WorldWideScience

Sample records for plausible indirect a-c

  1. Looking for plausibility

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin Wan

    2010-01-01

    In the interpretation of experimental data, one is actually looking for plausible explanations. We look for a measure of plausibility, with which we can compare different possible explanations, and which can be combined when there are different sets of data. This is contrasted to the conventional measure for probabilities as well as to the proposed measure of possibilities. We define what characteristics this measure of plausibility should have. In getting to the conception of this measure, we explore the relation of plausibility to abductive reasoning, and to Bayesian probabilities. We also compare with the Dempster-Schaefer theory of evidence, which also has its own definition for plausibility. Abduction can be associated with biconditionality in inference rules, and this provides a platform to relate to the Collins-Michalski theory of plausibility. Finally, using a formalism for wiring logic onto Hopfield neural networks, we ask if this is relevant in obtaining this measure.

  2. What can we learn from Plausible Values?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsman, Maarten; Maris, Gunter; Bechger, Timo; Glas, Cees

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we show that the marginal distribution of plausible values is a consistent estimator of the true latent variable distribution, and, furthermore, that convergence is monotone in an embedding in which the number of items tends to infinity. We use this result to clarify some of the misconceptions that exist about plausible values, and also show how they can be used in the analyses of educational surveys.

  3. The logic of indirect speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A; Lee, James J

    2008-01-22

    When people speak, they often insinuate their intent indirectly rather than stating it as a bald proposition. Examples include sexual come-ons, veiled threats, polite requests, and concealed bribes. We propose a three-part theory of indirect speech, based on the idea that human communication involves a mixture of cooperation and conflict. First, indirect requests allow for plausible deniability, in which a cooperative listener can accept the request, but an uncooperative one cannot react adversarially to it. This intuition is supported by a game-theoretic model that predicts the costs and benefits to a speaker of direct and indirect requests. Second, language has two functions: to convey information and to negotiate the type of relationship holding between speaker and hearer (in particular, dominance, communality, or reciprocity). The emotional costs of a mismatch in the assumed relationship type can create a need for plausible deniability and, thereby, select for indirectness even when there are no tangible costs. Third, people perceive language as a digital medium, which allows a sentence to generate common knowledge, to propagate a message with high fidelity, and to serve as a reference point in coordination games. This feature makes an indirect request qualitatively different from a direct one even when the speaker and listener can infer each other's intentions with high confidence.

  4. The logic of indirect speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A.; Lee, James J.

    2008-01-01

    When people speak, they often insinuate their intent indirectly rather than stating it as a bald proposition. Examples include sexual come-ons, veiled threats, polite requests, and concealed bribes. We propose a three-part theory of indirect speech, based on the idea that human communication involves a mixture of cooperation and conflict. First, indirect requests allow for plausible deniability, in which a cooperative listener can accept the request, but an uncooperative one cannot react adversarially to it. This intuition is supported by a game-theoretic model that predicts the costs and benefits to a speaker of direct and indirect requests. Second, language has two functions: to convey information and to negotiate the type of relationship holding between speaker and hearer (in particular, dominance, communality, or reciprocity). The emotional costs of a mismatch in the assumed relationship type can create a need for plausible deniability and, thereby, select for indirectness even when there are no tangible costs. Third, people perceive language as a digital medium, which allows a sentence to generate common knowledge, to propagate a message with high fidelity, and to serve as a reference point in coordination games. This feature makes an indirect request qualitatively different from a direct one even when the speaker and listener can infer each other's intentions with high confidence. PMID:18199841

  5. Plausibility functions and exact frequentist inference

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    In the frequentist program, inferential methods with exact control on error rates are a primary focus. Methods based on asymptotic distribution theory may not be suitable in a particular problem, in which case, a numerical method is needed. This paper presents a general, Monte Carlo-driven framework for the construction of frequentist procedures based on plausibility functions. It is proved that the suitably defined plausibility function-based tests and confidence regions have desired frequentist properties. Moreover, in an important special case involving likelihood ratios, conditions are given such that the plausibility function behaves asymptotically like a consistent Bayesian posterior distribution. An extension of the proposed method is also given for the case where nuisance parameters are present. A number of examples are given which illustrate the method and demonstrate its strong performance compared to other popular existing methods.

  6. Bisimulation for Single-Agent Plausibility Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Birkegaard; Bolander, Thomas; van Ditmarsch, H.;

    2013-01-01

    Epistemic plausibility models are Kripke models agents use to reason about the knowledge and beliefs of themselves and each other. Restricting ourselves to the single-agent case, we determine when such models are indistinguishable in the logical language containing conditional belief, i.e., we...... define a proper notion of bisimulation, and prove that bisimulation corresponds to logical equivalence on image-finite models. We relate our results to other epistemic notions, such as safe belief and degrees of belief. Our results imply that there are only finitely many non-bisimilar single......-agent epistemic plausibility models on a finite set of propositions. This gives decidability for single-agent epistemic plausibility planning....

  7. Biologically Plausible, Human-scale Knowledge Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Eric; Gingerich, Matthew; Eliasmith, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Several approaches to implementing symbol-like representations in neurally plausible models have been proposed. These approaches include binding through synchrony (Shastri & Ajjanagadde, 1993), "mesh" binding (van der Velde & de Kamps, 2006), and conjunctive binding (Smolensky, 1990). Recent theoretical work has suggested that…

  8. Indirect calorimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, W.J.J.; Labussière, E.

    2015-01-01

    The use of indirect calorimetry to measure the heat production of men and animals has increased rapidly since the pioneering work of Lavoisier. Measurement of the consumption of oxygen and production of carbon dioxide are the basis for the measurement of heat production. Today, applications of indir

  9. On the plausible association between environmental conditions and human eye damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feretis, Elias; Theodorakopoulos, Panagiotis; Varotsos, Costas; Efstathiou, Maria; Tzanis, Christos; Xirou, Tzina; Alexandridou, Nancy; Aggelou, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The increase in solar ultraviolet radiation can have various direct and indirect effects on human health, like the incidence of ocular damage. Data of eye damage in residents of three suburban regions in Greece and in two groups of monks/nuns and fishermen are examined here. The statistics performed on these data provides new information about the plausible association between increased levels of solar ultraviolet radiation, air-pollution at ground level, and the development of ocular defects.

  10. Anatomically Plausible Surface Alignment and Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus R.; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing clinical use of 3D surface scanners, there is a need for accurate and reliable algorithms that can produce anatomically plausible surfaces. In this paper, a combined method for surface alignment and reconstruction is proposed. It is based on an implicit surface representation...... combined with a Markov Random Field regularisation method. Conceptually, the method maintains an implicit ideal description of the sought surface. This implicit surface is iteratively updated by realigning the input point sets and Markov Random Field regularisation. The regularisation is based on a prior...... energy that has earlier proved to be particularly well suited for human surface scans. The method has been tested on full cranial scans of ten test subjects and on several scans of the outer human ear....

  11. The Role of Plausible Values in Large-Scale Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    In large-scale assessment programs such as NAEP, TIMSS and PISA, students' achievement data sets provided for secondary analysts contain so-called "plausible values." Plausible values are multiple imputations of the unobservable latent achievement for each student. In this article it has been shown how plausible values are used to: (1) address…

  12. Comprehending Conflicting Science-Related Texts: Graphs as Plausibility Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isberner, Maj-Britt; Richter, Tobias; Maier, Johanna; Knuth-Herzig, Katja; Horz, Holger; Schnotz, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    When reading conflicting science-related texts, readers may attend to cues which allow them to assess plausibility. One such plausibility cue is the use of graphs in the texts, which are regarded as typical of "hard science." The goal of our study was to investigate the effects of the presence of graphs on the perceived plausibility and…

  13. Invariant visual object recognition: biologically plausible approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Leigh; Rolls, Edmund T

    2015-10-01

    Key properties of inferior temporal cortex neurons are described, and then, the biological plausibility of two leading approaches to invariant visual object recognition in the ventral visual system is assessed to investigate whether they account for these properties. Experiment 1 shows that VisNet performs object classification with random exemplars comparably to HMAX, except that the final layer C neurons of HMAX have a very non-sparse representation (unlike that in the brain) that provides little information in the single-neuron responses about the object class. Experiment 2 shows that VisNet forms invariant representations when trained with different views of each object, whereas HMAX performs poorly when assessed with a biologically plausible pattern association network, as HMAX has no mechanism to learn view invariance. Experiment 3 shows that VisNet neurons do not respond to scrambled images of faces, and thus encode shape information. HMAX neurons responded with similarly high rates to the unscrambled and scrambled faces, indicating that low-level features including texture may be relevant to HMAX performance. Experiment 4 shows that VisNet can learn to recognize objects even when the view provided by the object changes catastrophically as it transforms, whereas HMAX has no learning mechanism in its S-C hierarchy that provides for view-invariant learning. This highlights some requirements for the neurobiological mechanisms of high-level vision, and how some different approaches perform, in order to help understand the fundamental underlying principles of invariant visual object recognition in the ventral visual stream.

  14. Plausible Roles for RAGE in Conditions Exacerbated by Direct and Indirect (Secondhand Smoke Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua B. Lewis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 1 billion people smoke worldwide, and the burden placed on society by primary and secondhand smokers is expected to increase. Smoking is the leading risk factor for myriad health complications stemming from diverse pathogenic programs. First- and second-hand cigarette smoke contains thousands of constituents, including several carcinogens and cytotoxic chemicals that orchestrate chronic inflammatory responses and destructive remodeling events. In the current review, we outline details related to compromised pulmonary and systemic conditions related to smoke exposure. Specifically, data are discussed relative to impaired lung physiology, cancer mechanisms, maternal-fetal complications, cardiometabolic, and joint disorders in the context of smoke exposure exacerbations. As a general unifying mechanism, the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE and its signaling axis is increasingly considered central to smoke-related pathogenesis. RAGE is a multi-ligand cell surface receptor whose expression increases following cigarette smoke exposure. RAGE signaling participates in the underpinning of inflammatory mechanisms mediated by requisite cytokines, chemokines, and remodeling enzymes. Understanding the biological contributions of RAGE during cigarette smoke-induced inflammation may provide critically important insight into the pathology of lung disease and systemic complications that combine during the demise of those exposed.

  15. Plausibility and evidence: the case of homeopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Lex; Mathie, Robert T; Fisher, Peter; Goossens, Maria; van Wassenhoven, Michel

    2013-08-01

    Homeopathy is controversial and hotly debated. The conclusions of systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials of homeopathy vary from 'comparable to conventional medicine' to 'no evidence of effects beyond placebo'. It is claimed that homeopathy conflicts with scientific laws and that homoeopaths reject the naturalistic outlook, but no evidence has been cited. We are homeopathic physicians and researchers who do not reject the scientific outlook; we believe that examination of the prior beliefs underlying this enduring stand-off can advance the debate. We show that interpretations of the same set of evidence--for homeopathy and for conventional medicine--can diverge. Prior disbelief in homeopathy is rooted in the perceived implausibility of any conceivable mechanism of action. Using the 'crossword analogy', we demonstrate that plausibility bias impedes assessment of the clinical evidence. Sweeping statements about the scientific impossibility of homeopathy are themselves unscientific: scientific statements must be precise and testable. There is growing evidence that homeopathic preparations can exert biological effects; due consideration of such research would reduce the influence of prior beliefs on the assessment of systematic review evidence.

  16. Analytic Models of Plausible Gravitational Lens Potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltz, Edward A.; Marshall, Phil; Oguri, Masamune

    2007-05-04

    Gravitational lenses on galaxy scales are plausibly modeled as having ellipsoidal symmetry and a universal dark matter density profile, with a Sersic profile to describe the distribution of baryonic matter. Predicting all lensing effects requires knowledge of the total lens potential: in this work we give analytic forms for that of the above hybrid model. Emphasizing that complex lens potentials can be constructed from simpler components in linear combination, we provide a recipe for attaining elliptical symmetry in either projected mass or lens potential.We also provide analytic formulae for the lens potentials of Sersic profiles for integer and half-integer index. We then present formulae describing the gravitational lensing effects due to smoothly-truncated universal density profiles in cold dark matter model. For our isolated haloes the density profile falls off as radius to the minus fifth or seventh power beyond the tidal radius, functional forms that allow all orders of lens potential derivatives to be calculated analytically, while ensuring a non-divergent total mass. We show how the observables predicted by this profile differ from that of the original infinite-mass NFW profile. Expressions for the gravitational flexion are highlighted. We show how decreasing the tidal radius allows stripped haloes to be modeled, providing a framework for a fuller investigation of dark matter substructure in galaxies and clusters. Finally we remark on the need for finite mass halo profiles when doing cosmological ray-tracing simulations, and the need for readily-calculable higher order derivatives of the lens potential when studying catastrophes in strong lenses.

  17. Encoding the target or the plausible preview word? The nature of the plausibility preview benefit in reading Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinmian; Li, Nan; Wang, Suiping; Slattery, Timothy J; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a plausible preview word can facilitate the processing of a target word as compared to an implausible preview word (a plausibility preview benefit effect) when reading Chinese (Yang, Wang, Tong, & Rayner, 2012; Yang, 2013). Regarding the nature of this effect, it is possible that readers processed the meaning of the plausible preview word and did not actually encode the target word (given that the parafoveal preview word lies close to the fovea). The current experiment examined this possibility with three conditions wherein readers received a preview of a target word that was either (1) identical to the target word (identical preview), (2) a plausible continuation of the pre-target text, but the post-target text in the sentence was incompatible with it (initially plausible preview), or (3) not a plausible continuation of the pre-target text, nor compatible with the post-target text (implausible preview). Gaze durations on target words were longer in the initially plausible condition than the identical condition. Overall, the results showed a typical preview benefit, but also implied that readers did not encode the initially plausible preview. Also, a plausibility preview benefit was replicated: gaze durations were longer with implausible previews than the initially plausible ones. Furthermore, late eye movement measures did not reveal differences between the initially plausible and the implausible preview conditions, which argues against the possibility of misreading the plausible preview word as the target word. In sum, these results suggest that a plausible preview word provides benefit in processing the target word as compared to an implausible preview word, and this benefit is only present in early but not late eye movement measures.

  18. Plausibility Judgments in Conceptual Change and Epistemic Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Doug; Nussbaum, E. Michael; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2016-01-01

    Plausibility judgments rarely have been addressed empirically in conceptual change research. Recent research, however, suggests that these judgments may be pivotal to conceptual change about certain topics where a gap exists between what scientists and laypersons find plausible. Based on a philosophical and empirical foundation, this article…

  19. Source Effects and Plausibility Judgments When Reading about Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Doug; Seyranian, Viviane; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2014-01-01

    Gaps between what scientists and laypeople find plausible may act as a barrier to learning complex and/or controversial socioscientific concepts. For example, individuals may consider scientific explanations that human activities are causing current climate change as implausible. This plausibility judgment may be due-in part-to individuals'…

  20. Rationales for Indirect Speech: The Theory of the Strategic Speaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James J.; Pinker, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Speakers often do not state requests directly but employ innuendos such as "Would you like to see my etchings?" Though such indirectness seems puzzlingly inefficient, it can be explained by a theory of the "strategic speaker", who seeks plausible deniability when he or she is uncertain of whether the hearer is cooperative or…

  1. Plausible values: how to deal with their limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monseur, Christian; Adams, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Rasch modeling and plausible values methodology were used to scale and report the results of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's Programme for International Student Achievement (PISA). This article will describe the scaling approach adopted in PISA. In particular it will focus on the use of plausible values, a multiple imputation approach that is now commonly used in large-scale assessment. As with all imputation models the plausible values must be generated using models that are consistent with those used in subsequent data analysis. In the case of PISA the plausible value generation assumes a flat linear regression with all students' background variables collected through the international student questionnaire included as regressors. Further, like most linear models, homoscedasticity and normality of the conditional variance are assumed. This article will explore some of the implications of this approach. First, we will discuss the conditions under which the secondary analyses on variables not included in the model for generating the plausible values might be biased. Secondly, as plausible values were not drawn from a multi-level model, the article will explore the adequacy of the PISA procedures for estimating variance components when the data have a hierarchical structure.

  2. Some Remarks on the Model Theory of Epistemic Plausibility Models

    CERN Document Server

    Demey, Lorenz

    2010-01-01

    Classical logics of knowledge and belief are usually interpreted on Kripke models, for which a mathematically well-developed model theory is available. However, such models are inadequate to capture dynamic phenomena. Therefore, epistemic plausibility models have been introduced. Because these are much richer structures than Kripke models, they do not straightforwardly inherit the model-theoretical results of modal logic. Therefore, while epistemic plausibility structures are well-suited for modeling purposes, an extensive investigation of their model theory has been lacking so far. The aim of the present paper is to fill exactly this gap, by initiating a systematic exploration of the model theory of epistemic plausibility models. Like in 'ordinary' modal logic, the focus will be on the notion of bisimulation. We define various notions of bisimulations (parametrized by a language L) and show that L-bisimilarity implies L-equivalence. We prove a Hennesy-Milner type result, and also two undefinability results. ...

  3. The Plausibility of a String Quartet Performance in Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Ilias; Azevedo, Sergio; Papiotis, Panos; Saldanha, Nuno; Slater, Mel

    2017-04-01

    We describe an experiment that explores the contribution of auditory and other features to the illusion of plausibility in a virtual environment that depicts the performance of a string quartet. 'Plausibility' refers to the component of presence that is the illusion that the perceived events in the virtual environment are really happening. The features studied were: Gaze (the musicians ignored the participant, the musicians sometimes looked towards and followed the participant's movements), Sound Spatialization (Mono, Stereo, Spatial), Auralization (no sound reflections, reflections corresponding to a room larger than the one perceived, reflections that exactly matched the virtual room), and Environment (no sound from outside of the room, birdsong and wind corresponding to the outside scene). We adopted the methodology based on color matching theory, where 20 participants were first able to assess their feeling of plausibility in the environment with each of the four features at their highest setting. Then five times participants started from a low setting on all features and were able to make transitions from one system configuration to another until they matched their original feeling of plausibility. From these transitions a Markov transition matrix was constructed, and also probabilities of a match conditional on feature configuration. The results show that Environment and Gaze were individually the most important factors influencing the level of plausibility. The highest probability transitions were to improve Environment and Gaze, and then Auralization and Spatialization. We present this work as both a contribution to the methodology of assessing presence without questionnaires, and showing how various aspects of a musical performance can influence plausibility.

  4. Classification using sparse representations: a biologically plausible approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratling, M W

    2014-02-01

    Representing signals as linear combinations of basis vectors sparsely selected from an overcomplete dictionary has proven to be advantageous for many applications in pattern recognition, machine learning, signal processing, and computer vision. While this approach was originally inspired by insights into cortical information processing, biologically plausible approaches have been limited to exploring the functionality of early sensory processing in the brain, while more practical applications have employed non-biologically plausible sparse coding algorithms. Here, a biologically plausible algorithm is proposed that can be applied to practical problems. This algorithm is evaluated using standard benchmark tasks in the domain of pattern classification, and its performance is compared to a wide range of alternative algorithms that are widely used in signal and image processing. The results show that for the classification tasks performed here, the proposed method is competitive with the best of the alternative algorithms that have been evaluated. This demonstrates that classification using sparse representations can be performed in a neurally plausible manner, and hence, that this mechanism of classification might be exploited by the brain.

  5. Indirection and computer security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    The discipline of computer science is built on indirection. David Wheeler famously said, 'All problems in computer science can be solved by another layer of indirection. But that usually will create another problem'. We propose that every computer security vulnerability is yet another problem created by the indirections in system designs and that focusing on the indirections involved is a better way to design, evaluate, and compare security solutions. We are not proposing that indirection be avoided when solving problems, but that understanding the relationships between indirections and vulnerabilities is key to securing computer systems. Using this perspective, we analyze common vulnerabilities that plague our computer systems, consider the effectiveness of currently available security solutions, and propose several new security solutions.

  6. Indirect Speech Acts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李威

    2001-01-01

    Indirect speech acts are frequently used in verbal communication, the interpretation of them is of great importance in order to meet the demands of the development of students' communicative competence. This paper, therefore, intends to present Searle' s indirect speech acts and explore the way how indirect speech acts are interpreted in accordance with two influential theories. It consists of four parts. Part one gives a general introduction to the notion of speech acts theory. Part two makes an elaboration upon the conception of indirect speech act theory proposed by Searle and his supplement and development of illocutionary acts. Part three deals with the interpretation of indirect speech acts. Part four draws implication from the previous study and also serves as the conclusion of the dissertation.

  7. Families of Plausible Solutions to the Puzzle of Boyajian's Star

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Jason T

    2016-01-01

    Good explanations for the unusual light curve of Boyajian's Star have been hard to find. Recent results by Montet & Simon lend strength and plausibility to the conclusion of Schaefer that in addition to short-term dimmings, the star also experiences large, secular decreases in brightness on decadal timescales. This, combined with a lack of long-wavelength excess in the star's spectral energy distribution, strongly constrains scenarios involving circumstellar material, including hypotheses invoking a spherical cloud of artifacts. We show that the timings of the deepest dimmings appear consistent with being randomly distributed, and that the star's reddening and narrow sodium absorption is consistent with the total, long-term dimming observed. Following Montet & Simon's encouragement to generate alternative hypotheses, we attempt to circumscribe the space of possible explanations with a range of plausibilities, including: a cloud in the outer solar system, structure in the ISM, natural and artificial ma...

  8. Representations of physical plausibility revealed by event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roser, Matthew E; Fugelsang, Jonathan A; Handy, Todd C; Dunbar, Kevin N; Gazzaniga, Michael S

    2009-08-05

    Maintaining an accurate mental representation of the current environment is crucial to detecting change in that environment and ensuring behavioral coherence. Past experience with interactions between objects, such as collisions, has been shown to influence the perception of object interactions. To assess whether mental representations of object interactions derived from experience influence the maintenance of a mental model of the current stimulus environment, we presented physically plausible and implausible collision events while recording brain electrical activity. The parietal P300 response to 'oddball' events was found to be modulated by the physical plausibility of the stimuli, suggesting that past experience of object interactions can influence working memory processes involved in monitoring ongoing changes to the environment.

  9. Probabilistic reasoning in intelligent systems networks of plausible inference

    CERN Document Server

    Pearl, Judea

    1988-01-01

    Probabilistic Reasoning in Intelligent Systems is a complete and accessible account of the theoretical foundations and computational methods that underlie plausible reasoning under uncertainty. The author provides a coherent explication of probability as a language for reasoning with partial belief and offers a unifying perspective on other AI approaches to uncertainty, such as the Dempster-Shafer formalism, truth maintenance systems, and nonmonotonic logic. The author distinguishes syntactic and semantic approaches to uncertainty--and offers techniques, based on belief networks, that provid

  10. Complex Learning in Bio-plausible Memristive Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Lei; Li, Guoqi; Deng, Ning; Dong WANG; Zhang, Ziyang; He, Wei; Li, Huanglong; Pei, Jing; Shi, Luping

    2015-01-01

    The emerging memristor-based neuromorphic engineering promises an efficient computing paradigm. However, the lack of both internal dynamics in the previous feedforward memristive networks and efficient learning algorithms in recurrent networks, fundamentally limits the learning ability of existing systems. In this work, we propose a framework to support complex learning functions by introducing dedicated learning algorithms to a bio-plausible recurrent memristive network with internal dynamic...

  11. INDIRECT MICROLARYNGOSTROBOSCOPIC SURGERY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MAHIEU, HF; DIKKERS, FG

    Detailed preoperative laryngostroboscopic examination is a prerequisite for phonosurgical correction of organic dysphonia. Although suspension microlaryngoscopic surgery has proved its value in the past, it excludes functional control during the removal of vocal fold swellings. Using an indirect

  12. INDIRECT MICROLARYNGOSTROBOSCOPIC SURGERY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MAHIEU, HF; DIKKERS, FG

    1992-01-01

    Detailed preoperative laryngostroboscopic examination is a prerequisite for phonosurgical correction of organic dysphonia. Although suspension microlaryngoscopic surgery has proved its value in the past, it excludes functional control during the removal of vocal fold swellings. Using an indirect mic

  13. Indirect neutrino oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, K S; Wilczek, Frank; Pati, Jogesh C; Wilczek, Frank

    1995-01-01

    We show how two different scales for oscillations between e and \\mu neutrinos, characterized by different mixing angles and effective mass scales, can arise in a simple and theoretically attractive framework. One scale characterizes direct oscillations, which can accommodate the MSW approach to the solar neutrino problem, whereas the other can be considered as arising indirectly, through virtual transitions involving the \\tau neutrino with a mass \\sim 1 eV. This indirect transition allows the possibility of observable \\bar \

  14. Plausible scenarios for the radiography profession in Sweden in 2025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, B; Fridell, K; Tavakol Olofsson, P

    2017-11-01

    Radiography is a healthcare speciality with many technical challenges. Advances in engineering and information technology applications may continue to drive and be driven by radiographers. The world of diagnostic imaging is changing rapidly and radiographers must be proactive in order to survive. To ensure sustainable development, organisations have to identify future opportunities and threats in a timely manner and incorporate them into their strategic planning. Hence, the aim of this study was to analyse and describe plausible scenarios for the radiography profession in 2025. The study has a qualitative design with an inductive approach based on focus group interviews. The interviews were inspired by the Scenario-Planning method. Of the seven trends identified in a previous study, the radiographers considered two as the most uncertain scenarios that would have the greatest impact on the profession should they occur. These trends, labelled "Access to career advancement" and "A sufficient number of radiographers", were inserted into the scenario cross. The resulting four plausible future scenarios were: The happy radiographer, the specialist radiographer, the dying profession and the assembly line. It is suggested that "The dying profession" scenario could probably be turned in the opposite direction by facilitating career development opportunities for radiographers within the profession. Changing the direction would probably lead to a profession composed of "happy radiographers" who are specialists, proud of their profession and competent to carry out advanced tasks, in contrast to being solely occupied by "the assembly line". Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prebiotically plausible mechanisms increase compositional diversity of nucleic acid sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derr, Julien; Manapat, Michael L; Rajamani, Sudha; Leu, Kevin; Xulvi-Brunet, Ramon; Joseph, Isaac; Nowak, Martin A; Chen, Irene A

    2012-05-01

    During the origin of life, the biological information of nucleic acid polymers must have increased to encode functional molecules (the RNA world). Ribozymes tend to be compositionally unbiased, as is the vast majority of possible sequence space. However, ribonucleotides vary greatly in synthetic yield, reactivity and degradation rate, and their non-enzymatic polymerization results in compositionally biased sequences. While natural selection could lead to complex sequences, molecules with some activity are required to begin this process. Was the emergence of compositionally diverse sequences a matter of chance, or could prebiotically plausible reactions counter chemical biases to increase the probability of finding a ribozyme? Our in silico simulations using a two-letter alphabet show that template-directed ligation and high concatenation rates counter compositional bias and shift the pool toward longer sequences, permitting greater exploration of sequence space and stable folding. We verified experimentally that unbiased DNA sequences are more efficient templates for ligation, thus increasing the compositional diversity of the pool. Our work suggests that prebiotically plausible chemical mechanisms of nucleic acid polymerization and ligation could predispose toward a diverse pool of longer, potentially structured molecules. Such mechanisms could have set the stage for the appearance of functional activity very early in the emergence of life.

  16. Indirect Sexism in Discourse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭卓

    2008-01-01

    This thesis draws attention to one of the most vigorous debate in sociolinguistics,sexism in discourse,despite the chicken-and egg question whether it is our language shape sexism or sexism creates certain language.Unlike most researches conducted in sexism and language in the past,we challenge the traditional notion of linguistic sexism and direct our view to what we call "an indirect sexism" here.We then argue the difference between direct and indirect sexism and depict how such an undercurrent drives secretly and carefully in our daily discourse.

  17. Neural networks, nativism, and the plausibility of constructivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartz, S R

    1993-09-01

    Recent interest in PDP (parallel distributed processing) models is due in part to the widely held belief that they challenge many of the assumptions of classical cognitive science. In the domain of language acquisition, for example, there has been much interest in the claim that PDP models might undermine nativism. Related arguments based on PDP learning have also been given against Fodor's anti-constructivist position--a position that has contributed to the widespread dismissal of constructivism. A limitation of many of the claims regarding PDP learning, however, is that the principles underlying this learning have not been rigorously characterized. In this paper, I examine PDP models from within the framework of Valiant's PAC (probably approximately correct) model of learning, now the dominant model in machine learning, and which applies naturally to neural network learning. From this perspective, I evaluate the implications of PDP models for nativism and Fodor's influential anti-constructivist position. In particular, I demonstrate that, contrary to a number of claims, PDP models are nativist in a robust sense. I also demonstrate that PDP models actually serve as a good illustration of Fodor's anti-constructivist position. While these results may at first suggest that neural network models in general are incapable of the sort of concept acquisition that is required to refute Fodor's anti-constructivist position, I suggest that there is an alternative form of neural network learning that demonstrates the plausibility of constructivism. This alternative form of learning is a natural interpretation of the constructivist position in terms of neural network learning, as it employs learning algorithms that incorporate the addition of structure in addition to weight modification schemes. By demonstrating that there is a natural and plausible interpretation of constructivism in terms of neural network learning, the position that nativism is the only plausible model of

  18. Indirect airway challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joos, GF; O'Connor, B; Anderson, SD; Chung, F; Cockcroft, DW; Dahlen, B; DiMaria, G; Foresi, A; Hargreave, FE; Holgate, ST; Inman, M; Lotvall, J; Magnussen, H; Polosa, R; Postma, DS; Riedler, J

    2003-01-01

    Indirect challenges act by causing the release of endogenous mediators that cause the airway smooth muscle to contract. This is in contrast to the direct challenges where agonists such as methacholine or histamine cause airflow limitation predominantly via a direct effect on airway smooth muscle. Di

  19. On the biological plausibility of Wind Turbine Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Robert V

    2015-01-01

    An emerging environmental health issue relates to potential ill-effects of wind turbine noise. There have been numerous suggestions that the low-frequency acoustic components in wind turbine signals can cause symptoms associated with vestibular system disorders, namely vertigo, nausea, and nystagmus. This constellation of symptoms has been labeled as Wind Turbine Syndrome, and has been identified in case studies of individuals living close to wind farms. This review discusses whether it is biologically plausible for the turbine noise to stimulate the vestibular parts of the inner ear and, by extension, cause Wind Turbine Syndrome. We consider the sound levels that can activate the semicircular canals or otolith end organs in normal subjects, as well as in those with preexisting conditions known to lower vestibular threshold to sound stimulation.

  20. Hamiltonian formulation of time-dependent plausible inference

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Maximization of the path information entropy is a clear prescription for performing time-dependent plausible inference. Here it is shown that, following this prescription under the assumption of arbitrary instantaneous constraints on position and velocity, a Lagrangian emerges which determines the most probable trajectory. Deviations from the probability maximum can be consistently described as slices in time by a Hamiltonian, according to a nonlinear Langevin equation and its associated Fokker-Planck equation. The connections unveiled between the maximization of path entropy and the Langevin/Fokker-Planck equations imply that missing information about the phase space coordinate never decreases in time, a purely information-theoretical version of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. All of these results are independent of any physical assumptions, and thus valid for any generalized coordinate as a function of time, or any other parameter. This reinforces the view that the Second Law is a fundamental property of ...

  1. Alkaloids from Pandanus amaryllifolius: Isolation and Their Plausible Biosynthetic Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Chi; Yu, Meng-Lun; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Beerhues, Ludger; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Chen, Lei-Chin; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Chen, Hui-Fen; Chung, Yu-Ming; Hou, Ming-Feng; Wu, Yang-Chang; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2015-10-23

    Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. (Pandanaceae) is used as a flavor and in folk medicine in Southeast Asia. The ethanolic crude extract of the aerial parts of P. amaryllifolius exhibited antioxidant, antibiofilm, and anti-inflammatory activities in previous studies. In the current investigation, the purification of the ethanolic extract yielded nine new compounds, including N-acetylnorpandamarilactonines A (1) and B (2); pandalizines A (3) and B (4); pandanmenyamine (5); pandamarilactones 2 (6) and 3 (7), and 5(E)-pandamarilactonine-32 (8); and pandalactonine (9). The isolated alkaloids, with either a γ-alkylidene-α,β-unsaturated-γ-lactone or γ-alkylidene-α,β-unsaturated-γ-lactam system, can be classified into five skeletons including norpandamarilactonine, indolizinone, pandanamine, pandamarilactone, and pandamarilactonine. A plausible biosynthetic route toward 1-5, 7, and 9 is proposed.

  2. Complex Learning in Bio-plausible Memristive Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lei; Li, Guoqi; Deng, Ning; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Ziyang; He, Wei; Li, Huanglong; Pei, Jing; Shi, Luping

    2015-06-19

    The emerging memristor-based neuromorphic engineering promises an efficient computing paradigm. However, the lack of both internal dynamics in the previous feedforward memristive networks and efficient learning algorithms in recurrent networks, fundamentally limits the learning ability of existing systems. In this work, we propose a framework to support complex learning functions by introducing dedicated learning algorithms to a bio-plausible recurrent memristive network with internal dynamics. We fabricate iron oxide memristor-based synapses, with well controllable plasticity and a wide dynamic range of excitatory/inhibitory connection weights, to build the network. To adaptively modify the synaptic weights, the comprehensive recursive least-squares (RLS) learning algorithm is introduced. Based on the proposed framework, the learning of various timing patterns and a complex spatiotemporal pattern of human motor is demonstrated. This work paves a new way to explore the brain-inspired complex learning in neuromorphic systems.

  3. Indirect resin composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini Suresh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aesthetic dentistry continues to evolve through innovations in bonding agents, restorative materials, and conservative preparation techniques. The use of direct composite restoration in posterior teeth is limited to relatively small cavities due to polymerization stresses. Indirect composites offer an esthetic alternative to ceramics for posterior teeth. This review article focuses on the material aspect of the newer generation of composites. This review was based on a PubMed database search which we limited to peer-reviewed articles in English that were published between 1990 and 2010 in dental journals. The key words used were ′indirect resin composites,′ composite inlays,′ and ′fiber-reinforced composites.′

  4. Indirect Control and Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesarino Bertini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine who has the power within a stock corporate company can be a quite complex problem, especially when control is achieved through alliances between shareholders. This problem arises especially in cases of indirect control of corporations, that is, in situations involving shareholders and companies with cross-shareholdings. The first to solve the problem of measuring power in the case of indirect share control were Gianfranco Gambarelli and Guillermo Owen in [10]. In the following years, numerous other models were introduced. In this paper, we critically examine the models of: Gambarelli and Owen, Denti and Prati, Crama and Leruth, Karos and Peters, as well as Mercik and Lobos, taking into account two well-known, illustrative examples, one with an acyclic corporate structure and the other with a cyclic structure. (original abstract

  5. Pedal indirect lymphangiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kil Woo; Hong, Myung Sun; Kim, In Jae [College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-04-15

    Recently, indirect lymphangiography has been developed as a relatively good and noninvasive imaging modality of the lymphatic system at extremities. But the disadvantage of the indirect lymphangiography is a low contrast ratio between the surrounding tissues and the contrast media in lymphatic vessels, because dimeric nonionic contrast media is water soluble and diluted in the proximal leg lymphatic vessels. We could have relatively better image than previously published images for the leg lymphatic system, when we injected contrast media with adequate high pressure in intradermal space of the interdigital areas at the foot dorsum. So, we would like to report the results. We could study all 9 lymphedemas(primary: 6, secondary: 3) from April 1990 to May 1993 on outpatient base. They were diagnosed as lymphedema clinically and radiologically. Ten ml of dimeric nonionic aget, iotrolan(Isovist 300) was injected into intradermal space with five 30-gauge needles. The injection speed was more than 0.2 ml/min. We have done one side pedal lymphangiogram in 30 minutes. The evaluation of the anterior superficial lymphatics was according to the criteria of the Weissleder. The results were as follows: 1. All lymphatic vessels from foot to inguinal area could be visualized. 2. Two or three inferior inguinal lymph nodes could be visualized about 42%. 3. The most common abnormal finding of the lymphedma was the neovascularization of the lymphatics on indirect pedal lymphangiogram. If we use adequate technique relatively high pressure injection, correct intradermal needle insertion, adequate soft tissue exposure technique indirect lymphangiography is considered to be a safe and noninvasive imaging modality for the evaluation of the lymphedema of lower extremity lymphatics including inferior inguinal lymph nodes.

  6. Liderazgo preventivo para la universidad. Una experiencia plausible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo del liderazgo, en el ámbito educativo superior, busca soluciones de aplicación inmediata a contextos en que todo líder se desenvuelve, pero se diluye el sustento teórico-práctico en la formación del líder que posibilite entender los procesos intelectivos durante la toma de decisiones. El paradigma de convergencia entre el método antropológico lonerganiano, la comunidad de aprendizaje vygotskiana y una relectura del sistema preventivo salesiano se presentan como propuesta plausible de formación al liderazgo preventivo entre los diversos actores de una comunidad universitaria. Un estudio de caso de la Universidad Salesiana en México empleando un método mixto de investigación, facilita una relectura del liderazgo desde una óptica preventiva como posibilidad de convergencia en un diálogo interdisciplinar. Los resultados teórico-práctico propuestos y examinados se muestran como herramienta útil para evaluar, enriquecer y renovar la teoría sobre el líder y el desarrollo de liderazgo en las universidades frente a una sociedad globalizada.

  7. A perspective on SIDS pathogenesis. The hypotheses: plausibility and evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldwater Paul N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several theories of the underlying mechanisms of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS have been proposed. These theories have born relatively narrow beach-head research programs attracting generous research funding sustained for many years at expense to the public purse. This perspective endeavors to critically examine the evidence and bases of these theories and determine their plausibility; and questions whether or not a safe and reasoned hypothesis lies at their foundation. The Opinion sets specific criteria by asking the following questions: 1. Does the hypothesis take into account the key pathological findings in SIDS? 2. Is the hypothesis congruent with the key epidemiological risk factors? 3. Does it link 1 and 2? Falling short of any one of these answers, by inference, would imply insufficient grounds for a sustainable hypothesis. Some of the hypotheses overlap, for instance, notional respiratory failure may encompass apnea, prone sleep position, and asphyxia which may be seen to be linked to co-sleeping. For the purposes of this paper, each element will be assessed on the above criteria.

  8. A plausible explanation for male dominance in typhoid ileal perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad KhanDepartment of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Chichiri, Blantyre, MalawiAbstract: The phenomenon of consistent male dominance in typhoid ileal perforation (TIP is not well understood. It cannot be explained on the basis of microbial virulence, Peyer's patch anatomy, ileal wall thickness, gastric acidity, host genetic factors, or sex-linked bias in hospital attendance. The cytokine response to an intestinal infection in males is predominantly proinflammatory as compared with that in females, presumably due to differences in the sex hormonal milieu. Sex hormone receptors have been detected on lymphocytes and macrophages, including on Peyer's patches, inflammation of which (probably similar to the Shwartzman reaction/Koch phenomenon is the forerunner of TIP, and is not excluded from the regulatory effects of sex hormones. Hormonal control of host-pathogen interaction may override genetic control. Environmental exposure to Salmonella typhi may be more frequent in males, presumably due to sex-linked differences in hygiene practices and dining-out behavior. A plausible explanation of male dominance in TIP could include sex-linked differences in the degree of natural exposure of Peyer's patches to S. typhi. An alternative explanation may include sexual dimorphism in host inflammatory response patterns in Peyer's patches that have been induced by S. typhi. Both hypotheses are testable.Keywords: explanation, dominance, male, perforation, ileum, typhoid

  9. A plausible explanation for male dominance in typhoid ileal perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of consistent male dominance in typhoid ileal perforation (TIP) is not well understood. It cannot be explained on the basis of microbial virulence, Peyer's patch anatomy, ileal wall thickness, gastric acidity, host genetic factors, or sex-linked bias in hospital attendance. The cytokine response to an intestinal infection in males is predominantly proinflammatory as compared with that in females, presumably due to differences in the sex hormonal milieu. Sex hormone receptors have been detected on lymphocytes and macrophages, including on Peyer's patches, inflammation of which (probably similar to the Shwartzman reaction/Koch phenomenon) is the forerunner of TIP, and is not excluded from the regulatory effects of sex hormones. Hormonal control of host-pathogen interaction may override genetic control. Environmental exposure to Salmonella typhi may be more frequent in males, presumably due to sex-linked differences in hygiene practices and dining-out behavior. A plausible explanation of male dominance in TIP could include sex-linked differences in the degree of natural exposure of Peyer's patches to S. typhi. An alternative explanation may include sexual dimorphism in host inflammatory response patterns in Peyer's patches that have been induced by S. typhi. Both hypotheses are testable.

  10. Indirect radioimmunoassay for interferon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, S.F.; Schoub, B.D. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Virology); Chiu, M.N.; Crespi, M. (National Institute for Virology, Johannesburg (South Africa))

    1982-10-01

    An indirect radioimmunoassay for testing the antiviral activity of interferon (IFN) is described. Vero cells are seeded in microtitre plates, treated with appropriate dilutions of interferon and challenged with Sindbis virus. Viral yield is measured using specific antibody and radiolabelled protein A. The assay is able to detect IFN levels of 5 international units (I.U.)/ml, has a high degree of reproducibility, and could be easily adapted to various cell and virus combinations. This microsystem is technically simple, allows testing of small volumes of test material, and eliminates subjectivity in reading of endpoints.

  11. Plausible rice yield losses under future climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuang; Piao, Shilong; Wang, Xuhui; Huang, Yao; Ciais, Philippe; Elliott, Joshua; Huang, Mengtian; Janssens, Ivan A; Li, Tao; Lian, Xu; Liu, Yongwen; Müller, Christoph; Peng, Shushi; Wang, Tao; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Peñuelas, Josep

    2016-12-19

    Rice is the staple food for more than 50% of the world's population(1-3). Reliable prediction of changes in rice yield is thus central for maintaining global food security. This is an extraordinary challenge. Here, we compare the sensitivity of rice yield to temperature increase derived from field warming experiments and three modelling approaches: statistical models, local crop models and global gridded crop models. Field warming experiments produce a substantial rice yield loss under warming, with an average temperature sensitivity of -5.2 ± 1.4% K(-1). Local crop models give a similar sensitivity (-6.3 ± 0.4% K(-1)), but statistical and global gridded crop models both suggest less negative impacts of warming on yields (-0.8 ± 0.3% and -2.4 ± 3.7% K(-1), respectively). Using data from field warming experiments, we further propose a conditional probability approach to constrain the large range of global gridded crop model results for the future yield changes in response to warming by the end of the century (from -1.3% to -9.3% K(-1)). The constraint implies a more negative response to warming (-8.3 ± 1.4% K(-1)) and reduces the spread of the model ensemble by 33%. This yield reduction exceeds that estimated by the International Food Policy Research Institute assessment (-4.2 to -6.4% K(-1)) (ref. 4). Our study suggests that without CO2 fertilization, effective adaptation and genetic improvement, severe rice yield losses are plausible under intensive climate warming scenarios.

  12. A biologically plausible embodied model of action discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rufino eBolado-Gomez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available During development, animals can spontaneously discover action-outcomepairings enabling subsequent achievement of their goals. We present abiologically plausible embodied model addressing key aspects of thisprocess. The biomimetic model core comprises the basal ganglia and itsloops through cortex and thalamus. We incorporate reinforcementlearning with phasic dopamine supplying a sensory prediction error,signalling 'surprising' outcomes. Phasic dopamine is used in acorticostriatal learning rule which is consistent with recent data. Wealso hypothesised that objects associated with surprising outcomesacquire 'novelty salience' contingent on the predicability of theoutcome. To test this idea we used a simple model of predictiongoverning the dynamics of novelty salience and phasic dopamine. Thetask of the virtual robotic agent mimicked an in vivo counterpart(Gancarz et al., 2011 and involved interaction with a target objectwhich caused a light flash, or a control object which did not.Learning took place according to two schedules. In one, the phasicoutcome was delivered after interaction with the target in anunpredictable way which emulated the in vivo protocol. Without noveltysalience, the model was unable to account for the experimental data.In the other schedule, the phasic outcome was reliably delivered andthe agent showed a rapid increase in the number of interactions withthe target which then decreased over subsequent sessions. We arguethis is precisely the kind of change in behaviour required torepeatedly present representations of context, action and outcome, toneural networks responsible for learning action-outcome contingency.The model also showed corticostriatal plasticity consistent withlearning a new action in basal ganglia. We conclude that actionlearning is underpinned by a complex interplay of plasticity andstimulus salience, and that our model contains many of the elementsfor biological action discovery to take place.

  13. Bioechnology of indirect liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, R.; Jain, M.K.; Worden, R.M.; Grethlein, A.J.; Soni, B.; Zeikus, J.G.; Grethlein, H.

    1990-05-07

    The project on biotechnology of indirect liquefaction was focused on conversion of coal derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels using a two-stage, acidogenic and solventogenic, anaerobic bioconversion process. The acidogenic fermentation used a novel and versatile organism, Butyribacterium methylotrophicum, which was fully capable of using CO as the sole carbon and energy source for organic acid production. In extended batch CO fermentations the organism was induced to produce butyrate at the expense of acetate at low pH values. Long-term, steady-state operation was achieved during continuous CO fermentations with this organism, and at low pH values (a pH of 6.0 or less) minor amounts of butanol and ethanol were produced. During continuous, steady-state fermentations of CO with cell recycle, concentrations of mixed acids and alcohols were achieved (approximately 12 g/l and 2 g/l, respectively) which are high enough for efficient conversion in stage two of the indirect liquefaction process. The metabolic pathway to produce 4-carbon alcohols from CO was a novel discovery and is believed to be unique to our CO strain of B. methylotrophicum. In the solventogenic phase, the parent strain ATCC 4259 of Clostridium acetobutylicum was mutagenized using nitrosoguanidine and ethyl methane sulfonate. The E-604 mutant strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum showed improved characteristics as compared to parent strain ATCC 4259 in batch fermentation of carbohydrates.

  14. Changing beliefs about implausible autobiographical events: a little plausibility goes a long way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, G A; Loftus, E F; Kirsch, I

    2001-03-01

    Three experiments investigated the malleability of perceived plausibility and the subjective likelihood of occurrence of plausible and implausible events among participants who had no recollection of experiencing them. In Experiment 1, a plausibility-enhancing manipulation (reading accounts of the occurrence of events) combined with a personalized suggestion increased the perceived plausibility of the implausible event, as well as participants' ratings of the likelihood that they had experienced it. Plausibility and likelihood ratings were uncorrelated. Subsequent studies showed that the plausibility manipulation alone was sufficient to increase likelihood ratings but only if the accounts that participants read were set in a contemporary context. These data suggest that false autobiographical beliefs can be induced in clinical and forensic contexts even for initially implausible events.

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of NS5B gene of classical swine fever virus isolates indicates plausible Chinese origin of Indian subgroup 2.2 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S S; Hemadri, D; Veeresh, H; Sreekala, K; Gajendragad, M R; Prabhudas, K

    2012-02-01

    Twenty-three CSFV isolates recovered from field outbreaks in various parts of India during 2006-2009 were used for genetic analysis in the NS5B region (409 nts). Seventeen of these were studied earlier [16] in the 5'UTR region. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the continued dominance of subgroup 1.1 strains in the country. Detailed analysis of a subgroup 2.2 virus indicated the plausible Chinese origin of this subgroup in India and provided indirect evidence of routes of CSFV movement within South East Asia region.

  16. Plausibility check of a redesigned rain-on-snow simulator (RASA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, Ole; Probst, Sabine; Weingartner, Rolf

    2016-04-01

    Rain-on-snow events are fascinating but still not completely understood processes. Although, several studies and equations have been published since decades that describe past events and theoretical descriptions, empirical data of what is happening in the snow cover is far less available. A way to fill this gap of empirical data, rain-on-snow-simulators might be of help. In 2013, Juras et al. published their inspiring idea of a portable rain-on-snow simulator. The huge advantage of this devise - in contrast to other purely field-based experiments - are their fixed, and mostly standardized conditions and the possibility to measure all required data to monitor the water fluxes and melting processes at a time. Mounted in a convenient location, a large number of experiments are relatively easy conductible. We applied and further developed the original device and plausified the results of this redesigned version, called RASA. The principal design was borrowed from the original version being a frame with a sprinkler on top and a snow sample in a box at the bottom, from which the outflow is measured with a tipping gauge. We added a moving sprinkling plate to ensure a uniform distribution of raindrops on the snow, and - most importantly - we suspended the watered snow sampled on weighting cells. The latter enables to continuous measurement of the snow sample throughout the experiment and thus the indirect quantification of liquid water saturation, water holding capacity, and snowmelt amount via balance equations. As it is remains unclear if this device is capable to reproduce known processes, a hypothesis based plausibility check was accomplished. Thus, eight hypothesizes were derived from literature and tested in 28 experiments with the RASA mounted at 2000 m elevation. In general, we were able to reproduce most of the hypotheses. The RASA proved to be a very valuable device that can generate suitable results and has the potential to extend the empirical-experimental data

  17. The Utility of Cognitive Plausibility in Language Acquisition Modeling: Evidence From Word Segmentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, Lawrence; Pearl, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The informativity of a computational model of language acquisition is directly related to how closely it approximates the actual acquisition task, sometimes referred to as the model's cognitive plausibility...

  18. Choosing diverse sets of plausible scenarios in multidimensional exploratory futures techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lord, Steven; Helfgott, Ariella; Vervoort, Joost M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Morphological analysis allows any number of dimensions to be retained when framing future conditions, and techniques within morphological analysis determine which combinations of those dimensions represent plausible futures. However, even a relatively low number of dimensions in future cond

  19. A simplified indirect bonding technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Katiyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of lingual orthodontics, indirect bonding technique has become an integral part of practice. It involves placement of brackets initially on the models and then their transfer to teeth with the help of transfer trays. Problems encountered with current indirect bonding techniques used are (1 the possibility of adhesive flash remaining around the base of the brackets which requires removal (2 longer time required for the adhesive to gain enough bond strength for secure tray removal. The new simplified indirect bonding technique presented here overcomes both these problems.

  20. The Utility of Cognitive Plausibility in Language Acquisition Modeling: Evidence From Word Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Lawrence; Pearl, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    The informativity of a computational model of language acquisition is directly related to how closely it approximates the actual acquisition task, sometimes referred to as the model's cognitive plausibility. We suggest that though every computational model necessarily idealizes the modeled task, an informative language acquisition model can aim to be cognitively plausible in multiple ways. We discuss these cognitive plausibility checkpoints generally and then apply them to a case study in word segmentation, investigating a promising Bayesian segmentation strategy. We incorporate cognitive plausibility by using an age-appropriate unit of perceptual representation, evaluating the model output in terms of its utility, and incorporating cognitive constraints into the inference process. Our more cognitively plausible model shows a beneficial effect of cognitive constraints on segmentation performance. One interpretation of this effect is as a synergy between the naive theories of language structure that infants may have and the cognitive constraints that limit the fidelity of their inference processes, where less accurate inference approximations are better when the underlying assumptions about how words are generated are less accurate. More generally, these results highlight the utility of incorporating cognitive plausibility more fully into computational models of language acquisition.

  1. Direct vs. Indirect Moral Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, G Owen

    2015-09-01

    Moral enhancement is an ostensibly laudable project. Who wouldn't want people to become more moral? Still, the project's approach is crucial. We can distinguish between two approaches for moral enhancement: direct and indirect. Direct moral enhancements aim at bringing about particular ideas, motives or behaviors. Indirect moral enhancements, by contrast, aim at making people more reliably produce the morally correct ideas, motives or behaviors without committing to the content of those ideas, motives and/or actions. I will argue, on Millian grounds, that the value of disagreement puts serious pressure on proposals for relatively widespread direct moral enhancement. A more acceptable path would be to focus instead on indirect moral enhancements while staying neutral, for the most part, on a wide range of substantive moral claims. I will outline what such indirect moral enhancement might look like, and why we should expect it to lead to general moral improvement.

  2. Ecology: Dynamics of Indirect Extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Jose M

    2015-12-01

    The experimental identification of the mechanism by which extinctions of predators trigger further predator extinctions emphasizes the role of indirect effects between species in disturbed ecosystems. It also has deep consequences for the hidden magnitude of the current biodiversity crisis.

  3. Using critical evaluation to reappraise plausibility judgments: A critical cognitive component of conceptual change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, D.

