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Sample records for platypedia putnami variety

  1. Growth of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) and smooth flounder (Liopsetta putnami) in heated and unheated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoornbeek, F.K. (Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham); Sawyer, P.J.; Sawyer, E.S.

    1982-07-01

    O-group and I-group winter (Pseudopleuronetes americanus) and smooth (Liopsetta putnami) flounder were reared at the Jackson Estuarine Laboratory, Durham, NH, U.S.A., between November 1975 and June 1976. Both species gained weight approximately three times more rapidly in heated than in unheated water. In unheated water the smallest winter flounder gained, on average, 116% of their body weight per month. Larger O-group winter flounder increased body weight by 55% per month, while comparably sized female and male smooth flounder gained 52% and 28% per month, respectively. I-group female smooth flounder gained 9.5% and male smooth flounder 8.5% per month in heated water. In unheated water increases were 13%, 22%, and 14% per month for O-group winter, female smooth and male smooth flounder, respectively. I-group winter flounder in unheated water gained weight twice as rapidly (9.5%) per month) as I-group female and male smooth flounder (4.0% and 4.5% per month, respectively). Fish were fed a moist diet at a level of 10% of their body weight per day. Conversions (dry weight of food/wet weight of fish) ranged from 1:1 for O-group winter flounder in heated water to 27:1 for I-group smooth flounder in unheated water. Disease was a major cause of mortality. Vibrio anguillarum was confirmed as a pathogen; myxobacteria, and the protozoan parasites Kudoa sp. and Nosema sp. were associated with losses.

  2. Piecewise algebraic varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Renhong; ZHU Chungang

    2004-01-01

    The piecewise algebraic variety is a generalization of the classical algebraic variety. This paper discusses some properties of piecewise algebraic varieties and their coordinate rings based on the knowledge of algebraic geometry.

  3. Polar varieties revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Piene, Ragni

    2016-01-01

    We recall the definition of classical polar varieties, as well as those of affine and projective reciprocal polar varieties. The latter are defined with respect to a non-degenerate quadric, which gives us a notion of orthogonality. In particular we relate the reciprocal polar varieties to the "Euclidean geometry" in projective space. The Euclidean distance degree and the degree of the focal loci can be expressed in terms of the ranks, i.e., the degrees of the classical polar varieties, and he...

  4. Computing Tropical Varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speyer, D.; Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Bogart, T.;

    2005-01-01

    The tropical variety of a d-dimensional prime ideal in a polynomial ring with complex coefficients is a pure d-dimensional polyhedral fan. This fan is shown to be connected in codimension one. We present algorithmic tools for computing the tropical variety, and we discuss our implementation...

  5. REAL PIECEWISE ALGEBRAIC VARIETY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren-hong Wang; Yi-sheng Lai

    2003-01-01

    We give definitions of real piecewise algebraic variety and its dimension. By using the techniques of real radical ideal, P-radical ideal, affine Hilbert polynomial, Bernstein-net form of polynomials on simplex, and decomposition of semi-algebraic set, etc., we deal with the dimension of the real piecewise algebraic variety and real Nullstellensatz in Cμ spline ring.

  6. Peanut Variety Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Custer, and Tillman counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 8 runner types, 4 Spanish types, and 4 Virginia types...

  7. Seeds and Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Sara; Sorenson, Crista; Heineman, Bethany; Workman, Ashley Walker

    2010-01-01

    To be certified organic you must order organic seed. If for some reason organic seed is not available for a certain plant or variety, you have to write a paragraph stating that organic seed is not available and why that the certain plant or variety is needed for your system.

  8. VARIETIES IN EASTERN TANZANIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    peri-urban areas. Most sweetpotato ... and finally preference ranking was developed. (Fig. D-. Farmers' .... was determined on the basis of size and weight of the storage roots. .... Ukerewe, Simama and dominant farmers' varieties in each site ...

  9. The Varieties of Ignorance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nottelmann, Nikolaj

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses varieties of ignorance divided according to kind (what the subject is ignorant of), degree, and order (e.g. ignorance of ignorance equals second-order ignorance). It provides analyses of notions such as factual ignorance, erotetic ignorance (ignorance of answers to question...

  10. Varieties of lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Jipsen, Peter

    1992-01-01

    The study of lattice varieties is a field that has experienced rapid growth in the last 30 years, but many of the interesting and deep results discovered in that period have so far only appeared in research papers. The aim of this monograph is to present the main results about modular and nonmodular varieties, equational bases and the amalgamation property in a uniform way. The first chapter covers preliminaries that make the material accessible to anyone who has had an introductory course in universal algebra. Each subsequent chapter begins with a short historical introduction which sites the original references and then presents the results with complete proofs (in nearly all cases). Numerous diagrams illustrate the beauty of lattice theory and aid in the visualization of many proofs. An extensive index and bibliography also make the monograph a useful reference work.

  11. Quiver Varieties and Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Nakajima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Braverman and Finkelberg recently proposed the geometric Satake correspondence for the affine Kac-Moody group Gaff [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., arXiv:0711.2083]. They conjecture that intersection cohomology sheaves on the Uhlenbeck compactification of the framed moduli space of Gcpt-instantons on $R^4/Z_r$ correspond to weight spaces of representations of the Langlands dual group $G_{aff}^{vee}$ at level $r$. When $G = SL(l$, the Uhlenbeck compactification is the quiver variety of type $sl(r_{aff}$, and their conjecture follows from the author's earlier result and I. Frenkel's level-rank duality. They further introduce a convolution diagram which conjecturally gives the tensor product multiplicity [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., Private communication, 2008]. In this paper, we develop the theory for the branching in quiver varieties and check this conjecture for $G = SL(l$.

  12. Varieties of update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Murray

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses three potential varieties of update: updates to the common ground, structuring updates, and updates that introduce discourse referents. These different types of update are used to model different aspects of natural language phenomena. Not-at-issue information directly updates the common ground. The illocutionary mood of a sentence structures the context. Other updates introduce discourse referents of various types, including propositional discourse referents for at-issue information. Distinguishing these types of update allows a unified treatment of a broad range of phenomena, including the grammatical evidentials found in Cheyenne (Algonquian as well as English evidential parentheticals, appositives, and mood marking. An update semantics that can formalize all of these varieties of update is given, integrating the different kinds of semantic contributions into a single representation of meaning. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.7.2 BibTeX info

  13. Varieties of online gatekeeping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    News media organizations like newspapers and broadcasters have long functioned as gatekeepers between news and audiences, but with the rise of digital media, the search engines and social networking sites that are central to how most people navigate online increasingly complement news media......) and where non-journalistic actors too serve as gates between news and audiences. In this paper, I adopt such a broader approach and outline three varieties of online gatekeeping that each integrate different technologies in the gatekeeping process, but do so in different ways and for different purposes...... media websites remain amongst the most important gateways to news online. But they are increasingly supplemented by other, second-order online gatekeepers like search engines and social networking sites that, while rarely producing original content defined as “news”, increasingly serve as alternative...

  14. Introduction to Abelian varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, V Kumar

    1993-01-01

    The book represents an introduction to the theory of abelian varieties with a view to arithmetic. The aim is to introduce some of the basics of the theory as well as some recent arithmetic applications to graduate students and researchers in other fields. The first part contains proofs of the Abel-Jacobi theorem, Riemann's relations and the Lefschetz theorem on projective embeddings over the complex numbers in the spirit of S. Lang's book Introduction to algebraic and abelian functions. Then the Jacobians of Fermat curves as well as some modular curves are discussed. Finally, as an application, Faltings' proof of the Mordell conjecture and its intermediate steps, the Tate conjecture and the Shafarevich conjecture, are sketched. - H. Lange for MathSciNet.

  15. Closed surfaces and character varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Chesebro, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The powerful character variety techniques of Culler and Shalen can be used to find essential surfaces in knot manifolds. We show that module structures on the coordinate ring of the character variety can be used to identify detected boundary slopes as well as when closed surfaces are detected. This approach also yields new number theoretic invariants for the character varieties of knot manifolds.

  16. Social Differences and English Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jie

    2001-01-01

    Social varieties has long been taken into consideration, as people in different social group have different social manner and speech behavior. This paper focuses on several aspects, such as sex, age, social class, etc. Which account for language varieties in English. The purpose is to have a good understanding of learning English as second language.

  17. Albanese varieties of singular varieties over a perfect field

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Let X be a projective variety, possibly singular. A generalized Albanese variety of X was constructed by Esnault, Srinivas and Viehweg over algebraically closed base field as a universal regular quotient of the relative Chow group of 0-cycles by Levine-Weibel. In this paper, we obtain a functorial description of the Albanese of Esnault-Srinivas-Viehweg over a perfect base field, using duality theory of 1-motives with unipotent part.

  18. Homology theory on algebraic varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Wallace, Andrew H

    1958-01-01

    Homology Theory on Algebraic Varieties, Volume 6 deals with the principles of homology theory in algebraic geometry and includes the main theorems first formulated by Lefschetz, one of which is interpreted in terms of relative homology and another concerns the Poincaré formula. The actual details of the proofs of these theorems are introduced by geometrical descriptions, sometimes aided with diagrams. This book is comprised of eight chapters and begins with a discussion on linear sections of an algebraic variety, with emphasis on the fibring of a variety defined over the complex numbers. The n

  19. Stylistic Analysis on English Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建丽

    2009-01-01

    There are primarily three factors influencing the stylistic varieties: field of discourse, mode of discourse, tenor of discourse. The varieties of social relations may directly work on the speaker' s phonetic, vocabulary, sentence pattern and etc. These varieties consist of formality, politeness, impersonality and accessibility. When a speaker convenes with different subjects in different occasions, the language he has chosen will vary greatly. Regarding this point, the author does not intend to provide the readers with accurate data. But a general analysis of legal documents and advertisements respectively on the following major levels.

  20. Classification theory of polarized varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Takao

    1990-01-01

    A polarised variety is a modern generalization of the notion of a variety in classical algebraic geometry. It consists of a pair: the algebraic variety itself, together with an ample line bundle on it. Using techniques from abstract algebraic geometry that have been developed over recent decades, Professor Fujita develops classification theories of such pairs using invariants that are polarised higher-dimensional versions of the genus of algebraic curves. The heart of the book is the theory of D-genus and sectional genus developed by the author, but numerous related topics are discussed or sur

  1. Prym varieties of spectral covers

    CERN Document Server

    Hausel, Tamás

    2010-01-01

    Given a possibly reducible and non-reduced spectral cover X over a smooth projective complex curve C we determine the group of connected components of the Prym variety Prym(X/C). We also describe the sublocus of characteristics a for which the Prym variety Prym(X_a/C) is connected. These results extend special cases of work of Ng\\^o who considered integral spectral curves.

  2. Logical Varieties in Normative Reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Burgin, Mark; Mestdagh, de Vey

    2011-01-01

    Although conventional logical systems based on logical calculi have been successfully used in mathematics and beyond, they have definite limitations that restrict their application in many cases. For instance, the principal condition for any logical calculus is its consistency. At the same time, knowledge about large object domains (in science or in practice) is essentially inconsistent. Logical prevarieties and varieties were introduced to eliminate these limitations in a logically correct way. In this paper, the Logic of Reasonable Inferences is described. This logic has been applied successfully to model legal reasoning with inconsistent knowledge. It is demonstrated that this logic is a logical variety and properties of logical varieties related to legal reasoning are developed.

  3. The Varieties of Good Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ylirisku, Salu; Arvola, Mattias

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explores the philosopher and logician Georg Henrik von Wright’s metaethical treatise of the varieties of goodness in the context of design. von Wright investigated the use of notion of ‘good’ in language, and he identified six kinds of goodness: namely utilitarian goodness, instrumen......This chapter explores the philosopher and logician Georg Henrik von Wright’s metaethical treatise of the varieties of goodness in the context of design. von Wright investigated the use of notion of ‘good’ in language, and he identified six kinds of goodness: namely utilitarian goodness...

  4. Schubert unions in Grassman varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder; Johnsen, Trygve; Ranestad, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    , their number of Fq -rational points. Moreover, we study a geometric duality of such unions, and give a combinatorial interpretation of this duality. We discuss the maximum number of Fq -rational points for Schubert unions of a given spanning dimension, and as an application to coding theory, we study......We study subsets of Grassmann varieties G(l,m) over a field F, such that these subsets are unions of Schubert cycles, with respect to a fixed flag. We study unions of Schubert cycles of Grassmann varieties G(l,m) over a field F. We compute their linear span and, in positive characteristic...

  5. Microsatellite genotyping of carnation varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, M.J.M.; Noordijk, Y.; Rus-Kortekaas, W.; Bredemeijer, G.M.M.; Vosman, B.

    2003-01-01

    A set of 11 sequence-tagged microsatellite markers for carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) was developed using a DNA library enriched for microsatellites. Supplemented with three markers derived from sequence database entries, these were used to genotype carnation varieties using a semi-automated fluo

  6. Varieties of capitalism in crisis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruff, Ian; Horn, Laura

    2012-01-01

    In this introduction to the special issue, we provide a brief overview of the two distinct but connected meanings of the phrase ‘varieties of capitalism in crisis’: (1) the crisis of empirical political economies under conditions of capitalist diversity; and (2) the crisis of the institutionalist...

  7. Classification of Irregular Varieties : Minimal Models and Abelian Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Catanese, Fabrizio; Ciliberto, Ciro

    1992-01-01

    M. Andreatta,E.Ballico,J.Wisniewski: Projective manifolds containing large linear subspaces; - F.Bardelli: Algebraic cohomology classes on some specialthreefolds; - Ch.Birkenhake,H.Lange: Norm-endomorphisms of abelian subvarieties; - C.Ciliberto,G.van der Geer: On the jacobian of ahyperplane section of a surface; - C.Ciliberto,H.Harris,M.Teixidor i Bigas: On the endomorphisms of Jac (W1d(C)) when p=1 and C has general moduli; - B. van Geemen: Projective models of Picard modular varieties; - J.Kollar,Y.Miyaoka,S.Mori: Rational curves on Fano varieties; - R. Salvati Manni: Modular forms of the fourth degree; A. Vistoli: Equivariant Grothendieck groups and equivariant Chow groups; - Trento examples; Open problems

  8. Positroid Varieties: Juggling and Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Knutson, Allen; Speyer, David

    2011-01-01

    While the intersection of the Grassmannian Bruhat decompositions for all coordinate flags is an intractable mess, the intersection of only the cyclic shifts of one Bruhat decomposition turns out to have many of the good properties of the Bruhat and Richardson decompositions. This decomposition coincides with the projection of the Richardson stratification of the flag manifold, studied by Lusztig, Rietsch, Brown-Goodearl-Yakimov and the present authors. However, its cyclic-invariance is hidden in this description. Postnikov gave many cyclic-invariant ways to index the strata, and we give a new one, by a subset of the affine Weyl group we call bounded juggling patterns. We call the strata positroid varieties. Applying results from the authors' previous work, we show that positroid varieties are normal, Cohen-Macaulay, have rational singularities, and are defined as schemes by the vanishing of Plucker coordinates. We prove that their associated cohomology classes are represented by affine Stanley functions. This...

  9. Vector bundles on toric varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Gharib, Saman

    2011-01-01

    Following Sam Payne's work, we study the existence problem of nontrivial vector bundles on toric varieties. The first result we prove is that every complete fan admits a nontrivial conewise linear multivalued function. Such functions could potentially be the Chern classes of toric vector bundles. Then we use the results of Corti\\~nas, Haesemeyer, Walker and Weibel to show that the (non-equivariant) Grothendieck group of the toric 3-fold studied by Payne is large, so the variety has a nontrivial vector bundle. Using the same computation, we show that every toric 3-fold X either has a nontrivial line bundle, or there is a finite surjective toric morphism from Y to X, such that Y has a large Grothendieck group.

  10. Schubert varieties and degeneracy loci

    CERN Document Server

    Fulton, William

    1998-01-01

    Schubert varieties and degeneracy loci have a long history in mathematics, starting from questions about loci of matrices with given ranks. These notes, from a summer school in Thurnau, aim to give an introduction to these topics, and to describe recent progress on these problems. There are interesting interactions with the algebra of symmetric functions and combinatorics, as well as the geometry of flag manifolds and intersection theory and algebraic geometry.

  11. Real Multiplication on Jacobian Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Kucharczyk, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    This is a slightly revised version of the author's 2010 diploma thesis. It is concerned with the interplay between real multiplication on Jacobian varieties, as the title suggests, and complex geodesics in the moduli space of curves. Large parts are expository and may hopefully serve as a very incomplete introduction to Teichmueller disks and curves, the moduli space of abelian differentials with its SL2(R)-operation and variations of Hodge structure.

  12. Operator algebras for analytic varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Davidson, Kenneth R; Shalit, Orr Moshe

    2012-01-01

    We study the isomorphism problem for the multiplier algebras of irreducible complete Pick kernels. These are precisely the restrictions $\\cM_V$ of the multiplier algebra $\\cM$ of Drury-Arveson space to a holomorphic subvariety $V$ of the unit ball. The related algebras of continuous multipliers are also considered. We find that $\\cM_V$ is completely isometrically isomorphic to $\\cM_W$ if and only if $W$ is the image of $V$ under a biholomorphic automorphism of the ball. A similar condition characterizes when there exists a unital completely contractive homomorphism from $\\cM_V$ to $\\cM_W$. If one of the varieties is a homogeneous algebraic variety, then isometric isomorphism is shown to imply completely isometric isomorphism of the algebras. The problem of characterizing when two such algebras are (algebraically) isomorphic is also studied. It is shown that if there is an isomorphism between $\\cM_V$ and $\\cM_W$, then there is a biholomorphism (with multiplier coordinates) between the varieties. We present a n...

  13. Quiver representations and quiver varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Jr, Alexander Kirillov

    2016-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the theory of quiver representations and quiver varieties, starting with basic definitions and ending with Nakajima's work on quiver varieties and the geometric realization of Kac-Moody Lie algebras. The first part of the book is devoted to the classical theory of quivers of finite type. Here the exposition is mostly self-contained and all important proofs are presented in detail. The second part contains the more recent topics of quiver theory that are related to quivers of infinite type: Coxeter functor, tame and wild quivers, McKay correspondence, and representations of Euclidean quivers. In the third part, topics related to geometric aspects of quiver theory are discussed, such as quiver varieties, Hilbert schemes, and the geometric realization of Kac-Moody algebras. Here some of the more technical proofs are omitted; instead only the statements and some ideas of the proofs are given, and the reader is referred to original papers for details. The exposition in the book requ...

  14. Varieties of Secularism in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varieties of Secularism is an ethnographically rich, theoretically well-informed, and intellectually coherent volume which builds off the work of Talal Asad, Charles Taylor, and others who have engaged the issue of secularism(s) and in socio-political life. The volume seeks to examine theories of...... phenomena; between the new visibilities and silences of magic, ancestors, and religion in democratic politics, this book seeks to outline the particular formations of secularism that have become possible in Asia from China to Indonesia and from Bahrain to Timor-Leste....

  15. Weil classes on abelian varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Moonen, B J J; Zarhin, Yu. G.

    1996-01-01

    Consider a complex abelian variety X on which a field F acts. Generalizing a construction of A. Weil, one associates to this a subspace W_F of the cohomology of X, which we call the space of Weil classes w.r.t. F. The purpose of this paper is to answer the following two questions: Q1: under what conditions on F does the space W_F contain, or even consist of, Hodge classes?, Q2: if W_F contains Hodge classes, under what conditions on F are these exceptional? In case X is defined over a number field, we also answer the analogous questions for Tate classes.

  16. Uniruledness of orthogonal modular varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Gritsenko, Valery

    2012-01-01

    A strongly reflective modular form with respect to an orthogonal group of signature (2,n) determines a Lorentzian Kac--Moody algebra. We find a new geometric application of such modular forms: we prove that if the weight is larger than n then the corresponding modular variety is uniruled. We also construct new reflective modular forms and thus provide new examples of uniruled moduli spaces of lattice polarised K3 surfaces. Finally we prove that the moduli space of Kummer surfaces associated to (1,21)-polarised abelian surfaces is uniruled.

  17. Homology theory on algebraic varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Wallace, Andrew H

    2014-01-01

    Concise and authoritative, this monograph is geared toward advanced undergraduate and graduate students. The main theorems whose proofs are given here were first formulated by Lefschetz and have since turned out to be of fundamental importance in the topological aspects of algebraic geometry. The proofs are fairly elaborate and involve a considerable amount of detail; therefore, some appear in separate chapters that include geometrical descriptions and diagrams.The treatment begins with a brief introduction and considerations of linear sections of an algebraic variety as well as singular and h

  18. Schubert Unions in Grassmann Varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder; Johnsen, T.; Ranestad, K.

    We study subsets of Grassmann varieties G(l,m) over a field F, such that these subsets are unions of Schubert cycles, with respect to a fixed flag. We study the linear spans of, and in case of positive characteristic, the number of points on such unions over finite fields. Moreover we study...... a geometric duality of such unions, and give a combinatorial interpretation of this duality. We discuss the maximum number of points over a finite field for the Schubert unions of a given spanning dimension, and we give some applications to coding theory. We define Schubert union codes, and study...

  19. Varieties of Secularism in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varieties of Secularism is an ethnographically rich, theoretically well-informed, and intellectually coherent volume which builds off the work of Talal Asad, Charles Taylor, and others who have engaged the issue of secularism(s) and in socio-political life. The volume seeks to examine theories...... of secularism/secularity and examine concrete ethnographic cases in order to further the theoretical discussion. Whereas Taylor’s magisterial work draws up the conditions and problems of a belief in God in Western modernity, it leaves unexplored the challenges posed by the spiritual in modernity outside...... of the North Atlantic rim. This anthology seeks to begin that task. It does so by suggesting that the kind of secularity described by Taylor is only one amongst others. By attending to the shifting relationship between proper religion and ‘bad faiths’; between politically valorised and embarrassing spiritual...

  20. Algebra-Geometry of Piecewise Algebraic Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Gang ZHU; Ren Hong WANG

    2012-01-01

    Algebraic variety is the most important subject in classical algebraic geometry.As the zero set of multivariate splines,the piecewise algebraic variety is a kind generalization of the classical algebraic variety.This paper studies the correspondence between spline ideals and piecewise algebraic varieties based on the knowledge of algebraic geometry and multivariate splines.

  1. Assortment Variety : Attribute versus Product-Based

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herpen, H.W.I.; Pieters, R.

    2000-01-01

    Retailers need to decide on the content and structure of their product assortments, and thereby on the degree of variety that they offer to their customers.This paper compares measures of assortment variety and relates them to underlying variety components.We conceptualize assortment variety from a

  2. Korean Adults' Attitudes towards Varieties of English

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Soo

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates 43 Korean adults’ attitudes towards native and non-native varieties of English in relation to the perspective of EIL (English as an international language). This study addresses three research questions: 1) do Korean adults prefer certain varieties of English? 2) do Korean adults at least accept non-native varieties of English?, and 3) are Korean adults aware of different varieties of English? In order to examine participants’ language attitudes, this study employed bo...

  3. Definite Article Usage across Varieties of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Ridwan

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore the extent of definite article usage variation in several varieties of English based on a classification of its usage types. An annotation scheme based on Hawkins and Prince was developed for this purpose. Using matching corpus data representing Inner Circle varieties and Outer Circle varieties, analysis was made on…

  4. On varieties with higher osculating defect

    CERN Document Server

    De Poi, Pietro; Ilardi, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, using the method of moving frames, we generalise some of Terracini's results on varieties with tangent defect. In particular, we characterise varieties with higher order osculating defect in terms of Jacobians of higher fundamental forms and moreover we characterise varieties with "small" higher fundamental forms as contained in scrolls.

  5. On Spinor Varieties and Their Secants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Manivel

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We study the secant variety of the spinor variety, focusing on its equations of degree three and four. We show that in type Dn, cubic equations exist if and only if n ≥ 9. In general the ideal has generators in degrees at least three and four. Finally we observe that the other Freudenthal varieties exhibit strikingly similar behaviors.

  6. Maize variety and method of production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauly, Markus; Hake, Sarah; Kraemer, Florian J

    2014-05-27

    The disclosure relates to a maize plant, seed, variety, and hybrid. More specifically, the disclosure relates to a maize plant containing a Cal-1 allele, whose expression results in increased cell wall-derived glucan content in the maize plant. The disclosure also relates to crossing inbreds, varieties, and hybrids containing the Cal-1 allele to produce novel types and varieties of maize plants.

  7. A Characterization of P-Compatible Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ivan Chajda; Klaus Denecke; Shelly L. Wismath

    2007-01-01

    P-Compatibility is a hereditary property of identities which generalizes the properties of normality and externality of identitiesChajda characterized the normalization of a variety by an algebraic construction called a choice algebraIn this paper, we generalize this characterization to the least P-compatible variety P(V) determined by a variety V for any partition P using P-choice algebrasWe also study the clone of (strongly) P-compatible n-ary terms of a variety V, and relate identities of this clone to (strongly) P-compatible hyperidentities of the variety V.

  8. On special subvarieties of Kuga varieties II

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we prove the equidistribution of $\\Cbf$-special subvarieties in certain Kuga varieties, which implies a special case of the general Andr\\'e-Oort conjecture formulated for mixed Shimura varieties proposed by R.Pink. The main idea is to reduce the equidistribution to a theorem of Szpiro-Ullmo-Zhang on small points of abelian varieties and a theorem on the equiditribution of $C$-special subvarieties of Kuga varieties of rigid type treated by the author in a previous paper.

  9. Linear codes associated to determinantal varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beelen, Peter; Ghorpade, Sudhir R.; Hasan, Sartaj Ul

    2015-01-01

    We consider a class of linear codes associated to projective algebraic varieties defined by the vanishing of minors of a fixed size of a generic matrix. It is seen that the resulting code has only a small number of distinct weights. The case of varieties defined by the vanishing of 2×2 minors...

  10. Skill Variety, Innovation and New Business Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.A. Hessels (Jolanda); U. Brixy (Udo); W.A. Naudé (Wim); T. Gries (Thomas)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We extend Lazear’s theory of skills variety and entrepreneurship in three directions. First, we provide a theoretical framework linking new business creation with an entrepreneur’s skill variety. Second, in this model we allow for both generalists and specialists to pos

  11. Skill Variety, Innovation and New Business Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.A. Hessels (Jolanda); U. Brixy (Udo); W.A. Naudé (Wim); T. Gries (Thomas)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We extend Lazear’s theory of skills variety and entrepreneurship in three directions. First, we provide a theoretical framework linking new business creation with an entrepreneur’s skill variety. Second, in this model we allow for both generalists and specialists to

  12. New early indica variety Zhongyouzao 3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGFasong; HUPeisong; TANGShaoqing; LUOJu

    1997-01-01

    Rice variety Zhongyouzao 3 was developed by CNRRI and Hunan Rice Research Institute,Hunan Province, from the cross 84-240/Hongtu 5 made in 1986. The 84-240 is the second season indica line with superior grain quality and multl-reslstance to rice pests, and the Hongtu 5 is early indica variety with highyielding.

  13. Classification of rank 2 cluster varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandel, Travis

    We classify rank 2 cluster varieties (those whose corresponding skew-form has rank 2) according to the deformation type of a generic fiber U of their X-spaces, as defined by Fock and Goncharov. Our approach is based on the work of Gross, Hacking, and Keel for cluster varieties and log Calabi...

  14. Universal Grammar and the Basic Variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierwisch, Manfred

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the feasibility of Basic Variety (BV) principles proposed by Klein and Perdue, arguing that some of them need clarification with learner varieties and that they are not part of Universal Grammar (UG) as they exclude phenomena (e.g., psych verbs) that cannot be excluded from the core of natural language. (15 references) (Author/CK)

  15. Classification of rank 2 cluster varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandel, Travis

    We classify rank 2 cluster varieties (those whose corresponding skew-form has rank 2) according to the deformation type of a generic fiber U of their X-spaces, as defined by Fock and Goncharov. Our approach is based on the work of Gross, Hacking, and Keel for cluster varieties and log Calabi-Yau ...

  16. Innovativeness and Variety of Internet Shopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Brian F.; Neuendorf, Kimberly A.; Valdiserri, Colin M.

    2003-01-01

    This survey of 208 Internet users examined the factors underlying Internet usage and shopping. Data were gathered on Information shopping (IS) innovativeness, overall IS frequency, visit variety, purchase variety, network prevalence, education, age, gender, employment, extensiveness of Internet use, and non-shopping Internet applications. (MES)

  17. Innovativeness and Variety of Internet Shopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Brian F.; Neuendorf, Kimberly A.; Valdiserri, Colin M.

    2003-01-01

    This survey of 208 Internet users examined the factors underlying Internet usage and shopping. Data were gathered on Information shopping (IS) innovativeness, overall IS frequency, visit variety, purchase variety, network prevalence, education, age, gender, employment, extensiveness of Internet use, and non-shopping Internet applications. (MES)

  18. The adjunction theory of complex projective varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Sommese, Andrew J

    1995-01-01

    An overview of developments in the past 15 years of adjunction theory, the study of the interplay between the intrinsic geometry of a projective variety and the geometry connected with some embedding of the variety into a projective space. Topics include consequences of positivity, the Hilbert schem

  19. Weed suppression ability of spring barley varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Svend

    1995-01-01

    Three years of experiments with spring barley showed significant differences in weed suppression ability among varieties. Weed dry matter in the most suppressive variety, Ida, was 48% lower than the mean weed dry matter of all varieties, whereas it was 31% higher in the least suppressive variety......, Grit. Ranking varietal responses to weed competition in terms of grain yield loss corresponded well to ranking weed dry matter produced in crop weed mixtures. There was no correspondence between the varietal grain yields in pure stands and their competitiveness, suggesting that breeding to optimize...... interception model was developed to describe the light interception profiles of the varieties. A study of the estimated parameters showed significant correlation between weed dry matter, rate of canopy height development and the light interception profile. However, when estimates were standardized to eliminate...

  20. NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EMMER WHEAT VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional compounds (fat, sugars, crude protein, soluble fiber, ash and starch of four emmer wheat varieties grown under the conditions of organic farming system. The experiment was established on Scientific Research base Dolná Malanta, near Nitra in Slovakia during 2010 – 2011 and 2011 – 2012 growing seasons. Nutritional parameters, except crude protein content, were not influenced by the variety and weather conditions. Agnone variety had the highest content of fat, crude protein and starch but the lowest content of soluble dietary fiber. The lowest values of fat, crude protein had Molise sel Colli variety; Farvento variety had the lowest sugars and starch content. Emmer wheat as ancient wheat has a unique composition in secondary components, such as starch, which may play a role as functional food ingredients.

  1. Flower volatiles, crop varieties and bee responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn K Klatt

    Full Text Available Pollination contributes to an estimated one third of global food production, through both the improvement of the yield and the quality of crops. Volatile compounds emitted by crop flowers mediate plant-pollinator interactions, but differences between crop varieties are still little explored. We investigated whether the visitation of crop flowers is determined by variety-specific flower volatiles using strawberry varieties (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne and how this affects the pollination services of the wild bee Osmia bicornis L. Flower volatile compounds of three strawberry varieties were measured via headspace collection. Gas chromatography showed that the three strawberry varieties produced the same volatile compounds but with quantitative differences of the total amount of volatiles and between distinct compounds. Electroantennographic recordings showed that inexperienced females of Osmia bicornis had higher antennal responses to all volatile compounds than to controls of air and paraffin oil, however responses differed between compounds. The variety Sonata was found to emit a total higher level of volatiles and also higher levels of most of the compounds that evoked antennal responses compared with the other varieties Honeoye and Darselect. Sonata also received more flower visits from Osmia bicornis females under field conditions, compared with Honeoye. Our results suggest that differences in the emission of flower volatile compounds among strawberry varieties mediate their attractiveness to females of Osmia bicornis. Since quality and quantity of marketable fruits depend on optimal pollination, a better understanding of the role of flower volatiles in crop production is required and should be considered more closely in crop-variety breeding.

  2. Modular Abelian Varieties of Odd Modular Degree

    OpenAIRE

    Yazdani, Soroosh

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we will study modular Abelian varieties with odd congruence numbers by examining the cuspidal subgroup of $J_0(N)$. We will show that the conductor of such Abelian varieties must be of a special type. For example, if $N$ is the conductor of an absolutely simple modular Abelian variety with an odd congruence number, then $N$ has at most two prime divisors, and if $N$ is odd, then $N=p^\\alpha$ or $N=pq$ for some prime $p$ and $q$. In the second half of this paper, we will focus o...

  3. China English, a Variety of English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴卞

    2009-01-01

    With the economic globalization and the increasing interactiom between countries, English is more and more widely used as a means of international communication. It is not singly owned by one country or one nation, but has become an intermediate means of information. Inevitably, various varieties of English appeared as the result of the wide application of English. Theses varieties represent their own national and cultural characteristics. China English is one of these varieties. The paper makes an introduction to China English, analyses its characteristics through examples and points out the future development of China English.

  4. Laura: Soybean variety lacking Kunitz trypsin inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srebrić Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Grain of conventional soybean varieties requires heat processing to break down trypsin inhibitor's activity before using as food or animal feed. At the same time, protein denaturation and other qualitative changes occur in soybean grain, especially if the temperature of heating is not controlled. Two types of trypsin inhibitor were found in soybean grain the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor and the Bowman-Birk inhibitor. Mature grain of soybean Laura is lacking Kunitz trypsin inhibitor. Grain yield of variety Laura is equal to high yielding varieties from the maturity group I, where it belongs. Lacking of Kunitz-trypsin inhibitor makes soybean grain suitable for direct feeding in adult non ruminant animals without previous thermal processing. Grain of variety Laura can be processed for a shorter period of time than conventional soybeans. This way we save energy, and preserve valuable nutritional composition of soybean grain, which is of interest in industrial processing.

  5. AGRONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF EMMER WHEAT VARIETIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartosová; Veronika Curná

    2015-01-01

    ...) of four emmer wheat varieties - Agnone, Farvento, Molise sel Colli, Guardiaregia cultivated under the conditions of organic farming system in the south region of the Slovak republic during 2010...

  6. INTEGRATING CASSAVA VARIETIES AND Typhlodramulus aripo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    The cassava green mite (CGM), Mononychellus tanajoa, is a pest that reduces root yield of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by ... analysed for cassava varieties to sustain high population of T. aripo. ..... Journal of Economic Entomology.

  7. Balanced line bundles on Fano varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Brian; Tanimoto, Sho; Tschinkel, Yuri

    2017-01-01

    A conjecture of Batyrev and Manin relates arithmetic properties of varieties with ample anticanonical class to geometric invariants. We analyze the geometry underlying these invariants using the Minimal Model Program and then apply our results to primitive Fano threefolds....

  8. Plant Variety Protection and DUS Testing Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-hui; LI Xin-hai; ZHANG Shi-huang; LI Ming-shun; LI Wen-hua

    2002-01-01

    DUS testing technique used for plant variety protection was reviewed in the paper, and somesuggestions were made on how to establish the appropriate technology system in China. Meanwhile, the poten-tial exploitation of the technique was discussed.

  9. Product variety and the demographic transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzmán, Ricardo Andrés; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2010-01-01

    Why does the rate of population growth decline in the face of economic growth? We show that growing product variety may induce a permanent reduction in the demand for children and a continuous rise in income and consumption....

  10. Product Variety and the Demographic Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzmán, Ricardo Andrés; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    Why does the rate of population growth decline in the face of economic growth? We show that growing product variety may induce a permanent reduction in the demand for children and a continuous rise in income and consumption....

  11. Cohomological Hall algebras and character varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Davison, Ben

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the relationship between twisted and untwisted character varieties via a specific instance of the Cohomological Hall algebra for moduli of objects in 3-Calabi-Yau categories introduced by Kontsevich and Soibelman. In terms of Donaldson--Thomas theory, this relationship is completely understood via the calculations of Hausel and Villegas of the E polynomials of twisted character varieties and untwisted character stacks. We present a conjectural lift of this relationship to the cohomological Hall algebra setting.

  12. Identification of Carnation varieties using microsatellite markers

    OpenAIRE

    Arens, P.F.P.; Esselink, G.; Noordijk, Y.; Kodde, L.P.; Hof, L.; Wietsma, W.A.; Vosman, B.

    2009-01-01

    As in many ornamentals, also in carnation the number of varieties in common knowledge is large and identification throughout the chain from breeder to consumer using plant material from different stages and organs may be needed. Results in this study on the use of microsatellite markers from Dianthus caryophyllus L. for the characterization of carnation varieties as well as the construction and evaluation of a molecular database show that these markers show potential for identification purposes

  13. Index Calculus in the Trace Zero Variety

    OpenAIRE

    Gorla, Elisa; Massierer, Maike

    2014-01-01

    International audience; We discuss how to apply Gaudry's index calculus algorithm for abelian varieties to solve the discrete logarithm problem in the trace zero variety of an elliptic curve. We treat in particular the practically relevant cases of field extensions of degree 3 or 5. Our theoretical analysis is compared to other algorithms present in the literature, and is complemented by results from a prototype implementation.

  14. Representations of fundamental groups of algebraic varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Zuo, Kang

    1999-01-01

    Using harmonic maps, non-linear PDE and techniques from algebraic geometry this book enables the reader to study the relation between fundamental groups and algebraic geometry invariants of algebraic varieties. The reader should have a basic knowledge of algebraic geometry and non-linear analysis. This book can form the basis for graduate level seminars in the area of topology of algebraic varieties. It also contains present new techniques for researchers working in this area.

  15. Product Variety and the Demographic Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzmán, Ricardo Andrés; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    Why does the rate of population growth decline in the face of economic growth? We show that growing product variety may induce a permanent reduction in the demand for children and a continuous rise in income and consumption.......Why does the rate of population growth decline in the face of economic growth? We show that growing product variety may induce a permanent reduction in the demand for children and a continuous rise in income and consumption....

  16. On Special Subvarieties of Kuga Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ke

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we prove the equidistribution of certain families of special subvarieties in Kuga varieties, which is a special case of the general Andre-Oort conjecture formulated for mixed Shimura varieties proposed by R.Pink. Our approach is parallel to the pure case treated in the works of L.Clozel, E.Ullmo, and A.Yafaev using tools from ergodic theory.

  17. Meiotic behavior of several Brazilian soybean varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Bione Nilton Cesar Pires; Pagliarini Maria Suely; Toledo José Francisco Ferraz de

    2000-01-01

    Despite the importance of soybeans little cytogenetic work has traditionally been done, due to the small size and apparent similarity of the chromosomes. Fifteen soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] varieties adapted for cultivation in two distinct regions of Brazil were analyzed cytogenetically. A low frequency of meiotic abnormalities was noted in all varieties, although they were not equally affected. Irregular chromosome segregation, chromosome stickiness, cytoplasmic connections between ce...

  18. Isozyme Analysis on Different Varieties of Sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson M.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Isozymic and protein diversity among five sugarcane varieties viz., Co 6304, Co 85019, Co 8371, Co 89003 and Co 91010 were studied to understand the varietal interrelationship and to identify the biochemical marker for the disease resistance and stress tolerance. The standard technique of vertical gel electrophoresis PAGE was employed for size separation of isozymes. The gel was stained with different staining solutions for different isozyme systems viz. peroxidase, esterase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and proteins. Rf values of the banding profiles, similarity index and variation between the varieties were analysed. Among the four enzyme systems, peroxidase profile reveals the difference between the disease resistant / susceptible and abiotic stress tolerant / non tolerant varieties. The two isoperoxidase bands with Rf values 0.62 and 0.66 showed their presence in disease resistant and abiotic tolerant varieties. The presence of two marker bands (0.62, 0.66 of resistant and stress tolerant varieties suggest that the variety Co 6304 may also be resistant to smut, wilt and moderately resistant to red rot and tolerant to drought.

  19. Related Variety, Unrelated Variety and Technological Breakthroughs: An analysis of US State-Level Patenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaldi, C.; Frenken, K.; Los, B.

    2015-01-01

    Castaldi C., Frenken K. and Los B. Related variety, unrelated variety and technological breakthroughs: an analysis of US state-level patenting, Regional Studies. This paper investigates how variety affects the innovation output of a region. Borrowing arguments from theories of recombinant innovation

  20. 75 FR 77612 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Reestablishment of the Plant Variety Protection Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Reestablishment of the Plant Variety Protection... Agriculture intends to reestablish the Plant Variety Protection Board. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paul....regulations.gov or by e-mail: Paul.Zankowski@ams.usda.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Plant...

  1. Chemical Composition of Different Varieties of Linseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laiq Khan*, M. Sharif, M. Sarwar, Sameea1 and M. Ameen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate chemical composition of six varieties of linseed (Chandni, LS-29, LS-49, LS-70, LS-75 and LS-76. Proximate composition, mineral profile and cyanogenic glycosides (linamarin were determined. Average proximate composition values for linseed i.e. crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, ash and nitrogen free extract were 24.18, 37.77, 4.78, 3.50 and 25.86%, respectively. Higher values of crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber and nitrogen free extract were observed in varieties LS-49, LS-70, LS-29 and Chandni, respectively. Average mineral contents in linseed i.e. Ca, Mg, K, Na, Cl, P, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn were 0.39, 0.09, 1.41, 0.05, 0.08, 0.89, 4.67, 50.56, 8.29 and 13.55 ppm, respectively. Among micro minerals, varieties LS-29 and LS-70 were higher in Cu contents; LS-75 was higher in Fe content, while LS-49 was higher in Mn and Zn contents. Among macro minerals, level of Ca was higher in LS-70, levels of Mg, K and Na were higher in Chandni, while P was higher in LS-49. Average amount of linamarin in linseed was 31.05mg/100 gm DM. The variety LS-75 had the highest (35.22 mg/100 gm linamarin content, while variety LS-70 had least (26.22 mg/100 gm amount of linamarin. In conclusion, there is significant difference in chemical composition among linseed varieties. The varieties LS-49 showed higher crude protein content, LS-70 showed greater oil content, while LS-75 had higher content of linamarin.

  2. Resonance varieties and Dwyer-Fried invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Suciu, Alexander I

    2011-01-01

    The Dwyer-Fried invariants of a finite cell complex X are the subsets \\Omega^i_r(X) of the Grassmannian of r-planes in H^1(X,\\Q) which parametrize the regular \\Z^r-covers of X having finite Betti numbers up to degree i. In previous work, we showed that each \\Omega-invariant is contained in the complement of a union of Schubert varieties associated to a certain subspace arrangement in H^1(X,\\Q). Here, we identify a class of spaces for which this inclusion holds as equality. For such "straight" spaces X, all the data required to compute the \\Omega-invariants can be extracted from the resonance varieties associated to the cohomology ring H^*(X,\\Q). In general, though, translated components in the characteristic varieties affect the answer.

  3. Equivariant characteristic classes of complex algebraic varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Cappell, Sylvain E; Schuermann, Joerg; Shaneson, Julius L

    2010-01-01

    Homology Hirzebruch characteristic classes for singular varieties have been recently defined by Brasselet-Schuermann-Yokura as an attempt to unify previously known characteristic class theories for singular spaces (e.g., MacPherson-Chern classes, Baum-Fulton-MacPherson Todd classes, and Goresky-MacPherson L-classes, respectively). In this note we define equivariant analogues of these classes for quasi-projective varieties acted upon by a finite group of algebraic automorphisms, and show how these can be used to calculate the homology Hirzebruch classes of global orbifolds. We also compute the new classes in the context of monodromy problems, e.g., for varieties that fiber equivariantly (in the complex topology) over a connected algebraic manifold.

  4. Trivalent graphs, volume conjectures and character varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Nawata, Satoshi; Zodinmawia,

    2014-01-01

    The generalized volume conjecture and the AJ conjecture (a.k.a. the quantum volume conjecture) are extended to $U_q(sl_2)$ colored quantum invariants of trivalent graphs. The SL(2,C) character variety of the fundamental group of the complement of a trivalent graph with $E$ edges in $S^3$ is a Lagrangian subvariety of the Hitchin moduli space over the Riemann surface of genus $g=E/3+1$. The configuration of the character variety is locally determined by large color asymptotics of the quantum invariants of the trivalent graph in terms of complex Fenchel-Nielsen coordinates. Moreover, the q-holonomic difference equation of the quantum invariants provides the quantization of the character variety. In particular, we investigate both the conjectures for the theta and tetrahedron graphs.

  5. Meiotic behavior of several Brazilian soybean varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bione Nilton Cesar Pires

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of soybeans little cytogenetic work has traditionally been done, due to the small size and apparent similarity of the chromosomes. Fifteen soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] varieties adapted for cultivation in two distinct regions of Brazil were analyzed cytogenetically. A low frequency of meiotic abnormalities was noted in all varieties, although they were not equally affected. Irregular chromosome segregation, chromosome stickiness, cytoplasmic connections between cells, cytomixis and irregular spindles were the main abnormalities observed, none of which had been described previously in soybeans. All of these abnormalities can affect pollen fertility. Pollen fertility was high in most varieties and was correlated with meiotic abnormalities. Although soybean is not a model system for cytological studies, we found that it is possible to conduct cytogenetic studies on this species, though some modifications in the standard methods for meiotic studies were necessary to obtain satisfactory results.

  6. 7 CFR 51.348 - One variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... meaning of these standards shall include all bud sports and strains of the specified variety. ...

  7. Preference mapping of apple varieties in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonany, J.; Buehler, A.; Carbó, J.; Codarin, C.; Donati, F.; Echeverria, G.; Egger, S.; Guerra, W.; Hilaire, C.; Höller, I.; Iglesias, I.; Jesionkowska, K.; Konopacka, D.; Kruczynska, D.; Martinelli, A.; PItiot, C.; Sansavini, S.; Stehr, R.; Schoorl, F.W.

    2014-01-01

    A consumer test carried out in 7 different European countries compared 3 standard apple varieties to 8 new ones. A total of 4290 consumers took part in the test. Data from this test was used to develop a preference map for apple. The preference map was constructed with 3 main dimensions (1 – sweetne

  8. Darmon's points and quaternionic Shimura varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Gartner, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize a conjecture due to Darmon and Logan in an adelic setting. We study the relation between our construction and Kudla's works on cycles on orthogonal Shimura varieties. This relation allows us to conjecture a Gross-Kohnen-Zagier theorem for Darmon's points.

