating pitch accents of a different (Southern variety of Italian. In particular, we tested whether Bari Italian speakers would produce later peaks for their native rising L+H* (question pitch accent in the process of imitating Neapolitan Italian rising L*+H accents. Also, we tested whether BI speakers are able to modify other phonetic properties (pitch level as well as phonological characteristics (changes in tonal composition of the same contour. In a follow-up study, we tested if the reverse was also true, i.e. whether NI speakers would produce earlier peaks within the L*+H accent in the process of imitating the L+H* of BI questions, despite the presence of a contrast between two rising accents in this variety. Our results show that phonetic detail of tonal alignment can be successfully modified by both BI and NI speakers when imitating a model speaker of the other variety. The hypothesis of a selective imitation process preventing alignment modifications in NI was hence not supported. Moreover the effect was significantly stronger for low frequency words. Participants were also able to imitate other phonetic cues, in that they modified global utterance pitch level. Concerning phonological convergence, speakers modified the tonal specification of the edge tones in order to resemble that of the other variety by either suppressing or increasing the presence of a final H%. Hence, our data show that intonation imitation leads to fast modification of both phonetic and phonological intonation representations including detail of tonal alignment and pitch scaling.

  19. On Pecuniary Resiliency, Early Warning, and Market Imitation under Unrestricted Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    reality to produce data while imitation mimics reality through whatever mechanisms exist. The objective then is to develop a product (in this case data...sets) which are virtually indistinguishable from real market data. Subjected to a Turing test then, the data generated from the imitation should then...Using Prediction Markets to Track Information Flows: Evidence from Google.” Lecture Notes of the Institute for Com- puter Sciences, Social Informatics

  20. Modeling speech imitation and ecological learning of auditory-motor maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eCanevari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Classical models of speech consider an antero-posterior distinction between perceptive and productive functions. However, the selective alteration of neural activity in speech motor centers, via transcranial magnetic stimulation, was shown to affect speech discrimination. On the automatic speech recognition (ASR side, the recognition systems have classically relied solely on acoustic data, achieving rather good performance in optimal listening conditions. The main limitations of current ASR are mainly evident in the realistic use of such systems. These limitations can be partly reduced by using normalization strategies that minimize inter-speaker variability by either explicitly removing speakers’ peculiarities or adapting different speakers to a reference model. In this paper we aim at modeling a motor-based imitation learning mechanism in ASR. We tested the utility of a speaker normalization strategy that uses motor representations of speech and compare it with strategies that ignore the motor domain. Specifically, we first trained a regressor through state-of-the-art machine learning techniques to build an auditory-motor mapping, in a sense mimicking a human learner that tries to reproduce utterances produced by other speakers. This auditory-motor mapping maps the speech acoustics of a speaker into the motor plans of a reference speaker. Since, during recognition, only speech acoustics are available, the mapping is necessary to recover motor information. Subsequently, in a phone classification task, we tested the system on either one of the speakers that was used during training or a new one. Results show that in both cases the motor-based speaker normalization strategy almost always outperforms all other strategies where only acoustics is taken into account.

  1. Considering Fine Art and Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Frank

    2015-01-01

    There has been a close association between picturebook illustrations and works of fine art since the picturebook was first conceived, and many ways these associations among works of fine art and picturebook illustrations and design play out. To make sense of all the various ways picturebook illustrations are associated with works of fine art,…

  2. Based on the Marketing Innovation of Local Traditional Art Heritage and Development Strategy——the Yunmeng Shadow Play as an Example%基于营销创新视角的地方传统艺术传承与发展策略——以云梦皮影为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭怡茂

    2012-01-01

    The traditional art covers a wide range,has a long history.But in recent years,they are all confronted with many development difficulties.The audience's interest is reducing,local traditional arts gradually lost the survival of the soil and they are on the verge of extinction.Taking the Yunmeng shadow play as an example,The audience's ageing is serious,artists' income is scanty,.This traditional art's survival and development is very hard.This paper want from the perspective of marketing innovation,from the product innovation,price innovation,channel innovation,promotion innovation and organization innovation,in order to inherit and develop the local traditional art better.%地方传统艺术涵盖范围广泛,发展历史悠久,但近年来普遍面临着前所未有的发展困境。观众对其表现形式兴趣日减,地方传统艺术逐渐失去了赖以生存的土壤而濒临消亡。以云梦皮影为例,观众老龄化严重,艺人收入微薄,生存和发展步履维艰。本文拟从营销创新的视角,从产品、渠道、价格、促销和组织等五个方面对地方传统艺术进行创新,以期更好地传承与发展。

  3. Fourteen-Month-Olds Adapt Their Imitative Behavior in Light of a Model’s Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kata Gellén

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rather than reenacting every action they observe, preverbal infants adapt their imitative behavior. Although previous studies have revealed the capability of preverbal infants to imitate selectively, the question about the adaptability of this behavior on an individual level did not attract considerable scientific attention until now. In the current study, we investigated whether 14-month-old infants flexibly alternate their imitative response in accordance with a model’s changing physical constraints in a body-part imitation paradigm. Participants were presented with two novel actions whereby a model illuminated a light-box and turned on a sound-box, either by using her forehead (head touch or by sitting on the apparatus (sit-touch. Each participant observed these tasks in two conditions: once where the model’s hands were occupied and once where her hands were free while executing the head or sit-touch. Participants were more likely to reenact the observed novel behavior when the model had freely chosen to perform it than when she had to do so due to physical constraints. Not only did we replicate a number of previous findings, we show here that preverbal infants adapt their imitative behavior across conditions based on the physical constraints of the model. These results point towards the adaptable nature of imitative behavior also on an individual level. This ability might be one of the building blocks for children for learning their social group’s specific action repertoire.

  4. Are you a good mimic? Neuro-acoustic signatures for speech imitation ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Maria Reiterer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated individual differences in speech imitation ability in late bilinguals using a neuro-acoustic approach. 138 German-English bilinguals matched on various behavioral measures were tested for speech imitation ability in a foreign language, Hindi, and categorised into high and low ability groups. Brain activations and speech recordings were obtained from 26 participants from the two extreme groups as they performed a functional neuroimaging experiment which required them to imitate sentences in three conditions: (A German, (B English and (C German with fake English accent. We used recently developed novel acoustic analysis, namely the ‘articulation space’ as a metric to compare speech imitation abilities of the two groups. Across all three conditions, direct comparisons between the two groups, revealed brain activations (FWE corrected, p< 0.05 that were more widespread with significantly higher peak activity in the left supramarginal gyrus and postcentral areas for the low ability group. The high ability group, on the other hand showed significantly larger articulation space in all three conditions. In addition, articulation space also correlated positively with imitation ability (Pearson’s r=0.7, p<0.01. Our results suggest that an expanded articulation space for high ability individuals allows access to a larger repertoire of sounds, thereby providing skilled imitators greater flexibility in pronunciation and language learning.

  5. Art Appreciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Luo Zhongli. now a professor with the Oil Painting Department in the Sichuan Academy of Fine Arts became famous in the Chinese painters’ circle in 1980 with his enormous painting, Father. This painting also led the rise

  6. Rock Art

    OpenAIRE

    Huyge, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Rock art, basically being non-utilitarian, non-textual anthropic markings on natural rock surfaces, was an extremely widespread graphical practice in ancient Egypt. While the apogee of the tradition was definitely the Predynastic Period (mainly fourth millennium BCE), examples date from the late Palaeolithic (c. 15,000 BCE) until the Islamic era. Geographically speaking, “Egyptian” rock art is known from many hundreds of sites along the margins of the Upper Egyptian and Nubian Nile Valley and...

  7. ART APPRECIATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    In Naive Girls, Zhang Nan portrays three country girls with brightly decorative colors commonly seen in Chinese folk art. Their individuality is portrayed with the contrasting colors of their clothing, yet the whole picture is harmonious. The naivete of country girls is distilled into art. Delight portrays a fishing girl drying fish in the open air. On her bamboo hat hang strings of fish. The background is painted with skills used in traditional Chinese water and ink painting.

  8. Wolves are better imitators of conspecifics than dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Range

    Full Text Available Domestication is thought to have influenced the cognitive abilities of dogs underlying their communication with humans, but little is known about its effect on their interactions with conspecifics. Since domestication hypotheses offer limited predictions in regard to wolf-wolf compared to dog-dog interactions, we extend the cooperative breeding hypothesis suggesting that the dependency of wolves on close cooperation with conspecifics, including breeding but also territory defense and hunting, has created selection pressures on motivational and cognitive processes enhancing their propensity to pay close attention to conspecifics' actions. During domestication, dogs' dependency on conspecifics has been relaxed, leading to reduced motivational and cognitive abilities to interact with conspecifics. Here we show that 6-month-old wolves outperform same aged dogs in a two-action-imitation task following a conspecific demonstration. While the wolves readily opened the apparatus after a demonstration, the dogs failed to solve the problem. This difference could not be explained by differential motivation, better physical insight of wolves, differential developmental pathways of wolves and dogs or a higher dependency of dogs from humans. Our results are best explained by the hypothesis that higher cooperativeness may come together with a higher propensity to pay close attention to detailed actions of others and offer an alternative perspective to domestication by emphasizing the cooperativeness of wolves as a potential source of dog-human cooperation.

  9. Wolves are better imitators of conspecifics than dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Range, Friederike; Virányi, Zsófia

    2014-01-01

    Domestication is thought to have influenced the cognitive abilities of dogs underlying their communication with humans, but little is known about its effect on their interactions with conspecifics. Since domestication hypotheses offer limited predictions in regard to wolf-wolf compared to dog-dog interactions, we extend the cooperative breeding hypothesis suggesting that the dependency of wolves on close cooperation with conspecifics, including breeding but also territory defense and hunting, has created selection pressures on motivational and cognitive processes enhancing their propensity to pay close attention to conspecifics' actions. During domestication, dogs' dependency on conspecifics has been relaxed, leading to reduced motivational and cognitive abilities to interact with conspecifics. Here we show that 6-month-old wolves outperform same aged dogs in a two-action-imitation task following a conspecific demonstration. While the wolves readily opened the apparatus after a demonstration, the dogs failed to solve the problem. This difference could not be explained by differential motivation, better physical insight of wolves, differential developmental pathways of wolves and dogs or a higher dependency of dogs from humans. Our results are best explained by the hypothesis that higher cooperativeness may come together with a higher propensity to pay close attention to detailed actions of others and offer an alternative perspective to domestication by emphasizing the cooperativeness of wolves as a potential source of dog-human cooperation.

  10. Imitation of Dynamic Walking With BSN for Humanoid Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teachasrisaksakul, Krittameth; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Lo, Benny

    2015-05-01

    Humanoid robots have been used in a wide range of applications including entertainment, healthcare, and assistive living. In these applications, the robots are expected to perform a range of natural body motions, which can be either preprogrammed or learnt from human demonstration. This paper proposes a strategy for imitating dynamic walking gait for a humanoid robot by formulating the problem as an optimization process. The human motion data are recorded with an inertial sensor-based motion tracking system (Biomotion+). Joint angle trajectories are obtained from the transformation of the estimated posture. Key locomotion frames corresponding to gait events are chosen from the trajectories. Due to differences in joint structures of the human and robot, the joint angles at these frames need to be optimized to satisfy the physical constraints of the robot while preserving robot stability. Interpolation among the optimized angles is needed to generate continuous angle trajectories. The method is validated using a NAO humanoid robot, with results demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed strategy for dynamic walking.

  11. Networks of echoes imitation, innovation and invisible leaders

    CERN Document Server

    West, Bruce J; Grigolini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Networks of Echoes: Imitation, Innovation and Invisible Leaders is a mathematically rigorous and data rich book on a fascinating area of the science and engineering of social webs.  There are hundreds of complex network phenomena whose statistical properties are described by inverse power laws.  The phenomena of interest are not arcane events that we encounter only fleetingly, but are events that dominate our lives. We examine how this intermittent statistical behavior intertwines itself with what appears to be the organized activity of social groups.  The book is structured as answers to a sequence of questions such as: How are decisions reached in elections and boardrooms?  How is the stability of a society undermined by zealots and committed minorities, and how is that stability re-established?  Can we learn to answer such questions about human behavior by studying the way flocks of birds retain their formation when eluding a predator?  These questions and others are answered using a generic model of...

  12. Imitation of contrastive lexical stress in children with speech delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Jennell C.; Moore, Christopher A.

    2005-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between acoustic correlates of stress in trochaic (strong-weak), spondaic (strong-strong), and iambic (weak-strong) nonword bisyllables produced by children (30-50) with normal speech acquisition and children with speech delay. Ratios comparing the acoustic measures (vowel duration, rms, and f0) of the first syllable to the second syllable were calculated to evaluate the extent to which each phonetic parameter was used to mark stress. In addition, a calculation of the variability of jaw movement in each bisyllable was made. Finally, perceptual judgments of accuracy of stress production were made. Analysis of perceptual judgments indicated a robust difference between groups: While both groups of children produced errors in imitating the contrastive lexical stress models (~40%), the children with normal speech acquisition tended to produce trochaic forms in substitution for other stress types, whereas children with speech delay showed no preference for trochees. The relationship between segmental acoustic parameters, kinematic variability, and the ratings of stress by trained listeners will be presented.

  13. [Basis of art phonetics in biomedical engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Li, Gelin; Ouyang, Kai; Liu, Yongxiang

    2002-01-01

    Art phonetics' medicine, a new branch of traditional medicine, has not been developed perfectly, especially in the aspects of objective and scientific study. In this paper, the acoustical and anatiomical basis of art phonetics in viewpoint of biomedical engineering is explored, and then our work of quantitative measurement and analysis of art phonetic is introduced. The experiment data show further that quantitative measurement and analysis plays an important role in art phonetic medicine.

  14. Art, Philosophy, and Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monthoux, Pierre Guillet de

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes turn-taking as a way to understand how European management scholarship opens up to societal phenomena as play, critique, artistry, and aesthetics co-creating business realities. European management scholarship rests on contributions, still mostly under the Anglo...... criticizes the Business School for building speculative castles in the sky. European scholarship might rethink it as an Art School where managerial action is seen as philosophizing in a speculative realism-mode....

  15. Shadow art

    KAUST Repository

    Mitra, Niloy J.

    2009-01-01

    "To them, I said, the truth would be literally nothing but the shadows of the images." - Plato, The Republic Shadow art is a unique form of sculptural art where the 2D shadows cast by a 3D sculpture are essential for the artistic effect. We introduce computational tools for the creation of shadow art and propose a design process where the user can directly specify the desired shadows by providing a set of binary images and corresponding projection information. Since multiple shadow images often contradict each other, we present a geometric optimization that computes a 3D shadow volume whose shadows best approximate the provided input images. Our analysis shows that this optimization is essential for obtaining physically realizable 3D sculptures. The resulting shadow volume can then be modified with a set of interactive editing tools that automatically respect the often intricate shadow constraints. We demonstrate the potential of our system with a number of complex 3D shadow art sculptures that go beyond what is seen in contemporary art pieces. © 2009 ACM.

  16. The Dynamic Impact of the Tiger within Chinese Martial Arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Lam

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In Asia, there is, in general, a great reverence held for the tiger. The tiger has been imitated and reigns supreme as king of all the beasts throughout Asia. The relationship between man and tiger holds a strange duality in that as much as the tiger is feared for its fierce savagery and destructive power, it is also revered for these very same qualities and for its majestic nature. Therefore, the very symbolic essence of the tiger has permeated all levels of the Asian community and culture; art, mythology, religion, astrology, herbology, and military fighting strategies. The purpose of this article is to show the many rich aspects that the tiger exhibits, and its influence and impact on Asian culture and Chinese martial arts in particular. Martial arts such as Cantonese Hung Gar (Hong Family and Hasayfu Hung Gar (Hong Family Four Lower Tigers dedicate a portion of their systems to achieving awesome strength and speed, and to imitating the tiger’s physical prowess. By doing so, they may achieve higher levels of effectiveness within the martial arts.

  17. Ludic Toons: The Dynamics of Creative Play in Studio Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Pat

    2012-01-01

    Though generally accepted as the most playfully entertaining form of popular media or art, animation as play has received little scholarly analysis. The author examines the nature of playfulness in animation and describes play as a critical tool in animation studies. Examining studio character animation from such perspectives as creative…

  18. Winckelmann divided: mourning the death of art history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, W

    1994-01-01

    The discipline of art history is often said to have been invented in the writing of J.J. Winckelmann (1717-1768). In his Reflections on the Imitation of Greek Works in Painting and Sculpture (1754) and History of Ancient Art (1764), Winckelmann dealt with the homoerotic meanings of Greco-Roman arts in complex ways. To do so, he imagined a split between his subjective position as an observer with specific erotic and political interests and his objective position as an historian. His importance for art historians today derives from his own recognition and further elaboration of his "division," an awareness manifested in his principal metaphor for the status of the art historian as a "maiden" mourning her "lover," the "lost object" of her desire, namely, ancient representations of beautiful young men. This metaphor and related features of Winckelmann's texts situated the homoeroticism of art and of the art historian in mutual relations that enable the art historian to reconcile, if not to resolve, his fundamental "division." Winckelmann's image of art history presents a more adequate sense of the enterprise than the misleading polarization of "objective" history and "subjective" interpretation frequently encountered today.

  19. Art Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Vibeke; Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Based on a Jungian approach, this article will introduce an integrative model to therapeutic change using art therapy methods as practical tools, with the aim of improving quality of life and in the prevention of depression. In a research study involving six participants, painting, clay...... work and drumming were used together with imagination and personal dialogues linked to the artwork. These art therapy processes attempted to combine the participant’s experience of inner and outer reality. The effect of gaining more knowledge about their inner reality using dreams and symbols......, was that participants gained a new understanding about their personal life. In addition, some participants were able to continue to use art therapy experiences as selfdevelopmental tools after the research study terminated. Jung’s description of the interactive relationship between the two living parts of the psyche...

  20. Art Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Vibeke; Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Based on a Jungian approach, this article will introduce an integrative model to therapeutic change using art therapy methods as practical tools, with the aim of improving quality of life and in the prevention of depression. In a research study involving six participants, painting, clay...... work and drumming were used together with imagination and personal dialogues linked to the artwork. These art therapy processes attempted to combine the participant’s experience of inner and outer reality. The effect of gaining more knowledge about their inner reality using dreams and symbols...... model of Art Therapy with this population. This article focuses on the psychological aspect of creativity related to mild depression with an emphasis on the interaction between the conscious and the unconscious part of the psyche....

  1. Art Academy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Created in 1996 by Mauritians Anna Patten and Sanedhip Bhimjee,Art Academy has gained a high profile due to its dance creation Katha’zz.Mixing new styles with traditional Kathak,the academy produces visual poetry that keeps it busy traveling around the world. Last September,along with the Mauritian presidential delegation,Art Academy presented Chinese audiences a real taste of Mauritian culture. Choreographer,dancer and set designer Bhimjee spoke to ChinAfrica from Mauritius about Katha’zz and its fusion with Chinese folk music.

  2. The mimetic transition: a simulation study of the evolution of learning by imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, P G

    2000-07-07

    Culturally transmitted ideas or memes must have had a large effect on the survival and fecundity of early humans. Those with better techniques of obtaining food and making tools, clothing and shelters would have had a substantial advantage. It has been proposed that memes can explain why our species has an unusually large brain and high cognitive ability: the brain evolved because of selection for the ability to imitate. This article presents an evolutionary model of a population in which culturally transmitted memes can have both positive and negative effects on the fitness of individuals. It is found that genes for increased imitative ability are selectively favoured. The model predicts that imitative ability increases slowly until a mimetic transition occurs where memes become able to spread like an epidemic. At this point there is a dramatic increase in the imitative ability, the number of memes known per individual and the mean fitness of the population. Selection for increased imitative ability is able to overcome substantial selection against increased brain size in some cases.

  3. The role of consensus and culture in children's imitation of inefficient actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiYanni, Cara J; Corriveau, Kathleen H; Kurkul, Katelyn; Nasrini, Jad; Nini, Deniela

    2015-09-01

    A significant body of work has demonstrated children's imitative abilities when learning novel actions. Although some research has examined the role of cultural background in children's imitation of inefficient actions, to our knowledge no research has explored how culture and conformity interact when engaging in imitation. In Study 1, 87 Caucasian American and Chinese American preschoolers were presented with either one model or three models performing an inefficient action. Whereas there were no cultural differences in imitation in the Single Model condition, Chinese Americans were significantly more likely to copy the model's preference for an inefficient tool in the Consensus condition. Children's tool choice was associated with their justification for their choice as well as their memory for the model's action. Study 2 explored the impact of immigration status on the cultural differences in children's tool choice by including 16 first-generation Caucasian American children. When comparing the findings with the rates from Study 1, both groups of Caucasian American preschoolers imitated at rates significantly lower than the Chinese American preschoolers. We suggest that the tool choices of Caucasian American children relate to a tendency to engage in a perceptually driven mode of learning, whereas the choices of the Chinese American children reflect a greater likelihood to use a socially driven mode.

  4. Imitate or innovate? Children's innovation is influenced by the efficacy of observed behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Kayleigh; Kendal, Rachel L; Flynn, Emma G

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the age at which children judge it futile to imitate unreliable information, in the form of a visibly ineffective demonstrated solution, and deviate to produce novel solutions ('innovations'). Children aged 4-9 years were presented with a novel puzzle box, the Multiple-Methods Box (MMB), which offered multiple innovation opportunities to extract a reward using different tools, access points and exits. 209 children were assigned to conditions in which eight social demonstrations of a reward retrieval method were provided; each condition differed incrementally in terms of the method's efficacy (0%, 25%, 75%, and 100% success at extracting the reward). An additional 47 children were assigned to a no-demonstration control condition. Innovative reward extractions from the MMB increased with decreasing efficacy of the demonstrated method. However, imitation remained a widely used strategy irrespective of the efficacy of the method being reproduced (90% of children produced at least one imitative attempt, and imitated on an average of 4.9 out of 8 attempt trials). Children were more likely to innovate in relation to the tool than exit, even though the latter would have been more effective. Overall, innovation was rare: only 12.4% of children innovated by discovering at least one novel reward exit. Children's prioritisation of social information is consistent with theories of cultural evolution indicating imitation is a prepotent response following observation of behaviour, and that innovation is a rarity; so much so, that even maladaptive behaviour is copied.

  5. Complimentary lower-level and higher-order systems underpin imitation learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Matthew; Bennett, Simon J; Elliott, Digby; Hayes, Spencer J

    2016-04-01

    We examined whether the temporal representation developed during motor training with reduced-frequency knowledge of results (KR; feedback available on every other trial) was transferred to an imitation learning task. To this end, four groups first practised a three-segment motor sequence task with different KR protocols. Two experimental groups received reduced-frequency KR, one group received high-frequency KR (feedback available on every trial), and one received no-KR. Compared to the no-KR group, the groups that received KR learned the temporal goal of the movement sequence, as evidenced by increased accuracy and consistency across training. Next, all groups learned a single-segment movement that had the same temporal goal as the motor sequence task but required the imitation of biological and nonbiological motion kinematics. Kinematic data showed that whilst all groups imitated biological motion kinematics, the two experimental reduced-frequency KR groups were on average ∼ 800 ms more accurate at imitating movement time than the high-frequency KR and no-KR groups. The interplay between learning biological motion kinematics and the transfer of temporal representation indicates imitation involves distinct, but complementary lower-level sensorimotor and higher-level cognitive processing systems. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. An evolutionary strategy based on partial imitation for solving optimization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javarone, Marco Alberto

    2016-12-01

    In this work we introduce an evolutionary strategy to solve combinatorial optimization tasks, i.e. problems characterized by a discrete search space. In particular, we focus on the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP), i.e. a famous problem whose search space grows exponentially, increasing the number of cities, up to becoming NP-hard. The solutions of the TSP can be codified by arrays of cities, and can be evaluated by fitness, computed according to a cost function (e.g. the length of a path). Our method is based on the evolution of an agent population by means of an imitative mechanism, we define 'partial imitation'. In particular, agents receive a random solution and then, interacting among themselves, may imitate the solutions of agents with a higher fitness. Since the imitation mechanism is only partial, agents copy only one entry (randomly chosen) of another array (i.e. solution). In doing so, the population converges towards a shared solution, behaving like a spin system undergoing a cooling process, i.e. driven towards an ordered phase. We highlight that the adopted 'partial imitation' mechanism allows the population to generate solutions over time, before reaching the final equilibrium. Results of numerical simulations show that our method is able to find, in a finite time, both optimal and suboptimal solutions, depending on the size of the considered search space.

  7. An empirical analysis of the methodology of automatic imitation research in a strategic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aczel, Balazs; Kekecs, Zoltan; Bago, Bence; Szollosi, Aba; Foldes, Andrei

    2015-08-01

    Since the discovery of the mirror neuron system, it has been proposed that the automatic tendency to copy observed actions exists in humans and that this mechanism might be responsible for a range of social behavior. A strong argument for automatic behavior can be made when actions are executed against motivation to do otherwise. Strategic games in which imitation is disadvantageous serve as ideal designs for studying the automatic nature of participants' behavior. Most recently, Belot, Crawford, and Heyes (2013) conducted an explorative study using a modified version of the Rock-Paper-Scissors game, and suggested that in the case of asynchrony in the execution of the gestures, automatic imitation can be observed early on after the opponent's presentation. In our study, we video recorded the games, which allowed us to examine the effect of delay on imitative behavior as well as the sensitivity of the previously employed analyses. The examination of the recorded images revealed that more than 80% of the data were irrelevant to the study of automatic behavior. Additional bias in the paradigm became apparent, as previously presented gestures were found to affect the behavior of the players. After noise filtering, we found no evidence of automatic imitation in either the whole filtered data set or in selected time windows based on delay length. Besides questioning the strength of the results of previous analyses, we propose several experimental and statistical modifications for further research on automatic imitation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Neonatal imitation and early social experience predict gaze following abilities in infant monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Elizabeth A; Miller, Grace M; Ferrari, Pier F; Suomi, Stephen J; Paukner, Annika

    2016-02-01

    Individuals vary in their social skills and motivation, the causes of which remain largely unknown. Here we investigated whether an individual's propensity to interact with others measured within days after birth, and differences in infants' early social environment, may predict a later social skill. Specifically, we tested whether neonatal imitation--newborns' capacity to match modelled actions--and social experience in the first months of life predict gaze following (directing attention to locations where others look), in infant macaques (Macaca mulatta; n = 119). Facial gesture imitation in the first week of life predicted gaze following at 7 months of age. Imitators were better at gaze following than non-imitators, suggesting neonatal imitation may be an early marker predicting socio-cognitive functioning. In addition, infants with rich social environments outperformed infants with less socialization, suggesting early social experiences also support the development of infants' gaze following competence. The present study offers compelling evidence that an individual difference present from birth predicts a functional social cognitive skill in later infancy. In addition, this foundational skill--gaze following--is plastic, and can be improved through social interactions, providing infants with a strong foundation for later social interaction and learning.

  9. The role of accent imitation in sensorimotor integration during processing of intelligible speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patti eAdank

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent theories on how listeners maintain perceptual invariance despite variation in the speech signal allocate a prominent role to imitation mechanisms. Notably, these simulation accounts propose that motor mechanisms support perception of ambiguous or noisy signals. Indeed, imitation of ambiguous signals, e.g., accented speech, has been found to aid effective speech comprehension. Here, we explored the possibility that imitation in speech benefits perception by increasing activation in speech perception and production areas. Participants rated the intelligibility of sentences spoken in an unfamiliar accent of Dutch in a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging experiment. Next, participants in one group repeated the sentences in their own accent, while a second group vocally imitated the accent. Finally, both groups rated the intelligibility of accented sentences in a post-test. The neuroimaging results showed an interaction between type of training and pre- and post-test sessions in left Inferior Frontal Gyrus, Supplementary Motor Area, and left Superior Temporal Sulcus. Although alternative explanations such as task engagement and fatigue need to be considered as well, the results suggest that imitation may aid effective speech comprehension by supporting sensorimotor integration.

  10. Art Appreciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Cheng Lei has lived in an artistic environment since childhood. In 1991 she graduated from the Central Institute of Fine Arts in Beijing. She loves, raises and paints cats. Cheng is adept at revealing the beauty and intelligence of felines using light and neutral tones in her watercolors "In my paintings I’m more concerned with expressing my own feelings, my understanding of

  11. Chicken Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  12. Chicken Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  13. Scanner Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Joy; Murphy, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how they incorporated environmental awareness into their art curriculum. Here, they describe a digital photography project in which their students used flatbed scanners as cameras. Their students composed their objects directly on the scanner. The lesson enabled students to realize that artists have voices…

  14. Art Lessons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Art exhibitions in China are now an important way to engage with Africa THE African Museum at China’s Zhejiang Normal University(ZJNU) is the first of its kind on the Chinese mainland with the theme of African civilization.ZJNU is also the first Chinese university to set up a comprehensive institute of African studies.The museum was completed on

  15. City at Peace: Inspiring Kids to Imitate and Improve Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroad, Diane L.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the City at Peace program originated in Washington, DC, by Creative Response, a nonprofit group that promotes international peace and cross-cultural understanding through the performing arts. The Washington program staged an original musical in January 1993, written and performed by local teenagers, about the problems of racism, drug…

  16. Art, anatomy, and medicine: Is there a place for art in medical education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lawrence T O; Evans, Darrell J R

    2014-01-01

    For many years art, anatomy and medicine have shared a close relationship, as demonstrated by Leonardo da Vinci's anatomical drawings and Andreas Vesalius' groundbreaking illustrated anatomical textbook from the 16th century. However, in the modern day, can art truly play an important role in medical education? Studies have suggested that art can be utilized to teach observational skills in medical students, a skill that is integral to patient examination but seldom taught directly within medical curricula. This article is a subjective survey that evaluates a student selected component (SSC) that explored the uses of art in medicine and investigates student perception on the relationship between the two. It also investigates whether these medical students believe that art can play a role in medical education, and more specifically whether analyzing art can play a role in developing observational skills in clinicians. An "Art in Medicine" 8-week course was delivered to first year medical students at Brighton and Sussex Medical School. The use of art to improve observational skills was a core theme throughout. Feedback from the students suggests that they believe a strong association between art and medicine exists. It also showed a strong perception that art could play a role in medical education, and more specifically through analyzing art to positively develop clinical observational skills. The results of this subjective study, together with those from research from elsewhere, suggest that an art-based approach to teaching observational skills may be worth serious consideration for inclusion in medical and other healthcare curricula.

  17. Art, Anatomy, and Medicine: Is There a Place for Art in Medical Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lawrence T. O.; Evans, Darrell J. R.

    2014-01-01

    For many years art, anatomy and medicine have shared a close relationship, as demonstrated by Leonardo da Vinci's anatomical drawings and Andreas Vesalius' groundbreaking illustrated anatomical textbook from the 16th century. However, in the modern day, can art truly play an important role in medical education? Studies have suggested that art can…

  18. Balinese Art versus Global Art

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Vickers

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThere are two reasons why “Balinese art” is not a global art form, firstbecause it became too closely subordinated to tourism between the 1950sand 1970s, and secondly because of confusion about how to classify“modern” and “traditional” Balinese art. The category of ‘modern’ artseems at first to be unproblematic, but looking at Balinese paintingfrom the 1930s to the present day shows that divisions into ‘traditional’,‘modern’ and ‘contemporary’ are anything but straight-forward. Indism...

  19. Recognition and imitation of pantomimed motor acts after unilateral parietal and premotor lesions: a perspective on apraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsband, U; Schmitt, J; Weyers, M; Binkofski, F; Grützner, G; Freund, H J

    2001-01-01

    We compared gesture comprehension and imitation in patients with lesions in the left parietal lobe (LPAR, n=5) and premotor cortex/supplementary motor area (LPMA, n=8) in patients with damage to the right parietal lobe (RPAR, n=6) and right premotor/supplementary motor area (RPMA, n=6) and in 16 non-brain damaged control subjects. Three patients with left parietal lobe damage had aphasia. Subjects were shown 136 meaningful pantomimed motor acts on a videoscreen and were asked to identify the movements and to imitate the motor acts from memory with their ipsilesional and contralesional hand or with both hands simultaneously. Motor tasks included gestures without object use (e.g. to salute, to wave) pantomimed imitation of gestures on one's own body (e.g. to comb one's hair) and pantomimed imitation of motor acts which imply tool use to an object in extrapersonal space (e.g. to hammer a nail). Videotaped test performance was analysed by two independent raters; errors were classified as spatial errors, body part as object, parapraxic performance and non-identifiable movements. In addition, action discrimination was tested by evaluating whether a complex motor sequence was correctly performed. Results indicate that LPAR patients were most severely disturbed when imitation performance was assessed. Interestingly, LPAR patients were worse when imitating gestures on their own bodies than imitating movements with reference to an external object use with most pronounced deficits in the spatial domain. In contrast to imitation, comprehension was not or only slightly disturbed and no clear correlation was found between the severity of imitation deficits and gesture comprehension. Moreover, although the three patients with aphasia imitated the movements more poorly than non-aphasic LPAR patients, the severity of comprehension errors did not differ. Whereas unimanual imitating performance and gesture comprehension of PMA patients did not differ significantly from control

  20. Human toddlers' attempts to match two simple behaviors provide no evidence for an inherited, dedicated imitation mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan S Jones

    Full Text Available Influential theories of imitation have proposed that humans inherit a neural mechanism - an "active intermodal matching " (AIM mechanism or a mirror neuron system - that functions from birth to automatically match sensory input from others' actions to motor programs for performing those same actions, and thus produces imitation. To test these proposals, 160 1- to 2½-year-old toddlers were asked to imitate two simple movements- bending the arm to make an elbow, and moving the bent elbow laterally. Both behaviors were almost certain to be in each child's repertoire, and the lateral movement was goal-directed (used to hit a plastic cup. Thus, one or both behaviors should have been imitable by toddlers with a functioning AIM or mirror neuron system. Each child saw the two behaviors repeated 18 times, and was encouraged to imitate. Children were also asked to locate their own elbows. Almost no children below age 2 imitated either behavior. Instead, younger children gave clear evidence of a developmental progression, from reproducing only the outcome of the models' movements (hitting the object, through trying (but failing to reproduce the model's arm posture and/or the arm-cup relations they had seen, to accurate imitation of arm bending by age 2 and of both movements by age 2½. Across age levels, almost all children who knew the word 'elbow' imitated both behaviors: very few who did not know the word imitated either behavior. The evidence is most consistent with a view of early imitation as the product of a complex system of language, cognitive, social, and motor competencies that develop in infancy. The findings do not rule out a role for an inherited neural mechanism, but they suggest that such a system would not by itself be sufficient to explain imitation at any age.

  1. Children's Empowerment in Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Natalie

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the level of empowerment and autonomy children can create in their play experiences. It examines the play discourses that children build and maintain and considers the importance of play contexts in supporting children's emotional and social development. These aspects of play are often unseen or misunderstood by the adult…

  2. The Play of Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry

    2012-01-01

    The author reviews the role of play within psychotherapy. She does not discuss the formal play therapy especially popular for young children, nor play from the Jungian perspective that encourages the use of the sand tray with adults. Instead, she focuses on the informal use of play during psychotherapy as it is orchestrated intuitively. Because…

  3. Two people playing together: some thoughts on play, playing, and playfulness in psychoanalytic work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vliegen, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Children's play and the playfulness of adolescents and adults are important indicators of personal growth and development. When a child is not able to play, or an adolescent/adult is not able to be playful with thoughts and ideas, psychotherapy can help to find a more playful and creative stance. Elaborating Winnicott's (1968, p. 591) statement that "psychotherapy has to do with two people playing together," three perspectives on play in psychotherapy are discussed. In the first point of view, the child gets in touch with and can work through aspects of his or her inner world, while playing in the presence of the therapist. The power of play is then rooted in the playful communication with the self In a second perspective, in play the child is communicating aspects of his or her inner world to the therapist as a significant other. In a third view, in "playing together" child and therapist are coconstructing new meanings. These three perspectives on play are valid at different moments of a therapy process or for different children, depending on the complex vicissitudes of the child's constitution, life experiences, development, and psychic structure. Concerning these three perspectives, a parallel can be drawn between the therapist's attitude toward the child's play and the way the therapist responds to the verbal play of an adolescent or adult. We illustrate this with the case of Jacob, a late adolescent hardly able to play with ideas.

  4. Applying Play to Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Patricia S.; Fokes, Joann

    The objectives of this paper are (1) to present the relationship of play to language and cognition, (2) to describe the stages of play and discuss recent literature about the characteristics of play, and (3) to describe the use of play with the multifaceted goals of cognition, pragmatics, semantics, syntax, and morphology as an intervention…

  5. Mass Shootings: The Role of the Media in Promoting Generalized Imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, James N; Ivy, Jonathan W

    2017-03-01

    Mass shootings are a particular problem in the United States, with one mass shooting occurring approximately every 12.5 days. Recently a "contagion" effect has been suggested wherein the occurrence of one mass shooting increases the likelihood of another mass shooting occurring in the near future. Although contagion is a convenient metaphor used to describe the temporal spread of a behavior, it does not explain how the behavior spreads. Generalized imitation is proposed as a better model to explain how one person's behavior can influence another person to engage in similar behavior. Here we provide an overview of generalized imitation and discuss how the way in which the media report a mass shooting can increase the likelihood of another shooting event. Also, we propose media reporting guidelines to minimize imitation and further decrease the likelihood of a mass shooting.

  6. Vocal learning beyond imitation: mechanisms of adaptive vocal development in songbirds and human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernichovski, Ofer; Marcus, Gary

    2014-10-01

    Studies of vocal learning in songbirds typically focus on the acquisition of sensory templates for song imitation and on the consequent process of matching song production to templates. However, functional vocal development also requires the capacity to adaptively diverge from sensory templates, and to flexibly assemble vocal units. Examples of adaptive divergence include the corrective imitation of abnormal songs, and the decreased tendency to copy over-abundant syllables. Such frequency-dependent effects might mirror tradeoffs between the assimilation of group identity (culture) while establishing individual and flexibly expressive songs. Intriguingly, although the requirements for vocal plasticity vary across songbirds, and more so between birdsong and language, the capacity to flexibly assemble vocal sounds develops in a similar, stepwise manner across species. Therefore, universal features of vocal learning go well beyond the capacity to imitate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Imitating emotions instead of strategies in spatial games elevates social welfare

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila; Wang, Chao; Perc, Matjaz

    2011-01-01

    The success of imitation as an evolutionary driving force in spatial games has often been questioned, especially for social dilemmas such as the snowdrift game, where the most profitable may be the mixed phase sustaining both the cooperative as well as the defective strategy. Here we reexamine this assumption by investigating the evolution of cooperation in spatial social dilemma games, where instead of pure strategies players can adopt emotional profiles of their neighbors. For simplicity, the emotional profile of each player is determined by two pivotal factors only, namely how it behaves towards less and how towards more successful neighbors. We find that imitating emotions such as goodwill and envy instead of pure strategies from the more successful players reestablishes imitation as a tour de force for resolving social dilemmas on structured populations without any additional assumptions or strategic complexity.

  8. Two sympatric species of passerine birds imitate the same raptor calls in alarm contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Chaminda P.; Goodale, Eben; Kotagama, Sarath W.

    2010-01-01

    While some avian mimics appear to select sounds randomly, other species preferentially imitate sounds such as predator calls that are associated with danger. Previous work has shown that the Greater Racket-tailed Drongo ( Dicrurus paradiseus) incorporates predator calls and heterospecific alarm calls into its own species-typical alarm vocalizations. Here, we show that another passerine species, the Sri Lanka Magpie ( Urocissa ornata), which inhabits the same Sri Lankan rainforest, imitates three of the same predator calls that drongos do. For two of these call types, there is evidence that magpies also use them in alarm contexts. Our results support the hypothesis that imitated predator calls can serve as signals of alarm to multiple species.

  9. Forms of vitality play in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Español, Silvia; Martínez, Mauricio; Bordoni, Mariana; Camarasa, Rosario; Carretero, Soledad

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we report a qualitative study based on the constant comparative method to initiate the systematic study of forms of vitality play. This is an unnoticed non-figurative play frame linked to early social play and temporal arts in which child and adult elaborate the dynamics of their own movements and sounds in a repetition-variation form. In the introduction we present the theoretical underpinnings and the sporadic observations we have done in previous studies. Then, by the iterative observations of the recorded material of a longitudinal case study on play during the third year of life, we generated the general category of forms of vitality play and four subcategories of display modes of forms of vitality play (improvised forms of vitality play, ritualized forms of vitality play, forms of vitality play combined with pretend play, and forms of vitality play combined with role playing) which are illustrated with descriptive narratives. We discuss the properties of the developed categories, the limits of the present study, and the need to continue systematizing the research on this playful activity.

  10. Neural activation differences in amputees during imitation of intact versus amputee movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F Cusack

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The mirror neuron system has been attributed with increased activation in motor-related cortical areas upon viewing of another’s actions. Recent work suggests that limb movements that are similar and dissimilar in appearance to that of the viewer equivalently activate the mirror neuron system. It is unclear if this result can be observed in the action encoding areas in amputees who use prosthetic devices. Intact subjects and upper extremity amputee prosthesis users were recruited to view video demonstrations of tools being used by an intact actor and a prosthetic device user. All subjects were asked to pantomime the movements seen in the video while recording electroencephalography. Intact subjects showed equivalent left parietofrontal activity during imitation after watching the intact or prosthetic arm. Likewise, when prosthesis users imitated prosthesis demonstrations, typical left parietofrontal activation was observed during planning. When prosthesis users imitated intact actors, a new pattern was revealed which showed greater bilateral parietal and occipital activity during movement planning (p<0.001. This change may be required for prosthesis users to imitate movements in which the limb states between the observed and the observer do not match. The finding that prosthesis users imitating other prosthesis users showed typical left parietofrontal activation suggests that these subjects engage normal planning related activity when they are able to imitate a limb matching their own. This result has significant implications on rehabilitation, as standard therapy involves training with an intact occupational therapist, which could necessitate atypical planning mechanisms in amputees when learning to use their prosthesis.

  11. Academic Course Gamification: The Art of Perceived Playfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codish, David; Ravid, Gilad

    2014-01-01

    Gamification in education is being used as a way to increase student engagement and learning. While carrying a big promise, little is known about how students with different personalities, specifically extraverts and introverts, are influenced by game elements and mechanics: knowledge that is essential to ensure that implementing gamification will…

  12. Academic Course Gamification: The Art of Perceived Playfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codish, David; Ravid, Gilad

    2014-01-01

    Gamification in education is being used as a way to increase student engagement and learning. While carrying a big promise, little is known about how students with different personalities, specifically extraverts and introverts, are influenced by game elements and mechanics: knowledge that is essential to ensure that implementing gamification will…

  13. "Playing Attention": Contemporary Aesthetics and Performing Arts Audience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Monica

    2004-01-01

    This essay draws on the contemporary aesthetic theories of four writers -Hans-Georg Gadamer, Paul Ricoeur, Paul Thom, and James O. Young-who represent both the continental and analytic contemporary philosophical schools of thought. Each writer offers valuable perspectives on issues in aesthetic education pertaining to a key question in my…

  14. "Playing Attention": Contemporary Aesthetics and Performing Arts Audience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Monica

    2004-01-01

    This essay draws on the contemporary aesthetic theories of four writers -Hans-Georg Gadamer, Paul Ricoeur, Paul Thom, and James O. Young-who represent both the continental and analytic contemporary philosophical schools of thought. Each writer offers valuable perspectives on issues in aesthetic education pertaining to a key question in my…

  15. [A neuropsychological and functional brain imaging study of visuo-imitative apraxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peigneux, P; Van Der Linden, M; Andres-Benito, P; Sadzot, B; Franck, G; Salmon, E

    2000-05-01

    We describe the case of a 58-years-old right-handed women suffering from an occipital-parietal lesion. The administration of a cognitively based assessment tool for limb praxis (Batterie d'Evaluation des Praxies, B.E.P., Peigneux and Van der Linden, 1998) demonstrated bilateral visuo-imitative apraxia. Gesture production was mainly characterised by spatial, errors, and imitation of meaningful gestures was worse than their pantomime on verbal command. Moreover, the imitation of meaningless gestures and their reproduction on a manikin were worse than imitation of their matched meaningful gestures. In a cognitive perspective, adapted from the Rothi et al. (1997) and Goldenberg (1995) contributions to our understanding of limb praxis, this configuration of performance suggests deficits occurring at multiple levels. On one hand, it suggests either access difficulties or alteration of the output praxicon, i.e., the lexicon for visuo-kinesthetic engrams of meaningful gestures. On the other hand, the simultaneous deficit for meaningless gesture reproduction on the subject's own body and on a manikin favors an alteration of the structural descriptions of the human body (i.e., human body knowledge), underlying the mental transposition processes occurring between the visual analysis of a meaningless gestural configuration and its effective reproduction on oneself or on a manikin, thus contradicting the classic view of a direct pathway linking visual analysis and motor planning in meaningless gesture imitation. Finally, due to the output praxicon deficit, imitation of meaningful gestures is partly processed in the same way as meaningless gestures (also impaired in this case), leading to an interference effect between both degraded memory-based and visually-transposed traces, which account for imitation of meaningful gestures being worse than their pantomime on verbal command. We also assess regional cerebral metabolism using positron emission tomography (PET). Comparison with

  16. Reproductive isolation related to mimetic divergence in the poison frog Ranitomeya imitator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twomey, Evan; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Summers, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    study the Peruvian poison frog Ranitomeya imitator, a species that has undergone a mimetic radiation into four distinct morphs. Using a combination of colour–pattern analysis, landscape genetics and mate-choice experiments, we show that a mimetic shift in R. imitator is associated with a narrow......In a mimetic radiation—when a single species evolves to resemble different model species—mimicry can drive within-species morphological diversification, and, potentially, speciation. While mimetic radiations have occurred in a variety of taxa, their role in speciation remains poorly understood. We...

  17. Goal-directed imitation for robots: A bio-inspired approach to action understanding and skill learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erlhagen, W.; Mukovskiy, A.; Bicho, E.; Panin, G.; Kiss, C.; Knoll, A.; Schie, H.T. van; Bekkering, H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present a robot control architecture for learning by imitation which takes inspiration from recent discoveries in action observation/execution experiments with humans and other primates. The architecture implements two basic processing principles: (1) imitation is primarily directed

  18. Low Fidelity Imitation of Atypical Biological Kinematics in Autism Spectrum Disorders Is Modulated by Self-Generated Selective Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Spencer J.; Andrew, Matthew; Elliott, Digby; Gowen, Emma; Bennett, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether adults with autism had difficulty imitating atypical biological kinematics. To reduce the impact that higher-order processes have on imitation we used a non-human agent model to control social attention, and removed end-state target goals in half of the trials to minimise goal-directed attention. Findings showed that only…

  19. An Examination of the State of Imitation Research in Children with Autism: Issues of Definition and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevlever, Melina; Gillis, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    Several authors have suggested that children with autism are impaired in their ability to imitate others. However, diverse methodologies, contradictory findings, and varying theoretical explanations continue to exist in the literature despite decades of research. A comprehensive account of imitation in children with autism is hampered by the lack…

  20. Goal-directed imitation for robots: A bio-inspired approach to action understanding and skill learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erlhagen, W.; Mukovskiy, A.; Bicho, E.; Panin, G.; Kiss, C.; Knoll, A.; Schie, H.T. van; Bekkering, H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present a robot control architecture for learning by imitation which takes inspiration from recent discoveries in action observation/execution experiments with humans and other primates. The architecture implements two basic processing principles: (1) imitation is primarily directed

  1. A Measure of Proficiency or Short-Term Memory? Validation of an Elicited Imitation Test for SLA Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youjin; Tracy-Ventura, Nicole; Jung, Yeonjoo

    2016-01-01

    Elicited imitation requires listeners to listen and repeat sentences as accurately as possible. In second language acquisition (SLA) research it has been used for a variety of purposes. Recently, versions of the same elicited imitation test (EIT) have been created in 6 languages with the purpose of measuring second language proficiency (Ortega…

  2. Is It What You Do, or When You Do It? The Roles of Contingency and Similarity in Pro‐Social Effects of Imitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Catmur, Caroline; Heyes, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    .... Naturalistic studies of the effects of being imitated have not established whether pro‐social outcomes are due to the similarity and/or the contingency between the movements performed by the actor and those of the imitator...

  3. Robotic Art for Wearable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Pagliarini, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    We present the robot art and how it may inspire to create a new type of wearable termed modular robotic wearable. Differently from the related works, modular robotic wearable aims at making no use of mechatronic devices (as, for example, in Cyberpunk and related research branches) and mostly relies...... on “simple” plug-and-play circuits, ranging from pure sensors-actuators schemes to artefacts with a smaller level of elaboration complexity. Indeed, modular robotic wearable focuses on enhancing the body perception and proprioperception by trying to substitute all of the traditional exoskeletons perceptive...... functions - in most of the cases strongly rigid, cabled and centralized - through the use of local sensing circuits. It is exemplified here with the early prototype art work called Fatherboard, and the concept is believed to be applicable to different application fields, such as sport, health...

  4. The play grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh, Rune; Johansen, Asger

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose The Play Grid, a model for systemizing different play types. The approach is psychological by nature and the actual Play Grid is based, therefore, on two pairs of fundamental and widely acknowledged distinguishing characteristics of the ego, namely: extraversion vs...... at the Play Grid. Thus, the model has four quadrants, each of them describing one of four play types: the Assembler, the Director, the Explorer, and the Improviser. It is our hope that the Play Grid can be a useful design tool for making entertainment products for children....

  5. Art and Finance: Fine Art Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Strati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is intended to introduce a new kind of asset, the so called art asset. This financial tool is an asset whose value is related to an art-work, and in particular to the artist reputation. It will be shown the evaluation of an art asset by using a particular kind of volatility, the α-hedging. This tool normalizes the prices volatility of the art-works of an artist (or an art-movement by a sentiment index referred to the Art Market. At last I shall show how the art assets’ values are related to an art-call option.

  6. Role-Playing Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)

  7. Play the Tuberculosis Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questionnaire Tuberculosis Play Tuberculosis Experiments & Discoveries About the game Discover and experience some of the classic methods ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  8. Play the MRI Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teachers' Questionnaire MRI Play MRI the Magnetic Miracle Game About the game In the MRI imaging technique, strong magnets and ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  9. Play the Electrocardiogram Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Electrocardiogram Play the ECG Game About the game ECG is used for diagnosing heart conditions by ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  10. Learning Through Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... play, such as using play dough, LEGOs, and board games. Toys such as puzzles, pegboards, beads, and lacing ... Building sets, books, bicycles, roller skates, ice skates, board games, checkers, beginning sports • Middle Schoolers and Adolescents: Athletics, ...

  11. Children, Time, and Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkind, David; Rinaldi, Carla; Flemmert Jensen, Anne;

    Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003.......Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003....

  12. Role-Playing Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)

  13. Play at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier Sørensen, Bent; Spoelstra, Sverre

    2012-01-01

    for business and the other insists that work and play are largely indistinguishable in the postindustrial organization. Our field study of a design and communications company in Denmark shows that organizational play can be much more than just functional to the organization. We identify three ways in which......The interest in organizational play is growing, both in popular business discourse and organization studies. As the presumption that play is dysfunctional for organizations is increasingly discarded, the existing positions may be divided into two camps; one proposes ‘serious play’ as an engine...... workplaces engage in play: play as a (serious) continuation of work, play as a (critical) intervention into work and play as an (uninvited) usurpation of work....

  14. Arts, Brain and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarin, Vida; Bedeković, Marina Roje; Puretić, Marijana Bosnar; Pašić, Marija Bošnjak

    2016-12-01

    Art is a product of human creativity; it is a superior skill that can be learned by study, practice and observation. Modern neuroscience and neuroimaging enable study of the processes during artistic performance. Creative people have less marked hemispheric dominance. It was found that the right hemisphere is specialized for metaphoric thinking, playfulness, solution finding and synthesizing, it is the center of visualization, imagination and conceptualization, but the left hemisphere is still needed for artistic work to achieve balance. A specific functional organization of brain areas was found during visual art activities. Marked hemispheric dominance and area specialization is also very prominent for music perception. Brain is capable of making new connections, activating new pathways and unmasking secondary roads, it is "plastic". Music is a strong stimulus for neuroplasticity. fMRI studies have shown reorganization of motor and auditory cortex in professional musicians. Other studies showed the changes in neurotransmitter and hormone serum levels in correlation to music. The most prominent connection between music and enhancement of performance or changing of neuropsychological activity was shown by studies involving Mozart's music from which the theory of "The Mozart Effect" was derived. Results of numerous studies showed that listening to music can improve cognition, motor skills and recovery after brain injury. In the field of visual art, brain lesion can lead to the visuospatial neglect, loss of details and significant impairment of artistic work while the lesions affecting the left hemisphere reveal new artistic dimensions, disinhibit the right hemisphere, work is more spontaneous and emotional with the gain of artistic quality. All kinds of arts (music, painting, dancing...) stimulate the brain. They should be part of treatment processes. Work of many artists is an excellent example for the interweaving the neurology and arts.

  15. Playing with social identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This chapter offers support for Vygotsky’s claim that all play involves both an imagined situation as well as rules. Synthesising Schousboe’s comprehensive model of spheres of realities in playing (see Chapter 1, this volume) with Lev Vygotskys insight that all playing involve rules as well...

  16. Toddlers: Learning by Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Toddlers: Learning by Playing KidsHealth > For Parents > Toddlers: Learning by Playing Print A A A What's in ... child's play, but toddlers are hard at work learning important physical skills as they gain muscle control, ...

  17. Playing against the Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmele, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    The paper first outlines a differentiation of play/game-motivations that include "negative" attitudes against the play/game itself like cheating or spoilsporting. This problem is of particular importance in concern of learning games because they are not "played" for themselves--at least in the first place--but due to an…

  18. Play the Mosquito Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Malaria Play the Mosquito Game Play the Parasite Game About the games Malaria is one of the world's most common ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  19. (Steering) interactive play behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delden, van Robertus Wilhelmus

    2017-01-01

    Play is a powerful means to have an impact on the cognitive, social-emotional, and/or motor skills development. The introduction of technology brings new possibilities to provide engaging and entertaining whole-body play activities. Technology mediates the play activities and in this way changes how

  20. (Steering) interactive play behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Delden, Robertus Wilhelmus

    2017-01-01

    Play is a powerful means to have an impact on the cognitive, social-emotional, and/or motor skills development. The introduction of technology brings new possibilities to provide engaging and entertaining whole-body play activities. Technology mediates the play activities and in this way changes how

  1. Museum Superheroes: The Role of Play in Young Children's Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowski, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the role of play in an art museum. Reflecting upon a kindergarten field trip to the Warhol Museum in which children's play was the centerpiece of the museum experience, the author examines what early childhood theorists have written about the value of play in young children's lives. She shows how the Warhol's program for…

  2. Robotic Art for Wearable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Pagliarini, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    on “simple” plug-and-play circuits, ranging from pure sensors-actuators schemes to artefacts with a smaller level of elaboration complexity. Indeed, modular robotic wearable focuses on enhancing the body perception and proprioperception by trying to substitute all of the traditional exoskeletons perceptive......We present the robot art and how it may inspire to create a new type of wearable termed modular robotic wearable. Differently from the related works, modular robotic wearable aims at making no use of mechatronic devices (as, for example, in Cyberpunk and related research branches) and mostly relies...

  3. Supervising the uncanny: the play within the play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leader, Carol

    2015-11-01

    The writer offers a combined experience in analysis and the performing arts to explore uncanny aspects of the unconscious subtext of the patient's inner drama; subtext which can remain hidden from view in supervision. Freud and Jung's understanding of uncanny experience is considered together with a painting from medieval alchemy and Matte Blanco's conceptions concerning the symmetrical nature of unconscious process. Theatre and the work of the theatre director and actor in approaching the multidimensional aspects of a play are then introduced. Finally clinical case material from group supervision demonstrates how the 'theatre of therapy' and the work of the supervisory couple and group promote the emergence of a more authentic conscious asymmetrical response to the patient's 'script' that can break the 'spell' of the transference/countertransference relationship. This in turn brings meaning to the underlying and implicit 'stage directions' that the patient has been unconsciously communicating. © 2015, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  4. Playing with social identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This chapter offers support for Vygotsky’s claim that all play involves both an imagined situation as well as rules. Synthesising Schousboe’s comprehensive model of spheres of realities in playing (see Chapter 1, this volume) with Lev Vygotskys insight that all playing involve rules as well...... as pretence, children’s play is understood as an activity involving rules of the social order (roles and positions) as well as identification processes (imagined situations). The theoretical argumentation builds on empirical examples obtained in two different Danish day-care centres. The chapter is informed...... by ethnographic observations and draws on illustrative examples with symbolic group play as well as game-play with rules (soccer) among 5 year old boys. Findings suggest that day-care children’s play, involves negotiation of roles, positioning and identification, and rules – and that these negotiations...

  5. Forms of vitality play and symbolic play during the third year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Español, Silvia; Bordoni, Mariana; Martínez, Mauricio; Camarasa, Rosario; Carretero, Soledad

    2015-08-01

    This article focuses on the development of forms of vitality play, a recently described type of play, and links it to the development of symbolic play, one of the most studied types of play in developmental psychology. Two adult-infant dyads were videotaped longitudinally during in-house free play meetings every 15 days during the third year of life. Convergence technique was applied in order to accelerate the longitudinal study. A total of 17h 48min were registered in 28 sessions. An observational code with categories of forms of vitality play (a non-figurative play frame in which child and adult play together with the dynamics of their own movements and sounds in a repetition-variation form), symbolic play, and categories of combined patterns of both types of play was applied. The rate of each play was calculated for different age periods. Forms of vitality play is present at a constant rate during the third year of life. Symbolic play flourishes during this period. Combined play patterns are not the most frequent but are present from the beginning to the end of the third year. We suggest that FoVP favours intimate and intersubjective experiences essential to the understanding and the development of the interpersonal world; that it can be thought of as a good runway for the development of symbolic play; and that it prepares the child to participate in the temporal arts that belong to his culture.

  6. Pharmacoeconomic analysis of the use of tocilizumab in therapy for rheumatoid arthritis:imitation simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Vladimirovich Goryachev

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion. The application of the imitation simulation technique demonstrated that the strategy of using GEB after several synthetic BAIDs in patients with the least duration of the disease is most optimal in the context of cost-based efficiency. In this regard, no great difference was found in the use of tocilizumab or TNF-α inhibitors

  7. Child implant users’ imitation of happy- and sad-sounding speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jueyu Wang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear implants have enabled many congenitally or prelingually deaf children to acquire their native language and communicate successfully on the basis of electrical rather than acoustic input. Nevertheless, degraded spectral input provided by the device reduces the ability to perceive emotion in speech. We compared the vocal imitations of 5- to 7-year-old deaf children who were highly successful bilateral implant users with those of a control sample of children who had normal hearing. First, the children imitated several happy and sad sentences produced by a child model. When adults in Experiment 1 rated the similarity of imitated to model utterances, ratings were significantly higher for the hearing children. Both hearing and deaf children produced poorer imitations of happy than sad utterances because of difficulty matching the greater pitch modulation of the happy versions. When adults in Experiment 2 rated electronically filtered versions of the utterances, which obscured the verbal content, ratings of happy and sad utterances were significantly differentiated for deaf as well as hearing children. The ratings of deaf children, however, were significantly less differentiated. Although deaf children’s utterances exhibited culturally typical pitch modulation, their pitch modulation was reduced relative to that of hearing children. One practical implication is that therapeutic interventions for deaf children could expand their focus on suprasegmental aspects of speech perception and production, especially intonation patterns.

  8. Stability Analysis of Quadruped-imitating Walking Robot Based on Inverted Pendulum Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongming Wang,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of quadruped-imitating walking robot is designed, which is composed of a body bracket, leg brackets and walking legs. The walking leg of the robot is comprised of a first swiveling arm, a second swiveling arm and two striding leg rods. Each rod of the walking leg is connected by a rotary joint, and is directly controlled by the steering gear. The walking motion is realized by two striding leg rods alternately contacting the ground. Three assumptions are put forward according to the kinematic characteristics of the quadruped-imitating walking robot, and then the centroid equation of the robot is established. On this basis, this paper simplifies the striding process of the quadruped-imitating walking robot into an inverted pendulum model with a constant fulcrum and variable pendulum length. According to the inverted pendulum model, the stability of the robot is not only related to its centroid position, but also related to its centroid velocity. Takes two typical movement cases for example, such as walking on flat ground and climbing the vertical obstacle, the centroid position, velocity curves of the inverted pendulum model are obtained by MATLAB simulations. The results show that the quadruped-imitating walking robot is stable when walking on flat ground. In the process of climbing the vertical obstacle, the robot also can maintain certain stability through real-time control adjusted by the steering gears.

  9. Imitating Podcasts by Providing Audio Content to Support and Enhance Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Simon; Toland, Sean H.

    2015-01-01

    The provision of supplemental educational and instructional content in podcast form is becoming increasingly widespread in first language education. However, amongst second language students in Japan the lack of literature illustrates podcast use has been limited. Imitating podcasts, educational and instructional materials in audio form were…

  10. In-Group Ostracism Increases High-Fidelity Imitation in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Jones, Rachel E; Whitehouse, Harvey; Legare, Cristine H

    2016-01-01

    The Cyberball paradigm was used to examine the hypothesis that children use high-fidelity imitation as a reinclusion behavior in response to being ostracized by in-group members. Children (N = 176; 5- to 6-year-olds) were either included or excluded by in- or out-group members and then shown a video of an in-group or an out-group member enacting a social convention. Participants who were excluded by their in-group engaged in higher-fidelity imitation than those who were included by their in-group. Children who were included by an out-group and those who were excluded by an out-group showed no difference in imitative fidelity. Children ostracized by in-group members also displayed increased anxiety relative to children ostracized by out-group members. The data are consistent with the proposal that high-fidelity imitation functions as reinclusion behavior in the context of in-group ostracism.

  11. Imitation and communication skills development in children with pervasive developmental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea De Giacomo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Andrea De Giacomo1, Claudia Portoghese1, Domenico Martinelli2, Isabella Fanizza1, Luciano L’Abate3, Lucia Margari11Child Neurological and Psychiatric Unit, Department of Neurological and Psychiatric sciences, University of Bari, Italy; 2Department of Biomedical science and Oncology, University of Bari, Italy; 3Department of Psychology, Georgia State University Abstract: This study evaluates the correlation between failure to develop spontaneous imitation and language skills in pervasive developmental disorders. Sixty-four children between the age of 3 and 8 years were assessed using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS, and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS, as well as direct observation of imitation. The sample was subdivided into a verbal and a nonverbal group. Analysis of mean scores on the CARS “imitation” items and of ADI-R “spontaneous imitation” and “pointing to express interest” revealed a statistically significant difference between verbal and nonverbal groups, with more severe impairment/higher scores in the nonverbal than the verbal group. These results suggest that nonverbal children have specifically impaired imitation and pointing skills.Keywords: autism, imitation, communication, language, pointing

  12. Electrochemical Oxidation by Square-Wave Potential Pulses in the Imitation of Oxidative Drug Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouri-Nigjeh, Eslam; Permentier, Hjalmar P.; Bischoff, Rainer; Bruins, Andries P.

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemistry combined with mass spectrometry (EC-MS) is an emerging analytical technique in the imitation of oxidative drug metabolism at the early stages of new drug development. Here, we present the benefits of electrochemical oxidation by square-wave potential pulses for the oxidation of lido

  13. Strategies for Teaching Children with Autism to Imitate Response Chains Using Video Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshko, Lisa; MacDonald, Rebecca; Ahearn, William H.

    2010-01-01

    Video modeling has been found to be an effective procedure for teaching a variety of skills to persons with autism, however, some individuals do not learn through video instruction. The purpose of the current investigation was to teach children with autism, who initially did not imitate a video model, to construct three toy structures through the…

  14. How do elite ski jumpers handle the dynamic conditions in imitation jumps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettema, Gertjan; Hooiveld, Jo; Braaten, Steinar; Bobbert, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effect of boundary conditions in imitation ski jumping on movement dynamics and coordination. We compared imitation ski jumps with--and without--the possibility to generate shear propulsion forces. Six elite ski jumpers performed imitation jumps by jumping from a fixed surface and from a rolling platform. The ground reaction force vector, kinematics of body segments, and EMG of eight lower limb muscles were recorded. Net joint dynamics were calculated using inverse dynamics. The two imitation jumps differed considerably from each other with regard to the dynamics (moments, forces), whereas the kinematics were very similar. Knee power was higher and hip power was lower on the rolling platform than on the fixed surface. Mean EMG levels were very similar for both conditions, but differences in the development of muscle activity were indicated for seven of eight muscles. These differences are reflected in a subtle difference of the alignment of ground reaction force with centre of mass: the ground reaction force runs continuously close to but behind the centre of mass on the rolling platform and fluctuates around it on the fixed surface. This likely reflects a different strategy for controlling angular momentum.

  15. Kinematics and Kinetics of Squats, Drop Jumps and Imitation Jumps of Ski Jumpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Carole A; Keller, Melanie; Ammann, Fabian; Hübner, Klaus; Lindorfer, Julia; Taylor, William R; Lorenzetti, Silvio

    2016-03-01

    Squats, drop jumps, and imitation jumps are commonly used training exercises in ski jumping to enhance maximum force, explosive force, and sport-specific skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the kinetics and kinematics of training exercises in ski jumping and to find objective parameters in training exercises that most correlate with the competition performance of ski jumpers. To this end, barbell squats, drop jumps, and imitation jumps were measured in a laboratory environment for 10 elite ski jumpers. Force and motion data were captured, and the influence of maximum vertical force, force difference, vertical take-off velocity, knee moments, knee joint power, and a knee valgus/varus index was evaluated and correlated with their season jump performance. The results indicate that, especially for the imitation jumps, a good correlation exists between the vertical take-off velocity and the personal jump performance on the hill (R = 0.718). Importantly, however, the more the athletes tended toward a valgus knee alignment during the measured movements, the worse their performance (R = 0.729 imitation jumps; R = 0.685 squats). Although an evaluation of the athletes' lower limb alignment during competitive jumping on the hill is still required, these preliminary data suggest that performance training should additionally concentrate on improving knee alignment to increase ski jumping performance.

  16. Mimetic Divergence and the Speciation Continuum in the Mimic Poison Frog Ranitomeya imitator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twomey, Evan; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Venegas, Pablo J.

    2016-01-01

    While divergent ecological adaptation can drive speciation, understanding the factors that facilitate or constrain this process remains a major goal in speciation research. Here, we study two mimetic transition zones in the poison frog Ranitomeya imitator, a species that has undergone a Mullerian...

  17. When "Simon Says" Doesn't Work: Alternatives to Imitation for Facilitating Early Speech Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeThorne, Laura S.; Johnson, Cynthia J.; Walder, Louise; Mahurin-Smith, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To provide clinicians with evidence-based strategies to facilitate early speech development in young children who are not readily imitating sounds. Relevant populations may include, but are not limited to, children with autism spectrum disorders, childhood apraxia of speech, and late-talking toddlers. Method: Through multifaceted search…

  18. Robot Mood is Contagious: Effects of Robot Body Language in the Imitation Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J.; Broekens, D.J.; Hindriks, K.V.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Mood contagion is an automatic mechanism that induces a congruent mood state by means of the observation of another person's emotional expression. In this paper, we address the question whether robot mood displayed during an imitation game can (a) be recognized by participants and (b) produce contag

  19. Robot mood is contagious : Effects of robot body language in the imitation game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J.; Broekens, J.; Hindriks, K.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Mood contagion is an automatic mechanism that induces a congruent mood state by means of the observation of another person's emotional expression. In this paper, we address the question whether robot mood displayed during an imitation game can (a) be recognized by participants and (b) produce contag

  20. Examining Recall Memory in Infancy and Early Childhood Using the Elicited Imitation Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowski, Angela F; Milojevich, Helen M

    2016-04-28

    The ability to recall the past allows us to report on details of previous experiences, from the everyday to the significant. Because recall memory is commonly assessed using verbal report paradigms in adults, studying the development of this ability in preverbal infants and children proved challenging. Over the past 30 years, researchers have developed a non-verbal means of assessing recall memory known as the elicited or deferred imitation paradigm. In one variant of the procedure, participants are presented with novel three-dimensional stimuli for a brief baseline period before a researcher demonstrates a series of actions that culminate in an end- or goal-state. The participant is allowed to imitate the demonstrated actions immediately, after a delay, or both. Recall performance is then compared to baseline or to performance on novel control sequences presented at the same session; memory can be assessed for the individual target actions and the order in which they were completed. This procedure is an accepted analogue to the verbal report techniques used with adults, and it has served to establish a solid foundation of the nature of recall memory in infancy and early childhood. In addition, the elicited or deferred imitation procedure has been modified and adapted to answer questions relevant to other aspects of cognitive functioning. The broad utility and application of imitation paradigms is discussed, along with limitations of the approach and directions for future research.