    2011-12-01

    Plausibility judgments-although well represented in conceptual change theories (see, for example, Chi, 2005; diSessa, 1993; Dole & Sinatra, 1998; Posner et al., 1982)-have received little empirical attention until our recent work investigating teachers' and students' understanding of and perceptions about human-induced climate change (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010, 2011). In our first study with undergraduate students, we found that greater plausibility perceptions of human-induced climate accounted for significantly greater understanding of weather and climate distinctions after instruction, even after accounting for students' prior knowledge (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010). In a follow-up study with inservice science and preservice elementary teachers, we showed that anger about the topic of climate change and teaching about climate change was significantly related to implausible perceptions about human-induced climate change (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2011). Results from our recent studies helped to inform our development of a model of the role of plausibility judgments in conceptual change situations. The model applies to situations involving cognitive dissonance, where background knowledge conflicts with an incoming message. In such situations, we define plausibility as a judgment on the relative potential truthfulness of incoming information compared to one's existing mental representations (Rescher, 1976). Students may not consciously think when making plausibility judgments, expending only minimal mental effort in what is referred to as an automatic cognitive process (Stanovich, 2009). However, well-designed instruction could facilitate students' reappraisal of plausibility judgments in more effortful and conscious cognitive processing. Critical evaluation specifically may be one effective method to promote plausibility reappraisal in a classroom setting (Lombardi & Sinatra, in progress). In science education, critical evaluation involves the analysis of how evidentiary

  4. Interactions between visual and motor areas during the recognition of plausible actions as revealed by magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidou, Anastasia; Schnitzler, Alfons; Lange, Joachim

    2014-02-01

    Several studies have shown activation of the mirror neuron system (MNS), comprising the temporal, posterior parietal, and sensorimotor areas when observing plausible actions, but far less is known on how these cortical areas interact during the recognition of a plausible action. Here, we recorded neural activity with magnetoencephalography while subjects viewed point-light displays of biologically plausible and scrambled versions of actions. We were interested in modulations of oscillatory activity and, specifically, in coupling of oscillatory activity between visual and motor areas. Both plausible and scrambled actions elicited modulations of θ (5-7 Hz), α (7-13 Hz), β (13-35 Hz), and γ (55-100 Hz) power within visual and motor areas. When comparing between the two actions, we observed sequential and spatially distinct increases of γ (∼65 Hz), β (∼25 Hz), and α (∼11 Hz) power between 0.5 and 1.3 s in parieto-occipital, sensorimotor, and left temporal areas. In addition, significant clusters of γ (∼65 Hz) and α/β (∼15 Hz) power decrease were observed in right temporal and parieto-occipital areas between 1.3 and 2.0 s. We found β-power in sensorimotor areas to be positively correlated on a trial-by-trial basis with parieto-occipital γ and left temporal α-power for the plausible but not for the scrambled condition. These results provide new insights in the neuronal oscillatory activity of the areas involved in the recognition of plausible action movements and their interaction. The power correlations between specific areas underscore the importance of interactions between visual and motor areas of the MNS during the recognition of a plausible action.

  5. Indirect comparisons of therapeutic interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulkhemair, Dalila

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Health political background: The comparison of the effectiveness of health technologies is not only laid down in German law (Social Code Book V, § 139 and § 35b but also constitutes a central element of clinical guidelines and decision making in health care. Tools supporting decision making (e. g. Health Technology Assessments (HTA are therefore in need of a valid methodological repertoire for these comparisons. Scientific background: Randomised controlled head-to-head trials which directly compare the effects of different therapies are considered the gold standard methodological approach for the comparison of the efficacy of interventions. Because this type of trial is rarely found, comparisons of efficacy often need to rely on indirect comparisons whose validity is being controversially debated. Research questions: Research questions for the current assessment are: Which (statistical methods for indirect comparisons of therapeutic interventions do exist, how often are they applied and how valid are their results in comparison to the results of head-to-head trials? Methods: In a systematic literature research all medical databases of the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI are searched for methodological papers as well as applications of indirect comparisons in systematic reviews. Results of the literature analysis are summarized qualitatively for the characterisation of methods and quantitatively for the frequency of their application. The validity of the results from indirect comparisons is checked by comparing them to the results from the gold standard – a direct comparison. Data sets from systematic reviews which use both direct and indirect comparisons are tested for consistency by of the z-statistic. Results: 29 methodological papers and 106 applications of indirect methods in systematic reviews are being analysed. Four methods for indirect comparisons can be identified: 1. Unadjusted indirect comparisons

  6. Stereotyping to infer group membership creates plausible deniability for prejudice-based aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, William T L; Devine, Patricia G

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, participants administered painful electric shocks to an unseen male opponent who was either explicitly labeled as gay or stereotypically implied to be gay. Identifying the opponent with a gay-stereotypic attribute produced a situation in which the target's group status was privately inferred but plausibly deniable to others. To test the plausible deniability hypothesis, we examined aggression levels as a function of internal (personal) and external (social) motivation to respond without prejudice. Whether plausible deniability was present or absent, participants high in internal motivation aggressed at low levels, and participants low in both internal and external motivation aggressed at high levels. The behavior of participants low in internal and high in external motivation, however, depended on experimental condition. They aggressed at low levels when observers could plausibly attribute their behavior to prejudice and aggressed at high levels when the situation granted plausible deniability. This work has implications for both obstacles to and potential avenues for prejudice-reduction efforts.

  7. Don't Plan for the Unexpected: Planning Based on Plausibility Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Birkegaard; Bolander, Thomas; Jensen, Martin Holm

    2015-01-01

    We present a framework for automated planning based on plausibility models, as well as algorithms for computing plans in this framework. Our plausibility models include postconditions, as ontic effects are essential for most planning purposes. The framework presented extends a previously developed...... framework based on dynamic epistemic logic (DEL), without plausibilities/beliefs. In the pure epistemic framework, one can distinguish between strong and weak epistemic plans for achieving some, possibly epistemic, goal. By taking all possible outcomes of actions into account, a strong plan guarantees...... that the agent achieves this goal. Conversely, a weak plan promises only the possibility of leading to the goal. In real-life planning scenarios where the planning agent is faced with a high degree of uncertainty and an almost endless number of possible exogenous events, strong epistemic planning...

  8. Inference and Plausible Reasoning in a Natural Language Understanding System Based on Object-Oriented Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Ostapov, Yuriy

    2012-01-01

    Algorithms of inference in a computer system oriented to input and semantic processing of text information are presented. Such inference is necessary for logical questions when the direct comparison of objects from a question and database can not give a result. The following classes of problems are considered: a check of hypotheses for persons and non-typical actions, the determination of persons and circumstances for non-typical actions, planning actions, the determination of event cause and state of persons. To form an answer both deduction and plausible reasoning are used. As a knowledge domain under consideration is social behavior of persons, plausible reasoning is based on laws of social psychology. Proposed algorithms of inference and plausible reasoning can be realized in computer systems closely connected with text processing (criminology, operation of business, medicine, document systems).

  9. Biologically plausible and evidence-based risk intervals in immunization safety research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Klein, Nicola P; Dekker, Cornelia L; Edwards, Kathryn M; Marchant, Colin D; Vellozzi, Claudia; Fireman, Bruce; Sejvar, James J; Halsey, Neal A; Baxter, Roger

    2012-12-17

    In immunization safety research, individuals are considered at risk for the development of certain adverse events following immunization (AEFI) within a specific period of time referred to as the risk interval. These intervals should ideally be determined based on biologic plausibility considering features of the AEFI, presumed or known pathologic mechanism, and the vaccine. Misspecification of the length and timing of these intervals may result in introducing bias in epidemiologic and clinical studies of immunization safety. To date, little work has been done to formally assess and determine biologically plausible and evidence-based risk intervals in immunization safety research. In this report, we present a systematic process to define biologically plausible and evidence-based risk interval estimates for two specific AEFIs, febrile seizures and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. In addition, we review methodologic issues related to the determination of risk intervals for consideration in future studies of immunization safety.

  10. The semiosis of prayer and the creation of plausible fictional worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Peter Södergård

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Prayer and incantation can perhaps be said to be 'mechanisms' that promise that lack will be liquidated and that there is an unlimited signator, a father, or some other metaphysical creature, standing behind and legitimizing the discourse. A way of communicating with the Unlimited that is privileged by an interpretive community that read the prayers aloud and enacted the magical stage-scripts. These highly overlapping categories function as one of the most common subforms of religious discourse for the creation, actualization and maintenance of plausible fictional worlds. They are liminal and transitional mechanisms that manipulate an empirical reader to phase-shift from an actual world to a plausible, by being inscribed in a possible and fictional world, thus creating a model reader, that perceives and acts according to the plausible world outlined by a given interpretive community, and that hears god talking in voces magicae and in god-speaking silence.

  11. Don't Plan for the Unexpected: Planning Based on Plausibility Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Birkegaard; Bolander, Thomas; Jensen, Martin Holm

    2015-01-01

    that the agent achieves this goal. Conversely, a weak plan promises only the possibility of leading to the goal. In real-life planning scenarios where the planning agent is faced with a high degree of uncertainty and an almost endless number of possible exogenous events, strong epistemic planning......We present a framework for automated planning based on plausibility models, as well as algorithms for computing plans in this framework. Our plausibility models include postconditions, as ontic effects are essential for most planning purposes. The framework presented extends a previously developed...... framework based on dynamic epistemic logic (DEL), without plausibilities/beliefs. In the pure epistemic framework, one can distinguish between strong and weak epistemic plans for achieving some, possibly epistemic, goal. By taking all possible outcomes of actions into account, a strong plan guarantees...

  12. Indirect methods in nuclear astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Bertulani, C A; Mukhamedzhanov, A; Kadyrov, A S; Kruppa, A; Pang, D Y

    2015-01-01

    We discuss recent developments in indirect methods used in nuclear astrophysics to determine the capture cross sections and subsequent rates of various stellar burning processes, when it is difficult to perform the corresponding direct measurements. We discuss in brief, the basic concepts of Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients, the Trojan Horse Method, the Coulomb Dissociation Method, (d,p), and charge-exchange reactions.

  13. Indirect bonding technique in orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kübra Yıldırım

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ‘Direct Bonding Technique’ which allows the fixed orthodontic appliances to be directly bonded to teeth without using bands decreased the clinic time for bracket bonding and increased esthetics and oral hygiene during orthodontic treatment. However, mistakes in bracket positioning were observed due to decreased direct visual sight and access to posterior teeth. ‘Indirect Bonding Technique’ was developed for eliminating these problems. Initially, decreased bond strength, higher bond failure rate, periodontal tissue irritation, compromised oral hygiene and increased laboratory time were the main disadvantages of this technique when compared to direct bonding. The newly developed materials and modified techniques help to eliminate these negative consequences. Today, the brackets bonded with indirect technique have similar bond strength with brackets bonded directly. Moreover, indirect and direct bonding techniques have similar effects on periodontal tissues. However, indirect bonding technique requires more attention and precision in laboratory and clinical stage, and has higher cost. Orthodontist's preference between these two bonding techniques may differ according to time spent in laboratory and clinic, cost, patient comfort and personal opinion.

  14. 19 CFR 10.776 - Indirect materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.776 Section 10.776 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.776 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content requirement...

  15. 19 CFR 10.816 - Indirect materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.816 Section 10.816 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.816 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content requirement...

  16. The Utility of Cognitive Plausibility in Language Acquisition Modeling: Evidence from Word Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Lawrence; Pearl, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The informativity of a computational model of language acquisition is directly related to how closely it approximates the actual acquisition task, sometimes referred to as the model's "cognitive plausibility." We suggest that though every computational model necessarily idealizes the modeled task, an informative language acquisition…

  17. The Utility of Cognitive Plausibility in Language Acquisition Modeling: Evidence from Word Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Lawrence; Pearl, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The informativity of a computational model of language acquisition is directly related to how closely it approximates the actual acquisition task, sometimes referred to as the model's "cognitive plausibility." We suggest that though every computational model necessarily idealizes the modeled task, an informative language acquisition…

  18. Plausible Explanation of Quantization of Intrinsic Redshift from Hall Effect and Weyl Quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smarandache F.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Using phion condensate model as described by Moffat [1], we consider a plausible explanation of (Tifft intrinsic redshift quantization as described by Bell [6] as result of Hall effect in rotating frame. We also discuss another alternative to explain redshift quantization from the viewpoint of Weyl quantization, which could yield Bohr- Sommerfeld quantization.

  19. “合情推理”辨析%Analysis of Plausible Reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连四清; 方运加

    2012-01-01

    波利亚的“合情推理”模式引进我国数学课程标准后,就成了我国数学教育研究的关键词。然而,“合情推理”的科学性尚需考证:(1)它的中文意义不明确;(2)它不满足推理模式的客观性要求,存在明显的缺陷;(3)过分强调“合情推理模式”则是过分强调归纳推理和演绎推理的区别,容易割裂它们之间的关系。%After the model of "plausible inference" being introduced into the mathematics curriculum standards, it became a key word of the research on mathematics education in China. However, there are doubts on whether it is scientific. (1) Chinese meaning of plausible inference is ambiguous. (2) The plausible inference can not meet the objective requirement of the reasoning, which has obvious defects. (3) Overemphasizing the model of plausible inference would overemphasize the difference between deductive inference and inductive inference, and would dispart them.

  20. From bone to plausible bipedal locomotion. Part II: Complete motion synthesis for bipedal primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Guillaume; Multon, Franck; Berillon, Gilles

    2009-05-29

    This paper addresses the problem of synthesizing plausible bipedal locomotion according to 3D anatomical reconstruction and general hypotheses on human motion control strategies. In a previous paper [Nicolas, G., Multon, F., Berillon, G., Marchal, F., 2007. From bone to plausible bipedal locomotion using inverse kinematics. Journal of Biomechanics 40 (5) 1048-1057], we have validated a method based on using inverse kinematics to obtain plausible lower-limb motions knowing the trajectory of the ankle. In this paper, we propose a more general approach that also involves computing a plausible trajectory of the ankles for a given skeleton. The inputs are the anatomical descriptions of the bipedal species, imposed footprints and a rest posture. This process is based on optimizing a reference ankle trajectory until a set of criteria is minimized. This optimization loop is based on the assumption that a plausible motion is supposed to have little internal mechanical work and should be as less jerky as possible. For each tested ankle trajectory, inverse kinematics is used to compute a lower-body motion that enables us to compute the resulting mechanical work and jerk. This method was tested on a set of modern humans (male and female, with various anthropometric properties). We show that the results obtained with this method are close to experimental data for most of the subjects. We also demonstrate that the method is not sensitive to the choice of the reference ankle trajectory; any ankle trajectory leads to very similar result. We finally apply the method to a skeleton of Pan paniscus (Bonobo), and compare the resulting motion to those described by zoologists.

  1. INDIRECT ACCELERATED ADAPTIVE FUZZY CONTROLLER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Liye; FANG Yuan; ZHANG Weidong

    2008-01-01

    According to a type of normal nonlinear system, an indirect adaptive fuzzy (IAF) controller has been applied to those systems where no accurate mathematical models of the systems under control are available. To satisfy with system performance, an indirect accelerated adaptive fuzzy (IAAF) controller is proposed, and its general form is presented. The general form IAAF controller ensures necessary control criteria and system's global stability using Lyapunov Theorem. It has been proved that the close-loop system error converges to a small neighborhood of equilibrium point. The optimal IAAF controller is derived to guarantee the process's shortest settling time. Simulation results indicate the IAAF controller make the system more stable, accurate, and fast.

  2. Indirect reciprocity with trinary reputations

    CERN Document Server

    Tanabe, Shoma; Masuda, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity is a reputation-based mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly meet. The conditions under which cooperation based on indirect reciprocity occurs has been examined in great details. Previous theoretical analysis assumed for mathematical tractability that an individual possesses a binary reputation value, i.e., good or bad, which depends on their past actions and other factors. However, in real situations, reputations of individuals may be multiple valued. Another puzzling discrepancy between the theory and experiments is the status of the so-called image scoring, in which cooperation and defection are judged to be good and bad, respectively, independent of other factors. Such an assessment rule is found in behavioral experiments, whereas it is known to be unstable in theory. In the present study, we fill both gaps by theoretical analysis of a trinary reputation model. By an exhaustive search, we identify all the cooperative and stable equili...

  3. Biologically plausible learning in recurrent neural networks reproduces neural dynamics observed during cognitive tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miconi, Thomas

    2017-02-23

    Neural activity during cognitive tasks exhibits complex dynamics that flexibly encode task-relevant variables. Chaotic recurrent networks, which spontaneously generate rich dynamics, have been proposed as a model of cortical computation during cognitive tasks. However, existing methods for training these networks are either biologically implausible, and/or require a continuous, real-time error signal to guide learning. Here we show that a biologically plausible learning rule can train such recurrent networks, guided solely by delayed, phasic rewards at the end of each trial. Networks endowed with this learning rule can successfully learn nontrivial tasks requiring flexible (context-dependent) associations, memory maintenance, nonlinear mixed selectivities, and coordination among multiple outputs. The resulting networks replicate complex dynamics previously observed in animal cortex, such as dynamic encoding of task features and selective integration of sensory inputs. We conclude that recurrent neural networks offer a plausible model of cortical dynamics during both learning and performance of flexible behavior.

  4. Identifying plausible genetic models based on association and linkage results: application to type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Weihua; Boehnke, Michael; Pluzhnikov, Anna; Cox, Nancy J; Scott, Laura J

    2012-12-01

    When planning resequencing studies for complex diseases, previous association and linkage studies can constrain the range of plausible genetic models for a given locus. Here, we explore the combinations of causal risk allele frequency (RAFC ) and genotype relative risk (GRRC ) consistent with no or limited evidence for affected sibling pair (ASP) linkage and strong evidence for case-control association. We find that significant evidence for case-control association combined with no or moderate evidence for ASP linkage can define a lower bound for the plausible RAFC . Using data from large type 2 diabetes (T2D) linkage and genome-wide association study meta-analyses, we find that under reasonable model assumptions, 23 of 36 autosomal T2D risk loci are unlikely to be due to causal variants with combined RAFC < 0.005, and four of the 23 are unlikely to be due to causal variants with combined RAFC < 0.05.

  5. Acquiring Plausible Predications from MEDLINE by Clustering MeSH Annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñarro-Giménez, Jose Antonio; Kreuzthaler, Markus; Bernhardt-Melischnig, Johannes; Martínez-Costa, Catalina; Schulz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The massive accumulation of biomedical knowledge is reflected by the growth of the literature database MEDLINE with over 23 million bibliographic records. All records are manually indexed by MeSH descriptors, many of them refined by MeSH subheadings. We use subheading information to cluster types of MeSH descriptor co-occurrences in MEDLINE by processing co-occurrence information provided by the UMLS. The goal is to infer plausible predicates to each resulting cluster. In an initial experiment this was done by grouping disease-pharmacologic substance co-occurrences into six clusters. Then, a domain expert manually performed the assignment of meaningful predicates to the clusters. The mean accuracy of the best ten generated biomedical facts of each cluster was 85%. This result supports the evidence of the potential of MeSH subheadings for extracting plausible medical predications from MEDLINE.

  6. Spelling in oral deaf and hearing dyslexic children: A comparison of phonologically plausible errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, P; Shergold, Z; Kyle, F E; Herman, R

    2014-11-01

    A written single word spelling to dictation test and a single word reading test were given to 68 severe-profoundly oral deaf 10-11-year-old children and 20 hearing children with a diagnosis of dyslexia. The literacy scores of the deaf children and the hearing children with dyslexia were lower than expected for children of their age and did not differ from each other. Three quarters of the spelling errors of hearing children with dyslexia compared with just over half the errors of the oral deaf group were phonologically plausible. Expressive vocabulary and speech intelligibility predicted the percentage of phonologically plausible errors in the deaf group only. Implications of findings for the phonological decoding self-teaching model and for supporting literacy development are discussed.

  7. Of paradox and plausibility: the dynamic of change in medical law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, John

    2014-01-01

    This article develops a model of change in medical law. Drawing on systems theory, it argues that medical law participates in a dynamic of 'deparadoxification' and 'reparadoxification' whereby the underlying contingency of the law is variously concealed through plausible argumentation, or revealed by critical challenge. Medical law is, thus, thoroughly rhetorical. An examination of the development of the law on abortion and on the sterilization of incompetent adults shows that plausibility is achieved through the deployment of substantive common sense and formal stylistic devices. It is undermined where these elements are shown to be arbitrary and constructed. In conclusion, it is argued that the politics of medical law are constituted by this antagonistic process of establishing and challenging provisionally stable normative regimes.

  8. Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adj...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adjustments to Medicare Inpatient Payment Rates The indirect medical education (IME) and disproportionate share...

  9. Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adj...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adjustments to Medicare Inpatient Payment Rates The indirect medical education (IME) and disproportionate share...

  10. Indirect searches for dark matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Marco Cirelli

    2012-11-01

    The current status of indirect searches for dark matter has been reviewed in a schematic way here. The main relevant experimental results of the recent years have been listed and the excitements and disappointments that their phenomenological interpretations in terms of almost-standard annihilating dark matter have brought along have been discussed. The main sources of uncertainties that affect this kind of searches are also listed. [Report number: Saclay T11/206, CERN-PH-TH/2011-257, extended version in arXiv:1202.1454], [Prepared for the Proceedings of Lepton–Photon 2011, Mumbai, India, 22–27 Aug. 2011].

  11. Families of Plausible Solutions to the Puzzle of Boyajian’s Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jason T.; Sigurd̵sson, Steinn

    2016-09-01

    Good explanations for the unusual light curve of Boyajian's Star have been hard to find. Recent results by Montet & Simon lend strength and plausibility to the conclusion of Schaefer that in addition to short-term dimmings, the star also experiences large, secular decreases in brightness on decadal timescales. This, combined with a lack of long-wavelength excess in the star's spectral energy distribution, strongly constrains scenarios involving circumstellar material, including hypotheses invoking a spherical cloud of artifacts. We show that the timings of the deepest dimmings appear consistent with being randomly distributed, and that the star's reddening and narrow sodium absorption is consistent with the total, long-term dimming observed. Following Montet & Simon's encouragement to generate alternative hypotheses, we attempt to circumscribe the space of possible explanations with a range of plausibilities, including: a cloud in the outer solar system, structure in the interstellar medium (ISM), natural and artificial material orbiting Boyajian's Star, an intervening object with a large disk, and variations in Boyajian's Star itself. We find the ISM and intervening disk models more plausible than the other natural models.

  12. What happened (and what didn't): Discourse constraints on encoding of plausible alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraundorf, Scott H; Benjamin, Aaron S; Watson, Duane G

    2013-10-01

    Three experiments investigated how font emphasis influences reading and remembering discourse. Although past work suggests that contrastive pitch contours benefit memory by promoting encoding of salient alternatives, it is unclear both whether this effect generalizes to other forms of linguistic prominence and how the set of alternatives is constrained. Participants read discourses in which some true propositions had salient alternatives (e.g., British scientists found the endangered monkey when the discourse also mentioned French scientists) and completed a recognition memory test. In Experiments 1 and 2, font emphasis in the initial presentation increased participants' ability to later reject false statements about salient alternatives but not about unmentioned items (e.g., Portuguese scientists). In Experiment 3, font emphasis helped reject false statements about plausible alternatives, but not about less plausible alternatives that were nevertheless established in the discourse. These results suggest readers encode a narrow set of only those alternatives plausible in the particular discourse. They also indicate that multiple manipulations of linguistic prominence, not just prosody, can lead to consideration of alternatives.

  13. A biologically plausible model of time-scale invariant interval timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Rita; Ledberg, Anders

    2010-02-01

    The temporal durations between events often exert a strong influence over behavior. The details of this influence have been extensively characterized in behavioral experiments in different animal species. A remarkable feature of the data collected in these experiments is that they are often time-scale invariant. This means that response measurements obtained under intervals of different durations coincide when plotted as functions of relative time. Here we describe a biologically plausible model of an interval timing device and show that it is consistent with time-scale invariant behavior over a substantial range of interval durations. The model consists of a set of bistable units that switch from one state to the other at random times. We first use an abstract formulation of the model to derive exact expressions for some key quantities and to demonstrate time-scale invariance for any range of interval durations. We then show how the model could be implemented in the nervous system through a generic and biologically plausible mechanism. In particular, we show that any system that can display noise-driven transitions from one stable state to another can be used to implement the timing device. Our work demonstrates that a biologically plausible model can qualitatively account for a large body of data and thus provides a link between the biology and behavior of interval timing.

  14. 19 CFR 10.460 - Indirect materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.460 Section 10.460 Customs... of Origin § 10.460 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.402(o), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced. Example. Chilean Producer C...

  15. 19 CFR 10.603 - Indirect materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.603 Section 10.603 Customs... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.603 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.582(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard to...

  16. 19 CFR 10.541 - Indirect materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.541 Section 10.541 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.541 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.502(j) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced, and its...

  17. Indirect Calorimetry in Mechanically Ventilated Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Matilde Jo; Kondrup, Jens; Perner, Anders

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The 2 currently available indirect calorimeters, CCM Express Indirect Calorimeter (MedGraphics, St Paul, MN) and Quark RMR ICU Indirect Calorimeter (COSMED, Rome, Italy), have not been validated against a gold standard in mechanically ventilated patients. Our aim was to do so...

  18. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indirect refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720... § 154.1720 Indirect refrigeration. A refrigeration system that is used to cool acetaldehyde, ethylene oxide, or methyl bromide, must be an indirect refrigeration system that does not use vapor compression....

  19. Indirect costs of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raciborski, Filip; Kłak, Anna; Kwiatkowska, Brygida

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that in Poland about 400,000 persons in general suffer from inflammatory joint diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Epidemiological surveys documenting the frequency and disturbance of musculoskeletal disorders in the Polish population are few in number. Most of the estimations are based on epidemiological data from other countries (prevalence of 0.5-1%). According to the data of the National Health Fund in Poland 135,000-157,000 persons in total are treated because of rheumatoid arthritis per year [ICD10 (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems): M05, M06]. In the case of this group of diseases indirect costs significantly outweigh the direct costs. Indirect costs increase together with activity level of the disease. The cost analysis of productivity loss of RA patients indicates that sickness absenteeism and informal care are the most burdensome. At the national level it amounts in total from 1.2 billion to 2.8 billion PLN per year, depending on the method of analysis. These costs could be significantly reduced through early diagnosis and introduction of effective treatment.

  20. Indirect reciprocity with trinary reputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Shoma; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2013-01-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a reputation-based mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly meet. The conditions under which cooperation based on indirect reciprocity occurs have been examined in great details. Most previous theoretical analysis assumed for mathematical tractability that an individual possesses a binary reputation value, i.e., good or bad, which depends on their past actions and other factors. However, in real situations, reputations of individuals may be multiple valued. Another puzzling discrepancy between the theory and experiments is the status of the so-called image scoring, in which cooperation and defection are judged to be good and bad, respectively, independent of other factors. Such an assessment rule is found in behavioral experiments, whereas it is known to be unstable in theory. In the present study, we fill both gaps by analyzing a trinary reputation model. By an exhaustive search, we identify all the cooperative and stable equilibria composed of a homogeneous population or a heterogeneous population containing two types of players. Some results derived for the trinary reputation model are direct extensions of those for the binary model. However, we find that the trinary model allows cooperation under image scoring under some mild conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Indirect photobiomodulation in functional networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Zhu, Wei-Wei; Yang, Xiang-Bo

    2012-12-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a non-damaged modulation of laser irradiation or monochromatic light (LI) on a biosystem function. It depends on whether the function is in its function-specific homeostasis (FSH), a negative feedback response for the function to be performed perfectly. Many redundant pathways (RPs) maintain the same cellular function. The full activation of any of RPs can maintain a normal function in its FSH, but partial activation of all the RPs can only maintain a dysfunctional function far from its FSH. A PBM may self-adaptively modulate the activation of a partially activated RP of a normal function until it is fully activated and the normal function is then upgraded. This PBM is called indirect PBM (iPBM). The iPBM on cells such as tumor cells, myoblast cells and fibroblasts and other biosystems and their applications would be reviewed in this paper.

  2. Aerosols indirectly warm the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mauritsen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available On average, airborne aerosol particles cool the Earth's surface directly by absorbing and scattering sunlight and indirectly by influencing cloud reflectivity, life time, thickness or extent. Here we show that over the central Arctic Ocean, where there is frequently a lack of aerosol particles upon which clouds may form, a small increase in aerosol loading may enhance cloudiness thereby likely causing a climatologically significant warming at the ice-covered Arctic surface. Under these low concentration conditions cloud droplets grow to drizzle sizes and fall, even in the absence of collisions and coalescence, thereby diminishing cloud water. Evidence from a case study suggests that interactions between aerosol, clouds and precipitation could be responsible for attaining the observed low aerosol concentrations.

  3. Understanding Karma Police: The Perceived Plausibility of Noun Compounds as Predicted by Distributional Models of Semantic Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Fritz; Marelli, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Noun compounds, consisting of two nouns (the head and the modifier) that are combined into a single concept, differ in terms of their plausibility: school bus is a more plausible compound than saddle olive. The present study investigates which factors influence the plausibility of attested and novel noun compounds. Distributional Semantic Models (DSMs) are used to obtain formal (vector) representations of word meanings, and compositional methods in DSMs are employed to obtain such representations for noun compounds. From these representations, different plausibility measures are computed. Three of those measures contribute in predicting the plausibility of noun compounds: The relatedness between the meaning of the head noun and the compound (Head Proximity), the relatedness between the meaning of modifier noun and the compound (Modifier Proximity), and the similarity between the head noun and the modifier noun (Constituent Similarity). We find non-linear interactions between Head Proximity and Modifier Proximity, as well as between Modifier Proximity and Constituent Similarity. Furthermore, Constituent Similarity interacts non-linearly with the familiarity with the compound. These results suggest that a compound is perceived as more plausible if it can be categorized as an instance of the category denoted by the head noun, if the contribution of the modifier to the compound meaning is clear but not redundant, and if the constituents are sufficiently similar in cases where this contribution is not clear. Furthermore, compounds are perceived to be more plausible if they are more familiar, but mostly for cases where the relation between the constituents is less clear. PMID:27732599

  4. A Novel Discovery of Growth Process for Ag Nanowires and Plausible Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiejun Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel growth process of silver nanowires was revealed by tracing the morphology evolution of Ag nanostructures fabricated by an improved polyol process. A mixture of Ag nanowires and nanoparticles was obtained with the usage of PVP-K25 (MW = 38,000. The products sampled at different reaction time were studied in detail using UV-visible absorption spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. An interesting phenomenon unknown in the past was observed where Ag nanoparticles undergo an important dissolution-recrystallization process and Ag nanowires are formed at the expense of the preformed Ag nanoparticles. A plausible novel growth mechanism for the silver nanowires was proposed.

  5. ‘One of the Challenges that Can Plausibly Be Raised Against Them’?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob v. H.

    2017-01-01

    International criminal tribunals (ICTs) are epistemic engines in the sense that they find (or claim to find) factual truths about such past events that qualify as genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. The value of this kind of knowledge would seem to be beyond dispute. Yet, in general...... in law is intimately connected to ordinary truth. Truth-finding capacity therefore does belong in legitimacy debates as a challenge that can plausibly be raised against them. This, in turn makes it relevant, in future research, to map, analyse and interrelate the various critiques that have been launched...

  6. A biological plausible Generalized Leaky Integrate-and-Fire neuron model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenzhong; Guo, Lilin; Adjouadi, Malek

    2014-01-01

    This study introduces a new Generalized Leaky Integrate-and-Fire (GLIF) neuron model. Unlike Normal Leaky Integrate-and-Fire (NLIF) models, the leaking resistor in the GLIF model equation is assumed to be variable, and an additional term would have the bias current added to the model equation in order to improve the accuracy. Adjusting the parameters defined for the leaking resistor and bias current, a GLIF model could be accurately matched to any Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model and be able to reproduce plausible biological neuron behaviors.

  7. Higher Data Quality by Online Data-Entry and Automated Plausibility Checks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietragalla, Barbara; Sigg, Christian; Güsewell, Sabine; Clot, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    Long-term phenological observations are now recognized as important indicators for climate change impact studies. With the increased need for phenological data, there is also an increased need for higher data quality. Since 1951 MeteoSwiss has been operating a national phenological observation network. Currently the network consists of about 150 active stations observing up to 69 different phenophases. An important aim of a running three years project at MeteoSwiss is a further increase of the quality of the collected data. The higher data quality will be achieved by an automated procedure performing plausibility checks on the data and by online data-entry. Further measures such as intensified observer instructions and collection of more detailed metadata also contribute to a high data quality standard. The plausibility checks include the natural order of the phenophases within a species and also between different species (with regard to possible natural deviation). Additionally it will be checked if the observed date differs by less than two standard deviations from the average for this phenophase at the altitude of the station. A value outside of these limits is not necessarily a false value, since occurrences of extreme values will be beyond these limits. Therefore, within this check of the limits, the timing of the season of the respective year will also be taken into account. In case of an implausible value a comparison with other stations of the same region and sea level is proposed. A further possibility of data quality control could be to model the different phenophases statistically and to use this model for estimating the likelihood of observed values. An overall exploratory data analysis is currently performed providing a solid basis to implement the best possible methods for the plausibility checks. Important advantages of online data-entry are the near real-time availability of the data as well as the avoidance of various kinds of typical mistakes

  8. Exploring discrepancies between quantitative validation results and the geomorphic plausibility of statistical landslide susceptibility maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Stefan; Brenning, Alexander; Bell, Rainer; Petschko, Helene; Glade, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Empirical models are frequently applied to produce landslide susceptibility maps for large areas. Subsequent quantitative validation results are routinely used as the primary criteria to infer the validity and applicability of the final maps or to select one of several models. This study hypothesizes that such direct deductions can be misleading. The main objective was to explore discrepancies between the predictive performance of a landslide susceptibility model and the geomorphic plausibility of subsequent landslide susceptibility maps while a particular emphasis was placed on the influence of incomplete landslide inventories on modelling and validation results. The study was conducted within the Flysch Zone of Lower Austria (1,354 km2) which is known to be highly susceptible to landslides of the slide-type movement. Sixteen susceptibility models were generated by applying two statistical classifiers (logistic regression and generalized additive model) and two machine learning techniques (random forest and support vector machine) separately for two landslide inventories of differing completeness and two predictor sets. The results were validated quantitatively by estimating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) with single holdout and spatial cross-validation technique. The heuristic evaluation of the geomorphic plausibility of the final results was supported by findings of an exploratory data analysis, an estimation of odds ratios and an evaluation of the spatial structure of the final maps. The results showed that maps generated by different inventories, classifiers and predictors appeared differently while holdout validation revealed similar high predictive performances. Spatial cross-validation proved useful to expose spatially varying inconsistencies of the modelling results while additionally providing evidence for slightly overfitted machine learning-based models. However, the highest predictive performances were obtained for

  9. A biologically plausible transform for visual recognition that is invariant to translation, scale and rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel eSountsov

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Visual object recognition occurs easily despite differences in position, size, and rotation of the object, but the neural mechanisms responsible for this invariance are not known. We have found a set of transforms that achieve invariance in a neurally plausible way. We find that a transform based on local spatial frequency analysis of oriented segments and on logarithmic mapping, when applied twice in an iterative fashion, produces an output image that is unique to the object and that remains constant as the input image is shifted, scaled or rotated.

  10. Indirect Lightning Safety Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, M M; Perkins, M P; Brown, C G; Crull, E W; Streit, R D

    2009-04-24

    Lightning is a safety hazard for high-explosives (HE) and their detonators. In the However, the current flowing from the strike point through the rebar of the building The methodology for estimating the risk from indirect lighting effects will be presented. It has two parts: a method to determine the likelihood of a detonation given a lightning strike, and an approach for estimating the likelihood of a strike. The results of these two parts produce an overall probability of a detonation. The probability calculations are complex for five reasons: (1) lightning strikes are stochastic and relatively rare, (2) the quality of the Faraday cage varies from one facility to the next, (3) RF coupling is inherently a complex subject, (4) performance data for abnormally stressed detonators is scarce, and (5) the arc plasma physics is not well understood. Therefore, a rigorous mathematical analysis would be too complex. Instead, our methodology takes a more practical approach combining rigorous mathematical calculations where possible with empirical data when necessary. Where there is uncertainty, we compensate with conservative approximations. The goal is to determine a conservative estimate of the odds of a detonation. In Section 2, the methodology will be explained. This report will discuss topics at a high-level. The reasons for selecting an approach will be justified. For those interested in technical details, references will be provided. In Section 3, a simple hypothetical example will be given to reinforce the concepts. While the methodology will touch on all the items shown in Figure 1, the focus of this report is the indirect effect, i.e., determining the odds of a detonation from given EM fields. Professor Martin Uman from the University of Florida has been characterizing and defining extreme lightning strikes. Using Professor Uman's research, Dr. Kimball Merewether at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque calculated the EM fields inside a Faraday-cage type

  11. Indirect discrimination and breast screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, J L; Manku-Scott, T K; Moledina, F; Williams, A

    1993-01-01

    Uptake of screening services in inner-city communities has been low, particularly in older age groups, lower social classes, and ethnic minorities. In Leicester City, where up to 25% of the population belong to ethnic minorities, this may have important implications for breast screening. We randomly sampled 701 inner-city women aged 45 to 64 years, stratified by neighborhood and by women's "likely home language." Trained interviewers succeeded in interviewing 79% of those eligible, and we report here a preliminary analysis of 413 respondents. Knowledge of breast cancer and screening varied markedly and significantly by actual language: 60.4% of English-speaking and 12.5% of non-English-speaking women correctly answered 10 or more questions (of 14) about breast cancer and screening (chi 2(1) = 89.884; P = .000). Despite that, 80% or more women stated their intention to attend for screening and assessment if necessary, irrespective of neighborhood, language, age, or social class. We suggest that the difference in knowledge between language groups arose from indirect discrimination in the way in which health-related information is disseminated in British society. However, after providing appropriate screening information, we report similarly high intended acceptance rates in the two language groups.

  12. A Biomass-based Model to Estimate the Plausibility of Exoplanet Biosignature Gases

    CERN Document Server

    Seager, S; Hu, R

    2013-01-01

    Biosignature gas detection is one of the ultimate future goals for exoplanet atmosphere studies. We have created a framework for linking biosignature gas detectability to biomass estimates, including atmospheric photochemistry and biological thermodynamics. The new framework is intended to liberate predictive atmosphere models from requiring fixed, Earth-like biosignature gas source fluxes. New biosignature gases can be considered with a check that the biomass estimate is physically plausible. We have validated the models on terrestrial production of NO, H2S, CH4, CH3Cl, and DMS. We have applied the models to propose NH3 as a biosignature gas on a "cold Haber World," a planet with a N2-H2 atmosphere, and to demonstrate why gases such as CH3Cl must have too large of a biomass to be a plausible biosignature gas on planets with Earth or early-Earth-like atmospheres orbiting a Sun-like star. To construct the biomass models, we developed a functional classification of biosignature gases, and found that gases (such...

  13. Self-assembly of phosphate amphiphiles in mixtures of prebiotically plausible surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, A N; Duffy, C D; Sutherland, J D; Monnard, P-A

    2014-06-01

    The spontaneous formation of closed bilayer structures from prebiotically plausible amphiphiles is an essential requirement for the emergence of early cells on prebiotic Earth. The sources of amphiphiles could have been both endo- and exogenous (accretion of meteorite carbonaceous material or interstellar dust particles). Among all prebiotic possible amphiphile candidates, those containing phosphate are the least investigated species because their self-assembly occurs in a seemingly too narrow range of conditions. The self-assembly of simple phosphate amphiphiles should, however, be of great interest, as contemporary membranes predominantly contain phospholipids. In contrast to common expectations, we show that these amphiphiles can be easily synthesized under prebiotically plausible environmental conditions and can efficiently form bilayer structures in the presence of various co-surfactants across a large range of pH values. Vesiculation was even observed in crude reaction mixtures that contained 1-decanol as the amphiphile precursor. The two best co-surfactants promoted vesicle formation over the entire pH range in aqueous solutions. Expanding the pH range where bilayer membranes self-assemble and remain intact is a prerequisite for the emergence of early cell-like compartments and their preservation under fluctuating environmental conditions. These mixed bilayers also retained small charged solutes, such as dyes. These results demonstrate that alkyl phosphate amphiphiles might have played a significant role as early compartment building blocks.

  14. A swarm intelligence framework for reconstructing gene networks: searching for biologically plausible architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentzoglanakis, Kyriakos; Poole, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of reverse engineering the topology of gene regulatory networks from temporal gene expression data. We adopt a computational intelligence approach comprising swarm intelligence techniques, namely particle swarm optimization (PSO) and ant colony optimization (ACO). In addition, the recurrent neural network (RNN) formalism is employed for modeling the dynamical behavior of gene regulatory systems. More specifically, ACO is used for searching the discrete space of network architectures and PSO for searching the corresponding continuous space of RNN model parameters. We propose a novel solution construction process in the context of ACO for generating biologically plausible candidate architectures. The objective is to concentrate the search effort into areas of the structure space that contain architectures which are feasible in terms of their topological resemblance to real-world networks. The proposed framework is initially applied to the reconstruction of a small artificial network that has previously been studied in the context of gene network reverse engineering. Subsequently, we consider an artificial data set with added noise for reconstructing a subnetwork of the genetic interaction network of S. cerevisiae (yeast). Finally, the framework is applied to a real-world data set for reverse engineering the SOS response system of the bacterium Escherichia coli. Results demonstrate the relative advantage of utilizing problem-specific knowledge regarding biologically plausible structural properties of gene networks over conducting a problem-agnostic search in the vast space of network architectures.

  15. The Sarrazin effect: the presence of absurd statements in conspiracy theories makes canonical information less plausible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Marius Hans; Auer, Nikolas; Ortlieb, Stefan A; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2013-01-01

    Reptile prime ministers and flying Nazi saucers-extreme and sometimes off-wall conclusion are typical ingredients of conspiracy theories. While individual differences are a common research topic concerning conspiracy theories, the role of extreme statements in the process of acquiring and passing on conspiratorial stories has not been regarded in an experimental design so far. We identified six morphological components of conspiracy theories empirically. On the basis of these content categories a set of narrative elements for a 9/11 story was compiled. These elements varied systematically in terms of conspiratorial allegation, i.e., they contained official statements concerning the events of 9/11, statements alleging to a conspiracy limited in time and space as well as extreme statements indicating an all-encompassing cover-up. Using the method of narrative construction, 30 people were given a set of cards with these statements and asked to construct the course of events of 9/11 they deem most plausible. When extreme statements were present in the set, the resulting stories were more conspiratorial; the number of official statements included in the narrative dropped significantly, whereas the self-assessment of the story's plausibility did not differ between conditions. This indicates that blatant statements in a pool of information foster the synthesis of conspiracy theories on an individual level. By relating these findings to one of Germany's most successful (and controversial) non-fiction books, we refer to the real-world dangers of this effect.

  16. Indirect Self-Destructiveness and Emotional Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos

    2016-06-01

    While emotional intelligence may have a favourable influence on the life and psychological and social functioning of the individual, indirect self-destructiveness exerts a rather negative influence. The aim of this study has been to explore possible relations between indirect self-destructiveness and emotional intelligence. A population of 260 individuals (130 females and 130 males) aged 20-30 (mean age of 24.5) was studied by using the Polish version of the chronic self-destructiveness scale and INTE, i.e., the Polish version of the assessing emotions scale. Indirect self-destructiveness has significant correlations with all variables of INTE (overall score, factor I, factor II), and these correlations are negative. The intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates significantly the height of the emotional intelligence and vice versa: the height of the emotional intelligence differentiates significantly the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness. Indirect self-destructiveness has negative correlations with emotional intelligence as well as its components: the ability to recognize emotions and the ability to utilize emotions. The height of emotional intelligence differentiates the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness, and vice versa: the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates the height of emotional intelligence. It seems advisable to use emotional intelligence in the prophylactic and therapeutic work with persons with various types of disorders, especially with the syndrome of indirect self-destructiveness.

  17. Deception Undermines the Stability of Cooperation in Games of Indirect Reciprocity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Számadó

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity is often claimed as one of the key mechanisms of human cooperation. It works only if there is a reputational score keeping and each individual can inform with high probability which other individuals were good or bad in the previous round. Gossip is often proposed as a mechanism that can maintain such coherence of reputations in the face of errors of transmission. Random errors, however, are not the only source of uncertainty in such situations. The possibility of deceptive communication, where the signallers aim to misinform the receiver cannot be excluded. While there is plenty of evidence for deceptive communication in humans the possibility of deception is not yet incorporated into models of indirect reciprocity. Here we show that when deceptive strategies are allowed in the population it will cause the collapse of the coherence of reputations and thus in turn it results the collapse of cooperation. This collapse is independent of the norms and the cost and benefit values. It is due to the fact that there is no selection for honest communication in the framework of indirect reciprocity. It follows that indirect reciprocity can be only proposed plausibly as a mechanism of human cooperation if additional mechanisms are specified in the model that maintains honesty.

  18. Indirect calorimetry during incubation of hatching eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Kemp, B.

    2015-01-01

    Indirect calorimetry can be used during incubation of avian eggs to monitor the quality of the incubation process, the development of the embryo and the utilization of nutrients. Indirect calorimetry has several benefits above direct calorimetry, particularly in hatching eggs. However, to obtain rel

  19. The Indirectness of Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁臣

    2010-01-01

    Young Goodman Brown is one the best short fictions written by Nathaniel Hawthorne in 1835. The indirectness of the Young Goodman Brown can be seen from the produce, narration and the characteristics of the short fiction. The indirectness of expression or description leaves enough space for readers to understand the theme of the short fiction by themselves.

  20. Factors of Politeness and Indirect Speech Acts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪梅

    2016-01-01

    Polite principle is influenced deeply by a nation's history,culture,custom and so on,therefor different countries have different understandings and expressions of politeness and indirect speech acts.This paper shows some main factors influencing a polite speech.Through this article,readers can comprehensively know about politeness and indirect speech acts.

  1. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina-Adriana IVANUS

    2014-01-01

    The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  2. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble, R E; Bertulani, C A; Cognata, M La; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Spitaleri, C

    2014-10-01

    In this review, we discuss the present status of three indirect techniques that are used to determine reaction rates for stellar burning processes, asymptotic normalization coefficients, the Trojan Horse method and Coulomb dissociation. A comprehensive review of the theory behind each of these techniques is presented. This is followed by an overview of the experiments that have been carried out using these indirect approaches.

  3. 48 CFR 31.203 - Indirect costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contract or other work, indirect costs are those remaining to be allocated to intermediate or two or more... basis of the benefits accruing to intermediate and final cost objectives. When substantially the same... for allocating indirect costs is the cost accounting period during which such costs are incurred...

  4. Relatively Selective Production of the Simplest Criegee Intermediate in a CH4/O2 Electric Discharge: Kinetic Analysis of a Plausible Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh Lam; McCarthy, Michael C; Stanton, John F

    2015-07-16

    High -accuracy coupled cluster methods in combination with microcanonical semiclassical transition state theory are used to investigate a plausible formation mechanism of the simplest Criegee intermediate in a CH4/O2 discharge experiment. Our results suggest that the Criegee intermediate is produced in a three-step process: (i) production of methyl radical by cleavage of a C-H bond of CH4; (ii) association of methyl radical with molecular oxygen to form a vibrationally excited methyl peroxy, which is in a rapid microequilibrium with the reactants; and finally, (iii) H-abstraction of CH3OO by O2, which results in the formation of cool CH2OO, which has insufficient internal energy to rearrange to dioxirane.

  5. Quantifying Direct and Indirect Effects of Elevated CO2 on Ecosystem Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatichi, S.; Leuzinger, S.; Paschalis, A.; Donnellan-Barraclough, A.; Hovenden, M. J.; Langley, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide are expected to affect carbon assimilation, evapotranspiration (ET) and ultimately plant growth. Direct leaf biochemical effects have been widely investigated, while indirect effects, although documented, are very difficult to quantify in experiments. We hypothesize that the interaction of direct and indirect effects is a possible reason for conflicting results concerning the magnitude of CO2 fertilization effects across different climates and ecosystems. A mechanistic ecohydrological model (Tethys-Chloris) is used to investigate the relative contribution of direct (through plant physiology) and indirect (via stomatal closure and thus soil moisture, and changes in Leaf Area Index, LAI) effects of elevated CO2 across a number of ecosystems. We specifically ask in which ecosystems and climate indirect effects are expected to be largest. Data and boundary conditions from flux-towers and free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments are used to force the model and evaluate its performance. Numerical results suggest that indirect effects of elevated CO2, through water savings and increased LAI, are very significant and sometimes larger than direct effects. Indirect effects tend to be considerably larger in water-limited ecosystems, while direct effects correlate positively with mean air temperature. Increasing CO2 from 375 to 550 ppm causes a total effect on Net Primary Production in the order of 15 to 40% and on ET from 0 to -8%, depending on climate and ecosystem type. The total CO2 effect has a significant negative correlation with the wetness index and positive correlation with vapor pressure deficit. These results provide a more general mechanistic understanding of relatively short-term (less than 20 years) implications of elevated CO2 on ecosystem response and suggest plausible magnitudes for the expected changes.

  6. Comparison of direct and indirect radionuclide cystography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, G.; Lovegrove, F.T.; Geijsel, H.; Van der Schaff, A.; Guelfi, G.

    1985-05-01

    Thirty children were studied using both direct (catheter) and indirect techniques of radionuclide cystography. Of 54 ureters able to be compared, six showed vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) on the direct study but were read as negative on the indirect cystogram, and five showed no reflux on the direct cystogram but were read as positive for VUR on the indirect study. Regarding ureters read as true positives on indirect study, if that ureter has ever shown reflux at any time, or if it drained a scarred kidney specificity was improved to 97% without changing the sensitivity. Concerns about the validity of indirect cystogram results and the ease of assessment and low radiation dose from the direct cystogram has made direct cystography our preferred technique.

  7. Photovoltaic efficiency of an indirect bandgap material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, Michelle; Mangan, Niall; Grossman, Jeffrey

    2015-03-01

    Photovoltaic materials with direct band gap transitions absorb light more readily than those with indirect gaps, allowing for thinner devices. However, direct bands also suffer faster rates of radiative recombination than indirect bandgap materials. Some novel photovoltaic absorber materials, such as tin sulfide, have both direct and indirect gaps. Such materials raise the question of whether the multiple energy states benefit or harm device efficiency. We develop a model for current in a device with direct and indirect band gaps using detailed balance, similar to the Shockley-Quiesser model for direct band photovoltaics. We explore the effects of the following on device performance: transition probability of carriers between the direct and indirect state, and relative transport rate in each band.

  8. A neurophysiologically plausible population code model for feature integration explains visual crowding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald van den Berg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An object in the peripheral visual field is more difficult to recognize when surrounded by other objects. This phenomenon is called "crowding". Crowding places a fundamental constraint on human vision that limits performance on numerous tasks. It has been suggested that crowding results from spatial feature integration necessary for object recognition. However, in the absence of convincing models, this theory has remained controversial. Here, we present a quantitative and physiologically plausible model for spatial integration of orientation signals, based on the principles of population coding. Using simulations, we demonstrate that this model coherently accounts for fundamental properties of crowding, including critical spacing, "compulsory averaging", and a foveal-peripheral anisotropy. Moreover, we show that the model predicts increased responses to correlated visual stimuli. Altogether, these results suggest that crowding has little immediate bearing on object recognition but is a by-product of a general, elementary integration mechanism in early vision aimed at improving signal quality.

  9. A neurophysiologically plausible population code model for feature integration explains visual crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Ronald; Roerdink, Jos B T M; Cornelissen, Frans W

    2010-01-22

    An object in the peripheral visual field is more difficult to recognize when surrounded by other objects. This phenomenon is called "crowding". Crowding places a fundamental constraint on human vision that limits performance on numerous tasks. It has been suggested that crowding results from spatial feature integration necessary for object recognition. However, in the absence of convincing models, this theory has remained controversial. Here, we present a quantitative and physiologically plausible model for spatial integration of orientation signals, based on the principles of population coding. Using simulations, we demonstrate that this model coherently accounts for fundamental properties of crowding, including critical spacing, "compulsory averaging", and a foveal-peripheral anisotropy. Moreover, we show that the model predicts increased responses to correlated visual stimuli. Altogether, these results suggest that crowding has little immediate bearing on object recognition but is a by-product of a general, elementary integration mechanism in early vision aimed at improving signal quality.

  10. Quantum theory as plausible reasoning applied to data obtained by robust experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Raedt, H; Katsnelson, M I; Michielsen, K

    2016-05-28

    We review recent work that employs the framework of logical inference to establish a bridge between data gathered through experiments and their objective description in terms of human-made concepts. It is shown that logical inference applied to experiments for which the observed events are independent and for which the frequency distribution of these events is robust with respect to small changes of the conditions under which the experiments are carried out yields, without introducing any concept of quantum theory, the quantum theoretical description in terms of the Schrödinger or the Pauli equation, the Stern-Gerlach or Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments. The extraordinary descriptive power of quantum theory then follows from the fact that it is plausible reasoning, that is common sense, applied to reproducible and robust experimental data.

  11. Plausible families of compact objects with a Non Local Equation of State

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, H

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the plausibility of some models emerging from an algorithm devised to generate a one-parameter family of interior solutions for the Einstein equations. It is explored how their physical variables change as the family-parameter varies. The models studied correspond to anisotropic spherical matter configurations having a non local equation of state. This particular type of equation of state with no causality problems provides, at a given point, the radial pressure not only as a function of the density but as a functional of the enclosed matter distribution. We have found that there are several model-independent tendencies as the parameter increases: the equation of state tends to be stiffer and the total mass becomes half of its external radius. Profiting from the concept of cracking of materials in General Relativity, we obtain that those models become more stable as the family parameter increases.

  12. Signature of Plausible Accreting Supermassive Black Holes in Mrk 261/262 and Mrk 266

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagik Ter-Kazarian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the neutrino radiation of plausible accreting supermassive black holes closely linking to the 5 nuclear components of galaxy samples of Mrk 261/262 and Mrk 266. We predict a time delay before neutrino emission of the same scale as the age of the Universe. The ultrahigh energy neutrinos are produced in superdense protomatter medium via simple (quark or pionic reactions or modified URCA processes (G. Gamow was inspired to name the process URCA after the name of a casino in Rio de Janeiro. The resulting neutrino fluxes for quark reactions are ranging from to , where is the opening parameter. For pionic and modified URCA reactions, the fluxes are and , respectively. These fluxes are highly beamed along the plane of accretion disk, peaked at ultrahigh energies, and collimated in smaller opening angle .

  13. Plausible role of nanoparticle contamination in the synthesis and properties of organic electronic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananikov, Valentine P.

    2016-12-01

    Traceless transition metal catalysis (Pd, Ni, Cu, etc.) is very difficult to achieve. Metal contamination in the synthesized products is unavoidable and the most important questions are: How to control metal impurities? What amount of metal impurities can be tolerated? What is the influence of metal impurities? In this brief review, the plausible origins of nanoparticle contamination are discussed in the framework of catalytic synthesis of organic electronic materials. Key factors responsible for increasing the probability of contamination are considered from the point of view of catalytic reaction mechanisms. The purity of the catalyst may greatly affect the molecular weight of a polymer, reaction yield, selectivity and several other parameters. Metal contamination in the final polymeric products may induce some changes in the electric conductivity, charge transport properties, photovoltaic performance and other important parameters.

  14. Spontaneous formation and base pairing of plausible prebiotic nucleotides in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafferty, Brian J; Fialho, David M; Khanam, Jaheda; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayanan; Hud, Nicholas V

    2016-04-25

    The RNA World hypothesis presupposes that abiotic reactions originally produced nucleotides, the monomers of RNA and universal constituents of metabolism. However, compatible prebiotic reactions for the synthesis of complementary (that is, base pairing) nucleotides and mechanisms for their mutual selection within a complex chemical environment have not been reported. Here we show that two plausible prebiotic heterocycles, melamine and barbituric acid, form glycosidic linkages with ribose and ribose-5-phosphate in water to produce nucleosides and nucleotides in good yields. Even without purification, these nucleotides base pair in aqueous solution to create linear supramolecular assemblies containing thousands of ordered nucleotides. Nucleotide anomerization and supramolecular assemblies favour the biologically relevant β-anomer form of these ribonucleotides, revealing abiotic mechanisms by which nucleotide structure and configuration could have been originally favoured. These findings indicate that nucleotide formation and selection may have been robust processes on the prebiotic Earth, if other nucleobases preceded those of extant life.

  15. Complex adaptive HIV/AIDS risk reduction: Plausible implications from findings in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Chris J; Aphane, Marota A

    2016-05-16

    This article emphasises that when working with complex adaptive systems it is possible to stimulate new social practices and/or cognitive perspectives that contribute to risk reduction, associated with reducing aggregate community viral loads. The process of achieving this is highly participatory and is methodologically possible because evidence of 'attractors' that influence the social practices can be identified using qualitative research techniques. Using findings from Limpopo Province, South Africa, we argue that working with 'wellness attractors' and increasing their presence within the HIV/AIDS landscape could influence aggregate community viral loads. While the analysis that is presented is unconventional, it is plausible that this perspective may hold potential to develop a biosocial response - which the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) has called for - that reinforces the biomedical opportunities that are now available to achieve the ambition of ending AIDS by 2030.

  16. Reciprocity-based reasons for benefiting research participants: most fail, the most plausible is problematic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofaer, Neema

    2014-11-01

    A common reason for giving research participants post-trial access (PTA) to the trial intervention appeals to reciprocity, the principle, stated most generally, that if one person benefits a second, the second should reciprocate: benefit the first in return. Many authors consider it obvious that reciprocity supports PTA. Yet their reciprocity principles differ, with many authors apparently unaware of alternative versions. This article is the first to gather the range of reciprocity principles. It finds that: (1) most are false. (2) The most plausible principle, which is also problematic, applies only when participants experience significant net risks or burdens. (3) Seldom does reciprocity support PTA for participants or give researchers stronger reason to benefit participants than equally needy non-participants. (4) Reciprocity fails to explain the common view that it is bad when participants in a successful trial have benefited from the trial intervention but lack PTA to it.

  17. Oxidation of cefazolin by potassium permanganate: Transformation products and plausible pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liping; Wei, Dongbin; Wei, Guohua; Du, Yuguo

    2016-04-01

    Cefazolin was demonstrated to exert high reactivity toward permanganate (Mn(VII)), a common oxidant in water pre-oxidation treatment. In this study, five transformation products were found to be classified into three categories according to the contained characteristic functional groups: three (di-)sulfoxide products, one sulfone product and one di-ketone product. Products analyses showed that two kinds of reactions including oxidation of thioether and the cleavage of unsaturated CC double bond occurred during transformation of cefazolin by Mn(VII). Subsequently, the plausible transformation pathways under different pH conditions were proposed based on the identified products and chemical reaction principles. More importantly, the simulation with real surface water matrix indicated that the proposed transformation pathways of cefazolin could be replayed in real water treatment practices.

  18. Plausible authentication of manuka honey and related products by measuring leptosperin with methyl syringate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yoji; Fujinaka, Rie; Ishisaka, Akari; Nitta, Yoko; Kitamoto, Noritoshi; Takimoto, Yosuke

    2014-07-01

    Manuka honey, obtained from Leptospermum scoparium flowers in New Zealand, has strong antibacterial properties. In this study, plausible authentication of the manuka honey was inspected by measuring leptosperin, methyl syringate 4-O-β-D-gentiobiose, along with methyl syringate. Despite a gradual decrease in methyl syringate content over 30 days at 50 °C, even at moderate 37 °C, leptosperin remained stable. A considerable correlation between nonperoxide antibacterial activity and leptosperin content was observed in 20 certified manuka honey samples. Leptosperin and methyl syringate in manuka honey and related products were analyzed using HPLC connected with mass spectrometry. One noncertified brand displayed significant variations in the leptosperin and methyl syringate contents between two samples obtained from different regions. Therefore, certification is clearly required to protect consumers from disguised and/or low-quality honey. Because leptosperin is stable during storage and specific to manuka honey, its measurement may be applicable for manuka honey authentication.

  19. A plausible simultaneous synthesis of amino acids and simple peptides on the primordial Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Eric T; Zhou, Manshui; Burton, Aaron S; Glavin, Daniel P; Dworkin, Jason P; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayanan; Fernández, Facundo M; Bada, Jeffrey L

    2014-07-28

    Following his seminal work in 1953, Stanley Miller conducted an experiment in 1958 to study the polymerization of amino acids under simulated early Earth conditions. In the experiment, Miller sparked a gas mixture of CH4, NH3, and H2O, while intermittently adding the plausible prebiotic condensing reagent cyanamide. For unknown reasons, an analysis of the samples was not reported. We analyzed the archived samples for amino acids, dipeptides, and diketopiperazines by liquid chromatography, ion mobility spectrometry, and mass spectrometry. A dozen amino acids, 10 glycine-containing dipeptides, and 3 glycine-containing diketopiperazines were detected. Miller's experiment was repeated and similar polymerization products were observed. Aqueous heating experiments indicate that Strecker synthesis intermediates play a key role in facilitating polymerization. These results highlight the potential importance of condensing reagents in generating diversity within the prebiotic chemical inventory.

  20. Evaluation and integration of cancer gene classifiers: identification and ranking of plausible drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Tian, Feng; Hu, Zhenjun; DeLisi, Charles

    2015-05-11

    The number of mutated genes in cancer cells is far larger than the number of mutations that drive cancer. The difficulty this creates for identifying relevant alterations has stimulated the development of various computational approaches to distinguishing drivers from bystanders. We develop and apply an ensemble classifier (EC) machine learning method, which integrates 10 classifiers that are publically available, and apply it to breast and ovarian cancer. In particular we find the following: (1) Using both standard and non-standard metrics, EC almost always outperforms single method classifiers, often by wide margins. (2) Of the 50 highest ranked genes for breast (ovarian) cancer, 34 (30) are associated with other cancers in either the OMIM, CGC or NCG database (P plausible. Biological implications are briefly discussed. Source codes and detailed results are available at http://www.visantnet.org/misi/driver_integration.zip.

  1. Probability, plausibility, and adequacy evaluations of the Oriente Study demonstrate that supplementation improved child growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2010-02-01

    This article presents evidence that the high-nutrient supplement in the Oriente study (Atole) improved child growth. The evidence is presented at 4 levels. There was a causal effect of the intervention on child length, as assessed by probability analyses of the randomized, controlled trial (P < 0.05). The plausibility analyses, which included an examination of wasting, showed that the nutritional impact was due to the Atole, especially in those who were <3 y old and who suffered from diarrhea. The adequacy analyses revealed excellent biological efficacy of the Atole at the individual level. At the level of the whole population, the efficacy of impact was much less, because many children did not participate fully in the supplementation program. The external validity of the biological impact is likely to be good for populations with similar diets and medical care.

  2. The Sarrazin effect: the presence of absurd statements in conspiracy theories makes canonical information less plausible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Hans Raab

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Reptile prime ministers and flying Nazi saucers—extreme and sometimes off-wall conclusion are common ingredients of conspiracy theories. While individual differences are a common research topic concerning conspiracy theories, the role of extreme statements in the process of acquiring and passing on conspiratorial stories has not been regarded in an experimental design so far. We identified six morphological components of conspiracy theories empirically. On the basis of these content categories a set of narrative elements for a 9/11 story was compiled. These elements varied systematically in terms of conspiratorial allegation, i.e., they contained official statements concerning the events of 9/11, statements alleging to a conspiracy limited in time and space as well as extreme statements indicating an all-encompassing cover-up. Using the method of narrative construction, 30 people were given a set of cards with these statements and asked to construct the course of events of 9/11 they deem most plausible. When extreme statements were present in the set, the resulting stories were more conspiratorial; the number of official statements included in the narrative dropped significantly, whereas the self-assessment of the story’s plausibility did not differ between conditions. This indicates that blatant statements in a pool of information foster the synthesis of conspiracy theories on an individual level. By relating these findings to one of Germany’s most successful (and controversial non-fiction books, we refer to the real-world dangers of this effect.

  3. Expression of future prospective in indirect speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodnaruk Elena Vladimirovna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the characteristics and use of grammatical semantics and lexical and grammatical means used to create future prospects in double indirect discourse. The material for the study were epic works by contemporary German writers. In the analysis of the empirical material it has been pointed out that indirect discourse has preterial basis and is the kind of most frequent inner speech of characters. The most widely used form with future semantics in preterial indirect speech is conditional I, formally having a conjunctive basis, but is mostly used with the indicative semantics. Competitive to conditional I in indirect speech is preterial indicative. A characteristic feature of the indirect speech is the use of modal verbs, which, thanks to its semantics is usually referred as an action at a later term, creating the prospect of future statements. The most frequent were modal verbs wollen and sollen in the form of the preterite, more rare verbs were m ssen and k nnen. German indirect speech distinguishes the ability to use forms on the basis of conjunctive: preterite and plusquamperfect of conjunctive. Both forms express values similar to those of the indicative. However, conjunctive forms the basis of the data shown in a slightly more pronounced seme of uncertainty that accompanies future uses of these forms in indirect speech. In addition, plusquamperfect conjunctive differs from others by the presence of the seme of completeness.

  4. Direct and indirect laryngoscopy: equipment and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Stephen R

    2014-06-01

    Visualization of the larynx by direct or indirect means is referred to as laryngoscopy and is the principal aim during airway management for passage of a tracheal tube. This paper presents a brief background regarding the development and practice of laryngoscopy and examines the equipment and techniques for both direct and indirect methods. Patient evaluation during the airway examination is discussed, as are predictors for difficult intubation. Laryngoscope blade design, newer intubating techniques, and a variety of indirect laryngoscopic technologies are reviewed, as is the learning curve for these techniques and devices.

  5. Indirect Kalman Filter in Mobile Robot Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surachai Panich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The most successful applications of Kalman filtering are to linearize about some nominal trajectory in state space that does not depend on the measurement data. The resulting filter is usually referred to as simply a linearized Kalman filter. Approach: This study introduced mainly indirect Kalman filter to estimate robot’s position. A developed differential encoder system integrated accelerometer is experimental tested in square shape. Results: Experimental results confirmed that indirect Kalman filter improves the accuracy and confidence of position estimation. Conclusion: In summary, we concluded that indirect Kalman filter has good potential to reduce error of measurement data.

  6. Indirect estimators in US federal programs

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, a subcommittee of the Federal Committee on Statistical Methodology met to document the use of indirect estimators - that is, estimators which use data drawn from a domain or time different from the domain or time for which an estimate is required. This volume comprises the eight reports which describe the use of indirect estimators and they are based on case studies from a variety of federal programs. As a result, many researchers will find this book provides a valuable survey of how indirect estimators are used in practice and which addresses some of the pitfalls of these methods.

  7. Scheduling a C-Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy > Labor & birth > Scheduling a c-section Scheduling a c-section E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter ... and develop before she’s born. Why can scheduling a c-section for non-medical reasons be a ...

  8. Having a C-Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy > Labor & birth > Having a c-section Having a c-section E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter ... at least 39 weeks of pregnancy. What is a c-section? Most babies are born through vaginal ...

  9. Outcome indicators for direct and indirect caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfelder, D P; Swanson, E A; Specht, J K; Maas, M; Johnson, M

    2000-02-01

    Informal caregiving and outcomes for caregiving are an important part of health care and of particular importance in nursing. The purpose of this research is to report the results of a survey mailed to nursing experts for validation of the outcome labels Caregiver Role Performance: Direct Care and Caregiver Role Performance: Indirect Care and their accompanying indicators. Experts were asked to rate how important the identified indicators were for assessing those two outcomes. In addition, the respondents were asked to what extent nursing interventions influence the achievement of each identified indicator for Caregiver Role Performance: Direct Care and Caregiver Role Performance: Indirect Care. In general, the validity of the concept analysis work by the caregiver focus group was supported. Ten indicators for Caregiver Performance: Direct Care were retained, 1 was dropped that was considered most appropriate for indirect care, and 3 new indicators were added to reflect the nurse experts surveyed. For Caregiver Performance: Indirect Care, all of the indicators were retained.

  10. Indirect composite resin materials for posterior applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellard, E; Duke, E S

    1999-12-01

    Indirect composite resin restorations were introduced a number of years ago as possible alternatives to traditional metallic or ceramic-based indirect restorations. However, the earlier formulations did not provide evidence of improvement in mechanical and physical properties over chairside-placed direct composite resin materials. Because they required more tooth structure removal than direct restorations, their use became unpopular and was abandoned by most clinicians. Over the past few years, a new class of composite resin indirect materials has surfaced in the profession. Various technologies have been suggested as reinforcement mechanisms. Fibers, matrix modifications, and an assortment of innovations have been proposed for enhancing indirect composite resin restorations. Applications are from inlay restorations all the way to multi-unit fixed prostheses. This manuscript summarizes some of the progress made in this area. When available, data is presented to provide clinicians with guidelines and indications for the use of these materials.

  11. Indirect self-destructiveness in homosexual individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos - Tsirigotis

    2015-06-01

    The research results indicate that, as compared with the group of heterosexual individuals, in the group of homosexuals there occurs a worsening in psychological functioning, which may be also manifested by an increased indirect self-destructiveness index. The increased intensity of indirect self-destructiveness in homosexual individuals may be considered a manifestation of worsened psychological functioning. The homosexual individuals look after their health similarly to heterosexuals.

  12. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  13. Semantics-based plausible reasoning to extend the knowledge coverage of medical knowledge bases for improved clinical decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadhassanzadeh, Hossein; Van Woensel, William; Abidi, Samina Raza; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2017-01-01

    Capturing complete medical knowledge is challenging-often due to incomplete patient Electronic Health Records (EHR), but also because of valuable, tacit medical knowledge hidden away in physicians' experiences. To extend the coverage of incomplete medical knowledge-based systems beyond their deductive closure, and thus enhance their decision-support capabilities, we argue that innovative, multi-strategy reasoning approaches should be applied. In particular, plausible reasoning mechanisms apply patterns from human thought processes, such as generalization, similarity and interpolation, based on attributional, hierarchical, and relational knowledge. Plausible reasoning mechanisms include inductive reasoning, which generalizes the commonalities among the data to induce new rules, and analogical reasoning, which is guided by data similarities to infer new facts. By further leveraging rich, biomedical Semantic Web ontologies to represent medical knowledge, both known and tentative, we increase the accuracy and expressivity of plausible reasoning, and cope with issues such as data heterogeneity, inconsistency and interoperability. In this paper, we present a Semantic Web-based, multi-strategy reasoning approach, which integrates deductive and plausible reasoning and exploits Semantic Web technology to solve complex clinical decision support queries. We evaluated our system using a real-world medical dataset of patients with hepatitis, from which we randomly removed different percentages of data (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) to reflect scenarios with increasing amounts of incomplete medical knowledge. To increase the reliability of the results, we generated 5 independent datasets for each percentage of missing values, which resulted in 20 experimental datasets (in addition to the original dataset). The results show that plausibly inferred knowledge extends the coverage of the knowledge base by, on average, 2%, 7%, 12%, and 16% for datasets with, respectively, 5%, 10%, 15%, and

  14. Biologic plausibility, cellular effects, and molecular mechanisms of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borow, Kenneth M; Nelson, John R; Mason, R Preston

    2015-09-01

    Residual cardiovascular (CV) risk remains in dyslipidemic patients despite intensive statin therapy, underscoring the need for additional intervention. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is incorporated into membrane phospholipids and atherosclerotic plaques and exerts beneficial effects on the pathophysiologic cascade from onset of plaque formation through rupture. Specific salutary actions have been reported relating to endothelial function, oxidative stress, foam cell formation, inflammation, plaque formation/progression, platelet aggregation, thrombus formation, and plaque rupture. EPA also improves atherogenic dyslipidemia characterized by reduction of triglycerides without raising low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Other beneficial effects of EPA include vasodilation, resulting in blood pressure reductions, as well as improved membrane fluidity. EPA's effects are at least additive to those of statins when given as adjunctive therapy. In this review, we present data supporting the biologic plausibility of EPA as an anti-atherosclerotic agent with potential clinical benefit for prevention of CV events, as well as its cellular effects and molecular mechanisms of action. REDUCE-IT is an ongoing, randomized, controlled study evaluating whether the high-purity ethyl ester of EPA (icosapent ethyl) at 4 g/day combined with statin therapy is superior to statin therapy alone for reducing CV events in high-risk patients with mixed dyslipidemia. The results from this study are expected to clarify the role of EPA as adjunctive therapy to a statin for reduction of residual CV risk.

  15. Mindfulness and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: State of the Evidence, Plausible Mechanisms, and Theoretical Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Eric B; Schuman-Olivier, Zev; Britton, Willoughby B; Fresco, David M; Desbordes, Gaelle; Brewer, Judson A; Fulwiler, Carl

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide (1) a synopsis on relations of mindfulness with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and major CVD risk factors, and (2) an initial consensus-based overview of mechanisms and theoretical framework by which mindfulness might influence CVD. Initial evidence, often of limited methodological quality, suggests possible impacts of mindfulness on CVD risk factors including physical activity, smoking, diet, obesity, blood pressure, and diabetes regulation. Plausible mechanisms include (1) improved attention control (e.g., ability to hold attention on experiences related to CVD risk, such as smoking, diet, physical activity, and medication adherence), (2) emotion regulation (e.g., improved stress response, self-efficacy, and skills to manage craving for cigarettes, palatable foods, and sedentary activities), and (3) self-awareness (e.g., self-referential processing and awareness of physical sensations due to CVD risk factors). Understanding mechanisms and theoretical framework should improve etiologic knowledge, providing customized mindfulness intervention targets that could enable greater mindfulness intervention efficacy.

  16. A plausible (overlooked) super-luminous supernova in the SDSS Stripe 82 data

    CERN Document Server

    Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Zuzanna; Wyrzykowski, Lukasz; Djorgovski, S George; Glikman, Eilat; Mahabal, Ashish A

    2013-01-01

    We present the discovery of a plausible super-luminous supernova (SLSN), found in the archival data of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82, called PSN 000123+000504. The supernova peaked at M_g<-21.3 mag in the second half of September 2005, but was missed by the real-time supernova hunt. The observed part of the light curve (17 epochs) showed that the rise to the maximum took over 30 days, while the decline time lasted at least 70 days (observed frame), closely resembling other SLSNe of SN2007bi type. Spectrum of the host galaxy reveals a redshift of z=0.281 and the distance modulus of \\mu=40.77 mag. Combining this information with the SDSS photometry, we found the host galaxy to be an LMC-like irregular dwarf galaxy with the absolute magnitude of M_B=-18.2+/-0.2 mag and the oxygen abundance of 12+log[O/H]=8.3+/-0.2. Our SLSN follows the relation for the most energetic/super-luminous SNe exploding in low-metallicity environments, but we found no clear evidence for SLSNe to explode in low-luminosity ...

  17. Event-based plausibility immediately influences on-line language comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuki, Kazunaga; Chow, Tracy; Hare, Mary; Elman, Jeffrey L; Scheepers, Christoph; McRae, Ken

    2011-07-01

    In some theories of sentence comprehension, linguistically relevant lexical knowledge, such as selectional restrictions, is privileged in terms of the time-course of its access and influence. We examined whether event knowledge computed by combining multiple concepts can rapidly influence language understanding even in the absence of selectional restriction violations. Specifically, we investigated whether instruments can combine with actions to influence comprehension of ensuing patients of (as in Rayner, Warren, Juhuasz, & Liversedge, 2004; Warren & McConnell, 2007). Instrument-verb-patient triplets were created in a norming study designed to tap directly into event knowledge. In self-paced reading (Experiment 1), participants were faster to read patient nouns, such as hair, when they were typical of the instrument-action pair (Donna used the shampoo to wash vs. the hose to wash). Experiment 2 showed that these results were not due to direct instrument-patient relations. Experiment 3 replicated Experiment 1 using eyetracking, with effects of event typicality observed in first fixation and gaze durations on the patient noun. This research demonstrates that conceptual event-based expectations are computed and used rapidly and dynamically during on-line language comprehension. We discuss relationships among plausibility and predictability, as well as their implications. We conclude that selectional restrictions may be best considered as event-based conceptual knowledge rather than lexical-grammatical knowledge.

  18. From ether to acid: A plausible degradation pathway of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Lei; Birgel, Daniel; Elling, Felix J.; Sutton, Paul A.; Lipp, Julius S.; Zhu, Rong; Zhang, Chuanlun; Könneke, Martin; Peckmann, Jörn; Rowland, Steven J.; Summons, Roger E.; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2016-06-01

    Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are ubiquitous microbial lipids with extensive demonstrated and potential roles as paleoenvironmental proxies. Despite the great attention they receive, comparatively little is known regarding their diagenetic fate. Putative degradation products of GDGTs, identified as hydroxyl and carboxyl derivatives, were detected in lipid extracts of marine sediment, seep carbonate, hot spring sediment and cells of the marine thaumarchaeon Nitrosopumilus maritimus. The distribution of GDGT degradation products in environmental samples suggests that both biotic and abiotic processes act as sinks for GDGTs. More than a hundred newly recognized degradation products afford a view of the stepwise degradation of GDGT via (1) ether bond hydrolysis yielding hydroxyl isoprenoids, namely, GDGTol (glycerol dialkyl glycerol triether alcohol), GMGD (glycerol monobiphytanyl glycerol diether), GDD (glycerol dibiphytanol diether), GMM (glycerol monobiphytanol monoether) and bpdiol (biphytanic diol); (2) oxidation of isoprenoidal alcohols into corresponding carboxyl derivatives and (3) chain shortening to yield C39 and smaller isoprenoids. This plausible GDGT degradation pathway from glycerol ethers to isoprenoidal fatty acids provides the link to commonly detected head-to-head linked long chain isoprenoidal hydrocarbons in petroleum and sediment samples. The problematic C80 to C82 tetraacids that cause naphthenate deposits in some oil production facilities can be generated from H-shaped glycerol monoalkyl glycerol tetraethers (GMGTs) following the same process, as indicated by the distribution of related derivatives in hydrothermally influenced sediments.

  19. Plausible molecular and crystal structures of chitosan/HI type II salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertworasirikul, Amornrat; Noguchi, Keiichi; Ogawa, Kozo; Okuyama, Kenji

    2004-03-15

    Chitosan/HI type II salt prepared from crab tendon was investigated by X-ray fiber diffraction. Two polymer chains and 16 iodide ions (I(-)) crystallized in a tetragonal unit cell with lattice parameters of a = b = 10.68(3), c (fiber axis) = 40.77(13) A, and a space group P4(1). Chitosan forms a fourfold helix with a 40.77 A fiber period having a disaccharide as the helical asymmetric unit. One of the O-3... O-5 intramolecular hydrogen bonds at the glycosidic linkage is weakened by interacting with iodide ions, which seems to cause the polymer to take the 4/1-helical symmetry rather than the extended 2/1-helix. The plausible orientations of two O-6 atoms in the helical asymmetric unit were found to be gt and gg. Two chains are running through at the corner and the center of the unit cell along the c-axis. They are linked by hydrogen bonds between N-21 and O-61 atoms. Two out of four independent iodide ions are packed between the corner chains while the other two are packed between the corner and center chains when viewing through the ab-plane. The crystal structure of the salt is stabilized by hydrogen bonds between these iodide ions and N-21, N-22, O-32, O-61, O-62 of the polymer chains.

  20. Solvent effects on the photochemistry of 4-aminoimidazole-5-carbonitrile, a prebiotically plausible precursor of purines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabla, Rafał; Sponer, Judit E; Sponer, Jiří; Sobolewski, Andrzej L; Góra, Robert W

    2014-09-01

    4-Aminoimidazole-5-carbonitrile (AICN) was suggested as a prebiotically plausible precursor of purine nucleobases and nucleotides. Although it can be formed in a sequence of photoreactions, AICN is immune to further irradiation with UV-light. We present state-of-the-art multi-reference quantum-chemical calculations of potential energy surface cuts and conical intersection optimizations to explain the molecular mechanisms underlying the photostability of this compound. We have identified the N-H bond stretching and ring-puckering mechanisms that should be responsible for the photochemistry of AICN in the gas phase. We have further considered the photochemistry of AICN-water clusters, while including up to six explicit water molecules. The calculations reveal charge transfer to solvent followed by formation of an H3O(+) cation, both of which occur on the (1)πσ* hypersurface. Interestingly, a second proton transfer to an adjacent water molecule leads to a (1)πσ*/S0 conical intersection. We suggest that this electron-driven proton relay might be characteristic of low-lying (1)πσ* states in chromophore-water clusters. Owing to its nature, this mechanism might also be responsible for the photostability of analogous organic molecules in bulk water.

  1. A biologically plausible learning rule for the Infomax on recurrent neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Takashi; Kaneko, Takeshi; Aoyagi, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental issue in neuroscience is to understand how neuronal circuits in the cerebral cortex play their functional roles through their characteristic firing activity. Several characteristics of spontaneous and sensory-evoked cortical activity have been reproduced by Infomax learning of neural networks in computational studies. There are, however, still few models of the underlying learning mechanisms that allow cortical circuits to maximize information and produce the characteristics of spontaneous and sensory-evoked cortical activity. In the present article, we derive a biologically plausible learning rule for the maximization of information retained through time in dynamics of simple recurrent neural networks. Applying the derived learning rule in a numerical simulation, we reproduce the characteristics of spontaneous and sensory-evoked cortical activity: cell-assembly-like repeats of precise firing sequences, neuronal avalanches, spontaneous replays of learned firing sequences and orientation selectivity observed in the primary visual cortex. We further discuss the similarity between the derived learning rule and the spike timing-dependent plasticity of cortical neurons.

  2. Plausible ergogenic effects of vitamin D on athletic performance and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlquist, Dylan T; Dieter, Brad P; Koehle, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine vitamin D in the context of sport nutrition and its potential role in optimizing athletic performance. Vitamin D receptors (VDR) and vitamin D response elements (VDREs) are located in almost every tissue within the human body including skeletal muscle. The hormonally-active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, has been shown to play critical roles in the human body and regulates over 900 gene variants. Based on the literature presented, it is plausible that vitamin D levels above the normal reference range (up to 100 nmol/L) might increase skeletal muscle function, decrease recovery time from training, increase both force and power production, and increase testosterone production, each of which could potentiate athletic performance. Therefore, maintaining higher levels of vitamin D could prove beneficial for athletic performance. Despite this situation, large portions of athletic populations are vitamin D deficient. Currently, the research is inconclusive with regards to the optimal intake of vitamin D, the specific forms of vitamin D one should ingest, and the distinct nutrient-nutrient interactions of vitamin D with vitamin K that affect arterial calcification and hypervitaminosis. Furthermore, it is possible that dosages exceeding the recommendations for vitamin D (i.e. dosages up to 4000-5000 IU/day), in combination with 50 to 1000 mcg/day of vitamin K1 and K2 could aid athletic performance. This review will investigate these topics, and specifically their relevance to athletic performance.

  3. A simple biophysically plausible model for long time constants in single neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiganj, Zoran; Hasselmo, Michael E; Howard, Marc W

    2015-01-01

    Recent work in computational neuroscience and cognitive psychology suggests that a set of cells that decay exponentially could be used to support memory for the time at which events took place. Analytically and through simulations on a biophysical model of an individual neuron, we demonstrate that exponentially decaying firing with a range of time constants up to minutes could be implemented using a simple combination of well-known neural mechanisms. In particular, we consider firing supported by calcium-controlled cation current. When the amount of calcium leaving the cell during an interspike interval is larger than the calcium influx during a spike, the overall decay in calcium concentration can be exponential, resulting in exponential decay of the firing rate. The time constant of the decay can be several orders of magnitude larger than the time constant of calcium clearance, and it could be controlled externally via a variety of biologically plausible ways. The ability to flexibly and rapidly control time constants could enable working memory of temporal history to be generalized to other variables in computing spatial and ordinal representations.

  4. A plausible mechanism of biosorption in dual symbioses by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmat, Rafia; Hamid, Neelofer

    2015-03-01

    Dual symbioses of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi with growth of Momordica charantia were elucidated in terms of plausible mechanism of biosorption in this article. The experiment was conducted in green house and mixed inoculum of the VAM fungi was used in the three replicates. Results demonstrated that the starch contents were the main source of C for the VAM to builds their hyphae. The increased plant height and leaves surface area were explained in relation with an increase in the photosynthetic rates to produce rapid sugar contents for the survival of plants. A decreased in protein, and amino acid contents and increased proline and protease activity in VAM plants suggested that these contents were the main bio-indicators of the plants under biotic stress. The decline in protein may be due to the degradation of these contents, which later on converted into dextrose where it can easily be absorbed by for the period of symbioses. A mechanism of C chemisorption in relation with physiology and morphology of plant was discussed.

  5. Vitamin D in primary biliary cirrhosis, a plausible marker of advanced disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Kopilov, Ron; Selmi, Carlo; Nussinovitch, Udi; Sánchez-Castañón, María; López-Hoyos, Marcos; Amital, Howie; Kivity, Shaye; Gershwin, Eric M; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2015-02-01

    Vitamin D immune-modulating effects were extensively studied, and low levels have been linked with autoimmune diseases. The associations of vitamin D with autoimmune diseases of the liver, and particularly primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), are yet to be defined. Hence, in this study, serum levels of vitamin D were determined in 79 patients with PBC and 70 age- and sex-matched controls by the LIAISON chemiluminescent immunoassays (DiaSorin-Italy). Clinical and serological parameters of patients were analyzed with respect to vitamin D status. Mean levels of vitamin D were significantly lower among patients with PBC compared with controls (16.8 ± 9 vs. 22.1 ± 9 ng/ml; p = 0.029), and vitamin D deficiency (≤10 ng/ml) was documented in 33% of patients with PBC versus 7% of controls (p plausible roles of vitamin D as a prognostic marker of PBC severity, and as a potential player in this disease pathogenesis. While further studies are awaited, monitoring vitamin D in patients with PBC and use of supplements may be advisable.

  6. Is the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics really plausible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kurt

    2013-06-01

    Bohmian mechanics also known as de Broglie-Bohm theory is the most popular alternative approach to quantum mechanics. Whereas the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics is based on the complementarity principle Bohmian mechanics assumes that both particle and wave are concrete physical objects. In 1993 Peter Holland has written an ardent account on the plausibility of the de Broglie-Bohm theory. He proved that it fully reproduces quantum mechanics if the initial particle distribution is consistent with a solution of the Schrödinger equation. Which may be the reasons that Bohmian mechanics has not yet found global acceptance? In this article it will be shown that predicted properties of atoms and molecules are in conflict with experimental findings. Moreover it will be demonstrated that repeatedly published ensembles of trajectories illustrating double slit diffraction processes do not agree with quantum mechanics. The credibility of a theory is undermined when recognizably wrong data presented frequently over years are finally not declared obsolete.

  7. Plausible futures of a social-ecological system: Yahara watershed, Wisconsin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Carpenter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural watersheds are affected by changes in climate, land use, agricultural practices, and human demand for energy, food, and water resources. In this context, we analyzed the agricultural, urbanizing Yahara watershed (size: 1345 km², population: 372,000 to assess its responses to multiple changing drivers. We measured recent trends in land use/cover and water quality of the watershed, spatial patterns of 10 ecosystem services, and spatial patterns and nestedness of governance. We developed scenarios for the future of the Yahara watershed by integrating trends and events from the global scenarios literature, perspectives of stakeholders, and models of biophysical drivers and ecosystem services. Four qualitative scenarios were created to explore plausible trajectories to the year 2070 in the watershed's social-ecological system under different regimes: no action on environmental trends, accelerated technological development, strong intervention by government, and shifting values toward sustainability. Quantitative time-series for 2010-2070 were developed for weather and land use/cover during each scenario as inputs to model changes in ecosystem services. Ultimately, our goal is to understand how changes in the social-ecological system of the Yahara watershed, including management of land and water resources, can build or impair resilience to shifting drivers, including climate.

  8. Plausible impact of global climate change on water resources in the Tarim River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Yaning; XU; Zongxue

    2005-01-01

    Combining the temperature and precipitation data from 77 climatological stations and the climatic and hydrological change data from three headstreams of the Tarim River: Hotan, Yarkant, and Aksu in the study area, the plausible association between climate change and the variability of water resources in the Tarim River Basin in recent years was investigated, the long-term trend of the hydrological time series including temperature, precipitation, and streamflow was detected, and the possible association between the El Ni(n)o/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and these three kinds of time series was tested. The results obtained in this study show that during the past years, the temperature experienced a significant monotonic increase at the speed of 5%, nearly 1℃ rise; the precipitation showed a significant decrease in the 1970s, and a significant increase in the1980s and 1990s, the average annual precipitation was increased with the magnitude of 6.8 mm per decade. A step change occurred in both temperature and precipitation time series around 1986, which may be influenced by the global climate change. Climate change resulted in the increase of the streamflow at the headwater of the Tarim River, but the anthropogenic activities such as over-depletion of the surface water resulted in the decrease of the streamflow at the lower reaches of the Tarim River. The study result also showed that there is no significant association between the ENSO and the temperature, precipitation and streamflow.

  9. Cultural group selection is plausible, but the predictions of its hypotheses should be tested with real-world data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchin, Peter; Currie, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    The evidence compiled in the target article demonstrates that the assumptions of cultural group selection (CGS) theory are often met, and it is therefore a useful framework for generating plausible hypotheses. However, more can be said about how we can test the predictions of CGS hypotheses against competing explanations using historical, archaeological, and anthropological data.

  10. Indirect combustion noise of auxiliary power units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Parrish, Sarah A.; Xu, Jun; Schuster, Bill

    2013-08-01

    Recent advances in noise suppression technology have significantly reduced jet and fan noise from commercial jet engines. This leads many investigators in the aeroacoustics community to suggest that core noise could well be the next aircraft noise barrier. Core noise consists of turbine noise and combustion noise. There is direct combustion noise generated by the combustion processes, and there is indirect combustion noise generated by the passage of combustion hot spots, or entropy waves, through constrictions in an engine. The present work focuses on indirect combustion noise. Indirect combustion noise has now been found in laboratory experiments. The primary objective of this work is to investigate whether indirect combustion noise is also generated in jet and other engines. In a jet engine, there are numerous noise sources. This makes the identification of indirect combustion noise a formidable task. Here, our effort concentrates exclusively on auxiliary power units (APUs). This choice is motivated by the fact that APUs are relatively simple engines with only a few noise sources. It is, therefore, expected that the chance of success is higher. Accordingly, a theoretical model study of the generation of indirect combustion noise in an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) is carried out. The cross-sectional areas of an APU from the combustor to the turbine exit are scaled off to form an equivalent nozzle. A principal function of a turbine in an APU is to extract mechanical energy from the flow stream through the exertion of a resistive force. Therefore, the turbine is modeled by adding a negative body force to the momentum equation. This model is used to predict the ranges of frequencies over which there is a high probability for indirect combustion noise generation. Experimental spectra of internal pressure fluctuations and far-field noise of an RE220 APU are examined to identify anomalous peaks. These peaks are possible indirection combustion noise. In the case of the

  11. [Indirect costs in health technology assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubczyk, Michał; Wrona, Witold; Macioch, Tomasz; Golicki, Dominik; Niewada, Maciej; Hermanowski, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    In the health technology assessment it is crucial to define the perspective of the analysis. When the societal perspective is chosen it is necessary to include all the costs incurred by the society, also the costs of lost productivity resulting from absence of sick employees from work or their reduced efficiency at work. The aim of this article is to present the notion of indirect costs, their importance in health technology assessment and the methods of calculation. The economic literature has been reviewed for the state of knowledge on indirect costs. Three methods of calculation are described: human capital method, friction cost method or health state valuation. Indirect costs in Western European countries can amount to more than half of total costs attributed to the illness and its treatment. In the literature there is no consensus regarding the proper method of indirect costs calculation. It is necessary to conduct further theoretical and empirical research in the area of indirect costs and enhance discussion among Polish pharmacoeconomists.

  12. Flux-based transport enhancement as a plausible unifying mechanism for auxin transport in meristem development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Stoma

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants continuously generate new organs through the activity of populations of stem cells called meristems. The shoot apical meristem initiates leaves, flowers, and lateral meristems in highly ordered, spiralled, or whorled patterns via a process called phyllotaxis. It is commonly accepted that the active transport of the plant hormone auxin plays a major role in this process. Current hypotheses propose that cellular hormone transporters of the PIN family would create local auxin maxima at precise positions, which in turn would lead to organ initiation. To explain how auxin transporters could create hormone fluxes to distinct regions within the plant, different concepts have been proposed. A major hypothesis, canalization, proposes that the auxin transporters act by amplifying and stabilizing existing fluxes, which could be initiated, for example, by local diffusion. This convincingly explains the organised auxin fluxes during vein formation, but for the shoot apical meristem a second hypothesis was proposed, where the hormone would be systematically transported towards the areas with the highest concentrations. This implies the coexistence of two radically different mechanisms for PIN allocation in the membrane, one based on flux sensing and the other on local concentration sensing. Because these patterning processes require the interaction of hundreds of cells, it is impossible to estimate on a purely intuitive basis if a particular scenario is plausible or not. Therefore, computational modelling provides a powerful means to test this type of complex hypothesis. Here, using a dedicated computer simulation tool, we show that a flux-based polarization hypothesis is able to explain auxin transport at the shoot meristem as well, thus providing a unifying concept for the control of auxin distribution in the plant. Further experiments are now required to distinguish between flux-based polarization and other hypotheses.

  13. Identifying and reducing potentially wrong immunoassay results even when plausible and "not-unreasonable".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Adel A A

    2014-01-01

    The primary role of the clinical laboratory is to report accurate results for diagnosis of disease and management of illnesses. This goal has, to a large extent been achieved for routine biochemical tests, but not for immunoassays which remained susceptible to interference from endogenous immunoglobulin antibodies, causing false, and clinically misleading results. Clinicians regard all abnormal results including false ones as "pathological" necessitating further investigations, or concluding iniquitous diagnosis. Even more seriously, "false-negative" results may wrongly exclude pathology, thus denying patients' necessary treatment. Analytical error rate in immunoassays is relatively high, ranging from 0.4% to 4.0%. Because analytical interference from endogenous antibodies is confined to individuals' sera, it can be inconspicuous, pernicious, sporadic, and insidious because it cannot be detected by internal or external quality assessment procedures. An approach based on Bayesian reasoning can enhance the robustness of clinical validation in highlighting potentially erroneous immunoassay results. When this rational clinical/statistical approach is followed by analytical affirmative follow-up tests, it can help identifying inaccurate and clinically misleading immunoassay data even when they appear plausible and "not-unreasonable." This chapter is largely based on peer reviewed articles associated with and related to this approach. The first section underlines (without mathematical equations) the dominance and misuse of conventional statistics and the underuse of Bayesian paradigm and shows that laboratorians are intuitively (albeit unwittingly) practicing Bayesians. Secondly, because interference from endogenous antibodies is method's dependent (with numerous formats and different reagents), it is almost impossible to accurately assess its incidence in all differently formulated immunoassays and for each analytes/biomarkers. However, reiterating the basic concepts

  14. A plausible (overlooked) super-luminous supernova in the Sloan digital sky survey stripe 82 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Zuzanna; Kozłowski, Szymon; Wyrzykowski, Łukasz [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Djorgovski, S. George; Mahabal, Ashish A. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Glikman, Eilat [Department of Physics and Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208121, New Haven, CT 06520-8121 (United States); Koposov, Sergey, E-mail: zkostrzewa@astrouw.edu.pl, E-mail: simkoz@astrouw.edu.pl, E-mail: wyrzykow@astrouw.edu.pl [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-01

    We present the discovery of a plausible super-luminous supernova (SLSN), found in the archival data of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82, called PSN 000123+000504. The supernova (SN) peaked at m {sub g} < 19.4 mag in the second half of 2005 September, but was missed by the real-time SN hunt. The observed part of the light curve (17 epochs) showed that the rise to the maximum took over 30 days, while the decline time lasted at least 70 days (observed frame), closely resembling other SLSNe of SN 2007bi type. The spectrum of the host galaxy reveals a redshift of z = 0.281 and the distance modulus of μ = 40.77 mag. Combining this information with the SDSS photometry, we found the host galaxy to be an LMC-like irregular dwarf galaxy with an absolute magnitude of M{sub B} = –18.2 ± 0.2 mag and an oxygen abundance of 12+log [O/H]=8.3±0.2; hence, the SN peaked at M {sub g} < –21.3 mag. Our SLSN follows the relation for the most energetic/super-luminous SNe exploding in low-metallicity environments, but we found no clear evidence for SLSNe to explode in low-luminosity (dwarf) galaxies only. The available information on the PSN 000123+000504 light curve suggests the magnetar-powered model as a likely scenario of this event. This SLSN is a new addition to a quickly growing family of super-luminous SNe.

  15. Bio-physically plausible visualization of highly scattering fluorescent neocortical models for in silico experimentation

    KAUST Repository

    Abdellah, Marwan

    2017-02-15

    Background We present a visualization pipeline capable of accurate rendering of highly scattering fluorescent neocortical neuronal models. The pipeline is mainly developed to serve the computational neurobiology community. It allows the scientists to visualize the results of their virtual experiments that are performed in computer simulations, or in silico. The impact of the presented pipeline opens novel avenues for assisting the neuroscientists to build biologically accurate models of the brain. These models result from computer simulations of physical experiments that use fluorescence imaging to understand the structural and functional aspects of the brain. Due to the limited capabilities of the current visualization workflows to handle fluorescent volumetric datasets, we propose a physically-based optical model that can accurately simulate light interaction with fluorescent-tagged scattering media based on the basic principles of geometric optics and Monte Carlo path tracing. We also develop an automated and efficient framework for generating dense fluorescent tissue blocks from a neocortical column model that is composed of approximately 31000 neurons. Results Our pipeline is used to visualize a virtual fluorescent tissue block of 50 μm3 that is reconstructed from the somatosensory cortex of juvenile rat. The fluorescence optical model is qualitatively analyzed and validated against experimental emission spectra of different fluorescent dyes from the Alexa Fluor family. Conclusion We discussed a scientific visualization pipeline for creating images of synthetic neocortical neuronal models that are tagged virtually with fluorescent labels on a physically-plausible basis. The pipeline is applied to analyze and validate simulation data generated from neuroscientific in silico experiments.

  16. Dark matter dynamics and indirect detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertone, Gianfranco; /Fermilab; Merritt, David; /Rochester Inst. Tech.

    2005-04-01

    Non-baryonic, or ''dark'', matter is believed to be a major component of the total mass budget of the universe. We review the candidates for particle dark matter and discuss the prospects for direct detection (via interaction of dark matter particles with laboratory detectors) and indirect detection (via observations of the products of dark matter self-annihilations), focusing in particular on the Galactic center, which is among the most promising targets for indirect detection studies. The gravitational potential at the Galactic center is dominated by stars and by the supermassive black hole, and the dark matter distribution is expected to evolve on sub-parsec scales due to interaction with these components. We discuss the dominant interaction mechanisms and show how they can be used to rule out certain extreme models for the dark matter distribution, thus increasing the information that can be gleaned from indirect detection searches.

  17. L’indirection en communication publique

    OpenAIRE

    Gauthier, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Le texte a pour objectif d’analyser le recours à l’indirection dans les débats télévisés tenus à l’occasion des élections canadiennes et québécoises depuis une quarantaine d’années. Dans un premier temps, le procédé expressif de l’indirection est caractérisé. Ensuite, sont discutés les huit procédés distincts d’indirection utilisés dans les débats télévisés. Des exemples sont donnés de ces huit procédés. Une analyse quantitative de leur utilisation dans les débats est aussi faite. Finalement,...

  18. Indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Mirian da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to estimate the indirect tax burden on food for ten income classes, based on income and household total expenditure in southern Brazil. Thus it can be seen as indirect taxes on foods affect the monetary income and consumption pattern of households. To reach the objectives proposed, will be used the Pintos-Payeras (2008 model. The database iscomposed by microdata from the Household Budgeting Survey (POF 2008-2009 and the tax regulations of the country and the southern states of Brazil. The results show that indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil is regressive when based on income and expenditure of household , ie , the poorest people pay proportionately more taxes and have their consumption pattern highest taxed ICMS (Brazilian value added tax is the tax that contributes most to the regressivity.

  19. Indirect Comorbidity in Childhood and Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eCopeland

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Comorbidity between psychiatric disorders is common, but pairwise associations between two disorders may be explained by the presence of other diagnoses that are associated with both disorders or indirect comorbidity. Method: Comorbidities of common childhood psychiatric disorders were tested in three community samples of children ages 6 to 17 (8931 observations of 2965 subjects. Psychiatric disorder status in all three samples was assessed with the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment. Indirect comorbidity was defined as A-B associations that decreased from significance to nonsignificance after adjusting for other disorders. Results: All tested childhood psychiatric disorders were positively associated in bivariate analyses. After adjusting for comorbidities, many ssociations involving a behavioral disorder and an emotional disorder were attenuated suggesting indirect comorbidity. Generalized anxiety and depressive disorders displayed a very high level of overlap (adjusted OR=37.9. All analyses were rerun with depressive disorders grouped with generalized anxiety disorder in a single distress disorders category. In these revised models, all associations between and emotional disorder and a behavior disorder met our criteria for indirect comorbidity except for the association of oppositional defiant disorder with distress disorders (OR=11.3. Follow-up analyses suggested that the indirect associations were primarily accounted for by oppositional defiant disorder and the distress disorder category. There was little evidence of either sex differences or differences by developmental period Conclusions: After accounting for the overlap between depressive disorders with generalized anxiety disorder, direct comorbidity between emotional and behavioral disorders was uncommon. When there was evidence of indirect comorbidity, ODD and distress disorders were the key intermediary diagnoses accounting for the apparent associations.

  20. Gender differentiation of indirect self-destructiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Tsirigotis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the sex (gender differentiation of indirect self-destructiveness intensity and its manifestations, as well as relationships between indirect self-destructiveness and its manifestations (categories and the psychological dimensions of masculinity and femininity, also from the point of view of assessing occupational health and safety. Materials and Methods: A population of 558 individuals (399 females and 159 males aged 19–25 (mean age: 22.6 was studied. The Polish version of the “Chronic Self-Destructiveness Scale” (CS-DS by Kelley adapted by Suchańska was used in order to examine indirect self-destructiveness and its manifestations. Gender testing applied the Polish version of the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI by Bem in its adaptation by Kuczyńska. Results: Males’ scores are signifi cantly higher than those of females for the majority of CS-DS scales/indices: Indirect Self-Destructiveness (general index, Poor Health Maintenance (A2, Lack of Planfulness (A4, and Helplessness, Passiveness (A5. Moreover, there are statistically signifi cant correlations between CS-DS scales and the masculinity dimension (positive as well as the femininity dimension (negative. Conclusions: Masculinity is a factor that may predispose towards indirectly self-destructive behaviors, while femininity is a factor protecting against those. The study results may prove useful in preventing indirectly and directly self-destructive behaviors as well as in therapy work with the individuals who display such tendencies or have made attempts on their own lives, in particular taking into account their being of a specifi c sex/gender and in the context of work (especially in diffi cult or dangerous conditions or both.

  1. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-07-01

    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop. The workshop, held March 20–21, 2014, in Golden, Colorado, discussed and detailed the research and development needs for biomass indirect liquefaction. Discussions focused on pathways that convert biomass-based syngas (or any carbon monoxide, hydrogen gaseous stream) to liquid intermediates (alcohols or acids) and further synthesize those intermediates to liquid hydrocarbons that are compatible as either a refinery feed or neat fuel.

  2. Clinical guidelines for indirect resin restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, A

    1997-06-01

    Ongoing advances in adhesive dentistry have made it possible to successfully and predictably bond tooth-supporting restorations using conservative preparation techniques. Improvements in the durability and esthetic properties of tooth-colored restorative materials have also increased the range of available treatment options. However, dentists have been slow to accept both direct and indirect posterior esthetics. This article provides a step-by-step technique for practitioners who choose to treat their patients with indirect resin esthetic restorations. It will not discuss other posterior restorative treatment techniques or materials (i.e. gold, porcelain, amalgam, bonded amalgam, or direct resin).

  3. Plausible antioxidant biomechanics and anticonvulsant pharmacological activity of brain-targeted β-carotene nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Mohammad; Khan, Riaz A; Khan, Maria; Ahmed, Bahar

    2012-01-01

    increased in P-80-BCNP to 231.0 ± 16.30 seconds, as compared to PTZ (120.10 ± 4.50 seconds) and placebo control (120.30 ± 7.4 seconds). The results of this study demonstrate a plausible novel anticonvulsant activity of β-carotene at a low dose of 2 mg/kg, with brain-targeted nanodelivery, thus increasing its bioavailability and stability.