  9. 7 CFR 51.2112 - Mixed varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed varieties. 51.2112 Section 51.2112 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946...

  10. Seed Legislation and agrobiodiversity: conservation varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Bocci

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available European seed policies and legislation have contributed to fostering a system in which fewer varieties are traded in ever bigger markets in accordance with the law of economy of scale. Informal seed systems have been marginalised and perceived as outdated in a scenario in which the agricultural system was being modernised. In 1998, however, the European Union recognised the need to conserve agricultural genetic resources and created a catalogue specially for registering what it called ‘conservation varieties’. In June 2008 an EU Directive was issued regulating the agricultural species involved. So what is this ‘new’ category of variety. What impact will it have in supporting the informal conservation initiatives in agricultural biodiversity and making them legitimate? This article sets out to address these questions by analysing the concept of conservation variety from when the phrase was coined up to the recent European directive 62/2008. After describing and evaluating the impact that the directive may have, Italian regulation on conservation varieties will be analysed focusing on synergies and diversities. Lastly, in the light of the International Treaty on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, attention will turn to the regulations in order to verify how they correspond.

  11. Growth of sugar cane varieties under salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welson Lima Simões

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Large salty areas in the Brazilian semi-arid region have limited farming in Northeastern Brazil. One example is the sugar cane cultivation, which reinforces the need of selecting varieties that are more tolerant to salinity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of salinity on growth of ten varieties of sugar cane. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, set in the experimental field of Embrapa Semiárido, in Petrolina, Pernambuco State. The experimental design was randomized blocks arranged in a 6 X 10 factorial arrangement, comprised of six levels of salinity (0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 dS m-1 and ten sugar cane varieties (VAT 90212; RB 72454; RB 867515; Q 124; RB 961003; RB 957508; SP791011; RB 835089; RB 92579 and SP 943206. Salt levels of irrigation water were obtained by adding NaCl, CaCl2.2H2O and MgSO4.7H2O to achieve an equivalent ratio among Na:Ca:Mg of 7:2:1. Sixty days later, plant height, stem diameter (base, number of leaves, stalks and sprouts, leaf area and fresh and dry mass of the aerial part and roots were all measured. The varieties of sugar cane showed similar responses for growth reduction as soil salinity increases, being considered moderately sensitive to salinity.

  12. International political theory : Varieties of moral discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Menno R.

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to demonstrate the value of James Gustafson's 'varieties of moral discourse' typology for international political theory (IPT), or moral reflection about international politics. Gustafson's typology is defended as entailing an adequate conception of IPT through a threefold argument

  13. Phonological Convergence in a Contracting Language Variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Barbara E.; Gerfen, Chip

    2004-01-01

    Most work investigating the role of convergence in situations of language attrition has focused on the morpho-syntactic restructuring of the dying language variety. A central concern of such research has been untangling the factors driving the restructuring with an eye towards establishing whether the changes observed are best viewed as externally…

  14. Optimal Product Variety, Scale Effects and Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, H.L.F.; Nahuis, R.

    1997-01-01

    We analyze the social optimality of growth and product variety in a model of endogenous growth. The model contains two sectors, one assembly sector producing a homogenous consumption good, and one intermediate goods sector producing a differentiated input used in the assembly sector. Growth results

  15. Towards quantum cohomology of real varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceyhan, Ö.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter is devoted to a discussion of Gromov-Witten-Welschinger (GWW) classes and their applications. In particular, Horava’s definition of quantum cohomology of real algebraic varieties is revisited by using GWW classes and is introduced as a differential graded operad. In light of this

  16. On subcanonical Gorenstein varieties and apolarity

    CERN Document Server

    De Poi, Pietro

    2011-01-01

    Let $X$ be a codimension 1 subvariety of dimension $>1$ of a variety of minimal degree $Y$. If $X$ is subcanonical with Gorenstein canonical singularities admitting a crepant resolution, then $X$ is Arithmetically Gorenstein and we characterise such subvarieties $X$ of $Y$ via apolarity as those whose apolar hypersurfaces are Fermat.

  17. Abelian varieties isogenous to a Jacobian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, C.-L.; Oort, F.

    2012-01-01

    We define a notion of Weyl CM points in the moduli space A g,1 of g -dimensional principally polarized abelian varieties and show that the André-Oort conjecture (or the GRH) implies the following statement: for any closed subvariety X⫋A g,1 over Q a , there exists a Weyl special point [(B,μ)]∈A g,1

  18. 7 CFR 920.6 - Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Varieties. 920.6 Section 920.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  19. Generalized support varieties for finite group schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Friedlander, Eric M

    2011-01-01

    We construct two families of refinements of the (projectivized) support variety of a finite dimensional module $M$ for a finite group scheme $G$. For an arbitrary finite group scheme, we associate a family of {\\it non maximal rank varieties} $\\Gamma^j(G)_M$, $1\\leq j \\leq p-1$, to a $kG$-module $M$. For $G$ infinitesimal, we construct a finer family of locally closed subvarieties $V^{\\ul a}(G)_M$ of the variety of one parameter subgroups of $G$ for any partition $\\ul a$ of $\\dim M$. For an arbitrary finite group scheme $G$, a $kG$-module $M$ of constant rank, and a cohomology class $\\zeta$ in $\\HHH^1(G,M)$ we introduce the {\\it zero locus} $Z(\\zeta) \\subset \\Pi(G)$. We show that $Z(\\zeta)$ is a closed subvariety, and relate it to the non-maximal rank varieties. We also extend the construction of $Z(\\zeta)$ to an arbitrary extension class $\\zeta \\in \\Ext^n_G(M,N)$ whenever $M$ and $N$ are $kG$-modules of constant Jordan type.

  20. Vine variety discrimination with airborne imaging spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro-Armán, M.; Alba-Castro, J. L.; Homayouni, S.; da Costa, J. P.; Martín-Herrero, J.

    2007-09-01

    We aim at the discrimination of varieties within a single plant species (Vitis vinifera) by means of airborne hyperspectral imagery collected using a CASI-2 sensor and supervised classification, both under constant and varying within-scene illumination conditions. Varying illumination due to atmospheric conditions (such as clouds) and shadows cause different pixels belonging to the same class to present different spectral vectors, increasing the within class variability and hindering classification. This is specially serious in precision applications such as variety discrimination in precision agriculture, which depends on subtle spectral differences. In this study, we use machine learning techniques for supervised classification, and we also analyze the variability within and among plots and within and among sites, in order to address the generalizability of the results.

  1. Families of Log Canonically Polarized Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Dundon, Ariana

    2011-01-01

    Determining the number of singular fibers in a family of varieties over a curve is a generalization of Shafarevich's Conjecture and has implications for the types of subvarieties that can appear in the corresponding moduli stack. We consider families of log canonically polarized varieties over $\\P^1$, i.e. families $g:(Y,D)\\to \\P^1$ where $D$ is an effective snc divisor and the sheaf $\\omega_{Y/\\P^1}(D)$ is $g$-ample. After first defining what it means for fibers of such a family to be singular, we show that with the addition of certain mild hypotheses (the fibers have finite automorphism group, $\\sO_Y(D)$ is semi-ample, and the components of $D$ must avoid the singular locus of the fibers and intersect the fibers transversely), such a family must either be isotrivial or contain at least 3 singular fibers.

  2. Metric Diophantine approximation on homogeneous varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Anish; Nevo, Amos

    2012-01-01

    We develop the metric theory of Diophantine approximation on homogeneous varieties of semisimple algebraic groups and prove results analogous to the classical Khinchin and Jarnik theorems. In full generality our results establish simultaneous Diophantine approximation with respect to several completions, and Diophantine approximation over general number fields using S-algebraic integers. In several important examples, the metric results we obtain are optimal. The proof uses quantitative equidistribution properties of suitable averaging operators, which are derived from spectral bounds in automorphic representations.

  3. Quantum difference equation for Nakajima varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Okounkov, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    For an arbitrary Nakajima quiver variety $X$, we construct an analog of the quantum dynamical Weyl group acting in its equivariant K-theory. The correct generalization of the Weyl group here is the fundamental groupoid of a certain periodic locally finite hyperplane arrangement in $Pic(X)\\otimes {\\mathbb{C}}$. We identify the lattice part of this groupoid with the operators of quantum difference equation for $X$. The cases of quivers of finite and affine type are illustrated by explicit examples.

  4. Cryopreservation of Bituminaria bituminosa varieties and hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Gisbert Domenech, Maria Carmen; Dabauza, Mercedes; Correal, Enrique; Swennen, Rony; Panis, Bart

    2015-01-01

    [EN] Bituminaria bituminosa (L.) C.H. Stirton is a drought tolerant, perennial legume pasture species and a source of pharmaceutical compounds. Bituminaria breeding programs aim to develop and conserve hybrids with desirable traits such as high forage quality, tolerance to biotic or abiotic stresses, and high contents of furanocoumarins. In this work we present a cryopreservation study of different B. bituminosa accessions: two varieties and eight intervarietal hybrids resulting f...

  5. The cluster variety face of quantum groups

    CERN Document Server

    Popolitov, Alexandr

    2014-01-01

    Using the well-known free-field formalism for quantum groups, we demonstrate in case of $A(n)_q$, that quantum group is naturally also a cluster variety. Widely used formulae for mutations are direct consequence of independence of group element on the order of simple roots. Usual formulae for $2 n$ Poisson leaf emerge in classical limit, if all but few ($2n$) coordinates vanish.

  6. Toric varieties, monoid schemes and $cdh$ descent

    CERN Document Server

    Cortiñas, Guillermo; Walker, Mark E; Weibel, Charles A

    2011-01-01

    We give conditions for the Mayer-Vietoris property to hold for the algebraic K-theory of blow-up squares of toric varieties in any characteristic, using the theory of monoid schemes. These conditions are used to relate algebraic K-theory to topological cyclic homology in characteristic p. To achieve our goals, we develop for monoid schemes many notions from classical algebraic geometry, such as separated and proper maps.

  7. The Varieties of Capitalism and Hybrid Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.; Pedersen, Ove K.

    Proponents of the varieties of capitalism literature maintain that capitalist countries whose institutions best fit either the liberal market economy or coordinated market economy types will perform the best. Countries whose institutions are more mixed will perform less well. This paper challenges....... The dynamic interaction of elements found in both liberal and coordinated types of capitalism have contributed to its success. This is demonstrated by analyses of the institutions that coordinate Danish labor markets, vocational training, and industrial policy....

  8. Food neophobia in childhood affects dietary variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falciglia, G A; Couch, S C; Gribble, L S; Pabst, S M; Frank, R

    2000-12-01

    To determine whether children with food neophobia (unwillingness to try new foods) have more restrictive diets than children without neophobia. Seventy children were classified into 3 groups based on scores obtained on the Food Neophobia Scale: neophobic group, score greater than 41; neophilic group, score less than 27; and average group, score of 28 to 40. Dietary data were collected and analyzed for 3 days selected randomly. The dependent variables measured were energy and nutrient intakes, servings of each Food Guide Pyramid group, and Health Eating Index (HEI) scores. chi 2, 1-way analysis of covariance, and Scheffé multiple comparisons tests were conducted. The 3 groups were similar with respect to the number of children meeting two thirds of the RDA/DRI for energy and most nutrients. The exception was vitamin E: fewer neophobic children met two thirds of the recommended value for this nutrient than average and neophilic children. The overall HEI score was significantly lower for the neophobic group compared with the average and neophilic groups. The HEI index showed that children with neophobia had a higher intake of saturated fat and less food variety than children without food neophobia. Dietitians should emphasize increased food variety for children within the context of a healthful diet. Research should be conducted to determine the effects of dietary variety on quality of diet and health of children.

  9. Nutritional quality of 18 date fruit varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Hosam M; Ibrahim, Wissam H

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze and compare the chemical and physical properties of 18 varieties of the date fruits from date palm (Phoenix dactylifera), which are regarded as popular fruit commodities among the populace of the Middle Eastern peninsula. Dietary fiber, proximate analysis, micronutrients (micro-elements and macro-elements) and physical properties (weight, length, and density) of the selected 18 leading varieties of dates cultivated in the United Arab Emirates-namely Khalas, Barhe, Lulu, Shikat alkahlas, Sokkery, Bomaan, Sagay, Shishi, Maghool, Sultana, Fard, Maktoomi, Naptit saif, Jabri, Khodary, Dabbas, Raziz and Shabebe-were determined and compared. Significant differences (P date fruits, depending on the variety, contain significant but quite variable amounts of macro-elements and micro-elements. The macro-elements measured are calcium, phosphorous, sodium, potassium and magnesium, while the essential micro-elements and the possibly essential micro-elements are iron, zinc, copper, manganese, cobalt and molybdenum, and aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, strontium and vanadium, respectively.

  10. Beilinson's Hodge conjecture for smooth varieties

    CERN Document Server

    de Jeu, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Consider the cycle class map cl_{r,m} : CH^r(U,m;\\Q) \\to \\Gamma H^{2r-m}(U,\\Q(r)), where CH^r(U,m;\\Q) is Bloch's higher Chow group (tensored with \\Q) of a smooth complex quasi-projective variety U, and H^{2r-m}(U,\\Q(r)) is singular cohomology. We study the image of cl_{r,m} in terms of kernels of Abel-Jacobi maps. When r=m, we deduce from the Bloch-Kato theorem that the cokernel of cl_{r,m} at the generic point of U is the same for integral or rational coefficients.

  11. Boolean metric spaces and Boolean algebraic varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Avilés, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The concepts of Boolean metric space and convex combination are used to characterize polynomial maps in a class of commutative Von Neumann regular rings including Boolean rings and p-rings, that we have called CFG-rings. In those rings, the study of the category of algebraic varieties (i.e. sets of solutions to a finite number of polynomial equations with polynomial maps as morphisms) is equivalent to the study of a class of Boolean metric spaces, that we call here CFG-spaces.

  12. Simple MCA supports a variety of applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, M.A.; Staley, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    A greatly enhanced version of the Violinist I, Simple Multichannel analyzer has been developed at Los Alamos. The new instrument includes a more powerful microprocessor, more memory, and a sophisticated set of I/O devices. The combination of these features allow the same basic electronics package to function in a variety of smart sophisticated monitoring instruments. Only the packaging, detector, and software need be changed to change the instrument from a field survey instrument for Pu contamination to a continuous air monitor to a neutron dosimeter. This instrument should spawn a new generation of user-friendly, highly effective instrumentation.

  13. Simple MCA supports a variety of applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, M.A.; Staley, H.C.

    1985-02-01

    A greatly enhanced version of the Violinist I, Simple Multichannel Analyzer has been developed at Los Alamos. The new instrument includes a more powerful microprocessor, more memory, and a sophisticated set of I/O devices. The combination of these features allow the same basic electronics package to function in a variety of ''smart'' sophisticated monitoring instruments. Only the packaging, detector, and software need be changed to change the instrument from a field survey instrument for Pu contamination to a continuous air monitor to a neutron dosimeter. This instrument should spawn a new generation of user-friendly, highly effective instrumentation.

  14. Avoiding Environmental Catastrophes: Varieties of Principled Precaution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Johnson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The precautionary principle is often proposed as a guide to action in environmental management or risk assessment, and has been incorporated in various legal and regulatory contexts. For many, it reflects the common sense notion of being safe rather than sorry, but it has attracted numerous critics. At times, proponents and critics talk at cross purposes, due to the multiplicity of ways the precautionary principle has been formulated. The approach taken here is to examine four general varieties of precaution, relating each to arguments made in various contexts by others. First, I examine the parallel between the precautionary principle and an argument referred to as Pascal's wager. Critics are right to dismiss versions of the precautionary principle that follow the logic of Pascal's wager, because that argument requires assumption of an infinite catastrophe, which is seldom the case in environmental decisions. Second, I explore precaution viewed as an instance of the phenomenon of ambiguity aversion as described by Daniel Ellsberg. Third, I evaluate precautionary perspectives on our duties to future generations, drawing inspiration from the views of Gifford Pinchot. Fourth, I consider the precautionary principle as an instance of Aldo Leopold's notion of intelligent tinkering. Although controversy persists, I find that a legitimate theoretical foundation exists to implement Ellsbergian, Pinchotian and Leopoldean varieties of precaution in environmental decision making. Additionally, I remark on the role of adaptive management and maintaining resilience in ecological and social systems as an approach to implementing the precautionary principle.

  15. Sheaves on Toric Varieties for Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Knudson, A

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we give an inherently toric description of a special class of sheaves (known as equivariant sheaves) over toric varieties, due in part to A. A. Klyachko. We apply this technology to heterotic compactifications, in particular to the (0,2) models of Distler, Kachru, and also discuss how knowledge of equivariant sheaves can be used to reconstruct information about an entire moduli space of sheaves. Many results relevant to heterotic compactifications previously known only to mathematicians are collected here -- for example, results concerning whether the restriction of a stable sheaf to a Calabi-Yau hypersurface remains stable are stated. We also describe substructure in the Kahler cone, in which moduli spaces of sheaves are independent of Kahler class only within any one subcone. We study F theory compactifications in light of this fact, and also discuss how it can be seen in the context of equivariant sheaves on toric varieties. Finally we briefly speculate on the application of these results to ...

  16. In vitro germination of desert rose varieties(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Lemos Varella

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The drought stress resistance is a characteristic of the desert rose and its estimable beauty flowers, which gave it great relevance in the ornamental market. However, the desert rose production and germination is hampered by possible sterility of their male and female flowers and frequent problems in pollination, so the tissue culture is a promising alternative to the propagation of these plants. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid on four commercial varieties of desert rose (Adenium obesum cultivated in vitro. The seeds of the varieties ‘Orange Pallet’, ‘Carnation violet’, ‘Diamond ring’ and ‘Vermiliont’ were sterilized and inoculated on Water + Agar (T0, medium MS (T1, ½ MS (T2, MS + 0.25 mg L-1 GA3 (T3, MS + 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 (T4, ½ MS + 0.25 mg L-1 GA3 (T5, ½ MS 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 (T6. The seeds germination of A. obesum was initiated on the fourth day of cultivation and on the tenth day was possible to observe the expansion of the cotyledons and leaf expansion with subsequent development of early secondary root. The ‘Orange pallet’ variety germinated 100% of seeds on water + agar and MS ½ + 0.5 mg L-1 of GA3. For ‘Diamond Ring’ and ‘Carnation violet’ the highest rate of germination occurred in treatments MS ½; 0.25 mg L-1 GA3; MS + 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 MS ½ + 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 averaging 80% and 70%, respectively. For ‘Vermiliont’ the best response was in MS and MS ½ + 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 ranging between 70-90% germinated embryos. It was registered different malformations in all treatments like absence of roots and apexes during seedling development. The concentrations of GA3 did not affect significantly the seed germination.

  17. Mechanism and active variety of allelochemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, S.-L.; Wen, J.; Guo, Q.-F.

    2004-01-01

    This article summarizes allelochemicals' active variety, its potential causes and function mechanisms. Allelochemicals' activity varies with temperature, photoperiod, water and soils during natural processes, with its initial concentration, compound structure and mixed degree during functional processes, with plant accessions, tissues and maturity within-species, and with research techniques and operation processes. The prospective developmental aspects of allelopathy studies in the future are discussed. Future research should focus on: (1) to identify and purify allelochemicals more effectively, especially for agriculture, (2) the functions of allelopathy at the molecular structure level, (3) using allelopathy to explain plant species interactions, (4) allelopathy as a driving force of succession, and (5) the significance of allelopathy in the evolutionary processes.

  18. VARIETIES OF SOCIAL DISCIPLINING, HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás A. Mantecón Movellán

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Historical thought has tended to explain social disciplining according to two main analytical perspectives: on one hand, German tradition about the so-called sozialdisziplinierung and, on the other hand, Foucault perspectives (focussed on disciplines practiced on the bodies-and/or-minds of people by the authorities. From these both viewpoints social disciplining was a dynamic ingredient of change, from traditional societies up to contemporary liberal societies; a machinery to provoke top-down changes (from above. On the bases of historical evidences, this research claims for a third viewpoint that stresses dynamics of social discipline and social disciplining from below; underlines the need of integrating this third perspective in the historical explanation of change in past societies throughout the analysis of social practices of everyday life; the values underneath them and, in the end, taking into account varieties of discipline and perspectives of social disciplining from below.

  19. Instantons and vortices on noncommutative toric varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirio, Lucio S.; Landi, Giovanni; Szabo, Richard J.

    2014-09-01

    We elaborate on the quantization of toric varieties by combining techniques from toric geometry, isospectral deformations and noncommutative geometry in braided monoidal categories, and the construction of instantons thereon by combining methods from noncommutative algebraic geometry and a quantized twistor theory. We classify the real structures on a toric noncommutative deformation of the Klein quadric and use this to derive a new noncommutative four-sphere which is the unique deformation compatible with the noncommutative twistor correspondence. We extend the computation of equivariant instanton partition functions to noncommutative gauge theories with both adjoint and fundamental matter fields, finding agreement with the classical results in all instances. We construct moduli spaces of noncommutative vortices from the moduli of invariant instantons, and derive corresponding equivariant partition functions which also agree with those of the classical limit.

  20. Photonic crystal fibres - a variety of applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Riishede, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    Summary form only given. In 1987, it was suggested that the electronic bandgaps in semiconductors could have an optical analogy-the so-called photonic bandgaps (PBGs), which could be found in periodic dielectric structures. This suggestion initiated research activities that the past few years have...... lead to a new class of optical fibers, in which the cladding structure consists of a periodic system of air holes in a matrix of dielectric material-typically silica. These fibers have been given several names ranging from holey fibers, microstructured fibers, photonic crystal fibers, to photonic...... bandgap fibers. These fibers have today reached a level of maturity where they may be used as building blocks for a variety of new applications. Today's research is focusing increasingly on applications of the fibres, thus redirecting earlier focus on crystal fibers themselves and their unique guiding...

  1. Commentary on Huovinen's "Varieties of Musical Empiricism"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric F. Clarke

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Erkki Huovinen’s “Varieties of Musicological Empiricism” provides a valuable analysis of some of the theoretical predicaments raised by pursuing an empirical musicology. But in this commentary, I argue for a less programmatic, and more pragmatic, approach to the term than he does. Empirical approaches in musicology have been around in one form or another for a long time, and the purpose of the label is less to identify a new ‘brand’ of musicology than to bring together a diversity of approaches that in different ways capitalise on the opportunities that data collection (in the broadest sense of the term may provide. If programme is set aside in favour of pragmatism, and a looser relationship between theory and observation accepted, then empirical musicology can be a productive way to rub ideas up against a stimulatingly resistant world.

  2. Degrees of Curves in Abelian Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Debarre, O

    1992-01-01

    The degree of a curve $C$ in a polarized abelian variety $(X,\\lambda)$ is the integer $d=C\\cdot\\lambda$. When $C$ generates $X$, we find a lower bound on $d$ which depends on $n$ and the degree of the polarization $\\lambda$. The smallest possible degree is $d=n$ and is obtained only for a smooth curve in its Jacobian with its principal polarization (Ran, Collino). The cases $d=n+1$ and $d=n+2$ are studied. Moreover, when $X$ is simple, it is shown, using results of Smyth on the trace of totally positive algebraic integers, that if $d\\le 1.7719\\, n$, then $C$ is smooth and $X$ is isomorphic to its Jacobian. We also get an upper bound on the geometric genus of $C$ in terms of its degree.

  3. Cryopreservation of Bituminaria bituminosa varieties and hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbert, Carmina; Dabauza, Mercedes; Correal, Enrique; Swennen, Rony; Panis, Bart

    2015-10-01

    Bituminaria bituminosa (L.) C.H. Stirton is a drought tolerant, perennial legume pasture species and a source of pharmaceutical compounds. Bituminaria breeding programs aim to develop and conserve hybrids with desirable traits such as high forage quality, tolerance to biotic or abiotic stresses, and high contents of furanocoumarins. In this work we present a cryopreservation study of different B. bituminosa accessions: two varieties and eight intervarietal hybrids resulting from crosses between the three botanical varieties: var. bituminosa, var. crassiuscula, and var. albomarginata. No previous work on cryopreservation of Bituminaria species has been reported. We applied the ultra-fast cooling method, using droplet vitrification on aluminum foil strips. First, we investigated the PVS2 toxicity and cryopreservation damage in two genotypes, comparing three PVS2 treatments and two culture media. An incubation of 30 min in PVS2 resulted in regeneration rates after cryopreservation higher than 80%. The MS medium was selected for optimal meristem outgrowth, in order to avoid the prominent callus formation that was observed in the presence of BAP. These conditions were subsequently used to cryopreserve eight other genotypes. The results were highly variable; 45 days after cryopreservation, survival ranged between 22% and 98% while regeneration ranged between 0% and 96%, depending on the accession. A significant and positive correlation was observed between survival and regeneration. At 90 days post culture plantlets could be recovered from cryopreserved explants of all genotypes. This study shows that the droplet vitrification method is promising for the cryopreservation of eight of the 10 genotypes assayed and the method can thus be applied to develop a cryobank of B. bituminosa.

  4. Tuberculosis of the foot: An osteolytic variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep S Dhillon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Foot involvement in osteoarticular tuberculosis is uncommon and isolated bony involvement of foot bones with an osteolytic defect is even more rare; diagnostic and therapeutic delays can occur, worsening the prognosis. We present a retrospective series of osteolytic variety of foot tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: We present 24 osteolytic variety of foot tuberculosis (Eleven calcaneus, four cuboid, two cunieforms, one talus, three metatarsals, three phalanges out of 92 foot TB cases collected over last 20 years. There were 16 adults and eight children. Tissue diagnosis was established in 23 of 24 cases based on PCR AFB staining, culture, and histopathology. Surgical intervention was reserved for patients with either a juxtaarticular focus threatening to involve a joint or an impending collapse of a midfoot bone with cystic destruction. Results: Fifteen cases had an osteolytic lesion on the radiographs resembling a space-occupying lesion, five had patchy osteolysis, while four showed coke like sequestra; one patient had a lesion in two bones. Antitubercular chemotherapy after biopsy was sufficient to heal the lesion in 19 cases, while in five cases surgical debridement needed to be done. The lesions healed eventually. At an average followup of 8.3 years, (range 2-15 years there were no recurrences and all patients were free from pain, with no restriction of movements. Six patients complained of occasional pain during walking on uneven ground. Conclusion: When tuberculous pathology is limited to the bone, the prognosis is better than in articular disease, as there is less deformity, and hence, less residual pain and disability.

  5. Register as the Situational Variety of Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya B. Boyeva-Omelechko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem discussed in the article is topical due to the interest of scientists to different types of language variations and especially registers or situational dialects treated by M.A.K. Halliday as use-related varieties of language or varieties used in a particular social setting. As discourse categorization is a very complex problem scholarly consensus has not been reached for the definitions of the term «register». The universal criteria for defining and discriminating registers have not been worked out either. The authors of the article give the review of scientific works devoted to the problem in question especially works by M.A.K. Halliday, R. Quirk, M. Joos, D. Hymes P. Trudgill, E.I. Belyaeva and others and analyze different definitions of the term «register», spectrums of registers and criteria for their discriminating. It enables the authors to come to the conclusion that only registers with the same field (religious, political, business etc. and mode (oral/written, dialogue/monologue can be compared. The difference lies in the sphere of tenor which depends on the degree of formality, distance of power and socio-psychological distance between speakers. The authors believe that it is also necessary to take into account the cooperative/ uncooperative character of conversation and para-verbal and non-verbal components of the speech situation. With this in mind they offer their definition of the register and describe main characteristics of registers in the sphere of oral communication.

  6. Development of sorghum varieties and hybrids for dryland areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    A study was conducted to scrutinize the development of sorghum (Sorghum bicolar) varieties and hybrids .... national variety trial in the case of open pollinated varieties ...... Principles of field crop production. 3rd Ed., Macmillan. Publishing Co.

  7. Study on Environmental Sensitivity of Variety in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fu-yu; ZHANG Hong-cheng; DAI Qi-gen; ZHAO Xin-hua; DUAN Xiang-mao; XU Jun; HUO Zhong-yang; XU Ke

    2002-01-01

    According to sensitivity to environment, rice varieties can be classified into a strong environmentally sensitive variety, a weak environmentally sensitive variety and an environmentally insensitive variety.The general method that was used to evaluate the environmental sensitivity (ES) of rice variety was put forward in this paper. ESs of varieties were evaluated as follows: (1)ES of indica-japonica hybird rice was more sensitive than that of japonica rice. (2)The order of ESs of japonica type varieties was medium-maturing late japonica variety > early-maturing late japonica variety > late-maturing medium japonica variety > medium-maturing medium japonica variety. (3)There was a significant difference in ESs among varieties of the same japonica type rice, too. Some problems, such as the principles of rather late-maturing rice planted northward,were also discussed at the end of this paper.

  8. Understanding the Varieties of Chinese Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    In this paper, I critique the convergence thesis proposed by S. Pope and J. W. Meyer who envisage the rise of a universalistic corporate organization that tends to supersede national business contexts or at least renders the national institutional environment as less consequential. My counterargu......In this paper, I critique the convergence thesis proposed by S. Pope and J. W. Meyer who envisage the rise of a universalistic corporate organization that tends to supersede national business contexts or at least renders the national institutional environment as less consequential. My...... this counterargument, I use management practices in China as an illustrative case. Instead of one ‘Chinese model of management’, there are actually varieties of Chinese management. To understand these diversities, I propose an analytical framework that is based on four traditional Chinese philosophies, i.......e., Confucianism, Legalism, Daoism, and Mohism. I posit, the actually management practices in China can be understood as diverse configurations of the four basic mode of management, i.e., autocracy, bureaucracy, chrismacracy, and democracy (ABCD for short)....

  9. Variety of synchronous regimes in neuronal ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, M. A.; Osipov, G. V.; Suykens, J. A. K.

    2008-09-01

    We consider a Hodgkin-Huxley-type model of oscillatory activity in neurons of the snail Helix pomatia. This model has a distinctive feature: It demonstrates multistability in oscillatory and silent modes that is typical for the thalamocortical neurons. A single neuron cell can demonstrate a variety of oscillatory activity: Regular and chaotic spiking and bursting behavior. We study collective phenomena in small and large arrays of nonidentical cells coupled by models of electrical and chemical synapses. Two single elements coupled by electrical coupling show different types of synchronous behavior, in particular in-phase and antiphase synchronous regimes. In an ensemble of three inhibitory synaptically coupled elements, the phenomenon of sequential synchronous dynamics is observed. We study the synchronization phenomena in the chain of nonidentical neurons at different oscillatory behavior coupled with electrical and chemical synapses. Various regimes of phase synchronization are observed: (i) Synchronous regular and chaotic spiking; (ii) synchronous regular and chaotic bursting; and (iii) synchronous regular and chaotic bursting with different numbers of spikes inside the bursts. We detect and study the effect of collective synchronous burst generation due to the cluster formation and the oscillatory death.

  10. Managing design variety, process variety and engineering change: a case study of two capital good firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Jasper; Alblas, A.

    2012-01-01

    Many capital good firms deliver products that are not strictly one-off, but instead share a certain degree of similarity with other deliveries. In the delivery of the product, they aim to balance stability and variety in their product design and processes. The issue of engineering change plays an

  11. Managing design variety, process variety and engineering change: a case study of two capital good firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, J.; Alblas, A.

    2012-01-01

    Many capital good firms deliver products that are not strictly one-off, but instead share a certain degree of similarity with other deliveries. In the delivery of the product, they aim to balance stability and variety in their product design and processes. The issue of engineering change plays an im

  12. Managing design variety, process variety and engineering change : a case study of two capital good firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Jasper; Alblas, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Many capital good firms deliver products that are not strictly one-off, but instead share a certain degree of similarity with other deliveries. In the delivery of the product, they aim to balance stability and variety in their product design and processes. The issue of engineering change plays an im

  13. Breeding initiatives of seeds of landraces, amateur varieties and conservation varieties : an inventory and case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, A.M.; Chable, V.

    2009-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Farm Seed Opportunities (FSO) project is to develop on farm breeding methodologies for the conservation and development of landraces, amateur and conservation varieties. The starting point for the development of these methodologies are the already existing experiences of

  14. Managing design variety, process variety and engineering change: a case study of two capital good firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Jasper; Alblas, A.

    2012-01-01

    Many capital good firms deliver products that are not strictly one-off, but instead share a certain degree of similarity with other deliveries. In the delivery of the product, they aim to balance stability and variety in their product design and processes. The issue of engineering change plays an im

  15. Managing design variety, process variety and engineering change : a case study of two capital good firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Jasper; Alblas, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Many capital good firms deliver products that are not strictly one-off, but instead share a certain degree of similarity with other deliveries. In the delivery of the product, they aim to balance stability and variety in their product design and processes. The issue of engineering change plays an im

  16. Managing design variety, process variety and engineering change : a case study of two capital good firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Jasper; Alblas, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Many capital good firms deliver products that are not strictly one-off, but instead share a certain degree of similarity with other deliveries. In the delivery of the product, they aim to balance stability and variety in their product design and processes. The issue of engineering change plays an

  17. Varieties whose tolerances are homomorphic images of their congruences

    CERN Document Server

    Czedli, Gabor

    2012-01-01

    The homomorphic image of a congruence is always a tolerance (relation) but, within a given variety, a tolerance is not necessarily obtained this way. By a Maltsev-like condition, we characterize varieties whose tolerances are homomorphic images of their congruences (TImC). As corollaries, we prove that the variety of semilattices, all varieties of lattices, and all varieties of unary algebras have TImC. We show that a congruence n-permutable variety has TImC if and only if it is congruence permutable, and construct an idempotent variety with a majority term that fails TImC.

  18. Abelian varieties with many endomorphisms and their absolutely simple factors

    CERN Document Server

    Guitart, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    We characterize the abelian varieties arising as absolutely simple factors of GL2-type varieties over a number field k. In order to obtain this result, we study a wider class of abelian varieties: the k-varieties A/k satisfying that $\\End_k^0(A)$ is a maximal subfield of $\\End_k^0(A)$. We call them Ribet-Pyle varieties over k. We see that every Ribet-Pyle variety over k is isogenous over $\\bar k$ to a power of an abelian k-variety and, conversely, that every abelian k-variety occurs as the absolutely simple factor of some Ribet-Pyle variety over k. We deduce from this correspondence a precise description of the absolutely simple factors of the varieties over k of GL2-type.

  19. Are specific testing protocols required for organic onion varieties? Analysis of onion variety testing under conventional and organic growing conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Osman, A.M.; Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Struik, P.C.; Burgers, S.L.G.E.; Broek, van den R.C.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic growers need information on variety performance under their growing conditions. A 4-year onion variety research project was carried out to investigate whether setting up a variety testing system combining conventional and organic variety trials is feasible and efficient rather than organizin

  20. Performance of Some Arabica Coffee Local Varieties from Gayo Highland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Hulupi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, most of coffee farmers at Gayo highland (Aceh are planting various of local varieties, namely Timtim Aceh, Borbor, P 88, BP 542A and Ateng Super. Those varieties have been planted to replace S line and Catimor Jaluk varieties which were damaged by leaf rust and root disease. Research on the performance of those varieties was to investigate superior characteristics of each variety and moreover as based to choose the best one as released variety for Gayo Highland. Research finding revealed that Timtim Aceh and Borbor varieties were well adapted to Gayo highland conditions with yielding ability 0.956 ton/ha and 0.909 ton/ha, respectively. Although the highest yield was obtained by Ateng Super variety (1.76 ton/ha green coffee, but not stable, therefore it could not be categorized as superior variety. The previous two varieties also had good cup quality (by standard assesment of Specialty Coffee Association of America, then it could contribute Gayo coffee specialty product. The resistance test for leaf rust disease in the field plantation, showed all varieties demonstrated varying in their resistance. BP 542A variety was the most resistant type, whereas Timtim Aceh and Borbor varieties were moderately. However all varieties become more susceptible if planted at lower altitude, less than 1,000 m asl. The resistance test to coffee berry borer and parasitic nematode showed that Timtim Aceh and Borbor varieties were ranked into almost resistant to resistant. Based on all result of the superior characteristics testing, Timtim Aceh and Borbor varieties were the best one, and it could be proposed to be released as Arabica coffee varieties that suitable at Gayo highland. Key words: Arabica coffee, Gayo highland, local varieties, variety performance, cup quality, yielding, resistant to leaf rust disease

  1. The forming of lettucc variety examples collection ( Lactuca sativa L. )

    OpenAIRE

    Андрющенко, А. В.; Лещук, Н. В.; Скрипка, А. І.

    2006-01-01

    Shown the completion of work collection of variety geophone of lettuce (Lactuca saliva L.), morphology description and the methods of taking up the candidates into variety reverence for conducting the examination on distinctness, uniformity and stability.

  2. A new variety of Salvia macrosiphon (Lamiaceae) for Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharazian, Navaz

    2008-04-15

    In this study, Salvia macrosiphon Boiss. var. longiflora Kharaz. is reported for the first time as one of the new varieties of Salvia macrosiphon in Iran. The morphological characters of this variety have been described in details.

  3. 77 FR 75607 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Soliciting Nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Soliciting Nominations AGENCY: Agricultural... INFORMATION CONTACT: Paul Zankowski, USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), Plant Variety Protection... 17, 2012. David Shipman, Administrator, Agricultural Marketing Service. BILLING CODE 3410-02-P...

  4. Use AMMI model to analyze adaptability of rice varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENXihang; WANGLei; YANGShihua; XIEFuxian

    1998-01-01

    The adaptability of rice varieties is one of the most concerned questions to rice breeders. In rice breeding, combined variety test and regional trials which included multiple genotypes and environments were conducted to identify the adaptability of new rice varieties. In most regional trials, interaction between genotype and environment is significant, so it is important to analyze the interaction for estimating the adaptability of rice varieties.

  5. Calabi-Yau threefolds in weighted flag varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Qureshi, Muhammad Imran

    2011-01-01

    We review the construction of families of projective varieties, in particular Calabi--Yau threefolds, as quasilinear sections in weighted flag varieties. We also describe a construction of tautological orbi-bundles on these varieties, which may be of interest in heteroric model building.

  6. Food and feed safety aspects of cisgenic crop plant varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, T.W.; Kok, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the results of the discussions that identified food and feed safety aspects of cisgenic plant varieties in comparison to conventional varieties on the one hand and transgenic plant varieties on the other hand. It was concluded that on the basis of the general characteristics of

  7. Teaching Non-Standard Varieties of Bahasa Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukmana, Iwa

    1997-01-01

    Considers the question of which variety of Indonesian to teach in Australia. Issues related to standardization, formality, and diglossia in Bahasa, Indonesia, the use of its many varieties across Indonesia, differences between the Jakarta dialect and the standard form, and pedagogical considerations in teaching non-standard varieties are…

  8. Estimation of adaptive of bread spring wheat varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. А. Власенко

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available For estimation of adaptive of varieties it is offered to use the aggregate of estimations of stability and plasticity in the integrated index - rating of adaptive of varieties. The high rating of adaptive on the parameters of productivity have the varieties Elegia myronivska, Kolektyvna 3, Etud and Suita.

  9. The provision of convenience and variety by the market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronnenberg, B.J.J.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Consumers commonly face purchasing costs, e.g., travel- or wait-time, that are fixed to quantity but increase with variety. This article investigates the impact of such costs on the demand and supply of variety. Purchasing costs limit demand for variety like prices limit demand for quantity. When de

  10. On Star-Varieties with Almost Polynomial Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Giambruno; S. Mishchenko

    2001-01-01

    Let 2 be a variety of algebras with involution * over a field of characteristic zero and cn(V, *) the corresponding sequence of *-codimensions. Here,we characterize those varieties V such that cn (V, *) is polynomially bounded. We prove that V is such a variety if and only if G2,M V, where G2 and M are two explicit finite-dimensional algebras with involution previously constructed. It follows that G2 and M generate the only two varieties of algebras with involution with almost polynomial growth and there is no variety with intermediate growth.

  11. Fixed Costs, Product Variety, and Welfare on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Israilevich

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of product variety on welfare has received little attention in the electronic commerce literature. The problem with product variety is that more variety does not necessarily imply higher welfare. This paper finds the conditions under which more variety, if caused by lower fixed costs, implies an unambiguous welfare gain. A calibration to the market of books confirms the intuition that fixed costs –in particular, per-title fixed costs–are much lower at online stores than at conventional stores and that the welfare gains from electronic commerce are likely to be underestimated if one ignores changes in product variety.

  12. The Grassmannian variety geometric and representation-theoretic aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Lakshmibai, V

    2015-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive treatment of the Grassmannian varieties and their Schubert subvarieties, focusing on the geometric and representation-theoretic aspects of Grassmannian varieties. Research of Grassmannian varieties is centered at the crossroads of commutative algebra, algebraic geometry, representation theory, and combinatorics. Therefore, this  text uniquely presents an exciting playing field  for graduate students and researchers in mathematics, physics, and computer science, to expand their knowledge in the field of algebraic geometry. The standard monomial theory (SMT) for the Grassmannian varieties and their Schubert subvarieties are introduced and the text presents some important applications of SMT including the Cohen–Macaulay property, normality, unique factoriality, Gorenstein property, singular loci of Schubert varieties, toric degenerations of Schubert varieties, and the relationship between Schubert varieties and classical invariant theory. This text would serve well as a refere...

  13. The arc space of horospherical varieties and motivic integration

    CERN Document Server

    Batyrev, Victor

    2012-01-01

    For arbitrary connected reductive group G we consider the motivic integral over the arc space of an arbitrary Q-Gorenstein horospherical G-variety associated with a colored fan and prove a formula for the stringy E-function of a horospherical variety X which generalizes the one for toric varieties. We remark that in contrast to toric varieties the stringy E-function of a Gorenstein horospherical variety X may be not a polynomial if some cones in the fan of X have nonempty sets of colors. Using the stringy E-function, we can formulate and prove a new smoothness criterion for locally factorial horospherical varieties. We expect that this smoothness criterion holds for arbitrary spherical varieties.

  14. EVALUATION OF NEW VARIETIES OF SUMMER WHEAT TRITICUEVALUATION OF NEW VARIETIES OF SUMMER WHEAT TRITICUEVALUATION OF NEW VAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Bojňanská

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyse new varieties of summer wheat cultivated in The aim of this work was to analyse new varieties of summer wheat cultivated in The aim of this work was to analyse new varieties of summer wheat cultivated in The aim of this work was to analyse new varieties of summer wheat cultivated in a Research institute of breeding in Bučany (BU-117, BU-130, BU-138, BU-142, BU-144, BU- 149, BU-150, BU-159, BU-160, in particular in terms of milling quality parameters identified by the direct method - experimental milling, and considering the rheological properties of flours obtained in this way. Variety Ilona was used as a check sample. It properties of flours obtained in this way. Variety Ilona was used as a check sample. It properties of flours obtained in this way. Variety Ilona was used as a check sample. It properties of flours obtained in this way. Variety Ilona was used as a check sample. It was found that the extraction of the first fraction was in all the tested new varieties higher thanfound that the extraction of the first fraction was in all the tested new varieties higher thanfound that the extraction of the first fraction was in all the tested new varieties higher thanfound that the extraction of the first fraction was in all the tested new varieties higher than in the check variety Ilona, which can be regarded as a positive trend of modern breeding process. Total extraction of flours (sum of fractions I and II. was the highest in new varieties BU-Total extraction of flours (sum of fractions I and II. was the highest in new varieties BU-Total extract

  15. Assessment of wheat variety distinctness using SSR markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-xin; QIU Jun; CHANG Li-fang; LIU Li-hua; LI Hong-bo; PANG Bin-shuang; ZHAO Chang-ping

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of variety distinctness is important for both the registration and the protection of particular variety. However, the current testing system, which assesses a range of morphological characters of each pair of varieties grown side-by-side, is time-consuming and is not suitable for the assessment of hundreds of samples. The objective of this study was to develop a procedure for the assessment of wheat variety distinctness using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A comparison between the molecular and morphological proifle of 797 varieties was made. On the basis of the comparison, pairs of va-rieties with a genetic similarity value (GSV) ≤90% were deemed to be distinct, accounting for ~85% of varieties assessed in wheat regional trials. For the remaining ~15% of varieties, GSVs between different varieties were >90%, among which ~35% were not distinct and the other ~65% were distinct. Therefore, if given a GSV>90%, the pairs of varieties should be morphologicaly assessed in the ifeld. To avoid any errors in the assessments, we proposed the elimination of contaminant plants from the sample before comparing the varietal genotypes, scoring of the genotype at each locus with a pair of alele numbers when constructing a molecular proifle, and faithfuly recording two aleles at a non-homozygous locus. To reduce the workload and cost, a three-grade markers comparison among varieties is suggested. In addition, 80 SSR markers and a technical procedure for assessment of wheat variety distinctness have been proposed. Based on the procedure, the distinctness assessment of ~85% of al wheat varieties is completed in our laboratory annualy. Consequently, total ifeld assessment has been reduced considerably.

  16. Varieties of Capitalism, Varieties of Innovation? A Comparison of Old and New EU Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M. C. Allen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks, firstly, to shed light on the main claim of the Varieties of Capitalism (VoC framework that socio-economic institutions can help to shape comparative advantage, and, secondly, to complement existing assessments that have relied predominantly on qualitative data and that have tended to focus on a few economic sectors. It examines the distribution of export success in a number of economic sectors, in which competitiveness is said to be characterised by either radical or incremental innovation, as well as exports in knowledge-intensive service sectors. Unlike previous studies it applies the framework to some of the new member states of the European Union in Central and Eastern Europe. This is an important area to examine the contentions of the VoC framework, because, if those arguments are correct, they should be applicable to the new member states. Moreover, it draws on the latest available data; for indicators measuring export success this is done at the lowest level of aggregation. In contrast to previous studies, a more appropriate measure of trade specialisation, revealed symmetric comparative advantage, is used. Whilst some of the evidence supports the VoC framework, much of it does not. This raises important conceptual and methodological issues that should be addressed by future research.

  17. Flag varieties an interplay of geometry, combinatorics, and representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lakshmibai, V

    2009-01-01

    Flag varieties are important geometric objects and their study involves an interplay of geometry, combinatorics, and representation theory. This book is detailed account of this interplay. In the area of representation theory, the book presents a discussion of complex semisimple Lie algebras and of semisimple algebraic groups; in addition, the representation theory of symmetric groups is also discussed. In the area of algebraic geometry, the book gives a detailed account of the Grassmannian varieties, flag varieties, and their Schubert subvarieties. Because of the connections with root systems, many of the geometric results admit elegant combinatorial description, a typical example being the description of the singular locus of a Schubert variety. This is shown to be a consequence of standard monomial theory (abbreviated SMT). Thus the book includes SMT and some important applications - singular loci of Schubert varieties, toric degenerations of Schubert varieties, and the relationship between Schubert variet...

  18. Variation of volatile compounds among wheat varieties and landraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, G; Petersen, M A; Jespersen, B M; Hansen, Å S

    2015-05-01

    Analysis of volatile compounds was performed on 81 wheat varieties and landraces, grown under controlled greenhouse conditions, in order to investigate the possibility of differentiating wheat varieties according to their volatile compound profiles. Volatile compounds from wheat samples were extracted by dynamic headspace extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seventy-two volatile compounds were identified in the wheat samples. Multivariate analysis of the data showed a large diversity in volatile profiles between samples. Differences occurred between samples from Austria compared to British, French and Danish varieties. Landraces were distinguishable from modern varieties and they were characterised by higher averaged peak areas for esters, alcohols, and some furans. Modern varieties were characterised by higher averaged peak areas for terpenes, pyrazines and straight-chained aldehydes. Differences in volatile profiles are demonstrated between wheat samples for the first time, based on variety. These results are significant to plant breeders and commercial users of wheat.

  19. Research on the development of weed-suppressing rice varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaochuan ZHOU; Decheng LU; Hong LI; Daoqiang HUANG; Ruowei MIAO

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop weed-suppressing rice varieties in a weed-suppressing nursery by specific secondary metabolite markers of allelopathic potential. Weed-suppressing rice variety Feng-Hua-Zhan was screened out by a specific secondary metabolite marker of allelopathic potential. Weed-suppressing rice No. 1, a new rice line with good quality, was also developed using this method. The genetic backgrounds and research directions of weed-suppressing rice varieties are discussed in this paper.

  20. 7 CFR 201.26 - Kind, variety, and hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kind, variety, and hybrid. 201.26 Section 201.26... REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.26 Kind, variety, and hybrid. The label shall bear the name of each... kind or variety named on the label is “hybrid” seed, it shall be so designated on the label. If two...

  1. Classification of Bagnera-de Franchis Varieties in Small Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Demleitner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    A Bagnera-de Franchis variety $X = A/G$ is the quotient of an abelian variety $A$ by a finite cyclic group $G$ of biholomorphic maps $A \\to A$ acting freely and not consisting only of translations. In this paper, we classify Bagnera-de Franchis varieties up to complex conjugation in dimensions $\\leq 4$ using the method presented in articles by Bauer-Catanese-Frapporti and Catanese. In addition to that, we classify so-called primary Bagnera-de Franchis varieties up to dimension $6$ (up to comp...

  2. Physiological and physical quality of local Araucaria angustifolia seed variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Shibata

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria angustifolia seeds are the basis for the rural economy in southern Brazil, and the species presents different botanical varieties. The objective of this work was to evaluate the diversity of physical, physiological and biochemical characteristics of Araucaria angustifolia seeds from local varieties: ‘sancti josephi’, ‘angustifolia’, ‘caiova’, and ‘indehiscens’. Seeds were collected from the cities of Painel and Urubici in Santa Catarina State and tested for moisture content, 1000-seed weight, emergence, emergence speed index (ESI, root and shoot length, electrical conductivity, tetrazolium, soluble carbohydrates, and starch content. Among the varieties cited above, the angustifolia variety from Painel displayed a greater 1000-seed weight, ESI, electrical conductivity and shoot length. However, the sancti josephi variety displayed a lower emergence percentage, 1000-seed weight, ESI, root and shoot length, and carbohydrate content. In a cluster analysis, based on Euclidean distance, three groups constituting the sancti josephi, indehiscens, and caiova/angustifolia varieties were found. In conclusion, there is great diversity in A. angustifolia seeds. The angustifolia and caiova varieties displayed similar diversity, and their physiological quality was better than that of other varieties. Variety characterization allowed for the compilation of information regarding seed collection and use for seedling production and species conservation.

  3. Topics in Cohomological Studies of Algebraic Varieties Impanga Lecture Notes

    CERN Document Server

    Pragacz, Piotr

    2005-01-01

    The articles in this volume study various cohomological aspects of algebraic varieties:- characteristic classes of singular varieties;- geometry of flag varieties;- cohomological computations for homogeneous spaces;- K-theory of algebraic varieties;- quantum cohomology and Gromov-Witten theory.The main purpose is to give comprehensive introductions to the above topics through a series of "friendly" texts starting from a very elementary level and ending with the discussion of current research. In the articles, the reader will find classical results and methods as well as new ones. Num

  4. Lessons from empirical studies in product and service variety management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C.L. Lyons

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available For many years, a trend for businesses has been to increase market segmentation and extend product and service-variety offerings in order to provid more choice for customers and gain a competitive advantags. However, there have been relatively few variety-related, empirical studies that have been undertaken. In this research, two empirical studies are presented that address the impact of product and service variety on business and business function performance. In the first (service-variety study, the focus concerns the relationship between service provision offered by UK-based, third-party logistics (3PL providers and the operational and financial performance of those providers. Here, the results of a large survey identify the  most important services offered by 3PLs and the most important aspects of 3PL operational performance. Also, the research suggests that the range of service variety offered by 3PLs does not directly influence the 3PLs’ financial performance. The second (product-variety study presents the findings from an analysis of data from 163 manufacturing plants where the impact of product variety on the performance of five business functions is examined. An increase in product variety was found to influence business functions differently depending on the combination of customisation and variety offered to customers

  5. Gel Electrophoresis of Proteins for the Identification of Crop Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Hai-yan; LI Li-hui

    2002-01-01

    With the development of the international trade and agricultural science and technology, especially after the execution of the rules on protection of new plant varieties, considerable emphasis has been placed on variety identification. Many evidences have suggested that gel electrophoresis have great influence on this area. This paper reviewed study status of various gel electrophoresis, including development of the methods, comparison of these techniques, influence factors, practical applications, achievements obtained and aspects in the future study. With the wider range on protection of new plant varieties in China, electrophoresis will play a more important role in variety identification.

  6. Objective measures of meal variety lacking association with consumers' perception of variety with self-selected buffet meals at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Brockhoff, Per B.; Lahteenmaki, Liisa

    2016-01-01

    Food variety has been linked to higher diet quality and increased food intake, but what constitutes variety for consumers is underexposed. The aim of the study was twofold: first to explore the relationship between objective measures of meal variety and subjective post-meal ratings of perceived...... to perceive their meals less varied than those with lower scores. Moreover, the rule of having many dishes was positively associated with uncontrolled eating and negatively associated with cognitive restraint. Consumers' perception of within-meal variety seems to be more linked to their idea of how to compose...

  7. Fermat varieties and the periods of some hypersurfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looijenga, Eduard

    2010-01-01

    The variety of all smooth hypersurfaces of given degree and dimension has the Fermat hypersurface as a natural base point. In order to study the period map for such varieties, we first determine the integral polarized Hodge structure of the primitive cohomology of a Fermat hypersurface (as a module

  8. 7 CFR 932.7 - Variety group 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variety group 2. 932.7 Section 932.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... any mutations, sports, or other derivations of such varieties: Manzanillo, Mission, Nevadillo, Obliza...

  9. 7 CFR 932.6 - Variety group 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variety group 1. 932.6 Section 932.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... any mutations, sports, or other derivations of such varieties: Aghizi Shami, Amellau, Ascolano...

  10. Classification and salt tolerance analysis of barley varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Fares, C.; Ceccarelli, S.; Grando, S.; Oweis, T.

    2006-01-01

    Six varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare), five of which were provided by ICARDA, were tested in a green house experiment for their salt tolerance. Afterwards the ICARDA variety Melusine, selected from this experiment for its combination of high yield and salt tolerance, was compared in a lysimeter

  11. On linear dependence over complete differential algebraic varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Freitag, James; Sanchez, Omar Leon; Simmons, William

    2014-01-01

    We extend Kolchin's results on linear dependence over projective varieties in the constants, to linear dependence over arbitrary complete differential varieties. We show that in this more general setting, the notion of linear dependence still has necessary and sufficient conditions given by the vanishing of a certain system of differential polynomials equations. We also discuss some conjectural questions around completeness and the catenary problem.

  12. Contributions to the study of Cuscuta varieties from Sibiu county

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria TANASE

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available contributions to the chorology of these varieties in Sibiu county. There have been pointed out 26 new host plants or some rarely found ones. Out of the 13 (5 or 10 (2 species mentioned in Romania, there have been identified 7 species, 2 subspecies and 5 varieties.

  13. Turf varieties for the Intermountain West - today and tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landscape managers and sod growers in the Intermountain West are limited in their ability to select the varieties of turfgrass that perform well in this semi-arid environment. The varieties of seed sold in Utah are rarely based on what performs well here. Turf managers will often make one visit to...

  14. 78 FR 37200 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Teleconference Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ..., electronic PVP application/computer database development, and the use of molecular markers for PVP... Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Teleconference Meeting AGENCY: Agricultural... their opportunity to attend an open meeting of the Plant Variety Protection Board. DATES: July 31,...

  15. Sward characteristics important for intake in six Lolium perenne varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.J.; Tas, B.M.; Taweel, H.Z.; Elgersma, A.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the genetic variation among diploid perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) varieties for sward structural characteristics considered to be important for intake by cattle. Assessments were made between June and September in 2000 and 2001. Six varieties (Abergo

  16. Sward characteristics important for intake in six Lolium perenne varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.J.; Tas, B.M.; Taweel, H.Z.; Elgersma, A.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the genetic variation among diploid perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) varieties for sward structural characteristics considered to be important for intake by cattle. Assessments were made between June and September in 2000 and 2001. Six varieties (Abergo

  17. The Euclidean distance degree of an algebraic variety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Draisma (Jan); Horobeţ, E. (Emil); Ottaviani, G. (Giorgio); B. Sturmfels; R.R. Thomas (Rekha)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe nearest point map of a real algebraic variety with respect to Euclidean distance is an algebraic function. For instance, for varieties of low-rank matrices, the Eckart–Young Theorem states that this map is given by the singular value decomposition. This article develops a theory of

  18. Genetic influences on dietary variety - Results from a twin study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheibehenne, Benjamin; Todd, Peter M.; van den Berg, Stéphanie Martine; Hatemi, Peter K.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Vogler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The heritability of variety seeking in the food domain was estimated from a large sample (N = 5,543) of middle age to elderly monozygotic and dizygotic twins from the “Virginia 30,000” twin study. Different dietary variety scores were calculated based on a semi-quantitative food choice questionnaire

  19. The Determinants of Plant Variety Protection Applications in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Ruifa; Huang Jie; Carl Prày; Huang Jikun

    2007-01-01

    China passed its Plant Variety Protection Act (PVPA) in 1997 which allowed us to do some initial testing of this proposition. We used a unique dataset on the applications of the new Plant Variety Protection (PVP), morphological characteristics, and institutional sources of all the important varieties of rice in three provinces of China to estimate the determinants of plant variety protection applications in China. The evidence suggests that both the government and private research programs are responding to economic and policy incentives and investing in plant variety protection as economists would expect profit maximizing firms to invest. The discussion of the evolution of the seed industry suggested that the combination of the new seed law in 2000 and the new plant variety protection regulation had changed the structure of the seed industry and provided an important incentive to invest in PVPs both by public research institutes and commercial firms. Finally, there is some preliminary evidence that private firms have smaller incentives to develop new varieties than to purchase the new varieties.

  20. Related variety and economic development: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Content, J.; Frenken, K.

    2016-01-01

    Since the introduction of the related variety concept in 2007, a number of studies have been undertaken to analyse its effect on economic development. Our review of 21 studies makes clear that most studies find support for the initial hypothesis that related variety supports employment growth, thoug

  1. MORPHOLOGICAL AND PRODUCTIVE CHARACTERIZATION OF FORAGE CACTUS VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PHILIPE LIMA DE AMORIM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivars of the genus Nopalea are known in Brazil for being tolerant to cochineal carmine attacks, thus making the cultivation of this genus a promising alternative for mitigating the negative effects of this insect on the production of biomass. With the objectives of characterizing morphologically spineless forage cactus varieties and identify morphological characteristics that may be the focus in spineless forage cactus breeding programs, an experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with 11 treatments and four replications. The variety Alagoas showed the highest values of weight, area and volume of cladodes. The varieties Negro Michoacan F7 and V7, Tamazunchale V12 showed the highest values of the cladode area index, the total volume of cladodes and total fresh mass production. The varieties Negro Michoacan V7 and F7 presented the highest water use efficiency and dry mass yield. Cladode volume showed the highest correlation coefficients with the fresh weight of cladodes. Aiming the release of varieties for biomass production, varieties Negro Michoacan F7, V7 and Tamazunchale V12 may substitute the Miúda variety. The number and cladode area index may be used as criteria for selection of superior varieties in breeding programs.

  2. Status of Agricultural Production and Crop Variety Improvement in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Chun-hai; GUO Ying; YAO Ming-hua; WAN Zheng-huang

    2012-01-01

    We introduced basic conditions of agricultural production in Thailand, and variety improvement of major crops, including rice, cassava, rubber, and vegetable, in the hope of providing reference for agricultural production and crop variety improvement in Hubei Province and even in the whole country.

  3. Determinants of Adoption of Improved Onion Variety in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Reza Anik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Through exploring data collected from 300 Bangladeshi onion growers this article suggests options for widespread adoption of modern onion varieties. Cultivation of modern variety enables farmers to produce more and earn higher profit than the traditional variety growing farmers, though farmers requires more capital for cultivating modern variety. Quality of extension service and access to credit are two of the most important factors to contribute in adoption. Farmers practicing crop diversification are more likely to adopt, but when they adopt they devote relatively lower share of their available land for modern onion varieties since they are characterized to cultivate different crops. With increasing off-farm income farmers tend to adopt less. Level of adoption is likely to be higher among the experienced and educated farmers. Number of fragmented land reduces adoption probabilities.

  4. Just-non-Lie nilpotent varieties of associative algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Finogenova, Olga

    2011-01-01

    We consider associative algebras over a field. An algebra variety is said to be {\\em Lie nilpotent} if it satisfies a polynomial identity of the kind $[x_1, x_2, ..., x_n] = 0$ where $[x_1,x_2] = x_1x_2 - x_2x_1$ and $[x_1, x_2, ..., x_n]$ is defined inductively by $[x_1, x_2, ..., x_n]=[[x_1, x_2, ..., x_{n-1}],x_n]$. It easy to see that every non-Lie nilpotent variety contains a minimal such subvariety. In the case of characteristic zero a complete description of the minimal non-Lie nilpotent (i.e. {\\em just-non-lie nilpotent}) varieties is found by Yu.Mal'cev. In the case of positive characteristic we reduce the problem of a description of such varieties to the case of {\\em prime} varieties.

  5. Lifting, restricting and sifting integral points on affine homogeneous varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Gorodnik, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    In a previous paper {GN2} an effective solution of the lattice point counting problem in general domains in semisimple S-algebraic groups and affine symmetric varieties was established. The method relies on the mean ergodic theorem for the action of G on G/Gamma, and implies uniformity in counting over families of lattice subgroups admitting a uniform spectral gap. In the present paper we extend some methods developed in {NS} and use them to establish several useful consequences of this property, including : Effective upper bounds on lifting for solutions of congruences in affine homogeneous varieties, effective upper bounds on the number of integral points on general subvarieties of semisimple group varieties, effective lower bounds on the number of almost prime points on symmetric varieties, and effective upper bounds on almost prime solutions of Linnik-type congruence problems in homogeneous varieties.

  6. Determination of catechins and flavonol glycosides in Chinese tea varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunyan; Xu, Hairong; Héritier, Julien; Andlauer, Wilfried

    2012-05-01

    A standardised profiling method based on high performance liquid chromatography combined with ultraviolet (UV) and mass spectrometric detection (MS) was established to analyse the phenolic compounds of selected tea varieties used for manufacturing of green, black and oolong teas. The composition and content of 24 tea constituents were analysed, including catechins, flavonol and flavones glycosides, phenolic acids and purine alkaloids. Each tea variety had a unique chemical profile. The compositions of catechins were lower in the tea varieties for green tea manufacturing, while the content of myricetin glycosides was the lowest in the tea variety for oolong tea manufacturing. The content of individual phenolic compounds in the selected tea varieties is highly variable. However, the content of total catechins is proposed to be helpful to classify tea according to the future application as non fermented green and fermented oolong or black tea.

  7. Ecological stability and plasticity of potato varieties in Polissia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. Р. Ермантраут

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Substantiating the selection of potato varieties for their ecological plasticity and stability to grow in Polissia. Methods. Field, laboratory, analitycal and statystical ones. Results. Impact of weather conditions during the growing season on the stability of potato varieties was estimated by indicators of yield, starch content and collection over the years by determining the average, standard deviation, minimum, maximum values and range of variation. ‘Memphis’, ‘Faluka’, ‘Arsenal’ and ‘Evolution’ were distinguished from the studied potato varieties by high genetic stability – their deviation from the average variance marked «minus» had values that were significantly less than zero. ‘Faktor’, ‘Flamenko’ and ‘Evora’ varieties are plastic (deviation is close to ±0, ‘Kolomba’, ‘Arizona’ and ‘Voliumiia’ ones – very plastic (deviation is most distant from zero. The studied varieties were distributed by homeostasis as follows: ‘Arizona’, ‘Colombo’, ‘Factor’ and ‘Memphis’ are the most valuable. Conclusions. ‘Evora’ potato variety can be considered intensive in terms of yield. ‘Evolution’ and ‘Flamenco’ varieties formed stable yields, during the years of study the difference between their maximum and minimum yields was the least – 8.2 and 9.3 tons per ha, respectively. Environmental assessment according to Eberhart and Russell indicates a high genetic stability of such potato varieties as ‘Arizona’, ‘Volyumiia’, ‘Kolombo’, ‘Evora’ and ‘Flamenko’. Conditions of Zhytomyr Oblast Plant Varieties Studying Centre are the most favorable among the studied regions to cultivate potato varieties.

  8. [Staphylococcus aureus variety hominis in a cattle herd].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, R; Meene, G

    1979-01-01

    A site-linked hominis variety of Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from a cattle herd. The find coincided with accumulated occurrence of clinical mastitis in cows and the affliction of one milker with a nose furuncle. The origin of the strain was not elucidated. The same strain had been isolated throughout three years of observation from clinical and subclinical mastitis as well as from chronic udder affection of cows, but no extraordinary accumulation of clinically manifest mastitis had been observed. The hominis site variety was quite rare among Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from other cow herds. Enterotoxin formation was recorded from strains of the hominis site variety and from strains which could not be coordinated with any other of the known site varieties and fell under crystal-violet Type A. No enterotoxin formation was recordable from the strains of the bovis variety. The same applied to the group of staphylococci of crystal-violet Type C which could not be coordinated either with any known site variety and which is assumed to have originated from the hominis site variety. The above findings do not support any conclusion as to whether the cows had been infected by the milker or vice versa.

  9. NEWEST PINK BERRY AROMATIC VINE GRAPE VARIETY – RADOST LEONIDOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available New wine grape flavored pink berry grape variety named “Radost Leonidov” breed at Athens Institute of Viticulture by P.Zamanidi, L.Troshin and P.Radchevskii in 2009 by crossing the new Moskhoragos Greek muscat variety with old European variety Traminer pink. According to morphological and biological characteristics, it can be assigned to Western European eco-geographical group of varieties. Strong growth of shoots (2,1-3,0 m. The extent of maturation of vines is very high (over the entire length, except for the top. Duration of production period from bud burst to harvest - 146-155 days. Productivity is high: 20-25 t / ha. The average weight of clusters is 260. Characterized by high winter hardiness, drought resistance and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with the varieties of Vitis vinifera. Flower is hermaphrodite, fully developed stamens and gynoecium. Bunch is small, conical, sometimes winged, average density. Berry is small, spherical, pinkish in color, with a thick waxy coating. Peel of medium thickness, dense and durable. Pulp and juice with a strong varietal flavor, similar to the aroma of Traminer pink. Sugar content is very high: more than 24%. Cluster of the variety of Radost Leonidov at overripening is drying and stored on the bushes for a long time. The variety is intended for the production of dry white wines of excellent class, as well as highquality sparkling wines, dessert and sweet wines; suitable for the production of high-quality aromatic juices

  10. TABLE GRAPE VARIETIES CULTURE TO NRDIBH STEFANESTI, OVER TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Costescu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available At NRDIBH Stefanesti-Arges, in the past decades extensive work has been done to improve the grape-vine, which yielded some remarkable results. The first concerns the improvement of grape-vines to NRDIBH Stefanesti-Arges (then SCPVV Stefanesti were initiated by the breeder engineer Baditescu Margareta, improvement in the Laboratory in 1982, was its founder, who has dedicated so much to obtain new varieties by crossing sexual and clonal selection to. Improvement work was continued by researchers: Smaranda Julia, Smaranda George, Camelia Popa. After lengthy activity at SCDVV Stefanesti were obtained clones new to old varieties of wine, but also at the table. Thus, clonal selections have been approved for 13 red and white wines. For table varieties were approved Argessis and Golden Stefanesti varieties and clones Stefanesti, Muscat Adda 22 and Perlette 10. Varieties approved quality characteristics that allow for superior wines, varieties of wine for the table and the quality of the grapes is good looks for Romania to meet the demands of markets in developed countries. Spread production of new varieties of table grapes, can effectively contribute to the recovery in activity in wine country by increasing efficiency and profitability.

  11. Evaluation of tomato varieties for resistance to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayberg, C.D.

    1972-01-01

    Tomatoes are among the crops most sensitive to ozone. Many researchers tested various varieties for resistance. The tests indicated a variation among tomato varieties for resistance to ozone and that some commercial varieties were as resistant as any lines tested. In the USA and Canada a total of 295 different varieties and hybrids were received and tested for response to ozone during the summer of 1971. Plants were exposed to O/sub 3/ when the first true leaves were 2 1/2 to 4 inches long. Tomato leaves showed typical injury symptoms following exposure to O/sub 3/. Mild symptoms were a chlorotic yellowing or whitening of tissue between the leaf veins, or small brownish necrotic flecks marginally or all over the leaf. Severe damage resulted in large water-soaked areas over the entire leaf surface right after exposure to ozone. Of the various varieties, the most resistant were Pierette and Heinz 1439 in successive tests. Susceptible ones were Roma VF and Fruhernte. Charkowskij and New Yorker were of an intermediate level of resistance. All the ozone-resistant varieties of KY 1, VFN 8, PI 304234, PI 309915, and Manzana (PI 203229) were about equally susceptible under the conditions of testing used. The range between the most resistant and the most susceptible tomato varieties was not as great as in crops like tobacco. 8 references, 2 tables.

  12. Coming to Grips with Farmers' variety Selection- the Case of New Improved Rice Varieties under Irrigation in South East Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kafiriti, EM.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In collaboration with farmers, rice varieties were evaluated under small-scale irrigation in two villages of south east Tanzania for two consecutive cropping seasons (1999/2000 –2000/2001. The objectives were to give farmers access to new improved rice varieties; to identify the selection criteria farmers consider important in irrigated rice production; and to come to grips with their arguments. Farmers were provided with eleven improved varieties, which they compared with their own ones. Farmers' preferred varieties with short to medium maturity period, which produce many tillers and mature uniformly; and with long translucent aromatic grains for their own use and marketing. This study identified qualitative and quantitative evaluation criteria which farmers are using for selecting rice varieties. The implication for further research on rice in south east Tanzania is that the breeding programme should incorporate these attributes to address farmers' preferences, rather than to go for absolute maximum yield levels.

  13. The construction of linguistic identities: the case of Andalusian variety of Spanish and southern varieties of Serbian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela beljić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acceptance, discrimination and stigmatization issues of less socially accepted varieties of language are analysed from the perspective of critical sociolinguistics. The paper discusses the question of linguistic identity in relation to the Andalusian variety of Spanish and southern varieties of Serbian speakers. The comparison of similar linguistic features in Spanish and Serbian serves as a tool to investigate and address the issue of linguistic identity of speakers of both languages. In this way we can observe the interaction between society, language and cultural models, such as language ideologies and the relationship between language and social power. In a survey made among Hispanic Philology students, their views on matters of approval or disapproval of the southern varieties of Serbian and Spanish were verified. The aim is to clarify various beliefs, prejudices, negative attitudes, stereotypes and linguistic judgments that traditionally accompany the two stigmatized varieties.

  14. Biochemical analysis of two varieties of water chestnuts (Trapa sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruk, M Omar; Amin, M Ziaul; Sana, Niranjan Kumar; Shaha, Ranajit Kumar; Biswas, Kamal Krishna

    2012-11-01

    In this study, two varieties (Green and red) of water chestnuts (Trapa sp.) have been selected for their biochemical analysis as well as nutrient composition using standard methods. The proximate composition of green water chestnuts revealed moisture 62.5, ash 1.04, crude fiber 2.13%, total soluble sugar 0.92%, reducing sugar 0.33%, non-reducing sugar 0.59%, starch 8.7%, lipid 0.84%. One hundred gram of green variety contained water soluble protein 0.275 mg, beta-Carotene 60 microg, vitamin-C 1.1 mg and total phenol 0.5 mg. The minerals contents of green variety were potassium 5.22%, sodium 0.64%, calcium 0.25%, phosphorus 6.77%, sulpher 0.38%, and iron, copper, manganese and zinc 200, 430, 90 and 600 ppm, respectively. The red variety contained moisture 62.7%, ash 1.30%, crude fiber 2.27%, total soluble sugar 0.90%, reducing sugar 0.30%, non-reducing sugar 0.60%, starch 8.2%, lipid 0.83%. The red variety contained water soluble protein 0.251 mg, beta-Carotene 92 microg, vitamin-C 0.9 mg and total phenol 0.60 mg per 100 g. The red variety contained potassium 5.32%, sodium 0.59%, calcium 0.26% phosphorus 6.77%, sulpher 0.32%, Iron 200 ppm, copper 450 ppm, manganese 110 ppm and zinc 650 ppm. The free amino acids, glutamic acid, tryptophan, tyrosine, alanine, lysine and leucine were commonly found in both varieties. In addition, green and red variety contained cysteine, arginine and proline and glutamine and asparagines, respectively. Thus, the present study sheds light on the nutrient contents of the two varieties of water chestnuts and suggests that water chestnuts may play a crucial role in human nutrition.

  15. Stringy Chern classes of singular toric varieties and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Batyrev, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Let X be a normal projective Q-Gorenstein variety with at worst log-terminal singularities. We prove a formula expressing the total stringy Chern class of a generic complete intersection in X via the total stringy Chern class of X. This formula is motivated by its applications to mirror symmetry for Calabi-Yau complete intersections in toric varieties. We compute stringy Chern classes and give a combinatorial interpretation of the stringy Libgober-Wood identity for arbitrary projective Q-Gorenstein toric varieties. As an application we derive a new combinatorial identity relating d-dimensional reflexive polytopes to the number 12 in dimension d>3.

  16. Affine Patches on Positroid Varieties and Affine Pipe Dreams (Thesis)

    CERN Document Server

    Snider, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The objects of interest in this thesis are positroid varieties in the Grassmannian, which are indexed by juggling patterns. In particular, we study affine patches on these positroid varieties. Our main result corresponds these affine patches to Kazhdan-Lusztig varieties in the affine Grassmannian. We develop a new term order and study how these spaces are related to subword complexes and Stanley-Reisner ideals. We define an extension of pipe dreams to the affine case and conclude by showing how our affine pipe dreams are generalizations of Cauchon and Le diagrams.

  17. A Variety Of Approaches To Living-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, L. Richard; Spencer, Edward F.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a variety of alternative living arrangements at the University of Delaware, ranging from traditional dormitories and high-rise apartment buildings to coeducational halls, language houses, honors halls and coops. (CJ)

  18. Arithmetic harmonic analysis on character and quiver varieties II

    CERN Document Server

    Hausel, Tamas; Rodriguez-Villegas, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    We study connections between the topology of generic character varieties of fundamental groups of punctured Riemann surfaces, Macdonald polynomials, quiver representations, Hilbert schemes on surfaces, modular forms and multiplicities in tensor products of irreducible characters of finite general linear groups.

  19. Participatory consumer evaluation of twelve sweetpotato varieties in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... Key words: Sweetpotato, participatory, ipomoea batatas, consumer, preference, varieties Kenya. .... show any symptom of water stress after missing rains for one ..... (2004) reported that in rural communities in Africa are.

  20. Sweet, red and Danish: New strawberry varieties on their way

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacey, Julia; Fjord, Thomas Ahle

    2000-01-01

    are on their way. And this time consumers have participated in the development process. The new strawberry varieties are the result of extensive product development in the research project 'Better Danish strawberries' in which the Danish Institute of Agricultural Science, Danish Fruit Growers' Association......, the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration and MAPP participated. Danish strawberry growers initiated the project and the purpose is to assure the quality of strawberries and to improve the distribution and sale. In order to get consumers to evaluate both new and existing varieties the MAPP Centre carried...... that consumers like some of the new strawberries, but that they, on the other hand, don't reject the most sold varieties. The product tests workedin such a way that consumers were asked first to evaluate the appearance and smell of selected strawberries and then asked to taste a series of varieties. However...

  1. Alfalfa variety development. Minnesota Agripower Project, Task II research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, J.F.S.; Samac, D.A.; Sheaffer, C.C.

    1997-10-30

    This report briefly summarizes preliminary results from crossbreeding alfalfa to develop desirable characteristics for a dedicated biomass feed stock. The varieties development is part of a larger project which includes preparation and gasification of the alfalfa stems for energy production, and use of the co-product alfalfa leaves in livestock feed. The desired alfalfa traits include winter hardiness, resistance to major pathogens, resistance to foliar disease complexes, many thick, tall, solid, non-lodging stems with high lignin content, delayed flowering, and high quality leaves retained through harvest. Currently no alfalfa varieties meet these criteria. Three crosses were made using old European varieties, with thick stems, and modern resistant varieties. The crossbreeds showed some resistance to diseases, but increased resistance is needed to maximize leaf and steam yield. 1 tab.

  2. Handsaw quiver varieties and finite W-algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Nakajima, Hiraku

    2011-01-01

    Following Braverman-Finkelberg-Feigin-Rybnikov (arXiv:1008.3655), we study the convolution algebra of a handsaw quiver variety, a.k.a. a parabolic Laumon space, and a finite W-algebra of type A. This is a finite analog of the AGT conjecture on 4-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with surface operators. Our new observation is that the C^*-fixed point set of a handsaw quiver variety is isomorphic to a graded quiver variety of type A, which was introduced by the author in connection with the representation theory of a quantum affine algebra. As an application, simple modules of the W-algebra are described in terms of IC sheaves of graded quiver varieties of type A, which were known to be related to Kazhdan-Lusztig polynomials. This confirms a conjecture by Brundan-Kleshchev on composition multiplicities on Verma modules.

  3. Identification and quality of four varieties of adlay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesarin Lakkham

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Simple methods were used to identify and evaluate the quality of adlay, which is currently in focus for its nutraceuticalaspect and functional food. Four varieties of adlay, Coix lachryma-jobi L., Poaceae, were investigated for their physicochemical properties, DNA fingerprints, antioxidant activities, and the content of coixenolide. They were called waxy adlay(AD1, stone adlay (AD2, grey adlay (AD3, and normal adlay (AD4. Morphology of intact seeds of the four varieties can be distinguished visually. Iodine stained on starch granules of all varieties, except AD4, were blue. The gelling temperaturesranged from 67.92-73.27oC. TLC-fingerprints of acetone and methanol were documented. DNA fingerprints were established to differentiate the varieties. AD1 showed distinct properties over the others in the antioxidant activities, acetone extractive and coixenolide content.

  4. compare quality in five varieties of soybean meals.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Proximate composition, In Vitro Relative Protein Digestibility of S varieties of soybean (glycine max), was done. ... Although proteins of plant origin offer a ... products of lipid oxidation followed by ... protein analysis using the automated.

  5. Study on genetic diversity in Pakistani wheat varieties using simple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... genetic diversity of 10 varieties of wheat (T. aestivum) were analyzed using 14 simple sequence repeat. (SSR) primer sets ... wheat every year. To increase .... All PCR reactions were carried out in 25 µl reaction containing 50 -.

  6. Physical quality and safety assessment of selected varieties of local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical quality and safety assessment of selected varieties of local paddy and milled rice ... sampled from all major rice growing districts of Uganda were assessed for quality and safety. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  7. physical and chemical properties of some selected rice varieties in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Physical and chemical properties of nine rice varieties grown and processed in Ebonyi State were studied. ... adaptation traits for each ecology (Sanni et al., 2005). Abakaliki in Ebonyi State ..... Some Quality Factors of Raw and Processed rice.

  8. Plant varieties protection in the European Union: legal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. Б. Якубенко

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Reviewing the EU legislation on plant varie­ties protection including documents of the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV that related to the national laws of its member states. Results. Based on the sources processed, the authors give a brief analysis of the basic EU Council Regulation № 2100/94 of 27 July 1994 on Community plant variety rights and regulations of the European Commission adopted to implement it. Basic copyright concepts, features of plant varieties protection in the EU, including those under the UPOV Convention, are also considered. Conclusions. For Ukraine, obtaining full membership in the EU, on the one hand, requires harmonization of its laws with the re­levant EU legislation, on the other – improvement of the present system of plant varieties protection taking into account national interests of Ukraine.

  9. Model of high-productive varieties in forage pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Kosev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A linear equation of regression was used for establishment of the influence of quantitative characteristics on the grain productivity in forage pea and for development of a model for breeding work. The model for pea plant with high productivity was characterized by average height of 60–70 cm, 8–10 formed pods, 30–40 seeds per plant and 160–260 g in regard to 1000-seed weight. The obtained results showed that the greatest effect on grain productivity had the seed number per plant, first pod height and 1000-seed weight. Kristal variety had high ecological plasticity and could be considered as close to an ideal type, suitable for growing under wide range of environments. Pleven 4 and Rezonator were determined as high-productive varieties and with low stability, Kerpo and Pikardi - as low-productive but stable varieties. Druzba was identified as unstable and low-productive variety.

  10. Growth and nutrient uptake of Citrus rootstock varieties as affected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and nutrient uptake of Citrus rootstock varieties as affected poultry manure and NPK fertilizer in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. ... Since plant height and stem diameter determine the quality of rootstock seedlings, poultry manure at 9 ...

  11. 78 FR 63448 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Meeting AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: This notice is intended to notify the... Protection Office, Science and Technology Programs, Agricultural Marketing Service, United States...

  12. RB975242 and RB975201 - Late maturation sugarcane varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisa Sampaio Carneiro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane varieties RB975201 and RB975242 were developed and released for harvest at the end of the season (late maturation in the CentralSouth region of Brazil. In specific environments, these varieties were compared with commercial standards in sugar yield per area. They are resistant to major sugarcane diseases and present the Bru1 gene of resistance to brown rust.

  13. Pollen Morphology of some Cultivated Varieties of Strawberry

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, M. I. A. [محمد اسماعيل ابراهيم; Ibrahim, Atef; El-Naggar, Assem

    1999-01-01

    Pollen grains of twelve cultivated varieties of strawberries grown in Egypt were morphologically studied using both light microscopy and SEM observations. These varieties include eleven cultivars of Fragaria x ananassa (c.v: Capitola, Douglas, Chandler, Selva, Fern, Seascape, Dorite, Pajaro, Parker, Sequioa, Oso Grande) and one cultivar of Fragaria vesca. Pollen grains of Fragaria are spheroidal, subprolate ellipsoidal to triangular in outline. Tricolporate with long colpae tapering to pointe...

  14. Characteristic varieties of quasi-projective manifolds and orbifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolo, Enrique Artal; Matei, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We prove that the irreducible components of the characteristic varieties of quasi-projective manifolds are either pull-backs of such components for orbifolds, or torsion points. This gives an interpretation for the so-called \\emph{translated} components of the characteristic varieties, and shows that the zero-dimensional components are indeed torsion. The main result is used to derive further obstructions for a group to be the fundamental group of a quasi-projective manifold.

  15. Melon varieties evaluation for organic horticulture in Extremadura (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Giraldez, Helena; de la Cuadra, Celia; Ramos, María

    2011-01-01

    The correct selection of the variety is a fundamental principle in the organic production systems, in order to get a good adaptation and reduce the use of external inputs. So that, enough biodiversity is available to provide the market with horticultural crop varieties selected and developed under organic cultivation management. As part of a larger project, where several species have been on-farm evaluated using participatory evaluation methodologies, this survey shows the first year grown re...

  16. Ten New Crop Varieties(Lines) Released Recently in HAAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Two-line Hybrid Glutinous Sorghum Xiangliangyou Nuoliang 1 It is the first two-line hybrid glutinous sorghum variety with good quality and high yield in the world developed by the Sorghum Research & Development Center,HAAS. It was appraised to release by Hunan Provincial Crop Variety Release Committee (HPCVRC) in 1996,and listed as an important achievement being popularized in the"Ninth Five-Year Plan" period in China.

  17. A Problem on the Variety of BCK-algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to solve the following problem proposed by W.H.Cornish[2] in 1982:Whether the variety of implicative BCK-algebras is 2-based.Our answer is affirmative.This va-riety is 2-based and an equational base containing only three vaviables is given by(1) x*(0*y)=x;(2)(x*z)*(x*y)=(y*z)*(y*x))*(x*y).

  18. Varietal flavour compounds of four grape varieties producing Madeira wines

    OpenAIRE

    Câmara, José de Sousa; Herbert, Paulo; Marques, José Carlos; Alves, Maria Arminda

    2004-01-01

    Boal, Malvasia, Sercial and Verdelho are the main white grape varieties used in Madeira wine production. To estimate the free fraction of varietal aroma compounds of these varieties, 39 samples of musts were analysed to determine their content of monoterpenols and C13 norisoprenoids (terpenoids), using dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The r-values for linearity studies of the analytical method used, varied between 0.977 (nerolido...

  19. Determination of physicochemical characteristics in different products of tomato varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbudak, Bulent; Bolkan, Hasan; Cohen, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the newly developed and existing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) varieties for physicochemical changes in the fruits in the ripe period. Varieties 'CXD179' and 'CX8401' in fresh and canned, and 'CXD203' and 'CXD276' in paste were found superior with respect to ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity. The highest lycopene and beta-carotene contents were determined in 'CXD203', 'CXD276', and 'CX8401'. Color values showed a change from a greenness value of 'a' to redness values, whereas 'b' decreased. In general, parameter values were higher in canned samples. Studies showed that the lycopene content best correlated with 'a' values in the ripening. Inter-variety variation in physicochemical parameters at the ripe stage revealed that 'CXD179' and 'CXD203' in all products among red varieties were the best varieties. Among light color varieties 'CXD276' and 'CX8401' in view of red color, and 'CX8400' and 'CX8402' in view of green color were better.

  20. Fruit characterization of high oil content avocado varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-López Vicente Manuel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To expand the data bank on avocado (Persea americana Mill. varieties all over the world, and to select good varieties for commercial or improving purposes, a partial fruit characterization of 13 high oil content (11.23-18.80% was performed. The chosen varieties are growing in a Venezuelan germplasm bank: Fuerte, Peruano, Lula, Ortega, Red Collinson, Alcemio, Araira 1, Pope, Ettinger, Gripiña 5, Barker, Duke, and Ryan. They were characterized for pulp oil and moisture; weight (whole fruit, seed, pulp and peel; length, width and fruit shape; peel characteristics (roughness, color and hand peeling; and ripeness time. The variety Ryan showed the highest oil content (18.80% and calorific value (191 Kcal/100 g wet flesh. Avocado varieties grown in Venezuela have generally less oil content and are generally lighter than those from other countries. Most of the varieties had low pulp proportion, and were pyriform, with rough green peel and difficult to hand peel. Red Collinson had an uncommon reddish peel. The ripening time was between 4 and 10 days after harvest.

  1. Experimental Precision and Variety Comparison Precision in Regional Crop Trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Fan-ling; ZHANG Qun-yuan; GE Zhi-nan; YANG Fu-xin; ZHANG De-gui; LIU Wen-xin

    2002-01-01

    According to the basic concepts of precision and the principles of analysis of variance (ANOVA), precision types for experiments and variety comparison in regional crop trials (RCT) were studied and developed; expected variety comparison precision (EVCP) and realized variety comparison precision (RVCP) and the corresponding statistical indexes of them were proposed. It was explained that experimental precision (EP) and variety comparison precision (VCP) are two kinds of precision of RCT; EP includes error precision and variety mean precision, which can be measured respectively by the coefficient of variation of single observation's error (CVe) and the coefficient of variation of variety mean's error (CVY); VCP includes EVCP and RVCP, which can be measured respectively by the detectable least relative difference (DLRD) and the relative least significant distance (RLSD); EP is an important factor of VCP but not identical to it; RVCP is the realization of EVCP. Besides error, experimental design and GE interaction and ANOVA model affect VCP. Several application examples for these precision indexes were presented, and the precision of regional cotton trials in the Yellow River Valley and the Changjiang Valley were investigated through the historical data of RCTs from 1980 to 1999.

  2. Genetic diversity and molecular genealogy of local silkworm varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouhe Du

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the genetic diversity and systematic differentiation pattern among silkworm varieties, aiming to guide hybridization breeding, we sequenced a total of 72 Bmamy2 gene fragments from local silkworm varieties. The analysis of nucleotide sequence diversity and systematic differentiation indicated that there was rich genovariation in the sequencing region of Bmamy2 gene, and the base mutation rate is 5.6–8.2%, the haplotype diversity is 0.8294, and the nucleotide diversity is 0.0236±0.00122, suggesting Bmamy2 being a better marking gene with rich nucleotide sequence diversity, based on which the genetic diversity among different local silkworm varieties can be identified. The same heredity population structure is proclaimed by several analysis methods that every clade consisting of varieties from different geosystems and ecological types, while the varieties from the same geosystem and ecotype belong to different clades in the phylogeny. There is no population structure pattern that different varieties claded together according to geosystem or ecotype. It can be speculated that the silkworm origins from mixture of kinds of several voltinism mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mandarina, while the domestication events took place in several regions, from which the domesticated mulberry silkworms are all devoting to the domesticated silkworm population of today.

  3. Variety, Enjoyment, and Physical Activity Participation Among High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Shannon L; Coffield, Edward; Lee, Sarah M; Fulton, Janet E

    2016-02-01

    Federal guidelines state that youth should participate in a variety of physical activity (PA) they find enjoyable. Little is known, however, about how variety and enjoyment are associated with PA participation among adolescents. Data came from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey, a nationally representative survey of adolescents. Path analysis was used to examine the association of a variety of self-reported PA, defined as the number of activities and activity types (ie, team sports/weightlifting, individual activities, and other competitive/recreational sports), on self-reported PA enjoyment and participation. The analysis also examined whether enjoyment mediates the association between a variety of PA and participation. Separate models were estimated for boys and girls. Number of activities was associated with increased PA enjoyment and participation. For boys and girls, team sports/weightlifting was associated with increased participation, and individual activities were indirectly associated with increased participation through enjoyment. For boys, team sports/weightlifting was indirectly related with participation. These findings suggest that participation in a variety of PA is associated with increased PA enjoyment and participation. Providing opportunities for adolescents to engage in a variety of activities might help them identify PA they enjoy and facilitate lifelong PA habits.

  4. Agro-industrial evaluation of different varieties of tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo H. Donis García

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In search of alternatives for the production of tomato (pasta a test/ investigation was mounted/set up in January, 2010, in the citric company of Ciego de Avila. The agricultural performance was evaluated whereby the total sediment of the fruits of the plants E the number of fruits on each plant was determined at every haw sting time the average weight of the fruits in the naiveties Rossol 9992 f-1 and Evenl F-1 .Revolcadote were also determined. For the laboratory analyses 10 fruits were token from each variety to determine the mass, the weight of the fruits and % of juice and the grades Brick for each one of the varieties. With these results, the production of pasta for t. of fruit and hectare for 20 % of grades brick were determined and the naive was established in the industry finally the profit y sale and the prices were determined in the market. As a result in the agricultural variable, the variety Rossol turns ant to be greater than the Hybrid, in the weight of the fruits and the efficiency , without statistical difference in the total weight with the variety 9992 which exceed in the number of fruit. In the variables of weighty % of juice and grades Brick, the variety Rossol showed a higher nalve and a bigger production pasta for ton, of fruit. For hectare. The profit of sale of the pulp to the current prices is higher in the variety Rossol.

  5. Tolerance of wheat varieties seedlings by glyphosate accelerated degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerković Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lengths of seedlings aboveground parts of nine wheat varieties grown in greenhouse were reduced by 4-20%. They were tested during April at around 20oC after twice daily treatments with glyphosate based herbicide (0.5 ml in 1l water solution, 0.5 dl on 0.5 m2. When results of permanent artificially and daily lighted trials were compared, four groups of varieties were recognized same as was when near isogenic lines containing different leaf rust resistance genes (Lr NILs were focused in winter. Growth of variety Pobeda decreased more when seedlings were not permanent lighted which confirmed the common herbicide effect. Tolerance of other varieties was again explained by enzymatic degradation of glyphosate and chlorophyll inhibition by consequential phosphorus acids. Varieties Simonida, Tavita and Rapsodia were similar by reaction to glyphosate as Lr 1 and Lr 21 NILs. NS 40S contained Lr 3a with increased hydrolytic stability compared to Lr 24 but able to cleave external single phosphorus for the difference of Lr 19 or Lr 29. Their final effect was similar to previous stated of Lr 15 NIL during the winter. Varieties Gora and Metka had gene Lr 19, Enigma Lr 29 while Ilina Lr 24. Focusing herbicide residua transfer in seed probability, accounting optimal time for recovering ability of chlorophyll and temporary higher temperatures necessary for Lr genes even parasite free activity the varieties Gora, Metka and Enigma appeared to be possible solution for glyphosate apply near wheat heading in semiarid regions.

  6. Physical and chemical characteristics of common bean varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio de Barros

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is one of the most widely consumed legumes in the world, but nevertheless different varieties vary with respect to their physical and chemical aspects. This study evaluated the physical and chemical characteristics (color, hardness after cooking, water absorption capacity, cooking time, integrity of the beans after cooking, proximate composition and mineral composition of the following varieties of the common bean: Carioca, IAPAR 81, Saracura, Juriti, Pérola, Colibri and IAPAR 31, all destined for both the internal Brazilian and external markets. The varieties studied had different proximate compositions and contents of the following minerals: K, Ca, N, Mg, S, Cu, Fe and Mn; but identical contents of P, Zn and B. The beans were classified as small in size. The Carioca variety showed the lowest values for L* (41.29 and H* (57.22, and the highest values for a* (12.17, its beans being redder and darker than the others. The Saracura variety showed the lowest degree of hydration (95.70 g/100g, cooking time (22.67 min. and whole beans after cooking (30%, while the Pérola variety showed the highest values for these same parameters, 106.77 g/100g, 43.67 min. and 82.16%, respectively. No correlation was observed between the calcium and magnesium contents of the beans and the hardness of the raw bean, degree of hydration during maceration, cooking time and integrity of the cooked beans. According to the characteristics studied, the Saracura variety is a good option for both industrial and domestic use.

  7. Enzymatic activity of three sugarcane varieties under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercia F. Carvalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sugarcane is a species of great economic importance to Brazil. The study of enzymatic activity has helped to identify varieties of sugarcane tolerant to salt stress, for planting in Brazilian semiarid regions, where there is the occurrence of saline soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic activity of three varieties of sugarcane subjected to stress caused by salinity. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, in a completely randomized design with four replicates. The leaf blade samples were collected for analysis of soluble proteins and determination of the activity of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. The protein content was higher for RB962962 and lower for the varieties RB92579 and RB867515. However, in RB867515, there was an increase in the activity of ascorbate peroxidase and catalase, while the varieties RB92579 and RB962962 showed a reduction in the activity of these enzymes. These results indicate that the variety RB867515 has a more efficient mechanism in plant protection against the action of reactive oxygen species.

  8. Characterization of traditional tomato varieties grown in organic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Cebrino, F.; Lozano, M.; Ayuso, M. C.; Bernalte, M. J.; Vidal-Aragon, M. C.; Gonzalez-Gomez, D.

    2011-07-01

    Organic horticulture is a sustainable agricultural model that can provide high quality products and allows conservation of genetic diversity. Traditional tomato varieties are well adapted to organic production and they have the organoleptic characteristics demanded by consumers. Seven traditional tomato varieties were studied: BGV-001020, BGV-000998, BGV-001000, BGV-004123, CIDA-44-A, CIDA-62, CIDA-59-A, and they were compared with a tomato Marmandetype commercial cv. Baghera, all them grown under organic production. Several quality variables were measured to establish whether any of the traditional varieties might be suitable for commercial production. CIDA-62 was shown to be the most promising variety. It produces tomatoes of very high quality under organic conditions. It excels in terms of bioactive compounds such as vitamin C (459.22 mg kg{sup -}1 fw) and lycopene (62.25 mg kg{sup -}1 fw) and in its total antioxidant activity (43.58 mg Trolox/100 g fw). It is also outstanding in terms of its sugar content (4.56% fructose and glucose combined) and of its total soluble solids content (6.22 degree centigrade Brix). All of these variables are associated with both sensory quality and health benefits. Other varieties that emerged with relatively high levels of total soluble solids content, lycopene, vitamin C and total antioxidant activity were BGV-004123 and BGV-001020. (Author) 41 refs.

  9. IDENTIFICATION OF WIDE COMPATIBILITY VARIETIES IN SOME TROPICAL JAPONICA RICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hairmansis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The F1 hybrid sterility in indica/japonica crosses is the major barrier in developing hybrid rice varieties between these two diverse germplasm. The sterility problem in japonica/indica hybrids can be overcome by using wide compatibility genes. The objective of this study was to identify wide compatibility varieties (WCVs in some tropical japonica rice. Twenty five tropical japonica varieties as male parents were crossed with indica (IR64 and japonica (Akitakomachi testers as female parents. The crosses were planted following a randomized complete block design with three replications. Varieties having average spikelet fertility of more than 70% with both the indica and japonica testers were rated as WCVs. Result from this study showed that six tropical japonica varieties were classified as WCVs, i.e., Cabacu, Grogol, Kencana Bali, Klemas, Lampung Lawer, and Napa. Hybrid sterility is caused by partial sterility of male and female gametes. The WCVs from the present study can be used in hybrid rice breeding program to solve hybrid sterility in indica/japonica hybrids.

  10. Proteomics analysis of egg white proteins from different egg varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiapei; Liang, Yue; Omana, Dileep A; Kav, Nat N V; Wu, Jianping

    2012-01-11

    The market of specialty eggs, such as omega-3-enriched eggs, organic eggs, and free-range eggs, is continuously growing. The nutritional composition of egg yolk can be manipulated by feed diet; however, it is not known if there is any difference in the composition of egg white proteins among different egg varieties. The purpose of the study was to compare the egg white proteins among six different egg varieties using proteomics analysis. Egg white proteins were analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and 89 protein spots were subjected to LC-MS/MS. A total of 23 proteins, belonging to Gallus gallus , were identified from 72 detected protein spots. A quiescence-specific protein precursor in egg white was identified for the first time in this study. Significant differences in the abundant levels of 19 proteins (from 65 protein spots) were observed among six egg varieties. Four proteins, ovalbumin-related protein Y, cystatin, avidin, and albumin precursor, were not different among these six egg varieties. These findings suggest that the abundance, but not the composition, of egg white proteins varied among the egg varieties.

  11. Manufacturing Documentation for the High-Variety Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mleczko Janusz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last years researches in engineering have moved towards customer-oriented manufacturing. The individual customer’s requirements are very important for the company’s activities. It results in high-variety production. High-variety production like mass customization is facing the challenge of effective variety management. Applying methods of mass customization to the empirical process can improve the efficiency of product development process and reduce time and cost. The manufacturing process requires documentation of the production. Very often, the documentation process and the time of its formation is limited. One possible way to solve this problem is to automatically create documentation in electronic form. Then, without having to print, distribute them directly to the panel of the machine. In the process of creating manufacturing documentation, this method takes into account alternative manufacturing processes and the current availability of labor resources The article is an attempt at the analysis of the modern manufacturing systems and answering the question, how it is possible to produce without having documentation in paper form. The presented solution is used for the high-variety products manufactured in the SMEs. The method was validated in the conditions of best practice high-variety production.

  12. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GROWTH OF RICE VARIETY BY GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruyako V. N.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available High growth-rate of plantlet is the integral index of intensity of physiological processes at rice and other cultures. 20 typical plantlets from each of two variants were studded (in the distilled water in thermostat at a temperature 29° C by: length of embryonic root and coleoptile. Comparative analysis of trait characterizing the growth rates of rice varieties showed reliable advantage of Russian ones above the Italian and Chinese. Local varieties, regionalized until the year 2000, exceed new ones on this trait. Highest growth rates were characterized by medium grain samples. The white grain and red grain varieties are excelled other groups on the height of plantlet. Analysis rates of height of plantlets in the distinguished groups showed the necessity of prosecution of improvement of the above enumerated signs at the varieties of late term of ripening, long grain, with Waxy gene, colored grain. We recommend to sow this type of varieties on fields with good leveling, because of low speed of growth

  13. Presence survival spores of Bacillus thuringiensis varieties in grain warehouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Yáñez Juan Manuel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Genus Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt synthesized spores and crystals toxic to pest-insects in agriculture. Bt is comospolitan then possible to isolate some subspecies or varieties from warehouse. The aims of study were: i to isolate Bt varieties from grain at werehouse ii to evaluate Bt toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda and Shit-ophilus zeamaisese iii to analyze Bt spores persistence in Zea mays grains at werehouse compared to same Bt on grains exposed to sun radiation. Results showed that at werehouse were recovered more than one variety of Bt spores. According to each isolate Bt1 o Bt2 were toxic to S. frugiperda or S. zeamaisese. One those Bt belong to var morrisoni. At werehouse these spores on Z. mays grains surviving more time, while the same spores exposed to boicide sun radiation they died.

  14. Investigation on Paste Property of Chinese Bread Wheat Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jun; ZHANG Yong; HE Zhong-hu

    2002-01-01

    Starch viscosity is closely associated with noodle quality. RVA(rapid viscosity analyzer)was used to investigate the paste property of leading Chinese wheat varieties and 38 Australian wheat lines. Results showed that significant variability for RVA parameters was observed among Chinese wheat varieties, particularly among spring wheat varieties. In general, Australia wheat lines performed better paste characters than that of Chinese winter wheats. Genotype (G), environment (E) and genotype by environment (G × E) interaction affected all paste traits. Correlation analysis indicated that peak viscosity correlated highly and significantly with viscosity, breakdown, setback, final viscosity, peak time, and falling number(r = 0.56-0.93, P < 0.01 ). However breakdown was not significantly associated with most paste properties. Paste characters increased from low to high latitude both in the north and south part of Yellow and Huai Valley.

  15. An exploration of loyalty determinants in Greek wine varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to provide a deeper understanding of the market structure of Greek red and white wine varieties and to measure the loyalty behaviour of frequent wine buyers in Greece. Design/methodology/approach - The study measures brand performance and loyalty of four different Greek...... wine varieties. Based on stated preference data, basic brand performance measures are estimated through Juster purchase probabilities of brand choice. To measure loyalty behaviour, the polarisation index w (phi) is used as a measure to model both loyalty to the brand name and specific wine attributes...... and their levels. Findings - The findings of the present study point to the conclusion that each one of the four Greek wine varieties under examination exhibits its own market structure and loyalty profile, whereas price, quality certification and winemaker's size seem to function as loyalty stimulators more...

  16. Osculating Spaces of Varieties and Linear Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan P.

    We present a general theory to obtain good linear network codes utilizing the osculating nature of algebraic varieties. In particular, we obtain from the osculating spaces of Veronese varieties explicit families of equideminsional vector spaces, in which any pair of distinct vector spaces...... intersects in the same dimension. Linear network coding transmits information in terms of a basis of a vector space and the information is received as a basis of a possible altered vector space. Ralf Koetter and Frank R. Kschischang introduced a metric on the set af vector spaces and showed that a minimal...... distance decoder for this metric achieves correct decoding if the dimension of the intersection of the transmitted and received vector space is sufficiently large. The obtained osculating spaces of Veronese varieties are equidistant in the above metric. The parameters of the resulting linear network codes...

  17. Osculating Spaces of Varieties and Linear Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan P.

    2013-01-01

    We present a general theory to obtain good linear network codes utilizing the osculating nature of algebraic varieties. In particular, we obtain from the osculating spaces of Veronese varieties explicit families of equidimensional vector spaces, in which any pair of distinct vector spaces...... intersects in the same dimension. Linear network coding transmits information in terms of a basis of a vector space and the information is received as a basis of a possible altered vector space. Ralf Koetter and Frank R. Kschischang introduced a metric on the set af vector spaces and showed that a minimal...... distance decoder for this metric achieves correct decoding if the dimension of the intersection of the transmitted and received vector space is sufficiently large. The obtained osculating spaces of Veronese varieties are equidistant in the above metric. The parameters of the resulting linear network codes...

  18. Postponed variety creation: case study in consumer electronics retail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelqvist, Patrik; Gubi, Ebbe

    2005-01-01

    implications – The research was sufficiently successful that the company implemented the delivery concept arising from the results. Corresponding benefits seem possible for other manufacturers and retailers of consumer goods. Originality/value – The contribution is real-life quantitative evidence of how......Purpose – Postponement is known as a way to reduce risk and inventories while still providing high product variety and acceptable response times. The paper is a case study that uses simulation for quantifying these benefits for a consumer electronics company. Design...... is beneficial in retail. Findings – In the case company, shop inventory is necessary for high-volume and low-variety products. Postponing variety creation to shops has the potential to decrease inventories for these products by 40-80 per cent. The benefits of postponement depend on delivery speed requirement...

  19. Postponed variety creation: case study in consumer electronics retail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelqvist, Patrik; Gubi, Ebbe

    2004-01-01

    implications – The research was sufficiently successful that the company implemented the delivery concept arising from the results. Corresponding benefits seem possible for other manufacturers and retailers of consumer goods. Originality/value – The contribution is real-life quantitative evidence of how......Purpose – Postponement is known as a way to reduce risk and inventories while still providing high product variety and acceptable response times. The paper is a case study that uses simulation for quantifying these benefits for a consumer electronics company. Design...... is beneficial in retail. Findings – In the case company, shop inventory is necessary for high-volume and low-variety products. Postponing variety creation to shops has the potential to decrease inventories for these products by 40-80 per cent. The benefits of postponement depend on delivery speed requirement...

  20. Some analytical characters of cottonseed varieties grown in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergiz, Cevdet

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen cottonseed varieties grown in Turkey were analysed. The average oil content in varieties ranged from 309.7g Kg-1 to 379.5g Kg-1 whereas the range in values of gossypol content for glanded varieties was 7.4-12.8g Kg-1. One glandless variety contained gossypol as 0.2g Kg-1. The samples contained 337.2- 466.5g Kg-1 protein. Fatty acid composition of the oils obtained from cottonseed varieties were also determined. Generally total gossypol content of cottonseed varieties were below the limits established by the some nations for human food or animal feed.

    Se han analizado dieciséis variedades de semillas de algodón cultivadas en Turquía. El contenido medio de aceite en las distintas variedades osciló entre 309,7g Kg-1 y 379,5g Kg-1 mientras que el contenido en gosipol para variedades con glándulas fue desde 7,4 a 12,8g Kg-1. Una variedad sin glándula tuvo un valor en gosipol de 0, Kg-1. El valor en proteínas de las muestras osciló entre 337,2 y 466,5g Kg-1. También se determinó la composición en ácidos grasos de los aceites obtenidos de las distintas variedades de semilla de algodón. Por lo general el contenido total en gosipol en las distintas variedades fue inferior a los límites establecidos por algunas naciones para su consumo humano o para alimentación animal.

  1. Clone Networks, Clone Extensions and Biregularizations of Varieties of Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Plonka

    2001-01-01

    We consider algebras of type τ- without nullary operations. An identity ψ≈ψ of type τ is clone compatible if ψ and ψ are the same variable or the sets of fundamental operation symbols in ψ and ψ are non-empty and identical. For a variety V, we denote by Vc the variety defined by all clone compatible identities from Id(V). In this paper, we give a construction of algebras called a clone network. Under some assumptions, we describe algebras from Vc by means of this construction. We find some properties of Vc and applications.

  2. The growth rate of symplectic homology and affine varieties

    CERN Document Server

    McLean, Mark

    2010-01-01

    We will show that the cotangent bundle of an integrally hyperbolic manifold is not symplectomorphic to any smooth affine variety. We will also show that the unit cotangent bundle of such a manifold is not Stein fillable by a Stein domain whose completion is symplectomorphic to a smooth affine variety. For instance, these results hold when our manifolds are simply connected with at least one Betti number greater than the corresponding Betti number of the n torus. We use an invariant called the growth rate of symplectic homology to prove this result.

  3. Postponed variety creation: case study in consumer electronics retail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelqvist, Patrik; Gubi, Ebbe

    2004-01-01

    Purpose – Postponement is known as a way to reduce risk and inventories while still providing high product variety and acceptable response times. The paper is a case study that uses simulation for quantifying these benefits for a consumer electronics company. Design/methodology/approach – Improve......Purpose – Postponement is known as a way to reduce risk and inventories while still providing high product variety and acceptable response times. The paper is a case study that uses simulation for quantifying these benefits for a consumer electronics company. Design...

  4. Postponed variety creation: case study in consumer electronics retail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelqvist, Patrik; Gubi, Ebbe

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – Postponement is known as a way to reduce risk and inventories while still providing high product variety and acceptable response times. The paper is a case study that uses simulation for quantifying these benefits for a consumer electronics company. Design/methodology/approach – Improve......Purpose – Postponement is known as a way to reduce risk and inventories while still providing high product variety and acceptable response times. The paper is a case study that uses simulation for quantifying these benefits for a consumer electronics company. Design...

  5. William James' The Varieties of Religious Experience revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Curtis W

    2008-12-01

    This essay addresses the familial, religious, and cultural context for the writing and presentation of William James' classic work The Varieties of Religious Experience. The essay emphasizes the importance of the impact of Henry James, Senior, upon his son. This relationship along with a severe cardiac condition contributed to James' taking on and carrying through with his exploration of religious experience. The article explores The Varieties and concludes with a discussion of the importance of James' use of narrative to the study of mind-body medicine. This paper was originally presented at the Richardson Research Seminar in the History of Psychiatry at Weill Cornell Medical College.

  6. Complements and higher resonance varieties of hyperplane arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Budur, Nero

    2011-01-01

    Hyperplane arrangements form the geometric counterpart of combinatorial objects such as matroids. The shape of the sequence of Betti numbers of the complement of a hyperplane arrangement is of particular interest in combinatorics, where they are known, up to a sign, as Whitney numbers of the first kind, and appear as the coefficients of chromatic, or characteristic, polynomials. We show that certain combinations, some nonlinear, of these Betti numbers satisfy Schur positivity. At the same time, we study the higher degree resonance varieties of the arrangement. We draw some consequences, using homological algebra results and vector bundles techniques, of the fact that all resonance varieties are determinantal.

  7. Sui Generis Plant Variety Protection: The Indian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Dang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Plant variety protection relates to intellectual property rights over plant varieties which guarantee rights-holders exclusive commercial rights for a specific period of time. Article 27 (3(b of the TRIPS Agreement, compulsorily mandates that every member-state of the WTO must introduce such protection through domestic legislation by certain set time frames. These rights are one form of IPR being aggressively imposed on developing countries and are often touted as a 'soft' patent regime. Plant variety laws are just as threatening as industrial patents on biodiversity and also represent an attack on the rights of farming an other communities at the local level. From a legal perspective, the protection of plant varieties in India remains an issue which is far from settled even though the Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers' Rights Act was adopted in 2001 in compliance with the TRIPS Agreement. This study argued that the goal of the IP regime should be to balance the competing needs of maximizing societal innovation while appropriately rewarding the individuals that contribute to that innovation. Towards this end, the study seeks to analyze the issues related to the protection of plant varieties with reference to the TRIPS agreement along with the biodiversity treaty and the PGRFA Treaty. One of the chief distinguishing features of the PGRFA Treaty is its emphasis on farmers' rights. This characteristic is analyzed further in the Indian context. Conclusion: Plant variety protection is linked to both agricultural innovation and the conservation of biological resources, although on different levels. The present international legal framework remains partly inconclusive with regard to they type of agricultural management that it seeks to encourage. Though the development of sui generis programs for plant variety protection is still in a nascent stage, this paper analyses the advantages and disadvantages of the Farmers' Rights

  8. Kauffman brackets, character varieties, and triangulations of surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bonahon, Francis

    2010-01-01

    A Kauffman bracket on a surface is an invariant for framed links in the thickened surface, satisfying the Kauffman skein relation and multiplicative under superposition. This includes representations of the skein algebra of the surface. We show how an irreducible representation of the skein algebra usually specifies a point of the character variety of homomorphisms from the fundamental group of the surface to PSL_2(C), as well as certain weights associated to the punctures of the surface. Conversely, we sketch a proof of the fact that each point of the character variety, endowed with appropriate puncture weights, uniquely determines a Kauffman bracket. Details will appear elsewhere.

  9. Regional legislation in Italy for the protection of local varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bertacchini

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the consequences of regional legislation in Italy on protecting local and autochthonous varieties. In accordance with the objectives of the FAO treaty on plant genetic resources (ITPGRFA, these laws have emerged as one of the most interesting institutional attempts at Italian and European level towards enhancing and protecting agricultural biodiversity. A description of the regional laws and their implementation highlights the importance of supporting farming systems that are close relationship with the territory and local communities, creating sufficient juridical space for the varieties that are not part of the ‘formal’ seed system.

  10. Derivation of Invariant Varieties of Periodic Points from Singularity Confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Yumibayashi, Tsukasa; Wakimoto, Yuki

    2011-01-01

    It was shown, in our previous works, that periodic points of $d$ dimensional rational integrable maps form varieties if the number of invariants $p$ is greater than $d/2$. In the case of 3 dimensional Lotka-Volterra map with 2 invariants the varieties are generated iteratively by the map after it is recovered from the singularity confinement. We present many other examples of this phenomenon in this paper when $p=d-1$, and discuss how to generalize our algorithm when $p$ is less than $d-1$.

  11. Operational impact of product variety in the process industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moseley, Alexandria Lee; Hvam, Lars; Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    2016-01-01

    variants and their production sequence must also be considered. Based on the findings, a method for quantifying the production cost of product variety in the process industry is developed, add ing to the literature a rich case howcasing factors which influence production performance and the impact......The purpose of this research article is to examine the impact of product variety on production performance in the process industry. As the number of product variants sold by a process company typically impacts the run length, production data from a mineral wool insulation manufacturer is analyzed...

  12. Acrylamide in potato crisps prepared from 20 UK-grown varieties: effects of variety and tuber storage time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, J Stephen; Briddon, Adrian; Dodson, Andrew T; Muttucumaru, Nira; Halford, Nigel G; Mottram, Donald S

    2015-09-01

    Twenty varieties of field-grown potato were stored for 2 months and 6 months at 8 °C. Mean acrylamide contents in crisps prepared from all varieties at both storage times ranged from 131 μg/kg in Verdi to 5360 μg/kg in Pentland Dell. In contrast to previous studies, the longer storage period did not affect acrylamide formation significantly for most varieties, the exceptions being Innovator, where acrylamide formation increased, and Saturna, where it decreased. Four of the five varieties designated as suitable for crisping produced crisps with acrylamide levels below the European Commission indicative value of 1000 μg/kg (Saturna, Lady Rosetta, Lady Claire, and Verdi); the exception was Hermes. Two varieties more often used for French fries, Markies and Fontane, also produced crisps with less than 1000 μg/kg acrylamide. Correlations between acrylamide, its precursors and crisp colour are described, and the implications of the results for production of potato crisps are discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Is variety a spice of (an active) life?: perceived variety, exercise behavior, and the mediating role of autonomous motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Benjamin D; Standage, Martyn; Ark, Tavinder K; Sweet, Shane N; Crocker, Peter R; Zumbo, Bruno D; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we examined whether perceived variety in exercise prospectively predicts unique variance in exercise behavior when examined alongside satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs (for competence, relatedness, and autonomy) embedded within self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2002), through the mediating role of autonomous and controlled motivation. A convenience sample of community adults (N = 363) completed online questionnaires twice over a 6-week period. The results of structural equation modeling showed perceived variety and satisfaction of the needs for competence and relatedness to be unique indirect positive predictors of exercise behavior (through autonomous motivation) 6 weeks later. In addition, satisfaction of the need for autonomy was found to negatively predict controlled motivation. Perceived variety in exercise complemented satisfaction of the needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy in predicting motivation and (indirectly) exercise behavior, and may act as a salient mechanism in the prediction of autonomous motivation and behavior in exercise settings.

  14. Acoustic Evaluation as a Variety of Text Metonymy

    OpenAIRE

    Ella V. Nesterik; Anna D. Matrossova

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with sensorial evaluation, namely, acoustic evaluation as a text-forming category, studied in terms of text linguistics and text stylistics. Acoustic evaluation is considered as a variety of text metonymy, a sort of stylistic device expressing characters’ emotional state and time perception metonymically

  15. Frobenius splitting and geometry of $G$-Schubert varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Xuhua; Thomsen, Jesper Funch

    2008-01-01

    Let X be an equivariant embedding of a connected reductive group G over an algebraically closed field k of positive characteristic. Let B denote a Borel subgroup of G. A G-Schubert variety in X is a subvariety of the form diag(G) V , where V is a B×B -orbit closure in X. In the case where X is th...

  16. Farmers, seeds and varieties : supporting informal seed supply in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, M.H.; Bishaw, Z.; Beshir, A.; Boef, de W.S.

    2008-01-01

    Ethiopia is characterized by an enormous diversity in agro-ecosystems, crops and varieties, with the informal seed systems dominant in seed supply for almost all crops. The book addresses strategies and approaches through which professionals can support informal seed supply, and links these with the

  17. fleshed sweetpotato varieties in the lake zone of tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potato Centre (CIP) was a result of recognising the negative health effects of vitamin A deficiency in Tanzania. ... Mafutha and Japon tresimesino gave poor yields. .... the orange varieties can lead to sustainable solution ... addressing problems associated with Vitamin A ..... important when considering the eating habits of.

  18. Response of yellow flowering magnolia varieties to powdery mildew, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellow flowering varieties of Magnolia spp. hybrids were planted in April 2008 in a field plot with Waynesboro loam soil at the Otis L. Floyd Nursery Research Center in McMinnville, TN. Severity of powdery mildew was determined on 14 Jul, 21 Aug and 15 Oct using a scale of 0-100% foliage affected. ...

  19. On a new variety of Leptopoma manadense Pfr

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepman, M.M.

    1899-01-01

    The specimens of a lot of a Leptopoma, collected by Baron von Rosenberg at Gorontalo, Celebes, have the general appearance of some varieties of L. vitreum Lesson, but their columellar margin is simple. I had compared them with the species of the genus known from Celebes, but I could not identify the

  20. (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties from Azerbaijan in Southeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    2013-08-14

    Aug 14, 2013 ... Australian bred cotton (five G. hirsutum L. and one G. barbadense L.) ... Cotton Development Board (CDB) varieties namely CB-1,. CB-5 and CB-9 at four .... temperature is 17.1°C, average rainfall is 369.3 mm and average ...... Meteorological Directorate of Şanliurfa, Monthly Weather Reports,. Şanliurfa.

  1. Lectures on Hilbert modular varieties and modular forms

    CERN Document Server

    Goren, Eyal Z

    2001-01-01

    This book is devoted to certain aspects of the theory of p-adic Hilbert modular forms and moduli spaces of abelian varieties with real multiplication. The theory of p-adic modular forms is presented first in the elliptic case, introducing the reader to key ideas of N. M. Katz and J.-P. Serre. It is re-interpreted from a geometric point of view, which is developed to present the rudiments of a similar theory for Hilbert modular forms. The theory of moduli spaces of abelian varieties with real multiplication is presented first very explicitly over the complex numbers. Aspects of the general theory are then exposed, in particular, local deformation theory of abelian varieties in positive characteristic. The arithmetic of p-adic Hilbert modular forms and the geometry of moduli spaces of abelian varieties are related. This relation is used to study q-expansions of Hilbert modular forms, on the one hand, and stratifications of moduli spaces on the other hand. The book is addressed to graduate students and non-exper...

  2. Regional Sign Language Varieties in Contact: Investigating Patterns of Accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamp, Rose; Schembri, Adam; Evans, Bronwen G.; Cormier, Kearsy

    2016-01-01

    Short-term linguistic accommodation has been observed in a number of spoken language studies. The first of its kind in sign language research, this study aims to investigate the effects of regional varieties in contact and lexical accommodation in British Sign Language (BSL). Twenty-five participants were recruited from Belfast, Glasgow,…

  3. Remarks on Nephrops norvegicus (L.) and its variety Meridionalis zariquiey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuis, L.B.

    1945-01-01

    In 1935 R. Zariquiey Cenarro published a paper in the Spanish language, in which he separated the specimens of Nephrops norvegicus occurring in the Mediterranean and the southern Atlantic Ocean as a separate variety meridionalis from the typical form of the northern Atlantic. In this paper he remark

  4. An Incomplete Contracting Model of Governance Structure Variety in Franchising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); T. Jiang (Tao)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractFor the purpose of explaining governance structure variety in franchising, we explore the impact of governance structure on the incentives to invest in specific assets for the franchisor as well as the distributors. Wholly-owned, wholly-franchised, and mixed (dual distribution) franchise

  5. a technique for identification of intrinsic resistance of maize varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    A new technique used to identify resistant maize varieties to the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais. (Motsch.) infestations is ... unreliable in terms of timely availability, high .... Influence of nutrition on performance of different insects ... that host-plant resistance as a pest control ..... age, diet, female density and host resource.

  6. An Incomplete Contracting Model of Governance Structure Variety in Franchising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); T. Jiang (Tao)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractFor the purpose of explaining governance structure variety in franchising, we explore the impact of governance structure on the incentives to invest in specific assets for the franchisor as well as the distributors. Wholly-owned, wholly-franchised, and mixed (dual distribution) franchise

  7. Geometry of Brill-Noether loci on Prym varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Hoering, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Given the Prym variety of an \\'etale double cover one can define analogues of the classical Brill-Noether loci on Jacobians of curves. Recent work by Lahoz and Naranjo shows that the Brill-Noether locus V^2 completely determines the covering. In this paper we describe the singular locus and the irreducible components of V^2.

  8. Phenotypic and molecular variation in 44 vintage tomato varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important goal of tomato breeding is to create varieties that will provide high quality product for fresh consumption. Traits such as lycopene, total soluble solids (TSS), vitamin C and titratable acidity (TA) are major components of fruit flavor and quality. Although several-thousand genotypes a...

  9. Pedagogic Implications of Regionally-Determined Varieties of Cameroon English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubanako, Valentine Njende

    2011-01-01

    With much regional variation in Cameroon English, language learning and teaching becomes very much affected in Cameroon. As the same users make use of the various forms of English as the changing circumstances require, it becomes more and more difficult for them to make clear distinctions between the varieties, and somehow all of these varieties…

  10. New technique for identifying varieties resistance to rice blast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUPeiliang

    1994-01-01

    After 8 yrs lab experiments and field tests, an advanced technique for identifying varieties resistance to rice blast was developed by a research group in Plant Protection Institute, Zhejiang Academy of AgricuLltural Sciences. With this technique, the inoculum was prepared on a maizc-rice-straw-agar media which was suitable for sporulation of most rice blast pathogen isolates.

  11. The Different Varieties of the Suyama-Yamaguchi Consistency Relation

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Yeinzon

    2013-01-01

    We present the different consistency relations that can be seen as variations of the well known Suyama-Yamaguchi (SY) consistency relation \\tau_{NL} \\geqslant (\\frac{6}{5} f_{NL})^2, the latter involving the levels of non-gaussianity f_{NL} and \\tau_{NL} in the primordial curvature perturbation \\zeta, they being scale-invariant. We explicitly state under which conditions the SY consistency relation has been claimed to hold in its different varieties (implicitly) presented in the literature since its inception back in 2008; as a result, we show for the first time that the variety \\tau_{NL} ({\\bf k}_1, {\\bf k}_1) \\geqslant (\\frac{6}{5} f_{NL} ({\\bf k}_1))^2, which we call "the fifth variety", is always satisfied even when there is strong scale-dependence and high levels of statistical anisotropy as long as statistical homogeneity holds: thus, an observed violation of this specific variety would prevent the comparison between theory and observation, shaking this way the foundations of cosmology as a science.

  12. Science Letters: Nutritional composition of Pakistani wheat varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Pakistani wheat varieties are grown over a wide agro-climatic range and as such are anticipated to exhibit yield and quality differences. It is therefore necessary to investigate the nutritional status of wheat varieties in terms of biochemical and physiochemical characteristics available for food and nutritional purposes in Pakistan. The result shows that wheat grains of different varieties contain a net protein level of 9.15%~10.27%, 2.15%~2.55% total fats, 1.72%~1.85% dietary fibers,77.65×10-6~84.25×10-6 of potassium and 7.70× 10 6~35.90× 10-6 of sodium ions concentration, 0.24× 10-6~0.84× 10-6 of phosphorus, 1.44%~2.10% ash, 31.108~43.602 g of thousand grain mass (TGM) and 8.38%~9.67% moisture contents. This study is significant in providing an opportunity to explore the available wheat varieties and to further improve their nutritional excellence and also essential for setting nutritional regulations for domestic and export purposes.

  13. University of Florida potato variety trials spotlight: 'Peter Wilcox'

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Peter Wilcox’ is a fresh market potato variety selected from progeny of a cross between B0810-1 and B0918-5, and tested under the pedigree B1816-5 by K.G. Haynes. It was jointly released by United States Department of Agriculture, North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, Agricultural Experimen...

  14. University of Florida potato variety trials spotlight: 'Harley Blackwell'

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Harley Blackwell’ is a potato variety that is commonly grown for the potato chip market. It was selected from the progeny of a cross between B0155-24 and B9935-8, and tested under the pedigree B0564-8. It was released and named jointly by the Agricultural Research Service, United States Department ...

  15. On the Picard group of a compact flat projective variety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michelacakis, NJ

    1996-01-01

    In this note, we describe the Picard group of the class of compact, smooth, flat, projective varieties. In view of Charlap's work and Johnson's characterization, we construct line bundles over such manifolds as the holonomy-invariant elements of the Neron-Severi group of a projective flat torus cove

  16. The Geometry on Smooth Toroidal Compactifications of Siegel varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Yau, Shing-Tung

    2012-01-01

    This is a part of our joint program. The purpose of this paper is to study smooth toroidal compactifications of Siegel varieties and their applications, we also try to understand the K\\"ahler-Einstein metrics on Siegel varieties through the compactifications. Let $A_{g,\\Gamma}:=H_g/\\Gamma$ be a Siegel variety, where $H_g$ is the genus-$g$ Siegel space and $\\Gamma$ is an arithmetic subgroup in $\\Aut(H_g)$. There are four aspects of this paper : 1.There is a correspondence between the category of degenerations of Abelian varieties and the category of limits of weight one Hodge structures. We show that any cusp of Siegel space $\\frak{H}_g$ can be identified with the set of certain weight one polarized mixed Hodge structures. 2.In general, the boundary of a smooth toroidal compactification $\\bar{A}_{g,\\Gamma}$ of $A_{g,\\Gamma}$ has self-intersections.For most geometric applications, we would like to have a nice toroidal compactification such that the added infinity boundary $D_\\infty =\\bar{A}_{g,\\Gamma}-A_{g,\\Gam...

  17. Genetic diversity among varieties and wild species accessions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... Key words: Genetic diversity, SSR, Pisum, cluster analysis, assignment test. INTRODUCTION ... phological characters and (or) molecular techniques (Ellis et al., 1998; Hoey et ..... Associations among 57 wild Pisum accessions and 20 varieties were ..... repeats (SSRs) in cultivated Brassica species. Theor.

  18. Abelian extensions of algebras in congruence-modular varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Rowan, William H.

    2000-01-01

    We define abelian extensions of algebras in congruence-modular varieties. The theory is sufficiently general that it includes, in a natural way, extensions of R-modules for a ring R. We also define a cohomology theory, which we call clone cohomology, such that the cohomology group in dimension one is the group of equivalence classes of extensions.

  19. On the rank of abelian varieties over function fields

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, Amilcar

    2004-01-01

    Let $\\cac$ be a smooth projective curve defined over a number field $k$, $A/k(\\cac)$ an abelian variety and $(\\tau,B)$ the $k(\\cac)/k$-trace of $A$. We estimate how the rank of $A(k(\\cac))/\\tau B(k)$ varies when we take a finite cover $\\pi:\\cac'\\to\\cac$ defined over $k$ geometrically abelian.

  20. Formal independence of regulatory agencies and Varieties of Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardiancich, Igor; Guidi, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    The Varieties of Capitalism literature posits that national economic institutions reflect the mode of coordination of a country’s market actors. Despite the importance of this claim and a rich literature on the emergence of regulatory capitalism, few studies test such prediction for Independent...

  1. Quality Evaluation of Processed Products of some Peach Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Lămureanu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The peach tree is among one of the most valuable species cultivated both in Romania and abroad, being very much appreciated for the quality of its fruit, both fresh and processed.  The peach tree provides fresh fruit a large period (June-November. This allows for a rhythmical and prolonged supply with fresh fruit of the factories that process fruits. This paper has as purpose the establishing of the viability for processing into stewed fruit, comfiture, jam and nectar of nine varieties of peach: Catherine, Mimi, Southland, Narajnai ramai, Royal vee, Filip, Redhaven, Raluca and Collins. The peaches, provided from experimental plots of Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta, were processed in micro production laboratory of Research Institute for Processing of the Horticultural Products, Bucharest. The sensorial analysis of the product was carried out according to the STAS 12656-88, which establishes the analysis methods with unitary scales of points (method A, methods used in the evaluation of the organoleptic characteristics of alimentary products. These methods are applied in order to appreciate a set of organoleptic properties: aspect, colour, taste, texture or consistence. Among the nine varieties of fruits peach was highlighting the variety Narajnai ramai, which recieved maximum score (20.00 points for comfiture and jam and a total average score of 19.88 for stewed fruits and 19.77 for nectar. This variety, together with the varieties Mimi and Catherine  obtained the score “very good” for all four types of canned analyzed: comfiture, jam, compote and nectar. The worse results were obtained by the variety Collins, which is less suitable for processing. After organoleptic testing, it received the score “good” for products comfiture and jam and the score “satisfactory” for products nectar and stewed fruits. The results presented in this  research work showed that the organoleptic characteristics of fresh fruits influences

  2. BREAD-MAKING QUALITY OF SLOVAK AND SERBIAN WHEAT VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Bojňanská

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The basic prerequisite for the production of bakery products of a good quality is the knowledge of the quality parameters of raw materials introduced in the production process and the ability to use their potential. The bread making properties of 17 pure European wheat cultivars were analysed. Baking experiments were carried out according to the methodology of the research workplace; 1000 g of flour was processed with the addition of salt, sugar and yeast. Fermentation for 35 minutes at 30 ° C was followed by the baking with steaming (at 240 ° C and then 220 ° C. During an experimental baking test the selected parameters: loaf volume (cm3, specific loaf volume (cm3.100g-1 loaf, volume efficiency (cm3.100g-1 flour, cambering (loaf height/width ratio, bread yield (%, bread yield baking loss (% in bread were evaluated. Loaf volume has been considered as the most important criterion for the bread-making quality. In the analysed samples (11 varieties of Slovak origin and 6 varieties of Serbian origin, the value of this parameter ranged from 3575 cm3 to 5575 cm3 with higher values occurred in Slovak varieties (average 4 640.91 cm3 compared to the Serbian varieties (average 4 363.33 cm3. Based on the complex evaluation of wheat varieties of the Slovak and Serbian origin assessing the selected quality parameters of the baking experiment it can be concluded that in terms of baking quality the three Slovak varieties IS Ezopus, Bonavita and Jarissa were the best. Therefore, they are recommended for cultivation and their subsequent use in the baking industry, in particular for the production of bread According to a baking quality the evaluated varieties can be sorted from best to worst in the following order: IS Ezopus (SK > Bonavita (SK > Jarissa (SK > IS Questor > Etida (SRB > Venistar (SK > Renesansa (SRB > IS Conditor (SK > IS Corvinus (SK > Zvezdana (SRB > Simonida (SRB > Viglanka (SK > IS Agape (SK > NS 40S (SRB > Panonnija (SRB > IS Escoria (SK

  3. Physical, Chemicals and Flavors of Some Varieties of Arabica Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Export of Arabica coffee was 28,100 tons/year or 8.28% total export of Indonesian coffee, most of them are specialty coffee. Beside their origin, variety and determine the of physical, chemical and flavors characters. The promising clones or varieties i.e. BP 416A, BP 418A, BP 430A, BP 431A, BP 432A, BP 507A, BP 508A, BP 509A, BP 511A, BP 513A, BP 516A, BP 517A and BP 518A still not be determined their quality This research was conducted to analyze their physicals, chemicals and flavors during 2 periods of harvesting (2004 and 2005, using AS 1, S 795 and USDA 762 as the control. Mature coffee berry was harvested, sorted manually, and depulped, cleaned manually and then fermented in plastic sacks during 36 hours. The fermented parchment was washed, and then sun dried, dehulled to get green coffee. Observations wre conducted on green coffee yield, husk content, color of green coffee, distribution of size, bulk density of green and roasted coffee, roasting characters, color of roasted beans, and pH, acidity and flavors. The results showed (a The lowest content of husk was BP 432A and the highest was USDA 762. The control varieties of AS 1, S 795 and USDA 762, showed husk content >15%, while those potential varieties were < 15% except BP 416A. (b Beans size >6,5 mm and more than 80% were BP 416A, BP 430A, BP 432A, BP 509A, P 88 and S 795. Green coffee of BP 430A, BP 432A and BP 509A were uniform, but S 795 was not uniform. AS 1 and BP 416A and P 88 was one group; S 795 was one group with BP 542A; BP 509 was a group with BP 432A; but BP4 30A and USDA 762 were the other groups. (c Green coffee of USDA 762 was the palest color, but BP 542A was the darkest color. AS 1 and S 795 were a group with all potential varieties, except BP 542A. (d Roasted coffee of USDA 762 was the palest color and AS 1 was the darkest. In this case, AS 1 was a group with BP 430A, BP 509A and P 88, while S 795 was a group with BP 416A and BP 432A, but USDA 762 and BP 542A were

  4. Phenotypic Diversity of Farmers’ Traditional Rice Varieties in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel C. Rabara

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional rice varieties maintained and cultivated by farmers are likely sources of germplasm for breeding new rice varieties. They possess traits potentially adaptable to a wide range of abiotic and biotic stresses. Characterization of these germplasms is essential in rice breeding and provides valued information on developing new rice cultivars. In this study, 307 traditional rice varieties newly conserved at the PhilRice genebank were characterized to assess their phenotypic diversity using 57 morphological traits. Using the standardized Shannon-Weaver diversity index, phenotypic diversity indices averaged at 0.73 and 0.45 for quantitative and qualitative traits, respectively. Correlation analyses among agro-morphological traits showed a high positive correlation in some traits such as culm number and panicle number, flag leaf width and leaf blade width, grain width and caryopsis width. Cluster analysis separated the different varieties into various groups. Principal component analysis (PCA showed that seven independent principal components accounted for 74.95% of the total variation. Component loadings for each principal component showed morphological characters, such as culm number, panicle number and caryopsis ratio that were among the phenotypic traits contributing positive projections in three principal components that explained 48% of variation. Analyses of results showed high diversity in major traits assessed in farmers’ rice varieties. Based on plant height and maturity, 11 accessions could be potential donor parents in a rice breeding program. Future collection trips and characterization studies would further enrich diversity, in particular traits low in diversity, such as anthocyanin coloration, awn presence, awn color, culm habit, panicle type and panicle branching.

  5. Anticarcinogenic effects of polyphenolics from mango (Mangifera indica) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noratto, Giuliana D; Bertoldi, Michele C; Krenek, Kimberley; Talcott, Stephen T; Stringheta, Paulo C; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2010-04-14

    Many polyphenolics contained in mango have shown anticancer activity. The objective of this study was to compare the anticancer properties of polyphenolic extracts from several mango varieties (Francis, Kent, Ataulfo, Tommy Atkins, and Haden) in cancer cell lines, including Molt-4 leukemia, A-549 lung, MDA-MB-231 breast, LnCap prostate, and SW-480 colon cancer cells and the noncancer colon cell line CCD-18Co. Cell lines were incubated with Ataulfo and Haden extracts, selected on the basis of their superior antioxidant capacity compared to the other varieties, where SW-480 and MOLT-4 were statistically equally most sensitive to both cultivars followed by MDA-MB-231, A-549, and LnCap in order of decreasing efficacy as determined by cell counting. The efficacy of extracts from all mango varieties in the inhibition of cell growth was tested in SW-480 colon carcinoma cells, where Ataulfo and Haden demonstrated superior efficacy, followed by Kent, Francis, and Tommy Atkins. At 5 mg of GAE/L, Ataulfo inhibited the growth of colon SW-480 cancer cells by approximately 72% while the growth of noncancer colonic myofibroblast CCD-18Co cells was not inhibited. The growth inhibition exerted by Ataulfo and Haden polyphenolics in SW-480 was associated with an increased mRNA expression of pro-apoptotic biomarkers and cell cycle regulators, cell cycle arrest, and a decrease in the generation of reactive oxygen species. Overall, polyphenolics from several mango varieties exerted anticancer effects, where compounds from Haden and Ataulfo mango varieties possessed superior chemopreventive activity.

  6. The Role of the Colloquial Varieties in the Acquisition of the Standard Variety: The Case of Arabic Heritage Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albirini, Abdulkafi

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the acquisition of Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) by second language (L2) learners and by heritage speakers of the colloquial varieties of Arabic. The study focused on three questions: (1) whether heritage speakers who enroll in college-level elementary MSA classes have an advantage over their L2 counterparts, (2) whether any…

  7. The Role of the Colloquial Varieties in the Acquisition of the Standard Variety: The Case of Arabic Heritage Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albirini, Abdulkafi

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the acquisition of Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) by second language (L2) learners and by heritage speakers of the colloquial varieties of Arabic. The study focused on three questions: (1) whether heritage speakers who enroll in college-level elementary MSA classes have an advantage over their L2 counterparts, (2) whether any…

  8. Improved Phytophthora resistance in commercial chickpea (Cicer arietinum) varieties negatively impacts symbiotic gene signalling and symbiotic potential in some varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plett, Jonathan M; Plett, Krista L; Bithell, Sean L; Mitchell, Chris; Moore, Kevin; Powell, Jeff R; Anderson, Ian C

    2016-08-01

    Breeding disease-resistant varieties is one of the most effective and economical means to combat soilborne diseases in pulse crops. Commonalities between pathogenic and mutualistic microbe colonization strategies, however, raises the concern that reduced susceptibility to pathogens may simultaneously reduce colonization by beneficial microbes. We investigate here the degree of overlap in the transcriptional response of the Phytophthora medicaginis susceptible chickpea variety 'Sonali' to the early colonization stages of either Phytophthora, rhizobial bacteria or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. From a total of 6476 genes differentially expressed in Sonali roots during colonization by any of the microbes tested, 10.2% were regulated in a similar manner regardless of whether it was the pathogenic oomycete or a mutualistic microbe colonizing the roots. Of these genes, 49.7% were oppositely regulated under the same conditions in the moderately Phytophthora resistant chickpea variety 'PBA HatTrick'. Chickpea varieties with improved resistance to Phytophthora also displayed lower colonization by rhizobial bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi leading to an increased reliance on N and P from soil. Together, our results suggest that marker-based breeding in crops such as chickpea should be further investigated such that plant disease resistance can be tailored to a specific pathogen without affecting mutualistic plant:microbe interactions.

  9. LANGUAGE VARIETIES IN GRIME VALLEY JAYAPURA Regional Dialectological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRIST FAUTNGIL

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A regional dialectological study is a research of mapping languages in anarea, as what conducted in this study in Grime Valley Jayapura. This research isbased on the theory of traditional dialectology currently known as a theory havingnormative rules to determine the status of a variety as a language, dialect, subdialect,difference in speaking and no difference in speaking, both in the valleyand outside the valley.The two language aspects employed as indicators are sound and lexicalaspects. What is discussed from these two aspects is variation. In terms of soundaspect, discussion of variation covers sound description, correspondence, andcalculation of sound distance from dialectometrie, phoneme inventory, andphoneme distribution. In terms of lexical aspect, lexical distribution andcalculation of vocabulary distance from lexical dialectometrie are discussed. Afterthat, varieties are classified, groupings of phonological and lexical varieties arecompared, and the status of every variety, as a language, a dialect, sub-dialect andso on is identified.Phonological study shows variation in correspondence aspect, calculationof sound distance, inventory, and phoneme distribution. Correspondence hasvarious variations such as the existence of irregular sound which is unpredictableon each point of observation. Calculation of sound distance shows a difference,but the difference is limited to the point in which there is no difference inspeaking. The inventory and distribution contain differences in number, type andexistence of given phonemes.Lexical study shows varied distribution at the middle and outskirts of theValley. The calculation of vocabulary distance shows that there is no difference inlanguage. Groupings of phonological and lexical varieties are different in numberbut identical in the points of observation. If identified in terms of language anddialect for the four varieties, namely Nimboran, Gresi, Kwansu and Kemtuk, itturns out that there are

  10. Differential forms on singular varieties and cyclic homology

    CERN Document Server

    Brasselet, J P; Brasselet, Jean-Paul; Legrand, André

    1996-01-01

    A classical result of A. Connes asserts that the Frechet algebra of smooth functions on a smooth compact manifold X provides, by a purely algebraic procedure, the de Rham cohomology of X. Namely the procedure uses Hochschild and cyclic homology of this algebra. In the situation of a Thom-Mather stratified variety, we construct a Frechet algebra of functions on the regular part and a module of poles along the singular part. We associate to these objects a complex of differential forms and an Hochschild complex, on the regular part, both with poles along the singular part. The de Rham cohomology of the first complex and the cylic homology of the second one are related to the intersection homology of the variety, the corresponding perversity is determined by the orders of poles.

  11. [Breeding of new Curcuma wenyujin variety "Wenyujin No. 1"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zheng-Ming; Jiang, Wu; Zheng, Fu-Bo; Wu, Zhi-Gang

    2014-10-01

    In order to breed and spread a new cultivar of Curcuma wenyujin, the C. wenyujin germplasm resources were investigated in authentic regions. Better varieties were chosen by comparing the yield, economic characters and quality differences between different cultivars. The results showed that the character of new selected cultivar was stable, the yield of zedoary, turmeric and curcuma was reached 313.7, 177.9, 91.2 kg per 667 m2, respectively, it increased 11.6%, 10.2%, 14.2% comparing with farmer varieties. The volatile oil contents in zedoary and turmeric was 4.0%, 3.0%, respectively. The target ingredients (germacrone) content was stable. It is demonstrated that the new cultivar "Wenyujin No. 1" has value for extension at authentic regions.

  12. PROPERTY-OWNING DEMOCRACY AND VARIETIES OF CAPITALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Martins Zanitelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article brings together two fields of the literature. One of them, inspired by John Rawls’ writings on liberal-egalitarian justice and types of institutional regimes, argues for capitalism reform through predistributive policies in the style of what Rawls, following the British economist James Meade, names “property-owning democracy”. The other is “varieties of capitalism”, a scholarship comparing capitalist production systems on the basis of the strategies employed by firms in order to fulfill their “core competencies” and the complementarities between distinct features of each production system. The goal is to bring into light differences and challenges to the realization of property-owning democracy’s predistributive policies under the circumstances of three varieties of capitalism: liberal, coordinated and hierarchical.

  13. Irreducible components of module varieties: projective equations and rationality

    CERN Document Server

    Huisgen-Zimmermann, B

    2011-01-01

    We expand the existing arsenal of methods for exploring the irreducible components of the varieties $Rep(A,\\bold d)$ which parametrize the representations with dimension vector $\\bold d$ of a finite dimensional algebra $A$. To do so, we move back and forth between $Rep(A,\\bold d)$ and a projective variety, $GRASS(A,\\bold d)$, parametrizing the same set of isomorphism classes of modules. In particular, we show the irreducible components to be accessible in a highly compressed format within the projective setting. Our results include necessary and sufficient conditions for unirationality, smoothness, and normality, followed by applications. Moreover, they provide equational access to the irreducible components of $GRASS(A,\\bold d)$ and techniques for deriving qualitative information regarding both the affine and projective scenarios.

  14. Potential for yield in red clover (Trifolium pratense L. varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Red clover (Trifolium pratense L. is botanically a perennial, although it often behaves as a biennial. The crop usually lives 2 to 3 seasons in most clover-growing regions of the world and is generally conceded to be lacking in persistence. The objective of this investigation was to analyze the production potential and persistence of domestic and imported red clover varieties. Experiments were conducted at Rimski Šančevi Experiment Field during the period 2004-2006. The experimental materials were six varieties (K-17, Kolubara, Una, Viola, Start, Nike which were analyzed for the most important production characteristics: yield of green mass, dry matter yield and persistence. .

  15. Poset pinball, GKM-compatible subspaces, and Hessenberg varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Harada, Megumi

    2010-01-01

    This paper has three main goals. First, we set up a general framework to address the problem of constructing module bases for the equivariant cohomology of certain subspaces of GKM spaces. To this end we introduce the notion of a GKM-compatible subspace of an ambient GKM space. We also discuss poset-upper-triangularity, a key combinatorial notion in both GKM theory and more generally in localization theory in equivariant cohomology. With a view toward other applications, we present parts of our setup in a general algebraic and combinatorial framework. Second, motivated by our central problem of building module bases, we introduce a combinatorial game which we dub poset pinball and illustrate with several examples. Finally, as first applications, we apply the perspective of GKM-compatible subspaces and poset pinball to construct explicit and computationally convenient module bases for the $S^1$-equivariant cohomology of all Peterson varieties of classical Lie type, and subregular Springer varieties of Lie type...

  16. Algebraic deformations of toric varieties II. Noncommutative instantons

    CERN Document Server

    Cirio, Lucio; Szabo, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    We continue our study of the noncommutative algebraic and differential geometry of a particular class of deformations of toric varieties, focusing on aspects pertinent to the construction and enumeration of noncommutative instantons on these varieties. We develop a noncommutative version of twistor theory, which introduces a new example of a noncommutative four-sphere. We develop a braided version of the ADHM construction and show that it parametrizes a certain moduli space of framed torsion free sheaves on a noncommutative projective plane. We use these constructions to explicitly build instanton gauge bundles with canonical connections on the noncommutative four-sphere that satisfy appropriate anti-selfduality equations. We construct projective moduli spaces for the torsion free sheaves and demonstrate that they are smooth. We define equivariant partition functions of these moduli spaces, finding that they coincide with the usual instanton partition functions for supersymmetric gauge theories on C^2.

  17. Dihedral Galois covers of algebraic varieties and the simple cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanese, , Fabrizio; Perroni, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    In this article we investigate the algebra and geometry of dihedral covers of smooth algebraic varieties. To this aim we first describe the Weil divisors and the Picard group of divisorial sheaves on normal double covers. Then we provide a structure theorem for dihedral covers, that is, given a smooth variety Y, we describe the algebraic ;building data; on Y which are equivalent to the existence of such covers π : X → Y. We introduce then two special very explicit classes of dihedral covers: the simple and the almost simple dihedral covers, and we determine their basic invariants. For the simple dihedral covers we also determine their natural deformations. In the last section we give an application to fundamental groups.

  18. [Ecological regionalization of cotton varieties based on GGE biplot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nai-Yin; Zhang, Guo-Wei; Li, Jian; Zhou, Zhi-guo

    2013-03-01

    By using the heritability-adjusted GGE biplot analysis method, and taking the trial sites Anqing, Nanyang, Huanggang, Jingzhou, Wuhan, Xiangyang, Changde, Yueyang, Nanjing, Nantong, Yancheng, Jiujiang, Jianyang, Shehong, and Cixi as the representative cotton-planting areas in the Yangtze River basin, the ecological regionalization of cotton varieties in the basin was made based on the lint cotton yield, and the regionalization results were adjusted by the information ratio (IR) method, aimed to provide scientific basis for the selection of cotton varieties in the cotton-planting areas of the basin. The cotton-planting areas in the Yangtze River basin could be divided into three ecological regions, i.e., the "Sichuan basin cotton region" with Jianyang and Shehong as the representative, the "Nan-Xiang basin cotton region" with Xiangyang and Nanyang as the representative, and the "majority complex cotton region in the Yangtze River basin" including all the other sites in the basin.

  19. Heights of varieties in multiprojective spaces and arithmetic Nullstellensatze

    CERN Document Server

    D'Andrea, Carlos; Sombra, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We present bounds for the degree and the height of the polynomials arising in some central problems in effective algebraic geometry including the implicitation of rational maps and the effective Nullstellensatz over a variety. Our treatment is based on arithmetic intersection theory in products of projective spaces and extends to the arithmetic setting constructions and results due to Jelonek. A key role is played by the notion of canonical mixed heights of multiprojective varieties. We study this notion from the point of view of resultant theory and establish some of its basic properties, including its behavior with respect to intersections, projections and products. We obtain analogous results for the function field case, including a parametric Nullstellensatz.

  20. Quantum mechanics and the principle of maximal variety

    CERN Document Server

    Smolin, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Quantum mechanics is derived from the principle that the universe contain as much variety as possible, in the sense of maximizing the distinctiveness of each subsystem. The quantum state of a microscopic system is defined to correspond to an ensemble of subsystems of the universe with identical constituents and similar preparations and environments. A new kind of interaction is posited amongst such similar subsystems which acts to increase their distinctiveness, by extremizing the variety. In the limit of large numbers of similar subsystems this interaction is shown to give rise to Bohm's quantum potential. As a result the probability distribution for the ensemble is governed by the Schroedinger equation. The measurement problem is naturally and simply solved. Microscopic systems appear statistical because they are members of large ensembles of similar systems which interact non-locally. Macroscopic systems are unique, and are not members of any ensembles of similar systems. Consequently their collective coor...

  1. An exploration of loyalty determinants in Greek wine varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a deeper understanding of the market structure of red This paper aims to provide a deeper understanding of the market structure of red and white wines from Greek wine varieties and measure loyalty behaviour of frequent wine buyers in Greece. Design....../methodology: The study concerned measuring brand performance and loyalty of 4 The study concerned measuring brand performance and loyalty of 4 different Greek wine varieties. Based on stated preference data, basic brand performance measures are estimated through Juster purchase probabilities of brand choice. To measure...... loyalty behaviour, the polarisation index (phi) is used as a measure to model loyalty both at the brand name and specific wine attributes and attribute-levels. Findings: The findings of the present study point to the conclusion that each one of the four The findings of the present study point...

  2. Green's-Like Relations on Algebras and Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Denecke

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There are five equivalence relations known as Green's relations definable on any semigroup or monoid, that is, on any algebra with a binary operation which is associative. In this paper, we examine whether Green's relations can be defined on algebras of any type τ. Some sort of (super-associativity is needed for such definitions to work, and we consider algebras which are clones of terms of type τ, where the clone axioms including superassociativity hold. This allows us to define for any variety V of type τ two Green's-like relations ℒV and ℛV on the term clone of type τ. We prove a number of properties of these two relations, and describe their behaviour when V is a variety of semigroups.

  3. Combinatorial realizations of crystals via torus actions on quiver varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Sam, Steven V

    2012-01-01

    Consider Kashiwara's crystal associated to a highest weight representation of a symmetric Kac--Moody algebra. There is a geometric realization of this object using Nakajima's quiver varieties. In many particular cases it can also be realized by elementary combinatorial methods. Here we propose a framework for extracting combinatorial realizations from the geometric picture: we construct certain torus actions on the quiver varieties and use Morse theory to index the irreducible components by connected components of the subvariety of torus fixed points. We then discuss the case of affine sl(n). There the fixed point components are just points, and are naturally indexed by multi-partitions. There is some choice in our construction, leading to a family of combinatorial realizations for each highest weight crystal. In the case of the crystal of the fundamental representation we recover a family of realizations which was recently constructed by Fayers. This gives a more conceptual proof of Fayers' result as well as...

  4. Identification of rice seed varieties using neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhao-yan; CHENG Fang; YING Yi-bin; RAO Xiu-qin

    2005-01-01

    A digital image analysis algorithm based color and morphological features was developed to identify the six varieties (ey7954, syz3, xs1 1, xy5968, xy9308, z903) rice seeds which are widely planted in Zhejiang Province. Seven color and fourteen morphological features were used for discriminant analysis. Two hundred and forty kernels used as the training data set and sixty kernels as the test data set in the neural network used to identify rice seed varieties. When the model was tested on the test data set,the identification accuracies were 90.00%, 88.00%, 95.00%, 82.00%, 74.00%, 80.00% for ey7954, syz3, xsl 1, xy5968, xy9308,z903 respectively.

  5. Cohomology of Standard Modules on Partial Flag Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchen, S N

    2011-01-01

    Cohomological induction gives an algebraic method for constructing representations of a real reductive Lie group $G$ from irreducible representations of reductive subgroups. Beilinson-Bernstein localization alternatively gives a geometric method for constructing Harish-Chandra modules for $G$ from certain representations of a Cartan subgroup. The duality theorem of Hecht, Mili\\vci\\'c, Schmid and Wolf establishes a relationship between modules cohomologically induced from minimal parabolics and the cohomology of the $\\ms{D}$-modules on the complex flag variety for $G$ determined by the Beilinson-Bernstein construction. The main results of this paper give a generalization of the duality theorem to partial flag varieties, which recovers cohomologically induced modules arising from nonminimal parabolics.

  6. Systems of elements preserving measure on varieties of groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timoshenko, E I [Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-31

    It is proved that for any l, 1≤l≤r, a system of elements (v{sub 1},…,v{sub l}) of a free metabelian group S of rank r≥2 is primitive if and only if it preserves measure on the variety of metabelian groups A{sup 2}. From this we obtain the result that a system of elements (v{sub 1},…,v{sub l}) is primitive in the group S if and only if it is primitive in its profinite completion S-hat . Furthermore, it is proved that there exist a variety M and a nonprimitive element v∈F{sub r}(M) such that v preserves measure on M. Bibliography: 13 titles.

  7. Natural spread of Citrus tristeza virus in lemon varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Figueroa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural spread of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV was monitored in different lemon varieties derived from shoot tip grafted (STG selections proven to be free of CTV before planting. The trial was planted in November, 2007, with a randomized four-block design with four replications. This experiment was originally established to compare selected clones with their duplicates recovered by STG. The selected clones were originally nucellar clones kept in the germplasm bank in the field for 30 to 40 years, so the plants were naturally infected with CTV. The lemon varieties tested were two lines of both Frost Eureka and Limoneira 8A Lisbon and one line of Feminello Santa Teresa and Genoa EEAT. Plants were grafted on Poncirus trifoliata Flying Dragon, except for Eureka lemon, which was grafted on 79 AC [Citrus reshni x (C. paradisi x P. Trifoliata]. Direct immunoprinting-ELISA with 3DF1+3CA5 monoclonal antibodies (Plant Print Diagnostics, Valencia was used to determine the presence of CTV in field samples. Each sample was composed of four young shoots collected from the four sides of each tree. Two diagnoses were performed, one in September 2009 and another in September 2010. STG trees showed significant differences in CTV infection among them. The variety most infected with CTV was Limoneria 8 A and the least infected was Feminello Santa Teresa. Infected plants were found in a random distribution in the plot. All selected lemon trees were CTV positive. CTV spread will be monitored until 100% of all varieties show positive.

  8. Analytic varieties with finite volume amoebas are algebraic

    CERN Document Server

    Madani, Farid

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the amoeba volume of a given $k-$dimensional generic analytic variety $V$ of the complex algebraic torus $(\\C^*)^n$. When $n\\geq 2k$, we show that $V$ is algebraic if and only if the volume of its amoeba is finite. In this precise case, we establish a comparison theorem for the volume of the amoeba and the coamoeba. Examples and applications to the $k-$linear spaces will be given.

  9. Improvement of tomato local varieties by grafting in organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marta M.; Villena, Jaime; Moreno, Carmen; García, Arántzazu M.; Mancebo, Ignacio; Meco, Ramón

    2015-04-01

    Grafting is the union of two or more pieces of living plant tissue that grow as a single plant. The early use of grafted vegetables was associated with protected cultivation which involves successive cropping (Lee et al., 2010). For this reason, in the past, grafting was used with vegetable crops to limit the effects of soil-borne diseases. However, the reasons for grafting as well as the kinds of vegetable grafted have increased considerably over the years. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), one of the most important horticultural crops in the world, the effect of grafting has also been widely studied. These effects on commercial tomato varieties can be summarized in increasing plant vigor and crop yield or inducing tolerance to abiotic stresses, although the effects on tomato fruit quality or on the sensory properties are not so patent (David et al., 2008). However, a few studies about the effect of grafting on local tomato varieties, which are especially recommended for organic production in spite of their lower yields in many cases, have been developed. In this work we evaluated the effect of grafting on tomato local varieties under organic management using vigorous commercial rootstocks, and aspects related to vigor, yield and tomato fruit composition were analyzed. In general terms, grafting increased the plant vigor, the crop yield and the fruit antioxidant content, although no modification of morphological fruit attributes was observed. Keywords: grafting, Solanum lycopersicum L., local varieties, organic farming. References: Davis A.R., Perkins-Veazie P., Hassell R., Levi A., King S.R., Zhang X. 2008. Grafting effects on vegetable quality. HortScience 43(6): 1670-1671. Lee J.M., Kubota C., Tsao S.J., Bie Z., Hoyos-Echevarría P., Morra L., Oda M. 2010. Current status of vegetable grafting: Diffusion, grafting techniques, automation. Scientia Horticulturae 127: 93-105.

  10. Identification of rice varieties tolerant to photooxidation and shading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAODemao; TONGHongyu; ZHANGTianxi

    1994-01-01

    Long time exposure of rice plants to strong light will cause leaves chlorosis due to photooxidation,while the long time exposure to weak light will do them shading. Six varieties-indica hybrid rice Shanyou 63 and its parents Minghui 63 and Zhenshan 97A, indica-japonica hybrid rice Yayou 2 and its parents 02428 and 3037-were identified for their sensibility to photooxidation and shading at the stem elongation stage.

  11. The Brill-Noether curve and Prym-Tyurin varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Ortega, Angela

    2012-01-01

    We prove that the Jacobian of a general curve C of genus g=2a+1, with g>4, can be realized as a Prym-Tyurin variety for the Brill-Noether curve W^1_{a+2}(C). As a consequence of this result we are able to compute the class of the sum of the secant divisors for the curve C, embedded with a complete linear series g^{a-1}_{3a-2}

  12. Variety of neutron sensors based on scintillating glass waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Mary; Craig, Richard A.

    1995-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has fabricated cerium-activated lithium silicate glass scintillating fiber waveguide neutron sensors via a hot-downdraw process. These fibers typically have a transmission length (e-1 length) of greater than 2 meters. The underlying physics of, the properties of, and selected devices incorporating these fibers are described. These fibers constitute an enabling technology for a wide variety of neutron sensors.

  13. Relative constructions in Portuguese varieties: a functional-discursive interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gomes Camacho

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work examines relative constructions in Portuguese varieties based on the principle that Portuguese has a set of relativization strategies that are recognized in typological linguistics as constructions that define related groups of languages. It is postulated that these different strategies, when employed by the same linguistic system, do not really constitute variants of the same syntactic variable, but they are the speaker’s actual choices facing the necessity to perform different social and discursive functions.

  14. Cassava genome from a wild ancestor to cultivated varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenquan; Feng, Binxiao; Xiao, Jingfa; Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xincheng; Li, Pinghua; Zhang, Weixiong; Wang, Ying; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Zhang, Peng; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Xiao, Gong; Liu, Jingxing; Yang, Jun; Chen, Songbi; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Ceballos, Henan; Lou, Qunfeng; Zou, Meiling; Carvalho, Luiz J C B; Zeng, Changying; Xia, Jing; Sun, Shixiang; Fu, Yuhua; Wang, Haiyan; Lu, Cheng; Ruan, Mengbin; Zhou, Shuigeng; Wu, Zhicheng; Liu, Hui; Kannangara, Rubini Maya; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Neale, Rebecca Louise; Bonde, Maya; Heinz, Nanna; Zhu, Wenli; Wang, Shujuan; Zhang, Yang; Pan, Kun; Wen, Mingfu; Ma, Ping-An; Li, Zhengxu; Hu, Meizhen; Liao, Wenbin; Hu, Wenbin; Zhang, Shengkui; Pei, Jinli; Guo, Anping; Guo, Jianchun; Zhang, Jiaming; Zhang, Zhengwen; Ye, Jianqiu; Ou, Wenjun; Ma, Yaqin; Liu, Xinyue; Tallon, Luke J; Galens, Kevin; Ott, Sandra; Huang, Jie; Xue, Jingjing; An, Feifei; Yao, Qingqun; Lu, Xiaojing; Fregene, Martin; López-Lavalle, L Augusto Becerra; Wu, Jiajie; You, Frank M; Chen, Meili; Hu, Songnian; Wu, Guojiang; Zhong, Silin; Ling, Peng; Chen, Yeyuan; Wang, Qinghuang; Liu, Guodao; Liu, Bin; Li, Kaimian; Peng, Ming

    2014-10-10

    Cassava is a major tropical food crop in the Euphorbiaceae family that has high carbohydrate production potential and adaptability to diverse environments. Here we present the draft genome sequences of a wild ancestor and a domesticated variety of cassava and comparative analyses with a partial inbred line. We identify 1,584 and 1,678 gene models specific to the wild and domesticated varieties, respectively, and discover high heterozygosity and millions of single-nucleotide variations. Our analyses reveal that genes involved in photosynthesis, starch accumulation and abiotic stresses have been positively selected, whereas those involved in cell wall biosynthesis and secondary metabolism, including cyanogenic glucoside formation, have been negatively selected in the cultivated varieties, reflecting the result of natural selection and domestication. Differences in microRNA genes and retrotransposon regulation could partly explain an increased carbon flux towards starch accumulation and reduced cyanogenic glucoside accumulation in domesticated cassava. These results may contribute to genetic improvement of cassava through better understanding of its biology.

  15. Interdisciplinarity and impact: distinct effects of variety, balance, and disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Thijs, Bart; Glänzel, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research is increasingly recognized as the solution to today's challenging scientific and societal problems, but the relationship between interdisciplinary research and scientific impact is still unclear. This paper studies the association between the degree of interdisciplinarity and the number of citations at the paper level. Different from previous studies compositing various aspects of interdisciplinarity into a single indicator, we use factor analysis to uncover distinct dimensions of interdisciplinarity corresponding to variety, balance, and disparity. We estimate Poisson models with journal fixed effects and robust standard errors to analyze the divergent relationships between these three factors and citations. We find that long-term (13-year) citations (1) increase at an increasing rate with variety, (2) decrease with balance, and (3) increase at a decreasing rate with disparity. Furthermore, interdisciplinarity also affects the process of citation accumulation: (1) although variety and disparity have positive effects on long-term citations, they have negative effects on short-term (3-year) citations, and (2) although balance has a negative effect on long-term citations, its negative effect is insignificant in the short run. These findings have important implications for interdisciplinary research and science policy.

  16. Comparative proteomic analysis of indica and japonica rice varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Indica and japonica are two main subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L. that differ clearly in morphological and agronomic traits, in physiological and biochemical characteristics and in their genomic structure. However, the proteins and genes responsible for these differences remain poorly characterized. In this study, proteomic tools, including two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, were used to globally identify proteins that differed between two sequenced rice varieties (93-11 and Nipponbare. In all, 47 proteins that differed significantly between 93-11 and Nipponbare were identified using mass spectrometry and database searches. Interestingly, seven proteins were expressed only in Nipponbare and one protein was expressed specifically in 93-11; these differences were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR and proteomic analysis of other indica and japonica rice varieties. This is the first report to successfully demonstrate differences in the protein composition of indica and japonica rice varieties and to identify candidate proteins and genes for future investigation of their roles in the differentiation of indica and japonica rice.

  17. IZK OLIMP F1 - NEW BULGARIAN TOMATO VARIETY FOR PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ganeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid IZK Olimp F1 is developed by a team at the Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute, Plovdiv as a result of hybridization between female line М-441 and male line R-469. The F1 hybrid was tested in the Executive Agency for Variety Testing, Field Inspection and Seed Control in 2009-2010. It was recognised as a new tomato F1 hybrid variety by the Expert commission in 2009 and has a certificate №10987/ 31.08.2012 issued by the Patent Office of Republic of Bulgaria. Hybrid IZK Olimp F1 is a determinate, high-yielding tomato variety for mid-early field production. The total yield and earliness of this F1 hybrid are close to those of the hybrid var. Vodolei F1 and exceeds the direct var. Bela and var. Zhaklin. The fruits are oval-elongated, with an average weight of 55-68 g, uniform red coloured, thick, firm, crack resistant, with small and low pedicle hole. Being with good chemical and technological properties this hybrid is suitable for processing.

  18. Arithmetic geometry of toric varieties. Metrics, measures and heights

    CERN Document Server

    Gil, José Ignacio Burgos; Sombra, Martín

    2011-01-01

    We show that the height of a toric variety with respect to a toric metrized line bundle can be expressed as the integral over a polytope of a certain adelic family of concave functions. To state and prove this result, we study the Arakelov geometry of toric varieties. In particular, we consider models over a discrete valuation ring, metrized line bundles, and their associated measures and heights. We show that these notions can be translated in terms of convex analysis, and are closely related to objects like polyhedral complexes, concave functions, real Monge-Amp\\`ere measures, and Legendre-Fenchel duality. We also present a closed formula for the integral over a polytope of a function of one variable composed with a linear form. This allows us to compute the height of toric varieties with respect to some interesting metrics arising from polytopes. We also compute the height of toric projective curves with respect to the Fubini-Study metric, and of some toric bundles.

  19. Functional properties and fatty acids profile of different beans varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Rando, Rossana; Ravenda, Pietro; Dugo, Giacomo; Di Bella, Giuseppa

    2016-10-01

    Dried seeds of four varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris, three of Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata and two of Vigna angularis grown and marketed in Italy, Mexico, India, Japan, Ghana and Ivory Coast were analysed for fatty acids content. In oils from seeds of P. vulgaris, the main fatty acids were linolenic (34.7-41.5%) and linoleic (30.7-40.3%), followed by palmitic (10.7-16.8%). The first three aforementioned fatty acids in the lipid fraction of V. unguiculata varieties were 28.4, 28.7 and 26.2%, respectively; while in V. angularis varieties, main fatty acids were linoleic (36.4-39.1%) and palmitic (26.9-33.3%), followed by linolenic (17.9-22.2%). Statistical analyses indicate that botanical species play a rule in bean fatty acids distribution, while the same was not verified for geographical origin. Furthermore, the atherogenic index (AI) and the thrombogenic index (TI) were investigated for health and nutritional information. The results showed that these wide spread legumes have functional features to human health.

  20. Evaluation of texture differences among varieties of cooked quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Geyang; Morris, Craig F; Murphy, Kevin M

    2014-11-01

    Texture differences of cooked quinoa were studied among 13 different varieties. Correlations between the texture parameters and seed composition, seed characteristics, cooking quality, flour pasting properties, and flour thermal properties were determined. The results showed that texture of cooked quinoa was significantly differed among varieties. 'Black,' 'Cahuil,' and 'Red Commercial' yielded harder texture, while '49ALC,' '1ESP,' and 'Col.#6197' showed softer texture. '49ALC,' '1ESP,' 'Col.#6197,' and 'QQ63' were more adhesive, while other varieties were not sticky. The texture profile correlated to physical--chemical properties in different ways. Protein content was positively correlated with all the texture profile analysis (TPA) parameters. Seed hardness was positively correlated with TPA hardness, gumminess, and chewiness at P ≤ 0.09. Seed density was negatively correlated with TPA hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness, whereas seed coat proportion was positively correlated with these TPA parameters. Increased cooking time of quinoa was correlated with increased hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness. The water uptake ratio was inversely related to TPA hardness, gumminess, and chewiness. Rapid Visco Analyzer peak viscosity was negatively correlated with the hardness, gumminess, and chewiness (P quinoa.

  1. De novo transcriptome assembly of Sorghum bicolor variety Taejin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhwa Jo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, also known as great millet, is one of the most popular cultivated grass species in the world. Sorghum is frequently consumed as food for humans and animals as well as used for ethanol production. In this study, we conducted de novo transcriptome assembly for sorghum variety Taejin by next-generation sequencing, obtaining 8.748 GB of raw data. The raw data in this study can be available in NCBI SRA database with accession number of SRX1715644. Using the Trinity program, we identified 222,161 transcripts from sorghum variety Taejin. We further predicted coding regions within the assembled transcripts by the TransDecoder program, resulting in a total of 148,531 proteins. We carried out BLASTP against the Swiss-Prot protein sequence database to annotate the functions of the identified proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first transcriptome data for a sorghum variety derived from Korea, and it can be usefully applied to the generation of genetic markers.

  2. De novo transcriptome assembly of Sorghum bicolor variety Taejin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yeonhwa; Lian, Sen; Cho, Jin Kyong; Choi, Hoseong; Kim, Sang-Min; Kim, Sun-Lim; Lee, Bong Choon; Cho, Won Kyong

    2016-06-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), also known as great millet, is one of the most popular cultivated grass species in the world. Sorghum is frequently consumed as food for humans and animals as well as used for ethanol production. In this study, we conducted de novo transcriptome assembly for sorghum variety Taejin by next-generation sequencing, obtaining 8.748 GB of raw data. The raw data in this study can be available in NCBI SRA database with accession number of SRX1715644. Using the Trinity program, we identified 222,161 transcripts from sorghum variety Taejin. We further predicted coding regions within the assembled transcripts by the TransDecoder program, resulting in a total of 148,531 proteins. We carried out BLASTP against the Swiss-Prot protein sequence database to annotate the functions of the identified proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first transcriptome data for a sorghum variety derived from Korea, and it can be usefully applied to the generation of genetic markers.

  3. Variety of Behavior of Equity Returns in Financial Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Giovanni; Lillo, Fabrizio; Mantegna, Rosario N.

    2001-03-01

    The price dynamics of a set of equities traded in an efficient market is pretty complex. It consists of almost not redundant time series which have (i) long-range correlated volatility and (ii) cross-correlation between each pair of equities. We perform a study of the statistical properties of an ensemble of equities returns which is fruitful to elucidate the nature and role of time and ensemble correlation. Specifically, we investigate a statistical ensemble of daily returns of n equities traded in United States financial markets. For each trading day of our database, we study the ensemble return distribution. We find that a typical ensemble return distribution exists in most of the trading days [1] with the exception of crash and rally days and of the days following to these extreme events [2]. We analyze each ensemble return distribution by extracting its first two central moments. We call the second moment of the ensemble return distribution the variety of the market. We choose this term because high variety implies a variated behavior of the equities returns in the considered day. We observe that the mean return and the variety are fluctuating in time and are stochastic processes themselves. The variety is a long-range correlated stochastic process. Customary time-averaged statistical properties of time series of stock returns are also considered. In general, time-averaged and portfolio-averaged returns have different statistical properties [1]. We infer from these differences information about the relative strength of correlation between equities and between different trading days. We also compare our empirical results with those predicted by the single-index model and we conclude that this simple model is unable to explain the statistical properties of the second moment of the ensemble return distribution. Correlation between pairs of equities are continuously present in the dynamics of a stock portfolio. Hence, it is relevant to investigate pair correlation

  4. Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Lotus Root Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lotus root attracts increasing attention mainly because of its phenolic compounds known as natural antioxidants. Its thirteen varieties were systematically analyzed on the content, distribution, composition and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds for a better understanding of this aquatic vegetable. The respective mean contents of total phenolics in their flesh, peel and nodes were 1.81, 4.30 and 7.35 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g fresh weight (FW, and those of total flavonoids were 3.35, 7.69 and 15.58 mg rutin equivalents/g FW. The phenolic composition determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography method varied significantly among varieties and parts. The phenolics of flesh were mainly composed of gallocatechin and catechin; those of peel and node were mainly composed of gallocatechin, gallic acid, catechin and epicatechin. The antioxidant activities of phenolic extracts in increasing order were flesh, peel and node; their mean concentrations for 50% inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical were 46.00, 26.43 and 21.72 µg GAE/mL, and their mean values representing ferric reducing antioxidant power were 75.91, 87.66 and 100.43 µg Trolox equivalents/100 µg GAE, respectively. “Zoumayang”, “Baheou”, “No. 5 elian” and “Guixi Fuou” were the hierarchically clustered varieties with relatively higher phenolic content and stronger antioxidant activity as compared with the others. Especially, their nodes and peels are promising sources of antioxidants for human nutrition.

  5. The Andr\\'e-Oort Conjecture for Drinfeld Modular Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Hubschmid, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    We consider the analogue of the Andr\\'e-Oort conjecture for Drinfeld modular varieties which was formulated by Breuer. We prove this analogue for special points with separable reflex field over the base field by adapting methods which were used by Klingler and Yafaev to prove the Andr\\'e-Oort conjecture under the generalized Riemann hypothesis in the classical case. Our result extends results of Breuer showing the correctness of the analogue for special points lying in a curve and for special points having a certain behaviour at a fixed set of primes.

  6. On structure of small contractions of odd dimensional projective varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Let X be a smooth projective variety of dimension 2k-1 (k≥3) over the complex number field. Assume that fR: X→Y is a small contraction such that every irreducible component Ei of the exceptional locus of fR is a smooth subvariety of dimension k. It is shown that each Ei is isomorphic to the k-dimensional projective space Pk, the k-dimensional hyperquadric surface Qk in Pk+1, or a linear Pk-1-bundle over a smooth curve.

  7. [Biologically active substances of black currant of new varieties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miasishcheva, N V; Artemova, E N

    2013-01-01

    The assortment of black currant actively replenishes and is constantly updated as a result of successful work of domestic and foreign selectors. New grades of black currant are characterized by the raised content of biologically active substances, including vitamin C, P-active agents, pectin and are of special interest for studying. Fresh berries of seven grades (Azhurnaya, Arapka, Iskushenie, Kreolka, Ladushka, Orel serenade, Ocharovanie) of black currant which were selected by the All-Russian research institute of selection of fruit crops and are perspective for cultivation in the Central Chernozem Region of Russia were chosen as objects for research. The nutritional value of fresh berries was found to vary. Average content of soluble solids was 14.1%, while those below the average were observed in Kreolka (12.1%). The maximum amount of sugars characterized Ladushka grade (11.05%), minimum--Kreolka (9.00%). It has been found that most varieties have fairly high acidity. It is worth noting grade Ladushka, which had the highest sugar-acid index (4.39), with the lowest acidity (2.51%). The highest content of ascorbic acid was found in varieties Orel Serenade--183.7 mg/100 g, the smallest--Ocharovanie--110 mg/100 g, grade Azhurnaya, Kreolka, Ladushka exceeded this indicator average value (144.9 mg/100 g). In terms of the amount of P-active substances stood grades having values above the average (722.2 mg/100 g): Azhurnaya (789.8 mg/100 g), Kreolka (864.5 mg/100 g), Oryol serenade (765.6 mg/100 g). The average content of pectin in the studied berries of black currant was 7.92%, with a minimum of 6.30% was observed in grades Azhurnaya, maximum 9.90%--the kind Oryol serenade. High values of this index were characterized by grade Ladushka, Ocharovanie. Azhurnaya varieties, Creole, Orel serenade had high levels of ascorbic acid and P-active substances. Sort Ladushka marked as a dessert due to the largest sugar-acid ratio. Ladushka, Orel Serenade, Ocharovanie have the

  8. A Sociolinguistic Assessment of the Darwazi Speech Variety in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Beck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a sociolinguistic assessment of the Darwāzi speech varieties (including Tangshewi based on data collected during a survey conducted between August 31st and September 19th 2008 in the Darwāz area. The research was carried out under the auspices of the International Assistance Mission, a Non-Governmental Organization working in Afghanistan. The goal was to determine whether Dari, one of the two national languages, is adequate to be used in literature and primary school education, or whether the Darwāzi people would benefit from language development, including literature development and primary school education in the vernacular.

  9. Topology of Hitchin systems and Hodge theory of character varieties

    CERN Document Server

    de Cataldo, Mark Andrea; Migliorini, Luca

    2010-01-01

    For G = GL_2, PGL_2 and SL_2 we prove that the perverse filtration associated to the Hitchin map on the cohomology of the moduli space of twisted G-Higgs bundles on a Riemann surface C agrees with the weight filtration on the cohomology of the twisted G character variety of C, when the cohomologies are identified via non-Abelian Hodge theory. The proof is accomplished by a careful study of the topology of the Hitchin map over integral spectral curves mirroring and refining special cases of results of Ngo on the fundamental lemma in the Langlands program.

  10. Integral points on algebraic varieties an introduction to diophantine geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Corvaja, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    This book is intended to be an introduction to Diophantine geometry. The central theme of the book is to investigate the distribution of integral points on algebraic varieties. This text rapidly introduces problems in Diophantine geometry, especially those involving integral points, assuming a geometrical perspective. It presents recent results not available in textbooks and also new viewpoints on classical material. In some instances, proofs have been replaced by a detailed analysis of particular cases, referring to the quoted papers for complete proofs. A central role is played by Siegel’s finiteness theorem for integral points on curves. The book ends with the analysis of integral points on surfaces.

  11. Farmers’ Privilege under the Protection of New Plant Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies farmers’privilege under the protection of new plant varieties,and points out that farmers’privilege is given to balance interests of plant breeders and relevant public.Based on this,it analyzes shortcomings of farmers’privilege regulations,and puts forward that it is required to improve farmers’privilege regulations in subjects,objects and contents of rights on the basis of learning from advanced legislation experience of foreign countries,and build the interest sharing mechanism between breeders and farmers.

  12. The local structure theorem for real spherical varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Friedrich; Krötz, Bernhard; Schlichtkrull, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Let G be an algebraic real reductive group and Z a real spherical G -variety, that is, it admits an open orbit for a minimal parabolic subgroup P . We prove a local structure theorem for Z . In the simplest case where Z is homogeneous, the theorem provides an isomorphism of the open P -orbit...... with a bundle Q×LS . Here Q is a parabolic subgroup with Levi decomposition L⋉U , and S is a homogeneous space for a quotient D=L/Ln of L , where Ln⊆L is normal, such that D is compact modulo center....

  13. Computing the Cohomological Brauer Group of a Toric Variety

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, T J

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to show how one might compute the \\'etale cohomology groups $H^p_{\\acute{e}t}(X,G_m)$ in degrees $p=0$, $1$ and $2$ of a toric variety $X$ with coefficients in the sheaf of units. The method is to reduce the computation down to the problem of diagonalizing a matrix with integral coefficients. The procedure outlined in this article has been fully implemented by the author as a program written in the ``C'' programming language.

  14. The clone selection studies on Siyah Gemre grape variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilli Yıldız

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available V. vinifera L.cv. “Siyah Gemre” is an important table grape variety of Mediterranean Region in Turkey. It is late sea- son, medium bunch density, round berry, red-black colored and seeded. The study was carried out to make clone selection for increasing the yield and quality in “Siyah Gemre” grape variety The project was completed in two stages. First one was selection nominees of mother clone vine and second was establishing of clonal collection vineyard. The first stage studies were carried out at grower vineyards of İsparta, Turkey surroundings where “Siyah Gemre” is grown wide spread, between 2001 and 2003. Clonal nominees were selected by using counting the cluster and shoot at the end of the project. After that, the clonal collection vineyard was established with spacing 3.0 m × 1.65 m in 2004. Twelve vines of each clonal nominees were grafted onto 110R rootstock. In the study the values of yield, number of cluster, weight of cluster, 100 berry weight, index of maturity, sensory analysis, weight of pruning and bud productivity were evaluated between 2007–2012. At the end of this study, according to the values of total point, five clone nominees were selected and among their 3, 19, 24 numbered clones were chosen in terms of total sensory analysis score, yield and stability, cluster and berry properties respectively.

  15. Inbreeding depression of 28 maize elite open pollinated varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleso Antônio Patto Pacheco

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of inbreeding depression is important for breeding strategies such as use of inbred progenies or extraction of inbreed lines. A diallel of 28 maize open-pollinated varieties was evaluated in 10 environments in the early 1990s. At the same time, S1 populations for each of the 28 varieties were evaluated in the same 10 experiments (environments. Yield reductions of the populations from S0 to S1 (mean of the 10 environments, varied from 34.6% (CMS-01 to 59.2% (CMS-30, with an average of 49.1%. Inbreeding depression was greater in populations with a wider genetic base, which had never been exposed to inbreeding (CMS-30, BR-107, PH4, Cunha, Saracura, Nitrodent, and Nitroflint. Inbred lines with greater yield means should be obtained from the BR-105, BR-111, CMS-01, CMS-03, BR-106, CMS-14c, and CMS-28 populations. The use of parameter estimates generated by analysis of inbreeding depression, allow to make inferences about frequencies of deleterious alleles in the population. The frequencies of favorable alleles in the parents can be obtained by diallel analysis. The association of these two types of information, can provide a better interpretation of the genetic parameters and also can improve the process of selection of parents for either an intra- or an inter-populational breeding program.

  16. On Invariant Notions of Segre Varieties in Binary Projective Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Havlicek, Hans; Saniga, Metod

    2010-01-01

    Invariant notions of a class of Segre varieties $\\Segrem(2)$ of PG(2^m - 1, 2) that are direct products of $m$ copies of PG(1, 2), $m$ being any positive integer, are established and studied. We first demonstrate that there exists a hyperbolic quadric that contains $\\Segrem(2)$ and is invariant under its projective stabiliser group $\\Stab{m}{2}$. By embedding PG(2^m - 1, 2) into \\PG(2^m - 1, 4), a basis of the latter space is constructed that is invariant under $\\Stab{m}{2}$ as well. Such a basis can be split into two subsets of an odd and even parity whose spans are either real or complex-conjugate subspaces according as $m$ is even or odd. In the latter case, these spans can, in addition, be viewed as indicator sets of a $\\Stab{m}{2}$-invariant geometric spread of lines of PG(2^m - 1, 2). This spread is also related with a $\\Stab{m}{2}$-invariant non-singular Hermitian variety. The case $m=3$ is examined in detail to illustrate the theory. Here, the lines of the invariant spread are found to fall into four ...

  17. Bread wheat varieties as influenced by different nitrogen levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUSSAIN Iqtidar; KHAN Muhammad Ayyaz; KHAN Ejaz Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    Experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different nitrogen levels on four bread wheat varieties (Triticurm aestivum L.) viz. Inqilab-91, Daman-98, Dera-98 and Punjab-96 at Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan (NWFP), Pakistan during 2000~2001. The experiment was laid out in split plot design having four replications using a net plot size of 2 m×5 m. Nitrogen doses used were 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg/ha. The results showed that different nitrogen levels had significant effects on plant height, total number of plants/m2, number of grains/spike, number of spike/m2, spike weight, biological yield, grain yield and grain protein content. Maximum plant height, total number of plants/m2, number of spikes/m2, spike weight, biological yield and grain protein content were observed at 200 kg N/ha. Among wheat varieties Daman-98 had maximum plant height, spike weight,grains/spike, 1000-grain weight, biological yield and grain yield. Inqilab-91 had heavier grains and the most grain protein content,while Dera-98 had the maximum plant population and spikes/m2. Grain yield and biological yield were statistically similar at doses of 150 kg N/ha and 200 kg N/ha. However, dose of 200 kg N/ha, compared to dose of 150 Kg N/ha, significantly increased the protein content.

  18. VEGETATIVE IMPROVEMENT OF THREE NIGERIAN SESAME VARIETIES AFTER FNI TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olamide Ahmed FALUSI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Fast Neutron Irradiation (FNI from an Americium Beryllium source with a flux of 1.5 × 104 n cm-2 s-1 on select vegetative parameters of three Nigerian sesame (Sesamum indicum L. varieties were investigated. Seeds of Kenana-4 , Ex-Sudan and E-8 were irradiated with 4, 8, 12 and 16 µSv doses of FNI before they were grown to maturity, alongside their respective controls (0 µSv dose of FNI. The vegetative parameters investigated included percentage survival, petiole length, number of leaves per plant, leaf surface area and plant height. There were significant differences (p<0.05 between the different doses of FNI for all three varieties. Correlations between irradiation doses and morphological parameters were generally highest in E-8, followed by Kenana-4, while Ex-Sudan showed the weakest correlations, suggesting that E-8 was the most sensitive to FNI. Thus, FNI can induce genetic variability in sesame and may be important for sesame breeders who seek to expand the genetic base of their breeding material.

  19. Brill-Noether loci for divisors on irregular varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Margarida Mendes; Pirola, Gian Pietro

    2011-01-01

    For a projective variety X, a line bundle L on X and r a natural number we consider the r-th Brill-Noether locus W^r(L,X):={\\eta\\in Pic^0(X)|h^0(L+\\eta)\\geq r+1}: we describe its natural scheme structure and compute the Zariski tangent space. If X is a smooth surface of maximal Albanese dimension and C is a curve on X, we define a Brill-Noether number \\rho(C, r) and we prove, under some mild additional assumptions, that if \\rho(C, r) is non negative then W^r(C,X) is nonempty of dimension bigger or equal to \\rho(C,r). As an application, we derive lower bounds for h^0(K_D) for a divisor D that moves linearly on a smooth projective variety X of maximal Albanese dimension and inequalities for the numerical invariants of curves that do not move linearly on a surface of maximal Albanese dimension.

  20. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF EDIBLE TOMATO VARIETIES INTENDED FOR INDUSTRIAL PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mendelová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the global production of tomatoes is used for tomato products. The fruits to be processed are evaluated on the basis of important technological quality parameters, such as the content of dry matter and organic acids. Recently, among important qualitative characteristics of fruits has been included colorant content, especially lycopene. Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of selected tomato varieties for industrial processing. Tested were varieties Uno Rosso, San Marzano 4, Brixol, Strombolino, UG. 8168, Diana and Nemarock cultivated in very hot and dry agro-climatic region. The dry matter content was determined by the gravimetric method, the content of organic acid by titration and the content of colorants spectrophotometrically. The dry matter content of the samples ranged from 4.65% (Nemarock to 5.93% (San Marzano 4. Content of organic acids ranged from 0.33% (Nemarock to 0.59% (Strombolino, content of carotenoids in tomato samples ranged from 111.288 mg.100 g-1 DM (Nemarock to 198.365 mg.100 g-1 DM (San Marzano 4. Lycopene was present in the amount of 99.438 mg.100 g-1 DM (Nemarock to 192.687 mg.100 g-1 DM (San Marzano 4. In terms of treatment the best properties showed San Marzano 4, which is characterized by high dry matter content, low organic acids and high content of colorants.

  1. Economic viability of common bean variety BRS Estilo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmira Fatima da Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate financially BRS Estilo, a variety of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., the carioca group, developed by “Embrapa Rice and Beans” and partners, estimating the regional economic benefit from the knowledge of the costs generation and transfer of technology and production system. The BRS Estilo variety was evaluated in four successive seasons: 2010/2011, 2011/2012, 2012/2013 and 2013/2014. The BRS Estilo technology contribution to the bean agribusiness in Brazil was R$ 239.431.760,83, about US$ 106 million during the period. The transfer process of the BRS Estilo to the productive sector represents 7,5% of the total cost on developing technology, which began in 2000. In addition to the economic benefit provided by the adoption of this technology, there has also been generating more jobs in its supply chain and also increasing the product offered in the market. JEL-Code | O13; Q16; R32.

  2. Norovirus infections in preterm infants: wide variety of clinical courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann Kathrin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Norovirus is an important cause of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis in all ages. Atypical courses are described. Clinical symptoms are diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, abdominal cramps, fever and malaise. Apart from three recent short reports we describe for the first time an outbreak of norovirus in a tertiary Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Findings The typical symptoms of norovirus infection are in part also seen in premature born infants but with a different pattern and a huge variety of clinical courses. Vomiting is not the main symptom of norovirus infection in premature infants but distended abdomen and other symptoms such as apnea, gastric remainders or sepsis like appearance. The course in premature born patients could be explained by an immunocompromised mice model. Extensive hygienic measures were necessary to control the outbreak without closing the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Conclusion Norovirus infection in premature infants shows an impressive pattern of a wide variety of clinical courses. Only the consequent use of different hygienic pattern can lead to elimination of norovirus.

  3. Industrial Potential of Two Varieties of Cocoyam in Bread Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnabuk O. Eddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the chemical (proximate composition, mineral composition, toxicant composition and vitamin composition, nutritional and industrial potentials of two varieties of cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium (XS and Colocasia esculenta (CE were carried out using recommended methods of analysis. Baking trials were conducted with the two varieties of cocoyam at different levels of substitution (20%, 30% and 50%. The produced bread samples were analyzed for their physical parameters and proximate composition. Sensory evaluation test was also carried out on the produced bread. The result of the analysis showed that the preferred bread in terms of loaf weight, volume and specific volume was given by sample I (control sample containing 100% wheat flour with a specific volume of 3.54 cm3/g. This was closely followed by sample A with specific volume of 3.25 cm3/g containing 20% substitution level of CE. Sample H containing 50% substitution level of XS with specific volume of 2.58 cm3/g gave the poorest performance. The sensory evaluation result further revealed that apart from the 100% wheat flour based sample I, sample D with 20% substitution level of XS was rated good and maintained better performance amongst the cocoyam varieties while samples G and C with 100% and 50% substitution level of CE respectively were rated the poorest. The proximate composition of the bread samples was also carried out. CE, XS and wheat bread samples (100% recorded 15.0633±1.4531, 12.1133±1.5975 and 11.2867±0.7978 respectively for the moisture content. XS bread recorded the highest carbohydrate content of 45.0133±3.0274. In terms of ash, CE bread recorded the highest value of 31.4367±1.6159 while wheat bread recorded the highest value for protein i.e. 20.6033± 0.8113. XS performed better in terms of crude fat and energy value of 12.2967± 0.8914 and 371.5367 respectively. The use of cocoyam - wheat flour mixture in producing composite bread is therefore

  4. The Effect of Different Tea Varieties on Iron Chelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, S. K.; Karim, R.

    2016-12-01

    The chief objectives of this experiment are to distinguish which type of tea of four variants, pomegranate blackberry green, green, lemon chamomile (herbal), and earl grey (black), are capable of chelating the most iron (III) chloride (FeCl3) through titration. We hypothesized that if each tea variety chelates differing amounts of iron chloride, and if we conduct an experiment in which four different teas are mixed in the same amount of water, iron chloride, and iron chloride indicator EDTA, then the pomegranate blackberry green tea will bind to the most iron due to its large amount of fruit antioxidants. To summarize our methodology, we prepared three solutions of each tea, dissolved with 1 gram of FeCl3 to test three trials per tea variety. The chelation process took place overnight as teas cooled. Six drops of iron chloride indicator added to each solution began the titration. The necessary amount of 0.1M EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) drops required for each solution to turn to a universal amber color from its original dark tone indicates how many free iron molecules were left unbound by the tea solution. After careful analysis of the data, we discovered that blackberry pomegranate green tea possessed the best chelating abilities with 97.48% of FeCl3 adsorbed. Green tea followed with 96.67%. Herbal tea chelated 94.24% of the iron while earl grey absorbed the least amount at 93.43%. From our conclusion, we drew that since blackberry pomegranate green tea contained the highest amount of polyphenols and antioxidants as well as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) found in green teas, it was able to chelate the most amount of iron. The substances mentioned in blackberry pomegranate green tea possess the ability to form strong bonds with multiple heavy metals, such as iron (III) chloride atoms. Overall, each variety of tea contains different organic substances. Each of these substances possesses a unique chelating ability, determining how well the type of tea can

  5. Variations of quality characteristics among oils of different soybean varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Anwar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to evaluate the variation of quality attributes among oils from different soybean varieties (Bovender special, Foster and F-8827.Oils were extracted using n-hexane as solvent. Results indicated that contents of seed oil among the tested varieties varied from 15.85% to 19.49%, moisture 8.4–10.2%, protein 41.67–45.64%, fiber 6.6–7.6% while ash 5.5–6.9%. The physical and chemical characteristics among the tested oils varied as: color (4.2–5.3R + 40–50Y, iodine value (119–128 g of I/100 g of oil, refractive index (1.4590–1.468, density (0.8698–0.8712 g/cm3 at 36 °C, free fatty acid content (0.39–0.67% as oleic acid, saponification value (181–187 mg KOH/g and unsaponifiable matter (0.42–0.74%. The oxidation parameters including peroxide value, conjugated dienes and conjugated triene were recorded as 1.80–2.64 meq/kg, 0.41–0.65 and 1.50–1.91, respectively. The fatty acid composition showed the presence of palmitic acid (11.00–13.50%, stearic acid (3.02–4.90%, oleic acid (22.60–24.00%, linoleic acid (49.03–53.00% and linolenic acid (6.50–8.00%. The amounts of α, γ and δ-tocopherols ranged from 66.5 to 90.7 mg/kg, 907.5–1011.9 mg/kg and 399.8–411.5 mg/kg, respectively. Results indicated a significant variation for most of the physicochemical parameters among three soybean oils which can be mainly linked to the specific genetic makeup of each variety as well as the agro-climatic conditions of the harvest.

  6. HADES, A Code for Simulating a Variety of Radiographic Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aufderheide, M B; Henderson, G; von Wittenau, A; Slone, D M; Barty, A; Martz, Jr., H E

    2004-10-28

    It is often useful to simulate radiographic images in order to optimize imaging trade-offs and to test tomographic techniques. HADES is a code that simulates radiography using ray tracing techniques. Although originally developed to simulate X-Ray transmission radiography, HADES has grown to simulate neutron radiography over a wide range of energy, proton radiography in the 1 MeV to 100 GeV range, and recently phase contrast radiography using X-Rays in the keV energy range. HADES can simulate parallel-ray or cone-beam radiography through a variety of mesh types, as well as through collections of geometric objects. HADES was originally developed for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications, but could be a useful tool for simulation of portal imaging, proton therapy imaging, and synchrotron studies of tissue. In this paper we describe HADES' current capabilities and discuss plans for a major revision of the code.

  7. Toric Fano varieties and Chern-Simons quivers

    CERN Document Server

    Closset, Cyril

    2012-01-01

    In favourable cases the low energy dynamics of a stack of M2-branes at a toric Calabi-Yau fourfold singularity can be described by an N=2 supersymmetric Chern-Simons quiver theory, but there still does not exists an "inverse algorithm" going from the toric data of the CY_4 to the CS quiver. We make progress in that direction by deriving CS quiver theories for M2-branes probing cones over a large class of geometries Ypq(B_4), which are S^3/\\bZ_p bundles over toric Fano varieties B_4. We rely on the type IIA understanding of CS quivers, giving a firm string theory footing to our CS theories. In particular we give a derivation of some previously conjectured CS quivers in the case B_4= CP^1*CP^1, as field theories dual to M-theory backgrounds with nontrivial torsion G_4 fluxes.

  8. An exploration of loyalty determinants in Greek wine varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2010-01-01

    of the most challenging product categories to investigate. Many product-related attributes contribute to building loyalty; this attribute-based loyalty is often hard to delineate and take into account. Moreover, the present methodology is based on stated preference data, whereas revealed preference data could...... be the ideal for applying the specific methodology. Originality/value - Few studies, if any, have used the present methodological approach to explore the issue of loyalty in the case of wine.......Purpose - This paper aims to provide a deeper understanding of the market structure of Greek red and white wine varieties and to measure the loyalty behaviour of frequent wine buyers in Greece. Design/methodology/approach - The study measures brand performance and loyalty of four different Greek...

  9. An exploration of loyalty determinants in Greek wine varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    to investigate. Many attributes contribute to building loyalty that is often hard to delineate and take into account each. Moreover, the present methodology is based on stated preference data, whereas revealed preference data could be the ideal for applying the specific methodology. Originality/value: Few...... loyalty behaviour, the polarisation index (phi) is used as a measure to model loyalty both at the brand name and specific wine attributes and attribute-levels. Findings: The findings of the present study point to the conclusion that each one of the four The findings of the present study point......Purpose: This paper aims to provide a deeper understanding of the market structure of red This paper aims to provide a deeper understanding of the market structure of red and white wines from Greek wine varieties and measure loyalty behaviour of frequent wine buyers in Greece. Design...

  10. On the geometry of some special projective varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Russo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Providing an introduction to both classical and modern techniques in projective algebraic geometry, this monograph treats the geometrical properties of varieties embedded in projective spaces, their secant and tangent lines, the behavior of tangent linear spaces, the algebro-geometric and topological obstructions to their embedding into smaller projective spaces, and the classification of extremal cases. It also provides a solution of Hartshorne’s Conjecture on Complete Intersections for the class of quadratic manifolds and new short proofs of previously known results, using the modern tools of Mori Theory and of rationally connected manifolds. The new approach to some of the problems considered can be resumed in the principle that, instead of studying a special embedded manifold uniruled by lines, one passes to analyze the original geometrical property on the manifold of lines passing through a general point and contained in the manifold. Once this embedded manifold, usually of lower codimension, is classi...

  11. On the GIT stability of Polarized Varieties II

    CERN Document Server

    Odaka, Yuji

    2010-01-01

    We prove more K-(poly)stability results after section 4 of arXiv:0910.1794. Especially, "stable varieties" introduced by Koll\\'{a}r-Shepherd-Barron and Alexeev, which form compact moduli space, are proven to be K-stable although it is well known that they are NOT necessarily asymptotically (semi)stable. As a consequence, we have "orbifolds" counterexamples, to the folklore conjecture "K-(poly)stability implies asymptotic (poly)stability". They also have K\\"{a}hler-Einstein (orbifold) metrics so the result of Donaldson (2001,JDG) for "smooth" polarized manifolds does NOT hold for "orbifolds". We also prove the conjecture that "(various) semistability implies semi-log-canonicity" posed by author in arXiv:0910.1794, up to dimension 3. The proof is based on some existence results of non-normal canonical (or minimal) models which we prepare.

  12. Morphogenesis of pericarp in two varieties of Momordica charantia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Saha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of Uchchey and Korala, two common Indian varieties of Momordica charantia L. have the same length and diameter in initial stages. But with age the rate of lengthwise growth becomes higher in Karola, which differs from Uchchey by its larger size and much elongated shape. The major cause of their difference in size and shape is the higher cell number of Karola in its axial direction from the earliest stages of development, and their rapid transverse division during maturation. Differentiation of xylem bundles of the pericarp starts at the middle and apical parts of the ovary. The courses of differentiation of xylem in the middle, apical and basal bundles are bidirectional, basipetal and acropetal, respectively.

  13. Characterization of virgin olive oils produced with autochthonous Galician varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Valli, Enrico; Bendini, Alessandra; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Simal-Gandara, Jesus

    2016-12-01

    The interest of Galician oil producers (NW Spain) in recovering the ancient autochthonous olive varieties Brava and Mansa has increased substantially in recent years. Virgin olive oils produced by co-crushing both varieties in two different proportions, reflecting the usual and most common practice adopted in this region, have gradually emerged for the production of virgin olive oils. Herein, the sensory and chemical characteristics of such oils were characterized by quality and genuineness-related parameters. The results of chemical analysis are discussed in terms of their effective contribution to the sensory profile, which suggests useful recommendations for olive oil producers to improve the quality of oils. Antioxidant compounds, together with aromas and coloured pigments were determined, and their contribution in determining the functional value and the sensory properties of oils was investigated. In general, given the high levels of phenolic compounds (ranging between 254 and 375mg/kg oil), tocopherols (about 165mg/kg oil) and carotenoids (10-12mg/kg oil); these are oils with long stability, especially under dark storage conditions, because stability is reinforced with the contribution of chlorophylls (15-22mg/kg oil). A major content of phenolic compounds, as well as a predominance of trans-2-hexen-1-al within odor-active compounds (from 897 to 1645μg/kg oil), responsible for bitter sensory notes. This characterization allows to developing new antioxidant-rich and flavour-rich VOOs, when co-crushing with a higher proportion of Brava olives, satisfying the consumers' demand in having access to more healthy dishes and peculiar sensory attributes.

  14. LIPIDS AND MINERALS OF THE MOST REPRESENTED HAZELNUT VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN CROATIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    P Vujevic; M Petrovic; N Vahcic; B Milinovic; Z Cmelik

    2014-01-01

      The Croatian autochthonous hazelnut variety Istarski Duguljasti and two introduced varieties Romische Zellernuss and Hallesche Riesen were characterized with respect to their fatty acid composition...

  15. UPGRADED TECHNOLOGY FOR OBTAINING ECOLOGICAL TOMATO VARIETIES OWN VARIETIES, IN PLACES PROTECTED FROM INCDBH ŞTEFĂNEŞTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bădulescu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available After a break of several years of growing vegetables in INCDBH Stefanesti, this activity began again. In recent years were obtained eight tomato varieties that were grown and organic. ECO tomato production technology has been tested and evaluated by Biocert-Romania, body empowered to review implementation of existing standards in browsing the certification process. During the inspection were not notified any non-compliance regarding land conversion, nor in terms of acquiring knowledge, certification paperwork, mode and standard requirements applying organic crops. Drawing certification file included the following documents: application for certification; Recording sheet producers in organic farming; Plan culture; Conversion plan; Sketch of site; The inspection plan; Inspection accredited company; Certification Contract.

  16. VARIETY OF MICROORGANISMS GROUPS LIVING ON BERRIES OF GRAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ageeva N. M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The wide variety of microorganisms has been identified in many wine-making countries on the berries of grapes. These are yeasts of different families, forms and kinds, bacterium, mold fungi. In the article, we present the results of investigating species composition of microflora of berries of white and red types of grape, which grows in different economies of the Krasnodar region and the republic of Abkhaziya. The sowings onto the elective media were conducted for the development of entire spectrum of yeast. The grown colonies after preliminary microscoping were separated into the cultures and subjected to testing according to the culturalmorphological signs, being guided by determinants and benefits. It was established the specific variety of microflora on the surface of the berries of grapes of all investigated types, without dependence on the place of their growth. Obtained data showed that the group of yeast, which constantly is present in the complex of the epiphytic microorganisms of grapes of Saccharomyces, Pichia, Hansenula, Hanseniaspora was characteristic for all types of grapes in all investigated regions. The heterogeneity of the taxonometric composition of microflora is shown. Prevailed yeasts were of family Saccharomycetaceae, form Saccharomyces vini. A quantity of yeast of Saccharomyces vini decreases in a number of Myskhako-Caucasus-Fanagoriya, that as a whole will be coordinated with the climatic conditions. Only the type of Pinot nuar grapes had yeasts of Brettanomyces Dekkera. On the berries of Cabernets and Karaburnu we have discovered yeasts of Schisosaccharomyces acidodevoratus, causing acid-reduction. On the berries of the grapes, which grew in joint stock company APF “Fanagoriya” we haven’t revealed the presence of lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus brevis and yeasts of the form of Schisosaccharomyces acidodevoratus. In the same farm the smallest quantity of yeastswreckers is noted, which we the forms of Pichia and

  17. Knot Invariants from Topological Recursion on Augmentation Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Jie; Klemm, Albrecht; Soroush, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Using the duality between Wilson loop expectation values of SU(N) Chern-Simons theory on $S^3$ and topological open-string amplitudes on the local mirror of the resolved conifold, we study knots on $S^3$ and their invariants encoded in colored HOMFLY polynomials by means of topological recursion. In the context of the local mirror Calabi-Yau threefold of the resolved conifold, we generalize the topological recursion of the remodelled B-model in order to study branes beyond the class of toric Harvey-Lawson special Lagrangians -- as required for analyzing non-trivial knots on $S^3$. The basic ingredients for the proposed recursion are the spectral curve, given by the augmentation variety of the knot, and the calibrated annulus kernel, encoding the topological annulus amplitudes associated to the knot. We present an explicit construction of the calibrated annulus kernel for torus knots and demonstrate the validity of the topological recursion. We further argue that -- if an explicit form of the calibrated annulu...

  18. Emerging Varieties of Capitalism in Transition Countries: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszczyński Dariusz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The systemic transformation of post-socialist countries from central planning to a market economy was a very complex and unprecedented undertaking. In this study we critically examine three influential classifications proposed by Coates [2000, 2006], Hall and Soskice [2001], and Amable [2003], within the “comparative capitalisms” literature stream, and argue that they are unsuitable for evaluating the progress made by transition economies since 1990. The basis of the criticism stems from timing: these theoretical frameworks were developed primarily to evaluate the growth of advanced and mature capitalist countries. Thus, they fail to capture the unique features of transition economies and the complexity of the transformation process that led to the emergence of different market-based systems. From this vantage point, we discusses and also critique a recent classification developed by Myant and Drahokoupil [2011, 2015], who distinguish five ideal models (i.e. “varieties of capitalism” that have evolved within transition countries. In our conclusion we point to areas within the field that may be explored by future research.

  19. A Variety of Diversity: Facing Higher Education's Educational Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Eric L.

    2008-10-01

    First among the many important challenges facing American higher education is the need to improve the effectiveness of our educational programs. Public concern has heightened the sense of urgency for colleges and universities to make progress on improving and measuring educational outcomes, which is made more challenging by the varieties of diversity facing us. Diversity is not just an issue related to student recruitment or experience, but rather it is one that also relates to institutions and their faculties. New educational methods must address such diversity to be effective, and one possible example can be found in ongoing research at the University of Michigan that explores the educational implications of implementing a web-based lecture capture system in large lecture courses. Student use of and reactions to such systems is important, as is the potential to influence course performance for students in general, but also for underrepresented and at-risk student subpopulations. In addition to helping bring our current landscape into focus, this paper will identify effective practices as well as continuing challenges to improving educational practice for undergraduate students.

  20. Biotechnology of olive fermentation of Galega Portuguese variety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.; Brito, D.; Catulo, L.; Leitao, F.; Gomes, L.; Silva, S.A; Vilas-boas, L.; Peito, A.; Fernandes, I.; Gordo, F.; Peres, C.

    2004-07-01

    Galega in the main Portuguese olive variety providing the greatest percentage of table olive production from homemade and industrial methods. In this work a better understanding about the fermentation involved in both methods is intended. Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) constitute the microflora acting in olive fermentation, being Pichia membranaefaciens the dominant yeast specie present throughout the process. LAB developed their activity mainly along the second fermentation stage where Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus pentosus were isolated and identified, as well as Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Results of a chemical analysis have shown the effectiveness of both homemade and industrial fermentation methods. Nevertheless, the chemical composition of the brines from homemade samples was more similar than those from the industrial ones. Remarkables differences were found in the phenolic compounds profile mainly on the final fermentation stage. the amount of volatile compounds has enhanced on the same phase in both methods and some differences were found between them. Sensorial analysis has shown the best results obtained through the homemade method. (Author) 18 refs.

  1. Nutritive value of selected variety breads and pastas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranhotra, G S; Gelroth, J A; Novak, F A; Bock, M A; Winterringer, G L; Matthews, R H

    1984-03-01

    Nine types of commercially produced variety breads, plain bagels, corn tortillas, and three types of pasta products were obtained from each of four cities, New York, San Francisco, Atlanta, and Kansas City. Proximate components and 12 minerals and vitamins were determined in these and in cooked pasta products. Available carbohydrate and energy values were calculated. On the average, French, Italian, and pita breads were lower in moisture than other breads. Protein in bread products averaged between 7.6% and 10.4% and in cooked pastas and tortillas between 4.4% and 5.3%. Bagels averaged 10.2% protein. Insoluble dietary fiber in whole wheat bread averaged 5.6%; for most products, dietary fiber values were five- to eightfold higher than crude fiber values. Pasta products and tortillas were virtually free of sodium. Sodium in bread products averaged between 379 and 689 mg/100 gm. Although all pasta products and most bread products were enriched, calcium was often not included. Iron averaged from 2.16 to 3.29 mg/100 gm in bread products and 3.10 to 4.24 mg/100 gm in dry pasta products. Products made with unrefined or less-refined flours and/or containing germ and bran tended to be high in phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, and manganese, and, to a lesser extent, in copper. A good portion of potassium, thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin in pasta products was lost during cooking.

  2. Genetic characterization of some Romanian red wine grapevine varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetea, Ligia Gabriela; Motoc, Rozalia Magda; Niculescu, Ana-Maria; Litescu, Simona Carmen; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Popescu, Carmen Florentina

    2008-04-01

    In our study we have considered three of the most valuable Romanian red wine grapevine cultivars: Feteasca neagra, Feteasca alba and Novac. We have chosen to study grapevine because grapes and wine are an important part of a healthy diet, and because red grapes have the highest content of proanthocyanidins, that act as antioxidants (free radical scavengers) in the human body. Proanthocyanidins possess anti-mutagenic, anti-tumor, anti-viral activities and they present many other confirmed or potential benefits. Genotyping method was applied in order to asses the genetic profile at 14 microsatellite loci, for two cultivars: Feteasca neagra and Feteasca alba. In order to achieve this, the HPLC-DAD method was used. The content of anthocyans in grape skin from two cultivars - Feteasca neagra and Novac - was measured. Microsatellite markers have been certified as powerful tools for assessing genetic identities and genetic relationships between grapevine gene pools. Genetic characterization of grapevine cultivars can certify their authenticity and purity, two features that have a direct effect on the quality and value of the finished product, the wine. In our country, this is the first attempt in order to establish a genetic profile for valuable Romanian origin grapevine varieties. In some of the 14 microsatellitic loci, Feteasca neagra and Feteasca alba cultivars presented allele size variants different from the values cited in the literature, proving that these cultivars belong to a geographical distinct gene pool. The content of anthocyans in Feteasca neagra grape skin was significantly higher than in Novac.

  3. Comparisons of dioxin levels of cucumber varieties and cultivation periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eun, H.; Watanabe, E.; Ishii, Y.; Ueji, M. [National Inst. for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba (Japan); Narita, I.; Nakamura, K. [Saitama Prefecture Agriculture and Forestry Research Center, Saitama (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    According to a 2001 survey on Daily Intake in Japan, the total dioxins intake of a person in Japan amounts to 1.68 pg-TEQ per kg of body weight/day on average. The sharing a percentage of agricultural crops was about 3%in Japanese TDI amounts. However, all cases collect samples from supermarkets to estimate TDI of dioxins, which make it difficult to understand under what environment, food samples were pretreated and cultivated. Especially, TDI values in agricultural crops are probably dependent on the collection situation. In the agricultural environment, some reports indicate that dioxins have accumulated in paddy and upland in Japan due to the past use of some types of agricultural chemicals, which contained dioxins as impurities. Furthermore, taking the atmospheric pathway, for example, dioxins in the ambient air are associated with particulate matter and fall to the ground, contaminating agricultural land. Thus, it has been emphasized that dioxin compounds have a possibility to have adverse effect on vegetables. However, there is little understanding related to this fact in the country and worldwide. Empirical studies conducted in Japan and abroad have reported low residual concentrations of dioxins in cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.), a member of the gourd family. However, there have been extremely few instances of research involving overall comparisons of cultivation environments. Thus, we studied the persistence of dioxins in cucumbers of different varieties cultivated outdoors over varying cultivation periods, conducting thorough experiments to elucidate the actual conditions and mechanisms of dioxin contamination of cucumbers.

  4. ADSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF SACFs FORA VARIETY OF DYES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenShuixia; LuYun; 等

    1998-01-01

    The isothermal adsorption of dyes on a variety of sisal based activated carbon fibers (SACFs),and the influence of pH and temperature on adsorption are discussed in this paper.The results indicate that the adsorption of methylene blue,crystal violet and Eriochrome blue black R on SACFs shows type I isotherms and can be described by the Langmuir equation or the Freudlich equation.The acidity of solution has greatly influence over the adsorption amounts of methylene blue,crystal violet and Eriochrome blue black R.As pHs of the solutions were adjusted to increase or decrease from the original acidity of the solution(4.7,4.1 and 4.0 for methylene blue,crystal violet and Eriochrome blue black R,respectively),the amounts of dyes adsorbed on SACFs increased.The adsorption temperature(in the range of 25-50℃) exerts little influence on the adsorption amount of methylene blue,crystal violet and fluorescein.For azo dyes (Eriochrome blue black R and Eriochrome black T),however,the adsorption amount increases slightly with the elevation of temperature.

  5. Aroma Volatile Compounds from Two Fresh Pineapple Varieties in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Bin Wei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds from two pineapples varieties (Tainong No.4 and No.6 were isolated by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME and identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. In the Tainong No. 4 and No. 6 pineapples, a total of 11 and 28 volatile compounds were identified according to their retention time on capillary columns and their mass spectra, and quantified with total concentrations of 1080.44 µg·kg−1 and 380.66 µg·kg−1 in the Tainong No.4 and No. 6 pineapples, respectively. The odor active values (OAVs of volatile compounds from pineapples were also calculated. According to the OAVs, four compounds were defined as the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 4 pineapple, including furaneol, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid methyl ester, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid ethyl ester and δ-octalactone. The OAVs of five compounds including ethyl-2-methylbutyrate, methyl-2-methylbutyrate, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid ethyl ester, ethyl hexanoate and decanal were considered to be the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 6 pineapple.

  6. On the Cohomology of Deligne-Lusztig Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Craven, David A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a conjecture on the degree of unipotent characters in the cohomology of particular Deligne-Lusztig varieties for groups of Lie type, and derive consequences of it. These degrees are a necessary piece of data in the geometric version of Brou\\'e's abelian defect group conjecture, and can be used to verify this geometric conjecture in new cases. The geometric version of Brou\\'e's conjecture should produce a more combinatorially defined derived equivalence, called a perverse equivalence. We prove that our conjectural degree is an integer (which is not obvious) and has the correct parity for a perfect isometry, and verify that it induces a perverse equivalence for all unipotent blocks of groups of Lie type with cyclic defect groups, whenever the shape of the Brauer tree is known (i.e., not E7 and E8). It has also been used to find perverse equivalences for some non-cyclic cases. This paper is a contribution to the conjectural description of the exact form of a derived equivalence proving ...

  7. EVALUATION OF TWO VARIETIES OF SORGHUM FOR STARCH EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyanis Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Cuba, the wet milling process for the extraction of starch is made from corn, cereal which is currently imported, that is why it is required to substitute it for another grain of national production as it is the case of sorghum. Given the similarities of the two grains in their starch content and considering the potential of sorghum for the food industry, it is developed in this work an assessment process, taking into account two sorghum varieties: red (CIAPR-132 and white (UDG-110. In this sense, a factorial design of the type 2k-1 is made, where the independent variables of most influence in the laboratory process are considered, such as: (x1 type of sorghum, (x2 soaking time and (x3 solution concentration. It is considered that there is no interaction between them and it is taken as the response variable the starch yield in the extraction process. We conclude that the type of sorghum and soaking time are the most influential variables, obtaining the best results for white sorghum subjected for 48 hours to soak in a solution of SO2 at a concentration of 1800 ppm.

  8. Topological invariants of a fan associated to a toric variety

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, T J

    1995-01-01

    Associated to a toric variety X of dimension r over a field k is a fan \\Delta on \\Bbb R^r. The fan \\Delta is a finite set of cones which are in one-to-one correspondence with the orbits of the torus action on X. The fan \\Delta inherits the Zariski topology from X. In this article some cohomological invariants of X are studied in terms of whether or not they depend only on \\Delta and not k. Secondly some numerical invariants of X are studied in terms of whether or not they are topological invariants of the fan \\Delta. That is, whether or not they depend only on the finite topological space defined on \\Delta. The invariants with which we are mostly concerned are the class group of Weil divisors, the Picard group, the Brauer group and the dimensions of the torsion free part of the \\'etale cohomology groups with coefficients in the sheaf of units. The notion of an open neighborhood of a fan is introduced and examples are given for which the above invariants are sufficiently fine to give nontrivial stratifications...

  9. Governance variety in the energy service contracting market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostertag, Katrin; Huelsmann, Friederike

    2008-07-01

    There is a surprisingly high variety of actors involved in the supply of energy service contracting arrangements. Based on an empirical record of approximately 2,500 contracting projects in the domain of space heating in Germany, the paper analyses specialisation patterns of contractors. An econometric model is used to test hypotheses derived from transaction cost economics, which contractor type should be expected for which kind of contracting project. According to our results, if physical, site and human asset specificity are high, governance modes are preferred, for which contracting represents a downward integration of business activities along the value-added chain. This includes the supply of contracting by municipal utilities. More specifically, municipal utilities occur as superior suppliers of contracting if combined heat and power is implemented, if the building served is connected to their gas grid and if it is a public building. This pattern could orient the development of contracting activities for utilities reconsidering their strategic position following the liberalisation of the electricity market. (orig.)

  10. STUDY OF GENETIC VARIABILITY OF TRITICALE VARIETIES BY SSR MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Ondroušková

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available For the detection of genetic variability ten genotypes of winter triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack, 2n = 6x = 42; BBAARR were selected: nine varieties and one breeding line with good bread-making quality KM 4-09 with the chromosome translocation 1R.1D 5+10-2. 25 microsatellites markers located in the genome A, B, D and R were chosen for analysis. Eighty-four alleles were detected with an average of 3.36 alleles per locus were detected. For each microsatellite statistical values were calculated diversity index (DI, probabilities of identity (PI and polymorphic information content (PIC were calculated and averages statistical values are: DI 0.55, PI 0.27 and 0.5 PIC. Overall dendrogram based on the UPGMA method (Jaccards similarity coefficient significantly distinguished two groups of genotypes and these groups were divided into sub-clusters. A set of 5 SSR markers (Xwms0752, Xbarc128, Xrems1237, Xwms0861 and Xbrac170 which have the calculated PIC value higher than 0.68 that are sufficient for the identification of the analyzed genotypes was described.

  11. Agronomic characterization variety Quebranta in the Ica region, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cáceres Yparraguirre Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was to identify the best strains of the Quebranta variety cultivated in Peruvian region of Ica during campaigns 2011 to 2014. The evaluations were conducted in fourteen vineyards and the criteria to evaluate each one of them was that the same owner vineyard, would identify the best strain Quebranta for their good performance and sanitary quality. Productive parameters as grape weight and number of bunches per vine, average cluster weight, length and width of cluster and Berry weight were evaluated. Within the parameters of vegetative growth was assessed Ravaz index and as parameter for the composition of the grape was evaluated the concentration soluble solids (°Brix, total acidity and pH. Four phenological stages were recorded and defined from observed events in the branch of the year: Phase I comprising bud of winter to sprouting; Phase II of sprouting to full bloom; Phase III of full bloom to veraison and Phase IV of veraison to maturity. At the time of fruit setting were taken leaf samples to assess the State of health of each strain to Grapevine fanleaf virus, Grapevine fleck virus, Grapevine leafroll virus 1, Grapevine leafroll virus 3 and Tomato ringspot virus. The variables average bunch weight (22%, berry weight (20%, bunch length (13% and bunch width (11% presented the lowest values coefficient of variation. The variables of weight of grape per vine (52%, number of bunch (42% and index of Ravaz (60% has the highest values of coefficient of variation. Four variables were used that showed lower values (25% coefficient of variation for the weighted average. The variables that presented perfect correlation were berry weight and width of bunch, berry weight and Ravaz index, length of bunch and Ravaz index. The analysis of conglomerate allowed to group the strains in study in two groups which showed a significant difference between them (p < 0.0001. The principal component analysis identified that the variable of weight per bunch

  12. Dialogical Grammar: Varieties of Dialogue in Wittgenstein’s Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorit Lemberger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The dialogical character of Wittgenstein’s Philosophical Investigations has received scant attention in the literature, given the work’s status in his total oeuvre, and is dismissed as a marginal as compared to the other differences between the Tractatus and the Investigations. The main lines of interpretation that have been proposed see dialogue as a rhetorical technique intended to present erroneous positions and then refute them, as an exemplification of what can be expressed in language (McGinn 1997; Rhees 1998, or as a reflection of Wittgenstein’s informal teaching method (Malcolm 2001; Savickey et al. 1990. The present article adopts the perspective that Wittgenstein’s use of dialogue makes it possible to track the various modes of language-acts, consonant with his directions to examine the daily use of language (Wittgenstein 2009, §116 and esp. §132, “when language is, as it were, idling.” In his later inquiries, Wittgenstein frequently considers the nature of mental states, accompanied by an attempt to characterize the differences between them while at the same time dealing with the cases in which it is difficult to distinguish them. In this process he made a variety of uses of dialogue, each of which embodies a different aspect of language action.  Subsequently I will demonstrate that these different uses are not haphazard. A scrutiny of the nature of the dialogue can help us understand the nature of the activity carried out of the state of consciousness. Finally, I propose a distinction among three main types of dialogue: technical, conversational, and reflexive.

  13. Rich variety of substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Bich Ha; Hieu Nguyen, Van; Nhung Tran, Hong

    2016-09-01

    The efficiency of the application of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technique to each specified purpose significantly depends on the choice of the SERS substrate with an appropriate structure as well as on its performance. Until the present time a rich variety of SERS substrates was fabricated. They can be classified according to their structures. The present work is a review of main types of SERS substrates for using in the trace analysis application. They can be classified into 4 groups: (1) Substrates using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with spherical shape such as colloidal AuNPs, AuNPs fabricated by pulsed laser deposition, by sputtering or by capillary force assembly (CFA), substrates fabricated by electrospinning technique, substrates using metallic nanoparticle arrays fabricated by electron beam lithography combined with CFA method, substrates using silver nanoparticle (AgNP) arrays grain by chemical seeded method, substrates with tunable surface plasmon resonance, substrates based on precies subnanometer plasmonic junctions within AuNP assemblies, substrates fabricated by simultaneously immobilizing both AuNPs and AgNPs on the same glass sides etc. (2) Substrates using nanostructures with non-spherical shapes such as gold nanowire (NW), or highly anisotropic nickel NW together with large area, free-standing carpets, substrates with obviously angular, quasi-vertically aligned cuboid-shaped TiO2 NW arrays decorated with AgNPs, substrates using gold nanoprism monolayer films, substrates using silver nanocube dimmers or monodisperse close-packed gold nanotriangle monolayers. (3) Substrates using multiparticle complex nanostructure such as nanoparticle cluster arrays, gold nanoflowers and nanodendrites. (4) Flexible substrate such as paper-based swab with gold nanorods, adhesive polymer tapes fabricated by inkjet printing method and flexible and adhesive SERS tapes fabricated by decorating AuNPs via the conventional drop-dry method.

  14. Leveraging Environmental Correlations: The Thermodynamics of Requisite Variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Alexander B.; Mandal, Dibyendu; Crutchfield, James P.

    2017-06-01

    Key to biological success, the requisite variety that confronts an adaptive organism is the set of detectable, accessible, and controllable states in its environment. We analyze its role in the thermodynamic functioning of information ratchets—a form of autonomous Maxwellian Demon capable of exploiting fluctuations in an external information reservoir to harvest useful work from a thermal bath. This establishes a quantitative paradigm for understanding how adaptive agents leverage structured thermal environments for their own thermodynamic benefit. General ratchets behave as memoryful communication channels, interacting with their environment sequentially and storing results to an output. The bulk of thermal ratchets analyzed to date, however, assume memoryless environments that generate input signals without temporal correlations. Employing computational mechanics and a new information-processing Second Law of Thermodynamics (IPSL) we remove these restrictions, analyzing general finite-state ratchets interacting with structured environments that generate correlated input signals. On the one hand, we demonstrate that a ratchet need not have memory to exploit an uncorrelated environment. On the other, and more appropriate to biological adaptation, we show that a ratchet must have memory to most effectively leverage structure and correlation in its environment. The lesson is that to optimally harvest work a ratchet's memory must reflect the input generator's memory. Finally, we investigate achieving the IPSL bounds on the amount of work a ratchet can extract from its environment, discovering that finite-state, optimal ratchets are unable to reach these bounds. In contrast, we show that infinite-state ratchets can go well beyond these bounds by utilizing their own infinite "negentropy". We conclude with an outline of the collective thermodynamics of information-ratchet swarms.

  15. An investigative study of indigenous sweet sorghum varieties for bioethanol production: the case of Kenya local sorghum varieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangai, L.K.; Mbeo, C.O. [Kenya Industrial Research and Development Inst., Nairobi (Kenya); Kamau, C.K. [Kenya Agricurtural Research Inst.(s), Machakos (Kenya)

    2012-11-01

    There are over 500 sorghum genotypes grown locally in Kenya. This study was an investigation and selection of suitable sorghum genotypes for sustainable bio-ethanol production in Kenya. For the study, 500 genotypes of sorghum were planted and grown using the recommended agricultural practices. Random sampling of 230 genotypes was done and the samples analysed for juice and sugar content. The 26 best yielding genotypes were selected and grown again in duplicate for further detailed study. Data on date of flowering, pest resistance, {sup 0}brix, wet and dry weight, plant population, ratooning, grain yield and juice yield and juice sugar content were recorded and analyzed using GENstat. Sampling was done for each genotype when about 50% of the crop had flowered and there after, every 2 weeks until the grains dried. Crushing was done with a three roller mill crusher [8]. The sugar content was measured using a digital refractometer. Sugar yield obtained ranged between 10.3{sup 0}Brix and 19.3{sup 0}Brix and juice yield between 268 litres/hectare and 11390 litres/hectare. Five indigenous sorghum varieties, GBK-007130, GBK-007076, GBK-007102, GBK-007296, GBK-007098 were found to have the highest sugar and juice yields and were considered the most suitable sweet sorghum genotypes among those studied, for bio-ethanol production in Kenya.

  16. The international methodological requirements to the varieties selection with example characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. П. Костенко

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article proves that a number of international legal documents revealing a common approach to scientific and methodological providing of qualified examination execution of new plant varieties, patent protection to plants variety are made. Adherence to common methodological approach will promote harmonized description varieties at international level. Criteria to the varieties with example characteristics are considered in detail according to the provisions of the International Convention for the New Plants Varieties Protection, UPOV technical standards. A collection of varieties with example characteristics are formed by the collection of commonly familiar varieties possessing one or more stable characteristics that can be applied as a example for comparison of new varieties used in the qualified examination of the candidate variety uniformity. The requirements to the example variety formation and their using, definitely, the seed samples presence, its morphological description, the marked example characteristics identifying to the botanical taxon are revealed.

  17. VARIETY DEMAND IN AN INTEGRATED AGRICULTURAL HOUSEHOLD MODEL WITH ATTRIBUTES: IMPLICATIONS FOR EMERGING CROP BIOTECHNOLOGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Edmeades, Svetlana; Phaneuf, Daniel J.; Smale, Melinda; Renkow, Mitch

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we consider the role of variety attributes in an agricultural household model of variety planting decisions. In an application to banana production in Uganda we derive a system of derived demands for a set of available banana varieties. Our empirical model uses a hudle/count data framework to examine simaltaneously the likelihood a household has experience with a given variety, and the amount of the variety that is planted. We find that production, consumption, and pest resistan...

  18. Biotechnology of olive fermentation of ‘Galega' Portuguese variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira, Manuela

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available ‘Galega' is the main Portuguese olive variety providing the greatest percentage of table olive production from homemade and industrial methods. In this work a better understanding of the fermentation involved in both methods is intended. Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB constitute the microflora acting in olive fermentation, with Pichia membranaefaciens being the dominant yeast specie present throughout the process. LAB develop their activity mainly along the second fermentation stage where Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus pentosus were isolated and identified, as well as Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Results of a chemical analysis have shown the effectiveness of both homemade and industrial fermentation methods. Nevertheless, the chemical composition of the brines from homemade samples was more similar than those from the industrial ones. Remarkable differences were found in the phenolic compound profile mainly on the final fermentation stage. The amount of volatile compounds has enhanced on the same phase in both methods and some differences were found between them. Sensorial analysis has shown the best results obtained through the homemade method.La variedad de aceitunas más importante en Portugal es la ‘Galega', que representa un gran porcentaje de la producción de aceitunas de mesa portuguesas por métodos caseros ó industriales. La fermentación se produce por una compleja flora microbiana, principalmente levaduras y bacterias del ácido láctico (LAB, siendo la especie Pichia membranaefaciens la que domina en todo el proceso. Las LAB desarrollan su actividad a lo largo de la segunda fase de la fermentación, en donde Lactobacillus plantarum y Lactobacillus pentosus fueran aislados y identificados, así como Leuconostoc pentosaceus. Los resultados de los análisis químicos muestran la mejor eficiencia del método casero. Además, la composición química de la salmuera es más parecida

  19. A variety of amalgamated allusion in Saeb’s sonnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Haghjoo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Poetic figures of speech are among the factors which their prominence in a poet’s poetry makes up his/her specific style. One of the figures of speech and poetic techniques is allusive figures of speech or amalgamated allusions. As the name entails, these are types of figures in which allusion is located at the center and amalgamates with other figures. Such amalgamation brings about a novel complicated figure of speech.  One special type of allusive figures of speech is an allusion which is occasionally amalgamated with metaphor and ambiguity, and at times in addition to metaphor and ambiguity with simile. The origin of this figure, which is recently referred to as “metaphoric ambiguous allusion, is traced back to Hakim baz in Persian literature. Although, poetry of Hafez is replete with metaphoric ambiguous allusion, it is considerably ubiquitous in Indian style in a way that its ignorance especially in Saeb’s poetry implies the denial of one of its foremost stylistic qualities. The mixed nature of this figure and the presence of several robust figures besides each other which are the basis of poetic fantasy and a fantastic presentation is created by combination of these figures. These figures invite readers into a mode of reflection and thinking and opens corridors of fantasy towards him replete with unsurpassable satisfaction. Such amalgamated figure is formed when a poet grants an allusion to a phenomenon which in reality the phenomenon owns such quality but in a different conceptualization. Supposedly, the given figure was Saeb’s major artifact which helped him to fulfill his distinct poetic quality i.e. unsurpassed power of creating vivacious contents. The present article intended to conduct a supplementary reanalysis of “metaphoric ambiguous allusion and its different varieties and examined it in Saeb’s Poetry. Metaphoric ambiguous allusion refers to a metaphor which alludes to something. The characteristics of the

  20. Physico-chemical characterization of banana varieties resistant to black leaf streak disease for industrial purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Catie Bueno de Godoy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Cultivated bananas have very low genetic diversity making them vulnerable to diseases such as black-Sigatoka leaf spot. However, the decision to adopt a new banana variety needs to be based on a robust evaluation of agronomical and physical-chemical characteristics. Here, we characterize new banana varieties resistant to black-Sigatoka leaf spot and compare them to the most widely used traditional variety (Grand Naine. Each variety was evaluated for a range of physic-chemical attributes associated with industrial processing and flavor: pH, TTA, TSS/TTA, total sugars, reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars, humidity, total solids and yield. The Thap Maeo variety had the highest potential as a substitute for the Grand Naine variety, having higher levels of total soluble solids, reducing sugars, total sugars and humidity. The Caipira and FHIA 2 varieties also performed well in comparison with the Grand Naine variety. Cluster analysis indicated that the Grand Naine variety was closely associated with varieties from the Gross Michel subgroup (Bucaneiro, Ambrosia and Calipso and the Caipira variety, all of which come from the same AAA genomic group. It was concluded that several of the new resistant varieties could potentially substitute the traditional variety in areas affected by black-Sigatoka leaf spot disease.

  1. Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberland, Hartmut; Mortensen, Janus

    2012-01-01

    Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university......Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university...

  2. On the Number of Rational Points on Prym Varieties over Finite Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubry, Yves; Haloui, Safia

    2016-01-01

    We give upper and lower bounds for the number of rational points on Prym varieties over finite fields. Moreover, we determine the exact maximum and minimum number of rational points on Prym varieties of dimension 2.......We give upper and lower bounds for the number of rational points on Prym varieties over finite fields. Moreover, we determine the exact maximum and minimum number of rational points on Prym varieties of dimension 2....

  3. Variety - seeking in product choice behavior : theory with applications in the food domain

    OpenAIRE

    Trijp, van, J.C.M.

    1995-01-01

    The primary objectives of the present work are (1) to review the marketing and psychological literature on variety-seeking behavior, (2) to develop a formal model for variety-seeking in product choice behavior and (3) to investigate elements of the proposed model empirically. The present approach specifically focuses on temporal variety-seeking behavior and addresses some of the key issues that have received inadequate attention in previous work on temporal variety-seeking behavior. ...

  4. Phenotypic Changes in Different Spinach Varieties Grown and Selected under Organic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Schermann

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic and low-input agriculture needs flexible varieties that can buffer environmental stress and adapt to the needs of farmers. We implemented an experiment to investigate the evolutionary capacities of a sample of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. population varieties for a number of phenotypic traits. Three farmers cultivated, selected and multiplied one or several populations over two years on their farms. The third year, the versions of the varieties cultivated and selected by the different farmers were compared to the original seed lots they had been given. After two cycles of cultivation and on-farm mass selection, all the observed varieties showed significant phenotypic changes (differences between the original version and the version cultivated by farmers for morphological and phenological traits. When the divergence among versions within varieties was studied, the results show that the varieties conserved their identity, except for one variety, which evolved in such a way that it may now be considered two different varieties. The heterogeneity of the population varieties was assessed in comparison with a commercial F1 hybrid used as control, and we found no specific differences in phenotypic diversity between the hybrid and population varieties. The phenotypic changes shown by the population varieties in response to on-farm cultivation and selection could be useful for the development of specific adaptation. These results call into question the current European seed legislation and the requirements of phenotypic stability for conservation varieties.

  5. Effect of enzyme activity on the starch structure and processing quality of selected rice varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although most commercialized long grain rice varieties have intermediate amylose content (~22%), high amylose (>25%) varieties are important for the canning and parboiling industry. Research has shown that high amylose rice varieties that have the best processing quality have high setback and low br...

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of... and Vegetables § 319.56-27 Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United States from Japan and the Republic of Korea only in...

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-29 - Ya variety pears from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ya variety pears from China. 319.56-29 Section 319.56... variety pears from China. Ya variety pears may be imported into the United States from China only in... organization (NPPO) of China in an APHIS-approved export growing area in the Hebei or Shandong Provinces....

  8. Language Ideologies and the Education of Speakers of Marginalized Language Varieties: Adopting a Critical Awareness Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    For over 40 years, sociolinguists have been demonstrating that all varieties of language are equal in linguistic terms. Yet vernacular varieties such as African American English and Hawai'i Creole are still generally marginalized and excluded from the educational process, with the result that speakers of these varieties are disadvantaged in…

  9. 7 CFR 201.68 - Eligibility requirements for certification of varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... certification is requested: (a) The name of the variety. (b) A statement concerning the variety's origin and the breeding procedure used in its development. (c) A detailed description of the morphological, physiological... resistance, or other factors supporting the identity of the variety. (e) A statement delineating...

  10. The impact of related variety on regional employment growth in Finland 1993-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, M.; Boschma, R.A.; Sotarauta, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of related variety on regional employment growth in Finland between 1993 and 2006 by means of a dynamic panel regression model.We find that related variety in general has no impact on growth. Instead, after separating related variety among low-and-medium-tech secto

  11. Genome constitution of Narcissus variety, 'Tete-a-Tete', analysed through GISH and NBS profiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, H.; Ramanna, M.S.; Arens, P.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The Narcissus variety, ‘Tête-à-Tête’, has been the most popular variety since 1949, and a well known allotriploid (2n = 3x = 24 + B) of spontaneous origin. Because the identity of one of the parents of this variety was uncertain, the genome constitution of ‘Tête-à-Tête’ was investigated by using gen

  12. Genome constitution of Narcissus variety, 'Tete-a-Tete', analysed through GISH and NBS profiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, H.; Ramanna, M.S.; Arens, P.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The Narcissus variety, ‘Tête-à-Tête’, has been the most popular variety since 1949, and a well known allotriploid (2n = 3x = 24 + B) of spontaneous origin. Because the identity of one of the parents of this variety was uncertain, the genome constitution of ‘Tête-à-Tête’ was investigated by using gen

  13. Changes of RWC, Wilting Degree and ABA in Different Ramie Varieties under Drought Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Changes of RWC, wilting degree and ABA in different ramie varieties under drought stress were studied. The results showed: (1) wilting degree and ABA increased but RWC decreased with the increase of drought sress,and (2) drought resistant varieties had higher RWC and ABA but lower wilting degree than drought sensitive varieties.

  14. Proposal for the Identification of Barley Varieties Based on the Genotypes for 2 Hordein and 39 Isoenzym Loci of 47 Reference Varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G.; Johansen, Hanne Bay

    1986-01-01

    12 and the other 15 alleles. The variation in the 16 enzyme loci permitted the division of the 66 varieties into 63 groups, while the two hordein loci produced 34 groups. A study of 20 individuals from each variety showed that 22 varieties were polymorphic in at least one locus. Eight starch gel...... electrophoresis with various buffer systems, one agar gel electrophoresis (for amylases), and one polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (for hordein) were performed to develop the patterns associated with the 41 loci. The polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis developing hordein patterns was clearly the most powerful...

  15. Chromosome characterization of two varieties of Mangifera indica L.¹

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neiva Izabel Pierozzi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome studies were performed in two varieties of Mangifera indica L. (mango, 'IAC-140 Espadona' and in its progenitor 'Espada Stahl'. Both varieties showed 2n=40 chromosomes though the karyotype formulae were 8m + 10sm + 2sm s for 'Stahl' and 7m + 11sm + 2sm s for 'IAC-140'. The varieties showed moderate karyotype asymmetry which was estimated according to four different indices. Both varieties exhibited three chromosome pairs with silver impregnation after NOR-banding. The number of nucleoli within interphase cells varied from one, the commonest, to eight. The nucleolus persistent phenomenon was observed in more than 22% of metaphase cells of both varieties, seeing that in 'Stahl', up to two nucleoli were evidenced. This variety also showed one nucleolus in several anaphase cells. The studies were suitable for evidencing diversity at chromosomal level between these two varieties.

  16. Sensory Profiles and Volatile Compounds of Wheat Species, Landraces and Modern Varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starr, Gerrard

    ). Seventy two volatile compounds were identified in the grain of 81 wheat varieties (Paper II). Out of these, 7 selected wheat volatile compounds were significantly varied among 14 wheat varieties, indicating huge variation in volatile compound profiles among wheat varieties. Multivariate analysis showed...... that several wheat samples retained their configuration of distribution throughout the sensory tests. The same varieties also retained the same distribution configuration when analysed for volatile compounds which could link volatile profiles to sensory evaluation results (Papers II and III). Landraces were...... distinguishable from modern varieties and varieties from Austria could be distinguished from Danish, French and British varieties based on volatile profiles. This suggests that wheat volatile composition has genetic causes. The results in this study provide a strong case that there is wide variation among wheat...

  17. A Hessenberg generalization of the Garsia-Procesi basis for the cohomology ring of Springer varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Mbirika, Aba

    2009-01-01

    The Springer variety is the set of flags stabilized by a nilpotent operator. In 1978, T.A. Springer observed this variety's cohomology carries a symmetric group action, and he offered a deep geometric construction. Fourteen years later, Garsia and Procesi made Springer's work more transparent and accessible by presenting it as a graded quotient of a polynomial ring. They combinatorially describe an explicit basis for this quotient. The goal of this paper is to generalize their work. Our main result deepens their analysis of Springer varieties and extends it to a family of varieties called Hessenbergs, a two-parameter generalization of Springer varieties. Little is known about their cohomology. For the class of regular nilpotent Hessenbergs, we conjecture a quotient presentation for this ring and exhibit an explicit basis. Tantalizing new evidence supports our conjecture for a subclass of regular nilpotent varieties called Peterson varieties.

  18. Biological and Pomological Characteristics of some Pear Varieties in Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Kiprjanovski

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Five years research of the biological and pomological characteristics of some pear varieties are presented in this paper. 18 pear varieties with different ripening time were included in the research. Some of investigated varieties are new bred (Turandot, Norma, Karmen, Monica, some of them are famous as resistant to Fire Blight (‘Harrow Delight’, ‘Harvest Queen’, ‘Harrow Sweet’, ‘Honey Sweet’ and some of them belong to group of old varieties that have been less investigated in our conditions (‘Starking Delicious’, ‘Abbe Fetel’, ‘Packams Triumph’, ‘Conference’, ‘Magness Highland’, ‘Guyot’. All varieties were compared with standard varieties (‘Williams’, ‘Precoce Moretini’, ‘Bosc,s’. Demonstrative orchard was established in 1997 at the Faculty farm-Trubarevo near Skopje. The trees were grafted on BA 29 quince rootstock and for those varieties that had not affinity with quince, we used inter stock pear variety Cure. Research was conducted during the period of 2003-2007. The following parameters were investigated: blossom, ripening of the fruits, growth of the trees (TCSA, volume of the crowns, yield, pomological characteristics of the fruits and content of the soluble dry matters and acids. The results showed that some of the pear varieties are characterized with a good production attributes, resistant to Fire Blight, pear sucker and to some a biotical factors, with good quality of the fruits. In the first group, the best characteristics gave variety Norma, from resistant variety group good results gave variety Harrow Sweet, and from old variety assortment for our conditions, good results gave ‘Packams Triumph’. These varieties can be recommended for cultivation in our climatically conditions.

  19. Performance of spring barley varieties and variety mixtures as affected by manure application and their order in an organic crop rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Margrethe; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Berntsen, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain a high and stable yield of organic spring barley, production should be optimized according to the specific environment. To test the performance of spring barley varieties under varying cropping conditions, a field experiment was carried out in 2003 and 2004 in a six-field mixed...... organic crop rotation. We investigated the choice of variety, the order in a rotation, and the application of manure (slurry and farmyard manure; 0 to 120 total-N ha−1) on grain yields of six selected varieties with different characteristics grown in either pure stands or in two spring barley mixtures......, each consisting of three varieties. Average grain yield of the barley varieties varied between 3.3 t DM ha−1 and 4.1 t DM ha−1. Grain yields of the two mixtures were 4.0 and 3.6 t DM ha−1, respectively. The varieties/mixtures interacted with crop order and year. Foliar diseases were more severe...

  20. Morphological, physiological and proteomic analyses provide insights into the improvement of castor bean productivity of a dwarf variety in comparing with a high-stalk variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Hu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ricinus communis displays a broad range of phenotypic diversity in size, with dwarf, common, and large-sized varieties. To better understand the differences in plant productivity between a high-stalk variety and a dwarf variety under normal growth conditions, we carried out a comparative proteomic study between Zhebi 100 (a high stalk variety and Zhebi 26 (a dwarf variety combined with agronomic and physiological analyses. Over 1000 proteins were detected, 38 of which differed significantly between the two varieties and were identified by mass spectrometry. Compared with Zhebi 100, we found that photosynthesis, energy, and protein biosynthesis related proteins decreased in abundance in Zhebi 26. The lower yield of the dwarf castor is likely related to its lower photosynthetic rate, therefore we hypothesize that the lower yield of the dwarf castor, in comparing to high stalk castor, could be increased by increasing planting density. Consequently, we demonstrated that at the higher planting density in Zhebi 26 (36,000 seedlings/hm² can achieve a higher yield than that of Zhebi 100 (12,000 seedlings/hm². Proteomic and physiological studies showed that for developing dwarf R. communis cultivar that is suitable for large scale-production (i.e. mechanical harvesting, it is imperative to identify the optimum planting density that will contribute to higher leaf area index, higher photosynthesis, and eventually higher productivity.

  1. Morphological, Physiological and Proteomic Analyses Provide Insights into the Improvement of Castor Bean Productivity of a Dwarf Variety in Comparing with a High-Stalk Variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenjun; Chen, Lin; Qiu, Xiaoyun; Lu, Hongling; Wei, Jia; Bai, Yueqing; He, Ningjia; Hu, Rongbin; Sun, Li; Zhang, Hong; Shen, Guoxin

    2016-01-01

    Ricinus communis displays a broad range of phenotypic diversity in size, with dwarf, common, and large-sized varieties. To better understand the differences in plant productivity between a high-stalk variety and a dwarf variety under normal growth conditions, we carried out a comparative proteomic study between Zhebi 100 (a high stalk variety) and Zhebi 26 (a dwarf variety) combined with agronomic and physiological analyses. Over 1000 proteins were detected, 38 of which differed significantly between the two varieties and were identified by mass spectrometry. Compared with Zhebi 100, we found that photosynthesis, energy, and protein biosynthesis related proteins decreased in abundance in Zhebi 26. The lower yield of the dwarf castor is likely related to its lower photosynthetic rate, therefore we hypothesize that the lower yield of the dwarf castor, in comparing to high stalk castor, could be increased by increasing planting density. Consequently, we demonstrated that at the higher planting density in Zhebi 26 (36,000 seedlings/hm2) can achieve a higher yield than that of Zhebi 100 (12,000 seedlings/hm2). Proteomic and physiological studies showed that for developing dwarf R. communis cultivar that is suitable for large scale-production (i.e., mechanical harvesting), it is imperative to identify the optimum planting density that will contribute to higher leaf area index, higher photosynthesis, and eventually higher productivity.

  2. Quantifying variety-specific heat resistance and the potential for adaptation to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Jesse; Barkley, Andrew; Rife, Trevor W; Poland, Jesse A; Nalley, Lawton Lanier

    2016-08-01

    The impact of climate change on crop yields has become widely measured; however, the linkages for winter wheat are less studied due to dramatic weather changes during the long growing season that are difficult to model. Recent research suggests significant reductions under warming. A potential adaptation strategy involves the development of heat resistant varieties by breeders, combined with alternative variety selection by producers. However, the impact of heat on specific wheat varieties remains relatively unstudied due to limited data and the complex genetic basis of heat tolerance. Here, we provide a novel econometric approach that combines field-trial data with a genetic cluster mapping to group wheat varieties and estimate a separate extreme heat impact (temperatures over 34 °C) across 24 clusters spanning 197 varieties. We find a wide range of heterogeneous heat resistance and a trade-off between average yield and resistance. Results suggest that recently released varieties are less heat resistant than older varieties, a pattern that also holds for on-farm varieties. Currently released - but not yet adopted - varieties do not offer improved resistance relative to varieties currently grown on farm. Our findings suggest that warming impacts could be significantly reduced through advances in wheat breeding and/or adoption decisions by producers. However, current adaptation-through-adoption potential is limited under a 1 °C warming scenario as increased heat resistance cannot be achieved without a reduction in average yields. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Pollination requirements of seeded and seedless mini watermelon varieties cultivated under protected environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac Gabriel Abrahão Bomfim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the floral biology and pollination requirements of seeded and seedless mini watermelon varieties, and to determine the best varieties to cultivate under protected environment. Three seedless (HA-5106, HA-5158, and HA-5161 and two seeded (Minipol and Polimore genotypes were tested. Flowers were monitored from the pre-anthesis stage to senescence, and fruit quality was also evaluated. The evaluated treatments were hand-geitonogamous pollination (MG, cross-pollination with pollen from the Polimore variety (MCP, cross-pollination with pollen from the Minipol variety (MCM, and restricted pollination. All varieties had monoecious plants with diclinous flowers, and the stigmas remained receptive throughout anthesis. Fruit set rates of 84.62% (MG, 61.54% (MCP, 48% (MCM, and 0% (restricted were obtained for seeded varieties, but of 0% (MG, 76.36% (MCP, 82.69% (MCM, and 0% (restricted for seedless varieties. Fruits did not differ in quality among treatments within each genotype. Therefore, all the studied varieties require a pollination agent and diploid pollen for fruit set to occur, regardless of the donor variety; and Minipol or Polimore with HA-5106 or HA-5158 are the varieties recommended for cultivation in protected environment.

  4. Genetic Characterization of Indigenous Rice Varieties in Eastern Himalayan Region of Northeast India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baharul Islam CHOUDHURY; Mohammed Latif KHAN; Selvadurai DAYANANDAN

    2014-01-01

    The eastern Himalayan region of Northeast (NE) India is home to a large number of indigenous rice varieties, which are traditionally classified as Oryza sativa subspecies indica, japonica or intermediate types. The classification based on traditional Cheng’s index is often inconclusive due to phenotypic plasticity of morphological characters, which are influenced by environmental conditions. We used molecular markers specific for indica and japonica subspecies to assess the degree of genetic relatedness of indigenous rice varieties in NE India. The results revealed that majority of upland (jum) and glutinous rice varieties, traditionally considered as japonica, were genetically close to the subspecies indica. All varieties of boro ecotype were found to be indica type, and only a few varieties cultivated in lowland and upland areas were japonica type. Some of the lowland varieties of the sali ecotype were intermediate between indica and japonica, and they showed a closer genetic affinity to O. rufipogon.

  5. Problems of New Plant Variety Protection System in China and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuwu; GUAN

    2013-01-01

    Protection of new plant varieties has been long neglected in China, which has already restricted agricultural technological renovation, and influenced export of Chinese agricultural products. The current scientific and technological management system is not favorable for the output of right of new plant variety, and high cost of protecting new plant varieties directly results in agricultural researchers’ ignorance of right of new plant variety. Major causes were concluded as poor intellectual property awareness of peasants and agricultural researchers, government-arranged system for agricultural scientific and technological management, and hardship in safeguarding intellectual property due to the particularity of agricultural technology. In view of these problems, Chinese agricultural scientific and technological management system should be reformed, protection system of new plant varieties improved, more efforts devoted in protecting the right of new plant variety and also the owners’ interest.

  6. New varieties of annual aster (Callistephus chinensis (L. Nees by Ukrainian breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. О. Шевель

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the state of breeding and variety studying for Callistephus chinensis in Ukraine and, in particular, in the Horticulture Institute of NAA, and offers the summary of studying the growth and development aspects for Callistephus, various varieties productivity level, their response to specific set of weather and climatic conditions. The research objectives and methods for their achieving are disclosed, as well the requirements a variety shall comply with, namely: reaching homozygote state, distinctness and ornamentality, fusariose and weather conditions resistance. 11 descriptions for new varieties of annual aster (Anastasia, Angelina, Litnia Nich, Lybid, Oksamyt, Samanta, Sofia, Snizhana, Flamingo , Shokoladka, Tsarivna as bred by the Horticulture Institute of NAAS were provided, namely by identification and economic and biologic characteristics, these varieties are listed in the State Register of Plant Varieties Suitable for Dissemination in Ukraine.

  7. Diagnosis of drought resistance of wheat varieties of different breeding on osmoregulatory properties of seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Алексеевич Варавкин

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Krasnodarsakaia 99, Epokha Odessa winter wheat varieties under high osmotic pressure retain significant ability to germinate. The rooting intensity, growth of embryonic roots and stems in length in seedlings decreased in all varieties with sucrose concentration increasing. Natalka variety is less exposed to the adverse effects of osmosis, which is shown in maintaining of high seed germination, oppression reducing, and growth of roots and stems of seedlings.

  8. GC-MS metabolomic differentiation of selected citrus varieties with different sensitivity to citrus huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M; Futch, David B; Shilts, Turksen; Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Reyes-De-Corcuera, José I

    2012-04-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. The rapid identification of tolerant varieties is considered a critical step towards controlling HLB. GC-MS metabolite profiles were used to differentiate HLB-tolerant citrus varieties 'Poncirus trifoliata' (TR) and 'Carrizo citrange' (CAR) from HLB-sensitive varieties 'Madam Vinous sweet orange' (MV) and 'Duncan' grapefruit (DG). PCR analyses revealed that MV was the most sensitive variety followed by DG and the tolerant varieties CAR and TR. Metabolomic multivariate analysis allowed classification of the cultivars in apparent agreement with PCR results. Higher levels of the amino acids l-proline, l-serine, and l-aspartic acid, as well as the organic acids butanedioic and tetradecanoic acid, and accumulation of galactose in healthy plants were characteristic of the most sensitive variety MV when compared to all other varieties. Only galactose was significantly higher in DG when compared to the tolerant varieties TR and CAR. The tolerant varieties showed higher levels of l-glycine and mannose when compared to sensitive varieties MV and DG. Profiling of the sensitive varieties MV and DG over a 20-week period after inoculation of those with the HLB-containing material revealed strong responses of metabolites to HLB infection that differed from the response of the tolerant varieties. Significant changes of l-threonine level in the leaves from old mature flushes and l-serine, l-threonine, scyllo-inositol, hexadecanoic acid, and mannose in the leaves from young developing flushes were observed in MV. Significant changes in myo-inositol in old flushes and l-proline, indole, and xylose in new flushes were observed in DG. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Pilot-plant pulping studies on four abaca varieties. I. Soda pulping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerrudo, J.V.; Visperas, R.V.; Ballon, C.H.

    1981-01-01

    Cooking of spindle-stripped and decorticated abaca varieties with 13.5% NaOH for 2.5 hours at 170 degrees gave pulp in average yield of 69.1% and 60.9%, respectively. All the pulps had low permanganate numbers, indicating that they can be bleached easily. The strength properties of abaca pulp were related to the plant variety, and Sabahon variety gave pulp with best strength characteristics.

  10. Application of molecular markers for variety protection of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Bach; Deneken, Gerhard; Roulund, N

    2008-01-01

    legislation complies with the Convention of the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV 1991). The corner stone of the UPOV system is that in order to qualify for protection, a newly bred plant variety has to be shown to be distinct (D), uniform (U) and stable (S...... data and the morphological data, indicating that SSR markers can be used for variety identification in ryegrass....

  11. Optimal Licensing for Public Intellectual Property: Theory and Application to Plant Variety Patents

    OpenAIRE

    Julian M. Alston; Plakias, Zoe T.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, public universities may choose to license a plant variety to a limited number of producers (an exclusive license) or to an unlimited number of producers (an open license). This choice has implications for the quantity and distribution of total benefits from the variety. Universities have traditionally released new apple varieties under open licenses, but several universities have now begun exploring or implementing exclusive licensing. In this paper, we consider the choi...

  12. Product Variety, Supply Chain Structure, and Firm Performance: Analysis of the U.S. Bicycle Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor Randall; Karl Ulrich

    2001-01-01

    Using data from the U.S. bicycle industry, we examine the relation among product variety, supply chain structure, and firm performance. Variety imposes two types of costs on a supply chain: production costs and market mediation costs. Production costs include, among other costs, the incremental fixed investments associated with providing additional product variants. Market mediation costs arise because of uncertainty in product demand created by variety. In the presence of demand uncertainty,...

  13. Acquisition of Flavescence Dorée Phytoplasma by Scaphoideus titanus Ball from Different Grapevine Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Galetto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Flavescence dorée (FD is a threat for wine production in the vineyard landscape of Piemonte, Langhe-Roero and Monferrato, Italy. Spread of the disease is dependent on complex interactions between insect, plant and phytoplasma. In the Piemonte region, wine production is based on local cultivars. The role of six local grapevine varieties as a source of inoculum for the vector Scaphoideus titanus was investigated. FD phytoplasma (FDP load was compared among red and white varieties with different susceptibility to FD. Laboratory-reared healthy S. titanus nymphs were caged for acquisition on infected plants to measure phytoplasma acquisition efficiency following feeding on different cultivars. FDP load for Arneis was significantly lower than for other varieties. Acquisition efficiency depended on grapevine variety and on FDP load in the source plants, and there was a positive interaction for acquisition between variety and phytoplasma load. S. titanus acquired FDP with high efficiency from the most susceptible varieties, suggesting that disease diffusion correlates more with vector acquisition efficiency than with FDP load in source grapevines. In conclusion, although acquisition efficiency depends on grapevine variety and on FDP load in the plant, even varieties supporting low FDP multiplication can be highly susceptible and good sources for vector infection, while poorly susceptible varieties may host high phytoplasma loads.

  14. Effects of different Bombyx mori silkworm varieties on the structural characteristics and properties of silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Da Eun; Kim, Hyung Hwan; Kim, Moo Kon; Lee, Ki Hoon; Park, Young Hwan; Um, In Chul

    2015-08-01

    Silk has attracted the attention of biomedical researchers because of its good biocompatibility. Although various characteristics of silk are needed for its successful application in biomedical fields, the performance of silk material is limited. Although there are many varieties of Bombyx mori silkworm, the effect of different silkworm varieties on regenerated silk has not been considered in detail. That is, the use of a diverse variety of silkworms has not been considered in non-textile applications resulting in limited performance of silk materials. In this study, the effects of different silkworm varieties on the structural characteristics and properties of silk cocoon and regenerated silk fibroin (SF) were examined. Structural characteristics of silk cocoon including color, fiber diameter, and porosity, differed depending on the silkworm variety. Furthermore, molecular weight, solution viscosity, and mechanical properties of regenerated SF were influenced by the variety of silkworm, while the amino acid composition, β-sheet crystallization by formic acid, and cyto-compatibility of regenerated SF did not differ between the samples from different varieties of silkworm. These results imply that diverse performance of silk can be obtained by controlling the silkworm variety, and that the use of different varieties of silkworm might be a good way to strengthen the performance of silk in biomedical fields.

  15. Evolution of Root Characters of Soybean Varieties Developed in Different Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiu-hong; WU Zong-pu; ZHANG Guo-dong

    2002-01-01

    It was studied that the evolution of root characteristics among 42 soybean varieties developed in Heilongjiang and Jilin Province in different years. The results showed that there were differences on the root characteristics among soybean varieties. From 1950s to 1990s, root fresh weight, root volume, root surface, root dry weight, lateral root length of main root characters tendedly increased with the variable development years. The root system of the varieties in 1990s was relatively well developed compared with that in the other years. The evolutionary trend of the root system of soybean varieties was increasing in root weight, root volume, root surface and length of lateral root.

  16. Determination of Starch Changes During Growth and Development of Three Plum Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Alina Vlaic

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the evaluation of changes which occurred in starch content during the growth and the development of three varieties of plums Stanley, Vânăt de Italia, Tuleu Gras. Depending on variety, the maximum amount of starch was reached in phases 3 and 4; the values have declined as the fruit was approaching the maturity stage. The amount of starch during plum fruit growth and development is influenced by the harvesting phase, variety and the interaction between variety and harvest stage. 

  17. Intercropping of rice varieties increases the efifciency of blast control through reduced disease occurrence and variability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Guang-yu; LANG Jie; SUN Yan; WANG Yun-yue; ZHU You-yong; LU Bao-rong

    2016-01-01

    Creating a crop-heterogeneous system by intraspeciifc mixtures of different rice varieties can substantialy reduce blast diseases. Such variety mixtures provide an ecological approach for effective disease control, maintaining high yields with the minimum fungicide applications. Whether such an approach is universaly applicable for random rice variety combina-tions and what is the variation pattern of the diseases under intercropping stil remains unclear. We conducted two-year large-scale ifeld experiments involving 47 rice varieties/lines and 98 variety-combinations to compare the occurrence of rice blast in monoculture and intercropping plots at multiple sites. In the experiments, the plant height of the selected tradi-tional varieties was about 30 cm taler, and their life cycle was 10 days longer, than that of the improved rice varieties. The monoculture included either traditional or modern rice varieties grown in separate plots. The intercropping included both traditional and modern rice varieties planted together in the same plots. Results from the ifeld experiments under natural disease conditions demonstrated signiifcant reduction for rice blast disease in intercropping plots, compared with that in monoculture plots. For traditional varieties, the average blast incidence reduced from ~26% in monoculture to ~10% in intercropping, and the disease severity reduced from ~17 in monoculture to ~5 in intercropping. For modern varieties, the average blast incidence reduced from ~19% in monoculture to ~10% in intercropping, and the severity from ~10 in mono-culture to ~4 in intercropping. Traditional rice varieties (~72%) had a much greater increase in the efifciency of disease control than modern varieties (~60%). In addition, substantialy lower values of variance in the blast incidence and severity was detected among the variety combinations in intercropping plots than in monoculture plots. Based on these results, we conclude that the intercropping or mixture of

  18. Acquisition of Flavescence Dorée Phytoplasma by Scaphoideus titanus Ball from Different Grapevine Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galetto, Luciana; Miliordos, Dimitrios E; Pegoraro, Mattia; Sacco, Dario; Veratti, Flavio; Marzachì, Cristina; Bosco, Domenico

    2016-09-15

    Flavescence dorée (FD) is a threat for wine production in the vineyard landscape of Piemonte, Langhe-Roero and Monferrato, Italy. Spread of the disease is dependent on complex interactions between insect, plant and phytoplasma. In the Piemonte region, wine production is based on local cultivars. The role of six local grapevine varieties as a source of inoculum for the vector Scaphoideus titanus was investigated. FD phytoplasma (FDP) load was compared among red and white varieties with different susceptibility to FD. Laboratory-reared healthy S. titanus nymphs were caged for acquisition on infected plants to measure phytoplasma acquisition efficiency following feeding on different cultivars. FDP load for Arneis was significantly lower than for other varieties. Acquisition efficiency depended on grapevine variety and on FDP load in the source plants, and there was a positive interaction for acquisition between variety and phytoplasma load. S. titanus acquired FDP with high efficiency from the most susceptible varieties, suggesting that disease diffusion correlates more with vector acquisition efficiency than with FDP load in source grapevines. In conclusion, although acquisition efficiency depends on grapevine variety and on FDP load in the plant, even varieties supporting low FDP multiplication can be highly susceptible and good sources for vector infection, while poorly susceptible varieties may host high phytoplasma loads.

  19. CURRENT SITUATION OF THE TABLEGRAPE VARIETIES CULTURES IN ROMANIA AND WORLDWIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Costescu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research of the present paper aimed at determining the position of the Romanian viticulture in relation to international viticulture, as regards the culture of grapevine varieties for tablegrapes. The data presented had been taken from OIV. The paper includes: the repartition of the tablegrape yields according to continents, the tablegrape yields in different countries, the main exporting countries of tablegrape varieties, the main importing countries of tablegrape varieties, the individual consumption of tablegrapes and the the culture of the tablegrape varieties in Romania.

  20. Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Rheolgical Properties of Different Wheat Varieties Grown in Sindh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahvish Jabeen Channa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the physico-chemical and rheological properties of 17 wheat varieties (TJ-83, Jouhar, TD-1, Anmool, Mehran, Indus-66, Sindh B-1, Abadgar, Bhittai, Imdad, Mexi-Pak, Soughat, Blue Silver, Moomal, Marvi, Kiran, and Pak-70 commercially grown on experimental field of Agriculture Research Institute, Tandojam. The results revealed that moisture % were in range of 11 to 12 among all varieties, high protein content of about 15.2% was found in Mehran and Blue silver varieties, starch was found high in Maxi-pak (70.6%, high hardness values in Imdad (70.1% and Jouhar (70.2%. However, zeleny content was found high in Marvi, Abadgaar and Mehran i.e. 71%. Amylographic results showed that among all varieties the Bhittai variety required maximum temperature up to 65.7 oC for the beginning of gelatinization as compared to other varieties. The highest gelatinization temperature was noted up to 96.7 oC in Moomal whereas others had temperature from 82.7 to 89.0 oC. Highest gelatinization maxima (1782AU acquired by T.J-83 variety. The results of Farinograph showed that highest water absorption was noted in Anmool variety. The highest dough development time and dough stability were found highest in Kiran and Indus-66, respectively. T.D-1 and Jouhar varieties had highest break down time as well as highest Farinograph quality.

  1. 7 CFR 201.34 - Kind, variety, and type; treatment substances; designation as hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF... names without regard to the principles stated in paragraph (d)(2) of this section. (6) The variety...

  2. The recognition of potato varieties using of neural image analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybył, K.; Górna, K.; Wojcieszak, D.; Czekała, W.; Ludwiczak, A.; Przybylak, A.; Boniecki, P.; Koszela, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Janczak, D.; Lewicki, A.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to extract the representative features and generate an appropriate neural model for classification of varieties of edible potato. Potatoes of variety the Vineta and the Denar were the empirical object of this thesis. The main concept of the project was to develop and prepare an image database using the computer image analysis software. The choice of appropriate neural model the one which will have the greatest abilities to identify the selected variety. The aim of this project is ultimately to conduct assistance and accelerate work of the expert, who classifies and keeps different varieties of potatoes in heaps.

  3. Characterisation of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris varieties using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Riek Jan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugar beet is an obligate outcrossing species. Varieties consist of mixtures of plants from various parental combinations. As the number of informative morphological characteristics is limited, this leads to some problems in variety registration research. Results We have developed 25 new microsatellite markers for sugar beet. A selection of 12 markers with high quality patterns was used to characterise 40 diploid and triploid varieties. For each variety 30 individual plants were genotyped. The markers amplified 3-21 different alleles. Varieties had up to 7 different alleles at one marker locus. All varieties could be distinguished. For the diploid varieties, the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.458 to 0.744. The average inbreeding coefficient Fis was 0.282 ± 0.124, but it varied widely among marker loci, from Fis = +0.876 (heterozygote deficiency to Fis = -0.350 (excess of heterozygotes. The genetic differentiation among diploid varieties was relatively constant among markers (Fst = 0.232 ± 0.027. Among triploid varieties the genetic differentiation was much lower (Fst = 0.100 ± 0.010. The overall genetic differentiation between diploid and triploid varieties was Fst = 0.133 across all loci. Part of this differentiation may coincide with the differentiation among breeders' gene pools, which was Fst = 0.063. Conclusions Based on a combination of scores for individual plants all varieties can be distinguished using the 12 markers developed here. The markers may also be used for mapping and in molecular breeding. In addition, they may be employed in studying gene flow from crop to wild populations.

  4. From QTL to variety-harnessing the benefits of QTLs for drought, flood and salt tolerance in mega rice varieties of India through a multi-institutional network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Renu; Singh, Yashi; Xalaxo, Suchit; Verulkar, S; Yadav, Neera; Singh, Shweta; Singh, Nisha; Prasad, K S N; Kondayya, K; Rao, P V Ramana; Rani, M Girija; Anuradha, T; Suraynarayana, Y; Sharma, P C; Krishnamurthy, S L; Sharma, S K; Dwivedi, J L; Singh, A K; Singh, P K; Nilanjay; Singh, N K; Kumar, Rajesh; Chetia, S K; Ahmad, T; Rai, M; Perraju, P; Pande, Anita; Singh, D N; Mandal, N P; Reddy, J N; Singh, O N; Katara, J L; Marandi, B; Swain, P; Sarkar, R K; Singh, D P; Mohapatra, T; Padmawathi, G; Ram, T; Kathiresan, R M; Paramsivam, K; Nadarajan, S; Thirumeni, S; Nagarajan, M; Singh, A K; Vikram, Prashant; Kumar, Arvind; Septiningshih, E; Singh, U S; Ismail, A M; Mackill, D; Singh, Nagendra K

    2016-01-01

    Rice is a staple cereal of India cultivated in about 43.5Mha area but with relatively low average productivity. Abiotic factors like drought, flood and salinity affect rice production adversely in more than 50% of this area. Breeding rice varieties with inbuilt tolerance to these stresses offers an economically viable and sustainable option to improve rice productivity. Availability of high quality reference genome sequence of rice, knowledge of exact position of genes/QTLs governing tolerance to abiotic stresses and availability of DNA markers linked to these traits has opened up opportunities for breeders to transfer the favorable alleles into widely grown rice varieties through marker-assisted backcross breeding (MABB). A large multi-institutional project, "From QTL to variety: marker-assisted breeding of abiotic stress tolerant rice varieties with major QTLs for drought, submergence and salt tolerance" was initiated in 2010 with funding support from Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, in collaboration with International Rice Research Institute, Philippines. The main focus of this project is to improve rice productivity in the fragile ecosystems of eastern, northeastern and southern part of the country, which bear the brunt of one or the other abiotic stresses frequently. Seven consistent QTLs for grain yield under drought, namely, qDTY1.1, qDTY2.1, qDTY2.2, qDTY3.1, qDTY3.2, qDTY9.1 and qDTY12.1 are being transferred into submergence tolerant versions of three high yielding mega rice varieties, Swarna-Sub1, Samba Mahsuri-Sub1 and IR 64-Sub1. To address the problem of complete submergence due to flash floods in the major river basins, the Sub1 gene is being transferred into ten highly popular locally adapted rice varieties namely, ADT 39, ADT 46, Bahadur, HUR 105, MTU 1075, Pooja, Pratikshya, Rajendra Mahsuri, Ranjit, and Sarjoo 52. Further, to address the problem of soil salinity, Saltol, a major QTL for salt tolerance is being transferred into

  5. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delta endotoxin of Bacillus... From Tolerances § 180.1107 Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into... Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from...

  6. Variety in snack servings as determinant for acceptance in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Valentina; Olsen, Annemarie; Laureati, Monica; Zangenberg, Sabine; Pagliarini, Ella; Bredie, Wender L P

    2016-01-01

    Variety within a meal is known to increase intake. However, intake of certain food items (e.g. vegetables) in children is consistently below recommendations, and increasing the consumption of such food would lead to health benefits. This study investigated how different levels of food variety influence children's acceptance. A total of 132 children, aged from 9 to 11 years, were exposed to vegetables, fruits and nut snacks during mid-morning break at school. Two different sets of stimuli were used in a within subject design: Classical Variety (CV), i.e. serving of different foods and Perceived Variety (PV), i.e. serving of the same food in different shapes. For each set, three levels of variety in the servings were tested: low, medium, and high. Intake and liking were determined for each serving set. ANOVA results showed that intake of CV set decreased according to the level of variety, whereas results of PV set only showed an increase of liking with increasing levels of variety. Adding more variations of products appeared to be less successful on consumption despite changing the liking of the products, may be because consumption is more affected by acceptability and familiarity for the stimuli than by variety.

  7. Microsatellite Markers in and around Rice Genes: Applications in Variety Identification and DUS Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonow, S.; Pinho, Von E.V.R.; Vieira, M.G.C.; Vosman, B.

    2009-01-01

    In Brazil, rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties adapted to different ecological regions are available on the market. However, these varieties exhibit highly similar morphologies, which makes their identification difficult. In this study we identified microsatellites in and around genes that are useful f

  8. Quantity and Variety of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Cancer Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.C.J.F.; Bas Bueno de Mesquita, H.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Streppel, M.T.; Kok, F.J.; Kromhout, D.

    2004-01-01

    The recommendation for fruit and vegetable intake includes eating a certain quantity as well as a variety. The evidence for eating a variety is limited. We examined the association with cancer in a prospective cohort study among 730 Dutch men aged 65-84 yr followed for 10 years, resulting in 138 can

  9. A weed suppressive index for spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P K; Kristensen, K; Willas, J

    2008-01-01

    successfully developed a method for indexing the weed suppressive ability of spring barley varieties. The suppressive index ranged from 12% in Lux and 55% in Modena in proportion to the 90% quantile coverage of all varieties. The index was validated against independent data from two locations in 2005 with 14...

  10. Grain yield increase in cereal variety mixtures: A meta-analysis of field trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiær, Lars Pødenphant; Skovgaard, Ib; Østergård, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    in reported grain yields, (2) diversity in disease resistance, and (3) diversity in weed suppressiveness, all among component varieties. Relative mixing effect was also found to increase significantly with the effective number of component varieties. The effects of the latter two differed significantly...

  11. Phenotypic changes in different spinach varieties grown and selected under organic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serpolay, E.; Schermann, N.; Dawson, J.C.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Goldringer, I.; Chable, V.

    2011-01-01

    Organic and low-input agriculture needs flexible varieties that can buffer environmental stress and adapt to the needs of farmers. We implemented an experiment to investigate the evolutionary capacities of a sample of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) population varieties for a number of phenotypic tra

  12. Fusarium head blight resistance loci in a stratified population of wheat landraces and varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine if Chinese and Japanese wheat landraces and varieties have unique sources of Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance, an association mapping panel of 195 wheat accessions including both commercial varieties and landraces was genotyped with 364 genome-wide simple sequence repeat (SSR) and ...

  13. Polyphenolic Compound and the Degree of Browning in Processing Apple Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Ye; YAO Yu-xin; ZHAI Heng; DU Yuan-peng; CHEN Feng; WEI Shu-wei

    2007-01-01

    Polyphenolic compound in processing apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) varieties and the relationship between polyphenol content and enzymatic browning were studied to provide reference for raw material selection and processing method optimization. The content of polyphenol compound in 10 processing apple varieties (4 cider and 6 juice varieties) were analyzed using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and HPLC. The degree of browning and the activities of polyphenol oxidase were also studied. The content and proportion of the polyphenol varied depending on the variety. Bitter varieties globally showed a higher polyphenol concentration than sweet or acid varieties. Proanthocyanidins, chlorogenic acid,(+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin were high-concentrated polyphenols in apple fruits. Phloridzin, the unique polyphenol of apple, was abundant in the bitter variety Frequin rouge fruit. Total polyphenols, proanthocyanidins, (+)-catechin, and phloridzin had higher correlations with browning. The correlation was low between chlorogenic acid and browning. The polyphenolic profiles were correlated with the apple types. Cider apples contained more polyphenol than juice apple varieties. The content of flavan-3-ol has a close relationship with fruit browning.

  14. SELECTION OF VARIETY-ROOTSTOCK COMBINATIONS OF PLUM FOR THE KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushkov D. N.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the results of integrated assessment of variety-rootstock combinations of plum on clonal rootstocks and different schemes of landing. We have defined the basic biometric parameters of trees, and specific indicators of productivity, allowing to identify the most optimal variety-stable rootstock combination for the conditions of the Krasnodar region

  15. Aroma of wheat porridge and bread-crumb is influenced by the wheat variety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starr, Gerrard; Hansen, Åse Solvej; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2015-01-01

    Sensory evaluations were conducted on wheat-flour porridge and baked-bread samples, made from wheat varieties with known odour and flavour variations. The purpose was to determine if these odour and flavour variations were expressed in baked-bread. In all, 24 wheat varieties were used for porridge...

  16. Comparative study of three Marantodes pumilum varieties by microscopy, spectroscopy and chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor-Ashila Aladdin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Marantodes pumilum (Blume Kuntze (synonym: Labisia pumila (Blume Fern.-Vill, Primulaceae, is well known for its traditional use as a post-partum medication among women in Malaysia. Three varieties of M. pumilum, var. alata Scheff., var. pumila and var. lanceolata (Scheff. Mez. are commonly used. Nowadays, M. pumilum powder or extracts are commercially available as herbal supplements and beverages. Authentication of the variety is an important component of product quality control. Thus, the present work was aimed to compare the three varieties using microscopic, spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. Microscopic anatomical examination and powder microscopy were performed on fresh and dried plant materials, respectively. Fingerprint profiles of the varieties were obtained using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, high performance thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The microscopic examination showed presence of anisocytic stomata, scale and capitate glandular trichome in all varieties. The type of stomata and trichomes, outline structure of stem and leaf margin, petiole and midrib, organization of vascular system, areolar venation, pattern of anticlinal walls, the distribution of secretory canals and cell inclusion as well as the measurement of selected structures could be used to distinguish and identify each variety of M. pumilum. In addition, spectroscopic and chromatographic fingerprint analyses of the three varieties exhibited distinguishable profiles based on the intensity of certain peaks or bands. The findings from this study will provide systematic identification for these varieties.

  17. Megasporogenesis and development of the embryo sac in the Palestine variety of Trifolium alexandrinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krupko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure and development of the embryo sac in Trifolium alexandrinum (Palestine variety, are very similar to that in Trifolium pratense. The embryo sac of Trifolium alexandrinum is monosporal, has eight nuclei and is of the Polygonum type. The Palestine variety of Trifolium alexandrinum can be autogamous.

  18. Variety-seeking in product choice behavior. Theory with applications in the food domain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijp, van J.C.M.

    1995-01-01

    The primary objectives of the present work are (1) to review the marketing and psychological literature on variety-seeking behavior, (2) to develop a formal model for variety-seeking in product choice behavior and (3) to investigate elements of the proposed model empirically. The present approach sp

  19. Variety - seeking in product choice behavior : theory with applications in the food domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijp, van J.C.M.

    1995-01-01

    The primary objectives of the present work are (1) to review the marketing and psychological literature on variety-seeking behavior, (2) to develop a formal model for variety-seeking in product choice behavior and (3) to investigate elements of the proposed model empirically. The present ap

  20. Primulina beiliuensis var. fimbribracteata (Gesneriaceae, a New Variety in A Limestone Cave from Northern Guangdong, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi-Dan Lai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Primulina beiliuensis var. fimbribracteata F. Wen & B.D. Lai, a new variety of Gesneriaceae from a limestone cave in Shaoguan, Guangdong, China, is described and illustrated in this report. This new species is similar to P. beiliuensis B. Pan & S.X. Huang var. beiliuensis, but easily differs from the type variety in several morphological characters, both vegetative and reproductive.

  1. Quantity and variety of fruit and vegetable consumption and cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.C.J.F.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Streppel, M.T.; Kok, F.J.; Kromhout, D.

    2004-01-01

    The recommendation for fruit and vegetable intake includes eating a certain quantity as well as a variety. The evidence for eating a variety is limited. We examined the association with cancer in a prospective cohort study among 730 Dutch men aged 65-84 yr followed for 10 years, resulting in 138 can

  2. Primulina beiliuensis var. fimbribracteata (Gesneriaceae), a New Variety in A Limestone Cave from Northern Guangdong, China

    OpenAIRE

    Bi-Dan Lai; Fang Wen

    2015-01-01

    Primulina beiliuensis var. fimbribracteata F. Wen & B.D. Lai, a new variety of Gesneriaceae from a limestone cave in Shaoguan, Guangdong, China, is described and illustrated in this report. This new species is similar to P. beiliuensis B. Pan & S.X. Huang var. beiliuensis, but easily differs from the type variety in several morphological characters, both vegetative and reproductive.

  3. Perceptions of and Attitudes towards Regional Varieties of Polish: Views from Two Polish Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milobog, Magdalena; Garrett, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a study of perceptions and attitudes relating to regional varieties of Polish. The methodology followed folk linguistic approaches to attitudes research. Respondents in two Polish provinces were asked to draw on a map of Poland where they thought the main regional varieties of Polish were spoken, and then to name and…

  4. The Variety of An Assortment : An Extension to the Attribute-Based Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, van H.W.I.; Pieters, F.G.M.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, interest in category management has surged, and as a consequence, large retailers now systematically review their product assortments. Variety is a key property of assortments. Assortment variety can determine consumers' store choice and is only gaining in importance with today's in

  5. Consumer eating quality acceptance of new apple varieties in different European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonany, J.; Buehler, A.; Carbo, J.; Codarin, C.; Donati, F.; Echeverria, G.; Egger, S.; Guerra, W.; Hilaire, C.; Hoeller, I.; Iglesias, I.; Jesionkowska, K.; Konopacka, D.; Kruczynska, D.; Martinelli, A.; PItiot, C.; Sansavini, S.; Stehr, R.; Schoorl, F.W.

    2013-01-01

    During January and February 2007 a European consumer test of eight new apple varieties and three standard ones was carried out in different European countries. The most common apple varieties were compared to new ones, focusing on consumer acceptance and the potential for increasing apple consumptio

  6. Aesthetic appreciation of tactile unity-in-variety in product designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, R.A.G.; Blijlevens, J.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The principle of unity-in-variety has recently been shown to affect visual aesthetic appreciation of product designs. We investigated whether this principle can also account for tactile aesthetic appreciation of products. Design students rated nine car keys on unity, variety and aesthetic appreciati

  7. 76 FR 3573 - Proposed Addition of New Grape Variety Names for American Wines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    .... Auxerrois is a white Vitis vinifera grape variety widely grown in the Alsace region of France. The... Italian Vitis vinifera variety, Biancolella is grown on the islands of Ischia and Capri and in the... Rotta Winery, Templeton, California, petitioned TTB to add ``Black Monukka,'' a black Vitis vinifera...

  8. 76 FR 66625 - Approval of Grape Variety Names for American Wines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... given names which will lead the public into believing they are Vitis vinifera varieties. This commenter does, however, express approval of the listing of Vitis vinifera variety names such as Auxerrois or Gr..., are popular in areas of the country where the climate makes the cultivation of Vitis vinifera...

  9. Assessing the variety and pricing of selected foods in socioeconomically disparate districts of Berlin, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Stroebele, Nanette; Dietze, Pia; Tinnemann, Peter; Willich, Stefan N.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aim The neighbourhood environment appears to influence people?s food consumption. Access, variety and pricing of foods play a role in the socioeconomic difference of fruit and vegetable consumption. This study compared differences in the number of grocery stores, variety of fresh fruits and vegetables, and food prices in districts with different Social Indices (SI) in Berlin, Germany. Methods The ...

  10. Lexicon development, consumer acceptance, and drivers of liking of quinoa varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinoa is becoming increasingly popular, with an expanding number of varieties being commercially available. In order to compare the sensory properties of these quinoa varieties, a common sensory lexicon needed to be developed. Thus, the objective of this paper was to develop a lexicon describing ...

  11. Impact of storage conditions and variety on quality attributes and aroma volatiles of pitahaya (Hylocereus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitahaya are increasing in popularity but knowledge on the effects of storage and the potential impact of variety on subsequent quality following storage is incomplete, particularly in terms of the potential effects on sensory acceptability. In this study six varieties of pitahaya, having white, pin...

  12. Variety - seeking in product choice behavior : theory with applications in the food domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijp, van J.C.M.

    1995-01-01

    The primary objectives of the present work are (1) to review the marketing and psychological literature on variety-seeking behavior, (2) to develop a formal model for variety-seeking in product choice behavior and (3) to investigate elements of the proposed model empirically. The present

  13. Analysis of elite variety tag SNPs reveals an important allele in upland rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Jun; Zhang, Shilai; Dong, Yang; He, Weiming; Zhang, Jing; Deng, Xianneng; Zhang, Yesheng; Li, Xin; Li, Baoye; Huang, Wangqi; Wan, Wenting; Yu, Yang; Li, Qiong; Li, Jun; Liu, Xin; Wang, Bo; Tao, Dayun; Zhang, Gengyun; Wang, Jun; Xu, Xun; Hu, Fengyi; Wang, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Elite crop varieties usually fix alleles that occur at low frequencies within non-elite gene pools. Dissecting these alleles for desirable agronomic traits can be accomplished by comparing the genomes of elite varieties with those from non-elite populations. Here we deep-sequence six elite rice varieties and use two large control panels to identify elite variety tag single-nucleotide polymorphism alleles (ETASs). Guided by this preliminary analysis, we comprehensively characterize one protein-altering ETAS in the 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase gene of the IRAT104 upland rice variety. This allele displays a drastic frequency difference between upland and irrigated rice, and a selective sweep is observed around this allele. Functional analysis indicates that in upland rice, this allele is associated with significantly higher abscisic acid levels and denser lateral roots, suggesting its association with upland rice suitability. This report provides a potential strategy to mine rare, agronomically important alleles.

  14. Flavour profiles of three novel acidic varieties of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignou, Stella; Parker, Jane K; Oruna-Concha, Maria Jose; Mottram, Donald S

    2013-08-15

    Novel acidic varieties of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) are emerging onto the UK market. These melons contain almost twice the amount of citric acid compared to standard melons and are described as 'zesty and fresh'. This study compared the flavour components of three acidic varieties with a standard Galia-type melon. The volatile and semivolatile compounds were extracted, using dynamic headspace extraction (DHE) or solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and solid phase extraction (SPE), respectively, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). More than 50 volatile and 50 semivolatile compounds were identified in the headspace and the SPE extracts, respectively. GC-O revealed 15 odour-active components in the headspace, with esters being consistently higher in the acidic variety. This study showed quantitative and qualitative differences among all four varieties and key differences between acidic varieties and standard melons.

  15. THE AGRO PRODUCTIVE CHARACTERISATION OF THE MULBERRY VARIETIES USED IN THE AMELIORATION PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOINA TANASE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The germplasm stock of the mulberry from Romania includes 64 mulberryvarieties from 5 Morus species, from which 16 are indigene varieties, 11 areJapanese, 13 Chinese, 14 from ex-URSS, 5 Italian and 5 Bulgarian.Up to the present there were monitored 50 mulberry varieties with variousproveniences, by filling in the Assessment Forms.The agro productive characterization of these varieties is realised based on theAssessment Forms, in which it is observed the phenotypic and genotypic diversityof the vegetal sericulture germplasm stock; the agro productive parameters suchas branch numbers/shrub, leaf surface, leaf weight, leaf production/ha, the proteincontent expressed in %SU, are significant.The phenotypic and agro productive characters of the mulberry varieties are takeninto consideration when choosing the parental forms in order to obtain some hybridpopulation that shall constitute the base for new mulberry varieties selection.

  16. Too much of a good thing? Variety is confusing in mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Alison P; Francesconi, Marco

    2011-08-23

    Choice variety is supposed to increase the likelihood that a chooser's preferences are satisfied. To assess the effects of variety on real-world mate choice, we analysed human dating decisions across 84 speed-dating events (events in which people go on a series of sequential 'mini-dates'). Results showed that choosers made fewer proposals (positive dating decisions) at events in which the available dates showed greater variety across such attributes as age, height, occupation and education, and this effect was particularly strong when choosers were confronted with a larger number of opposite-sex speed daters. Additionally, participants attending events in which the available options showed greater variety across these attributes were less likely to choose the consensually preferred mate option and more likely to choose no one at all. In contexts in which time is a limited resource, choice variety-rather than facilitating choice quality or increasing choosiness-is confusing and potentially detrimental to choice quality.

  17. Distinction of Ecuadorian varieties of fermented cocoa beans using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Jentzsch, Paul; Ciobotă, Valerian; Salinas, Wilson; Kampe, Bernd; Aponte, Pedro M; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Ramos, Luis A

    2016-11-15

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a crop of economic importance. In Ecuador, there are two predominant cocoa varieties: National and CCN-51. The National variety is the most demanded, since its cocoa beans are used to produce the finest chocolates. Raman measurements of fermented, dried and unpeeled cocoa beans were performed using a handheld spectrometer. Samples of the National and CCN-51 varieties were collected from different provinces and studied in this work. For each sample, 25 cocoa beans were considered and each bean was measured at 4 different spots. The most important Raman features of the spectra were assigned and discussed. The spectroscopic data were processed using chemometrics, resulting in a distinction of varieties with 91.8% of total accuracy. Differences in the average Raman spectra of cocoa beans from different sites but within the same variety can be attributed to environmental factors affecting the cocoa beans during the fermentation and drying processes.

  18. Phytochemical evaluation of the wild and cultivated varieties of Eranda Mula (Roots of Ricinus communis Linn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Krunal A; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V J; Kalyani, Renuka; Khanpara, Komal

    2013-04-01

    In Ayurveda, the roots of Eranda (Ricinus communis Linn.) are used in the treatment Amavata (rheumatism), Sotha (inflammation), Katisula (backache), Udararoga (disease of abdomen), Jwara (fever), etc, Due to high demand, root of the cultivated variety is mainly used in place of wild. But, a comparative phytochemical profile of both varieties is not available till date. Considering this, a preliminary study has been done to ensure basic phytochemical profile of both the varieties. Preliminary physicochemical parameters, phytochemical screening, quantitative estimation of alkaloid, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), and heavy metal analysis were carried-out in the study. Analysis of physicochemical data reveals no significant difference in between both varieties of roots, while alkaloid was found to be more in cultivated variety (0.34%) than wild one (0.15%). Though, the analytical profiles are almost identical, except the quantity of alkaloid; inferences should be made through well designed pharmacological and clinical studies.

  19. DRY MATTER YIELD OF DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF DACTYLIS GLOMERATA AND FESTUCA PRATENSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Sosnowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze yield variation of Dactylis glomerata and Festuca pratensis varieties grown on organic and mineral soil. This paper has drawn on two field experiments set up and carried out between 2010 and 2013. The experiment was conducted in two experimental stations: one in the Research Centre for Cultivar Testing in Krzyżewo and the other in the Experimental Stations for Variety Testing in Uhinin. The experiment in Krzyżewo was set up on ploughed soil, with spring barley as a forecrop. In Uhnin the experimental plots were located on peat meadow. The experimental plots were sown with varieties of Dactylis glomerata: Niva, Tukan, Amila, Crown Royale and with varieties of Festuca pratensis: Limosa, Pasja, Anturka, Amelka. The full exploitation of Dactylis glomerata varieties was due between 2012 and 2013, whereas for Festuca pratensis it was due between 2011 and 2012. In the experimental plots with the varieties of Dactylis glomerata the grass was harvested six times a year and chemical analysis of the biomass was done taking dry matter only from five cuts. The varieties of Festuca pratensis were harvested four times. Each year in the course of the experiment fresh and dry matter of each cut were weighed. The grass species and their varieties as well as the particular mowing and kind of soil where the grass was grown have an impact on the yield. On mineral soil the yield of Dactylis glomerata was higher than Festuca pratensis. On organic soil the yield of both species was similar. During the two years of experiment the highest yield among Festuca pratensis varieties was noted for Amelka whereas among varieties of Dactylis glomerata the yield was similar and differences were not statistically significant.

  20. Genetic diversity and population structure of different varieties of Morada Nova hair sheep from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, J S B; Paiva, S R; Silva, E C; McManus, C M; Caetano, A R; Façanha, D A E; de Sousa, M A N

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze genetic diversity and population structure among varieties of White (N = 40), Red (N = 32), and Black (N = 31) Morada Nova hair sheep from flocks in the northeastern Brazilian semiarid region. Fifteen nuclear microsatellite markers and two regions of mitochondrial DNA were used. The intra-population analysis demonstrated that the White variety had higher diversity, while the Red variety had the lowest values. The Bayesian analysis to assess the genetic population structure allowed differentiation between White, Red, and Black varieties, and revealed a tendency towards sub-structuring in the White variety flocks from the States of Ceará and Paraíba. The results of analyses of molecular variance showed that the greatest genetic structure was found when comparing flocks rather than varieties (8.59 vs 6.64% of the total variation, P Dtl, both the dendrogram analysis and the principal coordinate analysis showed the formation of two main groups: one composed of White and another of Black and Red individuals. Five and two haplotypes were found for the D-loop region and the ND5 gene, respectively. A haplotype unique to the Red variety was found in the D-loop region and a variety haplotype unique to the Black variety was found in the ND5 gene; however, these frequencies were low and therefore require further validation. These results support the existence of substantial differences between the Red and White varieties and should be used as separate genetic resources and to improve conservation programs.

  1. Growth and physiological responses of some Capsicum frutescens varieties to copper stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadid, Nurul; Maziyah, Rizka; Nurcahyani, Desy Dwi; Mubarokah, Nilna Rizqiyah

    2017-06-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient participating in various physiological processes. However, excessive uptake of this micronutrient could potentially affect plant growth and development as well as plant productivity. In this present work, growth and physiological responses of some Capsicum frustescens varieties to Cu stress were determined. Three C. frutescens varieties used in this work were var. Bara, CF 291, and Genie. In addition, these varieties were treated with different concentration of Cu (0, 30, 70, and 120 ppm). The growth and physiological responses measured in this work included plant height, root length, malondialdehyde (MDA), and chlorophyll. The result showed that all varieties tested relatively displayed plant growth reduction including plant height and root length. Likewise, an increase of MDA level, a major bioindicator for oxidative damage was also found in all varieties following exposure to elevated Cu concentration. Finally, the chlorophyll content was also affected indicated by a decreased amount of chlorophyll, especially in var. CF291. The overall results demonstrated that elevated Cu concentration might decrease C. frutescens productivity where among the three varieties tested, var CF 291 seemed to be the most sensitive varieties to Cu stress.

  2. Screening for Osmotic Stress Responses in Rice Varieties under Drought Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Swapna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Drought is the major abiotic stress factor that limits rice production worldwide. To evaluate the osmotic stress responses in rice varieties under drought condition, a total of 42 high-yielding rice varieties were collected from various research stations of Kerala Agricultural University in India. The experimental setup comprises of initial hydroponic treatments at different osmotic potentials, artificially induced by desired strengths of polyethylene glycol (PEG6000, and followed by the pot planted experiments in the rain-out-zone. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, relative water content, cell membrane stability, photosynthetic pigments, proline content, along with plant growth parameters of the varieties under drought condition were evaluated. Moreover, the standard scores of these rice varieties were assessed under stress and recovery conditions based on the scoring scale of the Standard Evaluation System for rice. Among the 42 rice varieties, we identified 2 rice varieties, Swarnaprabha and Kattamodan, with less leaf rolling, better drought recovery ability as well as relative water content, increased membrane stability index, osmolyte accumulation, and antioxidant enzyme activities pointed towards their degree of tolerance to drought stress. The positive adaptive responses of these rice varieties towards drought stress can be used in the genetic improvement of rice drought resistance breeding program.

  3. Minitubers production of four potato Cuban varieties in greenhouse with zeolite as substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel de Feria

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The obtaining of original seed of national potato varieties (Solanum tuberosum L. is of great importance. The objective of the present work was to obtain minitubers from four national potato varieties in a greenhouse with zeolite as substrate. The plants in vitro propagated of the varieties 'Grettel', 'Yuya', 'Ibis' and 'Marinca' were planted and received cultural and phytosanitary attention according to the protocol existing at IBP. Harvest was performed at 75 days of culture and the total number of minitubers and the number of minitubers with a diameter greater than 15 mm were quantified for each plant. Plants and tubers showed the typical characteristics of each variety under zeolite substrate culture conditions. The highest number of minitubers per plant was achieved in the 'Yuya' and 'Ibis' varieties with 3.84 and 3.52 respectively. For the number of minitubers available as original seed (>15 mm, the 'Yuya' variety was superior with 82.3%. The culture conditions with zeolite substrate allow to obtain minitubers of potatoes of the four varieties from plants in vitro cultured. 'Yuya' and 'Ibis' showed the best results and potentially could be incorporated into the national seed production program in Cuba.   Keywords: agamic seed, ‘Ibis’, ‘Grettel’, ‘Marinca’, Solanum tuberosum, ‘Yuya’

  4. Performance of Northwest Washington Heirloom Dry Bean Varieties in Organic Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Miles

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This two-year study compared nine northwest Washington dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. heirloom (H varieties with 11 standard (S commercial varieties in matching market classes using organic, non-irrigated production practices. Heirloom and standard varieties differed in days to harvest (DTH (110 DTH and 113 DTH, respectively, while both days to harvest (113 DTH and 110 DTH and yield (2268 kg∙ha−1 and 1625 kg∙ha−1 were greater in 2013 than in 2014. Varieties with the shortest DTH both years were “Bale” (H, “Coco” (H, “Decker” (H, “Ireland Creek Annie” (H and S, “Kring” (H and “Rockwell” (H. Varieties that had the highest yield both years were “Eclipse” (S, “Lariat” (S and “Youngquist Brown” (H. Only “Eclipse” (S had the shortest cooking time both years, while “Rockwell” (H, “Silver Cloud” (S and “Soldier” (S had short cooking times in 2013, and “Orca” (S and “Youngquist Brown” (H had short cooking time in 2014. Varieties with the highest protein content both years were “Calypso” (S, “Coco” (S and “Silver Cloud” (S. Further research should investigate yield of early maturing standard varieties, with a focus on color-patterned beans that are attractive for local markets.

  5. GENETIC, COLORATION, AND GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF TWO DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF Kappaphycus alvarezii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaeman Sulaeman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Two different colors (green and brown of Kappaphycus alvarezii have been farmed in Indonesian waters for many years. This study aimed at comparing two ‘varieties’, i.e. green and brown, both genetically and morphologically. Samples for DNA analysis were collected from a farmer in Pinrang Regency, South Sulawesi. Five universal primers i.e. Ca-01, Ca-02, P-40, P-50, and DALRP were selected to obtain DNA genetic markers in differentiating the green and brown varieties. To compare coloration patterns during cultivation and the growth performance of both varieties, a field experiment was performed in a seaweed farming area in Pinrang Regency, during dry season of August-September 2004. The result of genetic assessment showed that the five selected primers revealed different RAPD banding pattern for both varieties. P-50 and DALRP primers demonstrated the greatest amplification in differentiating RAPD fragment between green and brown varieties. Fragment 900 bp and 1.300 bp were consistently generated in the green variety but were not amplified in the brown variety. The result of the field study confirmed that the coloration pattern of green and brown varieties was fixed; no interchange in color occurred during one crop cultivation.

  6. Genetic Structure and Indica/Japonica Component Changes in Major Inbred Rice Varieties in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ping; YUAN Xiao-ping; XU Qun; WANG Cai-hong; YU Han-yong; WANG Yi-ping; TANG Sheng-xiang

    2013-01-01

    We used 39 SSR markers to analyze the genetic structure of 304 major Chinese inbred rice varieties,and to compare changes in the indica or japonica components in these varieties that have been widely cultivated from the 1950s to the 1990s in China.The genetic structure analysis showed that these rice varieties were distinctly divided into two populations,indica and japonica.The sub-structure of indica varieties was more complex than that of japonica ones.Among the various lines,late-season indica and early season japonica varieties had simpler genetic backgrounds.The seasonal ecotypes were not quite consistent with the subtypes of genetic structure.Twelve SSR loci with specific differentiation between indica and japonica were used to calculate the indica/japonica components.The differences in indica/japonica components among the five decades were not significant,except for late-season indica varieties in the 1990s,which had a significantly higher japonica component.These results will help to understand the genetic structure of the major Chinese inbred rice varieties and will be useful for indica-japonica hybrid breeding in China.

  7. Diffusion and Adoption of Oat NARC Variety in Rainfed Area, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobia Naheed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was planned to estimate the extent of diffusion (spread and adoption of fodder variety Oat NARC developed by Fodder Programe NARC. For this study, farm level information was collected through a formal survey method. For the official survey, an organized and well-structured questionnaire was designed. Mainly oat area of Pothwar region was the study domain. Overall from all selected tehsils, 65 farmers were taken as sample farmers. The findings of present study that includes frequency, descriptive analysis, oat adoption rate and also identified adopters and non adopters. Technical, extension, financial, agro-colmatic and marketing factors constraining adoption of Oat NARC variety also acknowledged. Main objective of this study is to determine the factors affecting the adoption of Oat NARC variety through probit model. Factors like fodder area, soil type, cultivated land , nearest grain market (distance in km, farming experience (years, present level of involvement in farming, availability of credit for purchasing inputs, different varieties you have tested at your farm have positive role in the adoption of Oat NARC variety. The above mentioned variables positively affecting the adoption of oat NARC. This model also show that the area wheat, input market (distance in km, area for local variety, distance from market, lack of knowledge of market information and do you prefer change of varieties grown affects the adoption of Oat negatively.

  8. Hybrid or open pollinated maize varieties? A socio-economic assessment of Nepalese farmers’ experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Kafle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of factors affecting adoption of hybrid and open pollinated maize varieties had not been taken yet in Nepal. Viewing this fact, this study was undertaken consisting of four purposively selected VDCs from two central Terai districts, Bara and Sarlahi, of Nepal. A total of 110 maize growers including 86 adopters and 24 non adopters of hybrid maize varieties (adopters of open pollinated maize varieties were interviewed with the help of structured questionnaire. Results of t-test showed that adopters of hybrid maize varieties had significantly larger farm size and, size of maize farm, were more experienced on maize farming, and used significantly higher amount of chemical fertilizers but lower amount of organic manures than the non-adopters. Further, more adopters used irrigation water, pesticides and hired labor than the non-adopters. The result showed that a substantial proportion of land area grown to maize was cultivated to hybrid maize varieties with an adoption rate of 81.9 % while the adoption rate for open pollinated varieties was estimated as 18.1%. The results of the binary logistic regression analysis showed that adoption of hybrid maize was positively influenced by farm size, irrigation availability, farmer’s attitude towards insect and disease tolerance characteristics of hybrid maize, male headed family and credit availability in the surveyed area. However, farming experience on maize was negatively associated with the adoption of hybrid maize varieties.

  9. Alternative Strategies in Response to Saline Stress in Two Varieties of Portulaca oleracea (Purslane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina R Mulry

    Full Text Available Purslane (Portulaca oleracea is a globally-distributed plant with a long history of use in folk medicine and cooking. We have developed purslane as a model system for exploring plant responses to stress. We exposed two varieties of purslane to saline stress with the objective of identifying differences between the varieties in the plasticity of morphological and physiological traits. The varieties responded to saline stress with significantly different changes in the measured traits, which included inter alia biomass, flower counts, proline concentrations and betalain pigment concentrations. The alternative responses of the two varieties consisted of complex, simultaneous changes in multiple traits. In particular, we observed that while both varieties increased production of betalain pigments and proline under saline stress, one variety invested more in betalain pigments while the other invested more in proline. Proline and betalain pigments undoubtedly play multiple roles in plant tissues, but in this case their role as antioxidants deployed to ameliorate saline stress appears to be important. Taken holistically, our results suggest that the two varieties employ different strategies in allocating resources to cope with saline stress. This conclusion establishes purslane as a suitable model system for the study of saline stress and the molecular basis for differential responses.

  10. [Analysis of varieties and standards of labiatae medicinal plants used in Tibetan medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun-wei; Cao, Lan; Zhou, Hua-rong; Zhong, Wei-hong; Zhong, Guo-yue

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, an analysis was made on the varieties and standards of labiatae medicinal plants used in Tibetan medicine. The results showed 71 species of labiatae plants in 21 genera (including varieties) recorded in relevant literatures, involving 44 varieties of medicinal materials. Specifically, seven species (9.9%) were intersected with traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), 19 varieties (43%) were recorded in Chinese medicinal material standards at all levels, and 27 species (38%) were source plants. In Tibetan medicine standards and literatures, there are great differences between Tibetan names and translated Chinese names and among varieties of source plants. Apart from a few of varieties intersected with traditional Chinese medicines had complete standards and regulations in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, most of species only had characters, microscopic, physical and chemical identifications in Standards Issued by Ministry of Health-Tibetan Medicine, Tibetan Medicine Standard and local standards. Therefore, the Tibetan medicinal material variety-source specification and quality standard system shall be promoted on the basis of literatures research, investigations for resources and current applications and modern pharmaceutical studies.

  11. EVALUATION OF THE DNA POLYMORPHISM OF SIX VARIETIES OF CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD, USING AFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolasco, Oscar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The grain of Chenopodium quinoaWilld. (Quinua is important worldwide for its high nutritional value, being the principal source of proteins of the settlers of the Peruvian Bolivian altiplano. In the process of the care and maintenance of the species in the germplasm banks for quinua there have been programs developed to allow the evaluation of genetic variation to increase the quality of the grain, the resistance to diseases, and dryness tolerance and to modulate the content of saponins. A current question is to discriminate among the varieties using molecular sensitive technologies like the RAPDs, microsatellites, RFLP; our aim was to evaluate the polymorphism of six varieties of quinua using AFLP's technology (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism. Varieties of quinua: Quillahuaman INIA (Q, Mantaro (M, Hualhuas (H, Real Boliviana (B, Salcedo INIA(S and Illpa INIA(I, were evaluated in combinations of five pairs of primers using adapters for EcoRI and MseI to determine their polymorphisms. Our results found three combinations of major polymorphism E33/M60, E32/M48 and E32/M61, that we were able to discriminate against the variety Mantaro (M as a variety removed from the others of the southern Peruvian altiplano – Bolivian, according to UPGMAanalysis. This combination of primers also discriminate the varieties Illpa INIA and Salcedo INIA as being varieties obtained by crossings for genetic improvement.

  12. [Trait stability and test site representativeness of sugarcane varieties based on GGE-biplot analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun; Zhang, Hua; Deng, Zu-Hu; Que, You-Xiong

    2012-05-01

    Arithmetic mean method is commonly used to evaluate the yield stability and adaptability of sugarcane varieties, and variance analysis is applied to estimate the errors in regional trials. However, it is difficult to accurately evaluate the differences of the varieties due to the discrepancies across test sites and years. In this paper, GGE-biplot method was adopted to analyze the data from the regional trials with seven sugarcane varieties at five sites from 2008 to 2009, aimed to objectively evaluate the yield stability and adaptability of sugarcane varieties in China. Among the test sugarcane varieties, Funong No. 30 had higher cane yield and better yield stability, Yuegan No. 18 had higher sugar content and better trait stability, Funong No. 28 and Yunzhe 99-91 had high sucrose content and trait stability, while Yuegan No. 16 had the highest cane yield and sugar content but ordinary stability. In the test sites, Zhangzhou City in Fujian Province and Suixi City in Guangdong Province had the best representativeness and discrimination. This study showed that GGE-biplot analysis provided a simple and effective method to analyze the high yield and stability of sugarcane varieties in regional trials, and supplied the basis for the approval and extension of new sugarcane varieties.

  13. EVALUATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. AND TRITICUM DURUM L. VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Mareček

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the evaluation of technological and antioxidant characteristics of selected varieties of Triticum aestivum and Triticum durum grown in Slovakia and Serbia. Research was conducted during the two years 2009 and 2010. Measured values of water activity were in the range 0.4 - 0.5. Optimal activity of alpha-amylase was measured in Serbian varieties Etida (210 seconds, Pobeda (218 seconds and Renesansa (272 seconds. The highest sedimentation capacity expressed as sedimentation index by Zeleny had variety Karpatia (60 cm3. The high content of insoluble protein (gluten was measured in a variety Rusija (36.6%. Nitrogen content was in the range 12.7 - 13.9% of dry matter, starch content in the range 56.6 - 61.6% of dry matter. Antioxidant activity measured by DPPH method ranged in wheat varieties from 44 to 49%. The highest content of polyphenols was measured in a variety Etida (0.464 mg of catechin/g of sample. Durum wheat varieties have a higher content of polyphenols in general. The production of semolina flour from durum wheat may have the positive antioxidant effect according to gained measurements.

  14. Phenetic relationships of nine varieties of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) based on morphological characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Topik; Barlian, Andri; Kusdianti, R.; Kirana, Rinda

    2017-05-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.; Solanaceae) is an important commodity in Indonesia as one of the main crop after rice. Recently some new varieties have been released, but their relationship have not been studied yet. The purpose of this research was to determine the relationship among nine varieties of potatoes. Phenetic analysis was conducted using 27 morphological character states, which was derived from stems, leaves, and tubers. The character states observed were scored, and further analyzed based on Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) method. The results showed a high diversity of morphological character states, of which 20 states were significantly different across the varieties. Phenogram indicated that the nine varieties of potato were classified into three main groups. While the first group was consisted of varieties of Cipanas, Granola, Atlantic, and Repita, the second group was housed of Manohara and GM 05. The third group was composed of Margahayu, Mb 17, and Maglia. This pattern of relationships can be used as one of the basis in the process of crossbreeding to assemble the new varieties. The crossbreeding will be better if it is made between distantly related varieties.

  15. Forage potential and silage quality of four varieties of saccharine sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Previdelli Orrico Junior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate four cultivars of saccharine sorghum (Sorghum bicolor regarding productivity, chemical composition of plant parts, and quality of the ensiling process. The tested varieties of saccharine sorghum were BRS 506, BRS 508, BRS 509, and BRS 511. The experiment was divided into two trials, which assessed: production, morphological composition, and nutritional quality of the saccharine varieties; and fermentation quality and nutritional value of the silage produced from the saccharine varieties. Of the tested varieties, BRS 509 and BRS 511 showed the highest total dry matter (DM production. The BRS 508 variety presented the highest in vitro digestibility of the whole plant (70.65% DM. During ensiling, the BRS 509 variety showed the lowest DM loss (8.87%. The highest effluent production was observed for BRS 506 and BRS 508, with yields of 521.87 and 393.16 kg Mg-1 ensiled DM, respectively. The BRS 511 variety is the most recommended because of the best results for plant production and nutritional quality. Regarding the ensiling process, BRS 509 presents the lowest fermentation losses and the highest nutritional value of silage.

  16. Differential Responses of Two Lactuca sativa Varieties to Bicarbonate-Induced Iron Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Chebbi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron chlorosis induced by bicarbonate is very common in calcareous soils, where bicarbonate (HCO3- ions are present at high concentrations. In this study, morpho-physiological and biochemical responses of two Lactuca sativa varieties (Romaine and Vista to bicarbonate induced iron deficiency were investigated. The culture was conducted on nutrient solution containing 5 µM Fe and 10 mM NaHCO3, in a growth chamber with controlled conditions. After 14 days of bicarbonate treatment, the two varieties seedling showed a slight yellowing of young leaves associated with a significant decline of plant biomass, leaf number and area. Furthermore, the concentrations of the nutrient elements (potassium, magnesium, iron and calcium in leaves and roots of two lettuce varieties were modified. In roots of bicarbonate treated plants, the Fe-chelate reductase activity was increased as compared to control in both varieties. PEPC activity was enhanced only in Vista variety. Moreover, Fe deficiency induced a small change in the photosynthetic parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence, especially in Romaine variety. These changes are accompanied by decreases in ribulose 1.5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco activity. These findings indicated that Vista variety could survive at low iron supply.

  17. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS AS INFLUENCED BY DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF DESI CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.W. Sahota, B. M. Bhatti and L. A. Akhtar

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine performance and carcass characteristics of different varieties of first generation Desi chickens. The parent Desi chickens were procured from different villages of Mianwali and Bhakkar districts of Punjab, Pakistan and were maintained at Poultry Research Institute, Rawalpindi. Nine hundred day-old chicks (of the first progeny, 300 each of black, dark brown and light brown colour, were obtained from this parent flock. The birds in each variety were divided into 3 equal replicates. They were maintained in 9 separate pens on deep litter under optima.l managemental conditions. The birds were fed ad-libitum a chick starter ration from day-old to 8 weeks and then subsequently a grower mash upto 12 weeks of age. The birds had free access to clean and fresh drinking water. The results showed significant (p<0.0 I variation in dressing percentage, shank and neck length and breast width between different varieties of Desi chickens, whereas, they differed non-significantly in growth rate and keel length. The light brown variety had significantly better dressing percentage, shank length and breast width than other two varieties. whereas neck length in both the brown varieties was significantly better than black Desi chickens. Both the brown varieties differed non-significantly from each other in neck length.

  18. Lexicon Development, Consumer Acceptance, and Drivers of Liking of Quinoa Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Geyang; Ross, Carolyn F; Morris, Craig F; Murphy, Kevin M

    2017-03-07

    Quinoa is becoming increasingly popular, with an expanding number of commercially available varieties. To compare the sensory properties of these quinoa varieties, a common sensory lexicon needs to be developed. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop a lexicon of cooked quinoa and examine consumer acceptance of diverse varieties. A trained panel (n = 9) developed aroma, taste/flavor, texture, and color descriptors to describe the sensory properties of 21 quinoa varieties. In addition, texture of the cooked quinoa was determined using a texture analyzer. Results indicated that the developed lexicon could distinguish among these quinoa varieties, showing significant differences in aromas, taste/flavors, and texture attributes. Specifically, quinoa variety effects were observed for the aromas of caramel, nutty, buttery, grassy, earthy, and woody; taste/flavor of sweet, bitter, grain-like, nutty, earthy, and toasty; and firm, cohesive, pasty, adhesive, crunchy, chewy, astringent, and moist textures. Three varieties, "QQ74," "Linares," and "CO407D," exhibited an adhesive texture that has not been described in other commercialized quinoa. Subsequent consumer evaluation (n = 100) on 6 selected samples found that the "Commercial Red" sample was the most accepted overall whereas the least accepted was the field variety "QQ74." For all consumers, overall acceptance of quinoa was driven by higher intensities of grassy aroma, and firm and crunchy texture. Segmentation of the consumers into 4 groups was explored and showed that consumers varied in their acceptance of specific attributes, particularly texture. From the present study, the quinoa lexicon and key drivers of consumer acceptance can be utilized in the industry to evaluate quinoa varieties, product quality and processing procedures.

  19. A New High-Yielding Two-line Hybrid Rice Variety - Peiliang You 981

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Peiliang You 981 (also called 98 Guangzhi 1 or Peiliang You Guangzhi 1) is a late-season two-line indica hybrid rice variety with high yield and late maturity. Pei'ai 64S is the female parent and R981 (Guang 1) is the male parent of Peiliang You 981. The hybrid showed its characters of high and stable yield and wide adaptability in the variety trials and demonstration production in the recent years, and it was released in March 2002 by Hunan Crop Varieties Release Committee.

  20. Variety in snack servings as determinant for acceptance in school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergamaschi, Valentina; Olsen, Annemarie; Laureati, Monica;

    2016-01-01

    influence children's acceptance. A total of 132 children, aged from 9 to 11 years, were exposed to vegetables, fruits and nut snacks during mid-morning break at school. Two different sets of stimuli were used in a within subject design: Classical Variety (CV), i.e. serving of different foods and Perceived......Variety within a meal is known to increase intake. However, intake of certain food items (e.g. vegetables) in children is consistently below recommendations, and increasing the consumption of such food would lead to health benefits. This study investigated how different levels of food variety...

  1. The geometric and arithmetic volume of Shimura varieties of orthogonal type

    CERN Document Server

    Hörmann, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    We apply the theory of Borcherds products to calculate arithmetic volumes (heights) of Shimura varieties of orthogonal type up to contributions from very bad primes. The approach is analogous to the well-known computation of their geometric volume by induction, using special cycles. A functorial theory of integral models of toroidal compactifications of those varieties and a theory of arithmetic Chern classes of integral automorphic vector bundles with singular metrics are used. We obtain some evidence in the direction of Kudla's conjectures on relations of heights of special cycles on these varieties to special derivatives of Eisenstein series.

  2. NEW VARIETIES TOMATO OBTAINED AND CULTIVATED AT INCDBH ŞTEFĂNEŞTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bădulescu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lately consumer demands quality vegetables, especially tomatoes experienced a pronounced orientation towards sensory seeking and appreciating as much flavor and aroma specific red even at the expense of the commercial aspect of the fruit perfectly. Varieties presented in this paper were obtained at INCDBH Ştefăneşti Arges, after several research papers in many years and was approved in 2012 The paper presents two varieties of tomatoes growing determined that Arges 11 and Arges 20 varieties tomato INCDBH approved to have been a resurgence of vegetable research in the area, which were discontinued for more than 20 years.

  3. Two-line Hybrid Glutinous Sorghum Variety Xiangliangyou Nuoliang 1 and Its Processed Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Sorghum subspecies and varieties in China Chinese sorghum has two species according to their grain's glutinousness degree: the Jing subspecies (not glutinous) and glutinous subspecies. Most hybrid sorghum varieties in commercial production in the country at present belong to the Jing subspecies grown in the northern China which is highly yielding but without satisfactory marketing price because of their poor palatability and less satisfactory spirit making quality. In comparison to the Jing varieties,the glutinous mostly grown in the south are local cultivars which often have fine table quality but low grain yield,and thus,their cultivation can't be expanded wide in the country.

  4. NEW VARIETIES AND THE RETURNS TO COMMODITY PROMOTION: THE CASE OF FUJI APPLES

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Timothy J.; Patterson, Paul M.

    2000-01-01

    The Fuji apple variety is relatively new in the U.S. As a new product, questions concern the relative impact of consumer learning by experience, by variety-specific promotion, or by generic apple promotion. A two-stage (LES/LAIDS) model incorporating both types of promotion is used to estimate the effect of generic and variety specific promotion, as well as consumer experience, on the demand for Fuji apples. Estimates show each to have a positive impact, and also show new or speciality apple ...

  5. The Importance of Localized Related Variety for International Diversification of Corporate Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dettmann, Eva; Lacasa, Iciar Dominguez; Günther, Jutta;

    2016-01-01

    The importance of localized related variety for international diversification of corporate technology, Regional Studies. Internationalization of research and development has increased substantially in recent years. This paper analyses the determinants of spatial distribution of foreign technologi......The importance of localized related variety for international diversification of corporate technology, Regional Studies. Internationalization of research and development has increased substantially in recent years. This paper analyses the determinants of spatial distribution of foreign...... technological activities. The estimations show that this is the case in regions characterized by a high overall technological strength. This suggests that related variety facilitates technological diversifications of foreign corporations in regions at the top of the geographic hierarchy...

  6. Compactification of Drinfeld modular varieties and Drinfeld Modular Forms of Arbitrary Rank

    CERN Document Server

    Pink, Richard

    2010-01-01

    We give an abstract characterization of the Satake compactification of a general Drinfeld modular variety. We prove that it exists and is unique up to unique isomorphism, though we do not give an explicit stratification by Drinfeld modular varieties of smaller rank which is also expected. We construct a natural ample invertible sheaf on it, such that the global sections of its $k$-th power form the space of (algebraic) Drinfeld modular forms of weight~$k$. We show how the Satake compactification and modular forms behave under all natural morphisms between Drinfeld modular varieties; in particular we define Hecke operators. We give explicit results in some special cases.

  7. Calabi-Yau varieties: arithmetic, geometry and physics lecture notes on concentrated graduate courses

    CERN Document Server

    Schütt, Matthias; Yui, Noriko

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents a lively introduction to the rapidly developing and vast research areas surrounding Calabi–Yau varieties and string theory. With its coverage of the various perspectives of a wide area of topics such as Hodge theory, Gross–Siebert program, moduli problems, toric approach, and arithmetic aspects, the book gives a comprehensive overview of the current streams of mathematical research in the area. The contributions in this book are based on lectures that took place during workshops with the following thematic titles: “Modular Forms Around String Theory,” “Enumerative Geometry and Calabi–Yau Varieties,” “Physics Around Mirror Symmetry,” “Hodge Theory in String Theory.” The book is ideal for graduate students and researchers learning about Calabi–Yau varieties as well as physics students and string theorists who wish to learn the mathematics behind these varieties.

  8. Mechanism of rice variety resistance to the yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Yellow stem borer (YSB), Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) has become the main rice insect pest once again along the Changjiang River sinee 1990s. Unfortunately, no rice variety with resistance to YSB has been reported so far.

  9. Effect of adoption of improved cassava varieties on the livelihoods of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cassava varieties on the livelihoods of the rural farmers in Nsukka local government area of Enugu state, Nigeria. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Data for the study were collected from 110 respondents with the aid of structured ...

  10. Interactions between fodder radish and tagetes varieties and Meloidogyne hapla populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, resistance to Meloidogyne hapla populations is the focal point. It involves a screening of fodder radish and Tagetes varieties with a number of local M. hapla populations to determine their infection rate.

  11. A statistical assessment of differences and equivalences between genetically modified and reference plant varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, van der H.; Perry, J.N.; Amzal, B.; Paoletti, C.

    2011-01-01

    Background - Safety assessment of genetically modified organisms is currently often performed by comparative evaluation. However, natural variation of plant characteristics between commercial varieties is usually not considered explicitly in the statistical computations underlying the assessment. Re

  12. Acrylamide gel electrophoresis of proteins, acid phosphatases and RN-ases from three potato varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kubicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on variety differences in the protein and acid phosphatase patterns as well as ribunuclease activity distribution were carried out by disc electrophoresis on saline extracts of three varieties of the potato Solanum tuberosum (L.. The protein bands varied in number, position and relative abundance. One main zone of the acid phosphatase activity was detected consisting of 2-3 electrophoretically different bands. Variety differences were concerned with the number and relative abundance of these bands. RNase activity was detected in 4 main zones, in some of them additional subbands were visible. Differences between the three examined varieties were reflected in the occurence of the particular activity zones or their subbands.

  13. General overview of genetic research and experimentation on coconut varieties tolerant/resistant to Lethal Yellowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudouin Luc

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lethal Yellowing (LY disease is one of the main threats to coconut industry in many parts of Africa and the Caribbean. Planting resistant varieties has long been recognized as one of the most promising ways of controlling the disease. Considerable efforts have been devoted throughout the world to screening suitable varieties and have often involved international cooperation. It has proven to be a lengthy and difficult task. We present an overview of these efforts with special mention to Ghana, Jamaica and Mexico. Although no variety so far has been proven fully and permanently resistant, treating resistance level as a threshold trait makes it possible to demonstrate significant differences among varieties, which can be exploited effectively to make genetic improvement a component of an integrated control strategy. Based on past experience, we make a few suggestions to increase the diversity of resistance sources and increase the level and the sustainability of resistance to LY in coconut.

  14. Resistance of determinant tomato varieties to the causal agents of bacterial wilt disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Víchová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of determinant tomato varieties to pathogens causing bacterial wilt disease – Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm and Ralstonia solanacearum (Rs – was tested under greenhouse conditions. In tests to Cmm resistance, two inoculation methods were compared (inoculation “to the cut off top” of a plant and inoculation by three punctures into a stalk. The inoculation method “into a stalk” appeared to be most suitable. In both cases of inoculation, the highest level of resistance was found in Minigold variety. The rather high level of resistance was also found in varieties Aneta and Orange. In tests to Rs resistance, the most resistant varieties were Minigold, Aneta and Orange, which are recommended for direct consumption.

  15. Genetic Variation of Isozyme Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO Profiles in Different Varieties of Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum commonly known as chilli pepper is a major spice crop and is of cosmopolitan in distribution. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Native PAGE was used to study the polyphenol oxidase (PPO isozyme variation in 21 varieties of Capsicum annuum L. A maximum of 4 PPO bands were scored in five varieties i.e., Ca14, Ca15, Ca16, Ca19 & Ca20, while the minimum (2 bands was observed in four varieties (Ca3, Ca10, Ca13 & Ca17. 15 pair wise combinations showed highest average per cent similarity (100% and the UPGMA dendrogram represented low genetic diversity. The present study revealed that considerable intraspecific differences were found in the varieties. Thus the results obtained could be used in fingerprinting the genotypes.

  16. Variety in fruit and vegetable consumption and 10-year incidence of CHD and stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Griep, L.M.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Kromhout, D.; Ocké, M.C.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Consuming a variety of fruit and vegetables provides many different micronutrients and bioactive compounds. Whether this contributes to the beneficial association between fruit and vegetables and incident CHD and stroke is unknown. Design: Prospective population-based cohort study.

  17. Real zeros of the zero-dimensional parametric piecewise algebraic variety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The piecewise algebraic variety is the set of all common zeros of multivariate splines. We show that solving a parametric piecewise algebraic variety amounts to solve a finite number of parametric polynomial systems containing strict inequalities. With the regular decomposition of semi- algebraic systems and the partial cylindrical algebraic decomposition method, we give a method to compute the supremum of the number of torsion-free real zeros of a given zero-dimensional parametric piecewise algebraic variety, and to get distributions of the number of real zeros in every n-dimensional cell when the number reaches the supremum. This method also produces corresponding necessary and suffcient conditions for reaching the supremum and its distributions. We also present an algorithm to produce a necessary and suffcient condition for a given zero-dimensional parametric piecewise algebraic variety to have a given number of distinct torsion-free real zeros in every n-cell in the n-complex.

  18. Chemometric classification of pigmented rice varieties based on antioxidative properties in relation to color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaiwan Pramai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The pigmented Thai rice varieties including red and black color and non-pigmented rice (white collected from different growth sites in the north of Thailand and were determined for color and antioxidant properties. Anthocyanins were the major compound in group of black rice (21.15-441.96 mg/100 g rice. Total phenolic, flavonoid, and -tocopherol contents were highest in the black rice followed by red rice and antioxidant capacities were predominant in pigmented varieties. Black rice grown in mountainous area presented the highest antioxidant activity compared to the other growing locations. The color parameters, especially L* value presented the negative correlations with antioxidant parameters, while the antioxidant contents, excepted -oryzanol content had significant correlation with antioxidant capacities. Pigmented rice varieties could be clearly classified into 4 groups using PCA and HCA, which provided a good indicator to classify pigmented rice varieties based on color and antioxidative properties.

  19. Anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant and antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts from Moroccan thyme varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Khouya

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: All aqueous extracts possess considerable antioxidant activity and are rich in total polyphenol and flavonoid but they act differently in the process of inflammatory and coagulation studied. This study shows great variability of biological activities in thyme varieties.

  20. Effect of Drying Method and Variety on Quality of Cassava Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Drying Method and Variety on Quality of Cassava Starch Extracts. ... However, the quality of the starch obtained from these alternative drying methods needs to be investigated. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT