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Sample records for plautia stali intestine

  1. Sticky Traps Baited with Synthetic Aggregation Pheromone Predict Fruit Orchard Infestations of Plautia stali (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Masatoshi; Kishimoto, Hidenari; Mishiro, Koji; Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio

    2015-10-01

    The brown-winged green bug, Plautia stali Scott, mainly reproduces on Japanese cedar or cypress cones in Japanese plantation forests during summer and autumn. It often depletes its food sources in forest habitats and moves to cultivated crops in large numbers. To establish an easy method for assessing the risk of fruit orchard infestation by P. stali, we conducted a 3-yr field survey that monitored the attraction of bugs to the synthetic P. stali aggregation pheromone using a sticky trap. We used a morphological indicator, variable body size depending on food intake, to estimate the nutritional status in nymphs, which showed that nymphs attracted to the synthetic pheromone were starving. Comparisons between increasing changes in the number of stylet sheaths left on the cones by P. stali and the number of trapped nymphs show that monitoring nymphs with the pheromone-baited sticky trap is useful for inferring conditions regarding food resources in forest habitats. The trend toward trapping second instars can provide a timely overview of resource competition for cones. Trapping middle-to-late (third-fifth) instars is a warning that the cones are finally depleted and that there is a high probability that adults will leave the forests and invade the orchards. In addition, trends in trapping adults suggest that there is a potential risk of orchard infestation by the pest and predict the intensity and period of the invasion. The pheromone-baited sticky trap is an easy but useful survey tool for predicting P. stali orchard infestations. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. First report of Rhodnius stali (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae in the State of Acre and in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionatas Ulises de Oliveira Meneguetti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: This paper reports, for the first time, the presence of Rhodnius stali in the state of Acre and in the Brazilian Amazon. METHODS: Specimens of R. stali were collected by the Federal University of Acre in Rio Branco. RESULTS: The number of Triatominae species in the State of Acre increased from five to six. This was also the first report of R. stali in the Brazilian Amazon. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of R. stali is worrisome, since this species has been found naturally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi and there has been evidence of its domiciliation capabilities.

  3. Rhodnius stali n. sp., afim de Rhodnius pictipers Stal, 1872 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae Rhodnius stali n. sp. related to Rhodnius pictipes Stal, 1872 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Lent

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhdnius stali n. sp. was described based on specimens deposited in the Herman Lent Collection of Entomological Collection of Oswaldo Cruz Institute, until now identified as Rhodnius pictipes Stal, 1872 and compared with specimens of R. pictipes proceeding from state of Amazonas and Pará, Brazil. R. stali is related to R. pictipes though distinguished by the total length, 15 to 17 mm male and 16,5 to 19 mm female, the anteocular region 2,5 times larger than postocular region and by the shape of phallic strictures known as: phallosoma, struts, gonopore process and endosoma process.

  4. [Darius Staliūnas. Making Russians : meaning and practice of russification in Lithuania and Belarus after 1863

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Woodworth, Bradley D., 1963-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Darius Staliūnas. Making Russians. Meaning and practice of russification in Lithuania and Belarus after 1863. On the boundary of two worlds: identity, freedom, and moral imagination in the Baltica, 11. (Amsterdam : Rodopi, 2007)

  5. [Darius Staliūnas. Making Russians : meaning and practice of russification in Lithuania and Belarus after 1863

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Woodworth, Bradley D., 1963-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Darius Staliūnas. Making Russians. Meaning and practice of russification in Lithuania and Belarus after 1863. On the boundary of two worlds: identity, freedom, and moral imagination in the Baltica, 11. (Amsterdam : Rodopi, 2007)

  6. Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J M; Skeans, M A; Horslen, S P; Edwards, E B; Harper, A M; Snyder, J J; Israni, A K; Kasiske, B L

    2016-01-01

    Intestine and intestine-liver transplant plays an important role in the treatment of intestinal failure, despite decreased morbidity associated with parenteral nutrition. In 2014, 210 new patients were added to the intestine transplant waiting list. Among prevalent patients on the list at the end of 2014, 65% were waiting for an intestine transplant and 35% were waiting for an intestine-liver transplant. The pretransplant mortality rate decreased dramatically over time for all age groups. Pretransplant mortality was highest for adult candidates, at 22.1 per 100 waitlist years compared with less than 3 per 100 waitlist years for pediatric candidates, and notably higher for candidates for intestine-liver transplant than for candidates for intestine transplant without a liver. Numbers of intestine transplants without a liver increased from a low of 51 in 2013 to 67 in 2014. Intestine-liver transplants increased from a low of 44 in 2012 to 72 in 2014. Short-gut syndrome (congenital and other) was the main cause of disease leading to both intestine and intestine-liver transplant. Graft survival improved over the past decade. Patient survival was lowest for adult intestine-liver recipients and highest for pediatric intestine recipients.

  7. Review of the Ambrysus stali La Rivers species complex (Heteroptera: Nepomorpha: Naucoridae) with the description of a new species from Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sites, Robert W; Reynoso-Velasco, Daniel

    2015-09-15

    The Neotropical Ambrysus stali La Rivers species complex is reviewed and includes A. bifidus La Rivers & Nieser, A. scolius La Rivers, A. stali La Rivers, and A. tricuspis La Rivers. Ambrysus oblongulus Montandon is removed as a member of this complex. Features uniting these species are related to male genitalia and associated structures. Ambrysus maya n. sp. is the fifth species in the complex and is described from Belize, Guatemala, and Mexico based on specimens from recent collecting and museum collections.

  8. [A pragmatic alliance. Jewisch-Lithuanian political cooperation at the beginning of the 20th century. Hrsg. von Vladas Sirutavičius, Darius Staliūnas] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: A pragmatic alliance. Jewisch-Lithuanian political cooperation at the beginning of the 20th century. Hrsg. von Vladas Sirutavičius und Darius Staliūnas. Verlag CEU Press. Budapest und New York, 2011

  9. [A pragmatic alliance. Jewisch-Lithuanian political cooperation at the beginning of the 20th century. Hrsg. von Vladas Sirutavičius, Darius Staliūnas] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: A pragmatic alliance. Jewisch-Lithuanian political cooperation at the beginning of the 20th century. Hrsg. von Vladas Sirutavičius und Darius Staliūnas. Verlag CEU Press. Budapest und New York, 2011

  10. Resistência ao jejum de Rhodnius stali Lent, Jurberg & Galvão, 1993 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) em condições de laboratório

    OpenAIRE

    Cailleaux, Solange Ribeiro Peixoto; Cunha,Vanda; Verly, Sergio; Lamas Junior, Valdir Dias; Jurberg, José

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a capacidade de resistência à privação alimentar de Rhodnius stali Lent, Jurberg, & Galvão, 1993, em condições de laboratório sob temperatura e umidade média ambiental registrada. Ovos recémcolocados, de casais previamente separados, foram transferidos para tubos de polipropileno com tampa de rosca, com capacidade para 50 mL, forrados com papel filtro e, em seu interior, foi colocada uma tira do mesmo papel, dobrada, para aumentar a área de contat...

  11. Use of pheromones for monitoring phytophagous stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophagous native stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), including Euschistus spp., Nezara viridula (L.), Chinavia hilaris (Say), Plautia stali Scott, Chlorochroa spp., and Thyanta spp., are primary pests responsible for millions of dollars in losses and cost of control in most fruit, vegetable, gr...

  12. Intestinal Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some generally recognized patterns. Symptoms of acute intestinal ischemia Signs and symptoms of acute intestinal ischemia typically ... confusion in older adults Symptoms of chronic intestinal ischemia Signs and symptoms of chronic intestinal ischemia can ...

  13. Intestinal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  14. Intestinal obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paralytic ileus; Intestinal volvulus; Bowel obstruction; Ileus; Pseudo-obstruction - intestinal; Colonic ileus ... objects that are swallowed and block the intestines) Gallstones (rare) Hernias Impacted stool Intussusception (telescoping of 1 ...

  15. Endometriosis intestinal Intestinal endometriosis

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    C.I. González

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available La endometriosis es un trastorno ginecológico crónico, benigno y frecuente entre las mujeres en edad fértil, estimándose que existe algún grado de endometriosis hasta en el 15% de las mujeres premenopáusicas, asociándose a historia de infertilidad, antecedente de cesárea, dismenorrea y anormalidad en el sangrado uterino. Se cree que es debida al ascenso por las trompas de Falopio de contenido menstrual (menstruación retrógrada. En la afectación intestinal, el colon es el segmento más frecuentemente afectado, sobre todo a nivel rectosigmodeo. La clínica de presentación es inespecífica, siendo lo más frecuente el dolor abdominal y/o pélvico de tipo cólico que coincide o se exacerba con la menstruación. El diagnóstico diferencial incluye la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal, diverticulitis, colitis isquémica y procesos neoplásicos, siendo el diagnóstico definitivo anatomopatológico. En cuanto al tratamiento, éste dependerá de la clínica y de la edad de la paciente, así como de sus deseos de embarazo.Endometriosis is a chronic, benign gynaecological disorder that is frequent in women of a child-bearing age. It is estimated that there is some degree of endometriosis in as many as 15% of pre-menopausal women, associated with a history of infertility, caesarean antecedents, dysmenorrhoea and abnormality in uterine bleeding. It is believed to be due to the rise of menstrual contents through the Fallopian tubes (retrograde menstruation. In the intestinal affectation, the colon is the segment most frequently affected, above all at the rectosigmoidal level. The clinical features are unspecific, with abdominal pain the most frequent and/or pelvic pain of a cholic type that coincides with, or is exacerbated by, menstruation. Differential diagnosis includes intestinal inflammatory disease, diverticulitis, ischemic colitis and neoplastic processes, with the definitive diagnosis being anatomopathological. With respect to treatment

  16. Intestinal leiomyoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most often found when a person has an upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy or colonoscopy for another reason. Rarely, these tumors can cause bleeding, blockage or rupture of the intestines If this ...

  17. Intestinal Lymphangiectasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... source and a camera through which a small clipper can be inserted). The tissue that is removed ... can help. Malabsorption Overview of Malabsorption Bacterial Overgrowth Syndrome Celiac Disease Intestinal Lymphangiectasia Lactose Intolerance Short Bowel ...

  18. Small Intestine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Crohn's disease Infections Intestinal cancer Intestinal obstruction Irritable bowel syndrome Ulcers, such as peptic ulcer Treatment of disorders of the small intestine depends on the cause.

  19. Intestinal Coccidia

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    MJ Ggaravi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal Coccidia are a subclass of Apicomplexa phylum. Eucoccidida are facultative heteroxenous, but some of them are monoxenous. They have sexual and asexual life cycle. Some coccidia are human pathogens, for example: Cryptosporidium: Cryptosporidiums has many species that are mammalian intestinal parasites.C. Parvum specie is a human pathogenic protozoa. Cryptosporidum has circle or ellipse shapes and nearly 4-6 mm. It is transmitted in warm seasons. Oocyst is obtained insexual life cycle that has 20% thin layer and 80% thick layer. Oocyst with thick layer is able to live a long time in nature. They are the third or forth of gastroentritis disease that have digestive disorder like anorexia, nausea, persistent diarrhoea, malabsorption and leanness. The disease forms choronic and acute stages and it is able to kill the immunodeficiency cases. Sometimes it has HIV symptoms similar to pneumonia and respiratory track infection. Laboratory diagnosis is based on Oocyst finding in stool exam and that shitter floatation and Cr (KOH2 are the best methods. Modified zyh-lnelson and fleocroum are the best staining methods too. This parasite is transmitted by zoonotic and Antroponotic origin. Molecular studies have shown two Genotypes (I&II. Genotype I is aquatic and II is zoonotic. The prevalence rate is 3% in infants and 10% in calves. Cyclospora: This parasite is novel and is bigger than cryptosporidium.It isn't known a clear life cycle but is transmitted by water, vegetables and fruits as raspberries. and mulberries. Human is a specific host. When a parasite is in the intestine it causes inflammatory reaction in Entrocyte.The patient shows watery diarrhoea with nausea, vomitting, pain, Stomach cramp, anorexia, malabsorption and cachexia. The disease period is 3 monthes in immunodeficiency cases but it is selflimited in normal cases. Autofluorescence characteristic is differential diagnosis, prevalence rate of disease is unknown. Isospora: This

  20. Intestinal myiasis

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    U S Udgaonkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intestinal myiasis is a condition when the fly larvae inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and are passed out in faeces. This type of infestation results when eggs or larvae of the fly, deposited on food are inadvertently taken by man. They survive the unfavourable conditions within the gastrointestinal tract and produce disturbances, which may vary from mild to severe. The condition is not uncommon and is often misdiagnosed as pinworm infestation. Correct diagnosis by the clinical microbiologist is important to avoid unnecessary treatment. Materials and Methods: We had 7 cases of intestinal myiasis. In 2 cases the larvae were reared to adult fly in modified meat and sand medium (developed by Udgaonkar. This medium is simple and can be easily prepared in the laboratory. Results: Of the 7 larvae, 5 were Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis, 1 Megaselia species and 1 was identified as Muscina stabulans. Conclusions: S. haemorrhoidalis was the commonest maggot involved. A high index of suspicion is required for clinical diagnosis when the patient complains of passing wriggling worms in faeces for a long period without any response to antihelminthics. The reason for long duration of illness and recurrence of infestation is baffling. The nearest to cure was colonic wash. We feel prevention is of utmost importance, which is to avoid eating food articles with easy access to flies.

  1. Malacoplaquia intestinal

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    Jacinto José Frem Aun

    Full Text Available Malacoplakia is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown origin. However immunodeficiency states (immunossuppressive medication, old people, renal transplantation, leukaemia, diabetes mellitus, malnutrition and others have been associated with patients with malacoplakia. An infectious cause of malakoplakia is suggested by the finding of coliform bacteria in the phagolysosomes of macrophages. The histologic study is characterized by a infiltrate of large macrophages (Hansenmann cells with pathognomonic inclusions containing siderocalcific structures (Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. Most of the cases reported in literature, involve the genitourinary tract, but other structures can be affected (brain, bone, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, intestine, and others. A 66-year-old man whith a abdominal mass, went to our hospital with a colonic tumour diagnosis. The patient was submitted to a surgery, with resection of the rigth colon. The disease was invading a portion of the retroperitoneal tissue that was removed. The histopatologic study showed the pathognomonic sign of malakoplakia (Hansenmann cells and Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. Norfloxacin have been used to the complementar treatment with total cure of the patient.

  2. Intestinal obstruction repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repair of volvulus; Intestinal volvulus - repair; Bowel obstruction - repair ... Intestinal obstruction repair is done while you are under general anesthesia . This means you are asleep and DO NOT feel pain. ...

  3. Small Intestine Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intestine . The digestive system removes and processes nutrients ( vitamins , minerals , carbohydrates , fats, proteins , and water) from foods ... a microscope to see whether they contain cancer. Bypass : Surgery to allow food in the small intestine ...

  4. Large intestine (colon) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... portion of the digestive system most responsible for absorption of water from the indigestible residue of food. The ileocecal valve of the ileum (small intestine) passes material into the large intestine at the ...

  5. Intestinal ischemia and infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001151.htm Small intestinal ischemia and infarction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Intestinal ischemia and infarction occurs when there is a narrowing ...

  6. Vertebrate intestinal endoderm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Jason R; Lauf, Ryan; Shroyer, Noah F

    2011-03-01

    The endoderm gives rise to the lining of the esophagus, stomach and intestines, as well as associated organs. To generate a functional intestine, a series of highly orchestrated developmental processes must occur. In this review, we attempt to cover major events during intestinal development from gastrulation to birth, including endoderm formation, gut tube growth and patterning, intestinal morphogenesis, epithelial reorganization, villus emergence, as well as proliferation and cytodifferentiation. Our discussion includes morphological and anatomical changes during intestinal development as well as molecular mechanisms regulating these processes. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Jejunum ileal intestinal atresia.

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    Claudio J. Puente Fonseca

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal atresia is one of the most important causes of intestinal obstruction in newborn. They constitute aorund 95% of total intestinal obstructions in this age group. Most of intestinal atresias are jejunoieal atresia. Although it is not frequent their relationship with other congenital anomalies, has been described the association in some cases with defects of intestine rotation, meconium peritonitis, with meconium ileus and rarely with the Hirschsprung diseases. The hereditary character has also been described in certain multiple intestinal atresias. We presented the Good Clinical Practices Guideline for Jejunoileal atresia, approved by consensus in the 1st National Good Clinical Practices Workshop in Pediatric Surgery (Cienfuegos, Cuba, March 7 – 9, 2002.

  8. Intestinal M cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    We have an enormous number of commensal bacteria in our intestine, moreover, the foods that we ingest and the water we drink is sometimes contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms. The intestinal epithelium is always exposed to such microbes, friend or foe, so to contain them our gut is equipped with specialized gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), literally the largest peripheral lymphoid tissue in the body. GALT is the intestinal immune inductive site composed of lymphoid follicles such as Peyer's patches. M cells are a subset of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) residing in the region of the epithelium covering GALT lymphoid follicles. Although the vast majority of IEC function to absorb nutrients from the intestine, M cells are highly specialized to take up intestinal microbial antigens and deliver them to GALT for efficient mucosal as well as systemic immune responses. I will discuss recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of M-cell differentiation and functions.

  9. Intestinal mucosal adaptation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laurie Drozdowski; Alan BR Thomson

    2006-01-01

    Intestinal failure is a condition characterized by malnutrition and/or dehydration as a result of the inadequate digestion and absorption of nutrients. The most common cause of intestinal failure is short bowel syndrome, which occurs when the functional gut mass is reduced below the level necessary for adequate nutrient and water absorption. This condition may be congenital, or may be acquired as a result of a massive resection of the small bowel. Following resection, the intestine is capable of adaptation in response to enteral nutrients as well as other trophic stimuli. Identifying factors that may enhance the process of intestinal adaptation is an exciting area of research with important potential clinical applications.

  10. Neuromodulation of intestinal inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costes, L.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between the central nervous system and the immune system have been shown to exert a crucial role in the tight regulation of the immune response in the intestine. In particular, the vagus nerve was recently unraveled as an important player in this neuromodulation of intestinal inflammati

  11. Intestinal solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger

    2004-01-01

    A large amount of absorptive intestinal membrane transporters play an important part in absorption and distribution of several nutrients, drugs and prodrugs. The present paper gives a general overview on intestinal solute carriers as well as on trends and strategies for targeting drugs and/or pro...

  12. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia

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    Popović Dušan Đ.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia is a disease which leads to protein losing enteropathy. Tortous, dilated lymphatic vessels in the intestinal wall and mesenterium are typical features of the disease. Clinical manifestations include malabsorption, diarrhea, steatorrhea, edema and effusions. Specific diet and medication are required for disease control. Case report. A 19-year old male patient was hospitalized due to diarrhea, abdominal swelling, weariness and fatigue. Physical examination revealed growth impairment, ascites, and lymphedema of the right hand and forearm. Laboratory assessment indicated iron deficiency anaemia, lymphopenia, malabsorption, inflammatory syndrome, and urinary infection. Enteroscopy and video capsule endoscopy demonstrated dilated lymphatic vessels in the small intestine. The diagnosis was confirmed by intestinal biopsy. The patient was put on high-protein diet containing medium-chain fatty acids, somatotropin and suportive therapy. Conclusion. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare disease, usually diagnosed in childhood. Early recognition of the disease and adequate treatment can prevent development of various complications.

  13. Intestinal invagination Invaginación intestinal.

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    Dayamnelys Aguilar Atanay

    Full Text Available Intestinal intussusceptions are the most frequent cause of acute surgical occlusive syndrome in infants; it is idiopathic in more than 90% of cases. Their treatment can be conservative, with reduction by means of imaging and hydrostatic procedures, or surgical. We presented the Good Clinical Practices Guideline for Intestinal intussusceptions, approved by consensus in the 3th National Good Clinical Practices Workshop in Pediatric Surgery (Camagüey, Cuba; February 23 – 26, 2004.
    La invaginación intestinal es la causa más frecuente del síndrome de abdomen agudo quirúrgico oclusivo en lactantes y es idiopática en más del 90 % de los casos. Su tratamiento puede ser conservador, con reducción mediante procedimientos hidrostáticos combinados con vigilancia imaginológica, o quirúrgico. Se presenta la Guía de Buenas Prácticas Clínicas para invaginación intestinal, aprobada por consenso en el 3er Taller Nacional de Buenas Prácticas Clínicas en Cirugía Pediátrica (Camagüey, 23 al 26 de febrero de 2004.

  14. Mycotoxins and the intestine

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    Leon Broom

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungal biochemical pathways can yield various compounds that are not considered to be necessary for their growth and are thus referred to as secondary metabolites. These compounds have been found to have wide ranging biological effects and include potent poisons (mycotoxins. Mycotoxins invariably contaminate crops and (thus animal feeds. The intestine is the key link between ingested mycotoxins and their detrimental effects on the animal. Effects on the intestine, or intestinal environment, and immune system have been reported with various mycotoxins. These effects are almost certainly occurring across species. Most, if not all, of the reported effects of mycotoxins are negative in terms of intestinal health, for example, decreased intestinal cell viability, reductions in short chain fatty acid (SCFA concentrations and elimination of beneficial bacteria, increased expression of genes involved in promoting inflammation and counteracting oxidative stress. This challenge to intestinal health will predispose the animal to intestinal (and systemic infections and impair efficient digestion and absorption of nutrients, with the associated effect on animal productivity.

  15. Acquired causes of intestinal malabsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, F.

    This review focuses on the acquired causes, diagnosis, and treatment of intestinal malabsorption. Intestinal absorption is a complex process that depends on many variables, including the digestion of nutrients within the intestinal lumen, the absorptive surface of the small intestine, the membrane

  16. Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the small intestine during an upper GI endoscopy. Biopsy A gastroenterologist can obtain a biopsy of the ... Grants & Grant History Research Resources Research at NIDDK Technology Advancement & Transfer Meetings & Events Health Information Diabetes Digestive ...

  17. Intestinal failure in childhood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    citrulline levels are predictive of intestinal recovery, or not, remains to be confirmed. ... GI secretions, salivary Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) release and gallbladder .... This cause of neonatal diarrhoea requires permanent PN. However,.

  18. Small intestine (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The small intestine is the portion of the digestive system most responsible for absorption of nutrients from food into the bloodstream. The pyloric sphincter governs the passage of partly digested food ...

  19. The intestinal stem cell.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barker, N.; van de Wetering, M.L.; Clevers, H.

    2008-01-01

    The epithelium of the adult mammalian intestine is in a constant dialog with its underlying mesenchyme to direct progenitor proliferation, lineage commitment, terminal differentiation, and, ultimately, cell death. The epithelium is shaped into spatially distinct compartments that are dedicated to

  20. Pheromone attraction and cross-attraction of Nezara, Acrosternum, and Euschistus spp. stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P G; Aldrich, J R; Khrimian, A; Cottrell, T E

    2010-04-01

    Detecting infestations of stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) using pheromones remains problematic, particularly so in the United States for the exotic stink bug, Nezara viridula L., and our native stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say). Therefore, we conducted a 2-yr on-farm study to examine the attractiveness and possible cross-attraction of the reported pheromones for N. viridula and A. hilare and those previously discovered for Euschistus servus (Say) and Plautia stali Scott to N. viridula, A. hilare, and E. servus. The attractiveness of selected pentatomid pheromones to tachinid parasitoids of stink bugs was also examined. We showed for the first time under field conditions that N. viridula can be trapped with its reported pheromone, a 3:1 trans- to cis-(Z)-alpha-bisabolene epoxide blend. In fact, attraction of N. viridula increased with higher pheromone doses. Traps baited with a 5:95 trans- to cis-(Z)-alpha-bisabolene epoxide blend, the reported male-produced A. hilare attractant pheromone, failed to attract significantly more A. hilare than did unbaited control traps. Instead A. hilare was significantly cross-attracted to the P. stali pheromone [methyl (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-decatrienoate]. The E. servus pheromone [methyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate], either alone or in combination with P. stali pheromone, was more attractive to E. servus than to N. viridula, P. stali, or A. hilare pheromones. In general, tachinid parasitoids were found responsive to the male-specific volatiles of their known hosts, including the attractiveness of Trichopoda pennipes (F.) to sesquiterpenoid blends characteristic of A. hilare and N. viridula. A tachinid parasitoid of E. servus, Cylindromyia sp., seemed to be attracted to E. servus pheromone. In conclusion, our results indicate that stink bug traps baited with lures containing N. viridula pheromone blend, P. stali pheromone, and E. servus pheromone have the greatest potential for detecting populations of N. viridula, A. hilare, and E

  1. The intestine is a blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Patricia; Lamarca, Morgan; Kravets, Victoria; Hu, David

    According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, digestive disease affects 60 to 70 million people and costs over 140 billion annually. Despite the significance of the gastrointestinal tract to human health, the physics of digestion remains poorly understood. In this study, we ask a simple question: what sets the frequency of intestinal contractions? We measure the frequency of intestinal contractions in rats, as a function of distance down the intestine. We find that intestines Contract radially ten times faster than longitudinally. This motion promotes mixing and, in turn, absorption of food products by the intestinal wall. We calculate viscous dissipation in the intestinal fluid to rationalize the relationship between frequency of intestinal contraction and the viscosity of the intestinal contents. Our findings may help to understand the evolution of the intestine as an ideal mixer.

  2. Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeon, Kyung Mo; Seo, Jeong Kee; Lee, Yong Seok [Seoul National University Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-03-15

    Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome is a rare clinical condition in which impaired intestinal peristalsis causes recurrent symptoms of bowel obstruction in the absence of a mechanical occlusion. This syndrome may involve variable segments of small or large bowel, and may be associated with urinary bladder retention. This study included 6 children(3 boys and 3 girls) of chronic intestinal obstruction. Four were symptomatic at birth and two were of the ages of one month and one year. All had abdominal distension and deflection difficulty. Five had urinary bladder distension. Despite parenteral nutrition and surgical intervention(ileostomy or colostomy), bowel obstruction persisted and four patients expired from sepses within one year. All had gaseous distension of small and large bowel on abdominal films. In small bowel series, consistent findings were variable degree of dilatation, decreased peristalsis(prolonged transit time) and microcolon or microrectum. This disease entity must be differentiated from congenital megacolon, ileal atresia and megacystis syndrome.

  3. Pediatric intestinal leiomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Amit

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports an infant presenting with leiomyosarcoma of the small intestine. The patient presented with intermittent abdominal pain. Examination revealed a hard and mobile intraperitoneal mass. The tumor arose from the mid-ileum with regional lymphadenopathy. Excision of the tumor along with the involved bowel was performed followed by three cycles of chemotherapy. Histological diagnosis was that of a low-grade malignant leiomyosarcoma of the small intestine. Surgical excision was followed by three cycles of chemotherapy. After surgery and three cycles of chemotherapy, the patient was followed up for four years with no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. Surgery followed by chemotherapy was curative for leiomyosarcoma in our patient. Intestinal leiomyosarcoma should be kept as a differential diagnosis for mobile solid intraabdominal tumors in childhood.

  4. Intestinal anisakidosis (anisakiosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Hidehiro; Powell, Suzanne Z

    2007-10-01

    A case of intestinal anisakidosis in a 42-year-old man in Japan is presented. His chief complaint was an acute onset of severe abdominal pain. Approximately 12 hours before the onset of this symptom, he had eaten sliced raw mackerel ("sashimi"). Upper endoscopy was unremarkable. At exploratory laparotomy, an edematous, diffusely thickened segment of jejunum was observed, which was resected. The postoperative course was uneventful. The segment of small intestine showed a granular indurated area on the mucosal surface, and microscopically, a helminthic larva penetrating the intestinal wall, which was surrounded by a cuff of numerous neutrophils and eosinophils, as well as diffuse acute serositis. A cross section of the larva revealed the internal structures, pathognomonic of Anisakis simplex. Although anisakidosis is rare in the United States, with the increasing popularity of Japanese cuisine, the incidence is expected to increase, and pathologists should be familiar with this disease.

  5. Gallstones: an intestinal disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Erpecum, K J; Van Berge-Henegouwen, G P

    1999-03-01

    Current evidence suggests that impaired intestinal motility may facilitate gallstone formation by influencing biliary deoxycholate levels or by modulating interdigestive gall bladder motility (fig 2), although a primary intestinal defect in gallstone pathogenesis has not yet been demonstrated. In the cold war period, most interesting events, from a political point of view, occurred at the border between capitalist and communist systems, near the iron curtain. Similarly, the gall bladder and biliary tract can be viewed as the border between liver and intestinal tract, where many interesting things occur with profound impact on both systems. Combined efforts by researchers in the field of hepatology and gastrointestinal motility should brake down the Berlin wall of ignorance of one of the most common diseases in the Western world.

  6. [Intestinal microbiocenosis in children with intestinal enzymopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilova, A T; Akhmedov, N N; Pulatova, D B; Nurmatov, B A

    2001-01-01

    141 children with different kinds of intestinal enzymopathy were examined; of these, 33 had celiac disease, 39--the syndrome of celiac disease, 12--congenital lactase deficiency and 57--the syndrome of disaccharidase insufficiency. In these patients a significant decrease in the average characteristics of the main protective flora and the growth of hemolytic and lactose-negative enterobacteria were established. In all groups of patients increased amounts of Proteus were detected, which was indicative of profound dysbiosis. The content of bifidobacteria was found to be decreased in 89.5-97% of the patients and the content of lactic acid bacteria, in 15.8-33.3%. The decreased content of Escherichia coli with normal enzymatic activity (less than 10(7) colony-forming units) was noted in one-third of the patients with the syndrome of celiac disease and congenital lactase deficiency, in about a half of the patients with the syndrome of disaccharidase insufficiency and least of all in patients with celiac disease (9.1%). The association of opportunistic microbes was detected in 15.6% of the patients, more often in those with celiac disease, the syndrome of celiac disease and congenital lactase deficiency. The severity of disturbances in intestinal eubiosis was found to depend on the gravity of the patients' state.

  7. Stages of Small Intestine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intestine . The digestive system removes and processes nutrients ( vitamins , minerals , carbohydrates , fats, proteins , and water) from foods ... a microscope to see whether they contain cancer. Bypass : Surgery to allow food in the small intestine ...

  8. Small intestine contrast injection (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and throat, through the stomach into the small intestine. When in place, contrast dye is introduced and ... means of demonstrating whether or not the small intestine is normal when abnormality is suspected.

  9. Intestinal microbiota and ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Koido, Shigeo

    2015-11-01

    There is a close relationship between the human host and the intestinal microbiota, which is an assortment of microorganisms, protecting the intestine against colonization by exogenous pathogens. Moreover, the intestinal microbiota play a critical role in providing nutrition and the modulation of host immune homeostasis. Recent reports indicate that some strains of intestinal bacteria are responsible for intestinal ulceration and chronic inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Understanding the interaction of the intestinal microbiota with pathogens and the human host might provide new strategies treating patients with IBD. This review focuses on the important role that the intestinal microbiota plays in maintaining innate immunity in the pathogenesis and etiology of UC and discusses new antibiotic therapies targeting the intestinal microbiota.

  10. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003731.htm Small intestine aspirate and culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection ...

  11. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan; Bures; Jiri; Cyrany; Darina; Kohoutova; Miroslav; Frstl; Stanislav; Rejchrt; Jaroslav; Kvetina; Viktor; Vorisek; Marcela; Kopacova

    2010-01-01

    Human intestinal microbiota create a complex polymi-crobial ecology. This is characterised by its high population density, wide diversity and complexity of interaction. Any dysbalance of this complex intestinal microbiome, both qualitative and quantitative, might have serious health consequence for a macro-organism, including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBO).SIBO is defined as an increase in the number and/or alteration in the type of bacteria in the upper gastro-intestinal tract. There...

  12. Aging and the intestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laurie Drozdowski; Alan BR Thomson

    2006-01-01

    Over the lifetime of the animal, there are many changes in the function of the body's organ systems. In the gastrointestinal tract there is a general modest decline in the function of the esophagus, stomach, colon,pancreas and liver. In the small intestine, there may be subtle alterations in the intestinal morphology, as well as a decline in the uptake of fatty acids and sugars.The malabsorption may be partially reversed by aging glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP2) or dexamethasone.Modifications in the type of lipids in the diet will influence the intestinal absorption of nutrients: for example, in mature rats a diet enriched with saturated as compared with polysaturated fatty acids will enhance lipid and sugar uptake, whereas in older animals the opposite effect is observed. Thus, the results of studies of the intestinal adaptation performed in mature rats does not necessarily apply in older animals. The age-associated malabsorption of nutrients that occurs with aging may be one of the several factors which contribute to the malnutrition that occurs with aging.

  13. Intestinal Complications of IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increases with the duration and severity of the disease. A link between colorectal cancer and Crohn’s disease is less strong, but it applies more to ... usually effective in the replacement of nutrients. BILE SALT DIARRHEA ... in Crohn’s disease. This is the principal area for intestinal absorption ...

  14. Interaction between food components, intestinal microbiota and intestinal mucosa as a function of intestinal health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, K.; Sandt, H. van de

    2003-01-01

    Interaction between food components, intestinal microbiota and intestinal mucosa was studied as a function of intestinal health. A microbiota was found to be important for the onset and progression of inflammatory diseases. Studies revealed a prominent effect of micro-organisms on the gene expressio

  15. Intestinal ascariasis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Imtiaz; Rather, Muddasir; Naikoo, Ghulam; Amin, Abid; Mushtaq, Syed; Nazir, Mir

    2010-05-01

    Ascariasis is a staggering health problem commonly seen in children of endemic areas. In the abdomen, ascaris lumbricoides can cause a myriad of surgical complications. Intestinal obstruction by ascaris lumbricoides is commonly seen in children. Most cases are managed conservatively. The purpose was to study the clinical presentation and management of symptomatic intestinal ascariasis in children. A 3-year study was performed from April 2006 to April 2009 of pediatric-age patients who had symptomatic intestinal ascariasis. All patients had detailed clinical history, examination, plain X-ray of abdomen, and ultrasonography of abdomen. Peroperative findings were recorded in all patients who had surgical intervention. This prospective study had 360 patients. Male to female ratio was 1.37:1. 187 patients (52%) presented within 2-4 days of duration of illness. Mean +/- standard deviation (SD) age of patients was 6.35 +/- 2.25 years. Age group of 4-7 years (80%) was commonest group affected. Abdominal pain was a leading symptom in 357 patients (99%) with the pain in periumbilical area present in 215 patients (60%). In 227 patients (63%) abdominal distension was seen and was the commonest physical finding. Palpable worm masses were seen in 129 patients (36%); 81 patients (63%) had palpable worm masses in the umbilical quadrant. On X-ray of abdomen, visible worm masses were seen in 83 patients (23%). Abdominal sonography showed interloop fluid in 177 patients (49%) and free fluid in the pelvis of 97 patients (27%). The number of patients who were managed conservatively was 281 (78%), and 79 patients (22%) had surgical intervention. In patients who had surgical intervention, 39 patients (49%) had enterotomy and 7 patients (9%) had kneading of worms. Postoperative complications occurred in 33 patients, and an overall mortality of 1% (1 patient) was seen. Ascaridial intestinal obstruction is common in children in the Kashmir. Abdominal pain is the leading symptom in

  16. Intestinal Malakoplakia in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mahjoub

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Malakoplakia is a rare inflammatory disease, related to enterobacterial infection in the context of a disorder of cell-mediated immunity. Malakoplakia is exceptional in children and usually involves the gastrointestinal tract. The diagnosis is exclusively based on histological analysis.Cases Presentation: In this paper we have reported 3 children with intestinal malakoplakia which were enrolled during a period of 6 years between 2001 to 2006 at Childrens Medical Center. Two were male, and one female. The main clinical manifestations were: chronic bloody and mucosal diarrhea, abdominal pain and polypoid masses detected by diagnostic colonoscopy. Histological diagnosis proved to be definite in these cases. The response to drug treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamthoxazole in all three patients was good. Conclusion: The presence of intestinal malakoplakia must be ruled out in every child having chronic bloody mucosal diarrhea.

  17. Intestinal sugar transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laurie A Drozdowski; Alan BR Thomson

    2006-01-01

    Carbohydrates are an important component of the diet.The carbohydrates that we ingest range from simple monosaccharides (glucose, fructose and galactose) to disaccharides (lactose, sucrose) to complex polysaccharides. Most carbohydrates are digested by salivary and pancreatic amylases, and are further broken down into monosaccharides by enzymes in the brush border membrane (BBM) of enterocytes. For example, lactase-phloridzin hydrolase and sucraseisomaltase are two disaccharidases involved in the hydrolysis of nutritionally important disaccharides. Once monosaccharides are presented to the BBM, mature enterocytes expressing nutrient transporters transport the sugars into the enterocytes. This paper reviews the early studies that contributed to the development of a working model of intestinal sugar transport, and details the recent advances made in understanding the process by which sugars are absorbed in the intestine.

  18. Small intestinal transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M

    2012-02-03

    The past few years have witnessed a considerable shift in the clinical status of intestinal transplantation. A great deal of experience has been gained at the most active centers, and results comparable with those reported at a similar stage in the development of other solid-organ graft programs are now being achieved by these highly proficient transplant teams. Rejection and its inevitable associate, sepsis, remain ubiquitous, and new immunosuppressant regimes are urgently needed; some may already be on the near horizon. The recent success of isolated intestinal grafts, together with the mortality and morbidity attendant upon the development of advanced liver disease related to total parenteral nutrition, has prompted the bold proposal that patients at risk for this complication should be identified and should receive isolated small bowel grafts before the onset of end-stage hepatic failure. The very fact that such a suggestion has begun to emerge reflects real progress in this challenging field.

  19. Osteoporosis in patients with intestinal insufficiency and intestinal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Louis; Skallerup, Anders; Olesen, Søren Schou

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intestinal insufficiency and intestinal failure are associated with malabsorption of micro- and macronutrients that may negatively influence bone metabolism and increase the risk for developing osteoporosis. However, information regarding prevalence and contribution of individual...... risk factors is scarce. We investigated the prevalence of osteoporosis in patients with intestinal insufficiency and intestinal failure and identified associated risk factors. METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study including 167 clinically stable outpatients with intestinal...... insufficiency or intestinal failure. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry and the prevalence of osteoporosis was compared to a gender and age matched population. Several clinical and demographic parameters, including body mass index (BMI), vitamin-D, smoking habits...

  20. Microbes, intestinal inflammation and probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad W; Kale, Amod A; Bere, Praveen; Vajjala, Sriharsha; Gounaris, Elias; Pakanati, Krishna Chaitanya

    2012-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is known for causing disturbed homeostatic balance among the intestinal immune compartment, epithelium and microbiota. Owing to the emergence of IBD as a major cause of morbidity and mortality, great efforts have been put into understanding the sequence of intestinal inflammatory events. Intestinal macrophages and dendritic cells act in a synergistic fashion with intestinal epithelial cells and microbiota to initiate the triad that governs the intestinal immune responses (whether inflammatory or regulatory). In this review, we will discuss the interplay of intestinal epithelial cells, bacteria and the innate immune component. Moreover, whether or not genetic intervention of probiotic bacteria is a valid approach for attenuating/mitigating exaggerated inflammation and IBD will also be discussed.

  1. Elenoside increases intestinal motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E Navarro; SJ Alonso; R Navarro; J Trujillo; E Jorge

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of elenoside, an arylnaphthalene lignan from Justicia hyssopifolia, on gastrointestinal motility in vivo and in vitro in rats.METHODS: Routine in vivo experimental assessments were catharsis index, water percentage of boluses,intestinal transit, and codeine antagonism. The groups included were vehicle control (propylene glycol-ethanolplant oil-tween 80), elenoside (i.p. 25 and 50 mg/kg),cisapride (i.p. 10 mg/kg), and codeine phosphate (intragastric route, 50 mg/kg). In vitro approaches used isolated rat intestinal tissues (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum). The effects of elenoside at concentrations of 3.2× 10-4, 6.4 × 10-4 and 1.2 × 10-3 mol/L, and cisapride at 10-6 mol/L were investigated.RESULTS: Elenoside in vivo produced an increase in the catharsis index and water percentage of boluses and in the percentage of distance traveled by a suspension of activated charcoal. Codeine phosphate antagonized the effect of 25 mg/kg of elenoside. In vitro, elenoside in duodenum, jejunum and ileum produced an initial decrease in the contraction force followed by an increase.Elenoside resulted in decreased intestinal frequency in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The in vitro and in vivo effects of elenoside were similar to those produced by cisapride.CONCLUSION: Elenoside is a lignan with an action similar to that of purgative and prokinetics drugs.Elenoside, could be an alternative to cisapride in treatment of gastrointestinal diseases as well as a preventive therapy for the undesirable gastrointestinal effects produced by opioids used for mild to moderate pain.

  2. Liver Cirrhosis and Intestinal Bacterial Translocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal barrier dysfunction, facilitating translocation of bacteria and bacterial products, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of liver cirrhosis and its complications. Intestinal defense system including microbial barrier, immunologic barrier, mechanical barrier, chemical barrier, plays an important role in the maintenance of intestinal function. Under normal circumstances, the intestinal barrier can prevent intestinal bacteria through the intestinal wall from spreading to the body. Severe infection, trauma, shock, cirrhosis, malnutrition, immune suppression conditions, intestinal bacteria and endotoxin translocation, can lead to multiple organ dysfunction. The intestinal microlfora is not only involved in the digestion of nutrients, but also in local immunity, forming a barrier against pathogenic microorganisms. The derangement of the gut microlfora may lead to microbial translocation, deifned as the passage of viable microorganisms or bacterial products from the intestinal lumen to the mesenteric lymph nodes and other extraintestinal sites. In patients with cirrhosis, primary and intestinal lfora imbalance, intestinal bacterial overgrowth, intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction, endotoxemia is associated with weakened immunity.

  3. Changes of Intestinal Permeability in Cholelithiasis Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-long Sun; Shuo-dong Wu; Dong-xu Cui; Bao-lin Liu; Xian-wei Dai

    2009-01-01

    @@ In normal condition,intestine mucosa possesses barrier function.When the barrier function of intestine mucosa was damaged,intestinal bacteria,endotoxin,or other substances would enter blood.It is generally accepted that biliary bacteria origins from the intestine either via duodenal papilla or intestinal mucosa.In this study,we aimed to investigate the intestinal permeability changes of cholelithiasis patients to elucidate the possible pathogenesis of cholelithiasis.

  4. Obligate bacterial mutualists evolving from environmental bacteria in natural insect populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Takahiro; Ishii, Yoshiko; Nikoh, Naruo; Fujie, Manabu; Satoh, Nori; Fukatsu, Takema

    2016-01-11

    Diverse organisms are associated with obligate microbial mutualists. How such essential symbionts have originated from free-living ancestors is of evolutionary interest. Here we report that, in natural populations of the stinkbug Plautia stali, obligate bacterial mutualists are evolving from environmental bacteria. Of six distinct bacterial lineages associated with insect populations, two are uncultivable with reduced genomes, four are cultivable with non-reduced genomes, one uncultivable symbiont is fixed in temperate populations, and the other uncultivable symbiont coexists with four cultivable symbionts in subtropical populations. Symbiont elimination resulted in host mortality for all symbionts, while re-infection with any of the symbionts restored normal host growth, indicating that all the symbionts are indispensable and almost equivalent functionally. Some aseptic newborns incubated with environmental soils acquired the cultivable symbionts and normal growth was restored, identifying them as environmental Pantoea spp. Our finding uncovers an evolutionary transition from a free-living lifestyle to obligate mutualism that is currently ongoing in nature.

  5. Exercise, Intestinal Absorption, and Rehydration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ KEYPOINTS 1. The proximal small intestine (duodenum & jejunum) is the primary site of fluid absorption. It absorbs about 50% to 60% of any given fluid load. The colon or large intestine absorbs approximately 80 to 90% of the fluid it receives, but accounts for only about 15% of the total fluid load.

  6. MDCT in blunt intestinal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Stefania [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy)]. E-mail: stefromano@libero.it; Scaglione, Mariano [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy); Tortora, Giovanni [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy); Martino, Antonio [Trauma Center, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy); Di Pietto, Francesco [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy); Romano, Luigia [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy); Grassi, Roberto [Department ' Magrassi-Lanzara' , Section of Radiology, Second University of Naples, 80138 Naples (Italy)

    2006-09-15

    Injuries to the small and large intestine from blunt trauma represent a defined clinical entity, often not easy to correctly diagnose in emergency but extremely important for the therapeutic assessment of patients. This article summarizes the MDCT spectrum of findings in intestinal blunt lesions, from functional disorders to hemorrhage and perforation.

  7. Intestinal failure in obstructive jaundice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stelios F. Assimakopoulos; Constantine E. Vagianos; Aristides Charonis; Vassiliki N. Nikolopoulou; Chrisoula D. Scopa

    2005-01-01

    @@ TO THE EDITOR We read with great interest the article by Ding LA and LiJS, which aimed to review the current knowledge on the physiology of normal intestinal barrier function and highlight the role of intestinal failure after various injurious insults in the development of septic complications or multiple organ failure with subsequent rapid clinical deterioration or even death.

  8. Biznesmenõ stali molozhe i pragmatitshneje / Jevgenija Gorski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gorski, Jevgenija

    2008-01-01

    Uuringufirma Saar Poll uuringu "Väikese ja keskmise suurusega ettevõtete arengusuundumustest 2008" eesmärgist ja tulemustest. Uuringu kohaselt on väikeste ja keskmise suurusega ettevõtete juhid nooremad ja haritumad kui kolm aastat tagasi

  9. [Treatment of children with intestinal failure: intestinal rehabilitation, home parenteral nutrition or small intestine transplantation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelis, E.G.; Oers, H.A. van; Escher, J.C.; Damen, G.M.; Rings, E.H.; Tabbers, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal failure is characterised by inadequate absorption of food or fluids, which is caused by insufficient bowel surface area or functioning. Children with chronic intestinal failure are dependent on parenteral nutrition (PN), which can be provided at home (HPN). In the Netherlands, HPN for chi

  10. INTESTINAL PARASITES IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohammad

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the status and epidemiology of Intestinal Parasites in Iran. The information was driven from an extensive Health Survey which was done by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, deputy of Research Affairs in 1990-92. Sampling fraction was 1 per 1000 of individuals aged between 2 and 69, the sampling method was cluster sampling and each cluster consisted of 7 families. Formal-ether was the method of finding parasites which included: Oxior, Ascariasis, Giardiasis, Entamoeba-histolytica, Tinea, Strongyloidiasis, Ancylostoma, and Trichocephaliasis. The highest prevalence rate belonged to Giardiasis with 14.4% and the lowest one belonged to Tinea and Ancylostoma with 0.2%. The prevalence rate in rural area was significantly lower than urban area (p<0.0001.

  11. Intestinal flora, probiotics, and cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero Hernández, Ignacio; Torre Delgadillo, Aldo; Vargas Vorackova, Florencia; Uribe, Misael

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal microflora constitutes a symbiotic ecosystem in permanent equilibrium, composed mainly of anaerobic bacteria. However, such equilibrium may be altered by daily conditions as drug use or pathologies interfering with intestinal physiology, generating an unfavorable environment for the organism. Besides, there are factors which may cause alterations in the intestinal wall, creating the conditions for translocation or permeation of substances or bacteria. In cirrhotic patients, there are many conditions that combine to alter the amount and populations of intestinal bacteria, as well as the functional capacity of the intestinal wall to prevent the permeation of substances and bacteria. Nowadays, numerous complications associated with cirrhosis have been identified, where such mechanisms could play an important role. There is evidence that some probiotic microorganisms could restore the microbiologic and immunologic equilibrium in the intestinal wall in cirrhotic patients and help in the treatment of complications due to cirrhosis. This article has the objective to review the interactions between intestinal flora, gut permeability, and the actual role of probiotics in the field of cirrhotic patients.

  12. Intestinal spirochetosis and colon diverticulosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Marcus Aurelho de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of intestinal spirochetosis in a 62-year-old white male is reported. The condition was characterized by chronic flatulence and episodes of intestinal hemorrhage, in addition to the evidence of hypotonic diverticular disease, with a large number of slender organisms in the colon epithelium and cryptae. Spirochetes were demonstrated by Whartin-Starry stain. The serologic tests for syphilis and HIV were positive. Spirochetosis was treated with penicillin G, and the patient remains free of intestinal complaints 20 months later.

  13. Intestinal nematodes: biology and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epe, Christian

    2009-11-01

    A variety of nematodes occur in dogs and cats. Several nematode species inhabit the small and large intestines. Important species that live in the small intestine are roundworms of the genus Toxocara (T canis, T cati) and Toxascaris (ie, T leonina), and hookworms of the genus Ancylostoma (A caninum, A braziliense, A tubaeforme) or Uncinaria (U stenocephala). Parasites of the large intestine are nematodes of the genus Trichuris (ie, whipworms, T vulpis). After a comprehensive description of their life cycle and biology, which are indispensable for understanding and justifying their control, current recommendations for nematode control are presented and discussed thereafter.

  14. Intestinal acariasis in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao-Pin Li; Jian Wang

    2000-01-01

    The mites found in stored food and house comprise a large group of subclass Acari, belonging to the suborder Acardida of the order Acarifornes. They can be found in dust and vacuum samples from floors, furniture, mattresses, Chinese herbal medicine, dry fruit, grain, flour, sugar, and bedding. These mites are nidicolous and feed on organic debris, including sloughed human skin, fungi, spilled food, pollen, etc. These mites are particularly prevalent in Chinese herbal medicine, dry fruit, grain, flour, sugar, beds, though carpeted floors near beds or couches may also have large numbers. The most common species are Acarus siro, Tyrophagus putrescentiae , Dermatophagoides farinae , D . pteronyssinus, Glycyphagus domesticus, G. Ornatus, Carpoglyphus lactis and Tarsonemus granarius, etc. The viability of mites in storage is quite strong and they can invade and parasitize the intestines of humans[1 -15]. They can cause pulmonary acariasis[16-25] , urinary acariasis[26-33] and so on. The dejecta of mites is a quite strong allergen and can cause different allergic diseases[34-44]. Intestinal acariasis can be caused by some mites related to the way of diet intake and invading against intestinal mucosa, intestinal muscle[45-5a]. The first report of intestinal acariasis caused by these mites was made by Hinman et al (1934)[45]. From then on, all kinds of studies on the disease have been reported gradually. In order to make an epidemiological survey of intestinal acariasis the investigation of the disease was taken in some areas of Anhui Province from 1989 to 1996.

  15. Haemorrhage and intestinal lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilia M. Pizzini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of coeliac disease is around 1% in general population but this is often unrecognised. The classical presentation of adult coeliac disease is characterized by diarrhoea and malabsorption syndrome, but atypical presentations are probably more common and are characterized by iron deficiency anaemia, weight loss, fatigue, infertility, arthralgia, peripheral neuropathy and osteoporosis. Unusual are the coagulation disorders (prevalence 20% and these are due to vitamin K malabsorption (prolonged prothrombin time. Clinical case: A 64-year-old man was admitted to our Department for an extensive spontaneous haematoma of the right leg. He had a history of a small bowel resection for T-cell lymphoma, with a negative follow-up and he didn’t report any personal or familiar history of bleeding. Laboratory tests showed markedly prolonged prothrombin (PT and partial-thromboplastin time (PTT, corrected by mixing studies, and whereas platelet count and liver tests was normal. A single dose (10 mg of intravenous vitamin K normalized the PT. Several days before the patient had been exposed to a superwarfarin pesticide, but diagnostic tests for brodifacoum, bromadiolone or difenacoum were negative. Diagnosis of multiple vitamin K-dependent coagulationfactor deficiencies (II, VII, IX, X due to intestinal malabsorption was made and coeliac disease was detected. Therefore the previous lymphoma diagnosis might be closely related to coeliac disease. Conclusions: A gluten free diet improves quality of life and restores normal nutritional and biochemical status and protects against these complications.

  16. Adult intestinal failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, J., E-mail: Jdavidson@doctors.org.u [Salford Royal Hospital, Salford (United Kingdom); Plumb, A.; Burnett, H. [Salford Royal Hospital, Salford (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    Intestinal failure (IF) is the inability of the alimentary tract to digest and absorb sufficient nutrition to maintain normal fluid balance, growth, and health. It commonly arises from disease affecting the mesenteric root. Although severe IF is usually managed in specialized units, it lies at the end of a spectrum with degrees of nutritional compromise being widely encountered, but commonly under-recognized. Furthermore, in the majority of cases, the initial enteric insult occurs in non-specialist IF centres. The aim of this article is to review the common causes of IF, general principles of its management, some commoner complications, and the role of radiology in the approach to a patient with severe IF. The radiologist has a crucial role in helping provide access for feeding solutions (both enteral and parenteral) and controlling sepsis (via drainage of collections) in an initial restorative phase of treatment, whilst simultaneously mapping bowel anatomy and quality, and searching for disease complications to assist the clinicians in planning a later, restorative phase of therapy.

  17. [Malaria and intestinal protozoa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Marcos, Gerardo; Cuadros-González, Juan

    2016-03-01

    Malaria is life threatening and requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. Incidence and mortality are being reduced in endemic areas. Clinical features are unspecific so in imported cases it is vital the history of staying in a malarious area. The first line treatments for Plasmodium falciparum are artemisinin combination therapies, chloroquine in most non-falciparum and intravenous artesunate if any severity criteria. Human infections with intestinal protozoa are distributed worldwide with a high global morbid-mortality. They cause diarrhea and sometimes invasive disease, although most are asymptomatic. In our environment populations at higher risk are children, including adopted abroad, immune-suppressed, travelers, immigrants, people in contact with animals or who engage in oral-anal sex. Diagnostic microscopic examination has low sensitivity improving with antigen detection or molecular methods. Antiparasitic resistances are emerging lately. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  18. Malacoplaquia intestinal Colonic malakoplakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto José Frem Aun

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Malacoplakia is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown origin. However immunodeficiency states (immunossuppressive medication, old people, renal transplantation, leukaemia, diabetes mellitus, malnutrition and others have been associated with patients with malacoplakia. An infectious cause of malakoplakia is suggested by the finding of coliform bacteria in the phagolysosomes of macrophages. The histologic study is characterized by a infiltrate of large macrophages (Hansenmann cells with pathognomonic inclusions containing siderocalcific structures (Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. Most of the cases reported in literature, involve the genitourinary tract, but other structures can be affected (brain, bone, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, intestine, and others. A 66-year-old man whith a abdominal mass, went to our hospital with a colonic tumour diagnosis. The patient was submitted to a surgery, with resection of the rigth colon. The disease was invading a portion of the retroperitoneal tissue that was removed. The histopatologic study showed the pathognomonic sign of malakoplakia (Hansenmann cells and Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. Norfloxacin have been used to the complementar treatment with total cure of the patient.

  19. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (Waldmann's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellanger Jérôme

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL is a rare disorder characterized by dilated intestinal lacteals resulting in lymph leakage into the small bowel lumen and responsible for protein-losing enteropathy leading to lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. PIL is generally diagnosed before 3 years of age but may be diagnosed in older patients. Prevalence is unknown. The main symptom is predominantly bilateral lower limb edema. Edema may be moderate to severe with anasarca and includes pleural effusion, pericarditis or chylous ascites. Fatigue, abdominal pain, weight loss, inability to gain weight, moderate diarrhea or fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies due to malabsorption may also be present. In some patients, limb lymphedema is associated with PIL and is difficult to distinguish lymphedema from edema. Exsudative enteropathy is confirmed by the elevated 24-h stool α1-antitrypsin clearance. Etiology remains unknown. Very rare familial cases of PIL have been reported. Diagnosis is confirmed by endoscopic observation of intestinal lymphangiectasia with the corresponding histology of intestinal biopsy specimens. Videocapsule endoscopy may be useful when endoscopic findings are not contributive. Differential diagnosis includes constrictive pericarditis, intestinal lymphoma, Whipple's disease, Crohn's disease, intestinal tuberculosis, sarcoidosis or systemic sclerosis. Several B-cell lymphomas confined to the gastrointestinal tract (stomach, jejunum, midgut, ileum or with extra-intestinal localizations were reported in PIL patients. A low-fat diet associated with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation is the cornerstone of PIL medical management. The absence of fat in the diet prevents chyle engorgement of the intestinal lymphatic vessels thereby preventing their rupture with its ensuing lymph loss. Medium-chain triglycerides are absorbed directly into the portal venous circulation and avoid lacteal overloading. Other

  20. Intestinal dysfunction associated with acute thoracolumbar fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschiera, J L; Beerman, S P

    1990-03-01

    The frequency of intestinal dysfunction, particularly intestinal ileus, among patients with acute thoracolumbar fractures and no neurologic compromise was assessed. We reviewed the medical records of 70 patients who met specific criteria. Only four (6%) of these patients developed intestinal dysfunction, manifested by vomiting, abdominal distention, diminished bowel sounds, or an intestinal ileus documented by an abdominal roentgenogram. Conservative initial nutritional management of the patients did not reduce the incidence of intestinal dysfunction. This study suggests that patients with acute thoracolumbar fractures and no neurologic compromise are not at substantial risk of intestinal dysfunction and that nasogastric suction and restriction of oral intake are unnecessary in the initial management of these patients.

  1. Sonography of the small intestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kim Nylund; Svein (φ)degaard; Trygve Hausken; Geir Folvik; Gülen Arslan Lied; Ivan Viola; Helwig Hauser; Odd-Helge Gilja

    2009-01-01

    In the last two decades, there has been substantial development in the diagnostic possibilities for examining the small intestine. Compared with computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, capsule endoscopy and double-balloon endoscopy, ultrasonography has the advantage of being cheap, portable, flexible and user- and patient-friendly, while at the same time providing the clinician with image data of high temporal and spatial resolution. The method has limitations with penetration in obesity and with intestinal air impairing image quality. The flexibility ultrasonography offers the examiner also implies that a systematic approach during scanning is needed. This paper reviews the basic scanning techniques and new modalities such as contrast-enhanced ultrasound, elastography, strain rate imaging, hydrosonography, allergosonography, endoscopic sonography and nutritional imaging, and the literature on disease-specific findings in the small intestine. Some of these methods have shown clinical benefit, while others are under research and development to establish their role in the diagnostic repertoire. However, along with improved overall image quality of new ultrasound scanners, these methods have enabled more anatomical and physiological changes in the small intestine to be observed. Accordingly, ultrasound of the small intestine is an attractive clinical tool to study patients with a range of diseases.

  2. Small intestinal sulphoxidation of albendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, C; Alvarez, A I; Redondo, P; Voces, J; Del Estal, J L; Prieto, J G

    1995-05-01

    1. The in vitro sulphoxidation of Albendazole (ABZ) by rat intestinal microsomes has been examined. The results revealed intestinal sulphoxidation of ABZ by intestinal microsomes in a NADPH-dependent enzymatic system. The kinetic constants for sulphoxidase activity were Vmax = 46 pmol/min/mg protein and Michaelis constant Km = 6.8 microM. 2. The possible effect of inducers (Arochlor 1254 and ABZ pretreatment) and inhibitors (erythromycin, methimazole, carbon monoxide and fenbendazole), was also studied. In rat pretreated with Arochlor 1254, Vmax was 52 pmol/min/mg protein, whereas oral administration of ABZ increased the intestinal sulphoxidation of the drug, Vmax being 103 pmol/min/mg protein. 3. Erythromycin did not change the enzymatic bioconversion of ABZ, but methimazole and carbon monoxide inhibited the enzyme activity by approximately 60 and 30% respectively. Fenbendazole (a structural analogue of ABZ) was a competitive inhibitor of the sulphoxidation process, characterized by a Ki or 69 microM. 4. These data demonstrate that the intestinal enzymes contributing to the initial sulphoxidation of ABZ may be similar to the hepatic enzymes involved in the biotransformation process by the P450 and FMO systems, a conclusion that needs to be further established.

  3. Intestinal Microbiota Metabolism and Atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-Xing Liu; Hai-Tao Niu; Shu-Yang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:This review aimed to summarize the relationship between intestinal microbiota metabolism and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to propose a novel CVD therapeutic target.Data Sources:This study was based on data obtained from PubMed and EMBASE up to June 30,2015.Articles were selected using the following search temps:"Intestinal microbiota","trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO)","trimethylamine (TMA)","cardiovascular",and "atherosclerosis".Study Selection:Studies were eligible if they present information on intestinal microbiota metabolism and atherosclerosis.Studies on TMA-containing nutrients were also included.Results:A new CVD risk factor,TMAO,was recently identified.It has been observed that several TMA-containing compounds may be catabolized by specific intestinal microbiota,resulting in TMA release.TMA is subsequently converted to TMAO in the liver.Several preliminary studies have linked TMAO to CVD,particularly atherosclerosis;however,the details of this relationship remain unclear.Conclusions:Intestinal microbiota metabolism is associated with atherosclerosis and may represent a promising therapeutic target with respect to CVD management.

  4. Human intestinal capillariasis in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prasert Saichua; Choosak Nithikathkul; Natthawut Kaewpitoon

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal capillariasis caused by Capillaria philippinensis appeared first in the Philippines and subsequently in Thailand, Japan, Iran, Egypt and Taiwan; major outbreaks have occurred in the Philippines and Thailand. This article reviews the epidemiology, history and sources of C. philippinensis infection in Thailand. The annual epidemiological surveillance reports indicated that 82 accumulated cases of intestinal capillariasis were found in Thailand from 1994-2006. That made Thailand a Capillaria-prevalent area. Sisaket, in northeast Thailand, was the first province which has reported intestinal capillariasis. Moreover, Buri Ram presented a high prevalence of intestinal capillariasis, totaling 24 cases from 1994-2006. About half of all cases have consumed raw or undercooked fish. However, even if the numbers of the intestinal capillariasis cases in Thailand is reduced, C. philippinensis infection cases are still reported. The improvement of personal hygiene, specifically avoiding consumption of undercooked fish and promoting a health education campaign are required. These strategies may minimize or eliminate C. philippinensis infection in Thailand.

  5. Parenteral nutrition in intestinal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurkchubasche AG

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Arlet G Kurkchubasche,1 Thomas J Herron,2 Marion F Winkler31Department of Surgery and Pediatrics, 2Department of Surgery, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, 3Department of Surgery/Nutritional Support Service, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Intestinal failure is a consequence of extensive surgical resection resulting in anatomic loss and/or functional impairment in motility or absorptive capacity. The condition is clinically characterized by the inability to maintain fluid, energy, protein, electrolyte, or micronutrient balance when on a conventionally accepted, normal diet. Parenteral nutrition (PN is the cornerstone of management until intestinal adaptation returns the patient to a PN-independent state. Intestinal length, residual anatomic segments and motility determine the need for and duration of parenteral support. The goals of therapy are to provide sufficient nutrients to enable normal growth and development in children, and support a healthy functional status in adults. This review addresses indications for PN, the formulation of the PN solution, patient monitoring, and considerations for prevention of PN-associated complications. With the ultimate goal of achieving enteral autonomy, the important role of diet, pharmacologic interventions, and surgery is discussed.Keywords: intestinal failure, short-bowel syndrome, parenteral nutrition, home nutrition support, intestinal rehabilitation

  6. Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.; Bradley, E.L.

    1985-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of /sub 86/Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with /sup 141/Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001). Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO/sub 2/) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines.

  7. Intestinal hormones and growth factors: Effects on the small intestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laurie Drozdowski; Alan BR Thomson

    2009-01-01

    There are various hormones and growth factors which may modify the intestinal absorption of nutrients, and which might thereby be useful in a therapeutic setting,such as in persons with short bowel syndrome. In partⅠ, we focus first on insulin-like growth factors,epidermal and transferring growth factors, thyroid hormones and glucocorticosteroids. Part Ⅱ will detail the effects of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2 on intestinal absorption and adaptation, and the potential for an additive effect of GLP2 plus steroids.

  8. Characterization of moose intestinal glycosphingolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Miralda Madar; Dedic, Benjamin; Lundholm, Klara; Branzell, Filip Berner; Barone, Angela; Benktander, John; Teneberg, Susann

    2015-08-01

    As a part of a systematic investigation of the species-specific expression of glycosphingolipids, acid and non-acid glycosphingolipids were isolated from three small intestines and one large intestine of the moose (Alces alces). The glycosphingolipids were characterized by binding of monoclonal antibodies, lectins and bacteria in chromatogram binding assays, and by mass spectrometry. The non-acid fractions were complex mixtures, and all had glycosphingolipids belonging to the lacto- and neolactoseries (lactotriaosylceramide, lactotetraosylceramide, neolactotetraosylceramide, Galα3-Le(x) hexaosylceramide, and lacto-neolactohexaosylceramide), globo-series (globotriaosylceramide and globotetraosylceramide), and isogloboseries (isoglobotriaosylceramide). Penta- and heptaglycosylceramides with terminal Galili determinants were also characterized. Furthermore, glycosphingolipids with terminal blood group O determinants (H triaosylceramide, H type 2 pentaosylceramide, H type 1 penta- and heptaosylceramide) were characterized in two of the moose small intestines, and in the one large intestine, while the third small intestine had glycosphingolipids with terminal blood group A determinants (A tetraosylceramide, A type 1 hexa- and octaosylceramide, A dodecaosylceramide). The acid glycosphingolipid fractions of moose small and large intestine contained sulfatide, and the gangliosides GM3, GD3, GD1a, GD1b, and also NeuGc and NeuAc variants of the Sd(a) ganglioside and the sialyl-globopenta/SSEA-4 ganglioside. In humans, the NeuAc-globopenta/SSEA-4 ganglioside is a marker of embryonic and adult stem cells, and is also expressed in several human cancers. This is the first time sialyl-globopentaosylceramide/SSEA-4 has been characterized in a fully differentiated normal tissue, and also the first time NeuGc-globopentaosylceramide has been characterized.

  9. The intestinal microbiota and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallus, Samuel J; Brandt, Lawrence J

    2012-01-01

    Obesity has been and continues to be an epidemic in the United States. Obesity has been addressed in multiple health initiatives, including Healthy People 2010, with no state meeting the proposed goal of a prevalence of obesity fad diets, incentive-based exercise programs, and gastric bypass surgery; none of which have been optimal. In a murine model, it was shown that the majority of the intestinal microbiome consists of two bacterial phyla, the Bacteroidetes and the Firmicutes, and that the relative abundance of these two phyla differs among lean and obese mice; the obese mouse had a higher proportion of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes (50% greater) than the lean mouse. The same results were appreciated in obese humans compared to lean subjects. The postulated explanation for this finding is that Firmicutes produce more complete metabolism of a given energy source than do Bacteroidetes, thus promoting more efficient absorption of calories and subsequent weight gain. Researchers were able to demonstrate that colonizing germ-free mice with the intestinal microbiome from obese mice led to an increased total body fat in the recipient mice despite a lack of change in diet. The converse, that, colonizing germ-free obese mice with the intestinal microbiome of thin mice causing a decreased total body fat in the recipient mice, has not yet been done. Other possible mechanisms by which the intestinal microbiome affects host obesity include induction of low-grade inflammation with lipopolysaccharide, regulation of host genes responsible for energy expenditure and storage, and hormonal communication between the intestinal microbiome and the host. The following review discusses the microbiome-obesity relationship and proposed mechanisms by which the intestinal microbiota is hypothesized to influence weight gain.

  10. Small intestinal tophus mimicking tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragya Katoch

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 72 year old male with hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2 and previous gouty arthritis presented with weight loss, nausea, and vomiting. Ultrasound and CT scanning of the abdomen revealed a circumscribed tumor mass of the jejunum, 3.7 cm in diameter. Microscopic examination of the resected jejunum revealed the tumor to be a gouty tophus. To the best of our knowledge, three cases of tophi in the large intestine have previously been reported but none in the small intestine.

  11. Chronic pancreatitis: Maldigestion, intestinal ecology and intestinal inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raffaele Pezzilli

    2009-01-01

    Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency caused by chronic pancreatitis results from various factors whichregulate digestion and absorption of nutrients. Pancreatic function has been extensively studied over the last 40 years, even if some aspects of secretion and gastrointestinal adaptation are not completely understood. The main clinical manifestations of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency are fat malabsorption, known as steatorrhea, which consists of fecal excretion of more than 6 g of fat per day, weightloss, abdominal discomfort and abdominal swelling sensation. Fat malabsorption also results in a deficit of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) with consequent clinical manifestations. The relationships between pancreatic maldigestion, intestinal ecology and intestinal inflammation have not received particular attention, even if in clinical practice these mechanisms may be responsible for the low efficacy of pancreatic extracts in abolishing steatorrhea in some patients. The best treatments for pancreatic maldigestion should be re-evaluated, taking into account not only the correction of pancreatic insufficiency using pancreatic extracts and the best duodenal pH to permit optimal efficacy of these extracts, but we also need to consider other therapeutic approaches including the decontamination of intestinal lumen, supplementation of bile acids and, probably, the use of probiotics which may attenuate intestinal inflammation

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Small Intestine Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intestine . The digestive system removes and processes nutrients ( vitamins , minerals , carbohydrates , fats, proteins , and water) from foods ... a microscope to see whether they contain cancer. Bypass : Surgery to allow food in the small intestine ...

  13. General Information about Small Intestine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intestine . The digestive system removes and processes nutrients ( vitamins , minerals , carbohydrates , fats, proteins , and water) from foods ... a microscope to see whether they contain cancer. Bypass : Surgery to allow food in the small intestine ...

  14. Microbiota, Intestinal Immunity, and Mouse Bustle

    OpenAIRE

    Kruglov, A.; Nedospasov, S

    2014-01-01

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota is regulated by the immune system. This paper discusses the role of cytokines and innate immunity lymphoid cells in the intestinal immune regulation by means of IgA.

  15. Intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welters, C.F.M.; Dejong, C.H.C.; Deutz, N.E.P.; Heineman, E.

    2002-01-01

    Intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome. Welters CF, Dejong CH, Deutz NE, Heineman E. Department of Surgery, Academic Hospital and University of Maastricht, The Netherlands. Regaining enteral autonomy after extensive small bowel resection is dependent on intestinal adaptation. This adaptationa

  16. Intestinal epithelial cells in inflammatory bowel diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giulia; Roda; Alessandro; Sartini; Elisabetta; Zambon; Andrea; Calafiore; Margherita; Marocchi; Alessandra; Caponi; Andrea; Belluzzi; Enrico; Roda

    2010-01-01

    The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) seems to involve a primary defect in one or more of the elements responsible for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and oral tolerance. The most important element is represented by the intestinal barrier, a complex system formed mostly by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). IECs have an active role in producing mucus and regulating its composition; they provide a physical barrier capable of controlling antigen traff ic through the intestinal muco...

  17. The TNO gastro-intestinal model (TIM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minekus, M.

    2015-01-01

    The TNO Gastro–Intestinal Model (TIM) is a multi–compartmental model, designed to realistically simulate conditions in the lumen of the gastro–intestinal tract. TIM is successfully used to study the gastro–intestinal behavior of a wide variety of feed, food and pharmaceutical products. Experiments i

  18. INTESTINAL PERMEABILITY IN PEDIATRIC GASTROENTEROLOGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANELBURG, RM; UIL, JJ; DEMONCHY, JGR; HEYMANS, HSA

    1992-01-01

    The role of the physiologic barrier function of the small bowel and its possible role in health and disease has attracted much attention over the past decade. The intestinal mucosal barrier for luminal macromolecules and microorganism is the result of non-immunologic and immunologic defense mechanis

  19. Disorders of the Small Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... peristaltic). They occur mostly in the upper small intestine and fade out before moving too far down-stream. They occur in most people at infrequent intervals, but in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) they may be associated with abdominal pain. ...

  20. Intestinal perfusion monitoring using photoplethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Tony J.; Wilson, Mark A.; Ericson, M. Nance; Coté, Gerard L.

    2013-08-01

    In abdominal trauma patients, monitoring intestinal perfusion and oxygen consumption is essential during the resuscitation period. Photoplethysmography is an optical technique potentially capable of monitoring these changes in real time to provide the medical staff with a timely and quantitative measure of the adequacy of resuscitation. The challenges for using optical techniques in monitoring hemodynamics in intestinal tissue are discussed, and the solutions to these challenges are presented using a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and theoretical analysis of light propagation in tissue. In particular, it is shown that by using visible wavelengths (i.e., 470 and 525 nm), the perfusion signal is enhanced and the background contribution is decreased compared with using traditional near-infrared wavelengths leading to an order of magnitude enhancement in the signal-to-background ratio. It was further shown that, using the visible wavelengths, similar sensitivity to oxygenation changes could be obtained (over 50% compared with that of near-infrared wavelengths). This is mainly due to the increased contrast between tissue and blood in that spectral region and the confinement of the photons to the thickness of the small intestine. Moreover, the modeling results show that the source to detector separation should be limited to roughly 6 mm while using traditional near-infrared light, with a few centimeters source to detector separation leads to poor signal-to-background ratio. Finally, a visible wavelength system is tested in an in vivo porcine study, and the possibility of monitoring intestinal perfusion changes is showed.

  1. Entomoftoromicose intestinal: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábia Aparecida Carvalho

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam um caso de entomoftoromicose intestinal causada por Entomophthorales, em indivíduo de 19 anos, agricultor e sem doença associada. O paciente foi submetido a ressecção intestinal e o diagnóstico foi feito após análise da peça cirúrgica. Após revisão da literatura, são discutidos a evolução clínica, as características clinicopatológicas, as dificuldades no diagnóstico e o tratamento dessa entidade rara.A case of intestinal entomophthoramycosis caused by Entomophthorales in a man with 19 years-old, farmer and without associated disease. The patient was submitted to a intestinal ressection and diagnosis was carried through after analisys of the surgical specimen. After a review of the literature, the clinical evolution, clinico-pathologic features, difficulties in diagnosis and treatment are discussed.

  2. Drug Transporters in the Intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente

    2016-01-01

    The enterocyte monolayer in the intestinal membrane impacts on the bioavailability (BA) of many orally administered active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). The monolayer expresses a multitude of membrane transporters belonging to the solute carrier (SLC) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) families ...

  3. Milk products and intestinal health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meer, R; Bovee-Oudenhoven, IMJ; Sesink, ALA; Kleibeuker, JH

    1998-01-01

    Milk products may improve intestinal health by means of the cytoprotective effects of their high calcium phosphate (CaPi) content. We hypothesized that this cytoprotection may increase host defenses against bacterial infections as well as decrease colon cancer risk. This paper summarizes our studies

  4. Regulation of intestinal IgA responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Na; Hu, Shaomin

    2015-01-01

    The intestine harbors enormous numbers of commensal bacteria and is under frequent attack from food-borne pathogens and toxins. A properly regulated immune response is critical for homeostatic maintenance of commensals and for protection against infection and toxins in the intestine. IgA isotype antibodies function specifically in mucosal sites such as the intestines to help maintain intestinal health by binding to and regulating commensal microbiota, pathogens and toxins. IgA antibodies are produced by intestinal IgA antibody-secreting plasma cells generated in gut-associated lymphoid tissues from naïve B cells in response to stimulations of the intestinal bacteria and components. Research on generation, migration, and maintenance of IgA-secreting cells is important in our effort to understand the biology of IgA responses and to help better design vaccines against intestinal infections. PMID:25837997

  5. Amyloidosis of the small intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kala, Zdenek [Department of Surgery, Faculty Hospital Brno, Jihlavska 20, 62500 Brno (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: zkala@tiscali.cz; Valek, Vlastimil [Department of Radiology, Faculty Hospital Brno, Jihlavska 20, 62500 Brno (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: v.valek@fnbrno.cz; Kysela, Petr [Department of Surgery, Faculty Hospital Brno, Jihlavska 20, 62500 Brno (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: pkysel@email.cz

    2007-07-15

    Amyloidosis is a rare disease characterized by forming pathological protein deposits - amyloid - in many organs and tissues. This decreases their functionality. The aim of this small study was to determine, whether the radiological picture of the small intestine involvement in amyloidosis is in some sense specific as sometimes described in literature giving rise to high suspicion for the disease in symptomatic patients. Material and methods: The prospective study comprising seven patients hospitalized in surgical department is presented together with a survey on the disease, its appearance in radiological imaging. All patients underwent abdominal ultrasound (ATL 5000 HDI, 7-12 MHz linear probe, no contrast enhancement, supine position), abdominal CT (Somatom Plus, Siemens, single detector, conventional abdominal CT protocol) and enteroclysis (Micropaque suspension 300 ml, application rate of 75 ml/min, dilution with HP-7000 being 1:1 and HP-7000 solution 2000 ml, application rate of 120 ml/min.). Results: The amyloid deposits in the small intestine could be visualized in five of seven patients with the disease. Enteroclysis revealed a diffuse slowed down intestinal motility with an obstruction-like picture in all of our seven patients. The intestinal secretion was normal, plicae were getting polyp-like shape in five of them forming so called 'thumb printing' picture. CT showed thickening of the intestinal wall due to deposits with poor blood supply and contrast retention in five of seven patients. Ultrasound visualized thickened, hypoechoic nodular plicae and slowed down motility in these five patients. The most striking finding was the pathological deposits in the intestinal wall were highly hypo-vascular. However, this picture is very similar to that of ischemic enteritis. All seven patients had proven amyloid deposits from bioptic specimens. Conclusion: The diagnosis of amyloidosis must be supported by bioptic examination as it has no pathognomic

  6. [Intestinal-brain axis. Neuronal and immune-inflammatory mechanisms of brain and intestine pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, V M; Riabichenko, E V

    2013-01-01

    Mutually directed connections between intestine and brain are implemented by endocrine, neural and immune systems and nonspecific natural immunity. Intestine micro flora as an active participant of intestine-brain axis not only influences intestine functions but also stimulates the development of CNS in perinatal period and interacts with higher nervous centers causing depression and cognitive disorders in pathology. A special role belongs to intestine microglia. Apart from mechanic (protective) and trophic functions for intestine neurons, glia implements neurotransmitter, immunologic, barrier and motoric functions in the intestine. An interconnection between intestine barrier function and hematoencephalic barrier regulation exists. Chronic endotoxinemia as a result of intestine barrier dysfunction forms sustained inflammation state in periventricular zone of the brain with consequent destabilization of hematoencephalic barriers and spread oF inflammation to other parts of the brain resulting in neurodegradation development.

  7. [Chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, T; Navarrete, J; Celestina, A

    1989-01-01

    Much has been written about gastric mucosae behavior and the occurrence of intestinal metaplasia. The aim of this paper is to learn something more about these matters in peruvian population. We selected 100 patients with endoscopically no localized lesions between 30 to 70 years of age. We took 8 samples of gastric mucosae in each patient which were carefully examined for the presence of inflammatory changes, settle the line type between antral and fundic mucosae and the frequency of intestinal metaplasia finding. The results showed disagreement between endoscopic and histological findings, so we conclude it is better to diagnose chronic gastritis on the basis of histological parameters. The line between antral and fundic mucosae was of the close type one found in 87% of all cases and it advanced proximally with increasing age. Intestinal metaplasia was present in 46% of the whole number of patients and the rate of occurrence increased in 50% over 50 years age. These findings will let us compare future investigations of gastric mucosae behavior with localized benign or malign lesions.

  8. Hirschsprung's disease - Postsurgical intestinal dysmotility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Tresoldi das Neves Romaneli

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To describe the case of an infant with Hirschsprung's disease presenting as total colonic aganglionosis, which, after surgical resection of the aganglionic segment persisted with irreversible functional intestinal obstruction; discuss the difficulties in managing this form of congenital aganglionosis and discuss a plausible pathogenetic mechanism for this case. Case description: The diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease presenting as total colonic aganglionosis was established in a two-month-old infant, after an episode of enterocolitis, hypovolemic shock and severe malnutrition. After colonic resection, the patient did not recover intestinal motor function that would allow enteral feeding. Postoperative examination of remnant ileum showed the presence of ganglionic plexus and a reduced number of interstitial cells of Cajal in the proximal bowel segments. At 12 months, the patient remains dependent on total parenteral nutrition. Comments: Hirschsprung's disease presenting as total colonic aganglionosis has clinical and surgical characteristics that differentiate it from the classic forms, complicating the diagnosis and the clinical and surgical management. The postoperative course may be associated with permanent morbidity due to intestinal dysmotility. The numerical reduction or alteration of neural connections in the interstitial cells of Cajal may represent a possible physiopathological basis for the condition.

  9. Intestinal microcirculatory dysfunction and neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-yi; WANG Fang; FENG Jie-xiong

    2013-01-01

    Objective Based on the observation that coagulation necrosis occurs in the majority of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) patients,it is clear that intestinal ischemia is a contributing factor to the pathogenesis of NEC.However,the published studies regarding the role of intestinal ischemia in NEC are controversial.The aim of this paper is to review the current studies regarding intestinal microcirculatory dysfunction and NEC,and try to elucidate the exact role of intestinal microcirculatory dysfunction in NEC.Data sources The studies cited in this review were mainly obtained from articles listed in Medline and PubMed.The search terms used were "intestinal microcirculatory dysfunction" and "neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis".Study selection Mainly original milestone articles and critical reviews written by major pioneer investigators in the field were selected.Results Immature regulatory control of mesentery circulation makes the neonatal intestinal microvasculature vulnerable.When neonates are subjected to stress,endothelial cell dysfunction occurs and results in vasoconstriction of arterioles,inflammatory cell infiltration and activation in venules,and endothelial barrier disruption in capillaries.The compromised vasculature increases circulation resistance and therefore decreases intestinal perfusion,and may eventually progress to intestinal necrosis.Conclusion Intestinal ischemia plays an important role through the whole course of NEC.New therapeutic agents targeting intestinal ischemia,like HB-EGF,are promising therapeutic agents for the treatment of NEC.

  10. Immunogenetic control of the intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marietta, Eric; Rishi, Abdul; Taneja, Veena

    2015-07-01

    All vertebrates contain a diverse collection of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, on their various body surfaces, and the ecological community of these microorganisms is referred to as the microbiota. Mucosal sites, such as the intestine, harbour the majority of microorganisms, and the human intestine contains the largest community of commensal and symbiotic bacteria. This intestinal community of bacteria is diverse, and there is a significant variability among individuals with respect to the composition of the intestinal microbiome. Both genetic and environmental factors can influence the diversity and composition of the intestinal bacteria with the predominant environmental factor being diet. So far, studies have shown that diet-dependent differences in the composition of intestinal bacteria can be classified into three groups, called enterotypes. Other environmental factors that can influence the composition include antibiotics, probiotics, smoking and drugs. Studies of monozygotic and dizygotic twins have proven that genetics plays a role. Recently, MHC II genes have been associated with specific microbial compositions in human infants and transgenic mice that express different HLA alleles. There is a growing list of genes/molecules that are involved with the sensing and monitoring of the intestinal lumen by the intestinal immune system that, when genetically altered, will significantly alter the composition of the intestinal microflora. The focus of this review will be on the genetic factors that influence the composition of the intestinal microflora.

  11. Biodegradable intestinal stents:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhanhui Wang; Nan Li; Rui Li; Yawei Li; Liqun Ruan

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradable stents are an attractive alternative to self-expanding metal stents in the treatment of intestinal strictures. Biodegradable stent can be made of biodegradable polymers and biodegradable metals (magnesium alloys). An overview on current biodegradable intestinal stents is presented. The future trends and perspectives in the development of biodegradable intestinal stents are proposed. For the biodegradable polymer intestinal stents, the clinical trials have shown promising results, although improved design of stents and reduced migration rate are expected. For the biodegradable magnesium intestinal stents, results of preliminary studies indicate magnesium alloys to have good biocompatibility. With many of the key fundamental and practical issues resolved and better methods for adjusting corrosion resistance and progressing biocompatibilities of magnesium alloys, it is possible to use biodegradable intestinal stents made of magnesium alloys in hospital in the not too distant future.

  12. Intestinal epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet eCoskun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium has a strategic position as a protective physical barrier to luminal microbiota and actively contributes to the mucosal immune system. This barrier is mainly formed by a monolayer of specialized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs that are crucial in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Therefore, dysregulation within the epithelial layer can increase intestinal permeability, lead to abnormalities in interactions between IECs and immune cells in underlying lamina propria, and disturb the intestinal immune homeostasis, all of which are linked to the clinical disease course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Understanding the role of the intestinal epithelium in IBD pathogenesis might contribute to an improved knowledge of the inflammatory processes and the identification of potential therapeutic targets.

  13. Intestinal epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coskun, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium has a strategic position as a protective physical barrier to luminal microbiota and actively contributes to the mucosal immune system. This barrier is mainly formed by a monolayer of specialized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) that are crucial in maintaining intestinal...... homeostasis. Therefore, dysregulation within the epithelial layer can increase intestinal permeability, lead to abnormalities in interactions between IECs and immune cells in underlying lamina propria, and disturb the intestinal immune homeostasis, all of which are linked to the clinical disease course...... of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Understanding the role of the intestinal epithelium in IBD pathogenesis might contribute to an improved knowledge of the inflammatory processes and the identification of potential therapeutic targets....

  14. Epidermal Growth Factor and Intestinal Barrier Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor (EGF is a 53-amino acid peptide that plays an important role in regulating cell growth, survival, migration, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. In addition, EGF has been established to be an effective intestinal regulator helping to protect intestinal barrier integrity, which was essential for the absorption of nutrients and health in humans and animals. Several researches have demonstrated that EGF via binding to the EGF receptor and subsequent activation of Ras/MAPK, PI3K/AKT, PLC-γ/PKC, and STATS signal pathways regulates intestinal barrier function. In this review, the relationship between epidermal growth factor and intestinal development and intestinal barrier is described, to provide a better understanding of the effects of EGF on intestine development and health.

  15. An intestinal Trojan horse for gene delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Haisheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

    2015-02-01

    The intestinal epithelium forms an essential element of the mucosal barrier and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological response to different enteric disorders and diseases. As a major enteric dysfunction of the intestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease is a genetic disease which results from the inappropriate and exaggerated mucosal immune response to the normal constituents in the mucosal microbiota environment. An intestine targeted drug delivery system has unique advantages in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. As a new concept in drug delivery, the Trojan horse system with the synergy of nanotechnology and host cells can achieve better therapeutic efficacy in specific diseases. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of encapsulating DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles into primary isolated intestinal stem cells to form an intestinal Trojan horse for gene regulation therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept intestinal Trojan horse will have a wide variety of applications in the diagnosis and therapy of enteric disorders and diseases.

  16. Cinnamon polyphenols regulate multiple metabolic pathways involved in intestinal lipid metabolism of primary small intestinal enterocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing evidence suggests that dietary factors may affect the expression of multiple genes and signaling pathways including those that regulate intestinal lipoprotein metabolism. The small intestine is actively involved in the regulation of dietary lipid absorption, intracellular transport and me...

  17. Regulation of intestinal lactase in adult hypolactasia.

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, M.; Mevissen, G; Fischer, M; Olsen, W.; Goodspeed, D; Genini, M; Boll, W; Semenza, G; Mantei, N

    1992-01-01

    Relative deficiency of intestinal lactase activity during adulthood, adult hypolactasia, is a common condition worldwide. We studied the regulation of lactase-phlorizin hydrolase in normal and adult hypolactasic subjects by correlating transcript abundance in intestinal biopsies with relative synthetic rates for the protein in cultured intestinal explants. After metabolic labelling studies in six subjects, precursor lactase-phlorizin hydrolase was identified in amounts directly proportional t...

  18. Appendicular Tourniquet: A Cause of Intestinal Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivashankar, Santhosh Chikkanayakanahalli; Gangappa, Rajashekara Babu; Varghese, Edison Vadakkenchery

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction is one of the common surgical emergencies seen in daily practice. Postoperative adhesions are notorious for being the most common cause for intestinal obstruction. Occasionally, laparotomy findings do come as a surprise to surgeons. Here one such case is discussed. A patient was operated on with suspicion of intestinal obstruction secondary to postoperative adhesions. However, laparotomy revealed the appendix to be inflamed, curled around the terminal ileum and acting as a tourniquet. PMID:27437300

  19. The effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Eiichi [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Hosokawa, Masaya [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Faculty of Human Sciences, Tezukayama Gakuin University, Osaka (Japan); Harada, Norio; Yamane, Shunsuke; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Toyoda, Kentaro; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Fujita, Yoshihito; Fukuda, Kazuhito [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Tsukiyama, Katsushi; Yamada, Yuichiro [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Geriatric Medicine, Akita University School of Medicine, Akita (Japan); Seino, Yutaka [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Kansai Electric Power Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Inagaki, Nobuya, E-mail: inagaki@metab.kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); CREST of Japan Science and Technology Cooperation (JST), Kyoto (Japan)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway. {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility. {yields} The GIP-receptor-mediated action in intestine does not involve in GLP-1-mediated pathway. -- Abstract: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is released from the small intestine upon meal ingestion and increases insulin secretion from pancreatic {beta} cells. Although the GIP receptor is known to be expressed in small intestine, the effects of GIP in small intestine are not fully understood. This study was designed to clarify the effect of GIP on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility. Intestinal glucose absorption in vivo was measured by single-pass perfusion method. Incorporation of [{sup 14}C]-glucose into everted jejunal rings in vitro was used to evaluate the effect of GIP on sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT). Motility of small intestine was measured by intestinal transit after oral administration of a non-absorbed marker. Intraperitoneal administration of GIP inhibited glucose absorption in wild-type mice in a concentration-dependent manner, showing maximum decrease at the dosage of 50 nmol/kg body weight. In glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor-deficient mice, GIP inhibited glucose absorption as in wild-type mice. In vitro examination of [{sup 14}C]-glucose uptake revealed that 100 nM GIP did not change SGLT-dependent glucose uptake in wild-type mice. After intraperitoneal administration of GIP (50 nmol/kg body weight), small intestinal transit was inhibited to 40% in both wild-type and GLP-1 receptor-deficient mice. Furthermore, a somatostatin receptor antagonist, cyclosomatostatin, reduced the inhibitory effect of GIP on both intestinal transit and glucose absorption in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility through a somatostatin

  20. Bile acids in regulation of intestinal physiology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keating, Niamh

    2009-10-01

    In addition to their roles in facilitating lipid digestion and absorption, bile acids are recognized as important regulators of intestinal function. Exposure to bile acids can dramatically influence intestinal transport and barrier properties; in recent years, they have also become appreciated as important factors in regulating cell growth and survival. Indeed, few cells reside within the intestinal mucosa that are not altered to some degree by exposure to bile acids. The past decade saw great advances in the knowledge of how bile acids exert their actions at the cellular and molecular levels. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the role of bile acids in regulation of intestinal physiology.

  1. Intestinal myiasis caused by Muscina stabulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivekar, S; Senthil, K; Srinivasan, R; Sureshbabu, L; Chand, P; Shanmugam, J; Gopal, R

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal maggots were isolated from a patient, who had reported to the Department of General Medicine of Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College, Puducherry, in southern India with complaints of abdominal distress, bloating of abdomen and intestinal hurry following a meal. He was diagnosed as a case of intestinal myiasis. Maggots obtained from his stool were identified to be Muscina stabulans based on characteristic patterns of posterior spiracles. He was treated with purgatives and albendazole. This intestinal myiasis case caused by M. stabulans is reported here because of its rare occurrence and the need to establish a correct diagnosis.

  2. Intestinal myiasis caused by Muscina stabulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivekar S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal maggots were isolated from a patient, who had reported to the Department of General Medicine of Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College, Puducherry, in southern India with complaints of abdominal distress, bloating of abdomen and intestinal hurry following a meal. He was diagnosed as a case of intestinal myiasis. Maggots obtained from his stool were identified to be Muscina stabulans based on characteristic patterns of posterior spiracles. He was treated with purgatives and albendazole. This intestinal myiasis case caused by M. stabulans is reported here because of its rare occurrence and the need to establish a correct diagnosis.

  3. Human Enteroids/Colonoids and Intestinal Organoids Functionally Recapitulate Normal Intestinal Physiology and Pathophysiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Kovbasnjuk (Olga); N.C. Zachos (Nicholas C.); J. Foulke-Abel (Jennifer); J. In (Julie); E. Blutt, E. (Sarah); H.R. de Jonge (Hugo); M. Estes (Mary); M. Donowitz (Mark)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractIdentification of Lgr5 as the intestinal stem cell marker as well as the growth factors necessary to replicate adult intestinal stem cell division has led to the establishment of the methods to generate “indefinite” ex vivo primary intestinal epithelial cultures, termed “mini-intesti

  4. Application of Three-Dimensional Imaging to the Intestinal Crypt Organoids and Biopsied Intestinal Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D histopathology is the standard analytical method for intestinal biopsied tissues; however, the role of 3-dimensional (3D imaging system in the analysis of the intestinal tissues is unclear. The 3D structure of the crypt organoids from the intestinal stem cell culture and intestinal tissues from the donors and recipients after intestinal transplantation was observed using a 3D imaging system and compared with 2D histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The crypt organoids and intestinal tissues showed well-defined 3D structures. The 3D images of the intestinal tissues with acute rejection revealed absence of villi and few crypts, which were consistent with the histopathological features. In the intestinal transplant for megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome, the donor’s intestinal tissues had well-developed nerve networks and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs in the muscle layer, while the recipient’s intestinal tissues had distorted nerve network and the ICCs were few and sparsely distributed, relative to those of the donor. The 3D images showed a clear spatial relationship between the microstructures of the small bowel and the features of graft rejection. In conclusion, integration of the 3D imaging and 2D histopathology provided a global view of the intestinal tissues from the transplant patients.

  5. Eleven years of management of children with intestinal failure and not candidates for intestinal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MI Spagnuolo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available MI Spagnuolo, MP Cicalese, E Bruzzese, MA Caiazzo, S Di Caro, V Squeglia, A GuarinoDepartment of Paediatrics, University Federico II, Naples, ItalyBackground: Children with intestinal failure need parenteral nutrition to survive, and the only alternative is intestinal transplantation which still entails high mortality. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes in candidates and noncandidates for intestinal transplantation, and to compare the outcomes with and without transplant surgery.Patients and methods: The clinical records of children admitted to hospital from 1997 to 2008 because of intestinal failure were reviewed for etiology of intestinal failure, age at start of parenteral nutrition, duration of parenteral nutrition, indications for intestinal transplantation, and outcome.Results: Thirty-four children were enrolled. Median age at start of parenteral nutrition was 13.1 (median 20.7 months. There was no difference in survival rate between candidates and noncandidates for intestinal transplantation. Survival was significantly higher in candidates who did not undergo intestinal transplantation than in children who underwent intestinal transplantation (P < 0.001.Conclusion: Candidates for intestinal transplantation who did not undergo transplant surgery had a better outcome than children who underwent transplant surgery.Keywords: intestinal transplantation, intestinal failure, parenteral nutrition, children

  6. Radiation-induced intestinal inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meritxell Mollà; Julián Panés

    2007-01-01

    Radiation induces an important inflammatory response in the irradiated organs, characterized by leukocyte infiltration and vascular changes that are the main limiting factor in the application of this therapeutic modality for the treatment of cancer. Recently, a considerable investigative effort has been directed at determining the molecular mechanisms by which radiation induces leukocyte recruitment, in order to create strategies to prevent intestinal inflammatory damage. In these review, we consider current available evidence on the factors governing the process of leukocyte recruitment in irradiated organs, mainly derived from experimental studies, with special attention to adhesion molecules, and their value as therapeutic targets.

  7. Dietary influences on intestinal immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhoen, Marc; Brucklacher-Waldert, Verena

    2012-10-01

    The function of the gastrointestinal tract relies on a monolayer of epithelial cells, which are essential for the uptake of nutrients. The fragile lining requires protection against insults by a diverse array of antigens. This is accomplished by the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues of the gastrointestinal tract, which constitute a highly organized immune organ. In this Review, we discuss several recent findings that provide a compelling link between dietary compounds and the organization and maintenance of immune tissues and lymphocytes in the intestine. We highlight some of the molecular players involved, in particular ligand-activated nuclear receptors in lymphoid cells.

  8. Inflammatory mediators and intestinal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, M S; MacKendrick, W

    1994-06-01

    Although the causes of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) are not well understood, there is compelling evidence to suggest that the inflammatory mediators play an important role in the pathophysiology of the disease. This article examines the role of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and other mediators on the development of NEC, and attempts to explain the association of the putative NEC risk factors with altered mediator production and subsequent intestinal injury. The authors hypothesize that PAF is a key mediator in the final common pathway leading to NEC.

  9. Intestinal inflammation and pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Lilian; Bourreille, Arnaud; Dietrich, Gilles

    2015-12-01

    Intestinal inflammation results in the production of inflammatory pain-inducing mediators that may directly activate colon sensory neurons. Endogenous opioids produced by mucosal effector CD4(+) T lymphocytes identified as colitogenic may paradoxically counterbalance the local pro-algesic effect of inflammatory mediators by acting on opioid receptors expressed on sensory nerve endings. The review will focus on the endogenous immune-mediated regulation of visceral inflammatory pain, current pain treatments in inflammatory bowel diseases and prospectives on new opioid therapeutic opportunities to alleviate pain but avoiding common centrally-mediated side effects.

  10. [Intestinal complications from vascular prostheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, C; Calvete, J; García, J; Buch, E; Castells, P; Lledó, S

    1993-01-01

    Secondary FAE is a rare complication, usually located at the duodenum. The typical clinical presentation is like a digestive hemorrhage or a sepsis. We report two cases of FAE with atypical manifestations. The first case presented a lower digestive hemorrhage produced by the fistulization to the sigma. The second case appeared like an intestinal obliteration caused by the full emigration of a prosthesis to the jejunum. We wish to remark the importance of the clinical suspicion of a FAE (Key of diagnosis), and the sparing relevance of the complementary examinations and the urgency of a surgical treatment in order to avoid the high rate of morbi-mortality associated with this complication.

  11. Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts support in vitro and in vivo growth of human small intestinal epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Lahar

    Full Text Available The intestinal crypt-niche interaction is thought to be essential to the function, maintenance, and proliferation of progenitor stem cells found at the bases of intestinal crypts. These stem cells are constantly renewing the intestinal epithelium by sending differentiated cells from the base of the crypts of Lieberkühn to the villus tips where they slough off into the intestinal lumen. The intestinal niche consists of various cell types, extracellular matrix, and growth factors and surrounds the intestinal progenitor cells. There have recently been advances in the understanding of the interactions that regulate the behavior of the intestinal epithelium and there is great interest in methods for isolating and expanding viable intestinal epithelium. However, there is no method to maintain primary human small intestinal epithelium in culture over a prolonged period of time. Similarly no method has been published that describes isolation and support of human intestinal epithelium in an in vivo model. We describe a technique to isolate and maintain human small intestinal epithelium in vitro from surgical specimens. We also describe a novel method to maintain human intestinal epithelium subcutaneously in a mouse model for a prolonged period of time. Our methods require various growth factors and the intimate interaction between intestinal sub-epithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs and the intestinal epithelial cells to support the epithelial in vitro and in vivo growth. Absence of these myofibroblasts precluded successful maintenance of epithelial cell formation and proliferation beyond just a few days, even in the presence of supportive growth factors. We believe that the methods described here can be used to explore the molecular basis of human intestinal stem cell support, maintenance, and growth.

  12. Prematurity reduces functional adaptation to intestinal resection in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsholt, Lise; Thymann, Thomas; Qvist, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis and congenital gastrointestinal malformations in infants often require intestinal resection, with a subsequent risk of short bowel syndrome (SBS). We hypothesized that immediate intestinal adaptation following resection of the distal intestine with placement ...

  13. Lymphoma caused by intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mitsuko L; Schiestl, Robert H

    2014-09-01

    The intestinal microbiota and gut immune system must constantly communicate to maintain a balance between tolerance and activation: on the one hand, our immune system should protect us from pathogenic microbes and on the other hand, most of the millions of microbes in and on our body are innocuous symbionts and some can even be beneficial. Since there is such a close interaction between the immune system and the intestinal microbiota, it is not surprising that some lymphomas such as mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma have been shown to be caused by the presence of certain bacteria. Animal models played an important role in establishing causation and mechanism of bacteria-induced MALT lymphoma. In this review we discuss different ways that animal models have been applied to establish a link between the gut microbiota and lymphoma and how animal models have helped to elucidate mechanisms of microbiota-induced lymphoma. While there are not a plethora of studies demonstrating a connection between microbiota and lymphoma development, we believe that animal models are a system which can be exploited in the future to enhance our understanding of causation and improve prognosis and treatment of lymphoma.

  14. Intestinal proteome changes during infant necrotizing enterocolitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Pingping; Smith, Birgitte; Qvist, Niels;

    2013-01-01

    Background: Changes in the intestinal and colonic proteome in patients with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) may help to characterize the disease pathology and identify new biomarkers and treatment targets for NEC. Methods: Using gel-based proteomics, proteins in NEC-affected intestinal and coloni...

  15. Microbial functionality in the human intestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salonen, A.; Palva, A.; Vos, de W.M.

    2009-01-01

    The extent of metabolic interactions between symbiotic intestinal microbes and the human host, and their system-wide effects on the host physiology are beginning to be understood. The metabolic capacity encoded by the intestinal microbiome significantly extends that of the host, making many of man's

  16. Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolic Diseases: Pharmacological Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liang; Ji, Hong-Fang

    2016-03-01

    An increasing number of studies show that alterations in intestinal microbiota are linked with metabolic diseases. Here, we propose that intestinal microbiota regulation by polyphenols may be an important mechanism underlying their therapeutic benefits for metabolic diseases. This helps elucidate the intriguing pharmacology of polyphenols and optimize the treatment of metabolic diseases.

  17. Expanding intestinal stem cells in culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heo, Inha; Clevers, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Culturing intestinal stem cells into 3D organoids results in heterogeneous cell populations, reflecting the in vivo cell type diversity. In a recent paper published in Nature, Wang et al. established a culture condition for a highly homogeneous population of intestinal stem cells.

  18. Intestinal cholesterol secretion : future clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakulj, L.; Besseling, J.; Stroes, E. S. G.; Groen, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Together with the liver, the intestine serves as a homeostatic organ in cholesterol metabolism. Recent evidence has substantiated the pivotal role of the intestine in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). RCT is a fundamental antiatherogenic pathway, mediating the removal of cholesterol from tissues

  19. Expanding intestinal stem cells in culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heo, Inha; Clevers, Hans

    Culturing intestinal stem cells into 3D organoids results in heterogeneous cell populations, reflecting the in vivo cell type diversity. In a recent paper published in Nature, Wang et al. established a culture condition for a highly homogeneous population of intestinal stem cells.

  20. Intestinal cholesterol secretion : future clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakulj, L.; Besseling, J.; Stroes, E. S. G.; Groen, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Together with the liver, the intestine serves as a homeostatic organ in cholesterol metabolism. Recent evidence has substantiated the pivotal role of the intestine in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). RCT is a fundamental antiatherogenic pathway, mediating the removal of cholesterol from tissues

  1. Autonomic Modification of Intestinal Smooth Muscle Contractility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Laura E. A.; Tansey, Etain A.; Johnson, Chris D.; Roe, Sean M.; Quinn, Joe G.

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal smooth muscle contracts rhythmically in the absence of nerve and hormonal stimulation because of the activity of pacemaker cells between and within the muscle layers. This means that the autonomic nervous system modifies rather than initiates intestinal contractions. The practical described here gives students an opportunity to observe…

  2. Clinical radiology of the small intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlinger, H.; Maglinte, D.

    1989-01-01

    This book discussed embryology, anatomy, physiology, and immunology of the small intestine. Radiographic procedures in the small intestine especially enterolysis are presented. Focus is on the role of other types of imaging techniques including sonography, computed tomography, radionuclide imaging, angiography, biopsy, and enteroscopy.

  3. Intestinal radiation syndrome: sepsis and endotoxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1985-03-01

    Rats were whole-body irradiated with 8-MeV cyclotron-produced neutrons and /sup 137/Cs ..gamma.. rays to study the role of enteric bacteria and endotoxin in the intestinal radiation syndrome. Decrease in intestinal weight was used as an index of radiation-induced breakdown of the mucosa. Neutron and ..gamma..-ray doses that were sublethal for intestinal death resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in intestinal weight, reaching minimal values 2 to 3 days after exposure, followed by recovery within 5 days after irradiation. Neutron and photon doses that caused intestinal death resulted in greater mucosal breakdown with little or no evidence of mucosal recovery. The presence of fluid in the intestine and diarrhea, but not bacteremia or endotoxemia, were related to mucosal breakdown and recovery. Neither sepsis nor endotoxin could be detected in liver samples taken at autopsy from animals which died a short time earlier from intestinal injury. These results suggest that overt sepsis and endotoxemia do not play a significant role in the intestinal radiation syndrome.

  4. Pyruvate metabolism and transport in intestinal epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.J. Lamers (Jos)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractThe small intestinal mucosa is known to have a high rate of aerobic glycolysis. The absence of a Pasteur effect in the small intestine is related to this observation. It was questioned whether this is an artefact. The knowledge of the rate-limiting factors of glycolysis is therefore impo

  5. The intestinal lesion of autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jass, Jeremy R

    2005-08-01

    This editorial briefly reviews the significance of lymphoid nodular hyperplasia in the intestinal tract of children with autistic spectrum disorder. The distinction between physiological and pathological lymphoid hyperplasia of the intestinal tract is of importance in the context of a possible causative link with autism. A primary intestinal lesion may occur as part of the broad spectrum of immunological disorders to which autistic children are prone. This could result in increased intestinal permeability to peptides of dietary origin which may then lead to disruption of neuroregulatory mechanisms required for normal brain development. Alternatively, there could be a primary defect in the translocation and processing of factors derived from the intestinal lumen. These possibilities deserve further investigation and should not be lost in the fog of the controversy regarding the role of measles/mumps/rubella vaccination in the aetiology of autistic spectrum disorder.

  6. Intestinal bile acid physiology and pathophysiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olga Mart(I)nez-Augustin; Ferm(I)n Sánchez de Medina

    2008-01-01

    Bile acids (Bas) have a long established role in fat digestion in the intestine by acting as tensioactives,due to their amphipatic characteristics.Bas are reabsorbed very efficiently by the intestinal epithelium and recycled back to the liver v/a transport mechanisms that have been largely elucidated.The transport and synthesis of Bas are tightly regulated in part by specific plasma membrane receptors and nuclear receptors.In addition to their primary effect,Bas have been claimed to play a role in gastrointestinal cancer,intestinal inflammation and intestinal ionic transport.Bas are not equivalent in any of these biological activities,and structural requirements have been generally identified.In particular,some Bas may be useful for cancer chemoprevention and perhaps in inflammatory bowel disease,although further research is necessary in this field.This review covers the most recent developments in these aspects of BA intestinal biology.

  7. Regional specialization within the intestinal immune system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowat, Allan M.; Agace, William Winston

    2014-01-01

    the intestine. We describe how the distribution of innate, adaptive and innate-like immune cells varies in different segments of the intestine and discuss the environmental factors that may influence this. Finally, we consider the implications of regional immune specialization for inflammatory disease......The intestine represents the largest compartment of the immune system. It is continually exposed to antigens and immunomodulatory agents from the diet and the commensal microbiota, and it is the port of entry for many clinically important pathogens. Intestinal immune processes are also increasingly...... implicated in controlling disease development elsewhere in the body. In this Review, we detail the anatomical and physiological distinctions that are observed in the small and large intestines, and we suggest how these may account for the diversity in the immune apparatus that is seen throughout...

  8. Gallstone ileus resulting in strong intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Szajnbok

    Full Text Available Mechanic intestinal obstruction, caused by the passage of biliary calculus from vesicle to intestine, through fistulization, although not frequent, deserve study due to the morbi-mortality rates. Incidence in elder people explains the association with chronic degenerative diseases, increasing complexity in terms of therapy decision. Literature discusses the need and opportunity for the one or two-phase surgical attack of the cholecystenteric fistule, in front of the resolution on the obstructive urgency and makes reference to Gallstone Ileus as an exception for strong intestinal obstruction. The more frequent intestinal obstruction observed is when it occurs a Gallstone Ileus impacting in terms of ileocecal valve. The authors submit a Gallstone Ileus manifestation as causing strong intestinal obstruction, discussing aspects regarding diagnostic and treatment.

  9. ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS: THERAPEUTICAL TACTICS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Surkov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute intestinal infections are quite common among children. Their clinical presentations include intoxication syndrome (drowsiness, low appetite, fever etc, infectious toxic syndrome (toxicosis with exicosis, neurotoxicosi, hypovolemic or infectious-toxic shockand diarrhea syndrome. Sometimes intestinal infections can be quite severe and even lethal. However disease duration and outcome depend on timelines and adequacy of prescribed treatment. Main guidelines of intestinal infections treatment include probiotics. That is why the right choice of probiotics is important for a pediatrician. The article contains basic information upon etiopathogenesis, classification, diagnostic criteria and acute pediatric intestinal infections treatment guidelines.Key words: acute intestinal infections, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic criteria, treatment, probiotics, children. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (6: 141–147

  10. Multispectral tissue characterization for intestinal anastomosis optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jaepyeong; Shademan, Azad; Le, Hanh N. D.; Decker, Ryan; Kim, Peter C. W.; Kang, Jin U.; Krieger, Axel

    2015-10-01

    Intestinal anastomosis is a surgical procedure that restores bowel continuity after surgical resection to treat intestinal malignancy, inflammation, or obstruction. Despite the routine nature of intestinal anastomosis procedures, the rate of complications is high. Standard visual inspection cannot distinguish the tissue subsurface and small changes in spectral characteristics of the tissue, so existing tissue anastomosis techniques that rely on human vision to guide suturing could lead to problems such as bleeding and leakage from suturing sites. We present a proof-of-concept study using a portable multispectral imaging (MSI) platform for tissue characterization and preoperative surgical planning in intestinal anastomosis. The platform is composed of a fiber ring light-guided MSI system coupled with polarizers and image analysis software. The system is tested on ex vivo porcine intestine tissue, and we demonstrate the feasibility of identifying optimal regions for suture placement.

  11. Small intestine bleeding due to multifocal angiosarcoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luisa Zacarias F(o)ohrding; Arne Macher; Stefan Braunstein; Wolfram Trudo Knoefel; Stefan Andreas Topp

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of an 84-year-old male patient with primary small intestinal angiosarcoma.The patient initially presented with anemia and melena.Consecutive endoscopy revealed no signs of upper or lower active gastrointestinal bleeding.The patient had been diagnosed 3 years previously with an aortic dilation,which was treated with a stent.Computed tomography suggested an aorto-intestinal fistula as the cause of the in-testinal bleeding,leading to operative stent explantation and aortic replacement.However,an aorto-intestinal fistula was not found,and the intestinal bleeding did not arrest postoperatively.The constant need for blood transfusions made an exploratory laparotomy imperative,which showed multiple bleeding sites,predominately in the jejunal wall.A distal loop jejunostomy was conducted to contain the small intestinal bleeding and a segmental resection for histological evaluation was performed.The histological analysis revealed a lessdifferentiated tumor with characteristic CD31,cytokeratin,and vimentin expression,which led to the diagnosis of small intestinal angiosarcoma.Consequently,the infiltrated part of the jejunum was successfully resected in a subsequent operation,and adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel was planned.Angiosarcoma of the small intestine is an extremely rare malignant neoplasm that presents with bleeding and high mortality.Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to improve outcome.A small intestinal angiosarcoma is a challenging diagnosis to make because of its rarity,nonspecific symptoms of altered intestinal function,nonspecific abdominal pain,severe melena,and acute abdominal signs.Therefore,a quick clinical and histological diagnosis and decisive measures including surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy should be the aim.

  12. Intestinal mucosal atrophy and adaptation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Darcy Shaw; Kartik Gohil; Marc D Basson

    2012-01-01

    Mucosal adaptation is an essential process in gut homeostasis.The intestinal mucosa adapts to a range of pathological conditions including starvation,short-gut syndrome,obesity,and bariatric surgery.Broadly,these adaptive functions can be grouped into proliferation and differentiation.These are influenced by diverse interactions with hormonal,immune,dietary,nervous,and mechanical stimuli.It seems likely that clinical outcomes can be improved by manipulating the physiology of adaptation.This review will summarize current understanding of the basic science surrounding adaptation,delineate the wide range of potential targets for therapeutic intervention,and discuss how these might be incorporated into an overall treatment plan.Deeper insight into the physiologic basis of adaptation will identify further targets for intervention to improve clinical outcomes.

  13. Adipose triglyceride lipase is a TG hydrolase of the small intestine and regulates intestinal PPARα signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrowsky, Sascha; Chandak, Prakash G; Patankar, Jay V; Povoden, Silvia; Schlager, Stefanie; Kershaw, Erin E; Bogner-Strauss, Juliane G; Hoefler, Gerald; Levak-Frank, Sanja; Kratky, Dagmar

    2013-02-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the rate-limiting enzyme mediating triglyceride (TG) hydrolysis. The lack of ATGL results in TG accumulation in multiple tissues, underscoring the critical role of ATGL in maintaining lipid homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that ATGL affects TG metabolism via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). To investigate specific effects of intestinal ATGL on lipid metabolism we generated mice lacking ATGL exclusively in the intestine (ATGLiKO). We found decreased TG hydrolase activity and increased intracellular TG content in ATGLiKO small intestines. Intragastric administration of [(3)H]trioleate resulted in the accumulation of radioactive TG in the intestine, whereas absorption into the systemic circulation was unchanged. Intraperitoneally injected [(3)H]oleate also accumulated within TG in ATGLiKO intestines, indicating that ATGL mobilizes fatty acids from the systemic circulation absorbed by the basolateral side from the blood. Down-regulation of PPARα target genes suggested modulation of cholesterol absorption by intestinal ATGL. Accordingly, ATGL deficiency in the intestine resulted in delayed cholesterol absorption. Importantly, this study provides evidence that ATGL has no impact on intestinal TG absorption but hydrolyzes TGs taken up from the intestinal lumen and systemic circulation. Our data support the role of ATGL in modulating PPARα-dependent processes also in the small intestine.

  14. A novel role of intestine epithelial GABAergic signaling in regulating intestinal fluid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Xiang, Yun-Yan; Lu, Wei-Yang; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin

    2012-08-15

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and it is produced via the enzymatic activity of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). GABA generates fast biological signaling through type A receptors (GABA(A)R), an anionic channel. Intriguingly, GABA is found in the jejunum epithelium of rats. The present study intended to determine whether a functional GABA signaling system exists in the intestinal epithelium and if so whether the GABA signaling regulates intestinal epithelial functions. RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemical assays of small intestinal tissues of various species were performed to determine the expression of GABA-signaling proteins in intestinal epithelial cells. Perforated patch-clamp recording was used to measure GABA-induced transmembrane current in the small intestine epithelial cell line IEC-18. The fluid weight-to-intestine length ratio was measured in mice that were treated with GABA(A)R agonist and antagonist. The effect of GABA(A)R antagonist on allergic diarrhea was examined using a mouse model. GABA, GAD, and GABA(A)R subunits were identified in small intestine epithelial cells of mice, rats, pigs, and humans. GABA(A)R agonist induced an inward current and depolarized IEC-18. Both GABA and the GABA(A)R agonist muscimol increased intestinal fluid secretion of rats. The increased intestinal secretion was largely decreased by the GABA(A)R antagonist picrotoxin or gabazine, but not by tetrodotoxin. The expression levels of GABA-signaling proteins were increased in the intestinal epithelium of mice that were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). The OVA-treated mice exhibited diarrhea, which was alleviated by oral administration of gabazine or picrotoxin. An endogenous autocrine GABAergic signaling exists in the mammalian intestinal epithelium, which upregulates intestinal fluid secretion. The intestinal GABAergic signaling becomes intensified in allergic diarrhea, and

  15. Intestinal barrier homeostasis in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, Rasmus; van Beelen Granlund, Atle

    2015-01-01

    The single-cell thick intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) lining with its protective layer of mucus is the primary barrier protecting the organism from the harsh environment of the intestinal lumen. Today it is clear that the balancing act necessary to maintain intestinal homeostasis is dependent on the coordinated action of all cell types of the IEC, and that there are no passive bystanders to gut immunity solely acting as absorptive or regenerative cells: Mucin and antimicrobial peptides on the epithelial surface are continually being replenished by goblet and Paneth's cells. Luminal antigens are being sensed by pattern recognition receptors on the enterocytes. The enteroendocrine cells sense the environment and coordinate the intestinal function by releasing neuropeptides acting both on IEC and inflammatory cells. All this while cells are continuously and rapidly being regenerated from a limited number of stem cells close to the intestinal crypt base. This review seeks to describe the cell types and structures of the intestinal epithelial barrier supporting intestinal homeostasis, and how disturbance in these systems might relate to inflammatory bowel disease.

  16. Vitamin D and intestinal calcium absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, Sylvia; Dhawan, Puneet; Porta, Angela; Mady, Leila J; Seth, Tanya

    2011-12-05

    The principal function of vitamin D in calcium homeostasis is to increase calcium absorption from the intestine. Calcium is absorbed by both an active transcellular pathway, which is energy dependent, and by a passive paracellular pathway through tight junctions. 1,25Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) the hormonally active form of vitamin D, through its genomic actions, is the major stimulator of active intestinal calcium absorption which involves calcium influx, translocation of calcium through the interior of the enterocyte and basolateral extrusion of calcium by the intestinal plasma membrane pump. This article reviews recent studies that have challenged the traditional model of vitamin D mediated transcellular calcium absorption and the crucial role of specific calcium transport proteins in intestinal calcium absorption. There is also increasing evidence that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) can enhance paracellular calcium diffusion. The influence of estrogen, prolactin, glucocorticoids and aging on intestinal calcium absorption and the role of the distal intestine in vitamin D mediated intestinal calcium absorption are also discussed.

  17. Wound healing of intestinal epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masahiro Iizuka; Shiho Konno

    2011-01-01

    The intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) form a selective permeability barrier separating luminal content from underlying tissues. Upon injury, the intestinal epithelium undergoes a wound healing process. Intestinal wound healing is dependent on the balance of three cellular events;restitution, proliferation, and differentiation of epithelial cells adjacent to the wounded area. Previous studies have shown that various regulatory peptides, including growth factors and cytokines, modulate intestinal epithelial wound healing. Recent studies have revealed that novel factors, which include toll-like receptors (TLRs), regulatory peptides, particular dietary factors, and some gastroprotective agents, also modulate intestinal epithelial wound repair. Among these factors, the activation of TLRs by commensal bacteria is suggested to play an essential role in the maintenance of gut homeostasis. Recent studies suggest that mutations and dysregulation of TLRs could be major contributing factors in the predisposition and perpetuation of inflammatory bowel disease. Additionally, studies have shown that specific signaling pathways are involved in IEC wound repair. In this review, we summarize the function of IECs, the process of intestinal epithelial wound healing, and the functions and mechanisms of the various factors that contribute to gut homeostasis and intestinal epithelial wound healing.

  18. Intestinal lineage commitment of embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li; Gibson, Jason D; Miyamoto, Shingo; Sail, Vibhavari; Verma, Rajeev; Rosenberg, Daniel W; Nelson, Craig E; Giardina, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Generating lineage-committed intestinal stem cells from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) could provide a tractable experimental system for understanding intestinal differentiation pathways and may ultimately provide cells for regenerating damaged intestinal tissue. We tested a two-step differentiation procedure in which ESCs were first cultured with activin A to favor formation of definitive endoderm, and then treated with fibroblast-conditioned medium with or without Wnt3A. The definitive endoderm expressed a number of genes associated with gut-tube development through mouse embryonic day 8.5 (Sox17, Foxa2, and Gata4 expressed and Id2 silent). The intestinal stem cell marker Lgr5 gene was also activated in the endodermal cells, whereas the Msi1, Ephb2, and Dcamkl1 intestinal stem cell markers were not. Exposure of the endoderm to fibroblast-conditioned medium with Wnt3A resulted in the activation of Id2, the remaining intestinal stem cell markers and the later gut markers Cdx2, Fabp2, and Muc2. Interestingly, genes associated with distal gut-associated mesoderm (Foxf2, Hlx, and Hoxd8) were also simulated by Wnt3A. The two-step differentiation protocol generated gut bodies with crypt-like structures that included regions of Lgr5-expressing proliferating cells and regions of cell differentiation. These gut bodies also had a smooth muscle component and some underwent peristaltic movement. The ability of the definitive endoderm to differentiate into intestinal epithelium was supported by the vivo engraftment of these cells into mouse colonic mucosa. These findings demonstrate that definitive endoderm derived from ESCs can carry out intestinal cell differentiation pathways and may provide cells to restore damaged intestinal tissue.

  19. Uterine rotation: a cause of intestinal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mesa, Ernesto; Narbona, Isidoro; Cohen, Isaac; Villegas, Emilia; Cuenca, Celia

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction is an uncommon surgical emergency during pregnancy that affects seriously the prognosis of gestation. The underlying cause can be identified in the majority of cases and usually consists of adhesions secondary to previous abdominal or pelvic surgery, followed in order of frequency by intestinal volvuli. In recent years there have been no reports in which the gravid uterus has been the cause of intestinal obstruction. We report the case of a woman in week 33 + 4 of pregnancy who developed extrinsic compression of the colon secondary to uterine rotation and pelvic impaction of the head of the fetus.

  20. Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia: Prevalence, Clinical Presentation, Endoscopic and Histological Features

    OpenAIRE

    Drasovean Silvia Cosmina; Morărașu Diana Elena; Pascarenco Ofelia Daniela; Brsunic Olga; Onișor Danusia Maria; Alina Boeriu; Dobru Daniela Ecaterina

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: Gastric intestinal metaplasia represents a risk factor for intestinal type of gastric cancer. Gastric intestinal metaplasia seems to be associated with Helicobacter pilory infection in relatives of patients with gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, clinical, endoscopic and histological features of gastric intestinal metaplasia.

  1. Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia: Prevalence, Clinical Presentation, Endoscopic and Histological Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drasovean Silvia Cosmina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Gastric intestinal metaplasia represents a risk factor for intestinal type of gastric cancer. Gastric intestinal metaplasia seems to be associated with Helicobacter pilory infection in relatives of patients with gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, clinical, endoscopic and histological features of gastric intestinal metaplasia.

  2. OPTN/SRTR 2015 Annual Data Report: Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J M; Skeans, M A; Horslen, S P; Edwards, E B; Harper, A M; Snyder, J J; Israni, A K; Kasiske, B L

    2017-01-01

    Intestine and intestine-liver transplant remains important in the treatment of intestinal failure, despite decreased morbidity associated with parenteral nutrition. In 2015, 196 new patients were added to the intestine transplant waiting list, with equal numbers waiting for intestine and intestine-liver transplant. Among prevalent patients on the list at the end of 2015, 63.3% were waiting for an intestine transplant and 36.7% were waiting for an intestine-liver transplant. The pretransplant mortality rate decreased dramatically over time for all age groups. Pretransplant mortality was notably higher for intestine-liver than for intestine transplant candidates (respectively, 19.9 vs. 2.8 deaths per 100 waitlist years in 2014-2015). By age, pretransplant mortality was highest for adult candidates, at 19.6 per 100 waitlist years, and lowest for children aged younger than 6 years, at 3.6 per 100 waitlist years. Pretransplant mortality by etiology was highest for candidates with non-congenital types of short-gut syndrome. Numbers of intestine transplants without a liver increased from a low of 51 in 2013 to 70 in 2015. Intestine-liver transplants increased from a low of 44 in 2012 to 71 in 2015. Short-gut syndrome (congenital and non-congenital) was the main cause of disease leading to intestine and to intestine-liver transplant. Patient survival was lowest for adult intestine-liver recipients and highest for pediatric intestine recipients.

  3. Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia: Prevalence, Clinical Presentation, Endoscopic and Histological Features

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: Gastric intestinal metaplasia represents a risk factor for intestinal type of gastric cancer. Gastric intestinal metaplasia seems to be associated with Helicobacter pilory infection in relatives of patients with gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, clinical, endoscopic and histological features of gastric intestinal metaplasia.

  4. Peptidases compartmentalized to the Ascaris suum intestinal lumen and apical intestinal membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas P Jasmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nematode intestine is a tissue of interest for developing new methods of therapy and control of parasitic nematodes. However, biological details of intestinal cell functions remain obscure, as do the proteins and molecular functions located on the apical intestinal membrane (AIM, and within the intestinal lumen (IL of nematodes. Accordingly, methods were developed to gain a comprehensive identification of peptidases that function in the intestinal tract of adult female Ascaris suum. Peptidase activity was detected in multiple fractions of the A. suum intestine under pH conditions ranging from 5.0 to 8.0. Peptidase class inhibitors were used to characterize these activities. The fractions included whole lysates, membrane enriched fractions, and physiological- and 4 molar urea-perfusates of the intestinal lumen. Concanavalin A (ConA was confirmed to bind to the AIM, and intestinal proteins affinity isolated on ConA-beads were compared to proteins from membrane and perfusate fractions by mass spectrometry. Twenty-nine predicted peptidases were identified including aspartic, cysteine, and serine peptidases, and an unexpectedly high number (16 of metallopeptidases. Many of these proteins co-localized to multiple fractions, providing independent support for localization to specific intestinal compartments, including the IL and AIM. This unique perfusion model produced the most comprehensive view of likely digestive peptidases that function in these intestinal compartments of A. suum, or any nematode. This model offers a means to directly determine functions of these proteins in the A. suum intestine and, more generally, deduce the wide array functions that exist in these cellular compartments of the nematode intestine.

  5. Interactions between the intestinal microbiota and innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Vincent L; Kasper, Dennis L

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian intestine must manage to contain 100 trillion intestinal bacteria without inducing inappropriate immune responses to these microorganisms. The effects of the immune system on intestinal microorganisms are numerous and well-characterized, and recent research has determined that the microbiota influences the intestinal immune system as well. In this review, we first discuss the intestinal immune system and its role in containing and maintaining tolerance to commensal organisms. We next introduce a category of immune cells, the innate lymphoid cells, and describe their classification and function in intestinal immunology. Finally, we discuss the effects of the intestinal microbiota on innate lymphoid cells.

  6. Experiencing sexuality after intestinal stoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Boccara de Paula

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Identify the Social Representations (SR of ostomized people in terms of sexuality after the stoma. METHODS: An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study using the Social Representation Theory with 15 ostomized people (8 females, mean age of 57.9 years, between August and September 2005. Data obtained from transcribed interviews were submitted to content analysis, resulting in the thematic unit "Giving new meaning to sexuality" and subthemes. RESULTS: The study demonstrated that the intestinal stoma interferes in the sexuality experience, showing that the meanings attributed to this experience are based on individual life stories, quality of personal relationships established in practice and perception of sexuality, despite the stoma. CONCLUSIONS: The Social Representations, in terms of experiencing sexuality after the stoma, are based on meanings attributed to the body, associated with daily life and present in the social imaginary. It is influenced by other factors, such as physiological changes resulting from the surgery and the fact of having or not a partner. Care taken during sexual practices provide greater security and comfort in moments of intimacy, resembling the closest to what ostomized people experienced before the stoma. The self-irrigation technique associated or not with the use of artificial occluder, has been attested by its users as a positive element that makes a difference in sexual practice after the stoma. The support to ostomized people should be comprehensive, not limited to technical care and disease, which are important, but not sufficient. The interdisciplinary health team should consider all aspects of the person, seeking a real meeting between subjects.OBJETIVO: Identificar as Representações Sociais (RS da pessoa estomizada intestinal sobre vivência da sexualidade após confecção do estoma. MÉTODOS: Estudo exploratório, descritivo, qualitativo do ponto de vista do referencial da Representa

  7. Species and prevalence determination of Human Intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Species and prevalence determination of Human Intestinal Parasites among Patients attending two ... the maintenance of proper personal hygiene, creating awareness to the ..... (2007), who reported a value of 21.1% in Owerri,. Imo State and ...

  8. Childhood intestinal obstruction in Northwestern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sentation of childhood intestinal obstruction in this study agrees with those .... nal distension in 7(43.8%), and fever in another 7(43.8%). .... boys defaulted from definitive treatment after the initial ... rent abdominal pain and constipation.

  9. Intestinal preparation prior to capsule endoscopy administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vicente Pons Beltrán; Cristina Carretero; Bego(n)a Gonzalez-Suárez; I(n)aqui Fernández-Urien; Miguel Mu(n)oz Navas

    2008-01-01

    In order to have an adequate view of the whole small intestine during capsule endoscopy,the preparation recommended consists of a clear liquid diet and an overnight fast.However,visualization of the small bowel during video capsule endoscopy can be impaired by intestinal contents.To improve mucosal visualization,some authors have evaluated different regimens of preparation.There is no consensus about the necessity of intestinal preparation for capsule endoscopy and it should be interesting to develop adequate guidelines to improve its efficacy and tolerability.Moreover,the effect of preparation type (purgative) on intestinal transit time is not clear.Since a bowel preparation cannot definitively improve its visibility (and theoretically the yield of the test),it is not routinely recommended.

  10. Intestinal microbiota and HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. S. M. Trindade

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota consists of a qualitatively and quantitatively diverse range of microorganisms dynamically interacting with the host. It is remarkably stable with regard to the presence of microorganisms and their roles which, however, can be altered due to pathological conditions, diet composition, gastrointestinal disturbances and/or drug ingestion. The present review aimed at contributing to the discussion about changes in the intestinal microbiota due to HIV-1 infection, focusing on the triad infection-microbiota-nutrition as factors that promote intestinal bacterial imbalance. Intestinal microbiota alterations can be due to the HIV-1 infection as a primary factor or the pharmacotherapy employed, or they can be one of the consequences of the disease.

  11. Transcriptome changes during intestinal cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadjali, Mehrdad; Seidelin, Jakob B; Olsen, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    The expression of 18149 genes have been analysed during the differentiation of the human intestinal cell line Caco-2. cDNA probes from undifferentiated and differentiated Caco-2 cells were separately hybridised to EST DNAs spotted in an array on a nylon membrane. A remarkable change...... by a general down-regulation of genes in the low abundance class. Similar results were found using mouse small intestinal crypt and villus cells, suggesting that the phenomenon also occurs in the intestine in vivo. The expression data were subsequently used in a search for markers for subsets of epithelial...... cells by performing reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on RNA extracted from laser dissected intestinal crypt and villi. In a screen of eight transcripts one - SART3 - was identified as a marker for human colonic crypts....

  12. Outcomes of surgical management of intestinal atresias

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-22

    Nov 22, 2013 ... shock (1), anesthesia‑related (1), undetermined (1). Two of the mortalities (40%) had ... Key words: Intestinal atresia, outcomes, surgical management ... with information on prenatal ultrasonography (18/23), only 50% (9/18) ...

  13. Intestinal Colonization Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro-Moreno, Salvador; Pruss, Kali; Taylor, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    To cause the diarrheal disease cholera, Vibrio cholerae must effectively colonize the small intestine. In order to do so, the bacterium needs to successfully travel through the stomach and withstand the presence of agents such as bile and antimicrobial peptides in the intestinal lumen and mucus. The bacterial cells penetrate the viscous mucus layer covering the epithelium and attach and proliferate on its surface. In this review, we discuss recent developments and known aspects of the early stages of V. cholerae intestinal colonization and highlight areas that remain to be fully understood. We propose mechanisms and postulate a model that covers some of the steps that are required in order for the bacterium to efficiently colonize the human host. A deeper understanding of the colonization dynamics of V. cholerae and other intestinal pathogens will provide us with a variety of novel targets and strategies to avoid the diseases caused by these organisms. PMID:25996593

  14. Inflammasome in Intestinal Inflammation and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Nunes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The activation of specific cytosolic pathogen recognition receptors, the nucleotide-binding-oligomerization-domain- (NOD- like receptors (NLRs, leads to the assembly of the inflammasome, a multimeric complex platform that activates caspase-1. The caspase-1 pathway leads to the upregulation of important cytokines from the interleukin (IL-1 family, IL-1β, and IL-18, with subsequent activation of the innate immune response. In this review, we discuss the molecular structure, the mechanisms behind the inflammasome activation, and its possible role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases and intestinal cancer. Here, we show that the available data points towards the importance of the inflammasome in the innate intestinal immune response, being the complex involved in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, correct intestinal barrier function and efficient elimination of invading pathogens.

  15. Intestinal Iron Homeostasis and Colon Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatrik M. Shah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths in industrialized countries. Understanding the mechanisms of growth and progression of CRC is essential to improve treatment. Iron is an essential nutrient for cell growth. Iron overload caused by hereditary mutations or excess dietary iron uptake has been identified as a risk factor for CRC. Intestinal iron is tightly controlled by iron transporters that are responsible for iron uptake, distribution, and export. Dysregulation of intestinal iron transporters are observed in CRC and lead to iron accumulation in tumors. Intratumoral iron results in oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, protein modification and DNA damage with consequent promotion of oncogene activation. In addition, excess iron in intestinal tumors may lead to increase in tumor-elicited inflammation and tumor growth. Limiting intratumoral iron through specifically chelating excess intestinal iron or modulating activities of iron transporter may be an attractive therapeutic target for CRC.

  16. Human intestinal microbiota and type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaarala, Outi

    2013-10-01

    The role of intestinal microbiota in immune-mediated diseases, such as type 1 diabetes, has deservedly received a lot of attention. Evidently, changes in the intestinal microbiota are associated with type 1 diabetes as demonstrated by recent studies. Children with beta-cell autoimmunity have shown low abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria and increase in the abundance of members of the Bacteroidetes phylum in fecal microbiota. These alterations could explain increased gut permeability, subclinical small intestinal inflammation, and dysregulation of oral tolerance in type 1 diabetes. However, these studies do not provide evidence of the causative role of the gut microbiota in the development of beta-cell autoimmunity, yet. In animal models, the composition of gut microbiota modulates the function of both innate and adaptive immunity, and intestinal bacteria are regulators of autoimmune diabetes. Thus, prevention of type 1 diabetes could, in the future, be based on the interventions targeted to the gut microbiota.

  17. Intestinal perforation secondary to metastasic lung carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Álvarez Sánchez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Secondary symptomatic gastrointestinal metastases from lung primary tumor are rare. They can cause a variety of clinical conditions such as perforation, obstruction and bleeding. Intestinal perforations of intestinal metastases have a very poor prognosis. We present a case of a patient with metastatic lung cancer who presents with intestinal perforation and pneumoperitoneum. A 67 year old male, immunosuppressed and smoker is diagnosed with acute abdomen secondary to perforation of a tumor of the terminal ileum, as well as three other similar injuries. Resection and anastomosis. The patient died two months after surgery. The final pathological diagnosis supports epidermoidide poorly differentiated lung carcinoma. It was concluded that given an intestinal perforation in a patient diagnosed with lung carcinoma, it shouldn´t be excluded the metastases origen . Surgery is a purely palliative procedure.

  18. Small intestine dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Justyna; Szlufik, Stanisław; Nieciecki, Michał; Charzyńska, Ingeborga; Królicki, Leszek; Smektała, Piotr; Friedman, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the small bowel transit time in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Ten patients with PD with no gastrointestinal complaints and ten healthy control subjects were investigated using single photon emission computed tomography fused with computed tomography after swallowing of a specially prepared capsule containing technetium 99m, which allowed visualization of the passage in the intestines. Preliminary results show that the small intestine passage in PD patients was prolonged compared to controls.

  19. Human milk oligosaccharide consumption by intestinal microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Marcobal, A.; Sonnenburg, J L

    2012-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) constitute the third most abundant class of molecules in breast milk. Since infants lack the enzymes required for milk glycan digestion, this group of carbohydrates passes undigested to the lower part of the intestinal tract, where they can be consumed by specific members of the infant gut microbiota. We review proposed mechanisms for the depletion and metabolism of HMO by two major bacterial genera within the infant intestinal microbiota, Bifidobacterium and...

  20. Urticarial Vasculitis-Associated Intestinal Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uni Wong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urticarial vasculitis (UV is a rare small vessel vasculitis. UV is often idiopathic but can also present in the context of autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus, drug reactions, infections, or a paraneoplastic syndrome. Extracutaneous complications include intestinal ischemic injuries, in UV patients with nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain and nausea. Prompt recognition and treatment can minimize morbidity and mortality. This paper describes a case of urticarial vasculitis-associated intestinal ischemia.

  1. Circadian regulators of intestinal lipid absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, M. Mahmood; Pan, Xiaoyue

    2015-01-01

    Among all the metabolites present in the plasma, lipids, mainly triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol, show extensive circadian rhythms. These lipids are transported in the plasma as part of lipoproteins. Lipoproteins are synthesized primarily in the liver and intestine and their production exhibits circadian rhythmicity. Studies have shown that various proteins involved in lipid absorption and lipoprotein biosynthesis show circadian expression. Further, intestinal epithelial cells express circa...

  2. Vitamin D and Intestinal Calcium Absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Christakos, Sylvia; Dhawan, Puneet; Porta, Angela; Mady, Leila J.; Seth, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    The principal function of vitamin D in calcium homeostasis is to increase calcium absorption from the intestine. Calcium is absorbed by both an active transcellular pathway, which is energy dependent, and by a passive paracellular pathway through tight junctions. 1,25Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) the hormonally active form of vitamin D, through its genomic actions, is the major stimulator of active intestinal calcium absorption which involves calcium influx, translocation of calcium throu...

  3. Epidemiology of small intestinal atresia in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Best, Kate E; Tennant, Peter W G; Addor, Marie-Claude;

    2012-01-01

    The epidemiology of congenital small intestinal atresia (SIA) has not been well studied. This study describes the presence of additional anomalies, pregnancy outcomes, total prevalence and association with maternal age in SIA cases in Europe.......The epidemiology of congenital small intestinal atresia (SIA) has not been well studied. This study describes the presence of additional anomalies, pregnancy outcomes, total prevalence and association with maternal age in SIA cases in Europe....

  4. Fluoxetine causes decrease in intestinal motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Afzal

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Our study has indicated that fluoxetine on isolated ileal intestinal smooth muscle decrease the motility and this decrease in motility is possibly due to the inability of fluoxetine in vitro to enhance the serotonergic transmission and also because of the interaction of these agents with some of the other receptors, present in the intestinal smooth muscles. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 265-268

  5. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F. S.; de Castro, Francisco Gomes; Miller, Wagner Peitl; de Lima, Raphael Rodrigues; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. PMID:27818542

  6. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Cleve Nicolodi

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases, increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases, identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases, and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case. Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation.

  7. Neural regulation of intestinal nutrient absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Fadi H; Saadé, Nayef E

    2011-10-01

    The nervous system and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract share several common features including reciprocal interconnections and several neurotransmitters and peptides known as gut peptides, neuropeptides or hormones. The processes of digestion, secretion of digestive enzymes and then absorption are regulated by the neuro-endocrine system. Luminal glucose enhances its own absorption through a neuronal reflex that involves capsaicin sensitive primary afferent (CSPA) fibres. Absorbed glucose stimulates insulin release that activates hepatoenteric neural pathways leading to an increase in the expression of glucose transporters. Adrenergic innervation increases glucose absorption through α1 and β receptors and decreases absorption through activation of α2 receptors. The vagus nerve plays an important role in the regulation of diurnal variation in transporter expression and in anticipation to food intake. Vagal CSPAs exert tonic inhibitory effects on amino acid absorption. It also plays an important role in the mediation of the inhibitory effect of intestinal amino acids on their own absorption at the level of proximal or distal segment. However, chronic extrinsic denervation leads to a decrease in intestinal amino acid absorption. Conversely, adrenergic agonists as well as activation of CSPA fibres enhance peptides uptake through the peptide transporter PEPT1. Finally, intestinal innervation plays a minimal role in the absorption of fat digestion products. Intestinal absorption of nutrients is a basic vital mechanism that depends essentially on the function of intestinal mucosa. However, intrinsic and extrinsic neural mechanisms that rely on several redundant loops are involved in immediate and long-term control of the outcome of intestinal function.

  8. Perna canaliculus and the Intestinal Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Tali Saltzman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural medicines are often an attractive option for patients diagnosed with chronic conditions. Three main classes of bioactives that have been reported from marine mussel extracts include proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Commercially, the most relevant species of marine mollusks belong to two genera, Perna and Mytilus. Specifically, the Perna canaliculus species has been repeatedly demonstrated to harbor anti-inflammatory compounds such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs that can ameliorate pro-inflammatory conditions, or proteins that can promote thrombin inhibitory activity. Recent clinical studies have posited that extracts from green-lipped mussels may lead to prebiotic activity in the intestinal microbiome that in turn has been reported to improve symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee. Prebiotics have been reported to favorably interact with the intestinal microbiome through the proliferation of beneficial bacteria in the gut, suppressing exogenous and endogenous intestinal infections and promoting homeostasis by balancing local pro- and anti-inflammatory actions. Bioactive compounds from Perna canaliculus are functional foods and, in this regard, may positively interact with the intestinal microbiome and provide novel therapeutic solutions for intra-intestinal and extra-intestinal inflammatory conditions.

  9. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F.S.; Castro, Francisco Gomes de; Miller, Wagner Peitl; Lima, Raphael Rodrigues de; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle, E-mail: gabrielnicolodi@gmail.com [Hospital Sao Vicente - Funef, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. (author)

  10. Hepatic and Intestinal Schistosomiasis: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Elbaz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is an endemic disease in Egypt caused by the trematode Schistosoma which has different species. Hepatic schistosomiasis represents the best known form of chronic disease with a wide range of clinical manifestations. The pathogenesis of schistosomiasis is related to the host cellular immune response. This leads to granuloma formation and neo angiogenesis with subsequent periportal fibrosis manifested as portal hypertension, splenomegaly and esophageal varices. Intestinal schistosomiasis is another well identified form of chronic schistosomal affection. Egg deposition and granuloma formation eventually leads to acute then chronic schistosomal colitis and is commonly associated with polyp formation. It frequently presents as abdominal pain, diarrhea, tenesmus and anal pain. Definite diagnosis of schistosomiasis disease depends on microscopy and egg identification. Marked progress regarding serologic diagnosis occurred with development of recent PCR techniques that can confirm schistosomal affection at any stage. Many antischistosomal drugs have been described for treatment, praziquantel being the most safe and efficient drug. Still ongoing studies try to develop effective vaccines with identification of many target antigens. Preventive programs are highly needed to control the disease morbidity and to break the cycle of transmission.

  11. Molecular aspects of intestinal calcium absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz de Barboza, Gabriela; Guizzardi, Solange; Tolosa de Talamoni, Nori

    2015-06-21

    Intestinal Ca(2+) absorption is a crucial physiological process for maintaining bone mineralization and Ca(2+) homeostasis. It occurs through the transcellular and paracellular pathways. The first route comprises 3 steps: the entrance of Ca(2+) across the brush border membranes (BBM) of enterocytes through epithelial Ca(2+) channels TRPV6, TRPV5, and Cav1.3; Ca(2+) movement from the BBM to the basolateral membranes by binding proteins with high Ca(2+) affinity (such as CB9k); and Ca(2+) extrusion into the blood. Plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase (PMCA1b) and sodium calcium exchanger (NCX1) are mainly involved in the exit of Ca(2+) from enterocytes. A novel molecule, the 4.1R protein, seems to be a partner of PMCA1b, since both molecules co-localize and interact. The paracellular pathway consists of Ca(2+) transport through transmembrane proteins of tight junction structures, such as claudins 2, 12, and 15. There is evidence of crosstalk between the transcellular and paracellular pathways in intestinal Ca(2+) transport. When intestinal oxidative stress is triggered, there is a decrease in the expression of several molecules of both pathways that inhibit intestinal Ca(2+) absorption. Normalization of redox status in the intestine with drugs such as quercetin, ursodeoxycholic acid, or melatonin return intestinal Ca(2+) transport to control values. Calcitriol [1,25(OH)₂D₃] is the major controlling hormone of intestinal Ca(2+) transport. It increases the gene and protein expression of most of the molecules involved in both pathways. PTH, thyroid hormones, estrogens, prolactin, growth hormone, and glucocorticoids apparently also regulate Ca(2+) transport by direct action, indirect mechanism mediated by the increase of renal 1,25(OH)₂D₃ production, or both. Different physiological conditions, such as growth, pregnancy, lactation, and aging, adjust intestinal Ca(2+) absorption according to Ca(2+) demands. Better knowledge of the molecular details of intestinal Ca(2

  12. The virtual intestine: in silico modeling of small intestinal electrophysiology and motility and the applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Peng; Paskaranandavadivel, Niranchan; Angeli, Timothy R; Cheng, Leo K; O'Grady, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The intestine comprises a long hollow muscular tube organized in anatomically and functionally discrete compartments, which digest and absorb nutrients and water from ingested food. The intestine also plays key roles in the elimination of waste and protection from infection. Critical to all of these functions is the intricate, highly coordinated motion of the intestinal tract, known as motility, which is coregulated by hormonal, neural, electrophysiological and other factors. The Virtual Intestine encapsulates a series of mathematical models of intestinal function in health and disease, with a current focus on motility, and particularly electrophysiology. The Virtual Intestine is being cohesively established across multiple physiological scales, from sub/cellular functions to whole organ levels, facilitating quantitative evaluations that present an integrative in silico framework. The models are also now finding broad physiological applications, including in evaluating hypotheses of slow wave pacemaker mechanisms, smooth muscle electrophysiology, structure-function relationships, and electromechanical coupling. Clinical applications are also beginning to follow, including in the pathophysiology of motility disorders, diagnosing intestinal ischemia, and visualizing colonic dysfunction. These advances illustrate the emerging potential of the Virtual Intestine to effectively address multiscale research challenges in interdisciplinary gastrointestinal sciences.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of intestinal transplantation for adult patients with intestinal failure : a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roskott, Anne Margot; Groen, Henk; Rings, Edmond H. H. M.; Haveman, Jan Willem; Ploeg, Rutger J.; Serlie, Mireille J.; Wanten, Geert; Krabbe, Paul F. M.; Dijkstra, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Background: Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) and intestinal transplantation (ITx) are the 2 treatment options for irreversible intestinal failure (IF). Objective: This study simulated the disease course of irreversible IF and both of these treatments HPN and ITx to estimate the cost-effectiveness of

  14. Intestinal rehabilitation for children with intestinal failure is cost-effective : a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Henk; Neelis, Esther G; Poley, Marten J; Olieman, Joanne F; Scheenstra, René; Krabbe, Paul Fm; Dijkstra, Gerard; Rings, Edmond Hhm

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with intestinal failure (IF) depend on parenteral nutrition (PN). The goal in the treatment of IF is to wean children off PN through intestinal rehabilitation (IR). Although the healthcare burden of IF is enormous, to our knowledge there has been no previous cost-effectiveness a

  15. Presentation of a nationwide multicenter registry of intestinal failure and intestinal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelis, E.G.; Roskott, A.M.; Dijkstra, G.; Wanten, G.J.A.; Serlie, M.J.; Tabbers, M.M.; Damen, G.M.; Olthof, E.D.; Jonkers, C.F.; Kloeze, J.H.; Ploeg, R.J.; Imhann, F.; Nieuwenhuijs, V.B.; Rings, E.H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Exact data on Dutch patients with chronic intestinal failure (CIF) and after intestinal transplantation (ITx) have been lacking. To improve standard care of these patients, a nationwide collaboration has been established. Objectives of this study were obtaining an up-to-date

  16. Presentation of a nationwide multicenter registry of intestinal failure and intestinal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelis, E. G.; Roskott, A. M.; Dijkstra, G.; Wanten, G. J.; Serlie, M. J.; Tabbers, M. M.; Damen, G.; Olthof, E. D.; Jonkers, C. F.; Kloeze, J. H.; Ploeg, R. J.; Imhann, F.; Nieuwenhuijs, V. B.; Rings, E. H. H. M.

    Background & aims: Exact data on Dutch patients with chronic intestinal failure (CIF) and after intestinal transplantation (ITx) have been lacking. To improve standard care of these patients, a nationwide collaboration has been established. Objectives of this study were obtaining an up-to-date

  17. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase contributes to the reduction of severe intestinal epithelial damage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol-Schoenmakers, M.; Fiechter, D.; Raaben, W.; Hassing, I.; Bleumink, R.; Kruijswijk, D.; Maijoor, K.; Tersteeg-Zijderveld, M.; Brands, R.; Pieters, R.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is characterized by chronic inflammation of the intestine and is accompanied by damage of the epithelial lining and by undesired immune responses towards enteric bacteria. It has been demonstrated that intestinal alkaline phosphatase (iAP) protects against the induction of

  18. Intestinal perforation caused by non specific idiopathic ulcer of the small intestine. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, V; Racalbuto, A; Russello, D; Succi, L; Fragati, G; Catania, V

    1989-01-01

    A case of non specific idiopathic ulcer of the small intestine in a 79-year-old patient is reported. On admission he presented with acute abdomen and was submitted to wide intestinal resection. The features of this rare disease (only 370 cases described until 1987), which has an undefined etiopathogenesis, severe symptoms, and poses diagnostic problems, are discussed.

  19. [THE WORLD EXPERIENCE OF THE PEDIATRIC INTESTINAL FAILURE PROGRAM: SUCCESSFUL OUTCOMES FROM INTESTINAL REHABILITATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbou, Benyamine; Sukhotnik, Igor; Rofe, Amnon

    2015-12-01

    Management of children with short bowel syndrome is optimized by interdisciplinary coordination of parenteral and enteral nutrition support, medical management of associated complications, surgical lengthening procedures, and intestinal transplantation. Pediatric Intestinal Failure Centers were established in 14 pediatric hospitals throughout the United States and Canada and the Pediatric Intestinal Failure Consortium has been developed and is implementing prospective, multi-institutional studies to better define the specific aspects of intestinal failure management that optimize long-term outcomes. The published data from these studies suggest that intestinal failure in pediatric patients is quite treatable and provides further evidence that all infants at risk for intestinal failure should be treated aggressively and referred early to a dedicated intestinal rehabilitation center. Improved communication and integration with the transplant service have resulted in earlier assessment, decreased rates of transplantation, and decreased mortality from liver failure. The data presented demonstrates that a newly established intestinal failure program can achieve excellent survival in a cohort of chronically ill and complex pediatric cases that have historically been associated with substantial mortality.

  20. Exploring food effects on indinavir absorption with human intestinal fluids in the mouse intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstock, Nico; De Bruyn, Tom; Bevernage, Jan; Annaert, Pieter; Mols, Raf; Tack, Jan; Augustijns, Patrick

    2013-04-11

    Food can have a significant impact on the pharmacokinetics of orally administered drugs, as it may affect drug solubility as well as permeability. Since fed state conditions cannot easily be implemented in the presently available permeability tools, including the frequently used Caco-2 system, exploring food effects during drug development can be quite challenging. In this study, we investigated the effect of fasted and fed state conditions on the intestinal absorption of the HIV protease inhibitor indinavir using simulated and human intestinal fluids in the in situ intestinal perfusion technique in mice. Although the solubility of indinavir was 6-fold higher in fed state human intestinal fluids (FeHIF) as compared to fasted state HIF (FaHIF), the intestinal permeation of indinavir was 22-fold lower in FeHIF as compared to FaHIF. Dialysis experiments showed that only a small fraction of indinavir is accessible for absorption in FeHIF due to micellar entrapment, possibly explaining its low intestinal permeation. The presence of ritonavir, a known P-gp inhibitor, increased the intestinal permeation of indinavir by 2-fold in FaHIF, while there was no increase when using FeHIF. These data confirm that drug-food interactions form a complex interplay between solubility and permeability effects. The use of HIF in in situ intestinal perfusions holds great promise for biorelevant absorption evaluation as it allows to directly explore this complex solubility/permeability interplay on drug absorption.

  1. Small intestinal nematode infection of mice is associated with increased enterobacterial loads alongside the intestinal tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Rausch

    Full Text Available Parasitic nematodes are potent modulators of immune reactivity in mice and men. Intestinal nematodes live in close contact with commensal gut bacteria, provoke biased Th2 immune responses upon infection, and subsequently lead to changes in gut physiology. We hypothesized that murine nematode infection is associated with distinct changes of the intestinal bacterial microbiota composition. We here studied intestinal inflammatory and immune responses in mice following infection with the hookworm Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri and applied cultural and molecular techniques to quantitatively assess intestinal microbiota changes in the ileum, cecum and colon. At day 14 post nematode infection, mice harbored significantly higher numbers of γ-Proteobacteria/Enterobacteriaceae and members of the Bacteroides/Prevotella group in their cecum as compared to uninfected controls. Abundance of Gram-positive species such as Lactobacilli, Clostridia as well as the total bacterial load was not affected by worm infection. The altered microbiota composition was independent of the IL-4/-13 - STAT6 signaling axis, as infected IL-4Rα(-/- mice showed a similar increase in enterobacterial loads. In conclusion, infection with an enteric nematode is accompanied by distinct intestinal microbiota changes towards higher abundance of gram-negative commensal species at the small intestinal site of infection (and inflammation, but also in the parasite-free large intestinal tract. Further studies should unravel the impact of nematode-induced microbiota changes in inflammatory bowel disease to allow for a better understanding of how theses parasites interfere with intestinal inflammation and bacterial communities in men.

  2. Presentation of a nationwide multicenter registry of intestinal failure and intestinal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelis, E.G.; Roskott, A.M.; Dijkstra, G.; Wanten, G.J.A.; Serlie, M.J.; Tabbers, M.M.; Damen, G.M.; Olthof, E.D.; Jonkers, C.F.; Kloeze, J.H.; Ploeg, R.J.; Imhann, F.; Nieuwenhuijs, V.B.; Rings, E.H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Exact data on Dutch patients with chronic intestinal failure (CIF) and after intestinal transplantation (ITx) have been lacking. To improve standard care of these patients, a nationwide collaboration has been established. Objectives of this study were obtaining an up-to-date preva

  3. The preventive effects of dexmedetomidine against intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-kang Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Intraperitoneal injection of dexmedetomidine significantly protected intestine IR injury in rats by inhibiting the inflammatory response, intestinal epithelial apoptosis, and maintaining structural integrity of intestinal cells.

  4. Neonatal intestinal obstruction in Benin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osifo Osarumwense

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal obstruction is a life threatening condition in the newborn, with attendant high mortality rate especially in underserved subregion. This study reports the aetiology, presentation, and outcome of intestinal obstruction management in neonates. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of neonatal intestinal obstruction at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin, Nigeria, between January 2006-June 2008. Data were collated on a structured proforma and analysed for age, sex, weight, presentation, type/date of gestation/delivery, aetiology, clinical presentation, associated anomaly, treatment, and outcome. Results: There were 71 neonates, 52 were males and 19 were females (2.7:1. Their age range was between 12 hours and 28 days (mean, 7.9 ± 2.7 days and they weighed between 1.8 and 5.2 kg (average, 3.2 kg. The causes of intestinal obstruction were: Anorectal anomaly, 28 (39.4%; Hirschsprung′s disease, 8 (11.3%′ prematurity, 3 (4.2%; meconeum plug, 2 (2.8%; malrotation, 6 (8.5%; intestinal atresia, 8 (11.3%; necrotising enterocolitis (NEC, 4 (5.6%; obstructed hernia, 4 (5.6%; and spontaneous gut perforation, 3 (4.2%. Also, 27 (38% children had colostomy, 24 (33.8% had laparotomy, 9 (12.8% had anoplasty, while 11 (15.4% were managed nonoperatively. A total of 41 (57.7% neonates required incubator, 26 (36.6% needed total parenteral nutrition, while 15 (21.1% require d paediatric ventilator. Financial constraint, late presentation, presence of multiple anomalies, aspiration, sepsis, gut perforation, and bowel gangrene were the main contributors to death. Neonates with lower obstructions had a better outcome compared to those having upper intestinal obstruction ( P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Outcomes of intestinal obstruction are still poor in our setting; late presentation, financial constraints, poor parental motivation and lack of basic facilities were the major determinants of mortality.

  5. Early intestinal growth and development in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilburn, M S; Loeffler, S

    2015-07-01

    While there are many accepted "facts" within the field of poultry science that are in truth still open for discussion, there is little debate with respect to the tremendous genetic progress that has been made with commercial broilers and turkeys (Havenstein et al., 2003, 2007). When one considers the changes in carcass development in poultry meat strains, these genetic "improvements" have not always been accompanied by correlated changes in other physiological systems and this can predispose some birds to developmental anomalies (i.e. ascites; Pavlidis et al., 2007; Wideman et al., 2013). Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in intestinal growth/health as poultry nutritionists have attempted to adopt new approaches to deal with the broader changes in the overall nutrition landscape. This landscape includes not only the aforementioned genetic changes but also a raft of governmental policies that have focused attention on the environment (phosphorus and nitrogen excretion), consumer pressure on the use of antibiotics, and renewable biofuels with its consequent effects on ingredient costs. Intestinal morphology has become a common research tool for assessing nutritional effects on the intestine but it is only one metric among many that can be used and histological results can often be interpreted in a variety of ways. This study will address the broader body of research on intestinal growth and development in commercial poultry and will attempt to integrate the topics of the intestinal: microbial interface and the role of the intestine as an immune tissue under the broad umbrella of intestinal physiology. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Fat-soluble vitamin intestinal absorption: absorption sites in the intestine and interactions for absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Roi, Stéphanie; Nowicki, Marion; Dhaussy, Amélie; Huertas, Alain; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2015-04-01

    The interactions occurring at the intestinal level between the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K (FSVs) are poorly documented. We first determined each FSV absorption profile along the duodenal-colonic axis of mouse intestine to clarify their respective absorption sites. We then investigated the interactions between FSVs during their uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our data show that vitamin A was mostly absorbed in the mouse proximal intestine, while vitamin D was absorbed in the median intestine, and vitamin E and K in the distal intestine. Significant competitive interactions for uptake were then elucidated among vitamin D, E and K, supporting the hypothesis of common absorption pathways. Vitamin A also significantly decreased the uptake of the other FSVs but, conversely, its uptake was not impaired by vitamins D and K and even promoted by vitamin E. These results should be taken into account, especially for supplement formulation, to optimise FSV absorption.

  7. Diagnosis and Pharmacological Management of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Children with Intestinal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra A Malik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article provides a general overview of the possible diagnostic procedures available for the management of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in pediatric patients with intestinal failure. The focus is to address current diagnostic tools and understand their associated advantages and disadvantages based on a literature search. Culture of small intestinal aspirates, noninvasive breath tests and an emerging interest in quantitative bacterial DNA fingerprinting are discussed. Proper management is critical for preventing the recurrence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and its related complications. Antibiotic prophylaxis is one approach to the treatment of bacterial overgrowth in intestinal failure patients. Although treatment trials can be challenging in such a vulnerable population, more investigative clinical studies examining early diagnosis, more effective control of recurrence and the prevention of associated complications must be conducted.

  8. Intestinal cytochromes P450 regulating the intestinal microbiota and its probiotic profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Elefterios Venizelos Bezirtzoglou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytochromes P450 (CYPs enzymes metabolize a large variety of xenobiotic substances. In this vein, a plethora of studies were conducted to investigate their role, as cytochromes are located in both liver and intestinal tissues. The P450 profile of the human intestine has not been fully characterized. Human intestine serves primarily as an absorptive organ for nutrients, although it has also the ability to metabolize drugs. CYPs are responsible for the majority of phase I drug metabolism reactions. CYP3A represents the major intestinal CYP (80% followed by CYP2C9. CYP1A is expressed at high level in the duodenum, together with less abundant levels of CYP2C8-10 and CYP2D6. Cytochromes present a genetic polymorphism intra- or interindividual and intra- or interethnic. Changes in the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug are associated with increased toxicity due to reduced metabolism, altered efficacy of the drug, increased production of toxic metabolites, and adverse drug interaction. The high metabolic capacity of the intestinal flora is due to its enormous pool of enzymes, which catalyzes reactions in phase I and phase II drug metabolism. Compromised intestinal barrier conditions, when rupture of the intestinal integrity occurs, could increase passive paracellular absorption. It is clear that high microbial intestinal charge following intestinal disturbances, ageing, environment, or food-associated ailments leads to the microbial metabolism of a drug before absorption. The effect of certain bacteria having a benefic action on the intestinal ecosystem has been largely discussed during the past few years by many authors. The aim of the probiotic approach is to repair the deficiencies in the gut flora and establish a protective effect. There is a tentative multifactorial association of the CYP (P450 cytochrome role in the different diseases states, environmental toxic effects or chemical exposures and nutritional status.

  9. Generation of tissue-engineered small intestine using embryonic stem cell-derived human intestinal organoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkbeiner, Stacy R; Freeman, Jennifer J; Wieck, Minna M; El-Nachef, Wael; Altheim, Christopher H; Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Huang, Sha; Dyal, Rachel; White, Eric S; Grikscheit, Tracy C; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Spence, Jason R

    2015-10-12

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is characterized by poor nutrient absorption due to a deficit of healthy intestine. Current treatment practices rely on providing supportive medical therapy with parenteral nutrition; while life saving, such interventions are not curative and are still associated with significant co-morbidities. As approaches to lengthen remaining intestinal tissue have been met with only limited success and intestinal transplants have poor survival outcomes, new approaches to treating SBS are necessary. Human intestine derived from embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), called human intestinal organoids (HIOs), have the potential to offer a personalized and scalable source of intestine for regenerative therapies. However, given that HIOs are small three-dimensional structures grown in vitro, methods to generate usable HIO-derived constructs are needed. We investigated the ability of hESCs or HIOs to populate acellular porcine intestinal matrices and artificial polyglycolic/poly L lactic acid (PGA/PLLA) scaffolds, and examined the ability of matrix/scaffolds to thrive when transplanted in vivo. Our results demonstrate that the acellular matrix alone is not sufficient to instruct hESC differentiation towards an endodermal or intestinal fate. We observed that while HIOs reseed acellular porcine matrices in vitro, the HIO-reseeded matrices do not thrive when transplanted in vivo. In contrast, HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds thrive in vivo and develop into tissue that looks nearly identical to adult human intestinal tissue. Our results suggest that HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds are a promising avenue for developing the mucosal component of tissue engineered human small intestine, which need to be explored further to develop them into fully functional tissue.

  10. Generation of tissue-engineered small intestine using embryonic stem cell-derived human intestinal organoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy R. Finkbeiner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Short bowel syndrome (SBS is characterized by poor nutrient absorption due to a deficit of healthy intestine. Current treatment practices rely on providing supportive medical therapy with parenteral nutrition; while life saving, such interventions are not curative and are still associated with significant co-morbidities. As approaches to lengthen remaining intestinal tissue have been met with only limited success and intestinal transplants have poor survival outcomes, new approaches to treating SBS are necessary. Human intestine derived from embryonic stem cells (hESCs or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, called human intestinal organoids (HIOs, have the potential to offer a personalized and scalable source of intestine for regenerative therapies. However, given that HIOs are small three-dimensional structures grown in vitro, methods to generate usable HIO-derived constructs are needed. We investigated the ability of hESCs or HIOs to populate acellular porcine intestinal matrices and artificial polyglycolic/poly L lactic acid (PGA/PLLA scaffolds, and examined the ability of matrix/scaffolds to thrive when transplanted in vivo. Our results demonstrate that the acellular matrix alone is not sufficient to instruct hESC differentiation towards an endodermal or intestinal fate. We observed that while HIOs reseed acellular porcine matrices in vitro, the HIO-reseeded matrices do not thrive when transplanted in vivo. In contrast, HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds thrive in vivo and develop into tissue that looks nearly identical to adult human intestinal tissue. Our results suggest that HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds are a promising avenue for developing the mucosal component of tissue engineered human small intestine, which need to be explored further to develop them into fully functional tissue.

  11. Intestinal failure:Pathophysiological elements and clinical diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian-An Ding; Jie-Shou Li

    2004-01-01

    There are two main functions of gastrointestinal tract,digestion and absorption, and barrier function. The latter has an important defensive effect, which keeps the body away from the invading and damaging of bacteria and endotoxin. It maintains the systemic homeostasis. Intestinal dysfunction would happen when body suffers from diseases or harmful stimulations. The lesser dysfunction of GI tract manifests only disorder of digestion and absorption,whereas the more serious intestinal disorders would harm the intestinal protective mechanism, or intestinal barrier function, and bacterial/endotoxin translocation, of intestinal failure (IF) would ensue. This review disscussed the theory of the intestinal failure, aiming at attracting recognition and valuable comments by clinicians.

  12. Apoptosis, Necrosis, and Necroptosis in the Gut and Intestinal Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negroni, Anna; Cucchiara, Salvatore; Stronati, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) form a physiochemical barrier that separates the intestinal lumen from the host's internal milieu and is critical for electrolyte passage, nutrient absorption, and interaction with commensal microbiota. Moreover, IECs are strongly involved in the intestinal mucosal inflammatory response as well as in mucosal innate and adaptive immune responses. Cell death in the intestinal barrier is finely controlled, since alterations may lead to severe disorders, including inflammatory diseases. The emerging picture indicates that intestinal epithelial cell death is strictly related to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. This review is focused on previous reports on different forms of cell death in intestinal epithelium.

  13. Small intestinal obstruction caused by anisakiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Yuichi; Gomi, Kuniyo; Endo, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Reika; Hayashi, Masashi; Nakanishi, Toru; Tateno, Ayumi; Yamamura, Eiichi; Asonuma, Kunio; Ino, Satoshi; Kuroki, Yuichiro; Nagahama, Masatsugu; Inoue, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Small intestinal anisakiasis is a rare disease that is very difficult to diagnose, and its initial diagnosis is often surgical. However, it is typically a benign disease that resolves with conservative treatment, and unnecessary surgery can be avoided if it is appropriately diagnosed. This case report is an example of small intestinal obstruction caused by anisakiasis that resolved with conservative treatment. A 63-year-old man admitted to our department with acute abdominal pain. A history of raw fish (sushi) ingestion was recorded. Abdominal CT demonstrated small intestinal dilatation with wall thickening and contrast enhancement. Ascitic fluid was found on the liver surface and in the Douglas pouch. His IgE (RIST) was elevated, and he tested positive for the anti-Anisakis antibodies IgG and IgA. Small intestinal obstruction by anisakiasis was highly suspected and conservative treatment was performed, ileus tube, fasting, and fluid replacement. Symptoms quickly resolved, and he was discharged on the seventh day of admission. Small intestinal anisakiasis is a relatively uncommon disease, the diagnosis of which may be difficult. Because it is a self-limiting disease that usually resolves in 1-2 weeks, a conservative approach is advisable to avoid unnecessary surgery.

  14. Small Intestinal Obstruction Caused by Anisakiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Takano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small intestinal anisakiasis is a rare disease that is very difficult to diagnose, and its initial diagnosis is often surgical. However, it is typically a benign disease that resolves with conservative treatment, and unnecessary surgery can be avoided if it is appropriately diagnosed. This case report is an example of small intestinal obstruction caused by anisakiasis that resolved with conservative treatment. A 63-year-old man admitted to our department with acute abdominal pain. A history of raw fish (sushi ingestion was recorded. Abdominal CT demonstrated small intestinal dilatation with wall thickening and contrast enhancement. Ascitic fluid was found on the liver surface and in the Douglas pouch. His IgE (RIST was elevated, and he tested positive for the anti-Anisakis antibodies IgG and IgA. Small intestinal obstruction by anisakiasis was highly suspected and conservative treatment was performed, ileus tube, fasting, and fluid replacement. Symptoms quickly resolved, and he was discharged on the seventh day of admission. Small intestinal anisakiasis is a relatively uncommon disease, the diagnosis of which may be difficult. Because it is a self-limiting disease that usually resolves in 1-2 weeks, a conservative approach is advisable to avoid unnecessary surgery.

  15. Intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Azami

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of intestinal parasitic infection in renal transplant recipients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients in Iran. Stool specimens from renal transplant recipients and control groups were obtained between June 2006 and January 2007. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, Sheather's flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. Out of 150 renal transplant recipients, 33.3% (50, and out of 225 control group, 20% (45 were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. The parasites detected among patients included Entamoeba coli (10.6%, Endolimax nana (8.7%, Giardia lamblia (7.4%, Blastocystis spp. (4.7%, Iodamoeba butschlii (0.7%, Chilomastix mesnili (0.7% and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%. Multiple infections were more common among renal transplant recipients group (p < 0.05. This study highlights the importance of testing for intestinal parasites among Iranian renal transplant recipients. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the renal transplant recipients by contributing to reduce severe infections.

  16. Microecology, intestinal epithelial barrier and necrotizing enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Renu; Tepas, Joseph J

    2010-01-01

    Soon after birth, the neonatal intestine is confronted with a massive antigenic challenge of microbial colonization. Microbial signals are required for maturation of several physiological, anatomical, and biochemical functions of intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB) after birth. Commensal bacteria regulate intestinal innate and adaptive immunity and provide stimuli for ongoing repair and restitution of IEB. Colonization by pathogenic bacteria and/or dysmature response to microbial stimuli can result in flagrant inflammatory response as seen in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Characterized by inflammation and hemorrhagic-ischemic necrosis, NEC is a devastating complication of prematurity. Although there is evidence that both prematurity and presence of bacteria, are proven contributing factors to the pathogenesis of NEC, the molecular mechanisms involved in IEB dysfunction associated with NEC have begun to emerge only recently. The metagenomic advances in the field of intestinal microecology are providing insight into the factors that are required for establishment of commensal bacteria that appear to provide protection against intestinal inflammation and NEC. Perturbations in achieving colonization by commensal bacteria such as premature birth or hospitalization in intensive care nursery can result in dysfunction of IEB and NEC. In this article, microbial modulation of functions of IEB and its relationship with barrier dysfunction and NEC are described.

  17. Frequency of Intestinal Parasites in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Oormazdi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: For a long time, intestinal parasite infections are among the major problems of public health in Iran. Our aim was epidemiological studies on the frequency of intestinal parasites in patients re­ferred to three hospitals in Tehran during 2007-2008."nMethods: During 2007-2008, by simple random selection, 1000 stool samples were collected from Mi­lad, Hazrat-e-Rasoul and Shahid Fahmideh hospitals in Tehran, Iran. We examined the samples using di­rect smear, formol-ethyl acetate concentration, Agar-plate culture and Ziehl-Neelsen staining tech­nique."nResults: The frequency of intestinal parasites were: Blastocystis hominis 12.8%, Giardia lamblia 2.5%, En­tamoeba coli 4.8%, Iodamoeba butschlli 0.9%, unknown 4 nuclei cysts 0.4%, Endolimax nana 3.2%, Chilomastix mesnili 0.4%, Strongyloides stercoralis 0.1%, Hymenolepis nana 0.2% and Taenia sagi­nata 0.2%. Coccidian parasites were not found. Results show that infection with intestinal parasites does not statistically significant according to sex and age."nConclusion: The intestinal parasites, especially helminthic infections have been decreased during re­cent years.

  18. Intestinal microbiota: its role in digestive diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos Fernandez, Luis M; Lasa, Juan S; Man, Fernando

    2014-09-01

    It is now well known that intestinal microbiota exerts not only several physiological functions, but has also been implied in the mechanisms of many conditions, both intestinal and extraintestinal. These advances, to the best of our knowledge, have been made possible by the development of new ways of studying gut flora. Metagenomics, the study of genetic material taken directly from environmental samples, avoiding individual culture, has become an excellent tool to study the human microbiota. Therefore, it has demonstrated an association between an altered intestinal microbiota and inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome, perhaps the most extensively studied conditions associated with this particular subject. However, microbiota has a potential role in the development of other diseases; their manifestations are not confined to the intestine only. In this article, an extensive updated review is conducted on the role intestinal microbiota has in health and in different diseases. Focus is made on the following conditions: inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease, hepatic encephalopathy, and obesity.

  19. [Nephrolithiasis in patients with intestinal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, M; Iudici, M; Marcarelli, F; Laudato, M; Zincone, F

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal diseases may cause the formation of urinary stones through changes in the metabolism of oxalate, calcium, and uric acid. The oxalate that is excreted into urine comes from the catabolism of ascorbic acid and some amino acids or from intestinal absorption of food oxalate. Calcium is absorbed by the gut after the stimulation of active vitamin D and is excreted by the kidney under the control of the bone/parathyroid hormone axis. Uric acid is generated by the oxidation of exogenous and endogenous purine bases, is excreted by the kidney through glomerular filtration/tubular secretion, and is soluble in alkaline urine. Several data indicate that patients with inflammatory bowel diseases are at high risk of urinary stones containing calcium-oxalate salt or uric acid. Calcium-oxalate stones are caused by colonic oxalate hyperabsorption (secondary to intestinal dysfunction) or by parenteral nutrition. Uric acid stones are typical of patients with severe diarrhea and/or intestinal neostomy, that is, in patients with hyperconcentrated acidic urine. Relationships between malabsorptive intestinal diseases and urinary stones are less well defined. Preventive countermeasures are not the same for all disorders. Hyperoxaluria should be controlled by diets with a low content of lipids and oxalate but supplemented with calcium and probiotics. The presence of hyperconcentrated acidic urine should be controlled by correct hydration and administration of citrate.

  20. Intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Azami

    Full Text Available The impact of intestinal parasitic infection in renal transplant recipients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients in Iran. Stool specimens from renal transplant recipients and control groups were obtained between June 2006 and January 2007. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, Sheather's flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. Out of 150 renal transplant recipients, 33.3% (50, and out of 225 control group, 20% (45 were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. The parasites detected among patients included Entamoeba coli (10.6%, Endolimax nana (8.7%, Giardia lamblia (7.4%, Blastocystis spp. (4.7%, Iodamoeba butschlii (0.7%, Chilomastix mesnili (0.7% and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%. Multiple infections were more common among renal transplant recipients group (p < 0.05. This study highlights the importance of testing for intestinal parasites among Iranian renal transplant recipients. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the renal transplant recipients by contributing to reduce severe infections.

  1. Intestinal spirochetosis: an enigmatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Nicholas E; Blackwell, James; Ahrens, William; Lovell, Roger; Scobey, Martin W

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal spirochetosis (IS) is a condition in which colonic and appendiceal epithelial cells are colonized by one of two anaerobic spirochetes, either the Brachyspira aalborgi or Brachyspira pilosicoli. There is much debate in the literature as to whether IS is a pathogen or a commensal inhabitant. A recent case of IS at our institution prompted a retrospective database search and review of the literature. A pathology database search for IS was performed at Carolinas Medical Center from 2003 through 2007. After patient identification, a retrospective review of the endoscopic record and the pathology report was performed. Pathology slides were reviewed for accuracy and special silver stains and/or immunostains were performed if needed. The following data were collected for each patient when available: age, gender, nationality, HIV status, and other co-morbid conditions when noted. We attempted to determine whether patients were treated for spirochetosis and if so, the treatment regimen used as well as the results. The database search detected 29 patients with biopsies showing IS. Three patients were subsequently removed due to incorrect identification. A total of 26 patients with an average age of 45 years were reviewed. The most common symptoms were abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding. Most patients did not exhibit inflammatory changes despite the presence of spirochetosis. Pathologic examination revealed a relative increase in intra-epithelial lymphocytes in a subset of cases, a non-specific finding. Acute colitis or architectural distortion was not seen in any of the study cases. We were only able to obtain follow-up of two patients after treatment with metronidazole and both responded to therapy. To date, our study is the largest case series that includes both endoscopic and pathologic descriptions and confirms the "bland" nature of the condition. In <20 % of our patients inflammation was present microscopically and it did not correlate well with

  2. Small intestinal obstruction in pregnancy and puerperium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiedozi Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of intestinal obstruction in pregnancy and puerperium is worsened by the risk it poses not just to the mother, but also to the fetus. In this review of 10 pregnant/puerperium patients the maternal mortality was 10% and fetal wastage 20%. In pregnancy and puerperium, intestinal obstruction carries a higher mortality, 10-33%, than in non-pregnant patients, 6-10%. The rarity of the problem, delay in diagnosis, anxiety over radiological examination in pregnant women, worry over laparotomy in pregnant women, all result in delay in instituting definite treatment and contribute to the morbidity. Application of established principles in the management of intestinal obstruction even when it occurs in pregnancy and puerperium might help to improve the results of management and reduce the current level of morbidity and mortality.

  3. [Intestinal stimulation in patients with colostomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Ramón Ruiz

    2011-12-01

    We presented/displayed our experience in the recovery of the evacuator function of the intestine in patients entered in our service with direction diagnoses of Ileo Paralitico or Adinámico (Functional), that by some cause has been taken part surgically and is carrying of a temporary or permanent colostomia. Our experience is based on more than 10 patients, but we have only gathered the data of ten clinical histories. This stimulation we have obtained it, introducing a sounding Foley type through estoma, trying not to produce to the patient the minimum annoyance to him. We have looked for justification, as much physiological as anatomical, that it entails this answer of recovery of the intestinal peristaltismo, using body solid and not liquid, with idea that thus we respected better the normal intestinal operation in these patients, that already has it altered, to the being carrying of a colostomia.

  4. Seronegative Intestinal Villous Atrophy: A Diagnostic Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Martins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is the most important cause of intestinal villous atrophy. Seronegative intestinal villous atrophy, including those that are nonresponsive to a gluten-free diet, is a diagnostic challenge. In these cases, before establishing the diagnosis of seronegative celiac disease, alternative etiologies of atrophic enteropathy should be considered. Recently, a new clinical entity responsible for seronegative villous atrophy was described—olmesartan-induced sprue-like enteropathy. Herein, we report two uncommon cases of atrophic enteropathy in patients with arterial hypertension under olmesartan, who presented with severe chronic diarrhea and significant involuntary weight loss. Further investigation revealed intestinal villous atrophy and intraepithelial lymphocytosis. Celiac disease and other causes of villous atrophy were ruled out. Drug-induced enteropathy was suspected and clinical improvement and histologic recovery were verified after olmesartan withdrawal. These cases highlight the importance for clinicians to maintain a high index of suspicion for olmesartan as a precipitant of sprue-like enteropathy.

  5. Mucosal immunity to pathogenic intestinal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Lopez, Araceli; Behnsen, Judith; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; Raffatellu, Manuela

    2016-03-01

    The intestinal mucosa is a particularly dynamic environment in which the host constantly interacts with trillions of commensal microorganisms, known as the microbiota, and periodically interacts with pathogens of diverse nature. In this Review, we discuss how mucosal immunity is controlled in response to enteric bacterial pathogens, with a focus on the species that cause morbidity and mortality in humans. We explain how the microbiota can shape the immune response to pathogenic bacteria, and we detail innate and adaptive immune mechanisms that drive protective immunity against these pathogens. The vast diversity of the microbiota, pathogens and immune responses encountered in the intestines precludes discussion of all of the relevant players in this Review. Instead, we aim to provide a representative overview of how the intestinal immune system responds to pathogenic bacteria.

  6. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia with generalized warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Jae; Song, Hyun Joo; Boo, Sun-Jin; Na, Soo-Young; Kim, Heung Up; Hyun, Chang Lim

    2015-07-21

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare protein-losing enteropathy with lymphatic leakage into the small intestine. Dilated lymphatics in the small intestinal wall and mesentery are observed in this disease. Laboratory tests of PIL patients revealed hypoalbuminemia, lymphocytopenia, hypogammaglobulinemia and increased stool α-1 antitrypsin clearance. Cell-mediated immunodeficiency is also present in PIL patients because of loss of lymphocytes. As a result, the patients are vulnerable to chronic viral infection and lymphoma. However, cases of PIL with chronic viral infection, such as human papilloma virus-induced warts, are rarely reported. We report a rare case of PIL with generalized warts in a 36-year-old male patient. PIL was diagnosed by capsule endoscopy and colonoscopic biopsy with histological tissue confirmation. Generalized warts were observed on the head, chest, abdomen, back, anus, and upper and lower extremities, including the hands and feet of the patient.

  7. [Intestinal helminthiasis in the Mexican Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, J; Ruiz, A; Sánchez Vega, J T; Romero-Cabello, R; Robert, L; Becerril, M A

    1995-01-01

    Very few uncertain and not trustworthy reports about the frequency of intestinal helminthiases found in humans have been made in México. However, with the few trustful studies carried out from 1981 to 1992, it is possible in México to verify that ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm infection and hymenolepiasis are present with significant percentages of infected people 11.2%, 1.7%, 0.15% and 1.8%, respectively. With the information obtained from the researches analyzed in this article, one can conclude that human infections by intestinal helminths in México, at the present time are almost as frequent as in past decades. Without any doubt, this occurs because still remain the factors that contribute to the persistence and spreading of the intestinal helminths, such as fecalism, poor hygienic and alimentary habits within deficient environmental sanitary conditions.

  8. Sensing via intestinal sweet taste pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L Young

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The detection of nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract is of fundamental significance to the control of motility, glycaemia and energy intake, and yet we barely know the most fundamental aspects of this process. This is in stark contrast to the mechanisms underlying the detection of lingual taste, which have been increasingly well characterised in recent years, and which provide an excellent starting point for characterising nutrient detection in the intestine. This review focuses on the form and function of sweet taste transduction mechanisms identified in the intestinal tract; it does not focus on sensors for fatty acids or proteins. It examines the intestinal cell types equipped with sweet taste transduction molecules in animals and humans, their location, and potential signals that transduce the presence of nutrients to neural pathways involved in reflex control of gastrointestinal motility.

  9. Small Bowel Obstruction due to Intestinal Xanthomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Barrera-Herrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast majority of bowel obstruction is due to postoperative adhesions, malignancy, intestinal inflammatory disease, and hernias; however, knowledge of other uncommon causes is critical to establish a prompt treatment and decrease mortality. Xanthomatosis is produced by accumulation of cholesterol-rich foamy macrophages. Intestinal xanthomatosis is an uncommon nonneoplastic lesion that may cause small bowel obstruction and several cases have been reported in the English literature as obstruction in the jejunum. We report a case of small intestinal xanthomatosis occurring in a 51-year-old female who presented with one day of copious vomiting and intermittent abdominal pain. Radiologic images revealed jejunal loop thickening and inflammatory changes suggestive of foreign body obstruction, diagnostic laparoscopy found two strictures at the jejunum, and a pathologic examination confirmed a segmental small bowel xanthomatosis. This case illustrates that obstruction even without predisposing factors such as hyperlipidemia or lymphoproliferative disorders.

  10. Transcriptome changes during intestinal cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadjali, Mehrdad; Seidelin, Jakob B; Olsen, Jørgen Lillelund

    2002-01-01

    The expression of 18149 genes have been analysed during the differentiation of the human intestinal cell line Caco-2. cDNA probes from undifferentiated and differentiated Caco-2 cells were separately hybridised to EST DNAs spotted in an array on a nylon membrane. A remarkable change...... in the transcriptome was observed during the differentiation of the Caco-2 cells. 8762 of the 18149 genes analysed were expressed above background level in the undifferentiated Caco-2 cells, whereas only 5767 genes were expressed above background in differentiated Caco-2 cells. This pattern of expression was caused...... by a general down-regulation of genes in the low abundance class. Similar results were found using mouse small intestinal crypt and villus cells, suggesting that the phenomenon also occurs in the intestine in vivo. The expression data were subsequently used in a search for markers for subsets of epithelial...

  11. [Changes of Intestinal Mucosal Barrier and Intestinal Flora in Rats with Severe Acute Pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wu, Hao; Deng, Yiyun; Liao, Ruyi; Xi, Lili; Yao, Ping

    2015-04-01

    This paper is to explore changes of intestinal mucosal barrier, intestinal flora, and bacterial translocation in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Twenty four male SD rats were randomly divided into the control group (n = 10) and the experimental group (n = 14). The model of severe acute pancreatitis of rats was induced by the method of injecting adversely 5% sodium taurocholate into the common biliary-pancreatic duct. All of the rats were killed after 24 hours and the level of the serum amylase and the plasma endotoxin was determined after that. The pathological changes of pancreas and small intestine were observed through hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE staining) and the abdominal viscera bacterial translocation rates were tested. With the method of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) the quantity of the intestinal flora was analyzed. In the control group, the level of Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were 2.08 ± 1.29, 11.04 ± 7.55 and 12.21 ± 4.95, respectively. On the contrast, the level of Escherichia coli in the cecum contents was much higher (9.72 ± 3.58, P intestines were also significantly higher (P intestinal mucosal barrier was severely damaged and the dysbacteriosis occurs in the intestinal canal. And these might relate to the occurrence and development of multiple organ infection.

  12. Developmental changes in distribution of the mucous gel layer and intestinal permeability in rat small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iiboshi, Y; Nezu, R; Khan, J; Chen, K; Cui, L; Yoshida, H; Wasa, M; Fukuzawa, M; Kamata, S; Takagi, Y; Okada, A

    1996-01-01

    From the developmental aspects, the distribution of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran 70,000 (FTTC-dextran) and mucous gel across the lumen of small intestine was observed as an investigation into the role of mucous gel on intestinal permeability. Furthermore, the effect of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a mucolytic agent, on intestinal permeability was examined. In suckling and weaned rats, FTTC-dextran (750 mg/kg body wt) was gavage-fed. After 3 hours, blood samples were taken by cardiac puncture to analyze plasma FTTC-dextran by fluorescence spectrometry. Samples of small intestine with luminal contents were frozen and sectioned in a cryostat for fluorescence microscopy; the same sections were placed in a 0.2% celloidin solution to preserve mucous gel and were stained by periodic acid-Schiff reaction for light microscopy. In weaned rats, intestinal permeability was examined with different concentrations of intraluminally instilled NAC. The plasma level of FTTC-dextran showed a significant increase (p mucus but filled with FTTC-dextran in suckling rats, whereas the spaces were filled with mucus and not filled with FTTC-dextran in weaned rats. Intestinal permeability in groups with NAC were significantly higher (p NAC. These results suggest that an increase in the mucous gel layer that coats the epithelial lining according to the maturation of the gastrointestinal tract is one of the most important factors for a restriction in intestinal permeability.

  13. PROBLEMATIC ISSUES OF COMBINED INTESTINAL INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Shkarin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The  article  presents the  possible combinations of intestinal   infections of  various   etiologies, some   pathogenetic, clinical  and  epidemiological features and  problems of epidemiological surveillance and  control  of  associated infections.  Details  the  combination of typhoid fever,  shigelloses, salmonelloses, yersiniosis, pseudotuberculosis, rotavirus and norovirus infections between itself  and  other  infectious and parasitic diseases. Discusses the clinical  and  epidemiological features different combinations of intestinal infections. It is shown  that  the proportion of combined intestinal infections  can reach  to 48.9±3.3% in the structure of all associated  infections. The proportion of combination of two intestinal  infections pathogens was  29,2±6,5%, 3 agents and 10,3±4,3% and  4 pathogens and  5,9±11,6 percent. In the overall structure of the combination of intestinal anthroponoses with anthroponoses was 61,9±5,3%, anthroponoses with zoonoses was 31,1±5,0%, the other combinations (zoonoses and  zoonoses, zoonoses and  sapronoses, antroponoses with zoonoses and  sapronoses of  7,0±9,3  percent. The  article raises  the  question of  the  need to  introduce into  existing regulatory framework the  new  scientific data  on the  whole range of features of the epidemiology of intestinal infections combined.

  14. The intestinal ecosystem in chronic functional constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoppi, G; Cinquetti, M; Luciano, A; Benini, A; Muner, A; Bertazzoni Minelli, E

    1998-08-01

    Chronic functional constipation is common in infants, and the bacterial composition of stools in this condition is not known. The study aims were to: (i) investigate the composition of the intestinal ecosystem in chronic functional constipation; (ii) establish whether the addition of the water-holding agent calcium polycarbophil to the diet induces an improvement in constipation; and (iii) determine the composition of the intestinal ecosystem after the use of this agent. In total, 42 children (20F, 22M; mean age: 8.6 +/- 2.9 y) were studied. Twenty-eight children with functional chronic constipation without anatomical disorders were treated double-blind in random sequence for 1 month with an oral preparation of calcium polycarbophil (0.62 g/twice daily) or placebo. Intestinal flora composition was evaluated by standard microbiological methods and biochemical assays on faecal samples collected before and after treatment. Fourteen healthy children were studied as controls. The results show that (i) the constipated children presented a significant increase in clostridia and bifidobacteria in faeces compared to healthy subjects--different species of clostridia and enterobacteriaceae were frequently isolated; no generalized overgrowth was observed; Clostridia outnumbered bacteroides and E. coli mean counts by 2-3log, while bacteroides and E. coli counts were similar (5-6 log10/g fresh faeces); these intestinal disturbances could be defined as a dysbiosis, i.e. a quantitative alteration in the relative proportions of certain intestinal bacterial species. (ii) Clinical resolution of constipation was achieved only in 43% of treated children and an improvement in 21% (one bowel movement every 2 d). (iii) Calcium polycarbophil treatment induced no significant changes in the composition of the intestinal ecosystem, nor in blood chemistry parameters.

  15. Relationships between intestinal parasitosis and handedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslu, Hakan; Dane, Senol; Uyanik, M Hamidullah; Ayyildiz, Ahmet

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate if there is a possible relation between intestinal parasitosis and handedness in patients with suspected intestinal parasitosis. Hand preference was assessed on the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. Stool samples were examined microscopically for the presence of parasite. In the present study right-handers had many more helminth infections and left-handers had many more protozoon infections. Lower rate of helminth infections in the present study, and higher asthma incidences in the left-handed population in literature, may be associated with different immune machinery in left-handed people than in right-handed ones.

  16. Intestinal tuberculosis sometimes mimics Crohn's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esfandiar Shojaei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal tuberculosis is an uncommon presentation of tuberculosis (TB and has clinicopathological similarities with Crohn's disease. In regions where TB is endemic clinicians must aware of this condition and fully evaluate their patients when Crohn's disease is diagnosed. We recommend all pathologic specimens be evaluate effectively for TB.Smear,culture and PCR for Mycobacterium.tuberculosis from samples aside the pathological reviews help for better diagnosis. Here we present a case of intestinal tuberculosis which initially diagnosed as Crohn's disease but after starting immunosuppressive agents he presented with disseminated tuberculosis.

  17. Infections in intestinal and multivisceral transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpone, Joseph G; Girlanda, Raffaele; Rudolph, Lauren; Fishbein, Thomas M

    2013-06-01

    Intestinal and multivisceral transplantation has become an effective treatment option for patients with intestinal failure. More potent immunosuppressive therapy has resulted in a decreased incidence of acute rejection and has improved patient survival. However, infectious complications can cause significant morbidity both before and after transplantation. In comparison with other solid organ transplant recipients, these patients experience higher rates of acute allograft rejection, thus requiring higher levels of immunosuppression and escalating the risk of infection. This article reviews the most common infectious disease complications encountered, and proposes a potential temporal association for types of infections in this patient population.

  18. The Intestine: where amazing things happen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicola Gagliani; Samuel Huber; Richard A Flavell

    2012-01-01

    We all have been taught that the immune system is educated in the thymus;however,where the immune system receives the second lesson in order to be tolerant against non-harmful pathogens,such as commensal bacteria,has never been addressed.Considering that commensal bacteria colonize the intestine and that regulatory T (Treg) cells are enriched in this organ,one could think that the intestine is the place where this second lesson would occur.This idea was now sustained by the work of Lathrop et al.,which sheds new light on the complex mechanism of peripheral tolerance induction.

  19. OBSERVATION ON THE INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Rezaeian

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available During 1980-82, a total number of 4143 stool samples, from 2332 males and 1811 females, referred to the Central Laboratory of the School of Public Health, were examined for intestinal parasites. All the specimens were examined for intestinal parasites. All the specimens were examined by formol-ether concentration and wet-mount (ringer solution techniques. The main prevalent pathogenic parasites were Entamoeba histolytica (8.7%, Giardia lamblia (16.1%, and Hymenolepis nana (3.2%. The overall infection rate with protozoa, metazoan and both were 45%, 18.3% and 53.8% respectively.

  20. Ileal angiomyolipoma manifested by small intestinal intussusception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Ho Lee; Jong Hun Kim; Doo Hyun Yang; Yong Hwang; Myoung Jae Kang; Young Kon Kim; Min Ro Lee

    2009-01-01

    Angiomyolipomas (AMLs), a form of benign mesenchymal hamartoma, arise primarily in the kidneys of patients with or without tuberous sclerosis. Extra-renal AMLs are very rare and are most commonly found in the liver.AMLs of the small intestine are exceedingly rare. Here,a case of a 28-year-old man, who presented with ileal intussusception caused by ileal AML is reported. The clinicopathological and immunohistochemical findings of ileal AMLs are discussed and the literature on small intestinal AMLs is reviewed.

  1. Translational control of an intestinal microvillar enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; Cowell, G M; Sjöström, H

    1986-01-01

    The rates of biosynthesis of adult and foetal pig small-intestinal aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) were compared to determine at which level the expression of the microvillar enzyme is developmentally controlled. In organ-cultured explants, the rate of biosynthesis of foetal aminopeptidase N is only...... about 3% of the adult rate. The small amount synthesized occurs in a high-mannose-glycosylated, membrane-bound, form that is processed to the mature, complex-glycosylated, form at a markedly slower rate than that of the adult enzyme. Extracts of total RNA from adult and foetal intestine contained...

  2. Surface staining of small intestinal biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1977-01-01

    Small intestinal biopsies are most often by routine examined under a stereo-microscope, prior to embedding for histological examination. This is done in order to get a view of the appearance of the mucosal pattern, especially villus configuration. The distinctness of the surface pattern however......, is improved considerably if the biopsies are stained with Alcian Green and/or PAS before they are examined. In the present paper a detailed description is given of staining of small intestinal biopsies as whole mounts. The difference between the unstained and the stained biopsies is illustrated by a few...

  3. Relative roles of ABCG5/ABCG8 in liver and intestine[S

    OpenAIRE

    Jin WANG; Mitsche, Matthew A.; LÜTJOHANN, DIETER; Cohen, Jonathan C.; Xie, Xiao-Song; Hobbs, Helen H.

    2015-01-01

    ABCG5 (G5) and ABCG8 (G8) form a sterol transporter that acts in liver and intestine to prevent accumulation of dietary sterols. Mutations in either G5 or G8 cause sitosterolemia, a recessive disorder characterized by sterol accumulation and premature coronary atherosclerosis. Hepatic G5G8 mediates cholesterol excretion into bile, but the function and relative importance of intestinal G5G8 has not been defined. To determine the role of intestinal G5G8, we developed liver-specific (L-G5G8−/− )...

  4. Increased risk of complications in acute onset intestinal malrotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallberg, Sidsel Vang; Qvist, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal malrotation is a potentially life-threatening illness which presents in many different ways and the symptoms span from acute to chronic. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical presentation of intestinal malrotation at all ages....

  5. Sodium recirculation and isotonic transport in toad small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Signe Nielsen; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Ussing, Hans H.

    1999-01-01

    Small intestine; leaky epithelia; solute-coupled water transport; Na*O+ recirculation; lateral intercellular space; flux ratio analysi......Small intestine; leaky epithelia; solute-coupled water transport; Na*O+ recirculation; lateral intercellular space; flux ratio analysi...

  6. Diversity of human small intestinal Streptococcus and Veillonella populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogert, B. van den; Erkus, O.; Boekhorst, J.; Goffau, M. de; Smid, E.J.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular and cultivation approaches were employed to study the phylogenetic richness and temporal dynamics of Streptococcus and Veillonella populations in the small intestine. Microbial profiling of human small intestinal samples collected from four ileostomy subjects at four time points displayed

  7. ESPEN guidelines on chronic intestinal failure in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pironi, Loris; Arends, Jann; Bozzetti, Federico

    2016-01-01

    : The GLs were developed by the Home Artificial Nutrition & Chronic Intestinal Failure Special Interest Group of ESPEN. The GRADE system was used for assigning strength of evidence. Recommendations were discussed, submitted to Delphi rounds, and accepted in an online survey of ESPEN members. RESULTS......: The following topics were addressed: management of HPN; parenteral nutrition formulation; intestinal rehabilitation, medical therapies, and non-transplant surgery, for short bowel syndrome, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and radiation enteritis; intestinal transplantation; prevention/treatment of CVC...

  8. OPTN/SRTR 2013 Annual Data Report: intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J M; Skeans, M A; Horslen, S P; Edwards, E B; Harper, A M; Snyder, J J; Israni, A K; Kasiske, B L

    2015-01-01

    Despite improvements in medical and surgical treatment of intestinal failure over the past decade, intestine transplant continues to play an important role. Of 171 new patients added to the intestine transplant waiting list in 2013, 49% were listed for intestine-liver transplant and 51% for intestine transplant alone or with an organ other than liver. The pretransplant mortality rate decreased dramatically over time for all age groups, from 30.3 per 100 waitlist years in 2002-2003 to 6.9 for patients listed in 2012-2013. The number of intestine transplants decreased from 91 in 2009 to 51 in 2013; intestine-liver transplants decreased from 135 in 2007 to a low of 44 in 2012, but increased slightly to 58 in 2013. Ages of intestine and intestineliver transplant recipients have changed substantially; the number of adult recipients was double the number of pediatric recipients in 2013. Graft survival improved over the past decade. Graft failure in the first 90 days posttransplant occurred in 14.1% of intestine recipients and in 11.2% of intestine-liver recipients in 2013. The number of recipients alive with a functioning intestine graft has steadily increased since 2002, to 1012 in 2013; almost half were pediatric intestine-liver transplant recipients.

  9. Microdialysis in the assessment of regional intestinal ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Thorbjørn

     The Ph.D.thesis “Microdialysis in the assessment of regional intestinal ischemia” is based on three scientific papers. The diagnosis of intestinal ischemia remains a diagnostic challenge, since no technique has been able to monitor the intestinal perfusion continuously with a high sensitivity an...

  10. The small intestine microbiota, nutritional modulation and relevance for health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Aidy, Sahar; van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota plays a profound role in human health and extensive research has been dedicated to identify microbiota aberrations that are associated with disease. Most of this work has been targeting the large intestine and fecal microbiota, while the small intestine microbiota may also

  11. Analysis of Small Intestinal Microbiome in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    overgrowth of specific populations of bacteria and analyze the relationship between the intestinal flora and behavior. Our current sub-contractor...determine if there is an overgrowth of specific populations of bacteria and analyze the relationship between the intestinal flora and behavior. In aim 1, we...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0477 TITLE: Analysis of Small Intestinal Microbiome

  12. The small intestine microbiota, nutritional modulation and relevance for health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Aidy, Sahar; van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota plays a profound role in human health and extensive research has been dedicated to identify microbiota aberrations that are associated with disease. Most of this work has been targeting the large intestine and fecal microbiota, while the small intestine microbiota may also

  13. The Intestinal Tract: Structure, Function, Disorders and Related Medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Dianne M.

    This instructional guide is intended for use within inservice or continuing education programs for people who work in long-term care facilities. This module includes an overview of the normal functions of the small and large intestines and discusses the structures of the intestines, absorption in the intestines, and commonly occurring conditions…

  14. Community and genomic analysis of the human small intestine microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogert, van den B.

    2013-01-01

      Our intestinal tract is densely populated by different microbes, collectively called microbiota, of which the majority are bacteria. Research focusing on the intestinal microbiota often use fecal samples as a representative of the bacteria that inhabit the end of the large intestine. These s

  15. Clinical study on intestinal fatty acid binding protein and the endotoxin in early diagnosis of intestinal barrier dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔令尚

    2013-01-01

    Objective To screen the high specific and sensitivemonitoring indications in the diagnosis of intestinal barrier dysfunction.Methods A total of 70 critical patients with intestinal barrier dysfunction and acute physiology

  16. Intestinal Hypoganglionosis Leading to Intestinal Failure and the Compassionate Use of Omegaven™

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjoo, Sara; Danielson, Paul; Wilsey, Michael; Shakeel, Fauzia

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal hypoganglionosis is a rare innervation disorder that provides numerous nutritional, medical and surgical challenges. In this case report, we present a case of a newborn with intestinal hypoganglionosis leading to intestinal failure and intestinal failure-associated liver disease who responded to Omegaven™, a fat emulsion comprised of omega-3 fatty acids. Omegaven™ has been shown to be beneficial in the management of cholestatic liver injury. Clinical success with Omegaven™ was seen in this patient with a clear decrease in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and complete resolution of cholestasis with a direct bilirubin of zero within two weeks of initiation of Omegaven™. No current guidelines for the diagnosis and management of hypoganglionosis are available. We recommend a multidisciplinary approach and the use of novel therapies such as fat emulsions composed of omega-3 fatty acids for improved patient outcomes. Appropriate compassionate use protocols should be obtained from the Food and Drug Administration prior to initiation of Omegaven™.

  17. Intestinal obstruction by trichobezoars in five cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrs, V R; Beatty, J A; Tisdall, P L; Hunt, G B; Gunew, M; Nicoll, R G; Malik, R

    1999-12-01

    Between 1997 and 1999, five domestic crossbred cats (four long haired, one short haired) presented with a palpable abdominal mass and were shown to have small intestinal trichobezoars at laparotomy or necropsy. Hair balls were associated with partial or complete intestinal obstruction and were situated in the proximal jejunum to distal ileum. In four cats obstructions were simple, while the remaining cat had a strangulating obstruction. Three of the cats were 10 years or older, and two were less than 4 years. In the three older cats abdominal neoplasia was suspected and investigations were delayed or declined in two of these cats because of a perceived poor prognosis. Predisposing factors identified in this series of cats included a long-hair coat, flea allergy dermatitis, inflammatory bowel disease and ingestion of non-digestible plant material. This report shows that the ingestion of hair is not always innocuous and that intestinal trichobezoars should be considered in the differential diagnoses of intestinal obstruction and intra-abdominal mass lesions, particularly in long-haired cats.

  18. Intestinal perforation caused by multiple magnet ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergul Corduk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple magnet ingestion is rare, but can cause serious gastrointestinal complications. We report a case of 7-year-old girl with multiple intestinal perforations caused by multiple magnet ingestion. The aim of this report is to draw attention to magnetic toys, results of magnet ingestion and the importance of timing of operation.

  19. Persistently increased intestinal fraction of alkaline phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nathan, E; Baatrup, G; Berg, H

    1984-01-01

    Persistent elevation of the intestinal fraction of the alkaline phosphatase (API) as an isolated finding has to our knowledge not been reported previously. It was found in a boy followed during a period of 5.5 years. The only symptom was transient periodic fatigue observed at home, but not appare...

  20. CT of schistosomal calcification of the intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fataar, S.; Bassiony, H.; Satyanath, S.; Rudwan, M.; Hebbar, G.; Khalifa, A.; Cherian, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The spectrum of schistosomal colonic calcification on abdominal radiographs has been described. The appearance on computed tomography (CT) is equally distinctive and occurs with varying degrees of genitourinary calcification. The authors have experience in three cases with the appearance on CT of intestinal calcification due to schistosomiasis.

  1. Behavioural actions of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloet, E.R.; Cottrell, G.A.; Veldhuis, H.D.; Rostene, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was studied on fear-motivated behaviours, exploration of a novel environment and on novelty and ACTH-induced grooming. VIP was administered via a plastic cannula into the lateral ventricle. Retention of a step-through passive avoidance task was inhib

  2. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and human intestinal health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miquel, S.; Martin, R.; Rossi, O.; Bermudez-Humaran, L.G.; Chatel, J.M.; Sokol, H.; Thomas, M.; Wells, J.M.; Langella, P.

    2013-01-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is the most abundant bacterium in the human intestinal microbiota of healthy adults, representing more than 5% of the total bacterial population. Over the past five years, an increasing number of studies have clearly described the importance of this highly metabolically

  3. Mucin dynamics in intestinal bacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara K Lindén

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacterial gastroenteritis causes morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. Murine Citrobacter rodentium infection is a model for gastroenteritis caused by the human pathogens enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli. Mucin glycoproteins are the main component of the first barrier that bacteria encounter in the intestinal tract. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using Immunohistochemistry, we investigated intestinal expression of mucins (Alcian blue/PAS, Muc1, Muc2, Muc4, Muc5AC, Muc13 and Muc3/17 in healthy and C. rodentium infected mice. The majority of the C. rodentium infected mice developed systemic infection and colitis in the mid and distal colon by day 12. C. rodentium bound to the major secreted mucin, Muc2, in vitro, and high numbers of bacteria were found in secreted MUC2 in infected animals in vivo, indicating that mucins may limit bacterial access to the epithelial surface. In the small intestine, caecum and proximal colon, the mucin expression was similar in infected and non-infected animals. In the distal colonic epithelium, all secreted and cell surface mucins decreased with the exception of the Muc1 cell surface mucin which increased after infection (p<0.05. Similarly, during human infection Salmonella St Paul, Campylobacter jejuni and Clostridium difficile induced MUC1 in the colon. CONCLUSION: Major changes in both the cell-surface and secreted mucins occur in response to intestinal infection.

  4. The Intestinal Microbiota and Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringel, Yehuda; Ringel-Kulka, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most prevalent and the best studied functional gastrointestinal disorder. The etiology and the pathogenesis of IBS are still not clear; however, recent studies have implicated a role for alterations in the intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis) in the pathophysiology of the disorder. Epidemiological observations have demonstrated that the development of IBS symptoms is often preceded by a disruption of the individual's normal intestinal microbiota, and microbiological studies have demonstrated compositional differences in the intestinal microbiota between patients with IBS patients and healthy controls. In addition, animal studies and a few recent human clinical studies have demonstrated that compositional changes in the intestinal microbiota in IBS are associated with relevant abnormal gastrointestinal and brain-gut axis functions that are often observed in patients with IBS. This article discusses points of interest from the current research on the microbiota-gut-brain interactions in IBS and highlights the relevance of the emerging data to our understanding of the disorder and the clinical implications for patients' care.

  5. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and human intestinal health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miquel, S.; Martin, R.; Rossi, O.; Bermudez-Humaran, L.G.; Chatel, J.M.; Sokol, H.; Thomas, M.; Wells, J.M.; Langella, P.

    2013-01-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is the most abundant bacterium in the human intestinal microbiota of healthy adults, representing more than 5% of the total bacterial population. Over the past five years, an increasing number of studies have clearly described the importance of this highly metabolically

  6. Clinical Practice Guidelines for intestinal occlusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudis Miguel Monzón Rodríguez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical Practice Guidelines for intestinal occlusion. This document includes the main aspects related with classification, physiopathology, clinical diagnosis, complementary examinations and therapy aimed at the post-operatory treatment. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accomplished.

  7. Evidence for immunosurveillance in intestinal premalignant lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, M; Lindberg, K; Karlén, P; Ost, A; Thörn, M; Winqvist, O; Eberhardson, M

    2010-05-01

    The immunosurveillance theory argues that the immune system recognizes tumour-specific antigens expressed by transformed cells, which results in the destruction of cancer precursors before they become clinically manifest. As a model for the development of cancer, we set out to study premalignant lesions and immune responses in sentinel lymph nodes from patients with long-standing ulcerative colitis and progression of mucosal dysplasia. Mesenteric lymph nodes draining dysplastic and normal intestinal segments were identified by sentinel node technique during surgery in 13 patients with ulcerative colitis who were subjected to colectomy because of intestinal dysplasia. T cells were extracted from the lymph nodes and analysed by flow cytometry, and lymphocyte proliferation assays were set up in the presence of extracts from dysplastic and normal intestinal mucosa. Increase in CD4/CD8 ratio was observed in sentinel lymph nodes draining dysplastic epithelium compared to normal mucosa. The increase in CD4(+) T cells in relation to CD8(+) T cells correlated with the degree of dysplasia reflected by a significant increase in the ratio against low-grade dysplasia compared to indefinite dysplastic lesions. The T-cell response was specific to antigens from dysplastic epithelial lining as seen in proliferation assays. The observation suggests an important surveillance role for the immune system against premalignant intestinal lesions in patients with long-standing ulcerative colitis.

  8. Intestinal colonisation, microbiota and future probiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salminen, S.; Benno, Y.; Vos, de W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The human intestine is colonized by a large number of microorganisms, collectively termed microbiota, which support a variety of physiological functions. As the major part of the microbiota has not yet been cultured, molecular methods are required to determine microbial composition and the impact of

  9. Lymphoid cells in chicken intestinal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P

    1975-01-01

    The intraepithelial lymphoid cells of chicken small intestine were studied by light microscopy using 1 mu Epon sections, and by electron microscopy. Three cell types were found: small lymphocytes, large lymphoid cells, and granular cells. These cells correspond to the theliolymphocytes and globule...

  10. Obesity, fatty liver disease and intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Nur

    2014-11-28

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disorder that is increasing in prevalence with the worldwide epidemic of obesity. NAFLD is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. The term NAFLD describes a spectrum of liver pathology ranges from simple steatosis to steatosis with inflammation nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and even cirrhosis. Metabolic syndrome and NAFLD also predict hepatocellular carcinoma. Many genetic and environmental factors have been suggested to contribute to the development of obesity and NAFLD, but the exact mechanisms are not known. Intestinal ecosystem contains trillions of microorganisms including bacteria, Archaea, yeasts and viruses. Several studies support the relationship between the intestinal microbial changes and obesity and also its complications, including insulin resistance and NAFLD. Given that the gut and liver are connected by the portal venous system, it makes the liver more vulnerable to translocation of bacteria, bacterial products, endotoxins or secreted cytokines. Altered intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis) may stimulate hepatic fat deposition through several mechanisms: regulation of gut permeability, increasing low-grade inflammation, modulation of dietary choline metabolism, regulation of bile acid metabolism and producing endogenous ethanol. Regulation of intestinal microbial ecosystem by diet modifications or by using probiotics and prebiotics as a treatment for obesity and its complications might be the issue of further investigations.

  11. Lymphoid cells in chicken intestinal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P

    1975-01-01

    The intraepithelial lymphoid cells of chicken small intestine were studied by light microscopy using 1 mu Epon sections, and by electron microscopy. Three cell types were found: small lymphocytes, large lymphoid cells, and granular cells. These cells correspond to the theliolymphocytes and globule...

  12. [The complicated intestinal amebiasis in emergency surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostishev, V K; Khrupkin, V I; Afanas'ev, A N; Gorbacheva, I V; Bragin, M A

    2009-01-01

    18 patients with complicated forms of intestinal amebiasis were operated on acute appendicitis, liver abscess or total necrotic colitis. Appendectomy, abscess drainage and colon resection were performed respectively. There were no postoperative deaths. Features of amebic appendicitis and total necrotic amebic colitis are described using clinical cases demonstrations. Recommendations for the treatment of these forms of amebiasis are given.

  13. Unusual cause of neonatal intestinal obstruction | Zikavska ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unusual cause of neonatal intestinal obstruction. ... In some cases, diagnosis can be made prenatally but in others manifestation occurs after birth. The aim of this article is to ... Stenosis may result from extrinsic or intrinsic factors. It arises from ...

  14. Flow and mixing by small intestine villi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Y F; de Loubens, C; Love, R J; Lentle, R G; Janssen, P W M

    2015-06-01

    Flow and mixing in the small intestine are multi-scale processes. Flows at the scale of the villi (finger-like structures of ≈500 μm length) are poorly understood. We developed a three-dimensional lattice-Boltzmann model to gain insight into the effects of villous movements and the rheology of digesta on flow, mixing and absorption of nutrients at the periphery of the intestinal lumen. Our model simulated the hydrodynamic consequences of villi movements that resulted from folding of the mucosa during longitudinal contractions. We found that cyclic approximation and separation of groups of villi generated laminar eddies at the edges of the group and augmented mass transfers in the radial direction between the inter-villous space and the intestinal lumen which improved the absorption of nutrients and mixing at the periphery of the lumen. This augmentation was greater with highly diffusible nutrients and with high levels of shear-thinning (pseudoplasticity) of the fluid. We compared our results with bulk flows simulations done by previous workers and concluded that villous movements during longitudinal contractions is a major radial mixing mechanism in the small intestine and increases mixing and absorption around the mucosa despite adverse rheology.

  15. OSR1-sensitive small intestinal Na+ transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasham, V.; Pathare, G.T.; Fajol, A.; Rexhepaj, R.; Michael, D.; Pakladok, T.; Alesutan, I.; Rotte, A.; Foller, M.; Lang, F.

    2012-01-01

    The oxidative stress responsive kinase 1 (OSR1) contributes to WNK (with no K)-dependent regulation of renal tubular salt transport, renal salt excretion, and blood pressure. Little is known, however, about a role of OSR1 in the regulation of intestinal salt transport. The present study thus explore

  16. [Aberrant pancreas with a double intestinal location].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenon, K; Lethurgie, C; Bokobza, B

    2005-01-01

    The authors report one exceptional case of aberrant pancreas with a double intestinal location (jejunum and Meckel's diverticulum) in a thirty-year-old patient. Digestive haemorrhage and the abdominal colic were the revealing clinical signs. The enteroscopy guided by the enteroscanner, was the indicated complementary investigation for the preoperative diagnosis. The research of other locations during the operation should be systematic.

  17. Intestinal colonisation, microbiota and future probiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salminen, S.; Benno, Y.; Vos, de W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The human intestine is colonized by a large number of microorganisms, collectively termed microbiota, which support a variety of physiological functions. As the major part of the microbiota has not yet been cultured, molecular methods are required to determine microbial composition and the impact of

  18. Childhood malnutrition and the intestinal microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Anne V; Dinh, Duy M; Ward, Honorine D

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition contributes to almost half of all deaths in children under the age of 5 y, particularly those who live in resource-constrained areas. Those who survive frequently suffer from long-term sequelae including growth failure and neurodevelopmental impairment. Malnutrition is part of a vicious cycle of impaired immunity, recurrent infections, and worsening malnutrition. Recently, alterations in the gut microbiome have also been strongly implicated in childhood malnutrition. It has been suggested that malnutrition may delay the normal development of the gut microbiota in early childhood or force it toward an altered composition that lacks the required functions for healthy growth and/or increases the risk for intestinal inflammation. This review addresses our current understanding of the beneficial contributions of gut microbiota to human nutrition (and conversely the potential role of changes in that community to malnutrition), the process of acquiring an intestinal microbiome, potential influences of malnutrition on the developing microbiota, and the evidence directly linking alterations in the intestinal microbiome to childhood malnutrition. We review recent studies on the association between alterations in the intestinal microbiome and early childhood malnutrition and discuss them in the context of implications for intervention or prevention of the devastation caused by malnutrition.

  19. The Intestinal Wnt/TCF Signature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flier, L.G. van der; Sabates-Bellver, J.; Oving, I.; Haegebarth, A.; Palo, M. de; Anti, M.; Gijn, M.E. van; Suijkerbuijk, S; Wetering, M. van de; Marra, G.; Clevers, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: In colorectal cancer, activating mutations in the Wnt pathway transform epithelial cells through the inappropriate expression of a TCF4 target gene program, which is physiologically expressed in intestinal crypts. METHODS: We have now performed an exhaustive array-based analysis o

  20. INTESTINAL PSEUDOOBSTRUCTION IN MYOTONIC-DYSTROPHY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRUNNER, HG; HAMEL, BCJ; RIEU, P; HOWELER, CJ; PETERS, FTM

    1992-01-01

    We describe four myotonic dystrophy (DM) patients who developed recurrent intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Some episodes were associated with gastroenteritis, while abdominal crowding may have occurred in one case during the third trimester of pregnancy. In most instances, however, no apparent cause c

  1. Intestinal organoids as model for cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in adult stem cell culture technology have enabled long-term in vitro expansion of intestinal organoids or ‘mini-guts’. In this thesis, we used the organoid model to develop a novel assay to measure function of CFTR, the protein mutated in subjects with cystic fibrosis (CF). This met

  2. Intestinal permeability of metformin using single-pass intestinal perfusion in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nai-Ning Song; Quan-Sheng Li; Chang-Xiao Liu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the intestinal transport and mechanism of metformin in rats and to investigate whether or not metformin is a substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp).METHODS: The effective intestinal permeability of metformin was investigated using single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) technique in male Waster rats. SPIP was performed in three isolated intestinal segments (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) at the same concentration of metformin (50 μg/mL) to test if the intestinal transport of metformin exhibited sitedependent changes, and in a same isolated intestinal segment (duodenal segment) at three different concentrations of metformin (10, 50, 200 μg/mL) to test if the intestinal transport of metformin exhibited concentration-dependent changes. Besides, P-gp inhibitor verapamil (400 μg/mL) was co-perfused with metformin (50 μg/mL) in the duodenum segment to find out if the intestinal absorption of metformin was affected by P-gp exiting along the gastrointestinal track.Stability studies were conducted to ensure that the loss of metformin could be attributed to intestinal absorption.RESULTS: The effective permeability values (Peff) of metformin in the jejunum and ileum at 50 μg/mL were significantly lower than those in the duodenum at the same concentration. Besides, Peff values in the duodenum at high concentration (200 μg/mL) were found to be significantly lower than those at low and medium concentrations (10 and 50 μg/mL). Moreover the coperfusion with verapamil did not increase the Peff value of metformin at 50 μg/mL in the duodenum.CONCLUSION: Metformin could be absorbed from the whole intestine, with the main absorption site at duodenum. This concentration-dependent permeability behavior in the duodenum indicates that metformin is transported by both passive and active carrier-mediated saturable mechanism. The Peff value can not be increased by co-perfusion with verapamil, indicating that absorption of metformin is not efficiently transported by P

  3. Protection effect of Emodin pretreatment on intestinal I - RI damage of intestinal mucosa in ratsa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Jie Zhao; Shi-Ji Wang; Hong-Xiang Li; Li-Hua Dong; Huai-Jiang He; Zhong-Min Liu; Yu-Shan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To tinvestigate the protective effect and mechanism of emodin pretreatment on intestinal mucosa of rats with intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury.Methods:A total of50 SD rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, emodin groups of low, medium and high dose, with10 in each group.Ischemia-reperfusion injury(I-RI) mode was established by using noninvasive clamp on superior mesentericartery(SMA).Control group and model group were pretreated with0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose solution lavage2 h before operation, emodin groups of low, medium and high dose were given emodin lavage with20,40,60 mg/kg pretreatment, femoral venous blood before the lavage pretreatment(T0) and1 h ischemia(T1) , and inferior vena venous blood after1 h of reperfusion(T2) were extracted from each group of rats for detection of serum level of intestinal fatty acid binding protein(I-FABP), tumor necrosis factor(TNF-α), endotoxin, interleukin6(IL-6), and the content of diamine oxidase(DAO);After model establishment, the rats were sacrificed, intestine homogenate was prepared by using blind intestinal tissue to detect intestinal tissue myeloperoxidase(MPO), malondialdehyde(MDA) and superoxide dismutase(SOD) levels.And upper small intestine tissue was retrieved, followed by fixation and conventionalHE staining to observe intestinal tissue morphology under light microscopy.Results:In emodin groups of low, medium and high dose atT1 andT2,I -FABP, TNF-α, endotoxin,IL-6 andDAO level were significantly lower than that of model group(P<0.05); in emodin group of low,medium and high dose,MPO andMDA content in intestinal tissue homogenate was significantly lower than that in model group(P<0.05),SOD level was significantly higher than that of model group(P<0.05).Intestinal damage of emodin low, medium and high dose groups were significantly lighter than model group.Conclusions:Emodin pretreatment has certain protective effect on intestinal mucosa in ischemia reperfusion injury.

  4. [Intestinal occlusion and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagnitti, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Intestinal occlusion is defined as an independent predictive factor of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) which represents an independent predictor of mortality. Baggot in 1951 classified patients operated with intestinal occlusion as being at risk for IAH ("abdominal blow-out"), recommending them for open abdomen surgery proposed by Ogilvie. Abdominal surgery provokes IAH in 44.7% of cases with mortality which, in emergency, triples with respect to elective surgery (21.9% vs 6.8%). In particular, IAH is present in 61.2% of ileus and bowel distension and is responsible for 52% of mortality (54.8% in cases with intra-abdominal infection). These patients present with an increasing intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) which, over 20-25 mmHg, triggers an Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (ACS) with altered functions in some organs arriving at Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS). The intestine normally covers 58% of abdominal volume but when there is ileus distension, intestinal pneumatosis develops (third space) which can occupy up to 90% of the entire cavity. At this moment, Gastro Intestinal Failure (GIF) can appear, which is a specific independent risk factor of mortality, motor of "Organ Failure". The pathophysiological evolution has many factors in 45% of cases: intestinal pneumatosis is associated with mucosal and serous edema, capillary leakage with an increase in extra-cellular volume and peritoneal fluid collections (fourth space). The successive loss of the mucous barrier permits a bacterial translocation which includes bacteria, toxins, pro-inflammatory factors and oxygen free radicals facilitating the passage from an intra-abdominal to inter-systemic vicious cyrcle. IAH provokes the raising of the diaphragm, and vascular and visceral compressions which induce hypertension in the various spaces with compartmental characteristics. These trigger hypertension in the renal, hepatic, pelvic, thoracic, cardiac, intracranial, orbital and lower extremity areas, giving

  5. Fish oil enhances recovery of intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity in chronic rejection of intestinal transplant.

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    Qiurong Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The intestinal chronic rejection (CR is the major limitation to long-term survival of transplanted organs. This study aimed to investigate the interaction between intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity in chronic rejection of intestinal transplantation, and to find out whether fish oil enhances recovery of intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The luminal and mucosal microbiota composition of CR rats were characterized by DGGE analysis at 190 days after intestinal transplant. The specific bacterial species were determined by sequence analysis. Furthermore, changes in the localization of intestinal TJ proteins were examined by immunofluorescent staining. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that gut microbiota in CR rats had a shift towards Escherichia coli, Bacteroides spp and Clostridium spp and a decrease in the abundance of Lactobacillales bacteria in the intestines. Fish oil supplementation could enhance the recovery of gut microbiota, showing a significant decrease of gut bacterial proportions of E. coli and Bacteroides spp and an increase of Lactobacillales spp. In addition, CR rats showed pronounced alteration of tight junction, depicted by marked changes in epithelial cell ultrastructure and redistribution of occuldin and claudins as well as disruption in TJ barrier function. Fish oil administration ameliorated disruption of epithelial integrity in CR, which was associated with an improvement of the mucosal structure leading to improved tight junctions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study have presented novel evidence that fish oil is involved in the maintenance of epithelial TJ integrity and recovery of gut microbiota, which may have therapeutic potential against CR in intestinal transplantation.

  6. Transplante de intestino delgado Small intestine transplantation

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    Flávio Henrique Ferreira Galvão

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Avanços da biotecnologia e o desenvolvimento de novas drogas imunossupressoras melhoraram os resultados do transplante de intestino delgado. Esse transplante é atualmente indicado para casos especiais da falência intestinal. OBJETIVO: A presente revisão realça os recentes desenvolvimentos na área do transplante de intestino delgado. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Mais de 600 publicações de transplante de intestino delgado foram revisadas. O desenvolvimento da pesquisa, novas estratégias de imunossupressão, monitorização do enxerto e do receptor, e avanços na técnica cirúrgica são discutidos. RESULTADOS: Realizaram-se cerca de 700 transplante de intestino delgado em 55 centros: 44% intestino-fígado, 41% enxerto intestinal isolado e 15% transplante multivisceral. Rejeição e infecção são as principais limitações desse transplante. Sobrevida de 5 anos na experiência internacional é de 46% para o transplante de intestino isolado, 43% para o intestino-fígado e de cerca de 30% para o transplante multivisceral. Sobrevidas prolongadas são mais freqüentes nos centros com maior experiência. Em série de 165 transplantes intestinais na Universidade de Pittsburgh, PA, EUA, foi relatada sobrevida do paciente maior do que 75% no primeiro ano, 54% em 5 anos e 42% em 10 anos. Mais de 90% desses pacientes assumem dieta oral irrestrita. CONCLUSÃO: O transplante de intestino delgado evoluiu de estratégia experimental para uma alternativa viável no tratamento da falência intestinal permanente. Promover o refinamento da terapia imunossupressora, do manejo e prevenção de infecções, da técnica cirúrgica e da indicação e seleção adequada dos pacientes é crucial para melhorar a sobrevida desse transplante.BACKGROUND: Significant progress has been made in clinical small bowel transplantation over the last decade mainly due advances in biotechnology and new immunosuppressive regiments. This transplantation has now been indicated

  7. Precision cut intestinal slices are an appropriate ex vivo model to study NSAID-induced intestinal toxicity in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, Xiaoyu; de Graaf, Inge A. M.; van der Bij, Hendrik A.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used therapeutic agents, however, they are associated with a high prevalence of intestinal side effects. In this investigation, rat precision cut intestinal slices (PCIS) were evaluated as an ex vivo model to study NSAID-induced intestinal to

  8. Differential diagnosis of intestinal tuberculosis from Crohn′s disease and primary intestinal lymphoma in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Yan Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: There are many similarities and overlaps in clinical, radiological, endoscopic, and histological features among intestinal tuberculosis (ITB, Crohn′s disease (CD, and primary intestinal lymphoma (PIL, and the differential diagnosis of ITB can be very challenging for clinicians. Patients and Methods: The clinical, radiologic, endoscopic, and pathological data of 213 patients were analyzed retrospectively. According to the diagnostic criteria and exclusive criteria of ITB, CD, and PIL, 83 patients were recruited and divided into three groups, including 30 cases in the ITB group, 38 cases in the CD group, and 15 cases in the PIL group, and the medical data and statistical analysis were recorded. Results : Rural patients with abdominal pain as the first symptom and with transverse ulcer and caseating granulomas were more common in the ITB group than the CD group, whereas urban patients with stool change as the first symptom, moderate or severe anemia, thickening of intestinal wall, rectal involvement, skipping distribution, prominent lymphoid aggregates, and irregular glands were more common in CD group than ITB group (P < 0.05. Young patients (age < 30 years with fever, weakness, fatigue, abdominal mass, intestinal perforation, and emergent operation were more common in ITB group than PIL group, whereas thickening of intestinal wall, malignant lymphocytes, limited distribution, and involvement of small intestine occurred more in PIL group than ITB group (P < 0.05. Conclusion : The differential diagnosis of ITB from CD and PIL can be made by a combination of clinical manifestation, endoscopy, and pathological examinations.

  9. [Morphological changes of the intestine in experimental acute intestinal infection in the treatment of colloidal silver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polov'ian, E S; Chemich, N D; Moskalenko, R A; Romaniuk, A N

    2012-06-01

    At the present stage of infectionist practice in the treatment of acute intestinal infections caused by opportunistic microorganisms, colloidal silver is used with a particle size of 25 nm as an alternative to conventional causal therapy. In 32 rats, distributed in 4 groups of 8 animals each (intact; healthy, got colloidal silver; with a modeled acute intestinal infection in the basic treatment and with the addition of colloidal silver), histological examination was performed of small and large intestine of rats. Oral administration of colloidal silver at a dose of 0.02 mg/day to intact rats did not lead to changes in morphometric parameters compared to the norm, and during early convalescence in rats with acute intestinal infections were observed destructive and compensatory changes in the intestine, which depended on the treatment regimen. With the introduction of colloidal silver decreased activity of the inflammatory process and the severity of morphological changes in tissues of small and large intestine, indicating that the positive effect of study drug compared with baseline therapy.

  10. New insights in intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury: implications for intestinal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaerts, Kaatje; Ceulemans, Laurens J; Hundscheid, Inca H R; Grootjans, Joep; Dejong, Cornelis H C; Olde Damink, Steven W M

    2013-06-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury is inevitable during intestinal transplantation and can negatively affect the transplant outcome. Here, an overview is provided of the recent advances in the pathophysiological mechanisms of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury and how this may impact graft survival. The intestine hosts a wide range of microorganisms and its mucosa is heavily populated by immune cells. Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion results in the disruption of the epithelial lining, affecting also protective Paneth cells (antimicrobials) and goblet cells (mucus), and creates a more hostile intraluminal microenvironment. Consequently, both damage-associated molecular patterns as well as pathogen-associated molecular patterns are released from injured tissue and exogenous microorganisms, respectively. These 'danger' signals may synergistically activate the innate immune system. Exaggerated innate immune responses, involving neutrophils, mast cells, platelets, dendritic cells, as well as Toll-like receptors and complement proteins, may shape the adaptive T-cell response, thereby triggering the destructive alloimmune response toward the graft and resulting in transplant rejection. Innate immune activation as a consequence of ischemia-reperfusion injury may compromise engraftment of the intestine. More dedicated research is required to further establish this concept in man and to design more effective therapeutic strategies to better tolerize intestinal grafts.

  11. Effects of ceftriaxone-induced intestinal dysbacteriosis on dendritic cells of small intestine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Li, Weihua; Wen, Shu; Liu, Yinhui; Tang, Li

    2013-08-01

    Intestinal microflora plays a pivotal role in the development of the innate immune system and is essential in shaping adaptive immunity. Dysbacteriosis of intestinal microflora induces altered immune responses and results in disease susceptibility. Dendritic cells (DCs), the professional antigen-presenting cells, have gained increasing attention because they connect innate and adaptive immunity. They generate both immunity in response to stimulation by pathogenic bacteria and immune tolerance in the presence of commensal bacteria. However, few studies have examined the effects of intestinal dysbacteriosis on DCs. In this study, changes of DCs in the small intestine of mice under the condition of dysbacteriosis induced by ceftriaxone sodium were investigated. It was found that intragastric administration of ceftriaxone sodium caused severe dysteriosis in mice. Compared with controls, numbers of DCs in mice with dysbacteriosis increased significantly (P = 0.0001). However, the maturity and antigen-presenting ability of DCs were greatly reduced. In addition, there was a significant difference in secretion of IL-10 and IL-12 between DCs from mice with dysbacteriosis and controls. To conclude, ceftriaxone-induced intestinal dysbacteriosis strongly affected the numbers and functions of DCs. The present data suggest that intestinal microflora plays an important role in inducing and maintaining the functions of DCs and thus is essential for the connection between innate and adaptive immune responses.

  12. Determination of Intestine Inflammation Markers in Diagnostic Search in Children with Intestinal Diseases

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    N.V. Pavlenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Prevalence of bowel diseases in children is the second, trailing only the diseases of gastroduodenal zone and growing in recent years. Actual one is the problem of differential diagnosis of functional and inflammatory intestinal diseases using non-invasive methods on the prehospital stage and as a screening. Objective. Comparative analysis of fecal markers of the bowel inflammation (lactoferrine and calprotectine with endoscopy and morphology of intestinal mucosa in children. Matherials and methods. 49 children aged 6–18 years were examined. All patients underwent endoscopic and morphological study of the intestine, coprotest, determination of fecal markers of bowel inflammation (lactoferrin and calprotectine. Results. It is shown that in young children, the intestinal mucosa mainly hadn’t endoscopic changes, coprotest and morphological examination didn’t reveal the signs of inflammation, fecal intestinal inflammation markers were negative (p < 0.05. In the group of older children, moderate or marked catarrhal changes were found endoscopically, coprotest results were typical of inflammation in the intestines, it was morphologically proved the presence of chronic inflammation of the mucous membrane of the colon with signs of atrophy, the results of lactoferrin and calprotectine determination were positive (p < 0.05. Conclusion. The findings suggest that the evaluation of calprotectine and lactoferrin can be used in pediatric patients because of its non-invasiveness as diagnostic screening for the selection of patients for the further endoscopic examination and diagnostic search.

  13. Angiogenesis in tissue-engineered small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner-Thorpe, James; Grikscheit, Tracy C; Ito, Hiromichi; Perez, Alexander; Ashley, Stanley W; Vacanti, Joseph P; Whang, Edward E

    2003-12-01

    Tissue-engineered intestine offers promise as a potential novel therapy for short bowel syndrome. In this study we characterized the microvasculature and angiogenic growth factor profile of the engineered intestine. Twenty-three tissue-engineered small intestinal grafts were harvested from Lewis rat recipients 1 to 8 weeks after implantation. Architectural similarity to native bowel obtained from juvenile rats was assessed with hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. Capillary density, measured after immunohistochemical staining for CD34, was expressed as number of capillaries per 1000 nuclei. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) tissue levels were measured by ELISA and normalized to total protein. Over the 8-week period cysts increased in volume (0.5 cm(3) at week 1 versus 12.6 cm(3) at week 8) and mass (1.30 +/- 0.29 versus 9.74 +/- 0.3 g; mean +/- SEM). Muscular and mucosal layers increased in thickness, but capillary density remained constant (82.95 +/- 4.81 capillaries per 1000 nuclei). The VEGF level was significantly higher in juvenile rat bowel than in engineered cyst (147.6 +/- 23.9 versus 42.3 +/- 3.4 pg/mg; p < 0.001). Tissue bFGF levels were also higher (315 +/- 65.48 versus 162.3 +/- 15.09 pg/mg; p < 0.05). The mechanism driving angiogenesis differs in engineered intestine and in normal bowel. VEGF and bFGF delivery may prove useful for bioengineering of intestine.

  14. Clinical relevance of intestinal peptide uptake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh; James; Freeman

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine available information on an independent peptide transporter 1(Pep T1) and its potential relevance to treatment, this evaluation was completed.METHODS: Fully published English language literature articles sourced through Pub Med related to protein digestion and absorption, specifically human peptide and amino acid transport, were accessed and reviewed.Papers from 1970 to the present, with particular emphasis on the past decade, were examined. In addition,abstracted information translated to English in Pub Med was also included. Finally, studies and reviews relevant to nutrient or drug uptake, particularly in human intestine were included for evaluation. This work represents a summary of all of these studies with particular reference to peptide transporter mediated assimilation of nutrients and pharmacologically active medications.RESULTS: Assimilation of dietary protein in humans involves gastric and pancreatic enzyme hydrolysis to luminal oligopeptides and free amino acids. During the ensuing intestinal phase, these hydrolytic products are transported into the epithelial cell and, eventually, the portal vein. A critical component of this process is the uptake of intact di-peptides and tri-peptides by an independent Pep T1. A number of "peptide-mimetic" pharmaceutical agents may also be transported through this carrier, important for uptake of different antibiotics, antiviral agents and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. In addition, specific peptide products of intestinal bacteria may also be transported by Pep T1, with initiation and persistence of an immune response including increased cytokine production and associated intestinal inflammatory changes. Interestingly, these inflammatory changes may also be attenuated with orallyadministered anti-inflammatory tripeptides administered as site-specific nanoparticles and taken up by this Pep T1 transport protein. CONCLUSION: Further evaluation of the role of this transporter in treatment of

  15. Overview of intestinal adaptation and its stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M K; Ziegler, T R; Wilmore, D W

    1999-08-01

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) can be life-saving for many patients with short-bowel syndrome (SBS). However, chronic TPN administration is associated with nutritional deficiencies, septic complications, high health care costs, and life-threatening organ failure. In an effort to rehabilitate SBS patients so they may achieve enteral autonomy, investigators have attempted to stimulate the adaptive response following extensive small-bowel resection. Intestinal adaptation may include: 1) morphological changes of the residual bowel which increase the absorptive surface area; 2) functional changes that increase the absorptive capacity of individual enterocytes and colonocytes; and 3) changes in colonic production and absorption of short-chain fatty acids which improve intestinal vitality and maximize efficiency of energy and fluid absorption. Several peptides, nutrients, cytokines, and other factors promote intestinal adaptation in animals. These "growth" factors may predominantly affect one aspect of the adaptive response while having little or no effect on other physiologic or morphologic parameters. In addition, combined administration of stimulatory agents may be necessary to enhance adaptation. Dietary constituents may have profound positive and negative effects on adaptation and must be considered in developing an overall plan for treatment of the SBS patients. Only a few clinical studies have been performed to evaluate therapeutic regimens for SBS beyond standard supportive care and TPN administration. The combined administration of growth hormone, glutamine and a modified diet to over 225 adults has been shown to eliminate or decrease TPN dependence in 80% of patients receiving this therapy. Further study is required to optimize the treatment of humans with intestinal failure and to determine which patients are most likely to benefit from medical therapy. The authors conclude that the intestinal length to body weight index may be one predictive factor useful

  16. Role of Smooth Muscle in Intestinal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Collins

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion that smooth muscle function is altered in inflammation is prompted by clinical observations of altered motility in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. While altered motility may reflect inflammation-induced changes in intrinsic or extrinsic nerves to the gut, changes in gut hormone release and changes in muscle function, recent studies have provided in vitro evidence of altered muscle contractility in muscle resected from patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease. In addition, the observation that smooth muscle cells are more numerous and prominent in the strictured bowel of IBD patients compared with controls suggests that inflammation may alter the growth of intestinal smooth muscle. Thus, inflammation is associated with changes in smooth muscle growth and contractility that, in turn, contribute to important symptoms of IBD including diarrhea (from altered motility and pain (via either altered motility or stricture formation. The involvement of smooth muscle in this context may be as an innocent bystander, where cells and products of the inflammatory process induce alterations in muscle contractility and growth. However, it is likely that intestinal muscle cells play a more active role in the inflammatory process via the elaboration of mediators and trophic factors, including cytokines, and via the production of collagen. The concept of muscle cells as active participants in the intestinal inflammatory process is a new concept that is under intense study. This report summarizes current knowledge as it relates to these two aspects of altered muscle function (growth and contractility in the inflamed intestine, and will focus on mechanisms underlying these changes, based on data obtained from animal models of intestinal inflammation.

  17. Alternative Functional In Vitro Models of Human Intestinal Epithelia

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    Amanda L Kauffman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Physiologically relevant sources of absorptive intestinal epithelial cells are crucial for human drug transport studies. Human adenocarcinoma-derived intestinal cell lines, such as Caco-2, offer conveniences of easy culture maintenance and scalability, but do not fully recapitulate in vivo intestinal phenotypes. Additional sources of renewable physiologically relevant human intestinal cells would provide a much needed tool for drug discovery and intestinal physiology. We sought to evaluate and compare two alternative sources of human intestinal cells, commercially available primary human intestinal epithelial cells (hInEpCs and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC-derived intestinal cells to Caco-2, for use in in vitro transwell monolayer intestinal transport assays. To achieve this for iPSC-derived cells, our previously described 3-dimensional intestinal organogenesis method was adapted to transwell differentiation. Intestinal cells were assessed by marker expression through immunocytochemical and mRNA expression analyses, monolayer integrity through Transepithelial Electrical Resistance (TEER measurements and molecule permeability, and functionality by taking advantage the well-characterized intestinal transport mechanisms. In most cases, marker expression for primary hInEpCs and iPSC-derived cells appeared to be as good as or better than Caco-2. Furthermore, transwell monolayers exhibited high TEER with low permeability. Primary hInEpCs showed molecule efflux indicative of P-glycoprotein transport. Primary hInEpCs and iPSC-derived cells also showed neonatal Fc receptor-dependent binding of immunoglobulin G variants. Primary hInEpCs and iPSC-derived intestinal cells exhibit expected marker expression and demonstrate basic functional monolayer formation, similar to or better than Caco-2. These cells could offer an alternative source of human intestinal cells for understanding normal intestinal epithelial physiology and drug transport.

  18. 肠肌成纤维细胞与IBD相关肠纤维化%Role of intestinal myofibroblasts in IBD-associated intestinal fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋佳; 张晓岚

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal fibrosis is the complications of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), intestinal myofibro-blast cells are the key to intestinal fibrosis .Intestinal myofibroblasts and its interaction with inflammatory cells play an im-portant role in IBD-related intestinal fibrosis .

  19. Intestinal Transplant Inflammation: the Third Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroemer, Alexander; Cosentino, Christopher; Kaiser, Jason; Matsumoto, Cal S; Fishbein, Thomas M

    2016-11-01

    Intestinal transplantation is the most immunologically complex of all abdominal organ transplants. Understanding the role both humoral and innate and adaptive cellular immunity play in intestinal transplantation is critical to improving outcomes and increasing indications for patients suffering from intestinal failure. Recent findings highlighting the impact of donor-specific antibodies on intestinal allografts, the role of NOD2 as a key regulator of intestinal immunity, the protective effects of innate lymphoid cells, and the role of Th17 in acute cellular rejection are reviewed here.

  20. Berberine Reduces Uremia-Associated Intestinal Mucosal Barrier Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chao; Tan, Shanjun; Zhou, Chunyu; Zhu, Cuilin; Kang, Xin; Liu, Shuai; Zhao, Shuang; Fan, Shulin; Yu, Zhen; Peng, Ai; Wang, Zhen

    2016-11-01

    Berberine is one of the main active constituents of Rhizoma coptidis, a traditional Chinese medicine, and has long been used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of berberine on the intestinal mucosal barrier damage in a rat uremia model induced by the 5/6 kidney resection. Beginning at postoperative week 4, the uremia rats were treated with daily 150 mg/kg berberine by oral gavage for 6 weeks. To assess the intestinal mucosal barrier changes, blood samples were collected for measuring the serum D-lactate level, and terminal ileum tissue samples were used for analyses of intestinal permeability, myeloperoxidase activity, histopathology, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Berberine treatment resulted in significant decreases in the serum D-lactate level, intestinal permeability, intestinal myeloperoxidase activity, and intestinal mucosal and submucosal edema and inflammation, and the Chiu's scores assessed for intestinal mucosal injury. The intestinal MDA level was reduced and the intestinal SOD activity was increased following berberine treatment. In conclusion, berberine reduces intestinal mucosal barrier damage induced by uremia, which is most likely due to its anti-oxidative activity. It may be developed as a potential treatment for preserving intestinal mucosal barrier function in patients with uremia.

  1. Intestinal Cgi-58 deficiency reduces postprandial lipid absorption.

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    Ping Xie

    Full Text Available Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58, a lipid droplet (LD-associated protein, promotes intracellular triglyceride (TG hydrolysis in vitro. Mutations in human CGI-58 cause TG accumulation in numerous tissues including intestine. Enterocytes are thought not to store TG-rich LDs, but a fatty meal does induce temporary cytosolic accumulation of LDs. Accumulated LDs are eventually cleared out, implying existence of TG hydrolytic machinery in enterocytes. However, identities of proteins responsible for LD-TG hydrolysis remain unknown. Here we report that intestine-specific inactivation of CGI-58 in mice significantly reduces postprandial plasma TG concentrations and intestinal TG hydrolase activity, which is associated with a 4-fold increase in intestinal TG content and large cytosolic LD accumulation in absorptive enterocytes during the fasting state. Intestine-specific CGI-58 knockout mice also display mild yet significant decreases in intestinal fatty acid absorption and oxidation. Surprisingly, inactivation of CGI-58 in intestine significantly raises plasma and intestinal cholesterol, and reduces hepatic cholesterol, without altering intestinal cholesterol absorption and fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, intestinal CGI-58 is required for efficient postprandial lipoprotein-TG secretion and for maintaining hepatic and plasma lipid homeostasis. Our animal model will serve as a valuable tool to further define how intestinal fat metabolism influences the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  2. Intestinal Cgi-58 deficiency reduces postprandial lipid absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ping; Guo, Feng; Ma, Yinyan; Zhu, Hongling; Wang, Freddy; Xue, Bingzhong; Shi, Hang; Yang, Jian; Yu, Liqing

    2014-01-01

    Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58), a lipid droplet (LD)-associated protein, promotes intracellular triglyceride (TG) hydrolysis in vitro. Mutations in human CGI-58 cause TG accumulation in numerous tissues including intestine. Enterocytes are thought not to store TG-rich LDs, but a fatty meal does induce temporary cytosolic accumulation of LDs. Accumulated LDs are eventually cleared out, implying existence of TG hydrolytic machinery in enterocytes. However, identities of proteins responsible for LD-TG hydrolysis remain unknown. Here we report that intestine-specific inactivation of CGI-58 in mice significantly reduces postprandial plasma TG concentrations and intestinal TG hydrolase activity, which is associated with a 4-fold increase in intestinal TG content and large cytosolic LD accumulation in absorptive enterocytes during the fasting state. Intestine-specific CGI-58 knockout mice also display mild yet significant decreases in intestinal fatty acid absorption and oxidation. Surprisingly, inactivation of CGI-58 in intestine significantly raises plasma and intestinal cholesterol, and reduces hepatic cholesterol, without altering intestinal cholesterol absorption and fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, intestinal CGI-58 is required for efficient postprandial lipoprotein-TG secretion and for maintaining hepatic and plasma lipid homeostasis. Our animal model will serve as a valuable tool to further define how intestinal fat metabolism influences the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  3. Commensal bacteria promote migration of mast cells into the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunii, Junichi; Takahashi, Kyoko; Kasakura, Kazumi; Tsuda, Masato; Nakano, Kou; Hosono, Akira; Kaminogawa, Shuichi

    2011-06-01

    Mast cells differentiate from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow and migrate via the circulation to peripheral tissues, where they play a pivotal role in induction of both innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, the effect of intestinal commensal bacteria on the migration of mast cells into the intestine was investigated. Histochemical analyses showed that germ-free (GF) mice had lower mast cell densities in the small intestine than normal mice. It was also shown that GF mice had lower mast cell proportion out of lamina propria leukocytes in the small intestine and higher mast cell percentages in the blood than normal mice by flow cytometry. These results indicate that migration of mast cells from the blood to the intestine is promoted by intestinal commensal bacteria. In addition, MyD88⁻/⁻ mice had lower densities of intestinal mast cells than CV mice, suggesting that the promotive effect of commensals is, at least in part, TLR-dependent. The ligands of CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2), which is critical for homing of mast cells to the intestine, were expressed higher in intestinal tissues and in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) of normal mice than in those of GF or MyD88⁻/⁻ mice. Collectively, it is suggested that commensals promote migration of mast cells into the intestine through the induction of CXCR2 ligands from IECs in a TLR-dependent manner.

  4. The Role of the Intestinal Microcirculation in Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Daniel J.; Besner, Gail E.

    2013-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) continues to be a devastating inflammatory disease of the newborn intestine. Despite advances in management, morbidity and mortality remain high. While it is clear that intestinal ischemia plays a large role in disease pathogenesis, attempts to link NEC to intestinal macrovascular derangement have been largely unsuccessful. More recently, there has been a concerted effort to characterize the pathologic changes of the intestinal microcirculation in response to intestinal injury, including NEC. This microcirculatory regulation is controlled by a balance of vasoconstrictor and vasodilator forces. Vasoconstriction is mediated primarily by endothelin-1 (ET-1) while vasodilation is mediated primarily by nitric oxide (NO). These chemical mediators have been implicated in many aspects of intestinal ischemic injury and NEC, with the balance shifting towards increased vasoconstriction associated with intestinal injury. With a proper understanding of these antagonistic forces, potential therapeutic avenues may result from improving this pathologic microcirculatory dysregulation. PMID:23611611

  5. Protective effects of curcumin supplementation on intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okudan, N; Belviranlı, M; Gökbel, H; Oz, M; Kumak, A

    2013-07-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects curcumin on inflammation and oxidative stress markers in the intestinal ischemia reperfusion (IIR) injury induced rats. Rats were divided into four groups: sham (S), intestinal IR (IIR), curcumin plus sham (CS), and curcumin plus intestinal IR (CIIR). Curcumin was given 200 mg kg⁻¹ for 20 days. IIR was produced by 45 min of intestinal ischemia followed by a 120 min of reperfusion. Although interleukin-6 levels tended to increase in IIR group tumor necrosis factor-α levels were not different. Intestinal myeloperoxidase activity in CS group was lower than IIR group. In intestine and heart tissues, malondialdehyde levels in CS and CIIR groups were lower than S and IIR groups. Superoxide dismutase activity in CIIR group was higher than IIR group in intestine and lung tissues. Curcumin has a protective role against ischemia reperfusion injury.

  6. Intestinal mucus accumulation in a child with acutemyeloblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namık Özbek

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal mucus accumulation is a very rare situation observed in some solid tumors, intestinal inflammation, mucosal hyperplasia, elevated intestinal pressure, and various other diseases. However, it has never been described in acute myeloblastic leukemia. The pathogenesis of intestinal mucus accumulation is still not clear. Here, we report a 14-year-old girl with acute myeloblastic leukemia and febrile neutropenia in addition to typhlitis. She was also immobilized due to joint contractures of the lower extremities and had intestinal mucus accumulation, which was, at first, misdiagnosed as intestinal parasitosis. We speculate that typhlitis, immobilization and decreased intestinal motility due to usage of antiemetic drugs might have been the potential etiologic factors in this case. However, its impact on prognosis of the primary disease is unknown.

  7. Fatty acids, inflammation and intestinal health in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yulan

    2015-01-01

    The intestine is not only critical for nutrient digestion and absorption, but also is the largest immune organ in the body. However, in pig production, inflammation induced by numerous factors, such as pathogen infection and stresses (e.g., weaning), results in intestinal mucosal injury and dysfunction, and consequently results in poor growth of pigs. Dietary fatty acids not only play critical roles in energy homeostasis and cellular membrane composition, but also exert potent effects on intestinal development, immune function, and inflammatory response. Recent studies support potential therapeutic roles for specific fatty acids (short chain and medium chain fatty acids and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids) in intestinal inflammation of pigs. Results of these new lines of work indicate trophic and cytoprotective effects of fatty acids on intestinal integrity in pigs. In this article, we review the effect of inflammation on intestinal structure and function, and the role of specific fatty acids on intestinal health of pigs, especially under inflammatory conditions.

  8. Intestinal Stem Cell Markers in the Intestinal Metaplasia of Stomach and Barrett's Esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bo Gun; Lee, Byung Lan; Kim, Woo Ho

    2015-01-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) is a highly prevalent preneoplastic lesion; however, the molecular mechanisms regulating its development remain unclear. We have previously shown that a population of cells expressing the intestinal stem cell (ISC) marker LGR5 increases remarkably in IM. In this study, we further investigated the molecular characteristics of these LGR5+ cells in IM by examining the expression profile of several ISC markers. Notably, we found that ISC markers-including OLFM4 and EPHB2-are positively associated with the CDX2 expression in non-tumorous gastric tissues. This finding was confirmed in stomach lesions with or without metaplasia, which demonstrated that OLFM4 and EPHB2 expression gradually increased with metaplastic progression. Moreover, RNA in situ hybridization revealed that LGR5+ cells coexpress several ISC markers and remained confined to the base of metaplastic glands, reminiscent to that of normal intestinal crypts, whereas those in normal antral glands expressed none of these markers. Furthermore, a large number of ISC marker-expressing cells were diffusely distributed in gastric adenomas, suggesting that these markers may facilitate gastric tumorigenesis. In addition, Barrett's esophagus (BE)-which is histologically similar to intestinal metaplasia-exhibited a similar distribution of ISC markers, indicating the presence of a stem cell population with intestinal differentiation potential. In conclusion, we identified that LGR5+ cells in gastric IM and BE coexpress ISC markers, and exhibit the same expression profile as those found in normal intestinal crypts. Taken together, these results implicate an intestinal-like stem cell population in the pathogenesis of IM, and provide an important basis for understanding the development and maintenance of this disease.

  9. Intestinal Stem Cell Markers in the Intestinal Metaplasia of Stomach and Barrett's Esophagus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Gun Jang

    Full Text Available Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM is a highly prevalent preneoplastic lesion; however, the molecular mechanisms regulating its development remain unclear. We have previously shown that a population of cells expressing the intestinal stem cell (ISC marker LGR5 increases remarkably in IM. In this study, we further investigated the molecular characteristics of these LGR5+ cells in IM by examining the expression profile of several ISC markers. Notably, we found that ISC markers-including OLFM4 and EPHB2-are positively associated with the CDX2 expression in non-tumorous gastric tissues. This finding was confirmed in stomach lesions with or without metaplasia, which demonstrated that OLFM4 and EPHB2 expression gradually increased with metaplastic progression. Moreover, RNA in situ hybridization revealed that LGR5+ cells coexpress several ISC markers and remained confined to the base of metaplastic glands, reminiscent to that of normal intestinal crypts, whereas those in normal antral glands expressed none of these markers. Furthermore, a large number of ISC marker-expressing cells were diffusely distributed in gastric adenomas, suggesting that these markers may facilitate gastric tumorigenesis. In addition, Barrett's esophagus (BE-which is histologically similar to intestinal metaplasia-exhibited a similar distribution of ISC markers, indicating the presence of a stem cell population with intestinal differentiation potential. In conclusion, we identified that LGR5+ cells in gastric IM and BE coexpress ISC markers, and exhibit the same expression profile as those found in normal intestinal crypts. Taken together, these results implicate an intestinal-like stem cell population in the pathogenesis of IM, and provide an important basis for understanding the development and maintenance of this disease.

  10. Sexuality of people with intestinal ostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyelle Braga Rodrigues Cardoso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe the experience of sexuality and other everyday life aspects for people with intestinal ostomy. Methods: qualitative, descriptive study with ten participants of the Specialized Reference Unit who gave interviews with inductive content analysis. Results: the established themes were Physical, emotional and socio-cultural changes, Changes in the exercise of sexuality of people with intestinal ostomy and Importance of the interdisciplinary support of the new sexuality. These changes are linked to body image, the self-esteem and interpersonal relationships with the partner, family and friends, going beyond the visible with the emergence of fear, rejection, difficulty with new relationships, body shame, embarrassment by the collector equipment, fear of the sexual act causes damage to the stoma and difficult to talk about the condition. Conclusion: the ostomy condition requires adaptation process, requiring trained interdisciplinary team in physiological and psychosocial problems resulting from surgical and therapeutic adjuvant treatment, which hinder the sexuality of these individuals.

  11. Model prodrugs for the intestinal oligopeptide transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C U; Andersen, R; Brodin, Birger

    2001-01-01

    (sigma*) may influence the acid, water or base catalyzed model drug release rates, when released from series of D-Glu-Ala and D-Asp-Ala pro-moieties. Release rates were investigated in both aqueous solutions with varying pH, ionic strength, and buffer concentrations as well as in in vitro biological...... as Taft (sigma*) values, has a significant influence on the release rate of the model drug.......The human intestinal di/tri-peptide carrier, hPepT1, has been suggested as a target for increasing intestinal transport of low permeability compounds by creating prodrugs designed for the transporter. Model ester prodrugs using the stabilized dipeptides D-Glu-Ala and D-Asp-Ala as pro...

  12. [Snow white small intestinal villi in hypobetalipoproteinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerg, K J; Borchard, F; Luley, C; Schubert, G E

    1996-09-01

    In contrast to the severe clinical picture of abetalipoproteinemia patients with hypobetalipoproteinemia are often asymptomatic. We demonstrate a 52-years-old female patient with a white mucosa of the small intestine casually observed by endoscopy. The white appearance of the mucosa was limited to the villi. As demonstrated by light and transmission electron microscopy this was caused by fat loaded enterocytes similar to the picture of abetalipoproteinemia. Fasting serum lipids and apolipoproteins were only if the lower norm level for some parameters, but no increase of the serum lipids was observed after an oral fat load. Because of the missing symptoms, the typical histomorphology and laboratory findings the snow white mucosa of the small intestine is due by the hetocygote form of the autosomal dominant hypobetalipoproteinemia with fat loaded enterocytes.

  13. Relationship between intestinal microbiota and colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gokhan; Cipe; Ufuk; Oguz; Idiz; Deniz; Firat; Huseyin; Bektasoglu

    2015-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract hosts a complexand vast microbial community with up to 1011-1012 microorganisms colonizing the colon. The gut microbiota has a serious effect on homeostasis and pathogenesis through a number of mechanisms. In recent years, the relationship between the intestinal microbiota and sporadic colorectal cancer has attracted much scientific interest. Mechanisms underlying colonic carcinogenesis include the conversion of procarcinogenic diet-related factors to carcinogens and the stimulation of procarcinogenic signaling pathways in luminal epithelial cells. Understanding each of these mechanisms will facilitate future studies, leading to the development of novel strategies for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of colorectal cancer. In this review, we discuss the relationship between colorectal cancer and the intestinal microbiota.

  14. The intestinal microbiota and allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Marie-Claire; Finlay, Brett

    2014-11-01

    There is increasing evidence that environmental changes are involved in the sharp increase in asthma incidence, as well as with other immune-mediated diseases. This increase matches the introduction of modern life advances such as antibiotics and caesarean sections. Several epidemiological studies provide convincing evidence that a lack of exposure to microbes early in life is associated with later development of allergic asthma. In addition, animal studies have shown that early life modulation of the intestinal microbiota with antibiotics has profound effects in the immune cellular mechanisms that lead to asthma. By describing some of the most relevant human and animal studies in this field, we explore the concept that significant perturbations of the intestinal and perhaps the lung microbiota are a cause of allergic asthma.

  15. Intestinal microsporidiosis in African skink Mabuya perrotetii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudela, B; Didier, E S; Rogers, L B; Modrý, D; Kucerová, S

    1998-01-01

    Intestinal microsporidiosis was documented by detecting abundant slightly curved spores (2.9 x 1.2 microns) in the faeces of five of twelve skinks Mabuya perrotetii Duméril et Bibron, 1839 that originated from Ghana. Clinically, the microsporidiosis was characterized by decreased appetite, diarrhea, and weight loss. Histopathological changes consisted of villous atrophy, blunting of mucosa and flattening of individual epithelial cells in the large intestine. The ultrastructure of microsporidian spores was consistent with an Encephalitozoon species. The PCR-RFLP assay and the heteroduplex mobility shift analyses were used to verify that the skink microsporidian is a species of the genus Encephalitozoon Levaditi, Nicolau et Schoen, 1923 and indicate that this microsporidian is not E. hellem, E. intestinalis or a strain of E. cuniculi. The microsporidia in African skink represent an Encephalitozoon species morphologically identical to Encephalitozoon lacertae Canning, 1981.

  16. The pathophysiology of intestinal lipoprotein production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina eGiammanco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal lipoprotein production is a multistep process, essential for the absorption of dietary fats and fat-soluble vitamins. Chylomicron assembly begins in the endoplasmic reticulum with the formation of primordial, phospholipids-rich particles that are then transported to the Golgi for secretion. Several classes of transporters play a role in the selective uptake and/or export of lipids through the villus enterocytes. Once secreted in the lymph stream, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs are metabolized by Lipoprotein lipase (LPL, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of triacylglycerols of very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs and chylomicrons, thereby delivering free fatty acids to various tissues. Genetic mutations in the genes codifying for these proteins are responsible of different inherited disorders affecting chylomicron metabolism.This review focuses on the molecular pathways that modulate the uptake and the transport of lipoproteins of intestinal origin and it will highlight recent findings on TRLs assembly.

  17. Understanding drug resistance in human intestinal protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Taweel, Hend Aly

    2015-05-01

    Infections with intestinal protozoa continue to be a major health problem in many areas of the world. The widespread use of a limited number of therapeutic agents for their management and control raises concerns about development of drug resistance. Generally, the use of any antimicrobial agent should be accompanied by meticulous monitoring of its efficacy and measures to minimize resistance formation. Evidence for the occurrence of drug resistance in different intestinal protozoa comes from case studies and clinical trials, sometimes with a limited number of patients. Large-scale field-based assessment of drug resistance and drug sensitivity testing of clinical isolates are needed. Furthermore, the association of drug resistance with certain geographic isolates or genotypes deserves consideration. Drug resistance has been triggered in vitro and has been linked to modification of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, nitroreductases, antioxidant defense, or cytoskeletal system. Further mechanistic studies will have important implications in the development of second generation therapeutic agents.

  18. Esophageal stent migration leads to intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguzhan Karatepe

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-expanding metallic stents are the devices of choice in the treatment of malign or benign strictures of esophagus. Stent migration is a well-known complication of this procedure. Aims: We report a case of intestinal obstruction caused by esophageal stent migration, in which surgical intervention was used. Methods: A 65-year-old woman, who had a medical history of gastric cancer operation and esophageal stent application admitted to our emergeny department with a 48-hour history of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. An emergeny laparotomy was performed and the migrated stent leading to intestinal obstruction was removed. Results: The patient recovered without incident and was discharged on postoperative day 3. Conclusion: This case illustrates that esophageal stent migration has to be considered as a potential life-threatening complication.

  19. Mulberry anthocyanin biotransformation by intestinal probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing-Rong; Liu, Xue-Ming; Chen, Zhi-Yi; Zhang, You-Sheng; Zhang, Ye-Hui

    2016-12-15

    This study was designed to evaluate mulberry anthocyanins bioconversion traits for intestinal probiotics. Five intestinal beneficial bacteria were incubated with mulberry anthocyanins under anaerobic conditions at 37°C, and bacterial β-glucosidase activity and anthocyanin level were determined. Results demonstrated that all strains could convert mulberry anthocyanins to some extent. With high β-glucosidase production capacity, Streptococcus thermophiles GIM 1.321 and Lactobacillus plantarum GIM 1.35 degraded mulberry anthocyanins by 46.17% and 43.62%, respectively. Mulberry anthocyanins were mainly biotransformed to chlorogenic acid, crypto-chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid during the anaerobic process. Non-enzymatic deglycosylation of anthocyanins also occurred and approximately 19.42% of the anthocyanins were degraded within 48h by this method.

  20. Multifocal stenosing ulceration of the small intestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2009-01-01

    Several reports have described an apparently uncommon clinicopathological disorder that is characterized by multifocal stenosing small-intestinal ulceration. Compared to Crohn's disease, the ulcers are not transmural and typically remain shallow, and involve only the mucosa and submucosa. The disorder seems to be localized in the jejunum and proximal ileum only, and not the distal ileum or colon. Only nonspecific inflammatory changes are present without giant cells or other typical features of granulomatous inflammation. Most patients present clinically with recurrent obstructive events that usually respond to steroids, surgical resection, or both. With the development of newer imaging modalities to visualize the small-intestinal mucosa, such as double-balloon enteroscopy, improved understanding of the long-term natural history of this apparently distinctive disorder should emerge.

  1. Intestinal micropatches for oral insulin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Amrita; Wong, Jessica; Gogoi, Rohan; Brown, Tyler; Mitragotri, Samir

    2017-03-19

    Diabetes mellitus has become a major public health issue that has almost reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Injectable insulin has been typically utilized for the management of this chronic disease. However, lack of patient compliance with injectable formulations has spurred the development of oral insulin formulations, which although appealing, face several delivery challenges. We have developed novel mucoadhesive intestinal patches, several hundred micrometers in dimension (micropatches) that address the challenges of oral insulin delivery. The micropatches adhere to the intestinal mucosa, release their drug load rapidly within 30 min and are effective in lowering blood glucose levels in vivo. When insulin-loaded micropatches were administered with a permeation enhancer and protease inhibitor, a peak efficacy of 34% drop in blood glucose levels was observed within 3 h. Efficacy further improved to 41% when micropatches were administered in multiple doses. Here, we describe the design of micropatches as an oral insulin formulation and report their in vivo efficacy.

  2. Intestinal obstruction for biliary lithiasis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Enrique Rodriguez Rodriguez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The biliary ileum is an infrequent complication of cholelithiasis, that is manifested as an intestinal obstruction, is more prevalent in aged people. The clinical square of the biliary ileum is diffuse and the Triad of Rigler is observed in less than 30% of the patient one. The surgical treatment goes from enterotomía and litotricia to the colecistectomía with treatment of the water-pipe. The case of a female, 86-year-old patient is presented that after a week of symptoms and of medical treatment it was detected the presence of a mechanical intestinal obstruction for which the patient underwent emergency surgery. As the cause of occlusion it was found a thick gallstone in a jejunal loop.

  3. Autophagy and tight junction proteins in the intestine and intestinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-An A. Hu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium (IE forms an indispensible barrier and interface between the intestinal interstitium and the luminal environment. The IE regulates water, ion and nutrient transport while providing a barrier against toxins, pathogens (bacteria, fungi and virus and antigens. The apical intercellular tight junctions (TJ are responsible for the paracellular barrier function and regulate trans-epithelial flux of ions and solutes between adjacent cells. Increased intestinal permeability caused by defects in the IE TJ barrier is considered an important pathogenic factor for the development of intestinal inflammation, diarrhea and malnutrition in humans and animals. In fact, defects in the IE TJ barrier allow increased antigenic penetration, resulting in an amplified inflammatory response in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, necrotizing enterocolitis and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Conversely, the beneficial enhancement of the intestinal TJ barrier has been shown to resolve intestinal inflammation and apoptosis in both animal models of IBD and human IBD. Autophagy (self-eating mechanism is an intracellular lysosome-dependent degradation and recycling pathway essential for cell survival and homeostasis. Dysregulated autophagy has been shown to be directly associated with many pathological processes, including IBD. Importantly, the crosstalk between IE TJ and autophagy has been revealed recently. We showed that autophagy enhanced IE TJ barrier function by increasing transepithelial resistance and reducing the paracellular permeability of small solutes and ions, which is, in part, by targeting claudin-2, a cation-selective, pore-forming, transmembrane TJ protein, for lysosome (autophagy-mediated degradation. Interestingly, previous studies have shown that the inflamed intestinal mucosa in patients with active IBD has increased claudin-2 expression. In addition, inflammatory cytokines (for example, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6

  4. Small intestinal bacteria overgrowth decreases small intestinal motility in the NASH rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-Chun Wu; Wei Zhao; Sheng Li

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To explore the relationship between small intestinal motility and small intestinal bacteria overgrowth (SIBO) in Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and to investigate the effect of SIBO on the pathogenesis of NASH in rats. The effect of cidomycin in alleviating severity of NASH is also studied.METHODS: Forty eight rats were randomly divided into NASH group (n = 16), cidomycin group (n = 16)and control group (n = 16). Then each group were subdivided into small intestinal motility group (n = 8),bacteria group (n = 8) respectively. A semi-solid colored marker was used for monitoring small intestinal transit.The proximal small intestine was harvested under sterile condition and processed for quantitation for aerobes (E. coli) and anaerobes (Lactobacilli). Liver pathologic score was calculated to qualify the severity of hepatitis.Serum ALT, AST levels were detected to evaluate the severity of hepatitis.RESULTS: Small intestinal transit was inhibited in NASH group (P < 0.01). Rats treated with cidomycin had higher small intestine transit rate than rats in NASH group (P < 0.01). High fat diet resulted in quantitative alterations in the aerobes (E. coli) but not in the anoerobics (Lactobacill). There was an increase in the number of E. coli in the proximal small intestinal flora in NASH group than in control group (1.70 ± 0.12 log10 (CFU/g) vs 1.28 ± 0.07 log10 (CFU/g), P < 0.01). TNF-a concentration was significantly higher in NASH group than in control group (1.13±0.15 mmol/L vs 0.57±0.09 mmol/L, P < 0.01). TNF-α concentration was lower in cidomycin group than in NASH group (0.63±0.09 mmol/L vs 1.13 ± 0.15 mmol/L, P < 0.01). Treatment with cidomycin showed its effect by significantly lowering serum ALT, AST and TNF-α levels of NASH rats.CONCLUSION: SIBO may decrease small intestinal movement in NASH rats. SIBO may be an important pathogenesis of Nash. And treatment with cidomycin by mouth can alleviate the severity of NASH.

  5. Prophylactic Ozone Administration Reduces Intestinal Mucosa Injury Induced by Intestinal Ischemia-Reperfusion in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozkan Onal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury is associated with mucosal damage and has a high rate of mortality. Various beneficial effects of ozone have been shown. The aim of the present study was to show the effects of ozone in ischemia reperfusion model in intestine. Material and Method. Twenty eight Wistar rats were randomized into four groups with seven rats in each group. Control group was administered serum physiologic (SF intraperitoneally (ip for five days. Ozone group was administered 1 mg/kg ozone ip for five days. Ischemia Reperfusion (IR group underwent superior mesenteric artery occlusion for one hour and then reperfusion for two hours. Ozone + IR group was administered 1 mg/kg ozone ip for five days and at sixth day IR model was applied. Rats were anesthetized with ketamine∖xyzlazine and their intracardiac blood was drawn completely and they were sacrificed. Intestinal tissue samples were examined under light microscope. Levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathioneperoxidase (GSH-Px, malondyaldehide (MDA, and protein carbonyl (PCO were analyzed in tissue samples. Total oxidant status (TOS, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC were analyzed in blood samples. Data were evaluated statistically by Kruskal Wallis test. Results. In the ozone administered group, degree of intestinal injury was not different from the control group. IR caused an increase in intestinal injury score. The intestinal epithelium maintained its integrity and decrease in intestinal injury score was detected in Ozone + IR group. SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT values were high in ozone group and low in IR. TOS parameter was highest in the IR group and the TAC parameter was highest in the ozone group and lowest in the IR group. Conclusion. In the present study, IR model caused an increase in intestinal injury.In the present study, ozone administration had an effect improving IR associated tissue injury. In the present study, ozone therapy

  6. Protective effects of ischemic postconditioning on intestinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DING Jun-tao

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To explore the protective effects of two types of ischemic postconditioning (IP on intestinal mucosa barrier in rabbits with crush injury of the hind limb. Methods: This study was conducted between August and December 2008 in the Department of Trauma Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China. The model of crush injury to the hind limb of rabbits was firstly developed by a 25 kg object with the right hind limbs fixed by wooden splints, and then two types of IP were established, including occluding/opening the common iliac artery and vein alternatively (traditional IP, IP A and binding/loosening the proximum of the injured hind limb alternatively (modified IP, IP B. Thirty-six male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: IP A group, IP B group and control group, with 12 rabbits in each group. The serum levels of diamine oxidase (DAO and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP were detected at 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours after injury. Pathological changes of ileum were examined at 24 hours after injury. Results: The serum levels of I-FABP at 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours after injury in both IP A and IP B groups had a significant decrease, compared with control group. DAO levels also showed the same change trend at 2 and 6 hours after injury, but showed no significant difference between two IP groups. No difference in pathological changes of ileum was found among the three groups. Conclusions: IP can protect intestinal mucosa barrier function on the model of hind limb crush injury in rabbits. Meanwhile the modified IP B shows the same protection as the traditional IP A, and is worth applying in clinic. Key words: Ischemic postconditioning; Crush syndrome; Intestinal mucosa

  7. Lubiprostone stimulates small intestinal mucin release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Lisle Robert C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lubiprostone is a synthetic bicyclic fatty acid derivative of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1 used for chronic constipation. The best known action of lubiprostone is simulation of Cl- dependent fluid secretion. In a mouse model of the genetic disease cystic fibrosis, we previously showed that in vivo administration of lubiprostone resulted in greater mucus accumulation in the small intestine. The aim of this study was to directly test whether lubiprostone stimulates intestinal mucin release. Methods Mucin release was measured by mounting segments (4-5 cm of mouse proximal-mid small intestine in an organ bath, allowing access to the perfusate (luminal and the bath (serosal solutions. Nifedipine (10-6 M and indomethacin (10-5 M were included in all solutions to inhibit smooth muscle activity and endogenous prostaglandin production, respectively. The tissue was equilibrated under flow for 30 min, using the perfusate collected during the final 10 min of the equilibration period to measure unstimulated release rate. Stimulus was then added to either the perfusate or the bath and the perfusate was collected for another 30 min to measure the stimulated mucin release rate. Mucin in perfusates was quantified by periodic acid-Schiff's base dot-blot assay, using purified pig gastric mucin as a standard. Results When applied luminally at 1 μM lubiprostone was ineffective at stimulating mucin release. When added to the serosal solution, 1 μM lubiprostone stimulated mucin release to ~300% of the unstimulated rate. As a positive control, serosal 1 μM prostaglandin E2 increased mucin release to ~400% of the unstimulated rate. Conclusions These results support the idea that lubiprostone has prostaglandin-like actions on the intestine, which includes stimulation of mucin release. Stimulation of mucin release by lubiprostone may be protective in gastrointestinal conditions where loss of mucus is believed to contribute to pathogenesis. Thus, in

  8. Intestinal Colonization by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    adhere to swine, cattle, and sheep intestine. Pili convey some of the species specificity which is characteristic of ETEC. Species specificity is not...absolute in that K99 ETEC colonize swine, cattle, sheep , and mice (Bibliography publication 17). Publication 12 also documents the specificity of the...different pilus types, and it could not be attributed to enterotoxin neutralization by colostrum . In contrast to the live ETEC vaccines, the live rough

  9. Laparoscopic surgery for intestinal and urinary endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwine, D B; Sharpe, D R

    1995-12-01

    Intestinal and urinary tract involvement by endometriosis may be symptomatic, particularly when invasive disease is present. Even in expert hands, complete excision of all invasive disease cannot be accomplished laparoscopically in every case. The practitioner must balance enthusiasm for the advantages of a laparoscopic approach with limitations of time and skill. Laparoscopy should be abandoned in a particular case if a better job can be performed by laparotomy. Hysterectomy with castration may not relieve symptoms due to invasive disease.

  10. Chronic Idiopathic Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagelada

    2000-08-01

    The definition of chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIIP) is somewhat vague because it was based on clinical observations that preceded modern advances in the measurement of gut motility and neuromuscular integrity. Appropriate management of patients with CIIP requires an initial consideration, supported by pertinent diagnostic tests, of the tissue affected (muscle, nerves, both), extent and magnitude of gut propulsive failure, and extraintestinal disease.

  11. Wine consumption and intestinal redox homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorella Biasi

    2014-01-01

    Wine components have been proposed as an alternative natural approach to prevent or treat inflammatory bowel diseases. The difficulty remains to distinguish whether these positive properties are due only to polyphenols in wine or also to the alcohol intake, since many studies have reported ethanol to possess various beneficial effects. Our knowledge of the use of wine components in managing human intestinal inflammatory diseases is still quite limited, and further clinical studies may afford more solid evidence of their beneficial effects.

  12. Salmonella Typhimurium infection in the porcine intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schauser, Kirsten; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Larsson, Lars-Inge

    2005-01-01

    The normal intestinal epithelium is renewed with a turnover rate of 3-5 days. During Salmonella infection increased cell loss is observed, possibly as a result of programmed cell death (PCD). We have, therefore, studied the effects of Salmonella Typhimurium infection on three elements involved...... in scattered epithelial cells and the number of positive cells increased with increasing times of exposure to Salmonella (P

  13. Effects of psychological stress on small intestinal motility and expression of cholecystokinin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in plasma and small intestine in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Guang Cao; Wan-Chun Wu; Zhen Han; Meng-Ya Wang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of psychological stress on small intestinal motility and expression of cholecystokinin(CCK) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in plasma and small intestine, and to explore the relationship between small intestinal motor disorders and gastrointestinal hormones under psychological stress.METHODS: Thirty-six mice were randomly divided into psychological stress group and control group. A mouse model with psychological stress was established by housing the mice with a hungry cat in separate layers of a two-layer cage. A semi-solid colored marker (carbon-ink) was used for monitoring small intestinal transit. CCK and VIP levels in plasma and small intestine in mice were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA).RFSULTS: Small intestinal transit was inhibited (52.18±19.15%vs 70.19±17.79%, P<0.01) in mice after psychological stress, compared to the controls. Small intestinal CCK levels in psychological stress mice were significantly lower than those in the control group (0.75±0.53 μg/g vs 1.98±1.17 μg/g,P<0.01), whereas plasma CCK concentrations were not different between the groups. VIP levels in small intestine were significantly higher in psychological stress mice than those in the control group (8.45±1.09 μg/g vs 7.03±2.36 μg/g,P<0.01), while there was no significant difference in plasma VTP levels between the two groups.CONCLUSION: Psychological stress inhibits the small intestinal transit, probably by down-regulating CCK and up-regulating VIP expression in small intestine.

  14. Effect of heat stress on intestinal barrier function of human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-zhen XIAO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the heat stress-induced dysfunction of intestinal barrier including intestinal tight junction and apoptosis of epithelial cells. Methods Human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers, serving as the intestinal barrier model, were exposed to different temperature (37-43℃ for designated time. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER and horseradish peroxidase (HRP flux permeability were measured to evaluate barrier integrity. Level of tight junction (TJ protein occludin was analyzed by Western blotting. Cell apoptosis rate was determined using Annexin V-FITC/PI kit by flow cytometry. Results Compared with the 37℃ group, TEER lowered and the permeability for HRP increased significantly after heat exposure (P<0.01 in 39℃, 41℃ and 43℃ groups. The expression of occludin increased when the temperature was elevated from 37℃ to 41℃, and it reached the maximal level at 41℃. However, its expression gradually decreased with passage of time at 43℃. Cell apoptosis was enhanced with elevation of the temperature (P<0.05 or P<0.01. Conclusion Heat stress can induce damage to tight junction and enhance apoptosis of epithelial cells, thus causing dysfunction of intestinal epithelial barrier.

  15. Effect of gluconic acid on piglet growth performance, intestinal microflora, and intestinal wall morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, G; Piva, A; Moschini, M; Vezzali, E; Roth, F X

    2006-02-01

    Gluconic acid (GA) derives from the incomplete oxidation of glucose by some Gluconobacter strains. When fed to nonruminant animals, GA is only poorly absorbed in the small intestine and is primarly fermented to butyric acid in the lower gut. This study investigated the effect of GA on in vitro growth response and metabolism of swine cecal microflora and on animal growth performance, intestinal wall morphology, and intestinal microflora. During a 24-h in vitro cecal fermentation, total gas production and maximum rate of gas production were increased by GA (linear, P acids, acetic acid, propionic acid, n-butyric acid, acetic to propionic acid ratio, and acetic + butyric to propionic acid ratio were linearly increased by GA (P acid bacteria were not affected by GA. Gluconic acid tended to increase total short-chain fatty acids in the jejunum (+174, +87, and +74% for GA at 3,000, 6,000, and 12,000 ppm, respectively; P of the model = 0.07; quadratic, P = 0.07). Morphological evaluation of intestinal mucosa from jejunum, ileum, and cecum did not show any significant differences among treatments. This study showed that feeding GA influences the composition and activity of the intestinal microflora and may improve growth performance of piglets after weaning.

  16. The Intestinal Microbiota in Metabolic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anni Woting

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gut bacteria exert beneficial and harmful effects in metabolic diseases as deduced from the comparison of germfree and conventional mice and from fecal transplantation studies. Compositional microbial changes in diseased subjects have been linked to adiposity, type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia. Promotion of an increased expression of intestinal nutrient transporters or a modified lipid and bile acid metabolism by the intestinal microbiota could result in an increased nutrient absorption by the host. The degradation of dietary fiber and the subsequent fermentation of monosaccharides to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA is one of the most controversially discussed mechanisms of how gut bacteria impact host physiology. Fibers reduce the energy density of the diet, and the resulting SCFA promote intestinal gluconeogenesis, incretin formation and subsequently satiety. However, SCFA also deliver energy to the host and support liponeogenesis. Thus far, there is little knowledge on bacterial species that promote or prevent metabolic disease. Clostridium ramosum and Enterococcus cloacae were demonstrated to promote obesity in gnotobiotic mouse models, whereas bifidobacteria and Akkermansia muciniphila were associated with favorable phenotypes in conventional mice, especially when oligofructose was fed. How diet modulates the gut microbiota towards a beneficial or harmful composition needs further research. Gnotobiotic animals are a valuable tool to elucidate mechanisms underlying diet–host–microbe interactions.

  17. Therapeutic effect of JHPAD on intestinal adhesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Chun Chen; Guo Fu Cher; Jue Ming Lin

    2000-01-01

    AIM To observe the clinical effect of self-made Jinhuang Pingan Decoction (JHPAD) in treating intestinaladhesion.METHODS Among 580 cases of intestinal adhesion, 492 cases were treated with oral JHPAD alone; 88cases with incomplete intestinal obstruction were treated by gastrointestinal decompression, then givingconcentrated JHPAD through the GI tube as well as fluid replacement and anti-inflammation therapy.RESULTS Among 580 cases, 302 cases were cured, 232 cases, improved and 46 cases had no change, thetotal effective rate was 92.1%. In 492 patients treated with JHPAD alone, 264 cases had obvious effect, 202cases were improved and 26 cases had no effect, the total effective rate was 94.7%, and the corresponingresults in 88 cases treated with JHPAD and gastrointestinal decompression were 39 cases, 29 cases, 20 casesand 77.3% respectively. In addition, there was close relationship between the therapeutic efficacy anddisease course, and had significant statistical difference in therapeutic efficacy with the disease course of lessthan 30 d or over 12 m (x2=87.32, P<0.0001).CONCLUSION JHPAD has the effect of clearing heat, detoxication, anti-inflammation, relieving edema,analgesia, hemostasis and anti-adhesion in the treatment of intestinal adhesion. It has a satisfactory efficacyand no toxic reaction, so it is worthy to popularize in clinical practice.

  18. Kinins as mediators of intestinal secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaginella, T S; Kachur, J F

    1989-01-01

    Kinins are small peptides that have diverse biological actions. Concentrations of kinins in the nanomolar or subnanomolar range induce intestinal smooth muscle contraction and evoke mucosal electrolyte secretion. Hyperkininemia is associated with effects on gastrointestinal motility and intestinal mucosal inflammation. Bradykinin and kallidin are the predominant kinins with effects on the gastrointestinal tract of mammals. Bradykinin stimulates chloride ion secretion by the guinea pig and rabbit ileum, rabbit colon, rat colon and monolayers of human HCA-7 cells. Kinins directly or indirectly stimulate phospholipase A2 and phospholipase C. Cells in the lamina propria of the mucosa (e.g., fibroblasts, mast cells, leukocytes), by liberating cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid, are involved in the kinin response; direct effects on epithelial cells cannot be ruled out, however. Antagonists now exist for kinin receptors. Based on studies with these antagonists in smooth muscle preparations, two subgroups of kinin receptor have been identified. The B2-type receptor appears to be responsible for both the contraction of ileal muscle and ileal secretion. Kinins are probably more important as pathophysiological rather than as physiological mediators. They may amplify the effect of inflammatory products that induce intestinal secretion. The precise involvement of kinins in clinical mucosal secretory states and diarrhea will require quantitative assessment of their levels during each phase of mucosal inflammation. Additional studies on the mechanism of action of kinins will be essential in designing therapy to mitigate the symptoms associated with mucosal inflammation.

  19. Unbalance of intestinal microbiota in atopic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Marco; Rampelli, Simone; Turroni, Silvia; Severgnini, Marco; Consolandi, Clarissa; De Bellis, Gianluca; Masetti, Riccardo; Ricci, Giampaolo; Pession, Andrea; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2012-06-06

    Playing a strategic role in the host immune function, the intestinal microbiota has been recently hypothesized to be involved in the etiology of atopy. In order to investigate the gastrointestinal microbial ecology of atopic disease, here we performed a pilot comparative molecular analysis of the faecal microbiota in atopic children and healthy controls. Nineteen atopic children and 12 healthy controls aged 4-14 years were enrolled. Stools were collected and the faecal microbiota was characterized by means of the already developed phylogenetic microarray platform, HTF-Microbi.Array, and quantitative PCR. The intestinal microbiota of atopic children showed a significant depletion in members of the Clostridium cluster IV, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Akkermansia muciniphila and a corresponding increase of the relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae. Depleted in key immunomodulatory symbionts, the atopy-associated microbiota can represent an inflammogenic microbial consortium which can contribute to the severity of the disease. Our data open the way to the therapeutic manipulation of the intestinal microbiota in the treatment of atopy by means of pharmaceutical probiotics.

  20. Unbalance of intestinal microbiota in atopic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candela Marco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Playing a strategic role in the host immune function, the intestinal microbiota has been recently hypothesized to be involved in the etiology of atopy. In order to investigate the gastrointestinal microbial ecology of atopic disease, here we performed a pilot comparative molecular analysis of the faecal microbiota in atopic children and healthy controls. Results Nineteen atopic children and 12 healthy controls aged 4–14 years were enrolled. Stools were collected and the faecal microbiota was characterized by means of the already developed phylogenetic microarray platform, HTF-Microbi.Array, and quantitative PCR. The intestinal microbiota of atopic children showed a significant depletion in members of the Clostridium cluster IV, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Akkermansia muciniphila and a corresponding increase of the relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae. Conclusion Depleted in key immunomodulatory symbionts, the atopy-associated microbiota can represent an inflammogenic microbial consortium which can contribute to the severity of the disease. Our data open the way to the therapeutic manipulation of the intestinal microbiota in the treatment of atopy by means of pharmaceutical probiotics.

  1. Bioactivation of Phytoestrogens: Intestinal Bacteria and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landete, J M; Arqués, J; Medina, M; Gaya, P; de Las Rivas, B; Muñoz, R

    2016-08-17

    Phytoestrogens are polyphenols similar to human estrogens found in plants or derived from plant precursors. Phytoestrogens are found in high concentration in soya, flaxseed and other seeds, fruits, vegetables, cereals, tea, chocolate, etc. They comprise several classes of chemical compounds (stilbenes, coumestans, isoflavones, ellagitannins, and lignans) which are structurally similar to endogenous estrogens but which can have both estrogenic and antiestrogenic effects. Although epidemiological and experimental evidence indicates that intake of phytoestrogens in foods may be protective against certain chronic diseases, discrepancies have been observed between in vivo and in vitro experiments. The microbial transformations have not been reported so far in stilbenes and coumestans. However, isoflavones, ellagitanins, and lignans are metabolized by intestinal bacteria to produce equol, urolithins, and enterolignans, respectively. Equol, urolithin, and enterolignans are more bioavailable, and have more estrogenic/antiestrogenic and antioxidant activity than their precursors. Moreover, equol, urolithins and enterolignans have anti-inflammatory effects and induce antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities. The transformation of isoflavones, ellagitanins, and lignans by intestinal microbiota is essential to be protective against certain chronic diseases, as cancer, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and menopausal symptoms. Bioavailability, bioactivity, and health effects of dietary phytoestrogens are strongly determined by the intestinal bacteria of each individual.

  2. Three-dimensional Printing in the Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengerter, Brian C; Emre, Gulus; Park, Jea Young; Geibel, John

    2016-08-01

    Intestinal transplantation remains a life-saving option for patients with severe intestinal failure. With the advent of advanced tissue engineering techniques, great strides have been made toward manufacturing replacement tissues and organs, including the intestine, which aim to avoid transplant-related complications. The current paradigm is to seed a biocompatible support material (scaffold) with a desired cell population to generate viable replacement tissue. Although this technique has now been extended by the three-dimensional (3D) printing of geometrically complex scaffolds, the overall approach is hindered by relatively slow turnover and negative effects of residual scaffold material, which affects final clinical outcome. Methods recently developed for scaffold-free 3D bioprinting may overcome such obstacles and should allow for rapid manufacture and deployment of "bioprinted organs." Much work remains before 3D bioprinted tissues can enter clinical use. In this brief review we examine the present state and future perspectives of this nascent technology before full clinical implementation.

  3. Clinical analysis of primary anaplastic carcinoma of the small intestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsutomu Namikawa; Kazuhiro Hanazaki

    2009-01-01

    Primary anaplastic carcinoma is a rare variant of small intestinal cancer. Most reports of primary anaplastic carcinoma of the small intestine are isolated case reports, therefore the clinicopathological features, therapeutic management, and surgical outcome of this tumor type remain unclear. This review analyzes the available clinical characteristics of primary anaplastic carcinoma of the small intestine and investigates key differences from differentiated adenocarcinoma of the small intestine. A Medline search was performed using the keywords 'small intestine' and 'anaplastic carcinoma' or 'undifferentiated carcinoma'. Additional articles were obtained from references with in the papers identified by the Medline search. The literature revealed a poor prognosis for patients who underwent surgical resection for anaplastic carcinoma of the small intestine, which gave a 3-year overall survival rate of 10.8% and a median survival time of 5.0 mo. The literature suggests that anaplastic carcinoma is markedly more aggressive than differentiated adenocarcinoma of the small intestine. Surgical resection with the aim of complete tumor removal provides the only beneficial therapeutic option for patients with anaplastic carcinoma of the small intestine, because chemotherapy and radiation therapy have no significant effect on the rate of survival. However, despite complete tumor resection, most patients with anaplastic carcinoma of the small intestine are at great risk of disease recurrence. Multicenter clinical trials are expected to provide additional therapeutic strategies and establish the efficacy of multimodality adjuvant therapy. This report also highlights the importance of a systematic diagnostic approach for anaplastic carcinoma of the small intestine.

  4. Evolutionary insights into postembryonic development of adult intestinal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishizuya-Oka Atsuko

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the adult vertebrate intestine, multi-potent stem cells continuously generate all of the epithelial cells throughout the adulthood. While it has long been known that the frog intestine is formed via the development of adult intestinal stem cells during thyroid hormone (TH-dependent metamorphosis, the basic structure of the adult intestine is formed by birth in mammals and it is unclear if the subsequent maturation of the intestine involves any changes in the intestinal stem cells. Two recent papers showing that B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp1 regulates postnatal epithelial stem cell reprogramming during mouse intestinal maturation support the model that adult intestinal stem cells are developed during postembryonic development in mammals, in a TH-dependent process similar to intestinal remodeling during amphibian metamorphosis. Since the formation of the adult intestine in both mammals and amphibians is closely associated with the adaptation from aquatic to terrestrial life during the peak of endogenous TH levels, the molecular mechanisms by which the adult stem cells are developed are likely evolutionally conserved.

  5. Neonatal Intestinal Obstruction-Four Year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rathore

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To study the aetiology and frequency, sex incidence, age of presentation, management and outcome of neonatal intestinal obstruction. Material and Methods: This prospective study of 316 neonates with intestinal obstruction was conducted over a period of 4 years from November 2009 to October 2013 at single institute. These cases were managed by various surgical procedures. Their epidemiology, day of presentation, associated anomalies and outcomes were studied. Results: A total of 316 neonates (277 males and 39 females were operated for intestinal obstruction. 268(84.81% neonates presented in the 1st week of life. Imperforate anus occurred in 206 (65.19%.Small bowel atresia accounted for23 (7.27% cases while duodenal atresia was seen in19 (6.01% patients. Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis and Malrotation each occurred in 14 (4.43% patients; Hirschsprung’s disease in 18(5.69%, Necrotising Enterocolitis in 12(3.79%, Meconium disease of newborn in 9(2.85% while colonic atresia was seen in one (0.3% patient. Colostomy was performed in 145(45.88%, Pouchostomy in 15(4.74% and Cutback anoplasty in 56(17.72% patients. Ramsted’s Pyloromyotomy in 13(4.11%% neonates, Laparoscopic Pyloromyotomy in 1(0.3%,Kimura’s Duodenoduodenostomy in 19(6.01% ,End to Back anastomosis in 24(7.59% , End to End anastomosis in 7(2.21% , Multiple anastomosis in 2(0.6% , Enterotomy with irrigation in 7(2.21% , Ladd’s procedure in 14(4.43% , ,Single stage transanal pull through in 8(2.53% , Ileostomy in 2(0.6% , Single stage Abdominoperineal pull through in 2(0.6%, Levelling colostomy in 6(1.89% ,Peritoneal drain insertion under Local anaesthesia in 5(1.58% . Overall mortality was 13.60%. Conclusion: Intestinal Obstruction is the most common surgical emergency in neonatal period. Early and accurate diagnosis is paramount for proper patient management. The etiology, mode of presentation, morbidity and outcome of surgery of intestinal obstruction in

  6. Intestinal Bicarbonate Secretion in Cystic Fibrosis Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarke LL

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Gene-targeted disruption of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR in mice results in an intestinal disease phenotype that is remarkably similar to bowel disease in cystic fibrosis patients. In the intestinal segment downstream from the stomach (i.e., the duodenum, CFTR plays an important role in bicarbonate secretion that protects the epithelium from acidic gastric effluent. In this report, we examine the role of CFTR in cAMP-stimulated bicarbonate secretion in the murine duodenum and the mechanisms of acid-base transport that are revealed in CFTR knockout (CF mice. Ion substitution, channel blocker and pH stat studies comparing duodena from wild-type and CF mice indicate that CFTR mediates a HCO(3(- conductance across the apical membrane of the epithelium. In the presence of a favorable cell-to-lumen HCO(3(- gradient, the CFTR-mediated HCO(3(- current accounts for about 80% of stimulated HCO(3(- secretion. Exposure of the duodenal mucosa to acidic pH reveals another role of CFTR in facilitating HCO(3(- secretion via an electroneutral, 4,4'-diisothiocyanato-stilbene-2,2' disulfonic acid (DIDS sensitive Cl(-/HCO(3(- exchange process. In CF duodenum, other apical membrane acid-base transporters retain function, thereby affording limited control of transepithelial pH. Activity of a Cl(--dependent anion exchanger provides near-constant HCO(3(- secretion in CF intestine, but under basal conditions the magnitude of secretion is lessened by simultaneous activity of a Na(+/H(+ exchanger (NHE. During cAMP stimulation of CF duodenum, a small increase in net base secretion is measured but the change results from cAMP inhibition of NHE activity rather than increased HCO(3(- secretion. Interestingly, a small inward current that is sensitive to the anion channel blocker, 5-nitro-2(3-phenylpropyl amino-benzoate (NPPB, is also activated during cAMP stimulation of the CFTR-null intestine but the identity of the current is yet to be

  7. Heat stress reduces intestinal barrier integrity and favors intestinal glucose transport in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Sarah C; Mani, Venkatesh; Boddicker, Rebecca L; Johnson, Jay S; Weber, Thomas E; Ross, Jason W; Rhoads, Robert P; Baumgard, Lance H; Gabler, Nicholas K

    2013-01-01

    Excessive heat exposure reduces intestinal integrity and post-absorptive energetics that can inhibit wellbeing and be fatal. Therefore, our objectives were to examine how acute heat stress (HS) alters intestinal integrity and metabolism in growing pigs. Animals were exposed to either thermal neutral (TN, 21°C; 35-50% humidity; n=8) or HS conditions (35°C; 24-43% humidity; n=8) for 24 h. Compared to TN, rectal temperatures in HS pigs increased by 1.6°C and respiration rates by 2-fold (Pintestinal integrity was compromised in the HS pigs (ileum and colon TER decreased; PIntestinal permeability was accompanied by an increase in protein expression of myosin light chain kinase (PIntestinal glucose transport and blood glucose were elevated due to HS (Pintestinal integrity and increase intestinal stress and glucose transport.

  8. Development and physiological regulation of intestinal lipid absorption. III. Intestinal transporters and cholesterol absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, David Y; Labonté, Eric D; Howles, Philip N

    2008-04-01

    Intestinal cholesterol absorption is modulated by transport proteins in enterocytes. Cholesterol uptake from intestinal lumen requires several proteins on apical brush-border membranes, including Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1), scavenger receptor B-I, and CD36, whereas two ATP-binding cassette half transporters, ABCG5 and ABCG8, on apical membranes work together for cholesterol efflux back to the intestinal lumen to limit cholesterol absorption. NPC1L1 is essential for cholesterol absorption, but its function as a cell surface transporter or an intracellular cholesterol transport protein needs clarification. Another ATP transporter, ABCA1, is present in the basolateral membrane to mediate HDL secretion from enterocytes.

  9. Cracking resistance study of steel for gas pipelines; Badania odpornosci stali przeznaczonej na rurociagi gazowe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasiak, J.; Bilous, W.; Hajewska, E.; Szteke, W.; Wagner, T. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The results of cracking resistance of steel tubes for gas pipelines have been performed. The temperature dependence of mechanical properties of X56 steel used as tube material have been shown. 2 refs, 6 figs, 4 tabs.

  10. Latest concepts on the association between nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced small intestinal injury and intestinal bacterial flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Shunji; Sakamoto, Choitsu

    2013-10-01

    Luminal bacteria, one of the main aggressive factors of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), induce small intestinal mucosal injury. Because most bacteria invading from the mouth are eliminated by the highly acidic gastric environment, the upper small intestine contains relatively low numbers of microorganisms. With decreased peristalsis, decreased acidity, and lower oxidation-reduction potential, the ileum maintains a more diverse microflora and a higher bacterial population. As NSAID-induced small intestinal ulcerations tend to localize in the small intestinal distal part, as viewed by capsule endoscopy, the ulcers are in contact with a large amount of luminal bacteria. Recently, it was reported that proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) exacerbate NSAID-induced small intestinal injury in rats. The study showed that PPIs impair the ability to disinfect due to the PPI-induced low acidic gastric environment, and this resulted in transubstantiation of intestinal flora which exacerbated NSAID-induced small intestinal injury. If it is true that PPIs exacerbate small intestinal injury, the methods of preventing NSAID-induced gastroduodenal injury to defend PPI-induced small intestinal injury should be reconsidered. Following several studies, there may be a possibility that probiotics and prebiotics are useful treatments for the prevention of NSAID-induced small intestinal injury. A method of determining bacterial flora maintenance including alteration of the environment and the administration of various drugs is required.

  11. Increased intestinal marker absorption due to regional permeability changes and decreased intestinal transit during sepsis in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q.; Pantzar, N.; Jeppson, B.; Westroem, B.R.; Karlsson, B.W. [Univ. of Lund (Sweden)

    1994-11-01

    The intestinal barrier properties are impaired during inflammation and sepsis, but the mechanisms behind this are unknown and were therefore investigated during experimental sepsis in rats. The different-sized intestinal absorption markers {sup 51}Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and ovalbumin were gavaged to rats made septic by intra-abdominal bacterial implantation and to sham-operated rats. Regional tissue permeability was measured in diffusion chambers, and intestinal transit was evaluated by intestinal accumulation of gavaged {sup 51}Cr-EDTA. In comparison with the sham-operated rats, septic rats had higher {sup 51}Cr-EDTA levels in blood and urine and showed a prolonged intestinal transit. Septic rats also had a lower tissue permeability to both markers in the small intestines but higher permeability to ovalbumin in the colon. Rats receiving morphine to decrease intestinal motility showed similar changes, with a decreased intestinal transit and increased marker absorption. Thr results suggest that the increased intestinal absorption during sepsis was due to regional permeability changes and prolonged intestinal transit. 38 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Adult zebrafish intestine resection: a novel model of short bowel syndrome, adaptation, and intestinal stem cell regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, K A; Holoyda, K A; Grant, C N; Levin, D E; Torres, E R; Maxwell, A; Pollack, H A; Moats, R A; Frey, M R; Darehzereshki, A; Al Alam, D; Lien, C; Grikscheit, T C

    2015-08-01

    Loss of significant intestinal length from congenital anomaly or disease may lead to short bowel syndrome (SBS); intestinal failure may be partially offset by a gain in epithelial surface area, termed adaptation. Current in vivo models of SBS are costly and technically challenging. Operative times and survival rates have slowed extension to transgenic models. We created a new reproducible in vivo model of SBS in zebrafish, a tractable vertebrate model, to facilitate investigation of the mechanisms of intestinal adaptation. Proximal intestinal diversion at segment 1 (S1, equivalent to jejunum) was performed in adult male zebrafish. SBS fish emptied distal intestinal contents via stoma as in the human disease. After 2 wk, S1 was dilated compared with controls and villus ridges had increased complexity, contributing to greater villus epithelial perimeter. The number of intervillus pockets, the intestinal stem cell zone of the zebrafish increased and contained a higher number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled cells after 2 wk of SBS. Egf receptor and a subset of its ligands, also drivers of adaptation, were upregulated in SBS fish. Igf has been reported as a driver of intestinal adaptation in other animal models, and SBS fish exposed to a pharmacological inhibitor of the Igf receptor failed to demonstrate signs of intestinal adaptation, such as increased inner epithelial perimeter and BrdU incorporation. We describe a technically feasible model of human SBS in the zebrafish, a faster and less expensive tool to investigate intestinal stem cell plasticity as well as the mechanisms that drive intestinal adaptation.

  13. Effect of Alemtuzumab on Intestinal Intraepithelial Lymphocytes and Intestinal Barrier Function in Cynomolgus Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-Lin Qu; Ya-Qing Lyu; Hai-Tao Jiang; Ting Shan; Jing-Bin Zhang; Qiu-Rong Li; Jie-Shou Li

    2015-01-01

    Background:Alemtuzumab has been used in organ transplantation and a variety of hematologic malignancies (especially for the treatment of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia).However,serious infectious complications frequently occur after treatment.The reason for increased infections postalemtuzumab treatment is unknown at this stage.We explore the effect ofalemtuzumab on intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and intestinal barrier function in cynomolgus model to explain the reason of infection following alemtuzumab treatment.Methods:Twelve male cynomolguses were randomly assigned to either a treatment or control group.The treatment group received alemtuzumab (3 mg/kg,intravenous injection) while the control group received the same volume of physiological saline.Intestinal IELs were isolated from the control group and the treatment group (on day 9,35,and 70 after treatment) for counting and flow cytometric analysis.Moreover,intestinal permeability was monitored by enzymatic spectrophotometric technique and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results:The numbers of IELs were decreased significantly on day 9 after treatment compared with the control group (0.35 ± 0.07 x 108 and 1.35 ± 0.09 × 108,respectively; P < 0.05) and were not fully restored until day 70 after treatment.There were significant differences among four groups considering IELs subtypes.In addition,the proportion ofapoptotic IELs after alemtuzumab treatment was significantly higher than in the control group (22.01 ± 3.67 and 6.01 ± 1.42,respectively; P < 0.05).Moreover,the concentration of D-lactate and endotoxin was also increased significantly on day 9 after treatment.Conclusions:Alemtuzumab treatment depletes lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and intestine of cynomolgus model.The induction of apoptosis is an important mechanism of lymphocyte depletion after alemtuzumab treatment.Notably,intestinal barrier function may be disrupted after alemtuzumab treatment.

  14. Effect of Alemtuzumab on Intestinal Intraepithelial Lymphocytes and Intestinal Barrier Function in Cynomolgus Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Lin Qu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alemtuzumab has been used in organ transplantation and a variety of hematologic malignancies (especially for the treatment of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. However, serious infectious complications frequently occur after treatment. The reason for increased infections postalemtuzumab treatment is unknown at this stage. We explore the effect of alemtuzumab on intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs and intestinal barrier function in cynomolgus model to explain the reason of infection following alemtuzumab treatment. Methods: Twelve male cynomolguses were randomly assigned to either a treatment or control group. The treatment group received alemtuzumab (3 mg/kg, intravenous injection while the control group received the same volume of physiological saline. Intestinal IELs were isolated from the control group and the treatment group (on day 9, 35, and 70 after treatment for counting and flow cytometric analysis. Moreover, intestinal permeability was monitored by enzymatic spectrophotometric technique and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The numbers of IELs were decreased significantly on day 9 after treatment compared with the control group (0.35 ± 0.07 × 10 8 and 1.35 ± 0.09 × 10 8 , respectively; P < 0.05 and were not fully restored until day 70 after treatment. There were significant differences among four groups considering IELs subtypes. In addition, the proportion of apoptotic IELs after alemtuzumab treatment was significantly higher than in the control group (22.01 ± 3.67 and 6.01 ± 1.42, respectively; P < 0.05. Moreover, the concentration of D-lactate and endotoxin was also increased significantly on day 9 after treatment. Conclusions: Alemtuzumab treatment depletes lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and intestine of cynomolgus model. The induction of apoptosis is an important mechanism of lymphocyte depletion after alemtuzumab treatment. Notably, intestinal barrier function may be disrupted after

  15. Improving access to intestinal stem cells as a step toward intestinal gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, J W; Lau, C; Jacomino, M; Finegold, M; Henning, S J

    1994-03-01

    In previous studies exploring the intestinal epithelium as a potential site for somatic gene therapy, we concluded that the mucus lining the intestine constitutes a significant barrier to any attempts at gene transfer via the lumenal route. The mucus problem is aggravated by the fact that the epithelial stem cells, which are the logical target for gene transfer, are located deep in the intestinal crypts. The goals of the current study were to develop procedures that would improve accessibility to the intestinal stem cells and which would effect in vivo mucus removal without damaging the underlying epithelium. Initial experiments involved evaluation of the use of distension to improve accessibility to the intestinal crypts and the use of the mucolytic agents dithiothreitol (DTT) and N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) versus a control solution of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for mucus removal. Catheters were inserted in each end of 3-cm terminal ileal segments in anesthetized rats. Two milliliters of agent was instilled into the clamped segment for 2 min, removed, and repeated. Lumenal distension resulted in shortened villi with wider intervillus spacing, thereby improving crypt access. Both NAC and DTT washes removed significant mucus between the villi but failed to reach the crypt lumen. To enhance mucus release from the crypt lumen, pilocarpine was selected due to its cholinergic properties and preferential binding to muscarinic receptors on crypt goblet cells. Pilocarpine given intraperitoneally 30 min prior to the mucolytic or PBS wash resulted in significant eradication of mucus down into the crypt lumen. This effect was still evident 3-4 hr later provided the intestine remained undisturbed.

  16. Osteoporosis in patients with intestinal insufficiency and intestinal failure: Prevalence and clinical risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Louis; Skallerup, Anders; Olesen, Søren Schou; Køhler, Marianne; Vinter-Jensen, Lars; Kruse, Christian; Vestergaard, Peter; Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard

    2017-08-05

    Intestinal insufficiency and intestinal failure are associated with malabsorption of micro- and macronutrients that may negatively influence bone metabolism and increase the risk for developing osteoporosis. However, information regarding prevalence and contribution of individual risk factors is scarce. We investigated the prevalence of osteoporosis in patients with intestinal insufficiency and intestinal failure and identified associated risk factors. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study including 167 clinically stable outpatients with intestinal insufficiency or intestinal failure. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry and the prevalence of osteoporosis was compared to a gender and age matched population. Several clinical and demographic parameters, including body mass index (BMI), vitamin-D, smoking habits and medications, were analyzed for association with BMD. The prevalence of osteoporosis was 56.9% in the combined patient group compared to 24.1% in the control group (OR 4.2 [95% CI, 2.3 to 7.7]; p < 0.001). BMD in the hip was independently associated with BMI (0.13 [95% CI, 0.09 to 0.18]; p < 0.001) and vitamin-D levels (-0.41 [95% CI, -0.76 to -0.06]; p = 0.03). Similar associations were seen for BMD in the spine (0.15 [95% CI, 0.08 - 0.22]; p < 0.001) and (-0.60 [95% CI, -0.76 to -0.06]; p = 0.02), respectively. Trends for low BMD were observed in smokers, and in patients using glucocorticoids, opioids, and proton pump inhibitors. Patients with intestinal insufficiency and intestinal failure are at immense risk of developing osteoporosis. Low BMI and vitamin-D deficiency were identified as independent risk factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  17. Adhesion of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to human intestinal enterocytes and cultured human intestinal mucosa.

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    The adhesion of classic enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains of human origin to isolated human small intestinal enterocytes and cultured small intestinal mucosa was investigated. An adhesion assay with isolated human enterocytes prepared from duodenal biopsy samples was developed and tested with EPEC strains known to cause diarrhea in healthy adult volunteers. In the assay a mean of 53 and 55% of enterocytes had brush border-adherent E. coli E2348 (O127;H6) and E851 (O142:H6), res...

  18. Dietary synbiotic application modulates Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) intestinal microbial communities and intestinal immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, A; Davies, S J; Waines, P; Emery, M; Castex, M; Gioacchini, G; Carnevali, O; Bickerdike, R; Romero, J; Merrifield, D L

    2013-12-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of dietary administration of Pediococcus acidilactici MA18/5M and short chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS) on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) intestinal health. Salmon (initial average weight 250 g) were allocated into triplicate sea pens and were fed either a control diet (commercial diet: 45% protein, 20% lipid) or a synbiotic treatment diet (control diet + P. acidilactici at 3.5 g kg(-1) and 7 g kg(-1) scFOS) for 63 days. At the end of this period, fish were sampled for intestinal microbiology, intestinal histology and the expression of selected immune-related genes (IL1β, TNFα, IL8, TLR3 and MX-1) in the intestine. Compared to the control fish, the total bacterial levels were significantly lower in the anterior mucosa, posterior mucosa and posterior digesta of the synbiotic fed fish. qPCR revealed good recovery (log 6 bacteria g(-1)) of the probiotic in the intestinal digesta of the synbiotic fed fish and PCR-DGGE revealed that the number of OTUs, as well as the microbial community diversity and richness were significantly higher in the anterior digesta of the synbiotic fed fish than the control. Compared to the control fed fish, the mucosal fold (villi) length and the infiltration of epithelial leucocytes were significantly higher in the anterior and posterior intestine, respectively, in the synbiotic group. Real-time PCR demonstrated that all of the genes investigated were significantly up-regulated in the anterior and posterior intestine of the synbiotic fed salmon, compared to the control group. At the systemic level, serum lysozyme activity was significantly higher in the synbiotic fed fish and growth performance, feed utilisation and biometric measurements (condition factor, gutted weight and gut loss) were not affected. Together these results suggest that the synbiotic modulation of the gut microbiota has a protective action on the intestinal mucosal cells, improving morphology and stimulating

  19. Role of the intestinal mucosa in acute gastrointestinal GVHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Jonathan U; Hanash, Alan M; Jenq, Robert R

    2016-12-02

    Intestinal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a significant obstacle to the success of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. The intestinal mucosa comprises the inner lining of the intestinal tract and maintains close proximity with commensal microbes that reside within the intestinal lumen. Recent advances have significantly improved our understanding of the interactions between the intestinal mucosa and the enteric microbiota. Changes in host mucosal tissue and commensals posttransplant have been actively investigated, and provocative insights into mucosal immunity and the enteric microbiota are now being translated into clinical trials of novel approaches for preventing and treating acute GVHD. In this review, we summarize recent findings related to aspects of the intestinal mucosa during acute GVHD. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.

  20. Intestinal myiasis caused by Muscina stabulans

    OpenAIRE

    Shivekar S; Senthil K; Srinivasan R; Sureshbabu L; Chand P; Shanmugam J; Gopal R.

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal maggots were isolated from a patient, who had reported to the Department of General Medicine of Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College, Puducherry, in southern India with complaints of abdominal distress, bloating of abdomen and intestinal hurry following a meal. He was diagnosed as a case of intestinal myiasis. Maggots obtained from his stool were identified to be Muscina stabulans based on characteristic patterns of posterior spiracles. He was treated with purgatives and albend...

  1. A Revised Model for Dosimetry in the Human Small Intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Poston; Nasir U. Bhuiyan; R. Alex Redd; Neil Parham; Jennifer Watson

    2005-02-28

    A new model for an adult human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has been developed for use in internal dose estimations to the wall of the GIT and to the other organs and tissues of the body from radionuclides deposited in the lumenal contents of the five sections of the GIT. These sections were the esophasgus, stomach, small intestine, upper large intestine, and the lower large intestine. The wall of each section was separated from its lumenal contents.

  2. Scintigraphic visualization of bacterial translocation in experimental strangulated intestinal obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeev, Yu.M.; Popov, M.V.; Salato, O.V. [Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Medical Science, Research Centre of Reparative and Restorative Surgery, East Siberian Research Centre, 100 Yubileyniy, P.O. Box 23, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Lishmanov, Yu.B. [Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Medical Science, Research and Development Institute of Cardiology, Tomsk Research Centre, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Grigorev, E.G.; Aparcin, K.A. [Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Medical Science, Research Centre of Reparative and Restorative Surgery, East Siberian Research Centre, 100 Yubileyniy, P.O. Box 23, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Irkutsk State Medical University, Department of Hospital Surgery, Irkutsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to obtain scintigraphic images depicting translocation of {sup 99m}Tc-labelled Escherichia coli bacteria through the intestinal barrier and to quantify this process using methods of nuclear medicine. Thirty male Wistar rats (including 20 rats with modelled strangulated intestinal obstruction and 10 healthy rats) were used for bacterial scintigraphy. {sup 99m}Tc-labelled E. coli bacteria ({sup 99m}Ts-E. coli) with an activity of 7.4-11.1 MBq were administered into a section of the small intestine. Scintigraphic visualization of bacterial translocation into organs and tissues of laboratory animals was recorded in dynamic (240 min) and static (15 min) modes. The number of labelled bacteria, which migrated through the intestinal barrier, was quantified by calculating the translocation index (TI). Control indicated no translocation of {sup 99m}Ts-E. coli administered into the intestine through the parietes of the small intestine's distal part in healthy animals. Animals with strangulated obstruction demonstrated different migration strength and routes of labelled bacteria from strangulated and superior to strangulation sections of the small intestine. {sup 99m}Ts-E. coli migrated from the strangulated loop into the peritoneal cavity later causing systemic bacteraemia through peritoneal resorption. The section of the small intestine, which was superior to the strangulation, demonstrated migration of labelled bacteria first into the portal and then into the systemic circulation. The strangulated section of the small intestine was the main source of bacteria dissemination since the number of labelled bacteria, which migrated from this section significantly, exceeded that of the area superior to the strangulation section of the small intestine (p = 0.0003). Bacterial scintigraphy demonstrated the possibility of visualizing migration routes of labelled bacteria and quantifying their translocation through the intestinal barrier. This

  3. Intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla, Viktoria-Varvara; Karaolanis, Georgios; Pentazos, Panagiotis; Ladopoulos, Alexios; Papageorgiou, Evaggelos

    2015-06-01

    Short bowel syndrome is a clinical entity that includes loss of energy, fluid, electrolytes or micronutrient balance because of inadequate functional intestinal length. This case report demonstrates the case of a woman who compensated for short bowel syndrome through intestinal adaptation, which is a complex process worthy of further investigation for the avoidance of dependence on total parenteral nutrition and of intestinal transplantation in such patients.

  4. Small doses of melatonin increase intestinal motility in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Filippo; Macauda, Silvia; Salehi, Soudabeh

    2002-09-01

    Since melatonin receptors are present in the intestines, the possibility that this hormone may affect intestinal motility has been studied in the rat. Sprague-Dawley male rats were given a carmine cochineal powder meal and were injected intraperitoneally with 1, 10, 100, or 1000 microg/kg melatonin. Sixty minutes after treatment, intestinal transit was found to be faster in animals treated with small doses of melatonin (1 or 10 microg/kg) than in saline-injected controls. This effect, however, appear to be clearly reversed with 100 or 1000 microg/kg melatonin. In fact, these doses of the hormone reduced intestinal transit in rats. The nonselective melatonin receptor antagonist, luzindole (administered intraperitoneally in a dose of 0.25 mg/kg, 15 min prior to melatonin injection) totally prevented the accelerating effect of melatonin (10 microg/kg) on intestinal transit. Luzindole per se failed to affect gut motility. Injection of the reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and cholinergic agent, neostigmine, accelerated intestinal transit but failed to influence melatonin effect on this parameter. In contrast, intraperitoneal injection of the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine delayed intestinal transit per se but did not reduce the stimulating effect of melatonin on this parameter. Intestinal myoelectrical recording revealed that intestinal myoelectrical activity was increased by intraperitoneal injection of melatonin (10 microg/kg). Administration of luzindole totally prevented melatonin-induced increase of intestinal myoelectrical activity. These results indicate that melatonin may affect intestinal motility in rats when administered in small doses. This effect might be mediated by melatonin receptors in the intestines, although the involvement of central receptors for the hormone is also possible.

  5. Macrophage Isolation from the Mouse Small and Large Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harusato, Akihito; Geem, Duke; Denning, Timothy L.

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages play important roles in maintaining intestinal homeostasis via their ability to orchestrate responses to the normal microbiota as well as pathogens. One of the most important steps in beginning to understand the functions of these cells is the ability to effectively isolate them from the complex intestinal environment. Here, we detail methodology for the isolation and phenotypic characterization of macrophages from the mouse small and large intestine. PMID:27246032

  6. Role of intestinal bacterial overgrowth and intestinal motility in bacterial translocation in experimental cirrhosis Papel del sobrecrecimiento bacteriano intestinal y de la motilidad intestinal en la traslocación bacteriana en un modelo experimental de cirrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, E.; Casafont, F; Guerra, A; Benito, I.; Pons-Romero, F

    2005-01-01

    Background: intestinal bacterial overgrowth (IBO) is related to small bowel motility and has been involved in the pathogenesis of bacterial translocation (BT) in experimental models, and both overgrowing gut flora and translocating bacteria to mesenteric lymph nodes are common features in cirrhosis. Objectives: the aims of this study were to analyze cecal aerobic bacteria and intestinal transit in cirrhotic rats, and their relationship with BT, evaluating the role of intestinal bacterial over...

  7. Dyslipidaemia--hepatic and intestinal cross-talk.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tomkin, Gerald H

    2010-06-01

    Cholesterol metabolism is tightly regulated with the majority of de novo cholesterol synthesis occurring in the liver and intestine. 3 Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, a major enzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis, is raised in both liver and intestine in diabetic animals. Niemann PickC1-like1 protein regulates cholesterol absorption in the intestine and facilitates cholesterol transport through the liver. There is evidence to suggest that the effect of inhibition of Niemann PickC1-like1 lowers cholesterol through its effect not only in the intestine but also in the liver. ATP binding cassette proteins G5\\/G8 regulate cholesterol re-excretion in the intestine and in the liver, cholesterol excretion into the bile. Diabetes is associated with reduced ATP binding cassette protein G5\\/G8 expression in both the liver and intestine in animal models. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein is central to the formation of the chylomicron in the intestine and VLDL in the liver. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein mRNA is increased in diabetes in both the intestine and liver. Cross-talk between the intestine and liver is poorly documented in humans due to the difficulty in obtaining liver biopsies but animal studies are fairly consistent in showing relationships that explain in part mechanisms involved in cholesterol homeostasis.

  8. Controlling the frontier: regulatory T-cells and intestinal homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollrath, Julia; Powrie, Fiona M

    2013-11-30

    The intestine represents one of the most challenging sites for the immune system as immune cells must be able to mount an efficient response to invading pathogens while tolerating the large number and diverse array of resident commensal bacteria. Foxp3(+) regulatory T-cells (Tregs) play a non-redundant role at maintaining this balance. At the same time Treg cell differentiation and function can be modulated by the intestinal microbiota. In this review, we will discuss effector mechanisms of Treg cells in the intestine and how these cells can be influenced by the intestinal microbiota. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Role of intestinal flora in insulin resistance and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazigi, Amal; Gaborit, Bénédicte; Nogueira, Juan Patricio; Butiler, Maria-Elena; Andreelli, Fabrizio

    2008-10-01

    Intestinal flora can be modified by diet in both humans and rodents. Excess caloric intake in obese humans and rodents promotes proliferation of the bacterial phylum Firmicutes. Bacteria of the Firmicutes phylum permit more efficient intestinal extraction of nutrients. Oral transplantation of Firmicutes flora into axenic mice is sufficient to make them obese. The translocation towards the general circulation of the lipopolysaccharides released by lysis of Gram-negative intestinal bacilli promotes systemic inflammation. This inflammation plays a role in the genesis of insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in rodents. Pharmacological or dietary manipulation of intestinal flora may be a new strategy for treatment of overweight and its complications.

  10. Encountering Meckel's diverticulum in emergency surgery for ascaridial intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Abid

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract. In children with intestinal ascariasis, the diverticulum remains asymptomatic or rarely the Ascaris lumbricoides may lead to its complications in the presence of massive intestinal roundworm load. Given that preoperative diagnosis is seldom carried out, when Meckel's diverticulum is found at laparotomy for obstructive intestinal complications of roundworm, the diverticulum should be removed as complications may occur at any time. The aim of this study was to describe the findings of concomitant presence of Meckel's diverticulum who had surgical intervention in symptomatic intestinal ascariasis in children. Methods A retrospective case review study of 14 children who had surgical intervention for symptomatic intestinal ascariasis having the presence of concomitant Meckel's diverticulum was done. The study was done at SMHS Hospital Srinagar, Kashmir. Results A total of the 14 children who had ascaridial intestinal obstruction with concomitant presence of Meckel's diverticulum were studied. Age of children ranged from 4-12 years, male:female ratio was 1.8:1. Nine patients had asymptomatic Meckel's diverticulum, whereas 5 patients with symptomatic signs were found in the course of emergency surgery for ascaridial intestinal obstruction. Conclusion Meckel's diverticulum in intestinal ascariasis may pursue silent course or may be accompanied with complications of the diverticulitis, perforation or the gangrene. Incidental finding of the Meckel's diverticulum in the intestinal ascariasis should have removal.

  11. Clinicopathologic features of intestinal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周军

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the clinicopathologic features,diagnosis and differential diagnosis of intestinal natural killer(NK)/T-cell lymphoma.Methods The clinical features,histopathology,immunohistochemical

  12. Short Bowel Syndrome, a Case of Intestinal Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianna Ramírez Prada

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Case: The objective is to present the successful experience of multidisciplinary management of a patient with short bowel syndrome and intestinal failure with progression to intestinal adaptation. This is a newly born premature with intestinal atresia type IV with multiple intestinal atresia who evolved to intestinal failure and required managed with prolonged parenteral nutritional support, multiple antibiotic schemes, prebiotics, multivitamins, enteral nutrition with elemental formula to achieve their adaptation intestinal until lead to a normal diet. The evolution of these patients intestinal failure is a challenge for the health team, as it not only involves the surgical management of your condition if not basic nutritional support, fluid and electrolyte balance, hepatic dysfunction cholestasis associated infections etc. Discussion: Short bowel syndrome with progression to intestinal failure in children is a condition whose prevalence is increasing worldwide, thanks to advances in neonatal intensive care, neonatal surgery, and nutritional support of patients with conditions such as gastroschisis, omphalocele and necrotizing enterocolitis. Despite the limitations of our health system, it is possible to offer a multidisciplinary and integrated to lead to intestinal adaptation treatment.

  13. Immunohistochemical detection of human intestinal spirochetosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Sho; Shimizu, Ken; Oda, Tomohiro; Tominaga, Susumu; Nakanishi, Kuniaki

    2016-12-01

    Human intestinal spirochetosis (HIS) is a colorectal infection by Brachyspira species of spiral bacteria. Immunohistochemical cross-reaction to an antibody for Treponema pallidum aids its histologic diagnosis. This study's aim was to analyze the immunohistochemical characteristics of HIS. In this analysis, on 223 specimens from 83 HIS cases, we focused on so-called fringe formation (a histologic hallmark of HIS), spiral organisms within mucus or within crypts, and strong immunopositive materials in the mucosa, together with their location and the types of lesions. Fringe formation was found in 81.6% of all specimens and spiral organisms within mucus or within crypts in 97.3% and 57.0%, respectively. Strong immunopositive materials were observed in the surface epithelial layer in 87.9%, in the subepithelial layer in 94.6%, and in deeper mucosa in 2.2% of all specimens. The positive rates in conventional adenomas (24.0%, n = 146) and hyperplastic nodules (100%, n = 17) were each different from that found in inflammation (70.8%, n = 24), and spiral organisms were seen more frequently in the right-side large intestine than in the left (within mucus, 100%, n = 104 versus 95.0%, n = 119; within crypts, 65.4%, n = 104 versus 49.6%, n = 119). Thus, immunohistochemistry was effective not only in supporting the diagnosis of HIS but also in highlighting spiral organisms within mucus or crypts that were invisible in routine histology. Possibly, these spiral organisms may spread throughout the entire large intestine, although there is a potential problem with antibody specificity.

  14. Cited1 deficiency suppresses intestinal tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Méniel

    Full Text Available Conditional deletion of Apc in the murine intestine alters crypt-villus architecture and function. This process is accompanied by multiple changes in gene expression, including upregulation of Cited1, whose role in colorectal carcinogenesis is unknown. Here we explore the relevance of Cited1 to intestinal tumorigenesis. We crossed Cited1 null mice with Apc(Min/+ and AhCre(+Apc(fl/fl mice and determined the impact of Cited1 deficiency on tumour growth/initiation including tumour multiplicity, cell proliferation, apoptosis and the transcriptome. We show that Cited1 is up-regulated in both human and murine tumours, and that constitutive deficiency of Cited1 increases survival in Apc(Min/+ mice from 230.5 to 515 days. However, paradoxically, Cited1 deficiency accentuated nearly all aspects of the immediate phenotype 4 days after conditional deletion of Apc, including an increase in cell death and enhanced perturbation of differentiation, including of the stem cell compartment. Transcriptome analysis revealed multiple pathway changes, including p53, PI3K and Wnt. The activation of Wnt through Cited1 deficiency correlated with increased transcription of β-catenin and increased levels of dephosphorylated β-catenin. Hence, immediately following deletion of Apc, Cited1 normally restrains the Wnt pathway at the level of β-catenin. Thus deficiency of Cited1 leads to hyper-activation of Wnt signaling and an exaggerated Wnt phenotype including elevated cell death. Cited1 deficiency decreases intestinal tumourigenesis in Apc(Min/+ mice and impacts upon a number of oncogenic signaling pathways, including Wnt. This restraint imposed by Cited1 is consistent with a requirement for Cited1 to constrain Wnt activity to a level commensurate with optimal adenoma formation and maintenance, and provides one mechanism for tumour repression in the absence of Cited1.

  15. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase: multiple biological roles in maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and modulation by diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallès, Jean-Paul

    2010-06-01

    The diverse nature of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) functions has remained elusive, and it is only recently that four additional major functions of IAP have been revealed. The present review analyzes the earlier literature on the dietary factors modulating IAP activity in light of these new findings. IAP regulates lipid absorption across the apical membrane of enterocytes, participates in the regulation of bicarbonate secretion and of duodenal surface pH, limits bacterial transepithelial passage, and finally controls bacterial endotoxin-induced inflammation by dephosphorylation, thus detoxifying intestinal lipopolysaccharide. Many dietary components, including fat, protein, and carbohydrate, modulate IAP expression or activity and may be combined to sustain a high level of IAP activity. In conclusion, IAP has a pivotal role in intestinal homeostasis and its activity could be increased through the diet. This is especially true in pathological situations (e.g., inflammatory bowel diseases) in which the involvement of commensal bacteria is suspected and when intestinal AP is too low to detoxify a sufficient amount of bacterial lipopolysaccharide.

  16. The role of intestinal epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease and inflammation related intestinal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Deuring (Jasper)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe intestinal epithelial cells(IEC) are indispensable factors in the host protection against the harmful luminal content. In this thesis we aimed to gain further insight in the role of IEC in the Inflammatory Bowel Disease(IBD) aetiology, since it is an important mediator between the al

  17. Intestinal Disaccharidase Activity in Patients with Autism: Effect of Age, Gender, and Intestinal Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushak, Rafail I.; Lauwers, Gregory Y.; Winter, Harland S.; Buie, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal disaccharidase activities were measured in 199 individuals with autism to determine the frequency of enzyme deficiency. All patients had duodenal biopsies that were evaluated morphologically and assayed for lactase, sucrase, and maltase activity. Frequency of lactase deficiency was 58% in autistic children less than or equal to 5 years…

  18. Plasma GLP-2 levels and intestinal markers in the juvenile pig during intestinal adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paris, Monique C; Fuller, Peter J; Carstensen, Bendix

    2004-01-01

    , villus height, lactase, sucrase, maltase, crypt depth, or villus/crypt ratio. Plasma GLP-2 levels increase in the first weeks following massive small intestinal resection. The increase in plasma GLP-2 levels was enhanced by supplementation of the diet with CPC. The changes in GLP-2 levels observed...

  19. Precision-cut intestinal slices as an in vitro model to predict NSAID induced intestinal toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, Xiaoyu; van der Bijl, Henk; Groothuis, Geny; de Graaf, Inge

    2013-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with high prevalence of gastro-intestinal side-effects. In vivo studies suggest that uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation is an important cause of the toxicity and that the toxicity is aggravated by enterohepatic circulation. Precision

  20. Campylobacter-induced interleukin-8 responses in human intestinal epithelial cells and primary intestinal chick cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrmann, Erika; Berndt, Angela; Hänel, Ingrid; Köhler, Heike

    2007-09-20

    Campylobacter (C.) jejuni and C. coli can cause gastrointestinal disorders in humans characterized by acute inflammation. Inflammatory signals are initiated during interaction between these pathogens and human intestinal cells, but nothing is known about the stimulation of avian intestinal cells by Campylobacter. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) as a proinflammatory chemokine plays an important role in mobilizing cellular defence mechanism. IL-8 mRNA expression in both human intestinal cells (INT 407) and primary intestinal chick cells (PIC) was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The secretion of IL-8 protein by INT407 was measured using ELISA. Although C. jejuni and C. coli are considered to be harmless commensals in the gut of birds, the avian Campylobacter isolates investigated were able to induce the proinflammatory IL-8 in PIC as well as in INT407. In an in vitro system, C. jejuni as well as C. coli were able to induce IL-8 mRNA in PIC. Relation between the virulence properties like toxin production, the ability to invade and to survive in Caco-2 cells and the level of IL-8 mRNA produced by INT 407 and PIC after infection with Campylobacter strains was also investigated.

  1. Diclofenac toxicity in human intestine ex vivo is not related to the formation of intestinal metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, Xiaoyu; de Graaf, Inge A. M.; Langelaar-Makkinje, Miriam; Horvatovich, Peter; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of diclofenac (DCF), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is associated with a high prevalence of gastrointestinal side effects. In vivo studies in rodents suggested that reactive metabolites of DCF produced by the liver or the intestine might be responsible for this toxicity. In the prese

  2. Intestinal Disaccharidase Activity in Patients with Autism: Effect of Age, Gender, and Intestinal Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushak, Rafail I.; Lauwers, Gregory Y.; Winter, Harland S.; Buie, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal disaccharidase activities were measured in 199 individuals with autism to determine the frequency of enzyme deficiency. All patients had duodenal biopsies that were evaluated morphologically and assayed for lactase, sucrase, and maltase activity. Frequency of lactase deficiency was 58% in autistic children less than or equal to 5 years…

  3. Diclofenac toxicity in human intestine ex vivo is not related to the formation of intestinal metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, Xiaoyu; de Graaf, Inge A. M.; Langelaar-Makkinje, Miriam; Horvatovich, Peter; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of diclofenac (DCF), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is associated with a high prevalence of gastrointestinal side effects. In vivo studies in rodents suggested that reactive metabolites of DCF produced by the liver or the intestine might be responsible for this toxicity. In the prese

  4. Fermentation in the Small Intestine Contributes Substantially to Intestinal Starch Disappearance in Calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Myrthe S.; Pantophlet, Andre J.; Berends, Harma; Pluschke, Anton M.; van den Borne, Joost J. G. C.; Hendriks, Wouter H.; Schols, Henk A.; Gerrits, Walter J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The proportion of starch disappearing from the small intestinal lumen is generally lower in ruminants than in monogastric animals, and there are indications that the starch digestion capacity in ruminants is limited. Objectives: Milk-fed calves were used to study the rate-limiting enzyme

  5. Intestinal protozoa and intestinal helminthic infections among schoolchildren in Central Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdel-aziz M Ahmed; Azam A Afifi; Elfatih M Malik; Ishag Adam

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) among primary schoolchildren in El dhayga, Central Sudan.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, three fresh faecal samples were collected from each child, which were examined by direct wet mount, brine flotation, formalin–ether and Kato–Katz techniques. The intensity of each STH infection was expressed as the mean of eggs per gram counts of the three samples.Results: In total, 142 (90.4%) of 157 children harboured at least one type of intestinal parasite.Ascaris lumbricoides,Hymenolepis nana,Entamoeba histolytica andGiardia lamblia were the most common parasites found, with prevalence rates of 32.5%, 30.6%, 33.1% and 19.7%, respectively. Out of these 157 children, 29(18.5%) harboured more than two intestinal parasitic infections. No cases ofSchistosoma mansoni orEnterobius vermicularis were identified. Conclusions: The study demonstrates significant burden of intestinal protozoa and STH infections in this part of Sudan and highlights the need for preventive and intervention measures.

  6. Obesidad y microbiótica intestinal

    OpenAIRE

    Pollo Vegas, Lucía

    2015-01-01

    La creciente prevalencia de la obesidad por una parte, y los avances tecnológicos en las técnicas genéticas por otra, han despertado gran interés por las causas de la obesidad y en concreto han permitido explorar un nuevo campo de investigación en la etiopatogenia de la obesidad. Numerosos estudios han establecido una relación causal entre el microbiota intestinal que coloniza el tracto digestivo y el desarrollo de obesidad o sobrepeso, así como, la relación entre la obesidad, el cambio...

  7. Suspected Intestinal Tuberculosis Might Be Crohn's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semiu Eniola Folaranmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this case report we provide evidence that supports a link between mycobacteria and Crohn's disease. The patient in question, KG, presented on three separate occasions over a ten years period with features suggestive of intestinal tuberculosis. He was treated successfully on each occasion with antimycobacterial drugs. When he presented a fourth time with the same symptoms, he was diagnosed with Crohn's disease based on findings from endoscopy, histology and CT. Subsequently he was treated with a course of steroids and made a full recovery. This case adds weight to the theory that mycobateria has an aetiological role in Crohn's disease.

  8. Obesidad y microbiótica intestinal

    OpenAIRE

    Pollo Vegas, Lucía

    2015-01-01

    La creciente prevalencia de la obesidad por una parte, y los avances tecnológicos en las técnicas genéticas por otra, han despertado gran interés por las causas de la obesidad y en concreto han permitido explorar un nuevo campo de investigación en la etiopatogenia de la obesidad. Numerosos estudios han establecido una relación causal entre el microbiota intestinal que coloniza el tracto digestivo y el desarrollo de obesidad o sobrepeso, así como, la relación entre la obesidad, el cambio...

  9. Severe emphysematous pyelonephritis mimicking intestinal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ji Ning; Zhang, Bao Long; Yu, Hai Yan; Wang, Bin

    2015-12-01

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a severe necrotizing infection characterized by the presence of gas and/or fluid in the renal parenchyma, collecting system, or perirenal tissues. Emphysematous pyelonephritis with approximately 15 cm air-fluid level, diffused ureteral involvement, and the accumulation of gas in liver and peritoneal cavity is very rare. Here, we reported a severe emphysematous pyelonephritis with multiple huge air-fluid level mimicking intestinal obstruction and with the accumulation of gas in liver and ureter in computed tomography imaging. The patient was successfully managed by percutaneous nephrostomy combined with medical treatment.

  10. Rebamipide protects small intestinal mucosal injuries caused by indomethacin by modulating intestinal microbiota and the gene expression in intestinal mucosa in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Satoshi; Nakashima, Takako; Osaki, Takako; Uematsu, Naoya; Shibamori, Masafumi; Sakurai, Kazushi; Kamiya, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    The effect of rebamipide, a mucosal protective drug, on small intestinal mucosal injury caused by indomethacin was examined using a rat model. Indomethacin administration (10 mg/kg, p.o.) induced intestinal mucosal injury was accompanied by an increase in the numbers of intestinal bacteria particularly Enterobacteriaceae in the jejunum and ileum. Rebamipide (30 and 100 mg/kg, p.o., given 5 times) was shown to inhibit the indomethacin-induced small intestinal mucosal injury and decreased the number of Enterococcaceae and Enterobacteriaceae in the jejunal mucosa to normal levels. It was also shown that the detection rate of segmented filamentous bacteria was increased by rebamipide. PCR array analysis of genes related to inflammation, oxidative stress and wound healing showed that indomethacin induced upregulation and downregulation of 14 and 3 genes, respectively in the rat jejunal mucosa by more than 5-fold compared to that of normal rats. Rebamipide suppressed the upregulated gene expression of TNFα and Duox2 in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, our study confirmed that disturbance of intestinal microbiota plays a crucial role in indomethacin-induced small intestinal mucosal injury, and suggests that rebamipide could be used as prophylaxis against non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs -induced gastrointestinal mucosal injury, by modulating microbiota and suppressing mucosal inflammation in the small intestine.

  11. Intestinal Microbiota-Derived GABA Mediates Interleukin-17 Expression during Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Xiao, Hao; Chen, Shuai; Liu, Gang; Tan, Bie; Li, Nengzhang; Peng, Yuanyi; Li, Tiejun; Zeng, Benhua; Li, Wenxia; Wei, Hong; Yin, Zhinan; Wu, Guoyao; Hardwidge, Philip R.; Yin, Yulong

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal microbiota has critical importance in pathogenesis of intestinal infection; however, the role of intestinal microbiota in intestinal immunity during enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection is poorly understood. The present study tested the hypothesis that the intestinal microbiota is associated with intestinal interleukin-17 (IL-17) expression in response to ETEC infection. Here, we found ETEC infection induced expression of intestinal IL-17 and dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota, increasing abundance of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. Antibiotics treatment in mice lowered the expression of intestinal IL-17 during ETEC infection, while GABA or L. lactis subsp. lactis administration restored the expression of intestinal IL-17. L. lactis subsp. lactis administration also promoted expression of intestinal IL-17 in germ-free mice during ETEC infection. GABA enhanced intestinal IL-17 expression in the context of ETEC infection through activating mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)-ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) signaling. GABA–mTORC1 signaling also affected intestinal IL-17 expression in response to Citrobacter rodentium infection and in drug-induced model of intestinal inflammation. These findings highlight the importance of intestinal GABA signaling in intestinal IL-17 expression during intestinal infection and indicate the potential of intestinal microbiota-GABA signaling in IL-17-associated intestinal diseases. PMID:28138329

  12. Irf4-dependent CD103+CD11b+ dendritic cells and the intestinal microbiome regulate monocyte and macrophage activation and intestinal peristalsis in postoperative ileus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohl, Judith Mira; Gutweiler, Sebastian; Thiebes, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    and large intestinal POI suggested a potential role of the intestinal microbiota. Indeed, antibiotic treatment reduced iNOS levels and ameliorated POI. Conclusions: Our findings reveal that CD103+CD11b+ DCs and the intestinal microbiome are a prerequisite for the activation of intestinal monocytes...

  13. Intestinal permeability measurements: general aspects and possible pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles Teixeira, Tatiana Fiche; Boroni Moreira, Ana Paula; Silva Souza, Nilian Carla; Frias, Rafael; Gouveia Peluzio, Maria do Carmo

    2014-02-01

    Introducción: Alteraciones funcionales de la barrera intestinal se han relacionado con una variedad de enfermedades intestinales y también con enfermedades no intestinales. Las pruebas de permeabilidad intestinal son consideradas herramientas útiles para evaluar la gravedad de la enfermedad para el posterior seguimiento de los pacientes después de una intervención terapéutica. Objetivo: El objeto de esta revisión ha sido destacar los posibles factores que pueden estar asociados a una mayor permeabilidad intestinal y revisar condiciones clínicas que han sido asociadas en individuos de diferentes edades. También revisar ciertos aspectos metodológicos de las pruebas de permeabilidad intestinal. Resultados y discusión: Las uniones estrechas entre los enterocitos son las principales estructuras encargadas de la regulación de la barrera intestinal. Una alteración de éstas, resulta en una deficiencia en la permeabilidad intestinal y una mayor penetración de las sustancias marcadoras de permeabilidad intestinal. La lactulosa y el manitol son las sustancias marcadoras más utilizadas. La inocuidad y facilidad de los test de permeabilidad han sido de ayuda para explorar y ampliar el conocimiento de muchas condiciones clínicas en las que la disfunción de la barrera intestinal ha sido un sello distintivo. Muchos factores pueden influir en los resultados de los test de permeabilidad. Sin embargo, los investigadores y los clínicos han de tratar de eludir los posibles inconvenientes de las pruebas de permeabilidad intestinal para poder producir evidencias más consistentes. El uso de otras sustancias marcadoras de la fisiología intestinal también puede contribuir a comprender mejor el papel de la barrera intestinal en diferentes enfermedades.

  14. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase contributes to the reduction of severe intestinal epithelial damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bol-Schoenmakers, Marianne; Fiechter, Daniëlle; Raaben, Willem; Hassing, Ine; Bleumink, Rob; Kruijswijk, Daniëlle; Maijoor, Kelly; Tersteeg-Zijderveld, Monique; Brands, Ruud; Pieters, Raymond

    2010-05-10

    Inflammatory bowel disease is characterized by chronic inflammation of the intestine and is accompanied by damage of the epithelial lining and by undesired immune responses towards enteric bacteria. It has been demonstrated that intestinal alkaline phosphatase (iAP) protects against the induction of inflammation, possibly due to dephosphorylation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The present study investigated the therapeutic potential of iAP in intestinal inflammation and epithelial damage. Intestinal epithelial damage was induced in C57BL/6 mice using detran sulfate sodium (DSS) and iAP was administered 4days after initial DSS exposure. Loss in body weight was significantly less in iAP-treated mice and accompanied with reduced colon damage (determined by combination of crypt loss, loss of goblet cells, oedema and infiltrations of neutrophils). Treatment with iAP was more effective in case of severe inflammation compared to situations of mild to moderate inflammation. Rectal administration of LPS into a moderate inflamed colon did not aggravate inflammation. Furthermore, soluble iAP did not lower LPS-induced nuclear factor-kappaB activation in epithelial cells in vitro but induction of cellular AP expression by butyrate resulted in decreased LPS response. In conclusion, the present study shows that oral iAP administration has beneficial effects in situations of severe intestinal epithelial damage, whereas in moderate inflammation endogenous iAP may be sufficient to counteract disease-aggravating effects of LPS. An approach including iAP treatment holds a therapeutic promise in case of severe inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Arginine consumption by the intestinal parasite Giardia intestinalis reduces proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Britta; Merino, María C; Persson, Lo; Svärd, Staffan G

    2012-01-01

    In the field of infectious diseases the multifaceted amino acid arginine has reached special attention as substrate for the hosts production of the antimicrobial agent nitric oxide (NO). A variety of infectious organisms interfere with this part of the host immune response by reducing the availability of arginine. This prompted us to further investigate additional roles of arginine during pathogen infections. As a model we used the intestinal parasite Giardia intestinalis that actively consumes arginine as main energy source and secretes an arginine-consuming enzyme, arginine deiminase (ADI). Reduced intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation is a common theme during bacterial and viral intestinal infections, but it has never been connected to arginine-consumption. Our specific question was thereby, whether the arginine-consumption by Giardia leads to reduced IEC proliferation, in addition to NO reduction. In vitro cultivation of human IEC lines in arginine-free or arginine/citrulline-complemented medium, as well as in interaction with different G. intestinalis isolates, were used to study effects on host cell replication by MTT assay. IEC proliferation was further analyzed by DNA content analysis, polyamine measurements and expressional analysis of cell cycle regulatory genes. IEC proliferation was reduced upon arginine-withdrawal and also in an arginine-dependent manner upon interaction with G. intestinalis or addition of Giardia ADI. We show that arginine-withdrawal by intestinal pathogens leads to a halt in the cell cycle in IECs through reduced polyamine levels and upregulated cell cycle inhibitory genes. This is of importance with regards to intestinal tissue homeostasis that is affected through reduced cell proliferation. Thus, the slower epithelial cell turnover helps the pathogen to maintain a more stable niche for colonization. This study also shows why supplementation therapy of diarrhea patients with arginine/citrulline is helpful and that

  16. Arginine consumption by the intestinal parasite Giardia intestinalis reduces proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Stadelmann

    Full Text Available In the field of infectious diseases the multifaceted amino acid arginine has reached special attention as substrate for the hosts production of the antimicrobial agent nitric oxide (NO. A variety of infectious organisms interfere with this part of the host immune response by reducing the availability of arginine. This prompted us to further investigate additional roles of arginine during pathogen infections. As a model we used the intestinal parasite Giardia intestinalis that actively consumes arginine as main energy source and secretes an arginine-consuming enzyme, arginine deiminase (ADI. Reduced intestinal epithelial cell (IEC proliferation is a common theme during bacterial and viral intestinal infections, but it has never been connected to arginine-consumption. Our specific question was thereby, whether the arginine-consumption by Giardia leads to reduced IEC proliferation, in addition to NO reduction. In vitro cultivation of human IEC lines in arginine-free or arginine/citrulline-complemented medium, as well as in interaction with different G. intestinalis isolates, were used to study effects on host cell replication by MTT assay. IEC proliferation was further analyzed by DNA content analysis, polyamine measurements and expressional analysis of cell cycle regulatory genes. IEC proliferation was reduced upon arginine-withdrawal and also in an arginine-dependent manner upon interaction with G. intestinalis or addition of Giardia ADI. We show that arginine-withdrawal by intestinal pathogens leads to a halt in the cell cycle in IECs through reduced polyamine levels and upregulated cell cycle inhibitory genes. This is of importance with regards to intestinal tissue homeostasis that is affected through reduced cell proliferation. Thus, the slower epithelial cell turnover helps the pathogen to maintain a more stable niche for colonization. This study also shows why supplementation therapy of diarrhea patients with arginine/citrulline is helpful

  17. File list: His.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  1. File list: His.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  3. File list: Unc.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  4. Immunomodulatory Properties of Streptococcus and Veillonella Isolates from the Human Small Intestine Microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogert, van den B.; Meijerink, M.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Wells, J.M.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2014-01-01

    The human small intestine is a key site for interactions between the intestinal microbiota and the mucosal immune system. Here we investigated the immunomodulatory properties of representative species of commonly dominant small-intestinal microbial communities, including six streptococcal strains

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  6. File list: His.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  7. File list: Unc.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  8. File list: His.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  9. [Experimental substantiation of use of sodium hypochlorite and ozone at a formation of intestinal anastomosis in conditions of acute intestinal obstruction and peritonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelianov, A D; Ivliev, N V; Bazhenov, S M; Nesterov, A A

    2009-01-01

    Presented are the results of experimental research on 144 animals (the rats Wistar), on whom was carried out resection of a part of large intestine and a intestinal anastamosis was formed in the presents of acute intestinal obstruction and peritonitis. The sanitation of abdominal cavity in the basic group of animals (74) was performed using sodium hypochlorite solution and dissolved ozone. The intestinal lavage was carried out by dissolved ozone with the subsequent introduction of ozonized oil Ozonide in the area of intestinal anastamosis. The combined application of ozone and sodium produces an expressed samative effect which leads to healing of intestinal anastamosis and decreases unstability of intestinal sutures and mortality.

  10. [The association of intestinal microbiota with obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Pamela; Brignardello, Jerusa; Gotteland, Martín

    2010-08-01

    Intestinal microbiota (IM) plays a role in the development of obesity and its associated low grade inflammation. Bacterial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract of germ free mice (without microbiota) increases by 60% their fat mass, alters their fasting glucose and insulin levels, triples their hepatic triglycerides and induces adipocyte hypertrophy. IM favors fat storage in adipocytes through the inhibition of Fiaf (Fasting Induced Adipocyte Factor), an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase. Compared with normal weight subjects, the IM from obese exhibits a higher proportion of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes and is more efficient in extracting energy from foodstuffs. The loss of bodyweight by a hypocaloric diet reverts the proportion of bacteria to that of lean subjects. The intake of a high fat diet also alters the IM, affecting intestinal barrier function and favoring endotoxinemia. These events increase oxidative and pro-inflammatory processes in plasma and peripheral tissues and increment the risk of insulin resistance. Such events are reverted by the administration of prebiotics which stimulate the growth of Bifdobacterium and Lactobacillus species in the colon, reestablishing the gut homeostasis. Interestingly, products resulting from the fermentation of prebiotics stimulate the differentiation of enteroendocrine cells and the release of glucagon like peptide 1 and peptide YY, that have insulin like and anorexigenic activities, thus contributing to body weight equilibrium.

  11. Pseudomyxoma Peritonei Originating from an Intestinal Duplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Lemahieu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alimentary tract duplications are rare congenital anomalies. They most often become symptomatic in childhood and rarely undergo malignant transformation. Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP is an equally uncommon condition, most frequently originating from a primary appendiceal mucinous neoplasm. We report an extremely unusual case of PMP arising from an intestinal duplication. A 67-year-old woman presented with vague upper abdominal pain, and, unexpectedly, explorative laparoscopy revealed diffuse jelly-like peritoneal implants. The histopathological diagnosis of a low-grade PMP or “disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis” was made. At that moment, no primary tumor was found. During later surgery, a cystic lesion located in the mesentery of the small bowel could be resected. Histologically, the cyst wall clearly showed the concentric layering of a normal bowel wall. The mucosa, however, displayed a diffuse low-grade villous adenoma. We concluded that this histological picture was most consistent with a small intestinal duplication, containing a low-grade villous adenoma. The adenoma caused a mucocele, which subsequently leaked or ruptured, giving rise to noninvasive mucinous peritoneal implants or low-grade PMP, also known as “disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis” (DPAM.

  12. Pseudomyxoma peritonei originating from an intestinal duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemahieu, Julie; D'Hoore, André; Deloose, Stijn; Sciot, Raf; Moerman, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Alimentary tract duplications are rare congenital anomalies. They most often become symptomatic in childhood and rarely undergo malignant transformation. Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is an equally uncommon condition, most frequently originating from a primary appendiceal mucinous neoplasm. We report an extremely unusual case of PMP arising from an intestinal duplication. A 67-year-old woman presented with vague upper abdominal pain, and, unexpectedly, explorative laparoscopy revealed diffuse jelly-like peritoneal implants. The histopathological diagnosis of a low-grade PMP or "disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis" was made. At that moment, no primary tumor was found. During later surgery, a cystic lesion located in the mesentery of the small bowel could be resected. Histologically, the cyst wall clearly showed the concentric layering of a normal bowel wall. The mucosa, however, displayed a diffuse low-grade villous adenoma. We concluded that this histological picture was most consistent with a small intestinal duplication, containing a low-grade villous adenoma. The adenoma caused a mucocele, which subsequently leaked or ruptured, giving rise to noninvasive mucinous peritoneal implants or low-grade PMP, also known as "disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis" (DPAM).

  13. Wine consumption and intestinal redox homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasi, Fiorella; Deiana, Monica; Guina, Tina; Gamba, Paola; Leonarduzzi, Gabriella; Poli, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Regular consumption of moderate doses of wine is an integral part of the Mediterranean diet, which has long been considered to provide remarkable health benefits. Wine׳s beneficial effect has been attributed principally to its non-alcoholic portion, which has antioxidant properties, and contains a wide variety of phenolics, generally called polyphenols. Wine phenolics may prevent or delay the progression of intestinal diseases characterized by oxidative stress and inflammation, especially because they reach higher concentrations in the gut than in other tissues. They act as both free radical scavengers and modulators of specific inflammation-related genes involved in cellular redox signaling. In addition, the importance of wine polyphenols has recently been stressed for their ability to act as prebiotics and antimicrobial agents. Wine components have been proposed as an alternative natural approach to prevent or treat inflammatory bowel diseases. The difficulty remains to distinguish whether these positive properties are due only to polyphenols in wine or also to the alcohol intake, since many studies have reported ethanol to possess various beneficial effects. Our knowledge of the use of wine components in managing human intestinal inflammatory diseases is still quite limited, and further clinical studies may afford more solid evidence of their beneficial effects. PMID:25009781

  14. Fucose sensing regulates bacterial intestinal colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Alline R; Curtis, Meredith M; Ritchie, Jennifer M; Munera, Diana; Waldor, Matthew K; Moreira, Cristiano G; Sperandio, Vanessa

    2012-12-06

    The mammalian gastrointestinal tract provides a complex and competitive environment for the microbiota. Successful colonization by pathogens requires scavenging nutrients, sensing chemical signals, competing with the resident bacteria and precisely regulating the expression of virulence genes. The gastrointestinal pathogen enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) relies on inter-kingdom chemical sensing systems to regulate virulence gene expression. Here we show that these systems control the expression of a novel two-component signal transduction system, named FusKR, where FusK is the histidine sensor kinase and FusR the response regulator. FusK senses fucose and controls expression of virulence and metabolic genes. This fucose-sensing system is required for robust EHEC colonization of the mammalian intestine. Fucose is highly abundant in the intestine. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron produces multiple fucosidases that cleave fucose from host glycans, resulting in high fucose availability in the gut lumen. During growth in mucin, B. thetaiotaomicron contributes to EHEC virulence by cleaving fucose from mucin, thereby activating the FusKR signalling cascade, modulating the virulence gene expression of EHEC. Our findings suggest that EHEC uses fucose, a host-derived signal made available by the microbiota, to modulate EHEC pathogenicity and metabolism.

  15. Newer diagnostic approaches to intestinal protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lieshout, Lisette; Verweij, Jaco J

    2010-10-01

    To update the reader on the latest developments in the laboratory diagnosis of intestinal protozoa. Correct identification of a diarrhoea causing pathogens is essential for the choice of treatment in an individual patient as well as to map the aetiology of diarrhoea in a variety of patient populations. Classical diagnosis of diarrhoea causing protozoa by microscopic examination of a stool sample lacks both sensitivity and specificity. Alternative diagnostic platforms are discussed. Recent literature on the diagnosis of intestinal protozoa has focused mainly on nucleic acid-based assays, in particular the specific detection of parasite DNA in stool samples using real-time PCR. In addition, the trend has been moving from single pathogen detection to a multiplex approach, allowing simultaneous identification of multiple parasites. Different combinations of targets can be used within a routine diagnostic setting, depending on the patient population, such as children, immunocompromised individuals and those who have been travelling to tropical regions. Large-scale monitoring and evaluation of control strategies become feasible due to automation and high-throughput facilities. Improved technology also has become available for differentiating protozoa subspecies, which facilitates outbreak investigations and extensive research in molecular epidemiology.

  16. Autism spectrum disorders and intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Maria; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Piccolo, Maria; De Giacomo, Andrea; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Through extensive microbial-mammalian co-metabolism, the intestinal microbiota have evolved to exert a marked influence on health and disease via gut-brain-microbiota interactions. In this addendum, we summarize the findings of our recent study on the fecal microbiota and metabolomes of children with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) or autism (AD) compared with healthy children (HC). Children with PDD-NOS or AD have altered fecal microbiota and metabolomes (including neurotransmitter molecules). We hypothesize that the degree of microbial alteration correlates with the severity of the disease since fecal microbiota and metabolomes alterations were higher in children with PDD-NOS and, especially, AD compared to HC. Our study indicates that the levels of free amino acids (FAA) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) differ in AD subjects compared to children with PDD-NOS, who are more similar to HC. Finally, we propose a new perspective on the implications for the interaction between intestinal microbiota and AD.

  17. Prevalence of intestinal nematodes in alcoholic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zago-Gomes Maria P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of a retrospective study on the frequency of intestinal nematodes among 198 alcoholic and 440 nonalcoholic patients at the University Hospital Cassiano Antonio Moraes in Vitória, ES, Brazil. The control sample included 194 nonalcoholic patients matched according to age, sex and neighborhood and a random sample of 296 adults admitted at the same hospital. Stool examination by sedimentation method (three samples was performed in all patients. There was a significantly higher frequency of intestinal nematodes in alcoholics than in controls (35.3% and 19.2%, respectively, due to a higher frequency of Strongyloides stercoralis (21.7% and 4.1%, respectively. Disregarding this parasite, the frequency of the other nematodes was similar in both groups. The higher frequency of S. stercoralis infection in alcoholics could be explained by immune modulation and/or by some alteration in corticosteroid metabolism induced by chronic ethanol ingestion. Corticosteroid metabolites would mimic the worm ecdisteroids, that would in turn increase the fecundity of females in duodenum and survival of larvae. Consequently, the higher frequency of Strongyloides larvae in stool of alcoholics does not necessarily reflect an increased frequency of infection rate, but only an increased chance to present a positive stool examination using sedimentation methods.

  18. A rare cause of malnutrition: Intestinal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Yılmaz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Extrapulmonary manifestations of tuberculosis are an uncommon. Intestinal tuberculosis (ITB is rare, but it remains a life-threatening disease unless diagnosed. Due to the lack of specific signs and symptoms, diagnosis of ITB can be difficult. A 27-year-old Turkish woman was admitted to our clinic with a 6-month history of abdominal pain, fever and weight loss. Colonoscopy was performed. At colonoscopy, there was detected in the mucosal lesions in the terminal ileum and caecum. On colonoscopy, deformed ileocaecal valve, strictures in caecum and terminal ileum, mucosal nodules were detected. Multiple biopsy specimens were taken from the active lesion. The diagnosis was made by demonstration of acid-fast bacilli and epithelioid cell granulomas in the colonoscopic biopsy specimens. The lesion was diagnosed as ITB. Quadruple therapy with anti-TBC drugs for 1 year was ordered. The patient was discharged from hospital two months without any other complications. Intestinal TB is a treatable and curable illness.

  19. Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EB Kia

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organ transplant recipients can experience serious diseases from infections due to emerging and reemerging parasitic infections. This study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasites among renal transplant re-cipients of Iran. "nMethods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2003 to August 2004 on renal transplant recipients in Iran. A total of 706 fecal samples obtained from randomly selected population originated from all over Iran. Patient's information was recorded in a questionnaire before sampling. A sample of stool was taken from each person. Direct wet smear exami-nation, formalin-ether concentration, Ziehl-neelsen staining, and agar plate culture were done for each sample. "nResults: Totally 32 patients (4.5% were positive for parasitic infections. In searching for emerging parasitic infections, the most prevalent parasites were found to be Blastocystis hominis, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba coli, respectively. The merely ova which were seen were related to Hymenolepis nana. With investigation of healthy control, no significant differ-ence was found between transplanted and normal population. "nConclusion: The population showed controlled rate of intestinal infections probably due to regular awareness concerning risks of opportunistic infections; albeit regular surveillance through routine examination of stool samples for parasites seems considerably advantages the transplant recipient patients.

  20. INTESTINAL MALROTATION IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING BARIATRIC SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Eduardo Arevalo; Rendon, Francisco Abarca; Zambrano, Trino Andrade; García, Yudoco Andrade; Viteri, Mario Ferrin; Campos, Josemberg Marins; Ramos, Manoela Galvão; Ramos, Almino Cardoso

    Intestinal malrotation is a rare congenital anomaly. In adults is very difficult to recognize due to the lack of symptoms. Diagnosis is usually incidental during surgical procedures or at autopsy. To review the occurrence and recognition of uneventful intestinal malrotation discovered during regular cases of bariatric surgeries. Were retrospectively reviewed the medical registry of 20,000 cases undergoing bariatric surgery, from January 2002 to January 2016, looking for the occurrence of intestinal malrotation and consequences in the intraoperative technique and immediate evolution of the patients. Five cases (0,025%) of intestinal malrotation were found. All of them were males, aging 45, 49, 37,52 and 39 years; BMI 35, 42, 49, 47 and 52 kg/m2, all of them with a past medical history of morbid obesity. The patient with BMI 35 kg/m2 suffered from type 2 diabetes also. All procedures were completed by laparoscopic approach, with no conversions. In one patient was not possible to move the jejunum to the upper abdomen in order to establish the gastrojejunostomy and a sleeve gastrectomy was performed. In another patient was not possible to fully recognize the anatomy due to bowel adhesions and a single anastomosis gastric bypass was preferred. No leaks or bleeding were identified. There were no perioperative complications. All patients were discharged 72 h after the procedure and no immediate 30-day complications were reported. Patients with malrotation can successfully undergo laparoscopic bariatric surgery. May be necessary changes in the surgical original strategy regarding the malrotation. Surgeons must check full abdominal anatomical condition prior to start the division of the stomach. Má-rotação intestinal é rara anomalia congênita em adultos de difícil reconhecimento devido à falta de sintomas. O diagnóstico é feito geralmente incidentalmente durante procedimentos cirúrgicos ou durante autópsia. Verificar a ocorrência e reconhecimento não eventual

  1. "Melanosis" in the small and large intestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Deposition of pigment in the intestinal mucosa is commonly observed by the endoscopist, especially within the colon, and particularly during investigations for constipation. Pigment may also be detected in the small intestine. Although labeled as melanosis, electron microscopy and X-ray analytical methods have provided evidence that this pigment is not melanin at all, but lipofuscin. Often, herbal remedies or anthracene containing laxatives are often historically implicated, and experimental studies in both humans and animal models have also confirmed the intimate relationship with these pharmacological or pseudo-pharmacological remedies. The appearance of melanosis coil during colonoscopy is largely due to pigment granule deposition in macrophages located in the colonic mucosa. The pigment intensity is not uniform, being more intense in the cecum and proximal colon compared to the distal colon. Possibly, this reflects higher luminal concentrations of an offending agent in the proximal compared to distal colon, differential absorption along the length of the colon, or finally, differences in macrophage distribution within the colon. Mucosal lymphoid aggregates normally display a distinct absence of pigment producing a "starry sky" appearance, especially in the rectosigmoid region. Interestingly, some focal, usually sessile, colonic mucosal neoplastic lesions, rather than submucosal lesions, may be better appreciated as pigment deposition may be absent or limited. If detected, removal and further histopathologic analysis of the polyp may be facilitated.

  2. Parasitismo intestinal en manipuladores de alimentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Nicolás Gómez Vital

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available El parasitismo intestinal representa un significativo problema en la salud mundial. Se realiza un estudio epidemiológico descriptivo en manipuladores de alimentos de los principales centros de elaboración de la ciudad de Santa Clara, provincia Villa Clara, durante 1998. Los enteroparásitos patógenos encontrados por orden de frecuencia fueron la Giardia lamblia y la Entamoeba hitolytica; detectados por método directo y de ritchie para dichos parásitos. La técnica de kato katz fue más eficaz para el diagnóstico de los geohelmintos. Se resalta la función del personal médico en centros de trabajo.Intestinal parasitism is a significant problem for world health. An epidemiological and descriptive study was conducted among food handlers at the main centers of elaboration in the city of Santa Clara, Villa Clara province, during 1998. The pathogenic enteroparasites found by order of frequency were Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba hitolytica, which were detected by using Ritchie's and direct method for such parasites. The Katokatz's technique was more efficient for the diagnosis of geohelminth. It was underlined the function of the medical team at the working centers.

  3. The developing intestinal microbiome: probiotics and prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The microbes in the human intestinal tract interact with the host to form a 'superorganism'. The functional aspects of the host microbe interactions are being increasingly scrutinized and it is becoming evident that this interaction in early life is critical for development of the immune system and metabolic function and aberrations may result in life-long health consequences. Evidence is suggesting that such interactions occur even before birth, where the microbes may be either beneficial or harmful, and possibly even triggering preterm birth. Mode of delivery, use of antibiotics, and other perturbations may have life-long consequences in terms of health and disease. Manipulating the microbiota by use of pro- and prebiotics may offer a means for maintenance of 'healthy' host microbe interactions, but over-exuberance in their use also has the potential to cause harm. Considerable controversy exists concerning the routine use of probiotics in the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis. This chapter will provide a brief overview of the developing intestinal microbiome and discuss the use of pro- and prebiotics in preterm infants.

  4. Dyslipidaemia of diabetes and the intestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the major complication of diabetes andhas become a major issue in the provision of medicalcare. In particular the economic burden is growing atan alarming rate in parallel with the increasing worldwideprevalence of diabetes. The major disturbanceof lipid metabolism in diabetes relates to the effect ofinsulin on fat metabolism. Raised triglycerides being thehallmark of uncontrolled diabetes, i.e. , in the presenceof hyperglycaemia. The explosion of type 2 diabeteshas generated increasing interest on the aetiology ofatherosclerosis in diabetic patients. The importanceof the atherogenic properties of triglyceride richlipoproteins has only recently been recognised by themajority of diabetologists and cardiologists even thoughexperimental evidence has been strong for many years.In the post-prandial phase 50% of triglyceride richlipoproteins come from chylomicrons produced in theintestine. Recent evidence has secured the chylomicronas a major player in the atherogenic process. In diabeteschylomicron production is increased through disturbancein cholesterol absorption, in particular Neimann PickC1-like1 activity is increased as is intestinal synthesisof cholesterol through 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase. ATP binding cassette proteins G5and G8 which regulate cholesterol in the intestine isreduced leading to chylomicronaemia. The chylomicronparticle itself is atherogenic but the increase in thetriglyceride-rich lipoproteins lead to an atherogenic lowdensity lipoprotein and low high density lipoprotein.The various steps in the absorption process and thedisturbance in chylomicron synthesis are discussed.

  5. Wine consumption and intestinal redox homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasi, Fiorella; Deiana, Monica; Guina, Tina; Gamba, Paola; Leonarduzzi, Gabriella; Poli, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Regular consumption of moderate doses of wine is an integral part of the Mediterranean diet, which has long been considered to provide remarkable health benefits. Wine's beneficial effect has been attributed principally to its non-alcoholic portion, which has antioxidant properties, and contains a wide variety of phenolics, generally called polyphenols. Wine phenolics may prevent or delay the progression of intestinal diseases characterized by oxidative stress and inflammation, especially because they reach higher concentrations in the gut than in other tissues. They act as both free radical scavengers and modulators of specific inflammation-related genes involved in cellular redox signaling. In addition, the importance of wine polyphenols has recently been stressed for their ability to act as prebiotics and antimicrobial agents. Wine components have been proposed as an alternative natural approach to prevent or treat inflammatory bowel diseases. The difficulty remains to distinguish whether these positive properties are due only to polyphenols in wine or also to the alcohol intake, since many studies have reported ethanol to possess various beneficial effects. Our knowledge of the use of wine components in managing human intestinal inflammatory diseases is still quite limited, and further clinical studies may afford more solid evidence of their beneficial effects.

  6. Intestinal M cells: The fallible sentinels?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harvey Miller; Jianbing Zhang; Rhonda KuoLee; Girishchandra B Patel; Wangxue Chen

    2007-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract represents the largest mucosal membrane surface in the human body. The immune system in the gut is the first line of host defense against mucosal microbial pathogens and it plays a crucial role in maintaining mucosal homeostasis. Membranous or microfold cells, commonly referred to as microfold cells, are specialized epithelial cells of the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) and they play a sentinel role for the intestinal immune system by delivering luminal antigens through the follicle-associated epithelium to the underlying immune cells. M cells sample and uptake antigens at their apical membrane, encase them in vesicles to transport them to the basolateral membrane of M cells, and from there deliver antigens to the nearby lymphocytes. On the flip side, some intestinal pathogens exploit M cells as their portal of entry to invade the host and cause infections. In this article, we briefly review our current knowledge on the morphology, development, and function of M cells, with an emphasis on their dual role in the pathogenesis of gut infection and in the development of host mucosal immunity.

  7. The Enteric Nervous System in Intestinal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A Sharkey

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Since about the 1950s nerves in the wall of the intestine have been postulated to play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Human and animal studies examining the role of nerves in intestinal inflammation are the focus of this review. Consideration is given to two possible ways that nerves are involved in IBD. First, nerves may play a role in the development or maintenance of inflammation through local release of transmitters. Second, once initiated (by whatever means, the processes of inflammation may disrupt the normal pattern of innervation and the interactions of nerves and their target tissues. Many of the functional disturbances observed in IBD are likely due to an alteration in the enteric nervous system either structurally through disruptions of nerve-target relationships or by modifications of neurotransmitters or their receptors. Finally, it appears that the enteric nervous system may be a potential therapeutic target in IBD and that neuroactive drugs acting locally can represent useful agents in the management of this disease.

  8. Chemically induced mouse models of intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Stefan; Neufert, Clemens; Weigmann, Benno; Neurath, Markus F

    2007-01-01

    Animal models of intestinal inflammation are indispensable for our understanding of the pathogenesis of Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis, the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease in humans. Here, we provide protocols for establishing murine 2,4,6-trinitro benzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-, oxazolone- and both acute and chronic dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis, the most widely used chemically induced models of intestinal inflammation. In the former two models, colitis is induced by intrarectal administration of the covalently reactive reagents TNBS/oxazolone, which are believed to induce a T-cell-mediated response against hapten-modified autologous proteins/luminal antigens. In the DSS model, mice are subjected several days to drinking water supplemented with DSS, which seems to be directly toxic to colonic epithelial cells of the basal crypts. The procedures for the hapten models of colitis and acute DSS colitis can be accomplished in about 2 weeks but the protocol for chronic DSS colitis takes about 2 months.

  9. The intestinal microbiota and microenvironment in liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong-Di; Wang, Yin-Hu; Chang, Christopher; Gershwin, M Eric; Lian, Zhe-Xiong

    2015-03-01

    The intestinal microbiome plays a significant role in the development of autoimmune diseases, in particular, inflammatory bowel diseases. But the interplay between the intestinal tract and the liver may explain the increased association with autoimmune liver diseases and inflammatory bowel diseases. The gut-liver axis involves multiple inflammatory cell types and cytokines, chemokines and other molecules which lead to the destruction of normal liver architecture. Triggers for the initiation of these events are unclear, but appear to include multiple environmental factors, including pathogenic or even commensal microbial agents. The variation in the gut microbiome has been cited as a major factor in the pathogenesis of autoimmune liver disease and even other autoimmune diseases. The unique positioning of the liver at the juncture of the peripheral circulation and the portal circulation augments the interaction between naïve T cells and other hepatic cells and leads to the disruption in the development of tolerance to commensal bacteria and other environmental agents. Finally, the innate immune system and in particular toll-like receptors play a significant role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune liver disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Intestinal growth adaptation and glucagon-like peptide 2 in rats with ileal-jejunal transposition or small bowel resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, Jesper; Hartmann, B.; Kissow, H.;

    2001-01-01

    Anatomy, glucagon-like peptide 2, small intestine, short bowel, intestinal adaptation, growth factors, rat......Anatomy, glucagon-like peptide 2, small intestine, short bowel, intestinal adaptation, growth factors, rat...

  11. Intestinal microbiota in healthy adults: temporal analysis reveals individual and common core and relation to intestinal symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonna Jalanka-Tuovinen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While our knowledge of the intestinal microbiota during disease is accumulating, basic information of the microbiota in healthy subjects is still scarce. The aim of this study was to characterize the intestinal microbiota of healthy adults and specifically address its temporal stability, core microbiota and relation with intestinal symptoms. We carried out a longitudinal study by following a set of 15 healthy Finnish subjects for seven weeks and regularly assessed their intestinal bacteria and archaea with the Human Intestinal Tract (HIT Chip, a phylogenetic microarray, in conjunction with qPCR analyses. The health perception and occurrence of intestinal symptoms was recorded by questionnaire at each sampling point. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A high overall temporal stability of the microbiota was observed. Five subjects showed transient microbiota destabilization, which correlated not only with the intake of antibiotics but also with overseas travelling and temporary illness, expanding the hitherto known factors affecting the intestinal microbiota. We identified significant correlations between the microbiota and common intestinal symptoms, including abdominal pain and bloating. The most striking finding was the inverse correlation between Bifidobacteria and abdominal pain: subjects who experienced pain had over five-fold less Bifidobacteria compared to those without pain. Finally, a novel computational approach was used to define the common core microbiota, highlighting the role of the analysis depth in finding the phylogenetic core and estimating its size. The in-depth analysis suggested that we share a substantial number of our intestinal phylotypes but as they represent highly variable proportions of the total community, many of them often remain undetected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A global and high-resolution microbiota analysis was carried out to determine the temporal stability, the associations with intestinal symptoms, and the

  12. Validation of Intraluminal and Intraperitoneal microdialysis in ischemic small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pynnönen, Lauri; Minkkinen, Minna; Perner, Anders;

    2013-01-01

    We sought to define the sensitivity and specificity of intraperitoneal (IP) and intraluminal (IL) microdialysate metabolites in depicting ex vivo small intestinal total ischemia during GI-tract surgery. We hypothesized that IL as opposed to IP microdialysis detects small intestinal ischemia...

  13. [The intraoperative determination of intestinal vitality with a fluorescent indicator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A; Terziev, I

    1997-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction due to strangulation is induced in dogs under experimental conditions, with intestinal wall vitality assessment done on the ground of standard clinical criteria, using fluorescence dye and UV rays, as well as histological study. Sensitivity, specificity and prognostic value of each of the methods employed are determined. The fluorescence method advantages are recorded, and the prospects of its clinical implementation are estimated.

  14. Defining and mining the intestinal stem cell signature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stange, D.E.

    2012-01-01

    The work in this thesis adds to our knowledge of intestinal stem cell physiology. After identification of Lgr5 as a specific marker for intestinal stem cells by Barker et al, we now set out to characterize them in depth. Taking advantage of the possibility to sort pure fractions of Lgr5+ stem cells

  15. Lactic Acid Bacteria and the Human Intestinal Microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douillard, F.P.; Vos, de W.M.

    2015-01-01

    The great interest in the human microbiome has revived attention paid to LAB presence in the human intestine. This chapter first discusses the LAB associated with the human intestinal microbiota and their potential roles in health and diseases. It then addresses recent metagenomic studies that chall

  16. Intestinal and hepatic metabolism of glutamine and citrulline in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Poll, Marcel C G; Ligthart-Melis, Gerdien C; Boelens, Petra G; Deutz, Nicolaas E P; van Leeuwen, Paul A M; Dejong, Cornelis H C

    2007-06-01

    Glutamine plays an important role in nitrogen homeostasis and intestinal substrate supply. It has been suggested that glutamine is a precursor for arginine through an intestinal-renal pathway involving inter-organ transport of citrulline. The importance of intestinal glutamine metabolism for endogenous arginine synthesis in humans, however, has remained unaddressed. The aim of this study was to investigate the intestinal conversion of glutamine to citrulline and the effect of the liver on splanchnic citrulline metabolism in humans. Eight patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal surgery received a primed continuous intravenous infusion of [2-(15)N]glutamine and [ureido-(13)C-(2)H(2)]citrulline. Arterial, portal venous and hepatic venous blood were sampled and portal and hepatic blood flows were measured. Organ specific amino acid uptake (disposal), production and net balance, as well as whole body rates of plasma appearance were calculated according to established methods. The intestines consumed glutamine at a rate that was dependent on glutamine supply. Approximately 13% of glutamine taken up by the intestines was converted to citrulline. Quantitatively glutamine was the only important precursor for intestinal citrulline release. Both glutamine and citrulline were consumed and produced by the liver, but net hepatic flux of both amino acids was not significantly different from zero. Plasma glutamine was the precursor of 80% of plasma citrulline and plasma citrulline in turn was the precursor of 10% of plasma arginine. In conclusion, glutamine is an important precursor for the synthesis of arginine after intestinal conversion to citrulline in humans.

  17. RegIII proteins as gatekeepers of the intestinal epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loonen, L.M.P.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian RegIII proteins are expressed in the intestine and in the pancreas in response to inflammation or infection. In the mouse intestine, expression of RegIIIβ and RegIIIγ is increased by microbial colonization, inflammation and infection. At the outset of this thesis human PAP and m

  18. Stem cell self-renewal in intestinal crypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, B.D.; Clevers, H.

    2011-01-01

    As a rapidly cycling tissue capable of fast repair and regeneration, the intestinal epithelium has emerged as a favored model system to explore the principles of adult stem cell biology. However, until recently, the identity and characteristics of the stem cell population in both the small intestine

  19. Distinct human stem cell populations in small and large intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Julie M; Thompson, Timothy; Geskin, Albert; LaFramboise, William; Lagasse, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The intestine is composed of an epithelial layer containing rapidly proliferating cells that mature into two regions, the small and the large intestine. Although previous studies have identified stem cells as the cell-of-origin for intestinal epithelial cells, no studies have directly compared stem cells derived from these anatomically distinct regions. Here, we examine intrinsic differences between primary epithelial cells isolated from human fetal small and large intestine, after in vitro expansion, using the Wnt agonist R-spondin 2. We utilized flow cytometry, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, gene expression analysis and a three-dimensional in vitro differentiation assay to characterize their stem cell properties. We identified stem cell markers that separate subpopulations of colony-forming cells in the small and large intestine and revealed important differences in differentiation, proliferation and disease pathways using gene expression analysis. Single cells from small and large intestine cultures formed organoids that reflect the distinct cellular hierarchy found in vivo and respond differently to identical exogenous cues. Our characterization identified numerous differences between small and large intestine epithelial stem cells suggesting possible connections to intestinal disease.

  20. Distinct human stem cell populations in small and large intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M Cramer

    Full Text Available The intestine is composed of an epithelial layer containing rapidly proliferating cells that mature into two regions, the small and the large intestine. Although previous studies have identified stem cells as the cell-of-origin for intestinal epithelial cells, no studies have directly compared stem cells derived from these anatomically distinct regions. Here, we examine intrinsic differences between primary epithelial cells isolated from human fetal small and large intestine, after in vitro expansion, using the Wnt agonist R-spondin 2. We utilized flow cytometry, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, gene expression analysis and a three-dimensional in vitro differentiation assay to characterize their stem cell properties. We identified stem cell markers that separate subpopulations of colony-forming cells in the small and large intestine and revealed important differences in differentiation, proliferation and disease pathways using gene expression analysis. Single cells from small and large intestine cultures formed organoids that reflect the distinct cellular hierarchy found in vivo and respond differently to identical exogenous cues. Our characterization identified numerous differences between small and large intestine epithelial stem cells suggesting possible connections to intestinal disease.

  1. Intestinal microbiota during early life - impact on health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nylund, L.; Satokari, R.M.; Salminen, S.; Vos, de W.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the first years after birth, the intestinal microbiota develops rapidly both in diversity and complexity while being relatively stable in healthy adults. Different life-style-related factors as well as medical practices have an influence on the early-life intestinal colonisation. We address the i

  2. Gene expression profiling of chicken intestinal host responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemert, van S.

    2007-01-01

    Chicken lines differ in genetic disease susceptibility. The scope of the research described in this thesis was to identify genes involved in genetic disease resistance in the chicken intestine. Therefore gene expression in the jejunum was investigated using a microarray approach. An intestine specif

  3. Intestinal microbiota during early life - impact on health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nylund, L.; Satokari, R.M.; Salminen, S.; Vos, de W.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the first years after birth, the intestinal microbiota develops rapidly both in diversity and complexity while being relatively stable in healthy adults. Different life-style-related factors as well as medical practices have an influence on the early-life intestinal colonisation. We address the i

  4. Oxazolone-Induced Intestinal Inflammation in Adult Zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, Sylvia; Nieuwenhuis, EES

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish are an excellent model for the study of intestinal immunity. The availability of several transgenic reporter fish for different innate and adaptive immune cells and the high homology in terms of gut function and morphology enables in depth analysis of the process of intestinal inflammation

  5. Oxazolone-induced intestinal inflammation in adult zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, Sylvia; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E.S.

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish are an excellent model for the study of intestinal immunity. The availability of several transgenic reporter fish for different innate and adaptive immune cells and the high homology in terms of gut function and morphology enables in depth analysis of the process of intestinal inflammat

  6. Characterizing intestinal stem cells. An important part of the puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, A.G.A.P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to gain better understanding of intestinal stem cells in normal and malignant conditions. In chapter 2 we take our first steps in the characterization of intestinal stem cells. We determine that they have telomerase activity but still suffer from telomere loss. In addition

  7. Oxazolone-induced intestinal inflammation in adult zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, Sylvia; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E.S.

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish are an excellent model for the study of intestinal immunity. The availability of several transgenic reporter fish for different innate and adaptive immune cells and the high homology in terms of gut function and morphology enables in depth analysis of the process of intestinal

  8. Oxazolone-Induced Intestinal Inflammation in Adult Zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, Sylvia; Nieuwenhuis, EES

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish are an excellent model for the study of intestinal immunity. The availability of several transgenic reporter fish for different innate and adaptive immune cells and the high homology in terms of gut function and morphology enables in depth analysis of the process of intestinal

  9. Nonsulfated cholecystokinins in the small intestine of pigs and rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersnap, Mikkel; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2015-01-01

    -step assay specific for nonsulfated CCK. For further characterization, the intestinal extracts were subjected to size- and ion exchange-chromatography. The intestinal concentrations of sulfated and nonsulfated CCK were highest in the duodenum and the proximal part of jejunum both in the pig and the rat...

  10. In vitro methods to study intestinal drug metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kerkhof, Esther G.; de Graaf, Inge A. M.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    2007-01-01

    Although the liver has long been thought to play the major role in drug metabolism, also the metabolic capacity of the intestine is more and more recognized. In vivo studies eventually pointed out not only the significance of first-pass metabolism by the intestinal wall for the bioavailability of

  11. Intestinal microbiota during early life - impact on health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nylund, L.; Satokari, R.M.; Salminen, S.; Vos, de W.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the first years after birth, the intestinal microbiota develops rapidly both in diversity and complexity while being relatively stable in healthy adults. Different life-style-related factors as well as medical practices have an influence on the early-life intestinal colonisation. We address the

  12. Signal transduction pathways involved in intestinal salt and water secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van den Berghe (Nina)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes some novel aspects of the regulation of salt and water secretion in the intestinal epithelium. This process is not unique for the intestine, but a common and necessary function of many other organs, including the stomach (gastric juice), kidney (urine), sweatglands

  13. CT Diagnosis of intestinal obstruction: Findings and usefulness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Soon Gu; Suh, Chang Hae; Kim, Mi Young [Inha University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    1994-05-15

    To present the findings of intestinal obstruction and evaluate the value of CT in the diagnosis of intestinal obstruction. We prospectively analyzed CT scans of twenty-two patients who were suspected to have intestinal obstruction. All 22 patients were confirmed with surgery: 10 patients with adhesion, four with primary tumor, one with metastatic intestinal tumor, two with inflammatory bowel disease, two with intussusception, two with extrinsic compression by ovarian tumor, and one with inguinal hernia. The CT scans were evaluated with special attention to their causes, locations, and CT findings and intestinal obstruction. CT diagnosis and findings were compared with surgical results. Their causes were diagnosed correctly on CT scans in seventeen of 22 cases(77.3%). Locations of the intestinal obstruction were diagnosis correctly in 16 cases(72.7%). The CT findings intestinal obstruction were categorized into dilated proximal bowel loops with normal distal loops, thickening of the affected bowel wall, presence of the transitional zone, and no detectable abnormalities. The associated extraluminal findings were fat infiltration around the dilated bowel loops, ascites, and mesenteric lymph nodes enlargement. There were two limitations of CT in our study: first, no detectable difference between jejunum and ileum on CT scans, and second, difficulty in differential diagnosis between thickened bowel wall mimicking normal non-dilated segment and mechanical obstruction from tumors or inflammatory bowel diseases. We conclude that CT is useful method in the evaluation of causes and locations of intestinal obstruction and the demonstration of the associated extraluminal abnormalities.

  14. Calprotectin - A novel noninvasive marker for intestinal allograft monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sudan, Debra; Vargas, Luciano; Sun, Yimin; Bok, Lisette; Dijkstra, Gerard; Langnas, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To identify a noninvasive screening test for intestinal allograft monitoring. Summary Background Data: Intestinal allograft rejection is difficult to distinguish from other causes of diarrhea and can rapidly lead to severe exfoliation or death. Protocol biopsies are standard for allograft

  15. Stem cell self-renewal in intestinal crypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, B.D.; Clevers, H.

    2011-01-01

    As a rapidly cycling tissue capable of fast repair and regeneration, the intestinal epithelium has emerged as a favored model system to explore the principles of adult stem cell biology. However, until recently, the identity and characteristics of the stem cell population in both the small intestine

  16. Intestinal Anisakiasis Treated Successfully with Prednisolone and Olopatadine Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Toyoda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristic of gastrointestinal anisakiasis is severe abdominal pain after eating raw fish. Intestinal anisakiasis is more uncommon than gastric anisakiasis. Most patients with intestinal anisakiasis need hospitalization because anisakiasis can cause intestinal obstruction, ileus, peritonitis or intestinal perforation. We report a case of intestinal anisakiasis. A 43-year-old woman presented with symptoms of intermittent abdominal pain 2 days after eating raw fish. Her brother had eaten the same food and had been suffering from gastric anisakiasis. Abdominal ultrasonography in this patient showed localized jejunal wall thickening with dilated lumen of proximal jejunum and ascites. According to the clinical course and examinations, she was diagnosed with intestinal anisakiasis. Administration of prednisolone 5 mg/day and olopatadine hydrochloride 10 mg/day improved her symptoms quickly without hospitalization. Prednisolone was administered for 10 days, and olopatadine hydrochloride was administered for a total of 6 weeks according to ultrasonographic findings. Six months after the treatment, the abdominal ultrasonography demonstrated normal findings. This case demonstrates that ultrasonography was quite useful for the diagnosis and surveillance of intestinal anisakiasis. Furthermore, treatment with corticosteroid and an antiallergic agent could be an option for patients with intestinal anisakiasis.

  17. A functional CFTR assay using primary cystic fibrosis intestinal organoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, J.F.; Wiegerinck, C.L.; de Jonge, H.R.; Bronsveld, I.; Janssens, H.M.; de Winter-de Groot, K.M.; Brandsma, A.M.; de Jong, N.W.; Bijvelds, M.J.; Scholte, B.J.; Nieuwenhuis, E.E.; van den Brink, S.; Clevers, H.; van der Ent, C.K.; Middendorp, S.; Beekman, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    We recently established conditions allowing for long-term expansion of epithelial organoids from intestine, recapitulating essential features of the in vivo tissue architecture. Here we apply this technology to study primary intestinal organoids of people suffering from cystic fibrosis, a disease ca

  18. Diaphragm disease of the small intestine: an interesting case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Sana; Ajab, Shereen; Rao, Rajashekhar; Raghunathan, Girish; DaCosta, Philip

    2015-06-01

    Diaphragm disease of small intestine usually presents with nonspecific clinical features. Radiological investigations often fail to differentiate it from small intestinal tumors and inflammatory bowel disease. It is therefore diagnosed on final histology after surgical resection. We hereby report an interesting case of a suspected small bowel tumor later diagnosed as diaphragm disease on histology.

  19. Activation of epithelial STAT3 regulates intestinal homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufert, Clemens; Pickert, Geethanjali; Zheng, Yan; Wittkopf, Nadine; Warntjen, Moritz; Nikolaev, Alexei; Ouyang, Wenjun; Neurath, Markus F; Becker, Christoph

    2010-02-15

    The intestinal epithelium that lines the mucosal surface along the GI-tract is a key player for the intestinal homeostasis of the healthy individual. In case of a mucosal damage or a barrier defect as seen in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, the balance is disturbed, and translocation of intestinal microbes to the submucosa is facilitated. We recently demonstrated a pivotal role of STAT3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) for the restoration of the balance at the mucosal surface of the gut in an experimental colitis model. STAT3 was rapidly induced in intestinal epithelial cells upon challenge of mice in both experimental colitis and intestinal wound healing models. STAT3 activation was found to be dispensable in the steady-state conditions but was important for efficient regeneration of the epithelium in response to injury. Here, we extend our previous findings by showing epithelial STAT3 activation in human patients suffering from IBD and provide additional insights how the activation of epithelial STAT3 by IL-22 regulates intestinal homeostasis and mucosal wound healing. We also demonstrate that antibody-mediated neutralization of IL-22 has little impact on the development of experimental colitis in mice, but significantly delays recovery from colitis. Thus, our data suggest that targeting the STAT3 signaling pathway in IEC is a promising therapeutic approach in situations when the intestinal homeostasis is disturbed, e.g., as seen in Crohn's disease or Ulcerative colitis.

  20. Intestinal microflora in rats with ischemia/reperfusion liver injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Hui-chun; LI Lan-juan; XU Kai-jin; SHEN Tian; CHEN Yun-bo; SHENG Ji-fang; YU Yun-song; CHEN Ya-gang

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the intestinal microflora status related to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) liver injury and explore the possible mechanism. Methods: Specific pathogen free grade Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three groups: Control group (n=8), sham group (n=6) and I/R group (n=10). Rats in the control group did not receive any treatment, rats in the I/R group were subjected to 20 min of liver ischemia, and rats in the sham group were only subjected to sham operation. Twenty-two hours later, the rats were sacrificed and liver enzymes and malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), serum endotoxin,intestinal bacterial counts, intestinal mucosal histology, bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and kidney were studied. Results: Ischemia/reperfusion increased liver enzymes, MDA, decreased SOD, and was associated with plasma endotoxin elevation in the I/R group campared to those in the sham group. Intestinal Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli decreased and intestinal Enterobacterium and Enterococcus, bacterial translocation to kidney increased in the I/R group compared to the sham group. Intestinal microvilli were lost, disrupted and the interspace between cells became wider in the I/R group.Conclusion: I/R liver injury may lead to disturbance of intestinal microflora and impairment of intestinal mucosal barrier function,which contributes to endotoxemia and bacterial translocation to kidney.

  1. Obstrução intestinal no idoso Intestinal obstruction in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Coelho de Arruda Henry

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: O envelhecimento da população é realidade sentida na vivência diária, levando à necessidade associada de prover cuidados médicos eletivos e de emergência a um número cada vez maior de idosos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os aspectos clínicos, terapêuticos e evolutivos de pacientes idosos com obstrução intestinal atendidos no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - UNESP. MÉTODOS: Análise retrospectiva de pacientes internados no período de janeiro de 2002 a dezembro de 2006. Foram estudados 50 pacientes, 24 homens e 26 mulheres, com idade média de 74,7 ± 7,4 anos, analisando-se a diferenciação entre obstrução funcional e orgânica; a freqüência das causas obstrutivas; a mortalidade; a incidência dos sinais e sintomas; e correlação laboratorial. RESULTADOS: O quadro obstrutivo intestinal teve as seguintes causas: brida (38%, câncer de colon (24%, hérnias (12%, impactacão fecal (12%, carcinomatose (10% e volvo da sigmóide (4%. A mortalidade foi de 18% associada à complicações infecciosas em todos os pacientes. CONCLUSÕES: a A distinção entre a obstrução intestinal funcional e orgânica oferece dificuldade no idoso; b o câncer do colon constitui-se em importante causa de obstrução intestinal com quadro obstrutivo já na primeira manifestação clínica desse tumor; c bridas e hérnias são igualmente importantes na etiologia da obstrução intestinal; d os sinais clínicos obstrutivos são poucos evidentes no idoso e a leucometria é mais fidedigna para este diagnóstico.BACKGROUND: Population aging is a reality that is experienced daily, leading to an associated need for providing elective and emergency medical care to an increasing number of elderly individuals. AIM: To evaluate clinical, therapeutic and developmental aspects of patients with intestinal obstruction assisted at the University Hospital of the Botucatu School of Medicine - UNESP. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of

  2. Chronic primary intestinal pseudo-obstruction from visceral myopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Muñoz-Yagüe

    Full Text Available Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction is an uncommon syndrome characterized by relapsing episodes suggesting intestinal obstruction during which no mechanical causes are identified to account for symptoms. Etiologic factors may be manifold. Among them a number of neurologic conditions, gastrointestinal smooth muscle myopathies, endocrino-metabolic and autoimmune diseases, and the use of selected drugs stand out. We report a case of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction originating in a sporadic, primary intestinal myopathy that corresponds to no type thus far described. A histological study of the intestinal wall showed disrupted muscle bundles and the presence of interstitial edema. Myocytes had severe degenerative changes, and no alterations were seen in submucosal and myenteric plexus neurons. The activity of enzyme complexes in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and of thymidine phosphorylase was normal. No mitochondrial DNA changes were seen.

  3. Chronic primary intestinal pseudo-obstruction from visceral myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Yagüe, M T; Marín, J C; Colina, F; Ibarrola, C; López-Alonso, G; Martín, M A; Solís-Herruzo, J A

    2006-04-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction is an uncommon syndrome characterized by relapsing episodes suggesting intestinal obstruction during which no mechanical causes are identified to account for symptoms. Etiologic factors may be manifold. Among them a number of neurologic conditions, gastrointestinal smooth muscle myopathies, endocrino-metabolic and autoimmune diseases, and the use of selected drugs stand out. We report a case of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction originating in a sporadic, primary intestinal myopathy that corresponds to no type thus far described. A histological study of the intestinal wall showed disrupted muscle bundles and the presence of interstitial edema. Myocytes had severe degenerative changes, and no alterations were seen in submucosal and myenteric plexus neurons. The activity of enzyme complexes in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and of thymidine phosphorylase was normal. No mitochondrial DNA changes were seen.

  4. Potential Role of Probiotics in Mechanism of Intestinal Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Rashid Rajput and Wei Fen Li*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are nonpathogenic bacteria exert a constructive influence on health or physiology of the host. Effect of probiotics in the intestinal defense against variety of diseases is well known. The probiotics are involved in the mechanism of intestinal defense, support as antagonist against pathogens, improve intestinal epithelial layer and boost the innate as well as adaptive immunity. However these responses are also exerted by intestinal components. The intestinal components as well as probiotics play a reciprocal role to enhance the immune response of the individual. The possibilities of mechanism of action include the stimulation of epithelial cells, activation of dendritic cells via toll-like receptors (TLRs, conversely produce cytokines. These observations reviewed together advocate that specific immunomodulatory properties of probiotic bacteria should be focusing on mechanism of action via antigen presenting cells (APC.

  5. [The absorption and metabolism of oxymatrine in rat intestine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Li-yun; Wu, Li-li; Yu, Xiao-ming; Liu, Jun-jin; Han, Wei-chao; Wei, Qiang; Tang, Lan

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to systematically investigate the characteristics of absorption and metabolism of oxymatrine (OMT) using rat intestinal perfusion model. Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI(+)-Q-TOF-MS) were used to test absorption of OMT in intestine at 100, 200 and 400 µmol · L(-1). The absorption rate and permeability of OMT is not dependent on concentration, but through passive absorption in intestine (P > 0.05). In the rat intestine, the absorbed amount of OMT was significantly different in four sections of the intestine in an order of duodenum > jejunum > ileum > colon (P < 0.05). OMT is metabolized into two metabolites in duodenum and jejunum, and matrine (MT) is the major one.

  6. Paneth cells: the hub for sensing and regulating intestinal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Zhihua

    2016-05-01

    The complex interplay between symbiotic bacteria and host immunity plays a key role in shaping intestinal homeostasis and maintaining host health. Paneth cells, as one of the major producers of antimicrobial peptides in the intestine under steady-state conditions, play a vital role in regulating intestinal flora. Many studies on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-associated genes have put Paneth cells at the center of IBD pathogenesis. In this perspective, we focus on mechanistic studies of different cellular processes in Paneth cells that are regulated by various IBD-associated susceptibility genes, and we discuss the hypothesis that Paneth cells function as the central hub for sensing and regulating intestinal flora in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis.

  7. Breast milk and solid food shaping intestinal immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Martina Parigi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available After birth, the intestinal immune system enters a critical developmental stage, in which tolerogenic and pro-inflammatory cells emerge to contribute to the overall health of the host. The neonatal health is continuously challenged by microbial colonization and food intake, first in the form of breast milk or formula and later in the form of solid food. The microbiota and dietary compounds shape the newborn immune system, which acquire the ability to induce tolerance against innocuous antigens or induce pro-inflammatory immune responses against pathogens. Disruption of these homeostatic mechanisms might lead to undesired immune reactions, leading to intestinal disorders such as food allergies and inflammatory bowel disease. Hence, a proper education and maturation of the intestinal immune system is likely important to maintain life-long intestinal homeostasis. In this review, the most recent literature regarding the effects of dietary compounds in the development of the intestinal immune system are discussed.

  8. [Role of intestinal flora in health and disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guamer, F

    2007-05-01

    The terms intestinal "microflora" or "microbiota refer to the microbial ecosystem colonizing the gastrointestinal tract. Recently developed molecular biology instruments suggest that a substantial part of bacterial communities within the human gut still have to be described. The relevance and impact of resident bacteria on the host physiology and pathology are, however, well documented. The main functions of intestinal microflora include (1) metabolic activities translating into energy and nutrients uptake, and (2) host protection against invasion by foreign microorganisms. Intestinal bacteria play an essential role in the development and homeostasis of the immune system. Lymphoid follicles within the intestinal mucosa are the main areas for immune system induction and regulation. On the other hand, there is evidence implicating intestinal microbiota in certain pathological processes including multi-organ failure, colon cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease.

  9. Siglec-F is a novel intestinal M cell marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicheva, Nadezhda; Macauley, Matthew S; Arlian, Britni M; Paulson, James C; Kawasaki, Norihito

    2016-10-07

    Intestinal microfold (M) cells are epithelial cells primarily present on Peyer's patches (PPs) in the small intestine. The ability of M cells to shuttle antigens into the PP for appropriate immune responses makes M cells a target for next-generation oral vaccine delivery. In this regard, discovery of M cell-specific receptors are of great interest, which could act as molecular tags for targeted delivery of cargo to M cells. Here, using a monoclonal antibody we generated to the Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin F (Siglec-F), we show that Siglec-F is expressed on mouse M cells in the small intestine. Immunohistochemical analysis of the PP tissue sections shows that Siglec-F is expressed on the surface of the M cell membrane exposed to the intestinal lumen. Anti-Siglec-F antibody injected into the mouse small intestine bound to M cells, demonstrating the potential to target M cells via Siglec-F.

  10. Nasogastric tube syndrome induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Naoki; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Nagai, Kentaro; Yamada, Keiichi; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2016-04-21

    The nasogastric tube (NGT) has become a frequently used device to alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms. Nasogastric tube syndrome (NTS) is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of an indwelling NGT. NTS is characterized by acute upper airway obstruction due to bilateral vocal cord paralysis. We report a case of a 76-year-old man with NTS, induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube. He was admitted to our hospital for treatment of sigmoid colon cancer. He underwent sigmoidectomy to release a bowel obstruction, and had a long intestinal tube inserted to decompress the intestinal tract. He presented acute dyspnea following prolonged intestinal intubation, and bronchoscopy showed bilateral vocal cord paralysis. The NGT was removed immediately, and tracheotomy was performed. The patient was finally discharged in a fully recovered state. NTS be considered in patients complaining of acute upper airway obstruction, not only with a NGT inserted but also with a long intestinal tube.

  11. Surgical management and autologous intestinal reconstruction in short bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommel, Matthijs J; van Baren, Robertine; Haveman, Jan Willem

    2016-04-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a serious condition with considerable morbidity and mortality. When treatment with parenteral nutrition fails and life-threatening complications occur, autologous intestinal reconstruction (AIR) should be considered before intestinal transplantation (ITx). Single or combined ITx should be reserved for patients with severe liver disease and as last resort in the treatment of SBS. Longitudinal intestinal lengthening and tailoring (LILT) has proven its value in AIR, but its availability depends on the expertise of the surgeons. Serial transverse enteroplasty (STEP) has similar success rates as LILT and fewer patients progress to ITx. STEP is also applicable at small bowel dilatation in ultra-short bowel syndrome. The scope may be widened when duodenal dilatation can be treated as well. Spiral intestinal lengthening and tailoring (SILT) is a promising alternative. More research is needed to confirm these findings. Therefore we suggest an international data registry for all intestinal lengthening procedures.

  12. Isolation of a presumed mucoprotein fraction from rat intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinstein, R.N.; Butler, C.L.

    1950-12-31

    The mucoproteins of intestinal mucosa are of interest to radiation biochemistry for a variety of reasons: (a) the known sensitivity of intestine to x-radiation; (b) post-irradiation bacteremia characterized by the presence in the blood of intestinal microorganisms, which may indicate degradation of such a `ground substance` as mucoproteins are considered to be; (c) post-irradiation desquamation of intestinal epithelium; and (d) post-irradiation increase in serum polysaccharide, which may arise from degradation of x-ray sensitive glycoprotein (mucoprotein). Considerable effort has therefore been put into an attempt to isolate an intestinal mucoprotein on which to test the effects of irradiation. A protein fraction has now been isolated which, on the basis only of its method of preparation, is suggested may be a mucoprotein. The material has not yet been fully characterized, nor is its degree of homogeneity known. 10 refs., 1 tab.

  13. [Nutritional management of intestinal failure and potential stimulation mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de la Cruz, A J; Moreno-Torres Herrera, R; Pérez Roca, C

    2007-05-01

    Severe forms of intestinal failure represent one of the most complex pathologies to manage, in both children and adults. In adults, the most common causes are chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and severe short bowel syndrome following large intestinal resections, particularly due to massive mesenteric ischemic, within the context of cardiopathies occurring with atrial fibrillation. The essential management after stabilizing the patient consists in nutritional support, either by parenteral or enteral routes, with tolerance to oral diet being the final goal of intestinal adaptation in these pathologies. Surgery may be indicated in some cases to increase the absorptive surface area. Parenteral nutrition is an essential support measure that sometimes has to be maintained for long time, even forever, except for technique-related complications or unfavorable clinical course that would lead to extreme surgical alternatives such as intestinal transplantation. Hormonal therapy with trophism-stimulating factors opens new alternatives that are already being tried in humans.

  14. Inhibition of Porcine Small Intestinal Sucrase by Validamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑裕国; 申屠旭萍; 沈寅初

    2005-01-01

    As an important medicinal intermediate with broad uses, validamine, an aminocyclitol, isolated from the enzymolysis broth of validamycins, has gained more and more attention. The absolute configuration of validamine is similar to that of α-D-glucose, and it demonstrates powerful inhibition activity on glycosidase. In this paper, the inhibitory effect of validamine on porcine small intestinal sucrase was investigated. Validamine was found to be a potent, competitive inhibitor to porcine small intestinal sucrase in vitro with an IC50 value of 6.85 × 10-4 mol·L-1. Validamine exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition effect on porcine small intestinal sucrase, whereby the inhibition interaction of validamine and porcine small intestinal sucrase was a fast binding process. The inhibition of validamine on porcine small intestinal sucrase was pH-dependent.

  15. Intestinal dendritic cells in the regulation of mucosal immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekiaris, Vasileios; Persson, Emma K.; Agace, William Winston

    2014-01-01

    immune cells within the mucosa must suitably respond to maintain intestinal integrity, while also providing the ability to mount effective immune responses to potential pathogens. Dendritic cells (DCs) are sentinel immune cells that play a central role in the initiation and differentiation of adaptive...... immune responses. In the intestinal mucosa, DCs are located diffusely throughout the intestinal lamina propria, within gut-associated lymphoid tissues, including Peyer's patches and smaller lymphoid aggregates, as well as in intestinal-draining lymph nodes, including mesenteric lymph nodes....... The recognition that dietary nutrients and microbial communities in the intestine influence both mucosal and systemic immune cell development and function as well as immune-mediated disease has led to an explosion of literature in mucosal immunology in recent years and a growing interest in the functionality...

  16. Gallstone ileus as a cause of upper intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Szajnbock

    Full Text Available Gallstone ileus, a mechanical intestinal obstruction caused by the passage of a gallstone into the intestinal lumen through a fistula, although not common, deserves to more carefully studied due to its morbidity and mortality. Its incidence among older-age groups explains its association with chronic and degenerative diseases, which increase the complexity of the treatment choice.The need and appropriateness of a surgical approach to a cholecystenteric fistula to solve the obstructive emergency, in a one or two stage procedure, has been discussed in the literature. It has also been reported that gallstone ileus is an uncommon cause of upper intestinal obstruction. Intestinal obstruction is seen more frequently after a gallstone impacts at the ileocecal valve. The authors report a case of gallstone ileus as a cause of upper intestinal obstruction and discuss its diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Regulation of intestinal protein metabolism by amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Julien; Goichon, Alexis; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moïse

    2013-09-01

    Gut homeostasis plays a major role in health and may be regulated by quantitative and qualitative food intake. In the intestinal mucosa, an intense renewal of proteins occurs, at approximately 50% per day in humans. In some pathophysiological conditions, protein turnover is altered and may contribute to intestinal or systemic diseases. Amino acids are key effectors of gut protein turnover, both as constituents of proteins and as regulatory molecules limiting intestinal injury and maintaining intestinal functions. Many studies have focused on two amino acids: glutamine, known as the preferential substrate of rapidly dividing cells, and arginine, another conditionally essential amino acid. The effects of glutamine and arginine on protein synthesis appear to be model and condition dependent, as are the involved signaling pathways. The regulation of gut protein degradation by amino acids has been minimally documented until now. This review will examine recent data, helping to better understand how amino acids regulate intestinal protein metabolism, and will explore perspectives for future studies.

  18. Deciphering the porcine intestinal microRNA transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller Andreas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While more than 700 microRNAs (miRNAs are known in human, a comparably low number has been identified in swine. Because of the close phylogenetic distance to humans, pigs serve as a suitable model for studying e.g. intestinal development or disease. Recent studies indicate that miRNAs are key regulators of intestinal development and their aberrant expression leads to intestinal malignancy. Results Here, we present the identification of hundreds of apparently novel miRNAs in the porcine intestine. MiRNAs were first identified by means of deep sequencing followed by miRNA precursor prediction using the miRDeep algorithm as well as searching for conserved miRNAs. Second, the porcine miRNAome along the entire intestine (duodenum, proximal and distal jejunum, ileum, ascending and transverse colon was unraveled using customized miRNA microarrays based on the identified sequences as well as known porcine and human ones. In total, the expression of 332 intestinal miRNAs was discovered, of which 201 represented assumed novel porcine miRNAs. The identified hairpin forming precursors were in part organized in genomic clusters, and most of the precursors were located on chromosomes 3 and 1, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of the expression data revealed subsets of miRNAs that are specific to distinct parts of the intestine pointing to their impact on cellular signaling networks. Conclusions In this study, we have applied a straight forward approach to decipher the porcine intestinal miRNAome for the first time in mammals using a piglet model. The high number of identified novel miRNAs in the porcine intestine points out their crucial role in intestinal function as shown by pathway analysis. On the other hand, the reported miRNAs may share orthologs in other mammals such as human still to be discovered.

  19. Multifunctions of dietary polyphenols in the regulation of intestinal inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Shimizu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Food for specified health use is a type of functional food approved by the Japanese government, with more than 1250 products in 10 health-claim categories being approved as of April 2016. Polyphenols are currently used as functional ingredients in seven of the 10 categories. Although they have not yet been used for the food-for-specified-health-use category of “gut health promotion,” polyphenols are expected to contribute to the future development of gut-modulating food. Intestinal functions include digestion/absorption, acting as a barrier, recognition of external factors, and signal transduction. Owing to incessant exposure to external stress factors including food substances, bacteria, and environmental chemicals, intestines are always inflammatory to some extent, which may cause damage to and dysfunction of intestinal tissues depending on the situation. We identified food factors that could suppress immoderate inflammation in the intestines. In addition to certain amino acids and peptides, polyphenols such as chlorogenic acid and isoflavones were found to suppress inflammation in intestinal cells. Intestinal inflammation is caused by various factors in diverse mechanisms. Recent studies revealed that activation of pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins, in epithelial cells triggers intestinal inflammation. Intracellular receptors or signaling molecules controlling the intestinal detoxification system are also involved in the regulation of inflammation. Differentiation of regulatory T cells by activating a transcription factor Foxp-3 is known to suppress intestinal inflammation. A variety of phytochemicals including polyphenols modulate these receptors and signaling molecules, and are thus anti-inflammatory. Polyphenols affect epigenetic changes occurring in intestinal tissues by interacting with the enzymes responsible for DNA methylation and histone acetylation

  20. Accumulative effect of food residues on intestinal gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mego, M; Accarino, A; Malagelada, J-R; Guarner, F; Azpiroz, F

    2015-11-01

    As mean transit time in the colon is longer than the interval between meals, several consecutive meal loads accumulate, and contribute to colonic biomass. Our aim was to determine the summation effect of fermentable food residues on intestinal gas production. In eight healthy subjects, the volume of endogenous intestinal gas produced in the intestine over a 4-h period was measured by means of a wash-out technique, using an exogenous gas infusion into the jejunum (24 mL/min) and collection of the effluent via a rectal Foley catheter. The exogenous gas infused was labeled (5% SF6 ) to calculate the proportion of endogenous intestinal gas evacuated. In each subject, four experiments were performed ≥1 week apart combining a 1-day high- or low-flatulogenic diet with a test meal or fast. Basal conditions: on the low-flatulogenic diet, intestinal gas production during fasting over the 4-h study period was 609 ± 63 mL. Effect of diet: during fasting, intestinal gas production on the high-flatulogenic diet was 370 ± 146 mL greater than on the low-flatulogenic diet (p = 0.040). Effect of test meal: on the low-flatulogenic diet, intestinal gas production after the test meal was 681 ± 114 mL greater than during fasting (p = 0.001); a similar effect was observed on the high-flatulogenic diet (599 ± 174 mL more intestinal gas production after the test meal than during fasting; p = 0.021). Our data demonstrate temporal summation effects of food residues on intestinal gas production. Hence, intestinal gas production depends on pre-existing and on recent colonic loads of fermentable foodstuffs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.