  4. Exploring apposite therapeutic target for apoptosis in filarial parasite: a plausible hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hande, Sneha; Goswami, Kalyan; Jena, Lingaraj; Reddy, Maryada Venkata Rami

    2014-03-01

    Human lymphatic filariasis is a parasitic disease with profound socioeconomic encumbrance owing to its associated disability, affecting predominantly but not limited to the developing nations of tropics and subtropics. There are several technical issues like poor therapeutic and preventive repertoire as well as administrative and infrastructural limitations which jeopardize the salvage measures and further complicate the plight. Therefore, considering the gravity of the problem, WHO has mandated (under tropical disease research scheme) for placing emphasis on validation of novel therapeutic targets against this disease with the unfortunate tag of 'neglected tropical disease'. However, dearth of knowledge of parasite biology viciously coupled with difficulty of access to parasitic material from suitable animal model along with growing cost burden of high end research poses formidable challenge. Based on the recent research evidences, here we propose a premise with targeted apoptotic impact as a novel rationale to be exploited towards anti-parasitic drug development. The new era of bioinformatics ushers in new optimism with a wide range of genomic and proteomic database in public domain. Such platform might offer wonders for drug research, but needs highly selective criterion specificity. In order to test our hypothesis presumptively, we deployed a scheme for identification of target proteins from filarial parasitic origin through wide database search with precise criteria of non-homology against the host along with functional essentiality for the parasite. Further screening for proteins with growth potential from such list of essential non-homologous proteins was undertaken to mine out suitable representative target for ensuing apoptotic impact though effective inhibitors. A unique protein enzyme, RNA dependent RNA polymerase, which besides its vital role in RNA virus is believed to have regulatory role in gene expression, emerged as a plausible target. This protein

  5. Lead-induced SCC of alloy 600 in plausible steam generator crevice environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, M.D. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Manolescu, A. [Ontario Hydro Technologies, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Mirzai, M. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    Laboratory stress corrosion cracking (SCC) test environments developed to simulate representative BNGS-A steam generator (SG) crevice chemistries have been used to determine the susceptibility of Alloy 600 to lead-induced SCC under plausible SG conditions. Test environments were based on plant SG hideout return data and analysis of removed tubes and deposits. Deviations from the normal near neutral crevice pH environment were considered to simulate possible faulted excursion crevice chemistry and to bound the postulated crevice pH range of 3-9 (at temperature). The effect of lead contamination up to 1000 ppm, but with an emphasis on the 100 to 500 ppm range, was determined. SCC susceptibility was investigated using constant extension rate tensile (CERT) tests and encapsulated C-ring tests. CERT tests were performed at 305 degrees C on tubing representative of BNGS-A SG U-bends. The C-ring test method allowed a wider test matrix covering three temperatures (280, 304 and 315 degrees C), three strain levels (0.2%, 2% and 4%) and tubing representative of U-bends plus tubing given a simulated stress relief to represent material at the tubesheet. The results of this test program confirmed that in the absence of lead contamination, cracking does not occur in these concentrated, 3.3 to 8.9 pH range, crevice environments. Also, it appears that the concentrated crevice environments suppress lead-induced cracking relative to that seen in all-volatile-treatment (AVT) water. For the (static) C-ring tests, lead-induced SCC was only produced in the near-neutral crevice environment and was more severe at 500 ppm than 100 ppm PbO. This trend was also observed in CERT tests but some cracking/grain boundary attack occurred in acidic (pH 3.3) and alkaline (pH 8.9) environments. The C-ring tests indicated that a certain amount of resistance to cracking was imparted by simulated stress relief of the tubing. This heat treatment, confirmed to have resulted in sensitization, promoted

  6. Lead-induced stress-corrosion cracking of alloy 600 in plausible steam generator crevice environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, M.D. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Manolescu, A. [Ontario Hydro Technologies, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Mirzai, M. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-03-01

    Laboratory stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) test environments were developed to simulate crevice chemistries representative of Bruce Nuclear Generating Station A (BNPD A) steam generators (SGs); these test environments were used to determine the susceptibility of Alloy 600 to lead-induced SCC under plausible SG conditions. Test environments were based on plant SG hideout return data and analysis of removed tubes and deposits. Deviations from the normal near-neutral crevice pH environment were considered to simulate possible faulted excursion crevice chemistry and to bound the postulated crevice pH range of 3 to 9 (at temperature). The effect of lead contamination up to 1000 ppm, but with an emphasis on the 100- to 500-ppm range, was determined. SCC susceptibility was investigated using constant extension rate tensile (CERT) tests and encapsulated C-ring tests. CERT tests were performed at 305 degrees C on tubing representative of BNPD A SG U-bends. The C-ring test method allowed a wider test matrix, covering 3 temperatures (280 degrees C, 304 degrees C and 315 degrees C), 3 strain levels (0.2%, 2% and 4%), and tubing representative of U-bends plus tubing given a simulated stress relief to represent material at the tube sheet. The results of this test program confirmed that in the absence of lead contamination, cracking does not occur in these concentrated, 3.3 to 8.9 pH range, crevice environments. Also, it appears that the concentrated crevice environments suppress lead-induced cracking relative to that seen in all-volatile-treatment (AVT) water. For the (static) C-ring tests, lead-induced SCC was only produced in the near-neutral crevice environment and was more severe at 500 ppm than at 100 ppm PbO. This trend was also observed in CERT tests, but some cracking-grain boundary attack occurred in acidic (pH 3.3) and alkaline (pH 8.9) environments. The C-ring tests indicated that a certain amount of resistance to cracking was imparted by simulated stress relief of

  7. Disentangling Directand Indirect Effects of Credence Labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, D.; Tonsor, G.; Calantone, R.; Peterson, C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to disentangle the direct and indirect effects of three credence labels (Australian, animal welfare and grass-fed) on US consumer attitudes toward buying beef steaks. Furthermore, it explores the impact of consumer attribute knowledge, usage frequency, education and opin

  8. Indirect processes in electron-ion scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottcher, C.; Griffin, D.C.; Pindzola, M.S.; Phaneuf, R.A.

    1983-10-01

    A summary is given of an informal workshop held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on June 22-23, 1983, in which the current status of theoretical calculations of indirect processes in electron-ion scattering was reviewed. Processes of particular interest in astrophysical and fusion plasmas were emphasized. Topics discussed include atomic structure effects, electron-impact ionization, and dielectronic recombination.

  9. Goals and Indirect Objects in Seri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlett, Stephen A.

    A number of Seri verbs display a sensitivity to whether a goal, which is a term used for recipients, adressees, etc., is singular or plural. The data presented in this paper are of typological interest. It is argued that Seri has indirect objects, but that there is no one-to-one mapping between the semantic role goal and either the syntactic…

  10. Have Indirect Emissions from Biofuels Been Exaggerated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicklighter, D. W.; Gurgel, A.; Melillo, J. M.; Reilly, J. M.; Cronin, T.; Felzer, B. S.; Paltsev, S.; Schlosser, C. A.; Sokolov, A. P.

    2009-12-01

    The production of biofuels may lead to enhanced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land to the atmosphere either by directly converting land to biofuel crops, or indirectly, by causing the displacement of food production and other land uses which then require additional land conversions. The importance of indirect GHG emissions from biofuel-related displacement of food production and other land uses is not known and is highly controversial. Here, we examine the direct and indirect land-use emissions over the 21st century from an expanded global bioenergy program, using a linked economic and terrestrial biogeochemistry modeling system under two different land use policies. We account for the dynamics of potential carbon losses or gains from land-use change along with nitrous oxide emissions from increased N fertilizer application. We find that: 1) indirect emissions from land use are responsible for substantially more carbon loss (up to twice as much) than direct land use; 2) increased nitrous oxide emissions over the century are more important to the GHG balance than the carbon losses themselves; 3) the GHG effects of biofuels change in both sign and magnitude over time so that the GHG cost/benefit of biofuels depends on the time horizon considered; and 4) the economics of biofuels become favorable sooner with the protection of forests. While biofuels can be an effective low carbon energy source from a GHG balance perspective, the associated land conversions may lead to an unacceptable loss of other ecosystem services.

  11. 19 CFR 18.26 - Indirect exportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... merchandise to be exported and provide such evidence of exportation as required by the port director under... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect exportation. 18.26 Section 18.26 Customs... TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Exportation from Customs Custody of Merchandise Unentered...

  12. 19 CFR 18.43 - Indirect exportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... port to another for actual exportation at the second port, any export declarations required to be... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect exportation. 18.43 Section 18.43 Customs... TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Merchandise Not Otherwise Subject to Customs Control...

  13. Two distinct neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Takezawa, Masanori; Nakawake, Yo; Kunimatsu, Akira; Yamasue, Hidenori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyashita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-03-18

    Cooperation is a hallmark of human society. Humans often cooperate with strangers even if they will not meet each other again. This so-called indirect reciprocity enables large-scale cooperation among nonkin and can occur based on a reputation mechanism or as a succession of pay-it-forward behavior. Here, we provide the functional and anatomical neural evidence for two distinct mechanisms governing the two types of indirect reciprocity. Cooperation occurring as reputation-based reciprocity specifically recruited the precuneus, a region associated with self-centered cognition. During such cooperative behavior, the precuneus was functionally connected with the caudate, a region linking rewards to behavior. Furthermore, the precuneus of a cooperative subject had a strong resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with the caudate and a large gray matter volume. In contrast, pay-it-forward reciprocity recruited the anterior insula (AI), a brain region associated with affective empathy. The AI was functionally connected with the caudate during cooperation occurring as pay-it-forward reciprocity, and its gray matter volume and rsFC with the caudate predicted the tendency of such cooperation. The revealed difference is consistent with the existing results of evolutionary game theory: although reputation-based indirect reciprocity robustly evolves as a self-interested behavior in theory, pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity does not on its own. The present study provides neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity and suggests that pay-it-forward reciprocity may not occur as myopic profit maximization but elicit emotional rewards.

  14. Is air pollution a plausible candidate for prenatal exposure in autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? : a systematic review / y Dhanashree Vernekar

    OpenAIRE

    Vernekar, Dhanashree

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To present a systematic review of existing literature that investigates biological plausibility of prenatal hazardous air pollutants’ (HAPs) exposure, in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and related outcomes. Method: Electronic databases Pubmed, Biomed Central and National Database for Autism Research, and grey literature pertaining to air pollution association with ASD and related outcomes were searched using specific keywords. The search included 190 HAPs as defi...

  15. Effective Teacher Practice on the Plausibility of Human-Induced Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepold, F.; Sinatra, G. M.; Lombardi, D.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change education programs in the United States seek to promote a deeper understanding of the science of climate change, behavior change and stewardship, and support informed decision making by individuals, organizations, and institutions--all of which are summarized under the term 'climate literacy.' The ultimate goal of climate literacy is to enable actors to address climate change, both in terms of stabilizing and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, but also an increased capacity to prepare for the consequences and opportunities of climate change. However, the long-term nature of climate change and the required societal response involve the changing students' ideas about controversial scientific issues which presents unique challenges for educators (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010; Sinatra & Mason, 2008). This session will explore how the United States educational efforts focus on three distinct, but related, areas: the science of climate change, the human-climate interaction, and using climate education to promote informed decision making. Each of these approaches are represented in the Atlas of Science Literacy (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2007) and in the conceptual framework for science education developed at the National Research Council (NRC) in 2012. Instruction to develop these fundamental thinking skills (e.g., critical evaluation and plausibility reappraisal) has been called for by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) (Achieve, 2013), an innovative and research based way to address climate change education within the decentralized U.S. education system. However, the promise of the NGSS is that students will have more time to build mastery on the subjects, but the form of that instructional practice has been show to be critical. Research has show that effective instructional activities that promote evaluation of evidence improve students' understanding and acceptance toward the scientifically accepted model of human

  16. Plausible antioxidant biomechanics and anticonvulsant pharmacological activity of brain-targeted β-carotene nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf M

    2012-08-01

    general tonic–clonic seizures reduced significantly to 2.90 ± 0.98 seconds by the use of BCNP and was further reduced on P-80-BCNP to 1.20 ± 0.20 seconds as compared to PTZ control and PTZ-placebo control (8.09 ± 0.26 seconds. General tonic–clonic seizures latency was increased significantly to 191.0 ± 9.80 seconds in BCNP and was further increased in P-80-BCNP to 231.0 ± 16.30 seconds, as compared to PTZ (120.10 ± 4.50 seconds and placebo control (120.30 ± 7.4 seconds. The results of this study demonstrate a plausible novel anticonvulsant activity of β-carotene at a low dose of 2 mg/kg, with brain-targeted nanodelivery, thus increasing its bioavailability and stability.Keywords: anticonvulsant, blood–brain barrier (BBB, targeted brain delivery, polysorbate-80-coated β-carotene nanoparticles (P-80-BCNP, maximal electroshock seizure (MES, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ

  17. Vulnerabilities to agricultural production shocks: An extreme, plausible scenario for assessment of risk for the insurance sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Lunt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate risks pose a threat to the function of the global food system and therefore also a hazard to the global financial sector, the stability of governments, and the food security and health of the world’s population. This paper presents a method to assess plausible impacts of an agricultural production shock and potential materiality for global insurers. A hypothetical, near-term, plausible, extreme scenario was developed based upon modules of historical agricultural production shocks, linked under a warm phase El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO meteorological framework. The scenario included teleconnected floods and droughts in disparate agricultural production regions around the world, as well as plausible, extreme biotic shocks. In this scenario, global crop yield declines of 10% for maize, 11% for soy, 7% for wheat and 7% for rice result in quadrupled commodity prices and commodity stock fluctuations, civil unrest, significant negative humanitarian consequences and major financial losses worldwide. This work illustrates a need for the scientific community to partner across sectors and industries towards better-integrated global data, modeling and analytical capacities, to better respond to and prepare for concurrent agricultural failure. Governments, humanitarian organizations and the private sector collectively may recognize significant benefits from more systematic assessment of exposure to agricultural climate risk.

  18. Cruel intentions on television and in real life: can viewing indirect aggression increase viewers' subsequent indirect aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-07-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were shown an indirect, direct, or no-aggression video and their subsequent indirect aggression was measured by negative evaluation of a confederate and responses to a vignette. Participants viewing indirect or direct aggression gave a more negative evaluation of and less money to a confederate than participants viewing no-aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave less money to the confederate than those viewing direct aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave more indirectly aggressive responses to an ambiguous situation and participants viewing direct aggression gave more directly aggressive responses. This study provides the first evidence that viewing indirect aggression in the media can have an immediate impact on subsequent aggression.

  19. Preliminary Study on Plausible Reasoning in Chemistry Teaching of Senior Middle School%高中化学合情推理教学的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨健; 吴俊明; 骆红山

    2009-01-01

    合情推理(Plausible reasoning)对科学教育具重要意义.通过科学哲学、逻辑学讨论以及历史实例说明科学发现离不开合情推理,科学教育必须重视合情推理能力的培养,并对高中化学合情推理教学的可能性、对象和内容等问题进行了讨论.%Plausible reasoning is significant to science education. Scientific philosophy, logic and historical examples prove that plausible reasoning is indispensable to scientific discoveries,so science education must pay attention to the development of plausible reasoning ability of students. Moreover, it discusses the possibility, object and content of plausible reasoning teaching in chemistry of senior middle school.

  20. Time Spent in Indirect Nursing Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    WAIl TIME 9 741 5.3 5.3 1000 -.- *; ICTAL 13932 100.0 100.0 VALID CASES 13932 PI SSING CASES 0 18-G °. Table 10 Darnal1 TIME SPENT IN INDIRECT NURSING...91C 4 1668 180C 18.0 67.8 LPN 5 192 29 1 2.1 69.9 91B 91F 91G 6 1452 15.6 15.6 85.5 AIDE 7 762 8.2 8.2 93.7 WARD CLERK 8 582 6.3 6.3 100.0 ICTAL 9282...27o8 94.9 SATURDAY 7 168 5.1 .o1 100.0 ICTAL 3276 100.0 300.0 VALID CASES 3276 MISSING CASES 0 24-C Table 3 ’I" Ft Devens TIME SPENT IN INDIRECT

  1. Scalar Dark Matter: Direct vs. Indirect Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Duerr, Michael; Smirnov, Juri

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the simplest model for dark matter. In this context the dark matter candidate is a real scalar field which interacts with the Standard Model particles through the Higgs portal. We discuss the relic density constraints as well as the predictions for direct and indirect detection. The final state radiation processes are investigated in order to understand the visibility of the gamma lines from dark matter annihilation. We find two regions where one could observe the gamma lines at gamma-ray telescopes. We point out that the region where the dark matter mass is between 100 and 300 GeV can be tested in the near future at direct and indirect detection experiments.

  2. Direct or indirect - that is the question!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Time has passed since the prevention of caries was performed by extending cavity preparations wide in the tooth and below the gingiva. In the same period adhesive techniques have improved and nowadays made it possible to extend the indications for direct composite resin restorations, also when...... or crown is made. Factors as remaining tooth structure, endodontic treatment, number of teeth, caries risk, para-functional habits, material properties, economy etc. will all have an influence, when the dentist guides the patient to choose the best solution. What is best for the tooth – direct or indirect...... rather destroyed teeth need to be restored. Although much can be solved by direct fillings and thereby make treatments less invasive for the tooth and less expensive for the patient, there still will be teeth, where the prognosis is improved, if an indirect restoration in terms of an inlay, onlay...

  3. Real medical benefit assessed by indirect comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falissard, Bruno; Zylberman, Myriam; Cucherat, Michel; Izard, Valérie; Meyer, François

    2009-01-01

    Frequently, in data packages submitted for Marketing Approval to the CHMP, there is a lack of relevant head-to-head comparisons of medicinal products that could enable national authorities responsible for the approval of reimbursement to assess the Added Therapeutic Value (ASMR) of new clinical entities or line extensions of existing therapies.Indirect or mixed treatment comparisons (MTC) are methods stemming from the field of meta-analysis that have been designed to tackle this problem. Adjusted indirect comparisons, meta-regressions, mixed models, Bayesian network analyses pool results of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), enabling a quantitative synthesis.The REAL procedure, recently developed by the HAS (French National Authority for Health), is a mixture of an MTC and effect model based on expert opinions. It is intended to translate the efficacy observed in the trials into effectiveness expected in day-to-day clinical practice in France.

  4. Indirect emissions from biofuels: how important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, Jerry M; Reilly, John M; Kicklighter, David W; Gurgel, Angelo C; Cronin, Timothy W; Paltsev, Sergey; Felzer, Benjamin S; Wang, Xiaodong; Sokolov, Andrei P; Schlosser, C Adam

    2009-12-04

    A global biofuels program will lead to intense pressures on land supply and can increase greenhouse gas emissions from land-use changes. Using linked economic and terrestrial biogeochemistry models, we examined direct and indirect effects of possible land-use changes from an expanded global cellulosic bioenergy program on greenhouse gas emissions over the 21st century. Our model predicts that indirect land use will be responsible for substantially more carbon loss (up to twice as much) than direct land use; however, because of predicted increases in fertilizer use, nitrous oxide emissions will be more important than carbon losses themselves in terms of warming potential. A global greenhouse gas emissions policy that protects forests and encourages best practices for nitrogen fertilizer use can dramatically reduce emissions associated with biofuels production.

  5. Comment traduire en japonais les styles indirect et indirect libre de Madame Bovary ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisaki Sawasaki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Parmi les difficultés rencontrées lors de la traduction des textes littéraires occidentaux, en japonais, nous examinons le problème des styles indirect et indirect libre. Pour cela, en effectuant une petite mise au point grammaticale, nous comparons sept traductions de Madame Bovary de Gustave Flaubert, dont les dates de parution s’étendent sur une cinquantaine d’années. Cette période s’apparente, de notre point de vue, à un long itinéraire pour assimiler la notion occidentale des styles direct et indirect, tout en la conciliant avec les particularités du japonais. D’un autre côté, ce travail acharné des traducteurs a influencé quelque peu la langue japonaise. On trouve dans l’annexe tous les textes en japonais examinés.We will examine the difficulties met when translating Western literary texts in Japanese, in particular the problem of indirect and free indirect styles. We will define the grammatical issue and compare seven translations of Madame Bovary, published over a fifty year period. This time can be likened to a long path taken to digest the Western notion of direct and indirect styles, while reconciling it with Japanese language characteristics. On the other hand the translators’ relentless work has somewhat influenced the Japanese language. The annex will present all the Japanese texts examined.

  6. Measurements of mixing and indirect CP violation

    CERN Document Server

    Reichert, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    LHCb has collected the world's largest sample of charmed hadrons. This sample is used to measure the mixing parameters in the $D^0$-$\\bar{D}^0$ system and to search for indirect $CP$ violation. This contribution focuses on measurements of $A_{\\Gamma}$ with $D^*$ and semileptonic $B$ decays and on mixing measurements and a search for $CP$ violation in $D\\to K\\pi$ decays.

  7. Indirectness and Politeness in English Requests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周伟

    2014-01-01

    Foreign language teachers may have long observed learners’grammatically correct, yet situationally inappropriate ver-bal communication. To make sure they conduct speech acts appropriately, language learners should possess communicative skills and pragmatic competence. This paper addresses how to raise learners’pragmatic awareness through making requests in English. By exploring the verbal indirectness and politeness of requests, the paper aims to facilitate learners ’ability to make socially appro-priate utterances.

  8. Afghanistan, Counterinsurgency, and the Indirect Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    separation of Indirect and Direct brands of warfare is unrealistic. As SOCOM Commander Admiral Eric T. Olson noted, the two forms “are intertwined and...Islamic insurgent threat burst into the world’s eye with terrorist strikes in New York, Bali , Madrid, and many other cities. The exercises and more...military cooperation proved timely as the Islamic insurgent threat burst into the world’s eye with terrorist strikes in New York, Bali , Madrid, and

  9. Indirect Dark Matter Searches with MAGIC Telescopes

    OpenAIRE

    Satalecka, Konstancja; MAGIC Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years the indirect dark matter (DM) searches became a hot topic, with several experimental results showing hints of DM signal. The Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) telescopes are two $17$\\,m diameter Cherenkov telescopes, located on the Canary island La Palma (Spain). MAGIC carries out a broad DM search program, including observations of dwarf galaxies, galaxy clusters and other DM dominated objects. In these proceedings recent MAGIC results from this field ar...

  10. Direct and indirect mate choice on leks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saether, Stein Are; Baglo, Ragnhild; Fiske, Peder; Ekblom, Robert; Höglund, Jacob; Kålås, John Atle

    2005-08-01

    Indirect mate choice is any behavior that restricts the individual's set of potential mates without discrimination of mate attributes directly, for example, by having preferences about where to mate. We analyzed a 14-year data set from great snipe (Gallinago media) leks for evidence of indirect mate choice based on relative and absolute position of lek territories. We found little or no effect of the centrality of territories on mating and no between-year consistency in the spatial distribution of matings within leks. Instead, the probability of matings occurring at a particular site increased if the current territory owner had mated the previous year. Furthermore, individual females returned in later seasons to mate with the same male as previously rather than at the same site. Previous work found that male interactions and dominance do not control matings and that females are very choosy about which territory they mate in. Here we show that this is because of the male occupying the territory rather than its position. We therefore conclude that direct female mate choice is the main behavioral process affecting variation in mating success among great snipe males, unlike in some lekking mammals where male competition and/or indirect mate choice appears more important.

  11. Discovering relations between indirectly connected biomedical concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenborn, Dirk; Schroeder, Michael; Tsatsaronis, George

    2015-01-01

    The complexity and scale of the knowledge in the biomedical domain has motivated research work towards mining heterogeneous data from both structured and unstructured knowledge bases. Towards this direction, it is necessary to combine facts in order to formulate hypotheses or draw conclusions about the domain concepts. This work addresses this problem by using indirect knowledge connecting two concepts in a knowledge graph to discover hidden relations between them. The graph represents concepts as vertices and relations as edges, stemming from structured (ontologies) and unstructured (textual) data. In this graph, path patterns, i.e. sequences of relations, are mined using distant supervision that potentially characterize a biomedical relation. It is possible to identify characteristic path patterns of biomedical relations from this representation using machine learning. For experimental evaluation two frequent biomedical relations, namely "has target", and "may treat", are chosen. Results suggest that relation discovery using indirect knowledge is possible, with an AUC that can reach up to 0.8, a result which is a great improvement compared to the random classification, and which shows that good predictions can be prioritized by following the suggested approach. Analysis of the results indicates that the models can successfully learn expressive path patterns for the examined relations. Furthermore, this work demonstrates that the constructed graph allows for the easy integration of heterogeneous information and discovery of indirect connections between biomedical concepts.

  12. Indirect Comprehensive Review Board (ICRB). Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) used a systems engineering approach to take the first step toward defining a requirements baseline for all indirect work at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The intent of this effort was to define the requirements for indirect work, identify the activities necessary to meet the requirements, and to produce defensible cost estimates for the work. The result of this effort is a scrubbed-down, defensible budget for all indirect work in FY 1997. Buying power for each dollar of direct work was increased by $.02. Recommendations are identified for improvements to this process in FY 1998. The purpose of this report is twofold. First is to report the final results of the 1996 ICRB process, and second is to document the process used such that incremental improvements may be made in future years. Objectives, processes, and approaches are described to provide a trail for future boards. Appendices contain copies of board composition, documentation of the process, as well as the actual training materials.

  13. Spatially indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Chih-Wei Eddy [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-03-01

    Microscopic quantum phenomena such as interference or phase coherence between different quantum states are rarely manifest in macroscopic systems due to a lack of significant correlation between different states. An exciton system is one candidate for observation of possible quantum collective effects. In the dilute limit, excitons in semiconductors behave as bosons and are expected to undergo Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) at a temperature several orders of magnitude higher than for atomic BEC because of their light mass. Furthermore, well-developed modern semiconductor technologies offer flexible manipulations of an exciton system. Realization of BEC in solid-state systems can thus provide new opportunities for macroscopic quantum coherence research. In semiconductor coupled quantum wells (CQW) under across-well static electric field, excitons exist as separately confined electron-hole pairs. These spatially indirect excitons exhibit a radiative recombination time much longer than their thermal relaxation time a unique feature in direct band gap semiconductor based structures. Their mutual repulsive dipole interaction further stabilizes the exciton system at low temperature and screens in-plane disorder more effectively. All these features make indirect excitons in CQW a promising system to search for quantum collective effects. Properties of indirect excitons in CQW have been analyzed and investigated extensively. The experimental results based on time-integrated or time-resolved spatially-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and imaging are reported in two categories. (i) Generic indirect exciton systems: general properties of indirect excitons such as the dependence of exciton energy and lifetime on electric fields and densities were examined. (ii) Quasi-two-dimensional confined exciton systems: highly statistically degenerate exciton systems containing more than tens of thousands of excitons within areas as small as (10 micrometer)2 were

  14. Indirect associations between multiple items and a mining algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Min; Xu Xiaofei; Deng Shengchun

    2005-01-01

    Indirect association is a high level relationship between items and frequent itemsets in data. Current research approaches on indirect association mining are limited to indirect association between itempairs, which will discovertoo many rules from dataset. A formal definition of indirect association between multiple items is presented, along with an algorithm, SET-NIA,for mining this kind of indirect associations based on anti-monotonicity of indirect associations and frequent itempair support matrix. While the found rules contain same information as compared to the rules found by indirect association between itempairs mining algorithms, this notion brings space-saving in storage ofthe rules as well as superiority for human to understand and apply the rules. Experiments conducted on two real-word datasets show that SET-NIA can effectively find fewer rules than existing algorithms which mine indirect association between itempairs, the experimental results also prove that SET-NIA has better performance than existing algorithms.

  15. Direct or indirect - that is the question!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Time has passed since the prevention of caries was performed by extending cavity preparations wide in the tooth and below the gingiva. In the same period adhesive techniques have improved and nowadays made it possible to extend the indications for direct composite resin restorations, also when...... rather destroyed teeth need to be restored. Although much can be solved by direct fillings and thereby make treatments less invasive for the tooth and less expensive for the patient, there still will be teeth, where the prognosis is improved, if an indirect restoration in terms of an inlay, onlay...

  16. Indirect quantum tomography of quadratic Hamiltonians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgarth, Daniel [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom); Maruyama, Koji; Nori, Franco, E-mail: daniel@burgarth.de, E-mail: kmaruyama@riken.jp [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    A number of many-body problems can be formulated using Hamiltonians that are quadratic in the creation and annihilation operators. Here, we show how such quadratic Hamiltonians can be efficiently estimated indirectly, employing very few resources. We found that almost all the properties of the Hamiltonian are determined by its surface and that these properties can be measured even if the system can only be initialized to a mixed state. Therefore, our method can be applied to various physical models, with important examples including coupled nano-mechanical oscillators, hopping fermions in optical lattices and transverse Ising chains.

  17. A Note on Unified Statistics Including Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein, and Tsallis Statistics, and Plausible Extension to Anisotropic Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christianto V.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In the light of some recent hypotheses suggesting plausible unification of thermostatistics where Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein and Tsallis statistics become its special subsets, we consider further plausible extension to include non-integer Hausdorff dimension, which becomes realization of fractal entropy concept. In the subsequent section, we also discuss plausible extension of this unified statistics to include anisotropic effect by using quaternion oscillator, which may be observed in the context of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. Further observation is of course recommended in order to refute or verify this proposition.

  18. Indirect inference with time series observed with error

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Eduardo; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    We analyze the properties of the indirect inference estimator when the observed series are contaminated by measurement error. We show that the indirect inference estimates are asymptotically biased when the nuisance parameters of the measurement error distribution are neglected in the indirect...... to estimate the parameters of continuous-time stochastic volatility models with auxiliary specifications based on realized volatility measures. Monte Carlo simulations shows the bias reduction of the indirect estimates obtained when the microstructure noise is explicitly modeled. Finally, an empirical...

  19. THE INDIRECT OBJECT (IO) – ALBANIAN AND ENGLISH

    OpenAIRE

    Shkelqim Millaku; Xhevahire Topanica

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is too corporate the function of the indirect object between Albanian and English language. The function and the Albanian typical case for indirect object are dative and ablative. This grammatical phenomena is the full contrast between two languages because in English language doesn’t exist dative and ablative us in Albanian. In Albanian and English language, the indirect object is more heterogenic than the direct object. The indirect (direct) object in both of languages...

  20. System markets: Indirect network effects in action, or inaction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.G. Binken (Jeroen)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation, I empirically examine system markets up close. More specifically I examine indirect network effects, both demand-side and supply-side indirect network effects. Indirect network effects are the source of positive feedback in system markets, or so network effect

  1. System markets: Indirect network effects in action, or inaction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.G. Binken (Jeroen)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation, I empirically examine system markets up close. More specifically I examine indirect network effects, both demand-side and supply-side indirect network effects. Indirect network effects are the source of positive feedback in system markets, or so network effect theo

  2. 21 CFR 870.3640 - Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer... Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer is an electrically powered device that is used to determine pacemaker function or...

  3. Cooperation under indirect reciprocity and imitative trust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei Saavedra

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors.

  4. Cooperation under indirect reciprocity and imitative trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Smith, David; Reed-Tsochas, Felix

    2010-10-27

    Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating) does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors.

  5. Bioechnology of indirect liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, R.; Jain, M.K.; Worden, R.M.; Grethlein, A.J.; Soni, B.; Zeikus, J.G.; Grethlein, H.

    1990-05-07

    The project on biotechnology of indirect liquefaction was focused on conversion of coal derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels using a two-stage, acidogenic and solventogenic, anaerobic bioconversion process. The acidogenic fermentation used a novel and versatile organism, Butyribacterium methylotrophicum, which was fully capable of using CO as the sole carbon and energy source for organic acid production. In extended batch CO fermentations the organism was induced to produce butyrate at the expense of acetate at low pH values. Long-term, steady-state operation was achieved during continuous CO fermentations with this organism, and at low pH values (a pH of 6.0 or less) minor amounts of butanol and ethanol were produced. During continuous, steady-state fermentations of CO with cell recycle, concentrations of mixed acids and alcohols were achieved (approximately 12 g/l and 2 g/l, respectively) which are high enough for efficient conversion in stage two of the indirect liquefaction process. The metabolic pathway to produce 4-carbon alcohols from CO was a novel discovery and is believed to be unique to our CO strain of B. methylotrophicum. In the solventogenic phase, the parent strain ATCC 4259 of Clostridium acetobutylicum was mutagenized using nitrosoguanidine and ethyl methane sulfonate. The E-604 mutant strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum showed improved characteristics as compared to parent strain ATCC 4259 in batch fermentation of carbohydrates.

  6. Indirect and direct search for dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasen, M.; Pohl, M.; Sigl, G.

    2015-11-01

    The majority of the matter in the universe is still unidentified and under investigation by both direct and indirect means. Many experiments searching for the recoil of dark-matter particles off target nuclei in underground laboratories have established increasingly strong constraints on the mass and scattering cross sections of weakly interacting particles, and some have even seen hints at a possible signal. Other experiments search for a possible mixing of photons with light scalar or pseudo-scalar particles that could also constitute dark matter. Furthermore, annihilation or decay of dark matter can contribute to charged cosmic rays, photons at all energies, and neutrinos. Many existing and future ground-based and satellite experiments are sensitive to such signals. Finally, data from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN are scrutinized for missing energy as a signature of new weakly interacting particles that may be related to dark matter. In this review article we summarize the status of the field with an emphasis on the complementarity between direct detection in dedicated laboratory experiments, indirect detection in the cosmic radiation, and searches at particle accelerators.

  7. Ionic liquid pretreatment of biomass for sugars production: Driving factors with a plausible mechanism for higher enzymatic digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Tirath; Gaur, Ruchi; Dixit, Pooja; Gupta, Ravi P; Kagdiyal, V; Kumar, Ravindra; Tuli, Deepak K

    2016-09-20

    In this study, five ionic liquids (ILs) have been explored for biomass pretreatment for the production of fermentable sugar. We also investigated the driving factors responsible for improved enzymatic digestibility of various ILs treated biomass along with postulating the plausible mechanism thereof. Post pretreatment, mainly two factors impacted the enzymatic digestibility (i) structural deformation (cellulose I to II) along with xylan/lignin removal and (ii) properties of ILs; wherein, K-T parameters, viscosity and surface tension had a direct influence on pretreatment. A systematic investigation of these parameters and their impact on enzymatic digestibility is drawn. [C2mim][OAc] with β-value 1.32 resulted 97.7% of glucose yield using 10 FPU/g of biomass. A closer insight into the cellulose structural transformation has prompted a plausible mechanism explaining the better digestibility. The impact of these parameters on the digestibility can pave the way to customize the process to make biomass vulnerable to enzymatic attack.

  8. Antimicrobial drug use in Austrian pig farms: plausibility check of electronic on-farm records and estimation of consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauffler, M; Griesbacher, A; Fuchs, K; Köfer, J

    2014-10-25

    Electronic drug application records from farmers from 75 conventional pig farms were revised and checked for their plausibility. The registered drug amounts were verified by comparing the farmers' records with veterinarians' dispensary records. The antimicrobial consumption was evaluated from 2008 to 2011 and expressed in weight of active substance(s), number of used daily doses (nUDD), number of animal daily doses (nADD) and number of product-related daily doses (nPrDD). All results were referred to one year and animal bodyweight (kg biomass). The data plausibility proof revealed about 14 per cent of unrealistic drug amount entries in the farmers' records. The annual antimicrobial consumption was 33.9 mg/kg/year, 4.9 UDDkg/kg/year, 1.9 ADDkg/kg/year and 2.5 PrDDkg/kg/year (average). Most of the antimicrobials were applied orally (86 per cent) and at group-level. Main therapy indications were metaphylactic/prophylactic measures (farrow-to-finish and fattening farms) or digestive tract diseases (breeding farms). The proportion of the 'highest priority critically important antimicrobials' was low (12 per cent). After determination of a threshold value, farms with a high antimicrobial use could be detected. Statistical tests showed that the veterinarian had an influence on the dosage, the therapy indication and the active substance. Orally administered antimicrobials were mostly underdosed, parenterally administered antimicrobials rather correctly or overdosed.

  9. Cruel Intentions on Television and in Real Life: Can Viewing Indirect Aggression Increase Viewers' Subsequent Indirect Aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M.; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were…

  10. Social cognition of indirect speech: Evidence from Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Patrick; Holtgraves, Thomas; Durso, Raymon; Harris, Erica

    2010-03-01

    We examined potential neurocognitive mechanisms of indirect speech in support of face management in 28 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 32 elderly controls with chronic disease. In experiment 1, we demonstrated automatic activation of indirect meanings of particularized implicatures in controls but not in PD patients. Failure to automatically engage comprehension of indirect meanings of indirect speech acts in PD patients was correlated with a measure of prefrontal dysfunction. In experiment 2, we showed that while PD patients and controls offered similar interpretations of indirect speech acts, PD participants were overly confident in their interpretations and unaware of errors of interpretation. Efficient reputational adjustment mechanisms apparently require intact striatal-prefrontal networks.

  11. Plausibility, necessity and identity: A logic of relative plausibility%似然性、必然性和恒等:一种相对似然性逻辑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小五; 文学锋

    2007-01-01

    构造一个希尔伯特型的系统RPL, 来刻画由J·哈尔彭提出的似然性测度概念, 证明RPL相对一个邻域型语义是可靠和完全的.运用表述RPL的语言, 证明它可以定义已经得到深入研究的必然性、条件句和命题恒等这样的概念.%We construct a Hilbert style system RPL for the notion of plausibility measure introduced by Halpern J, and we prove the soundness and completeness with respect to a neighborhood style semantics.Using the language of RPL, we demonstrate that it can define well-studied notions of necessity,conditionals and propositional identity.

  12. Alpha indirect conversion radioisotope power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sychov, Maxim [TRACE Photonics Inc., 1680 West Polk, Charleston, IL 61920 (United States)], E-mail: msychov@yahoo.com; Kavetsky, Alexandr; Yakubova, Galina; Walter, Gabriel; Yousaf, Shahid; Lin, Qian; Chan, Doris; Socarras, Heather; Bower, Kenneth [TRACE Photonics Inc., 1680 West Polk, Charleston, IL 61920 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Advantages of radioisotope-powered electric generators include long service life, wide temperature range operation and high-energy density. We report development of a long-life generator based on indirect conversion of alpha decay energy. Prototyping used 300 mCi Pu-238 alpha emitter and AlGaAs photovoltaic cells designed for low light intensity conditions. The alpha emitter, phosphor screens, and voltaic arrays were assembled into a power source with the following characteristics: I{sub sc}=14 {mu}A; U{sub oc}=2.3 V; power output -21 {mu}W. Using this prototype we have powered an eight-digit electronic calculator and wrist watch.

  13. Importance of direct and indirect triggered seismicity

    CERN Document Server

    Helmstetter, A; Helmstetter, Agnes; Sornette, Didier

    2003-01-01

    Using the simple ETAS branching model of seismicity, which assumes that each earthquake can trigger other earthquakes, we quantify the role played by the cascade of triggered seismicity in controlling the rate of aftershock decay as well as in the overall level of seismicity in the presence of a constant external seismicity source. We show that, in this model, the proportion of triggered seismicity is equal to the proportion of secondary plus later-generation aftershocks, and is given by the average number of triggered events per earthquake. Based on these results and on the observation that a large fraction of seismicity are triggered earthquakes, we conclude that similarly a large fraction of aftershocks occurring a few hours or days after a mainshock are triggered indirectly by the mainshock.

  14. Editorial on indirect excitons: Physics and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This special issue contains 9 original review papers, research papers and discussion papers on indirect excitons. An exciton is a Coulomb-correlated electron-hole pair. Frenkel excitons dominate optical properties of organic semiconductors, while Wannier-Mott excitons are responsible for the hydrogen-like absorption spectra of inorganic semiconductors at low temperatures. The interest to the physics of excitons has strongly increased in the new century. This interest is motivated by unique bosonic properties of excitons that lead to the phenomena of exciton-polariton lasing and stimulated scattering, build-up of the spontaneous coherence and polarisation in cold exciton gases. In addition to the rich fundamental physics, excitons offer the perspective of applications in opto-electronic devices such as exciton transistors, switches, optical integrated circuits, etc.

  15. Indirect and direct search for dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Klasen, Michael; Sigl, Günter

    2015-01-01

    The majority of the matter in the universe is still unidentified and under investigation by both direct and indirect means. Many experiments searching for the recoil of dark-matter particles off target nuclei in underground laboratories have established increasingly strong constraints on the mass and scattering cross sections of weakly interacting particles, and some have even seen hints at a possible signal. Other experiments search for a possible mixing of photons with light scalar or pseudo-scalar particles that could also constitute dark matter. Furthermore, annihilation or decay of dark matter can contribute to charged cosmic rays, photons at all energies, and neutrinos. Many existing and future ground-based and satellite experiments are sensitive to such signals. Finally, data from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN are scrutinized for missing energy as a signature of new weakly interacting particles that may be related to dark matter. In this review article we summarize the status of the field with an e...

  16. Indirect Collider Signals for Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Hewett, J L

    1999-01-01

    A recent suggestion that quantum gravity may become strong near the weak scale has several testable consequences. In addition to probing for the new large (submillimeter) extra dimensions associated with these theories via gravitational experiments, one could search for the Kaluza Klein towers of massive gravitons which are predicted in these models and which can interact with the fields of the Standard Model. Here we examine the indirect effects of these massive gravitons being exchanged in fermion pair production in \\epem\\ annihilation and Drell-Yan production at hadron colliders. In the latter case, we examine a novel feature of this theory, which is the contribution of gluon gluon initiated processes to lepton pair production. We find that these processes provide strong bounds, up to several TeV, on the string scale which are essentially independent of the number of extra dimensions. In addition, we analyze the angular distributions for fermion pair production with spin-2 graviton exchanges and demonstrat...

  17. Indirect determinations of the top quark mass

    CERN Document Server

    Giudice, Gian F; Strumia, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    We give a complete analysis of indirect determinations of the top quark mass in the Standard Model by introducing a systematic procedure to identify observables that receive quantum corrections enhanced by powers of $M_t$. We propose to use flavour physics as a tool to extract the top quark mass. Although present data give only a poor determination, we show how future theoretical and experimental progress in flavour physics can lead to an accuracy in $M_t$ well below 2 GeV. We revisit determinations of $M_t$ from electroweak data, showing how an improved measurement of the $W$ mass leads to an accuracy well below 1 GeV.

  18. Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture and Food Security in 2050 under a Range of Plausible Socioeconomic and Emissions Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, K.; Lotze-Campen, H.; Bodirsky, B.; Kavallari, A.; Mason-d'Croz, D.; van der Mensbrugghe, D.; Robinson, S.; Sands, R.; Tabeau, A.; Willenbockel, D.; Islam, S.; van Meijl, H.; Mueller, C.; Robertson, R.

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have combined climate, crop and economic models to examine the impact of climate change on agricultural production and food security, but results have varied widely due to differences in models, scenarios and data. Recent work has examined (and narrowed) these differences through systematic model intercomparison using a high-emissions pathway to highlight the differences. New work extends that analysis to cover a range of plausible socioeconomic scenarios and emission pathways. Results from three general circulation models are combined with one crop model and five global economic models to examine the global and regional impacts of climate change on yields, area, production, prices and trade for coarse grains, rice, wheat, oilseeds and sugar to 2050. Results show that yield impacts vary with changes in population, income and technology as well as emissions, but are reduced in all cases by endogenous changes in prices and other variables.

  19. Gene-ontology enrichment analysis in two independent family-based samples highlights biologically plausible processes for autism spectrum disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anney, Richard J L

    2012-02-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated a range of genes from discrete biological pathways in the aetiology of autism. However, despite the strong influence of genetic factors, association studies have yet to identify statistically robust, replicated major effect genes or SNPs. We apply the principle of the SNP ratio test methodology described by O\\'Dushlaine et al to over 2100 families from the Autism Genome Project (AGP). Using a two-stage design we examine association enrichment in 5955 unique gene-ontology classifications across four groupings based on two phenotypic and two ancestral classifications. Based on estimates from simulation we identify excess of association enrichment across all analyses. We observe enrichment in association for sets of genes involved in diverse biological processes, including pyruvate metabolism, transcription factor activation, cell-signalling and cell-cycle regulation. Both genes and processes that show enrichment have previously been examined in autistic disorders and offer biologically plausibility to these findings.

  20. The role of adverse childhood experiences in cardiovascular disease risk: a review with emphasis on plausible mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shaoyong; Jimenez, Marcia P; Roberts, Cole T F; Loucks, Eric B

    2015-10-01

    Childhood adversity, characterized by abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction, is a problem that exerts a significant impact on individuals, families, and society. Growing evidence suggests that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with health decline in adulthood, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the current review, we first provide an overview of the association between ACEs and CVD risk, with updates on the latest epidemiological evidence. Second, we briefly review plausible pathways by which ACEs could influence CVD risk, including traditional risk factors and novel mechanisms. Finally, we highlight the potential implications of ACEs in clinical and public health. Information gleaned from this review should help physicians and researchers in better understanding potential long-term consequences of ACEs and considering adapting current strategies in treatment or intervention for patients with ACEs.

  1. A hitherto undescribed case of cerebellar ataxia as the sole presentation of thyrotoxicosis in a young man: a plausible association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhadd, Tarik Abdelkareim; Linton, Kathryn; McCoy, Caoihme; Saha, Subrata; Holden, Roger

    2014-01-01

    A 16-year-old male presented to hospital following an episode of unusual behavior on the football pitch, where he was witnessed as grossly ataxic by his teammates. The assessment demonstrated marked cerebellar signs on examination but no other neurological deficit. The investigation showed the evidence of biochemical thyrotoxicosis with free T4 at 37 pmol/L (normal reference range: 11-27) and thyrotropin (TSH) plausible because alternative etiologies were excluded, and the normalization of thyroid function with treatment was coupled with complete resolution of the neurological syndrome. Cerebellar syndromes may well be one of the presenting features of thyrotoxicosis, and this should be in the list of its differential diagnosis.

  2. Influence of the Aqueous Environment on Protein Structure—A Plausible Hypothesis Concerning the Mechanism of Amyloidogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Roterman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous environment is a pervasive factor which, in many ways, determines the protein folding process and consequently the activity of proteins. Proteins are unable to perform their function unless immersed in water (membrane proteins excluded from this statement. Tertiary conformational stabilization is dependent on the presence of internal force fields (nonbonding interactions between atoms, as well as an external force field generated by water. The hitherto the unknown structuralization of water as the aqueous environment may be elucidated by analyzing its effects on protein structure and function. Our study is based on the fuzzy oil drop model—a mechanism which describes the formation of a hydrophobic core and attempts to explain the emergence of amyloid-like fibrils. A set of proteins which vary with respect to their fuzzy oil drop status (including titin, transthyretin and a prion protein have been selected for in-depth analysis to suggest the plausible mechanism of amyloidogenesis.

  3. NIA2: A fast indirect association mining algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Min; XU Xiao-fei; DENG Sheng-chun; WEN Xiao-xian

    2005-01-01

    Indirect association is a high level relationship between items and frequent item sets in data. There are many potential applications for indirect associations, such as database marketing, intelligent data analysis,web - log analysis, recommended system, etc. Existing indirect association mining algorithms are mostly based on the notion of post - processing of discovery of frequent item sets. In the mining process, all frequent item sets need to be generated first, and then they are filtered and joined to form indirect associations. We have presented an indirect association mining algorithm (NIA) based on anti - monotonicity of indirect associations whereas k candidate indirect associations can be generated directly from k - 1 candidate indirect associations,without all frequent item sets generated. We also use the frequent itempair support matrix to reduce the time and memory space needed by the algorithm. In this paper, a novel algorithm (NIA2) is introduced based on the generation of indirect association patterns between itempairs through one item mediator sets from frequent itempair support matrix. A notion of mediator set support threshold is also presented. NIA2 mines indirect association patterns directly from the dataset, without generating all frequent item sets. The frequent itempair support matrix and the notion of using tm as the support threshold for mediator sets can significantly reduce the cost of joint operations and the search process compared with existing algorithms. Results of experiments on a realword web log dataset have proved NIA2 one order of magnitude faster than existing algorithms.

  4. Charting plausible futures for diabetes prevalence in the United States: a role for system dynamics simulation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstein, Bobby; Jones, Andrew; Homer, Jack B; Murphy, Dara; Essien, Joyce; Seville, Don

    2007-07-01

    Healthy People 2010 (HP 2010) objectives call for a 38% reduction in the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes mellitus, type 1 and type 2, by the year 2010. The process for setting this objective, however, did not focus on the achievability or the compatibility of this objective with other national public health objectives. We used a dynamic simulation model to explore plausible trajectories for diabetes prevalence in the wake of rising levels of obesity in the U.S. population. The model helps to interpret historic trends in diabetes prevalence in the United States and to anticipate plausible future trends through 2010. We conducted simulation experiments using a computer model of diabetes population dynamics to 1) track the rates at which people develop diabetes, are diagnosed with the disease, and die, and 2) assess the effects of various preventive-care interventions. System dynamics modeling methodology based on data from multiple sources guided the analyses. With the number of new cases of diabetes being much greater than the number of deaths among those with the disease, the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in the United States is likely to continue to increase. Even a 29% reduction in the number of new cases (the HP 2010 objective) would only slow the growth, not reverse it. Increased diabetes detection rates or decreased mortality rates--also HP 2010 objectives--would further increase diagnosed prevalence. The HP 2010 objective for reducing diabetes prevalence is unattainable given the historical processes that are affecting incidence, diagnosis, and mortality, and even a zero-growth future is unlikely. System dynamics modeling shows why interventions to protect against chronic diseases have only gradual effects on their diagnosed prevalence.

  5. Direct and indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter; Detection directe et indirecte de matiere sombre supersymetrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayet, F

    2001-09-01

    A substantial body of astrophysical evidence supports the existence of non-baryonic dark matter in the universe. One of the leading dark matter candidates is the neutralino predicted by the supersymmetric extensions of the standard model of particle physics. Different detectors have been designed for the detection, either indirect or direct, of the neutralino. Related to indirect detection, the present work has been performed in the context of the AMS experiment. A precursor version of the spectrometer was flown on the space shuttle Discovery in June 1998. The detector included an Aerogel Threshold Cherenkov counter (ATC) to identify antiprotons, whose spectrum may be used to infer a neutralino signal. The analysis of the ATC data is presented including an evaluation of the flight performance and a description of the optimization of the antiproton selection. An antiproton analysis is also reported. A phenomenological study allows us to investigate the discovery potential of this indirect method. This thesis also includes the development of a new detector (MACHe3) designed for direct neutralino search using a superfluid {sup 3}He bolometer operated at ultra low temperatures. The data analysis of the prototype cell is presented. A Monte Carlo simulation has been developed, in order to optimize the detector design for direct neutralino search. These results are compared with theoretical predictions of supersymmetric models, thus highlighting the discovery potential of this detector and its complementarity with existing devices. (author)

  6. Direct and indirect punishment among strangers in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Nikiforakis, Nikos; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2014-11-11

    Many interactions in modern human societies are among strangers. Explaining cooperation in such interactions is challenging. The two most prominent explanations critically depend on individuals' willingness to punish defectors: In models of direct punishment, individuals punish antisocial behavior at a personal cost, whereas in models of indirect reciprocity, they punish indirectly by withholding rewards. We investigate these competing explanations in a field experiment with real-life interactions among strangers. We find clear evidence of both direct and indirect punishment. Direct punishment is not rewarded by strangers and, in line with models of indirect reciprocity, is crowded out by indirect punishment opportunities. The existence of direct and indirect punishment in daily life indicates the importance of both means for understanding the evolution of cooperation.

  7. Indirect effects of tending ants on holm oak volatiles and acorn quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Carolina I; Llusia, Joan; Peñuelas, Josep

    2011-04-01

    The indirect effect of ants on plants through their mutualism with honeydew-producing insects has been extensively investigated. Honeydew-producing insects that are tended by ants impose a cost on plant fitness and health by reducing seed production and/or plant growth. This cost is associated with sap intake and virus transmissions but may be overcompesated by tending ants if they deter or prey on hebivorous insects. The balance between cost and benefits depends on the tending ant species. In this study we report other indirect effects on plants of the mutualism between aphids and ants. We have found that two Lasius ant species, one native and the other invasive, may change the composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the holm oak (Quercus ilex) blend when they tend the aphid Lachnus roboris. The aphid regulation of its feeding and honeydew production according to the ant demands was proposed as a plausible mechanism that triggers changes in VOCs. Additionally, we now report here that aphid feeding, which is located most of the time on acorns cap or petiole, significantly increased the relative content of linolenic acid in acorns from holm oak colonized by the invasive ant. This acid is involved in the response of plants to insect herbivory as a precursor or jasmonic acid. No effect was found on acorn production, germination or seedlings quality. These results suggest that tending-ants may trigger the physiological response of holm oaks involved in plant resistance toward aphid herbivory and this response is ant species dependant.

  8. Indirect blood pressure measurement: a need to reassess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, F D; Cunningham, S G; Maloney, J P

    1993-07-01

    Indirect blood pressure measurement is the assessment tool used most frequently in epidemiological studies and hypertension management in the population at large. To review indirect blood pressure measurement within the context of nursing practice. Nurses are not following recommended American Heart Association measurement guidelines. A national program of certification in indirect blood pressure measurement, similar to that of basic and advanced cardiac life support, is needed. An initial approach to evaluating present practice is also suggested.

  9. Bioelectrochemical Systems for Indirect Biohydrogen Production

    KAUST Repository

    Regan, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems involve the use of exoelectrogenic (i.e., anode-reducing) microbes to produce current in conjunction with the oxidation of reduced compounds. This current can be used directly for power in a microbial fuel cell, but there are alternate uses of this current. One such alternative is the production of hydrogen in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC), which accomplishes cathodic proton reduction with a slight applied potential by exploiting the low redox potential produced by exoelectrogens at the anode. As an indirect approach to biohydrogen production, these systems are not subject to the hydrogen yield constraints of fermentative processes and have been proven to work with virtually any biodegradable organic substrate. With continued advancements in reactor design to reduce the system internal resistance, increase the specific surface area for anode biofilm development, and decrease the material costs, MECs may emerge as a viable alternative technology for biohydrogen production. Moreover, these systems can also incorporate other value-added functionalities for applications in waste treatment, desalination, and bioremediation.

  10. Spherical cows in dark matter indirect detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Nicolás; Necib, Lina; Slatyer, Tracy R.

    2016-12-01

    Dark matter (DM) halos have long been known to be triaxial, but in studies of possible annihilation and decay signals they are often treated as approximately spherical. In this work, we examine the asymmetry of potential indirect detection signals of DM annihilation and decay, exploiting the large statistics of the hydrodynamic simulation Illustris. We carefully investigate the effects of the baryons on the sphericity of annihilation and decay signals for both the case where the observer is at 8.5 kpc from the center of the halo (exemplified in the case of Milky Way-like halos), and for an observer situated well outside the halo. In the case of Galactic signals, we find that both annihilation and decay signals are expected to be quite symmetric, with axis ratios very different from 1 occurring rarely. In the case of extragalactic signals, while decay signals are still preferentially spherical, the axis ratio for annihilation signals has a much flatter distribution, with elongated profiles appearing frequently. Many of these elongated profiles are due to large subhalos and/or recent mergers. Comparing to gamma-ray emission from the Milky Way and X-ray maps of clusters, we find that the gamma-ray background appears less spherical/more elongated than the expected DM signal from the large majority of halos, and the Galactic gamma ray excess appears very spherical, while the X-ray data would be difficult to distinguish from a DM signal by elongation/sphericity measurements alone.

  11. Indirect land use change and biofuel policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocoloski, Matthew; Griffin, W. Michael; Matthews, H. Scott

    2009-09-01

    Biofuel debates often focus heavily on carbon emissions, with parties arguing for (or against) biofuels solely on the basis of whether the greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels are less than (or greater than) those of gasoline. Recent studies argue that land use change leads to significant greenhouse gas emissions, making some biofuels more carbon intensive than gasoline. We argue that evaluating the suitability and utility of biofuels or any alternative energy source within the limited framework of plus and minus carbon emissions is too narrow an approach. Biofuels have numerous impacts, and policy makers should seek compromises rather than relying solely on carbon emissions to determine policy. Here, we estimate that cellulosic ethanol, despite having potentially higher life cycle CO2 emissions (including from land use) than gasoline, would still be cost-effective at a CO2 price of 80 per ton or less, well above estimated CO2 mitigation costs for many alternatives. As an example of the broader approach to biofuel policy, we suggest the possibility of using the potential cost reductions of cellulosic ethanol relative to gasoline to balance out additional carbon emissions resulting from indirect land use change as an example of ways in which policies could be used to arrive at workable solutions.

  12. Theoretical research on color indirect effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T. C.; Liao, Changjun; Liu, Songhao

    1995-05-01

    Color indirect effects (CIE) means the physiological and psychological effects of color resulting from color vision. In this paper, we study CIE from the viewpoints of the integrated western and Chinese traditional medicine and the time quantum theory established by C. Y. Liu et al., respectively, and then put forward the color-automatic-nervous-subsystem model that could color excites parasympathetic subsystem and hot color excites sympathetic subsystem. Our theory is in agreement with modern color vision theory, and moreover, it leads to the resolution of the conflict between the color code theory and the time code theory oncolor vision. For the latitude phenomena on athlete stars number and the average lifespan, we also discuss the possibility of UV vision. The applications of our theory lead to our succeeding in explaining a number of physiological and psychological effects of color, in explaining the effects of age on color vision, and in explaining the Chinese chromophototherapy. We also discuss its application to neuroimmunology. This research provides the foundation of the clinical applications of chromophototherapy.

  13. An Automatic Indirect Immunofluorescence Cell Segmentation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Kuan Chan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF with HEp-2 cells has been used for the detection of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA in systemic autoimmune diseases. The ANA testing allows us to scan a broad range of autoantibody entities and to describe them by distinct fluorescence patterns. Automatic inspection for fluorescence patterns in an IIF image can assist physicians, without relevant experience, in making correct diagnosis. How to segment the cells from an IIF image is essential in developing an automatic inspection system for ANA testing. This paper focuses on the cell detection and segmentation; an efficient method is proposed for automatically detecting the cells with fluorescence pattern in an IIF image. Cell culture is a process in which cells grow under control. Cell counting technology plays an important role in measuring the cell density in a culture tank. Moreover, assessing medium suitability, determining population doubling times, and monitoring cell growth in cultures all require a means of quantifying cell population. The proposed method also can be used to count the cells from an image taken under a fluorescence microscope.

  14. Establishment of indirect immunofluorescence assay for rotavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, J; Zhang, J; Liu, X; Jin, H; Jiang, C; Yin, Y

    2016-03-01

    Rotavirus infection is the most frequent cause of infantile gastroenteritis worldwide and a significant cause of death in infants and young children, following severe diarrhea and dehydration. Rotavirus vaccines are considered the most effective way to prevent rotavirus infections. In the process of developing rotavirus vaccines, it is crucial to establish a reliable and standardized method to determine vaccine titer. In this study, we developed an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) to determine the infectious titer of Lanzhou lamb rotavirus (LLR) vaccine grown in MA104 cells. The activating concentration of trypsin was 1 µg/ml for healthy monolayers of MA104 cells at 100% confluence. After incubation for 18 hr, a rabbit anti-SA11 polyclonal antibody, diluted at 1:800 in PBS, was added to all wells, followed by an Alexa-488-conjugated secondary antibody diluted at 1:500 in PBS. Cells were examined with a fluorescence microscope. Our results show that IFA was more reproducible, more sensitive, simpler, and more rapid than the log 50% cell culture infectious dose-ELISA (lgCCID50-ELISA) in measuring the rotavirus vaccines. IFA provided a reliable basis for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of rotavirus, and the certification of rotavirus vaccine production.

  15. Indirect Genetic Effects for group-housed animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku

    This thesis investigated social interactions in group-housed animals. The main findings of this thesis: 1) Statistical methods to estimate indirect genetic effects when interactions differ between kin vs. non-kin were developed. 2) Indirect genetic effects contribute a substantial amount of herit......This thesis investigated social interactions in group-housed animals. The main findings of this thesis: 1) Statistical methods to estimate indirect genetic effects when interactions differ between kin vs. non-kin were developed. 2) Indirect genetic effects contribute a substantial amount...

  16. Indirect Coupling between Two Cavity Photon Systems via Ferromagnetic Resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Hyde, Paul; Harder, Michael; Match, Christophe; Hu, Can-Ming

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally realize indirect coupling between two cavity modes via strong coupling with the ferromagnetic resonance in Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG). We find that some indirectly coupled modes of our system can have a higher microwave transmission than the individual uncoupled modes. Using a coupled harmonic oscillator model, the influence of the oscillation phase difference between the two cavity modes on the nature of the indirect coupling is revealed. These indirectly coupled microwave modes can be controlled using an external magnetic field or by tuning the cavity height. This work has potential for use in controllable optical devices and information processing technologies.

  17. Pathways to plausibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2008-01-01

    Herbal medicine has long been contrasted to modern medicine in terms of a holistic approach to healing, vitalistic theories of health and illness and an emphasis on the body’s innate self-healing capacities. At the same time, since the early 20th century, the cultivation, preparation and mass...

  18. Pathways to plausibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2008-01-01

    Herbal medicine has long been contrasted to modern medicine in terms of a holistic approach to healing, vitalistic theories of health and illness and an emphasis on the body’s innate self-healing capacities. At the same time, since the early 20th century, the cultivation, preparation and mass pro...... as normalised, with herbalists, phytochemists and pharmacologists working to develop standardised production procedures as well as to identify ‘plausible’ explanations for the efficacy of these remedies....

  19. A literature review of indirect costs associated with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Heesoo; George, Mary G; Fang, Jing; Wang, Guijing

    2014-08-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and long-term disability. However, the indirect costs of stroke, such as productivity loss and costs of informal care, have not been well studied. To better understand this, we conducted a literature review of the indirect costs of stroke. A literature search using PubMed, MEDLINE, and EconLit, with the key words stroke, cerebrovascular disease, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, cost-of-illness, productivity loss, indirect cost, economic burden, and informal caregiving was conducted. We identified original research articles published during 1990-2012 in English-language peer-reviewed journals. We summarized indirect costs by study type, cost categories, and study settings. We found 31 original research articles that investigated the indirect cost of stroke. Six of these investigated indirect costs only; the other 25 studies were cost-of-illness studies that included indirect costs as a component. Of the 31 articles, 6 examined indirect costs in the United States, with 2 of these focused solely on indirect costs. Because of diverse methods, kinds of data, and definitions of cost used in the studies, the literature indicated a very wide range internationally in the proportion of the total cost of stroke that is represented by indirect costs (from 3% to 71%). Most of the literature indicates that indirect costs account for a significant portion of the economic burden of stroke, and there is a pressing need to develop proper approaches to analyze these costs and to make better use of relevant data sources for such studies or establish new ones. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. A Computational Approach to the Interpretation of Indirect Speech Acts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beun, R.J.; Eijk, R.M. van; Meyer, J-J.Ch.; Vergunst, N.L.

    2006-01-01

    An Indirect Speech Act (ISA) is an utterance that conveys a message that is different from its literal meaning, often for reasons of politeness or subtlety. The DenK-system provides us with a non-compositional way to look at Indirect Speech Acts that contain modal verbs. We can extract the non-liter

  1. Automobile Industry Retail Price Equivalent and Indirect Cost Multipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report develops a modified multiplier, referred to as an indirect cost (IC) multiplier, which specifically evaluates the components of indirect costs that are likely to be affected by vehicle modifications associated with environmental regulation. A range of IC multipliers a...

  2. Direct and Indirect Cues to Knowledge States during Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Megan M.; Carroll, C. Brooke

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated three-year-olds' sensitivity to direct and indirect cues to others' knowledge states for word learning purposes. Children were given either direct, physical cues to knowledge or indirect, verbal cues to knowledge. Preschoolers revealed a better ability to learn words from a speaker following direct, physical cues to…

  3. Using HEC-FIA to identify Indirect Economic Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehman William

    2016-01-01

    This paper will describe how HEC-FIA can be utilized to help evaluate the indirect economic consequences for various alternatives within a floodplain. The computational methods for indirect economic losses utilize a Computable General Equilibrium model to describe the secondary and tertiary impacts of loss of service, loss of laborers, and reductions in demand for intermediary goods.

  4. Male and Female University Students' Experiences of Indirect Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaars, Lindsey; Rinaldi, Christina M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the role of sex, gender role orientation, social representations of indirect aggression, and indicators of psychosocial adjustment in indirect aggression and victimization in an emerging adult sample. A total of 42 participants (19 men, 23 women) recruited are required to complete the questionnaires, along with 18 participants…

  5. Preliminary Study of Indirect Neutron Radiography Method at CARR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI; Guo-hai; HAN; Song-bai; WANG; Hong-li; HE; Lin-feng; WANG; Yu; WU; Mei-mei; LIU; Yun-tao; CHEN; Dong-feng

    2013-01-01

    The Indirect Neutron Radiography is a powerful technique for non-destructively measuring specimens with radioactivity in the nuclear industrial field.China Advanced Research Reactor(CARR)is an excellent platform for Indirect Neutron Radiography and the experimental conditions based on CARR,mainly the first and the second exposure time,have been calculated and analyzed by the Monte Carlo

  6. A Computational Approach to the Interpretation of Indirect Speech Acts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beun, R.J.; Eijk, R.M. van; Meyer, J-J.Ch.; Vergunst, N.L.

    2006-01-01

    An Indirect Speech Act (ISA) is an utterance that conveys a message that is different from its literal meaning, often for reasons of politeness or subtlety. The DenK-system provides us with a non-compositional way to look at Indirect Speech Acts that contain modal verbs. We can extract the non-liter

  7. 42 CFR 412.322 - Indirect medical education adjustment factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indirect medical education adjustment factor. 412.322 Section 412.322 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Capital-Related Costs § 412.322 Indirect medical education adjustment factor. (a) Basic data....

  8. Comprehension of Indirect Meaning in Spanish as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Naoko; Gomez-Laich, Maria Pia; Arrufat-Marques, Maria-Jose

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated comprehension of indirect meaning among learners of L2 Spanish via an original computer-delivered multimedia listening test. The comprehension of implied speaker intention is a type of indirect communication that involves the ability to understand implied intention by using linguistic knowledge, contextual cues, and the…

  9. The induction ability of qualitative plausibility measures in default reasoning%量化plausibility测度在默认推理系统中的推理能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍旭辉; 寇辉

    2011-01-01

    作者讨论了量化plausibility测度在默认推理逻辑系统(P系统)中的推理能力,给出了一般量化plausibility测度与possibility测度具有相同推理能力的条件.%In this paper,the authors investigate the induction ability of qualitative plausibility measures in default reasoning,and obtain the conditions such that the general qualitative plausibility measures and the possibilty measures have the same induction in default reasoning.

  10. Plausible Drug Targets in the Streptococcus mutans Quorum Sensing Pathways to Combat Dental Biofilms and Associated Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurmeet; Rajesh, Shrinidhi; Princy, S Adline

    2015-12-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a Gram positive facultative anaerobe, is one among the approximately seven hundred bacterial species to exist in human buccal cavity and cause dental caries. Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-density dependent communication process that respond to the inter/intra-species signals and elicit responses to show behavioral changes in the bacteria to an aggressive forms. In accordance to this phenomenon, the S. mutans also harbors a Competing Stimulating Peptide (CSP)-mediated quorum sensing, ComCDE (Two-component regulatory system) to regulate several virulence-associated traits that includes the formation of the oral biofilm (dental plaque), genetic competence and acidogenicity. The QS-mediated response of S. mutans adherence on tooth surface (dental plaque) imparts antibiotic resistance to the bacterium and further progresses to lead a chronic state, known as periodontitis. In recent years, the oral streptococci, S. mutans are not only recognized for its cariogenic potential but also well known to worsen the infective endocarditis due to its inherent ability to colonize and form biofilm on heart valves. The review significantly appreciate the increasing complexity of the CSP-mediated quorum-sensing pathway with a special emphasis to identify the plausible drug targets within the system for the development of anti-quorum drugs to control biofilm formation and associated risks.

  11. Three-layered metallodielectric nanoshells: plausible meta-atoms for metamaterials with isotropic negative refractive index at visible wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, DaJian; Jiang, ShuMin; Cheng, Ying; Liu, XiaoJun

    2013-01-14

    A three-layered Ag-low-permittivity (LP)-high-permittivity (HP) nanoshell is proposed as a plausible meta-atom for building the three-dimensional isotropic negative refractive index metamaterials (NIMs). The overlap between the electric and magnetic responses of Ag-LP-HP nanoshell can be realized by designing the geometry of the particle, which can lead to the negative electric and magnetic polarizabilities. Then, the negative refractive index is found in the random arrangement of Ag-LP-HP nanoshells. Especially, the modulation of the middle LP layer can move the negative refractive index range into the visible region. Because the responses arise from the each meta-atom, the metamaterial is intrinsically isotropic and polarization independent. It is further found with the increase of the LP layer thickness that the negative refractive index range of the random arrangement shows a large blue-shift and becomes narrow. With the decrease of the filling fraction, the negative refractive index range shows a blue-shift and becomes narrow while the maximum of the negative refractive index decreases.

  12. Non-canonical 3'-5' extension of RNA with prebiotically plausible ribonucleoside 2',3'-cyclic phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutschler, Hannes; Holliger, Philipp

    2014-04-09

    Ribonucleoside 2',3'-cyclic phosphates (N>p's) are generated by multiple prebiotically plausible processes and are credible building blocks for the assembly of early RNA oligomers. While N>p's can be polymerized into short RNAs by non-enzymatic processes with variable efficiency and regioselectivity, no enzymatic route for RNA synthesis had been described. Here we report such a non-canonical 3'-5' nucleotidyl transferase activity. We engineered a variant of the hairpin ribozyme to catalyze addition of all four N>p's (2',3'-cyclic A-, G-, U-, and CMP) to the 5'-hydroxyl termini of RNA strands with 5' nucleotide addition enhanced in all cases by eutectic ice phase formation at -7 °C. We also observed 5' addition of 2',3'-cyclic phosphate-activated β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD>p) and ACA>p RNA trinucleotide, and multiple additions of GUCCA>p RNA pentamers. Our results establish a new mode of RNA 3'-5' extension with implications for RNA oligomer synthesis from prebiotic nucleotide pools.

  13. Plausibility of stromal initiation of epithelial cancers without a mutation in the epithelium: a computer simulation of morphostats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cappuccio Antonio

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is experimental evidence from animal models favoring the notion that the disruption of interactions between stroma and epithelium plays an important role in the initiation of carcinogenesis. These disrupted interactions are hypothesized to be mediated by molecules, termed morphostats, which diffuse through the tissue to determine cell phenotype and maintain tissue architecture. Methods We developed a computer simulation based on simple properties of cell renewal and morphostats. Results Under the computer simulation, the disruption of the morphostat gradient in the stroma generated epithelial precursors of cancer without any mutation in the epithelium. Conclusion The model is consistent with the possibility that the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes found in tumors could arise after the formation of a founder population of aberrant cells, defined as cells that are created by low or insufficient morphostat levels and that no longer respond to morphostat concentrations. Because the model is biologically plausible, we hope that these results will stimulate further experiments.

  14. Bilinguals' Plausibility Judgments for Phrases with a Literal vs. Non-literal Meaning: The Influence of Language Brokering Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belem G. López

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has shown that prior experience in language brokering (informal translation may facilitate the processing of meaning within and across language boundaries. The present investigation examined the influence of brokering on bilinguals' processing of two word collocations with either a literal or a figurative meaning in each language. Proficient Spanish-English bilinguals classified as brokers or non-brokers were asked to judge if adjective+noun phrases presented in each language made sense or not. Phrases with a literal meaning (e.g., stinging insect were interspersed with phrases with a figurative meaning (e.g., stinging insult and non-sensical phrases (e.g., stinging picnic. It was hypothesized that plausibility judgments would be facilitated for literal relative to figurative meanings in each language but that experience in language brokering would be associated with a more equivalent pattern of responding across languages. These predictions were confirmed. The findings add to the body of empirical work on individual differences in language processing in bilinguals associated with prior language brokering experience.

  15. Synchronous volcanic eruptions and abrupt climate change ∼17.7 ka plausibly linked by stratospheric ozone depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Joseph R; Burke, Andrea; Dunbar, Nelia W; Köhler, Peter; Thomas, Jennie L; Arienzo, Monica M; Chellman, Nathan J; Maselli, Olivia J; Sigl, Michael; Adkins, Jess F; Baggenstos, Daniel; Burkhart, John F; Brook, Edward J; Buizert, Christo; Cole-Dai, Jihong; Fudge, T J; Knorr, Gregor; Graf, Hans-F; Grieman, Mackenzie M; Iverson, Nels; McGwire, Kenneth C; Mulvaney, Robert; Paris, Guillaume; Rhodes, Rachael H; Saltzman, Eric S; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P; Steffensen, Jørgen Peder; Taylor, Kendrick C; Winckler, Gisela

    2017-09-05

    Glacial-state greenhouse gas concentrations and Southern Hemisphere climate conditions persisted until ∼17.7 ka, when a nearly synchronous acceleration in deglaciation was recorded in paleoclimate proxies in large parts of the Southern Hemisphere, with many changes ascribed to a sudden poleward shift in the Southern Hemisphere westerlies and subsequent climate impacts. We used high-resolution chemical measurements in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide, Byrd, and other ice cores to document a unique, ∼192-y series of halogen-rich volcanic eruptions exactly at the start of accelerated deglaciation, with tephra identifying the nearby Mount Takahe volcano as the source. Extensive fallout from these massive eruptions has been found >2,800 km from Mount Takahe. Sulfur isotope anomalies and marked decreases in ice core bromine consistent with increased surface UV radiation indicate that the eruptions led to stratospheric ozone depletion. Rather than a highly improbable coincidence, circulation and climate changes extending from the Antarctic Peninsula to the subtropics-similar to those associated with modern stratospheric ozone depletion over Antarctica-plausibly link the Mount Takahe eruptions to the onset of accelerated Southern Hemisphere deglaciation ∼17.7 ka.

  16. X-ray investigation of the diffuse emission around plausible gamma-ray emitting pulsar wind nebulae in Kookaburra region

    CERN Document Server

    Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2012-01-01

    We report on the results from {\\it Suzaku} X-ray observations of the radio complex region called Kookaburra, which includes two adjacent TeV $\\gamma$-ray sources HESS J1418-609 and HESS J1420-607. The {\\it Suzaku} observation revealed X-ray diffuse emission around a middle-aged pulsar PSR J1420-6048 and a plausible PWN Rabbit with elongated sizes of $\\sigma_{\\rm X}=1^{\\prime}.66$ and $\\sigma_{\\rm X}=1^{\\prime}.49$, respectively. The peaks of the diffuse X-ray emission are located within the $\\gamma$-ray excess maps obtained by H.E.S.S. and the offsets from the $\\gamma$-ray peaks are $2^{\\prime}.8$ for PSR J1420-6048 and $4^{\\prime}.5$ for Rabbit. The X-ray spectra of the two sources were well reproduced by absorbed power-law models with $\\Gamma=1.7-2.3$. The spectral shapes tend to become softer according to the distance from the X-ray peaks. Assuming the one zone electron emission model as the first order approximation, the ambient magnetic field strengths of HESS J1420-607 and HESS J1418-609 can be estimate...

  17. Bethe-Heitler cascades as a plausible origin of hard spectra in distant TeV blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Y G; Kang, S J

    2016-01-01

    Context. Very high-energy (VHE) $\\gamma$-ray measurements of distant TeV blazars can be nicely explained by TeV spectra induced by ultra high-energy cosmic rays. Aims. We develop a model for a plausible origin of hard spectra in distant TeV blazars. Methods. In the model, the TeV emission in distant TeV blazars is dominated by two mixed components. The first is the internal component with the photon energy around 1 TeV produced by inverse Compton scattering of the relativistic electrons on the synchrotron photons (SSC) with a correction for extragalactic background light absorbtion and the other is the external component with the photon energy more than 1 TeV produced by the cascade emission from high-energy protons propagating through intergalactic space. Results. Assuming suitable model parameters, we apply the model to observed spectra of distant TeV blazars of 1ES 0229+200. Our results show that 1) the observed spectrum properties of 1ES 0229+200, especially the TeV $\\gamma$-ray tail of the observed spect...

  18. Simultaneous observations of a pair of kilohertz QPOs and a plausible 1860 Hz QPO from an accreting neutron star system

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, Sudip

    2009-01-01

    We report an indication (3.22 sigma) of ~ 1860 Hz quasi-periodic oscillations from a neutron star low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636-536. If confirmed, this will be by far the highest frequency feature observed from an accreting neutron star system, and hence could be very useful to understand such systems. This plausible timing feature was observed simultaneously with lower (~ 585 Hz) and upper (~ 904 Hz) kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations. The two kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillation frequencies had the ratio of ~ 1.5, and the frequency of the alleged ~ 1860 Hz feature was close to the triple and the double of these frequencies. This can be useful to constrain the models of all the three features. In particular, the ~ 1860 Hz feature could be (1) from a new and heretofore unknown class of quasi-periodic oscillations, or (2) the first observed overtone of lower or upper kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations. Finally we note that, although the relatively low significance of the ~ 1860 Hz feature argues for caut...

  19. Synchronous volcanic eruptions and abrupt climate change ˜17.7 ka plausibly linked by stratospheric ozone depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Joseph R.; Burke, Andrea; Dunbar, Nelia W.; Köhler, Peter; Thomas, Jennie L.; Arienzo, Monica M.; Chellman, Nathan J.; Maselli, Olivia J.; Sigl, Michael; Adkins, Jess F.; Baggenstos, Daniel; Burkhart, John F.; Brook, Edward J.; Buizert, Christo; Cole-Dai, Jihong; Fudge, T. J.; Knorr, Gregor; Graf, Hans-F.; Grieman, Mackenzie M.; Iverson, Nels; McGwire, Kenneth C.; Mulvaney, Robert; Paris, Guillaume; Rhodes, Rachael H.; Saltzman, Eric S.; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.; Steffensen, Jørgen Peder; Taylor, Kendrick C.; Winckler, Gisela

    2017-09-01

    Glacial-state greenhouse gas concentrations and Southern Hemisphere climate conditions persisted until ˜17.7 ka, when a nearly synchronous acceleration in deglaciation was recorded in paleoclimate proxies in large parts of the Southern Hemisphere, with many changes ascribed to a sudden poleward shift in the Southern Hemisphere westerlies and subsequent climate impacts. We used high-resolution chemical measurements in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide, Byrd, and other ice cores to document a unique, ˜192-y series of halogen-rich volcanic eruptions exactly at the start of accelerated deglaciation, with tephra identifying the nearby Mount Takahe volcano as the source. Extensive fallout from these massive eruptions has been found >2,800 km from Mount Takahe. Sulfur isotope anomalies and marked decreases in ice core bromine consistent with increased surface UV radiation indicate that the eruptions led to stratospheric ozone depletion. Rather than a highly improbable coincidence, circulation and climate changes extending from the Antarctic Peninsula to the subtropics—similar to those associated with modern stratospheric ozone depletion over Antarctica—plausibly link the Mount Takahe eruptions to the onset of accelerated Southern Hemisphere deglaciation ˜17.7 ka.

  20. Removal of hazardous organics from water using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs): plausible mechanisms for selective adsorptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Zubair; Jhung, Sung Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Provision of clean water is one of the most important issues worldwide because of continuing economic development and the steady increase in the global population. However, clean water resources are decreasing everyday, because of contamination with various pollutants including organic chemicals. Pharmaceutical and personal care products, herbicides/pesticides, dyes, phenolics, and aromatics (from sources such as spilled oil) are typical organics that should be removed from water. Because of their huge porosities, designable pore structures, and facile modification, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are used in various adsorption, separation, storage, and delivery applications. In this review, the adsorptive purifications of contaminated water with MOFs are discussed, in order to understand possible applications of MOFs in clean water provision. More importantly, plausible adsorption or interaction mechanisms and selective adsorptions are summarized. The mechanisms of interactions such as electrostatic interaction, acid-base interaction, hydrogen bonding, π-π stacking/interaction, and hydrophobic interaction are discussed for the selective adsorption of organics over MOFs. The adsorption mechanisms will be very helpful not only for understanding adsorptions but also for applications of adsorptions in selective removal, storage, delivery and so on.

  1. Correlations between direct and indirect strength test methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kallu Raj; Roghanchi Pedram

    2015-01-01

    The difficulties associated with performing direct compression strength tests on rocks lead to the devel-opment of indirect test methods for the rock strength assessment. Indirect test methods are simple, more economical, less time-consuming, and easily adaptable to the field. The main aim of this study was to derive correlations between direct and indirect test methods for basalt and rhyolite rock types from Carlin trend deposits in Nevada. In the destructive methods, point load index, block punch index, and splitting tensile strength tests are performed. In the non-destructive methods, Schmidt hammer and ultrasonic pulse velocity tests are performed. Correlations between the direct and indirect compression strength tests are developed using linear and nonlinear regression analysis methods. The results show that the splitting tensile strength has the best correlation with the uniaxial compression strength. Furthermore, the Poisson’s ratio has no correlation with any of the direct and indirect test results.

  2. Forecasting of indirect consumables for a Job Shop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, M.; Khan, S.; Khan, W. A.

    2016-08-01

    A job shop has an arrangement where similar machines (Direct consumables) are grouped together and use indirect consumables to produce a product. The indirect consumables include hack saw blades, emery paper, painting brush etc. The job shop is serving various orders at a particular time for the optimal operation of job shop. Forecasting is required to predict the demand of direct and indirect consumables in a job shop. Forecasting is also needed to manage lead time, optimize inventory cost and stock outs. The objective of this research is to obtain the forecast for indirect consumables. The paper shows how job shop can manage their indirect consumables more accurately by establishing a new technique of forecasting. This results in profitable use of job shop by multiple users.

  3. Going home after a C-section

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000624.htm Going home after a C-section To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. You are going home after a C-section. You should expect to need help caring for ...

  4. Biomass fuelled indirect fired micro turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchard, D.

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project to further develop and improve a system based on the Bowman TG50 50kWe turbine and a C3(S) combustor with a high temperature heat exchanger for the production of electricity from biomass. Details are given of the specific aims of the project, the manufacture of a new larger biomass combustor, the development of startup and shutdown procedures, waste heat recuperation, adaption of a PC-based mathematical model, and capital equipment costs. The significant levels of carbon emission savings and the commercial prospects of the biomass generator gas turbine combined heat and power (CHP) system are considered, and recommendations are presented.

  5. Reconstructing direct and indirect interactions in networked public goods game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2016-07-01

    Network reconstruction is a fundamental problem for understanding many complex systems with unknown interaction structures. In many complex systems, there are indirect interactions between two individuals without immediate connection but with common neighbors. Despite recent advances in network reconstruction, we continue to lack an approach for reconstructing complex networks with indirect interactions. Here we introduce a two-step strategy to resolve the reconstruction problem, where in the first step, we recover both direct and indirect interactions by employing the Lasso to solve a sparse signal reconstruction problem, and in the second step, we use matrix transformation and optimization to distinguish between direct and indirect interactions. The network structure corresponding to direct interactions can be fully uncovered. We exploit the public goods game occurring on complex networks as a paradigm for characterizing indirect interactions and test our reconstruction approach. We find that high reconstruction accuracy can be achieved for both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks, and a number of empirical networks in spite of insufficient data measurement contaminated by noise. Although a general framework for reconstructing complex networks with arbitrary types of indirect interactions is yet lacking, our approach opens new routes to separate direct and indirect interactions in a representative complex system.

  6. Quantifying nonadditive selection caused by indirect ecological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TerHorst, Casey P; Lau, Jennifer A; Cooper, Idelle A; Keller, Kane R; La Rosa, Raffica J; Royer, Anne M; Schultheis, Elizabeth H; Suwa, Tomomi; Conner, Jeffrey K

    2015-09-01

    In natural biological communities, species interact with many other species. Multiple species interactions can lead to indirect ecological effects that have important fitness consequences and can cause nonadditive patterns of natural selection. Given that indirect ecological effects are common in nature, nonadditive selection may also be quite common. As a result, quantifying nonadditive selection resulting from indirect ecological effects may be critical for understanding adaptation in natural communities composed of many interacting species. We describe how to quantify the relative strength of nonadditive selection resulting from indirect ecological effects compared to the strength of pairwise selection. We develop a clear method for testing for nonadditive selection caused by indirect ecological effects and consider how it might affect adaptation in multispecies communities. We use two case studies to illustrate how our method can be applied to empirical data sets. Our results suggest that nonadditive selection caused by indirect ecological effects may be common in nature. Our hope is that trait-based approaches, combined with multifactorial experiments, will result in more estimates of nonadditive selection that reveal the relative importance of indirect ecological effects for evolution in a community context.

  7. Reconstructing direct and indirect interactions in networked public goods game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2016-07-22

    Network reconstruction is a fundamental problem for understanding many complex systems with unknown interaction structures. In many complex systems, there are indirect interactions between two individuals without immediate connection but with common neighbors. Despite recent advances in network reconstruction, we continue to lack an approach for reconstructing complex networks with indirect interactions. Here we introduce a two-step strategy to resolve the reconstruction problem, where in the first step, we recover both direct and indirect interactions by employing the Lasso to solve a sparse signal reconstruction problem, and in the second step, we use matrix transformation and optimization to distinguish between direct and indirect interactions. The network structure corresponding to direct interactions can be fully uncovered. We exploit the public goods game occurring on complex networks as a paradigm for characterizing indirect interactions and test our reconstruction approach. We find that high reconstruction accuracy can be achieved for both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks, and a number of empirical networks in spite of insufficient data measurement contaminated by noise. Although a general framework for reconstructing complex networks with arbitrary types of indirect interactions is yet lacking, our approach opens new routes to separate direct and indirect interactions in a representative complex system.

  8. On Matrix Sampling and Imputation of Context Questionnaires with Implications for the Generation of Plausible Values in Large-Scale Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, David; Su, Dan

    2016-01-01

    This article presents findings on the consequences of matrix sampling of context questionnaires for the generation of plausible values in large-scale assessments. Three studies are conducted. Study 1 uses data from PISA 2012 to examine several different forms of missing data imputation within the chained equations framework: predictive mean…

  9. World Literacy Prospects at the Turn of the Century: Is the Objective of Literacy for All by the Year 2000 Statistically Plausible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carceles, Gabriel

    1990-01-01

    Describes status and challenge of worldwide illiteracy. Discusses statistical plausibility of universal literacy by 2000. Predicts literacy universalization will take from 14 to 21 years, depending on region, if 1980s trends continue. Implies literacy work requires action strategies commensurate with problem, including national programs and mass…

  10. Predictors of negotiated NIH indirect rates at US institutions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Claiborne Johnston

    Full Text Available The United States (US Department of Health and Human Services and the Office of Naval Research negotiate institutional rates for payments of overhead costs associated with administration and space usage, commonly known as indirect rates. Such payments account for a large proportion of spending by the National Institutes of Health (NIH. Little has been published about differences in rates and their predictors.Negotiated indirect rates for on-campus research grants were requested from the Council on Governmental Relations for the 100 institutions with greatest NIH funding in 2010. NIH funding, cost of living (ACCRA Index for 2008, public vs. private status, negotiating governmental organization (Department of Health and Human Services or Office of Naval Research, US Census Region, and year were assessed as predictors of institutional indirect rates using generalized estimating equations with all variables included in the model.Overall, 72 institutions participated, with 207 reported indirect rates for the years 2006, 2008, and 2010. Indirect rates ranged from 36.3% to 78%, with an average of 54.5%. Mean rates increased from 53.6% in 2006 to 55.4% in 2010 (p<0.001. In multivariable models, private institutions had 6.2% (95% CI 3.7%-8.7%; p<0.001 higher indirect rates than public institutions. Rates in the Northeast were highest (Midwest 4.0% lower; West 4.9% lower; South 5.2% lower. Greater NIH funding (p = 0.025 and cost of living (p = 0.034 also predicted indirect rates while negotiating governmental organization did not (p = 0.414.Negotiated indirect rates for governmental research grants to academic centers vary widely. Although the association between indirect rates and cost of living may be justified, the cause of variation in rates by region, public-private status, and NIH funding levels is unclear.

  11. Developing spatially explicit footprints of plausible land-use scenarios in the Santa Cruz Watershed, Arizona and Sonora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Feller, Mark; Villarreal, Miguel L.

    2012-01-01

    The SLEUTH urban growth model is applied to a binational dryland watershed to envision and evaluate plausible future scenarios of land use change into the year 2050. Our objective was to create a suite of geospatial footprints portraying potential land use change that can be used to aid binational decision-makers in assessing the impacts relative to sustainability of natural resources and potential socio-ecological consequences of proposed land-use management. Three alternatives are designed to simulate different conditions: (i) a Current Trends Scenario of unmanaged exponential growth, (ii) a Conservation Scenario with managed growth to protect the environment, and (iii) a Megalopolis Scenario in which growth is accentuated around a defined international trade corridor. The model was calibrated with historical data extracted from a time series of satellite images. Model materials, methodology, and results are presented. Our Current Trends Scenario predicts the footprint of urban growth to approximately triple from 2009 to 2050, which is corroborated by local population estimates. The Conservation Scenario results in protecting 46% more of the Evergreen class (more than 150,000 acres) than the Current Trends Scenario and approximately 95,000 acres of Barren Land, Crops, Deciduous Forest (Mesquite Bosque), Grassland/Herbaceous, Urban/Recreational Grasses, and Wetlands classes combined. The Megalopolis Scenario results also depict the preservation of some of these land-use classes compared to the Current Trends Scenario, most notably in the environmentally important headwaters region. Connectivity and areal extent of land cover types that provide wildlife habitat were preserved under the alternative scenarios when compared to Current Trends.

  12. Testing the physiological plausibility of conflicting psychological models of response inhibition: A forward inference fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criaud, Marion; Longcamp, Marieke; Anton, Jean-Luc; Nazarian, Bruno; Roth, Muriel; Sescousse, Guillaume; Strafella, Antonio P; Ballanger, Bénédicte; Boulinguez, Philippe

    2017-08-30

    The neural mechanisms underlying response inhibition and related disorders are unclear and controversial for several reasons. First, it is a major challenge to assess the psychological bases of behaviour, and ultimately brain-behaviour relationships, of a function which is precisely intended to suppress overt measurable behaviours. Second, response inhibition is difficult to disentangle from other parallel processes involved in more general aspects of cognitive control. Consequently, different psychological and anatomo-functional models coexist, which often appear in conflict with each other even though they are not necessarily mutually exclusive. The standard model of response inhibition in go/no-go tasks assumes that inhibitory processes are reactively and selectively triggered by the stimulus that participants must refrain from reacting to. Recent alternative models suggest that action restraint could instead rely on reactive but non-selective mechanisms (all automatic responses are automatically inhibited in uncertain contexts) or on proactive and non-selective mechanisms (a gating function by which reaction to any stimulus is prevented in anticipation of stimulation when the situation is unpredictable). Here, we assessed the physiological plausibility of these different models by testing their respective predictions regarding event-related BOLD modulations (forward inference using fMRI). We set up a single fMRI design which allowed for us to record simultaneously the different possible forms of inhibition while limiting confounds between response inhibition and parallel cognitive processes. We found BOLD dynamics consistent with non-selective models. These results provide new theoretical and methodological lines of inquiry for the study of basic functions involved in behavioural control and related disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Combination of monoclonal antibodies and DPP-IV inhibitors in the treatment of type 1 diabetes: a plausible treatment modality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubala, Anil; Gupta, Ankur; Samanta, Malay K

    2014-07-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are crucial for the maintenance of immunological tolerance. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) occurs when the immune-regulatory mechanism fails. In fact, T1D is reversed by islet transplantation but is associated with hostile effects of persistent immune suppression. T1D is believed to be dependent on the activation of type-1 helper T (Th1) cells. Immune tolerance is liable for the activation of the Th1 cells. The important role of Th1 cells in pathology of T1D entails the depletion of CD4(+) T cells, which initiated the use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against CD4(+) T cells to interfere with induction of T1D. Prevention of autoimmunity is not only a step forward for the treatment of T1D, but could also restore the β-cell mass. Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 stimulates β-cell proliferation and also has anti-apoptotic effects on them. However, the potential use of GLP-1 as a possible method to restore pancreatic β-cells is limited due to rapid degradation by dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-IV. We hypothesize that treatment with combination of CD4 mAbs and DPP-IV inhibitors could prevent/reverse T1D. CD4 mAbs have the ability to induce immune tolerance, thereby arresting further progression of T1D; DPP-IV inhibitors have the capability to regenerate the β-cell mass. Consequently, the combination of CD4 mAbs and DPP-IV inhibitor could avoid or at least minimize the constraints of intensive subcutaneous insulin therapy. We presume that if this hypothesis proves correct, it may become one of the plausible therapeutic options for T1D.

  14. In Silico Structure Prediction of Human Fatty Acid Synthase-Dehydratase: A Plausible Model for Understanding Active Site Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Arun; Umashankar, Vetrivel; Samdani, A; Sangeetha, Manoharan; Krishnakumar, Subramanian; Deepa, Perinkulam Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN, UniProt ID: P49327) is a multienzyme dimer complex that plays a critical role in lipogenesis. Consequently, this lipogenic enzyme has gained tremendous biomedical importance. The role of FASN and its inhibition is being extensively researched in several clinical conditions, such as cancers, obesity, and diabetes. X-ray crystallographic structures of some of its domains, such as β-ketoacyl synthase, acetyl transacylase, malonyl transacylase, enoyl reductase, β-ketoacyl reductase, and thioesterase, (TE) are already reported. Here, we have attempted an in silico elucidation of the uncrystallized dehydratase (DH) catalytic domain of human FASN. This theoretical model for DH domain was predicted using comparative modeling methods. Different stand-alone tools and servers were used to validate and check the reliability of the predicted models, which suggested it to be a highly plausible model. The stereochemical analysis showed 92.0% residues in favorable region of Ramachandran plot. The initial physiological substrate β-hydroxybutyryl group was docked into active site of DH domain using Glide. The molecular dynamics simulations carried out for 20 ns in apo and holo states indicated the stability and accuracy of the predicted structure in solvated condition. The predicted model provided useful biochemical insights into the substrate-active site binding mechanisms. This model was then used for identifying potential FASN inhibitors using high-throughput virtual screening of the National Cancer Institute database of chemical ligands. The inhibitory efficacy of the top hit ligands was validated by performing molecular dynamics simulation for 20 ns, where in the ligand NSC71039 exhibited good enzyme inhibition characteristics and exhibited dose-dependent anticancer cytotoxicity in retinoblastoma cancer cells in vitro.

  15. Assessing the Sensitivity of a Reservoir Management System Under Plausible Assumptions About Future Climate Over Seasons to Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M. N.; Brown, C. M.; Baroang, K. M.; Kaheil, Y. H.

    2011-12-01

    We illustrate an analysis procedure that explores the robustness and overall productivity of a reservoir management system under plausible assumptions about climate fluctuation and change. Results are presented based on a stylized version of a multi-use reservoir management model adapted from Angat Dam, Philippines. It represents a modest-sized seasonal storage reservoir in a climate with a pronounced dry season. The reservoir management model focuses on October-March, during which climatological inflow declines due to the arrival of the dry season, and reservoir management becomes critical and challenging. Inflow is assumed to be impacted by climate fluctuations representing interannal variation (white noise), decadal to multidecadal variation (MDV, here represented by a stochastic autoregressive process) and global change (GC), here represented by a systematic linear trend in seasonal inflow total over the simulation period of 2008-2047. Reservoir reliability, and risk of extreme persistent water shortfall, is assessed under different combinations and magnitudes of GC and MDV. We include an illustration of adaptive management, using seasonal forecasts and updated climate normals. A set of seasonal forecast and observed inflow values are generated for 2008-2047 by randomly rearranging the forecast-observed pairs for 1968-2007. Then, trends are imposed on the observed series, with differing assumptions about the extent to which the seasonal forecasts can be expected to track the trend. We consider the framework presented here well-suited to providing insights about managing the climate risks in reservoir operations, providing guidance on expected benefits and risks of different strategies and climate scenarios.

  16. Indirect Control for Demand Side Management – A Conceptual Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; You, Shi; Biegel, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    correct definition, either as a control or a market concept. This paper aims to provide a conceptual introduction to "indirect control" for management of small and distributed demand side resources. A review of control concepts and an analysis of "indirectness" features are provided to create a framework......The concept of “indirect control” has become a relevant discussion term in relation to activation distributed and small-scale demand and generation units to provide resources for power system balancing. The term and its association with price signals has, however caused some confusion as to its...

  17. Indirect Taxes in Romania – an Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Penu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indirect taxes have a significant weight in the GDP. Statistical data reveals that the new states that joined the EU in its funding sources to the greatest extent through indirect taxes. They reveal, on the one hand, reducing the tax burden on the producer, and on the other hand, the difficulty faced by the country in direct tax collection, but also some problems of social nature. This article proposes an econometric analysis of the relationship between indirect taxes and household final consumption expenditure.

  18. RESEMBLANCE OF INDIRECTNESS IN POLITENESS OF EFL LEARNERS’ REQUEST REALIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indawan Syahri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Politeness principles are universally utilized by the speakers of any language when realizing various speech acts. However, the speakers of particular languages relatively apply politeness due to the cultural norms embedded. The present study attempts to delineate how the Indonesian learners of English (ILE apply the politeness principles in request realizations. Specifically it devotes to the types of politeness strategies applied and resemblance of the indirectness in politeness strategies in requesting acts. The FTAs and indirectness are the theoretical bases used to trace the typologies of both politeness and request strategies. The data werere collected by means of certain elicitation techniques, i.e. DCTs and Role-plays. The analyses werere done through three stages; determining request strategies, politeness strategies, and resemblance of indirectness in politeness. The results show that the indirectness generally is parallel to politeness. Besides, some pragmatic transfers are found in terms of applying native-culture norms in realizing target speech acts.

  19. Indirect reciprocity and the evolution of "moral signals"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smead, Rory

    2010-01-01

    Signals regarding the behavior of others are an essential element of human moral systems and there are important evolutionary connections between language and large-scale cooperation. In particular, social communication may be required for the reputation tracking needed to stabilize indirect reciprocity. Additionally, scholars have suggested that the benefits of indirect reciprocity may have been important for the evolution of language and that social signals may have coevolved with large-scale cooperation. This paper investigates the possibility of such a coevolution. Using the tools of evolutionary game theory, we present a model that incorporates primitive "moral signaling" into a simple setting of indirect reciprocity. This model reveals some potential difficulties for the evolution of "moral signals." We find that it is possible for "moral signals" to evolve alongside indirect reciprocity, but without some external pressure aiding the evolution of a signaling system, such a coevolution is unlikely.

  20. Indirect effects by meningococcal vaccines: herd protection versus herd immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröker, Michael

    2011-08-01

    The term "herd immunity" for the indirect effect of meningococcal conjugate vaccines is inaccurate. A more appropriate term is "herd protection," because this term correctly describes the public effects imparted by vaccination campaigns against the meningococcus.

  1. Interim Brigade Combat Team: Indirect distributive fires concepts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gerard M Acosta; Christopher Menton

    2002-01-01

      The expectation that the Interim Brigade Combat Team will fight in a non-linear environment has forced units to develop new tactics to incorporate indirect fires to deliver rounds in a 360-degree zone...

  2. ABSOLUTE STABILITY OF GENERAL LURIE TYPE INDIRECT CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘作新; 葛渭高; 赵素霞; 仵永先

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, by introducing a new concept of absolute stability for a certain argument, necessary and sufficient conditions for absolute stability of general Lurie indirect control systems are obtained, and some practical sufficient conditions are also given.

  3. A study on consumable aided tungsten indirect arc welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jun; Wang Yuxin; Feng Jicai

    2009-01-01

    A consumable aided tungsten indirect arc welding method has been studied. This method is different from the traditional TIG welding because it introduces an MIG welding torch into the traditional TIG welding system. An indirect arc is generated between the consumable electrode of the MIG welding torch and the tungsten electrode of the TIG welding torch, but not generated between the tungsten electrode of the welding torch and the base metal. Welding current flows from the consumable electrode to the tungsten electrode in the free-burning indirect arc. The consumable aided tungsten indirect arc welding not only rapidly melts the welding wire but also effectively restrains the excessive fusion of the base metal. The welding experiment and the theoretical analysis confirm that this method can obtain a high deposition rate and a low dilution ratio during the welding process.

  4. Separating astrophysical sources from indirect dark matter signals

    CERN Document Server

    Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M

    2013-01-01

    Indirect searches for products of dark matter annihilation and decay face the challenge of identifying an uncertain and subdominant signal in the presence of uncertain backgrounds. Two valuable approaches to this problem are (1) using analysis methods which take advantage of different features in the energy spectrum and angular distribution of the signal and backgrounds, and (2) more accurate characterization of backgrounds, which allows for more robust identification of possible signals. I review the status of indirect searches with gamma rays using two promising targets, the Inner Galaxy and the Isotropic Gamma-Ray Background. For both targets, uncertainties in the properties of backgrounds is a major limitation to the sensitivity of indirect searches. I then highlight approaches which can enhance the sensitivity of indirect searches using these targets.

  5. Direct and Indirect Phototransformation of Graphene Oxide in Sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct and indirect (with added H202 that serves as OH precursor) photoreactions of grapheme oxide (GO) were examined under sunlight exposure. The results indicate that GO photoreacts under both conditions, leading to significant alterations in GO's physicochemical properties. In...

  6. Indirect Cost Recovery as an Issue of Science Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Robert M.

    1987-01-01

    The history of the debate over federal efforts to reduce indirect cost recovery in federal research grants to universities is outlined and discussed by a former university administrator involved in the policy's formation. (MSE)

  7. Indirect Monetary Policy Reforms and Output Growth in Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indirect Monetary Policy Reforms and Output Growth in Nigeria: An Empirical ... changes (reforms) since the inception of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN). ... place when monetary management was largely based on direct controls and those ...

  8. Comparative analysis of direct and indirect property investment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of direct and indirect property investment returns in Abuja. ... The study utilized mean score, variance, standard deviation, coefficient of ... is more risky than commercial property due to the risk variation of 0.15605 that ...

  9. 3D Shape and Indirect Appearance by Structured Light Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OToole, Matthew; Mather, John; Kutulakos, Kiriakos N

    2016-07-01

    We consider the problem of deliberately manipulating the direct and indirect light flowing through a time-varying, general scene in order to simplify its visual analysis. Our approach rests on a crucial link between stereo geometry and light transport: while direct light always obeys the epipolar geometry of a projector-camera pair, indirect light overwhelmingly does not. We show that it is possible to turn this observation into an imaging method that analyzes light transport in real time in the optical domain, prior to acquisition. This yields three key abilities that we demonstrate in an experimental camera prototype: (1) producing a live indirect-only video stream for any scene, regardless of geometric or photometric complexity; (2) capturing images that make existing structured-light shape recovery algorithms robust to indirect transport; and (3) turning them into one-shot methods for dynamic 3D shape capture.

  10. Theoretical and testing performance of an innovative indirect evaporative chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yi; Xie, Xiaoyun [Department of Building Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2010-12-15

    An indirect evaporative chiller is a device used to produce chilled water at a temperature between the wet bulb temperature and dew point of the outdoor air, which can be used in building HVAC systems. This article presents a theoretical analysis and practical performance of an innovative indirect evaporative chiller. First, the process of the indirect evaporative chiller is introduced; then, the matching characteristics of the process are presented and analyzed. It can be shown that the process that produces cold water by using dry air is a nearly-reversible process, so the ideal produced chilled water temperature of the indirect evaporative chiller can be set close to the dew point temperature of the chiller's inlet air. After the indirect evaporative chiller was designed, simulations were done to analyze the output water temperature, the cooling efficiency relative to the inlet dew point temperature, and the COP that the chiller can performance. The first installation of the indirect evaporative chiller of this kind has been run for 5 years in a building in the city of Shihezi. The tested output water temperature of the chiller is around 14-20 C, which is just in between of the outdoor wet bulb temperature and dew point. The tested COP{sub r,s} of the developed indirect evaporative chiller reaches 9.1. Compared with ordinary air conditioning systems, the indirect evaporative chiller can save more than 40% in energy consumption due to the fact that the only energy consumed is from pumps and fans. An added bonus is that the indirect evaporative chiller uses no CFCs that pollute to the aerosphere. The tested internal parameters, such as the water-air flow rate ratio and heat transfer area for each heat transfer process inside the chiller, were analyzed and compared with designed values. The tested indoor air conditions, with a room temperature of 23-27 C and relative humidity of 50-70%, proved that the developed practical indirect evaporative chiller

  11. Aerodynamics of indirect thrust measurement by the impulse method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Kang Wu; Hai-Xing Wang; Xian Meng; Xi Chen; Wen-Xia Pan

    2011-01-01

    The aerodynamic aspects of indirect thrust measurement by the impulse method have been studied both experimentally and numerically.The underlying basic aerodynamic principle is outlined, the phenomena in subsonic,supersonic and arc-heated jets are explored, and factors affecting the accuracy of the method are studied and discussed.Results show that the impulse method is reliable for indirect thrust measurement if certain basic requirements are met,and a simple guideline for its proper application is given.

  12. Synchronization of indirectly coupled Lorenz oscillators: An experimental study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amit Sharma; Manish Dev Shrimali

    2011-11-01

    The dynamics of indirectly coupled Lorenz circuits is investigated experimentally. The in-phase and anti-phase synchronization of indirectly coupled chaotic oscillators reported in Phys. Rev. E 81, 046216 (2010) is verified by physical experiments with electronic circuits. Two chaotic systems coupled through a common dynamic environment shows the verity of synchronization behaviours such as anti-phase synchronization, in-phase synchronization, identical synchronization, anti-synchronization, etc.

  13. Capturing the Future: Direct and Indirect Probes of Neutron Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, Aaron Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    This report documents aspects of direct and indirect neutron capture. The importance of neutron capture rates and methods to determine them are presented. The following conclusions are drawn: direct neutron capture measurements remain a backbone of experimental study; work is being done to take increased advantage of indirect methods for neutron capture; both instrumentation and facilities are making new measurements possible; more work is needed on the nuclear theory side to understand what is needed furthest from stability.

  14. Indirect dark matter searches in gamma and cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Jan; Reimer, Olaf

    2017-03-01

    Dark matter candidates such as weakly interacting massive particles are predicted to annihilate or decay into Standard Model particles, leaving behind distinctive signatures in gamma rays, neutrinos, positrons, antiprotons, or even antinuclei. Indirect dark matter searches, and in particular those based on gamma-ray observations and cosmic-ray measurements, could detect such signatures. Here we review the strengths and limitations of this approach and look into the future of indirect dark matter searches.

  15. ETHIC ASPECT OF INDIRECT-SPEECH ACTS IN OFFICIAL SPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. NEUSTROEV

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the ethic characteristics of indirect speech acts in official discourses. The social-ethic conception of A. Giddens is attracted for analysis. The concepts “act“, “reflexive consciousness“, “motivation“, “implication“ are connected. The intention for rational act is showed as support of whole representation about the motives of person acts. This conception is connected with traditional opinions about man as social phenomenon oriented for categories of kindness and evil, justice and injustice, biological and social. The man as a participant of speech act has all such characteristics. Ethic of social life, ethical relations and obligations, social context of deontology, of possibilities are relevant in this aspect. Specific relevance is a condition for interrelation between direct and indirect substance of speech act. In particular, strict direct presentation unites with imperative, this usage is systematic and effective, because it determined with speech variety, which naturally includes soft pragmatics, “indirect directness”. The attributes of imperative and indirect expressive strengthens organic essence of interrelation. The imperative is indirect, but it is fixed in these pragmatic subsystems. The ethical motivated unite of different devices serves to indirectness. The ethical base of official document get emotional sense and rejects the indirect character of expressive. The postulate of many-sided connections between speech act and ethic characteristics is founded by tendencies of official sphere. It is adequate modern field for interactions of direct and indirect pragmatic intentions. The socialethic specific explains these peculiarities. Such communicative sphere is possible to create corresponding image for social institutes and processes on base of relevant discourses.

  16. Invasive prey indirectly increase predation on their native competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castorani, Max C N; Hovel, Kevin A

    2015-07-01

    Ecological theory predicts that invasive prey can interact with native prey directly by competing for shared resources or indirectly by changing the abundance or behavior of shared native predators. However, both the study and management of invasive prey have historically overlooked indirect effects. In southern California estuaries, introduction of the Asian nest mussel Arcuatula senhousia has been linked to profound changes in native bivalve assemblages, but the mechanisms of these interactions remain unclear. We performed three field experiments to assess the mechanisms of competition between Arcuatula and native bivalves, and evaluated the potential for Arcuatula to indirectly mediate native predator-prey dynamics. We found that Arcuatula reduces the diversity, abundance, and size of native bivalve recruits by preemptively exploiting space in surface sediments. When paired with native shallow-dwelling clams (Chione undatella and Laevicardium substriatum), Arcuatula reduces adult survival through overgrowth competition. However, Arcuatula also attracts native predators, causing apparent competition by indirectly increasing predation of native clams, especially for poorly defended species. Therefore, invasive prey can indirectly increase predation rates on native competitors by changing the behavior of shared native predators, but the magnitude of apparent competition strongly depends on the vulnerability of natives to predation. Interestingly, our results indicate that the vulnerability of invasive prey to predation can greatly exacerbate impacts on their native competitors. Our findings suggest that consideration of both direct and indirect effects of invasive prey, as well as native predator-prey relationships, should lead to more effective invasive species management.

  17. Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in indirect laser drive with rugby-shaped hohlraums; Experiences d'instabilites Rayleigh-Taylor en attaque indirecte avec des cavites rugby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casner, A.; Galmiche, D.; Huser, G.; Jadaud, J.P.; Richard, A.; Liberatore, S.; Vandenboomgaerde, M. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France)

    2009-07-01

    The mastering of the development of hydrodynamic instabilities like Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities is an important milestone on the way to perform efficient laser implosions. The complexity of these instabilities implies an experimental validation of the theoretical models and their computer simulations. An experimental platform involving the Omega laser has allowed us to perform indirect drive with rugby-shaped hohlraums. The experiments have validated the growth of 2- and 3-dimensional initial defects as predicted by theory. We have shown that the 3-dimensional defect saturates for an higher amplitude than the 2-dimensional one does. The experiments have been made by using a plastic shell doped with Germanium (CH:Ge). (A.C.)

  18. Indirect and Mixed Direct-Indirect Heat Integration of Batch Processes Based on Pinch Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Favrat

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper introduces a methodology for the heat integration of industrial batch processes. Based on Pinch Analysis principles, this methodology resorts to intermediate heat storage to prevent adverse effects on the operating flexibility, which are often associated with direct heat exchange only. A systematic procedure, backed with a graphical representation, allows the determination of the minimum number of heat storage units assuming vertical heat transfer and their range of feasible operation as a function of the amount of heat recovery. Understanding the cause and the bottleneck effect of the socalled storage pinch, heuristic rules are proposed to screen major options corresponding to minimum cost solutions. For a given number of heat storage units, these rules could be automated to a large extent, making the procedure suitable for targeting purposes. The operating temperature of the heat storage units can be optimized with ease, while other continuous degrees of freedom are more difficult to address using the proposed methodology. Preliminary guidelines are proposed to extend the methodology to mixed direct-indirect heat integration.

    •  This paper was presented at the ECOS’00 Conference in Enschede, July 5-7, 2000 and revised

  19. Expression of hp1 family genes and their plausible role in formation of flamenco phenotype in D. melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrenov, A R; Nefedova, L N; Romanova, N I; Kim, A I

    2014-11-01

    Results of expression analysis of transcription of the flamenco locus that controls transposition of the mobile genetic element gypsy, RNA interference system genes ago3, zuc, aub, and HP1 heterochromatin protein family genes hp1a, hp1b, hp1c, hp1d (rhino), and hp1e in D. melanogaster SS strain mutant on the flamenco gene are presented. We show that the number of transcripts in the SS strain that are formed in the flamenco locus is unchanged in some freely chosen points, and this is different from the wild-type strain where a decreased number of transcripts is observed, which clearly is a result of processing of the flamenco locus primary transcript, a predecessor of piRNA. At the same time, expression of genes of the RNA interference system is not affected, but there is a reduced level of hp1d gene expression in ovary tissue. We suggest that the hp1d gene product is directly or indirectly involved in the flamenco locus primary transcript processing.

  20. Indirect Global Warming Potentials of Halons Using Atmospheric Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, D.; Patten, K. O.; Wuebbles, D. J.

    2007-05-01

    Emission of bromochlorofluorocarbons, or Halons, results in stratospheric ozone depletion. This leads to cooling of the climate system in the opposite direction to direct warming contribution of the Halons as greenhouse gases. This cooling is a key indirect effect of Halons on radiative forcing or climate. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is a relative index used to compare the climate impact of an emitted greenhouse gas, relative to an equal amount of carbon dioxide. Until now, indirect GWPs have been calculated based on the concept of Equivalent Effective Stratospheric Chlorine (EESC), which oversimplifies the complex processes in the atmosphere. As a step towards obtaining indirect GWPs through a more robust approach, 2-D and 3-D global chemical transport models (CTM) were used as the computational tool to derive more realistic ozone changes caused by pulse perturbation of Halons at the surface. Indirect GWPs of Halon-1211 and -1301 for a 100-year time horizon were explicitly calculated based on the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) 2-D global CTM and radiative transport model (RTM) and the 3-D CTM, MOZART-3.1. The 2-D and 3-D model simulations show acceptable temporal variations in the atmosphere as well as derived lifetimes and direct GWP values of the Halons. The 2-D model-based indirect GWPs for a 100-year horizon are -16,294 for Halon-1211 and -33,648 for Halon-1301. 3-D indirect GWP for Halon-1211 is -18,216. The indirect GWPs for Halon-1211 presented here are much smaller than previous published results using the previous simplified appraoch.

  1. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario: Improving Resilience for California from a Plausible M9 Earthquake near the Alaska Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S.; Jones, L.; Wilson, R. I.; Bahng, B.; Barberopoulou, A.; Borrero, J. C.; Brosnan, D.; Bwarie, J.; Geist, E. L.; Johnson, L.; Kirby, S. H.; Knight, W.; Long, K.; Lynett, P. J.; Miller, K.; Mortensen, C. E.; Nicolsky, D.; Oglesby, D. D.; Perry, S. C.; Plumlee, G. S.; Porter, K. A.; Real, C. R.; Ryan, K. J.; Suleimani, E.; Thio, H. K.; Titov, V.; Wein, A. M.; Whitmore, P.; Wood, N. J.

    2013-12-01

    The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario models a hypothetical but plausible tsunami, created by an Mw9.1 earthquake occurring offshore from the Alaskan peninsula, and its impacts on the California coast. We present the likely inundation areas, current velocities in key ports and harbors, physical damage and repair costs, economic consequences, environmental impacts, social vulnerability, emergency management, and policy implications for California associated with the tsunami scenario. The intended users are those who must make mitigation decisions before and rapid decisions during future tsunamis. Around a half million people would be present in the scenario's inundation area in residences, businesses, public venues, parks and beaches. Evacuation would likely be ordered for the State of California's maximum mapped tsunami inundation zone, evacuating an additional quarter million people from residences and businesses. Some island and peninsula communities would face particular evacuation challenges because of limited access options and short warning time, caused by the distance between Alaska and California. Evacuations may also be a challenge for certain dependent-care populations. One third of the boats in California's marinas could be damaged or sunk, costing at least 700 million in repairs to boats and docks, and potentially much more to address serious issues due to sediment transport and environmental contamination. Fires would likely start at many sites where fuel and petrochemicals are stored in ports and marinas. Tsunami surges and bores may travel several miles inland up coastal rivers. Debris clean-up and recovery of inundated and damaged areas will take days, months, or years depending on the severity of impacts and the available resources for recovery. The Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach (POLA/LB) would be shut down for a miniμm of two days due to strong currents. Inundation of dry land in the ports would result in 100 million damages to cargo and additional

  2. Bipolar-pulses observed by the LRS/WFC-L onboard KAGUYA - Plausible evidence of lunar dust impact -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Yoshiya; Horie, Hiroki; Hashimoto, Kozo; Omura, Yoshiharu; Goto, Yoshitaka; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Ono, Takayuki; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Lrs/Wfc Team; Map/Lmag Team

    2010-05-01

    same) and thus most of bipolar-pulses which can be detected in MONO mode are cancelled in DIFF mode. This fact suggests that these bipolar pulses are not a kind of natural wave but these are caused by instantaneous potential changes of the KAGUYA spacecraft. Discussion: Similar type of bipolar-pulses has been observed by the monopole antenna measurements using Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) instruments on-board Cassini around Saturn [4]. They demonstrated that these bipolar pulses are caused by impacts of dusts floating around the Saturn. It is well-known that lunar dusts are widely dis-tributed in higher altitude range around the moon and it is plausible that these bipolar pulses are caused by the lunar dust impacts. In the presentation, we show the detailed charac-teristics of bipolar pulses detected by the WFC-L onboard KAGUYA. References: [1] Y. Kasahara et al., Earth, Planets and Space, 60(4), 341-351, 2008. [2] T. Ono et al., Earth, Planets and Space, 60(4), 321-332, 2008. [3] K. Hashimoto et al., The 4th SELENE (KAGUYA) Science Working Team Meeting, (this issue), 2010. [4] W.S. Kurth et al, Planetary and Space Science, 54(9-10), 988-998, 2006.

  3. Circumventing resistance: using values to indirectly change attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Kevin L; Wegener, Duane T; Murray, Renee A

    2012-10-01

    Most research on persuasion examines messages that directly address the attitude of interest. However, especially when message recipients are inclined to resist change, indirect methods might be more effective. Because values are rarely attacked and defended, value change could serve as a useful indirect route for attitude change. Attitudes toward affirmative action changed more when the value of equality was attacked (indirect change) than when affirmative action was directly attacked using the same message (Experiments 1-2). Changes in confidence in the value were responsible for the indirect change when the value was attacked (controlling for changes in favorability toward the value), whereas direct counterarguments to the message were responsible for the relative lack of change when the attitude was attacked directly (Experiment 2). Attacking the value of equality influenced attitudes toward policies related to the value but left policy attitudes unrelated to the value unchanged (Experiment 3). Finally, a manipulation of value confidence that left attitudes toward the value intact demonstrated similar confidence-based influences on policies related to the value of freedom (Experiment 4). Undermined value confidence also resulted in less confidence in the resulting policy attitudes controlling for the changes in the policy attitudes themselves (Experiments 3 and 4). Therefore, indirect change through value attacks presented a double threat--to both the policy attitudes and the confidence with which those policy attitudes were held (potentially leaving them open to additional influence).

  4. Variance Analysis and Adaptive Sampling for Indirect Light Path Reuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Qin; Xin Sun; Jun Yan; Qi-Ming Hou; Zhong Ren; Kun Zhou

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the estimation variance of a set of global illumination algorithms based on indirect light path reuse. These algorithms usually contain two passes — in the first pass, a small number of indirect light samples are generated and evaluated, and they are then reused by a large number of reconstruction samples in the second pass. Our analysis shows that the covariance of the reconstruction samples dominates the estimation variance under high reconstruction rates and increasing the reconstruction rate cannot effectively reduce the covariance. We also find that the covariance represents to what degree the indirect light samples are reused during reconstruction. This analysis motivates us to design a heuristic approximating the covariance as well as an adaptive sampling scheme based on this heuristic to reduce the rendering variance. We validate our analysis and adaptive sampling scheme in the indirect light field reconstruction algorithm and the axis-aligned filtering algorithm for indirect lighting. Experiments are in accordance with our analysis and show that rendering artifacts can be greatly reduced at a similar computational cost.

  5. Retroperitoneal hematoma after manual reduction of indirect inguinal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiequn; Hong, Tao; Li, Binglu; Liu, Wei; Zheng, Chaoji; He, Xiaodong

    2013-07-01

    This report presents the case of a 59-year-old man with sudden severe pain in the right lower abdomen after manually reducing the right indirect inguinal hernia who had bilateral indirect inguinal hernia for 5 years. A subsequent contrast computed tomography scan with contrast of the abdomen and pelvis revealed a significant extensive retroperitoneal hematoma at the abdomen and pelvis of the right side. There was contrast leaked out, which was suspected from inferior epigastric artery. He underwent successful laparotomy. The bleeding ruptured inferior epigastric artery at the interior side of the deep inguinal ring was found, the deep inguinal ring was avulsed, ligature of the inferior epigastric artery and removal of the retroperitoneal hematoma were done, and the patient was discharged from hospital on the seventh postoperative day. This is the first report in the literature on retroperitoneal hematoma caused by manual reduction of indirect inguinal hernia.

  6. Indirect control of flexible demand for power system applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sossan, Fabrizio

    demand is addressed. We investigate the subject considering both how to achieve a shift in the consumption of the single DSRs, and how to generate the indirect control signal for a population of DSRs in order to support the operation of the grid. In the former case, we develop algorithms that achieve...... a shift in the consumption according to an indirect control signal. We present from simple control algorithms with a few requirements up to model predictive control strategies. The performance of the indirect control algorithms are compared by means of hardware-in-the-loop simulations using Power...... Flexhouse, a facility of DTU Elektro for testing demand side management strategies, as experimental site. In the latter case, we develop four applications where flexible demand is required to support power system operations. The applications are: integration of the operation of flexible demand...

  7. Generation of indirect combustion noise by compositional inhomogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, Luca; O'Brien, Jeff; Ihme, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    The generation of indirect combustion noise in nozzles and turbine stages is commonly attributed to temperature inhomogeneities and vorticity fluctuations. Here, compositional inhomogeneities in a multi-component gas mixture are shown to produce indirect noise both theoretically and numerically. The chemical potential function is introduced as an additional acoustic source mechanism. The contribution of the compositional noise is compared to the entropy noise and direct noise by considering subsonic, supersonic and shocked nozzles downstream of the combustor exit. It is shown that the compositional noise is dependent on the local mixture composition and can exceed entropy noise for fuel-lean conditions and supersonic/shocked nozzle flows. This suggests that compositional indirect combustion noise may require consideration with the implementation of advanced combustion concepts in gas turbines, including low-emissions combustors, high-power-density engine cores, or compact burners.

  8. An improved recommendation algorithm via weakening indirect linkage effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang; Qiu, Tian; Shen, Xiao-Quan

    2015-07-01

    We propose an indirect-link-weakened mass diffusion method (IMD), by considering the indirect linkage and the source object heterogeneity effect in the mass diffusion (MD) recommendation method. Experimental results on the MovieLens, Netflix, and RYM datasets show that, the IMD method greatly improves both the recommendation accuracy and diversity, compared with a heterogeneity-weakened MD method (HMD), which only considers the source object heterogeneity. Moreover, the recommendation accuracy of the cold objects is also better elevated in the IMD than the HMD method. It suggests that eliminating the redundancy induced by the indirect linkages could have a prominent effect on the recommendation efficiency in the MD method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11175079) and the Young Scientist Training Project of Jiangxi Province, China (Grant No. 20133BCB23017).

  9. The evolution of conditional moral assessment in indirect reciprocity

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Nakai, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity is a major mechanism in the maintenance of cooperation among unfamiliar individuals. Indirect reciprocity leads to conditional cooperation according to social norms that discriminate the good (those who deserve to be rewarded with help) and the bad (those who should be punished by refusal of help). Despite intensive research, however, there is no definitive consensus on what social norms best promote cooperation through indirect reciprocity, and it remains unclear even how those who refuse help to the bad should be assessed. Here we propose a new simple norm called 'Staying' that prescribes to abstain from assessment, with the focal individual's image remaining unchanged, if its opponent has a bad image. We fully analyse the Staying norm in terms of evolutionary game theory and unveil that Staying is most effective in establishing cooperation, compared to the prevailing social norms which rely on constant monitoring and unconditional assessment. The excellence of Staying suggests the limi...

  10. [Direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis in Freesia refracta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Duan, X G; Hao, S

    1999-06-01

    Somatic embryogenesis can be induced in tissue cultures of Freesia refracta either directly from the epidermal cells of explant, or indirectly via intervening callus. In direct pathway, somatic embryos were in contact with maternal tissue in a suspensor-like structure. In indirect pathway, the explants first proliferacted to give rise to calluses before embryoids were induced. The two sorts of calluses were defined to embryogenic callus and non-embryogenic callus according to producing of somatic embryos. An indirect somatic embryo is developed from a pre-embryogenically determined cell. This kind of somatic embryo has no suspensor structure instead of a complex with maternal tissue. Somatic embryos have their own vascular tissues, and can develop new plantlets independently.

  11. Stability Concerns for Indirect Consumer Control in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelsgaard, Morten; Andersen, Palle; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    by an external third party, and indirect consumer control through incentives and price signals. In this work we present a simple formulation of indirect control, where the behavior of each consumer, is governed by local optimization of energy consumption. The local optimization accounts for both cost of energy...... and distribution losses, as well as any discomfort incurred by consumers from any shift in energy consumption. Our work will illustrate that in the simplest formulation of indirect control, the stability is greatly affected of both the behavior of consumers, and the number of consumers to include. We will show how......Demand side management will be an important tool for maintaining a balanced electrical grid in the future, when the penetration of volatile resources, such as wind and solar energy increases. Recent research focuses on two different management approaches, namely direct consumer control...

  12. The Indirect Costs of Financial Distress in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijantini Wijantini

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents quantitative estimates of the indirect cost of financial distress and its determinants. In order to measure the cost, this study estimates the annualized changes in industry-adjusted operation profit and sales from a year before the onset of distress to the resolution year. Using those approaches, the median of indirect financial distress cost is estimated between three and 11 percent annually. To the extent that the direct cost of financial distress reduces reported operating income, the estimated costs are overstated. The simple regressions analysis suggest that the indirect cost of financial distress significantly increases with size, leverage, number of creditors, and poor industry performance, but is not related to degree of bank loan reliance. The findings provide a weak support for the financial distress theory which suggests that conflicts of interest render the costs of financial distress.

  13. Direct and indirect urban water footprints of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chini, Christopher M.; Konar, Megan; Stillwell, Ashlynn S.

    2017-01-01

    The water footprint of the urban environment is not limited to direct water consumption (i.e., municipal supplies); embedded water in imported resources, or virtual water transfers, provides an additional component of the urban water footprint. Using empirical data, our analysis extends traditional urban water footprinting analysis to quantify both direct and indirect urban resources for the United States. We determine direct water volumes and their embedded energy through open records requests of water utilities. The indirect component of the urban water footprint includes water indirectly consumed through energy and food, relating to the food-energy-water nexus. We comprehensively quantify the indirect water footprint for 74 metropolitan statistical areas through the combination of various databases, including the Commodity Flow Survey of the U.S. Census Bureau, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Water Footprint Network, and the Energy Information Administration. We then analyze spatial heterogeneity in both direct and indirect water footprints, determining the average urban water footprint in the United States to be 1.64 million gallons of water per person per year [6200 m3/person/yr or 17,000 L/person/d], dominated by indirect water. Additionally, our study of the urban water cycle extends beyond considering only water resources to include embedded energy and equivalent carbon dioxide emissions. The inclusion of multiple sectors of the urban water cycle and their underlying processes provides important insights to the overall urban environment, the interdependencies of the food-energy-water nexus, and water resource sustainability. Our results provide opportunities for benchmarking the urban energy-water nexus, water footprints, and climate change potential.

  14. Indirect costs associated with glioblastoma: Experience at one hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undabeitia, J; Torres-Bayona, S; Samprón, N; Arrázola, M; Bollar, A; Armendariz, M; Torres, P; Ruiz, I; Caballero, M C; Egaña, L; Querejeta, A; Villanua, J; Pardo, E; Etxegoien, I; Liceaga, G; Urtasun, M; Michan, M; Emparanza, J I; Aldaz, P; Matheu, A; Úrculo, E

    2016-07-20

    Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumour. Despite advances in treatment, its prognosis remains dismal, with a mean survival time of about 14 months. Many articles have addressed direct costs, those associated with the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Indirect costs, those associated with loss of productivity due to the disease, have seldom been described. We conducted a retrospective study in patients diagnosed with glioblastoma at Hospital Universitario Donostia between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2013. We collected demographics, data regarding the treatment received, and survival times. We calculated the indirect costs with the human capital approach, adjusting the mean salaries of comparable individuals by sex and age and obtaining mortality data for the general population from the Spanish National Statistics Institute. Past salaries were updated to 2015 euros according to the annual inflation rate and we applied a discount of 3.5% compounded yearly to future salaries. We reviewed the records of 99 patients: 46 women (mean age 63.53) and 53 men (mean age 59.94); 29 patients underwent a biopsy and the remaining 70 underwent excisional surgery. Mean survival was 18.092 months for the whole series. The total indirect cost for the series was €11 080 762 (2015). Mean indirect cost per patient was €111 926 (2015). Although glioblastoma is a relatively uncommon type of tumour, accounting for only 4% of all cancers, its poor prognosis and potential sequelae generate disproportionately large morbidity and mortality rates which translate to high indirect costs. Clinicians should be aware of the societal impact of glioblastoma and indirect costs should be taken into account when cost effectiveness studies are performed to better illustrate the overall consequences of this disease. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Reflux Laryngitis: Correlation between the Symptoms Findings and Indirect Laryngoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos Eduardo Dilen da; Niedermeier, Bruno Taccola; Portinho, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    Introduction The indirect laryngoscopy has an important role in the characterization of reflux laryngitis. Although many findings are nonspecific, some strongly suggest that the inflammation is the cause of reflux. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between reflux symptoms and the findings of indirect laryngoscopy. Methods We evaluated 27 patients with symptoms of pharyngolaryngeal reflux disease. Results Laryngoscopy demonstrated in all patients the presence of hypertrophy of the posterior commissure and laryngeal edema. The most frequent symptoms were the presence of dry cough and foreign body sensation. Conclusion There was a correlation between the findings at laryngoscopy and symptoms of reflux.

  16. Neutron-capture cross sections from indirect measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scielzo N.D.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  17. Direct and indirect welfare chauvinism as party strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Careja, Romana; Elmelund-Præstekær, Christian; Klitgaard, Michael Baggesen

    2016-01-01

    and deliberate policy-making strategies of the party. It shows that the distinction between direct and indirect chauvinism is a useful theoretical tool for understanding how the Danish People's Party can fulfill the expectations of both its electorate and its coalition partners, even if they point in different......This article develops a theoretical distinction between direct and indirect welfare chauvinism in order to analyze how electorally successful populist right-wing parties transmit social policy preferences with significant redistributive implications for the shape of the welfare state. Direct...... directions....

  18. Oxygen Consumption Rate and Energy Expenditure in Mice: Indirect Calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ran; Tong, Qingchun

    2017-01-01

    Global obesity epidemic demands more effective therapeutic treatments and better understanding of obesity pathophysiology. Since obesity results from energy imbalance, accurate quantification of energy intake and energy expenditure (EE) becomes an essential prerequisite to phenotype the cause for obesity development. Indirect calorimetry has long been used as one of the most established methods in EE quantification by detecting changes in levels of O2 consumption and CO2 production. In this article, we describe procedures and important considerations for an effective measurement using indirect calorimetry.

  19. Evidence for Limited Indirect Aerosol Forcing in Stratocumulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Andrew S.; Toon, O. B.; Stevens, D. E.

    2003-01-01

    Increases in cloud cover and condensed water contribute more than half of the indirect aerosol effect in an ensemble of general circulation model (GCM) simulations estimating the global radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols. We use detailed simulations of marine stratocumulus clouds and airborne observations of ship tracks to show that increases in cloud cover and condensed water in reality are far less than represented by the GCM ensemble. Our results offer an explanation for recent simplified inverse climate calculations indicating that indirect aerosol effects are greatly exaggerated in GCMs.

  20. A review of indirect searches for particle dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Gaskins, Jennifer M

    2016-01-01

    The indirect detection of dark matter annihilation and decay using observations of photons, charged cosmic rays, and neutrinos offers a promising means of identifying the particle nature of this elusive component of the universe. The last decade has seen substantial advances in observational data sets, complemented by new insights from numerical simulations, which together have enabled for the first time strong constraints on dark matter particle models, and have revealed several intriguing hints of possible signals. This review provides an introduction to indirect detection methods and an overview of recent results in the field.

  1. Indirect linear locally distributed damping of coupled systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annick BEYRATH

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to prove indirect internal stabilization results for different coupled systems with linear locally distributed damping (coupled wave equations, wave equations with different speeds of propagation. In our case, a linear local damping term appears only in the first equation whereas no damping term is applied to the second one (this is indirect stabilization, see [11]. Using thepiecewise multiplier method we prove that the full system is stabilized and that the total energy of the solution of this system decays polynomially.

  2. Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J

    2011-10-18

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  3. Resonant indirect exchange via spatially separated two-dimensional channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozhansky, I. V., E-mail: rozhansky@gmail.com [Ioffe Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lappeenranta University of Technology, FI-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Krainov, I. V.; Averkiev, N. S. [Ioffe Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Aronzon, B. A. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute,” 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Davydov, A. B. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kugel, K. I. [Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electrodynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Tripathi, V. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Lähderanta, E. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, FI-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2015-06-22

    We apply the resonant indirect exchange interaction theory to explain the ferromagnetic properties of the hybrid heterostructure consisting of a InGaAs-based quantum well (QW) sandwiched between GaAs barriers with spatially separated Mn δ-layer. The experimentally obtained dependence of the Curie temperature on the QW depth exhibits a peak related to the region of resonant indirect exchange. We suggest the theoretical explanation and a fit to this dependence as a result of the two contributions to ferromagnetism—the intralayer contribution and the resonant exchange contribution provided by the QW.

  4. FREQUENCY OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN CATS IN METOPOLITAN LIMA AND CONCORDANCE BETWEEN INDIRECT IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE AND INDIRECT HAEMAGLUTINATION TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Cerro T., Luis; Laboratorio de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Chávez V., Amanda; Laboratorio de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Casas A., Eva; Laboratorio de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Suárez A., Francisco; Laboratorio de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima.; Rubio V., Alicia; Laboratorio de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to estimate the frequency of antibodies anti- Toxoplasma gondii in cats of Lima city, and to determine the rate of concordance between the Indirect Immunofluorescence (IFI) and Indirect Haemaglutination (HAI) assays. A total of 178 cat serum samples were collected in veterinary clinics of varios districts of Lima. The results showed 11.2 ± 4.6% (HAI) and 17.9 ± 5.6% (IFI) positive serums to T. gondii, and without statiscal differences due to sex and age group. ...

  5. Direct versus indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document gathers the slides that were presented during the workshop 'direct versus indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter'(about 30 contributions). This workshop intended to bring together people from the particle theory community, astrophysicists and cosmologists, as well as experimentalists involved in the detection of dark matter. The aim is to generate a discussion about current and future strategies for detection of SUSY dark matter (with focus, but not exclusively, on neutralinos). Complementarities between accelerator, direct and indirect searches as well as a comparison between the uncertainties in direct and indirect searches of dark matter, are supposed to be discussed. Among the issues which will be addressed are: -) the crucial questions related to the structure of galaxies (local dark matter density, clumping, anomalous velocity distributions, etc.) ; -) the possibilities offered by the present and future experimental facilities for direct and indirect (photon, neutrino) searches; -) the potential for the discovery of SUSY at LHC and beyond; and -) the parameterization of the SUSY breaking models beyond the minimal versions.

  6. Indirect calorimetry: assessing animal response to heat and cold stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaughan, J.B.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Hendriks, P.

    2015-01-01

    Calorimetric thermal stress studies where indirect calorimetry is used as a tool to estimate energy expenditure have been undertaken since this technique was developed. Some examples of these studies are presented in this chapter. The measurement of gas exchange by means of an open-circuit

  7. Vocabulary Acquisition through Direct and Indirect Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Maki; Foo, Thomas Chow Voon

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary learning has long been considered as one of the essential components for developing language learning. However, language learners are required to not just concern about memorizing definitions but also integrating vocabulary meaning into their present knowledge. Many strategies such as direct or indirect ones may be integrated to enhance…

  8. Social Dilemmas and Indirect Reciprocity: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Acosta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity is an evolutionary theory of altruism and cooperation in social dilemmas. Its explanation of cooperation incorporates information on the reputation people hold of other people regarding whether they are cooperative or not. This study systematically reviewed the current empirical literature on indirect reciprocity in social dilemma situations. The following databases were consulted: ScienceDirect, EBSCO, and OVID, using has key words "indirect reciprocity" AND "dilemma" OR "cooperation" OR "charity". Twenty-three articles were selected which met the inclusion criteria (papers written in English and studies whose methodology was based on experimental games and the theories, objectives, the main types of samples used, and main results were analyzed. The results show that the games used were the indirect reciprocity and public goods games, which may vary according to the objectives. It was found that reputation is a key variable that helps to promote cooperation. In turn, information on previous cooperation helps to build reputation, which is subsequently involved in the decision to cooperate with others. Finally, we highlight the need for more experimental studies that incorporate other explanatory variables and evaluate them in new contexts.

  9. Children Mix Direct and Indirect Speech: Evidence from Pronoun Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köder, Franziska; Maier, Emar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates children's acquisition of the distinction between direct speech (Elephant said, "I get the football") and indirect speech ("Elephant said that he gets the football"), by measuring children's interpretation of first, second, and third person pronouns. Based on evidence from various linguistic sources, we…

  10. Biological production of alcohols from coal through indirect liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, S.; Prieto, S.; Harrison, S.B.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1988-08-01

    The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing liquid fuels from the components of synthesis gas through biological indirect liquefaction. The results of pure culture and natural source screening studies aimed at finding organisms capable of carrying out the conversions are presented and discussed. 17 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Testing indirect effect of consumer attitudes toward a product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hrubá, Renata; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    a questionnaire in 2010-2011. The model is estimated using probit analysis to predict relationship between producer and consumer in decision-making when buying a new type of cheese and to examine consumer attitudes toward food origins and nutrient food security. It can be concluded that the indirect effect (e...

  12. Interlanguage Pragmatics Study of Indirect Complaint among Japanese ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Junko

    2010-01-01

    This interlanguage pragmatics study of linguistic expressions of affect focuses on how Japanese learners of English may express themselves in an affect-laden speech act of indirect complaint. The English as a Second Language (ESL) learners' data are compared with the baseline data of native speakers of Japanese (JJ) and American English (AA). The…

  13. Effect of indirect information on system trust and control allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de P.; Midden, C.

    2008-01-01

    In contrast with most other experimental system trust research, this paper examines indirect information as a basis for trust. In experiment 1, the overall valence of an evaluation concerning a route planner was pitted against a consensus cue, i.e. a favourable opinion about the system endorsed by a

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Sulfate in Water by Indirect EDTA Titration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle-Oudry, Deirdre

    2008-01-01

    The determination of sulfate concentration in water by indirect EDTA titration is an instructive experiment that is easily implemented in an analytical chemistry laboratory course. A water sample is treated with excess barium chloride to precipitate sulfate ions as BaSO[subscript 4](s). The unprecipitated barium ions are then titrated with EDTA.…

  15. Path To Ignition: US Indirect Target Physics (LIRPP Vol. 12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, M.; Campbell, E. M.

    2016-10-01

    The United States ICF Program has been pursuing an aggressive research program in preparation for an ignition demonstration on the National Ignition Facility. Los Alamos and Livermore laboratories have collaborated on resolving indirect drive target physics issues on the Nova laser at Livermore National Laboratory. This combined with detailed modeling of laser heated indirectly driven targets likely to achieve ignition, has provided the basis for planning for the NIF. A detailed understanding of target physics, laser performance, and target fabrication is required for developing robust ignition targets. We have developed large-scale computational models to simulate complex physics which occurs in an indirectly driven target. For ignition, detailed understanding of hohlraum and implosion physics is required in order to control competing processes at the few percent level. From crucial experiments performed by Los Alamos and Livermore on the Nova laser, a comprehensive indirect drive database has been assembled. Time integrated and time dependent measurements of radiation drive and symmetry coupled with a detailed set of plasma instability measurements have confirmed our ability to predict hohlraum energetics. Implosion physics campaigns are focused on underdstanding detailed capsule hydrodynamics and instability growth. Target fabrication technology is also an active area of research at Los Alamos, Livermore, and General Atomics for NIF. NIF targets require developing technology in cryogenics and manufacturing in such areas as beryllium shell manufacture. Descriptions of our NIF target designs, experimental results, and fabrication technology supporting NIF target performance predictions will be given.

  16. Estimating Indirect Genetic Effects: Precision of Estimates and Optimum Designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijma, P.

    2010-01-01

    Social interactions among individuals are abundant both in natural and domestic populations. Such social interactions cause phenotypes of individuals to depend on genes carried by other individuals, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects (IGE). Because IGEs have drastic effects on the rate a

  17. U.S. DOE indirect coal liquefaction program: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, J.; Schmetz, E.; Winslow, J.; Tischer, R. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States); Srivastava, R.

    1997-12-31

    Coal is the most abundant domestic energy resource in the United States. The Fossil Energy Organization within the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been supporting a coal liquefaction program to develop improved technologies to convert coal to clean and cost-effective liquid fuels to complement the dwindling supply of domestic petroleum crude. The goal of this program is to produce coal liquids that are competitive with crude at $20 to $25 per barrel. Indirect and direct liquefaction routes are the two technologies being pursued under the DOE coal liquefaction program. This paper will give an overview of the DOE indirect liquefaction program. More detailed discussions will be given to the F-T diesel and DME fuels which have shown great promises as clean burning alternative diesel fuels. The authors also will briefly discuss the economics of indirect liquefaction and the hurdles and opportunities for the early commercial deployment of these technologies. Discussions will be preceded by two brief reviews on the liquid versus gas phase reactors and the natural gas versus coal based indirect liquefaction.

  18. What Does it Really Cost? Allocating Indirect Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Herbert; Davenport, Elisabeth

    1997-01-01

    Better managerial control in terms of decision making and understanding the costs of a system/service result from allocating indirect costs. Allocation requires a three-step process: selecting cost objectives, pooling related overhead costs, and selecting costs bases to connect the objectives to the pooled costs. Argues that activity-based costing…

  19. Indirect Aggression, Bullying and Female Teen Victimization: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzaro, Mary F.

    2011-01-01

    This article assesses the literature in relation to youth bullying in the United Kingdom, Scandinavia and North America, focusing in particular on female aggression as it is expressed in adolescent peer relationships. It addresses the escalating problems of indirect aggression, especially those involving social networking interchanges such as…

  20. 49 CFR 30.9 - Citizenship: Direct or indirect control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. 30.9 Section 30.9 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation DENIAL OF PUBLIC WORKS CONTRACTS TO SUPPLIERS OF GOODS AND SERVICES OF COUNTRIES THAT DENY PROCUREMENT MARKET ACCESS TO U.S. CONTRACTORS §...

  1. Entrainment, Drizzle, and the Indirect Effect in Stratiform Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Activation of some fraction of increased concentrations of sub-micron soluble aerosol particles lead to enhanced cloud droplet concentrations and hence smaller droplets, increasing their total cross sectional area and thus reflecting solar radiation more efficiently (the Twomey, or first indirect, effect). However, because of competition during condensational growth, droplet distributions tend to broaden as numbers increase, reducing the sensitivity of cloud albedo to droplet concentration on the order of 10%. Also, smaller droplets less effectively produce drizzle through collisions and coalescence, and it is widely expected (and found in large-scale models) that decreased precipitation leads to clouds with more cloud water on average (the so-called cloud lifetime, or second indirect, effect). Much of the uncertainty regarding the overall indirect aerosol effect stems from inadequate understanding of such changes in cloud water. Detailed simulations based on FIRE-I, ASTEX, and DYCOMS-II conditions show that suppression of precipitation from increased droplet concentrations leads to increased cloud water only when sufficient precipitation reaches the surface, a condition favored when the overlying air is-humid or droplet concentrations are very low. Otherwise, aerosol induced suppression of precipitation enhances entrainment of overlying dry air, thereby reducing cloud water and diminishing the indirect climate forcing.

  2. Indirect detonation initiation using acoustic timescale thermal power deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Regele, Jonathan D; Vezolainen, Alexei; Vasilyev, Oleg V

    2012-01-01

    A fluid dynamics video is presented that demonstrates an indirect detonation initiation process. In this process, a transient power deposition adds heat to a spatially resolved volume of fluid in an amount of time that is similar to the acoustic timescale of the fluid volume. A highly resolved two-dimensional simulation shows the events that unfold after the heat is added.

  3. Shear bond strength of indirect composite material to monolithic zirconia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study aimed to evaluate the effect of surface treatments on bond strength of indirect composite material (Tescera Indirect Composite System) to monolithic zirconia (inCoris TZI). MATERIALS AND METHODS Partially stabilized monolithic zirconia blocks were cut into with 2.0 mm thickness. Sintered zirconia specimens were divided into different surface treatment groups: no treatment (control), sandblasting, glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application, and sandblasting + glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application. The indirect composite material was applied to the surface of the monolithic zirconia specimens. Shear bond strength value of each specimen was evaluated after thermocycling. The fractured surface of each specimen was examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope to assess the failure types. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey LSD tests (α=.05). RESULTS Bond strength was significantly lower in untreated specimens than in sandblasted specimens (P<.05). No difference between the glaze layer and hydrofluoric acid application treated groups were observed. However, bond strength for these groups were significantly higher as compared with the other two groups (P<.05). CONCLUSION Combined use of glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application and silanization are reliable for strong and durable bonding between indirect composite material and monolithic zirconia. PMID:27555895

  4. Silent, indirect strategic processes in small and medium sized enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther; Madsen, Charlotte Øland; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    Based on empirical data we in this paper explore day-to-day strategising with an emphasis on phronesis. This way we shed some light on the nearly silent, quiet, indirect strategic change processes as they are practiced and reflected upon by leaders in small companies in their daily practice...

  5. The trojan horse method as indirect technique in nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumino, A; Spitaleri, C; Cherubini, S; Crucilla, V; Fu, C; Gulino, M; La Cognata, M; Lamia, L; Pizzone, R G; Puglia, S M R; Rapisarda, G G; Romano, S; Sergi, M L [Dipartimento di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche per l' Ingegneria - Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); Elekes, Z; Fueloep, Z; Gyuerky, G; Kiss, G; Mukhamedzhanov, A [ATOMKI - Debrecen (Hungary); Goldberg, V [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station (United States); Rolfs, C [Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum (Germany)], E-mail: tumino@lns.infn.it (and others)

    2008-05-15

    The Trojan Horse Method is a successful indirect technique for nuclear astrophysics. It allows one to measure astrophysical rearrangement reactions down to the relevant energies, providing a successful alternative path to measure the astrophysical S(E) factor. The basic features will be discussed and some recent results will be presented.

  6. Direct and indirect community effects of rebuilding plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Rice, Jack C.

    2010-01-01

    of the marine community. Using size- and trait-based single-species and community models, a general assessment is made of the direct and indirect ecological consequences of a rebuilding plan based on a reduction in fishing mortality. If fishing mortality is sufficiently reduced, the time-scale of rebuilding...

  7. Theory for Indirect Conduction in Dense, Gas-Solid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzi, Aaron; Hrenya, Christine

    2016-11-01

    Heat transfer in dense gas-solid systems is dominated by conduction, and critical to the operation of rotary-kilns, catalytic cracking, and heat exchangers with solid particles as the heat transfer fluid. In particular, the indirect conduction occurring between two bodies separated by a thin layer of fluid can significantly impact the heat transfer within gas-solid systems. Current state-of-the-art models for indirect conduction assume that particles are surrounded by a static "fluid lens" and that one-dimensional conduction occurs through the fluid lens when the lens overlaps another body. However, attempts to evaluate the effect of surface roughness and fluid lens thickness (theoretical inputs) on indirect conduction have been restricted to static, single-particle cases. By contrast, here we quantify these effects for dynamic, multi-particle systems. This analysis is compared to outputs from computational fluid dynamics and discrete element method (CFD-DEM) simulations of heat transfer in a packed bed and flow down a heated ramp. Analytical predictions for model sensitivity are found to be in agreement with simulation results and differ greatly from the static, single-particle analysis. Namely, indirect conduction in static systems is found to be most sensitive to surface roughness, while dynamic systems are sensitive to the fluid lens thickness.

  8. Children Mix Direct and Indirect Speech: Evidence from Pronoun Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köder, Franziska; Maier, Emar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates children's acquisition of the distinction between direct speech (Elephant said, "I get the football") and indirect speech ("Elephant said that he gets the football"), by measuring children's interpretation of first, second, and third person pronouns. Based on evidence from various linguistic sources, we…

  9. Indirect Teaching and Assessment: Are They Mutually Exclusive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Carol A.

    1990-01-01

    Principals may wonder how to evaluate teachers using student-centered, indirect teaching strategies with an assessment instrument geared to reward a more teacher-centered approach. This article offers some suggestions concerning the instructional cycle, classroom observation techniques, postobservation conferences, and the formal writeup. (MLH)

  10. Choosing Not Choosing: The Indirections of Ethnography and Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankham, Jo; Smears, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues for the importance of ethnography in the conduct of educational research and the ways in which it can threaten, in a good sense, the certainties and dominance of performativity. The paper uses the poetry of Emily Dickinson to signal the importance of indirection in the conduct of ethnographic work and, more specifically, the ways…

  11. Choosing Not Choosing: The Indirections of Ethnography and Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankham, Jo; Smears, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues for the importance of ethnography in the conduct of educational research and the ways in which it can threaten, in a good sense, the certainties and dominance of performativity. The paper uses the poetry of Emily Dickinson to signal the importance of indirection in the conduct of ethnographic work and, more specifically, the ways…

  12. Assessing Students' Writing Skills: A Comparison of Direct & Indirect Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffler, Stephen L.

    This research examined the results from direct and indirect writing assessments to determine the most effective method of discrimination. The New Jersey State Department of Education developed a test for ninth-grade students which was designed to measure the ability to apply writing mechanics to written text and to communicate effectively in…

  13. Lack of Noradrenergic Modulation of Indirect Semantic Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelyne S. Cios

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Norepinephrine and dopamine are both believed to affect signal-to-noise in the cerebral cortex. Dopaminergic agents appear to modulate semantic networks during indirect semantic priming, but do not appear to affect problem solving dependent on access to semantic networks. Noradrenergic agents, though, do affect semantic network dependent problem solving. We wished to examine whether noradrenergic agents affect indirect semantic priming. Subjects attended three sessions: one each after propranolol (40 mg (noradrenergic antagonist, ephedrine (25 mg (noradrenergic agonist, and placebo. During each session, closely related, distantly related, and unrelated pairs were presented. Reaction times for a lexical decision task on the target words (second word in the pair were recorded. No decrease in indirect semantic priming occurred with ephedrine. Furthermore, across all three drugs, a main effect of semantic relatedness was found, but no main effect of drug, and no drug/semantic relatedness interaction effect. These findings suggest that noradrenergic agents, with these drugs and at these doses, do not affect indirect semantic priming with the potency of dopaminergic drugs at the doses previously studied. In the context of this previous work, this suggests that more automatic processes such as priming and more controlled searches of the lexical and semantic networks such as problem solving may be mediated, at least in part, by distinct mechanisms with differing effects of pharmacological modulation.

  14. Indirect heat integration across plants using hot water circles☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenglin Chang; Yufei Wang; Xiao Feng

    2015-01-01

    Total site heat integration (TSHI) provides more opportunities for energy saving in industry clusters. Some design methods including direct integration using process streams and indirect integration using intermediate-fluid cir-cuits, i.e., steam, dowtherms and hot water, have been proposed during last few decades. Indirect heat integration is preferred when the heat sources and sinks are separated in independent plants with rather long distance. This improves energy efficiency by adaption of intermediate fluid circle which acts as a utility provider for plants in a symbiotic network. However, there are some significant factors ignored in conventional TSHI, i.e. the investment of pipeline, cost of pumping and heat loss. These factors simultaneously determine the possibility and perfor-mance of heat integration. This work presents a new methodology for indirect heat integration in low tempera-ture range using hot water circuit as intermediate-fluid medium. The new methodology enables the targeting of indirect heat integration across plants considering the factors mentioned earlier. An MINLP model with economic objective is established and solved. The optimization results give the mass flow rate of intermediate-fluid, diam-eter of pipeline, the temperature of the circuits and the matches of heat exchanger networks (HENS) automati-cally. Finally, the application of this proposed methodology is il ustrated with a case study.

  15. Factoring out natural and indirect human effects on terrestrial carbon sources and sinks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canadell, J.G. [Global Carbon Project, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, GPO Box 3023, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Kirschbaum, M.U.F. [Environmental Biology Group, RSBS, Australian National University, GPO Box 475, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Kurz, W.A. [Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, 506 West Burnside Road, Victoria, BC V8Z 1M5 (Canada); Sanz, M.J. [Fundacion CEAM, Parque Tecnologico, Charles H. Darwin 14, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Schlamadinger, B. [Joanneum Research, Elisabethstrasse 11, Graz A-8010 (Austria); Yamagata, Y. [Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute of Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    The capacity to partition natural, indirect, and direct human-induced effects on terrestrial carbon (C) sources and sinks is necessary to be able to predict future terrestrial C dynamics and thus their influence on atmospheric CO2 growth. However, it will take a number of years before we can better attribute quantitative estimates of the contribution of various C processes to the net C balance. In a policy context, factoring out natural and indirect human-induced effects on C sources and sinks from the direct human-induced influences, is seen as a requirement of a C accounting approach that establishes a clear and unambiguous connection between human activities and the assignment of C credits and debits. We present options for factoring out various groups of influences including climate variability, CO2 and N fertilization, and legacies from forest management. These are: (1) selecting longer accounting or measurement periods to reduce the effects of inter-annual variability; (2) correction of national inventories for inter-annual variability; (3) use of activity-based accounting and C response curves; (4) use of baseline scenarios or benchmarks at the national level; (5) stratification of the landscape into units with distinct average C stocks. Other, more sophisticated modeling approaches (e.g., demographic models in combination with forest inventories; process-based models) are possible options for future C accounting systems but their complexity and data requirements make their present adoption more difficult in an inclusive international C accounting system.

  16. Indirect pulp capping in primary molar using glass ionomer cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtia Metalita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indirect pulp capping in primary teeth, however, is more rarely conducted than permanent teeth, since it thought to have low impact and most suggestion is for taking caries lesion aggressively on primary teeth. Purpose: The study was aimed to evaluate the subjective complaint, clinical symptom, and radiographic appearance of indirect pulp capping treatment using glass ionomers cements in primary molar. Methods: Sixteen children in range of age 6 to 8 years old, who visited Clinic of Pediatric Dentistry Universitas Airlangga Dental Hospital, Surabaya Indonesia, were the subject of study. They had one occlusal dental caries on one side of maxillary or mandibular primary molar with the diagnose of pulpitis reversible. The experimental group, had indirect pulp capping treatment with glass ionomer cements (GC Fuji VII®, while the control group, had indirect pulp capping treatment with calcium hydroxide (Metapaste. Each group was filled with GC Fuji IX® as permanent restoration. After one week, one month, and three months later, the observations were made on subjective complaint, clinical symptom, and radiographic appearance. Results: The results showed no subjective complaint such as pain or problem on mastication; no negative clinical symptoms such as pain on palpation, gingivitis or periodontitis, and abnormal tooth mobility; no negative radiographic appearance such as pathological apical radioluscency, internal or external resorbtion, and change of ligament periodontal widthafter the treatment. Conclusion: The study suggested that indirect pulp capping treatment using glass ionomer cement materials on primary teeth might be considered to be the treatment choice.Latar belakang: Indirect pulp capping pada gigi sulung lebih jarang dilakukan dibandingkan gigi permanen, karena dianggap memiliki dampak yang rendah dan sebagian besar menyarankan untuk mengambil lesi karies secara agresif pada gigi sulung. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan

  17. Plausibility of the implausible: is it possible that ultra-high dilutions ‘without biological activity’ cause adverse effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Zulian Teixeira

    2013-06-01

    .7% of cases the potencies were described as below of the 12ª Centesimal, the point beyond which the likelihood of a single molecule being present in the remedy approaches zero”, the authors claim that “in the majority of cases, the possible mechanism of action involved allergic reactions or ingestion of toxic substances”. With this approach, the authors seek to dismiss the biological effects of ultra-high dilutions, because if they cause AEs would be confirming the plausibility of its possible therapeutic effects. However, toxicological tests are required to affirm that AEs are a consequence of toxic (allergic effects of the substances or of ‘imponderable’ effects of ultra-high dilutions. In view of the recent report cited in the review [12] in which a complex homeopathic medicine indicated for treating infant colic (Gali-col Baby, GCB caused apparent life-threatening events (ALTEs were described by the National Institutes of Health consensus group in 1986 as “an episode that is frightening to the observer and that is characterized by some combination of apnea (central or occasionally obstructive, color change (usually cyanotic or pallid but occasionally erythematous or plethoric, a marked change in muscle tone (usually marked limpness, choking or gagging” [13] in consequence of the ‘toxicity of active ingredients’ (Citrullus colocynthis, Matricaria chamomilla, Bryonia alba, Nux vomica, Veratrum album, Magnesia phosphorica and Cuprum metallicum at potencies between 4C and 5C, Oberbaum et al. [14] performed a toxicological study of these components showing that “doses ingested in the GCB series were 10-13 orders of magnitude smaller than those reported to cause toxic reactions in humans” and that “there was poor correlation between symptoms with GCB and toxic profiles of the components”. As alternative explanation, they suggest that “four components (Veratrum album, Cuprum metallicum, Bryonia alba and Matricaria chamomilla have an

  18. Electroluminescence from indirect band gap semiconductor ReS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Lezama, Ignacio; Aditya Reddy, Bojja; Ubrig, Nicolas; Morpurgo, Alberto F.

    2016-12-01

    It has been recently claimed that bulk crystals of transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) ReS2 are direct band gap semiconductors, which would make this material an ideal candidate, among all TMDs, for the realization of efficient opto-electronic devices. The situation is however unclear, because even more recently an indirect transition in the PL spectra of this material has been detected, whose energy is smaller than the supposed direct gap. To address this issue we exploit the properties of ionic liquid gated field-effect transistors (FETs) to investigate the gap structure of bulk ReS2. Using these devices, whose high quality is demonstrated by a record high electron FET mobility of 1100 cm2 V-1 s-1 at 4 K, we can induce hole transport at the surface of the material and determine quantitatively the smallest band gap present in the material, irrespective of its direct or indirect nature. The value of the band gap is found to be 1.41 eV, smaller than the 1.5 eV direct optical transition but in good agreement with the energy of the indirect optical transition, providing an independent confirmation that bulk ReS2 is an indirect band gap semiconductor. Nevertheless, contrary to the case of more commonly studied semiconducting TMDs (e.g., MoS2, WS2, etc) in their bulk form, we also find that ReS2 FETs fabricated on bulk crystals do exhibit electroluminescence when driven in the ambipolar injection regime, likely because the difference between direct and indirect gap is only 100 meV. We conclude that ReS2 does deserve more in-depth investigations in relation to possible opto-electronic applications.

  19. One-pot synthesis of tetrazole-1,2,5,6-tetrahydronicotinonitriles and cholinesterase inhibition: Probing the plausible reaction mechanism via computational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Abdul; Zehra, Syeda Tazeen; Abbas, Saba; Nisa, Riffat Un; Mahmood, Tariq; Ayub, Khurshid; Al-Rashida, Mariya; Bajorath, Jürgen; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Iqbal, Jamshed

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, one-pot synthesis of 1H-tetrazole linked 1,2,5,6-tetrahydronicotinonitriles under solvent-free conditions have been carried out in the presence of tetra-n-butyl ammonium fluoride trihydrated (TBAF) as catalyst and solvent. Computational studies have been conducted to elaborate two plausible mechanistic pathways of this one-pot reaction. Moreover, the synthesized compounds were screened for cholinesterases (acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase) inhibition which are consider to be major malefactors of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to find lead compounds for further research in AD therapy.

  20. Controlled contact to a C-60 molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neel, N.; Kröger, J.; Limot, L.;

    2007-01-01

    The tip of a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope is approached towards a C-60 molecule adsorbed at a pentagon-hexagon bond on Cu(100) to form a tip-molecule contact. The conductance rapidly increases to approximate to 0.25 conductance quanta in the transition region from tunneling...

  1. Identification of the bkdAB gene cluster, a plausible source of the starter-unit for virginiamycin M production in Streptomyces virginiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsawat, Nattika; Kitani, Shigeru; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Lee, Chang Kwon; Nihira, Takuya

    2007-06-01

    The bkdAB gene cluster, which encodes plausible E1 and E2 components of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCDH) complex, was isolated from Streptomyces virginiae in the vicinity of a regulatory island for virginiamycin production. Gene disruption of bkdA completely abolished the production of virginiamycin M (a polyketide-peptide antibiotic), while the production of virginiamycin S (a cyclodepsipeptide antibiotic) was unaffected. Complementation of the bkdA disruptant by genome-integration of intact bkdA completely restored the virginiamycin M production, indicating that the bkdAB cluster is essential for virginiamycin M biosynthesis, plausibly via the provision of isobutyryl-CoA as a primer unit. In contrast to a feature usually seen in the Streptomyces E1 component, namely, the separate encoding of the alpha and beta subunits, S. virginiae bkdA seemed to encode the fused form of the alpha and beta subunits, which was verified by the actual catalytic activity of the fused protein in vitro using recombinant BkdA overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Supply of an additional bkdA gene under the strong and constitutive promoter ermE* in the wild-type strain of S. virginiae resulted in enhanced production of virginiamycin M, suggesting that the supply of isobutyryl-CoA is one of the rate-limiting factors in the biosynthesis of virginiamycin M.

  2. Analysis of multi-domain hypothetical proteins containing iron-sulphur clusters and fad ligands reveal rieske dioxygenase activity suggesting their plausible roles in bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanarayanan, Nitish; Nagendra, Holenarasipur Gundurao

    2012-01-01

    'Conserved hypothetical' proteins pose a challenge not just for functional genomics, but also to biology in general. As long as there are hundreds of conserved proteins with unknown function in model organisms such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis or Saccharomyces cerevisiae, any discussion towards a 'complete' understanding of these biological systems will remain a wishful thinking. Insilico approaches exhibit great promise towards attempts that enable appreciating the plausible roles of these hypothetical proteins. Among the majority of genomic proteins, two-thirds in unicellular organisms and more than 80% in metazoa, are multi-domain proteins, created as a result of gene duplication events. Aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases, also called Rieske dioxygenases (RDOs), are class of multi-domain proteins that catalyze the initial step in microbial aerobic degradation of many aromatic compounds. Investigations here address the computational characterization of hypothetical proteins containing Ferredoxin and Flavodoxin signatures. Consensus sequence of each class of oxidoreductase was obtained by a phylogenetic analysis, involving clustering methods based on evolutionary relationship. A synthetic sequence was developed by combining the consensus, which was used as the basis to search for their homologs via BLAST. The exercise yielded 129 multidomain hypothetical proteins containing both 2Fe-2S (Ferredoxin) and FNR (Flavodoxin) domains. In the current study, 40 proteins with N-terminus 2Fe-2S domain and C-terminus FNR domain are characterized, through homology modelling and docking exercises which suggest dioxygenase activity indicating their plausible roles in degradation of aromatic moieties.

  3. Indirect Reciprocity with Optional Interactions and Private Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Olejarz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider indirect reciprocity with optional interactions and private information. A game is offered between two players and accepted unless it is known that the other person is a defector. Whenever a defector manages to exploit a cooperator, his or her reputation is revealed to others in the population with some probability. Therefore, people have different private information about the reputation of others, which is a setting that is difficult to analyze in the theory of indirect reciprocity. Since a defector loses a fraction of his social ties each time he exploits a cooperator, he is less efficient at exploiting cooperators in subsequent rounds. We analytically calculate the critical benefit-to-cost ratio above which cooperation is successful in various settings. We demonstrate quantitative agreement with simulation results of a corresponding Wright–Fisher process with optional interactions and private information. We also deduce a simple necessary condition for the critical benefit-to-cost ratio.

  4. Aerosol indirect effect on biogeochemical cycles and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahowald, Natalie

    2011-11-11

    The net effect of anthropogenic aerosols on climate is usually considered the sum of the direct radiative effect of anthropogenic aerosols, plus the indirect effect of these aerosols through aerosol-cloud interactions. However, an additional impact of aerosols on a longer time scale is their indirect effect on climate through biogeochemical feedbacks, largely due to changes in the atmospheric concentration of CO(2). Aerosols can affect land and ocean biogeochemical cycles by physical forcing or by adding nutrients and pollutants to ecosystems. The net biogeochemical effect of aerosols is estimated to be equivalent to a radiative forcing of -0.5 ± 0.4 watts per square meter, which suggests that reaching lower carbon targets will be even costlier than previously estimated.

  5. Evaluating aerosol indirect effect through marine stratocumulus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogan, Z.N.; Kogan, Y.L.; Lilly, D.K. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    1996-04-01

    During the last decade much attention has been focused on anthropogenic aerosols and their radiative influence on the global climate. Charlson et al. and Penner et al. have demonstrated that tropospheric aerosols and particularly anthropogenic sulfate aerosols may significantly contribute to the radiative forcing exerting a cooling influence on climate (-1 to -2 W/m{sup 2}) which is comparable in magnitude to greenhouse forcing, but opposite in sign. Aerosol particles affect the earth`s radiative budget either directly by scattering and absorption of solar radiation by themselves or indirectly by altering the cloud radiative properties through changes in cloud microstructure. Marine stratocumulus cloud layers and their possible cooling influence on the atmosphere as a result of pollution are of special interest because of their high reflectivity, durability, and large global cover. We present an estimate of thet aerosol indirect effect, or, forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate aerosols.

  6. Indirect evidence for decreased hypothalamic somatostatinergic tone in anorexia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, R K; Andersen, M; Flyvbjerg, A

    2002-01-01

    in the central feeding mechanism in anorexia nervosa (AN). Peripheral administration of pyridostigmine (PD) minimizes the release of hypothalamic SRIH. DESIGN: To study the influence of hypothalamic somatostatinergic inhibition on the exaggerated somatotroph responsiveness to GHRH in patients with severe AN, two...... indirectly to greater SRIH withdrawal and greater GHRH release in anorexia nervosa. Moreover, hypothalamic SRIH activity seems to be inversely related to cortisol levels, indirectly supporting the hypothesis that SRIH and CRH neuronal activity are inversely related in anorexia nervosa. Leptin, which...... is believed to act on hypothalamic feeding mechanisms, seems to be positively related to SRIH activity. Finally, the present data demonstrate that the potentiating effect of pyridostigmine in anorexia nervosa is related to body mass index and increases upon weight gain, suggesting that the low...

  7. A Comparison between Direct and Indirect Laser Sintering of Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Montasser M.Dewidar; Jae-Kyoo LIM; K.W.Dalgarno

    2008-01-01

    Layer manufacture technologies are gaining increasing attention in the manufacturing for the production of polymer mould tooling. Layer manufacture techniques can be used in this potential manufacturing area to produce tooling either indirectly or directly, and powder metal based layer manufacture systems are considered as an effective way of producing rapid tooling. Mechanical properties and accuracy are critical for tooling. This paper reports the results of an experimental study examining the potential of layer manufacturing processes to deliver production tooling for polymer manufacture. A comparison between indirectly selective laser sintering and directly selective laser sintering to provide the tooling was reported. Three main areas were addressed during the study: mechanical strength, accuracy, and build rate. Overviews of the results from the studies were presented.

  8. A Review of Indirect Bridge Monitoring Using Passing Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Malekjafarian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Indirect bridge monitoring methods, using the responses measured from vehicles passing over bridges, are under development for about a decade. A major advantage of these methods is that they use sensors mounted on the vehicle, no sensors or data acquisition system needs to be installed on the bridge. Most of the proposed methods are based on the identification of dynamic characteristics of the bridge from responses measured on the vehicle, such as natural frequency, mode shapes, and damping. In addition, some of the methods seek to directly detect bridge damage based on the interaction between the vehicle and bridge. This paper presents a critical review of indirect methods for bridge monitoring and provides discussion and recommendations on the challenges to be overcome for successful implementation in practice.

  9. INDIRECT DETERMINATION METHOD OF DYNAMIC FORCEBY USING CEPSTRUM ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴淼; 魏任之

    1996-01-01

    The dynamic load spectrum is one of the most important basis of design and dynamic characteristics analysis of machines. But it is difficult to measure it on many occasions, especially for mining machines, due to their bad working circumstances and high cost of measurements. For such situation, the load spectrum has to be obtained by indirect determination methods. A new method to identify the load spectrum, cepstrum analysis method, was presented in this paper.This method can be used to eliminate the filtering influence of transfer function to the response signals so that the load spectrum can be determined indirectly. The experimental and engineering actual examples indicates that this method has the advantages that the calculation is simple and the measurement is easy.

  10. Indirect Relativistic Effect in Electron-Alkali-Atom Collision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi-Bao; PANG Wen-Ning; DING Hai-Bing; SHANG Ren-Cheng

    2005-01-01

    @@ We present detailed studies on the differential cross section (DCS) and total cross section (TCS) in electronalkali-atom collision processes by using two types of distorted wave methods, the ordinary distorted wave method and the indirect-relativistic distorted wave method. We find that the indirect relativistic effect in the target atom can be neglected in the TCS calculation in the processes; however, with an increase of the atomic number, this effect becomes significant in the DCS calculation. Then, based on the density matrix theory, the orientation and alignment parameters of excited caesium P states scattered by electrons at low incident energy are calculated,and comparisons are made for the two series between the two methods. The results show that accordance is reached at scattering angles smaller than 45°, but considerable difference appears at angles larger than 45° due to the relativistic effect.

  11. Unwanted reflections during slit lamp assisted binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Matthew; Goncharov, Alexander

    2011-11-01

    Binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy is a routine ophthalmic examination procedure. Two different apparatus setups are commonly employed; the head/spectacle mounted designs of Schepens and slit lamp assisted ophthalmoscopy, both typically performed through a fundus lens of high positive power. It can be difficult for clinicians to avoid unwanted back reflections primarily emanating from the fundus lens and the pre-corneal tear film, particularly when initially learning the skills required to perform the examination. In this investigation the illumination system of a slit lamp was modified to include a variety of obscuration designs optically conjugate to surfaces responsible for creating unwanted reflections. The modified apparatus was then used to perform binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy on an artificial eye and on real eyes. Clinicians used questionnaires to score the appearance of reflections. The mean scores were similar across all trials, including the control unmodified trial, indicating general consensus that the modified illumination system provided no substantial effect on the perception of these unwanted reflections.

  12. Testing indirect effect of consumer attitudes toward a product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hrubá, Renata; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    and on the indirect and direct effects of the perception of information through information behavior and the use of the model ordered. It is proposed that consumer levels of product familiarity of attributes affects behavior. Consumer attitudes towards agri-food products and behaviour were analyzed through...... a questionnaire in 2010-2011. The model is estimated using probit analysis to predict relationship between producer and consumer in decision-making when buying a new type of cheese and to examine consumer attitudes toward food origins and nutrient food security. It can be concluded that the indirect effect (e......The number of farmers´ markets has been increasing all around the world. This growth in the popularity of farmers´ markets has been attributed to factors of changing consumer interest in local traditional or innovative food products. This paper focuses on familiarity bias in the Czech dairy market...

  13. Direct and indirect speech fusion in Charisius’ Ars grammatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Pérez Alonso

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available When transmitting the teaching of his predecessors, the grammarian Charisius usually makes use of either subordinating clauses or direct speech, but he hardly ever employs the so-called indirect speech, typically found in strictly literary works rather than in technical ones. However, we have encountered some passages in which portions in direct speech precede indirect speech clauses, a remarkable phenomenon which could be thought of as textual corruptions needing emendation. Nevertheless, from the fact that this phenomenon is mainly found in parts of Charisius’ work taken from Julius Romanus’ De analogía (where the latter quotes Pliny the Elder’s Dubius sermo, we conclude that the text is correct and that we are dealing with a type of citation characteristic of Julius Romanus, the description of which is not found in the literature on Latin Syntax.

  14. NUMERICALLY PREDICTED INDIRECT SIGNATURES OF TERRESTRIAL PLANET FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Dobinson, Jack; Carter, Philip J.; Lines, Stefan [School of Physics, University of Bristol, HH Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-10

    The intermediate phases of planet formation are not directly observable due to lack of emission from planetesimals. Planet formation is, however, a dynamically active process resulting in collisions between the evolving planetesimals and the production of dust. Thus, indirect observation of planet formation may indeed be possible in the near future. In this paper we present synthetic observations based on numerical N-body simulations of the intermediate phase of planet formation including a state-of-the-art collision model, EDACM, which allows multiple collision outcomes, such as accretion, erosion, and bouncing events. We show that the formation of planetary embryos may be indirectly observable by a fully functioning ALMA telescope if the surface area involved in planetesimal evolution is sufficiently large and/or the amount of dust produced in the collisions is sufficiently high in mass.

  15. Numerically Predicted Indirect Signatures of Terrestrial Planet Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Leinhardt, Zoë M; Carter, Philip J; Lines, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The intermediate phases of planet formation are not directly observable due to lack of emission from planetesimals. Planet formation is, however, a dynamically active process resulting in collisions between the evolving planetesimals and the production of dust. Thus, indirect observation of planet formation may indeed be possible in the near future. In this paper we present synthetic observations based on numerical N-body simulations of the intermediate phase of planet formation including a state-of-the-art collision model, EDACM, which allows multiple collision outcomes, such as, accretion, erosion, and bouncing events. We show that the formation of planetary embryos may be indirectly observable by a fully functioning ALMA telescope if the surface area involved in planetesimal evolution is sufficiently large and/or the amount of dust produced in the collisions is sufficiently high in mass.

  16. An indirect approach to the extensive calculation of relationship coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleau Jean-Jacques

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A method was described for calculating population statistics on relationship coefficients without using corresponding individual data. It relied on the structure of the inverse of the numerator relationship matrix between individuals under investigation and ancestors. Computation times were observed on simulated populations and were compared to those incurred with a conventional direct approach. The indirect approach turned out to be very efficient for multiplying the relationship matrix corresponding to planned matings (full design by any vector. Efficiency was generally still good or very good for calculating statistics on these simulated populations. An extreme implementation of the method is the calculation of inbreeding coefficients themselves. Relative performances of the indirect method were good except when many full-sibs during many generations existed in the population.

  17. The Impact of Aerosol Direct and Indirect Effects on Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzkopf, M. D.; Levy, H.; Horowitz, L. W.; Ming, Y.; Golaz, J.; Naik, V.; Ramaswamy, V.

    2012-12-01

    We employ GFDL's new fully-coupled chemistry-climate (ocean/atmosphere/land/sea ice) model (CM3) with an explicit physical representation of aerosol indirect effects (cloud-water droplet activation) to find a global-averaged cooling of ~1K due to aerosol forcing in the historical (1860-2005) period, and that the aerosol indirect effect accounts for almost all of this cooling. In the 21st Century, employing the RCP 4.5 scenario, with projected reductions in emissions of anthropogenic aerosols and their precursors, we find ~1 K of additional warming and 0.1 mm/day of additional precipitation, both globally averaged, by the end of the 21st Century, compared with a simulation in which aerosol and precursor emissions are fixed at 2005 values. The impact of these projected reductions in aerosol emissions on simulated globally averaged surface temperature and precipitation becomes apparent by ~ 2050. The reduction in aerosols increases precipitation in East and South Asia by as much as 0.5-1.0 mm/day in the latter part of the 21st Century. The simulated temperature and precipitation responses in CM3 are significantly stronger than the previously simulated responses in our earlier climate model (CM2.1) that only considered direct radiative forcing by aerosols. We conclude that sulfate aerosol indirect effects greatly enhance the impacts of aerosols on surface temperature in CM3, while both sulfate aerosol indirect effects and BC aerosol absorption contribute to a strong precipitation response. CM3 produces late 21st Century surface warming patterns that are uncorrelated with the spatial distribution of the changes in aerosol loading, a result similar to CM2.1. However, unlike temperature, the largest precipitation increases and aerosol decreases in CM3 are co-located in and downwind of Asia.

  18. Wastewater Minimization in Indirect Electrochemical Synthesis of Phenylacetaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhirong Sun

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater minimization in phenylacetaldehyde production by using indirect electrochemical oxidation of phenylethane instead of the seriously polluting traditional chemical process is described in this paper. Results show that high current efficiency of Mn(III and high yield of phenylacetaldehyde can be obtained at the same sulfuric acid concentration (60%. The electrolytic mediator can be recycled and there will be no waste discharged.

  19. Indirect investment in real estate: Listed companies and funds

    OpenAIRE

    Suarez, Jose L.; Vassalo, Amparo

    2005-01-01

    In Europe today, there are two main vehicles for indirect investment in real estate; real estate investment funds, on the one hand, and, on the other, listed real estate companies. With these instruments, not only does the investor take a position in the real estate market, he/she also acquires different risk/return structures which may vary according to the instrument being used. In some European countries, real estate companies have modified their financial structure and tax position by ado...

  20. SLURRY PHASE IRON CATALYSTS FOR INDIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhaya K. Datye

    1998-11-19

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in indirect coal liquefaction. Specifically, they have studied the attrition behavior of iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, their interaction with the silica binder and the evolution of iron phases in a synthesis gas conversion process. The results provide significant insight into factors that should be considered in the design of catalysts for converting coal based syngas into liquid fuels.

  1. Effective dose from direct and indirect digital panoramic units

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Gun-Sun; Kim, Jin-Soo; Seo, Yo-Seob; Kim, Jae-Duk

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to provide comparative measurements of the effective dose from direct and indirect digital panoramic units according to phantoms and exposure parameters. Materials and Methods Dose measurements were carried out using a head phantom representing an average man (175 cm tall, 73.5 kg male) and a limbless whole body phantom representing an average woman (155 cm tall, 50 kg female). Lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips were used for the dosimeter. Two d...

  2. The Potential Neural Mechanisms of Acute Indirect Vibration

    OpenAIRE

    Cochrane, Darryl J.

    2011-01-01

    There is strong evidence to suggest that acute indirect vibration acts on muscle to enhance force, power, flexibility, balance and proprioception suggesting neural enhancement. Nevertheless, the neural mechanism(s) of vibration and its potentiating effect have received little attention. One proposal suggests that spinal reflexes enhance muscle contraction through a reflex activity known as tonic vibration stretch reflex (TVR), which increases muscle activation. However, TVR is based on direct...

  3. Early and severe indirect hyperbilirubinemia as a manifestation of galactosemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, H C; Phornphutkul, C; Laptook, A R

    2010-04-01

    Classic galactosemia results from mutations in the galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase gene and causes infants to present with jaundice after initiation of lactose containing formulas. Jaundice associated with galactosemia is often thought to have a prominent direct fraction. We report an infant with galactosemia who presented with severe jaundice from indirect hyperbilirubinemia and met criteria for an exchange transfusion within 48 h after milk ingestion.

  4. A comparative investigation of seven indirect attitude measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Anan, Yoav; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-09-01

    We compared the psychometric qualities of seven indirect attitude measures across three attitude domains (race, politics, and self-esteem) with a large sample (N = 23,413). We compared the measures on internal consistency, sensitivity to known effects, relationships with indirect and direct measures of the same topic, the reliability and validity of single-category attitude measurement, their ability to detect meaningful variance among people with nonextreme attitudes, and their robustness to the exclusion of misbehaving or well-behaving participants. All seven indirect measures correlated with each other and with direct measures of the same topic. These relations were always weak for self-esteem, moderate for race, and strong for politics. This pattern suggests that some of the sources of variation in the reliability and predictive validity of the indirect measures is a function of the concepts rather than the methods. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) and Brief IAT (BIAT) showed the best overall psychometric quality, followed by the Go–No-Go association task, Single-Target IAT (ST-IAT), Affective Misattribution Procedure (AMP), Sorting Paired Features task, and Evaluative Priming. The AMP showed a steep decline in its psychometric qualities when people with extreme attitude scores were removed. Single-category attitude scores computed for the IAT and BIAT showed good relationships with other attitude measures but no evidence of discriminant validity between paired categories. The other measures, especially the AMP and ST-IAT, showed better evidence for discriminant validity. These results inform us on the validity of the measures as attitude assessments, but do not speak to the implicitness of the measured constructs.

  5. Microtensile bond strength of repaired indirect resin composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visuttiwattanakorn, Porntida; Suputtamongkol, Kallaya; Angkoonsit, Duangjai; Kaewthong, Sunattha; Charoonanan, Piyanan

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of surface treatments on microtensile bond strengths (MTBSs) of two types of indirect resin composites bonded to a conventional direct resin composite. Indirect resin composite blocks of Ceramage and SR Nexco were prepared in a plastic mold having a dimension of 10 × 10 × 4 mm. These composite blocks were divided into three groups according to their surface treatments: Group1: Sandblast (SB); Group2: Sandblast and ultrasonically clean (SB+UL); Group3: Sandblast plus silane (SB+SI). After bonding with direct resin composite, indirect-direct resin composite blocks were kept in distilled water for 24 hours at 37℃ and cut into microbars with the dimension of 1 × 1 × 8 mm. Microbar specimens (n = 40 per group) were loaded using a universal testing machine. Failure modes and compositions were evaluated by SEM. The statistical analyses of MTBS were performed by two-way ANOVA and Dunnett's test at α = .05. Surface treatments and brands had effects on the MTBS without an interaction between these two factors. For SR Nexco, the MTBSs of SB and SB+SI group were significantly higher than that of SB+UL. For Ceramage, the MTBSs of SB and SB+SI were significantly higher than that of SB+UL. The mean MTBS of the Ceramage specimens was significantly higher than that of SR Nexco for all surface treatments. Sandblasting with or without silane application could improve the bond strengths of repaired indirect resin composites to a conventional direct resin composite.

  6. EYESi ophthalmoscope - a simulator for indirect ophthalmoscopic examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuppe, Oliver; Wagner, Clemens; Koch, Frank; Männer, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    We present a training simulator for indirect ophthalmoscopy. An optical tracking system is used to reconstruct the position of a lens mockup and a model of the patient's face. Refraction and illumination are computed in real-time and displayed on a head-mounted display using augmented reality. A case database completes the training system which allows to practise the examination and to study clinical patterns.

  7. PERFORMANCE OF ANN BASED INDIRECT VECTOR CONTROL INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Sharma,

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Indirect field orientation (IFO induction machine drives are increasingly employed in industrial drive systems, but the drive performance is often degrades. Motor works on best performance at certain voltage and frequency for certain loads. In this paper artificial neural network is used to predict the operating voltage and frequency when the load torque and speed going changed so motor efficiency is increased. Simulation and experimental results are shown to validate the scheme.

  8. Microtensile bond strength of repaired indirect resin composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suputtamongkol, Kallaya; Angkoonsit, Duangjai; Kaewthong, Sunattha; Charoonanan, Piyanan

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of surface treatments on microtensile bond strengths (MTBSs) of two types of indirect resin composites bonded to a conventional direct resin composite. MATERIALS AND METHODS Indirect resin composite blocks of Ceramage and SR Nexco were prepared in a plastic mold having a dimension of 10 × 10 × 4 mm. These composite blocks were divided into three groups according to their surface treatments: Group1: Sandblast (SB); Group2: Sandblast and ultrasonically clean (SB+UL); Group3: Sandblast plus silane (SB+SI). After bonding with direct resin composite, indirect-direct resin composite blocks were kept in distilled water for 24 hours at 37℃ and cut into microbars with the dimension of 1 × 1 × 8 mm. Microbar specimens (n = 40 per group) were loaded using a universal testing machine. Failure modes and compositions were evaluated by SEM. The statistical analyses of MTBS were performed by two-way ANOVA and Dunnett's test at α = .05. RESULTS Surface treatments and brands had effects on the MTBS without an interaction between these two factors. For SR Nexco, the MTBSs of SB and SB+SI group were significantly higher than that of SB+UL. For Ceramage, the MTBSs of SB and SB+SI were significantly higher than that of SB+UL. The mean MTBS of the Ceramage specimens was significantly higher than that of SR Nexco for all surface treatments. CONCLUSION Sandblasting with or without silane application could improve the bond strengths of repaired indirect resin composites to a conventional direct resin composite. PMID:28243390

  9. NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION. Preliminary Observations on Indirect Costs for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-24

    NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Preliminary Observations on Indirect Costs for Research Statement of John Neumann, Director...on Science , Space, and Technology, House of Representatives For Release on Delivery Expected at 10:00 a.m. ET Wednesday, May 24th, 2017 GAO-17...testimony before the Subcommittee on Research and Technology and the Subcommittee on Oversight, Committee on Science , Space, and Technology, House of

  10. Numerical simulation of a semi-indirect evaporative cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R. Herrero [Departamento de Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, C/Dr. Fleming, s/n (Campus Muralla), 30202 Cartagena, Murcia (Spain)

    2009-11-15

    This paper presents the experimental study and numerical simulation of a semi-indirect evaporative cooler (SIEC), which acts as an energy recovery device in air conditioning systems. The numerical simulation was conducted by applying the CFD software FLUENT implementing a UDF to model evaporation/condensation. The numerical model was validated by comparing the simulation results with experimental data. Experimental data and numerical results agree for the lower relative humidity series but not for higher relative humidity values. (author)

  11. Indirect bonding of brackets: don't wait another day!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellan, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Indirect bonding of orthodontic brackets is nothing new, but the introduction of more recent adhesives has increased the clinical success encountered by clinicians in a significant way. The many advantages of this technique over direct bonding make it worth the change. The aim of this article is to review the different variables of the technique and describe both laboratory and clinical procedures that have worked so well in hundreds of dental offices.

  12. Robinson’s Indirect Ways to Support Critical Period Hypothesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Si-qin

    2014-01-01

    On the Critical Period Hypothesis, Robinson indirectly supported it in his paper Individual Differences, Cognitive Abili-ties, Aptitude Complexes and Learning Conditions in Second Language Acquisition. This paper digs out that time-boundedness and different lengths of time are important issues in his frame work, closely related with the critical period of time for language acquisi-tion. In conclusion, Robinson’s framework is convincing, with the premise of admitting the existence of the critical period hy-pothesis.

  13. Reactor Materials Program process water piping indirect failure frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W.L.

    1989-10-30

    Following completion of the probabilistic analyses, the LOCA Definition Project has been subject to various external reviews, and as a result the need for several revisions has arisen. This report updates and summarizes the indirect failure frequency analysis for the process water piping. In this report, a conservatism of the earlier analysis is removed, supporting lower failure frequency estimates. The analysis results are also reinterpreted in light of subsequent review comments.

  14. Direct and indirect costs of smoking in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang Anh, Pham Thi; Thu, Le Thi; Ross, Hana; Quynh Anh, Nguyen; Linh, Bui Ngoc; Minh, Nguyen Thac

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the direct and indirect costs of active smoking in Vietnam. Method A prevalence-based disease-specific cost of illness approach was utilised to calculate the costs related to five smoking-related diseases: lung cancer, cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischaemic heart disease and stroke. Data on healthcare came from an original survey, hospital records and official government statistics. Morbidity and mortality due to smoking combined with the average per capita income were used to calculate the indirect costs of smoking by applying the human capital approach. The smoking-attributable fraction was calculated using the adjusted relative risk values from phase II of the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study (CPS-II). Costs were classified as personal, governmental and health insurance costs. Results The total economic cost of smoking in 2011 was estimated at 24 679.9 billion Vietnamese dong (VND), equivalent to US$1173.2 million or approximately 0.97% of the 2011 gross domestic product. The direct costs of inpatient and outpatient care reached 9896.2 billion VND (US$470.4 million) and 2567.2 billion VND (US$122.0 million), respectively. The government’s contribution to these costs was 4534.3 billion VND (US$215.5 million), which was equivalent to 5.76% of its 2011 healthcare budget. The indirect costs (productivity loss) due to morbidity and mortality were 2652.9 billion VND (US$126.1 million) and 9563.5 billion VND (US$454.6 million), respectively. These indirect costs represent about 49.5% of the total costs of smoking. Conclusions Tobacco consumption has large negative consequences on the Vietnamese economy. PMID:25512430

  15. Indirect Solar Drier for Drying of Hill Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Aggarwal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An indirect solar drier of 25 kg capacity has been developed fitted with solar cell for running the fan. The bulbs are provided in the solar collector for air heating during clouds and evening & morning for faster drying reducing drying time. 15 such solar driers have been installed in the state. Various hill agricultural crops have been dried in solar drier by the farmers andcollected. The market value of dried products has also been compared.

  16. Indirect multisignal monitoring and diagnosis of drill wear

    OpenAIRE

    Jantunen, Erkki

    2006-01-01

    A machine tool utilisation rate can be improved by an advanced condition monitoring system using modern sensor and signal processing techniques. A drilling test and analysis program for indirect tool wear measurement forms the basis of this thesis. For monitoring the drill wear a number of monitoring methods such as vibration, acoustic emission, sound, spindle power and axial force were tested. The signals were analysed in the time domain using statistical methods such as root mean square (rm...

  17. Known unknowns: indirect energy effects of information and communication technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Nathaniel C.; Shehabi, Arman; Azevedo, Inês L.

    2016-10-01

    Background. There has been sustained and growing interest in characterizing the net energy impact of information and communication technology (ICT), which results from indirect effects offsetting (or amplifying) the energy directly consumed by ICT equipment. These indirect effects may be either positive or negative, and there is considerable disagreement as to the direction of this sign as well as the effect magnitude. Literature in this area ranges from studies focused on a single service (such as e-commerce versus traditional retail) to macroeconomic studies attempting to characterize the overall impact of ICT. Methods. We review the literature on the indirect energy effect of ICT found via Google Scholar, our own research, and input from other researchers in the field. The various studies are linked to an effect taxonomy, which is synthesized from several different hierarchies present in the literature. References are further grouped according to ICT service (e.g., e-commerce, telework) and summarized by scope, method, and quantitative and qualitative findings. Review results. Uncertainty persists in understanding the net energy effects of ICT. Results of indirect energy effect studies are highly sensitive to scoping decisions and assumptions made by the analyst. Uncertainty increases as the impact scope broadens, due to complex and interconnected effects. However, there is general agreement that ICT has large energy savings potential, but that the realization of this potential is highly dependent on deployment details and user behavior. Discussion. While the overall net effect of ICT is likely to remain unknown, this review suggests several guidelines for improving research quality in this area, including increased data collection, enhancing traditional modeling studies with sensitivity analysis, greater care in scoping, less confidence in characterizing aggregate impacts, more effort on understanding user behavior, and more contextual integration across the

  18. Bid-Ask Spreads with Indirect Competition among Specialists

    OpenAIRE

    Gehrig, Thomas; Jackson, Matthew O.

    1997-01-01

    We examine the bid-ask quotes offered by specialists (or dealers) who face indirect competition from other specialists who trade in related assets. In the context of a simple model where investors have mean variance preferences, we characterize the equilibrium bids and asks quoted by K specialists in N assets, where some specialists may control more than one asset. We compare the equilibrium spreads as the number (and factor structure) of the assets each specialist controls is varied. It is s...

  19. Direct and indirect costs of smoking in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang Anh, Pham Thi; Thu, Le Thi; Ross, Hana; Quynh Anh, Nguyen; Linh, Bui Ngoc; Minh, Nguyen Thac

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the direct and indirect costs of active smoking in Vietnam. A prevalence-based disease-specific cost of illness approach was utilised to calculate the costs related to five smoking-related diseases: lung cancer, cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischaemic heart disease and stroke. Data on healthcare came from an original survey, hospital records and official government statistics. Morbidity and mortality due to smoking combined with the average per capita income were used to calculate the indirect costs of smoking by applying the human capital approach. The smoking-attributable fraction was calculated using the adjusted relative risk values from phase II of the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study (CPS-II). Costs were classified as personal, governmental and health insurance costs. The total economic cost of smoking in 2011 was estimated at 24 679.9 billion Vietnamese dong (VND), equivalent to US$1173.2 million or approximately 0.97% of the 2011 gross domestic product. The direct costs of inpatient and outpatient care reached 9896.2 billion VND (US$470.4 million) and 2567.2 billion VND (US$122.0 million), respectively. The government's contribution to these costs was 4534.3 billion VND (US$215.5 million), which was equivalent to 5.76% of its 2011 healthcare budget. The indirect costs (productivity loss) due to morbidity and mortality were 2652.9 billion VND (US$126.1 million) and 9563.5 billion VND (US$454.6 million), respectively. These indirect costs represent about 49.5% of the total costs of smoking. Tobacco consumption has large negative consequences on the Vietnamese economy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Partner Choice Drives the Evolution of Cooperation via Indirect Reciprocity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Roberts

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity potentially provides an important means for generating cooperation based on helping those who help others. However, the use of 'image scores' to summarize individuals' past behaviour presents a dilemma: individuals withholding help from those of low image score harm their own reputation, yet giving to defectors erodes cooperation. Explaining how indirect reciprocity could evolve has therefore remained problematic. In all previous treatments of indirect reciprocity, individuals are assigned potential recipients and decide whether to cooperate or defect based on their reputation. A second way of achieving discrimination is through partner choice, which should enable individuals to avoid defectors. Here, I develop a model in which individuals choose to donate to anyone within their group, or to none. Whereas image scoring with random pairing produces cycles of cooperation and defection, with partner choice there is almost maximal cooperation. In contrast to image scoring with random pairing, partner choice results in almost perfect contingency, producing the correlation between giving and receiving required for cooperation. In this way, partner choice facilitates much higher and more stable levels of cooperation through image scoring than previously reported and provides a simple mechanism through which systems of helping those who help others can work.

  1. Identification of Methodology of Indirect Assessment of Economy Shadowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avhustyn Ruslan R.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the essence of the shadow economy as an objective phenomenon of socio-economic relations and its influence upon national economy security through instruments of pricing, fiscal restrictions, tax control, and banking and insurance regulation. It proves the necessity of use of the indirect method of assessment of the level of economy shadowing along with methods of direct control over the growth of shadowed economic relations, since such an approach would allow rational approach to identification of volumes and level of shadow activity. In the result of the study the article marks out varieties of indirect assessment of economy shadowing (methods of document, accounting and economic analysis, their specific features, advantages and shortcomings and results of practical use. The article reveals approaches and indicators of economic analysis that allow identification of reasons of deviations from the normal economic activity of economic subjects. It provides examples of the indirect method of assessment of the volume of shadowed economy that deal with analysis of demand on money and comparison of rates of the growth of the money supply with the volume of sight drafts with GDP.

  2. Bond strength of direct and indirect bonded brackets after thermocycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daub, Jacob; Berzins, David W; Linn, Brandon James; Bradley, Thomas Gerard

    2006-03-01

    Thermocycling simulates the temperature dynamics in the oral environment. With direct bonding, thermocycling reduces the bond strength of orthodontic adhesives to tooth structure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strengths (SBS) of one direct and two indirect bonding methods/adhesives after thermocycling. Sixty human premolars were divided into three groups. Teeth in group 1 were bonded directly with Transbond XT. Teeth in group 2 were indirect bonded with Transbond XT/Sondhi Rapid Set, which is chemically cured. Teeth in group 3 were indirect bonded with Enlight LV/Orthosolo and light cured. Each sample was thermocycled between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C for 500 cycles. Mean SBS in groups 1, 2, and 3 were not statistically significantly different (13.6 +/- 2.9, 12.3 +/- 3.0, and 11.6 +/- 3.2 MPa, respectively; P > .05). However, when these values were compared with the results of a previous study using the same protocol, but without thermocycling, the SBS was reduced significantly (P = .001). Weibull analysis further showed that group 3 had the lowest bonding survival rate at the minimum clinically acceptable bond-strength range. The Adhesive Remnant Index was also determined, and group 2 had a significantly (P bond failures at the resin/enamel interface.

  3. Indirect Detection Analysis: Wino Dark Matter Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hryczuk, Andrzej [Munich, Tech. U.; Cholis, Ilias [Fermilab; Iengo, Roberto [SISSA, Trieste; Tavakoli, Maryam [IPM, Tehran; Ullio, Piero [INFN, Trieste

    2014-07-15

    We perform a multichannel analysis of the indirect signals for the Wino Dark Matter, including one-loop electroweak and Sommerfeld enhancement corrections. We derive limits from cosmic ray antiprotons and positrons, from continuum galactic and extragalactic diffuse γ-ray spectra, from the absence of γ-ray line features at the galactic center above 500 GeV in energy, from γ-rays toward nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies and galaxy clusters, and from CMB power-spectra. Additionally, we show the future prospects for neutrino observations toward the inner Galaxy and from antideuteron searches. For each of these indirect detection probes we include and discuss the relevance of the most important astrophysical uncertainties that can impact the strength of the derived limits. We find that the Wino as a dark matter candidate is excluded in the mass range bellow simeq 800 GeV from antiprotons and between 1.8 and 3.5 TeV from the absence of a γ-ray line feature toward the galactic center. Limits from other indirect detection probes confirm the main bulk of the excluded mass ranges.

  4. Ditransitive sentences and indirect object in Bazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Torres Morais

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the syntax of dative arguments (indirect objects in Brazilian Portuguese is examined in a crosslinguistic perspective with European Portuguese. It is shown that the grammatical expression of BP indirect object has undergone significant changes, which were essentially triggered by two related phenomena: a decrease in the use of the preposition a introducing the indirect object, which is replaced by the preposition para, and a decrease in the use of the dative pronoun, particularly the 3rd person clitic lhe(s,which is substituted for innovative strategies of pronominalization. In European Portuguese, differently from BP, dative arguments are consistently introduced by the preposition a, and pronominalization involves the 3rd person dative clitic lhe(s. Based on the theory of applicative heads proposed in Pylkkänen (2008 and a particular notion of ditransitivity, proposed in Cuervo (2003/2010, we take these changes as evidence for the loss of the low applicative construction in Brazilian Portuguese, coupled with the loss of the morphosyntactic ditransitivity. Thus the connection between the morphological case system and the expression of parameters supports a view of syntactic change according to which parametric variation is determined in the lexicon, in terms of the grammatical features of functional heads.

  5. Effective dose from direct and indirect digital panoramic units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gun Sun; Kim, Jin Soo; Seo, Yo Seob; Kim, Jae Duk [School of Dentistry, Oral Biology Research Institute, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    This study aimed to provide comparative measurements of the effective dose from direct and indirect digital panoramic units according to phantoms and exposure parameters. Dose measurements were carried out using a head phantom representing an average man (175 cm tall, 73.5 kg male) and a limbless whole body phantom representing an average woman (155 cm tall, 50 kg female). Lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips were used for the dosimeter. Two direct and 2 indirect digital panoramic units were evaluated in this study. Effective doses were derived using 2007 International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations. The effective doses of the 4 digital panoramic units ranged between 8.9 {mu}Sv and 37.8 {mu}Sv. By using the head phantom, the effective doses from the direct digital panoramic units (37.8 {mu}Sv, 27.6 {mu}Sv) were higher than those from the indirect units (8.9 {mu}Sv, 15.9 {mu}Sv). The same panoramic unit showed the difference in effective doses according to the gender of the phantom, numbers and locations of TLDs, and kVp. To reasonably assess the radiation risk from various dental radiographic units, the effective doses should be obtained with the same numbers and locations of TLDs, and with standard hospital exposure. After that, it is necessary to survey the effective doses from various dental radiographic units according to the gender with the corresponding phantom.

  6. Effective dose from direct and indirect digital panoramic units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gun-Sun; Kim, Jin-Soo; Seo, Yo-Seob; Kim, Jae-Duk

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to provide comparative measurements of the effective dose from direct and indirect digital panoramic units according to phantoms and exposure parameters. Dose measurements were carried out using a head phantom representing an average man (175 cm tall, 73.5 kg male) and a limbless whole body phantom representing an average woman (155 cm tall, 50 kg female). Lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips were used for the dosimeter. Two direct and 2 indirect digital panoramic units were evaluated in this study. Effective doses were derived using 2007 International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations. The effective doses of the 4 digital panoramic units ranged between 8.9 µSv and 37.8 µSv. By using the head phantom, the effective doses from the direct digital panoramic units (37.8 µSv, 27.6 µSv) were higher than those from the indirect units (8.9 µSv, 15.9 µSv). The same panoramic unit showed the difference in effective doses according to the gender of the phantom, numbers and locations of TLDs, and kVp. To reasonably assess the radiation risk from various dental radiographic units, the effective doses should be obtained with the same numbers and locations of TLDs, and with standard hospital exposure. After that, it is necessary to survey the effective doses from various dental radiographic units according to the gender with the corresponding phantom.

  7. The evolution of conditional moral assessment in indirect reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Okada, Isamu; Nakai, Yutaka

    2017-02-01

    Indirect reciprocity is a major mechanism in the maintenance of cooperation among unrelated individuals. Indirect reciprocity leads to conditional cooperation according to social norms that discriminate the good (those who deserve to be rewarded with help) and the bad (those who should be punished by refusal of help). Despite intensive research, however, there is no definitive consensus on what social norms best promote cooperation through indirect reciprocity, and it remains unclear even how those who refuse to help the bad should be assessed. Here, we propose a new simple norm called “Staying” that prescribes abstaining from assessment. Under the Staying norm, the image of the person who makes the decision to give help stays the same as in the last assessment if the person on the receiving end has a bad image. In this case, the choice about whether or not to give help to the potential receiver does not affect the image of the potential giver. We analyze the Staying norm in terms of evolutionary game theory and demonstrate that Staying is most effective in establishing cooperation compared to the prevailing social norms, which rely on constant monitoring and unconditional assessment. The application of Staying suggests that the strict application of moral judgment is limited.

  8. Evaluation of bone surrogates for indirect and direct ballistic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bir, Cynthia; Andrecovich, Chris; DeMaio, Marlene; Dougherty, Paul J

    2016-04-01

    The mechanism of injury for fractures to long bones has been studied for both direct ballistic loading as well as indirect. However, the majority of these studies have been conducted on both post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) and animal surrogates which have constraints in terms of storage, preparation and testing. The identification of a validated bone surrogate for use in forensic, medical and engineering testing would provide the ability to investigate ballistic loading without these constraints. Two specific bone surrogates, Sawbones and Synbone, were evaluated in comparison to PMHS for both direct and indirect ballistic loading. For the direct loading, the mean velocity to produce fracture was 121 ± 19 m/s for the PMHS, which was statistically different from the Sawbones (140 ± 7 m/s) and Synbone (146 ± 3 m/s). The average distance to fracture in the indirect loading was .70 cm for the PMHS. The Synbone had a statistically similar average distance to fracture (.61 cm, p=0.54) however the Sawbones average distance to fracture was statistically different (.41 cm, pballistic testing was not identified and future work is warranted.

  9. Mutualistic ants as an indirect defence against leaf pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Boland, Wilhelm

    2014-04-01

    Mutualistic ants are commonly considered as an efficient indirect defence against herbivores. Nevertheless, their indirect protective role against plant pathogens has been scarcely investigated. We compared the protective role against pathogens of two different ant partners, a mutualistic and a parasitic ant, on the host plant Acacia hindsii (Fabaceae). The epiphytic bacterial community on leaves was evaluated in the presence and absence of both ant partners by cultivation and by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Pathogen-inflicted leaf damage, epiphytic bacterial abundance (colony-forming units) and number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were significantly higher in plants inhabited by parasitic ants than in plants inhabited by mutualistic ants. Unifrac unweighted and weighted principal component analyses showed that the bacterial community composition on leaves changed significantly when mutualistic ants were removed from plants or when plants were inhabited by parasitic ants. Direct mechanisms provided by ant-associated bacteria would contribute to the protective role against pathogens. The results suggest that the indirect defence of mutualistic ants also covers the protection from bacterial plant pathogens. Our findings highlight the importance of considering bacterial partners in ant-plant defensive mutualisms, which can contribute significantly to ant-mediated protection from plant pathogens. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Pro-drugs for indirect cannabinoids as therapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, John

    2008-10-01

    Medicinal cannabis, cannabis extracts, and other cannabinoids are currently in use or under clinical trial investigation for the control of nausea, emesis and wasting in patients undergoing chemotherapy, the control of neuropathic pain and arthritic pain, and the control of the symptoms of multiple sclerosis. The further development of medicinal cannabinoids has been challenged with problems. These include the psychoactivity of cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists and the lack of availability of highly selective cannabinoid receptor full agonists (for the CB1 or CB2 receptor), as well as problems of pharmacokinetics. Global activation of cannabinoid receptors is usually undesirable, and so enhancement of local endocannabinoid receptor activity with indirect cannabimimetics is an attractive strategy for therapeutic modulation of the endocannabinoid system. However, existing drugs of this type tend to be metabolized by the same enzymes as their target endocannabinoids and are not yet available in a form that is clinically useful. A potential solution to these problems may now have been suggested by the discovery that paracetamol (acetaminophen) exerts its analgesic (and probably anti-pyretic) effects by its degradation into an anandamide (an endocannabinoid) reuptake inhibitor (AM404) within the body, thus classifying it as pro-drug for an indirect cannabimimetic. Given the proven efficacy and safety of paracetamol, the challenge now is to develop related drugs, or entirely different substrates, into pro-drug indirect cannabimimetics with a similar safety profile to paracetamol but at high effective dose titrations.

  11. and Indigenous Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapurna S. Agasthya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the most important reemerging zoonoses in many countries. Brucellosis is caused by Gram-negative coccobacillus belonging to genus Brucella. Human brucellosis often makes the diagnosis difficult. The symptoms and clinical signs most commonly reported are fever, fatigue, malaise, chills, sweats headaches, myalgia, arthralgia, and weight loss. Some cases have been presented with only joint pain, lower backache, and involuntary limb movement, burning feet, or ischemic heart attacks. The focus of this work was to develop a highly sensitive and specific indirect ELISA by using smooth lipopolysaccharide antigen of Brucella abortus 99 to detect anti-Brucella antibodies at Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance. Serum samples collected from 652 individuals in whom fever was not the major symptom but the complaint was of joint pain, headache, lower backache, and so forth, were screened by Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBPT and standard tube agglutination test (STAT. Subsequent testing of sera by indigenous indirect ELISA detected 20 samples positive (3.6% seroprevalence, and indirect ELISA was found to be more sensitive than RBPT and STAT. The seroprevalence in South Karnataka was 2.14%, and in North Karnataka it was 0.92%.

  12. Direct and indirect coupling mechanisms in a chiral plasmonic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongkai; Wen, Xiaojing; Qu, Yu; Fu, Tong; Zhang, Zhongyue

    2016-10-01

    Artificial chiral plasmonic nanostructures (ACPNs) are widely studied and used in biological monitoring, analytical chemistry, and negative-refractive-index media. The mechanism of direct coupling between two twist metal nanorods has been obtained in usual ACPNs. In this work, we proposed a nanosystem of twist nanorods separated by a metal film (TNMF). By analyzing the charge distributions, a new indirect coupling mechanism is found. According to the equivalent LC resonant circuits, gold nanorods on the two sides of the gold film can be regarded as a receiver and an emitter. These components enhanced transmittance and provided direct and indirect coupling mechanisms for the circular dichroism (CD). The direct coupling mode cannot be explained by impedance matching and can be tuned monotonously by monotonously varying geometric dimensions. However, the CD signal of indirect coupling can be explained by impedance matching and can be tuned to its maximum by varying geometric dimensions when the impedances of both sides of the gold film match. These results can help design novel chiral optical structures and promote combined applications between photons and electrons when a gold film is powered on.

  13. Direct and Indirect Dark Matter Detection in Gauge Theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Farinaldo [Federal Univ. of Paraba (Brazil)

    2013-01-01

    The Dark matter (DM) problem constitutes a key question at the interface among Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology. The observational data which have been accumulated in the last years point to an existence of non baryonic amount of DM. Since the Standard Model (SM) does not provide any candidate for such non-baryonic DM, the evidence of DM is a major indication for new physics beyond the SM. We will study in this work one of the most popular DM candidates, the so called WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) from a direct and indirect detection perspective. In order to approach the direct and indirect dection of DM in the context of Particle Physics in a more pedagogic way, we will begin our discussion talking about a minimal extension of the SM. Later we will work on the subject in a 3-3-1 model. Next, we will study the role of WIMPs in the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Lastly, we will look for indirect DM signals in the center of our galaxy using the NASA Satellite, called Fermi-LAT. Through a comprehensive analysis of the data events observed by Fermi-LAT and some background models, we will constrain the dark matter annihilation cross section for several annihilation channels and dark matter halo profiles.

  14. The indirect effects on the computation of geoid undulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichiencharoen, C.

    1982-01-01

    The indirect effects on the geoid computation due to the second method of Helmert's condensation were studied. when Helmert's anomalies are used in Stokes's equation, there are three types of corrections to the free air geoid. The first correction, the indirect effect on geoid undulation due to the potential change in Helmert's reduction, had a maximum value of 0.51 meters in the test area covering the United States. The second correction, the attraction change effect on geoid undulation, had a maximum value of 9.50 meters when the 10 deg cap was used in Stokes' equation. The last correction, the secondary indirect effect on geoid undulatin, was found negligible in the test area. The corrections were applied to uncorrected free air geoid undulations at 65 Doppler stations in the test area and compared with the Doppler undulations. Based on the assumption that the Doppler coordinate system has a z shift of 4 meters with respect to the geocenter, these comparisons showed that the corrections presented in this study yielded improved values of gravimetric undulations.

  15. Stem cell monitoring with a direct or indirect labeling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Hwan; Lee, Yong Jin [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The molecular imaging techniques allow monitoring of the transplanted cells in the same individuals over time, from early localization to the survival, migration, and differentiation. Generally, there are two methods of stem cell labeling: direct and indirect labeling methods. The direct labeling method introduces a labeling agent into the cell, which is stably incorporated or attached to the cells prior to transplantation. Direct labeling of cells with radionuclides is a simple method with relatively fewer adverse events related to genetic responses. However, it can only allow short-term distribution of transplanted cells because of the decreasing imaging signal with radiodecay, according to the physical half-lives, or the signal becomes more diffuse with cell division and dispersion. The indirect labeling method is based on the expression of a reporter gene transduced into the cell before transplantation, which is then visualized upon the injection of an appropriate probe or substrate. In this review, various imaging strategies to monitor the survival and behavior change of transplanted stem cells are covered. Taking these new approaches together, the direct and indirect labeling methods may provide new insights on the roles of in vivo stem cell monitoring, from bench to bedside.

  16. Groupwise information sharing promotes ingroup favoritism in indirect reciprocity

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    Nakamura Mitsuhiro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indirect reciprocity is a mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations. In indirect reciprocity, an individual is motivated to help another to acquire a good reputation and receive help from others afterwards. Another aspect of human cooperation is ingroup favoritism, whereby individuals help members in their own group more often than those in other groups. Ingroup favoritism is a puzzle for the theory of cooperation because it is not easily evolutionarily stable. In the context of indirect reciprocity, ingroup favoritism has been shown to be a consequence of employing a double standard when assigning reputations to ingroup and outgroup members. An example of such a double standard is the situation in which helping an ingroup member is regarded as good, whereas the same action toward an outgroup member is regarded as bad. Results We analyze a computational model of indirect reciprocity in which information sharing is conducted groupwise. In our model, individuals play social dilemma games within and across groups, and the information about their reputations is shared within each group. We show that evolutionarily stable ingroup favoritism emerges even if all the players use the same reputation assignment rule regardless of group (i.e., a single standard. Two reputation assignment rules called simple standing and stern judging yield ingroup favoritism; under these rules, cooperation with (defection against good individuals is regarded as good (bad and defection against bad individuals is regarded as good. Stern judging induces much stronger ingroup favoritism than does simple standing. Simple standing and stern judging are evolutionarily stable against each other when groups employing different assignment rules compete and the number of groups is sufficiently large. In addition, we analytically show as a limiting case that homogeneous populations of reciprocators that use reputations are unstable when individuals

  17. Indirect magnetic resonance lymphangiography in patients with lymphedema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohrmann, Christian [Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, D-79106 Freiburg (Germany)]. E-mail: lohrmann@mrs1.ukl.uni-freiburg.de; Foeldi, Etelka [Foeldi Clinic for Lymphology, Hinterzarten, Roesslehofweg 2-6, D-79856 Hinterzarten (Germany); Langer, Mathias [Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, D-79106 Freiburg (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of indirect magnetic resonance (MR) lymphangiography with intracutaneous injection of gadodiamide, a commercially available, non-ionic, extracellular paramagnetic contrast agent for the detection of lymphatic vessels in patients with lymphedema. Materials and methods: In 2005, three patients with lymphedema of the lower extremities (1 primary, 2 secondary) were referred by the Foeldi Clinic for Lymphology for indirect magnetic resonance lymphangiography. 4.5 mL of gadodiamide and 0.5 mL of mepivacainhydrochloride 1% were injected intracutaneously into the dorsal aspect of each foot. MR imaging was performed with a 1.5-T system equipped with high-performance gradients. For indirect magnetic resonance lymphangiography, a 3D Fast Low Angle Shot (FLASH) sequence (TR/TE: 5.1/1.23; flip angle: 25; matrix: 448 x 448; bandwidth: 330 Hz/pixel; 6/8 rectangular field of view with a maximum dimension of 500 mm; slices: 88; voxel size: 2.0 mm x 1.0 mm x 1.0 mm; acquisition time: 0 min 31 s) was used. Results: Indirect magnetic resonance lymphangiography depicted lymphatic vessels of the lower and upper leg, and inguinal lymph nodes in all three patients. After 5 min of contrast material application, concomitant venous enhancement was detected. Collateral vessels with dermal back-flow were seen in two patients. A lymphocele in the inguinal region with the afferent lymphatic vessel was depicted in one patient. Conclusion: In the presented small study group, indirect magnetic resonance lymphangiography was technically feasible, and no complications were observed after intracutaneous injection of gadodiamide. Visualizing the lymphatic vessels and accompanying complications non-invasively and without the use of radiation, the presented method has the capability to become a routine diagnostic imaging tool in patients with primary and secondary lymphedema. The method is not able to characterize lymph node morphology, but could provide additional

  18. Anticipating and Communicating Plausible Environmental and Health Concerns Associated with Future Disasters: The ShakeOut and ARkStorm Scenarios as Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Morman, S. A.; Alpers, C. N.; Hoefen, T. M.; Meeker, G. P.

    2010-12-01

    Disasters commonly pose immediate threats to human safety, but can also produce hazardous materials (HM) that pose short- and long-term environmental-health threats. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has helped assess potential environmental health characteristics of HM produced by various natural and anthropogenic disasters, such as the 2001 World Trade Center collapse, 2005 hurricanes Katrina and Rita, 2007-2009 southern California wildfires, various volcanic eruptions, and others. Building upon experience gained from these responses, we are now developing methods to anticipate plausible environmental and health implications of the 2008 Great Southern California ShakeOut scenario (which modeled the impacts of a 7.8 magnitude earthquake on the southern San Andreas fault, http://urbanearth.gps.caltech.edu/scenario08/), and the recent ARkStorm scenario (modeling the impacts of a major, weeks-long winter storm hitting nearly all of California, http://urbanearth.gps.caltech.edu/winter-storm/). Environmental-health impacts of various past earthquakes and extreme storms are first used to identify plausible impacts that could be associated with the disaster scenarios. Substantial insights can then be gleaned using a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach to link ShakeOut and ARkStorm effects maps with data extracted from diverse database sources containing geologic, hazards, and environmental information. This type of analysis helps constrain where potential geogenic (natural) and anthropogenic sources of HM (and their likely types of contaminants or pathogens) fall within areas of predicted ShakeOut-related shaking, firestorms, and landslides, and predicted ARkStorm-related precipitation, flooding, and winds. Because of uncertainties in the event models and many uncertainties in the databases used (e.g., incorrect location information, lack of detailed information on specific facilities, etc.) this approach should only be considered as the first of multiple steps

  19. Model Potentials for a C60 Shell

    CERN Document Server

    Manson, S T; Msezane, A Z

    2016-01-01

    The spatial distribution of electric charges forming a square well potential has been analyzed. It is shown that this potential is created by two concentric spheres with a double layer of charges. A C60 shell potential has been calculated under the assumption that it is formed by the averaged charge density of a neutral atom. It is further demonstrated that the phenomenological potentials simulating the C60 shell potential belong to a family of potentials with a non-flat bottom. Two possible types of C60 model potentials are proposed and their parameters have been calculated. AMS (MOS) Subject Classification. 62P35, 81V55

  20. Insertion of O-H Bond of Rh(Ⅱ)-methylene Carbene into Alcohols: A Stepwise Mechanism More Plausible than a Concerted Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms of insertion of O-H bond of Rh( Ⅱ ) -methylene carbene into methanol and ethanol were studied by using B3LYP functional both in gas phase and in CH2Cl2. The formation of free alcoholic oxonium ylides is found to be impossible. Alcoholic oxonium ylide are formed as the intermediates before both the stepwise and the concerted transition states of insertion of O-H bond of Rh( Ⅱ ) -methylene carbene into methanol and ethanol. With regard to the mechanisms of insertion of O-H of Rh( Ⅱ ) -methylene carbene into alcohols, analysis of the energy barriers of the two mechanisms indicate that the stepwise mechanism is more plausible than the concerted mechanism.

  1. Is the Framework of Cohn's 'Tritope Model' for How T Cell Receptors Recognize Peptide/Self-MHC Complexes and Allo-MHC Plausible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretscher, Peter A

    2016-05-01

    Cohn has developed the tritope model to describe how distinct domains of the T cell receptor (TcR) recognize peptide/self-MHC complexes and allo-MHC. He has over the years employed this model as a framework for considering how the TcR might mediate various signals [1-5]. In a recent publication [5], Cohn employs the Tritope Model to propose a detailed mechanism for the T cell receptor's involvement in positive thymic selection [5]. During a review of this proposal, I became uneasy over the plausibility of the underlying framework of the Tritope Model. I outline here the evolutionary considerations making me question this framework. I also suggest that the proposed framework underlying the Tritope Model makes strong predictions whose validity can most probably be assessed by considering observations reported in the literature.

  2. An Italian population-based case-control study on the association between farming and cancer: Are pesticides a plausible risk factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Christian; Carcagnì, Antonella; Sacco, Sara; Palin, Lucio Antonio; Vanhaecht, Kris; Panella, Massimiliano; Guido, Davide

    2016-05-01

    This population-based case-control study investigated the association between farming (a proxy for pesticide exposure) and cancer in the Vercelli suburban area (northwest Italy). The residents, aged 25 to 79 years, in the above-mentioned area during the period 2002-2009 were considered. Cases were all the first hospital admissions for cancer. Controls were all the subjects not included in the cases and not excluded from the study. Cases and controls were classified according to whether they occupationally resulted farmers or nonfarmers during the period 1965-2009. Cancer odds ratios (ORs) between farmers and nonfarmers were calculated with generalized linear mixed models adjusted by gender and age. Farmers showed higher odds for all cancers (OR=1.459; p plausible association between pesticide exposure and cancer occurrence.

  3. Changes in the Distribution of Lesser Adjutant Storks (Leptoptilos javanicus in South and Southeast Asia: A Plausible Evidence of Global Climate and Land-use Change Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil K. Khadka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Species distribution Models (SDMs illustrate the relation between species and environmental variables. In an attempt to model the historical and current distribution of Lesser Adjutant Stork (Leptoptilos javanicus and gain qualitative insight into range shift, maxEnt modeling approach was applied. The model was projected into maps to illustrate the variation in spatial distribution of the species in South and Southeast Asia over time. A distributional shift was observed towards the north accompanied by range contraction to the south and expansion to the north. Besides, annual precipitation and temperature of the coldest period of a year appeared to be the major climatic determinants of species distribution. It provides plausible evidence of global climate and land-use change effect on the bird’s distribution and suggests avenues for further research.

  4. Bose-Einstein condensation and indirect excitons: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combescot, Monique; Combescot, Roland; Dubin, François

    2017-06-01

    We review recent progress on Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of semiconductor excitons. The first part deals with theory, the second part with experiments. This Review is written at a time where the problem of exciton Bose-Einstein condensation has just been revived by the understanding that the exciton condensate must be dark because the exciton ground state is not coupled to light. Here, we theoretically discuss this missed understanding before providing its experimental support through experiments that scrutinize indirect excitons made of spatially separated electrons and holes. The theoretical part first discusses condensation of elementary bosons. In particular, the necessary inhibition of condensate fragmentation by exchange interaction is stressed, before extending the discussion to interacting bosons with spin degrees of freedom. The theoretical part then considers composite bosons made of two fermions like semiconductor excitons. The spin structure of the excitons is detailed, with emphasis on the crucial fact that ground-state excitons are dark: indeed, this imposes the exciton Bose-Einstein condensate to be not coupled to light in the dilute regime. Condensate fragmentations are then reconsidered. In particular, it is shown that while at low density, the exciton condensate is fully dark, it acquires a bright component, coherent with the dark one, beyond a density threshold: in this regime, the exciton condensate is 'gray'. The experimental part first discusses optical creation of indirect excitons in quantum wells, and the detection of their photoluminescence. Exciton thermalisation is also addressed, as well as available approaches to estimate the exciton density. We then switch to specific experiments where indirect excitons form a macroscopic fragmented ring. We show that such ring provides efficient electrostatic trapping in the region of the fragments where an essentially-dark exciton Bose-Einstein condensate is formed at sub-Kelvin bath

  5. Bose-Einstein condensation and indirect excitons: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combescot, Monique; Combescot, Roland; Dubin, François

    2017-06-01

    We review recent progress on Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of semiconductor excitons. The first part deals with theory, the second part with experiments. This Review is written at a time where the problem of exciton Bose-Einstein condensation has just been revived by the understanding that the exciton condensate must be dark because the exciton ground state is not coupled to light. Here, we theoretically discuss this missed understanding before providing its experimental support through experiments that scrutinize indirect excitons made of spatially separated electrons and holes. The theoretical part first discusses condensation of elementary bosons. In particular, the necessary inhibition of condensate fragmentation by exchange interaction is stressed, before extending the discussion to interacting bosons with spin degrees of freedom. The theoretical part then considers composite bosons made of two fermions like semiconductor excitons. The spin structure of the excitons is detailed, with emphasis on the crucial fact that ground-state excitons are dark: indeed, this imposes the exciton Bose-Einstein condensate to be not coupled to light in the dilute regime. Condensate fragmentations are then reconsidered. In particular, it is shown that while at low density, the exciton condensate is fully dark, it acquires a bright component, coherent with the dark one, beyond a density threshold: in this regime, the exciton condensate is ‘gray’. The experimental part first discusses optical creation of indirect excitons in quantum wells, and the detection of their photoluminescence. Exciton thermalisation is also addressed, as well as available approaches to estimate the exciton density. We then switch to specific experiments where indirect excitons form a macroscopic fragmented ring. We show that such ring provides efficient electrostatic trapping in the region of the fragments where an essentially-dark exciton Bose-Einstein condensate is formed at sub-Kelvin bath

  6. 76 FR 61089 - Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program for Fiscal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation... Administration's (NOAA's) Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program (DARRP) is announcing...

  7. 76 FR 65182 - Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program for Fiscal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program (DARRP) is announcing new indirect...

  8. Exploring untrained interpreters' use of direct versus indirect speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the interrelations between the use of direct vs. indirect speech by primary participants and by dialogue interpreters by focusing on pronoun shifts and their interactional functions. The data consist of four simulated interpreter-mediated medical interviews based on the same...... by personalizing the indefinite pronoun 'one' when relaying from doctor to patient. All other pronoun shifts occurred in connection with interactional problems caused almost exclusively by the interpreters' lack of knowledge about medical terminology - even though the terms used were in fact non-specialized ones...... override the quasi-directness of communication between primary participants, which is connected with interpreting in the first person....

  9. Comparison between direct and indirect cooling core catchers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Jung Soo; Lee, Jong Ho; Bae, Byung Hwan [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The European nuclear design requirements, which should be satisfied by nuclear reactors in Europe, usually recommend a so called core catcher, which is a molten core ex vessel cooling facility, to manage a severe accident at a nuclear reactor. Two different types of core catcher concepts are compared to determine their abilities to manage severe accidents and cool core melts. The study reveals that direct cooling is better for cooling capacity and is convenient to construct, while indirect cooling is better for the management of a severe accident.

  10. Weak Corrections are Relevant for Dark Matter Indirect Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Ciafaloni, Paolo; Riotto, Antonio; Sala, Filippo; Strumia, Alessandro; Urbano, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    The computation of the energy spectra of Standard Model particles originated from the annihilation/decay of dark matter particles is of primary importance in indirect searches of dark matter. We compute how the inclusion of electroweak corrections significantly alter such spectra when the mass M of dark matter particles is larger than the electroweak scale: soft electroweak gauge bosons are copiously radiated opening new channels in the final states which otherwise would be forbidden if such corrections are neglected. All stable particles are therefore present in the final spectrum, independently of the primary channel of dark matter annihilation/decay. Such corrections are model independent.

  11. Labial / Buccal indirect bonding: A new manual method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sheffield

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of more and more CAD / CAM techniques and ever increasing costs for the Orthodontist, we at ′Precise Indirect Bonding Systems′ and the Torque Angulation Lab have been using our instruments to transfer our knowledge and ′In-tendo" techniques to Labial IDB. Using the T.A.D and B.P.D instruments we are able to do a manual IDB technique which can customize Tip and Torque via the composite pads ( with relation to the crown morphology, so any bracket system can be used and customized to the patients requirements.

  12. Status and perspectives of indirect and direct dark matter searches

    CERN Document Server

    Fornengo, N

    2006-01-01

    In this review article the current status of particle dark matter is addressed. We discuss the main theoretical extensions of the standard model which allow to explain dark matter in terms of a (yet undiscovered) elementary particle. We then discuss the theoretical predictions for the searches of particle dark matter: direct detection in low background underground experiments and indirect detection of neutrinos, gamma-rays and antimatter with terrestrial and space-borne detectors. Attention will be placed also on the discussion of the uncertainties, mainly of astrophysical origin, which affect the theoretical predictions. The constraints placed by these searches on the extensions of the standard models will be briefly addressed.

  13. Identification of Stochastic Wiener Systems using Indirect Inference

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We study identification of stochastic Wiener dynamic systems using so-called indirect inference. The main idea is to first fit an auxiliary model to the observed data and then in a second step, often by simulation, fit a more structured model to the estimated auxiliary model. This two-step procedure can be used when the direct maximum-likelihood estimate is difficult or intractable to compute. One such example is the identification of stochastic Wiener systems, i.e.,~linear dynamic systems wi...

  14. Relevance of indirect transmission for wildlife disease surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lange

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological models of infectious diseases are essential tools in support of risk assessment, surveillance design and contingency planning in public and animal health. Direct pathogen transmission from host to host is an essential process of each host-pathogen system and respective epidemiological modelling concepts. It is widely accepted that numerous diseases involve indirect transmission through pathogens shed by infectious hosts to their environment. However, epidemiological models largely do not represent pathogen persistence outside the host explicitly. We hypothesize that this simplification might bias management-related model predictions for disease agents that can persist outside their host for a certain time span. We adapted an individual-based, spatially explicit epidemiological model that can mimic both transmission processes. One version explicitly simulated indirect pathogen transmission through a contaminated environment. A second version simulated direct host-to-host transmission only. We aligned the model variants by the transmission potential per infectious host (i.e. basic reproductive number R0 and the spatial transmission kernel of the infection to allow unbiased comparison of predictions. The quantitative model results are provided for the example of surveillance plans for early detection of foot-and-mouth disease in wild boar, a social host.We applied systematic sampling strategies on the serological status of randomly selected host individuals in both models. We compared between the model variants the time to detection and the area affected prior to detection, measures that strongly influence mitigation costs. Moreover, the ideal sampling strategy to detect the infection in a given time frame was compared between both models.We found the simplified, direct transmission model to underestimate necessary sample size by up to one order of magnitude, but to overestimate the area put under control measures. Thus, the model

  15. Flexural strength and hardness of direct and indirect composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Borba

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the flexural strength (σf and hardness (H of direct and indirect composites, testing the hypotheses that direct resin composites produce higher σf and H values than indirect composites and that these properties are positively related. Ten bar-shaped specimens (25 mm x 2 mm x 2 mm were fabricated for each direct [D250 - Filtek Z250 (3M-Espe and D350 - Filtek Z350 (3M-Espe] and indirect [ISin - Sinfony (3M-Espe and IVM - VitaVM LC (Vita Zahnfabrik] materials, according to the manufacturer's instructions and ISO4049 specifications. The σf was tested in three-point bending using a universal testing machine (EMIC DL 2000 at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min (ISO4049. Knoop hardness (H was measured on the specimens' fragments resultant from the σf test and calculated as H = 14.2P/l², where P is the applied load (0.1 kg; dwell time = 15 s and l is the longest diagonal of the diamond shaped indent (ASTM E384. The data were statistically analyzed using Anova and Tukey tests (α = 0.05. The mean σf and standard deviation values (MPa and statistical grouping were: D250 - 135.4 ± 17.6a; D350 - 123.7 ± 11.1b; ISin - 98.4 ± 6.4c; IVM - 73.1 ± 4.9d. The mean H and standard deviation values (kg/mm² and statistical grouping were: D250 - 98.12 ± 1.8a; D350 - 86.5 ± 1.9b; ISin - 28.3 ± 0.9c; IVM - 30.8 ± 1.0c. The direct composite systems examined produce higher mean σf and H values than the indirect composites, and the mean values of these properties were positively correlated (r = 0.91, confirming the study hypotheses.

  16. Thermal switching of indirect interlayer exchange in magnetic multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishchuk, D. M.; Tykhonenko-Polishchuk, Yu. O.; Kravets, A. F.; Korenivski, V.

    2017-05-01

    We propose a magnetic multilayer layout, in which the indirect exchange coupling (IEC also known as RKKY) can be switched on and off by a slight change in temperature. We demonstrate such on/off IEC switching in a Fe/Cr/FeCr-based system and obtain thermal switching widths as small as 10-20 K, essentially in any desired temperature range, including at or just above room temperature. These results add a new dimension of tunable thermal control to IEC in magnetic nanostructures, highly technological in terms of available materials and operating physical regimes.

  17. Distributed Generation Using Indirect Matrix Converter in Reverse Power Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiong; Chiang Loh, Poh; Wang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    not appropriate. Like most power converters, the operation of the IMC can surely be reversed to produce a boosted gain, but so far its relevant control principles have not been discussed. These challenges are now addressed in this paper with distributed generation suggested as a potential application. Simulation......Indirect matrix converter (IMC) is an alternative for ac/ac energy conversion, usually operated with a voltage stepped-down gain of only 0.866. For applications like distribution generation where voltage-boost functionality is required, the traditional style of operating the IMC is therefore...

  18. Material and clinical considerations for full-coverage indirect restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Margaret P

    2012-11-01

    Because dental ceramics have been used for decades and continuously improved over the years, there is a plethora of information regarding their material characteristics, applications, and contraindications. Each restorative ceramic material demonstrates benefits and disadvantages, making it difficult for dentists to research, retain, and apply the ideal material for individual restorations and/or combination cases. This article outlines the applications and benefits of dental ceramics in general and examines and reviews the current ceramic alternatives available for restorative dentistry today. It also discusses the material composition and properties of a recently introduced new classification of indirect material: resin nano-ceramic.

  19. Investigation of indirect benefits of PV rooftop in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumkrong, T.; Chuangchote, S.; Chenvidhya, D.; Kirtikara, K.

    2017-05-01

    Other than electricity generation, which is the direct benefit of PV rooftop, cooling load reduction due to PV shading is a benefit impact in the uses of PV rooftop. This report is a study of those indirect benefits of PV rooftop. Relation of shading of PV modules and reduction of cooling load was studied in a real testing cite at the office building of CES Solar Cell Testing Center (CSSC). Several data, i.e. solar radiation, rooftop temperatures before/after PV-panel installation, and electricity consumed by equipment, were monitored and collected. This data could be further estimated for cooling load via transient heat conduction approach.

  20. Complementarity between collider, direct detection, and indirect detection experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Cahill-Rowley, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    We examine the capabilities of planned direct detection, indirect detection, and collider experiments in exploring the 19-parameter p(henomenological)MSSM, focusing on the complementarity between the different search techniques. In particular, we consider dark matter searches at the 7, 8 (and eventually 14) TeV LHC, \\Fermi, CTA, IceCube/DeepCore, and LZ. We see that the search sensitivities depend strongly on the WIMP mass and annihilation mechanism, with the result that different search techniques explore orthogonal territory. We also show that advances in each technique are necessary to fully explore the space of Supersymmetric WIMPs.

  1. Indirect porcelain veneer technique for restoring intrinsically stained teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutbirth, S T

    1992-01-01

    Indirect porcelain veneers are often the ideal restoration for intrinsically stained teeth. This article details a step-by-step procedure for esthetically restoring discolored teeth. Porcelain laminate veneers are often indicated when teeth bleaching or direct composite bonding procedures cannot provide the desired esthetic result. Veneers are more appealing to many patients than full coverage crowns because of the more conservative tooth preparation required. If technique details are followed meticulously and cases are appropriately selected, porcelain veneers are not only durable but also promote marvelous gingival health and may be the most esthetic anterior dental restoration.

  2. The Trojan Horse Method: an Indirect Technique in Nuclear Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Tribble, R E

    2006-01-01

    The Trojan Horse (TH) method is a powerful indirect technique that provides information to determine astrophysical factors for rearrangement processes at astrophysically relevant energies. A short coming for understanding the reliability of the technique has been determining the importance of nuclear and Coulomb effects on the energy dependence of the yield. Using a simple model, we demonstrate that off-energy-shell and Coulomb effects in the entry channel and the final state nuclear interactions do not change the energy dependence of the astrophysical factor extracted from the TH reaction. Some examples are presented.

  3. Applications of Indirect Imaging techniques in X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Harlaftis, E T

    2000-01-01

    A review is given on aspects of indirect imaging techniques in X-ray binaries which are used as diagnostics tools for probing the X-ray dominated accretion disc physics. These techniques utilize observed properties such as the emission line profile variability, the time delays between simultaneous optical/X-ray light curves curves, the light curves of eclipsing systems and the pulsed emission from the compact object in order to reconstruct the accretion disc's line emissivity (Doppler tomography), the irradiated disc and heated secondary (echo mapping), the outer disc structure (modified eclipse mapping) and the accreting regions onto the compact object, respectively.

  4. Assessing Natural Direct and Indirect Effects Through Multiple Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, T; Rasmussen, M; Thygesen, Lau Caspar

    2014-01-01

    Within the fields of epidemiology, interventions research and social sciences researchers are often faced with the challenge of decomposing the effect of an exposure into different causal pathways working through defined mediator variables. The goal of such analyses is often to understand...... the mechanisms of the system or to suggest possible interventions. The case of a single mediator, thus implying only 2 causal pathways (direct and indirect) from exposure to outcome, has been extensively studied. By using the framework of counterfactual variables, researchers have established theoretical...

  5. Dark Matter Overview: Collider, Direct and Indirect Detection Searches

    CERN Document Server

    Queiroz, Farinaldo S

    2016-01-01

    The complementarity of direct, indirect and collider searches for dark matter has improved our understanding concerning the properties of the dark matter particle. I will review the basic concepts that these methods rely upon and highlight what are the most important information they provide when it comes down to interpret the results in terms of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). Later, I go over some of the latest results emphasizing the implications to dark matter theory in a broad sense and point out recent developments and prospects in the field.

  6. Indirect Electrochemical Oxidation of 4-Amino-dimethyl-aniline Hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The indirect electrochemical oxidation of 4-amino-dimethyl-aniline hydrochloride containing wastewater generated from vanillin production is presented. Experiments were conducted at a constant current density of 30 mA/cm2 via a Ti/Ru-Ti-Sn ternary oxide coated anode and an undivided reactor. During the various stages of the electrolysis, parameters such as the values of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) were determined in order to evaluate the feasibility of the electrochemical treatment. The energy consumption and the current efficiency during the electrolysis were calculated. The present study proves the effectiveness of the electrochemical treatment for wastewater resulted from vanillin production.

  7. Pulsewidth Modulation of Neutral-Point-Clamped Indirect Matrix Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Poh Chiang, Loh; Gao, Feng

    2008-01-01

    discussed in the existing literature. Addressing the previously described issues, this paper focuses on the operational mode analysis of a three-level indirect matrix converter implemented using a neutral-point-clamped inversion stage and the design of a number of PWM and modulation ratio compensation...... schemes for controlling the converter with improved waveform quality. The performances and practicalities of the designed schemes are verified in simulation and experimentally using an implemented laboratory prototype with some representative results captured and presented in this paper....

  8. Ethanol and Cognition: Indirect Effects, Neurotoxicity and Neuroprotection: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C.M. Brust

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol affects cognition in a number of ways. Indirect effects include intoxication, withdrawal, brain trauma, central nervous system infection, hypoglycemia, hepatic failure, and Marchiafava-Bignami disease. Nutritional deficiency can cause pellagra and Wernicke-Korsakoff disorder. Additionally, ethanol is a direct neurotoxin and in sufficient dosage can cause lasting dementia. However, ethanol also has neuroprotectant properties and in low-to-moderate dosage reduces the risk of dementia, including Alzheimer type. In fetuses ethanol is teratogenic, and whether there exists a safe dose during pregnancy is uncertain and controversial.

  9. Constraining the MSSM with Dark Matter indirect detection data

    CERN Document Server

    Raklev, A R

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a claim of possible evidence for Dark Matter in data from the Fermi LAT experiment was made by Goodenough and Hooper [8]. We test the Dark Matter properties consistent with their claim in terms of the MSSM by a 24-dimensional parameter scan using nested sampling, excluding all but a very small region of the MSSM. Although this claim is very preliminary, and not made by the Fermi LAT experiment, our scan shows a possible approach for the analysis of future firm evidence from an indirect detection experiment, and its potential for heavily constraining models.

  10. Indirect Inference for Stochastic Differential Equations Based on Moment Expansions

    KAUST Repository

    Ballesio, Marco

    2016-01-06

    We provide an indirect inference method to estimate the parameters of timehomogeneous scalar diffusion and jump diffusion processes. We obtain a system of ODEs that approximate the time evolution of the first two moments of the process by the approximation of the stochastic model applying a second order Taylor expansion of the SDE s infinitesimal generator in the Dynkin s formula. This method allows a simple and efficient procedure to infer the parameters of such stochastic processes given the data by the maximization of the likelihood of an approximating Gaussian process described by the two moments equations. Finally, we perform numerical experiments for two datasets arising from organic and inorganic fouling deposition phenomena.

  11. Beryllium ignition target design for indirect drive NIF experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakov, A. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Yi, S. A.; Kline, J. L.; Salmonson, J. D.; Clark, D. S.; Milovich, J. L.; Marinak, M. M.

    2016-03-01

    Beryllium (Be) ablator offers multiple advantages over carbon based ablators for indirectly driven NIF ICF ignition targets. These are higher mass ablation rate, ablation pressure and ablation velocity, lower capsule albedo, and higher thermal conductivity at cryogenic temperatures. Such advantages can be used to improve the target robustness and performance. While previous NIF Be target designs exist, they were obtained a long time ago and do not incorporate the latest improved physical understanding and models based upon NIF experiments. Herein, we propose a new NIF Be ignition target design at 1.45 MJ, 430 TW that takes all this knowledge into account.

  12. Hidden Markov Models for indirect classification of occupant behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liisberg, Jon Anders Reichert; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Bloem, H.

    2016-01-01

    Even for similar residential buildings, a huge variability in the energy consumption can be observed. This variability is mainly due to the different behaviours of the occupants and this impacts the thermal (temperature setting, window opening, etc.) as well as the electrical (appliances, TV....... This paper focuses on the use of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) to create methods for indirect observations and characterisation of occupant behaviour. By applying homogeneous HMMs on the electricity consumption of fourteen apartments, three states describing the data were found suitable. The most likely...

  13. Exploring untrained interpreters' use of direct versus indirect speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the interrelations between the use of direct vs. indirect speech by primary participants and by dialogue interpreters by focusing on pronoun shifts and their interactional functions. The data consist of four simulated interpreter-mediated medical interviews based on the same...... by personalizing the indefinite pronoun 'one' when relaying from doctor to patient. All other pronoun shifts occurred in connection with interactional problems caused almost exclusively by the interpreters' lack of knowledge about medical terminology - even though the terms used were in fact non-specialized ones...... override the quasi-directness of communication between primary participants, which is connected with interpreting in the first person....

  14. Identifying Second Language Errors: How Plausible are Plausible Reconstructions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Obaidul

    2007-01-01

    The research reported in the study was undertaken to measure English language teachers' ability to interpret second language learners' intended meanings in idiosyncratic utterances in written English. In doing so, it also aimed at verifying Corder's (1981) speculation that language teachers can correctly guess the intended meanings of learners in…

  15. Indirect employment effects of new business formation across regions : The role of local market conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fritsch, M.; Noseleit, F.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effect of local market conditions on the indirect effects of new business formation measured as their impact on employment in incumbents. Based on organizational ecology theory, we derive and test hypotheses about the magnitude of these indirect effects. The indirect effects are l

  16. Adiabat-shaping in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, K. L.; Robey, H. F.; Milovich, J. L.; Jones, O. S.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Casey, D. T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Landen, O. L.; Peterson, J. L.; Berzak-Hopkins, L. F.; Weber, C. R.; Haan, S. W.; Döppner, T. D.; Dixit, S.; Hamza, A. V.; Jancaitis, K. S.; Kroll, J. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2015-05-15

    Adiabat-shaping techniques were investigated in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility as a means to improve implosion stability, while still maintaining a low adiabat in the fuel. Adiabat-shaping was accomplished in these indirect drive experiments by altering the ratio of the picket and trough energies in the laser pulse shape, thus driving a decaying first shock in the ablator. This decaying first shock is designed to place the ablation front on a high adiabat while keeping the fuel on a low adiabat. These experiments were conducted using the keyhole experimental platform for both three and four shock laser pulses. This platform enabled direct measurement of the shock velocities driven in the glow-discharge polymer capsule and in the liquid deuterium, the surrogate fuel for a DT ignition target. The measured shock velocities and radiation drive histories are compared to previous three and four shock laser pulses. This comparison indicates that in the case of adiabat shaping the ablation front initially drives a high shock velocity, and therefore, a high shock pressure and adiabat. The shock then decays as it travels through the ablator to pressures similar to the original low-adiabat pulses when it reaches the fuel. This approach takes advantage of initial high ablation velocity, which favors stability, and high-compression, which favors high stagnation pressures.

  17. Lignite chemical conversion in an indirect heat rotary kiln gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatzilyberis Kostas S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The results on the gasification of Greek lignite using two indirect heat (allothermal pilot rotary kiln gasifiers are reported in the present work. The development of this new reactor-gasifier concept intended for solid fuels chemical conversion exploits data and experience gained from the following two pilot plants. The first unit A (about 100 kg/h raw lignite demonstrated the production of a medium heating value gas (12-13 MJ/Nm3 with quite high DAF (dry ash free coal conversions, in an indirect heat rotary gasifier under mild temperature and pressure conditions. The second unit B is a small pilot size unit (about 10 kg/h raw lignite comprises an electrically heated rotary kiln, is an operation flexible and exhibits effective phase mixing and enhanced heat transfer characteristics. Greek lignite pyrolysis and gasification data were produced from experiments performed with pilot plant B and the results are compared with those of a theoretical model. The model assumes a scheme of three consecutive-partly parallel processes (i. e. drying, pyrolysis, and gasification and predicts DAF lignite conversion and gas composition in relatively good agreement with the pertinent experimental data typical of the rotary kiln gasifier performance. Pilot plant B is currently being employed in lime-enhanced gasification studies aiming at the production of hydrogen enriched synthesis gas. Presented herein are two typical gas compositions obtain from lignite gasification runs in the presence or not of lime. .

  18. Indirect defense in a highly specific ant-plant mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangier, Julien; Dejean, Alain; Malé, Pierre-Jean G; Orivel, Jérôme

    2008-10-01

    Although associations between myrmecophytes and their plant ants are recognized as a particularly effective form of protective mutualism, their functioning remains incompletely understood. This field study examined the ant-plant Hirtella physophora and its obligate ant associate Allomerus decemarticulatus. We formulated two hypotheses on the highly specific nature of this association: (1) Ant presence should be correlated with a marked reduction in the amount of herbivory on the plant foliage; (2) ant activity should be consistent with the "optimal defense" theory predicting that the most vulnerable and valuable parts of the plant are the best defended. We validated the first hypothesis by demonstrating that for ant-excluded plants, expanding leaves, but also newly matured ones in the long term, suffered significantly more herbivore damage than ant-inhabited plants. We showed that A. decemarticulatus workers represent both constitutive and inducible defenses for their host, by patrolling its foliage and rapidly recruiting nestmates to foliar wounds. On examining how these activities change according to the leaves' developmental stage, we found that the number of patrolling ants dramatically decreased as the leaves matured, while leaf wounds induced ant recruitment regardless of the leaf's age. The resulting level of these indirect defenses was roughly proportional to leaf vulnerability and value during its development, thus validating our second hypothesis predicting optimal protection. This led us to discuss the factors influencing ant activity on the plant's surface. Our study emphasizes the importance of studying both the constitutive and inducible components of indirect defense when evaluating its efficacy and optimality.

  19. Indirect detection of dark matter with γ rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    The details of what constitutes the majority of the mass that makes up dark matter in the Universe remains one of the prime puzzles of cosmology and particle physics today-80 y after the first observational indications. Today, it is widely accepted that dark matter exists and that it is very likely composed of elementary particles, which are weakly interacting and massive [weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs)]. As important as dark matter is in our understanding of cosmology, the detection of these particles has thus far been elusive. Their primary properties such as mass and interaction cross sections are still unknown. Indirect detection searches for the products of WIMP annihilation or decay. This is generally done through observations of γ-ray photons or cosmic rays. Instruments such as the Fermi large-area telescope, high-energy stereoscopic system, major atmospheric gamma-ray imaging Cherenkov, and very energetic radiation imaging telescope array, combined with the future Cherenkov telescope array, will provide important complementarity to other search techniques. Given the expected sensitivities of all search techniques, we are at a stage where the WIMP scenario is facing stringent tests, and it can be expected that WIMPs will be either be detected or the scenario will be so severely constrained that it will have to be rethought. In this sense, we are on the threshold of discovery. In this article, I will give a general overview of the current status and future expectations for indirect searches of dark matter (WIMP) particles.

  20. THE POTENTIAL NEURAL MECHANISMS OF ACUTE INDIRECT VIBRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl J. Cochrane

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There is strong evidence to suggest that acute indirect vibration acts on muscle to enhance force, power, flexibility, balance and proprioception suggesting neural enhancement. Nevertheless, the neural mechanism(s of vibration and its potentiating effect have received little attention. One proposal suggests that spinal reflexes enhance muscle contraction through a reflex activity known as tonic vibration stretch reflex (TVR, which increases muscle activation. However, TVR is based on direct, brief, and high frequency vibration (>100 Hz which differs to indirect vibration, which is applied to the whole body or body parts at lower vibration frequency (5-45 Hz. Likewise, muscle tuning and neuromuscular aspects are other candidate mechanisms used to explain the vibration phenomenon. But there is much debate in terms of identifying which neural mechanism(s are responsible for acute vibration; due to a number of studies using various vibration testing protocols. These protocols include: different methods of application, vibration variables, training duration, exercise types and a range of population groups. Therefore, the neural mechanism of acute vibration remain equivocal, but spinal reflexes, muscle tuning and neuromuscular aspects are all viable factors that may contribute in different ways to increasing muscular performance. Additional research is encouraged to determine which neural mechanism(s and their contributions are responsible for acute vibration. Testing variables and vibration applications need to be standardised before reaching a consensus on which neural mechanism(s occur during and post-vibration

  1. Indirect evolutionary rescue: prey adapts, predator avoids extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamichi, Masato; Miner, Brooks E

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have increasingly recognized evolutionary rescue (adaptive evolution that prevents extinction following environmental change) as an important process in evolutionary biology and conservation science. Researchers have concentrated on single species living in isolation, but populations in nature exist within communities of interacting species, so evolutionary rescue should also be investigated in a multispecies context. We argue that the persistence or extinction of a focal species can be determined solely by evolutionary change in an interacting species. We demonstrate that prey adaptive evolution can prevent predator extinction in two-species predator-prey models, and we derive the conditions under which this indirect evolutionary interaction is essential to prevent extinction following environmental change. A nonevolving predator can be rescued from extinction by adaptive evolution of its prey due to a trade-off for the prey between defense against predation and population growth rate. As prey typically have larger populations and shorter generations than their predators, prey evolution can be rapid and have profound effects on predator population dynamics. We suggest that this process, which we term 'indirect evolutionary rescue', has the potential to be critically important to the ecological and evolutionary responses of populations and communities to dramatic environmental change.

  2. Degradation of artificial sweeteners via direct and indirect photochemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkola, Noora; Vaalgamaa, Sanna; Jernberg, Joonas; Vähätalo, Anssi V

    2016-07-01

    We studied the direct and indirect photochemical reactivity of artificial sweeteners acesulfame, saccharin, cyclamic acid and sucralose in environm entally relevant dilute aqueous solutions. Aqueous solutions of sweeteners were irradiated with simulated solar radiation (>290 nm; 96 and 168 h) or ultraviolet radiation (UVR; up to 24 h) for assessing photochemical reactions in surface waters or in water treatment, respectively. The sweeteners were dissolved in deionised water for examination of direct photochemical reactions. Direct photochemical reactions degraded all sweeteners under UVR but only acesulfame under simulated solar radiation. Acesulfame was degraded over three orders of magnitude faster than the other sweeteners. For examining indirect photochemical reactions, the sweeteners were dissolved in surface waters with indigenous dissolved organic matter or irradiated with aqueous solutions of nitrate (1 mg N/L) and ferric iron (2.8 mg Fe/L) introduced as sensitizers. Iron enhanced the photodegradation rates but nitrate and dissolved organic matter did not. UVR transformed acesulfame into at least three products: iso-acesulfame, hydroxylated acesulfame and hydroxypropanyl sulfate. Photolytic half-life was one year for acesulfame and more than several years for the other sweeteners in surface waters under solar radiation. Our study shows that the photochemical reactivity of commonly used artificial sweeteners is variable: acesulfame may be sensitive to photodegradation in surface waters, while saccharin, cyclamic acid and sucralose degrade very slowly even under the energetic UVR commonly used in water treatment.

  3. Plausible Reasoning in Tactical Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    Frames in a Person’s Memory i • flower type/of =(plant) types =Irose, daffodil, peony, bougainvillea ... parts =Ipetals, stem ..-I colors =Ipink...J World South AmericF r ESubtropical Surrey Flowers Daffodils Bougainvillea Peonies Roses Yellow RosesFa Figure 4. Part Hierarchy for England and...England) = Iyellow roses...I (7) SIm flower-type(England)= 1peonies... I (8) DIS flower-type(England)6 bougainvillea ... * *18 that they think are most

  4. Plausibility Arguments and Universal Gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Ricardo F. F.; Tort, A. C.

    2017-01-01

    Newton's law of universal gravitation underpins our understanding of the dynamics of the Solar System and of a good portion of the observable universe. Generally, in the classroom or in textbooks, the law is presented initially in a qualitative way and at some point during the exposition its mathematical formulation is written on the blackboard…

  5. Plausible Mechanisms of Cadmium Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium is a transition metal and an ubiquitous environmental and industrial pollutant. Laboratory animal studies and epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to cadmium is associated with various organ toxicities and carcinogenic effects. Several national and internation...

  6. DIRECT AND INDIRECT SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS ON ARABICA COFFEE (Coffea arabica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meynarti Sari Dewi Ibrahim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Propagation of Coffea arabica L. through direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis technique is promising for producing large number of coffee seedlings. The objectives of the research were to evaluate methods for direct and indirect somatic embryo-genesis induction of C. arabica var. Kartika. The explants were the youngest fully expanded leaves of arabica coffee. The evalu-ated medium was modified Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with a combination of 2.26 µM 2,4-D + 4.54 or 9.08 µM thidiazuron; 4.52 µM 2,4-D + 4.54 or 9.08 µM thidiazuron; or 9.04 µM 2,4-D + 9.08 µM thidiazuron. Both calli (100 mg and pre-embryos developed from the edge of leaf explants were subcultured into regeneration medium (half strength MS with modified vitamin, supplemented with kinetine 9.30 µM and adenine sulfate 40 mg L-1. The results showed coffee leaf explant cultured on medium containing 2.26 µM 2,4-D + 4.54 or 9.08 µM thidiazuron to induce direct somatic embriogenesis from explant, while that of 4.52 or 9.04 µM 2,4-D + 9.08 µM thidiazuron to induced indirect somatic embrio-genesis. The medium for calli induction from coffee by explants was medium supplemented with 4.52 or 9.04 µM 2,4-D in combination with 9.08 µM thidiazuron. On the other hand, the best medium for activation of induction of somatic embryos was MS medium supplemented with 9.04 µM 2,4-D + 9.08 µM thidiazuron. Based on this results, the first step for developing micropropagation for coffee has been resolved. The subsequent studies will be directed to evaluate agronomic performance of the derived planting materials.

  7. L'indirection: Procede d'expression et de persuasion en communication publique (Indirection: Process of Expression and Persuasion in Public Communication).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Gilles

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the indirection process presented in Searle's and Vanderveken's theory of speech acts: the performance of a primary speech act by means of the accomplishment of a secondary speech act. Discusses indirection mechanisms used in advertising and in political communication. (Author/VWL)

  8. L'indirection: Procede d'expression et de persuasion en communication publique (Indirection: Process of Expression and Persuasion in Public Communication).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Gilles

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the indirection process presented in Searle's and Vanderveken's theory of speech acts: the performance of a primary speech act by means of the accomplishment of a secondary speech act. Discusses indirection mechanisms used in advertising and in political communication. (Author/VWL)

  9. Biocompatible Silver-containing a-C:H and a-C coatings: AComparative Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endrino, Jose Luis; Allen, Matthew; Escobar Galindo, Ramon; Zhang, Hanshen; Anders, Andre; Albella, Jose Maria

    2007-04-01

    Hydrogenated diamond-like-carbon (a-C:H) and hydrogen-free amorphous carbon (a-C) coatings are known to be biocompatible and have good chemical inertness. For this reason, both of these materials are strong candidates to be used as a matrix that embeds metallic elements with antimicrobial effect. In this comparative study, we have incorporated silver into diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings by plasma based ion implantation and deposition (PBII&D) using methane (CH4) plasma and simultaneously depositing Ag from a pulsed cathodic arc source. In addition, we have grown amorphous carbon - silver composite coatings using a dual-cathode pulsed filtered cathodic-arc (FCA) source. The silver atomic content of the deposited samples was analyzed using glow discharge optical spectroscopy (GDOES). In both cases, the arc pulse frequency of the silver cathode was adjusted in order to obtain samples with approximately 5 at.% of Ag. Surface hardness of the deposited films was analyzed using the nanoindentation technique. Cell viability for both a-C:H/Ag and a-C:/Ag samples deposited on 24-well tissue culture plates has been evaluated.

  10. Plausible Speech Translation in Literature%论文学作品中似是而非的辞格翻译

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖巧云

    2011-01-01

    辞格是一种语言变体,是各种语言共有的现象。由于各种原因,辞格的误译现象在翻译活动中并不鲜见。然而,辞格误译却有很大一部分呈现出似是而非的特征。辞格中似是而非的翻译,表面看来完全正确,并且在两种语言中具有形式上完全对等的特征,这使得它们更容易被译文读者接受,使其无意识中被迫接受错误信息。本文借用奈达的翻译功能对等理论,通过对文学作品中出现的似是而非的辞格译文进行案例分析,从而尽可能地为译者在今后的辞格翻译活动提供借鉴,减少辞格翻译中似是而非的现象。%Speech is a language variant,is the common phenomenon to all languages.For various reasons,the phenomenon of a mistranslation of speech activities in the translation is not uncommon.However,there is a huge misinterpretation of speech as part of showing a paradoxical character.Speech translation in the paradoxical,seemingly completely correct,and in the two languages have formal characteristics of full reciprocity,which makes them more likely to be asked readers to accept,it was forced to accept the error message unconscious.This paper uses Nida's translation functional equivalence theory,through the literary works that ap-pear plausible case analysis of the translation of speech,which as much as possible for the translators in the future of speech trans-lation activities provide a reference,to reduce the plausible translation of speech phenomenon.

  11. Do PICU patients meet technical criteria for performing indirect calorimetry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, Megan R; Garcia Guerra, Gonzalo; Larsen, Bodil M K

    2016-10-01

    Indirect calorimetry (IC) is considered gold standard for assessing energy needs of critically ill children as predictive equations and clinical status indicators are often unreliable. Accurate assessment of energy requirements in this vulnerable population is essential given the high risk of over or underfeeding and the consequences thereof. The proportion of patients and patient days in pediatric intensive care (PICU) for which energy expenditure (EE) can be measured using IC is currently unknown. In the current study, we aimed to quantify the daily proportion of consecutive PICU patients who met technical criteria to perform indirect calorimetry and describe the technical contraindications when criteria were not met. Prospective, observational, single-centre study conducted in a cardiac and general PICU. All consecutive patients admitted for at least 96 h were included in the study. Variables collected for each patient included age at admission, admission diagnosis, and if technical criteria for indirect calorimetry were met. Technical criteria variables were collected within the same 2 h each morning and include: provision of supplemental oxygen, ventilator settings, endotracheal tube (ETT) leak, diagnosis of chest tube air leak, provision of external gas support (i.e. nitric oxide), and provision of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). 288 patients were included for a total of 3590 patient days between June 2014 and February 2015. The main reasons for admission were: surgery (cardiac and non-cardiac), respiratory distress, trauma, oncology and medicine/other. The median (interquartile range) patient age was 0.7 (0.3-4.6) years. The median length of PICU stay was 7 (5-14) days. Only 34% (95% CI, 32.4-35.5%) of patient days met technical criteria for IC. For patients less than 6 months of age, technical criteria were met on significantly fewer patient days (29%, p technical criteria for IC on any day during their PICU stay. Most frequent reasons for

  12. (In)Direct detection of boosted dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Cui, Yanou; Necib, Lina; Thaler, Jesse

    2016-05-01

    We present a new multi-component dark matter model with a novel experimental signature that mimics neutral current interactions at neutrino detectors. In our model, the dark matter is composed of two particles, a heavier dominant component that annihilates to produce a boosted lighter component that we refer to as boosted dark matter. The lighter component is relativistic and scatters off electrons in neutrino experiments to produce Cherenkov light. This model combines the indirect detection of the dominant component with the direct detection of the boosted dark matter. Directionality can be used to distinguish the dark matter signal from the atmospheric neutrino background. We discuss the viable region of parameter space in current and future experiments.

  13. Voting by Hands Promotes Institutionalised Monitoring in Indirect Reciprocity

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity based on reputation is a leading mechanism driving human cooperation, where monitoring of behaviour and sharing reputation-related information are crucial. Because collecting information is costly, a tragedy of the commons can arise, with some individuals free-riding on information supplied by others. This can be overcome by organising monitors that aggregate information, supported by fees from their information users. We analyse a co-evolutionary model of individuals playing a social dilemma game and monitors watching them; monitors provide information and players vote for a more beneficial monitor. We find that (1) monitors that simply rate defection badly cannot stabilise cooperation---they have to overlook defection against ill-reputed players; (2) such overlooking monitors can stabilise cooperation if players vote for monitors rather than to change their own strategy; (3) STERN monitors, who rate cooperation with ill-reputed players badly, stabilise cooperation more easily than MILD ...

  14. Indirect Adaptive Fuzzy and Impulsive Control of Nonlinear Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Bo Jiang

    2010-01-01

    The problem of indirect adaptive fuzzy and impulsive control for a class of nonlinear systems is investigated.Based on the approximation capability of fuzzy systems,a novel adaptive fuzzy and impulsive control strategy with supervisory controller is developed.With the help of a supervisory controller,global stability of the resulting closed-loop system is established in the sense that all signals involved are uniformly bounded.Furthermore,the adaptive compensation term of the upper bound function of the sum of residual and approximation error is adopted to reduce the effects of modeling error.By the generalized Barbalat's lemma,the tracking error between the output of the system and the reference signal is proved to be convergent to zero asymptotically.Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  15. Ion irradiation and biomolecular radiation damage II. Indirect effect

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wei; Su, Wenhui

    2010-01-01

    It has been reported that damage of genome in a living cell by ionizing radiation is about one-third direct and two-thirds indirect. The former which has been introduced in our last paper, concerns direct energy deposition and ionizing reactions in the biomolecules; the latter results from radiation induced reactive species (mainly radicals) in the medium (mainly water) surrounding the biomolecules. In this review, a short description of ion implantation induced radical formation in water is presented. Then we summarize the aqueous radical reaction chemistry of DNA, protein and their components, followed by a brief introduction of biomolecular damage induced by secondary particles (ions and electron). Some downstream biological effects are also discussed.

  16. Direct and Indirect Effects in a Survival Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Theis; Hansen, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    to survival data. This is a severe shortcoming, as many epidemiologic questions can be addressed only with censored survival data. A solution has been to use a number of Cox models (with and without the potential mediator), but this approach does not allow a causal interpretation and is not mathematically......A cornerstone of epidemiologic research is to understand the causal pathways from an exposure to an outcome. Mediation analysis based on counterfactuals is an important tool when addressing such questions. However, none of the existing techniques for formal mediation analysis can be applied...... consistent. In this paper, we propose a simple measure of mediation in a survival setting. The measure is based on counterfactuals, and measures the natural direct and indirect effects. The method allows a causal interpretation of the mediated effect (in terms of additional cases per unit of time...

  17. Control of Indirect Matrix Converter by Using Improved SVM Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya Nannapaneni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel space vector modulation (SVM method for an indirect matrix converter (IMC is used to reduce the common -mode voltage (CMV in the output. The process of selecting required active vectors and to describe the switching sequence in the inverter stage of the IMC is explained in this paper. This novel SVM method used to decrease the peak -to-peak amplitude voltage of CMV without using any external hardware. The other advantage of this SVM method is to reduce the total harmonic distortion of line-to-line output voltage. This new modulation technique is easily implemented through simulation and its results are used to demonstrate the improved performance of the input/output waveforms.

  18. Scaling of social prestige by direct and indirect psychophysical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Faleiros-Sousa

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The professional social prestige practiced by: Social Assistants, Biologists, Dentists, Nurses, Engineers, Pharmacists, Physicists, Physical Therapists, Phonoaudiologists, Physicians, Psychologists, Chemists, and Sociologists was scaled by psychophysical methods of pair comparisons (indirect and the magnitude estimations (direct. The results showed: 1 both of the methods yield substantially different scaling; 2 the pair comparisons scale (proportion or z is a logarithmic function of the magnitude estimations scale; 3 the pair of comparison scale (proportion or z is a linear function of the logarithms of the magnitude estimations scale; and 4 a high correlation (rho = .95 between the degrees of prestige attributed to the professions obtained by both methods. With these results we can conclude that: 1 the continuous of social prestige (not metric scaled by these two methods yield a relation similar to the obtained in the sensorial continuous (metric; and 2 the continuous of social prestige has the following characteristics: quantitative, prothetic and non-qualitative (metathetic.

  19. Indirect Identification of Linear Stochastic Systems with Known Feedback Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Kuang; Hsiao, Min-Hung; Cox, David E.

    1996-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for identifying a state-space model of linear stochastic systems operating under known feedback controller. In this algorithm, only the reference input and output of closed-loop data are required. No feedback signal needs to be recorded. The overall closed-loop system dynamics is first identified. Then a recursive formulation is derived to compute the open-loop plant dynamics from the identified closed-loop system dynamics and known feedback controller dynamics. The controller can be a dynamic or constant-gain full-state feedback controller. Numerical simulations and test data of a highly unstable large-gap magnetic suspension system are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of this indirect identification method.

  20. Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemencia Rodriguez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed.