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Sample records for platymantis amphibia ranidae

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Seoul frog Rana chosenica (Amphibia, Ranidae): comparison of R. chosenica and R. plancyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Shi Hyun; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2011-06-01

    Here, we have sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Seoul frog Rana chosenica (Amphibia, Ranidae), which is known as a Korean endemic species. It is listed as a vulnerable species by IUCN Red List and also an endangered species in South Korea. The complete mitochondrial genome of R. chosenica consists of 18,357 bp. Its gene arrangement pattern was identical with those of other Rana frogs. We compared the mitochondrial genome of R. chosenica with that of the Peking frog Rana plancyi that has been known closely related to R. chosenica. Nucleotide sequence similarity between the two whole mitochondrial genomes was 95.7%, and the relatively low similarity seems to indicate that the two species are distinctly separated on the species level. The information of mitochondrial genome comparison of the two species was discussed in detail.

  2. A new species of limestone karst inhabiting forest frog, genus Platymantis (Amphibia: Anura: Ceratobatrachidae: subgenus Lupacolus) from southern Luzon Island, Philippines.

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    Brown, Rafe M; De Layola, Louise Abigail; Lorenzo, Antonio; Diesmos, Mae Lowe L; Diesmos, Arvin C

    2015-11-25

    We describe a new species of limestone karst dwelling forest frog of the genus Platymantis from the Quezon Protected Landscape in southeastern Luzon Island, Philippines. We assign Platymantis quezoni, sp. nov., to the diverse assemblage of terrestrial species in the Platymantis dorsalis Group, subgenus Lupacolus on the basis of its body size and proportions, only slightly expanded terminal discs of the fingers and toes, and its terrestrial microhabitat. The new species is distinguished from these and all other Philippine congeners by features of its external morphology, its restriction to a distinctive limestone karst microhabitat, and its advertisement call, which is unique among frogs of the family Ceratobatrachidae. Several distinguishing morphological characters include its moderate body size (22.1-33.9 mm SVL for 16 adult males and 32.4-39.7 mm SVL for five adult females), slightly expanded terminal discs of the fingers and toes, smooth skin with limited dermal tuberculation, and a dorsal color pattern of mottled tan to dark brown with black blotches. The new species is the sixth Philippine Platymantis known to occur exclusively on limestone karst substrates (previously known karst-obligate species include: P. bayani, P. biak, P. insulatus, P. paengi, and P. speleaus). Recently accelerated discovery of limestone karst anurans across the Philippines suggests that numerous additional species may await discovery on the hundreds of scattered karst formations throughout the archipelago. This possibility suggests that a major conservation priority in coming years will be to study, characterize, describe, and preserve the endemic species supported by this patchy, unique and imperiled type of forest ecosystem in the Philippines.

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Dark-spotted frog Pelophylax nigromaculatus (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae).

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    Jiang, Lichun; Zhao, Li; Liu, Yabin; Leng, Zheng; Zhao, Liping; Ruan, Qiping

    2017-03-01

    The dark-spotted frog (Pelophylax nigromaculatus) belongs to Ranidae. This species is known from the Russian Far East, central, northern and north-eastern China, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the Republic of Korea, and Japan. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of P. nigromaculatus was sequenced. The mitogenome was 17 567 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and a non-coding control region. As in other vertebrates, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes which are encoded on the light strand. The overall base composition of the P. nigromaculatus is 29.2% A, 27.4% T, 28.4% C, and 15.0% G. Phylogenetic analysis showed P. nigromaculatus was closely related to P. plancyi and P. chosenicus. The complete mitogenome of P. nigromaculatus can provide important data for the studies on phylogenetic relationship and population genetics to further explore the taxonomic status of this species.

  4. Conservation genetics of evolutionary lineages of the endangered mountain yellow-legged frog, Rana muscosa (Amphibia: Ranidae), in southern California

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    Schoville, Sean D.; Tustall, Tate S.; Vredenburg, Vance T.; Backlin, Adam R.; Gallegos, Elizabeth; Wood, Dustin A.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    Severe population declines led to the listing of southern California Rana muscosa (Ranidae) as endangered in 2002. Nine small populations inhabit watersheds in three isolated mountain ranges, the San Gabriel, San Bernardino and San Jacinto. One population from the Dark Canyon tributary in the San Jacinto Mountains has been used to establish a captive breeding population at the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research. Because these populations may still be declining, it is critical to gather information on how genetic variation is structured in these populations and what historical inter-population connectivity existed between populations. Additionally, it is not clear whether these populations are rapidly losing genetic diversity due to population bottlenecks. Using mitochondrial and microsatellite data, we examine patterns of genetic variation in southern California and one of the last remaining populations of R. muscosa in the southern Sierra Nevada. We find low levels of genetic variation within each population and evidence of genetic bottlenecks. Additionally, substantial population structure is evident, suggesting a high degree of historical isolation within and between mountain ranges. Based on estimates from a multi-population isolation with migration analysis, these populations diversified during glacial episodes of the Pleistocene, with little gene flow during population divergence. Our data demonstrate that unique evolutionary lineages of R. muscosa occupy each mountain range in southern California and should be managed separately. The captive breeding program at Dark Canyon is promising, although mitigating the loss of neutral genetic diversity relative to the natural population might require additional breeding frogs.

  5. A new species of Cacosternum (Amphibia: Anura; Ranidae) from Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-03-29

    Mar 29, 1987 ... African distribution of a tropical freshwater shrimp. Caridina nilotica (Decapoda: ... Energy requirements of the tropical freshwater shrimp Caridina ... JOHNSON, D.S. 1973. Notes on ..... function of this habitat. S. Afr. J. Zool.

  6. TREMATODOFAUNA COMPLEXULUI PELOPHYLAX ESCULENTA (AMPHIBIA, ANURA DIN CODRII CENTRALI AI REPUBLICII MOLDOVA. 1. FAMILIILE PLAGIORCHIIDAE, CEPHALOGONIMIDAE

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    Dumitru ERHAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lucrarea conţine date cu privire la infestarea cu trematode a amfibienilor din familia Ranidae (Amphibia, Anura care populează ecosistemele naturale şi antropizate ale Codrilor centrali din Republica Moldova. Cercetări helmintologice ale amfibienilor au fost efectuate pentru prima dată în Republica Moldova. Rezultatele obţinute atestă infestarea ranidelor verzi (Rana ridibunda, R. lessonae, R. esculenta cu trematode din familiile Gorgoderidae (Gorgodera varsoviensis Sinitzin, 1905, Diplodiscidae (Diplodiscus subclavatus Pallas, 1760, Plagiorchiidae (Opisthioglyphe ranae Frohlich, 1791, Haematoloechus variegatus Rudolphi, 1819, Cephalogonimidae (Cephalogonimus retusus Dujardin, 1845 şi Lecithodendriidae (Pleurogenes claviger Rudolphi, 1819, Pleurogenoides medians,Olsson, 1876, Prosotocus confusus Looss, 1894, Candidotrema loossi, Africa, 1930. În lucrare sunt expuse rezultatele ce atestă nivelul de infestare a complexului Pelophylax esculenta cu specii de trematode din familiile Plagiorchiidae şi Cephalogonimidae. Pentru fiecare specie au fost stabilite: încadrarea sistema-tică, sinonimele, gazdele, localizarea organică, răspândirea geografică, etiologia şi ciclul biologic. De asemenea, este specificat volumul materialului colectat, este dată descrierea morfologică a speciilor, indicat nivelul de infestare în funcţie de vârstă, gen şi ecosistem, acestea fiind însoţite de fotografii şi figuri originale. FAUNA OF TREMATODES OF COMPLEX PELOPHYLAX ESCULENTA (AMPHIBIA, ANURA FROM CENTRAL CODRI FOREST OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA. 1. FAMILIES PLAGIORCHIIDAE, CEPHALOGONIMIDAEThe paper presents data on trematodes infestation in amphibians from family Ranidae (Amphibia, Anura in natural and anthropized ecosystems of Central Codri forest from the Republic of Moldova. The helminthological researches of amphibians were accomplished for the first time in the Republic of Moldova. As result the infestation of Ranidae family species

  7. The Amphibia of Trinidad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenny, Julian S.

    1969-01-01

    Compared with the other vertebrate groups the Amphibia of the island of Trinidad are relatively poorly known. There have been four surveys of the group, one in the last century and the others in the earlier part of the present. The earliest is that of MOLE & URICH (1894) in which twelve species are

  8. Reflections on a systematic nomenclature for antimicrobial peptides from the skins of frogs of the family Ranidae.

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    Conlon, J Michael

    2008-10-01

    Frogs belonging to the extensive family Ranidae represent a valuable source of antimicrobial peptides with therapeutic potential but there is currently no consistent system of nomenclature to describe these peptides. Terminology based solely on species name does not reflect the evolutionary relationships existing between peptides encoded by orthologous and paralogous genes. On the basis of limited structural similarity, at least 14 well-established peptide families have been identified (brevinin-1, brevinin-2, esculentin-1, esculentin-2, japonicin-1, japonicin-2, nigrocin-2, palustrin-1, palustrin-2, ranacyclin, ranalexin, ranatuerin-1, ranatuerin-2, temporin). It is proposed that terms that are synonymous with these names should no longer be used. Orthologous peptides from different species may be characterized by the initial letter of that species, set in upper case, with paralogs belonging to the same peptide family being assigned letters set in lower case, e.g. brevinin-1Pa, brevinin-1Pb, etc. When two species begin with the same initial letter, two letters may be used, e.g. P for pipiens and PL for palustris. Species names and assignments to genera may be obtained from Amphibian Species of the World Electronic Database, accessible at http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.php. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA.

  9. Food Habits of the Endemic Long Legged Wood Frog, Rana Pseudodalmatina (Amphibia, Ranidae, in Northern Iran

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    Najibzadeh M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Iranian long legged wood frog, Rana pseudodalmatina Eiselt & Schmidtler, 1971 is a brown frog species endemic to the Hyrcanian forest. The objective of the present study is to collect detailed information on the feeding habits of 44 specimens of this species (24 ♂, 20 ♀ by analyzing the stomach contents of individuals from 10 populations inhabiting range. The food habit of R. pseudodalmatina generally varies by the availability of surrounding prey items, and it is a foraging predator, the food of which consists largely of Coleoptera (mainly Carabidae, Dytiscidae and Haliplidae, Diptera (Muscidae and Hymenoptera (Formicidae, and no difference was found between females and males in the stomach content.

  10. Cytonuclear discordance and historical demography of two brown frogs, Rana tagoi and R. sakuraii (Amphibia: Ranidae).

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    Eto, Koshiro; Matsui, Masafumi

    2014-10-01

    Prior studies of mitochondrial genomic variation reveal that the Japanese brown frog Rana tagoi comprises a complex of cryptic species lineages, and that R. sakuraii arose from within this complex. Neither species forms a monophyletic group on the mitochondrial haplotype tree, precluding a simple explanation for the evolutionary origins of R. sakuraii. We present a more complete sampling of mitochondrial haplotypic variation (from the ND1 and 16S genes) plus DNA sequence variation for five nuclear loci (from the genes encoding NCX1, NFIA, POMC, SLC8A3, and TYR) to resolve the evolutionary histories of these species. We test hypotheses of population assignment (STRUCTURE) and isolation-with-migration (IM) using the more slowly evolving nuclear markers. These demographic analyses of nuclear genetic variation confirm species-level distinctness and integrity of R. sakuraii despite its apparent polyphyly on the mitochondrial haplotype tree. Divergence-time estimates from both the mitochondrial haplotypes and nuclear genomic markers suggest that R. sakuraii originated approximately one million years ago, and that incomplete sorting of mitochondrial haplotype lineages best explains non-monophyly of R. sakuraii mitochondrial haplotypes. Cytonuclear discordance elsewhere in R. tagoi reveals a case of mitochondrial introgression between two species lineages on Honshu. The earliest phylogenetic divergence within this species group occurred approximately four million years ago, followed by cladogenetic events in the Pliocene and early Pleistocene yielding 10-13 extant species lineages, including R. sakuraii as one of the youngest.

  11. A new species of the genus Amolops (Amphibia: Ranidae) from southeastern Tibet, China.

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    Jiang, Ke; Wang, Kai; Yan, Fang; Xie, Jiang; Zou, Da-Hu; Liu, Wu-Lin; Jiang, Jian-Ping; Li, Cheng; Che, Jing

    2016-01-18

    A new species of the genus Amolops Cope, 1865 is described from Nyingchi, southeastern Tibet, China, based on morphological and molecular data. The new species, Amolops nyingchiensis sp. nov. is assigned to the Amolops monticola group based on its skin smooth, dorsolateral fold distinct, lateral side of head black, upper lip stripe white extending to the shoulder. Amolops nyingchiensis sp. nov. is distinguished from all other species of Amolops by the following combination of characters: (1) medium body size, SVL 48.5-58.3 mm in males, and 57.6-70.7 mm in females; (2) tympanum distinct, slightly larger than one third of the eye diameter; (3) a small tooth-like projection on anteromedial edge of mandible; (4) the absence of white spine on dorsal surface of body; (5) the presence of circummarginal groove on all fingers; (6) the presence of vomerine teeth; (7) background coloration of dorsal surface brown, lateral body gray with yellow; (8) the presence of transverse bands on the dorsal limbs; (9) the presence of nuptial pad on the first finger in males; (10) the absence of vocal sac in males. Taxonomic status of the populations that were previously identified to A. monticola from Tibet is also discussed.

  12. Fluctuating asymmetry in Pelophylax ridibundus (Amphibia: Ranidae as a response to anthropogenic pollution in south Bulgaria

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    Zhelev Zhivko M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the integral indicator for developmental stability, the fluctuating asymmetry (FA, in the marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus populations that inhabit biotopes of different types (running rivers and still, dam lakes, when exposed to different types of anthropogenic pollution (domestic sewage pollution and heavy metal pollution in south Bulgaria. A total of 920 P. ridibundus individuals were used for FA analyses over three years (2009-2011. Fluctuating asymmetry was defined by 10 morphological traits, using the index frequency of asymmetric manifestation of an individual (FAMI. In closed water basins, regardless of the nature of toxicants, the FA values in P. ridibundus populations were statistically lower than those in river populations. The FA values were constantly the highest under conditions of sustained anthropogenic pollution, with high concentrations of toxicants in rivers with domestic sewage pollution and heavy-metal pollution. The results provide better opportunities to use FA in P. ridibundus populations for bioindication and biomonitoring, and for parallel and independent analyses of the physicochemical assessment of the environmental condition.

  13. Leech presence on Iberian Brown Frog, Rana iberica, (Amphibia: Anura: Ranidae from north-western Spain

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    César Ayres

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a case of parasitism on Rana iberica by two species of leeches, Batracobdella sp. and Hirudo medicinalis, in a mountainous area of north-western Spain. Conservation implications of high parasite load on small and isolated populations are discussed.

  14. Hydrophylax bahuvistara, a new species of fungoid frog (Amphibia: Ranidae from peninsular India

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    Anand D. Padhye

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophylax bahuvistara, a new species of fungoid frog, is described from peninsular India. It can be separated from its congeners based on a combination of characters including wider head, outline of snout in dorsal view truncated, finger and toe tips without lateroventral groove, foot moderately webbed, metatarsals of 4th and 5th toes closely set, outer metatarsal tubercle small, foot length less than or equal to half of snout vent length, dorsal parts of shank without glandular folds and sparse horny spinules, and heels touch each other when the legs are folded at right angles to the body.  Genetically, H. bahuvistara forms a monophyletic group with H. malabaricus as a sister clade separated by a raw distance of 4.0 to 4.5% in the 16s rRNA gene.  Morphometrically, H. bahuvistara forms a significantly different cluster from H. malabaricus and H. gracilis in Discriminant Analysis.  

  15. Helminth parasites of the leopard frog Lithobates sp. Colima (Amphibia: Ranidae) from Colima, Mexico.

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    Cabrera-Guzmán, Elisa; Garrido-Olvera, Lorena; León-Règagnon, Virginia

    2010-08-01

    The helminth fauna inhabiting Lithobates sp. Colima from Ticuizitán, Colima, Mexico, comprises 10 species: 4 digeneans ( Clinostomum sp., Glypthelmins quieta , Haematoloechus sp., and Langeronia macrocirra ), 5 nematodes ( Aplectana itzocanensis , Cosmocerca podicipinus , Foleyellides striatus , Oswaldocruzia subauricularis , and Rhabdias sp.), and 1 cestode (Cyclophyllidea). Glypthelmins quieta , L. macrocirra , and A. itzocanensis represent new host records. These observations, added to previous records from Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico, indicate that the helminth fauna of Lithobates sp. from Colima comprises 25 taxa. Frogs are being parasitized by 3 infection routes: ingestion of intermediate host, skin penetration by larval forms, and transmission by vectors. Species of Aplectana , Cosmocerca , Foleyellides , and Oswaldocruzia occurred in high prevalence in Colima, similar to a previous study on the same frog species from Guerrero. In Colima, Glypthelmins , Haematoloechus , and Rhabdias also occurred in high prevalence. Haematoloechus species reached the highest mean intensity in both localities. The semiaquatic habits of this species of frog and the availability of particular feeding resources appear to determine the helminth composition and infection levels; however, co-speciation events also play an important role structuring these helminth communities.

  16. Annual cycles of urinary reproductive steroid concentrations in wild and captive endangered Fijian ground frogs (Platymantis vitiana).

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    Narayan, Edward J; Molinia, Frank C; Christi, Ketan S; Morley, Craig G; Cockrem, John F

    2010-03-01

    Annual cycles of reproductive steroid metabolites were measured in urine collected from free-living and captive tropical endangered Fijian ground frogs (Platymantis vitiana) a terrestrial breeding. Free-living frogs were sampled on Viwa Island, Fiji and captive frogs were maintained in an outdoor enclosure in Suva, Fiji. Urinary estrone, progesterone and testosterone metabolite concentrations increased in male and female frogs after hCG challenges, with clear peaks in steroid concentrations 2 or 3 days after the challenges. There were annual cycles of testosterone metabolites in wild and captive males, and of estrone and progesterone metabolites in wild and captive females. Peaks of steroid concentrations in the wet season corresponded with periods of mating and egg laying in females in December and January. Steroid concentrations declined in January and February when maximum egg sizes in females were also declining. Body weights of wild male and vitellogenic female frogs showed annual cycles. Body weights of non-vitellogenic female frogs varied significantly between months, although there was no clear pattern of annual changes. Body weights of the 3 captive male frogs and 4 captive female frogs were similar to those of the wild frogs. Estrone metabolites were 80% successful in identifying non-vitellogenic females from males. The results suggest that the Fijian ground frog is a seasonal breeder with an annual gonadal cycle, and this species is likely to be photoperiodic. Urinary steroid measurements can provide useful information on reproductive cycles in endangered amphibians.

  17. [Ploidy and genetic structure of hybrid populations of water frogs Pelophylax esculentus (L., 1758) complex (Amphibia, Ranidae) of Ukraine].

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    Mezhzherin, S V; Morozov-Leonov, S Iu; Rostovskaia, O V; Shabanov, D A; Sobolenko, L Iu

    2010-01-01

    The present study of green frog hybrid populations of Ukraine, including analysis of allozyme variability and planimetric analysis oferythrocytes size has confirmed that the unique region in this area is the Severski Donets basin The allopolyploid individuals there are met very frequently (5.7% of all investigated frogs). In other areas of Ukraine only two polyploid hybrids have been recorded. Beside that, one frog was defined as triploid Rana ridibundus. According to our investigations, all triploid hybrids from the Severski Donets basin are identified as P. esculentu (=lessonae)--2 ridibundus males.

  18. A New Record of RANIDAE From Henan Province (AMPHIBIA: ANURA)%河南省蛙科一新纪录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓虹; 梁俊波; 杨杰

    2003-01-01

    文章报道采自河南商城县的一种水蛙属(Hylarana)标本,与河南省已有记录的沼水蛙Hylarana (Hylarana) guentheri 明显不同,经鉴定为河南省新纪录阔褶水蛙Hylarana (Hylarana) latouchii.

  19. Features of the karyotypes of Pelophylax ridibundus Pallas, 1771 and Rana macrocnemis Boulenger, 1885 (Amphibia: Ranidae from Armenia

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    A Martirosyan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Сhromosomal complements of Pelophylax ridibundus Pallas, 1771 from 9 localities (Northern, Central and South Armenia and Rana macrocnemis Boulenger, 1885 from one locality (North-West Armenia have been analyzed. The chromosome sets of P. ridibundus collected from 8 localities showed 2n=26, (10m+12sm+4st; NF=52. A secondary constriction has been observed in all studied individuals on the 10-th chromosome pair showing NOR-positive reaction. C-positive heterochromatin blocks have been observed on long arms of the 2-nd and 10-th pairs of chromosomes (7 localities. In addition, C-heterochromatin blocks have been found on interstitial regions of short arms of the 12-th pairs, as well as in telomeric regions of long arms of the 9-th pairs and on short arms of the 5-th pair in the frogs from 2 localities. The karyotype of P. ridibundus from populations near Ejmiatsin differs from other populations (2n=26, 12m+10sm+4st. Diploid number of chromosomes of R. macrocnemis was also 26 (8m+12sm+6st, NF=52. Blocks of C-positive heterochromatin have been revealed in telomeric parts of the 1-st, 2-nd (p, 3-rd (q, 4-th (q, 6-th, 9-th (p, 10-th (p,q and 13-th (q pairs, as well as in interstitial regions of the 1-st and 2-nd pairs of chromosomes.  Intrapopulation and interpopulation geographic variations of karyotypes and C-heterochromatin banding patterns of P. ridibundus have been revealed. Karyotypically, morphotypes “macrocnemis” and “camerani” are closely related.

  20. Highly complex mitochondrial DNA genealogy in an endemic Japanese subterranean breeding brown frog Rana tagoi (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Koshiro; Matsui, Masafumi; Sugahara, Takahiro; Tanaka-Ueno, Tomoko

    2012-10-01

    The endemic Japanese frog Rana tagoi is unique among Holarctic brown frogs in that it breeds in small subterranean streams. Using mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes, we investigated genealogical relationships among geographic samples of this species together with its relative R. sakuraii, which is also a unique stream breeder. These two species together form a monophyletic group, within which both are reciprocally paraphyletic. Rana tagoi is divided into two major clades (Clade A and B) that are composed of 14 genetic groups. Rana sakuraii is included in Clade A and split into two genetic groups, one of which forms a clade (Subclade A-2) with sympatric R. tagoi. This species-level paraphyly appears to be caused by incomplete taxonomy, in addition to introgressive hybridization and/or incomplete lineage sorting. Rana tagoi strongly differs from other Japanese anurans in its geographic pattern of genetic differentiation, most probably in relation to its unique reproductive habits. Taxonomically, R. tagoi surely includes many cryptic species.

  1. Supplementary studies of Pleurogenoides medians (Digenea: Lecithodendriidae infecting the Marsh frog Rana Ridibunda (Amphibia: Ranidae in Egypt

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    Rewaida Abdel-Gaber

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pleurogenoides medians, a digenean lecithodendriid trematode, parasitize numerous aquatic vertebrate species including frogs, freshwater fish, urodeles and anurans. In the present study, a total of 190 out of 300 (63.33% marsh frogs Rana Ridibunda were found to be infected with this digenean parasite. The highest percentage of infection was recorded in winter reaching 93.33%, and the lowest value was recorded to be 6.66% during summer. Prevalence and intensity of infection were positively correlated with the host size. Host sex showed no effect in this respect. Morphological studies based on light and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the adult worms characterized by small body size measured 1.980–2.430 (2.205 ± 0.1 mm long and 0.870–1.20 (9.87 ± 0.01 mm wide with spines of similar size distributed all over the body surface; oral sucker is sub-terminal and measured 0.180–0.230 (0.203 ± 0.01 mm long and 0.120–0.180 (0.150 ± 0.01 mm wide; ventral sucker is smaller than the oral sucker, post-ovarian located at 1/3 level from the anterior end and measured 0.080–0.102 (0.090 ± 0.001 mm long and 0.100–0140 (0.120 ± 0.001 mm wide; two symmetrical testes were located near the cecal termination on both sides of the ventral sucker, measured 0.153–0.193 (0.176 ± 0.01 mm long and 0.160–0.192 (0.175 ± 0.01 mm wide; pre-acetabular ovary was present and measured 0.130–0.150 (0.140 ± 0.01 mm long and 0.100–0.130 (0.120 ± 0.01 mm wide; vitellaria are extra-caecal and extended from the level of the pharynx to a level slightly beyond the ovary. By comparing the recovered parasite with different species of the same genus from different hosts having different localities, it was found that the present species morphometrically more or less different from the comparable species and the only similar species was P. medians described previously from the common toad Bufo bufo by having all similar characteristic features. In addition, the present study was considered as the first report for the occurrence of this lecithodendriid species infecting the marsh frog in Egypt.

  2. Absence of invasive Chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in native Fijian ground frog (Platymantis vitiana populations on Viwa-Tailevu, Fiji Islands

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    Edward Narayan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on the first survey of chytridiomycosis (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis- Bd in the endangered Fijian ground frog (Platymantis vitiana population on Viwa-Tailevu, Fiji Islands. This fungal pathogen has been implicated as the primary cause of amphibian declines worldwide. Few cases have been reported from tropical Asia however it was recently documented in 4 species of frogs in Indonesia. Two hundred individual frogs were swabbed from 5 different sites on Viwa Island. Swabs were tested to quantify the number of Bd zoospore equivalents using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR technique. We found zero (% prevalence of Bd in ground frogs. The lack of Bd may be due to 1 hot weather all year round inhibiting the spread of Bd, 2 Bd may be absent from Viwa Island due to a lack of amphibian introductions (not introduced or importation of exotic frogs such as Rana catesbeia-na, or Xenopus spp or pet trade spp or 3 the lack of introduction by human vectors due to the geographic isolation, and low visitation of non-local people into the island. While it is difficult to test these hypotheses, a precautionary approach would suggest an effective quarantine is required to protect Fiji’s endemic frogs from future disease outbreak. Conservation effort and research is needed at international level to assist the Fiji government in monitoring and protecting their unique endemic amphibians from outbreaks of B. dendrobatidis.

  3. Repeatability of baseline corticosterone and short-term corticosterone stress responses, and their correlation with testosterone and body condition in a terrestrial breeding anuran (Platymantis vitiana).

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    Narayan, Edward J; Cockrem, John F; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2013-06-01

    Repeatability of physiological response variables, such as the stress hormone corticosterone, across numerous sampling occasions is an important assumption for their use as predictors of behaviour, reproduction and fitness in animals. Very few studies have actually tested this assumption in free-living animals under uncontrolled natural conditions. Non-invasive urine sampling and standard capture handling protocol have enabled the rapid quantification of baseline corticosterone and short-term corticosterone stress responses in anuran amphibians. In this study, established non-invasive methods were used to monitor physiological stress and urinary testosterone levels in male individuals of the terrestrial breeding Fijian ground frog (Platymantis vitiana). Adult male frogs (n = 20) were sampled at nighttime on three repeated occasions at intervals of 14 days during their annual breeding season on Viwa Island, Fiji. All frogs expressed urinary corticosterone metabolite responses to the capture and handling stressor, with some frogs showing consistently higher urinary corticosterone responses than others. Ranks of corticosterone values at 0, 4 and 8 h, and the corrected rank were highly significant (r = 0.75-0.99) between the three repeated sampling occasions. Statistical repeatabilities were high for baseline corticosterone (r = 0.973) and for corticosterone values at 2 h (r = 0.862), 4 h (r = 0.861), 6 h (r = 0.820) and 8 h (r = 0.926), and also for the total (inclusive of baseline corticosterone values) and the corrected integrated responses (index of the acute response) [r = 0.867 and r = 0.870]. Urinary testosterone levels also showed high statistical repeatability (r = 0.78). Furthermore, variation in baseline and short-term corticosterone stress responses was greater between individuals than within individuals. Baseline urinary corticosterone was significantly negatively correlated with the corrected integrated corticosterone response (r = -0.3, p breeding period

  4. Complete mitochondrial genomes of two brown frogs, Rana dybowskii and Rana cf. chensinensis (Anura: Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiao; Lei, Guangchun; Fu, Cuizhang

    2016-01-01

    We first determined complete mitochondrial genomes of Rana dybowskii and Rana cf. chensinensis (Anura: Ranidae). The mitogenomic lengths of R. dybowskii and R. cf. chensinensis were 18,864 and 18,808 bp, respectively. The two mitogenomes have similar gene compositions including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and a control region. Rana dybowskii and R. cf. chensinensis mitogenomes displayed same gene order arrangements and similar base compositions with an A + T bias. Mitogenomic data of the two species contributed to provide molecular marker for their conservative genetics and clarified their phylogenetic position under mitogenome-based phylogeny of the genus Rana.

  5. Molecular phylogeny and genetic identification of populations of two species of Feirana frogs (Amphibia: Anura, Ranidae, Dicroglossinae, Paini) endemic to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Jiang, Jianping; Xie, Feng; Chen, Xiaohong; Dubois, Alain; Liang, Gang; Wagner, Steven

    2009-07-01

    Using mitochondrial 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and ND2 sequences, we investigated phylogenetic relationships among populations of two frog species endemic to China, both referred to the genus Feirana. A sister-group relationship between the two species was supported moderately in a maximum likelihood analysis and significantly in a Bayesian analysis, but not in a maximum parsimony analysis, of combined data for the three genes. Pending resolution of this incongruence, we provisionally maintain these species in the genus Feirana. Two major clades with a deep divergence are concordant with the species F. quadranus and "F." taihangnica. In the present work, some populations from the Qinling Mountains and all those from the Funiu and the Zhongtiao-southern Taihang Mountains are referred to "F." taihangnica rather than F. quadranus, whereas others are referred to F. quadranus. Consequently, the main body of the Qinling Mountains was identified as a large contact zone between these two species. On the basis of phylogenetic relationships and the distribution pattern of populations, we propose a hypothesis for the divergence of "F." taihangnica: the ancestral species might have inhabited the westernmost Qinling Mountains and dispersed to the main Qinling Mountains, and then to the Zhongtiao-southern Taihang and Funiu Mountains. In contrast, two alternative hypotheses are suggested for F. quadranus: if the two species are confirmed as sister groups, F. quadranus might have dispersed from the westernmost Qinling to the Longmen, Qinling, Daba, and northern Wuling Mountains; alternatively, F. quadranus might have come from the northern Wuling Mountains and then dispersed to the Daba, Qinling, and Longmen mountains.

  6. Seasonal changes of basic erythrocyte-metric parameters in Pelophylaxridibundus (Amphibia: Ranidae) from anthropogenically polluted biotopes in Southern Bulgaria and their role as bioindicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhelev, Zhivko M; Mehterov, Nikolay H; Popgeorgiev, Georgi S

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this research work is to present data that show the seasonal changes (spring-summer-autumn) of basic erythrocyte-metric parameters (ЕL: Erythrocyte length, ЕW: Erythrocyte width, ЕL/ЕW, ES: Erythrocyte size; NL: Nucleus length, NW: Nucleus width, NL/NW; NS: Nucleus size, NS/ES: Nucleus-cytoplasmic ratio) in Pelophylax ridibundus populations from three biotopes located on two rivers in Southern Bulgaria (less disrupted biotope, with domestic sewage pollution and heavy metal pollution). Differences of high statistical significance were found among the different populations. Within the population living in conditions of domestic sewage pollution, for the entire period of the investigation the erythrocytes and their nuclei had an elliptical shape (a slight elongation of ellipses in autumn) and the biggest sizes (EL, EW, ES, NL and NS were constantly higher than the less disrupted biotope), NS/ES, became significantly smaller in autumn. Throughout the period of investigation, the values of all nine cellular and nuclear parameters were statistically-significantly the lowest in the population from the biotope with heavy metal pollution. The parameters: EL, ЕW, NL, NW and ES became significantly lower, progressively and statistically, during seasonal transitions. Cells and nuclei grew ovular in shape in comparison to the populations from the other two biotopes (this process was most pronounced in autumn) and NS/ES numbers were significantly decreased in summer and autumn. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes of erythrocyte-metric parameters in Pelophylax ridibundus (Amphibia: Anura: Ranidae) inhabiting water bodies with different types of anthropogenic pollution in Southern Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhelev, Zhivko; Popgeorgiev, Georgi; Ivanov, Ivan; Boyadzhiev, Peter

    2017-07-01

    The article presents the basic erythrocyte-metric parameters: cell length (EL) and width (EW), EL/EW, erythrocyte size (ES), nucleus length (NL) and width (NW), NL/NW, nucleus size (NS) and nucleocytoplasmic ratio (NS/ES) in the wild populations of marsh frogs Pelophylax ridibundus from five water bodies in Southern Bulgaria (two rivers and three reservoirs) with different degrees and types of anthropogenic pollution (less disrupted water basins, domestic sewage pollution and heavy metal pollution). The changes in erythrocyte-metric parameters depend on concentrations and types of toxicant and, to a lesser extent, on the type of water basin. We found that when P. ridibundus populations live in conditions of domestic sewage pollution, EL, EW and ES increase in comparison with the control samples, with regard to an elongated elliptical cell shape. Simultaneously, NL, NW and NS did not undergo any significant changes when compared with the control samples. The nuclei had elliptical shape. In the populations from the water basins with heavy metal pollution, EL, EW, ES, NL, NW and NS decreased. The cells and nuclei had a circular shape. NS/ES decreased when compared with the control sample, regardless of the type of toxicants.

  8. Morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of Myxobolus ridibundae n. sp. (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) infecting the testicular tissue of the marsh frog Rana ridibunda (Amphibia: Ranidae) in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Maher, Sherein; El Deeb, Nashwa; Kamel, Reem; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2017-01-01

    Myxozoans are one of the most economically important groups of protozoan parasites causing many serious diseases of their hosts. In the present study, a total of 60 live adult male specimens of the marsh frog Rana ridibunda have been randomly captured during the period of January-December 2015 in different areas at Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt and were examined for infection by myxosporidian parasites. A total of 48 (80.0 %) out of 60 frog specimens were found to be infected with Myxobolus species. Parasitic infection was restricted to the testicular tissue of the examined frogs. Macroscopic cysts (plasmodia) which heavily infested different parts of the testes were recovered. Morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of these myxosporidian species were carried out using light and transmission electron microscopy. Plasmodia measured 0.16-0.53 (0.34 ± 0.01) mm in diameter. Mature spores appeared oval in frontal view, measuring 8.9-11.5 (9.6 ± 0.1) μm in length and 7.5-9.1 (8.4 ± 0.1) μm in width containing 5-6 turns of polar filaments. Morphometric characterization revealed that the very small size of the present Myxobolus species was the most distinctive feature that separates them from all previously described Myxobolus species. Ultrastructural analysis showed that the plasmodia are surrounded by a plasma membrane with numerous pinocytotic protrusions extending toward the host cell. The generative cells and the different developmental stages are arranged at the periphery of the plasmodia, while immature and mature spores are centrally located. Sporogenesis, capsulogenesis, valvogenesis, and spore maturation of the present parasite are also described. The present species is described as Myxobolus ridibundae and represents a new species.

  9. MORPHOMETRICAL STUDY ON POPULATIONS OF THE GENUS FEIRANA (AMPHIBIA,ANURA,RANIDAE)%隆肛蛙属种群形态量度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 江建平; 陈晓虹; 谢锋; 郑中华

    2007-01-01

    对隆肛蛙属Feirana中隆肛蛙F.quadrana和太行隆肛蛙F.taihangnicus的15个种群565只标本的28项形态性状进行了测量,并运用典型判别分析法对其进行分析,分析结果表明:1)太行隆肛蛙和隆肛蛙的形态差异明显,形态度量信息支持太行隆肛蛙与隆肛蛙是不同的物种;2)原隆肛蛙河南伏牛山种群和山西中条山种群均为太行隆肛蛙的地理种群;3)隆肛蛙的种群间形态差异明显,其中四川安县种群、陕西周至种群和湖北利川种群与模式产地重庆巫山种群的差异可能达到了亚种或亚种以上分化水平.

  10. 西藏聂拉木地区波留宁棘蛙的记述%DESCRIPTION OF PAA POLUNINI SMITH (AMPHIBIA: RANIDAE) FROM NYALAM OF XIZANG, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费梁; 叶昌媛

    2001-01-01

    @@ 有关西藏聂拉木的亚东蛙Rana yadongensisWu的分类问题,曾在《西藏两栖爬行动物》(胡淑琴,1987)已有讨论,文中指出聂拉木的标本与亚东者有“变异”,并言:“Dubois(1979)根据地理分布将分布于亚东的亚东蛙作为布兰福棘蛙Rana(Paa) blanfordii Boulenger之异名;分布于聂拉木的标本可能属于波留宁棘蛙Rana(Paa)polunini Smith.”当时由于缺乏尼泊尔的标本对证,该书暂未采用Dubois上述意见.费梁等(1990)将亚东蛙改隶为亚东棘蛙Paa yadongensis.1994年11月和1996年4月我们与法国学者Dubois教授在互访成都和巴黎期间,先后两次共同核查了亚东、聂拉木和尼泊尔3地的标本.

  11. 西藏湍流蛙类一新种%A NEW SPECIES OF CASCADE FROG (AMPHIBIA, RANIDAE) FROM TIBET, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丕鹏; 陆宇燕; 饶定齐

    2008-01-01

    A new cascade frog, superficially resembling Odorrana graminea, O. chloronta and 0. k,k/a in having green color dorsally and ventral circummarginal grooves around the discs of the fingers, has been found in M&iog County of Tibet (Xizang Autonomous Region), China. The new species (Odorrana zhaoi) is characterized by a combination of the following main attributes: 1) a golden upper lip strip from tip of snout and along the upper jaws extending to insertion of arm; 2) tympanum circular, very distinct and depressed with rim, TD: ED 0.56 in male; 3) dorsolateral fold weak, dorsum smooth except granular in posterior part, venter smooth except for a granular region under the thighs; 4) limbs with transverse bands of disdnct blotches to tips of digits; 5) Tips of all fingers expanded with ventral circummarginal grooves, about 1.5 to two times the width of phalanges in figures Ⅲ and Ⅳ ; 6) inner metatarsal tubercle disdnct and ovoid, no outer metatarsal tubercle; 7) feet fully webbed to disks; 8) male with velvety nuptial pad on thumb, paired external subgular pouches but no hurneral glands, fine spinules in an ovoid duster on throat and chest.%在西藏墨脱采集到1种与Odorrana graminea、O.chloronota和O.livida体背绿色和指端膨大具沟的湍流蛙类相近的物种,经鉴定为新种,命名为墨脱臭蛙Odorrana zhaoi.新种具有以下主要特征:上唇缘具有金黄色条纹;鼓膜圆形,显著,TD:ED为0.56;背侧褶弱,背部皮肤除后部有小疣粒外光滑,体侧有疣粒和小刺;4肢背面有横斑纹;无外蹠突;雄性具1对外声囊和咽胸部椭圆形小刺团,无肱腺.

  12. 我国臭蛙属(两栖纲:蛙科)的系统发育%PHYLOGENY OF GENUS ODORRANA(AMPHIBIA: RANIDAE) IN CHINA*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶昌媛; 费梁

    2001-01-01

    为探讨臭蛙属的种间亲缘关系与其起源和分化,采用PAUP3.1软件对我国的16种臭蛙的29项分类性状进行系统发育关系的研究.结果表明,臭蛙属物种形成1个单系群,可以划分为4个种组;表明了臭蛙属中国物种间的亲缘关系;无指盘臭蛙和云南臭蛙是本属中最原始的物种,鸭嘴臭蛙等是较特化的物种;原始臭蛙可能起源于横断山区和云南西部高原,贵州高原可能是臭蛙的分化中心;各种组内相近种的地理替代呈南北方向更替,而种组间则呈东西方向更替;原始物种多分布于中国西南部,较进化或特化物种多分布于中国东部和东南部及海岛上;其种组亲缘关系与地理分布格局显示出一致性.

  13. 蛙科精子形态结构研究进展%Review on Morphology and Ultrastructure of Spermatozoa of Family Ranidae(Amphibia,Anura)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃丽梅; 郑中华; 江建平; 谢锋

    2007-01-01

    本文对已有的蛙科精子形态结构的研究进行总结,归纳了蛙科精子形态结构及量度的特征和类型,以及蛙科精子结构与其它两栖类精子结构的异同,探讨蛙科精子形态结构研究中存在和亟待解决的问题.

  14. A unique case of mating behaviour in a Malagasy tree frog, Gephyromantis liber (Peracca, 1893), with observations on the larval development (Amphibia, Ranidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blommers-Schlösser, Rose M.A.

    1975-01-01

    The mating act in Gephyromantis liber and in other species of this genus differs from all other mating behaviour patterns known in Anura. The male settles with the ventral side of his thighs on the shoulders of the female, and oviposition starts without delay. The assumption is made that the femoral

  15. The authorships and dates of the specific nomina Megophrys shuichengensis and Pseudohynobius shuichengensis (Amphibia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, Annemarie; Frétey, Thierry; Dubois, Alain

    2015-05-28

    Two amphibian species from China are designated by the specific nomen shuichengensis, which refers to the Shuicheng County (26°34'N, 104°51'E), south of the city of Liupanshui in the province of Guizhou: Megophrys shuichengensis (Amphibia, Anura) and Pseudohynobius shuichengensis (Amphibia, Urodela). The holotypes (holophoronts) of both species were deposited in Department of Biology of the Liupanshui Teachers Higher College (LTHC below). Both species share the particularity of having been described as new twice, at different dates, in different journals and with different authorships. Although this has been acknowledged for the salamander, it has not yet been so for the frog.

  16. Estudio preliminar de la fauna Amphibia del valle de Sibundoy, Alto Putumayo, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Mueses-Cisneros Jonh Jairo; Lynch John D.

    2004-01-01

    Se realiza el estudio preliminar de la fauna Amphibia del Valle de Sibundoy, Alto Putumayo, Colombia; mediante la construcción del inventario de la fauna Amphibia, el mejoramiento en el conocimiento
    de la distribución en los Andes norecuatorianos y surcolombianos de las especies involucradas y la relación en cuanto a la composición de esta fauna con la de los estudios realizados en el transecto Napo en Ecuador y transecto Montañita-Alto Gabinete en Caquetá. El estudio se basó en: 1...

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome of the green odorous frog Odorrana margaretae (Anura: Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Jie; Zhai, Xiaofei; Zhu, Yanjun; Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-06-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the green odorous frog Odorrana margaretae (Anura: Ranidae) has been studied. The 17,903 bp circular genome contains the typical complement of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and a control region. The AT content of the overall base compositon of H-strand is 56% and the length of control region is 2501 bp with 63.8% AT content. The arrangement of the protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes was the same as that found in other anurans. The cluster of rearranged LTPF tRNA genes and the translocation of tRNA(His) gene into the D-loop region are observed.

  18. Phylogeography of the fanged dicroglossine frog, Limnonectes fujianensis (Anura, Ranidae), in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang-Liaw, Nian-Hong; Chou, Wen-Hao

    2011-04-01

    A phylogenetic analysis of Taiwanese fanged dicroglossine frog, Limnonectes fujianensis (Anura, Ranidae), was conducted to examine its genetic diversification using sequence data from a portion of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b sequences. We collected genetic data from 200 individuals at 23 localities in Taiwan and three localities in China. A neighbor-joining tree of 39 haplotypes revealed two clades in Taiwan and a clade in China, each showing restricted geographical distribution. The pattern of geographical divergence suggests a single invasion into Taiwan. Divergence times between clades were inferred using molecular clock tests. The population relationship of L. fujianensis between Taiwan and mainland China, and the phylogenetic relationships with its congeners, e.g., L. bannaensis, L. fragilis and L. kuhlii, were obtained and discussed.

  19. The different meanings of the nomen Amphibia: a correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Alain

    2015-07-17

    I recently published a survey of the different meanings of the nomen Amphibia in taxonomic publications since 1758 (Dubois 2015). The 'meaning' of a nomen in zoological nomenclature depends on the system used for the allocation of nomina to taxa, and several such systems can be used (see e.g. Dubois 2006a-b). In the paper at stake, I used the 'orostensional nomenclatural system' (OONS) for class-series nomenclature. In this system, a class-series nomen-i.e., a nomen above the rank superfamily, therefore one whose taxonomic allocation is not regulated by the Code (Anonymous 1999)-applies, in a given classification, to the most inclusive class-series taxon that includes all its originally expressly included nominal genera (conucleogenera) and excludes all its originally expressly excluded nominal genera (alienogenera)-if such a taxon indeed exists in this classification. However, if one a least of the alienogenera is now part of the most inclusive taxon including all the conucleogenera, the nomen cannot be taxonomically allocated and qualifies as an anaptonym in the classification used as reference (Dubois 2006a-b, 2011), although it may not be so under another taxonomic frame.

  20. Characterisation of major histocompatibility complex class I genes in Japanese Ranidae frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Quintin; Igawa, Takeshi; Komaki, Shohei; Satta, Yoko

    2016-11-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a key component of adaptive immunity in all jawed vertebrates, and understanding the evolutionary mechanisms that have shaped these genes in amphibians, one of the earliest terrestrial tetrapods, is important. We characterised MHC class I variation in three common Japanese Rana species (Rana japonica, Rana ornativentris and Rana tagoi tagoi) and identified a total of 60 variants from 21 individuals. We also found evolutionary signatures of gene duplication, recombination and balancing selection (including trans-species polymorphism), all of which drive increased MHC diversity. A unique feature of MHC class I from these three Ranidae species includes low synonymous differences per site (d S) within species, which we attribute to a more recent diversification of these sequences or recent gene duplication. The resulting higher d N/d S ratio relative to other anurans studied could be related to stronger selection pressure at peptide binding sites. This is one of the first studies to investigate MHC in Japanese amphibians and permits further exploration of the polygenetic factors associated with resistance to infectious diseases.

  1. Evolutionary and biogeographic origins of high tropical diversity in old world frogs (Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, John J; Sukumaran, Jeet; Pyron, R Alexander; Brown, Rafe M

    2009-05-01

    Differences in species richness between regions are ultimately explained by patterns of speciation, extinction, and biogeographic dispersal. Yet, few studies have considered the role of all three processes in generating the high biodiversity of tropical regions. A recent study of a speciose group of predominately New World frogs (Hylidae) showed that their low diversity in temperate regions was associated with relatively recent colonization of these regions, rather than latitudinal differences in diversification rates (rates of speciation-extinction). Here, we perform parallel analyses on the most species-rich group of Old World frogs (Ranidae; approximately 1300 species) to determine if similar processes drive the latitudinal diversity gradient. We estimate a time-calibrated phylogeny for 390 ranid species and use this phylogeny to analyze patterns of biogeography and diversification rates. As in hylids, we find a strong relationship between the timing of colonization of each region and its current diversity, with recent colonization of temperate regions from tropical regions. Diversification rates are similar in tropical and temperate clades, suggesting that neither accelerated tropical speciation rates nor greater temperate extinction rates explain high tropical diversity in this group. Instead, these results show the importance of historical biogeography in explaining high species richness in both the New World and Old World tropics.

  2. Antimicrobial peptides from the skin secretions of the South-East Asian frog Hylarana erythraea (Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghaferi, Nadia; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Nowotny, Norbert; Coquet, Laurent; Jouenne, Thierry; Leprince, Jérôme; Vaudry, Hubert; King, Jay D; Conlon, J Michael

    2010-04-01

    Peptidomic analysis of norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions of the South-East Asian frog Hylarana erythraea (formerly Rana erythraea partim) has led to the identification of multiple peptides with antimicrobial activity. Structural characterization of the peptides demonstrated that they belong to the brevinin-1 (3), brevinin-2 (2), esculentin-2 (4), and temporin (1) families. The values in parentheses indicate the number of paralogs. In addition, a peptide (GVIKSVLKGVAKTVALG ML.NH(2)) was isolated that shows some structural similarity to the brevinin-2-related peptides (B2RP) previously isolated from North American frogs of the genus Lithobates. A synthetic replicate of the species B2RP showed broad-spectrum growth inhibitory activity against reference strains of Escherichia coli (MIC=12.5 microM), Staphylococcus aureus (MIC=12.5 microM) and Candida albicans (MIC=50 microM) and was active against multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Acetinobacter baumannii (MIC in the range 6-12.5 microM). The hemolytic activity of the peptide was relatively low (LC(50)=280 microM). Phylogenetic analysis based upon the amino acid sequences of 47 brevinin-2 peptides from 17 Asian species belonging to the family Ranidae provides support for the placement of H. erythraea in the genus Hylarana.

  3. [Helminth fauna of amphibians (Vertebrata: Amphibia) in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimalov, V V

    2009-01-01

    Historical review of the investigations of helminth fauna in amphibians from Belarus is presented. In 12 amphibian species examined by different authors 46 helminth species were found, including 29 Trematoda, 13 Nematoda, 1 Monogenea, 2 Cestoda, and 1 Acanthocephala. Original data on helminths parasitizing Amphibia in Byelorussian Polesie, by the results of long-term investigations in 1986-2004 are given. Distribution of 40 helminth species by hosts and respective infestation rates are reported.

  4. REGULATION OF SERUM CORTISOL BY SOMATOSTATIN: EVIDENCE OF NEUROENDOCRINE CONTROL OF ADRENAL GLAND IN AMPHIBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAMSHUN NEHAR

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of somatostatin in plasma cortisol level in Rana tigrina (amphibia,anura has beeninvestigated. An inhibitory impact on both, intact (16.32% as well as pharmacologically annuledfrogs(23.27% has been recorded. It is concluded that in both the conditions, it act as a preventiveagent to counteract any excess secretion of cortisol due to the failure of classical regulatorymechanism.

  5. TAXONOMIC STUDIES OF ODORRANA VERSABILIS IN CHINA Ⅱ. DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW SPECIES (AMPHIBIA: RANIDAE)%竹叶臭蛙的分类学研究Ⅱ.两新种记述(两栖纲:蛙科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费梁; 叶昌媛; 李成

    2001-01-01

    据记载竹叶臭蛙Odorrana versabilis分布于广西、贵州、湖南、福建、浙江、安徽、广东、海南.作者对比研究了7个省的13个居群标本的形态特征,可分为3个形态型,这3个形态型标本的特征彼此差异明显,被确定为3个不同的种,其中包括2个新种,即小竹叶臭蛙O.exiliversabilis sp.nov和鸭嘴臭蛙O.nasuta sp.nov..为印证形态分类的结果,又采用形态数值性状标准差别分析和DNA指纹实验分析,其结果与形态特征分类研究结果一致.本文对2个新种的形态和生物学资料进行了记述.

  6. Phylogentic Relationship among Limnonectes (Ranidae: Amphibia found in West Sumatra with Other Species from South East Asia based on the based on the 16S rRNA Gen

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    Djoko T. Iskandar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research to study the phylogenetic relationship among Limnonectes species found in West Sumatra and with other species from South East Asia based on the partial DNA sequences16S rRNA sequences. DNA sequences were aligned using ClustalX version 1.64b, and the phylogenetic relationship within samples were analyzed using PHYLIP version 3.5c program. The alignment showed that, from 805 sites, there are 250 parsimony informative polymorphism sites. The phylogenetic tree showed that all of the Limnonectes spesies were divided in two clusters, the L. blythii complex and L. kuhlii complex. L. kuhlii and L. sp1 clustered into L. kuhlii complex and L. shomponerum and L. macrodon were clustered to L. blythii complex.. This result showed that L. kuhlii and L. blythii are species complexes that are actually constituted of several species.

  7. A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS PAA FROM SOUTHEAST XIZANG, CHINA (AMPHIBIA: RANIDAE)%西藏东南部棘蛙属一新种记述(两栖纲:蛙科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费梁; 叶昌媛

    2001-01-01

    Spiny frogs from Hengduan Mountains and Himalayas of China,i.e. types of Paa chayuensis from Chayu and Medog, southeast Xizang (Tibet) are studied. The results indicate that Paa chayuensis from Chayu is a valid species which differs from Paa arnoldi Dubois; Paa chayuensis from Medog differs from that one in Chayu and any of other described species of genus Paa. Therefore Paa chayuensis from Medog is considered as a new species, Paa medogensis sp.nov. Paa medogensis Fei and Ye, sp. nov.   Holotype: CIB8370106, adult male (SVL 79.0 mm), collected at Medog, Xizang (ca: 29°22′N,95°35′E),in China, alt. 1 100 m, on July 19, 1983, by LI Sheng\\|Quan.   Paratypes: Nine adult males (CIB73II0013,0018,8370105,8370134,8370139~141,8370147~148), 4 adult females (CIB73II0010~12,8370100), four subadults and some tadpoles collected at Maniweng, Medog, alt. 1?000~1?100 m, on July 16, 1973 and on July 19, 1983. One adult female (CIB7430080) from Hanmi, Medog, alt. 2 100 m, on August 23, 1974; three adult females CIB8370024~25, 8370149 collected at 62th km. from Medog to Bomi, on July 19, 1983.   Diagnosis: This new species Paa medogensis is closely similar to Paa chayuensis, but it is distinguished from the latter by the following characters: ①larger body size, snout-vent length(SVL) of adult males 62~79 mm (mean 71 mm), SVL of adult females 71~114 mm (mean 86 mm); ②anterior 2/3 part of body dorsum smoother although with a few elongated warts arranged in longitudinal rows, posterior 1/3 part rough, with many small spine warts; ③throat smooth, without granules; ④the space between two vomerine teeth patches nearly equal to the length of a vomerine teeth patch; ⑤tympanum hidden; ⑥the color of dorsum of living adults dark olive, or with four greenish longitudinal bands; ⑦male chest with two transverse spine groups, each group with about 20 spines. The latter with smaller body size, SVL of adult males 52~65 mm (mean 58.5 mm), that of adult females 59~80 mm (mean 69 mm); the upper sides of head and body densely covered with round spine warts; throat with round small warts; two vomerine teeth patches mostly touched each other; tympanum small and clear; body dorsum green olive, parts with wart dark olive; male chest with many spines, and appearing two oval patches, each patch with 33~56 spines.   The type specimens are kept in Chengdu Institute of Biology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences.%对产于西藏东南部察隅和墨脱的察隅棘蛙通过形态特征和数值分类作了进一步比较研究。结果认为:产于察隅的察隅棘蛙是一个有效种,而产于墨脱的标本应为一个新种,即墨脱棘蛙Paa medogensis sp. nov.。

  8. A new species of Cascade Frog from Tibet: China-Amolops chayuensis (AMPHIBIA, RANIDAE)%西藏湍蛙属一新种——察隅湍蛙(两栖纲:蛙科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国政; 罗伟雄; 孙鸿雁; 张光元

    2013-01-01

    描记采自西藏自治区察隅县的蛙科Ranidae湍蛙属Amolops一新种——察隅湍蛙Amolops chayuensissp.nov..新种与阿尼桥湍蛙Amolops aniqiaoensis Dong,Rao and Lü,2005相近,但新种颞褶和背侧褶明显且宽厚,颞部有小疣粒;体背为草绿色,沿吻棱、颞褶和背侧褶有棕褐色宽条斑,上唇缘为浅褐色,股和胫背面有褐色横纹;体侧下半部浅绿色镶嵌不规则黑色斑纹,与阿尼桥湍蛙明显区别.

  9. Antimicrobial peptides from the skin secretions of the New World frogs Lithobates capito and Lithobates warszewitschii (Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, J Michael; Meetani, Mohammed A; Coquet, Laurent; Jouenne, Thierry; Leprince, Jérôme; Vaudry, Hubert; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Nowotny, Norbert; King, Jay D

    2009-10-01

    Taxonomic revisions within the anuran family Ranidae have established the genus Lithobates that currently comprises 49 species of frogs from the New World. Peptidomic analysis, using reversed-phase HPLC with on-line detection by electrospray mass spectrometry, has led to the identification of multiple antimicrobial peptides in norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions of the North American frog Lithobates capito and the Central American frog Lithobates warszewitschii. Structural characterization of the peptides demonstrated that the L. capito secretions contained brevinin-1 (1), esculentin-1 (1), esculentin-2 (1), ranatuerin-2 (3), and temporin (2) peptides. L. warszewitschii secretions contained brevinin-1 (1), esculentin-2 (1), ranatuerin-2 (2), and temporin (1) peptides. Values in parentheses indicate number of peptides in each family. Temporin-CPa from L. capito, with the atypical structure IPPFIKKVLTTVF.NH(2), also showed atypical growth-inhibitory activity having greater potency against Escherichia coli (MIC=25 microM) and Candida albicans (MIC=25 microM) than against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC=50 microM). Phylogenetic analysis based upon the amino acid sequences of 37 ranatuerin-2 peptides from 17 species belonging to the genus Lithobates provides support for currently accepted taxonomic relationships. L. capito is sister-group to Lithobates sevosus in a clade that also contains Lithobates areolatus, and Lithobates palustris. L. warszewitschii is most closely related to the Central American species Lithobates tarahumarae and Lithobates vaillanti.

  10. A new species of Megophrys (Amphibia: Anura: Megophry-idae from the northwestern Hunan Province, China

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    Xiaoyang MO, Youhui SHEN, Honghui LI, Xiushan WU

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Megophrys (Amphibia: Anura: Megophryidae, Megophrys tuberogranulatus Shen, Mo et Li, sp. nov. (Holotype HNUL 03080902, adult male, SVL: 38.2 mm, from Sangzhi County, Hunan Province, is described. Megophrys tuberogranulatus is closely related to both Megophrys kuatunensis and Megophrys minor. Characters of the new species that differentiate this species from close relatives are skin granulated with big tubercles on the dorsal sides of both thigh and tibia, the bigger inner metacarpal tubercle, upper eyelid wider than the interorbital space, hind limbs longer, overlapping of the left and right calcaneal parts. The type specimens are deposited in the Animal Museum of Life Sciences College of Hunan Normal University [Current Zoology 56 (4: 432–436, 2010].

  11. Mitochondrial genomes of Japanese Babina frogs (Ranidae, Anura): unique gene arrangements and the phylogenetic position of genus Babina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakehashi, Ryosuke; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Oumi, Shohei; Katsuren, Seiki; Hoso, Masaki; Sumida, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Genus Babina is a member of Ranidae, a large family of frogs, currently comprising 10 species. Three of them are listed as endangered species. To identify mitochondrial (mt) genes suitable for future population genetic analyses for endangered species, we determined the complete nucleotide sequences of the mt genomes of 3 endangered Japanese Babina frogs, B. holsti, B. okinavana, and B. subaspera and 1 ranid frog Lithobates catesbeianus. The genes of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (nad5) and the control region (CR) were found to have high sequence divergences and to be usable for population genetics studies. At present, no consensus on the phylogenetic position of genus Babina has been reached. To resolve this problem, we performed molecular phylogenetic analyses with the largest dataset used to date (11,345 bp from 2 ribosomal RNA- and 13 protein-encoding genes) in studies dealing with Babina phylogeny. These analyses revealed monophyly of Babina and Odorrana. It is well known that mt gene rearrangements of animals can provide usable phylogenetic information. Thus, we also compared the mt gene arrangements among Babina species and other related genera. Of the surveyed species, only L. catesbeianus manifested typical neobatrachian-type mt gene organization. In the B. okinavana, an additional pseudogene of tRNA-His (trnH) was observed in the CR downstream region. Furthermore, in the B. holsti and B. subaspera, the trnH/nad5 block was translocated from its typical position to the CR downstream region, and the translocated trnH became a pseudogene. The position of the trnH pseudogene is consistent with the translocated trnH position reported in Odorrana. Consequently, the trnH rearrangement seems to be a common ancestry characteristic (synapomorphy) of Babina and Odorrana. Based on the "duplication and deletion" gene rearrangement model, a single genomic duplication event can explain the order of derived mt genes found in Babina and Odorrana.

  12. Radiography atlas of domestic animals. Small mammals, birds, reptilia, and amphibia. Atlas der Roentgendiagnostik bei Heimtieren. Kleinsaeuger, Voegel, Reptilien und Amphibien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruebel, G.A.; Isenbuegel, E.; Wolvekamp, P. (eds.); Gabrisch, K.; Grimm, F.; Koblik, P.; Paul-Murphy, J.; Oschwald, C.P.; Schildger, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    The 370 radiographs presented in the atlas together with notes and explanations give information on normal roentgenographic findings, physiological variations, and important pathological findings observed in small mammals, birds, reptilia and amphibia. Introductory notes to each chapter explain the principles of exposure techniques and the handling of the animals. (VHE).

  13. Variability of Structural and Biomechanical Parameters of Pelophylax Esculentus (Amphibia, Anura Limb Bones

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    Broshko Ye. O.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Variability of Structural and Biomechanical Prameters of Pelophylax esculentus (Amphibia, Anura Limb Bones. Broshko Ye. O. — Structural and biomechanical parameters of Edible Frog, Pelophylax esculentus (Linnaeus, 1758, limb bones, namely, mass, linear dimensions, parameters of the shaft’s cross-sectional shape (cross-sectional area, moments of inertia, radiuses of inertia were investigated. Some coefficients were also estimated: diameters ratio (df/ds, cross-sectional index (ik, principal moments of inertia ratio (Imax/Imin.. Coefficients of variation of linear dimensions (11.9-20.0 % anrelative bone mass (22-35 % were established. Moments of inertia of various bones are more variable (CV = 41.67-56.35 % in relation to radii of inertia (CV = 9.68-14.67 %. Shaft’s cross-sectional shape is invariable in all cases. However, there is high individual variability of structural and biomechanical parameters of P. esculentus limb bones. Variability of parameters was limited by the certain range. We suggest the presence of stable norm in bone structure. Stylopodium bones have the primary biomechanical function among the elements of limb skeleton, because their parameters most clearly responsive to changes in body mass.

  14. Estudio preliminar de la fauna Amphibia del valle de Sibundoy, Alto Putumayo, Colombia

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    Mueses-Cisneros Jonh Jairo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza el estudio preliminar de la fauna Amphibia del Valle de Sibundoy, Alto Putumayo, Colombia; mediante la construcción del inventario de la fauna Amphibia, el mejoramiento en el conocimiento
    de la distribución en los Andes norecuatorianos y surcolombianos de las especies involucradas y la relación en cuanto a la composición de esta fauna con la de los estudios realizados en el transecto Napo en Ecuador y transecto Montañita-Alto Gabinete en Caquetá. El estudio se basó en: 1 tres salidas de campo al Valle de Sibundoy (localizado al suroccidente de Colombia, entre 1º 05’ y 1º 12’ N y 76º 53’ y 77º 00’ O entre 2.000-2.750 msnm, realizadas en diciembre 2000-enero 2001, julio 2002 y diciembre 2003-febrero 2004, con un esfuerzo de muestreo de 198 horas/hombre; 2 revisión bibliográfica; 3 revisión de especímenes depositados en la colección de anfibios del Instituto de Ciencias Naturales de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Bogotá (ICN y en la revisión de la base de datos de la colección de Herpetología del Instituto de Investigaciones Alexander von Humboldt (IAvH de los anfibios colectados en los departamentos de Caquetá, Nariño, Putumayo y en Ecuador. La fauna consta de 32 especies (313 especímenes agrupadas en dos órdenes, cinco familias y siete géneros; para cada especie se presenta información
    sobre su historial taxonómico, reconocimiento, distribución geográfica (mapas de distribución y rangos altitudinales, coloración en vivo y en preservativo, abundancia y algunos aspectos relacionados con su historia natural; se realiza un análisis regional de esta fauna a nivel general
    (Valle de Sibundoy y por localidades muestreadas, se hace una comparación con las faunas realizadas en el transecto Napo en Ecuador y en el transecto Montañita-Alto Gabinete en Caquetá y se presenta una clave taxonómica y una serie de fotografías para facilitar su  reconocimiento. El estudio adem

  15. Immunohistochemical localization of insulin-like growth factor I and II in the endocrine pancreas of birds, reptiles, and amphibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, M; Broger, I; Brun, R; Zapf, J; Maake, C

    1995-12-01

    Immunoreactive insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I, IGF-II) were sought in the endocrine pancreas of representative birds, reptiles, and amphibia using antisera specific for mammalian IGF-I and IGF-II and the classical islet hormones insulin (INS), glucagon (GLUC), somatostatin (SOM), and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) in double immunofluorescence. Both IGF-I and IGF-II immunoreactivities were present in the endocrine pancreas of all species. IGF-II immunoreactivity was exclusively found in INS-immunoreactive (-IR) cells, indicating evolutionary conservation of the islet IGF-II system. In contrast, IGF-I immunoreactivity was distributed differently among the species and never occurred in INS-IR cells. In the anuran Xenopus laevis, IGF-I immunoreactivity was present in islet cells showing coexistence of GLUC and PP immunoreactivities. In reptiles, the lizards (Lacerta viridis, Scincus officinalis) exhibited IGF-I immunoreactivity in PP-IR and SOM-IR cells and the snakes (Psamophis leniolatum, Coluber ravergieri) in SOM-IR and GLUC-IR cells. In birds, IGF-I immunoreactivity was located either in SOM-IR cells only (Gallus g. domesticus, Streptopelia roseogrisea) or in PP-IR and SOM-IR cells (Coturnix c. japonica). Thus, the distribution patterns of islet IGF-I immunoreactivities in birds, reptiles, and amphibia are equivalent to those in mammals and most bony fish. They differ, however, from those found in cartilaginous fish, cyclostomes, and protochordates, where a total or partial coexistence of IGF-I and INS immunoreactivities has been obtained. Therefore, the divergence of IGF-I and INS seems to have occurred early in vertebrate phylogeny. Furthermore, the existence of IGF-I immunoreactivity likely is common in the islets of all vertebrates. Finally, no phylogenetic trend to concentrate IGF-I immunoreactivity in a particular islet cell type is apparent.

  16. Effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on the development of Common toads (Bufo bufo L.; Amphibia) at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Fabian; Gruber, Edith; Spangl, Bernhard; Zaller, Johann G.

    2016-04-01

    Herbicides based on the active ingredient glyphosate are frequently applied in agriculture, horticulture and private gardens all over the world. Recently, leaching of glyphosate or its metabolite (AMPA) into water bodies inhabited by amphibians has been reported. However, very little is known about non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians and even less is known to what extent different temperatures might alter these effects. Using climate chambers, we investigated the effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup PowerFlex® (480 g L-1 glyphosate, formulated as 588 g L-1 potassium salt) on the larval development of Common toads (Bufo bufo L.; Amphibia: Anura) under different temperature regimes (15°C vs. 20°C). We established five herbicide concentrations: 0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent L-1 and a 4 mg a.e. L-1 pulse treatment (totally three applications of 1.5, 1.5 and another 1 mg a.e. L-1) at each temperature in a full-factorial design. Each treatment combination was replicated five times, the experiment ran for 24 days. Results showed a highly significant effect of temperature on body length and body width but no effect of herbicide concentration on these growth parameters. Moreover, highly significant interactions between herbicide and temperature on body length and body width were observed suggesting that herbicides had different effects on different temperatures. In conclusion, although Roundup PowerFlex® at the tested concentrations appeared to have no acute toxicity to larvae of Common toads, the observed effects on tadpole morphology will potentially affect competitive interactions in spawning ponds of amphibia. Our findings of herbicide x temperature interactions might become more prevalent when human-induced climate change will lead to more extreme temperatures.

  17. catalogue of the type specimens of amphibians and reptiles in the herpetological museum of chengdu institute of biology,chinese academy of sciences:i.rhacophoridae (anura,amphibia)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    in order to facilitate herpetological research for all the herpetologists both in and outside of china,we will report all the type specimens of amphibia and reptilia deposited in the herpetological museum of chengdu institute of biology (cib),chinese academy of sciences in series.this report focuses on the family rhacophoridae of anura in amphibia,including 13 species.the contents of the report include synonym lists and generic transfer of type species,measurements of type specimens,particularly for those with no previously published measurement data,and chromosomal data for each species.

  18. Diets of tadpoles from a temporary pond in southeastern Brazil (Amphibia, Anura

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    Denise de C. Rossa-Feres

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The diet of tadpoles of 13 anuran species was determined to verify whether food resource partitioning occurs and whether the degree of diet similarity is related to taxonomic affinity. Tadpoles of all species studied were mainly herbivorous, except for these of Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799 which were mycophagous. Although some species had exclusive items in their diet, most tadpole species ingested the same items, but differed in the amount of each item consumed. Two guilds were found: tadpoles that feed on diatoms on the pond bottom, and tadpoles that feed on Oedogonium Link, 1820 algae in midwater. Diet similarity was related to the taxonomic relationship, microhabitat and feeding behavior of tadpoles indicating that the community organization is complex and resulting from the interaction of several parameters.Dieta dos girinos de um açude temporário no sudeste do Brasil (Amphibia, Anura. Determinou-se a dieta dos girinos de 13 espécies de anuros, com o objetivo de verificar se ocorre partilha de recursos alimentares e se o grau de similaridade na dieta é relacionado ao parentesco, inferido pela proximidade taxonômica. Os girinos de todas as espécies estudadas foram preponderantemente herbívoros, exceto os de Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799 que foram micófagos. Embora algumas espécies tenham apresentado itens exclusivos em sua dieta, os girinos da maioria das espécies ingeriram os mesmos itens, diferindo na quantidade consumida de cada item. Duas guildas foram encontradas: girinos que se alimentam de diatomáceas no fundo do corpo d'água e girinos que se alimentam de algas do gênero Oedogonium Link, 1820 à meia-água. A similaridade na dieta foi relacionada à proximidade taxonômica, ao microhabitat e ao comportamento de alimentação, indicando que a organização desta comunidade é complexa e resultante da interação entre vários fatores.

  19. Lankesterella alencari n. sp., a toxoplasma-like organism in the central nervous system of Amphibia (Protozoa, Sporozoa Lankesterella alencari n. sp., um toxoplasma-like no sistema nervoso central de Amphibia (Protozoa, Sporozoa

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    Sylvio Celso Gonçalves da Costa

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available Lankesterella alencari n. sp. a Sporozoa that occur in the blood and CNS of the South American frog Leptodactylus acellatus is described. Since the tissue forms of this parasite have been previously reported as belonging to the genus Toxoplasma, we attempted in fection of 2 species of amphibia (Bufo marinus an dLeptodactylus ocellatus with a Toxoplasma strain of human origen; inoculation was by intraperitoneal injection of parasite-containing ascitic fluid from infected mice. Attempt of experimental inoculation of the parasite found in the CNS of L. ocellatus in a highly susceptible host (mice was unsuccessful. These results suggest that Toxoplasma does not occur naturally in the amphibia; be related to Toxoplasma is excluded. The following genera of haematozoa found in brazilian amphibia have been considered briedfly: Haemobartonella, Cytamoeba, Dactylosoma, Hepatozoon and Trypanosoma.Os autores descrevem uma espécie do gênero Lankesterella considerada nova para a ciência, que ocorre com certa freqüência parasitando a rã Leptodactylus ocellatus no Brasil. Como os cistos dêste parasito, encontrados no SNC, foram anteriormente relacionados ao gênero Toxoplasma por outro autor, realizamos uma série de inoculações experimentais para eliminar a hipótese. Tanto as inoculações com amostra de Toxoplasma gondii de origem humana em anfíbios, como as de mascerados de SNC de rã contendo cistos em camundongos, foram negativas. As inoculações de T. gondii em anfíbios foram realizadas em temperatura ambiente que no Rio de Janeiro, na época era 30º-39ºC. Não encontramos, por outro lado, cistos no SNC de anfíbios do gênero Bufo, fato assinalado por outros autores. Realizamos algumas técnicas citoquímicas para melhor caracterização do parasito. Tendo em vista o grande número de hemoparasitos encontrados nas rãs brasileiras e as infecções múltiplas ocorrerem com freqüência, apresentamos também a incidência dêstes parasitos

  20. Evolutionary dynamics of an expressed MHC class IIβ locus in the Ranidae (Anura) uncovered by genome walking and high-throughput amplicon sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Kevin P.; Cortazar-Chinarro, Maria; Harris, D. James; Crottini, Angelica; Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Fleischer, Robert C.; Savage, Anna E.

    2017-01-01

    The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a genomic region encoding immune loci that are important and frequently used markers in studies of adaptive genetic variation and disease resistance. Given the primary role of infectious diseases in contributing to global amphibian declines, we characterized the hypervariable exon 2 and flanking introns of the MHC Class IIβ chain for 17 species of frogs in the Ranidae, a speciose and cosmopolitan family facing widespread pathogen infections and declines. We find high levels of genetic variation concentrated in the Peptide Binding Region (PBR) of the exon. Ten codons are under positive selection, nine of which are located in the mammal-defined PBR. We hypothesize that the tenth codon (residue 21) is an amphibian-specific PBR site that may be important in disease resistance. Trans-species and trans-generic polymorphisms are evident from exon-based genealogies, and co-phylogenetic analyses between intron, exon and mitochondrial based reconstructions reveal incongruent topologies, likely due to different locus histories. We developed two sets of barcoded adapters that reliably amplify a single and likely functional locus in all screened species using both 454 and Illumina based sequencing methods. These primers provide a resource for multiplexing and directly sequencing hundreds of samples in a single sequencing run, avoiding the labour and chimeric sequences associated with cloning, and enabling MHC population genetic analyses. Although the primers are currently limited to the 17 species we tested, these sequences and protocols provide a useful genetic resource and can serve as a starting point for future disease, adaptation and conservation studies across a range of anuran taxa.

  1. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the endangered frog Odorrana ishikawae (family Ranidae) and unexpected diversity of mt gene arrangements in ranids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Natsuhiko; Sato, Naoki; Hayashi, Yoko; Oumi, Shohei; Fujii, Tamotsu; Sumida, Masayuki

    2010-08-01

    We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial (mt) genome of an endangered Japanese frog, Odorrana ishikawae (family Ranidae). We also sequenced partial mt genomes of three other Odorrana and six ranid species to survey the diversity of genomic organizations and elucidate the phylogenetic problems remaining in this frog family. The O. ishikawae mt genome contained the 37 mt genes and single control region (CR) typically found in vertebrate mtDNAs, but the region of Light-strand replication origin (OL) was triplicated in this species. Four protein-encoding genes (atp6, nd2, nd3, and nd5) were found to have high sequence divergence and to be usable for population genetics studies on this endangered species. Among the surveyed ranids, only two species (Rana and Lithobates) manifested the typical neobatrachian-type mt gene arrangement. In contrast, relatively large gene rearrangements were found in Amolops, Babina, and Staurois species; and translocations of single tRNA genes (trns) were observed in Glandirana and Odorrana species. Though the inter-generic and interspecific relationships of ranid taxa remain to be elucidated based on 12S and 16S rrn sequence data, some of the derived mt gene orders were found to have synapomorphic features useful for solving problematic ranid phylogenies. The tandem duplication and random loss (TDRL) model, the traditional model for mt gene rearrangement, failed to easily explain several of the mt gene rearrangements observed here. Indeed, the recent recombination-based gene rearrangement models seemed to be more suitable for this purpose. The high frequency of gene translocations involving a specific trn block (trnH-trnS1) and several single tRNA genes suggest that there may be a retrotranslocation in ranid mt genomes.

  2. Testicular Morphohistology of Hypsiboas pulchellus (Amphibia, Hylidae During the Breeding Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José CAREZZANO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, data concerning to the morphological testicular features of Hypsiboas pulchel-lus during the breeding season is provided, in order to know aspects of their reproductive biology. The testis, ovoid and yellowish with 4.64 ± 0.48 mm length and 2.05 ± 0.23 mm wide, are surrounded by the tunica albuginea which measures 5.60 ± 0.82 µm. The seminif-erous locules, placed internally, measure 257.47 ± 58.25 µm in diameter, and cysts with spermatogenic cells associated with Sertoli cells are distinguished in them. The interstitial tissue is scarce. The biggest cells of the germinal series are the spermatogonia I (14.34 ± 1.74 µm, from which spermatogonia II (10.14 ± 1.33 µm originate. Spermatocytes I measure 9.34 ± 0.32 µm and have slightly condensed chromatin. The spermatocytes II are 8.12 ± 1.07 µm long. The spermatids I are spherical, grouped in rounded cysts, and measure 7.61 ± 1.45 µm. On the other hand, spermatids II are elongated (4.09 ± 0.51 µm and not within the cysts. Towards the center of the loculus, the free, lengthened and flagellated spermatozoids are located. The morphohistology of the analyzed testicles show similarities with those observed in other neotropical amphibians, being all the cells of the spermatogenic lineage in the same loculeMORFOHISTOLOGÍA TESTICULAR DE Hypsiboas pulchellus (AMPHIBIA, HYLIDAE.En este estudio se aportan datos sobre la morfohistología testicular de Hypsiboas pulchellus para conocer aspectos de su biología reproductiva. Las gónadas se procesaron empleando técnicas histológicas básicas, cortándose a 8 µm y tiñéndose con hematoxilina-eosina y tricrómico de Masson. Los testículos, ovoides y amarillentos de 4,64 ± 0,48 mm de largo por 2,05 ± 0,23 mm de ancho, están rodeados por la túnica albugínea que mide 5,60 ± 0,82 µm. Internamente presentan lóculos seminíferos de 257,47 ± 58,25 µm de diámetro, distinguiéndose en ellos cistos con células espermatog

  3. Revisión taxonómica de Alytes grandis Brunner (Amphibia, Anura

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    Sanchiz, B.

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The holotype and only existing remain referred to Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, presumably a discoglossid frog from the German Pleistocene, is examined and compared with other living and fossil Palaearctic anurans. The analysis rejects its validity as an independent extinct species, as The material is clearly within the known variability of living Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, of which it should be considered merely a sinonym.

    Se examina el holotipo y único resto atribuido de Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, un supuesto discoglósido del Pleistoceno alemán, comparándose con otros anuros actuales y fósiles del Paleártico. El análisis permite desechar su pertenencia a una especie extinta independiente, siendo en cambio atribuible con toda claridad a la viviente Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, de la que debe considerarse sinónimo.
    Zum systematischen Status von Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957 (Amphibia, Anura. Der bislang einzig bekannte und von Brunner (1957 beschriebene Rest zu Alytes grandis aus pleistozänen Ablagerungen der Breitenberghöhle bei Gössweinstein (Fränk, Alb wird beschrieben und aufgrund ausführlicher Vergleichsuntersuchungen der rezenten Art Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, zugeordnet, Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, ist somit als synonyrn zu Rana temporaria zu betrachten.

  4. Static osteogenesis does not precede dynamic osteogenesis in periosteal ossification of Pleurodeles (Caudata, Amphibia) and Pogona (Squamata, Lepidosauria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubo, Jorge; Hui, Mylaine; Clarac, François; Quilhac, Alexandra

    2017-05-01

    Two successive mechanisms have been described in perichondral ossification: (1) in static osteogenesis, mesenchymal cells differentiate into stationary osteoblasts oriented randomly, which differentiate into osteocytes in the same site; (2) in dynamic osteogenesis, mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteoblasts that are all oriented in the same direction and move back as they secrete collagen fibers. This study is aimed at testing the hypothesis that the ontogenetic sequence static then dynamic osteogenesis observed in the chicken and in the rabbit is homologous and was acquired by the last common ancestor of amniotes or at a more inclusive node. For this we analyze the developmental patterns of Pleurodeles (Caudata, Amphibia) and those of the lizard Pogona (Squamata, Lepidosauria). We processed Pleurodeles larvae and Pogona embryos, prepared thin and ultrathin sections of appendicular bones, and analyzed them using light and transmission electron microscopy. We show that static osteogenesis does not precede dynamic osteogenesis in periosteal ossification of Pleurodeles and Pogona. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and according to the parsimony method the ontogenetic sequence observed in the chicken and in the rabbit are convergent. In Pleurodeles and Pogona dynamic osteogenesis occur without a previous rigid mineralized framework, whereas in the chicken and in the rabbit dynamic osteogenesis seems to take place over a mineralized support whether bone (in perichondral ossification) or calcified cartilage (in endochondral ossification). Interestingly, in typical dynamic osteogenesis, osteoblasts show an axis (basal nucleus-distal endoplasmic reticulum) perpendicular to the front of secreted unmineralized bone matrix, whereas in Pleurodeles and Pogona this axis is parallel to the bone matrix. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. 中国蛙科二新种及黑带水蛙种组的系统关系(两栖纲,蛙科)%TWO NEW SPECIES OF THE RANIDAE FROM CHINA, WITH PHYLOGENETIC RFLATIONSHIPS OF HYLARANA(SYLVIRANA)NIGROVITTATA GROUP(AMPHIBIA, ANURA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费梁; 叶昌嫒; 江建平; 谢锋

    2008-01-01

    作者在云南南部的河口和勐腊等地先后采到与黑带水蛙局Hylarana(Sylvirana)nigrovittata(Blyth,1855)相近的两个不同类型的标本,它们曾被不同学者鉴定为黑带水蛙.经对比研究,它们应为两个不同的新种,即河口水蛙Hylarana(Sylvirana)hEKOUENSIS Fei,Ye et Jie,sp.nov.和勐腊水蛙Hylarana(Sylvirana)menglaensis Fei,Ye et Xie,sp.nov..

  6. TAXONOMICAL STUDIES ON THE POPULATIONS OF RANA CHENSINENSIS IN NORTH-WESTERN CHINA(AMPHIBIA: RANIDAE)%中国西北地区中国林蛙各居群的分类学研究(两栖纲:蛙科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢锋; 叶昌媛; 费梁; 江建平; 松井正文

    2000-01-01

    采用形态学比较和数值分类相结合,对中国西北部分布的中国林蛙Rana chensinensis各居群间(包括分布于青藏高原地区的原定种或亚种)的差异水平进行了探讨.结果认为:分布于中国西北部高原地区的各居群其形态特征和数值分析之间非常相近[其中包括原定名为Rana amurensis kukunoris(Nikol′skii, 1918,青海湖), R. weigoldi(Vogt, 1924,四川甘孜和德格), R. chensinensis hongyuanensis(Hu et al., 1985,四川红原),R.c. kangdingensis (Wei et al., 1991b,四川康定)和R. c. lanzhouensis(Wei et al., 1991b,甘肃兰州)]而与中国林蛙Rana chensinensis的模式居群陕西户县标本有明显区别,建议将中国西北部青藏高原地区的林蛙各居群恢复为有效种,即高原林蛙R. kukunoris Nikol′skii, 1918.同时重新界定了高原林蛙和中国林蛙的分布区.

  7. 中国两栖纲和爬行纲动物校正名录%REVISED CHECKLIST OF CHINESE AMPHIBIA & REPTILIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵尔宓; 张学文; 赵蕙; 王鹰岩

    2000-01-01

    @@ 本名录摘自2000年在台湾出版的之十一:Zhao Ermi(赵尔宓), Chang Hsueh-Wen(张学文), and Zhao Hui(赵蕙)编著"Taxonomic Bibliography of Chinese Amphibia and Reptilia, including Karyological Literature"(中国两栖纲和爬行纲动物分类学文献,包括核学文献) 一书215~238页.该书中此名录部分有美国康乃尔大学鹰岩(Kraig Adler)教授参与合作完成.由于原书印数有限,成本较高(其中一部分从台湾航空寄来,寄费高过印刷费),加以原书名录没有阶元的中文名称,对于一些不熟悉拉丁学名的业余爱好者使用困难,因此目前将该书名录部分重印,并加入中文名称,发表于杂志.

  8. The Species Richness of Vascular Plants and Amphibia in Major Plant Communities in Temperate to Tropical Australia: Relationship with Annual Biomass Production

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    R. L. Specht

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic fluxes (frictional, thermal, evaporative in the atmosphere as it flows over and through a plant community determine the Foliage Projective Covers and eco-morphological attributes of new leaves developed annually in overstorey and understorey strata. The number of leaves produced on vertical foliage shoots depends on available soil water and nutrients, also ambient temperature, during this short growth season. Stem density (number of stems per hectare and species richness (number of species per hectare in the overstorey of major Floristic Groups are correlated with annual shoot growth (ASG, t ha−1 in that stratum. Species richness in the overstorey increases in the climatic gradient from the arid to the humid zone as well as with increasing air temperatures (about 10oC from temperate to tropical Australia. Species richness in the understorey is highest in plant communities in temperate Australia, decreasing in the temperature gradient towards the tropics. As with other major plant and animal groups within an ecosystem, the species richness of Amphibia is correlated with the amount of solar energy fixed (per annum by the major plant formation in the region—a photosynthetic potential determined by the foliage shoots (ASG, t ha−1 produced annually in the overstorey.

  9. Riqueza de espécies, ambientes de reproduçáo e temporada da vocalizaçao da anurofauna em Três Barras do Paraná, Brasil (Amphibia: Anura

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    Bernarde, Paulo Sérgio

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento de espécies de anuros na região do Parque Estadual do Rio Guarani (25º25'S; 53º15'W, Município de Três Barras do Paraná, sudoeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Os ambientes de reprodução e o período de vocalização foram registrados para a maioria das espécies. Foram encontradas 23 espécies pertencentes às seguintes famílias: Bufonidae (1, Centrolenidae (1, Hylidae (9, Leptodactylidae (10, Microhylidae (1 e Ranidae (1. A riqueza de espécies desta localidade foi mais similar com a anurofauna do Município de Londrina (Coeficiente de Semelhança Biogeográfica = 0,8, possivelmente porque ambas regiões apresentam o mesmo tipo de formação vegetal (Floresta Estacional Semidecídua e estão localizadas no terceiro planalto paranaense. A survey of anurans species were realized in the region of State Park Guarani River (25º25'S; 53º15'W, Municipality of Três Barras do Paraná, southwestern of Paraná State, Brazil. The breeding sites and vocalization period were registered from mostly of the species. Anuran fauna of the region is composed by 23 species, distributed in 6 families, namely: Bufonidae (1, Centrolenidae (1, Hylidae (9, Leptodactylidae (10, Microhylidae (1 and Ranidae (1. The species richness of this locality was more similar to the anuran fauna of Londrina Municipality (Coeficient of Biogeographic Resemblance = 0,8, possibly because both regions share the same vegetation composition (seasonal semi-deciduous forests and they are located in the third Paraná plateau.

  10. Non-target effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on Common toad larvae (Bufo bufo, Amphibia and associated algae are altered by temperature

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    Fabian Baier

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most widely used pesticides in agriculture, horticulture, municipalities and private gardens that can potentially contaminate nearby water bodies inhabited by amphibians and algae. Moreover, the development and diversity of these aquatic organisms could also be affected by human-induced climate change that might lead to more periods with extreme temperatures. However, to what extent non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians or algae are altered by varying temperature is not well known. Methods We studied effects of five concentrations of the glyphosate-based herbicide formulation Roundup PowerFlex (0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent glyphosate L−1 as a one time addition and a pulse treatment of totally 4 mg a.e. glyphosate L−1 on larval development of Common toads (Bufo bufo, L.; Amphibia: Anura and associated algae communities under two temperature regimes (15 vs. 20 °C. Results Herbicide contamination reduced tail growth (−8%, induced the occurrence of tail deformations (i.e. lacerated or crooked tails and reduced algae diversity (−6%. Higher water temperature increased tadpole growth (tail and body length (tl/bl +66%, length-to-width ratio +4% and decreased algae diversity (−21%. No clear relation between herbicide concentrations and tadpole growth or algae density or diversity was observed. Interactive effects of herbicides and temperature affected growth parameters, tail deformation and tadpole mortality indicating that the herbicide effects are temperature-dependent. Remarkably, herbicide-temperature interactions resulted in deformed tails in 34% of all herbicide treated tadpoles at 15 °C whereas no tail deformations were observed for the herbicide-free control at 15 °C or any tadpole at 20 °C; herbicide-induced mortality was higher at 15 °C but lower at 20 °C. Discussion These herbicide- and temperature-induced changes may have decided effects on ecological

  11. Demonstration of melatonin in amphibia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerdonk, F.C.G. van de

    1967-01-01

    The presence of melatonin in the amphibian epiphysis has been ascertained earlier by several indirect methods, demonstrating the synthesizing enzyme or precursors of the compound. This communication describes the presence of melatonin in amphibian brain in a direct way, using dextran gel chromatogra

  12. Diversidade e ocorrência temporal da anurofauna (Amphibia, Anura em São José dos Pinhais, Paraná, Brasil Diversity and seasonal occurrence of anurans in São José dos Pinhais, Paraná, Brazil

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    Carlos E. Conte

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A Floresta Atlântica é o bioma com a maior diversidade e taxa de endemismo de anfíbios anuros do mundo. Entretanto, informações sobre a história natural e os padrões de ocorrência das espécies são, em grande parte, ainda desconhecidas para esse bioma. No presente estudo, a diversidade e a ocorrência temporal de espécies de anuros foram determinadas em área de ecótono entre Floresta Ombrófila Densa e Floresta Ombrófila Mista no estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. No levantamento, realizado entre janeiro de 2003 e maio de 2004, foram registradas 34 espécies de cinco famílias: Bufonidae (duas espécies, Hylidae (17 espécies, Leptodactylidae (13 espécies, Microhylidae (uma espécie e Ranidae (uma espécie. A riqueza registrada é uma das maiores do Paraná e oito, dos nove hábitats amostrados, apresentaram alta diversidade de espécies. Isso pode ser decorrente do fato da área estudada estar localizada em região de ecótono, o que favoreceu a ocorrência de espécies típicas de cada formação vegetal. Além disso, uma hipótese adicional é a do distúrbio intermediário, decorrente do desmatamento ocorrido até trinta anos atrás, que possibilitou a ocorrência de algumas espécies típicas de áreas abertas. Machos da maioria das espécies (48% vocalizaram no período chuvoso e quente do ano, mas a proporção de espécies anuais (25% foi grande, semelhante à encontrada em regiões com clima tropical úmido (30%. A similaridade na composição de espécies de nove localidades no Paraná foi associada à fisionomia vegetal das áreas amostradas.The Atlantic Forest is the biome with the largest biodiversity and endemism rate of anuran amphibians in the world. However, information on natural history and patterns of occurrence are still unknown for most of the species that occur in this biome. In this study the diversity and the seasonal occurrence of anuran amphibians were determined in an ecotone area between Atlantic Forest

  13. Cranial kinesis in the amphibia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanskiĭ, N N

    2000-01-01

    All extant orders of amphibians are characterized by kinetic skulls. Main type of intracranial movability in amphibians is pleurokinetism, that is supplemented in different amphibian groups by various types of rhyncho- and prokinetism. The most primitive pattern of cranial kinesis is revealed in the stegocrotaphic gymnophions. More paedomorphic species retain general cranial flexibility that is characteristic of larval skull. That is unfavourable for evolution of well-regulated (adult) cranial kinesis and related feeding adaptations. Kinetism is also reduced in the species with heavily ossified skulls. Adaptive role and evolution of cranial kinesis in amphibians are discussed.

  14. Phylogeny and biogeography of South Chinese brown frogs (Ranidae, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Wang, Sirui; Zhu, Hedan; Li, Pipeng; Yang, Baotian; Ma, Jianzhang

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have explored the role of Cenozoic tectonic evolution in shaping the patterns and processes of extant animal distributions in and around East Asia. In this study, we selected South Chinese brown frogs as a model to examine the phylogenetic and biogeographical consequences of Miocene tectonic events within South China and its margins. We used mitochondrial and nuclear molecular data to reconstruct phylogenetic interrelationships among Chinese brown frogs using Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. The phylogeny results show that there are four main clades of Chinese brown frogs. Excepting the three commonly known Chinese brown frog species groups, R. maoershanensis forms an independent clade nearest to the R. japonica group. Phylogeny and P-distance analyses confirmed R. maoershanensis as a valid species. Among South Chinese brown frogs, there are four subclades associated with four geographical areas: (I) R. maoershanensis; (II) R. japonica; (III) R. chaochiaoensis; and (IV) other species of the R. longicrus species group. Divergence times, estimated using mitochondrial sequences, place the vicariance events among the four subclades in the middle to late Miocene epoch. Our results suggest that (1) South Chinese brown frogs originated due to a vicariance event separating them from the R. chensinensis species group at the time of the Geological movement (~18 million years ago, Ma) in southern Tibet and the Himalayan region; (2) the separation and speciation of R. maoershanensis from the R. japonica group occurred due to the dry climate at approximately 16 Ma; (3) South Chinese brown frogs migrated from South China to Japan at the time (~10.8 Ma) that the global sea-level fell and the East China Sea Shelf Basin was swamp facies, when a land gallery may have formed across the sea to connect the two areas; and (4) R. chaochiaoensis separated from other species of the R. longicrus species group during the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau at approximately 9.5 Ma.

  15. Chromosomes of South American Bufonidae (Amphibia, Anura Chromosomes of South American Bufonidae (Amphibia, Anura

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    Brum Zorrilla N.

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available Karyotypes of eight of South American Bufonidae were studied: B.ictericus, B. spinulosus spinulosus, B. arenarum, B. g. fernandezae, B. g. d'orbignyi, B. crucifer, B. paracnemis and B. marinus. In all species 2n = 22 chromosomes were found. Neither heteromorphic pairs of chromosomes nor bivalents with characteristic morphology and behavior of sex chromosomesduring male meiosis were observed in any species.Karyotypes of eight of South American Bufonidae were studied: B.ictericus, B. spinulosus spinulosus, B. arenarum, B. g. fernandezae, B. g. d'orbignyi, B. crucifer, B. paracnemis and B. marinus. In all species 2n = 22 chromosomes were found. Neither heteromorphic pairs of chromosomes nor bivalents with characteristic morphology and behavior of sex chromosomesduring male meiosis were observed in any species.

  16. Genetic diversity in diploid vs. tetraploid Rorippa amphibia (Brassicaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttikhuizen, P.C.; Stift, M.; Kuperus, P.; van Tienderen, P.H.

    2007-01-01

    The frequency of polyploidy increases with latitude in the Northern Hemisphere, especially in deglaciated, recently colonized areas. The cause or causes of this pattern are largely unknown, but a greater genetic diversity of individual polyploid plants due to a doubled genome and/or a hybrid origin

  17. Comparative skull osteology of Karsenia koreana (Amphibia, Caudata, Plethodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, David; Wake, Marvalee H; Wake, David B

    2010-05-01

    The recent discovery of a plethodontid salamander, Karsenia koreana, in Korea challenged our understanding of the biogeographic history of the family Plethodontidae, by far the largest family of salamanders, which otherwise is distributed in the New World with a few European species. Molecular studies suggest that Karsenia forms a clade with Hydromantes (sensu lato), which includes among its species the only other Old World plethodontids. We studied the skull of K. koreana and compared it with that of other plethodontid genera, especially members of the subfamily Plethodontinae, which it resembles most closely in general anatomy. The anatomy of its skull corresponds to the most generalized and apparently ancestral condition for plethodontids. No clearly autapomorphic states were detected, and no synapomorphies can be found that would link it to other genera. The Karsenia skull is cylindrical and well ossified, giving an impression of strength. In contrast, the skull of Hydromantes is highly derived; the skull is flattened and the bones are weakly ossified and articulated. Hydromantes and Karsenia share no unique anatomical features; differences between them are especially evident in the hyobranchial skeleton, which is generalized in Karsenia but highly modified in Hydromantes, which is well known for its highly projectile tongue. Plethodon and Plethodon-like species, including Karsenia and to a lesser degree Ensatina, represent the more generalized and apparently ancestral plethodontid morphology. Specialized morphologies have evolved along only a few morphological axes within the Plethodontidae, resulting in a pattern of rampant homoplasy. Our analysis of the anatomy of the new Asiatic lineage illuminates some potential mechanisms underlying adaptive morphological evolution within the Plethodontidae.

  18. Cranial features of dendrobatid larvae (Amphibia: Anura: Dendrobatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, A

    1995-06-01

    The larval neurocranium and visceral arches of seven dendrobatid species representing four genera are described, based on cleared-and-stained and serially sectioned specimens. A variety of characters is shared by all seven species. Larval features do not substantiate the assumption of close ranoid affinities of the Dendrobatidae. Instead dendrobatid larvae share features such as the special quadripartite cartilago suprarostralis, the lack of the larval processus oticus, the presence of three foramina acustica, and the lack of a foramen perilymphaticum accessorius with many bufonoid larvae. The first of these characters is unique to bufonids, hylids, dendrobatids, and some New World leptodactylids; the other characters also occur in pelobatids and are presumably plesiomorphic for the Neobatrachia. The free proximal ends of Ceratobranchialia II and III are an autapomorphy of the Dendrobatidae supporting the monophyly of the family. Some features of the cranium are paedomorphic: low cartilago orbitalis, lack of connection between cartilage orbitalis and otic capsule (most species), and vestigal taeniae tecti. New anatomical terms are introduced.

  19. Advertisement calls of Bolivian species of Scinax (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riva, de la Ignacio; Márquez, Rafael; Bosch, Jaime

    1994-01-01

    The advertisement calls of eight Bolivian species of Scinax are described including information on the calling behaviour of each species. A characteristic audiospectrogram and oscillogram are presented for each species, as well as numerical information about the spectral and temporal features of the

  20. Lifelong testicular differentiation in Pleurodeles waltl (Amphibia, Caudata

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    Chesnel Amand

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In numerous Caudata, the testis is known to differentiate new lobes at adulthood, leading to a multiple testis. The Iberian ribbed newt Pleurodeles waltl has been studied extensively as a model for sex determination and differentiation. However, the evolution of its testis after metamorphosis is poorly documented. Methods Testes were obtained from Pleurodeles waltl of different ages reared in our laboratory. Testis evolution was studied by several approaches: morphology, histology, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Surgery was also employed to study testis regeneration. Results In this species, the testis is linked to the lung. This association consists of connective tissue derived from the mesorchium and the coelomic epithelium surrounding the lung and takes place at the end of larval life. This tissue contains lobules including primordial germ cells with a typical large and polylobular nucleus. The anterior part of the testis remains thin and undifferentiated while the posterior part differentiates in a large first testis lobe where spermatogenesis occurs during the first year of life. The undifferentiated status of the anterior part is attested by the lack of expression of the testis marker Dmrt1 and the meiosis entry marker Dmc1. Three-year-old Pleurodeles waltl possess multiple testes made up of two lobes. The second lobe appears at the caudal extremity of the first one from residual primordial germ cells located near or even inside efferent ducts in the glandular tissue that usually appears following spermatozoa extrusion. Surprisingly, in the case of surgical elimination of the anterior part of the testis, de novo spermatogenesis is stopped in the first lobe which becomes restricted to the glandular tissue. Following first testis lobe removal, the anterior part of the testis regenerates a new testis lobe, a process stimulated in the presence of DHT. Conclusion Pleurodeles waltl constitute an original gonochoristic vertebrate model in which testis differentiation is observed up to adulthood.

  1. Advertisement calls of Bolivian species of Scinax (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riva, de la Ignacio; Márquez, Rafael; Bosch, Jaime

    1994-01-01

    The advertisement calls of eight Bolivian species of Scinax are described including information on the calling behaviour of each species. A characteristic audiospectrogram and oscillogram are presented for each species, as well as numerical information about the spectral and temporal features of the

  2. Advertisement calls of Bolivian species of Scinax (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Riva, de la, Ignacio; Márquez, Rafael; Bosch, Jaime

    1994-01-01

    The advertisement calls of eight Bolivian species of Scinax are described including information on the calling behaviour of each species. A characteristic audiospectrogram and oscillogram are presented for each species, as well as numerical information about the spectral and temporal features of the calls. Two phenograms based on the characteristics of the mating calls are constructed, the first one using a traditional multivariate technique (UPGMA) and the second one using audiospectrogram c...

  3. O girino de Scinax nebulosus (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae

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    Marcia dos Reis Gomes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available É descrito e ilustrado o girino de Scinax nebulosus (Spix, 1824, proveniente do estado de Pernambuco, nordeste do Brasil. O girino apresenta braço labial no disco oral. A presença dessa estrutura associa claramente essa espécie ao grupo de Scinax rostratus. A identificação do girino anteriormente atribuído a Scinax nebulosus é considerada errônea e com base na literatura é feita a comparação com os demais girinos conhecidos do grupo.

  4. Introduction of Eleutherodactylus planirostris (Amphibia, Anura, Eleutherodactylidae to Hong Kong

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    Wing Ho Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An unidentified small frog species was first encountered in Hong Kong Special Administration Region (SAR, China, in 2000, where the local amphibian diversity is well-studied. We herein identified this unknown frog as Eleutherodactylus planirostris (greenhouse frog using DNA barcoding. We found that its distribution in Hong Kong is widespread (>18 localities, and breeding has been observed in multiple occasions. The populations in at least four localities persisted for over seven years. We discuss its potential negative impacts to terrestrial ecosystems in Hong Kong, with particular concern of its potential competition with the endemic Liuixalus romeri. We call for studies to investigate the impacts of the introduced E. planirostris on the local ecosystem. Screening for E. planirostris in exported plants from Hong Kong should be carried out.

  5. Diet and trophic niche of Lithobates catesbeianus (Amphibia: Anura

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    Peterson T. Leivas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lithobates catesbeianus (Shaw, 1802 is an invasive anuran introduced in Brazil that is associated with the displacement and the decline of populations of native species worldwide. There is evidence that biological invasions are facilitated by certain attributes of the invading species, for instance niche breath, and that invasive species have a broader ecological niche with respect to native ones. We designed a study to ascertain the temporal, ontogenetic, and sex differences in the niche dynamics of the American bullfrog. We sampled monthly from June 2008 to May 2009 in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. For each individual, we gathered biometric and stomach content data. We then estimated the niche breath of the juveniles and adults, and compared it between the sexes. A total of 104 females and 77 males were sampled. Lithobates catesbeianus has a generalist diet, preying upon invertebrates and vertebrates. Even though the diet of the studied population varied seasonally, it did not differ between the sexes nor did it respond to biometric variables. Niche breadth was more restricted in the winter than in the autumn. The trophic niche of juveniles and adults did not overlap much when compared with the trophic niche overlap between males and females. Adult males and females had a considerable niche overlap, but females had a broader trophic niche than males in the winter and in the spring. These niche characteristics point to an opportunistic predation strategy that may have facilitated the process of invasion and establishment of this species in the study area.

  6. Proton pump-driven cutaneous chloride uptake in anuran amphibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Lars Jørn; Willumsen, Niels Johannes; Amstrup, Jan; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    2003-12-30

    Krogh introduced the concept of active ion uptake across surface epithelia of freshwater animals, and proved independent transports of Na(+) and Cl(-) in anuran skin and fish gill. He suggested that the fluxes of Na(+) and Cl(-) involve exchanges with ions of similar charge. In the so-called Krogh model, Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) and Na(+)/H(+) antiporters are located in the apical membrane of the osmoregulatory epithelium. More recent studies have shown that H(+) excretion in anuran skin is due to a V-ATPase in mitochondria-rich (MR) cells. The pump has been localized by immunostaining and H(+) fluxes estimated by pH-stat titration and mathematical modelling of pH-profiles in the unstirred layer on the external side of the epithelium. H(+) secretion is voltage-dependent, sensitive to carbonic-anhydrase inhibitors, and rheogenic with a charge/ion-flux ratio of unity. Cl(-) uptake from freshwater is saturating, voltage independent, and sensitive to DIDS and carbonic-anhydrase inhibitors. Depending on anuran species and probably on acid/base balance of the animal, apical exit of protons is coupled to an exchange of Cl(-) with base (HCO(3)(-)) either in the apical membrane (gamma-type of MR cell) or in the basolateral membrane (alpha-type MR cell). The gamma-cell model accounts for the rheogenic active uptake of Cl(-) observed in several anuran species. There is indirect evidence also for non-rheogenic active uptake accomplished by a beta-type MR cell with apical base secretion and basolateral proton pumping. Several studies have indicated that the transport modes of MR cells are regulated via ion- and acid/base balance of the animal, but the signalling mechanisms have not been investigated. Estimates of energy consumption by the H(+)-ATPase and the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase indicate that the gamma-cell accomplishes uptake of NaCl in normal and diluted freshwater. Under common freshwater conditions with serosa-positive or zero V(t), the K(+) conductance of the basolateral membrane would have to maintain the inward driving force for Na(+) uptake across the apical membrane. With the K(+) equilibrium potential across the basolateral membrane estimated to -105 mV, this would apply to external Na(+) concentrations down to 40-120 micromol/l. NaCl uptake from concentrations down to 10 micromol/l, as observed by Krogh, presupposes that the H(+) pump hyperpolarizes the apical membrane, which would then have to be associated with serosa-negative V(t). In diluted freshwater, exchange of cellular HCO(3)(-) with external Cl(-) seems to be possible only if the proton pump has the additional function of keeping the external concentration of HCO(3)(-) low. Quantitative considerations also lead to the conclusion that with the above extreme demand, at physiological intracellular pH of 7.2, the influx of Cl(-) via the apical antiporter and the passive exit of Cl(-) via basolateral channels would be possible within a common range of intracellular Cl(-) concentrations.

  7. Water wave communication in the genus Bombina (amphibia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, B.; Yamashita, M.; Choi, I.-H.; Dittami, J.

    2001-01-01

    Amphibians were phylogenetically the first vertebrates to leave the aquatic environment and cope with terrestrial conditions including effects of gravity and substrate on movement and communication. Studies of extant primitive amphibians, which have conserved ancestral morphology and behavior, may help us to understand how gravitational adaptation from aquatic to terrestrial environments occurred. The anuran genus Bombina is a candidate for this type of investigation. In particular, a member of this genus, B. orientalis, is known for its low reaction threshold to minor changes of angular acceleration. We hypothesize that a heightened sensitivity to angular and mechanical accelerations evolved with wave communication. Comparisons of such behavior among B. variegata, B. bombina and B. orientalis may shed light on the evolution of reproductive systems based on water wave communication and relevant vestibular sensitivity. This may represent a transition to derived vocalization modes, which is seen in B. bombina to a certain degree.

  8. Evolution of erythrocyte morphology in amphibians (Amphibia: Anura

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    Jie Wei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We compared the morphology of the erythrocytes of five anurans, two toad species - Bufo gargarizans (Cantor, 1842 and Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider, 1799 and three frog species - Fejervarya limnocharis (Gravenhorst, 1829, Microhyla ornata (Duméril & Bibron, 1841, and Rana zhenhaiensis (Ye, Fei & Matsui, 1995. We then reconstructed the ancestral state of erythrocyte size (ES and nuclear size (NS in amphibians based on a molecular tree. Nine morphological traits of erythrocytes were all significantly different among the five species. The results of principal component analysis showed that the first component (49.1% of variance explained had a high positive loading for erythrocyte length, nuclear length, NS and ratio of erythrocyte length/erythrocyte width; the second axis (28.5% of variance explained mainly represented erythrocyte width and ES. Phylogenetic generalized least squares analysis showed that the relationship between NS and ES was not affected by phylogenetic relationships although there was a significant linear relationship between these two variables. These results suggested that (1 the nine morphological traits of erythrocytes in the five anuran species were species-specific; (2 in amphibians, larger erythrocytes generally had larger nuclei.

  9. Miología pectoral de algunos Centrolenidae (Amphibia: Anura

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    Manzano, Adriana S.

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available El estudio comparativo de la miología pectoral en dos géneros de Centrolenidae (Centrolene e Hyalinobatrachium que incluyen a cuatro especies (C. geckoideum, C. grandisonae, C. robledal y H. aureoguttatum, brinda una visión más completa de la morfología de la cintura pectoral en los anuros, ampliando la información disponible. Este estudio incorpora caracteres nuevos para el tratado de la familia, antecedente de importancia ya que los caracteres frecuentemente utilizados para definir al grupo son homoplásicos (Lynch, 1973; Duellman & Trueb, 1986; Ford & Cannatella, 1993 y ponen en duda la monofilia del grupo. Los resultados muestran la escasa variabilidad de la musculatura pectoral en los géneros de Centrolenidae. Al mismo tiempo resaltan variaciones con el género Hyalinobatrachium en relación con los músculos depressor mandibulae y pectoralis abdominalis. En general existe una tendencia a la duplicación de algunos músculos como el serratus inferioris, dorsal scapulae y depressor mandibulae (característica observada también en Hylidae; Manzano, 1996. The comparative study of pectoral myology in two genera of Centrolenidae (Centrolene and Hyalinobatrachium, including four species (C. geckoideum, C. grandisonae, C. robledoi y H. aureoguttatum, adds to our understanding of the pectoral girdle morphology of anurans, enlarging the available information. This study examines new characters for the family. Study of new characters is important because the most frequently used characters to define the group are homoplastic (Lynch, 1973; Duellman & Trueb, 1986; Ford & Cannatella, 1993 which produces a dubious monophyly of group. The results of this study show us the little variability of the pectoral musculature in Centrolenid genera. At the same time some variations between Centrolene and Hyalinobatrachium (related to the depressor mandibulae and pectoralis abdominalis muscles, are significant. In addition, a tendency to duplicate some muscles like the serratus inferioris, dorsal scapulae and depressor mandibulae (also present in Hylidae; Manzano, 1996 can be observed.

  10. Miología pectoral de algunos centrolenidae (Amphibia: anura)

    OpenAIRE

    Manzano, Adriana S.

    2000-01-01

    El estudio comparativo de la miología pectoral en dos géneros de Centrolenidae (Centrolene e Hyalinobatrachium) que incluyen a cuatro especies (C. geckoideum, C. grandisonae, C. robledal y H. aureoguttatum), brinda una visión más completa de la morfología de la cintura pectoral en los anuros, ampliando la información disponible. Este estudio incorpora caracteres nuevos para el tratado de la familia, antecedente de importancia ya que los caracteres frecuentemente utilizados para definir al gru...

  11. Proton pump-driven cutaneous chloride uptake in anuran amphibia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Jørn; Willumsen, Niels J.; Amstrup, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Krogh introduced the concept of active ion uptake across surface epithelia of freshwater animals, and proved independent transports of Na(+) and Cl(-) in anuran skin and fish gill. He suggested that the fluxes of Na(+) and Cl(-) involve exchanges with ions of similar charge. In the so-called Krogh....... Several studies have indicated that the transport modes of MR cells are regulated via ion- and acid/base balance of the animal, but the signalling mechanisms have not been investigated. Estimates of energy consumption by the H(+)-ATPase and the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase indicate that the gamma-cell accomplishes...

  12. Status of some populations of Mexican salamanders (Amphibia: Plethodontidae

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    Gabriela Parra-Olea

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Populations of Mexican plethodontid salamanders have been surveyed non-systematically over the last 25 years. In light of many reports of disappearance of amphibians around the world, we checked for persistence of reported species at ten of these sites. All of the commoner species persist (we observed individuals representing a total of 30 species. While observed densities of many species of Mexican plethodontids are lower to much lower than was the case 20 to 25 years ago, evidence for recent extinctions, such as has been reported for amphibian taxa elsewhere, is equivocal or lacking. Habitat modification has contributed to difficulties in finding certain species.Poblaciones de varias especies de salamandras pletodóntidas en México han sido monitoreadas de manera no sistemática durante los últimos 25 años. Diez de éstas poblaciones fueran visitadas recientemente con el propósito de verificar la persistencia de las especies reportadas para dichas localidades. Nuestras observaciones confirman la persistencia local de más de 30 especies cuyo estatus era desconocido, aunque la frecuencia de observación de estas especies es en general menor que en fechas anteriores. Estas observaciones son particularmente relevantes dada la situación actual de preocupación por la disminución mundial de anfibios.

  13. Redescrição de Ischnocnema holti (Amphibia: Anura: Brachycephalidae Redescription of Ischnocnema holti (Amphibia, Anura

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    Mariane Targino

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ischnocnema holti (Cochran, 1948 foi descrito com base em apenas um único indivíduo coletado no início do século XX no alto da Serra do Itatiaia. Neste trabalho é apresentada uma redescrição dessa espécie, baseada em 25 exemplares (18 machos e sete fêmeas, coletados na localidade-tipo. Medições dos exemplares, descrição da coloração em vida e aspectos de sua biologia e reprodução, observados em campo são incluídos. Ischnocnema holti é uma espécie de porte médio (comprimento rostro-anal: 13,5 a 31,7mm, vista dorsal e lateral arredondada e discos adesivos dos dedos bem desenvolvidos, e muita plasticidade em relação a sua morfologia e coloração. Encontra-se no grupo de I. lactea (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1923 e é aqui comparada com alguns de seus componentes.Ischnocnema holti (Cochran, 1948 was described based on a single specimen collected in the beginning of 20th century at the Itatiaia mountain range. In this study, we present a redescription of the species based on 25 specimens (18 males and seven females collected at the type locality. Measurements of the specimens, description of its color pattern in life, as well as aspects of its biology and reproduction are presented. Ischnocnema holti is a medium-sized species (snout-vent length from 13.5 to 31.7mm, snout shape rounded in dorsal and lateral views and digital discs well developed. Ischnocnema holti presents considerable plasticity in its morphology and coloration. This study includes I. holti in the I. lactea (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1923 group and compares it with some of its components.

  14. Cuidado parental em Leptodactylus natalensis (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae Parental care behaviour in Leptodactylus natalensis (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae

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    Ednilza Maranhão dos Santos

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho registra mais uma espécie pertencente à família Leptodactylidae apresentando cuidado parental, Leptodactylus natalensis Lutz, 1930. Fêmeas foram observadas em assistência a ovos e cardumes de girinos em duas poças temporárias na mata Atlântica do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil.The present paper reports one more species of the family Leptodactylidae presenting parental care behaviour, Leptodactylus natalensis Lutz, 1930, in which females were observed attending eggs and schools of tadpoles in two temporary ponds in the Atlantic forest of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil.

  15. Light and transmission electron microscopy of Cepedea longa (Opalinidae from Fejervarya limnocharis

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    Li Can

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cepedea longa Bezzenberger, 1904, collected from Fejervarya limnocharis (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae from Honghu Lake, Hubei Province, China in May–July 2016, is described at both light and transmission electron microscope levels. This is the first electron microscopic study of this species. Cepedea longa possesses a developed fibrillar skeletal system, composed of longitudinal fibrillar bands and transversal fibrils as well as numerous thin microfibrils dispersed in the endoplasm, which may play an important role in morphogenesis and offer some resilience to deformations of the cell. Longitudinal microfibrils are polarizing elements of kineties, bordering the somatic kineties on the left side and possibly responsible for kinetosome alignment. Two types of vesicles exist in the somatic cortex: globular endocytotic vesicles and flattened exocytotic vesicles. As to the nuclei of C. longa, a thick microfibrillar layer was observed to attach to the cytoplasmic face of the nuclear envelope. This fact suggests no necessary connection between the presence of this microfibrillar layer and the number of nuclei. In addition, some unknown tightly-packed microtubular structures in the nucleoplasm were observed for the first time in opalinids; neither their nature nor physiological significance is known. A detailed list of all reported Cepedea species is included.

  16. Blood collection from the facial (maxillary)/musculo-cutaneous vein in true frogs (family Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzán, María J; Vanderstichel, Raphaël V; Ogbuah, Christopher T; Barta, John R; Smith, Todd G

    2012-01-01

    Collection of blood from amphibians, as in other classes of vertebrate animals, is essential to evaluate parameters of health, diagnose hemoparasitism, identify viral and bacterial pathogens, and measure antibodies. Various methods of blood collection have been described for amphibians. Most can be cumbersome (venipucture of femoral vein, ventral abdominal vein or lingual venus plexus) or result in pain or deleterious health consequences (cardiac puncture and toe-clipping). We describe an easy and practical technique to collect blood from frogs and toads that can be used in multiple species and is minimally invasive. The technique consists of puncturing either the facial or, less commonly, the musculo-cutaneous vein and collecting the blood with a capillary tube. These veins run dorsal and parallel to the maxillary bone and can be accessed by quick insertion and withdrawal of a needle through the skin between the upper jawline and the rostral or caudal side of the tympanum. The needle should be of 27 or 30 gauge for anurans weighing more or less than 25 g, respectively. Although the technique has been used by some amphibian researchers for years, it is little known by others and has never been fully described in a peer-reviewed publication.

  17. Molecular survey of parasites in introduced Pelophylax perezi (Ranidae) water frogs in the Azores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Harris, D; Spigonardi, Maria Pia; Maia, João P M C; Cunha, Regina T

    2013-12-01

    Water frogs, Pelophylax perezi, that are introduced in the Azores, were screened for parasites using PCR primers known to amplify Apicomplexa parasites, and using nematode-specific primers. With the former, three different organisms were detected: Hepatozoon, a trichodinid protozoan ciliate and a possible Stramenopile. Using the latter set of primers, a single unknown spirurid nematode was also detected. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that Hepatozoon detected within amphibian hosts appear to form a clade, although relationships of these parasites do not match the vertebrate intermediate host phylogeny. Regarding the possible Stramenopile, it is unclear whether this organism was actually present on the amphibian or in the water on the surface of the tissue sample. Our findings highlight that many different organisms can be detected with these primers and that they can be used to screen introduced host populations to detect parasites that have been brought with them.

  18. Blood and urine physiological values in farm-cultured Rana catesbeiana (Anura: Ranidae) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppo, José A; Mussart, Norma B; Fioranelli, Santiago A

    2005-01-01

    A total of 302 samples of healthy farm-cultured Rana catesbeiana specimens (9-21 months-old, 50-350 g liveweight, 50% each sex) from the north-east of Argentina, were analyzed through spectrophotometry, electrophoresis, densitometry, refractometry and microscopy in order to obtain blood and urine normal values. Confidence intervals (pratio (0.50-0.58), creatinine (4.09-5.56 mg/L). urea (76.1-92.4 mg/L), uric acid (11.5-15.4 mg/L), triglycerides (0.34-0.52 g/L), total cholesterol (0.56-0.67 g/L), HDL-C (0.03-0.05 g/L), LDL-C (0.34-0.44 g/L), alpha lipoprotein (6.01-8.67%). beta lipoprotein (91.3-93.9%), glucose (0.45-0.54 g/L), Na (116-121 meq/L), K (3.42-3.81 meq/L), Cl (100-116 meq/L), Ca (7.98-8.61 mg/dL). P (8.319.36 mg/dL), Mg (2.26-2.55 mg/dL), Fe (105-178 ug/dL), ALP (144-170 [U/L), ALT (10.0-14.8 IU/L), AST (42.8-53.4 IU/L), GGT (7.8-10.6 IU/L), LDH (99-135 IU/L), CHE (151-185 lU/L) and CPK (365-500 IU/L), were obtained. Some parameter ranges were similar to those obtained in amphibians, birds or mammals; others were very different. These parameters are useful to evaluate sanitary, metabolic and nutritional state on captive bullfrogs.

  19. Description of a new brown frog from Tsushima Island, Japan (Anura: Ranidae: Rana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Masafumi

    2014-09-01

    Because all available evidence from allozymes, mtDNA sequences, and artificial hybridization suggests presence of high genetic differentiation between populations of East Asian brown frogs currently assigned to Rana dybowskii Günther, 1876, I compared morphological characters between specimens from Tsushima Island of Japan and Maritime territory of Russia. The population from Tsushima is slightly, but significantly different from R. dybowskii from Russia, including the holotype. I therefore consider the Tsushima population to be specifically distinct, and describe it as a new species R. uenoi. The new species also occurs in the Korean Peninsula and adjacent islands, but the distributional relationships with R. dybowskii are unclear, as detailed distribution in northern Korea is lacking.

  20. Diversity and phylogeography of Northeast Asian brown frogs allied to Rana dybowskii (Anura, Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bao-Tian; Zhou, Yu; Min, Mi-Sook; Matsui, Masafumi; Dong, Bing-Jun; Li, Pi-Peng; Fong, Jonathan J

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the species diversity and phylogeography of the Northeast Asian brown frogs allied to Rana dybowskii (the R. dybowskii species complex: R. dybowskii, R. pirica, and R. uenoi) using four mitochondrial and three nuclear loci. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the existence of three distinct species in this complex; using extensive molecular data, we confirm the validity of Rana uenoi recognized as a distinct species, and infer R. dybowskii and R. pirica to be sister species. Also, we included populations from previously unsampled regions in Northeast China, and identified them to be R. dybowskii. While many species in Northeast Asia diverged due to Pleistocene glaciation, divergence-dating analyses inferred older, Miocene speciation in the R. dybowskii species complex. Ancestral area reconstruction identified the orogenic movement of the Changbai Mountain Range and the opening of the Sea of Japan/East Sea being major events influencing allopatric speciation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Functional consequences of a novel middle ear adaptation in the central African frog Petropedetes parkeri (Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narins, P M; Lewis, E R; Purgue, A P; Bishop, P J; Minter, L R; Lawson, D P

    2001-04-01

    During the breeding season, each tympanic membrane of males of the Old World treefrog Petropedetes parkeri is decorated with a single, prominent, fleshy tympanic papilla. The tympanic papilla, located dorsally on the tympanic membrane, is covered by an epidermal surface and is composed of non-ossified, spongiform tissue containing a number of globular, fluid-filled vesicles found at highest density near the papillar tip. These vesicles appear to have exit pores and are probably simple alveolar exocrine glands. Injecting sound into the pressurized vocal cavity of the male and measuring the vibration velocity response of the tympanic membrane revealed that from 0.3 to 2.0 kHz the tympanic papilla velocity amplitude is on average 20 dB lower than that of a point diametrically opposite on the ventral half of the tympanic membrane. The close agreement between the dominant frequency of the call and the frequency of the maximum spectral peak of the Fast Fourier Transform of the impulse response of the eardrum is consistent with the use of the eardrum in this species both as a call receiver and as a call radiator, similar to the function suggested for the eardrum of the male bullfrog Rana catesbeiana. Unexpectedly, surgically removing the tympanic papilla lowered the frequency of the peak vibrational amplitude, testifying to the importance of membrane tension as a dominant factor in the vibratory behavior of the eardrum. During normal positive-pressure breathing, the tympanic papillae move conspicuously, suggesting a possible rôle as a visual signal.

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Greek marsh frog Pelophylax cretensis (Anura, Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Sebastian; Pabijan, Maciej; Osikowski, Artur; Szymura, Jacek M

    2016-05-01

    We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Greek marsh frog Pelophylax cretensis, a water frog species endemic to the island of Crete. The genome sequence was 17,829 bp in size, and the gene order and contents were identical to those of previously reported mitochondrial genomes of other water frog species. This is the first complete mitogenome (i.e. including control region) described for western Palaearctic water frogs.

  3. A new species of leopard frog (Anura: Ranidae) from the urban northeastern US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Catherine E; Feinberg, Jeremy A; Rissler, Leslie J; Burger, Joanna; Shaffer, H Bradley

    2012-05-01

    Past confusion about leopard frog (genus Rana) species composition in the Tri-State area of the US that includes New York (NY), New Jersey (NJ), and Connecticut (CT) has hindered conservation and management efforts, especially where populations are declining or imperiled. We use nuclear and mitochondrial genetic data to clarify the identification and distribution of leopard frog species in this region. We focus on four problematic frog populations of uncertain species affiliation in northern NJ, southeastern mainland NY, and Staten Island to test the following hypotheses: (1) they are conspecific with Rana sphenocephala or R. pipiens, (2) they are hybrids between R. sphenocephala and R. pipiens, or (3) they represent one or more previously undescribed cryptic taxa. Bayesian phylogenetic and cluster analyses revealed that the four unknown populations collectively form a novel genetic lineage, which represents a previously undescribed cryptic leopard frog species, Rana sp. nov. Statistical support for R. sp. nov. was strong in both the Bayesian (pp=1.0) and maximum-likelihood (bootstrap=99) phylogenetic analyses as well as the Structure cluster analyses. While our data support recognition of R. sp. nov. as a novel species, we recommend further study including fine-scaled sampling and ecological, behavioral, call, and morphological analyses before it is formally described.

  4. Identification of multiple antimicrobial peptides from the skin of fine-spined frog, Hylarana spinulosa (Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolong; Hu, Yuhong; Xu, Shiqi; Hu, Yonghong; Meng, Hao; Guo, Chao; Liu, Yuliang; Liu, Jingze; Yu, Zhijun; Wang, Hui

    2013-12-01

    In this study, peptidomics and genomics analyses were used to study antimicrobial peptides from the skin of Hylarana spinulosa. Twenty-nine different antimicrobial peptide precursors were characterized from the skin of H. spinulosa, which produce 23 mature antimicrobial peptides belonging to 12 different families. To confirm the actual presence and characteristics of these antimicrobial peptides in the skin tissue extractions from H. spinulosa, we used two distinct methods, one was peptide purification method that combined gel filtration chromatography and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and the other was peptidomics approach based on liquid chromatography in conjunction with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In the peptidomics approach, incomplete tryptic digestion and gas-phase fractionation (GPF) analysis were used to increase peptidome coverage and reproducibility of peptide ion selection. Multiple species of microorganisms were chosen to test and analyze the antimicrobial activities and spectrum of these antimicrobial peptides.

  5. Three novel antimicrobial peptides from the skin of the Indian bronzed frog Hylarana temporalis (Anura: Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshmy, V; Preeji, V; Parvin, A; Santhoshkumar, K; George, S

    2011-05-01

    Amphibian skin secretion is considered as a rich source of bioactive peptides. The present work describes the successful identification of three novel peptides named brevinin-1TEa, brevinin-2TEa and brevinin-2TEb present in the skin secretion of Indian bronzed frog Hylarana temporalis. The deduced open reading frame encoding the biosynthetic precursor of brevinin-1TEa consisted of 70 amino acid residues and brevinin-2TEa and brevinin-2TEb consisted of 71 and 72 amino acids, respectively. All the three peptides showed higher antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative than against Gram-positive bacteria. On the basis of the antibacterial and haemolytic activity, brevinin-2TEb is the most potent peptide reported in the present study. Further research on these peptides may provide potential clue towards newer drug development to combat various microbial diseases.

  6. Carbaryl-induced histopathologic alterations on testes of levantine frog, Pelophylax bedriagae (Anura: Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakıcı, Özlem

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate for the first time histopathologic effects of carbaryl on the testes of adult frog, Pelophylax bedriagae. Frogs were exposed to carbaryl once by oral gavage in concentrations of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/g. After 96 h, frogs were euthanized and dissected. Histopathological changes were more prominent in medium- (0.1 mg/g) and high-dose (0.2 mg/g) groups than in the low-dose (0.05 mg/g) group. In the low-dose group, shrinkage of some seminiferous tubules was observed. In the medium-dose group, an enlargement of interstitial spaces and germ cell necrosis were detected. In the high-dose group, prominent tubule deformation was determined. Germ cell necrosis in seminiferous tubules was frequently seen. In addition, congestion, hemorrhage, cellular infiltration and fibrosis were detected. According to these findings, it is clear that carbaryl affects male fertility in P. bedriagae.

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome of a brown frog, Rana kunyuensis (Anura: Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiao; Yin, Wei; Xia, Rong; Lei, Guangchun; Fu, Cuizhang

    2016-01-01

    The first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Rana sensu stricto (sensu Frost, 2013) was determined using Rana kunyuensis as a representative species. The mitogenome was 22,255 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and duplicated control regions. The mitogenome of R. kunyuensis showed novel gene order arrangement with a translocation of tRNA(Leu)((CUN)) and ND5 in comparison with published anuran mitogenomes to date. This mitogenome should contribute to understand the evolution of anuran mitochondrial gene order arrangements.

  8. Blood and urine physiological values in farm-cultured Rana catesbeiana (Anura: Ranidae) in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A total of 302 samples of healthy farm-cultured Rana catesbeiana specimens (9-21 months-old, 50- 350 g liveweight, 50% each sex) from the north-east of Argentina, were analyzed through spectrophotometry, electrophoresis, densitometry, refractometry and microscopy in order to obtain blood and urine normal values. Confidence intervals (p

  9. Blood and urine physiological values in farm-cultured Rana catesbeiana (Anura: Ranidae in Argentina

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    José A Coppo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 302 samples of healthy farm-cultured Rana catesbeiana specimens (9-21 months-old, 50- 350 g liveweight, 50% each sex from the north-east of Argentina, were analyzed through spectrophotometry, electrophoresis, densitometry, refractometry and microscopy in order to obtain blood and urine normal values. Confidence intervals (pCon el propósito de obtener valores normales sanguíneos y urinarios, 302 muestras de ejemplares sanos de Rana catesbeiana del nordeste argentino (9-21 meses de edad, 50-350 g de peso vivo, 50% de cada sexo, fueron analizados por espectrofotometría, electroforesis, densitometría, refractometría y microscopía. Fueron obtenidos intervalos de confianza (p<0.05 para hematocrito (28.6-31.6%, eritrocitos (0.40-0.44 T/L, VCM (686-732 fL, hemoglobina (6.41-7.20 g/dL, HCM (151-164 pg, CHCM (22.6-24.0%, leucocitos (18.7-22.3 G/L, neutrófilos (58.4-63.4%, linfocitos (23.9-29.8%, monocitos (2.1-3.8%, eosinófilos (4.6-7.0%, basófilos (2.9-4.1%, tiempo de sangría (289-393s, tiempo de coagulación (452- 696s, tiempo de protrombina (76-128s, densidad urinaria (1.0061-1.0089 g/mL, pH urinario (6.38-6.96, fibrinógeno (0.59-0.99 g/dL, proteínas totales (4.19-4.49 g/dL, albúmina (1.49-1.67 g/dL, alfa-1 globulina (0.20-0.24 g/dL, alfa-2 globulina (0.48-0.54 g/dL, beta globulina (0.68-0.77 g/dL, gamma globulina (1.28-1.42 g/dL, relación albúmina/globulinas (0.50-0.58, creatinina (4.09-5.56 mg/L, urea (76.1-92.4 mg/L, ácido úrico (11.5-15.4 mg/L, triglicéridos (0.34-0.52 g/L, colesterol total (0.56-0.67 g/L, C-HDL (0.03-0.05 g/L, C-LDL (0.34-0.44 g/L, alfa lipoproteína (6.01-8.67%, beta lipoproteína (91.3-93.9%, glucosa (0.45-0.54 g/L, Na (116-121 meq/L, K (3.42- 3.81 meq/L, Cl (100-116 meq/L, Ca (7.98-8.61 mg/dL, P (8.31-9.36 mg/dL, Mg (2.26-2.55 mg/dL, Fe (105-178 ug/dL, ALP (144-170 IU/L, ALT (10.0-14.8 IU/L, AST (42.8-53.4 IU/L, GGT (7.8-10.6 IU/L, LDH (99-135 IU/L, CHE (151-185 IU/L y CPK (365-500 IU/L. Algunos intervalos fueron semejantes a los obtenidos en anfibios, aves o mamíferos, pero otros resultaron muy diferentes. Estos parámetros son útiles para evaluar estados sanitario, metabólico y nutricional de la rana toro en cautiverio.

  10. Maintenance media for the axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum juveniles (Amphibia: Caudata Soluciones de mantenimiento de juveniles del ajolote Ambystoma mexicanum (Amphibia: Caudata

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    Cecilia Robles Mendoza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Physiological condition and organisms' health which are grown in culture systems depends on several factors including water quality, feeding and density among others. In Mexico, the colonies of the axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum (Shaw, an indigenous amphibian under extinction risk, are maintained under different culture conditions according to the objectives of the colony and the available resources. Particularly, water electrolytic characteristic and ionic and osmotic conditions are the factors with greater variation in the axolotl culture systems. Therefore, it is necessary to standardize the best maintenance conditions to store the germoplasm of the axolotl and to ensure healthy organisms with researching purposes. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the development and growth of Ambystoma mexicanum larvae reared under different maintenance media, usually used in Mexico for the culture of the species: 1 dechlorinated tap water; 2 dechlorinated tap water enriched with sodium chloride and commercial colloidal solution and 3 Holtfreter's solution reconstructed with dechlorinated tap water. In each experimental condition, 15 larvae on stage 44 (immediately after hatching were maintained during 21 days and development and growth were weekly recorded. Ionic and osmotic conditions of the external media were routinely registered. The obtained results suggested a better physiological condition of the axolotls maintained on Holtfreter's solution, where the highest growth rate (13 g WW d-1 and the greatest condition factor (0.79 were registered. The use of this solution is recommended due it guarantees the suitable development of early stages of A. mexicanum on culture systems.La condición fisiológica y por lo tanto la salud de los organismos acuáticos depende de varios factores como la calidad del agua de mantenimiento, la alimentación, la densidad, entre otros. En México, las colonias del ajolote Ambystoma mexicanum (Shaw, anfibio endémico y en riesgo de extinción en su hábitat, son mantenidas bajo diferentes condiciones de cultivo de acuerdo con los objetivos de la colonia y los recursos disponibles. Particularmente, las características electrolíticas del agua de mantenimiento y las condiciones iónicas y osmóticas, son los factores que presentan mayor variación entre los diferentes sistemas de cultivo. Por lo tanto, se considera necesario estandarizar las condiciones adecuadas de mantenimiento de los ajolotes para mantener el germoplasma de la especie y para garantizar organismos sanos con fines de investigación. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el desarrollo y el crecimiento de larvas del ajolote en tres diferentes medios usualmente utilizados en México en el mantenimiento de las colonias del ajolote: agua de la llave libre de cloro, agua de la llave con solución comercial salina y de coloides y solución Holtfreter. Los resultados obtenidos denotan una mejor condición fisiológica de los ajolotes mantenidos en la solución Holtfreter, medio en el cuál registraron la mayor tasa de crecimiento (13 g WW d-1 y un mayor índice de condición (0.79. De acuerdo con estos resultados se propone el uso de la solución Holtfreter para garantizar el adecuado desarrollo de los estadios tempranos de A. mexicanum bajo condiciones de mantenimiento y/o cultivo controlado.

  11. Expresión de canales de potasio voltaje dependientes en ovocitos de Xenopus laevis (Amphibia Voltage gated potassium channels expressed in Xenopus laevis(AMPHIBIA oocytes

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    Clavijo Carlos

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available La expresión en sistemas heterólogos ha sido una herramienta ampliamente utilizada enlos últimos años para el estudio funcional y estructural de proteínas. Para la carac-terización de las propiedades biofísicas de canales, bombas y transportadores engeneral su expresión en ovocitos de Xenopus laevis, ha sido fundamental. Este estudioreporta la expresión de dos canales de potasio voltaje dependientes, Kv1.1y Shakerenovocitos de X. laevisusando un protocolo ajustado a las condiciones de latitud y altitudde Bogotá para la extracción, aislamiento, cultivo y microinyección de éstas células.Heterologous expression has been an important tool for structural and functionalcharacterization of proteins. The study of biophysical properties of ion channels,pumps and transporters has been possible thanks to their expression in Xenopuslaevisoocytes. Here we report the expression of two voltage gated channels, Kv1.1and Shaker, in X. laevisoocytes using a method for oocyte extraction, isolation, cul-ture, and microinjection adapted to the latitude and altitude conditions of Bogotá,Colombia.

  12. Status Sistematico del Género Geobatrachus Ruthven 1915 (amphibia: Anura Status Sistematico del Género Geobatrachus Ruthven 1915 (amphibia: Anura

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    Ardila Robayo María Cristina

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available Se recopilan las diferentes asignaciones en cuanto a familia que han sido formuladas hasta la fecha para el género Geobatrachus. Mediante la recolección de una serie de topótipos virtuales de este género monotípico, endémico del sector noroeste del macizo de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Departamento del Magdalena, Colombia, se elaboró una descripción detallada y se procedió a un análisis de 67 características morfológicas, a las cuales se adicionó el numero cromosómico (2n = 20, seleccionadas conforme a las utilizadas por LYNCH y HEYER en sus estudios sobre clasificación y filogenia de los Leptodactylidae, las cuales, después de un examen inicial, se consideraron significativas, a fin de precisar las afinidades de este género, Simultáneamente con la recolección del material se adelantaron observaciones ecológicas que permitieron establecer que su distribución se opera en el área de bosques húmedos, frecuentemente nublados entre los 1.750 y 3.000 metros, y que la especie tolera situaciones paraclimácicas (plantaciones artificiales de Cupressus sp., Pinus sp. y piso cubierto de Pennisetum clandestinum y que sus hábitos son netamente terrestres y semifosoriales. De los caracteres externos cabe destacar una gran variabilidad cromática individual; el integumento desprovisto de adaptaciones xeromorfas y de complejos glandulares especializados, indica una adaptación hacia un hábitat higrófilo, añadidos a la extremada reducción del primer dedo pedial. Las características esqueléticas determinadas mediante disección y tinción diferencial, muestran un tipo generalizado sin reducción pronunciada de elementos craneales, con presencia de dientes no pedicelados en la arcada maxilar, sin evidencias de adaptaciones fragmóticas ni fosoriales ni ornamentación epicraneal o exóstosis, aparato hioideo generalizado, 8 vértebras presacras sin fusión ni imbricación y con procesos transversos especializados, sacro con diapófisis no dilatadas, astrágalo y calcáneo fusionados, tarsales reducidos a dos.  Es llamativa la presencia de falanges terminales en forma de T, lo cual podría sugerir una pre adaptación hacia un régimen arborícola (o bien la derivación a partir de un antecesor arborícola, Una condición firmisternal plena de la cintura escapular y la notable reducción de la clavícula insinuarían una aparente relación con los Microhylidae.  La musculatura muestra un M. intermandibularis con rafé medial, la inserción del M. adductor mandibularis subexternus de tipo "S", el tendón distal del M. semitendinosus con recorrido ventral a los Mm. graciles; el M. adductor longus con inserción en la rodilla, y la ausencia de una cabeza accesoria o tendón del M. glutaeus magnus (carácter único dentro de los Neobatrachia, pero verosímilmente debido a pérdida secundaria. Una de las características más llamativas (en contra de registros previos de renacuajos atribuidos tentativamente a esta especie es la confirmación de un desarrollo directo que a priori podría suponerse dada la reducida postura de huevos megalecitales en lugares protegidos y que corresponde a una adaptación hacia ambientes de montaña con escasa oportunidad para un desarrollo larvario acuático.  Los 68 caracteres utilizados fueron codificados numéricamente según sus condiciones primitivas o derivadas, según criterios aceptados en la literatura reciente, tanto para facilitar las comparaciones como para intentar reconstruir la filogenia según principios de taxonomía numérica.  Fácilmente por exclusión se descartó la posibilidad de que Geobatrachus representase conforme a la firmisternia un elemento de los Microhyloidea, y la ausencia de elementos esqueléticos interfalangeales, excluyen cualquier posible afinidad con los Centrolenidae, Hylidae y Pseudidae, aun cuando ninguna característica, salvo la ausencia del tendón accesorio del M. glutaeus magnus (interpretada como pérdida secundaria excluye la asignación de Geobatrachus a los Bufonoidea. Ninguna característica en particular permite referir el genero a los Myobatrachidae ni a los Heleophrynidae, la ausencia de órgano de Bidder (única característica diagnóstica entre Leptodactylidae y Bufonidae elimina, aparte de la afinidad mostrada por cladogramas experimentales, la familia Bufonidae de toda su consideración adicional. En cuanto a los Brachycephalidae (sensu McDIARMID 1969, si bien aparentemente derivados de los Leptodactylidae, diferencias tales como la estructura de la cintura escapular  y el desarrollo de osteodermos dorsales los excluyen de consideración.  El análisis combinatorial realizado mediante cladogramas confirma que los Phyllobatinae (= Dendrobatidae son derivados de los Elosiini, y que los acreditan mejor en el rango de subfamilia dentro de los Leptodactylidae que como familia separada. Aun cuando la firmisternia en particular puede sugerir afinidades con Geobatrachus, ciertamente este género al igual que Rhinoderma no pueden ser asignados a los Phyllobatinae. El análisis de los caracteres de Rhinoderma indica que este género se derivó del antecesor inmediato de los Leptodactylinae o de elementos antiguos de este grupo y que, al igual que en el caso de los Phyllobatinae, bien pueden involucrarse dentro de los Leptodactylidae como una sub familia, a menos que se recurra a dividir dicha familia en varios grupos de jerarquía familiar. No obstante Geobatrachus difiere ampliamente de los Rhinodermatinae y, como lo indican los cladogramas elaborados, muestra su máxima afinidad con los Eleutherodactylini, si bien representa un género bien diferenciado dentro de la tribu quizás como resultado de la evolución in situ de un "stock" antiguo de aislamiento desde el Terciario, que ha sobrevivido en condiciones favorecidas por la ecuabilidad climática, Hipótesis basadas en las evidencias paleogeográficas y paleoclimáticas  disponibles, así como con forme a la posible dicotomía fundamental de los llamados grupos ,.Alpha" y “Beta" de los Eleutherodactylus son discutidas.  Con exclusión de Euparkerella y Holoaden los Eleutherodactylini (cuya diferenciación inicial quizás tuvo lugar en el S. E. de Brasil, los restantes géneros del grupo se hallan estrechamente relacionados entre sí, aun cuando una revisión exhaustiva de Eleutherodactylus que eventualmente puede llegar a subdividir este género, puede llevar a conclusiones que si bien no se aparten substancialmente de las interpretaciones aquí ofrecidas, si conduzcan a una interpretación mejor fundada de la que las hipótesis planteadas o incluso a una reducción del número de géneros actualmente reconocidos.  Tanto la firmisternia como la pérdida del tendón accesorio del M. glutaeus magnus y el número comparativamente reducido de cromosomas con ausencia de acrocéntricos, sugieren que Geobatrachus represente una línea extrema de especialización dentro de los Eleutherodactylini.  La evidencia aportada por el análisis cladístico no favorece considerar a los Eleutherodactylinae como derivados de Adenomera o de un antecesor inmediato común con este género y, por tanto, la adquisición del desarrollo directo dentro de los Leptodactylidae parece haber ocurrido independientemente al menos en dos líneas filéticas. The different familial assignations proposed until now for Geobatracbus are compiled. Through the collection of a virtual topotypical series of this monotypic genus, which is endemic of the NW section of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta Massif (Departamento del Magdalena, Colombia, a detailed description was made.  67 morphological characters were selected according to the criteria used by Lynch and Heyer in their studies on the philogeny and classification of the leptodactylid frogs, and such characters, compled with the chromosome number (2n =20 were analysed, after initial examination of their meaning in order to ascertain the affinities of the genus. Field work carried on in the region showed that its distribution cover the area of humid forest, with frequent mists, at. 1.750-3.000 m., and pointed also that the species tolerates paraclimacic situations (in plantations of Cupressus sp., and Pinus sp. , and their habits are exclusively terrestrial and semifossorial.  Among the external characters it can be emphasized the high degree of chromatic individual variation, the absence of xeromorphic adaptations and specialized glandular complexes in the skin, which point towards an adaptation towards a hygrophilic habitat, added to the extreme reduction of the first pedial digit. The skeleton characters, studied through dissection and differential staining, show a generalized type without pronounced reduction in the cranial elements, the occurrence of non-pedicellated teeth in the maxillary arch, the absence of either phragmotic or fossorial adaptations, or epicraneal ornamentation exostosis; a generalized hyoid apparatus; 8 presacral vertebrae without fusion or imbrication, and with specialized transverse processes; no expanded sacral diapophyses, fused talus and calcaneus and only two tarsalia. The T-shaped terminal phalanges might suggest a preadaptation towards an arboreal way of life (or, conversely, an arboreal ancestor; also the full firmisternal condition of the pectoral girdle and the striking clavicular reduction which would show an apparent relationship with the Microhylids. The following muscular characters are noteworthy: M. intermandibularis with medial raphe, the type "s" insertion of the M. adductor mandibularis subexternus, the distal tendon of M. semitendinosus passing ventral to the Mm. graciles, the insertion over the knee of the M. adductor longus, and the absence of an accessory head (or tendon in the M. glutaeus magnus (an unique condition among the Neobatrachia, presumably due to secondary loss.  In contrast with previous wrong assertions, a direct development (without free larval stages was confirmed, a condition expected a priori since the eggs are megalecythal and laid in reduced numbers in protected places, in accordance with the scare opportunities for aquatic larval development in mountain environments.  Each of the 68 used characters were codified according to their primitive or derived represented stages, following criteria adopted in the recent literature, with the aim of using principles of numeric taxonomy to at temp the reconstruction of the phylogeny. The possibility that Geobatrachus could belong to the Microhyloidea due to its firmisternal condition, was easily discarded, and the absence of intercalary skeletal pieces in the digits, prevent also any possible close relationship with the Centrolenidae, Hylidae and Pseudidae, although there are no characters (except for the absence of an accessory tendon in the M. glutaeus magnus, regarded as a secondary loss that might exclude the inclusion of Geobatrachus in the Bufonoidea. No particular characters allow the inclusion of the genus either in the Myobatrachidae or the Heleophrynidae.  The absence of Bidder's organ (which is the only diagnostic difference between the Leptodactylidae and the Bufonidae eliminate the family Bufonidae from any further consideration, a conclusion that is supported also by experimental cladograms. Distinctive features such as the morphology of the pectoral girdle and the presence of dorsal osteoderms, characteristic of the Brachycephalidae (sensu McDIARMID, 1969 also exclude this family from consideration.   The combinational analysis made through cladograms confirms the presumptive derivation of the Phyllobatinae (= Dendrobatidae from the Elosiini, and leads to the conclusion that this group might be better regarded as a subfamily of the Leptodactylidae than as a family of their own. Although, in particular the firmisternal condition might suggest affinities of Geobatrachus with the Phyllobatinae, neither this genus or Rhinoderma can be referred to this subfamily. The analysis of the characters of Rhinoderma shows rather conclusively that this genus was derived from the immediate anc estor of the Leptodactylinae or from early members of this group, and under such circumstances Rhinoderma can equally be included in the Leptodactylidae as a representative of a monotypic subfamily. Otherwise, the Leptodactylidae should be divided in several groups of familial hierarchy. However, Geobatrachus widely differs from the Rhinodermatinae, and, as its clearly shown by the cladograms, shows its greater affinity with the Eleutherodactylini, although Geobatrachus is rather outstandingly different from the other genera of this tribe. This condition might be due to the in situ evolution of an early stock, isolated since the Tertiary, that has survived in favored conditions due to climatic equability. Several hypothesis based on the available paleogeographic and paleoclimatic evidence are discussed, in conjunction with the possible fundamental dichotomy of the" Alpha" and" Beta" groups of the genus Eleutberodactylus. With the noticeable exceptions of the genera Euparkerella and Holoaden, the Eleutherodactylini (perhaps originally issued in S. E. Brazil represent a group of closely related genera, although an exhaustive review of Eleutherodactylus might eventually lead to the splitting of this genus, and to conclusions that agreeing essentially with the conclusions here offered, could otherwise provide basis for a better interpretation of the facts here presented, or even to a reduction of the currently recognized genera for this tribe.  Both, the firmisterny, the loss of the accessory tendon of the M. glutaeus magnus, and the caryotipe (with comparatively reduced number of chromosomes and the lack of acrocentrics, suggest that Geobatrachus represents an extreme line of specialization among the Eleutherodactylini. The evidence afforded by the cladistic analysis gives no support to regard the Eleutherodactylini are derived from Adenomera or an immediate common ancestor with this genus, and so the acquisition of the direct development among the Leptodactylidae seens to have occurred independently at least in two phyletic lines.

  13. Helminth fauna of Lithobates brownorum (Anura: Ranidae at three localities in the state of Yucatán, Mexico Helmintofauna de Lithobates brownorum (Anura: Ranidae en tres localidades del estado de Yucatán, México

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    Carlos A. Yáñez-Arenas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Between July 2004 and June 2005, 84 specimens of Lithobates brownorum (Sanders, 1973 were collected and examined for helminths. Hosts came from 3 localities in the state of Yucatán, Mexico: Celestún (n= 35, Lagunas de Yalahau (n= 33, and Ría Lagartos (n= 16. Twelve helminth taxa were found: 7 nematodes, 4 digeneans, and 1 acanthocephalan. With the exception of Haematoloechus floedae and Megalodiscus temperatus, all helminth taxa found have a Neotropical distribution. Our results differ from those obtained in previous studies dealing with amphibians in Mexico because we found higher richness and abundance of nematodes than digenean species. The relatively low mean intensity and mean abundance values reached by digenean species in this study may be related to the generalist host diet and with the vagility of frogs (from the aquatic to the terrestrial environment or vice versa.Entre julio del 2004 y junio del 2005, se recolectaron y examinaron 84 ejemplares de Lithobates brownorum (Sanders, 1973 en busca de helmintos en 3 localidades del estado de Yucatán: Celestún (n= 35, Lagunas de Yalahau (n= 33 y Ría Lagartos (n= 16. Los ejemplares estuvieron parasitados por 12 taxa de helmintos, 7 de nematodos, 4 digéneos y 1 acantocefalo. Con excepción de Haematoloechus floedae y Megalodiscus temperatus, todos los taxa presentan distribución neotropical. Nuestros resultados difieren de los obtenidos por otros autores que han reportado más especies de digéneos que de nematodos en este grupo de hospederos. Los bajos valores de intensidad y abundancia media de los digéneos encontrados en este estudio pueden estar relacionados con la amplia dieta del hospedero y la vagilidad que éste presenta entre el medio acuático y el terrestre.

  14. A Tandemly Arranged Pattern of Two 5S rDNA Arrays in Amolops mantzorum (Anura, Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Song, Menghuan; Xia, Yun; Zeng, Xiaomao

    2017-01-01

    In an attempt to extend the knowledge of the 5S rDNA organization in anurans, the 5S rDNA sequences of Amolops mantzorum were isolated, characterized, and mapped by FISH. Two forms of 5S rDNA, type I (209 bp) and type II (about 870 bp), were found in specimens investigated from various populations. Both of them contained a 118-bp coding sequence, readily differentiated by their non-transcribed spacer (NTS) sizes and compositions. Four probes (the 5S rDNA coding sequences, the type I NTS, the type II NTS, and the entire type II 5S rDNA sequences) were respectively labeled with TAMRA or digoxigenin to hybridize with mitotic chromosomes for samples of all localities. It turned out that all probes showed the same signals that appeared in every centromeric region and in the telomeric regions of chromosome 5, without differences within or between populations. Obviously, both type I and type II of the 5S rDNA arrays arranged in tandem, which was contrasting with other frogs or fishes recorded to date. More interestingly, all the probes detected centromeric regions in all karyotypes, suggesting the presence of a satellite DNA family derived from 5S rDNA. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Vicariance and Its Impact on the Molecular Ecology of a Chinese Ranid Frog Species-Complex (Odorrana schmackeri, Ranidae.

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    Yongmin Li

    Full Text Available Paleogeological events and Pleistocene climatic fluctuations have had profound influences on the genetic patterns and phylogeographic structure of species in southern China. In this study, we investigated the population genetic structure and Phylogeography of the Odorrana schmackeri species complex, mountain stream-dwelling odorous frogs, endemic to southern China. We obtained mitochondrial sequences (1,151bp of the complete ND2 gene and two flanking tRNAs of 511 individuals from 25 sites for phylogeographic analyses. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed seven divergent evolutionary lineages, with mean pairwise (K2P sequence distances from 7.8% to 21.1%, except for a closer ND2 distance (3.4%. The complex geological history of southern China drove matrilineal divergence in the O. schmackeri species complex into highly structured geographical units. The first divergence between lineage A+B and other lineages (C-G had likely been influenced by the uplift of coastal mountains of Southeast China during the Mio-Pliocene period. The subsequent divergences between the lineages C-G may have followed the formation of the Three Gorges and the intensification of the East Asian summer monsoon during the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene. Demographic analyses indicated that major lineages A and C have been experienced recent population expansion (c. 0.045-0.245 Ma from multiple refugia prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM. Molecular analysis suggest that these seven lineages may represent seven different species, three described species and four cryptic species and should at least be separated into seven management units corresponding to these seven geographic lineages for conservation.

  16. Incongruence in the pattern and timing of intra-specific diversification in bronze frogs and bullfrogs (Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, James D; Zamudio, Kelly R

    2008-09-01

    We compare patterns of lineage divergence in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of two protein-encoding mitochondrial genes (cyt b and ND2) in two ecologically similar, co-distributed, and closely related ranid frogs (Rana clamitans and Rana catesbeiana), that are geographically widespread, and frequently syntopic. We identified three lineages in R. clamitans, separated by 0.5% to 2.1% net corrected sequence divergence, comparable to two R. catesbeiana lineages separated by 0.6%. The geographic pattern of lineage distribution differed notably between the two species. In R. clamitans, we found a Coastal Plain-Appalachian (CPA) lineage restricted to south and east of the Appalachian Mountains and a widespread lineage that encompassing nearly all the sampled range. A third distinct and divergent lineage was detected in one location in the southwest portion of the range (Louisiana). This pattern contrasts with the east-west pattern in R. catesbeiana, and reflects possible differences in refugial dynamics and patterns of range expansion. Although both species have undergone range expansion and population growth, coalescent reconstruction of N(e) reflects larger lineages but more recent divergence in R. clamitans relative to R. catesbeiana, reflecting significant differences in population history or divergent patterns of molecular evolution at mtDNA.

  17. Kin discrimination in tadpoles of Hylarana temporalis (Anura: Ranidae and Sphaerotheca breviceps (Anura: Dicroglossidae hydroperiod and social habits

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    Amrapali P. Rajput

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kin discrimination ability was studied in tadpoles of Hylarana temporalis and Sphaerotheca breviceps, which live in two distinctly different habitats; the former shows social aggregation and the latter live scattered. Early in development, tadpoles of H. temporalis are found in small aggregations in the streams of Western Ghats but in later stages they are generally seen in isolated pools cut off from the main channel following drying up of the stream. Sphaerotheca breviceps breed during south-west monsoons in rain-filled puddles and its tadpoles are always found scattered. We hypothesized that the tadpoles living in aggregation exhibit kin discrimination while those not living in aggregation may not exhibit kin discrimination. Further, tadpoles that face desiccation threat may also not exhibit kin discrimination behavior. Tests were conducted on tadpoles of the above two species at two developmental stages (Gosner Stages 28-30 and 34-36 to reveal their association choice with sibs and non-sibs. Tadpoles of H. temporalis associated with both familiar (reared with sibs and unfamiliar (reared in isolation sibs in early but not in later stages of development. Tadpoles of S. breviceps showed no association preference with sibs (familiar or unfamiliar in both early and later stages. The findings on H. temporalis suggest that kin discrimination between sib from non-sib may be benficial during early stages of development that takes place in flowing streams and it may be less important in later stages of development taking place in pools of water bodies that face desiccation. Absence of kin recognition in S. breviceps is associated with their lack of natural aggregation and perennial desiccation threat of the ephemeral ponds. We suggest that kin discrimination behavior in tadpoles is related to their social habits and hydroperiod of their habitat.

  18. A New Species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Green Frog, Lithobates clamitans (Anura: Ranidae) from Arkansas, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcallister, Chris T; Seville, R Scott; Bursey, Charles R; Trauth, Stanley E; Connior, Matthew B; Robison, Henry W

    2014-07-01

    Between April and October 2012, 20 juvenile and adult green frogs (Lithobates clamitans) were collected by hand or dipnet from 3 counties of Arkansas and examined for coccidial parasites. A single frog (5%) was found to be passing oocysts of a new eimerian species. Oocysts of Eimeria menaensis n. sp. were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal with a bilayered wall and measured (L × W) 25.4 × 15.6 (23-27 × 13-17) µm, with a L/W ratio of 1.6. A micropyle was absent but an oocyst residuum and polar granule were present. Sporocysts were spheroidal to subspheroidal and measured 5.0 × 5.0 (4-6) µm with L/W of 1.1. An indistinct Stieda body was present, but sub-and para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of condensed granules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate and attenuated at both ends with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. This represents the second report of coccidia from L. clamitans and the first time a coccidian has been reported from a green frog from Arkansas.

  19. Heavy metal mediated immunomodulation of the Indian green frog, Euphlyctis hexadactylus (Anura:Ranidae) in urban wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshani, S; Madhushani, W A N; Jayawardena, U A; Wickramasinghe, D D; Udagama, P V

    2015-06-01

    Impacts of heavy metal toxicity on the immune system of the Indian green frog, Euphlyctis hexadactylus, in Bellanwila Attidiya, an urban wetland polluted with high levels of heavy metals, compared to the reference site in Bolgoda, in Sri Lanka was investigated. Significantly higher accumulation of selected heavy metals, copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) were detected by AAS in frog liver and gastrocnemius muscle, in the polluted site than in the reference site. Non-functional immunotoxicity tests; total WBC, splenocyte and bone marrow cell counts, spleen weight/body weight ratio, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and basal immunoglobulin levels, and phagocytic capacity of peritoneal macrophages (immune functional test) were carried out using standard methodology. Test parameters recorded significantly lower values for frogs of the polluted site compared with their reference site counterparts, indicative of lowered immune response of frogs in the former site. In vitro phagocytic assay based on NBT dye reduction, measured the stimulation index (SI) of E. hexadactylus blood leukocytes, splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages, where SIs of frogs in the polluted site were significantly lower. Also, in vitro exposure of frog phagocytes to Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd at 10(-2)-10(-10)M, showed immunomodulation i.e. low concentrations stimulated phagocytosis while increased concentrations showed a trend towards immunosuppression. IC50 values indicated Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb as the decreasing order of the potential of phagocytosis inhibition. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrated immunomodulation of E. hexadactylus, stimulated by heavy metals. In-vitro studies evidently suggested the use of phagocytosis as a biomarker in Ecoimmunotoxicology to detect aquatic heavy metal pollution.

  20. Phylogeography of the rice frog, Fejervarya multistriata (Anura: Ranidae), from China based on mtDNA D-loop sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jing; Liu, Zhong-Quan; Wang, Yi-Quan

    2008-08-01

    The rice frog, Fejervarya multistriata, is an amphibian widely distributed in China. In this study, we sampled the species across its distributional area in China and sequenced the mtDNA D-loop to investigate the genetic diversity and geographical pattern of the frog population. The results revealed 38 haplotypes in the population, with K2P values varying from 0.19% to 4.22%. Both a phylogenetic analysis and a nested clade analysis (NCA) detected two geographically isolated lineages respectively distributed around the Yangtze drainage (Yangtze lineage) and the south of China (southern lineage). NCA inferred a contiguous range expansion within the Yangtze lineage and allopatric fragmentation within the southern lineage, which might be partly due to the limited samples from this lineage. Accordingly, Fu's Fs test also indicated a population expansion after glacial movement. Therefore, we assumed that the species history responding to glacial events shaped the present population pattern of F. multistriata on the Chinese mainland.

  1. A new species of Tomopterna (Anura: Ranidae from the Kruger National Park, with notes on related species

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    N. I. Passmore

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Tomoptema, T. krugerensis, sp. n., has been recorded from the Kruger National Park, Republic of South Africa.Morphologically it is very similar to T. delalandei cryptotis (Boulenger but the mating call is markedly different from that of the other members of the genus and this is coupled with small but consistent morphological differences.T. krugerensis sp. n. is known to occur only on a portion of the western fringe of the vast sandveld areas of Mozambique, but possibly has a much wider distribution. Mating call, calling behaviour, eggs, early development and defence mechanisms are described. The affinities of the new form are discussed and the mating calls of other members of the genus are reviewed. Mating call is again shown to be a sensitive non-morphological taxonomic tool.

  2. Vicariance and Its Impact on the Molecular Ecology of a Chinese Ranid Frog Species-Complex (Odorrana schmackeri, Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongmin; Wu, Xiaoyou; Zhang, Huabin; Yan, Peng; Xue, Hui; Wu, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    Paleogeological events and Pleistocene climatic fluctuations have had profound influences on the genetic patterns and phylogeographic structure of species in southern China. In this study, we investigated the population genetic structure and Phylogeography of the Odorrana schmackeri species complex, mountain stream-dwelling odorous frogs, endemic to southern China. We obtained mitochondrial sequences (1,151bp) of the complete ND2 gene and two flanking tRNAs of 511 individuals from 25 sites for phylogeographic analyses. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed seven divergent evolutionary lineages, with mean pairwise (K2P) sequence distances from 7.8% to 21.1%, except for a closer ND2 distance (3.4%). The complex geological history of southern China drove matrilineal divergence in the O. schmackeri species complex into highly structured geographical units. The first divergence between lineage A+B and other lineages (C-G) had likely been influenced by the uplift of coastal mountains of Southeast China during the Mio-Pliocene period. The subsequent divergences between the lineages C-G may have followed the formation of the Three Gorges and the intensification of the East Asian summer monsoon during the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene. Demographic analyses indicated that major lineages A and C have been experienced recent population expansion (c. 0.045-0.245 Ma) from multiple refugia prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Molecular analysis suggest that these seven lineages may represent seven different species, three described species and four cryptic species and should at least be separated into seven management units corresponding to these seven geographic lineages for conservation.

  3. The novel antimicrobial peptides from skin of Chinese broad-folded frog, Hylarana latouchii (Anura:Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Lu, Yi; Zhang, Xiuqing; Hu, Yuhong; Yu, Haining; Liu, Jingze; Sun, Junshe

    2009-02-01

    Broad-folded frogs (Hylarana latouchii), one member of 12 species of the genus Hylarana in the Chinese frog fauna, are widely distributed in the South of China. In this study, we purified and characterized three antimicrobial peptides from the skin secretion of H. latouchii. Five different cDNA fragments encoding the precursors of these antimicrobial peptides were cloned, and five mature antimicrobial peptides belonging to two different families were deduced from the five cDNAs. Structural characterization of the mature peptides had identified them as members of the brevinin-1 and temporin families. They were named brevinin-1LTa (FFGTALKIAANVLPTAICKILKKC), brevinin-1LTb (FFGTALKIAANILPTAICKILKKC), temporin-LTa (FFPLVLGALGSILPKIF-NH(2)), temporin-LTb (FIITGLVRGLTKLF-NH(2)) and temorin-LTc (SLSRFLSFLKIVYPPAF-NH(2)). Brevinin-1LTa, temporin-LTa, temporin-LTb and temporin-LTc with different antimicrobial activities induced significant morphological alterations of the tested microbial surfaces as shown by scanning electron microscopy, which indicated strong membrane disruption.

  4. Systematics and biogeography of the Hylarana frog (Anura: Ranidae) radiation across tropical Australasia, Southeast Asia, and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Lauren A; Prendini, Elizabeth; Kraus, Fred; Raxworthy, Christopher J

    2015-09-01

    We present an inclusive molecular phylogeny for Hylarana across its global distribution, utilizing two mitochondrial and four nuclear gene regions for 69 of the 97 currently described species. We use phylogenetic methods to test monophyly of Hylarana, determine relationships among ten putative subgenera, identify major clades, reconstruct biogeographic history, and estimate continental dispersal dates. Results support Hylarana as a monophyletic group originating approximately 26.9MYA and comprising eight clades that partly correspond to currently described subgenera plus two new groups. The African and Australasian species each form clades embedded within a paraphyletic Southeast Asian group. We estimate that Africa and Australasia were colonized by Hylarana s.l. from SE Asia approximately 18.7 and 10.8MYA, respectively. Biogeographic reconstructions also support three separate colonization events in India from Southeast Asia. Examination of museum specimens identified morphological characters useful for delineating subgenera and species. We herein elevate all supported subgenera to genus rank and formally describe two new genera to produce a revised taxonomy congruent with our new phylogenetic and biogeographic findings.

  5. Identification and characterization of novel host defense peptides from the skin secretion of the fungoid frog, Hydrophylax bahuvistara (Anura: Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vineeth Kumar, Thundi Parambil Vasanth Kumar; Asha, Radhamony; Shyla, Gopal; George, Sanil

    2017-01-10

    Two novel peptides (brevinin1 HYba1 and brevinin1 HYba2) were identified from the skin secretion of the frog Hydrophylax bahuvistara, endemic to Western Ghats, India, and their amino acid sequences were confirmed using cDNA cloning and LC/MS/MS. Antibacterial, hemolytic, and cytotoxic activities of brevinin1 peptides and their synthetic analogs (amidated C-terminus) were investigated and compared. All the peptides except the acidic forms showed antibacterial activity against all tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. They exhibited low hemolysis on human erythrocytes and showed potent cytotoxic activity against Hep 3B cancer cell line. Upon amidation, the peptides showed increased activity against the tested microbes without altering their hemolytic and cytotoxic properties. The study also emphasizes the need for screening endemic amphibian fauna of Western Ghats, as a potential source of host defense peptides with possible therapeutic applications in the future.

  6. Carbaryl-induced histopathologic alterations in the digestive tract of the Levantine frog, Pelophylax bedriagae (Anura: Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakici, Özlem

    2014-08-01

    In this study, histopathologic changes following carbaryl exposure for 96 hr were investigated in the digestive tract of Levantine frog, Pelophylax bedriagae. Adult frogs were exposed to carbaryl once by oral gavage in concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/g. Histopathological changes were more prominent in medium- (0.1 mg/g) and high-dose (0.2 mg/g) groups than in the low-dose (0.05 mg/g) group. Esophageal cells showed vacuolization, cellular swelling, nuclear pyknosis, karyolysis, and necrosis. Additionally, esophageal glandular atrophy and infiltration of inflammatory cells around esophageal glands were observed at medium and high doses. In the stomach, there were prominent histopathologic defects such as cellular swelling and necrosis in gastric glands, necrotic cells within the interstitial spaces, separation of epithelial cell layer, congested vessels, and hemorrhage at medium and high doses. In the intestine, detachment of epithelial layer, epithelial cell disorganization, inflammation, and necrosis were detected at medium and high doses. The results of this study showed that carbaryl caused adverse effects on the digestive tract of the Levantine frog, P. bedriagae.

  7. A new species of Tomopterna (Anura: Ranidae from the Kruger National Park, with notes on related species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Passmore

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Tomoptema, T. krugerensis, sp. n., has been recorded from the Kruger National Park, Republic of South Africa.Morphologically it is very similar to T. delalandei cryptotis (Boulenger but the mating call is markedly different from that of the other members of the genus and this is coupled with small but consistent morphological differences.T. krugerensis sp. n. is known to occur only on a portion of the western fringe of the vast sandveld areas of Mozambique, but possibly has a much wider distribution. Mating call, calling behaviour, eggs, early development and defence mechanisms are described. The affinities of the new form are discussed and the mating calls of other members of the genus are reviewed. Mating call is again shown to be a sensitive non-morphological taxonomic tool.

  8. Oviduct modifications in foam-nesting frogs, with emphasis on the genus Leptodactylus (Amphibia, Leptodactylidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, Andrew I.; McDiarmid, Roy W.; Heyer, W. Ronald; Zug, George R.

    2010-01-01

    Various species of frogs produce foam nests that hold their eggs during development. We examined the external morphology and histology of structures associated with foam nest production in frogs of the genus Leptodactylus and a few other taxa. We found that the posterior convolutions of the oviducts in all mature female foam-nesting frogs that we examined were enlarged and compressed into globular structures. This organ-like portion of the oviduct has been called a "foam gland" and these structures almost certainly produce the secretion that is beaten by rhythmic limb movements into foam that forms the nest. However, the label "foam gland" is a misnomer because the structures are simply enlarged and tightly folded regions of the pars convoluta of the oviduct, rather than a separate structure; we suggest the name pars convoluta dilata (PCD) for this feature. Although all the foam-nesters we examined had a pars convoluta dilata, its size and shape showed considerable interspecific variation. Some of this variation likely reflects differences in the breeding behaviors among species and in the size, type, and placement of their foam nests. Other variation, particularly in size, may be associated with the physiological periodicity and reproductive state of the female, her age, and/or the number of times she has laid eggs.

  9. Reduced genetic variation in the Japanese giant salamander, Andrias japonicus (Amphibia: Caudata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Masafumi; Tominaga, Atsushi; Liu, Wan-zhao; Tanaka-Ueno, Tomoko

    2008-10-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among 46 samples from 27 populations of the Japanese giant salamander, Andriasjaponicus and its congener, A. davidianus from China was investigated, using 3664 bp sequences of the mitochondrial genes NADH1, NADH3, cyt b and CR, partial NADH6 and intervening genes. In phylogenetic trees constructed by MP, ML, and Bayesian methods, the family Cryptobranchidae and the genus Andrias both form monophyletic groups. Japanese A. japonicus and Chinese A. davidianus are sister taxa and can be regarded as separate species despite a small degree of genetic differentiation. Andriasjaponicus is divided into central and western clades, but the phylogenetic relationships within the latter clade are unresolved. As previously reported from allozyme analyses, A. japonicus exhibits little genetic differentiation, in strong contrast to salamanders of the genus Hynobius with which their distributions overlap. This reduced genetic variability in A. japonicus is attributable to a unique mating system of polygyny, delayed sexual maturity, notable longevity, life in a stable aquatic environment, and gigantism, as well as bottleneck effects following habitat fragmentation and extinction of local populations during Quaternary glaciations. The species is thus susceptible to extinction by potential environmental fluctuations, and requires extensive conservation measures.

  10. Morphological re-evaluation of the parotoid glands of Bufo ictericus (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, de P.G.; Felsemburgh, F.A.; Azevedo, R.A.; Brito-Gitirana, de L.

    2007-01-01

    Multicellular glands in the amphibian integument represent a signifi cant evolutionary advance over those of fi shes. Bufonids have parotoid glands, symmetrically disposed in a post-orbital position. Their secretion may contribute to protection against predators and parasites. This study provides a

  11. Morfohistología testicular de Ceratophrys ornata (Bell (Amphibia, Anura, Ceratophryidae

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    Fernando Carezzano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se describen las características morfohistológicas del testículo de individuos adultos (n=5 de Ceratophrys ornata (Bell, 1843 provenientes de humedales del centro de Argentina. Los mismos se procesaron mediante técnicas histológicas de rutina, se cortaron a 8 µm y las láminas obtenidas se tiñeron con hematoxilina-eosina y tricrómico de Masson. Las gónadas son órganos pares, amarillentos, alargados y contorneados de 18,58 ± 0,23 mm de largo por 1,51 ± 0,13 mm de ancho. Histológicamente se observa una delgada túnica albugínea (6,29 ± 0,83 µm rodeando a los testículos. En su interior se hallan lóculos seminíferos que miden 240,64 ± 38,52 µm de diámetro, en ellos se distinguen cistos con células espermatogénicas en distintas etapas de desarrollo. El tejido intersticial es escaso y en él se destacan las células de Leydig y vasos sanguíneos. Las espermatogonias I son las células más grandes de la serie germinal (20,03 ± 2,27 µm; poseen la cromatina granular y de aspecto multilobular, hallándose comúnmente una por cisto, estas originan a las espermatogonias II, más pequeñas (12,06 ± 1,14 µm. Los espermatocitos I presentan la cromatina levemente condensada y son un poco más chicos que sus precedentes (11,64 ± 0,36 µm. Los espermatocitos II miden 8,85 ± 0,54 µm. Las espermátidas I son esféricas, miden 5,95 ± 0,42 µm y se agrupan en cistos redondeados. Las espermátidas II, en cambio son alargadas y no se hallan dentro de cistos, pero siguen organizadas en paquetes asociadas a células de Sertoli. Los espermatozoides son células libres hacia el centro del lóculo, alargadas, flageladas y con una notable compactación nuclear. La morfohistología de los testículos analizados muestran características macroscópicas e histológicas similares a las observadas en otras especies de anfibios anuros neotropicales, presentando todas las células del linaje espermatogénico en un mismo lóculo, lo que indicaría que presentan ciclos espermatogénicos continuos.

  12. Morphology, Ecology and Biogeography of the South American Caecilian Chthonerpeton Indistinctum (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Typhlonectidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gudynas, E.; Williams, J.D.; Mercedes Azpelicueta, de las M.

    1988-01-01

    This study of Chthonerpeton indistinctum (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1861) considers 25 morphometric characters, teeth-counts and sex, based on 96 specimens. A multivariate analysis of characters and comparisons of geographically arranged samples is carried out by graphic and statistical methods. No trends

  13. Muscle development in the abdominal region of larval Hylidae (Amphibia: Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, A S; Perotti, M G

    1999-09-01

    Larval muscle development in the abdominal region of five species of hylid frogs (Scinax nasicum, S. fuscovarium, Hyla andina, Phyllomedusa boliviana, Gastrotheca gracilis) was studied using differential staining techniques. These five species represent three major hylid subfamilies. The development of the main abdominal muscles, the rectus abdominis, the two lateral muscles (obliquus externus and transversus), and the lateral pectoralis abdominalis is described. The number of myotomes of the rectus abdominis varies between five and six, and the abdominal muscles associated with the rectus abdominis (obliquus externus, pectoralis abdominalis, and rectus cervicis) vary interspecifically in time of appearance and configuration. The presence of gaps in the configuration of the rectus abdominis has been related to the lotic habits of the larvae. However, our observations indicate the presence of such gaps in larvae that inhabit lentic environments as well. These results suggest that the presence of these gaps is unrelated to larval habitat. There are relatively small differences in muscle morphology among these closely related species, which apparently cannot be explained by morphological adaptations related to their ecology. In the species studied, the number of elements that form the abdominal musculature in larvae is equal to that observed in adults. Likewise, the general morphology of the muscles is ontogenetically conserved. This suggests that both the axial skeleton and musculature are more ontogenetically conserved in relation to the substantial changes that are observed in the skull and head muscles of developing anurans.

  14. Description of a new species of the genus Adenomera (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae from French Guiana

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    Renaud Boistel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of the genus Adenomera from French Guiana. Collecting conditions, details about the localities and microhabitats are given. The advertisement call was recorded and is herein analyzed and described. Morphological and bioacoustic comparisons are drawn with other species of the genus. The new species is readily distinguished from other taxa by its distinctive coloration pattern, the occurrence of dorsolateral ridges and inguinal glands, and by the longer duration of the notes of its advertisement call. The taxonomy of Adenomera is evaluated with regard to current available knowledge.

  15. Temporal changes in cutaneous bacterial communities of terrestrial- and aquatic-phase newts (Amphibia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino-Pinto, Joana; Galán, Pedro; Rodríguez, Silvia; Bletz, Molly C; Bhuju, Sabin; Geffers, Robert; Jarek, Michael; Vences, Miguel

    2017-08-01

    Animal-associated bacterial communities play essential roles for their host's ecology, physiology and health. Temporal dynamics of these communities are poorly understood, but might be of high relevance for amphibians with a well-expressed biphasic biology of adults where the structure of their skin changes drastically between the aquatic and terrestrial phases. Here, we investigated the temporal dynamics of cutaneous bacterial communities of Lissotriton boscai and Triturus marmoratus by monthly sampling populations from a pond and surrounding terrestrial habitats near A Coruña, Spain. These communities were characterized by 16S rRNA gene amplicons from DNA isolated from skin swabs. Newt bacterial communities displayed variation at three levels: between larvae and aquatic adults, between adult life phases (terrestrial versus aquatic), and temporally within life phases. The skin bacterial communities tended to differ to a lesser extent temporally and between larvae and adults, and more strongly between life phases. Larvae had a higher proportion of reads associated with antifungal taxa compared with adults, while no differences were found among adult life phases. Terrestrial specimens exhibited the highest community diversity. The regular transitions of adult newts between aquatic and terrestrial environments might contribute to the diversity of their skin microbiota and could increase disease resistance. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Schellackia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae of the brazilian tree-frog, Phrynohyas venulosa (Amphibia: Anura from Amazonian Brazil

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    I. Paperna

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous stages of a Schellackia species are described in histological sections of the intestine of the tree-frog, Phrynohyas venulosa, from North Brazil. Most oocysts sporulate within the epithelial cells of the gut, but a few were detected in the lamina propria.

  17. A new species of tree frog genus Rhacophorus from Sumatra, Indonesia Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidy, Amir; Kurniati, Hellen

    2015-04-14

    A small-sized tree frog of the genus Rhacophorus is described on the basis of 18 specimens collected from three different localities on Sumatra Island, Indonesia. Rhacophorus indonesiensis sp. nov. is divergent from all other Rhacophorus species genetically and morphologically. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of: the presence of black spots on the ventral surfaces of the hand and foot webbing, an absence of vomerine teeth, a venter with a white kite-shaped marking, raised white spots on the dorsum or on the head, and a reddish brown dorsum with irregular dark brown blotches and distinct black dots. With the addition of this new species, fifteen species of Rhacophorus are now known from Sumatra, the highest number of species of this genus in the Sundaland region. However, with the increasing conversion of forest to oil palm cultivation or mining, the possibility of the extinction of newly described or as yet undiscovered species is of great concern.

  18. A tiny new species of Platypelis from the Marojejy National Park in northeastern Madagascar (Amphibia: Microhylidae

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    Miguel Vences

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a tiny new frog species of the genus Platypelis (Anura: Microhylidae: Cophylinae from Marojejy National Park, northeastern Madagascar. Platypelis ravus sp. nov. differs from all other known Platypelis and Cophyla species by its small size (17-19 mm snout-vent length and a combination of other morphological and bioacoustic characters. The new species seems to be most closely related to P. milloti with which it shares the principal colour pattern, but exhibits a yellow rather than red posterior venter. Uncorrected pairwise sequence divergence in a 16S rRNA gene fragment to all other known species of the genus (except P. cowanii for which no genetic data is available is greater than 6%. We suggest the inclusion of the new species in the IUCN threat category “Data Deficient”.

  19. Two new Salamanders of the genus Onychodactylus from Eastern Honshu, Japan (Amphibia, Caudata, Hynobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Natsuhiko; Matsui, Masafumi

    2014-09-22

    We describe two new species of hynobiid salamanders in the genus Onychodactylus from eastern Honshu, Japan, based on the morphological and genetic evidence. Onychodactylus intermedius sp. nov. is distributed in southern part of Tohoku District and northern Ibaraki and Niigata Prefectures, and was previously reported as S-Tohoku group. Onychodactylus intermedius belongs to the O. japonicus species complex, and differs from the other congeners in having relatively long tail, narrow head, short snout, 18 presacral vertebrae, and distinctly curved vomerine tooth series without gap. Onychodactylus fuscus sp. nov. is known from only four localities in Fukushima and Niigata Prefectures of Tohoku and Hokuriku Districts. It also belongs to the O. japonicus complex, but lacks the dorsal stripe, which is a diagnostic character of the species complex. In other characteristics, O. fuscus differs from the other congeners in having comparatively long tail, wide head and internarial space, shallowly curved vomerine tooth series with gap, and relatively few vomerine teeth. Both species described here breed in winter. Phylogenetically, the two new species are closely related to each other, forming a well-supported clade with O. tsukubaensis as their sister species. Onychodactylus intermedius sp. nov. is known to be parapatric with O. japonicus and O. nipponoborealis without hybridization, whereas O. fuscus sp. nov. is sympatric with O. japonicus at least in a single known locality, and analysis of microsatellite loci indicates they are reproductively isolated.

  20. The skull structure of six species of Mesoamerican plethodontid salamanders (Amphibia, Urodela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehmcke, Jens; Clemen, Günter

    2003-06-01

    The skulls of six species of plethodontid salamanders of the genus Bolitoglossa from Costa Rica and Panama, Bolitoglossa colonnea, B. dofleini, B. lignicolor, B. marmorea, B. schizodactyla and B. striatula are comparatively analysed. All species are terrestrial or slightly arboreal and show no life-mode-dependent skull characteristics. Heads cleared by transparent preparation and stained in toto were used for examination of the skull structure and paraffin sections of the gonads were prepared to confirm sexual maturity of each individual. Focussing on the size of the premaxillary pars dentalis, the degree of fusion of the processus dorsales praemaxillares and the presence or absence of the paired prefrontals we state that B. dofleini and B. striatula possess more ancestral characteristics, B. marmorea is situated in an intermediate position and B. colonnea, B. lignicolor and B. schizodactyla show more advanced characteristics.

  1. Gender-dependent dimorphic teeth in four species of Mesoamerican plethodontid salamanders (Urodela, Amphibia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehmcke, Jens; Wistuba, Joachim; Clemen, Günter

    2004-06-01

    The tooth shapes of premaxillary and maxillary teeth of adults of four Mesoamerican salamander species (Urodela, Plethodontidae) were examined. Using scanning electron microscopy we determined whether the monocuspid teeth that are present only on the premaxillary of sexually mature males belong to the conical, unbladed, monocuspid tooth type found in urodele larvae or whether they represent morphological variations of the typical, bladed, bicuspid teeth of metamorphosed individuals. The teeth of some studied species are, in fact, unbladed and in some cases show one very reduced tip. But none of the studied teeth is per definitionem monocuspid and no tooth shows an enameloid layer between dentine shaft and enamel cap, which is always present in the teeth of early urodele larvae. The "monocuspid" teeth of adult males of Mesoamerican plethodontid salamanders have to be considered a morphological variation of the metamorphosed, bicuspid tooth type typical for metamorphosed urodeles.

  2. Three new species of the salamander genus Hynobius (Amphibia, Urodela, Hynobiidae) from Kyushu, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Kanto; Matsui, Masafumi

    2014-08-14

    Three new species of lotic breeding Hynobius, formerly assigned to H. boulengeri, are described from the Kyushu region, southwestern Japan. They differ from all the known congeners by a unique combination of body size, character ratios, coloration, mtDNA, and allozymic characteristics. Together with H. stejnegeri they form a clade, which is not a sister group of H. boulengeri, and their speciation in Kyushu is surmised to have occurred at the end of Miocene, accompanied by differentiations in larval period and metamorphosing size. Measures of conservation of these new species are discussed briefly. 

  3. Two new species of Salamanders, Genus Bolitoglossa (Amphibia: Plethodontidae), from the Eastern Colombian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Aldemar A; Wake, David B; Márquez, Roberto; Silva, Karen; Franco, Rosmery; Amézquita, Adolfo

    2013-01-25

    The salamander fauna of Colombia is very poorly known, probably because most research efforts have been devoted to anurans during the last two decades. Here, we describe two new species of the genus Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) from the eastern flank of the Eastern Colombian Andes (Cordillera Oriental), near the border with Venezuela. Bolitoglossa tamaense sp. nov. is distributed between 2000 to 2700 m.a.s.l. and Bolitoglossa leandrae sp. nov. is distributed in the low-lands at about 600 m. The new species are diagnosed by a combination of molecular (16S rRNA sequences), coloration, body size, and morphometric (number of maxillary and vomerine teeth and differences in foot webbing) characters. Both species face threats such as chytridiomycosis infections and habitat fragmentation that have already affected other sala-manders in the country. Thus, intensive field and museum work is needed to better document and perhaps protect the local salamander diversity.

  4. A new species of Noblella (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae from the humid montane forests of Cusco, Peru

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    Alessandro Catenazzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Noblella is described from the humid montane forest of the Región Cusco in Peru. Specimens were collected at 2330–2370 m elevation in Madre Selva, near Santa Ana, in the province of La Convención. The new species is readily distinguished from all other species of Noblella by having a broad, irregularly shaped, white mark on black background on chest and belly. The new species further differs from known Peruvian species of Noblella by the combination of the following characters: tympanic membrane absent, small tubercles on the upper eyelid and on dorsum, tarsal tubercles or folds absent, tips of digits not expanded, no circumferential grooves on digits, dark brown facial mask and lateral band extending from the tip of the snout to the inguinal region. The new species has a snout-to-vent length of 15.6 mm in one adult male and 17.6 mm in one adult female. Like other recently described species in the genus, this new Noblella inhabits high-elevation forests in the Andes and likely has a restricted geographic distribution.

  5. Caracterización de Hyla guentheri Boulenger 1886 (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae

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    Langone, José A.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Del análisis del holotipo de H. guentheri se concluye que esta es una especie válida y diferente de Hyla pulchella. Se verifica la identidad del holotipo y se descartan otros ejemplares asignados a la serie tipo de esta especie. Del estudio se deduce que H. guentheri es conocida de unas pocas localidades de los estados brasileños de Rio Grande do Sul y Santa Catarina. Sus relaciones filogenéticas no son claras y dependen de una definición formal de los grupos polytaenia y pulchella. Analysis of the holotype of H. guentheri indicates that it is a valid species and different from Hyla pulchella. The identity of the holotype is verified and other specimens incorrectly assigned to the type series of this species are rejected as syntypes. At present H. guentheri is known from the Brazilian States of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catharina. The phylogenetic relationships of this species are not clear and depend on a formal definition of the polytaenia and pulchella groups.

  6. Histology of the kidney and urinary bladder of Siphonops annulatus (Amphibia-Gymnophiona).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, E T; Junqueira, L C

    1999-03-01

    The histology of the kidney and urinary bladder of Siphonops annulatus was studied by light microscopy in semithin sections of tissue embedded in hydrophilic resin. The kidney's nephron comprises the renal corpuscle, neck segment, proximal tubule, intermediate segment, distal tubule and collecting tubule. Nephrostomes are present. This structure, the neck segment, and intermediate tubules present long cilia, and probably play important roles in the propulsion of the peritoneal fluid and glomerular filtrate. The proximal tubule cells possess loosely packed microvilli and contain abundant polymorphic granules and vesicles that assume the aspect of lysosomes in different stages of intracellular digestion. The distal tubules are characterized by large, vertically disposed mitochondria assuming the aspect of ions transporting cells. The urinary bladder is lined with a transitional epithelium, whose aspect varies according to the quantity of urine.

  7. Histology of the trachea and lung of Siphonops annulatus (Amphibia, Gymnophiona).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehne, B; Junqueira, L C

    2000-02-01

    The structure of the trachea and lung of Siphonops annulatus was studied in ten specimens of routinely fed animals. The trachea is constituted mainly by incomplete cartilage rings lined by a respiratory epithelium (ciliated and mucous cells) with variable morphology according to the region observed. A rich vascularization of this organ suggests its participation in blood-air gas exchange. The right lung in this species is developed and the left one is atrophied. This organ is constituted mainly by longitudinal septa formed by connective tissue, smooth muscle cells and blood capillaries. These structures are covered by pneumocytes of one type only, which present cytoplasmic particles that have been related with surfactant activity described in the lung of Gymnophiona.

  8. Molecular cloning and analysis of Myc modulator 1 (Mm-1 from Bufo gargarizans (Amphibia: Anura

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    Ning Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The protein of Myc modulator 1 (Mm-1 has been reported to repress the transcriptional activity of the proto-oncogene c-Myc in humans. Moreover, it was shown to be the subunit 5 of human prefoldin (PFD. So far, this gene and its homologs have been isolated and sequenced in many organisms, such as mammals and fish, but has not been sequenced for any amphibian or reptile. In order to better understand the function and evolution of Mm-1, we isolated a full-length Mm-1 cDNA (BgMm-1, GenBank accession no. EF211947 from Bufo gargarizans (Cantor, 1842 using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Mm-1 in B. gargarizans is 755 bp long, comprising an open reading frame (ORF of 459 bp encoding 152 amino acids. The amino acid sequence had a prefoldin α-like domain, partially including a typical putative leucine zipper motif. BgMm-1 showed high similarity to its homolog of Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 (82% and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 MM-1 isoform a (81% at the amino acid level. The protein secondary structure modeled with the SWISS MODEL server revealed that there were two α-helices and four b-strands in BgMm-1 as its human orthologue, and both proteins belonged to the a class of PFD family. The phylogenetic relationships of Mm-1s from lower archaea to high mammals was consistent with the evolution of species, meanwhile the cluster result was consistent with the multiple alignment and the sequence identity analysis. RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that BgMm-1 expressed widely in ten tissues of adult toad. These results can be helpful for the further investigation on the evolution of Mm-1.

  9. Organophosphorus pesticides effect on early stages of the axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum (Amphibia: Caudata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Mendoza, C; García-Basilio, C; Cram-Heydrich, S; Hernández-Quiroz, M; Vanegas-Pérez, C

    2009-02-01

    Ambystoma mexicanum is an endemic salamander of Xochimilco, a wetland of the basin of Mexico valley. Nowadays, axolotl populations are decreasing due environmental stressors. Particularly, studies about organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs; i.e. chlorpyrifos and malathion) toxicity are of great importance due to their intensive use in agricultural activities in Xochimilco. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate under controlled conditions the toxicity of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and malathion (MLT) on embryos and larvae (stage 44 and 54) of A. mexicanum. Embryos and larvae were exposure 96h from 0.5 to 3mg CPFL(-1) and from 10 to 30mg MLTL(-1) in independent tests. Embryos at the end of this period were maintained 9d without pesticide in order to identify possible recuperation. Differences obtained in mortality, hatching success, development, morphological abnormalities, behaviour and activity, suggest that toxicity of CPF and MLT differs in embryos and larval stages. Embryos were less sensitive to OPPs acute exposure than axolotl larvae; additionally, toxicity of CPF in larval stages was greater than MLT. On the other hand, data obtained in axolotl embryos during the period of recuperation to CPF in particular as delay and inhibition of development, malformations and success of hatching, indicated that these responses turned out more sensitive than mortality. This study allowed to identify the toxicological potential of OPPs on early developmental stages of A. mexicanum and it is a valuable contribution for the future management of the axolotl wild population.

  10. Una nueva especie del grupo Hyloscirtus larinopygion (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae del suroccidente de Colombia

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    Jonh Jairo Mueses-Cisneros

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva especie del grupo Hyloscirtus larinopygion del Nudo de los Pastos en el departamento de Nariño, Colombia. Hyloscirtus tigrinus sp. nov. puede ser distinguida fácilmente de sus especies similares por la presencia de un tubérculo calcar carnoso y prominente, además de su distintivo patrón de coloración. Se realizan algunos comentarios sobre la coloración de la garganta y coloración ventral en Hyloscirtus caucanus, H. larinopygion, H. lindae y H. tigrinus. La coloración de la garganta es altamente variable, por lo tanto no puede ser utilizada para diagnosticar a estas especies.A new species of the Hyloscirtus larinopygion group from Nudo de los Pastos, Nariño department, Colombia is described. Hyloscirtus tigrinus sp. nov. can be distinguished easily from similar species by the presence of a fleshy and prominent calcar tubercle and by its distinctive color pattern. Some remarks on throat and ventral coloration in Hyloscirtus caucanus, H. larinopygion, H. lindae and H. tigrinus are presented. The throat coloration is highly variable and cannot be used to diagnose any of these species.

  11. Natural history of Holoaden luederwaldti (Amphibia: Strabomantidae: Holoadeninae in southeastern of Brazil

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    Itamar A. Martins

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the rediscovery of Holoaden luederwaldti Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920 and provides information on the distribution, sexual dimorphism, reproduction and vocalization of a population of this species in Campos do Jordão, São Paulo (southeastern Brazil. Sampling was carried out in the Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão (PECJ from October 2005 through December 2008. Collecting was conducted using pitfall traps with a drift-fence on different altitudinal gradients (1,540 m, 1,780 m and 2,000 m a.s.l.. Fifty-two specimens of H. luederwaldti were collected in the PECJ. The mean snout-vent length (SVL was 36.17 mm for males and 42.61 mm for females, indicating sexual dimorphism in body size. Holoaden luederwaldti occurred during the warm-rainy months. The population was distributed between 1500 and 2000 m, and the greater abundance was registered in well preserved forest areas. Mature females contained from 36 to 41 oocytes and the mean of oocyte diameter was 3.72 mm. The advertisement call of H. luederwaldti consists of simple notes composed of three harmonics. The record of the population of H. luederwaldti in the PECJ has reinforced the importance of investigating different areas of the forest when conducting faunal surveys.

  12. Redescription of the advertisement call of Physalaemus albifrons (Spix, 1824) (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederassi, Jonas; Lima, Mauro Sérgio Cruz Souza; Caramaschi, Ulisses; Souza, Patrícia Dos Santos; Santos, Mayra Caroliny De Oliveira; Silva, Islaíane Costa

    2015-08-03

    The genus Physalaemus Fitzinger, 1826 is composed by 46 species occurring from north to southern South America, east of the Andes (Frost 2015). Physalaemus albifrons is morphologically differentiated from the other species mainly due to the presence of a second tarsal tubercle located nearly the tibio-tarsal articulation (Bokermann 1966). Physalaemus albifrons occurs in Brazil from north of the State of Maranhão through the states of Piauí, Ceará, Bahia, Paraíba, Pernambuco, and Alagoas, being its more austral occurrence in the State of Minas Gerais (Frost 2015). The advertisement call of P. albifrons was described by Bokermann (1966); however, the description needs improvement by applying new technologies, which we provide herein.

  13. Notes on the taxonomy of some Glassfrogs from the Andes of Peru and Ecuador (Amphibia: Centrolenidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F; Guayasamin, Juan M

    2014-01-01

    We present new information on several species of centrolenid frogs from Ecuador and Peru that justify the placement of Centrolene fernandoi Duellman and Schulte as a junior synonym of Centrolenella...

  14. Notes on the taxonomy of some Glassfrogs from the Andes of Peru and Ecuador (Amphibia: Centrolenidae

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    Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present new information on several species of centrolenid frogs from Ecuador and Peru that justify the placement of Centrolene fernandoi Duellman and Schulte as a junior synonym of Centrolenella audax Lynch and Duellman; Centrolenella puyoensis Flores & McDiarmid as a synonym of Centrolenella mariae Duellman & Toft; and Cochranella tangarana Duellman & Schulte as a synonym of Cochranella saxiscandens Duellman & Schulte.

  15. Morphological re-evaluation of the parotoid glands of Bufo ictericus (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, de P.G.; Felsemburgh, F.A.; Azevedo, R.A.; Brito-Gitirana, de L.

    2007-01-01

    Multicellular glands in the amphibian integument represent a signifi cant evolutionary advance over those of fi shes. Bufonids have parotoid glands, symmetrically disposed in a post-orbital position. Their secretion may contribute to protection against predators and parasites. This study provides a

  16. Comparative cytogenetic studies of Bufo ictericus, B. paracnemis (Amphibia, Anura and an intermediate form in sympatry

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    Azevedo MFC

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Bufo ictericus, Bufo paracnemis and a third type, considered an intermediate subgroup between these species, were cytogenetically studied by conventional Giemsa staining, C-banding and staining of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR. The nuclear DNA content and seroproteins were also analyzed to characterize these species, and verify the possibility of hybridization between them. Karyotypes and cytogenetic markers were essentially equal on the basis of the methods used. The DNA nuclear content found was 6.25 ± 0.30 pg/DNA in Bufo ictericus; 7.57 ± 0.40 pg/DNA in Bufo paracnemis and 7.04 ± 0.29 pg/DNA in the intermediate subgroup. Eletrophoresis of total blood serum in Bufo ictericus, Bufo paracnemis and the intermediate specimens revealed a remarkable difference in the patterns of the protein bands whose molecular weight corresponded to that of albumin. While the parental species presented two different bands, the intermediate form presented 4. However, only three of these bands were seen in each specimen. The results obtained pointed to a high probability for natural hybridization between Bufo ictericus and Bufo paracnemis in the site and specimens studied.

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome of Nanorana pleskei (Amphibia: Anura: Dicroglossidae) and evolutionary characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guiying CHEN; Bin WANG; Jiongyu LIU; Feng XIE; Jianping JIANG

    2011-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Nanorana pleskei from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was sequenced.It includes 17,660 base pairs,containing 13 protein-coding genes,two rRNAs and 23 tRNAs.A tandem duplication of tRNAMet gene was found in this mitochondrial genome,and the similarity between the two tRNAMet genes is 85.8%,being the highest in amphibian mitochondrial genomes sequenced thus far.Based on gene organization,24 types were found from 145 amphibian mitochondrial genomes.Type 1 was present in 108 species,type 11 in 11 species,types 5,16,17,and 20 each in two species,and the others each present in one species.Fifteen types were found in Anura,being the most diversity in three orders of the Lissamphibia.Our phylogenetic results using 11 protein-coding gene sequences of 145 amphibian mitochondrial genomes strongly support the monophyly of the Lissamphibia,as well as its three orders,the Gymnophiona,Caudata,and Anura,among which the relationships were ((Gymnophiona (Caudata,Anura)).Based on the phylogenetic trees,type 1 was recognized as the ancestral type for amphibians,and type 11 was the synapomorphic type for the Neobatrachia.Gene rearrangements among lineages provide meaningful phylogenetic information.The rearrangement of the LTPF tRNA gene cluster and the translocation of the ND5 gene only found in the Neobatrachia support the monophyly of this group; similarly,the tandem duplication of the tRNAMet genes only found in the Dicroglossidae support the monophyly of this family [Current Zoology 57 (6):785-805,2011].

  18. A New Record of Kaloula (Amphibia:Anura:Microhylidae) in Shanghai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei ZHANG; Ben LI; Xiaoxiao SHU; Hanbin XIE; Enle PEI; Xiao YUAN; Yujie SUN; Tianhou WANG; Zhenghuan WANG

    2015-01-01

    We discovered a medium-sized species of narrow-mouthed frog of the genus Kaloula in June and September 2014 during municipal surveys of amphibians in Shanghai. Three narrow-mouthed frogs were collected in city drains of the Binjiang Forest Park, Shanghai. Based on subsequent examination and morphological characters, these specimens were identiifed as Kaloula borealis (Barbour, 1908). The species was mainly distributed in Northern China and Korea. It is a new amphibian record for Shanghai. We found the visible differences in male secondary sexual characteristics between our specimens and Beijing specimens. K. borealis was ifrst described inhabiting urban greenlands which could beneift amphibian conservation in urban and urbanizing areas.

  19. Updated distribution of hybrids between Lissotriton vulgaris and Lissotriton montandoni (Amphibia: Caudata: Salamandridae in Romania

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    Iulian Gherghel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lissotriton montandoni is an endemic newt species found only in the Carpathian Mountains and lives in sympatry with Lissotriton vulgaris in many aquatic habitats from the entire range of the former species in the Carpathian and Sudetes Mountains or in the hilly areas from the Subcarpathians. These two species usually generate hybrids where their parapatric ranges meet, especially along rivers that flow from the inside of the Carpathians, where valleys are used as ecological corridors by L. vulgaris. We surveyed several regions of the Eastern Carpathian Mountains between 2008 and 2011 and found 11 new populations of newts where hybrids between the two mentioned species were present. All new records of L. montandoni x L. vulgaris were described in the eastern part of the Eastern Carpathians, in Neamț County, a region known also from previous literature to be a ‘hot spot’ for hybrids between these two species. The present paper also presents an updated review of the distribution of Lissotriton hybrids in Romania.

  20. Amphibia, Anura, Cycloramphidae, Odontophrynus carvalhoi Savage and Cei, 1965: Distribution extension and geographic distribution map

    OpenAIRE

    Lisboa, Barnagleison Silva; da Silva, Ubiratan Gonçalves; Haddad, Célio Fernando Baptista

    2010-01-01

    We present the first record of Odontophrynus carvalhoi for the state of Alagoas, Brazil, and a distribution map for this species. This new record represents the nearest location to the Brazilian coast known for this species. © 2010 Check List and Authors.

  1. Natural history and distribution of Agalychnis craspedopus (Funkhouser, 1957) (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.; Cadle, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Aspects of reproductive behaviour, calls, clutch sizes, and larval morphology are described for Agalychnis craspedopus (Funkhouser, 1957). New distributional records extend the range of this species to southern Amazonian Peru. In most respects reproductive behaviour of A. craspedopus is similar to t

  2. A new species of Noblella (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from the humid montane forests of Cusco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenazzi, Alessandro; Uscapi, Vanessa; von May, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Noblella is described from the humid montane forest of the Región Cusco in Peru. Specimens were collected at 2330-2370 m elevation in Madre Selva, near Santa Ana, in the province of La Convención. The new species is readily distinguished from all other species of Noblella by having a broad, irregularly shaped, white mark on black background on chest and belly. The new species further differs from known Peruvian species of Noblella by the combination of the following characters: tympanic membrane absent, small tubercles on the upper eyelid and on dorsum, tarsal tubercles or folds absent, tips of digits not expanded, no circumferential grooves on digits, dark brown facial mask and lateral band extending from the tip of the snout to the inguinal region. The new species has a snout-to-vent length of 15.6 mm in one adult male and 17.6 mm in one adult female. Like other recently described species in the genus, this new Noblella inhabits high-elevation forests in the Andes and likely has a restricted geographic distribution.

  3. The tadpole of Scinax melanodactylus (Lourenço, Luna & Pombal Jr, 2014) (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Rafael Oliveira De; Napoli, Marcelo Felgueiras; Trevisan, Camila Costa; Camardelli, Milena; Dória, Thais Andrade Ferreira; Silva, Lucas Menezes

    2015-07-06

    Scinax melanodactylus is a small treefrog distributed within the Tropical Atlantic morphoclimatic domain (see Ab'Sáber 1977 for South American morphoclimatic domains), from northern Espírito Santo state to Sergipe state in Brazil (Lourenço et al. 2014). The species is usually found inhabiting herbaceous and shrubby xerophytic vegetation (e.g. terrestrial tank-bromeliads) from sandy plains of beach ridges known in Brazil as Restingas (see Rocha et al. 2007 for a Restinga definition), and also the edge of forest areas with temporary ponds and/or permanent lakes and streams near these environments (Bastazini et al. 2007, as Scinax agilis; Lourenço et al. 2014). Scinax melanodactylus is currently placed in the S. catharinae species group (Lourenço et al. 2014), which in turn is included in the S. catharinae clade (sensu Faivovich et al. 2005). The S. catharinae clade is currently comprised of 46 species, 33 placed in the catharinae group and 13 in the perpusillus group (Faivovich et al. 2010, Silva & Alves-da-Silva 2011, Lourenço et al. 2014, Frost 2015). From these, 32 species have tadpoles with external morphology and oral disc formerly described. Here, we describe the external morphology, oral disc and color patterns of the previously unknown tadpole of S. melanodactylus.

  4. Chronic Exposure to Cadmium Disrupts the Adrenal Gland Activity of the Newt Triturus carnifex (Amphibia, Urodela

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    Flaminia Gay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We intended to verify the safety of the freshwater values established for cadmium by the European Community and the Italian Ministry of Health in drinking water (5 μg/L and sewage waters (20 μg/L. Therefore, we chronically exposed the newt Triturus carnifex to 5 μg/L and 20 μg/L doses of cadmium, respectively, during 3 and 9 months and verified the effects on the adrenal gland. We evaluated the serum concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, corticosterone, aldosterone, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. During the 3-month exposure, both doses of cadmium decreased ACTH and corticosterone serum levels and increased aldosterone and epinephrine serum levels. During the 9-month exposure, the 5 μg/L dose decreased ACTH and increased aldosterone and epinephrine serum levels; the 20 μg/L dose decreased norepinephrine and epinephrine serum levels, without affecting the other hormones. It was concluded that (1 chronic exposure to the safety values established for cadmium disrupted the adrenal gland activity and (2 the effects of cadmium were related both to the length of exposure and the dose administered. Moreover, our results suggest probable risks to human health, due to the use of water contaminated by cadmium.

  5. Chronic Exposure to Cadmium Disrupts the Adrenal Gland Activity of the Newt Triturus carnifex (Amphibia, Urodela)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Flaminia; Laforgia, Vincenza; Caputo, Ivana; Esposito, Carla; Lepretti, Marilena

    2013-01-01

    We intended to verify the safety of the freshwater values established for cadmium by the European Community and the Italian Ministry of Health in drinking water (5 μg/L) and sewage waters (20 μg/L). Therefore, we chronically exposed the newt Triturus carnifex to 5 μg/L and 20 μg/L doses of cadmium, respectively, during 3 and 9 months and verified the effects on the adrenal gland. We evaluated the serum concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone, aldosterone, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. During the 3-month exposure, both doses of cadmium decreased ACTH and corticosterone serum levels and increased aldosterone and epinephrine serum levels. During the 9-month exposure, the 5 μg/L dose decreased ACTH and increased aldosterone and epinephrine serum levels; the 20 μg/L dose decreased norepinephrine and epinephrine serum levels, without affecting the other hormones. It was concluded that (1) chronic exposure to the safety values established for cadmium disrupted the adrenal gland activity and (2) the effects of cadmium were related both to the length of exposure and the dose administered. Moreover, our results suggest probable risks to human health, due to the use of water contaminated by cadmium. PMID:23971036

  6. Isolation and sequencing of the HMG domain of ten Sox genes from Odorrana schmackeri (Amphibia: Anura

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    Ning Wang

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Sox (SRY-related HMG-box genes encode a family of transcriptional regulators, which are characterized by a conserved 79-amino acid domain known as HMG-box. They play essential roles in a diverse range of processes including sex determination and the development of the central nervous system (CNS, neural crest and endoderm. In this paper, the HMG domain of ten distinct Sox gene family members (os-Sox2, os-Sox3a, os-Sox3b, os-Sox4, os-Sox11a, os-Sox11b, os-Sox14a, os-Sox14b, os-Sox21a, os-Sox21b were isolated from both male and female Odorrana schmackeri (Boettger, 1892 using PCR, and no sexual differences were found. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the HMG domain suggested that these ten Sox genes are members of the SoxB and SoxC groups. In addition, sequence analysis suggested that four Sox genes (os-Sox3, os-Sox11, os-Sox14, os-Sox21 were duplicated. The duplication-degeneration-complementation model should be implied to explain the evolution and diversity of the Sox gene family in O. schmackeri.

  7. Molecular cloning and expression patterns of the Vasa gene from Rana nigromaculata (Amphibia: Anura

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    Rui Jia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Vasa protein is a member of the DEAD (Asp-Glu-Alu-Asp box family of ATP-dependent RNA helicases. The Vasa gene is specifically expressed in germ-line cells of many metazoans and is known to play a critical role in gametogenesis and reproductive regulation. In this paper, we isolate the full length cDNA sequence of the Vasa gene from the frog Rana nigromaculata Hallowell, 1861. The open reading frame (ORF encoding 398 amino acid residues has nine conserved motifs. According to the similarities at the amino acid sequenceythe phylogenetic analysis of Vasa gene was consistent with the evolution relationships from chordates to mammals. Furthermore, the expression pattern analysis of RnVasa mRNA, using the technique of Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR, showed a high level of transcripts in testis, ovary and kidney, whereas little to no signal was detected in other tissues, which suggests that it may play a role during gametogenesis.

  8. A Molecular Assessment of Phylogenetic Relationships and LineageDiversification Within the Family Salamandridae (Amphibia, Caudata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisrock, David W.; Papenfuss, Theodore J.; Macey, J. Robert; Litvinchuk, Spartak N.; Polymeni, Rosa; Ugurtas, Ismail H.; Zhao, Ermi; Larson, Allan

    2005-08-08

    Phylogenetic relationships among species of the salamanderfamily Salamandridae are investigated using nearly 3000 nucleotide basesof newly reported mitochondrial DNA sequence data from the mtDNA genicregion spanning the genes tRNALeu-COI. This study uses nearlycomprehensive species-level sampling to provide the first completephylogeny for the Salamandridae. Deep phylogenetic relationships amongthe three most divergent lineages in the family Salamandrina terdigitata,a clade comprising the "True" salamanders, and a clade comprising allnewts except S. terdigitata are difficult to resolve. However, mostrelationships within the latter two lineages are resolved with robustlevels of branch support. The genera Euproctus and Triturus arestatistically shown to be nonmonophyletic, instead each contains adiverse set of lineages positioned within the large newt clade. The genusParamesotriton is also resolve as a nonmonophyletic group, with the newlydescribed species P. laoensis constituting a divergent lineage placed ina sister position to clade containing all Pachytriton species and allremaining Paramesotriton species. Sequence divergences between P.laoensis and other Paramesotriton species are as great as those comparingP. laoensis and species of the genera Cynops and Pachytriton. Analyses oflineage diversification across the Salamandridae indicate that, despiteits exceptional diversity, lineage accumulation appears to have beenconstant across time, indicating that it does not represent a truespecies radiation.

  9. Temporal selectivity by single neurons in the torus semicircularis of Batrachyla antartandica (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, M; Lin, W Y; Feng, A S

    2001-12-01

    We investigated the response selectivities of single auditory neurons in the torus semicircularis of Batrachyla antartandica (a leptodactylid from southern Chile) to synthetic stimuli having diverse temporal structures. The advertisement call for this species is characterized by a long sequence of brief sound pulses having a dominant frequency of about 2000 Hz. We constructed five different series of synthetic stimuli in which the following acoustic parameters were systematically modified, one at a time: pulse rate, pulse duration, pulse rise time, pulse fall time, and train duration. The carrier frequency of these stimuli was fixed at the characteristic frequency of the units under study (n=44). Response patterns of TS units to these synthetic call variants revealed different degrees of selectivity for each of the temporal variables. A substantial number of neurons showed preference for pulse rates below 2 pulses s(-1), approximating the values found in natural advertisement calls. Tonic neurons generally showed preferences for long pulse durations, long rise and fall times, and long train durations. In contrast, phasic and phasic-burst neurons preferred stimuli with short duration, short rise and fall times and short train durations.

  10. Histological changes, apoptosis and metallothionein levels in Triturus carnifex (Amphibia, Urodela) exposed to environmental cadmium concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capaldo, Anna, E-mail: anna.capaldo@unina.it [Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy); Gay, Flaminia [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of Salerno, Salerno (Italy); Scudiero, Rosaria; Trinchella, Francesca [Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy); Caputo, Ivana; Lepretti, Marilena; Marabotti, Anna; Esposito, Carla [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of Salerno, Salerno (Italy); Laforgia, Vincenza [Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Specimens of the newt Triturus carnifex were exposed to environmental Cd doses. • Newts exposed to Cd during 9 months accumulated Cd in their tissues. • Cd induced histological alterations in the skin, liver and kidneys. • Cd induced apoptosis only in the kidneys. • Cd did not increase metallothionein levels in the skin and the liver, nor MTs mRNA. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to verify if the freshwater safety values established from the European Community (1998) and the Italian Ministry of Health (2001) for cadmium (44.5 nM/L in drinking water and 178 nM/L in sewage waters) were safe for amphibians, since at these same concentrations cadmium induced endocrine disruption in the newt Triturus carnifex. Adult male specimens of T. carnifex were exposed daily to cadmium (44.5 nM/L and 178 nM/L as CdCl{sub 2}, nominal concentrations), respectively, during 3- and 9-months; at the same time, control newts were exposed to tap water only. The accumulation of cadmium in the skin, liver and kidney, the levels of metallothioneins in the skin and the liver, the expression of metallothionein mRNA in the liver, as well as the presence of histological alterations and of apoptosis in the target organs were evaluated. The 9-months exposure induced cadmium accumulation in all the tissues examined; moreover, histological changes were observed in all the tissues examined, irrespective of the dose or the time of exposure. Apoptosis was only detected in the kidney, whereas metallothioneins and metallothionein mRNA did not increase. This study demonstrates that the existing chronic water quality criterion established for cadmium induces in the newt T. carnifex cadmium accumulation and histological alterations in the target organs examined. Together with our previous results, showing that, at these same concentrations, cadmium induced endocrine disruption, the present results suggest that the existing chronic water quality criterion for cadmium appears to be not protective of amphibians.

  11. A preparation of perfused small intestine for the study of absorption in amphibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, D S; Prichard, J S

    1968-09-01

    1. A preparation of amphibian small intestine perfused through its vascular system is described. Vascular perfusion with a bicarbonate Ringer solution containing a colloid is used to control the composition of the environment of the submucosal faces of the absorbing cells and to carry away for collection any material extruded from these cells. Oxygenation of the mucosal cells is derived primarily from fluid circulated through the intestinal lumen. The preparation exhibits physiological properties of transport for periods of up to 5 hr. After 5 hr perfusion the epithelial cells show no signs of gross cellular damage when examined either by light or by electron microscopy.2. The relationship between the hydrostatic pressure at the mesenteric artery and the rate of perfusion through the vascular bed is substantially linear. The pressure-flow relationships in the mesenteric bed, including an apparent ;critical closing pressure', are primarily determined by the hydrostatic pressure in the intestinal lumen. Alterations in the hydrostatic pressure in the intestinal lumen also change the relative proportions of the vascular infusate which appear in the portal venous effluent and in the fluid exuded from the serosal surface of the preparation (;sweat'). Hydrostatic distension pressures above about 10 cm H(2)O reduce the rate of collection of fluid from the portal vein and increase the rate of collection of ;sweat'.3. An increase in the rate of vascular perfusion increases the total rate of glucose appearance although the glucose concentrations in both the portal effluent and the ;sweat' are reduced.4. The glucose translocation rate is related in an alinear saturable fashion to the luminal concentration of glucose. By making a correction for metabolic loss of glucose during its passage through the intestinal cell, the relationship existing between the lumen concentration and the uptake of the sugar by the mucosal cells has been calculated. This relationship is found to fit Michaelis-Menten type kinetics. The K(m) of the intestinal translocation process for glucose in Rana pipiens was 0.45 +/- 0.13 (4) muM. The mean V(max) was 137.5 +/- 35.3 (4) muM/hr/g fat-free dry wt.5. When phlorrhizin (10(-5)M) is added to the vascular perfusate, no inhibition of glucose transport is seen for at least 60 min. When strophanthin is added to the vascular perfusate (5 x 10(-5)M), a markedly greater inhibition of glucose transport is observed than when it is introduced to the luminal circulation.6. Earlier studies of the vascular perfusion of isolated small intestine are tabulated. The experimental findings are discussed in relation to a model of the mode of action of the epithelial cell for glucose transport.

  12. Food composition of some low altitude Lissotriton montandoni (Amphibia, Caudata populations from North-Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Covaciu-Marcov S.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of some populations of Lissotriton montandoni from north-western Romania is composed of prey belonging to 20 categories. The food components of the Carpathian newts are similar to those of other species of newts. Most of the prey are aquatic animals, but terrestrial prey also has a high percentage abundance. The consumed prey categories are common in the newts' habitats as well, but in natural ponds the prey item with the highest abundance in the diet is not the most frequent one in the habitat. Thus, although the Carpathian newts are basically opportunistic predators, they still display a certain trophic selectivity.

  13. The karyotype of three Brazilian Terrarana frogs (Amphibia, Anura with evidence of a new Barycholos species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Siqueira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent substantial rearrangement of the 882 described eleutherodactyline frog species has considerably improved the understanding of their systematics. Nevertheless, many taxonomic aspects of the South American eleutherodactyline species remain unknown and require further investigation using morphological, cytogenetic and molecular approaches. In this work, the karyotypes of the Brazilian species Ischnocnema juipoca (Atibaia and Campos do Jordão, SP, Barycholos cf. ternetzi (Uberlândia, MG, and Porto Nacional, TO, and Pristimantis crepitans (Chapada dos Guimarães and São Vicente, MT were analyzed using Giemsa staining, Ag-NOR labeling, and C-banding techniques. All individuals had a diploid number of 22 chromosomes, but the Fundamental Numbers were different among species. The herein described low chromosome number of Pristimantis crepitans is unique within this genus, suggesting that cytogenetically this species is not closely related either to its congeneric species or to Ischnocnema. In addition, karyotype differences, mainly in the NOR position, clearly distinguished the two Barycholos populations, besides indicating the existence of a so far undescribed species in this genus. A taxonomic review could clarify the systematic position of P. crepitans and verify the hypothetic new Barycholos species.

  14. Morphological evolution from aquatic to terrestrial in the genus Oreolalax (Amphibia, Anura, Megophryidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Wei; Bin Wang; Ning Xu; Zizhong Li; Jianping Jiang

    2009-01-01

    A phylogeny of 17 species in the genus Oreolalax is reconstructed based on 21 morphological characters from adult specimens, skeleton specimens, tadpoles and eggs. Four species groups are recognized, of which the O. rugosus species group is the most primitive, the O. weigoldi species group is the second, the O. omeimontis species group is the third and the O. pingii species group is the most recently diversified. Based on the evolutional tendency of the morphological characters on the phylogenetic tree, it is proposed that the evolution of tympanum, tympanic annulus, columella, spoon-like cartilage and the web between toes reflect the habit changes from aquatic to terrestrial. Thus, Oreolalax is regarded as one important representative genus to study further the evolution of morphological characters from aquatic to terrestrial.

  15. Distribution, vocalization and taxonomic status of hypsiboas roraima and h. angelicus (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César L. Barrio-Amorós

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of the poorly known hylid frog Hypsiboas roraima Duellman & Hoogmoed, on the Guiana Shield is redefined, including new records from Venezuela. The advertisement call of this species is analyzed and Hypsiboas angelicus Myers & Donnelly is associated as a junior synonym of H. roraima.

  16. Chromosomal homology of Uraeotyphlus oxyurus group of species (Amphibia, Gymnophiona, Ichthyophiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venu Govindappa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Uraeotyphlus oxyurus (Dumeril et Bibron, 1841, U. interruptus Pillai et Ravichandran, 1999, U. narayani Seshachar, 1939 and U. menoni Annandale, 1913 were cytogenetically analysed following conventional and differential staining techniques. These species show similar karyotypes with 2n=36 (FN=58. There were no traces of species-specific features in regard to C-banding and NOR staining. The comparative study of karyotypes shows chromosomal homologies among the four species. Chromosomal data seem to support the concept that two species groups exist in the genus Uraeotyphlus.

  17. MORFOHISTOLOGÍA TESTICULAR DE Hypsiboas pulchellus (AMPHIBIA, HYLIDAE DURANTE LA ESTACIÓN REPRODUCTIVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José CAREZZANO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se aportan datos sobre la morfohistología testicular de Hypsiboas pulchellus durante el período reproductivo con el fin de conocer aspectos de su biología reproductiva. Los testículos, ovoides y amarillentos de 4,64 ± 0,48 mm de largo por 2,05 ± 0,23 mm de ancho, están rodeados por la túnica albugínea que mide 5,60 ± 0,82 μm. Internamente presentan lóculos seminíferos de 257,47 ± 58,25 μm de diámetro, distinguiéndose en ellos cistos con células espermatogénicas asociadas a células de Sertoli. Existe escaso tejido intersticial. Las espermatogonias I son las células más grandes de la serie germinal (14,34 ± 1,74 μm, estas originan a las espermatogonias II (10,14 ± 1,33 μm. Los espermatocitos I presentan la cromatina levemente condensada midiendo 9,34 ± 0,32 μm. Los espermatocitos II miden 8,12 ± 1,07 μm. Las espermátidas I son esféricas, miden 7,61 ± 1,45 μm, y se agrupan en cistos redondeados. Las espermátidas II, en cambio, son alargadas, no hallándoselas dentro de cistos (4,09 ± 0,51 μm. Los espermatozoides, alargados y flagelados, se hallan libres en el centro del lóculo. La morfohistología de los testículos analizados muestra características similares a las observadas en otros anfibios neotropicales, y presentan todas las células del linaje espermatogénico en un mismo lóculo.

  18. a new species of the genus tylototriton (amphibia, salamandridae) from hunan, china

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    a new species of the genus tylototriton is described in this article based on morphological and genetic evidence.the new species is identified belonging to the t.asperrimus group and is similar to t.wenxianensis.the diagnostic characters of the new species are as follows:dorsal ridge broad and thick,its width approximately equal to eye diameter (p < 0.001); tail height greater than width at base of tail (p < 0.001); no villous genital papilla found inside the male anal fissure; nodule-like warts,along lateral margin of the trunk,bulge and forming tubercles,and thin and transverse striae present between the tubercles.

  19. Karyological and flow cytometric evidence of triploid specimens in Bufo viridis (Amphibia Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Cavallo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Karyological and flow cytometric (FCM analyses were performed on a group of 14 green toads of the Bufo viridis species from seven Eurasian populations. Both approaches gave concordant results concerning the DNA ploidy level. All the populations examined were represented exclusively by diploid or tetraploid specimens, except one, where triploids were found. Results evidenced an interpopulation variability in DNA content against the same ploidy level, as well as an unusually high number of triploids in a particular reproductive place. The origin of polyploidy and the presence and persistence of a high number of triploids in a particular population are discussed.

  20. Morphology of the Kidney in the West African Caecilian, Geotrypetes seraphini (Amphibia, Gymnophiona, Caeciliidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Jespersen, Åse; Wilkinson, M.

    2004-01-01

    This study deals with the morphology and ultrastructure of the mesonephros in adult caecilians of the species Geotrypetes seraphini. Based on serial sections in paraffin and araldite, nephrons are reconstructed and the cellular characteristics of different nephron segments described. The long and...

  1. Aspects of gene regulation in the diploid and tetraploid Odontophrynus americanus (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cianciarullo Aurora M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythropoietic and hemoglobin DNA transcriptional activities were analyzed in the diploid and the tetraploid Odontophrynus americanus. Flow cytometric analyses of DNA, RNA and mitochondrial contents showed increased genic activity in both diploid and tetraploid animals during erythropoiesis in vivo elicited by pretreatment phenylhydrazine. Generally, higher values were seen in immature tetraploid erythroid cells. On the 10th day of recovery from anemia, large amounts of messenger RNA were found in both specimens. Based on the mitochondrial content, the tetraploid cells had more intense energy metabolism than the diploid cells. Diploid O. americanus had about three times more erythroid cells than tetraploid specimens, indicating that there were differences in the regulatory mechanisms of erythroid cells. Hematological parameters showed that tetraploid cells had 30% more hemoglobin than the diploid, suggesting a regulatory mechanism of hemoglobin synthesis at the transcriptional level. Cytoplasmic inclusions resembling Heinz bodies were found in both types of cells. In the tetraploid cells they were previously found associated with RNA or RNP, suggesting that other regulatory system which controls the accumulation of nontranslated RNA transcribed in excess must be present. These differences at the physiological and molecular levels during erythropoiesis reinforce the hypothesis that speciation is occurring between diploid and tetraploid O. americanus.

  2. A new species of Andinobates (Amphibia: Anura: Dendrobatidae) from west central Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Abel; Jaramillo, César A; Ponce, Marcos; Crawford, Andrew J

    2014-09-24

    Dendrobatid frogs are among the best known anurans in the world, mainly due to their toxicity and associated bright colors. A recently described dendrobatid genus, Andinobates, comprises frogs distributed among the Colombian Andes and Panama. During field work in the Distrito de Donoso, Colón province, Panama, we found a poison frog that we here describe as a new species. The new species belongs to the A. minutus species group and is described herein as Andinobates geminisae sp. nov. This new species differs from all other members of the group by having uniformly orange smooth skin over the entire body and a distinctive male advertisement call. The new species is smaller than other colorful dendrobatids present in the area, such as Oophaga pumilio and O. vicentei. We also provide molecular phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences of dendrobatids and summarize genetic distances among Andinobates species. Andinobates geminisae occurs in Caribbean versant rainforest on the westernmost edge of the known distribution of A. minutus, and represents the fourth species within this genus in Panama. This is vulnerable to habitat loss and excessive harvesting and requires immediate conservation plans to preserve this species with a restricted geographic range.

  3. Species boundaries and taxonomy of the African river frogs (Amphibia: Pyxicephalidae: Amietia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channing, A; Dehling, J M; Lötters, S; Ernst, R

    2016-08-25

    A molecular phylogeny of the Afrotropical anuran genus Amietia based on 323 16S sequences indicates that there are 19 species, including four not yet described. No genetic material was available for the nominal A. inyangae. We consider them to represent full species, and define them based on 16S genetic distances, as well as differences in morphology, tadpoles and advertisement call where known. An analysis based on two mitochondrial and two nuclear genes (12S, 16S, 28S and tyrosinase exon 1), from 122 samples, confirmed the phylogenetic relationships suggested by the 16S tree. We recognise and (re-) describe the following species: Amietia angolensis (Bocage, 1866), A. chapini (Noble, 1924), A. delalandii (Duméril & Bibron, 1841), A. desaegeri (Laurent, 1972), A. fuscigula (Duméril & Bibron, 1841), A. hymenopus (Boulenger, 1920), A. inyangae (Poynton, 1966), A. johnstoni (Günther, 1893), A. moyerorum sp. nov., A. nutti (Boulenger, 1896), A. poyntoni Channing & Baptista, 2013, A. ruwenzorica (Laurent, 1972), A. tenuoplicata (Pickersgill, 2007), A. vandijki (Visser & Channing, 1997), A. vertebralis (Hewitt, 1927), and A. wittei (Angel, 1924). Three further candidate species of Larson et al. (2016) await formal naming. We provisionally regard A. amieti (Laurent, 1976) as a junior synonym of A. chapini (Noble, 1924). Amietia lubrica (Pickersgill, 2007) is shown to be a junior synonym of A. nutti, while A. quecketti (Boulenger, 1895) is shown to be a junior synonym of A. delalandii (Duméril & Bibron, 1841), and A. viridireticulata (Pickersgill, 2007) is placed as a junior synonym of A. tenuoplicata (Pickersgill, 2007). On the basis of similarity of 16S sequences, we assign A. sp. 1, A. sp. 3 and A. sp. 6 of Larson et al (2016) to the nomina A. chapini (Noble, 1924), A. desaegeri (Laurent, 1972), and A. nutti (Boulenger, 1896) respectively.

  4. Plasma retinoids concentration in Leptodactylus chaquensis (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae) from rice agroecosystems, Santa Fe province, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teglia, Carla M; Attademo, Andrés M; Peltzer, Paola M; Goicoechea, Héctor C; Lajmanovich, Rafael C

    2015-09-01

    Retinoids are known to regulate important processes such as differentiation, development, and embryogenesis of vertebrates: Alteration in endogenous retinoids concentration is linked with teratogenic effects. Retinol (ROH), retinoid acid (RA), and isoform 13-Cis-retinoic acid (13-Cis-RA), in plasma of a native adults frog, Leptodactylus chaquensis from a rice field (RF) and a forest (reference site; RS) were measured. ROH did not vary between treatment sites. RA and 13-Cis-RA activities were higher (93.7±8.6 μg mL(-1) and 131.7±11.4 μg mL(-1), respectively) in individuals collected from RF than in those from RS (65.5±8.6 μg mL(-1) and 92.2±10.2 μg mL(-1), respectively). The ratios retinoic acid-retinol (RA/ROH) and 13-Cis-RA/ROH revealed significantly higher values in RF than in RS. RA and 13-Cis-RA concentrations in plasma on wild amphibian's species such as L. chaquensis would be suitable biomarkers of pesticide exposure in field monitoring. Finally, the mechanism of alteration in retinoid metabolites alteration should be further explored both in larvae and adult, considering that the potential exposition and uptake contaminants vary between the double lives of these vertebrates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The identity of the South African toad Sclerophrys capensis Tschudi, 1838 (Amphibia, Anura

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    Annemarie Ohler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The toad species Sclerophrys capensis Tschudi, 1838 was erected for a single specimen from South Africa which has never been properly studied and allocated to a known species. A morphometrical and morphological analysis of this specimen and its comparison with 75 toad specimens referred to five South African toad species allowed to allocate this specimen to the species currently known as Amietophrynus rangeri. In consequence, the nomen Sclerophrys must replace Amietophrynus as the valid nomen of the genus, and capensis as the valid nomen of the species. This work stresses the usefulness of natural history collections for solving taxonomic and nomenclatural problems.

  6. Cytological evidence for population-specific sex chromosome heteromorphism in Palaearctic green toads (Amphibia, Anura)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Odierna; G Aprea; T Capriglione; S Castellano; E Balletto

    2007-06-01

    A chromosome study was carried out on a number of European and Central Asiatic diploid green toad populations by means of standard and various other chromosome banding and staining methods (Ag-NOR-, Q-, CMA3-, late replicating [LR] banding pattern, C- and sequential C-banding + CMA3 + DAPI). This study revealed the remarkable karyological uniformity of specimens from all populations, with the only exception being specimens from a Moldavian population, where one chromosome pair was heteromorphic. Though similar in shape, size and with an identical heterochromatin distribution, the difference in the heteromorphic pair was due to a large inverted segment on its long arms. This heteromorphism was restricted to females, suggesting a female heterogametic sex chromosome system of ZZ/ZW type at a very early step of differentiation.

  7. First report of satellite males during breeding in Leptodactylus latrans (Amphibia, Anura

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    Gabriel Laufer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of satellite males is a common behaviour across anuran taxa. Satellite males take peripheral positions to calling males and adopt tactics in an attempt to intercept females that are attracted to calling males to increase their own mating success. Satellite males could have an inexpensive form of mate-locating, avoiding predators, and saving energy. Furthermore, this strategy could play an important role in the genetic structure of populations. The genus Leptodactylus consists of approximately 70 described species that are widely distributed in South America. The literature on the biology of this genus is extensive; however, we found only two reports on the existence of multi-male mating behavior in the genus (L. chaquensis and L. podicipinus. Herein, we report intrasexual competition in the form of satellite behavior in Leptodactylus latrans, where multiple satellite males were observed in close vicinity to a calling male.

  8. Histological changes, apoptosis and metallothionein levels in Triturus carnifex (Amphibia, Urodela) exposed to environmental cadmium concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaldo, Anna; Gay, Flaminia; Scudiero, Rosaria; Trinchella, Francesca; Caputo, Ivana; Lepretti, Marilena; Marabotti, Anna; Esposito, Carla; Laforgia, Vincenza

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to verify if the freshwater safety values established from the European Community (1998) and the Italian Ministry of Health (2001) for cadmium (44.5nM/L in drinking water and 178nM/L in sewage waters) were safe for amphibians, since at these same concentrations cadmium induced endocrine disruption in the newt Triturus carnifex. Adult male specimens of T. carnifex were exposed daily to cadmium (44.5nM/L and 178nM/L as CdCl2, nominal concentrations), respectively, during 3- and 9-months; at the same time, control newts were exposed to tap water only. The accumulation of cadmium in the skin, liver and kidney, the levels of metallothioneins in the skin and the liver, the expression of metallothionein mRNA in the liver, as well as the presence of histological alterations and of apoptosis in the target organs were evaluated. The 9-months exposure induced cadmium accumulation in all the tissues examined; moreover, histological changes were observed in all the tissues examined, irrespective of the dose or the time of exposure. Apoptosis was only detected in the kidney, whereas metallothioneins and metallothionein mRNA did not increase. This study demonstrates that the existing chronic water quality criterion established for cadmium induces in the newt T. carnifex cadmium accumulation and histological alterations in the target organs examined. Together with our previous results, showing that, at these same concentrations, cadmium induced endocrine disruption, the present results suggest that the existing chronic water quality criterion for cadmium appears to be not protective of amphibians.

  9. Mitochondrial cytochrome B phylogeny and historical biogeography of the Tohoku salamander, Hynobius lichenatus (Amphibia, Caudata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Gen; Matsui, Masafumi; Nishikawa, Kanto

    2013-03-01

    The Tohoku salamander, Hynobius lichenatus Boulenger, 1883, is a lentic breeding species widespread throughout montane regions of northeastern Japan. To explore intraspecific genetic variation and infer evolutionary history of H. lichenatus, we performed mitochondrial DNA analysis (complete 1141 bp sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene) using 215 adult and larval individuals collected from 75 localities, encompassing known distributional range of the species. Hynobius lichenatus proved to be monophyletic, including three well-supported and geographically structured clades (Clade I from northern Kanto, Clade II from southern Tohoku, and Clade III from northern Tohoku). These clades, respectively, comprise several subclades, and show genetic distances as large as those seen between different species of Hynobius. Results of population statistic analyses indicate that all clades and most subclades have maintained high genetic diversity and demographic stability over long periods. Molecular dating indicates divergence in H. lichenatus concords with topographic evolution of northeastern Japan from late Miocene to early Pleistocene, suggesting that paleogeographic events in this region, such as orogenesis, sea level change, and volcanic activity, have been crucial for shaping genetic patterns and diversity in this species. Hynobius lichenatus greatly differs from many other animal species from northeastern Japan in its much older periods and the pattern of genetic differentiation, and is suggested as an old faunal element in this region.

  10. The phylogenetic position and diversity of the enigmatic mongrel frog Nothophryne Poynton, 1963 (Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt-Silva, Gabriela B; Conradie, Werner; Siu-Ting, Karen; Tolley, Krystal A; Channing, Alan; Cunningham, Michael; Farooq, Harith M; Menegon, Michele; Loader, Simon P

    2016-06-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the African mongrel frog genus Nothophryne are poorly understood. We provide the first molecular assessment of the phylogenetic position of, and diversity within, this monotypic genus from across its range-the Afromontane regions of Malawi and Mozambique. Our analysis using a two-tiered phylogenetic approach allowed us to place the genus in Pyxicephalidae. Within the family, Nothophryne grouped with Tomopterna, a hypothesis judged significantly better than alternative hypotheses proposed based on morphology. Our analyses of populations across the range of Nothophryne suggest the presence of several cryptic species, at least one species per mountain. Formal recognition of these species is pending but there is a major conservation concern for these narrowly distributed populations in an area impacted by major habitat change. The phylogenetic tree of pyxicephalids is used to examine evolution of life history, ancestral habitat, and biogeography of this group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bufo arenarum Hensel, 1867 (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae para el Noroeste del Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olmos, Alejandro

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Uruguay, Departamento de Paysandú. Paysandú. Puente Internacional, Comisión Administradora del Río Uruguay. 17 de mayo de 1995. Col: C. Ríos. Colección Zoología Vertebrados de la Facultad de Ciencias (Montevideo, Uruguay ZVCB 2758 (macho.Departamento de Salto. Salto. Club de Remeros. 27 de febrero de 1997. Col: A. Olmos ZVCB 3459 (hembra.

  12. Breeding biology and advertisement call of the horned leaf-frog, Proceratophrys appendiculata (Amphibia: Anura: Odontophrynidae

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    Pedro Henrique dos Santos Dias

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe the breeding biology and the advertisement call of the horned leaf-frog, Proceratophrys appendiculata (Günther, 1873 in the Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos, municipality of Teresópolis. The reproductive period of P. appendiculata is short and is associated with the end of the winter and the beginning of the spring, when males call night and day under large rocks in sandy bottom rock streams. The amplexus is axillary and one female laid about 656 viscous eggs. The advertisement call of P. appendiculata is unique among congeners. The call lasts approximately two seconds, with about 85 pulses/call at a rate of 45 pulses/s and frequency around 0.620 kHz. It is one of the longest calls and lowest in dominant frequency. Moreover, the call of P. appendiculata is characterized by the greatest number of pulses so far registered, reaching 129 pulses in a single call.

  13. A new Stumpffia (Amphibia: Anura: Microhylidae) from the Ranomafana region, south-eastern Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndriantsoa, Serge H; Riemann, Jana C; Vences, Miguel; Klages, Johannes; Raminosoa, Noromalala R; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Glos, Julian

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new species of small-sized frogs from degraded rainforest patches in the southern central east of Madagascar. Stumpffia miery sp. nov. has a snout-vent length of 13-15 mm and can be distinguished from all other nominal species of Stumpffia by its body size and absence of toe reduction combined with length reduction of fingers I, II and IV in external view. The advertisement call is a single tonal chirping note that ranges in duration between 51-88 ms and is emitted after relatively regular inter-note intervals (duration of 2679-4247 ms, call repetition rate 0.3/sec, frequency range 7700-8300 Hz, dominant frequency 7751-8225 Hz). Its type locality is the Ambolo forest fragment close to Ranomafana village in southeastern Madagascar. Molecular data from DNA sequences of one mitochondrial and one nuclear gene indicate a high divergence from all nominal species of Stumpffia, suggesting that it represents a strongly differentiated independent evolutionary unit. Stumnpffia miery sp. nov. is apparently able to tolerate some degree of habitat degradation and therefore is probably not threatened with extinction.

  14. Sperm storage in the spermatheca of the red-back salamander, Plethodon cinereus (Amphibia: Plethodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, D M

    1997-11-01

    In northern Indiana, the mating season of Plethodon cinereus occurs after hibernation from March until June, when oviposition begins. During the mating season, a female stores sperm in its spermatheca, a compound tubular gland in the roof of the cloaca. The apical cytoplasm of the spermathecal epithelium is filled with large secretory vacuoles whose product is released while sperm are stored. Females induced to oviposit in June and July by injections of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) still retain much sperm 1 month after oviposition, but secretory vacuoles are absent in all specimens sacrificed in July and August. Instead, some sperm are embedded in the spermathecal epithelium with resultant spermiophagy involving lysosomes. A female sacrificed in September 2 months after oviposition possesses scant sperm, but spermiophagy alone does not seem extensive enough to account for the decrease in sperm numbers. Females sacrificed in October prior to hibernation lack sperm in their spermathecae; some secretory vacuoles are present, but they are not as numerous or as enlarged as in specimens collected in March and May. Inter- and intrafamilial differences in the cytology of sperm storage may not be phyletically informative at the family level but related to species-specific reproductive adaptations.

  15. New material of Beelzebufo, a hyperossified frog (Amphibia: Anura from the late cretaceous of Madagascar.

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    Susan E Evans

    Full Text Available The extant anuran fauna of Madagascar is exceptionally rich and almost completely endemic. In recent years, many new species have been described and understanding of the history and relationships of this fauna has been greatly advanced by molecular studies, but very little is known of the fossil history of frogs on the island. Beelzebufo ampinga, the first named pre-Holocene frog from Madagascar, was described in 2008 on the basis of numerous disarticulated cranial and postcranial elements from the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian Maevarano Formation of Madagascar. These specimens documented the presence of a hyperossified taxon that differed strikingly from extant Malagasy frogs in its large size and heavy coarse cranial exostosis. Here we describe and analyse new, articulated, and more complete material of the skull, vertebral column, and hind limb, as well as additional isolated elements discovered since 2008. μCT scans allow a detailed understanding of both internal and external morphology and permit a more accurate reconstruction. The new material shows Beelzebufo to have been even more bizarre than originally interpreted, with large posterolateral skull flanges and sculptured vertebral spine tables. The apparent absence of a tympanic membrane, the strong cranial exostosis, and vertebral morphology suggest it may have burrowed during seasonally arid conditions, which have been interpreted for the Maevarano Formation from independent sedimentological and taphonomic evidence. New phylogenetic analyses, incorporating both morphological and molecular data, continue to place Beelzebufo with hyloid rather than ranoid frogs. Within Hyloidea, Beelzebufo still groups with the South American Ceratophryidae thus continuing to pose difficulties with both biogeographic interpretations and prior molecular divergence dates.

  16. Three new species of the microhylid frog genus Choerophryne (Amphibia, Anura, Microhylidae from Papua New Guinea

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    Rainer Günther

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe three new species of the microhylid frog genus Choerophryne from the mountains and foothills of southern and northeastern Papua New Guinea. All three species lack elongated snouts and all are arboreal calling from elevated perch sites between ~1 and 10 m above the forest floor. Advertisement calls and habitat preferences are described for each species. Descriptions of these three frogs brings the total number of Choerophryne recognized to 34 but numerous additional species undoubtedly remain to be discovered in poorly-surveyed mountainous regions of New Guinea.

  17. Three new species of Eleutherodactylus (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae from high elevations of the cordillera Central of Colombia

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    Lynch John D.

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the Eleutherodactylus orcesi group, the smallest member of the group, is described from the Páramo de los Valles (Tolima. It is very similar to E. slmoterus. From the same locality, a new species of dwarf Eleutherodactylus, lacking a tympanum, is described. It appears to be a member of the E. myersi group. Lastly, a new large black Eleutherodactylusis described from páramo and subpáramo habitats of the Cordillera Central. This species is distributed from Antioquia to Cauca. With these three species, fifteen species of Eleutherodactylus are known for páramo and subpáramo habitats of the Cordillera Central north of the Macizo de Pasto. These 15 species be long to tour species groups.Se describe una especie nueva del grupo de Eleutherodactylus orcesi del Páramo de los Valles (Tolima. Esta especie es muy parecida a E. simoterus pero se distingue por su tamaño (la especie nueva es la más pequeña del grupo. Se describe también una especie enanita del Páramo de los Valles que posiblemente es una especie del grupo de Eleutherodactylus myersl. La especie es muy distinta porque carece de tímpano. Finalmente, se describe una especie grande y negra que se encuentra desde Antioquia hacia Cauca en la Cordillera Central. Con estas especies, tenemos 15 especies de Eleutherodactylus conocidas de los páramos y subpáramos de la Cordillera Central al norte del Macizo de Pasto, que pertenecen a cuatro grupos de especies.

  18. Light shines through the spindrift--phylogeny of African torrent frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Petropedetidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barej, Michael F; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Loader, Simon P; Menegon, Michele; Gonwouo, Nono L; Penner, Johannes; Gvoždík, Václav; Günther, Rainer; Bell, Rayna C; Nagel, Peter; Schmitz, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    Torrent frogs of the genus Petropedetes Reichenow, 1874 as currently understood have a disjunct distribution with species endemic to West, Central or East Africa. We herein present a phylogenetic analysis including all but one of the currently described 12 species of the genus. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses of combined nuclear (rag1, SIA, BDNF) and mitochondrial (16S, 12S, cytb) genes of more than 3500 base pairs, revealed clades corresponding to the three sub-Saharan regions. Molecular results are confirmed by morphological differences. Surprisingly, the three geographic clades do not form a monophyletic group with respect to closely related families Pyxicephalidae and Conrauidae and therefore require taxonomic changes. We resurrect Arthroleptides Nieden, 1911 for the East African taxa. The Central African taxa remain in the genus Petropedetes. The West African members are placed in the new genus Odontobatrachus gen. nov. The taxonomic position of the new genus remains incertae sedis as it was not assigned to any of the four families included in our analyses. Potential new species have been detected within all three major clades, pointing to a still not fully clarified diversity within African torrent frogs.

  19. Natural history and distribution of Agalychnis craspedopus (Funkhouser, 1957) (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.; Cadle, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Aspects of reproductive behaviour, calls, clutch sizes, and larval morphology are described for Agalychnis craspedopus (Funkhouser, 1957). New distributional records extend the range of this species to southern Amazonian Peru. In most respects reproductive behaviour of A. craspedopus is similar to

  20. Use of lymphocyte cultures for BrdU replication banding patterns in anuran species (Amphibia

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    Kasahara Sanae

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the standardization of lymphocyte culture procedures in order to improve cytological preparations of anuran species. This methodology permits the use of 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU treatment to obtain replication banding patterns in the chromosomes of these species.

  1. Population Genetic Structure of the Endangered Kaiser's Mountain Newt, Neurergus kaiseri (Amphibia: Salamandridae.

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    Hossein Farasat

    Full Text Available Species often exhibit different levels of genetic structuring correlated to their environment. However, understanding how environmental heterogeneity influences genetic variation is difficult because the effects of gene flow, drift and selection are confounded. We investigated the genetic variation and its ecological correlates in an endemic and critically endangered stream breeding mountain newt, Neurergus kaiseri, within its entire range in southwestern Iran. We identified two geographic regions based on phylogenetic relationships using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood of 779 bp mtDNA (D-loop in 111 individuals from ten of twelve known breeding populations. This analysis revealed a clear divergence between northern populations, located in more humid habitats at higher elevation, and southern populations, from drier habitats at lower elevations regions. From seven haplotypes found in these populations none was shared between the two regions. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA of N. kaiseri indicates that 94.03% of sequence variation is distributed among newt populations and 5.97% within them. Moreover, a high degree of genetic subdivision, mainly attributable to the existence of significant variance among the two regions is shown (θCT = 0.94, P = 0.002. The positive and significant correlation between geographic and genetic distances (r = 0.61, P = 0.002 following controlling for environmental distance suggests an important influence of geographic divergence of the sites in shaping the genetic variation and may provide tools for a possible conservation based prioritization policy for the endangered species.

  2. The Herpetofauna (Amphibia and Reptilia of Vrachanska Planina Mountains - Species Composition, Distribution and Conservation

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    BORISLAV NAUMOV

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vrachanska Planina Mts. is located in northwestern Bulgaria and is a relatively well-defined part of Stara Planina Mts. So far, no comprehensive studies on the species composition and distribution of the herpetofauna of Vrachanska Planina Mts. have been published. The current study reports 8 new species of amphibians and reptiles, which are new for the region and confirms all previously known 19 species. All species localities have been mapped in the UTM-grid (1x1 km. The spatial distribution, as well as the vertical distribution and the species richness are analyzed. The importance of the existing protected areas in Vrachanska Planina Mts. and protected Natura2000 zones for the conservation of herpetofauna are discussed. Some potential threats to amphibians and reptiles in the research area (such as drying-up of water basins, fires and road mortality are reported.

  3. Diverse families of antimicrobial peptides isolated from skin secretions of three species of East Asian frogs, Babina daunchina, Babina adenopleura, and Rana omeimontis (Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuhong; Xu, Shiqi; Hu, Yonghong; Guo, Chao; Meng, Hao; Li, Jing; Liu, Jingze; Wang, Hui

    2014-07-01

    Twenty-two novel cDNAs encoding 22 peptide precursors for 19 mature peptides including antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) were identified from East Asian frog species Babina daunchina, Babina adenopleura, and Rana omeimontis skin-derived cDNA libraries. Two atypical members of the brevinin-1 family AMPs, named brevinin-1AN1 (FLTGVLKLASKIPSVLCAVLKTC) and brevinin-1DN1(FLKGVINLASKIPSMLCAVLKTC), were purified from the skin secretions of B. adenopleura and B. daunchina, respectively. A member of the ranatuerin-2 family AMP named ranatuerin-2DN1 (GLFDSITQGLKDTAVKLLDKIKCKLSACPPA) was also purified from the skin secretion of B. daunchina. One AMP named japonicin-2OM1 (FIVPSIFLLKKAFCIALKKNC) was purified from the skin secretion of R. omeimontis. The antimicrobial tests showed that brevinin-1DN1, brevinin-1DN2, brevinin-1AN1, and japonicin-2OM1 possess higher antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria.

  4. Primary structures of skin antimicrobial peptides indicate a close, but not conspecific, phylogenetic relationship between the leopard frogs Lithobates onca and Lithobates yavapaiensis (Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, J Michael; Coquet, Laurent; Leprince, Jérôme; Jouenne, Thierry; Vaudry, Hubert; King, Jay D

    2010-04-01

    The phylogenetic relationship between the relict leopard frog Lithobates (Rana) onca (Cope, 1875) and the lowland leopard frog Lithobates (Rana) yavapaiensis (Platz and Frost, 1984) is unclear. Chromatographic analysis of norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions from L. onca led to the identification of six peptides with antimicrobial activity. Determination of their primary structures indicated that four of the peptides were identical to brevinin-1Ya, brevinin-1Yb, brevinin-1Yc and ranatuerin-2Ya previously isolated from skin secretions of L. yavapaiensis. However, a peptide belonging to the temporin family (temporin-ONa: FLPTFGKILSGLF.NH(2)) and an atypical member of the ranatuerin-2 family containing a C-terminal cyclic heptapeptide domain (ranatuerin-2ONa: GLMDTVKNAAKNLAGQMLDKLKCKITGSC) were isolated from the L. onca secretions but were not present in the L. yavapaiensis secretions. Ranatuerin-2ONa inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli (MIC=50muM) and Candida albicans (MIC=100muM ) and showed hemolytic activity (LC(50)=90muM) but was inactive against Staphylococcus aureus. The data indicate a close phylogenetic relationship between L. onca and L. yavapaiensis but suggest that they are not conspecific species.

  5. On the occurrence and identity of triploids of Rana kl. esculenta Linnaeus and R. lessonae Camerano in The Netherlands (Anura: Ranidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blommers-Schlösser, Rose M.A.

    1990-01-01

    According to electrophoresis and erythrocyte size the genotypes of 756 waterfrogs, collected during 1986—1988 in 54 localities in The Netherlands, were classified as belonging to 5 different genotypes: 331 diploid R. lessonae (LL), 5 triploid R. lessonae (LLL), 250 diploid R. kl. esculenta (LR), 133

  6. Reproduction of the exotic bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus (Shaw, 1802 (Anura, Ranidae in creeks of the Atlantic Rainforest of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Lilian Gomes Afonso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction of the exotic bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus was studied every two months from January 2005 to December 2006, analyzing tadpoles, juveniles, and adult vocalizations at three creeks located in the largest Brazilian center of ornamental fish breeding. Absolute and relative tadpole frequencies were measured bimonthly in three development stages: G1 (no limbs, G2 (hind limbs present, G3 (fore and hind limbs and I (metamorphs. Results show that, during warmest months, a greater proportion of tadpoles in G1, G2, and G3 phases were found in Santo Antônio and Chato creeks, while G1, G3, and I phases were more common in Gavião creek. Tadpoles in G1 and G2 phases predominated in coldest months at all locations. Male calls and highest average water temperatures and rainfall were recorded at 3 streams during the hottest months. Management measures should be adopted, such as the extermination of larval and adult stages, and initiatives should be taken to prevent new re-introductions, such as: (1 installation of fences around tanks where adults are located, (2 placement of protective screens on the pipes that release waste water from tanks directly into streams, (3 capacity building and educational measures on the problems of biological invasions for staff working on ornamental fish farms.

  7. Rangewide phylogeography of the western U.S. endemic frog Rana boylii (Ranidae): Implications for the conservation of frogs and rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.J. Lind; H.B. Shaffer; P.Q. Spinks; G.M. Fellers

    2011-01-01

    Genetic data are increasingly being used in conservation planning for declining species. We sampled both the ecological and distributional limits of the foothill yellow-legged frog, Rana boylii to characterize mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in this declining, riverine amphibian. We evaluated 1525 base pairs (bp) of cytochrome b...

  8. Valores fisiológicos en sangre y orina de rana toro en cautiverio, rana catesbeiana (Anura: ranidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Coppo, J. A.; N.B. Mussart; Fioranelli, S. A.; Zeinsteger, Pedro Adolfo

    2005-01-01

    Con el propósito de obtener valores sanguíneos y urinarios de referencia, 302 muestras de ejemplares sanos de Rana catesbeiana del nordeste argentino (9-21 meses de edad, 50% de cada sexo), fueron analizadas por espectrofotometría, electroforesis, densitometría, refractometría y microscopía. Fueron obtenidos intervalos de confianza (p

  9. First Records ofMegophrys daweimontis Rao and Yang, 1997 andAmolops vitreus (Bain, Stuart and Orlov, 2006) (Anura:Megophryidae, Ranidae) from Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dzung Trung LE; Anh Van PHAM; Son Hung Lan NGUYEN; Thomas ZIEGLER; Truong Quang NGUYEN

    2015-01-01

    Two amphibian species,Megophrys daweimontisandAmolops vitreus,are recorded for the ifrst time from Vietnam, on the basis of a new amphibian collection from Dien Bien and Son La provinces. In addition, acoustic analysis ofA. vitreus is also provided based on the advertisement calls recorded in Muong Nhe Nature Reserve of Dien Bien Province, Vietnam.

  10. DNA barcoding, phylogeny and systematics of Golden-backed frogs (Hylarana, Ranidae) of the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot, with the description of seven new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biju, S.D.; Garg, S.; Mahony, S.; Wijayathilaka, N.; Senevirathne, G.; Meegaskumbura, M.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic revision of the genus Hylarana in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot is presented. Species delineation in Hylarana is complicated due to a lack of distinct colour differences or striking morphological characters, leading to potential misidentification. We conducted extensi

  11. Valores fisiológicos en sangre y orina de rana toro en cautiverio, rana catesbeiana (Anura: ranidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Coppo, J. A.; Mussart, N. B.; Fioranelli, S. A.; Zeinsteger, Pedro Adolfo

    2005-01-01

    Con el propósito de obtener valores sanguíneos y urinarios de referencia, 302 muestras de ejemplares sanos de Rana catesbeiana del nordeste argentino (9-21 meses de edad, 50% de cada sexo), fueron analizadas por espectrofotometría, electroforesis, densitometría, refractometría y microscopía. Fueron obtenidos intervalos de confianza (p

  12. Heavy metal mediated innate immune responses of the Indian green frog, Euphlyctis hexadactylus (Anura: Ranidae): Cellular profiles and associated Th1 skewed cytokine response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayawardena, Uthpala A.; Ratnasooriya, Wanigasekara D.; Wickramasinghe, Deepthi D.; Udagama, Preethi V., E-mail: dappvr@yahoo.com

    2016-10-01

    Immune cell and cytokine profiles in relation to metal exposure though much studied in mammals has not been adequately investigated in amphibians, due mainly to lack of suitable reagents for cytokine profiling in non-model species. However, interspecies cross reactivity of cytokines permitted us to assay levels of IFNγ, TNFα, IL6 and IL10in a common anuran, the Indian green frog (Euphlyctis hexadactylus), exposed to heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb, at ~ 5 ppm each) under field and laboratory settings in Sri Lanka. Enumeration of immune cells in blood and melanomacrophages in the liver, assay of serum and hepatic cytokines, and Th1/Th2 cytokine polarisation were investigated. Immune cell counts indicated overall immunosuppression with decreasing total WBC and splenocyte counts while neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio increased with metal exposure, indicating metal mediated stress. Serum IL6 levels of metal exposed frogs reported the highest (~ 9360 pg/mL) of all cytokines tested. Significantly elevated IFNγ production (P < 0.05) was evident in heavy metal exposed frogs. Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio in both serum and liver tissue homogenates was Th1 skewed due to significantly higher production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IFNγ in serum and TNFα in the liver (P < 0.01).Metal mediated aggregations of melanomacrophages in the liver were positively and significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with the hepatic expression of TNFα, IL6 and IL10 activity. Overall, Th1 skewed response may well be due to oxidative stress mediated nuclear factor κ-light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) which enhances the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Xenobiotic stress has recently imposed an unprecedented level of threat to wildlife, particularly to sensitive species such as amphibians. Therefore, understanding the interactions between physiological stress and related immune responses is fundamental to conserve these environmental sentinels in the face of emerging eco-challenges. - Highlights: • Heavy metal pollution in wetland ecosystem is a serious ecotoxicological issue of global dimension • Immune cells and cytokine profile alternations were detected in heavy metal exposed Euphylictis hexadactylus under field and laboratory conditions • Th1 immune response showed significant positive correlation with neutrophil counts explaining the role of neutrophil function under heavy metal burden. • Heavy metal mediated inflammatory response in the liver elevated TNFα, IL6 and IL10 production, positively correlated with melanomacrophage aggregates • Th1 skewed immune response may be attributed to oxidative stress mediated NFκB activation.

  13. Cryptic diversity in metropolis: confirmation of a new leopard frog species (Anura: Ranidae from New York City and surrounding Atlantic coast regions.

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    Jeremy A Feinberg

    Full Text Available We describe a new cryptic species of leopard frog from the New York City metropolitan area and surrounding coastal regions. This species is morphologically similar to two largely parapatric eastern congeners, Rana sphenocephala and R. pipiens. We primarily use bioacoustic and molecular data to characterize the new species, but also examine other lines of evidence. This discovery is unexpected in one of the largest and most densely populated urban parts of the world. It also demonstrates that new vertebrate species can still be found periodically even in well-studied locales rarely associated with undocumented biodiversity. The new species typically occurs in expansive open-canopied wetlands interspersed with upland patches, but centuries of loss and impact to these habitats give some cause for conservation concern. Other concerns include regional extirpations, fragmented extant populations, and a restricted overall geographic distribution. We assign a type locality within New York City and report a narrow and largely coastal lowland distribution from central Connecticut to northern New Jersey (based on genetic data and south to North Carolina (based on call data.

  14. Extra-intestinal localization of Goussia sp. (Apicomplexa) oocysts in Rana dalmatina (Anura: Ranidae), and the fate of infection after metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirků, M; Modrý, D

    2006-06-23

    Although coccidia of the genus Goussia are common parasites of fish, only 2 species have been described in amphibians: G. hyperolisi from common reed frogs Hyperolius viridiflavus from Kenya and G. neglecta from unspecified European water frogs of the genus Rana from Germany. The genus Goussia is characterized by an oocyst, with a fine oocyst wall, containing 4 dizoic sporocysts that are composed of 2 valves joined by a longitudinal suture and lacking a Stieda body (typical for the genus Eimeria). To date, infections in amphibians were generally considered to be specific to the intestine of aquatic larval stages (tadpoles) of anurans. Herein, we report on: (1) the presence of oocysts of Goussia sp. in an extra-intestinal location (liver) of tadpoles of the agile frog R. dalmatina and (2) the presence of oocysts in the liver of both juvenile and subadult R. dalmatina. These observations represent novel traits for Goussia infections in amphibians; they may explain the vertical transmission of Goussia in tadpoles.

  15. River islands, refugia and genetic structuring in the endemic brown frog Rana kukunoris (Anura, Ranidae) of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weiwei; Yan, Fang; Fu, Jinzhong; Wu, Shifang; Murphy, Robert W; Che, Jing; Zhang, Yaping

    2013-01-01

    Frequently, Pleistocene climatic cycling has been found to be the diver of genetic structuring in populations, even in areas that did not have continental ice sheets, such as on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Typically, species distributed on the plateau have been hypothesized to re-treat to south-eastern refugia, especially during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). We evaluated sequence variation in the mitochondrial DNA gene Cytb and the nuclear DNA gene RAG-1 in Rana kukunoris, a species endemic to the QTP. Two major lineages, N and S, were identified, and lineage N was further subdivided into N1 and N2. The geographical distribution and genealogical divergences supported the hypothesis of multiple refugia. However, major lineages and sublineages diverged prior to the LGM. Demographical expansion was detected only in lineage S and sublineage N2. Sublineage N1 might have survived several glacial cycles in situ and did not expand after the LGM because of the absence of suitable habitat; it survived in river islands. Genetic analysis and environment modelling suggested that the north-eastern edge of QTP contained a major refugium for R. kukunoris. From here, lineage S dispersed southwards after the LGM. Two microrefugia in northern Qilian Mountains greatly contributed to current level of intraspecific genetic diversity. These results were found to have important implications for the habitat conservation in Northwest China.

  16. The first taxonomic revaluation of the Iranian water frogs of the genus Pelophylax (Anura: Ranidae) using sequences of the mitochondrial genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesarakloo, Alireza; Rastegar-Pouyani, Eskandar; Rastegar-Pouyani, Nasrollah; Kami, Hajigholi; Najibzadeh, Masoumeh; Khosravani, Azar; Oraie, Hamzeh

    2017-05-01

    The Eurasian water frog species and their geographic ranges have undergone considerable changes in the last four decades, but the Iranian populations have largely remained unknown. All the Iranian populations of water frogs, despite their vast distribution range have attributed to a single species: Rana ridibunda. In order to understand the phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic status of water frogs of Iran, we collected samples from many populations across the country and used the mitochondrial DNA sequence variation. A data set with a final sequence length of 616 nucleotides was generated for Cyt b from 70 individuals of Pelophylax in which there are 422 invariable sites, 174 variable sites of which 123 were parsimony informative. In total, 43 haplotypes were found (Hd: 0.9752). The result demonstrated that, two major clades with strong support can be identified within the Iranian water frogs. One of these clades that include north western and southwestern populations forms a monophyletic group along with P. bedriagae samples from Turkey. The second clade consists of water frog populations of north and northeastern parts of Iran which in turn is subdivided into two subclades. Inclusion of water frog samples from adjacent areas showed that the second clade of our study is, most likely, a distinct taxonomic entity at species rank with its two subclades indicating two diagnosable subspecies for the clade. In conclusion, we suggest that two distinct species, P. bedriagae and Pelophylax sp., with its two subspecies, should be identified as water frogs of Iran. In Addition, another traditionally reported water frog of Iran, P.ridibundus, most likely should be excluded from the Iranian water frog's checklist.

  17. Helminths of the two mountain frogs, banded frog, Rana camerani Boulenger, 1886 and Uludağ frog Rana macrocnemis Boulenger, 1885 (Anura: Ranidae), collected from the Antalya province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düşen, Serdar

    2007-01-01

    In this study, two mountain frogs (Rana camerani and Rana macrocnemis) were collected in the Antalya Province in south-western Turkey during 2001 and 2002 and were examined for helminths. Out of 15 Rana camerani, 10 (66.7%) were infected with 1 or more helminths and out of 20 Rana macrocnemis, 17 (85%) were infected with 1 or more helminths. The helminth fauna of Rana camerani included 4 species of which were 3 trematode species (Haplometra cylindracea, Pleurogenoides medians, Opisthioglyphe rastellus), and 1 nematode species (Cosmocerca ornata). The helminth fauna of Rana macrocnemis included 3 species with 1 trematode species (H. cylindracea), 1 nematode species (C. ornata), and 1 acanthocephalan species (Acanthocephalus ranae). H. cylindracea and C. ornata were observed in both of the mountain frogs.

  18. Heavy metal mediated innate immune responses of the Indian green frog, Euphlyctis hexadactylus (Anura: Ranidae): Cellular profiles and associated Th1 skewed cytokine response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, Uthpala A; Ratnasooriya, Wanigasekara D; Wickramasinghe, Deepthi D; Udagama, Preethi V

    2016-10-01

    Immune cell and cytokine profiles in relation to metal exposure though much studied in mammals has not been adequately investigated in amphibians, due mainly to lack of suitable reagents for cytokine profiling in non-model species. However, interspecies cross reactivity of cytokines permitted us to assay levels of IFNγ, TNFα, IL6 and IL10in a common anuran, the Indian green frog (Euphlyctis hexadactylus), exposed to heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb, at ~5ppm each) under field and laboratory settings in Sri Lanka. Enumeration of immune cells in blood and melanomacrophages in the liver, assay of serum and hepatic cytokines, and Th1/Th2 cytokine polarisation were investigated. Immune cell counts indicated overall immunosuppression with decreasing total WBC and splenocyte counts while neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio increased with metal exposure, indicating metal mediated stress. Serum IL6 levels of metal exposed frogs reported the highest (~9360pg/mL) of all cytokines tested. Significantly elevated IFNγ production (Pfrogs. Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio in both serum and liver tissue homogenates was Th1 skewed due to significantly higher production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IFNγ in serum and TNFα in the liver (P<0.01).Metal mediated aggregations of melanomacrophages in the liver were positively and significantly (P<0.05) correlated with the hepatic expression of TNFα, IL6 and IL10 activity. Overall, Th1 skewed response may well be due to oxidative stress mediated nuclear factor κ-light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) which enhances the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Xenobiotic stress has recently imposed an unprecedented level of threat to wildlife, particularly to sensitive species such as amphibians. Therefore, understanding the interactions between physiological stress and related immune responses is fundamental to conserve these environmental sentinels in the face of emerging eco-challenges.

  19. Cryptic diversity in metropolis: confirmation of a new leopard frog species (Anura: Ranidae) from New York City and surrounding Atlantic coast regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Jeremy A; Newman, Catherine E; Watkins-Colwell, Gregory J; Schlesinger, Matthew D; Zarate, Brian; Curry, Brian R; Shaffer, H Bradley; Burger, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new cryptic species of leopard frog from the New York City metropolitan area and surrounding coastal regions. This species is morphologically similar to two largely parapatric eastern congeners, Rana sphenocephala and R. pipiens. We primarily use bioacoustic and molecular data to characterize the new species, but also examine other lines of evidence. This discovery is unexpected in one of the largest and most densely populated urban parts of the world. It also demonstrates that new vertebrate species can still be found periodically even in well-studied locales rarely associated with undocumented biodiversity. The new species typically occurs in expansive open-canopied wetlands interspersed with upland patches, but centuries of loss and impact to these habitats give some cause for conservation concern. Other concerns include regional extirpations, fragmented extant populations, and a restricted overall geographic distribution. We assign a type locality within New York City and report a narrow and largely coastal lowland distribution from central Connecticut to northern New Jersey (based on genetic data) and south to North Carolina (based on call data).

  20. A potent, non-toxic insulin-releasing peptide isolated from an extract of the skin of the Asian frog, Hylarana guntheri (Anura:Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, J Michael; Power, Gavin J; Abdel-Wahab, Yasser H A; Flatt, Peter R; Jiansheng, Hu; Coquet, Laurent; Leprince, Jérôme; Jouenne, Thierry; Vaudry, Hubert

    2008-11-29

    Peptides in extract of the skin of the Asian frog Hylarana guntheri Boulenger,1882 were purified by reversed-phase HPLC and individual components analysed for their ability to release insulin from the rat BRIN-BD11 clonal beta cell line. The most potent peptide identified in the extract belonged to the brevinin-2 family (brevinin-2GUb; GVIIDTLKGAAKTVAAELLRKAHCKLTNSC). Other peptides with weaker insulin-releasing activity belonged to the brevinin-1 (2 peptides), brevinin-2 (2 peptides) and temporin (3 peptides) families. Only the brevinin-1 peptides showed cytolytic activity against the BRIN-BD11 cells, as demonstrated by an increased rate of release of the cytosolic enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase. A synthetic replicate of brevinin-2GUb produced a significant stimulation of insulin release (139% of basal rate; P<0.05) at a concentration of 100 nM with a maximum response of 373% of basal rate at a concentration of 3 microM) by a mechanism that did not involve mobilization of intracellular calcium. Brevinin-2GUb also inhibited the growth of microorganisms (MIC against Escherichia coli=32 microM, Staphylococcus aureus=64 microM, and Candida albicans=64 microM) but had only weak hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes (LC(50)=700 microM). Administration of brevinin-2GUb (75 nmol/kg body weight) into mice significantly (P<0.05) improved glucose tolerance following a intraperitoneal injection of glucose, thereby demonstrating that the peptide shows potential for development into a therapeutically valuable agent for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes.

  1. Rangewide phylogeography and landscape genetics of the Western U.S. endemic frog Rana boylii (Ranidae): Implications for the conservation of frogs and rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, A.J.; Spinks, P.Q.; Fellers, G.M.; Shaffer, H.B.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic data are increasingly being used in conservation planning for declining species. We sampled both the ecological and distributional limits of the foothill yellow-legged frog, Rana boylii to characterize mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in this declining, riverine amphibian. We evaluated 1525 base pairs (bp) of cytochrome b and ND2 fragments for 77 individuals from 34 localities using phylogenetic and population genetic analyses. We constructed gene trees using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference, and quantified genetic variance (using AMOVA and partial Mantel tests) within and among hydrologic regions and river basins. Several moderately supported, geographically-cohesive mtDNA clades were recovered for R. boylii. While genetic variation was low among populations in the largest, most inclusive clade, samples from localities at the edges of the geographic range demonstrated substantial genetic divergence from each other and from more central populations. Hydrologic regions and river basins, which represent likely dispersal corridors for R. boylii, accounted for significant levels of genetic variation. These results suggest that both rivers and larger hydrologic and geographic regions should be used in conservation planning for R. boylii. ?? 2010 US Government.

  2. A new species of broad-headed eleutherodactylus from the cordillera occidental of Colombia (Amphibia, Leptodactylidae A new species of Broad-Headed Eleutherodactylus from the Cordillera Occidental of Colombia (Amphibia, Leptodactylidae

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    Lynch John D.

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The broad-headed eleutherodactyline frogs have been studied by Lynch(1975, 1981. Although frogs of this assembly are easily identified (Lynch,1975, 1976, 1981, the assembly is not a natural group (Lynch, 1986.Recently, Rivero (1984 described a new species, E. sernai, from westernAntioquia, Colombia. Although Rivero associated E. sernai with thebiporcatus group, the species appears to be a member of the sulcatus group(because it possesses the plesiornorphic condition of the mandibular musclesadductors and the trigeminal nerve mandibular ramus. However, this characteristicis not sufficient to place E. sernai within the sulcatus group; theassignment will be defended in a future paper on the osteology of the variousspecies of the group. For the moment, the sulcatus group contains thefollowing species: E. cerasies Lynch, E. cornutus (Jimenez de la Espada,E. helonotus (Lynch, E. ingeri (Cochran and Gain, E. ruizi Lynch, E.sernai Rivero, and E. sulcatus Se describe Eleutherodactylus cadenai sp. nov. de las selvas de la vertiente occidental de la Cordillera Occidental de Colombia (corregimiento .de Murrí, Municipio de Frontino, Antioquia.  La especie parece tener un ancestro común con Eleutherodactylus ingeri de los bosques nublados de la Cordillera Oriental de Colombia y las dos tienen parentescos con Eleutherodactylus ruizi de las cordilleras Central y Occidental de Colombia.

  3. Una nueva especie de Atelopus (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae del Páramo de Tama, Estado Apure, Venezuela Una nueva especie de Atelopus (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae del Páramo de Tama, Estado Apure, Venezuela

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    La Marca Enrique

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una especie nueva de rana, Atelopus tamaense, del páramo el Tama, en el Estado Apure, Venezuela. El taxon se distingue de todos los demás miembros del género por la combinación de extensivo ''webbing" y coloración distintiva. Se suministran datos sobre su morfología externa, piel, coloración, variación intraespecífica, dimorfismo sexual y ecología. Se incluye una clave para la identificación de las especies venezolanas de Atelopus y se hacen algunas comparaciones para diferenciar la especie nueva de las especies de Atelopus colombianas y venezolanas del grupo de A. ignescens al cual pertenece A. tamaense. A new species of frog, Atelopus tamaense, is described from Páramo El Tamá, Estado Apure, Venezuela. The taxon is distinguished from all other members of the genus by the combination of extensive webbing and distinctive coloration. Data are provided for external morphology, skin, coloration, intraspecific variation, sexual dimorphism, and ecology. A key is included to identify Venezuelan Atelopus and some comparisons are given to distinguish the new species from Colombian and Venezuelan species of Atelopus of the A. ignescens group, to which A. tamaense belongs.

  4. Additional Notes on Megophrys sangzhiensis Jiang, Ye et Fei, 2008 (Amphibia, Anura, Megophryidae)%桑植角蟾Megophrys sangzhiensis Jiang,Ye et Fei,2008形态特征补记(Amphibia,Anura,Megophryidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖春林; 梁茜茜; 王燕; 江建平

    2013-01-01

    基于新采集的桑植角蟾标本(1只雌性成体、6只雄性成体),本文对桑植角蟾的形态特征进行了补充.新采集到的雄性标本符合桑植角蟾的鉴别特征,在外形上与正模标本总体上一致.雌性个体与雄性差异明显:雌性个体(SVL 73.0 mm,n=1)明显比雄性个体大(SVL 53.0 ~ 60.8 mm,n=7);背面皮肤明显较雄性红;胸腹部花斑较雄性大而稀少,红色或暗红色;前肢较雄性弱,没有声囔及声囔孔,指无婚刺.卵团发现于溪流石块下,呈不完整的圆圈状,卵团卵粒数为483 ~542枚(n=2);卵粒乳白色,动植物极颜色差异不明显;卵径3.56 mm±0.13 mm(n=10).

  5. Modificaciones tegumentarias de larvas y adultos durante el cuidado parental en Minyobates virolinensis (Amphibia: Anura: Dendrobatidae Modificaciones tegumentarias de larvas y adultos durante el cuidado parental en Minyobates virolinensis (Amphibia: Anura: Dendrobatidae

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    Pérez Gloria R. de

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the histology and cytology of the adult and tadpole skin during the transport of tadpoles by adult males of Minyobates virolinensis.  Integumentary modifications associated with this transport are seen in cells of the ventral larval epithelium. Of the four cellular types observed in the outer layer of the larval epidermis, two are associated with the attachment to the adult: type I cells have a complex of long microvilli anchored in an intertegumentary matrix, and type II cells have several secretory granules at the apical cellular surface and their secretion contributes to form this matrix. The other two types are found throughout the surface of the larval epidermis. The intertegumentary matrix (acid glycoproteins attach the tadpole to the nurse frog's back. The epidermis of the nurse frog is similar to that of adult males and females without tadpoles on the back; however, several corneal layers are accumulated on the skin surface of nurse frogs and two types of mucous glands secrete acid glycoproteins to the matrix. The intertegumentary matrix may originate from the tegument of both tadpole and adult. Se realiza el estudio histológico y citológico del tegumento de la larva y del adulto durante el transporte del renacuajo por el macho de Minyobates virolinensis. Se observan modificaciones tegumentarias asociadas a este transporte en células del epitelio ventral del renacuajo. Se describen cuatro tipos celulares en la capa más externa de la epidermis de la larva; dos de éstos están asociados con la adhesión al adulto: el tipo celular I tiene un complejo de microvellosidades largas ancladas en la matriz intertegumentaria, el tipo II contiene gránulos de secreción en la superficie apical de las células y su secreción contribuye a formar esta matriz. Los otros dos tipos celulares son comunes en toda la superficie de la epidermis larval. La matriz intertegumentaria (glicoproteínas ácidas prende al renacuajo sobre el dorso de la rana-nodriza. La epidermis de la rana-nodriza es similar a la de machos y hembras adultos sin renacuajos en el dorso; sin embargo, sobre la superficie de  la piel de la rana-nodriza se acumulan varias capas córneas y dos tipos de glándulas mucosas secretan glicoproteínas ácidas a la matriz. Así, la matriz intertegumentaria posiblemente se origina tanto en el tegumento de la larva como en el del adulto.

  6. Phyllomedusa: Posição taxonômica, hábitos e biologia (Amphibia, anura, hylidae

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    Ulisses Caramaschi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis for the Hylidae family of tree-frogs, and diagnosis and included genera for the four subfamilies currently in this family, Hemiphractinae, Hylinae, Pelodryadinae, and Phyllomedusinae, are provided. The genera of the Phyllomedusinae subfamily, Agalychnis, Hylomantis, Pachymedusa, Phasmahyla, Phrynomedusa, and Phyllomedusa are diagnosed and the species included and their geographical distribution are referred. Notes on the habits and biology of members of the genus Phyllomedusa are presented.

  7. A new species of skin-feeding caecilian and the first report of reproductive mode in Microcaecilia (amphibia: Gymnophiona: Siphonopidae.

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    Mark Wilkinson

    Full Text Available A new species of siphonopid caecilian, Microcaecilia dermatophagasp. nov., is described based on nine specimens from French Guiana. The new species is the first new caecilian to be described from French Guiana for more than 150 years. It differs from all other Microcaecilia in having fewer secondary annular grooves and/or in lacking a transverse groove on the dorsum of the first collar. Observations of oviparity and of extended parental care in M. dermatophaga are the first reproductive mode data for any species of the genus. Microcaecilia dermatophaga is the third species, and represents the third genus, for which there has been direct observation of young animals feeding on the skin of their attending mother. The species is named for this maternal dermatophagy, which is hypothesised to be characteristic of the Siphonopidae.

  8. The pelvic kidney of male Ambystoma maculatum (Amphibia, urodela, ambystomatidae) with special reference to the sexual collecting ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Dustin S; Sever, David M; Aldridge, Robert D

    2010-12-01

    This study details the gross and microscopic anatomy of the pelvic kidney in male Ambystoma maculatum. The nephron of male Ambystoma maculatum is divided into six distinct regions leading sequentially away from a renal corpuscle: (1) neck segment, which communicates with the coelomic cavity via a ventrally positioned pleuroperitoneal funnel, (2) proximal tubule, (3) intermediate segment, (4) distal tubule, (5) collecting tubule, and (6) collecting duct. The proximal tubule is divided into a vacuolated proximal region and a distal lysosomic region. The basal plasma membrane is modified into intertwining microvillus lamellae. The epithelium of the distal tubule varies little along its length and is demarcated by columns of mitochondria with their long axes oriented perpendicular to the basal lamina. The distal tubule possesses highly interdigitating microvillus lamellae from the lateral membranes and pronounced foot processes of the basal membrane that are not intertwined, but perpendicular to the basal lamina. The collecting tubule is lined by an epithelium with dark and light cells. Light cells are similar to those observed in the distal tuble except with less mitochondria and microvillus lamellae of the lateral and basal plasma membrane. Dark cells possess dark euchromatic nuclei and are filled with numerous small mitochondria. The epithelium of the neck segment, pleuroperitoneal funnel, and intermediate segment is composed entirely of ciliated cells with cilia protruding from only the central portion of the apical plasma membrane. The collecting duct is lined by a highly secretory epithelium that produces numerous membrane bound granules that stain positively for neutral carbohydrates and proteins. Apically positioned ciliated cells are intercalated between secretory cells. The collecting ducts anastomose caudally and unite with the Wolffian duct via a common collecting duct. The Wolffian duct is secretory, but not to the extent of the collecting duct, synthesizes neutral carbohydrates and proteins, and is also lined by apical ciliated cells intercalated between secretory cells. Although functional aspects associated with the morphological variation along the length of the proximal portions of the nephron have been investigated, the role of a highly secretory collecting duct has not. Historical data that implicated secretory activity concordant with mating activity, and similarity of structure and chemistry to sexual segments of the kidneys in other vertebrates, lead us to believe that the collecting duct functions as a secondary sexual organ in Ambystoma maculatum.

  9. Ultrastructure variation in the spermatozoa of Pseudopaludicola frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae), with brief comments on its phylogenetic relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Julio Sérgio; Introíni, Gisele Orlandi; Veiga-Menoncello, Ana Cristina Prado; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria

    2015-12-01

    The taxonomic history of the small frogs of the genus Pseudopaludicola from South America has been controversial. Phylogenetic inferences based on molecular data have identified four Pseudopaludicola clades, correlating with the known variation in karyotypes (2n = 22, 20, 18, and 16). In this study, the ultrastructure of the spermatozoa was analyzed in 12 species of the Pseudopaludicola, with the aim of describing their morphology and identifying characters that may contribute to a better understanding of the phylogenetic relationships. The spermatozoa presented marked differences in tail structures. The tails of the spermatozoa of the species with 2n = 22 chromosomes (Pseudopaludicola sp. 1 [P. pusilla group], Pseudopaludicola falcipes, P. mineira, and Pseudopaludicola saltica), as well as Pseudopaludicola ameghini and Pseudopaludicola ternetzi (2n=20), have juxta-axonemal fibers, undulating membranes and axial fibers. In contrast, in the species with 2n = 18 (P. facureae, P. giarettai, Pseudopaludicola canga, P. atragula, and Pseudopaludicola sp. 2) and 2n = 16 (Pseudopaludicola mystacalis), there are no evident axial or juxta-axonemal fibers, but a paraxonemal rod with a thick undulating membrane, which is shorter than that found among Pseudopaludicola species. The ultrastructural morphological differences observed in the spermatozoa of these species may be phylogenetically informative, given that they coincide with the consensus phylogeny of the group and appear to represent a progressive simplification of the spermatozoon.

  10. The prevalence of genome replacement in unisexual salamanders of the genus Ambystoma (Amphibia, Caudata revealed by nuclear gene genealogy

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    Bogart James P

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unisexual salamanders of the genus Ambystoma exemplify the most ancient lineage of unisexual vertebrates and demonstrate an extremely flexible reproductive system. Unisexual Ambystoma interact with and incorporate genomes from two to four sexual species (A. laterale, A. jeffersonianum,A. texanum, and A. tigrinum, to generate more than 20 genome compositions or biotypes. Unisexual ploidy levels range from diploid to pentaploid, but all contain at least one A. laterale (L genome. Replacement of nuclear genomes might be responsible for the evolutionary longevity of unisexual Ambystoma but direct evidence for the prevalence of genome replacement in natural populations is absent. Two major puzzling questions have remained unanswered over the last few decades: 1 is genome replacement a common reproductive method in various unisexual populations and, 2 is there an ancient "L" genome that persists in various unisexual genome compositions. Results We examined 194 unisexual and 89 A. laterale specimens from 97 localities throughout their range and constructed a genealogy of the "L" genomes using a nuclear DNA marker (L-G1C12 to answer the above questions. Six L-G1C12 haplotypes (A-F were shared by individuals in various A. laterale and unisexual populations. The general geographical distribution of the haplotypes in unisexual populations conformed to those found in A. laterale, indicating that "L" genomes in unisexuals are obtained from sympatric or nearby populations of A. laterale. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that genome replacement frequently occurs in unisexual Ambystoma across their range, and support previous speculations that genome replacement is an important reproductive mechanism that can enhance their evolutionary longevity. Our results show that there is no ancient "L" genome in the unisexual lineages, and no particular "L" genome is favored in any unisexual individual. The presence of an "L" genome in all unisexuals implies that it is important to the maintenance of unisexuals. Nuclear gene genealogy is a powerful tool to examine the historical interaction between sperm-dependent unisexuals and their sexual sperm donors. This methodology could be applicable to many other unisexual lineages to improve our understanding of their reproduction and their ability to persist.

  11. COI is better than 16S rRNA for DNA barcoding Asiatic salamanders (Amphibia: Caudata: Hynobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yun; Gu, Hai-Feng; Peng, Rui; Chen, Qin; Zheng, Yu-Chi; Murphy, Robert W; Zeng, Xiao-Mao

    2012-01-01

    The 5' region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) is the standard marker for DNA barcoding. However, because COI tends to be highly variable in amphibians, sequencing is often challenging. Consequently, another mtDNA gene, 16S rRNA gene, is often advocated for amphibian barcoding. Herein, we directly compare the usefulness of COI and 16S in discriminating species of hynobiid salamanders using 130 individuals. Species identification and classification of these animals, which are endemic to Asia, are often based on morphology only. Analysis of Kimura 2-parameter genetic distances (K2P) documents the mean intraspecific variation for COI and 16S rRNA genes to be 1.4% and 0.3%, respectively. Whereas COI can always identify species, sometimes 16S cannot. Intra- and interspecific genetic divergences occasionally overlap in both markers, thus reducing the value of a barcoding gap to identify genera. Regardless, COI is the better DNA barcoding marker for hynobiids. In addition to the comparison of two potential markers, high levels of intraspecific divergence in COI (>5%) suggest that both Onychodactylus fischeri and Salamandrella keyserlingii might be composites of cryptic species.

  12. Morphological variation in two genetically distinct groups of the golden-striped salamander, Chioglossa lusitanica (Amphibia: Urodela)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexandrino, J.; Ferrand, N.; Arntzen, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Morphometric and colour pattern variation in the endemic Iberian salamander Chioglossa lusitanica is concordant with the genetic differentiation of two groups of populations separated by the Mondego river in Portugal. Salamanders from the south have shorter digits than those from the north. Clinal v

  13. A new species of the Pristimantis orestes group (Amphibia: Strabomantidae) from the high Andes of Ecuador, Reserva Mazar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guayasamin, Juan M; Arteaga, Alejandro F

    2013-02-21

    We describe a new Pristimantis from La Libertad and Rumiloma, Reserva Mazar, Andes of Southeastern Ecuador, at elevations between 2895-3415 m. This species is assigned to the P. orestes group, from whose members it differs by its small body size (adult males ≤ 18.1 mm; adult females ≤ 23.7 mm), usually reticulated ventral pattern, and visible tympanum. The vocalization of the new species consists of a series of calls; each call is composed by a pulsed, non-modulated note in frequency, and with a dominant frequency of 3122-3171 Hz. A molecular phylogeny based on a fragment of the mitochondrial gene 12S shows that the new species is sister to Pristimantis simonbolivari.

  14. A new species of Pristimantis (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from the foothills of the Andes in Manu National Park, southeastern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepack, Alexander; von May, Rudolf; Ttito, Alex; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new species of Pristimantis from the humid sub-montane forest of the Región Cusco in Peru. Pristimantis pluvialis sp. n. was collected in the Kosñipata and Entoro valleys at elevations from 740 to 1110 m a.s.l., near the borders of Manu National Park and within the Huachiperi Haramba Queros Conservation Concession. The new species can be distinguished from other members of the genus Pristimantis by its rostral tubercle, smooth dorsal skin, and by its advertisement call. Pristimantis lacrimosus and Pristimantis waoranii superficially most resemble the new species, but Pristimantis pluvialis sp. n. differs from both species by having a rostral tubercle (absent in Pristimantis waoranii and variable in Pristimantis lacrimosus) and larger size, from Pristimantis lacrimosus by its call emitted at a lower frequency, and from Pristimantis waoranii for its dorsal coloration with dark markings. Two other species have partially overlapping distributions and resemble the new species, Pristimantis mendax and Pristimantis olivaceus, but they produce advertisement calls with much higher dominant frequencies than the advertisement call of the new species. Furthermore, Pristimantis mendax differs from the new species by lacking a rostral tubercle and by having a sigmoid inner tarsal fold, whereas Pristimantis olivaceus differs by being smaller and by having dorsal skin shagreen with scattered tubercles. The new species has snout-vent length of 21.8–26.9 mm in males (n = 12) and 28.8 mm in a single female. PMID:27408563

  15. Body size, reproduction and feeding ecology of Pleurodema diplolister (Amphibia: Anura: Leiuperidae from Caatinga, Pernambuco state, Northeastern Brazil

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    José Guilherme G. Sousa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present data about body size, sexual dimorphism, reproductive traits and diet ecology of Pleurodoma diplolister. This species is sexually dimorphic with females larger than males, corroborating others Leiuperidae species. The number of eggs varied from 62 to 1241 and we found a positive relationship between SVL of females and number of mature ovarian eggs but there is no relationship between SVL and volume of eggs. The diet of P. diplolister was composed by 11 categories of which Formicidae, Coleoptera and Orthopterans were the most important items and showed generalist and oportunistic predator habits. Data presented here should be considered in the development of future conservation strategies of anurans from Caatinga biome and other semiarid/arid environments.

  16. Chromosome banding in Amphibia. XXIX. The primitive XY/XX sex chromosomes of Hyla femoralis (Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, M; Steinlein, C

    2003-01-01

    The karyotype of the pine woods treefrog, Hyla femoralis, is characterized by primitive XY female/XX male sex chromosomes. The sole difference between the X and the Y is the presence of a nucleolus organizer region (NOR) in the X. Due to a deletion of the NOR in the Y, this chromosome is distinctly smaller than the X. Since no autosomal NORs exist in the karyotype of this species, the NOR deletion in the Y results in a sex-specific difference in the number of ribosomal RNA genes, with a female:male ratio of about 2:1. Interphase nuclei of male animals contain always one silver-stained nucleolus, whereas most nuclei of female specimens exhibit two nucleoli. This is in agreement with the absence of dosage compensation for sex-linked genes in amphibian cells. The consequences of the loss of about 50% of ribosomal RNA genes for the viability of male individuals and spermatogenesis are discussed. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Lsh Is Essential for Maintaining Global DNA Methylation Levels in Amphibia and Fish and Interacts Directly with Dnmt1

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    Donncha S. Dunican

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic genomes are methylated at cytosine bases in the context of CpG dinucleotides, a pattern which is maintained through cell division by the DNA methyltransferase Dnmt1. Dramatic methylation losses are observed in plant and mouse cells lacking Lsh (lymphoid specific helicase, predominantly at repetitive sequences and gene promoters. However, the mechanism by which Lsh contributes to the maintenance of DNA methylation is unknown. Here we show that DNA methylation is lost in Lsh depleted frog and fish embryos, both of which exhibit developmental delay. Additionally, we show that both Lsh and Dnmt1 are associated with chromatin and that Lsh knockdown leads to a decreased Dnmt1-chromatin association. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments reveal that Lsh and Dnmt1 are found in the same protein complex, and pulldowns show this interaction is direct. Our data indicate that Lsh is usually diffuse in the nucleus but can be recruited to heterochromatin in a HP1α-dependent manner. These data together (a show that the role of Lsh in DNA methylation is conserved in plants, amphibian, fish, and mice and (b support a model in which Lsh contributes to Dnmt1 binding to chromatin, explaining how its loss can potentially lead to perturbations in DNA methylation maintenance.

  18. Functional characterization of the vertebrate primary ureter: Structure and ion transport mechanisms of the pronephric duct in axolotl larvae (Amphibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prehn Lea R

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three kidney systems appear during vertebrate development: the pronephroi, mesonephroi and metanephroi. The pronephric duct is the first or primary ureter of these kidney systems. Its role as a key player in the induction of nephrogenic mesenchyme is well established. Here we investigate whether the duct is involved in urine modification using larvae of the freshwater amphibian Ambystoma mexicanum (axolotl as model. Results We investigated structural as well as physiological properties of the pronephric duct. The key elements of our methodology were: using histology, light and transmission electron microscopy as well as confocal laser scanning microscopy on fixed tissue and applying the microperfusion technique on isolated pronephric ducts in combination with single cell microelectrode impalements. Our data show that the fully differentiated pronephric duct is composed of a single layered epithelium consisting of one cell type comparable to the principal cell of the renal collecting duct system. The cells are characterized by a prominent basolateral labyrinth and a relatively smooth apical surface with one central cilium. Cellular impalements demonstrate the presence of apical Na+ and K+ conductances, as well as a large K+ conductance in the basolateral cell membrane. Immunolabeling experiments indicate heavy expression of Na+/K+-ATPase in the basolateral labyrinth. Conclusions We propose that the pronephric duct is important for the subsequent modification of urine produced by the pronephros. Our results indicate that it reabsorbs sodium and secretes potassium via channels present in the apical cell membrane with the driving force for ion movement provided by the Na+/K+ pump. This is to our knowledge the first characterization of the pronephric duct, the precursor of the collecting duct system, which provides a model of cell structure and basic mechanisms for ion transport. Such information may be important in understanding the evolution of vertebrate kidney systems and human diseases associated with congenital malformations.

  19. Functional characterization of the vertebrate primary ureter: Structure and ion transport mechanisms of the pronephric duct in axolotl larvae (Amphibia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugan, Birgitte M; Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Jespersen, Åse

    2010-01-01

    whether the duct is involved in urine modification using larvae of the freshwater amphibian Ambystoma mexicanum (axolotl) as model. Results We investigated structural as well as physiological properties of the pronephric duct. The key elements of our methodology were: using histology, light...

  20. [Specific growth rate and the rate of energy metabolism in the ontogenesis of axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum (Amphibia: Ambystomatidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirova, I G; Kleĭmenov, S Iu; Alekseeva, T A; Radzinskaia, L I

    2003-01-01

    Concordant changes in the rate of energy metabolism and specific growth rate of axolotls have been revealed. Several periods of ontogeny are distinguished, which differ in the ratio of energy metabolism to body weight and, therefore, are described by different allometric equations. It is suggested that the specific growth rate of an animal determines the type of dependence of energy metabolism on body weight.

  1. A skeletochronological study of growth, longevity, and age at sexual maturity in a population of Rana latastei (Amphibia, Anura)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fabio M Guarino; Silvia Lunardi; Michela Carlomagno; Stefano Mazzotti

    2003-12-01

    Longevity and age at sexual maturity in an Italian population of Rana latastei were studied by skeletochronology performed on the phalanges. Frogs collected in 1998 and 1999 by drift fences and pitfall traps were marked by toe-clipping. After marking, individuals were released and the cut phalanges were processed for skeletochronological analysis. The maximum age so far recorded was 3 years in males and 4 years in females. The smallest male and female that were sexually mature on the basis of histological analysis of the gonads were 36 and 35 mm snout vent length (SVL), respectively. In both sexes, most individuals were estimated to breed shortly after emergence from their first overwintering. Among the European Brown Frogs, Rana latastei appears to be one of the shortest-lived and one of the first to reach sexual maturity.

  2. Advertisement call of Scinax littoralis and S. angrensis (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae, with notes on the reproductive activity of S. littoralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel V. Garey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Scinax littoralis and S. angrensis are poorly known Atlantic forest endemic species from the Scinax catharinae group, which is known from southern and southeastern Brazil. Herein, we describe the advertisement calls of these two species and compare them to other species within the S. catharinae group. Additionally, we provide information on breeding sites, and calling activity in S. littoralis. Advertisement calls of S. angrensis and S. littoralis are composed of multi-pulsed notes with multiple frequency bands and frequency modulation. Scinax littoralis has a higher minimum and maximum frequency, and lower dominant frequency than S. angrensis, while Scinax littoralis has a longer call. Scinax littoralis appears to be a habitat generalist, occurring from secondary to mature forests, and breeding both in temporary and in permanent ponds. Male S. littoralis were usually observed calling perched on shrub stems, and displayed satellite behavior when the male density was high.

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of Nanorana pleskei (Amphibia: Anura: Dicroglossidae and evolutionary characteristics of the amphibian mitochondrial genomes

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    Guiying CHEN, Bin WANG, Jiongyu LIU, Feng XIE, Jianping JIANG

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The complete mitochondrial genome of Nanorana pleskei from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was sequenced. It includes 17,660 base pairs, containing 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNAs and 23 tRNAs. A tandem duplication of tRNAMet gene was found in this mitochondrial genome, and the similarity between the two tRNAMet genes is 85.8%, being the highest in amphibian mitochondrial genomes sequenced thus far. Based on gene organization, 24 types were found from 145 amphibian mitochondrial genomes. Type 1 was present in 108 species, type 11 in 11 species, types 5, 16, 17, and 20 each in two species, and the others each present in one species. Fifteen types were found in Anura, being the most diversity in three orders of the Lissamphibia. Our phylogenetic results using 11 protein-coding gene sequences of 145 amphibian mitochondrial genomes strongly support the monophyly of the Lissamphibia, as well as its three orders, the Gymnophiona, Caudata, and Anura, among which the relationships were ((Gymnophiona (Caudata, Anura. Based on the phylogenetic trees, type 1 was recognized as the ancestral type for amphibians, and type 11 was the synapomorphic type for the Neobatrachia. Gene rearrangements among lineages provide meaningful phylogenetic information. The rearrangement of the LTPF tRNA gene cluster and the translocation of the ND5 gene only found in the Neobatrachia support the monophyly of this group; similarly, the tandem duplication of the tRNAMet genes only found in the Dicroglossidae support the monophyly of this family [Current Zoology 57 (6: 785–805, 2011].

  4. Pseudophilautus dilmah, a new species of shrub frog (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae from a threatened habitat Loolkandura in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Mendis Wickramasinghe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new species of shrub frog Pseudophilautus dilmah is described from the Central Hills of Sri Lanka.  This unique species is distinguished from all the other congeners from a combination of characters; snout rounded in lateral aspect, bluntly pointed in dorsal and ventral aspect, canthus rostralis rounded, vomerine teeth, lingual papilla and nuptial pads absent, dermal fringe distinct on inside of fingers III and IV, small blunt tubercles on metacarpal and ulnar folds, toes basally webbed, interorbital area smooth, upper eyelid prominent tubercles present, anterior and posterior dorsum without horny spinules but tubercles present, upper part of flank weakly granular, supratympanic fold distinct, prominent small calcar present at the distal end of the tibia, throat granular, chest and belly coarsely granular.  Based on comparison of 16s rRNA gene we also show that the species is genetically distinct from other members of Pseudophilautus for which gene sequences are available.  The high rate of deforestation and anthropogenic activities threaten this population in its natural habitat. 

  5. A new species of the genus Pristimantis (Amphibia, Craugastoridae) associated with the moderately elevated massifs of French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Antoine; Martinez, Quentin; Courtois, Elodie A; Dewynter, Maël; Pineau, Kévin; Gaucher, Philippe; Blanc, Michel; Marty, Christian; Kok, Philippe J R

    2013-12-23

    We describe a new Pristimantis from French Guiana, northern South America, which is mainly distinguished from known phenotypically related congeners (i.e. species from the polyphyletic unistrigatus species group) occurring at low and middle elevations in the Guiana Shield by the combination of a distinct tympanum, a lower ratio of tibia vs. hand length, a reddish groin region, and a distinct advertisement call consisting of clusters of generally four short notes. The new species inhabits pristine primary forests on the slopes of isolated massifs reaching more than 400 m elevation, and seems not to occur below ca. 200 m above sea level. Such a sharp altitudinal limit suggests a strong influence of thermal variation on the distribution of the species, and therefore a potential sensitivity to climate change. With only nine isolated populations documented so far, the new species should be prioritized for conservation. Historical climate fluctuations during the Quaternary are likely responsible for the distribution pattern of the new species. 

  6. Amphibia, Anura, Centrolenidae, Hyalinobatrachium crurifasciatum Myers and Donnelly, 1997: First record from Brazil and geographic distribution map

    OpenAIRE

    RODRIGUES,Domingos de Jesus; Lima, Marcelo de Morais; Morais, Drausio H. [UNESP; Kawashita-Ribeiro, Ricardo A.

    2010-01-01

    The current note reports the presence of Hyalinobatrachium crurifasciatum at municipality of Cotriguaçu, state of Mato Grosso, Central Brazil. This is the first occurrence of this species in Brazil. © 2010 Check List and Authors.

  7. Notes on the herpetofauna of Surinam : III. A new species of Dendrobates (Amphibia salientia, Dendrobatidae) from Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1969-01-01

    INTRODUCTION During a recent collecting trip, financed by grant W 956-2 from WOTRO (Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research), I spent 47 days (22 August-7 October 1968) on the Sipaliwini savannah in southern Surinam. The Sipaliwini savannah is part of an extensive savannah th

  8. A new species of Pristimantis (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from the foothills of the Andes in Manu National Park, southeastern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepack, Alexander; von May, Rudolf; Ttito, Alex; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of Pristimantis from the humid sub-montane forest of the Región Cusco in Peru. Pristimantis pluvialis sp. n. was collected in the Kosñipata and Entoro valleys at elevations from 740 to 1110 m a.s.l., near the borders of Manu National Park and within the Huachiperi Haramba Queros Conservation Concession. The new species can be distinguished from other members of the genus Pristimantis by its rostral tubercle, smooth dorsal skin, and by its advertisement call. Pristimantis lacrimosus and Pristimantis waoranii superficially most resemble the new species, but Pristimantis pluvialis sp. n. differs from both species by having a rostral tubercle (absent in Pristimantis waoranii and variable in Pristimantis lacrimosus) and larger size, from Pristimantis lacrimosus by its call emitted at a lower frequency, and from Pristimantis waoranii for its dorsal coloration with dark markings. Two other species have partially overlapping distributions and resemble the new species, Pristimantis mendax and Pristimantis olivaceus, but they produce advertisement calls with much higher dominant frequencies than the advertisement call of the new species. Furthermore, Pristimantis mendax differs from the new species by lacking a rostral tubercle and by having a sigmoid inner tarsal fold, whereas Pristimantis olivaceus differs by being smaller and by having dorsal skin shagreen with scattered tubercles. The new species has snout-vent length of 21.8-26.9 mm in males (n = 12) and 28.8 mm in a single female.

  9. Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. Nematotaeniidae (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea, a tapeworm parasite of Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Amphibia: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos Melo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The family Nematotaeniidae, tapeworms commonly found in the small intestines of amphibians and reptiles, includes 27 recognised species distributed among four genera: Bitegmen Jones, Cylindrotaenia Jewell, Distoichometra Dickey and Nematotaenia Lühe. The taxonomy of these cestodes is poorly defined, due in part to the difficulties of observing many anatomical traits. This study presents and describes a new genus and species of nematotaeniid parasite found in cane toads (Rhinella marina from eastern Brazilian Amazonia. The cestodes were collected during the necropsy of 20 hosts captured in the urban area of Belém, Pará. The specimens were fixed and processed for light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and three-dimensional (3D reconstruction. Samples were also collected for molecular analyses. The specimens presented a cylindrical body, two testes and paruterine organs. However, they could not be allocated to any of the four existing nematotaeniid genera due to the presence of two each of dorsal compact medullary testes, cirri, cirrus pouches, genital pores, ovaries and vitelline glands per mature segment. Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. is the first nematotaeniid studied using Historesin analysis, SEM and 3D reconstruction, and it is the second taxon for which molecular data have been deposited in GenBank.

  10. Temporal selectivity for complex signals by single neurons in the torus semicircularis of Pleurodema thaul (Amphibia:Leptodactylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, M; Lin, W Y; Feng, A S

    1997-04-01

    Responses of auditory neurons in the torus semicircularis (TS) of Pleurodema thaul, a leptodactylid from Chile, to synthetic stimuli having diverse temporal patterns and to digitized advertisement calls of P. thaul and three sympatric species, were recorded to investigate their temporal response selectivities. The advertisement call of this species consists of a long sequence of sound pulses (a pulse-amplitude-modulated, or PAM, signal) having a dominant frequency of about 2000 Hz. Each of the sound pulses contains intra-pulse sinusoidal-amplitude-modulations (SAMs). Synthetic stimuli consisted of six series in which the following acoustic parameters were systematically modified, one at a time: PAM rate, pulse duration, number of pulses, and intra-pulse SAM rate. The carrier frequency of these stimuli was set at the characteristic frequency (CF) of the isolated units (n = 47). Response patterns of TS units to synthetic call variants reveal different degrees of selectivities for each of the temporal variables, with populations of neurons responding maximally to specific values found in the advertisement call of this species. These selectivities are mainly shaped by neuronal responsiveness to the overall sound energy of the stimulus and by the inability of neurons to discharge to short inter-pulse gaps.

  11. The effects of low-dose irradiation on the development of amphibia. Auswirkungen schwacher Strahlendosen auf die Entwicklung von Amphibien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloft, W.J.; Giannetti, M.; Gruschwitz, M.; Strick, H.; Urmetz, S.

    1990-01-01

    During the first phase of the study, which lasted from 1983 until 1985, attention was focused on changes in the the general development of Bufo bufo and, to permit more detailed appraisal, those in the formation of the visual and nervous systems that occurred as a result of exposure to cobalt-60. Starting out from the observations and experiences made during the initial study period further research work was carried out between 1986 and 1989 to develop a bioindicator model in Xenopus laevis that leads to reliable, rapid and specific results in the detection of harmful radioactive substances. These are obtained on the basis of biochemical, haematologic and serologic methods of investigation. (orig./MG).

  12. Patterns of Apoptosis and Proliferation throughout the Biennial Reproductive Cycle of Viviparous Female Typhlonectes compressicauda (Amphibia, Gymnophiona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Raquet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Typhlonectes compressicauda is an aquatic gymnophionan amphibian living in South America. Its breeding cycle is linked to seasons, characterized by a regular alternation of rainy and dry seasons. During a complex biennial cycle, the female genital tract undergoes a series of alternations of increasing and decreasing, governed by equilibrium of proliferation and apoptotic phenomena. Immunohistochemical methods were used to visualize cell proliferation with the detection of Ki67 antibody, a protein present in proliferative cells; terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL and Apostain were performed to detect apoptotic cells on sections of ovaries and oviducts. In ovaries, both phenomena affect the germinal nests and follicles according to the cycle period. In the oviduct, the balance was in favor of proliferation during preparation for reproduction, and in favor of apoptosis when genital ducts regress. Apoptosis and proliferation are narrowly implicated in the remodeling of the genital tract and they are accompanied by the differentiation of tissues according to the phase of the breeding cycle. These variations permit the capture of oocytes at ovulation, always at the same period, and the parturition after 6–7 months of gestation, at a period in which the newborns live with their mother, protected in burrows in the mud. During the intervening year of sexual inactivity, the female reconstitutes body reserves.

  13. A NEW BUFONID GENUS PARAPELOPHRYNE FROM CHINA (AMPHIBIA, ANURA)%中国蟾蜍科一新属

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费梁; 叶昌媛; 江建平

    2003-01-01

    对世界蟾蜍科动物的分类现状做了概述,并对我国原定名为鳞皮游蟾Nectophryne scalptus Liu and Hu(1973)及叶昌媛等(1978)将其改为鳞皮厚蹼蟾Pelophryne scalptus(Frost,1985订正种名为scalpta)的海南标本做了进一步研究,与现有蟾蜍科各属、特别是与东南亚地区的几个特有属的特征做了对比研究.结果表明:原定名为鳞皮游蟾Nectophryne scalptus的海南标本应代表一个新属即小蟾属Parapelophryne gen.nov,因此原定名为鳞皮游蟾(或鳞皮厚蹼蟾)的标本为新属的成员,即种名应改为鳞皮小蟾Parapelophryne scalpta(Liu and Hu).

  14. Trombiculid mites (Hannemania sp.) in Leptodactylus chaquensis (Amphibia: Anura) inhabiting selected soybean and rice agroecosystems of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attademo, Andrés M; Peltzer, Paola M; Lajmanovich, Rafael C; Junges, Celina; Bassó, Agustín; Cabagna-Zenklusen, Mariana

    2012-09-01

    Trombiculid mites are known to parasitize a variety of amphibian species; however, few comparisons of mite parasitism among sites have been made. Here, Hannemania sp. parasitism in frogs (Leptodactylus chaquensis) inhabiting agroecosystems from mideastern Argentina was described. A total of 40 adult frogs (22 females and 18 males) were analyzed to detect ectoparasite Hannemania spp. larvae. Prevalence and mean abundance of Hannemania sp. were consistently higher in frogs from the agroecosystems (rice and soybean fields) than from two reference sites. Leptodactylus chaquensis might be considered an important host species of Hannemania sp., particularly in agricultural areas.

  15. Long bone histology of the stem salamander Kokartus honorarius (Amphibia: Caudata) from the Middle Jurassic of Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutschas, Pavel; Stein, Koen

    2015-04-01

    Kokartus honorarius from the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) of Kyrgyzstan is one of the oldest salamanders in the fossil record, characterized by a mixture of plesiomorphic morphological features and characters shared with crown-group salamanders. Here we present a detailed histological analysis of its long bones. The analysis of a growth series demonstrates a significant histological maturation during ontogeny, expressed by the progressive appearance of longitudinally oriented primary vascular canals, primary osteons, growth marks, remodelling features in primary bone tissues, as well as progressive resorption of the calcified cartilage, formation of endochondral bone and development of cartilaginous to bony trabeculae in the epiphyses. Apart from the presence of secondary osteons, the long bone histology of Kokartus is very similar to that of miniaturized temnospondyls, other Jurassic stem salamanders, miniaturized seymouriamorphs and modern crown-group salamanders. We propose that the presence of secondary osteons in Kokartus honorarius is a plesiomorphic feature, and the loss of secondary osteons in the long bones of crown-group salamanders as well as in those of miniaturized temnospondyls is the result of miniaturization processes. Hitherto, all stem salamander long bong histology (Kokartus, Marmorerpeton and 'salamander A') has been generally described as having paedomorphic features (i.e. the presence of Katschenko's Line and a layer of calcified cartilage), these taxa were thus most likely neotenic forms. The absence of clear lines of arrested growth and annuli in long bones of Kokartus honorarius suggests that the animals lived in an environment with stable local conditions.

  16. Functional characterization of the vertebrate primary ureter: Structure and ion transport mechanisms of the pronephric duct in axolotl larvae (Amphibia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugan, Birgitte M; Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Jespersen, Åse;

    2010-01-01

    whether the duct is involved in urine modification using larvae of the freshwater amphibian Ambystoma mexicanum (axolotl) as model. Results We investigated structural as well as physiological properties of the pronephric duct. The key elements of our methodology were: using histology, light...... duct system, which provides a model of cell structure and basic mechanisms for ion transport. Such information may be important in understanding the evolution of vertebrate kidney systems and human diseases associated with congenital malformations....

  17. Observações anatômicas sôbre a larva de Thoropa miliaris (Amphibia, Leptodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Barth

    1956-12-01

    Full Text Available Die kaulquappe von Thoropa miliaris lebt in mittleren Lagen des Itatiáia-Gebirges (Staat Rio de Janeiro, in etwa 1650 m Hoebe, auf fast senkracht stehenden Felsplatten, ueber die staendig eine sehr duenne Schicht Wasser herablaeuft. Die Tiere haben keinen Flossensaum; der zwei- bis dreimal koerperlange Schwanz ist fast drehrund und besitzt an Stelle eines Flossensaumes nur einen ventralen Kiel, der die Schlaengelbewegung gegen den Wasserstrom unterstuetzt. Auch die juengsten Stadien haben keine aeusseren kiemen, sondern innere in einer Atemhoehle, deren Ausgang sich auf der linken Seite in der Mitte des Koerpers befindet. Die Tiere heften sich an den Steinen vermittels ihres sehr grossen Mundapparates fest. Die Lippen tragen zwei oder drei Reihen starker Keratin-Haken, die durch laufende Neubildung ersetzt werden. Die arbeitenden Spitzenzaehne des Hornschnabels in der Mundhoehle werden ebenfalls durch fortgesetztes Wachstum erneuert. Die Saugscheibenwirkung des Mundes wird durch ein Muskelpaar bedingt, das einerseits am Parasphenoid- und am Sphenethmoidknorpel, andererseits mit seinen unteren Buendeln am Prodentale (Spitze des Meckel'schen Knorpels, mit seinem oberen vermittels je zweier Sehnen am Promaxillare ansetzt. Durch die kontraktion dieser Muskeln wird das Prodentale nach oben und dann nach hinten, das Promaxillare (mit Gelenkstellen am Prointermaxillare und Pronasale nach oben und dann nach vorne gedreht. Hierdurch treten die beiden Kegel des Hornschnabels in die Mundhoehle, da sie den beiden Knorpeln fest aufsitzen. Bei starker Kontraktion werden die Knorpel auseinander gedrueckt und vergroessern die Mundhoehle. Wenn die Lippen, unterstuetzt von den Hakenreihen, fest dem Stein aufliegen, ergibt sich ein Unterdruck in der Mundhoehle, der genuegt, um die Larven auf der Unterlage festzuhalten. Das Loesen des Saugnapfes erfolgt durch die kontraktion einer Gruppe kleiner Muskelbuendel, die einerseits am Unterrand des Prodentale, andererseits an den falten der Unterlippe ansetzen.

  18. Morfologia do plexo braquial e das extremidades digitais de Pipa carvalhoi, Miranda Ribeiro, 1937 (Amphibia, Anura, Pipidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pellicano, Pedro Ivo Molina

    2007-01-01

    Os anfíbios aquáticos trazem consigo uma grande variedade de órgãos sensoriais específicos para a captação de determinado tipo de estímulo. A mecanorrecepção, provida pelos neuromastos, ou órgãos de linha lateral, é a modalidade sensorial responsável pela captação de estímulos vibratórios na água, o que facilita a orientação e a localização de presas. A olfação possui grande importância na comunicação intraespecífica, assim como na localização de presas, que juntamente com a gustação está ass...

  19. Histology and ultrastructure of the caudal courtship glands of the red-backed salamander, Plethodon cinereus (Amphibia: Plethodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, David M; Siegel, Dustin S

    2015-03-01

    Caudal courtship glands (CCGs) are sexually dimorphic glands described in the skin of the dorsal tail base of some male salamanders in the genera Desmognathus, Eurycea, and Plethodon in the family Plethodontidae. These glands are believed to deliver pheromones to females during courtship, when the female rests her chin on the dorsal tail base during the stereotypic tail straddling walk unique to plethodontids. Although CCGs have been studied histologically, no investigations of their ultrastructure have been made. This article presents the first study on the fine structure and seasonal variation of CCGs, using the plethodontid Plethodon cinereus. The CCGs vary seasonally in height and secretory activity. The mature secretory granules observed in males collected in October and April consist of oval, biphasic granules that are eosinophilic and give positive reactions to periodic acid-Schiff for neutral carbohydrates but do not stain for acidic mucosusbtances or proteins with alcian blue and bromphenol blue, respectively. Granular glands, some of which contain mucous demilunes, are twice as large as CCGs, are syncytial (unlike CCGs), and stain for proteins. Mucous glands are similar in size to CCGs, but are basophilic, show no seasonal variation in secretory activity, and stain positive for acidic mucosubstances. CCGs do not resemble cytologically the sexually dimorphic mental glands of some plethodontids, which contain round or oval granules filled with an electron-dense amorphous substance. The CCGs are similar histologically to sexually dimorphic skin glands described in some anurans, but more comparative work is needed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Climate change and the distribution of neotropical red-bellied toads (Melanophryniscus, Anura, Amphibia): how to prioritize species and populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zank, Caroline; Becker, Fernando Gertum; Abadie, Michelle; Baldo, Diego; Maneyro, Raúl; Borges-Martins, Márcio

    2014-01-01

    We used species distribution modeling to investigate the potential effects of climate change on 24 species of Neotropical anurans of the genus Melanophryniscus. These toads are small, have limited mobility, and a high percentage are endangered or present restricted geographical distributions. We looked at the changes in the size of suitable climatic regions and in the numbers of known occurrence sites within the distribution limits of all species. We used the MaxEnt algorithm to project current and future suitable climatic areas (a consensus of IPCC scenarios A2a and B2a for 2020 and 2080) for each species. 40% of the species may lose over 50% of their potential distribution area by 2080, whereas 28% of species may lose less than 10%. Four species had over 40% of the currently known occurrence sites outside the predicted 2080 areas. The effect of climate change (decrease in climatic suitable areas) did not differ according to the present distribution area, major habitat type or phylogenetic group of the studied species. We used the estimated decrease in specific suitable climatic range to set a conservation priority rank for Melanophryniscus species. Four species were set to high conservation priority: M. montevidensis, (100% of its original suitable range and all known occurrence points potentially lost by 2080), M. sp.2, M. cambaraensis, and M. tumifrons. Three species (M. spectabilis, M. stelzneri, and M. sp.3) were set between high to intermediate priority (more than 60% decrease in area predicted by 2080); nine species were ranked as intermediate priority, while eight species were ranked as low conservation priority. We suggest that monitoring and conservation actions should be focused primarily on those species and populations that are likely to lose the largest area of suitable climate and the largest number of known populations in the short-term.

  1. Climate change and the distribution of neotropical red-bellied toads (Melanophryniscus, Anura, Amphibia: how to prioritize species and populations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Zank

    Full Text Available We used species distribution modeling to investigate the potential effects of climate change on 24 species of Neotropical anurans of the genus Melanophryniscus. These toads are small, have limited mobility, and a high percentage are endangered or present restricted geographical distributions. We looked at the changes in the size of suitable climatic regions and in the numbers of known occurrence sites within the distribution limits of all species. We used the MaxEnt algorithm to project current and future suitable climatic areas (a consensus of IPCC scenarios A2a and B2a for 2020 and 2080 for each species. 40% of the species may lose over 50% of their potential distribution area by 2080, whereas 28% of species may lose less than 10%. Four species had over 40% of the currently known occurrence sites outside the predicted 2080 areas. The effect of climate change (decrease in climatic suitable areas did not differ according to the present distribution area, major habitat type or phylogenetic group of the studied species. We used the estimated decrease in specific suitable climatic range to set a conservation priority rank for Melanophryniscus species. Four species were set to high conservation priority: M. montevidensis, (100% of its original suitable range and all known occurrence points potentially lost by 2080, M. sp.2, M. cambaraensis, and M. tumifrons. Three species (M. spectabilis, M. stelzneri, and M. sp.3 were set between high to intermediate priority (more than 60% decrease in area predicted by 2080; nine species were ranked as intermediate priority, while eight species were ranked as low conservation priority. We suggest that monitoring and conservation actions should be focused primarily on those species and populations that are likely to lose the largest area of suitable climate and the largest number of known populations in the short-term.

  2. Biosíntesis de aldosterona y su regulación en Bufo arenarum (Amphibia, anura)

    OpenAIRE

    Ceballos, Nora Raquel

    1999-01-01

    En la presente Tesis Doctoral se realizaron estudios sobre la biosíntesis de aldosterona, en la glándula interrenal de Bufo arenarum, a partir de distintos sustratos tales como corticosterona, 18-hidroxicorticosterona (18-OH-B) y el compuesto "N" que se biosintetiza a partir de pregnenolona pero no de progesterona. A diferencia de lo que ocurre con la 18-OH-B comercial o de rata, la proveniente de interrenales de sapo presenta una forma menos polar única y distinta de las conocidas hasta el m...

  3. A new rainfrog of the Pristimantis myersi Group (Amphibia, Craugastoridae) from Volcán Pichincha, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Runjaic, Fernando J M; C, J Amanda Delgado; Guayasamin, Juan M

    2014-03-20

    A new frog of the Pristimantis myersi Group is described from a bamboo patch within the Reserva Ecológica Verdecocha (0°5'46.9"S, 78°36'15.3"W; 2851 m), located at northwestern flank of the Volcán Pichincha, in the vicinities of Quito, Ecuador. The new species is known from eight adult males, whereas the females remain unknown; it can be readily distinguished from all species of the P. myersi Group that inhabit the highlands of the Ecuadorian Andes by the unique combination of the following characters: body small (adult male SVL 14.9-19.7 mm; females unknown); dorsal skin shagreen, with a barely visible middorsal raphe, scapular and dorsolateral folds; tympanum small but well-defined; upper eyelid with one enlarged tubercle; males with prominent vocal slits, but without nuptial pads on thumbs; fold-like tarsal tubercles. With this new species, the number of Pristimantis assigned to the P. myersi Group raises to 16, of which, 12 are in Ecuador. We provide notes on morphology and color variation, advertisement call, and natural history of the new species.

  4. A new species of Bolitoglossa (Amphibia, Caudata) from the Sierra de Juárez, Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovito, Sean M; Parra-Olea, Gabriela; Lee, Dana; Wake, David B

    2012-01-01

    We describe a new species of Bolitoglossa (Nanotriton) from the Sierra de Juárez and Sierra Mixe of Oaxaca, Mexico. Bolitoglossa chinantecasp. n. is distinguished from the three other species in the subgenus Nanotriton by its more robust body, by having substantial numbers of maxillary teeth and differences in relative head width, foot width, and limb length. The new species occurs in sympatry with Bolitoglossa (Nanotriton) rufescens at the type locality. The description of another species of salamander from the Sierra de Juárez is noteworthy, given the already high plethodontid salamander species richness of the region.

  5. Distribution of tadpoles of Ollotis occidentalis (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae along the Río Salado, Puebla, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo A. Woolrich-Piña

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined monthly variation in the characteristics of river sections along the Río Salado (Puebla, Mexico and how these factors were associated with the dis- tribution of the tadpoles of the toad Ollotis occidentalis. Tadpoles were observed in the river in March 2007, and from November 2007 through February 2008 and were only found in the main river channel. Sections of the Río Salado with tadpoles were deeper, wider, and longer than sections without tadpoles. Dissolved oxygen levels were higher and salinity was lower in river sections with tadpoles compared to the sections without tadpoles. There was no difference in temperature between sections with and without tadpoles. Tadpoles were found in river sections that contained more vegeta- tion than river section without tadpoles. Our results suggest that the distribution of tadpoles of O. occidentalis is related to the permanence of water, the chemical nature of the water, and the presence of vegetation.

  6. Morphological characterization of Eustrongylides sp. larvae (Nematoda, Dioctophymatoidea) parasite of Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae) from Eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Melo, Caroline do Socorro Barros; Nascimento, Luciana de Cássia Silva do; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos

    2016-06-07

    Absctract Eustrongylides spp. nematodes have birds as final hosts and uses other vertebrates as intermediate/paratenic host (fish, amphibians and reptiles) and have zoonotic potential. In amphibians, the larvae may be located in the subcutaneous tissues, liver and mesentery, between the muscle fibres, especially in the lower limbs. Rhinella marina, which is widely observed in Brazil, has exhibited complex diversity in its helminth fauna, reflecting the unique habitat of the Amazon biome. For the first time, this study describes the morphological aspects of third-stage larvae of Eustrongylides sp. in Rhinella marina from Santa Cruz do Ararí, Marajó Archipelago, Eastern Amazonia, using light and scanning electron microscopy.

  7. Nueva especie de rana del género Pristimantis del grupo lacrimosus (Amphibia: Craugastoridae del Parque Nacional Sangay, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Batallas R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Describimos una nueva especie de rana terrestre del genero Pristimantis de tamaño mediano (LRC en machos desde 22.18 a 25.13 mm descubierta en los bosques nublados de las estribaciones orientales del Parque Nacional Sangay, al centro oriente de Ecuador, a elevaciones de 2750 m. Asignamos a Pristimantis latericius sp. nov., al grupo Pristimantis lacrimosus, el cual se diferencia del resto de miembros de este grupo por presentar tubérculos prominentes en el parpado superior y una coloración rojo anaranjado en el dorso. Las llamadas son cortas, conformadas por una sola nota y dos bandas armónicas. Importantes levantamientos de información faunística se han venido generando en los últimos años en el Parque Nacional Sangay, sin embargo es necesario incrementar estudios que ayuden a documentar la ecología e historia natural de los anfibios, ya que sin lugar a dudas ayudaran a comprender procesos ecológicos. El descubrimiento de esta y otras nuevas especies en este sector, demuestra su importancia biológica confortando al desarrollo de planes de conservación en este importante Patrimonio Natural de la Humanidad.

  8. Mollusca, Hirudinea, and Amphibia biogeography and paleobiology in Tule Valley and adjacent regions of Bonneville Basin, western USA [draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mollusk, leeches (Hirudinea), and amphibian distribution are described for Tule Valley and adjacent Snake Valley and Fish Springs Flat, Tule Valley aquatic resources...

  9. The fossil vertebrates of Ksâr'akil, a palaeolithic rock shelter in the Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1961-01-01

    CONTENTS Introduction................... 4 Systematic part.................. 5 Pisces.................... 5 Amphibia................... 6 Hyla arborea (L.) subsp............... 6 Reptilia................... 6 Testudo spec.................. 6 Ophisaurus apodus (Pallas).............. 8 Chamaeleo chama

  10. Infestation of Wild-caught American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) by Multiple Species of Metazoan Parasites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lemke, Laura B; Dronen, Norman; Fox, James G; Nambiar, Prashant R

    2008-01-01

    The American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) is an aquatic, carnivorous member of the family Ranidae that is used extensively in physiology education programs and in various physiology, toxicology, sensorineural, and genetics research...

  11. A contribution to the knowledge of the trophic spectrum of the Common toad (Bufo bufo L., 1758 (Amphibia: Anura from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Boyadzhiev

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available During our study we identified 500 prey items in 20 prey categories in the trophic spectrum of Bufo bufo with average number of prey items per stomach 25.00. The most important prey taxon is Formicidae (70.20%, followed by Coleoptera (especially Carabidae – 11.40%, as well as non-insect invertebrates (Isopoda, Gastropoda, Arachnida which also play significant role. The estimated trophic niche breadth is low – 1.96.

  12. The taxonomic status of two West African Leptopelis species: L. macrotis Schiøtz, 1967 and L. spiritusnoctis Rödel, 2007 (Amphibia: Anura: Arthroleptidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark-Oliver Roedel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We herein examine the taxonomic status of two West African forest-dwelling Leptopelis species. The small L. spiritusnoctis, described from the Upper Guinean forests of West Africa, was recently synonymized with L. aubryi, described from Gabon. The large L. macrotis, known from Ghana to Sierra Leone, was downgraded to a subspecies of L. millsoni, ranging from the Niger Delta to eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. These taxonomic decisions are in contrast to the general biogeographic pattern of African forest anurans and we consequently tested if the morphologically similar taxon pairs are indeed conspecifics by applying acoustic and molecular techniques. Both techniques confirmed that populations from West Africa differ significantly from their Central African morphological equivalents. Consequently, we herein resurrect L. spiritusnoctis as a valid species. The acoustic data indicate that L. aubryi may comprise a complex of cryptic species. We further advocate using the name L. macrotis for West African and L. millsoni for Central African populations of these larger arboreal frogs. However, we had neither genetic nor acoustic data from the type locality of L. millsoni available and could not clarify if these frogs belong to the more western or eastern taxon or even represent a Nigerian endemic. Thus, it is possible that West African populations need to be termed L. millsoni in the future. For populations east of the Cross River, Nigeria, the name L. guineensis would be available.

  13. Three new species of horned frogs, Megophrys (Amphibia: Megophryidae), from northeast India, with a resolution to the identity of Megophrys boettgeri populations reported from the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, Stephen; Teeling, Emma C; Biju, S D

    2013-01-01

    Northeast India is a well-established region of biological importance but remains poorly understood with regards to the species level identifications of many of its extant amphibians. In this study we examined small sized frogs from the genus Megophrys recently collected from remote and suburban forests in the northeast Indian states of Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh, from which we have identified three new species. Megophrys vegrandis sp. nov., Megophrys ancrae sp. nov. and Megophrys oropedion sp. nov. are compared with all known congeners from India and surrounding regions from which they differ based primarily on a combination of morphological characters. Megophrys boettgeri is removed, and Megophrys minor added to the Indian amphibian checklist, through critical review of all literature pertaining to the former species, and the discovery of an overlooked historical report of the latter species. Two of the new species, Megophrys ancrae sp. nov. and Megophrys vegrandis sp. nov. are known from low and mid elevations within two large protected forests in Arunachal Pradesh, both with poorly studied amphibian fauna. Contrastingly, Megophrys oropedion sp. nov. is currently known only from small forested areas on the upper reaches of the Shillong Plateau. The importance of the Shillong Plateau as an area of known high amphibian endemicity is highlighted in the light of the miniscule proportion of its land area afforded government protection, raising concerns about the future conservation of its still poorly known species.

  14. Acute toxicity of the synthetic pyrethroid alpha-cypermethrin on the tadpoles of variable green toad, Bufotes variabilis (Amphibia:Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert Gürkan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, acute toxic effects of alpha-cypermethrin were investigated in the tadpoles of Bufotes variabilis (Pallas, 1769. Tadpoles at Gosner stage 19 were exposed to 0, 0.1, 5 and 10 µgl-1 of alpha-cypermethrin concentrations for 96 hours. Mortality, the changes in some morphological measurements (snout-vent length, body width, tail length, and wet weight, morphological anomalies and behavioral changes were evaluated at the end of the experiment. The 96 hours LC50 value was calculated as 15.62 µgl-1. Such morphological changes as axial anomaly, visceral edema, deformation of the mouth, and tail deformation were observed in 83% and 95% of the tadpoles in the groups treated with 5 and 10 µgl-1 of alpha-cypermethrin. Behavioral changes such as shortening of the swimming distance and immobility were recorded in all tadpoles exposed to alpha-cypermethrin. When all findings were evaluated totally, it was concluded that alpha-cypermethrin had negative effects on the development of the tadpoles of B. variabilis

  15. A new hynobiid-like salamander (Amphibia, Urodela from Inner Mongolia, China, provides a rare case study of developmental features in an Early Cretaceous fossil urodele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Jia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A new fossil salamander, Nuominerpeton aquilonaris (gen. et sp. nov., is named and described based on specimens from the Lower Cretaceous Guanghua Formation of Inner Mongolia, China. The new discovery documents a far northern occurrence of Early Cretaceous salamanders in China, extending the geographic distribution for the Mesozoic fossil record of the group from the Jehol area (40th–45th parallel north to near the 49th parallel north. The new salamander is characterized by having the orbitosphenoid semicircular in shape; coracoid plate of the scapulocoracoid greatly expanded with a convex ventral and posterior border; ossification of two centralia in carpus and tarsus; and first digit being about half the length of the second digit in both manus and pes. The new salamander appears to be closely related to hynobiids, although this inferred relationship awaits confirmation by research in progress by us on a morphological and molecular combined analysis of cryptobranchoid relationships. Comparison of adult with larval and postmetamorphic juvenile specimens provides insights into developmental patterns of cranial and postcranial skeletons in this fossil species, especially resorption of the palatine and anterior portions of the palatopterygoid in the palate and the coronoid in the mandible during metamorphosis, and postmetamorphic ossification of the mesopodium in both manus and pes. Thus, this study provides a rare case study of developmental features in a Mesozoic salamander.

  16. 3D bite modeling and feeding mechanics of the largest living amphibian, the Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus (Amphibia:Urodela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuny, Josep; Marcé-Nogué, Jordi; Heiss, Egon; Sanchez, Montserrat; Gil, Lluis; Galobart, Àngel

    2015-01-01

    Biting is an integral feature of the feeding mechanism for aquatic and terrestrial salamanders to capture, fix or immobilize elusive or struggling prey. However, little information is available on how it works and the functional implications of this biting system in amphibians although such approaches might be essential to understand feeding systems performed by early tetrapods. Herein, the skull biomechanics of the Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus is investigated using 3D finite element analysis. The results reveal that the prey contact position is crucial for the structural performance of the skull, which is probably related to the lack of a bony bridge between the posterior end of the maxilla and the anterior quadrato-squamosal region. Giant salamanders perform asymmetrical strikes. These strikes are unusual and specialized behavior but might indeed be beneficial in such sit-and-wait or ambush-predators to capture laterally approaching prey. However, once captured by an asymmetrical strike, large, elusive and struggling prey have to be brought to the anterior jaw region to be subdued by a strong bite. Given their basal position within extant salamanders and their "conservative" morphology, cryptobranchids may be useful models to reconstruct the feeding ecology and biomechanics of different members of early tetrapods and amphibians, with similar osteological and myological constraints.

  17. Notes on the herpetofauna of Surinam : VI. Resurrection of Hyla ornatissima Noble (Amphibia, Hylidae) and remarks on related species of green tree frogs from the Guiana area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    In the present paper Hyla ornatissima Noble is removed from the synonymy of Hyla granosa Boulenger, and resurrected as a separate species on the basis of morphological, ecological and acoustical differences. Another relative of this group occurring in Guiana is Hyla sibleszi Rivero. Because of its s

  18. Experimental studies in inmature stages of Bufo fernandezae, Gallardo. Length growth and its relation to food, oxygen concentration and density (Amphibia, Anura)

    OpenAIRE

    Kehr, Arturo Ignacio

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this work is to analyze individual and combined effects of biotic and abiotic factors of the length growth of inmature stages of B. fernandezae Gallardo. The research was carried on under specified and constant laboratory conditions. The obtained results showed that the density was the main controlling factor upon the individual growth, being less important, in this sense, the alimentary offer arranged during the temporal extension of the experiments. Besides, no differences...

  19. Una especie nueva de rana arbórea del género Hyloscirtus (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae de la Cordillera del Cóndor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Almendáriz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las ranas ecuatorianas del género Hyloscirtus incluyen 16 especies descritas, de las cuales 11 pertenecen al grupo H. larinopygion. Su distribución se limita a los flancos de la Cordillera de los Andes, tanto al oriente como al occidente. Una evaluación de la herpetofauna en el sector meridional de la Cordillera del Cóndor (bosques montanos sobre mesetas de arenisca en la provincia de Zamora Chinchipe, Ecuador, condujo al descubrimiento de una especie nueva del grupo que describimos aquí como Hyloscirtus condor sp. nov.; se analizan los renacuajos, las llamadas de anuncio y se estima las relaciones filogenéticas de la especie nueva y de las especies relacionadas en base a nuevas secuencias de los genes mitocondriales 12S, tRNA Val y 16S, con un total de hasta 2508 bp. Los resultados muestran que el grupo H. larinopygion está conformado por dos clados, uno distribuido en los Andes norte y centro de Ecuador y el otro al sur. La nueva especie pertenece al clado sur y es hermana de H. tapichalaca y de una especie aparentemente no descrita de la Provincia Morona Santiago. La especie nueva difiere de sus congéneres por su patrón de coloración dorsal, que consiste de puntos amarillo obscuro en un fondo canela. Es la especie más grande del grupo H. larinopygion y comparte con H. tapichalaca la presencia de una espina prepólica grande y curvada y brazos hipertrofiados. La especie nueva habita un área remota y bien conservada de la Cordillera del Cóndor. El descubrimiento de ésta y otras especies nuevas del mismo lugar denota la importancia biológica del área y motivan al desarrollo de planes de conservación.

  20. Integrative Phylogeography of Calotriton Newts (Amphibia, Salamandridae), with Special Remarks on the Conservation of the Endangered Montseny Brook Newt (Calotriton arnoldi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbuena-Ureña, Emilio; Amat, Fèlix; Carranza, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    The genus Calotriton includes two species of newts highly adapted to live in cold and fast-flowing mountain springs. The Pyrenean brook newt (Calotriton asper), restricted to the Pyrenean region, and the Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi), endemic to the Montseny massif and one of the most endangered amphibian species in Europe. In the present manuscript, we use an integrative approach including species distribution modeling (SDM), molecular analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data and morphology to unravel the historical processes that have contributed to shaping the biogeography and genetic structure of the genus Calotriton, with special emphasis on the conservation of C. arnoldi. The results of the molecular analyses confirm that, despite having originated recently, being ecologically similar and geographically very close, there is no signal of hybridization between C. asper and C. arnoldi. SDM results suggest that tough environmental conditions on mountains tops during glacial periods, together with subsequent warmer periods could have prevented the contact between the two species. Within the critically endangered C. arnoldi, a high genetic structure is revealed despite its extremely small distribution range compared to C. asper. Haplotype networks, AMOVA and SAMOVA analyses suggest that two distinct groups of populations can be clearly differentiated with absence of gene flow. This is in concordance with morphological differentiation and correlates with its geographical distribution, as the two groups are situated on the eastern and western sides of a river valley that acts as a barrier. The genetic and morphological results are highly important for the ongoing conservation program of C. arnoldi and strongly justify the management of this species into at least two independent evolutionary significant units (eastern and western sectors) to guarantee the long-term population viability. PMID:23750201

  1. Historia natural de Phyllomedusa distincta, na Mata Atlantica do Municipio de Sete Barras, Estado de São Paulo (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Mendes Castanho

    1994-01-01

    Resumo: o objetivo deste estudo foi obter o maior número de informações possível sobre os hábitos de P. distincta, no Parque Estadual de Carlos Botelho (24°12'S; 47°SS'W; 60 m acima do nível do mar), Sete Barras, SP, sudeste do Brasil. Realizei as observações numa lagoa com cerca de 20 m x 7 m. Ao redor da lagoa, há um gramado com algumas árvores e pequenos arbustos na beira da água. Há pouca vegetação aquática, concentrada nas margens. A vegetação circundante é de Mata Atlântica típica. O...

  2. Observações sobre história natural de Zachaenus carvalhoi Izecksohn, 1983“1982” (Amphibia: Anura: Cycloramphidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio Zandomenico Zocca

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reportamos a densidade populacional, o comportamento parental e de defesa, aspectos da biologia reprodutiva e a estrutura do sítio de oviposição de Zachaenus carvalhoi. Amostramos 168 parcelas de 5x5 m, estabelecidas no interior florestal e nos três tipos de matrizes circundantes da Reserva Biológica Augusto Ruschi em Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo. A densidade populacional foi de 0,07 indivíduos/100 m2, representados por dois machos e uma fêmea, todos encontrados no interior da floresta. Um macho estava em repouso acima e o outro abaixo da camada de serrapilheira, enquanto a fêmea foi encontrada junto a 20 ovos em uma cavidade em meio a radículas e coberta por serrapilheira. A fêmea defendeu os ovos quando incomodada. Um macho encontrado inflou o corpo e exibiu reflexo parcial de Bombina como comportamentos defensivos. Essa espécie possui girinos endotróficos que completam o desenvolvimento dentro no ninho. Suspeitamos que Z. carvalhoi pode estar seriamente ameaçado em fragmentos florestais por possivelmente estar restrito às áreas florestais e pela baixa densidade populacional.

  3. 3D bite modeling and feeding mechanics of the largest living amphibian, the Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus (Amphibia:Urodela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Fortuny

    Full Text Available Biting is an integral feature of the feeding mechanism for aquatic and terrestrial salamanders to capture, fix or immobilize elusive or struggling prey. However, little information is available on how it works and the functional implications of this biting system in amphibians although such approaches might be essential to understand feeding systems performed by early tetrapods. Herein, the skull biomechanics of the Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus is investigated using 3D finite element analysis. The results reveal that the prey contact position is crucial for the structural performance of the skull, which is probably related to the lack of a bony bridge between the posterior end of the maxilla and the anterior quadrato-squamosal region. Giant salamanders perform asymmetrical strikes. These strikes are unusual and specialized behavior but might indeed be beneficial in such sit-and-wait or ambush-predators to capture laterally approaching prey. However, once captured by an asymmetrical strike, large, elusive and struggling prey have to be brought to the anterior jaw region to be subdued by a strong bite. Given their basal position within extant salamanders and their "conservative" morphology, cryptobranchids may be useful models to reconstruct the feeding ecology and biomechanics of different members of early tetrapods and amphibians, with similar osteological and myological constraints.

  4. New locality record of the Travancore Bush Frog Raorchestes travancoricus Boulenger, 1891 (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae from Periyar Tiger Reserve, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pratap Rajkumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Raorchestes travancoricus is a rare and endemic rhacophorid from southern Western Ghats. The frog was listed in the Extinct category of the IUCN Red List until June 2015, even after its rediscovery in 2004.  In June 2015, the R. travancoricus was reassessed to Endangered category. All published reports of the species are restricted to disturbed habitats outside protected areas and the current study report the presence of the species from eight different localities from a protected area the Periyar Tiger Reserve. 

  5. The Structure of Stomach and Intestine of Triturus karelinii(Strauch, 1870) and Mertensiella luschani (Steindachner, 1891) (Amphibia: Urodela) - Histological and Histometical Study

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the stomach and small intestine structures of M. luschani and T. karelinii were evaluated in terms of histologically and histometrically.Thestomach and small intestine tissues of M. luschani and T. karelinii have similar characteristics.Mucosa consists of lamina propria/submucosa, tunica muscularis and tunica serosa layers. Histometrical results shows that M. luschani’s fundus (t=0,003; p<0,05) and pylorus (t=0,000; p<0,05) epithelial thickness and mean lumen area (t=0,00...

  6. The karyotypes of five species of the Scinax perpusillus group (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae) of southeastern Brazil show high levels of chromosomal stabilization in this taxon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Marco Antônio Amorim; Lacerda, João Victor Andrade; Coelho-Augusto, Carolina; Feio, Renato Neves; Dergam, Jorge Abdala

    2015-12-01

    Based on morphological, bioacoustics, and morphological traits, the genus Scinax has been subdivided into two major clades: S. catharinae and S. ruber. The first clade includes S. catharinae and S. perpusillus groups, whereas the second clade includes S. rostratus and S. uruguayus groups. Chromosome morphology, NOR and C-banding patterns of variation support these clades. This study aims the cytogenetic characterization of five species currently included in the S. perpusillus group: Scinax sp. (gr. perpusillus), S. arduous, S. belloni, S. cosenzai, and S. v-signatus, including standard cytogenetic techniques and repetitive DNA FISH probes. All species had 2n = 24 chromosomes. Nucleolar organizing regions occurred in chromosome pair 6 in all species, but differed in their locations among some species, suggesting a putative synaponomastic character for the clade. In S. belloni, the first chromosome pair was a metacentric, contrasting with the submetacentric first pair reported in all other species of the genus. Scinax sp. (gr. perpusillus) and S. v-signatus had similar karyotypic formulae, suggesting they are related species. Scinax cosenzai had a divergent C-banding pattern. Repetitive DNA probes hybridized more frequently in chromosomal subtelomeric regions in all species indicating recent cladogenesis in these species. Karyotypic evidence indicates unreported high levels of stabilization within S. perpusillus and in S. catharinae clade, resulting in a wealth of characters potentially informative for higher phylogenetic analyses.

  7. A new synonym for Pristimantis luscombei (Duellman and Mendelson 1995) and the description of a new species of Pristimantis from the upper Amazon basin (Amphibia: Craugastoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Andrade, H Mauricio; Venegas, Pablo J

    2014-12-12

    We consider Pristimantis achuar as junior synonym of P. luscombei, based on morphological and genetic evidence. Paratype specimens of P. luscombei are part of a new species, which lead to taxonomic confusion regarding the identity of P. luscombei. We describe and name this new species as Pristimantis miktos sp. nov. from Juyuintza, Pastaza province, eastern lowlands of Ecuador. Morphological diagnostic characters used to distinguish the new species from other brownish Amazonian Pristimantis are: (1) skin of dorsum shagreen with scattered tubercles or pustules; (2) tympanum prominent; (3) a thick X-shaped scapular dermal ridge in males; and (4) an orange iris in life. Pristimantis miktos is an inhabitant of the lowlands forests of the Pastaza and Napo drainages in eastern Ecuador and northern Loreto in Peru, reaching elevations of up to 350 m; P. luscombei is widely distributed in the upper Amazon Basin of Ecuador, northern Peru and extreme western Brazil, up to 1000 m. Phylogenetic analyses reveals that P. luscombei and the new species are not closest relatives, as also deduced from morphological evidence.

  8. Ultraestructura e histoquímica de dos tipos de glándulas mucosas de la piel de cryptobatrachus (amphibia, anura)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The skin of the middorsal region of the trunk of  Cryptobatrachus is studied here. The skin is characterized by light microscopy electron microscopy (TEM), and by histochemical test. These, means support a conclusion that two types of mucous glands are present. These are termed here Gland G2. The former is common among frogs but the latter (G2) is described for the first time. G2 mucous glands possibly contribute secretions used in holding the eggs and developing embryos on the skin of the do...

  9. A review of the biology and conservation of the Cope's giant salamander Dicamptodon copei Nussbaum, 1970 (Amphibia: Caudata: Dicamptodontidae) in the Pacific northwestern region of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex D. Foster; Deanna H. Olson; Lawrence L.C. Jones

    2015-01-01

    The Cope’s Giant Salamander Dicamptodon copei is a stream dwelling amphibian reliant on cool streams, native to forested areas primarily west of the crest of the Cascade Range in the Pacific Northwest region, USA. Unlike other members of the genus, adult D. copei are most often found in a paedomorphic form, and rarely transforms to a terrestrial stage. As a result,...

  10. On The Identity Of Some Toads Of The Genus Bufo From Ecuador, With Additional Remarks On Andinophryne Colomai Hoogmoed, 1985 (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Study of the type specimens of B. caeruleostictus Günther, 1859 and B. chanchanensis Fowler, 1913, and of fresh material showed that B. chanchanensis is a junior subjective synonym of B. caeruleostictus. Probably it is a member of the B. guttatus group. B. caeruleocellatus Fowler, 1913 is a junior s

  11. A new species of Psychrophrynella (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae from the humid montane forests of Cusco, eastern slopes of the Peruvian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Catenazzi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of Psychrophrynella from the humid montane forest of the Department Cusco in Peru. Specimens were collected at 2,670–3,165 m elevation in the Área de Conservación Privada Ukumari Llakta, Japumayo valley, near Comunidad Campesina de Japu, in the province of Paucartambo. The new species is readily distinguished from all other species of Psychrophrynella but P. bagrecito and P. usurpator by possessing a tubercle on the inner edge of the tarsus, and from these two species by its yellow ventral coloration on abdomen and limbs. Furthermore, the new species is like P. bagrecito and P. usurpator in having an advertisement call composed of multiple notes, whereas other species of Psychrophrynella whose calls are known have a pulsed call (P. teqta or a short, tonal call composed of a single note. The new species has a snout-vent length of 16.1–24.1 mm in males and 23.3–27.7 mm in females. Like other recently described species in the genus, this new Psychrophrynella inhabits high-elevation forests in the tropical Andes and likely has a restricted geographic distribution.

  12. Integrative phylogeography of Calotriton newts (Amphibia, Salamandridae, with special remarks on the conservation of the endangered Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Valbuena-Ureña

    Full Text Available The genus Calotriton includes two species of newts highly adapted to live in cold and fast-flowing mountain springs. The Pyrenean brook newt (Calotriton asper, restricted to the Pyrenean region, and the Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi, endemic to the Montseny massif and one of the most endangered amphibian species in Europe. In the present manuscript, we use an integrative approach including species distribution modeling (SDM, molecular analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data and morphology to unravel the historical processes that have contributed to shaping the biogeography and genetic structure of the genus Calotriton, with special emphasis on the conservation of C. arnoldi. The results of the molecular analyses confirm that, despite having originated recently, being ecologically similar and geographically very close, there is no signal of hybridization between C. asper and C. arnoldi. SDM results suggest that tough environmental conditions on mountains tops during glacial periods, together with subsequent warmer periods could have prevented the contact between the two species. Within the critically endangered C. arnoldi, a high genetic structure is revealed despite its extremely small distribution range compared to C. asper. Haplotype networks, AMOVA and SAMOVA analyses suggest that two distinct groups of populations can be clearly differentiated with absence of gene flow. This is in concordance with morphological differentiation and correlates with its geographical distribution, as the two groups are situated on the eastern and western sides of a river valley that acts as a barrier. The genetic and morphological results are highly important for the ongoing conservation program of C. arnoldi and strongly justify the management of this species into at least two independent evolutionary significant units (eastern and western sectors to guarantee the long-term population viability.

  13. A new species of Psychrophrynella (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from the humid montane forests of Cusco, eastern slopes of the Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenazzi, Alessandro; Ttito, Alex

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of Psychrophrynella from the humid montane forest of the Department Cusco in Peru. Specimens were collected at 2,670-3,165 m elevation in the Área de Conservación Privada Ukumari Llakta, Japumayo valley, near Comunidad Campesina de Japu, in the province of Paucartambo. The new species is readily distinguished from all other species of Psychrophrynella but P. bagrecito and P. usurpator by possessing a tubercle on the inner edge of the tarsus, and from these two species by its yellow ventral coloration on abdomen and limbs. Furthermore, the new species is like P. bagrecito and P. usurpator in having an advertisement call composed of multiple notes, whereas other species of Psychrophrynella whose calls are known have a pulsed call (P. teqta) or a short, tonal call composed of a single note. The new species has a snout-vent length of 16.1-24.1 mm in males and 23.3-27.7 mm in females. Like other recently described species in the genus, this new Psychrophrynella inhabits high-elevation forests in the tropical Andes and likely has a restricted geographic distribution.

  14. The advertisement call and comments on the distribution of Eleutherodactylus bilineatus Bokermann, 1975, an endemic frog of Bahia State, Brazil (Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Iuri Ribeiro; de Mira-Mendes, Caio Vinicius; Souza-Costa, Carlos Augusto; Juncá, Flora Acuña; Solé, Mirco

    2017-01-01

    Advertisement calls can be used to aid solving taxonomic problems and understanding the evolution of certain groups. In this study, the advertisement call of Eleutherodactylus bilineatus is described. It is composed by two different notes with a total duration of 0.529-4.241 seconds and dominant frequency of 1.72-3.45 kHz. Additionally, new data is provided on the geographical distribution of Eleutherodactylus bilineatus and the most inland record for this species.

  15. REPARTICIÓN DE MICROHABITATS ENTRE ESPECIES DE BUFONIDAE Y LEIUPERIDAE (AMPHIBIA: ANURA EN ÁREAS CON BOSQUE SECO TROPICAL DE LA REGION CARIBE-COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonilla Gómez Maria Argenis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la repartición de microhabitats de cinco especies de anuros pertenecientes a las familias Bufonidae (Rhinella marina, R. granulosa, y Leiuperidae (Engystomops pustulosus, Pleurodema brachyops y Pseudopaludicola pusilla en seis localidades del Caribe Colombiano con fragmentos de bosque seco tropical y diferentes usos de suelo. Se identificaron 29 microhabitats. Los más usado fueron charco de agua Permanente de potreros con arboles (CPPA y potreros inundables sin árboles (PISA. La especie que mayor cantidad de microhabitats usó fue E. pustulosus. No hubo especialistas en el uso de estos ambientes. Se presentaron diferencias en el uso de este recurso a escalas regional y local. La dinámica de uso de los microhabitats estuvo influenciada por las variaciones climáticas del bosque seco tropical. Existe repartición de microhabitats como mecanismo de coexistencia en estas especies para época seca. En el periodo de lluvias este mecanismo no se aplicó.

  16. First evidence of the effects of agricultural activities on gonadal form and function in Rhinella fernandezae and Dendropsophus sanborni (Amphibia: Anura from Entre Ríos Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Sanchez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between male gonadal abnormalities and habitats with different degrees of agricultural activities was quantified in two anuran species, Rhinella fernandezae and Dendropsophus sanborni. The study sites were selected along a gradient of increasing agricultural land use in south-western Entre Ríos province (Argentina: an agroecosystem, a natural wetland (a non-agricultural site adjacent to monoculture zones, and a natural forest (not associated with agriculture. Rhinella fernandezae and D. sanborni were manually captured from each environment during field surveys. A scaled mass index (MI was evaluated for each animal. Specimens of R. fernandezae from the agroecosystem and the natural wetland site presented poorly developed seminiferous tubules, lower testicular volume, and a lower number of seminiferous tubules, primary spermatogonia, and spermatids than specimens from the natural forest site. Additionally, we observed fewer primary spermatocytes in the agroecosystem group than in the natural forest group. Individuals of D. sanborni from the agroecosystem and the natural wetland site presented poorly developed tubules, higher proportions of irregularly shaped testes, and a reduced number of primary and secondary spermatogonia compared with specimens from natural forest sites. Consequently, the affected anurans are likely to have reduced reproductive success. We suggest that agrochemical use may be associated with decreased testicular development and function in both R. fernandezae and D. sanborni occurring in agroecosystems and nearby environments. Buffer zones are needed to prevent contamination, preserve wildlife, and enhance the conservation value of pristine natural forests.

  17. Temperature seems to be an important factor when assessing effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on egg and tadpole growth of Common toads (Bufo bufo; Amphibia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Baier

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate-based herbicide formulations are broadly used in agriculture, silviculture, horticulture as well as in private gardens all over the world, thus posing the risk of potential contamination of nearby aquatic bodies inhabited by amphibians. Concurrently, climate change can be expected to alter the temperature of amphibian breeding sites. However, while either glyphosate-based herbicides or temperature have been shown to separately affect the development of amphibians, very little is known on possible interactive effects. We studied the impact of herbicide concentrations and temperature on growth and development of eggs and tadpoles of the Common toad (Bufo bufo L.. We hypothesized that (i eggs would be better protected against herbicides than tadpoles because of their jelly coating, (ii that higher temperatures would reduce potential herbicide effects because of an accelerated growth and a lower sensitivity of larger specimens. We conducted one experiment starting with eggs (Gosner stage, GS 9 and another experiment starting with tadpoles (GS 21-24 using a full factorial design with 5 concentrations of the herbicide formulation Roundup® LB Plus (0 mg acid equivalent L-1, 0.5 mg a.e. L-1, 1.0 mg a.e. L-1 or 1.5 mg a.e. L-1 and a pulse treatment with 3-4 times addition of 0.5 a.e. mg L-1 over the course of several weeks and two temperature levels (15°C and 20°C. Contrary to our expectation, our results showed that toad eggs are more sensitive to herbicides than tadpoles leading to an averaged 31% increase in total length, tail length and body length compared to the herbicide-free control. Tadpole morphology, development or mortality was not influenced by herbicides. Higher temperature accelerated growth of both eggs and tadpoles. This is among the first study showing interactive effects between herbicides and temperature especially for egg development resulting in more pronounced herbicide effects at lower temperatures than at higher temperatures.

  18. Integrative phylogeography of Calotriton newts (Amphibia, Salamandridae), with special remarks on the conservation of the endangered Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbuena-Ureña, Emilio; Amat, Fèlix; Carranza, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    The genus Calotriton includes two species of newts highly adapted to live in cold and fast-flowing mountain springs. The Pyrenean brook newt (Calotriton asper), restricted to the Pyrenean region, and the Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi), endemic to the Montseny massif and one of the most endangered amphibian species in Europe. In the present manuscript, we use an integrative approach including species distribution modeling (SDM), molecular analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data and morphology to unravel the historical processes that have contributed to shaping the biogeography and genetic structure of the genus Calotriton, with special emphasis on the conservation of C. arnoldi. The results of the molecular analyses confirm that, despite having originated recently, being ecologically similar and geographically very close, there is no signal of hybridization between C. asper and C. arnoldi. SDM results suggest that tough environmental conditions on mountains tops during glacial periods, together with subsequent warmer periods could have prevented the contact between the two species. Within the critically endangered C. arnoldi, a high genetic structure is revealed despite its extremely small distribution range compared to C. asper. Haplotype networks, AMOVA and SAMOVA analyses suggest that two distinct groups of populations can be clearly differentiated with absence of gene flow. This is in concordance with morphological differentiation and correlates with its geographical distribution, as the two groups are situated on the eastern and western sides of a river valley that acts as a barrier. The genetic and morphological results are highly important for the ongoing conservation program of C. arnoldi and strongly justify the management of this species into at least two independent evolutionary significant units (eastern and western sectors) to guarantee the long-term population viability.

  19. Estructura y composición de la comunidad de Anuros (Amphibia en tres bosques en El Santuario De Fauna y Flora Otún Quimbaya, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez E. David

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se comparó la estructura y composición de la comunidad de anuros en tres bosques reforestados con roble, urapán y urapán-roble, en el SFF Otún Quimbaya. Un total de seis especies pertenecientes a dos familias (Leptodactylidae y Dendrobatidae fueron encontradas. A partir de tres parcelas ubicadas en cada uno de los bosques, se determinó que la riqueza y diversidad de especies fue mayor en el bosque de roble seguido por urapán-roble y por último urapán. Las
    especies registradas entre urapán y urapán-roble presentan alta similaridad. A partir de la prueba de Kruskal-Wallis se determinó que las variables microclimáticas y de hábitat no presentan
    diferencias significativas entre los tres bosques, a excepción de la altura del mantillo, la cual fue mayor para el bosque de roble, seguida por el de urapán-roble y de urapán. Los valores arrojados por los índices de Margalef y Shannon se  correlacionaron con la altura del mantillo, por lo cual se atribuye a esta variable el patrón de diversidad presentado por los tres bosques.

  20. Additional Record of Megophrys caudoprocta (Amphibia, Megophryidae)%尾突角蟾Megophrys caudoprocta(两栖纲,角蟾科)的进一步记述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈猷慧; 谷祺; 廖春林

    2013-01-01

    尾突角蟾(Megophrys caudoprocta Shen,1994)具有非常特殊的特征,它们的尾杆骨(urostyle)长,超过坐骨(ischium)后缘,支持着尾突(caudal projection);泄殖孔(cloacal pore)在股间后缘向腹面开口;上眼睑(upper eyelid)前部大,有一三角形突起向侧后突出.这些特征有别于角蟾属其他物种,有重要研究价值.近年来在模式标本产地又采到1雌2雄,先后共4号成体标本,本文对其形态特征,生物学资料和分布作了进一步记述,并拍摄到原色生态照片.%Megophrys caudoprocta Shen,1994 has several unique characteristics.Its urostyle is longer beyond the back fringe of ischium to support its caudal projection.The cloacal pore between the two posterior margins opens to the ventral.The anterior part of the upper eyelids is larger than posterior part and has a triangolar projection pointed posterolaterally.All these unique characteristics are different from any other congeneric species.Recently,three specimens including one female and two male were collected in Type locality.Here reported are the morphology,biological information and its distribution based on the further investigation on the Topospecimens.

  1. Analysis on the Karyotype of 3 Species of Anura (Amphibia)%三种无尾两栖类核型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊森; 柳劲松; 美亦省; 杨春江

    1989-01-01

    @@ 在六、七十年代,国外关于无尾两栖类组型的分析及比较研究进行了大量工作,国内吴政安(1981)杨慧一(1978)、李树深(1981)、陈文远等(1983)也相继报导了不少种蛙的染色体组型.本文以齐市地区性成熟的东北雨蛙(Hyla japonica)黑斑蛙(Rana nigromaculata)和黑龙江林蛙(Rana amuresis)为材料,采用改良的两栖类骨髓细胞染色体标片制作法,对以上三种无尾两栖类进行了初步的分析研究.

  2. Seasonal variation in the leaf-litter frog community (Amphibia: Anura from an Atlantic Forest Area in the Salto Morato Natural Reserve, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Santos-Pereira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we provide the first data regarding community parameters of leaf-litter anurans inhabiting a forest floor in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil, including information on community species richness, composition, specific density and biomass. Our study was conducted at Salto Morato Natural Reserve using forty plots of 4 x 4 m for each one of the four seasons (winter, spring, summer and autumn, totaling 2.560 m² of forest floor sampled. We sampled a total of 96 frogs inhabiting the forest floor, belonging to seven species: Brachycephalus hermogenesi (Giaretta & Sawaya, 1998, Ischnocnema guentheri (Steindachner, 1864, Haddadus binotatus (Spix, 1824, Leptodactylus gr. marmoratus, Physalaemus spiniger (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926, Proceratophrys boiei (Wied-Neuwied, 1824, and Rhinella abei (Baldissera, Caramaschi & Haddad, 2004. The overall frog density in the forest floor was 3.73 ind/100m², with I. guentheri (1.37 ind/100 m² being the most common species and R. abei (0.19 ind/100 m², the rarest. The estimated overall frog mass in the community was 3.29 g. The abundance, richness and density varied consistently among the four seasons sampled, with the highest values occurring in the spring and summer seasons.

  3. Nueva especie de rana terrestre del género Pristimantis (Amphibia: Craugastoridae, meseta de la Dordillera del Cóndor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Brito M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Describimos una especie nueva, de mediano tamaño (LRC en la hembra 21.7-24.9 mm; en machos 15.2-17.8 mm, de rana terrestre del género Pristimantis proveniente de la meseta de arenisca de la Cordillera del Cóndor, del sureste de Ecuador, con una elevacion de 2300 m. La nueva especie difiere de sus congéneres presentes en Ecuador por su patrón distintivo de coloración, superficie dorsal pardo ocráceo con numerosas manchas amarillentas, membrana timpánica presente, dedos pediales y manuales cortos y microhábitat exclusivo en bromelias terrestres. Las llamadas son largas, de frecuencia modulada, conformada por 6-8 notas y un armónico. La descripción de Pristimantis paquishae sp. nov., es el resultado de un levantamiento de información de la herpetofauna, en una de las mesetas de arenisca remotas y menos conocidas, en la Cordillera del Cóndor.

  4. 中国角蟾属一新种(两栖纲:锄足蟾科)%A NEW SPECIES OF MEGOPHRYS IN CHINA(AMPHIBIA: PELOBATIDAE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田应洲; 谷晓明; 孙爱群

    2000-01-01

    采自贵州省水城县凤凰乡的一种大形角蟾,因其外部形态与角蟾属Megophrys已知种有一些特异之处,尤其是鼓膜显露;上颌内缘无栉齿状突;头后部有由痣粒组成的" "形棕褐色斑;背部痣纹呈" "形;有犁骨棱;雄性无声囊等特征与大花角蟾M. Gigantica明显不同.据此认为该角蟾为一新种,定名水城角蟾Megophrys shuichengensis Tian,Gu et Sun,sp.nov..

  5. Riqueza e distribuição temporal de anuros (Amphibia: Anura em um fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Mista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo J. Santos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Apesar do Brasil abrigar uma riqueza elevada de anfíbios anuros, muitas regiões ainda são consideradas subamostradas, incluindo ecossistemas que estão degradados e ameaçados. Esse é o caso da Floresta Ombrófila Mista (FOM, formação que possui apenas 3% de sua distribuição original, sendo que apenas uma porcentagem menor ainda constitui florestas em estágio primário ou avançado. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a estrutura de uma taxocenose de anuros em um remanescente de FOM, avaliar a variação de riqueza e abundância em função de variáveis climáticas, comparar a taxocenose com outras oito inseridas na mesma formação e verificar se a riqueza registrada nas localidades varia em função da área total, da quantidade ou dos tipos de ambientes presentes. Foram realizadas 12 campanhas entre setembro de 2008 e agosto de 2009, totalizando 72 horas de amostragem. Por meio dos métodos de amostragem em sítio de reprodução em sete corpos d'água e de busca aural em quatro transecções no interior da floresta, foi registrada a ocorrência de 24 espécies de sete famílias, correspondendo a 96% da riqueza estimada para a área. Tanto a riqueza quanto a abundância foram registradas no período com maior volume de chuva. O número de espécies nos ambientes amostrados variou de um a 15, e quase metade (41% delas foram exclusivas de ambientes florestais. Para os inventários de anuros em FOM, o que explica a maior riqueza de espécies é a quantidade de tipos de ambientes amostrados, indicando que amostragens em localidades mais heterogêneas, que podem satisfazer os requisitos reprodutivos de um maior número de espécies, aumentam o registro da riqueza local. Mesmo sendo um fragmento pequeno e alterado, a riqueza registrada foi alta se comparada com outras áreas cuja anurofauna foi inventariada, e que estão inseridas na FOM e apresentam esforço amostral semelhante. Devido à ocorrência de muitas espécies dependentes da integridade da floresta a minimização de atividades antrópicas e estudos mais detalhados devem ser as principais diretrizes para a manutenção e conservação local.

  6. 中国蔊菜属新记录-两栖蔊菜%A Newly Recorded Species Rorippa amphibia (L.) Besser from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑梅; 李增新; 王青; 陈辰; 姜学品; 孙洪奎

    2009-01-01

    两栖蔊菜(Rorippa amphbia(L.)Besser)原产欧洲,高加索地区、中亚、北非、北美、新西兰也有报道,但中国未见报道.2006年6月初,在旅顺南路七贤岭路段绿化带附近首次发现该种;2007年5月,在甘井子区一居民小区的草坪上又发现该种.两地相距较远,约12 km,但生境均为人工草坪.该种是以草坪为分布中心,先是占领草坪草的生态位,然后逐步向周围扩大分布区,形成近于单一的两栖蔊菜小群落.该种出现于大连与草坪引种有关.对该种的潜在危害进行了分析,并对其分类学特征进行描述.凭证标本保存在大连自然博物馆(DNHM).

  7. 中国云南树蛙科一新种(两栖纲,无尾目)%A NEW SPECIES OF RHACOPHORIDAE FROM YUNNAN, CHINA (AMPHIBIA,ANURA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费梁; 叶昌媛; 江建平

    2010-01-01

    对中国云南屏边的白颊小树蛙"Philautus"palpebralis的标本形态特征进行了深入研究,并与白颊小树蛙的原始描述以及相关文献资料作了对比,结果认为两者的形态特征有明显不同,中国云南屏边的标本应为1新种,并命名为抚华费氏树蛙Feihyla fuhua sp.nov..

  8. New location of Alsodes tumultuosus Veloso, Iturra & Galleguillos, 1979 (Amphibia, Alsodidae in the Andes Mountains of the O’Higgins Region, Chile

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    Diego Ramírez Álvarez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alsodes tumultuosus Veloso, Iturra & Galleguillos, 1979 is an amphibian species endemic to Chile, described and known just from its type locality: the mountain streams in La Parva zone, Metropolitan region, central Chile. In this manuscript I report a new location for this species (the Andes Mountains of the O’Higgins Region, Chile, thus extending its current geographical range in about 100 kilometers southward. This finding suggests that we need to invest more efforts to clearly establish its conservation status in Chile.

  9. Taxonomy of the Genus Paramegophrys Liu, 1964(Megophryidae, Amphibia)%掌突蟾属Paramegophrys的分类(两栖纲:角蟾科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江建平; 叶昌媛; 费梁

    2008-01-01

    依据有关文献资料,讨论了掌突蟾属的学名有效性问题和亚属分类问题,结果表明掌突蟾属的有效学名为Paramegophrys Liu,1964;该属可分为2个亚属,即掌突蟾亚属Paramegophrys(Paramegophrys)Liu,1964和拟掌突蟾亚属Paramegophrys(Leptolalax)Dubois,1980;目前,它们分别包含11种.

  10. Study on the Phylogeny of Kaloula (Microhylidae, Amphibia) Based on the Mitochondrial Gene%狭口蛙属分子系统发育研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李飚; 王继山; 袁思棋; 刘宁; 饶定齐; 梁华; 王晓仁

    2012-01-01

    基于线粒体基因序列(12S rRNA和16S rRNA)的联合分析,采用贝叶斯法和最大似然法分别构建了狭口蛙属9个物种的系统发育树,结果表明,(1)狭口蛙属为单系类群;(2)四川狭口蛙和多疣狭口蛙先聚为一支,后与北方狭口蛙聚为单系;(3)狭口蛙属分为印度-斯里兰卡支系,中国西南-东北支系和中国南部-东南亚支系等3个地理居群.%Based on the combined data of mitochondrial DNA sequences ( 165 rRNA and 125 rRNA; total 1962bp, including 524 variable sites and 320 parsimony informative sites) the research valued the molecular phy-logenetic relationships of the 29 samples of the Kaloula species with maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian (BI) methods. The results show that: 1) the genus Kaloula is monophyletic with well support ratio in the molecular phy-logenetic tree; 2) Kaloula borealis is closer to the sister groups of Kaloula rugifera and Kaloula verrucosa; 3) the genus Kaloula can be divided into 3 geographical groups of india-Sri Lanka embranchment, southwest China-north China embranchment and south China-southeast Asia embranchment.

  11. Description of a New Species of the Genus Brachytarsophrys Tian and Hu, 1983 (Amphibia:Anura:Megophryidae) from Southern China Based on Molecular and Morphological Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian ZHAO; Jianhuan YANG; Guoling CHEN; Chunquan CHEN; Yingyong WANG

    2014-01-01

    A new species, Brachytarsophrys popei sp. nov., is described based on a series of specimens collected from Mount Jinggang, Jiangxi Province, Taoyuandong Nature Reserve, Hunan Province and Nanling Nature Reserve, Guangdong Province, China. The new species can be easily distinguished from other known congeners by morphology, morphometrics and molecular data of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. It is characterized by its relatively small size with 86.2 mm in snout-vent length in adult female and 70.7 mm-83.5 mm in males;vomerine teeth bearing on two markedly elevated ridges, which projecting behind far beyond the posterior level of the choanae, widely separated by a distance nearly 1.5 times length of one;margin of tongue deeply notched behind;toes about one-third to two-thirds webbed in males, at most one-third webbed in female;the webs extending as a wide fringes along either side of toes;upper eyelid with tubercles, one of which is enlarged and becoming a remarkably prominent, bluntly conical light-yellow horn;black tiny nuptial spines on the dorsal surface of the ifrst ifnger and second ifnger base, single vocal sac in males;gravid females bear pure yellowish oocytes;tadpoles with a transverse white stripe on ventral surface and two longitudinal white stripes along the sides of body. The new species represents the iffth known Brachytarsophrys species.

  12. Which frog's legs do froggies eat? The use of DNA barcoding for identification of deep frozen frog legs (Dicroglossidae, Amphibia commercialized in France

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    Annemarie Ohler

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Several millions frogs captured in the wild in Indonesia are sold for food yearly in French supermarkets, as deep frozen frog legs. They are commercialized as Rana macrodon, but up to 15 look-alike species might also be concerned by this trade. From December 2012 to May 2013, we bought 209 specimens of deep frozen frog legs, and identified them through a barcoding approach based on the 16S gene. Our results show that 206 out of the 209 specimens belong to Fejervarya cancrivora, two to Limnonectes macrodon and one to F. moodiei. Thus only 0.96 % of the frogs were correctly identified. Unless misclassification was intentional, it seems that Indonesian frog leg exporters are not able to discriminate between the species. The quasi absence of L. macrodon in our samples might be an indication of its rarity, confirming that its natural populations are declining rapidly, in agreement with its “vulnerable” status according to the IUCN Red List. Our results show that the genetic and morphological diversity of the frogs in trade is much higher than the genetic and morphological diversity measured so far by scientific studies. These results underline the need for large scale studies to assess the status of wild populations.

  13. B-esterase activities and blood cell morphology in the frog Leptodactylus chaquensis (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae) on rice agroecosystems from Santa Fe Province (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attademo, Andrés M; Cabagna-Zenklusen, Mariana; Lajmanovich, Rafael C; Peltzer, Paola M; Junges, Celina; Bassó, Agustín

    2011-01-01

    Activity of B-esterases (BChE: butyrylcholinesterase and CbE: carboxylesterase using two model substrates: α-naphthyl acetate and 4-nitrophenyl valerate) in a native frog, Leptodactylus chaquensis from rice fields (RF1: methamidophos and RF2: cypermethrin and endosulfan sprayed by aircraft) and non-contaminated area (pristine forest) was measured. The ability of pyridine-2-aldoxime methochloride (2-PAM) to reactivate BChE levels was also explored. In addition, changes in blood cell morphology and parasite infection were determined. Mean values of plasma BChE activities were lower in samples from the two rice fields than in those from the reference site. CbE (4-nitrophenyl valerate) levels varied in the three sites studied, being highest in RF1. Frog plasma from RF1 showed positive reactivation of BChE activity after incubation with 2-PAM. Blood parameters of frogs from RF2 revealed morphological alterations (anisochromasia and immature erythrocytes frequency). Moreover, a major infection of protozoan Trypanosoma sp. in individuals from the two rice fields was detected. We suggest that integrated use of several biomarkers (BChE and CBEs, chemical reactivation of plasma with 2-PAM, and blood cell parameters) may be a promising procedure for use in biomonitoring programmes to diagnose pesticide exposure of wild populations of this frog and other native anuran species in Argentina.

  14. Correlations of cranial morphology, ecology, and evolution in Australian suctorial tadpoles of the genera Litoria and Nyctimystes (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae: Pelodryadinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, A; Richards, S J

    1998-11-01

    Suctorial anuran larvae are highly specialized for living in fast-flowing waters, using their oral disks as adhesive organs to attach to the substrate. The cranial musculoskeletal structure of suctorial larvae of Litoria nannotis, L. rheocola, and Nyctimystes dayi (Hylidae: Pelodryadinae) were compared with congenerics with pond-type larvae (L. caerulea, L. genimaculata, L. xanthomera). Data from two other neobatrachian species with suctorial larvae (Boophis sp., Hyla armata) as well as published descriptions were taken into account. Suctorial tadpoles evolved several times independently in the Neobatrachia and share various features, irrespective of their phylogenetic position. These include the following. Cornua trabeculae are expanded anteriorly and sometimes fused. The lower jaws are robust. The greatest width of the skull is at the level of the jaw articulation. The upper jaw cartilages are partially or fully fused. The palatoquadrate is robust and connected to the skull by a wide commissura quadratocranialis anterior, processus oticus, processus basalis (in some species), and processus ascendens (vestigial or absent in some species). A processus ventralis quadrati provides an extended area of origin for the m. orbitohyoideus. The m. rectus abdominis inserts far anterior and acts on the cranium. The insertion of the epaxial musculature is shifted anteriorly to the anterior parts of the otic capsule. The mm. diaphragmatobranchialis and rectus cervicis cross at their origins. The origin of the m. levator mandibulae anterior has shifted posteriorly. The branchial basket is relatively small and the ceratohyal area is large. Multiple convergent evolution of these features suggests that they may be causally associated with the suctorial mode of larval life. Aside from these characters, however, the suctorial and pond-type neobatrachian species are remarkably similar in their jaw musculature and hyobranchial musculoskeletal composition. In some features, Ascaphus truei differs significantly from the neobatrachian suctorial species, indicating the influence of the historically distant separation of the two taxa. A novel modification of the upper jaw abduction mechanism has evolved in L. nannotis, L. rheocola, and N. dayi. It involves an adrostral cartilage as a pushing-rod element. This mechanism and unique structural similarities of the cartilago labialis superior gives support to the preliminary assumption that the nannotis species group is more closely related to the suctorial Nyctimystes dayi than it is to other Litoria species with pond-type larvae. Suctorial larvae presumably were present in the most recent common ancestor of the Litoria nannotis group and Nyctimystes dayi.

  15. Phyllomedusa ecuatoriana Cannatella (Amphibia: Hylidae: variación, descripción del renacuajo, vocalización y anotaciones sobre la historia natural

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    Jorge Brito M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta información sobre la variación morfológica de la rana Phyllomedusa ecuatoriana, con la descripción del renacuajo, vocalizaciones, anotaciones sobre la historia natural y distribución, basada en material recientemente recolectado en la Cordillera del Cóndor, Provincia de Zamora Chinchipe, Ecuador. Phyllomedusa ecuatoriana es de tamaño mediano (LRC en machos desde 46.1 hasta 55.4 y en la hembra 72.2 mm. El renacuajo (estadio 26 Gosner presenta la fórmula dentaria 2 (2/3(1, la fila de dientes P3 es menor que P1 y P2; los renacuajos se desarrollan en pozas de diferente tamaño, con aguas oscuras similares a un "te" debido a la presencia de taninos. Las vocalizaciones son de frecuencia modulada, con frecuencia dominante promedio de 1.53 kHz; las llamadas se componen de una nota y de 2-3 pulsos. La dieta de las ranas adultas se basa principalmente en arañas (20% de la familia Argiopidae.

  16. High genetic diversity but low population structure in the frog Pseudopaludicola falcipes (Hensel, 1867) (Amphibia, Anura) from the Pampas of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langone, José A; Camargo, Arley; de Sá, Rafael O

    2016-02-01

    Relative to South America's ecoregions, the temperate grasslands of the Pampas have been poorly studied from a phylogeographic perspective. Based on an intermediate biogeographic setting between subtropical forest (Atlantic Forest) and arid ecosystems (Chaco and Patagonia), Pampean species are expected to show unstable demographic histories due to the Quaternary climatic oscillations. Herein, we investigate the phylogenetic relatedness and phylogeographic history of Pseudopaludicola falcipes, a small and common frog that is widely distributed across the Pampean grasslands. First, we use molecular data to assess if P. falcipes represents a single or multiple, separately evolving cryptic lineages. Because P. falcipes is a small-size species (<20mm) with extensive coloration and morphological variation, we suspected that it might represent a complex of cryptic species. In addition, we expected strong genetic and geographic structuring within Pseudopaludicola falcipes due to its large geographic distribution, potentially short dispersal distances, and multiple riverine barriers. We found that P. falcipes is a single evolutionary lineage with poor geographic structuring. Furthermore, current populations of P. falcipes have a large effective population size, maintain ancestral polymorphisms, and have a complex network of gene flow. We conclude that the demographic history of P. falcipes, combined with its ecological attributes and the landscape features of the Pampas, favored a unique combination among anurans of small body size, large population size, high genetic variability, but high cohesiveness of populations over a wide geographic distribution.

  17. Caecilita Wake & Donnelly, 2010 (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) is not lungless: implications for taxonomy and for understanding the evolution of lunglessness .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Kok, Philippe J R; Ahmed, Farah; Gower, David J

    2014-03-17

    According to current understanding, five lineages of amphibians, but no other tetrapods, are secondarily lungless and are believed to rely exclusively on cutaneous gas exchange. One explanation of the evolutionary loss of lungs interprets lunglessness as an adaptation to reduce buoyancy in fast-flowing aquatic environments, reasoning that excessive buoyancy in such an environment would cause organisms being swept away. While not uncontroversial, this hypothesis provides a plausible potential explanation of the evolution of lunglessness in four of the five lungless amphibian lineages. The exception is the most recently reported lungless lineage, the newly described Guyanan caecilian genus and species Caecilita iwokramae Wake & Donnelly, 2010, which is inconsistent with the reduced disadvantageous buoyancy hypothesis by virtue of it seemingly being terrestrial and having a terrestrial ancestry. Re-examination of the previously only known specimen of C. iwokramae and of recently collected additional material reveal that this species possesses a reasonably well-developed right lung and is a species of the pre-existing caecilian genus Microcaecilia Taylor, 1968. We therefore place Caecilita in the synonymy of Microcaecilia, and re-evaluate the plausibility of the reduced disadvantageous buoyancy hypothesis as a general explanation of the evolution of lunglessness.

  18. Does advertisement call variation coincide with genetic variation in the genetically diverse frog taxon currently known as Leptodactylus fuscus (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae?

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    HEYER W. RONALD

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The frog Leptodactylus fuscus is found throughout much of South America in open and disturbed habitats. Previous study of genetic differentiation in L. fuscus demonstrated that there was lack of genetic exchange among population units consistent with multiple species, rather than a single species. We examine advertisement vocalizations of L. fuscus to determine whether call variation coincides with genetic differentiation. Calls were analyzed for 32 individual frogs from 25 localities throughout the distributional range of L. fuscus. Although there is variation in calls among geographic samples, call variation is not concordant with genetic variation or geographic distance and the call variation observed is less than that typically found among other closely related species of Leptodactylus. This study is an example of the rare pattern of strong genetic differentiation unaccompanied by salient differences in advertisement calls. The relative infrequency of this pattern as currently understood may only reflect the lack of detailed analyses of genetic and acoustic differentiation within population systems currently understood as single species with substantial geographic distributions.

  19. The advertisement call and comments on the distribution of Eleutherodactylus bilineatus Bokermann, 1975, an endemic frog of Bahia State, Brazil (Amphibia, Anura

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    Iuri Ribeiro Dias

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Advertisement calls can be used to aid solving taxonomic problems and understanding the evolution of certain groups. In this study, the advertisement call of Eleutherodactylus bilineatus is described. It is composed by two different notes with a total duration of 0.529–4.241 seconds and dominant frequency of 1.72–3.45 kHz. Additionally, new data is provided on the geographical distribution of Eleutherodactylus bilineatus and the most inland record for this species.

  20. Three new species of the genus Adelophryne (Amphibia: Anura: Leptodactylidae) from northeastern Brazil, with remarks on the other species of the genus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.; Borges, D.M.; Cascon, P.

    1994-01-01

    In the present paper three new species of the genus Adelophryne from the coastal Atlantic forest in Brazil are described. The species are separated from the two species formerly known from the Amazon forest by caatinga vegetation and a distance of at least 1600 km. A. pachydactylus from Bahia has a

  1. The role of phytophysiognomies and seasonality on the structure of ground-dwelling anuran (Amphibia in the Pampa biome, southern Brazil

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    FRANCIELE P. MARAGNO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Considering that habitat use by amphibians is related both with climate and environmental features, we tested the hypothesis that anuran assemblages found in different phytophysiognomies and in different seasons vary in structure. Additionally, we searched for species which can be indicators of habitat and seasons. The study was conducted in the Pampa biome, southern Brazil. Sampling was done through pitfall traps placed in three phytophysiognomies: grassland, ecotone grassland/forest; and forest. The seasonality factor was created by grouping months in warn and cold seasons. Sixteen species were found and the assemblages were influenced both by phytophysiognomies and climatic seasonality. In a paired comparison, the three phytophysiognomies differed in structure of assemblage from each other. Physalaemus henselii, P. riograndensis, Pseudopaludicola falcipes and Pseudis minuta were indicators of ecotone. Leptodactylus gracilis and Physalaemus biligonigerus were indicators of grassland. None species was indicator of forest. Most of the species were indicators of warm season: Elachistocleis bicolor, Leptodactylus fuscus, L. gracilis, L. latinasus, L. latrans, L. mystacinus, Physalaemus biligonigerus, P. cuvieri and Pseudis minuta. None species was indicator of cold season. We found that even for species of open areas, as Pampa, heterogeneous phytophysiognomies are important for maintaining abundance and constancy of populations of anuran.

  2. Una nueva especie de rana terrestre del género Pristimantis (Amphibia: Craugastoridae, de la Cordillera de Kutukú, Ecuador

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    Jorge Brito M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Describimos una especie nueva de mediano tamaño (LRC en la hembra 38.7 mm; en machos de 23.8 a 26.4 mm de rana terrestre del género Pristimantis de los bosques sub-tropicales de la Cordillera de Kutukú, del sureste de Ecuador, a elevaciones de 1581-1820 m. Asignamos a Pristimantis almendariz sp. nov., al subgénero Hypodictyon, serie de especies ridens. La nueva especie difiere de otros miembros de la serie ridens por su patrón distintivo con manchas dorsales, membrana timpánica ausente, presencia de tubérculos cónicos agrandados en el párpado, tubérculo inter-orbital prominente, e iris plateado con reticulaciones negras.

  3. Evolutionary history and population genetic structure of the endemic tree frog Hyla tsinlingensis (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae) inferred from mitochondrial gene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Hua; Zhao, Yan-Yu; Li, Xue-Ying; Li, Xiao-Chen

    2016-01-01

    The influence of topography and Pleistocenic climatic fluctuations on the population genetic structure of amphibians in the Tsinling-Dabieshan Mountains of China is poorly investigated. Hyla tsinlingensis is a tree frog endemic to the Tsinling-Dabieshan Mountains, with a restricted and patchy distribution that is currently shrinking. We speculated on the evolutionary history of amphibians in this region by studying the population genetic structure of H. tsinlingensis. Using a total of 212 samples, 32 haplotypes and four haplogroups were found in the present study. Population genetic structure showed significant differentiation (F(ST)) between most populations of H. tsinlingensis in the Tsinling-Dabieshan Mountains. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) suggested that most of the observed genetic variation occurs between the two regions (the Tsinling and Dabieshan Mountains). Mantel tests indicated that the genetic divergence was induced through isolation by distance. Using Monmonier's maximum difference algorithm to predict the genetic barrier, two putative barriers in gene flow that separate lineages of H. tsinlingensis were identified. Mismatch distribution and neutrality tests found a sudden population expansion in all haplogroups except the Tsinling population and total population. This population expansion was identified between 0.5 Myr to 0.1 Myr (Quaternary) by Bayesian skyline plot (BSP). Divergence dating indicated the divergence time between the Tsinling population and Dabieshan population to be 3.26 MYA (Pliocene). In conclusion, the topography of the Tsinling and Dabieshan Mountains exerts a significant impact on the population genetic structure of H. tsinlingensis, and climatic oscillations during glacial periods in the Quaternary affected the distribution of H. tsinlingensis.

  4. Mud-packing frog: a novel breeding behaviour and parental care in a stream dwelling new species of Nyctibatrachus (Amphibia, Anura, Nyctibatrachidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gururaja, Kotambylu Vasudeva; Dinesh, K P; Priti, H; Ravikanth, G

    2014-05-16

    Reproductive modes are diverse and unique in anurans. Selective pressures of evolution, ecology and environment are attributed to such diverse reproductive modes. Globally forty different reproductive modes in anurans have been described to date. The genus Nyctibatrachus has been recently revised and belongs to an ancient lineage of frog families in the Western Ghats of India. Species of this genus are known to exhibit mountain associated clade endemism and novel breeding behaviours. The purpose of this study is to present unique reproductive behaviour, oviposition and parental care in a new species Nyctibatrachus kumbara sp. nov. which is described in the paper. Nyctibatrachus kumbara sp. nov. is a medium sized stream dwelling frog. It is distinct from the congeners based on a suite of morphological characters and substantially divergent in DNA sequences of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. Males exhibit parental care by mud packing the egg clutch. Such parental care has so far not been described from any other frog species worldwide. Besides this, we emphasize that three co-occurring congeneric species of Nyctibatrachus, namely N. jog, N. kempholeyensis and Nyctibatrachus kumbara sp. nov. from the study site differ in breeding behaviour, which could represent a case of reproductive character displacement. These three species are distinct in their size, call pattern, reproductive behaviour, maximum number of eggs in a clutch, oviposition and parental care, which was evident from the statistical analysis. The study throws light on the reproductive behaviour of Nyctibatrachus kumbara sp. nov. and associated species to understand the evolution and adaptation of reproductive modes of anurans in general, and Nyctibatrachus in particular from the Western Ghats.

  5. [Analysis of helminthofauna of common spaedfoot Pelobates fuscus (Laurenti, 1768) and moor frog Rana arvalis Nilsson, 1842 (Amphibia: Anura) at their joint habitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchin, A B; Chikhliaev, I V; Lukiianov, S V

    2009-01-01

    The helminths fauna of common spaedfoot Pelobates fuscus (Laurenti, 1768) and moor frog Rana arvalis Nilsson, 1842 has been studied at their joint habitation. The stuff was collected in 1998-2002, 2004-2006 years in several regions (republic Mordovia, Samara and Saratov areas). The processing of a stuff is conducted by a method of full helmintologic dissecting. The fauna of helminths considerably differs. For common spaedfoot only 13 species of helminths was detected which also parasitized moor frog (for moor frog 23 species) are detected. The index Jaccar demonstrated mean resemblance structure of helminths and varied from 0.25 till 0.69, and the index Morisite--from 44.58 of % till 74.51 of %. The communities of parasites of common spaedfoot was characterized by low values of an index of Shannon, but the high indexes of an index Simpson, whereas for moor frog tracked the return tendence.

  6. Spermiogenesis and spermatozoon ultrastructure of Diplodiscus subclavatus (Pallas, 1760) (Paramphistomoidea, Diplodiscidae), an intestinal fluke of the pool frog Rana lessonae (Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhoum, A J S; Torres, J; Shimalov, V V; Bâ, C T; Miquel, J

    2011-01-01

    Spermiogenesis in Diplodiscus subclavatus begins with the formation of the zone of differentiation presenting two centrioles associated with striated roots and an intercentriolar body. The latter presents seven electron-dense layers with a fine central plate and three plates on both sides. The external pair of these electron-dense layers is formed by a granular row. Each centriole develops into a free flagellum, both of them growing orthogonally in relation to the median cytoplasmic process. After the flagellar rotation and before the proximodistal fusion of both flagella with the median cytoplasmic process four attachment zones were already observed in several cross-sections indicating the area of fusion. Spinelike bodies are also observed in the differentiation zone before the fusion of flagella. Finally, the constriction of the ring of arched membranes gives rise to the young spermatozoon that detaches from the residual cytoplasm. The mature spermatozoon of D. subclavatus shows all the classical characters observed in Digenea spermatozoa such as two axonemes of different length of the 9+"1" trepaxonematan pattern, nucleus, mitochondrion, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules and granules of glycogen. However, some peculiarities such as a well-developed lateral expansion associated with external ornamentation of the plasma membrane and spinelike bodies combined with their area of appearance distinguish the ultrastructural organization of the sperm cells of D. subclavatus from those of other digeneans.

  7. Microhyla laterite sp. nov., A New Species of Microhyla Tschudi, 1838 (Amphibia: Anura: Microhylidae from a Laterite Rock Formation in South West India.

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    K S Seshadri

    Full Text Available In recent times, several new species of amphibians have been described from India. Many of these discoveries are from biodiversity hotspots or from within protected areas. We undertook amphibian surveys in human dominated landscapes outside of protected areas in south western region of India between years 2013-2015. We encountered a new species of Microhyla which is described here as Microhyla laterite sp. nov. It was delimited using molecular, morphometric and bioacoustics comparisons. Microhyla laterite sp. nov. appears to be restricted to areas of the West coast of India dominated by laterite rock formations. The laterite rock formations date as far back as the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary and are considered to be wastelands in-spite of their intriguing geological history. We identify knowledge gaps in our understanding of the genus Microhyla from the Indian subcontinent and suggest ways to bridge them.

  8. A new species of terrestrial-breeding frog (Amphibia, Craugastoridae, Pristimantis from high elevations of the Pui Pui Protected Forest in central Peru

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    Edgar Lehr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of Pristimantis from upper montane forests and high Andean grasslands of the Pui Pui Protected Forest and its close surroundings, Región Junín, central Peru. The description of the new species is based on 34 specimens found at elevations between 3400 and 3936 m a.s.l. Pristimantis attenboroughi sp. n. is characterized by a snout–vent length of 14.6–19.2 mm in adult males (n = 21, 19.2–23.0 mm in adult females (n = 10, and is compared morphologically and genetically with other taxonomically and biogeographically relevant species of Pristimantis. The new species is characterized by having narrow digits that lack circumferential grooves, irregularly shaped, discontinuous dorsolateral folds, and absence of both tympanic membrane and tympanic annulus. The high similarity in morphology between P. attenboroughi sp. n. and members of the Andean genera Phrynopus and Bryophryne provides an example for convergent evolution, and highlights the importance of using molecular data to justify generic assignment. Pristimantis attenboroughi sp. n. is most similar to Phrynopus chaparroi from the Región Junín, suggesting that the generic placement of this species needs to be revised. Phylogenetically the new species belongs to the Pristimantis danae species Group, a clade that includes several Pristimantis species distributed in the montane forests of central Peru, including P. albertus, P. aniptopalmatus, P. ornatus, and P. stictogaster.

  9. A new species of terrestrial-breeding frog (Amphibia, Craugastoridae, Pristimantis) from high elevations of the Pui Pui Protected Forest in central Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Edgar; von May, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    We describe a new species of Pristimantis from upper montane forests and high Andean grasslands of the Pui Pui Protected Forest and its close surroundings, Región Junín, central Peru. The description of the new species is based on 34 specimens found at elevations between 3400 and 3936 m a.s.l. Pristimantis attenboroughisp. n. is characterized by a snout-vent length of 14.6-19.2 mm in adult males (n = 21), 19.2-23.0 mm in adult females (n = 10), and is compared morphologically and genetically with other taxonomically and biogeographically relevant species of Pristimantis. The new species is characterized by having narrow digits that lack circumferential grooves, irregularly shaped, discontinuous dorsolateral folds, and absence of both tympanic membrane and tympanic annulus. The high similarity in morphology between P. attenboroughisp. n. and members of the Andean genera Phrynopus and Bryophryne provides an example for convergent evolution, and highlights the importance of using molecular data to justify generic assignment. Pristimantis attenboroughisp. n. is most similar to Phrynopus chaparroi from the Región Junín, suggesting that the generic placement of this species needs to be revised. Phylogenetically the new species belongs to the Pristimantis danae species Group, a clade that includes several Pristimantis species distributed in the montane forests of central Peru, including P. albertus, P. aniptopalmatus, P. ornatus, and P. stictogaster.

  10. Cytogenetic analyses of eight species in the genus Leptodactylus Fitzinger, 1843 (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae, including a new diploid number and a karyotype with multiple translocations

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    Gazoni Thiago

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The karyotypes of Leptodactylus species usually consist of 22 bi-armed chromosomes, but morphological variations in some chromosomes and even differences in the 2n have been reported. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for these differences, eight species were analysed using classical and molecular cytogenetic techniques, including replication banding with BrdU incorporation. Results Distinct chromosome numbers were found: 2n = 22 in Leptodactylus chaquensis, L. labyrinthicus, L. pentadactylus, L. petersii, L. podicipinus, and L. rhodomystax; 2n = 20 in Leptodactylus sp. (aff. podicipinus; and 2n = 24 in L. marmoratus. Among the species with 2n = 22, only three had the same basic karyotype. Leptodactylus pentadactylus presented multiple translocations, L. petersii displayed chromosome morphological discrepancy, and L. podicipinus had four pairs of telocentric chromosomes. Replication banding was crucial for characterising this variability and for explaining the reduced 2n in Leptodactylus sp. (aff. podicipinus. Leptodactylus marmoratus had few chromosomes with a similar banding patterns to the 2n = 22 karyotypes. The majority of the species presented a single NOR-bearing pair, which was confirmed using Ag-impregnation and FISH with an rDNA probe. In general, the NOR-bearing chromosomes corresponded to chromosome 8, but NORs were found on chromosome 3 or 4 in some species. Leptodactylus marmoratus had NORs on chromosome pairs 6 and 8. The data from C-banding, fluorochrome staining, and FISH using the telomeric probe helped in characterising the repetitive sequences. Even though hybridisation did occur on the chromosome ends, telomere-like repetitive sequences outside of the telomere region were identified. Metaphase I cells from L. pentadactylus confirmed its complex karyotype constitution because 12 chromosomes appeared as ring-shaped chain in addition to five bivalents. Conclusions Species of Leptodactylus exhibited both major and minor karyotypic differences which were identified by classical and molecular cytogenetic techniques. Replication banding, which is a unique procedure that has been used to obtain longitudinal multiple band patterns in amphibian chromosomes, allowed us to outline the general mechanisms responsible for these karyotype differences. The findings also suggested that L. marmoratus, which was formerly included in the genus Adenomera, may have undergone great chromosomal repatterning.

  11. Temporada e turno de vocalização de Leptodactylus natalensis Lutz, 1930 (Amphibia, Anura na mata atlântica de Pernambuco, Brasil

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    Fabiana Oliveira de Amorim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A atividade de vocalização de uma população de Leptodactylus natalensis foi monitorada em uma poça temporária entre novembro/2002 e outubro/2004. A poça está situada em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica conhecido como Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin, município de Igarassu, Estado de Pernambuco. Os animais apresentaram-se ativos na maioria dos meses, apresentando picos na estação seca. A atividade de vocalização foi registrada durante o dia e a noite. Houve influência negativa e significativa entre a atividade vocal e a temperatura. O número de indivíduos vocalizando não foi significantemente afetado pela precipitação pluviométrica, mas o foi pelo número de fêmeas no ambiente. Verificou-se uma grande plasticidade na atividade de vocalização de L. natalensis durante a temporada e turno.Vocalizations of a population of Leptodactylus natalensis were monitored in a temporary pond from November 2002 to October 2004. This pond is located in a fragment of Atlantic rainforest belonging to the private Ecologic Refuge Charles Darwin, in the city of Igarassu, state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Individuals were active during most of the studied months, with peaks of activity during dry season. Vocal activity was recorded both in day and nighttime. There was a significant negative effect of temperature on vocal activity. The number of individuals vocalizing was not affected significantly by rainfall, but it was by the number of females on the environment. A great plasticity of vocal activities of L. natalensis was verified, both in season and turn.

  12. Taxonomy and distribution of the salamander genus Bolitoglossa Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 (Amphibia, Caudata, Plethodontidae) in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brcko, Isabela Carvalho; Hoogmoed, Marinus Steven; Neckel-Oliverira, Selvino

    2013-01-01

    For nearly 40 years Bolitoglossa paraensis has been synonymized with Bolitoglossa altamazonica. This fact has been mainly related to taxonomic ambiguities arising from the morphological similarities between these species and the scarcity of material deposited in collections. However, during the past 30 years new material of Bolitoglossa has been collected in many places throughout the Brazilian Amazonia, including the type locality of B. paraensis, Santa Isabel do Pará. In this article we designate the neotype of B. paraensis based on new material from the type locality, correct misinterpretations about this name. We determined how many species of the genus Bolitoglossa occur in Brazilian Amazonia, described three new species, B. caldwellae sp. nov., B. madeira sp. nov., and B. tapajonica sp. nov., provide a key for identifying Brazilian salamanders. Were analyzed two hundred and seventy eight specimens of Bolitoglossa from the Brazilian states of Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Pará, and Rondonia; morphological data ofB. altamazonica from Colombia were used for comparison purposes. We confirm the presence of B. altamazonica in extreme western Brazil, and expand the number of species occurring in Brazilian Amazonia to five.

  13. Revision of the characters of Centrolenidae (Amphibia : Anura : Athesphatanura), with comments on its taxonomy and the description of new taxa of glassfrogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros-Heredia, D.F.; McDiarmid, Roy W.

    2007-01-01

    Anurans of the family Centrolenidae are a diverse clade of arboreal frogs distributed across tropical America. Knowledge of their taxonomy, systematics, ecology, behavior, morphology, and other evolutionary aspects of their biology is deficient. Relationships among centrolenid species remain largely unresolved, with no satisfactory phylogenetic hypothesis, and none of the current genera has compelling evidence of monophyly. Further, understanding the phylogeny of glassfrogs is constrained by species-level taxonomic problems, including incorrect description of characters, incomplete analyses of intraspecific variation, and lack of appreciation of species diversity. Herein, we define and analyze the 23 characters that are useful, in combination, in diagnosing centrolenid species, and thereby provide a reference for the use of future workers. We propose revised classifications for the parietal and visceral peritoneal pigmentation, liver form and coloration of its associated hepatic peritoneum, nuptial excrescences, and hand ornamentation. We comment on the generic and species-level taxonomy of Centrolenidae, proposing the recognition of a new genus and describing a new species from Ecuador. We treat Hyla ocellifera Boulenger as a synonym of Centrolene prosoblepon (Boettger), Hyalinobatrachium cardiacalyptum McCranie & Wilson as a synonym of Hyalinobatrachium chirripoi (Taylor), and Hyalinobatrachium crybetes McCranie and Wilson as a synonym of Hyalinobatrachium colymbiphyllum (Taylor). We also present an annotated list of the species of glassfrogs from the Republic of Ecuador with some distributional remarks.

  14. Effects of nonylphenol on early embryonic development, pigmentation and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine-induced metamorphosis in Bombina orientalis (Amphibia: Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Jin; Kang, Han Seung; Gye, Myung Chan

    2010-11-01

    Nonylphenol (NP) is an estrogenic endocrine disruptor in many aquatic species. In an effort to highlight the developmental toxicity of NP in amphibians, we examined the effects of NP on the embryonic survival, tadpole growth, melanophore development and metamorphosis of a native Korean amphibian species, Bombina orientalis (Anura). When treated to fertilized eggs, 1 μM NP significantly decreased embryonic survival at 48 h post fertilization (p.f.), suggesting that 1 μM NP can exert systemic toxicity in B. orientalis embryos. In the surviving embryos, there were no significant differences in malformation rates between NP-treated embryos and controls at 240 h p.f., suggesting no or low teratogenicity of NP in B. orientalis embryos. Below LC(50) NP significantly decreased body growth and development of melanophores at 0.1 μM, suggesting that NP far below the LC(50) targets multiple developmental events in tadpoles of this frog species. In metamorphosis assay using the premetamorphic tadpoles (corresponding to Nieuwkoop Faber stage 53 in Xenopus laevis) exogenous 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3)-induced tail resorption was significantly decreased by 1 μM NP. However, NP (0.1 and 1 μM)-only treatment did not affected total body T3 and T4 levels, suggesting that NP at tested concentrations inhibits thyroid hormones action but not the synthesis of hormones during metamorphosis.

  15. DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS ODORRANA IN CHINA(ANURA:RANIDAE)%中国臭蛙属两新种记述(无尾目:蛙科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费梁; 叶昌媛; 李成

    2001-01-01

    对云南臭蛙Odorrana andersonii各地居群的形态特征进行了深入研究,将原定名为云南臭蛙的9个地区标本分为3个形态型。这3个形态型被确定为3个不同的种,即云南臭蛙和2个新种:景东臭蛙O.jingdongensis sp.nov.和海南臭蛙O.hainanensis sp.nov.。海南臭蛙Odorrana hainanensis sp.nov.,正模CIB64Ⅲ3916,雄性成体59.5?mm;采自海南白沙县鹦歌岭,海拔520?m;1964年8月25日。景东臭蛙Odorrana jingdongensis sp.nov.,正模CIB581505,雌性成体体长90.4?mm;采自云南景东县新民乡,海拔1?480?m;1958年5月29日。模式标本保存在中国科学院成都生物研究所。%Odorrana andersonii was reported distributing in Yunnan,Guizhou,Guangxi and Hainan,China.The authors studied and divided those specimens from nine population into three morphotypes.Each of the three morphotypes is judged to represent a species,and two are described as new:Odorrana jingdongensis sp.nov.and Odorrana hainanensis sp.nov.,the two new species and their biological data are described.

  16. Description of the tadpoles of two endemic frogs: the Phu Luang cascade frog Odorrana aureola (Anura: Ranidae) and the Isan big-headed frog Limnonectes isanensis (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampai, Natee; Rujirawan, Attapol; Arkajag, Jirachai; Mcleod, David S; Aowphol, Anchalee

    2015-07-07

    We describe the external morphology of the tadpoles of two frogs endemic to Thailand: the Phu Luang cascade frog    (Odorrana aureola) and the Isan big-headed frog (Limnonectes isanensis) from the type localities in the Phu Luang Wildlife Sanctuary, Loei Province, northeastern Thailand. Morphological and genetic characters (16S rRNA) were used to identify specimen and match tadpoles to the adults. Detailed descriptions of external morphology and coloration in life are provided for both species. We provide a brief discussion of the ecology of these tadpoles and a comparison to previously published data from tadpoles of closely related taxa. Additionally, we provide evidence for the utility of larval morphology in resolving the taxonomic puzzles presented by cryptic species complexes.

  17. The diet of Scinax angrensis (Lutz tadpoles in an area of the Atlantic Forest (Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae Dieta de girinos de Scinax angrensis (Lutz na Floresta Atlântica (Mangaratiba, Rio deJaneiro (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae

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    Izidro F. de Sousa Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Scinax angrensis (Lutz, 1973 is an endemic species, which occurs in low altitude hillside forests, distributed from the municipalities of Mangaratiba to Parati in the south of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The aim of this study was to compare the morphology of S. angrensis tadpoles in two different stages of development, and verify their feeding spectrum. The mouth morphology of the two stages studied (27 and 37 appeared similar, with a difference in the size of the oral opening as well as an increase in the dimensions of the body. The examined species presented a trophic spectrum comprised of algae, protozoan, rotifers, microcrustaceans, nematodes, vegetation and invertebrate remains, fungus hyphae, and sand grains. Significant differences were found between dimensions of the two stages, but not between diets, although a differentiated preference with regards to planktonic items has been verified. The results suggest that the partitioning of feeding resources is not only related to morphology and occupation of different microhabitats but also to the feeding behaviour of tadpoles. The relevance of important food items to the natural diet of S. angrensis tadpoles, especially the diatoms and filamentous algae, reveal the importance of the periphytic community to the conservation of this species in the Atlantic Forest.Scinax angrensis (Lutz, 1973 é uma espécie endêmica ocorrendo em florestas de encosta de baixa altitude, no sul do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O objetivo do presente estudo foi o de comparar a morfologia e verificar o espectro alimentar de girinos de S. angrensis de dois estágios diferenciados de desenvolvimento. A morfologia bucal dos dois estágios (27 e 37 apresentou-se similar, havendo diferença de tamanho da abertura oral, bem como aumento das dimensões do corpo e da cauda. A espécie examinada apresentou um espectro trófico integrado por algas, protozoários, rotíferos, microcrustáceos, nematódeos, restos de vegetais e de invertebrados, hifas de fungo e grãos de areia. Foram verificadas diferenças significativas entre as dimensões dos dois estágios, embora não se tenha encontrado uma diferença significativa entre as dietas, apesar de se ter observado uma preferência diferenciada por itens planctônicos. Os resultados sugerem que a partilha de recursos alimentares está relacionada não só com a morfologia e ocupação de diferentes microhábitats, mas também ao comportamento alimentar dos girinos. A relevância de itens importantes para a dieta natural dos girinos de S. angrensis, especialmente as algas diatomáceas e filamentosas, revela a importância da comunidade perifítica para a conservação desta espécie de anuro na Mata Atlântica.

  18. Descrição da larva de Scinax similis (Cochran com notas comparativas sobre o grupo "ruber" no sudeste do Brasil (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae Description of the larva of Scinax similis (Cochran with comparative notes on the Scinax ruber group in Southeastern Brazil (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae

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    Ana C.R Alves

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The larva of Scinax similis (Cochran, 1952 is described from Ilha do Fundão (Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Comparisons with other species of the group that occur in Southeastern Brazil are added. The larva of S. similis can be distinguished by the following diagnostic features: (1 eyes large in relation to body length (17,3%, body height (26,8%, and body width (29,7%, interocular distance three times larger than eye diameter; (2 lower beak with two transverse stripes, proximal half white and distal half black.

  19. Una nueva especie colombiana del género Centrolene Jiménez de la Espada 1872 (Amphibia: Anura y redefinición del género Una nueva especie colombiana del género Centrolene Jiménez de la Espada 1872 (Amphibia: Anura y redefinición del género

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    Ruiz Carranza Pedro M.

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the taxonomic history of the genus is provided, and a new definition is given for it, including several characters not previously used.  Centrolene paezorum, new species, is described as the second species for this genus from the subhygrophytic cloud Andean forest, above Inzá, in the eastern slope of the Central Cordillera, Cauca, Colombia. This species is characterized by its smaller size, slenderer body and extremities, narrower head, sloping and flaring snout, absence of vomerine teeth, reduced finger webbing, distinctive dermal ornamentation, green bones, three-lobed liver, white pericardial sac and parietal peritoneum, clear hepatic and visceral peritoneum, black eggs, and the absence of externatly perceptible humeral deltoid ridge in the holotype (female. Besides a review of the generic concept is provided, with the addition of characters not used until now. Se presenta una redefinición de Centrolene mediante el uso de nuevos caracteres, basada en una revisión del historial taxonómico del género y en el examen de una serie de ejemplares de C. geckoideum: Se describe la segunda especie del género Centrolene de la selva andina subhigrofítica nebulosa de la vertiente oriental de la Cordillera Central, arriba de Inzá, Cauca, Colombia. La nueva especie se caracteriza por su menor tamaño, cuerpo y extremidades menos robustos, anchura cefálica proporcionalmente menor, rostro dilatado anteriormente y con el extremo oblicuo en perfil lateral, carencia de dientes vomerinos, palmeadura manual comparativamente reducida, relieve cutáneo distintivo, huesos verdes, hígado trilobulado, saco pericardial y peritoneo parietal blancos, peritoneo hepático y visceral translúcidos e incoloros, huevos fuertemente pigmentados de negro y la espina de la cresta deltoidea del húmero no detectable exteriormente en el holótipo (hembra.

  20. PARTICIÓN DE MICROHÁBITATS ENTRE ESPECIES DE BUFONIDAE Y LEIUPERIDAE (AMPHIBIA: ANURA EN ÁREAS CON BOSQUE SECO TROPICAL DE LA REGIÓN CARIBE-COLOMBIA Microhábitat Partitioning Between Leiuperidae and Bufonidae Species (Amphibia: Anura in Tropical Dry Forest Areas in Colombian Caribbean

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    ARGELINA BLANCO TORRES

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se analizó la partición de microhábitats de cinco especies de anuros pertenecientes a las familias Bufonidae (Rhinella marina, R. granulosa, y Leiuperidae (Engystomops pustulosus, Pleurodema brachyops y Pseudopaludicola pusilla en seis localidades del Caribe colombiano con fragmentos de bosque seco tropical y diferentes usos de suelo. Se identificaron 29 microhábitats. Los más usados fueron charco de agua permanente de potreros con árboles (CPPA y potreros inundables sin árboles (PISA. La especie que mayor cantidad de microhábitats utilizó, fue E. pustulosus. No hubo especialistas en el uso de estos ambientes. Se presentaron diferencias en el uso de este recurso a escalas regional y local. La dinámica de uso de los microhábitats estuvo influenciada por las variaciones climáticas del bosque seco tropical. Existió partición de microhábitats como mecanismo de coexistencia en estas especies para época seca y no ocurre en época de lluvias.ABSTRACT We analyzed partitioning of microhábitats by five species of frogs in the families Bufonidae (Rhinella marina, R. granulosa, and Leiuperidae (Engystomops pustulosus, Pleurodema brachyops and Pseudopaludicola pusilla in six different localities of the Colombian Caribean with tropical dry forest fragments and different land uses. We identified 29 types of microhábitats; permanent ponds in pastures with trees (CPPA and flooded pastures without trees (PISA were the most important environmental used. Engystomops pustulosus used the must microhábitats, and none are used by specialist species. Thus, differences in the use of resource on regional and local scales appeared. Dynamics of microhábitat uses was influenced by the climatic variations of the tropical dry forest. Microhábitats distribution as a mechanism of coexistence in these species is implemented for dry season but in rainfall season this mechanism not exists.

  1. Riqueza de espécies e distribuição espacial e temporal em comunidade de anuros (Amphibia, Anura) em uma localidade de Tijucas do Sul, Paraná, Brasil Species richness and spatial and temporal distributions of the anuran (Amphibia, Anura) community in a locality of Tijucas do Sul, Paraná, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    CARLOS E. CONTE; Reginaldo A. Machado

    2005-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo fornecer dados ecológicos sobre a anurofauna da localidade de Lagoa (25º55'S, 49º11'W), Município de Tijucas do Sul, Paraná, Brasil. Dentro da área de estudo a vegetação é expressa por diminutos relictos de Floresta Ombrófila Mista primária alterada e formações antrópicas, sobretudo áreas de reflorestamento com Pinus sp. e pequenas áreas de terra ocupadas pela agricultura. Durante os meses de março de 2000 a março de 2001, foram coligidos dados sobre a d...

  2. Riqueza de espécies e distribuição espacial e temporal em comunidade de anuros (Amphibia, Anura em uma localidade de Tijucas do Sul, Paraná, Brasil Species richness and spatial and temporal distributions of the anuran (Amphibia, Anura community in a locality of Tijucas do Sul, Paraná, Brazil

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    Carlos E. Conte

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo fornecer dados ecológicos sobre a anurofauna da localidade de Lagoa (25º55'S, 49º11'W, Município de Tijucas do Sul, Paraná, Brasil. Dentro da área de estudo a vegetação é expressa por diminutos relictos de Floresta Ombrófila Mista primária alterada e formações antrópicas, sobretudo áreas de reflorestamento com Pinus sp. e pequenas áreas de terra ocupadas pela agricultura. Durante os meses de março de 2000 a março de 2001, foram coligidos dados sobre a distribuição espacial e temporal das espécies, bem como informações quanto à utilização do ambiente como sítio de vocalização. Foram registradas 23 espécies de anfíbios anuros. Nenhum anfíbio foi encontrado vocalizando durante os meses mais secos (abril e maio, porém pela análise estatística a atividade de vocalização esteve mais correlacionada com a temperatura do que com a pluviosidade. Quase não houve sobreposição espacial entre as espécies nos sítios de vocalização, visto que as mesmas utilizam sítios de vocalização diferentes.In this study we have improved ecological data on the anuran fauna of Lagoa (25º55'S, 49º11'W, located in the Municipality of Tijucas do Sul, State of Paraná, Brazil. The local vegetation is composed by pieces of disturbed Araucaria forest, anthropic managed pine forest, and few areas with agricultural occupations. During 13 months, from March 2000 to March 2001, spatial and temporal distributions data of anurans species were collected; informations about the microhabitat use and vocalization site were also obtained. Twenty-three species were registered. No anuran called during the most dry months (April and May, but in the statistical analysis this activity was more correlated to temperature than to the rainfall. Few spatial overlap among the species on the vocalization sites was observed, as these species use different call sites.

  3. Efeitos da sucessão florestal sobre a anurofauna (Amphibia: Anura da Reserva Catuaba e seu entorno, Acre, Amazônia sul-ocidental Effect of the forest succession on the anurans (Amphibia: Anura of the Reserve Catuaba and its periphery, Acre, southwestern Amazonia

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    Vanessa M. de Souza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a abundância, riqueza e a composição da anurofauna em diferentes estágios sucessionais em uma floresta do Acre (10º04'S, 67º37'W e seu entorno. Os dados foram obtidos entre agosto de 2005 a abril de 2006 em doze parcelas, localizadas em três áreas diferentes da floresta. Em cada área foram escolhidos quatro tipos de ambientes: floresta primária (mata, floresta secundária (capoeira, entorno (matriz e floresta secundária (sucessão. Observou-se a presença de 27 espécies distribuídas em sete famílias. Maior abundância foi constatada na matriz dois e capoeira três, e a menor na sucessão um. A maior riqueza foi constatada na matriz dois, com o maior número de espécies exclusivas. A abundância de anuros correlacionou-se significativamente com a circunferência das árvores e lianas. A riqueza de anuros correlacionou-se marginalmente com a circunferência das árvores. A maior riqueza em ambientes de capoeiras e matriz pode ser explicada em grande parte pela existência nesses locais de poças d'água, maior heterogeneidade estrutural e poderem constituir estágios intermediários de perturbação. Esses estágios têm sido apontados como fatores que promovem e mantêm níveis elevados de biodiversidade. Ambientes com níveis intermediários de perturbação são importantes para a conservação da anurofauna.The objective of this work it was verify the abundance, richness, and the anuran composition in plots of vegetation of different succession stages in a forest and the matrix that surrounds it, of Acre (10º04'S, 67º37'W. The sampling was carried out between August 2005 and April 2006 in twelve plots located in three different sites in the forest. In each site four kinds of environments were chosen: primary forest (wood, secondary forest (capoeira, periphery (matrix and secondary forest (succession. A total of twenty-seven species distributed in seven families was found. Greater abundance was registered in the plots of matrix two and capoeira three and the least in succession one. The richness was greater in matrix two, with the greater number of exclusive species. The abundance of anurans correlated significantly, with the average circumference at the breast height of the trees of the plots. The richness however correlated only marginally, with this structural feature. The larger richness in plots of capoeira and matrix can be explained partially by the existence of temporary ponds and more structural heterogeneity is able constitute intermediary stages in a gradient of perturbation and this can increase the biodiversity. Thus environments with intermediary levels of disturbance are important for the conservation of the diversity of anuran amphibians.

  4. Regulation of pigment migration in the amphibian melanophore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, A.C.J.; Oordt, G.J. van

    1962-01-01

    Among vertebrates rapid color changes in the skin are restricted to fishes, amphibia and reptiles. These reactions are based on the movements of pigment granules in special cells, the chromatophores which may be classified as leucophores, xanthophores, erythrophores and melanophores.

  5. Esparganose em alguns vertebrados do Brasil: dificuldades na identificaçao das espécies de Luheella (Spirometra Sparganum in some brazilian vertebrates: problems in the identification of species of Luheella (Spirometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arandas Rego

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Some species of Amphibia and Reptilia are listed as new hosts of spargana, from material deposited in the Helminthological Collection of Oswaldo Cruz Institute. It is discussed the difficulties in identifying the larvae (Sparganum and also the identification of adults of Luheella species from South America. The histopathology induced by spargana in the liver of a species of Amphibia is briefly described.

  6. Estudios exprimentales en larvas de Bufo fernandezae Gallardo. Crecimiento longitudinal y su relación con el alimento, concentración de oxígeno y densidad (Amphibia: Anura)

    OpenAIRE

    Kehr, Arturo Ignacio

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this work is to analyze individual and combined effects of biotic and abiotic factors of the length growth of inmature stages of B. fernandezae Gallardo. The research was carried on under specified and constant laboratory conditions. The obtained results showed that the density was the main controlling factor upon the individual growth, being less important, in this sense, the alimentary offer arranged during the temporal extension of the experiments. Besides, no differences ...

  7. Estudios exprimentales en larvas de Bufo fernandezae Gallardo. Crecimiento longitudinal y su relación con el alimento, concentración de oxígeno y densidad (Amphibia: Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehr, Arturo Ignacio

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to analyze individual and combined effects of biotic and abiotic factors of the length growth of inmature stages of B. fernandezae Gallardo. The research was carried on under specified and constant laboratory conditions. The obtained results showed that the density was the main controlling factor upon the individual growth, being less important, in this sense, the alimentary offer arranged during the temporal extension of the experiments. Besides, no differences were detected between the reared spawns, under different disolved oxygen registered values. Furthermore, it is remarkable food abundance and accesibility influence on the successful development of the studied individuals.

  8. Following passage through the oviduct, the coelomic envelope of Discoglossus pictus (amphibia) acquires fertilizability upon reorganization, conversion of gp 42 to gp 40, extensive glycosylation, and formation of a specific layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, M; Infante, V; Talevi, R; Vaccaro, M C; Carotenuto, R; Campanella, C

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes the morphological and biochemical changes in Discoglossus pictus coelomic oocyte envelope (CE) following passage through the oviduct. As in other anurans, in this species, the transformation of the envelope into vitelline envelope (VE) leads to the acquisition of fertilizability and involves the cleavage of a glycoprotein. In addition, several features, typical of Discoglossus pictus, were observed. A new layer, VE-D, forms underneath the VE region facing the site of sperm entrance, the dimple. In the VE, arrowhead-like bundles of fibrils are perpendicularly oriented toward the dimple. Ultrastructural observations and staining with UEA-I suggested that VE-D might have a role in supporting sperm penetration into the dimple by orienting VE bundles and exposing sugar residues such as fucose. In 'in vitro' tests, VE binding of sperm occurs only if sperm are exposed to A23187, in agreement with previous data (Campanella et al., 1997: Mol Reprod Dev 47:323-333). Sperm binding occurs all over the VE. Accordingly, extracts of the VE covering the animal or the vegetal hemisphere have the same affinity to lectins (DBA, DSA, GNA, MAA, SBA, SNA, UEA-I, WGA). The CE contains six main glycoproteins. Peptide mapping indicated that during CE transformation into VE, gp 42 shifts to an apparent M(r) of 40 and gp 61 is converted to an apparent M(r) of 63 kDa. Lectin blot analyses showed extensive changes in cross-reactivity of most glycoproteins during the CE-->VE transition. The fact that DBA and UEA-I stain gp 63 rather than gp 61 and that this change is related only to gp 63, suggested that O-glycosylation and terminal fucose might be acquired by gp 63 in preparation of fertilization. Gp 63 has recently been cloned (Vaccaro et al., submitted) and shown to exhibit high homology to Xenopus gp 69/64, a VE sperm ligand (Tian et al., 1997a: J. Cell Biol. 136: 1099-1108; Tian et al., 1997b: Dev Biol 187:143-153), and to ZP2 of mammals.

  9. Altitudinal distribution and advertisement call of Colostethus latinasus (Amphibia: Dendrobatidae), endemic species from eastern Panama and type species of Colostethus , with a molecular assessment of similar sympatric species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Roberto D; Griffith, Edgardo J; Lips, Karen R; Crawford, Andrew J

    2017-04-12

    We conducted a molecular assessment of Colostethus-like frogs along an elevational gradient in the Serranía de Pirre, above Santa Cruz de Cana, eastern Panama, aiming to establish their species identity and to determine the altitudinal distribution of C. latinasus. Our findings confirm the view of C. latinasus as an endemic species restricted to the highlands of this mountain range, i.e., 1350-1475 m.a.s.l., considered to be type locality of this species. We described the advertisement call of C. latinasus that consists of a series of 4-18 single, short and relatively loud "peep"-like notes given in rapid succession, and its spectral and temporal features were compared with calls of congeneric species. For the first time, DNA sequences from C. latinasus were obtained, since previously reported sequences were based on misidentified specimens. This is particularly important because C. latinasus is the type species of Colostethus, a genus considered paraphyletic according to recent phylogenetic analyses based on molecular data.

  10. 浙江丽水无尾两栖类非正常抱对现象4例%Four Cases of Abnormal Amplexus in Anurans (Amphibia: Anura)from Lishui, Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽华; 邵伟伟; 林植华

    2012-01-01

    报道浙江丽水三岩寺区域4个无尾两栖类物种(中华大蟾蜍、黑眶蟾蜍、虎纹蛙、镇海林蛙)的4例繁殖期非正常抱对现象,包括多重抱对(1只雌性和3只雄性,虎纹蛙)、从腹部抱对(镇海林蛙)、2只雄性抱对(虎纹蛙)、不同物种之间抱对(雄性黑眶蟾蜍和雌性中华大蟾蜍)等.影响非正常抱对的因素可能包括成年性别比例、种群密度、化学信号(性激素)和被抱对个体的行为反应等.无尾两栖类非正常抱对现象为我们研究无尾两栖类的繁殖行为提供有意义的参考.

  11. Utilização de habitats reprodutivos e micro-habitats de vocalização em uma taxocenose de anuros (Amphibia da Mata Atlântica do sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Bertoluci

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a utilização de sítios reprodutivos e de vocalização em uma taxocenose de anuros do Parque Estadual Intervales, uma reserva de Mata Atlântica localizada no sudeste do Brasil (24°12' - 24°25' S, 48°03' - 48°30' W. Os trabalhos de campo foram desenvolvidos entre abril de 1990 e março de 1991. Na área de estudo, foram registradas 47 espécies pertencentes a quatro famílias: Bufonidae (4, Hylidae (24, Leptodactylidae (18 e Microhylidae (1. Foram obtidos dados sobre a distribuição dos hábitats reprodutivos e dos micro-habitats de vocalização para 26 espécies por meio do monitoramento mensal de seis corpos d'água ao longo de um ciclo anual. O número de espécies que utilizaram um determinado hábitat variou de 7 a 22. As espécies foram classificadas como generalistas ou especialistas. A maioria das espécies mostrou preferência por determinados sítios de vocalização. Para algumas espécies, a especificidade por sítios de vocalização pareceu depender da densidade de machos emitindo canto nupcial e não da composição de espécies das agregações reprodutivas.Breeding and calling site utilization were studied for an anuran community of the Parque Estadual Intervales, an Atlantic Rainforest reserve located in Southeastern Brazil (24°12'-24°25'S, 48°03'-48°30'W. Field work was carried out between April 1990 and March 1991. Forty-seven species from four families were recorded in the study site: Bufonidae (4, Hylidae (24, Leptodactylidae (18, and Microhylidae (1. We were able to obtain data on breeding habitat and microhabitat distribution for 26 species by monitoring six breeding sites year-round on a monthly basis. The number of species in the sites varied from 7 to 22. Species were classified as habitat generalists and specialists based on breeding site utilization. Most species showed preferences for certain calling sites. For some species calling site specificity seemed to depend on the density of the male aggregations rather than on the species composition of the assemblages.

  12. A NEW SALAMANDER (AMPHIBIA: CAUDATA) FROM THE EARLY CRETACEOUS JEHOL BIOTA%早白垩世热河生物群一新的有尾两栖类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王原

    2000-01-01

    描述了内蒙古宁城下白垩统义县组下部一新的有尾两栖类:奇异热河螈(新属、新种)Jeholotriton paradoxus gen. et sp. nov. .标本保存了完好的相关节的骨架印痕,头骨中的翼骨具有一个不与上颌骨相连,而与头骨中部相连的前内侧突,这使它区别于其他早期有尾类.

  13. Two New Records of Amphibia from Tibet, China, with Description of Rhacophorus burmanus%西藏两栖纲新纪录2种及缅甸树蛙描述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋珂; 王剀; 杨军校; 金洁琼; 邹大虎; 颜芳; 潘虎君; 车静

    2016-01-01

    本文报道西藏两栖纲叉舌蛙科Dicroglossidae新纪录2种,即采于喜马拉雅山中段吉隆沟内的罗斯坦棘蛙Nanorana rostandi(Dubois,1974)和西藏东部昌都地区江达县的倭蛙Nanorana pleskei Güther,1896,前者是中国新纪录,后者是西藏自治区新纪录.首次描述了采自西藏东南部墨脱县的树蛙科缅甸树蛙Rhacophorus burmanus (Andersson,1939).

  14. 广西元宝山自然保护区两栖动物资源调查及保护%Survey and Conservation of Amphibia Resources in Yuanbao Mountain Nature Reserve of Guangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋才云; 曾小飚

    2011-01-01

    The amphibian resources in Yuanbao Mountain Nature Reserve of Guangxi were investigated from March to August in 2009. The results showed that 27 species of amphibians, belonging to 18 genera, 8 families, 2 orders, were recorded in the reserve. The Shannon-Wienner diversity index and Pielou evenness index were 2.877 and 0.873 respectively. According to the zoogeographic division, this area belong to Western mountain and plateau subregion, Central China region, Oriental Realm. The fauna is mainly composed of species distributed in both Central and South China Region. The ecological categories of 27 amphibians are mainly running-water type and Terrestrial & Quiet-water type. Compared to Maoershan Nature Reserve and Guilin Lijiang scenic spots located in the north of Guangxi similarly, the similarity coefficient of amphibian communities in Yuanbao Mountain Nature Reserve is higher. On the contrary,it has smaller similarity coefficient than Cenwanglaoshan Nature Reserve, Longtan Nature Reserve, Diding Nature Reserve of west of Guangxi and Shiwandashan, Guabang mountain of South of Guangxi. Based on the status of the amphibian resources, some protective suggestions were provided in the paper.%2009年3~8月,对广西元宝山自然保护区的两栖动物资源进行了调查.结果表明,该保护区有两栖动物27种,隶属18属8科2目;物种多样性指数为2.877,均匀度指数为0.873.动物地理区划属东洋界华中区西部山地高原亚区黔桂湘低山丘陵省,区系组成以华中区与华南区共有种为主:生态类型以流水型和陆栖静水型种类占优势:保护区和同样地处桂北的猫儿山自然保护区、桂林漓江风景名胜区的两栖动物群落相似系数较高,而与桂西地区的岑王老山自然保护区、龙滩自然保护区、底定自然保护区和桂南地区的十万大山、挂榜山的相似系数较小.最后,根据资源现状提出了保护对策.

  15. Current Status and Conservation of Scutiger (Amphibia : Urodela) in China%我国齿突蟾属(两栖纲:无尾目)资源现状及保护对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万丽霞; 李宏伟; 孙立新; 窦静莉

    2014-01-01

    齿突蟾属物种已知19种左右,中国分布有16种.该属大多数物种为珍贵、稀有濒危物种.主要生活在高寒山区及高原地区,卵产于高寒缓流的山溪中.本文梳理了分布于我国齿突蟾物种的资源现状,分析了导致其种群下降的原因.并在此基础上提出了相应的保护对策,以期能对该属物种保护和资源利用起到参考作用.

  16. A preliminary survey on Amphibia and Reptilia in Wanghu Wetland Nature Reserve in Hubei province%湖北网湖湿地自然保护区两栖爬行动物资源调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴宗兴; 石道良; 吴少斌; 刘国跃; 石教法; 刘道锦; 孙道; 李儒生

    2006-01-01

    2004年对湖北省阳新县网湖湿地自然保护区的两栖类和爬行类进行了系统调查,分别记录到两栖类27种、爬行类38种.对它们的物种组成、地理区系特点和保护等级进行了研究,并提出了保护建议.

  17. 恩施州两栖爬行动物多样性现状及保护对策的研究%Research on Situation of Diversity and Protection of Reptile and Amphibia in Enshi Prefecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁胜平; 侯建军

    2003-01-01

    在分析恩施州自然地理条件基础上,对两栖、爬行动物资源种类、数量及分布进行了初步的调查分析,结果表明恩施州独特的生态环境造就了两爬动物资源的多样性,并针对其两爬动物的资源现状提出了拟继续研究的方向及保护建议.

  18. A New Record of Frogs from China: Paramegophrys (Paramegophrys) sungi (Megophryidae, Amphibia)%中国蛙类-新纪录——三岛掌突蟾(两栖纲:角蟾科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫运明; 江建平; 叶昌媛

    2008-01-01

    依据广西防城的掌突蟾标本记述了掌突蟾属一中国新纪录种,即三岛掌突蟾Paramegophrys(Paramegophrys) sungi(Lathrop, Murphy, Orlov et Ho,1998),它们分布于广西南部和越南北部.

  19. 中国小鲵科(两栖纲:有尾目)研究现状与资源保护%Present research situation and resource conservation of Hynobiidae (Amphibia: Urodela) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨莉; 龚大洁; 牟迈

    2008-01-01

    小鲵科(Hynobiidae)隶属于两栖纲、有尾目,是现存陆生脊椎动物中最低等的一个类群,它们在科学研究、经济应用和文化娱乐等方面都具有重要的价值.本文从物种的分类、繁殖生态学、精子形态与结构等方面总结了中国小鲵科的研究概况,分析了导致其种群下降的原因,在此基础上提出了一些保护对策,以期对中国小鲵科物种的资源利用以及相关部门制定物种保护政策提供一定的参考.

  20. 中国11种有尾两栖动物生存状况的统计评估%A statistical assessment of conservation status of 11 Chinese species of amphibia (caudata)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏元; 柴丽红; 李忻怡; 张育辉

    2010-01-01

    依据有尾两栖动物的年繁殖次数、产卵量、栖息地等自然生存特点和分布区域以及地理隔离等生物特征设定10个因子,将每个因子划分4个等级,该因子的等级越低对动物生存影响越小,等级越高对动物生存的影响越大.对中国常见的11种有尾两栖动物10个因子的统计结果表明,其平均值从1.2到1.9不等,73%的物种平均值都大于1.5.说明中国大多数有尾两栖类动物都面临着生存威胁,属于渐危物种.建议通过建立自然保护区等措施加强保护.

  1. A New Horn Toad Megophrys sangzhiensis from Hunan,China (Amphibia,Anura)%中国湖南角蟾科一新种——桑植角蟾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江建平; 叶昌媛; 费梁

    2008-01-01

    对采集于湖南桑植县天平山的角蟾标本(CIB200078)与同域分布的相近种尾突角蟾(Megophrys caudoprocta Shen,1994)标本及其他相近种标本比较后发现,该角蟾标本在形态上明显不同于其他物种.其形态特征与尾突角蟾相比:体形小,体长54.7mm;上眼脸外缘三角形突起小;体腹面后部有斑点;犁骨棱弱,末端不膨大,也无犁骨齿;雄性第一、二指背面黑婚刺相对较大,有声囊.与棘指角蟾相比:肛孔上方有一个向后突出的尾突,腹面观可见;雄性第一、二指背面黑婚刺相对较小而密.故将其订为新种:桑植角蟾Megophrys sangzhiensis sp.nov..

  2. Genetic structure and origin of a tetraploid toad species Bufo danatensis Pisanetz, 1978 (Amphibia, Bufonidae) from central Asia: Description of biochemical polymorphism and comparison of heterozygosity levels in diploid and tetraploid species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezhzherin, S.V.; Pisanets, E.M. [Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of individual variation at 24 biochemical loci in members of the species complex of Palearctic green toads showed that the heterozygosity of the tetraploid species Bufo danatensis (H{sub obs} = 0.45) was significantly higher than that of the diploid species B. viridis, B. sp., and B. raddei (H{sub obs} = 0.009 - 0.103). Such difference can be explained only by a hybrid origin of the tetraploid species. Individual electrophoretic variability of the polyploid toad species is associated with an allelic variation that is manifested in constantly heterozygous spectra as the gene dosage effect. At the population level, this phenomenon found in Pamir toads is caused by irregular meiosis in founders of the population or by directional changes in gene regulation. Genotypic distributions in zones of contact of the diploid and tetraploid taxons demonstrate the possibility of restricted introgressive hybridization.

  3. 中国肥螈属(两栖纲:蝾螈科)一新种——弓斑肥螈Pachytriton archospotus sp. nov.%A new species of salamander Pachytriton archospotus from Hunan Province, China (Amphibia, Salamandridae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈猷慧; 沈端文; 莫小阳

    2008-01-01

    本文记述两栖纲蝾螈目蝾螈科一新种,新种具肥螈属(Pachytriton)系列特征,与肥螈属已知2种比较有明显区别.如1)本新种与黑斑肥螈(Pachytriton brevipes)相似,体表具黑色小圆斑,但新种具额鳞弓、上鳃骨直而与后者不同;无斑肥螈(Pachytriti on labiatus)(地模标本)虽具额鳞弓,但上鳃骨明显弯曲,体表无黑色小圆斑;2) 新种吻短,吻长小于眼间距,黑斑肥螈吻长大于眼间距,无斑肥螈吻长大于或等于眼间距, 它们的头型明显不同,虽然三者头长均大于头宽,但头长、吻长、眼间距差异显著;3)繁 殖期新种雄体肛区不明显肿胀,肛裂周边中、后部生殖乳突长,而且多,十分醒目;黑斑肥 螈和无斑肥螈繁殖期肛区明显肿胀膨大,生殖乳突较短、且稀.经统计分析三种肥螈的头体长、头长、头宽、吻长和眼间距存在显著差异

  4. Inclusión de Physalaemus riograndensis Milstead, 1960 en la batracofauna de Misiones, Argentina, y otros aportes para el conocimiento de su distribución (Amphibia: Anura: Leptodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chebez, Juan C.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Physalaemus riograndensis Milstead, 1960. Rep. ARGENTINA, PROV.DE MISIONES, Dpto. Candelaria, Campo San Juan, 27° 25' S, 55° 40' W. 1 ejemplar. MACN número 34.646. Colector: E. Krauczuck.

  5. A New Record of Amphibia(Paa verrucospinosa)--Again Confirmation in China%中国两栖动物新纪录--多疣棘蛙的再证实

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡健生; 陈明勇; 董永华

    2005-01-01

    @@ 多疣棘蛙(Paa verrucospinosa(Bourret),1939)是Bourret于1937年根据越南沙巴采集到的标本订为棘胸蛙一新亚种[1],1939年他改订为新种[2].寇治通等人1983年10月在云南省勐腊县景飘采到一只雌性成体蛙的标本,作为我国多疣棘蛙的新纪录发表[5].但一直未得到承认[3,4,6~9].

  6. Connexins in the early development of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis (Amphibia: The role of the connexin43 carboxyl terminal tail in the establishment of the dorso-ventral axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Cofre

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Connexins are a family of related proteins identified in vertebrate forming gap junctions, which mediate cell-to-cell communication in early embryos, with an important role in establishing embryonic asymmetry and ‘communication compartments’. By in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry, reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR and western blotting we show that a Cx43-like molecule is present in oocytes and embryos of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis, with specific localization in the animal-vegetal axis. This specific distribution is suggestive for an important role for this protein in the establishment of the dorso-ventral axis. Antisense RNA and antibodies directed against rat carboxyl terminal tail of the Cx43 (CT-Cx43 and injected in 1-cell stage Xenopus embryos, induced pronounced alterations in nervous system development, with a severe ventralization phenotype. Coherently, the overexpression of CT-Cx43 produced a dorsalization of the embryos. In antisense treated embryos, the expression of the beta-catenin gene is eliminated from the Nieuwkoop center, the pattern expression of the Chordin, Xnot and Xbra is modified, with no effect in expression of the Goosecoid gene. In CT-Cx43 mRNA treated embryos the pattern of expression of the beta-catenin, Chordin, Goosecoid, Xnot and engrailed-2 genes is modified. The expression of beta-catenin is increased in the Nieuwkoop center, the expression pattern of Chordin and Goosecoid is expanded to the posterior neural plate and engrailed-2 presents ectopic expression in the ventral region. Taken together our data suggest a role for CT-Cx43 as a maternal determinant with a critical function in the formation of the dorso-ventral axis in Xenopus laevis. The Cx43 may be one of the earliest markers of the dorso-ventral axis in these embryos and could possibly be acting through regionalization of factors responsible for the establishment of this axis.

  7. И ЭРИТРОЦИТОВ ПРЕДСТАВИТЕЛЕЙ AMPHIBIA, AVES  И MAMMALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Никольская, В.А.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Статья посвящена изучению влияния окислительного стресса, инициированного средой Фентона, на биохимические показатели cыворотки крови и эритроцитов Rana ridibunda, Gallus gallus domesticus и Sus scrofa domesticus. По сравнению с исходным состоянием при окислительном стрессе наблюдается увеличение суммарного содержания молекул средней массы в сыворотке крови всех трёх представителей, а также увеличение молекул средней массы и значительный расход АТФ в гемолизате эритроцитов Gallus gallus domesticus и Sus scrofa domesticus.

  8. Sentetik piretroit alfa-sipermetrinin değişken desenli gece kurbağası, Bufotes variabilis iribaşlarındaki akut toksisitesi (Amphibia: Anura)

    OpenAIRE

    Mert Gürkan; Seda Serbest; Sibel Hayretdağ

    2016-01-01

    In this study, acute toxic effects of alpha-cypermethrin were investigated in the tadpoles of Bufotes variabilis (Pallas, 1769). Tadpoles at Gosner stage 19 were exposed to 0, 0.1, 5 and 10 µgl-1 of alpha-cypermethrin concentrations for 96 hours. Mortality, the changes in some morphological measurements (snout-vent length, body width, tail length, and wet weight), morphological anomalies and behavioral changes were evaluated at the end of the experiment. The 96 hours LC50 value was calculate...

  9. Diversidad, distribución espacio-temporal y turnos de vocalización de anuros (Amphibia, Anura en un área ecotonal del nordeste de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor H. Zaracho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Estudios acerca de la diversidad e historia natural de comunidades de anuros son elementales para distinguir entre fluctuaciones naturales de aquellas causadas por impactos antrópicos (herramienta clave en programas de conservación, evaluar el papel que juegan en la dinámica de los ecosistemas y permitir comparaciones de gradientes de diversidad. En este contexto, se analiza la diversidad, la distribución temporal y espacial, y los turnos de vocalización de anuros de tres sitios de reproducción en los Esteros del Iberá, en el nordeste de Argentina. Los muestreos fueron mensuales entre julio de 2008 y junio de 2010. Se registraron 26 especies pertenecientes a cinco familias: Bufonidae (2, Hylidae (11, Leptodactylidae (11, Microhylidae (1, y Odontophrynidae (1. Se encontraron variaciones en la riqueza de especies por sitio, en el periodo, frecuencia y turno de vocalización y en la abundancia de machos vocalizadores. La riqueza es similar al de otros humedales similares, incluyendo un importante dominio de leptodactílidos e hílidos, patrón frecuente en ensambles neotropicales. La concentración de las especies en actividad de vocalización en los meses más cálidos y lluviosos estuvo asociada con los cambios en la temperatura y en las precipitaciones, las cuales fueron señaladas como algunos de los factores que inician la actividad reproductiva en ambientes estacionales.

  10. 中国林蛙属(无尾目:蛙科)一新种——寒露林蛙Rana hanluica sp.nov.%A new species of the genus Rana——Rana hanluica sp. nov. from Hunan Province, China(Anura: Ranidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈猷慧; 江建平; 杨道德

    2007-01-01

    本文报道两栖纲蛙科一新种,新种具林蛙属(Rana)特征,与昭觉林蛙种组(费梁,1999)相近,但与该组成员又有明显区别,被命名为寒露林蛙Rana hanluica sp. nov..新种有系列特征与峨眉林蛙(R.omeimonts)、昭觉林蛙(R.chaochiaoensis)相似,但又明显不同于后者,如:1)无雄性线;2)蝌蚪唇齿式为Ⅰ:3+3/1+1: Ⅲ;3)股部背侧黑褐色横斑窄,通常整齐、数目较多;4)繁殖季节在农历寒露节前后.这些特征可以与峨眉林蛙、昭觉林蛙准确区别.新种标本采自湖南省双牌县阳明山,模式标本保存在湖南师范大学动物标本馆及中国科学院成都生物研究所[动物学报 53(3):481-488,2007].

  11. Antimicrobial peptides from the skins of North American frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, J Michael; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Nowotny, Norbert

    2009-08-01

    North America is home to anuran species belonging to the families Bufonidae, Eleutherodactylidae, Hylidae, Leiopelmatidae, Ranidae, and Scaphiopodidae but antimicrobial peptides have been identified only in skin secretions and/or skin extracts of frogs belonging to the Leiopelmatidae ("tailed frogs") and Ranidae ("true frogs"). Eight structurally-related cationic alpha-helical peptides with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, termed ascaphins, have been isolated from specimens of Ascaphus truei (Leiopelmatidae) occupying a coastal range. Characterization of orthologous antimicrobial peptides from Ascaphus specimens occupying an inland range supports the proposal that this population should be regarded as a separate species A. montanus. Ascaphin-8 shows potential for development into a therapeutically valuable anti-infective agent. Peptides belonging to the brevinin-1, esculentin-1, esculentin-2, palustrin-1, palustrin-2, ranacyclin, ranatuerin-1, ranatuerin-2, and temporin families have been isolated from North American ranids. It is proposed that "ranalexins" represent brevinin-1 peptides that have undergone a four amino acid residue internal deletion. Current taxonomic recommendations divide North American frogs from the family Ranidae into two genera: Lithobates and Rana. Cladistic analysis based upon the amino acid sequences of the brevinin-1 peptides provides strong support for this assignment.

  12. Developmental morphological diversity in caecilian amphibians : systematic and evolutionary implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Hendrik

    2007-01-01

    Caecilians, or Gymnophiona, constitute one of the three extant orders of the Recent Amphibia and are the least known, major living tetrapod clade. Compared to frogs and salamanders, caecilians have an unusual skull morphology. Earlier reports of an unusually high number of individual skull ossificat

  13. Study of the soluble lens proteins from different amphibian species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brahma, S.K.; Doorenmaalen, W.J. van

    1969-01-01

    Soluble lens proteins from five species of amphibia have been studied by zone electrophoresis and other immunochemical methods. Their patterns, as revealed by electrophoresis, do not differ markedly though the numbers of bands and subunits vary. The γ-crystallin appears to be the predominant lens pr

  14. Epilithic and aerophilic diatoms in the artificial environment of Kungsträdgården metro station, Stockholm, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norbäck Ivarsson, Lena; Magnus, Ivarsson; Lundberg, Johannes;

    2013-01-01

    found growing on the rock walls of Kungsträdgården metro station. The results show the diatom flora in Kungsträdgården to be dominated by e.g. Diadesmis contenta, Diadesmis perpusilla, Pinnularia appendiculata, Nitzschia amphibia, Nitzschia sinuata and Diploneis ovalis. One species, Caloneis cf...

  15. A diatom record of recent environmental change in Lake Duluti, northern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öberg, Helena; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Westerberg, Lars-Ove;

    2012-01-01

    ) Simonsen, Gomphonema parvulum (Kützing) Grunow and Nitzschia amphibia Grunow. All three cores display similar stratigraphic succession, but the relative ratio of habitats represented by the diatoms varies substantially between cores. Diatoms indicate that the oldest part of the record is characterized...

  16. Predation of Pseudis minuta Günther 1858, by Lethocerus annulipes (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mautone, José María

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to communicate a case of predation on an adult specimen of Pseudis minuta (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae by an aquatic water bug of the genus Lethocerus (Insecta: Heteroptera: Belostomatidae. Observations were made on May 27, 2012, 12: 40 am, at Aceguá, Departamento de Cerro Largo, in NE Uruguay.

  17. Maternal Epigenetic Pathways Control Parental Contributions to Arabidopsis Early Embryogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Autran, Daphné; Baroux, Célia; Raissig, Michael T; Lenormand, Thomas; Wittig, Michael; Grob, Stefan; Steimer, Andrea; Barann, Matthias; Klostermeier, Ulrich C; Leblanc, Olivier; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe; Rosenstiel, Phillip; Grimanelli, Daniel; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2011-01-01

    .... As a result, parental contributions to the embryonic transcriptome dynamically change during early development, with an initial maternal control that is of variable duration (1 to 15 cell cycles) ( Baroux et al., 2008; Tadros and Lipshitz, 2009 ). Strikingly, such a maternal influence occurs in animals as evolutionarily divergent as insects, amphibia...

  18. US Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center Chemical Biological Agent Simulant Knowledgebase (ASK) (Information Workbench & Graphical User Interface)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-17

    Type of Data Collected: ~50 viruses/fevers identified. ~150 data fields Source of Data: Published reports, reference books (Virus Taxonomy : The...Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses), journal articles, other database efforts, some web sources (International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses...toxins, mollusca toxins, insecta toxins, amphibia toxins, and reptilia venoms. Data Collected: ~180 toxins identified, 100 data fields Source of Data

  19. Extreme flooding tolerance in Rorippa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akman, M.; Bhikharie, A.; Mustroph, A.; Sasidharan, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    Low oxygen stress imposed by floods creates a strong selection force shaping plant ecosystems in flood-prone areas. Plants inhabiting these environments adopt various adaptations and survival strategies to cope with increasing water depths. Two Rorippa species, R. sylvestris and R. amphibia that gro

  20. 鱼纲动物鲤鱼和两栖纲动物牛蛙血红蛋白自身不相互作用的研究及其进化意义%A Study of Self-interaction Absence of Hemoglobin in Pisces Cyprinu Carpio and Amphibia Rana Catesbeiana and Its Significance for Evolution of Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王程; 秦文斌; 雎天林

    2006-01-01

    目的:研究鱼纲动物鲤鱼和两栖纲动物牛蛙血红蛋白自身的相互作用.方法:淀粉-琼脂糖混合凝胶交叉电泳.结果:鲤鱼、牛蛙的血红蛋白自身在"直接交叉"、"穿过"、"兜过"实验电泳过程中均未出现扭曲现象.结论:鲤鱼、牛蛙的血红蛋白自身不相互作用.

  1. TAXONOMIC STUDIES OF ODORRANA VERSABILIS IN CHINA I . TAXONOMIC STATUS OF THE GEOGRAPHIC POPULATIONS(AMPHIBIA: RAN IDAE)%竹叶臭蛙的分类学研究I.各地理居群的分类探讨(两栖纲:蛙科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成; 叶昌媛; 费梁

    2001-01-01

    采用形态特征比较,对7省13个居群的竹叶臭蛙Odorrana ve,rsabilis的标本进行了研究,结果表明:它们的形态特征差异明显,可以分为3个形态型;同时经数值性状标准判别分析和DNA指纹分析印证其结果与形态学研究结果相吻合.据此将3个形态型标本确定为3个种,其中包括2新种.本文重新界定了3个种的分布范围.

  2. 角蟾科三亚科蝌蚪角质颌的显微结构比较(两栖纲,无尾目)%Microstructure comparison of jaw sheaths between the Megophryid tadpoles (Amphibia, Anura) by the technology of electron microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成; 董兆雄; 王跃招

    2010-01-01

    采用扫描电镜技术研究了角蟾科8种蝌蚪角质颌的显微结构特征和形态特点,阐述了角质颌对蝌蚪觅?儋 食方式的影响.实验结果表明:角蟾科蝌蚪的角质颌属于两个不同的类型.拟髭蟾亚科和掌突蟾亚科的蝌蚪具有相似的显微结构特征:角质颌旱厚重的"U"犁,角质化程度高.颌鞘呈基部宽、顶端尖的圆锥形:角蟾亚科的蝌蚪角质颌呈纤弱的弓型,角质化程度低.颌鞘呈基部窄、长而顶端略弯曲的象牙型.进一步的分析发现,8种蝌蚪的颌鞘直径和密度呈显著负相关.这种显微结构的变化趋势也反映出蝌蚪对栖息环境和觅食方式的适应性.

  3. Riqueza e densidade de vocalizações de anuros (Amphibia em uma área urbana de Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Richness of species and density of vocalization of anurans in an urban area of Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Waldemar Ávila

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A riqueza e intensidade de vocalizações de anuros em uma área urbana de Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil, foram estudadas de fevereiro de 2002 a Janeiro de 2003 em uma poça temporária. Foi utilizado um transecto com quatro pontos de escuta onde foram consideradas as espécies visualizadas e a intensidade das respectivas vocalizações. Foram registradas 16 espécies de quatro famílias: Bufonidae (2, Hylidae (7, Microhylidae (1 e Leptodactylidae (6. O período reprodutivo dessas espécies esteve correlacionado com a estação chuvosa, de dezembro a março (r² = 0,806, F(1,10 = 41,530 p = 0,002, n = 12. As espécies que apresentaram maior intensidade de vocalização foram Scinax nasicus (Cope, 1862 e Physalaemus albonotatus (Steindachner, 1864, com picos em janeiro. A espécie que apresentou maior período de vocalização foi Leptodactylus fuscus, de setembro a fevereiro. O maior número de espécies e de indivíduos vocalizando ocorreu de 19:00 às 23:00 h.The richness and intensity of vocalization of anurans in urban areas of Corumbá, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were studied from February 2002 to January 2003 in a secondary forest and surroundings of a temporary pond. We used a transect with four stop sites on which the presence of species and the intensity of vocalization were recorded according to North American Amphibian Monitoring Population index. The turn when vocalization happened was also recorded. We registered 16 species of four families: Bufonidae (2, Hylidae (7, Microhylidae (1, and Leptodactylidae (6. The reproduction of these species was correlated to the rainy season, from December to March (r² = 0,806, F(1,10 = 41,530 p = 0,002, n = 12. The species that presented greater intensity of vocalization were Scinax nasicus (Cope, 1862 and Physalaemus albonotatus (Steindachner, 1864, with peaks during January. The species that presented the greater period of vocalization was Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799, from September to February. The majority of species and individuals vocalized from 7:00 p.m. to 11:00 p.m.

  4. Distribution and Ecology of the Western Ecuador Frog Leptodactylus labrosus (Amphibia: Anura: Leptodactylidae)%厄瓜多尔西部新热带蛙(两栖纲: 无尾目:细趾蟾科)的分布特征及生态习性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Leptodactylus labrosus is a terrestrial sit-and-wait predator; its diet includes ground-level, fossorial, and flying insects, and ants numerically predominate. Bothrops asper is recorded as a predator of L. labrosus. L. labrosus lives mainly in deciduous and semi-deciduous forests, where it is restricted to wet microhabitats, and occasionally in evergreen forests. L. labrosus inhabits northern, central, and southern regions of western coastal Ecuador and northern and central western coastal Peru up to 700 m, and into the dry interandean valleys of southern Ecuador and northern Peru up to 1 300 m. Its distribution encompasses moistly seasonally dry forest in coastal Ecuador and Peru. It also occupies moister areas towards the slopes of the Andes where it is sympatric with three other congeneric species, but at sites of sympatry the species show habitat segregation. The distribution pattern of L. labrosus is shared by several other range-restricted amphibians corresponding to the Tumbesian region, which should be recognized as an endemic Amphibian area. The zone between the Choco and Tumbesian regions, where L. labrosus gets in sympatry with other Leptodactylus species, possess ecological and climatic characteristics that have shaped a unique fauna, including several endemic taxa; and it should be recognized as the west Ecuadorian endemic region.%Leptodactylus labrosus属于陆地坐-等型的捕食者, 其食物包括地表的、掘地的及飞行昆虫, 其中蚂蚁数量最多. 曾有报道Bothrops asper是其天敌. L. labrosus主要栖息于落叶及半落叶林潮湿的环境中, 偶尔也栖息于常绿林中. L. labrosus分布于厄瓜多尔西海岸的北部、中部、南部; 秘鲁西海岸的北部、中部, 分布地海拔可达600 m; 及位于南厄瓜多尔和北秘鲁海拔高达1 300 m的干燥的安第斯山谷. 其分布地区包括了厄瓜多尔和秘鲁海岸的潮湿的、季节性干燥的森林. 在安第斯山脉斜坡的潮湿地带,L. labrosus与其他3种细趾蟾科的分布区重叠, 但表现为生境分离. 其分布特征与其他几种活动区域受限的两栖动物相似.Tumbesian地区应被认为是地方特有两栖动物的分布区. Choco和Tumbesian的中间区域是L.labrosus与其他细趾蟾科的生境分布重叠区, 其生态及气候特征使其形成了独特的动物区系, 包括几种地方特有物种. 因此该地区应被划为西厄瓜多尔地方种区域.

  5. Third cumulative index for Koedoe: volumes 35/2-44/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Rautenbach

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Index to Koedoe: volumes 35/2 - 44/1 Authors85 Subjects98 Botany 98 Ecology and behaviour 100 Wildlife conservation & techniques 100 Zoology102 Invertebrata 102 Pisces 103 Amphibia 103 Reptilia 103 Aves104 Mammalia 104 Archaeology and History 105 Bibliography 106 Climate 106 Geologyand Pedology 106 Environmental impact on rivers & water quality 106 Check list 107 Issues in conservation 107 Maps 108 Social Science 108 Parks

  6. Spatial patterns of carbon, biodiversity, deforestation threat, and REDD+ projects in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Josil P; Grenyer, Richard; Wunder, Sven; Raes, Niels; Jones, Julia PG

    2015-01-01

    There are concerns that Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) may fail to deliver potential biodiversity cobenefits if it is focused on high carbon areas. We explored the spatial overlaps between carbon stocks, biodiversity, projected deforestation threats, and the location of REDD+ projects in Indonesia, a tropical country at the forefront of REDD+ development. For biodiversity, we assembled data on the distribution of terrestrial vertebrates (ranges of amphibia...

  7. In situ monitoring of animal micronuclei before the operation of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.N. Cai; H.Y. He; L.M. Qian; G.C. Sun; J.Y. Zhao [Guangzhou College of Education, Guangzhou (China)

    1994-12-31

    Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, a newly-built nuclear power station in southern mainland China, started its operation in 1993. We examined micro-nucleated cells of Invertibrate (Bivalves) and Vertibrate (Fish and Amphibia) in different spots within the 50km surroundings of the Power Station during 1986-1993. This paper reports the results of the investigation carried out in Dong Shan, a place 4.7km to the Power Station:Bivalves; Pteria martensil 5.1(1986),4.8(1988),4.8(1991),5,0(1993),Mytilus smardinus 4.7(1987),4.6(1988); Chamys nobilis 4.9(1987);4.9(1991),4.5(1992),4.5(1993). Fish; Therapon jarbua 0.48(1991),0.67(1992),0.47(1993). Amphibia; Bufo melanostictus 0.29 (1987), 0.34(1988),0.39(1992),0.39(1993). These results showed that the environmental situation, estimated by using the frequencies of micronucleated cells, was stable-there was no obvious chromosome damage in the animals studied. It was found that the incidence of micronucleated cells of Bivalves was higher than that of Fish and Amphibia, suggesting the epithelial cells to be more sensitive than peripheral erythrocytes to environmental genotoxic effects. The results of our studies for other spots will be reported afterward. These data can be used as the original background information to monitor the environment when the Nuclear Power Station is in operation.

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: Western clawed frog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Xenopus_tropicalis_L.png Xenopus..._tropicalis_NL.png Xenopus_tropicalis_S.png Xenopus_tropicalis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+tropicalis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+...tropicalis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+tropical...is&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+tropicalis&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=137 ...

  9. Cardiovascular physiology and diseases of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz-Taheny, Kathleen M

    2009-01-01

    The class Amphibia includes three orders of amphibians: the anurans (frogs and toads), urodeles (salamanders, axolotls, and newts), and caecilians. The diversity of lifestyles across these three orders has accompanying differences in the cardiovascular anatomy and physiology allowing for adaptations to aquatic or terrestrial habitats, pulmonic or gill respiration, hibernation, and body elongation (in the caecilian). This article provides a review of amphibian cardiovascular anatomy and physiology with discussion of unique species adaptations. In addition, amphibians as cardiovascular animal models and commonly encountered natural diseases are covered.

  10. [Toxicity of nitrate-N to freshwater aquatic life and its water quality criteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling-Song; Wang, Ye-Yao; Meng, Fan-Sheng; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Yu, Hai-Bin

    2013-08-01

    The toxicity sensitivity of different freshwater aquatic organisms was analyzed using the collected toxicity data in this paper. Three methods were used to estimate the criteria of nitrate to protect the freshwater aquatic life. The results showed that the species sensitivity to nitrate followed the order of Arthropoda > Mollusca > Chordata, and Crustacea > Insecta > Gastropoda > Bivalvia > Amphibia > Actinopterygii. Moreover, the output of assessment factor method, species sensitivity distribution method and USEPA's method was significantly different. Finally, criterias of 87.97 mg x L(-1) and 5.17 mg x L(-1) to protect aquatic life from acute and chronic toxicity were proposed using USEPA's method.

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese giant salamander [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese giant salamander Andrias japonicus Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Andrias_japonicus_L.png Andrias_jap...onicus_NL.png Andrias_japonicus_S.png Andrias_japonicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japonicus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japon...icus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japonicus...&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japonicus&t=NS ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese tree frog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese tree frog Hyla japonica Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Hyla_japonica_L.png Hyla_jap...onica_NL.png Hyla_japonica_S.png Hyla_japonica_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+jap...onica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+japonica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+japonica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+jap

  13. 哈士蟆油的真伪鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩春辉

    2004-01-01

    哈士蟆.又名田鸡油、哈士蟆油,为脊索动物门两栖纲蛙科(Ranidae)动物中国林蛙(哈士蟆)Rana temporaria chensinensis David或黑龙江林蛙Rana amurensis Boulenger的干燥输卯管。文献报道除上述来源外,尚有青蛙(即金线蛙)Rana planciyi Latasta与黑斑蛙R.nigromaculata Hallowell日本林蛙,Rana japonicus的两个亚种入药的记载.但传统质量评价以中国林蛙产油量高。

  14. Experimental exposure of adult San Marcos salamanders and larval leopard frogs to the cercariae of Centrocestus formosanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, D C; Cantu, V; Huffman, D G

    2014-04-01

    The gill parasite Centrocestus formosanus (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) is an exotic parasite of concern in Texas because it has been shown to infect multiple threatened and endangered fish species. The purpose of this study was to determine if C. formosanus could present a threat to larval anurans, as well as threatened neotenic salamanders endemic to the spring-fed systems of Texas. We exposed adults of the San Marcos salamander Eurycea nana (Caudata: Plethodontidae) and tadpoles of the Rio Grande leopard frog Lithobates berlandieri (Anura: Ranidae) to the cercariae of C. formosanus . The San Marcos salamander showed no signs of metacercarial infection, suggesting that E. nana may be refractory to C. formosanus cercariae. Centrocestus formosanus readily infects the gills of leopard frog tadpoles, but the metacercariae apparently died prior to reaching maturity in our tadpoles.

  15. Acoustic characteristics of eight common Chinese anurans during the breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi-Lin; Qiu, Xia; Fang, Xiao-Bin; Yang, Lu-Yi; Zhao, Yi; Fang, Teng; Zheng, Wei-Hong; Liu, Jin-Song

    2014-01-01

    Anurans often have species-specific vocalizations. To quantify and compare the characteristics of anuran calls in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve, Zhejiang Province, we recorded the advertisement calls of eight species belonging to four families (Ranidae, Microhylidae, Megophryidae and Bufonidae) from June to September 2012 using Sony ICD-FX8 IC recorders. All recordings were analyzed using the "Praat" software. Five acoustics parameters were measured, including temporal traits (call duration, number of notes or pulse number/call) and spectral traits (fundamental frequency, the first three formants and dominant frequency). The characteristic parameters of Microhyla ornate and Fejervarya limnocharis calls were different as were the calls of some populations of the same species recorded in different regions. The advertisement calls of the eight species were specific. Our study has provided a useful reference for identifying the calls of some common Chinese anurans.

  16. Herpetofauna of an urban fragment of Atlantic Forest in Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri C. C. Lima

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Herpetofauna of an urban fragment of Atlantic Forest was investigated in relation to species richness and habitat use. Fourteen species of amphibian anurans pertaining to the families Bufonidae, Brachycephalidae, Hylidae, Leptodactylidae, Leiuperidae, Microhylidae and Ranidae were recorded. The reptiles were represented by 37 species, distributed in the families Gekkonidae, Gymnophthalmidae, Polychrotidae, Scincidae, Teiidae, Tropiduridae, Amphisbaenidae, Boidae, Colubridae, Elapidae, Typhlopidae, Chelidae, Testudinidae and Alligatoridae. Most of the recorded species presented wide geographic distribution, although some of them had distributions that were restricted to the Atlantic Forest. The species richness of Mata do Buraquinho is relatively high for an urban fragment of Atlantic Forest, and the observed anthropogenic impacts show the urgent necessity of conservation in order to guarantee the viability of populations of amphibians and reptiles.

  17. FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey. Report on the environmental effect survey (No. A-4 Kunbetsu-dake area); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (No.A-4 Kunbetsudake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-30

    Of the FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey, the primary environmental effect survey in the Kunbetsu-dake area was conducted, and the results were arranged. In the well drilling survey, etc., the survey was made aiming at extracting areas to be preserved from an environmental aspect. The results of the survey were summarized as follows: As to the mammalia, 12 families 46 species were confirmed in the area surveyed and the periphery by literature survey. Out of them, the noticeable species which are considered important from an academic viewpoint are 10 families 19 species. As to the aves, 55 families 340 species were confirmed, of which 29 families 79 species are noticeable species. About the amphibia/reptilia, 3 families 3 species in the amphibia and 4 families 6 species in the reptilia were confirmed by literature and hearing survey. The noticeable species is 1 family 1 species in the amphilia. Concerning the terrestrial insecta, 135 families 873 species were confirmed, and the noticeable species is 11 families 20 species. As to the flora, 115 families 1055 species were confirmed, and the noticeable species is 46 families 126 species. Relating to the living vegetation, the one higher than 9 in nature reserves shows a substantial rate, and the periphery of Kaibetsu-dake is designated as the specified flora colony. (NEDO)

  18. Extreme flooding tolerance in Rorippa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Melis; Bhikharie, Amit; Mustroph, Angelika; Sasidharan, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    Low oxygen stress imposed by floods creates a strong selection force shaping plant ecosystems in flood-prone areas. Plants inhabiting these environments adopt various adaptations and survival strategies to cope with increasing water depths. Two Rorippa species, R. sylvestris and R. amphibia that grow in naturally flooded areas, have high submergence tolerance achieved by the so-called quiescence and escape strategies, respectively. In order to dissect the molecular mechanisms involved in these strategies, we investigated submergence-induced changes in gene expression in flooded roots of Rorippa species. There was a higher induction of glycolysis and fermentation genes and faster carbohydrate reduction in R. amphibia, indicating a higher demand for energy potentially leading to faster mortality by starvation. Moreover, R. sylvestris showed induction of genes improving submergence tolerance, potentially enhancing survival in prolonged floods. Additionally, we compared transcript profiles of these 2 tolerant species to relatively intolerant Arabidopsis and found that only Rorippa species induced various inorganic pyrophosphate dependent genes, alternatives to ATP demanding pathways, thereby conserving energy, and potentially explaining the difference in flooding survival between Rorippa and Arabidopsis.

  19. Asociacion faunistica de vertebrados mesozoicos de la localidad de Galve (Teruel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Hemández, B.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Sediments of Tithonian-Barremian of Iberian Basin in the surroundings of Galve (Teniel, Spain have a high content of vertebrate's remains. These ones have been studied since s. XX until today by different scientists. More than ninety taxons have been mentioned in these papers, distributed in Hybodontiformes, Squalomorpha, Batoidea, Rajiforms, Amphibia, Reptilia (Chelonia, Sauria, Crocodylia, Pterosauria, Ornithischia, Saurischia and Marnmalia.Los sedimentos del Tithónico-Barremiense de la Cuenca Ibérica aflorantes en los alrededores de la localidad de Galve (Teniel, son particularmente ricos en restos de vertebrados mesozoicos. Estos han sido estudiados por diferentes autores, desde principios del siglo xx hasta la actualidad. El objetivo del presente artículo es recopilar los distintos taxones que han sido citados para esta área, a lo largo del tiempo, recogiéndose más de noventa taxones distribuidos entre Hybodontiformes, Squalomorpha, Batoidea, Rajiformes, Amphibia, Reptilia (Testudines, Sauria, Crocodilia, Pterosauria, Ornithischia, Saurischia y Mammalia.

  20. Primary Survey on Herpetofauna in Campus of Hechi University in Central Guangxi%河池学院校园两栖爬行动物初步调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋爱伍; 粟通萍; 于家捷; 梁晓凤

    2011-01-01

    A primary survey on herpetofauna was conducted by specimen collecting and interviewing in campus of Hechi University, central Guangxi, during July 2008 to December 2009. Totally 26 species were detected in this survey. Among them, 6 species of 4 families, 1 order belonged to the class Amphibia, and 20 species of 7 families, 2 orders belonged to the class Reptilia. The dominant Amphibia is Polypedates leucomystax, and the dominant Reptilia is Rhabdphis subminiatus,Naja atra and Eumeces chinensis. 6 species of 12 snakes are vipers in the campus, and Naja atra is the most dangerous. The Amphibia depend on running water have already disappeared along with urbanization, and the species breeding or preying on the building,such as Pol y pedates leucom ystax , Naja atra and Hem idact ylus bowrin gii , can adapt the habitat of urban.%2008年7月至2009年12月,利用标本采集和访问的方法对河池学院校园内两栖爬行动物资源进行了初步的调查,共记录到两栖爬行动物26种,其中两栖动物1目4科6种,爬行动物2目7科20种.在校园中最常见的两栖动物是斑腿泛树蛙(Polypedates leucomystax),最常见的爬行动物是红脖颈槽蛇(Rhabdphissubminiatus)、舟山眼镜蛇(Naja atra)和中国石龙子(Eumeces chinensis).在校园分布的12种蛇类中,6种为毒蛇,其中舟山眼镜蛇的危害最为严重.师生在工作和学习要特别注意防止咬伤.与周边地区相比,在城市化过程中,流水型的两栖动物最容易灭绝;能利用建筑物繁殖或捕食的种类,如斑腿泛树蛙、原尾蜥虎和舟山眼镜蛇等,在城市化过程中占有较大的优势.

  1. Composition and phylogenetic analysis of vitellogenin coding sequences in the Indonesian coelacanth Latimeria menadoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canapa, Adriana; Olmo, Ettore; Forconi, Mariko; Pallavicini, Alberto; Makapedua, Monica Daisy; Biscotti, Maria Assunta; Barucca, Marco

    2012-07-01

    The coelacanth Latimeria menadoensis, a living fossil, occupies a key phylogenetic position to explore the changes that have affected the genomes of the aquatic vertebrates that colonized dry land. This is the first study to isolate and analyze L. menadoensis mRNA. Three different vitellogenin transcripts were identified and their inferred amino acid sequences compared to those of other known vertebrates. The phylogenetic data suggest that the evolutionary history of this gene family in coelacanths was characterized by a different duplication event than those which occurred in teleosts, amniotes, and amphibia. Comparison of the three sequences highlighted differences in functional sites. Moreover, despite the presence of conserved sites compared with the other oviparous vertebrates, some sites were seen to have changed, others to be similar only to those of teleosts, and others still to resemble only to those of tetrapods.

  2. Avian IgY antibodies: characteristics and applications in immunodiagnostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Silveira Munhoz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin Y (IgY is the major antibody isotype in birds, reptiles, amphibia, and lungfish, playing a similar biological role as mammal IgG. Due to its phylogenetic distance, immune diversification and presence in the egg yolk, IgY provide a number of advantages in immunodiagnostic compared to IgG from mammals. Moreover, IgY production is in agreement with international efforts to reduce, refine and if possible, to replace animals in experimentation, contributing substantially in favor of animal welfare. This article presents an overview about structural and functional features, production and applications of IgY in immunodiagnostic, as well as the advantages of chicken antibodies use.

  3. An enkephalin degrading aminopeptidase of human brain preserved during the vertebrate phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, A N; Bruno, J A; Carvalho, K M

    1991-01-01

    1. A soluble human brain aminopeptidase which hydrolyses the Tyr-Gly bond of Met-enkephalin and Leu-enkephalin was identified in the brains of the following vertebrates: mammals (Callithrix jacchus and Rattus norvegicus), bird (Gallus domesticus), reptile (Tupinambis teguixin), amphibia (Bufo paracnemis), fish (Sarotherdon niloticus) and elasmobranchy (Galeocerdo cuvieri). 2. The properties of this enzyme are: molecular weight near 100,000 Da, isoelectric point near 4.9, optimum pH near 7.5, activation by dithiothreitol, strong inhibition by Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, puromycin and bacitracin, hydrolysis of enkephalins and basic and neutral aminoacid-beta-naphythylamide substrates. 3. The results indicate the preservation of this human brain aminopeptidase during the course of vertebrate phylogeny.

  4. [Feeding ecology of the Guira Cuckoo (Guira guira) in the northeastern Buenos Aires Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soave, Guillermo E; Darrieu, Carlos A; Aribalzaga, María E; Camperi, Aníbal R; Lucía, Mariano; Williams, Jorge; Juarez, Marcos

    2008-12-01

    We studied the diet and feeding ecology of the Guira Cuckoo (Guira guira), a bird that has a wide distribution in Argentina. We analyzed 62 stomachs, obtained between 1991 and 1997 (26 in spring, 13 in summer, 10 in autumn and 13 in winter), in the localities La Balandra and Punta Blanca, Magdalena district, Buenos Aires province. In order to establish the contribution of each prey item, we applied the relative importance index. The dietary contribution in terms of number and volume was also taken into account. This species feeds only on animals. The trophic spectrum was determined on the basis of the identification of 92 items, all of animal origin, principally Insecta (98%), Annelida, Mollusca, Arachnida, Crustacea, Amphibia, Reptilia and Aves. In conclusion, G. guira is a opportunistic species that consumes animal preys exclusively.

  5. Differential expression of aquaporin 3 in Triturus italicus from larval to adult epidermal conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Brunelli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available By using immunohistochemical techniques applied to confocal microscopy, the presence of aquaporin 3 water channel in the epidermis of Triturus italicus (Amphibia, Urodela has been shown. We analysed the expression of aquaporin 3 (AQP3 during the larval, pre-metamorphic and adult phases; we also showed the localization of the water-channel protein AQP3 in free-swimming conditions and during aestivation in parallel with histological analysis of the skin, focusing on the possible relationship between protein expression and terrestrial habitats. Our results indicate that aquaporin is produced as the epidermis modifies during the functional maturation phase starting at the climax. Moreover, our data suggest an increase in enzyme expression in aestivating newts emphasizing the putative functional importance of differential expression related to a distinct phase of the biological cycle.

  6. 大鲵人工繁殖研究简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳爱生; 刘国钧

    1978-01-01

    大鲵(Megalobatrachus daridianus]为我国珍贵动物之一,系属两栖纲(Amphibia)有尾目(Urodela)隐鳃鲵科(Cryptobranchjdae),地方名通称叫娃娃鱼。经济价值高,但由于天然繁殖率低,加之近年人工捕捉强度大,因而导致其资源衰退,为保护增殖大鲵这一珍贵动物,湖南省水产研究所与湖南桑植县娃娃鱼研究所协作,进行了大鲵人工繁殖的初步研究。

  7. 商城肥鲵的生态观察与资源保护%The ecological observation and resources protection of Pachyhynobius shangchengensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡三元

    2001-01-01

    记述了我国特有的珍稀有尾两栖动物商城肥鲵的分布范围、生态环境和生活习性;对其资源现状进行了分析,并就资源保护提出了具体措施和建议.%The Pachyhynobius shangchengcnsis is a valuable and rare species of Urodela amphibia which distributes exclusively in our country. In this article, its ecological environment and living characteristics and distribution are narrated and its resources status are analyzed based on the field observation for many years. Furthermore, This paper puts forward some practical measures and suggestions its resources protection.

  8. Cold-induced changes in amphibian oocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelier, N.; Moreau, N.A.; N' Da, E.A.; Lautredou, N.F. (Centre de Biologie Cellulaire, Ivry-sur-Seine (France))

    1989-08-01

    Female Pleurodeles waltl newts (Amphibia, urodele), usually raised at 20 degrees C, were submitted to low temperatures; oocytes responded to this cold stress by drastic changes both in lampbrush chromosome structure and in protein pattern. Preexisting lateral loops of lampbrush chromosomes were reduced in size and number, while cold-induced loops which were tremendously developed, occurred on defined bivalents of the oocyte at constant, reproducible sites. A comparison of protein patterns in control and stressed oocytes showed two main differences: in stressed oocytes, overall protein synthesis was reduced, except for a set of polypeptides, the cold-stress proteins; second, there was a striking inversion of the relative amount of beta- and gamma-actin found in the oocyte nucleus before and after cold stress. Whereas beta-actin was the predominant form in control oocytes, gamma-actin became the major form in stressed oocytes.

  9. 重庆市两栖爬行动物分类分布名录%A Classification and Distribution of Herpetological Checklist in Chongqing Municipality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗键; 唐兰; 刘颖梅; 高红英; 罗颖; 黄静; 肖伟; 王宇; 周元媛; 罗书桃

    2012-01-01

    该文以《中国动物志·两栖纲》(三卷)和《中国动物志·爬行纲》(三卷)为蓝本,并按照新的分类系统对重庆市两栖爬行动物标本和记录进行了核实和厘定,确定重庆市已知两栖类57种,隶属2目9科26属;爬行类63种,隶属2目12科45属.增补18种,即2新种:金佛拟小鲵Pseudoh ynobius jinfo和黔江林蛙Rana qianjiang;重庆市新纪录16种:龙里瘰螈Paramesotriton longliensis、川南短腿蟾Brachytarsophrys chuannanensis、蛾眉髭蟾Vibrissaphora boringii、弹琴蛙Hylarana adenopleura、云南臭蛙Odorrana andersonii(?)、合江臭蛙Odorrana hejiangensis、合江棘蛙Paa robertingeri、黑点树蛙Rhacophorus nigropunctatus、峨眉树蛙Rhacophorus omeimontis、潘氏闭壳龟Cuora pani、白头蝰Azemiops eae、四川竹叶青蛇Trimeresurus sichuanensis、黄链蛇Dinodon flavozonatum、灰腹绿蛇Rhadinophis frenatum、龙胜小头蛇Oligodon lungshenensis和宁陕小头蛇Oligodon ningshaanensis.并根据标本采集情况和相关文献,对物种的区县分布进行了补充.另外,发现外来入侵两栖类和爬行类物种各1种,即牛蛙Lithobates catesbeianus和红耳龟Trachemys scripta elegans.%This paper deals with the study on herpediversity in evaluation of vertebrate biodiversity in the Chongqing Field Project of EU-China Biodiversity Programme (CQECBP). On the basis of "Fauna Sinica, Amphibia Vol. 1 - 3". "Fauna Sinica, Reptilia Vol. 1 - 3", and the new system of herpetological classification, the specimens and records of amphibia and reptilia in Chongqing have been verified and classified in this paper. It is determined that there are 57 species of amphibia belonging to 2 orders, 9 families and 26 genera; and 63 species of reptilia to 2 orders, 12 families and 45 genera in Chongqing. There supplement in this paper 18 species of amphibian and reptilia in Chongqing, including 2 new species: Pseudohynobius jinfo (published recently) and Rana qianjiang, and 16 new species

  10. 池养大鲵人工繁殖试验%Experiment on the Artificial Propagation of Andrias davidianus in Pond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海文; 廖伏初; 王宇; 卓君华; 曾国生

    2004-01-01

    大鲵学名Andrias davidianus,俗称娃娃鱼。是中国特产,故又称中国大鲵,属两栖纲(Amphibia)有尾目(Caudata)隐鳃鲵科(Cryptobranchidae),属国家二类保护动物。大鲵在食用、药用、观赏用以及科研方面有极重要的价值。但大鲵在人工养殖条件下,雌雄性发育不完全同步,雄性发育差,“三率”(催产率、受精率、

  11. [Biological experiments on "Kosmos-1887"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpatov, A M; I'lin, E A; Antipov, V V; Tairbekov, M G

    1989-01-01

    In the 13-ray space flight on Kosmos-1887 various experiments in the field of cell biology, genetics, biorhythm, developmental biology and regeneration were performed using bacteria, protozoa, plants, worms, insects, fish and amphibia. Paramecia showed enhanced cell proliferation, spheroidization and diminished protein content. Experiments on fruit-flies, newt oocytes and primate lymphocytes confirmed involvement of the cell genetic apparatus in responses to microgravity. Beetles exhibited a reduction of the length of the spontaneous period of freely running circadian rhythms. Carausius morosus developed latent changes in early embryogenesis which manifested at later stages of ontogenesis. Exposure to microgravity did not prevent recovery of injured tissues; moreover their regeneration may be accelerated after recovery. Biology research programs in future biosatellite flights are discussed.

  12. The Chemical and Evolutionary Ecology of Tetrodotoxin (TTX Toxicity in Terrestrial Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles T. Hanifin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Tetrodotoxin (TTX is widely distributed in marine taxa, however in terrestrial taxa it is limited to a single class of vertebrates (Amphibia. Tetrodotoxin present in the skin and eggs of TTX-bearing amphibians primarily serves as an antipredator defense and these taxa have provided excellent models for the study of the evolution and chemical ecology of TTX toxicity. The origin of TTX present in terrestrial vertebrates is controversial. In marine organisms the accepted hypothesis is that the TTX present in metazoans results from either dietary uptake of bacterially produced TTX or symbiosis with TTX producing bacteria, but this hypothesis may not be applicable to TTX-bearing amphibians. Here I review the taxonomic distribution and evolutionary ecology of TTX in amphibians with some attention to the origin of TTX present in these taxa.

  13. First observation of a muscle spindle in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, N; Miyoshi, S; Toh, H

    1983-03-01

    In many groups of vertebrates, the muscle spindle is a specialized sensory organ for the detection of muscle stretching. The structure of the spindle varies among vertebrate classes. Moreover, Barker has asserted that Amphibia are the most primitive vertebrates to possess muscle spindles. Extensive studies, made mainly on the locomotor myotome, seem to show that the muscle receptors of fish are less specialized than those of more advanced animals, and that muscle spindles are absent. However, little attention has been paid to the jaw-closing muscle. We report here our finding of a very simple muscle spindle with a single intrafusal fibre in the well-developed jaw-closing muscle, adductor mandibulae, in a primitive teleostean, Oncorhynchus masou (Brevoort).

  14. 应用GIS制作Coringa红树林物种分布图%Application of GIS in the Preparation of Species Distributional Maps for Coringa Mangroves Based on Ground Truth Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Satyanarayana; A.V.Raman; 张秀英; 冯学智; F.Dehairs

    2004-01-01

    Coringa野生保护区是印度东海岸第二大红树林保护区.采用PCQM(Point Centered Quarter Meth-od)方法获取了该区红树林树木底面积数据Arcinfo 8.1制作物种密度分布图,结果显示,该区红树林植物有15种,分属8个科10个属,动物则包括7个门(Arthropda,Mollusca,Pisces,Amphibia,Reptiles,Aves andMammals).在15种红树林植物中,Avicennia marina,A.officinalis和Excoecaria agallocha是保护区中分布最广泛的种类,他们的分布密度随盐度的变化而变化,Rhizophora apiculata和R.mucronata则被限制在该区沿海边缘地带.%Coringa wildlife sanctuary is the second largest mangrove formation on the east coast of India with its rich floral and faunal biodiversity.The total number of floral species is composed of 15(8 families and 10 genera)conile fauna represented by 7 diverse groups such as Arthropoda,Mollusca,Pisces,Amphibia,Reptiles,Aves and Mammals.Out of 15 mangrove plant species,Avicennia marina ,A.o fficinalis and Excoecaria agallocha are the most widely distributed species within the sanctuary representing their wide tolerance capacity towards varying salinity ranges.Rhizophora apiculata and R.mucronata are mostly confined to the seaward fringes in this region.During present study,an attempt was made to prepare the species level distributional maps for the above said plant communities with the help of Arc Map 8.1 based on basal area(m2 per 0.1 hm2)estimations derived from PCQM(Point Cen-tered Quarter Method).

  15. Mapping the space of genomic signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lila Kari

    Full Text Available We propose a computational method to measure and visualize interrelationships among any number of DNA sequences allowing, for example, the examination of hundreds or thousands of complete mitochondrial genomes. An "image distance" is computed for each pair of graphical representations of DNA sequences, and the distances are visualized as a Molecular Distance Map: Each point on the map represents a DNA sequence, and the spatial proximity between any two points reflects the degree of structural similarity between the corresponding sequences. The graphical representation of DNA sequences utilized, Chaos Game Representation (CGR, is genome- and species-specific and can thus act as a genomic signature. Consequently, Molecular Distance Maps could inform species identification, taxonomic classifications and, to a certain extent, evolutionary history. The image distance employed, Structural Dissimilarity Index (DSSIM, implicitly compares the occurrences of oligomers of length up to k (herein k = 9 in DNA sequences. We computed DSSIM distances for more than 5 million pairs of complete mitochondrial genomes, and used Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS to obtain Molecular Distance Maps that visually display the sequence relatedness in various subsets, at different taxonomic levels. This general-purpose method does not require DNA sequence alignment and can thus be used to compare similar or vastly different DNA sequences, genomic or computer-generated, of the same or different lengths. We illustrate potential uses of this approach by applying it to several taxonomic subsets: phylum Vertebrata, (superkingdom Protista, classes Amphibia-Insecta-Mammalia, class Amphibia, and order Primates. This analysis of an extensive dataset confirms that the oligomer composition of full mtDNA sequences can be a source of taxonomic information. This method also correctly finds the mtDNA sequences most closely related to that of the anatomically modern human (the Neanderthal

  16. Mapping the Space of Genomic Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Lila; Hill, Kathleen A.; Sayem, Abu S.; Karamichalis, Rallis; Bryans, Nathaniel; Davis, Katelyn; Dattani, Nikesh S.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a computational method to measure and visualize interrelationships among any number of DNA sequences allowing, for example, the examination of hundreds or thousands of complete mitochondrial genomes. An "image distance" is computed for each pair of graphical representations of DNA sequences, and the distances are visualized as a Molecular Distance Map: Each point on the map represents a DNA sequence, and the spatial proximity between any two points reflects the degree of structural similarity between the corresponding sequences. The graphical representation of DNA sequences utilized, Chaos Game Representation (CGR), is genome- and species-specific and can thus act as a genomic signature. Consequently, Molecular Distance Maps could inform species identification, taxonomic classifications and, to a certain extent, evolutionary history. The image distance employed, Structural Dissimilarity Index (DSSIM), implicitly compares the occurrences of oligomers of length up to k (herein k = 9) in DNA sequences. We computed DSSIM distances for more than 5 million pairs of complete mitochondrial genomes, and used Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS) to obtain Molecular Distance Maps that visually display the sequence relatedness in various subsets, at different taxonomic levels. This general-purpose method does not require DNA sequence alignment and can thus be used to compare similar or vastly different DNA sequences, genomic or computer-generated, of the same or different lengths. We illustrate potential uses of this approach by applying it to several taxonomic subsets: phylum Vertebrata, (super)kingdom Protista, classes Amphibia-Insecta-Mammalia, class Amphibia, and order Primates. This analysis of an extensive dataset confirms that the oligomer composition of full mtDNA sequences can be a source of taxonomic information. This method also correctly finds the mtDNA sequences most closely related to that of the anatomically modern human (the Neanderthal, the Denisovan

  17. Variación morfológica de la dentición en anuros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrezi, Marissa

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available En los anuros, la condición pedicelada de los dientes se define en una segunda generación dental que se desarrolla en estadios postmetamórficos. La ausencia de dientes pedicelados y la ausencia de dientes ha sido interpretada a partir de una baja tasa de desarrollo que resulta en especies que carecen de dientes o especies con dientes que no presentan una división en corona y pedicelo (primera generación. Sin embargo, una elevada tasa de desarrollo produce dientes con corona y pedicelo continuos por hipercalcificación. En este trabajo se analiza la variación en el número y morfología de los dientes en Xenopus y distintas especies de neobatracios pertenecientes a las familias Arthroleptidae, Hylidae, Hyperoliidae, Leptodactylidae, Pseudidae y Ranidae, considerando aspectos de la diferenciación de los dientes en los ceratophrynos. Algunos juveniles de especies que presentan dientes pedicelados, exhiben una morfología dental similar a los adultos de aquellas especies en las que la condición pedicelada no se define. En otras especies, la ausencia de condición pedicelada es resultado de una temprana y fuerte calcificación de los dientes. La variación observada llama la atención sobre el valor potencial de ampliar la información sobre la ontogenia y morfología de la dentición en anuros. Pedicellate teeth in anurans are differentiated in metamorphosed specimens after a first, non-pedicellate dentition. Lack of pedicellate teeth and lack of teeth have been interpreted in ontogenetic terms; low developmental rate produces completely edentate species or teeth without division in crown and pedicel (first teeth generation; whereas a high developmental rate results in hypercalcified teeth where crown and pedicel are continuous because the dividing zone is calcified. Teeth number and morphology was studied species of Xenopus, and some neobatrachian taxa belonging to Arthroleptidae, Hylidae, Hyperoliidae, Leptodactylidae, Pseudidae, and

  18. Environmental constraints and call evolution in torrent-dwelling frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutte, Sandra; Dubois, Alain; Howard, Samuel D; Marquez, Rafael; Rowley, Jodi J L; Dehling, J Maximilian; Grandcolas, Philippe; Rongchuan, Xiong; Legendre, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Although acoustic signals are important for communication in many taxa, signal propagation is affected by environmental properties. Strong environmental constraints should drive call evolution, favoring signals with greater transmission distance and content integrity in a given calling habitat. Yet, few empirical studies have verified this prediction, possibly due to a shortcoming in habitat characterization, which is often too broad. Here we assess the potential impact of environmental constraints on the evolution of advertisement call in four groups of torrent-dwelling frogs in the family Ranidae. We reconstruct the evolution of calling site preferences, both broadly categorized and at a finer scale, onto a phylogenetic tree for 148 species with five markers (∼3600 bp). We test models of evolution for six call traits for 79 species with regard to the reconstructed history of calling site preferences and estimate their ancestral states. We find that in spite of existing morphological constraints, vocalizations of torrent-dwelling species are most probably constrained by the acoustic specificities of torrent habitats and particularly their high level of ambient noise. We also show that a fine-scale characterization of calling sites allows a better perception of the impact of environmental constraints on call evolution.

  19. Malnutrition in farm-cultured bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana fed on bovine milled lung in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J A Coppo, N B Mussart

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The true nutritional requirements of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana, Anura: Ranidae are still controversial. In Argentine hatcheries, bullfrogs are fed on commercial balanced diets elaborated for fish; high price of balanced food decreases the relationship cost / benefit. This study had the objective to verify the nutritious effectiveness of bovine lung, by means of liveweight gains and metabolic and nutritional biochemical indicators controls. Eighty frogs were randomly divided into experimental (E and control (C groups of 40 animals each. Controls consumed a fish commercial balanced diet (23% protein in dry matter, DM, while those in group E were fed on bovine milled lung (16% protein, DM. Food was administered at a rate of 5% of liveweight/day (DM for both groups. The weighings and collection of samples were made on days 0 and 120. One frog of group C and 8 frogs of group E died during the study. Control animals did not register physical abnormalities. On the other hand, emaciation, adynamia, weakness, anorexy, and skin abnormal coloration were verified in some amphibians of group E. At the end of the study, liveweight and albumin, creatinine, urea, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, phosphorous and magnesium serum values, were significantly lower in group E than in group C (p < 0.05. This changes are attributed to metabolic imbalances related to malnutrition and reveal that bovine lung is not an appropriate food for captive bullfrog.

  20. Microsatellite marker development by multiplex ion torrent PGM sequencing: a case study of the endangered Odorrana narina complex of frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igawa, Takeshi; Nozawa, Masafumi; Nagaoka, Mai; Komaki, Shohei; Oumi, Shohei; Fujii, Tamotsu; Sumida, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    The endangered Ryukyu tip-nosed frog Odorrana narina and its related species, Odorrana amamiensis, Odorrana supranarina, and Odorrana utsunomiyaorum, belong to the family Ranidae and are endemically distributed in Okinawa (O. narina), Amami and Tokunoshima (O. amamiensis), and Ishigaki and Iriomote (O. supranarina and O. utsunomiyaorum) Islands. Because of varying distribution patterns, this species complex is an intrinsic model for speciation and adaptation. For effective conservation and molecular ecological studies, further genetic information is needed. For rapid, cost-effective development of several microsatellite markers for these and 2 other species, we used next-generation sequencing technology of Ion Torrent PGM™. Distribution patterns of repeat motifs of microsatellite loci in these modern frog species (Neobatrachia) were similarly skewed. We isolated and characterized 20 new microsatellite loci of O. narina and validated cross-amplification in the three-related species. Seventeen, 16, and 13 loci were cross-amplified in O. amamiensis, O. supranarina, and O. utsunomiyaorum, respectively, reflecting close genetic relationships between them. Mean number of alleles and expected heterozygosity of newly isolated loci varied depending on the size of each inhabited island. Our findings suggested the suitability of Ion Torrent PGM™ for microsatellite marker development. The new markers developed for the O. narina complex will be applicable in conservation genetics and molecular ecological studies.

  1. The metamorphosis of amphibian toxicogenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren eHelbing

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Amphibians are important vertebrates in toxicology often representing both aquatic and terrestrial forms within the life history of the same species. Of the thousands of species, only two have substantial genomics resources: the recently published genome of the Pipid, Xenopus (Silurana tropicalis, and transcript information (and ongoing genome sequencing project of Xenopus laevis. However, many more species representative of regional ecological niches and life strategies are used in toxicology worldwide. Since Xenopus species diverged from the most populous frog family, the Ranidae, ~200 million years ago, there are notable differences between them and the even more distant Caudates (salamanders and Caecilians. These differences include genome size, gene composition, and extent of polyploidization. Application of toxicogenomics to amphibians requires the mobilization of resources and expertise to develop de novo sequence assemblies and analysis strategies for a broader range of amphibian species. The present mini-review will present the advances in toxicogenomics as pertains to amphibians with particular emphasis upon the development and use of genomic techniques (inclusive of transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics and the challenges inherent therein.

  2. Background dose-rates to reference animals and plants arising from exposure to naturally occurring radionuclides in aquatic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, A; Brown, J E; Thoerring, H [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Beresford, N A [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Jones, D G [British Geological Society, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Phaneuf, M [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (Canada); Yankovich, T [AREVA Resources Canada Inc. (Canada)

    2010-06-15

    In order to put dose-rates derived in environmental impact assessments into context, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recommended the structuring of effects data according to background exposure levels. The ICRP has also recommended a suite of reference animals and plants (RAPs), including seven aquatic organisms, for use within their developing framework. In light of these propositions, the objective of this work was to collate information on activity concentrations of naturally occurring primordial radionuclides for marine and freshwater ecosystems and apply appropriate dosimetry models to derive absorbed dose-rates. Although coverage of activity concentration data is comprehensive for sediment and water, few, or in some cases no, data were found for some RAPs, e.g. for frogs (Ranidae) and freshwater grasses (Poaceae) for most radionuclides. The activity concentrations for individual radionuclides in both organisms and their habitat often exhibit standard deviations that are substantially greater than arithmetic mean values, reflecting large variability in activity concentrations. To take account of variability a probabilistic approach was adopted. The dominating radionuclides contributing to exposure in the RAPs are {sup 40}K, {sup 210}Po and {sup 226}Ra. The mean unweighted and weighted dose-rates for aquatic RAPs are in the ranges 0.07-0.39 {mu}Gy h{sup -1} and 0.37-1.9 {mu}Gy h{sup -1} respectively.

  3. Geographically Distinct Expression Proifle of Host Defense Peptides in the Skin of the Chinese Odorous Frog, Odorrana margaretae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guiying LING; Li LI; Jiuxiang GAO; Haining YU; Yipeng WANG; Jiang ZHOU

    2013-01-01

    Odorrana margaretae (Anura:Ranidae) is widely distributed in the southern provinces of China. Previously, 72 antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) belonging to 21 families were identiifed from the skin of O. margaretae, which were captured in the Hunan province. In the present study, ifve O. margaretae frogs were captured from the Guizhou province and a total of 28 cDNAs encoding 17 host defense peptides (HDPs) belonging to 14 families were cloned from the skin cDNA library of O. margaretae. Among the 17 HDPs, only one (brevinin-1-Omar5) had been characterized. The distinct HDP expression proifles for O. margaretae in the previous and present study may be attributed to the environmental differences between the sampling locations and the genetic divergence among O. margaretae populations. Besides, 11 of the 17 HDPs identiifed in the present study were novel for ranids. In order to understand their roles in host defense reactions, three HDPs (odorranain-H-OM1, odorranain-M-OM and ranatuerin-2-OM), which possess low sequence similarity with the known amphibian HDPs, were selected for further chemical synthesis and functional analysis. Odorranain-H-OM1 showed direct antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi. Odorranain-M-OM exhibited concentration-dependent anti-oxidant activity. Ranatuerin-2-OM showed lectin-like activity and could strongly hemagglu-tinate human intact erythrocytes with or without the presence of Ca2+. The diverse activities of HDPs implied that they may play different roles in host defense reactions of O. margaretae.

  4. Potential therapeutic applications of multifunctional host-defense peptides from frog skin as anti-cancer, anti-viral, immunomodulatory, and anti-diabetic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, J Michael; Mechkarska, Milena; Lukic, Miodrag L; Flatt, Peter R

    2014-07-01

    Frog skin constitutes a rich source of peptides with a wide range of biological properties. These include host-defense peptides with cytotoxic activities against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses, and mammalian cells. Several hundred such peptides from diverse species have been described. Although attention has been focused mainly on antimicrobial activity, the therapeutic potential of frog skin peptides as anti-infective agents remains to be realized and no compound based upon their structures has yet been adopted in clinical practice. Consequently, alternative applications are being explored. Certain naturally occurring frog skin peptides, and analogs with improved therapeutic properties, show selective cytotoxicity against tumor cells and viruses and so have potential for development into anti-cancer and anti-viral agents. Some peptides display complex cytokine-mediated immunomodulatory properties. Effects on the production of both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines by peritoneal macrophages and peripheral blood mononuclear cells have been observed so that clinical applications as anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and immunostimulatory agents are possible. Several frog skin peptides, first identified on the basis of antimicrobial activity, have been shown to stimulate insulin release both in vitro and in vivo and so show potential as incretin-based therapies for treatment of patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. This review assesses the therapeutic possibilities of peptides from frogs belonging to the Ascaphidae, Alytidae, Pipidae, Dicroglossidae, Leptodactylidae, Hylidae, and Ranidae families that complement their potential role as anti-infectives for use against multidrug-resistant microorganisms.

  5. Genetic diversity of MHC class I loci in six non-model frogs is shaped by positive selection and gene duplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiemnec-Tyburczy, K M; Richmond, J Q; Savage, A E; Lips, K R; Zamudio, K R

    2012-01-01

    Comparative studies of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes across vertebrate species can reveal the evolutionary processes that shape the structure and function of immune regulatory proteins. In this study, we characterized MHC class I sequences from six frog species representing three anuran families (Hylidae, Centrolenidae and Ranidae). Using cDNA from our focal species, we amplified a total of 79 unique sequences spanning exons 2–4 that encode the extracellular domains of the functional alpha chain protein. We compared intra- and interspecific nucleotide and amino-acid divergence, tested for recombination, and identified codon sites under selection by estimating the rate of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions with multiple codon-based maximum likelihood methods. We determined that positive (diversifying) selection was acting on specific amino-acid sites located within the domains that bind pathogen-derived peptides. We also found significant signals of recombination across the physical distance of the genes. Finally, we determined that all the six species expressed two or three putative classical class I loci, in contrast to the single locus condition of Xenopus laevis. Our results suggest that MHC evolution in anurans is a dynamic process and that variation in numbers of loci and genetic diversity can exist among taxa. Thus, the accumulation of genetic data for more species will be useful in further characterizing the relative importance of processes such as selection, recombination and gene duplication in shaping MHC loci among amphibian lineages. PMID:22549517

  6. Vocally mediated social recognition in anurans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Mark A.

    2005-09-01

    Anuran amphibians (frogs and toads) are among the most vocal of vertebrates and have long served as model systems for investigating the mechanisms and evolution of acoustic communication. Compared to higher vertebrates, however, the role of cognition in anuran communication has received less attention, at least in part due to the lack of evidence that juvenile anurans learn to produce signals or associate them with particular social contexts. Recent studies of social recognition in two anuran families indicate that territorial male frogs in some species are able to learn about and recognize the individually distinctive properties of the calls of nearby neighbors. For example, male bullfrogs (ranidae) learn about the pitch of a neighbor's vocalizations (an individually distinct voice property) and associate a familiar pitch with the location of the neighbor's territory. As in songbirds, this form of vocally mediated social recognition allows territory holders to direct low levels of aggression toward well-established neighbors, while maintaining a readiness to respond aggressively to more threatening strangers that may attempt a territory takeover. A brief review of currently available data will be used to illustrate how anurans can serve as model systems for investigating the role of cognition in acoustic communication.

  7. Richness, breeding environments and calling activity of the anurofauna of the lower moa river forest, state of Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele B. Miranda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In state of Acre, most anuran research has been carried out in areas of terra firme, whereas alluvial forests remain relatively unexplored. We document the richness, breeding environments and calling season of the anurans of the Lower Moa River in the Alto Juruá (state of Acre, a region considered to harbor high biodiversity. Sampling was conducted in two main areas with different forest typologies (Terra firme forest and Alluvial forest, totaling 256 ha. The diversity of anurans was analyzed using the Shannon-Wiener index, evenness and Berger - Parker dominance. The anurans were sampled from October 2008 to September 2009, using the following sampling methods: sampling at breeding sites, pitfall traps, time constrained visual search during the day (TCVSD; at night (NVTCS and active search (AS. Fifty anuran species, belonging to eight families, were recorded: Aromobatidae (2, Bufonidae (5, Hemiphractidae (1, Hylidae (25, Leptodactylidae (9, Microhylidae (4, Ranidae (1 and Craugastoridae (3. Pitfall traps totaling 1440 day-buckets in the year. DVTCS had a total sampling effort 72 hours/person/year; NVTCS - 72 hours/person/year and AS - 24 hours/person/year. Greater richness (35 species was recorded in the alluvial forest, low diversity index and high dominance (H' = 1.69, J' = 0.51, d = 0.62. Most likely, these values were influenced by the high relative abundance of Rhinella margaritifera in this area. The richness of the alluvial forest may be associated with environmental heterogeneity according with the theory of intermediate disturbances. The breeding activity of most species occurred in lentic environments (lakes and temporary ponds and during the rainy season. When sampling anurans in the Amazon it is important to use two or more sampling method and to consider the different forest typologies of this biome for a better characterization of its richness.

  8. Evidence for directional selection at a novel major histocompatibility class I marker in wild common frogs (Rana temporaria exposed to a viral pathogen (Ranavirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber G F Teacher

    Full Text Available Whilst the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC is well characterized in the anuran Xenopus, this region has not previously been studied in another popular model species, the common frog (Rana temporaria. Nor, to date, have there been any studies of MHC in wild amphibian host-pathogen systems. We characterise an MHC class I locus in the common frog, and present primers to amplify both the whole region, and specifically the antigen binding region. As no more than two expressed haplotypes were found in over 400 clones from 66 individuals, it is likely that there is a single class I locus in this species. This finding is consistent with the single class I locus in Xenopus, but contrasts with the multiple loci identified in axolotls, providing evidence that the diversification of MHC class I into multiple loci likely occurred after the Caudata/Anura divergence (approximately 350 million years ago but before the Ranidae/Pipidae divergence (approximately 230 mya. We use this locus to compare wild populations of common frogs that have been infected with a viral pathogen (Ranavirus with those that have no history of infection. We demonstrate that certain MHC supertypes are associated with infection status (even after accounting for shared ancestry, and that the diseased populations have more similar supertype frequencies (lower F(ST than the uninfected. These patterns were not seen in a suite of putatively neutral microsatellite loci. We interpret this pattern at the MHC locus to indicate that the disease has imposed selection for particular haplotypes, and hence that common frogs may be adapting to the presence of Ranavirus, which currently kills tens of thousands of amphibians in the UK each year.

  9. Mapping the global emergence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, the amphibian chytrid fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Deanna H; Aanensen, David M; Ronnenberg, Kathryn L; Powell, Christopher I; Walker, Susan F; Bielby, Jon; Garner, Trenton W J; Weaver, George; Fisher, Matthew C

    2013-01-01

    The rapid worldwide emergence of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is having a profound negative impact on biodiversity. However, global research efforts are fragmented and an overarching synthesis of global infection data is lacking. Here, we provide results from a community tool for the compilation of worldwide Bd presence and report on the analyses of data collated over a four-year period. Using this online database, we analysed: 1) spatial and taxonomic patterns of infection, including amphibian families that appear over- and under-infected; 2) relationships between Bd occurrence and declining amphibian species, including associations among Bd occurrence, species richness, and enigmatic population declines; and 3) patterns of environmental correlates with Bd, including climate metrics for all species combined and three families (Hylidae, Bufonidae, Ranidae) separately, at both a global scale and regional (U.S.A.) scale. These associations provide new insights for downscaled hypothesis testing. The pathogen has been detected in 52 of 82 countries in which sampling was reported, and it has been detected in 516 of 1240 (42%) amphibian species. We show that detected Bd infections are related to amphibian biodiversity and locations experiencing rapid enigmatic declines, supporting the hypothesis that greater complexity of amphibian communities increases the likelihood of emergence of infection and transmission of Bd. Using a global model including all sampled species, the odds of Bd detection decreased with increasing temperature range at a site. Further consideration of temperature range, rather than maximum or minimum temperatures, may provide new insights into Bd-host ecology. Whereas caution is necessary when interpreting such a broad global dataset, the use of our pathogen database is helping to inform studies of the epidemiology of Bd, as well as enabling regional, national, and international prioritization of conservation efforts. We

  10. Mapping the global emergence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, the amphibian chytrid fungus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna H Olson

    Full Text Available The rapid worldwide emergence of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd is having a profound negative impact on biodiversity. However, global research efforts are fragmented and an overarching synthesis of global infection data is lacking. Here, we provide results from a community tool for the compilation of worldwide Bd presence and report on the analyses of data collated over a four-year period. Using this online database, we analysed: 1 spatial and taxonomic patterns of infection, including amphibian families that appear over- and under-infected; 2 relationships between Bd occurrence and declining amphibian species, including associations among Bd occurrence, species richness, and enigmatic population declines; and 3 patterns of environmental correlates with Bd, including climate metrics for all species combined and three families (Hylidae, Bufonidae, Ranidae separately, at both a global scale and regional (U.S.A. scale. These associations provide new insights for downscaled hypothesis testing. The pathogen has been detected in 52 of 82 countries in which sampling was reported, and it has been detected in 516 of 1240 (42% amphibian species. We show that detected Bd infections are related to amphibian biodiversity and locations experiencing rapid enigmatic declines, supporting the hypothesis that greater complexity of amphibian communities increases the likelihood of emergence of infection and transmission of Bd. Using a global model including all sampled species, the odds of Bd detection decreased with increasing temperature range at a site. Further consideration of temperature range, rather than maximum or minimum temperatures, may provide new insights into Bd-host ecology. Whereas caution is necessary when interpreting such a broad global dataset, the use of our pathogen database is helping to inform studies of the epidemiology of Bd, as well as enabling regional, national, and international prioritization of conservation

  11. Vasculature of the parotoid glands of four species of toads (bufonidae: bufo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Deborah A; Savitzky, Alan H

    2004-05-01

    The parotoid glands of toads (Bufonidae) consist of large aggregations of granular glands located between the otic region of the skull and the scapular region. To determine the circulatory pattern of these glands, we perfused the vascular systems of Bufo alvarius, B. marinus, B. terrestris, and B. valliceps with either India ink or Microfil, a fine latex. The perfused glands were studied by gross dissection, microscopic examination, and histology. The vascular patterns of the parotoid glands were compared to the arrangement of vessels in the dorsal skin of Rana sphenocephala (Ranidae), a frog that lacks parotoid glands. The parotoid glands of the four species of toads are supplied with blood by the lateral and dorsal cutaneous arteries and are drained by one or more branches of the internal jugular vein. The dorsal cutaneous artery supplies most of the blood to the parotoid glands in B. terrestris and B. valliceps. In B. alvarius and B. marinus, both the lateral and dorsal cutaneous arteries serve major roles in the blood supply of the glands. These patterns of blood flow have not been described previously for parotoid glands and conflict with earlier accounts for B. alvarius and B. marinus. The arteries and veins associated with the parotoid glands of toads are present in R. sphenocephala, but are arranged differently. In R. sphenocephala, the lateral cutaneous artery supplies the dorsal and lateral skin posterior to the shoulder region, whereas the dorsal cutaneous artery supplies the skin of the shoulder region. In toads, both the lateral and dorsal cutaneous arteries supply the skin of the shoulder region and ramify into subcutaneous capillaries that surround the secretory units of the parotoid glands. Extensive vasculature presumably is important for delivering cholesterol and other precursor molecules to the parotoid glands, where those compounds are converted into toxins.

  12. Cladistic analysis of anuran POMC sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrubaian, Jasem; Danielson, Phillip; Walker, David; Dores, Robert M

    2002-03-01

    Procedures for performing cladistic analyses can provide powerful tools for understanding the evolution of neuropeptide and polypeptide hormone coding genes. These analyses can be done on either amino acid data sets or nucleotide data sets and can utilize several different algorithms that are dependent on distinct sets of operating assumptions and constraints. In some cases, the results of these analyses can be used to gauge phylogenetic relationships between taxa. Selecting the proper cladistic analysis strategy is dependent on the taxonomic level of analysis and the rate of evolution within the orthologous genes being evaluated. For example, previous studies have shown that the amino acid sequence of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), the common precursor for the melanocortins and beta-endorphin, can be used to resolve phylogenetic relationships at the class and order level. This study tested the hypothesis that POMC sequences could be used to resolve phylogenetic relationships at the family taxonomic level. Cladistic analyses were performed on amphibian POMC sequences characterized from the marine toad, Bufo marinus (family Bufonidae; this study), the spadefoot toad, Spea multiplicatus (family Pelobatidae), the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis (family Pipidae) and the laughing frog, Rana ridibunda (family Ranidae). In these analyses the sequence of Australian lungfish POMC was used as the outgroup. The analyses were done at the amino acid level using the maximum parsimony algorithm and at the nucleotide level using the maximum likelihood algorithm. For the anuran POMC genes, analysis at the nucleotide level using the maximum likelihood algorithm generated a cladogram with higher bootstrap values than the maximum parsimony analysis of the POMC amino acid data set. For anuran POMC sequences, analysis of nucleotide sequences using the maximum likelihood algorithm would appear to be the preferred strategy for resolving phylogenetic relationships at the family taxonomic

  13. Evidence for Directional Selection at a Novel Major Histocompatibility Class I Marker in Wild Common Frogs (Rana temporaria) Exposed to a Viral Pathogen (Ranavirus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teacher, Amber G. F.; Garner, Trenton W. J.; Nichols, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Whilst the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is well characterized in the anuran Xenopus, this region has not previously been studied in another popular model species, the common frog (Rana temporaria). Nor, to date, have there been any studies of MHC in wild amphibian host-pathogen systems. We characterise an MHC class I locus in the common frog, and present primers to amplify both the whole region, and specifically the antigen binding region. As no more than two expressed haplotypes were found in over 400 clones from 66 individuals, it is likely that there is a single class I locus in this species. This finding is consistent with the single class I locus in Xenopus, but contrasts with the multiple loci identified in axolotls, providing evidence that the diversification of MHC class I into multiple loci likely occurred after the Caudata/Anura divergence (approximately 350 million years ago) but before the Ranidae/Pipidae divergence (approximately 230 mya). We use this locus to compare wild populations of common frogs that have been infected with a viral pathogen (Ranavirus) with those that have no history of infection. We demonstrate that certain MHC supertypes are associated with infection status (even after accounting for shared ancestry), and that the diseased populations have more similar supertype frequencies (lower FST) than the uninfected. These patterns were not seen in a suite of putatively neutral microsatellite loci. We interpret this pattern at the MHC locus to indicate that the disease has imposed selection for particular haplotypes, and hence that common frogs may be adapting to the presence of Ranavirus, which currently kills tens of thousands of amphibians in the UK each year. PMID:19240796

  14. Increased androgenic sensitivity in the hind limb muscular system marks the evolution of a derived gestural display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiamele, Lisa A.; Fuxjager, Matthew J.; Schuppe, Eric R.; Taylor, Rebecca S.; Hödl, Walter; Preininger, Doris

    2016-01-01

    Physical gestures are prominent features of many species’ multimodal displays, yet how evolution incorporates body and leg movements into animal signaling repertoires is unclear. Androgenic hormones modulate the production of reproductive signals and sexual motor skills in many vertebrates; therefore, one possibility is that selection for physical signals drives the evolution of androgenic sensitivity in select neuromotor pathways. We examined this issue in the Bornean rock frog (Staurois parvus, family: Ranidae). Males court females and compete with rivals by performing both vocalizations and hind limb gestural signals, called “foot flags.” Foot flagging is a derived display that emerged in the ranids after vocal signaling. Here, we show that administration of testosterone (T) increases foot flagging behavior under seminatural conditions. Moreover, using quantitative PCR, we also find that adult male S. parvus maintain a unique androgenic phenotype, in which androgen receptor (AR) in the hind limb musculature is expressed at levels ∼10× greater than in two other anuran species, which do not produce foot flags (Rana pipiens and Xenopus laevis). Finally, because males of all three of these species solicit mates with calls, we accordingly detect no differences in AR expression in the vocal apparatus (larynx) among taxa. The results show that foot flagging is an androgen-dependent gestural signal, and its emergence is associated with increased androgenic sensitivity within the hind limb musculature. Selection for this novel gestural signal may therefore drive the evolution of increased AR expression in key muscles that control signal production to support adaptive motor performance. PMID:27143723

  15. A consistent nomenclature of antimicrobial peptides isolated from frogs of the subfamily Phyllomedusinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiche, Mohamed; Ladram, Ali; Nicolas, Pierre

    2008-11-01

    A growing number of cationic antimicrobial peptides have been isolated from the skin of hylid frogs belonging to the Phyllomedusinae subfamily. The amino acid sequences of these peptides are currently located in several databases under identifiers with no consistent system of nomenclature to describe them. In order to provide a workable terminology for antimicrobial peptides from Phyllomedusid frogs, we have made a systematic effort to collect, analyze, and classify all the Phyllomedusid peptide sequences available in databases. We propose that frogs belonging to the Phyllomedusinae subfamily should be described by the species names set out in Amphibian Species of the World: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.php, American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Multiple alignments analysis of at least 80 antimicrobial peptides isolated from 12 Phyllomedusinae species were distributed in seven distinct peptide families including dermaseptin, phylloseptin, plasticin, dermatoxin, phylloxin, hyposin and orphan peptides, and will be considered as the name of the headgroup of each family. The parent peptide's name should be followed by the first upper letter of the species for orthologous peptides and publication date determines priority. For example, the abbreviation B for bicolor and H for hypochondrialis. When two species begin with the same letter, two letters in upper case should be used (the first letter followed by the second or the third letter and so on). For example, the abbreviation DI for distincta, DU for duellmani, VA for vaillanti and VN for vanzolinii. Paralogous peptides should bear letter(s) in upper case followed by numbers.

  16. Material tipo de la Colección de Herpetología del Museo de La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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    Ferraro, Daiana Paola

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El Museo de la Plata (Buenos Aires, República Argentina se fundó en 1889, y la colección herpetológica comenzó a funcionar poco tiempo después, bajo la responsabilidad deJulio G. Koslowsky. En esta contribución se listan los ejemplares tipo de Anfibios y Reptiles depositados en la colección herpetológica del Museo de La Plata. El material tipo depositado corresponde a 32 especies descriptas desde 1895 hasta la actualidad, incluyendo: 14 holotipos, 115 paratipos, 4 lectotipos, 22 paralectotipos, 1 neotipo y 12 sintipos (sin incluir los ejemplares extraviados. Se proporciona, para cada taxón, la información completa referida a estatus de cada ejemplar tipo, sexo, datos de recolección y modificaciones taxonómicas posteriores. The La Plata Museum (Buenos Aires, República Argentina was founded on 1889, and after a little time, the herpetological collection started under the responsibility of Julio G. Koslowsky. In this paper the type specimens of Amphibia and Reptilia housed in the collection of the Herpetology Section at the La Plata Museum are listed. These type materials correspondto 32 species described since 1895 until nowadays, and include: 14 holotypes, 115 paratypes, 4 lectotypes, 22 paralectotypes, 1 neotype and 12 sintypes (this list does not include lost specimens. Complete data about taxonomic status, sex, collection data, and subsequent taxonomic changes are given for each taxon.

  17. The role of the nervous system in fish evolution

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    Michael H Hofmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system plays an important role in the evolution and adaptation of animals. All sensory and motor functions as well as cognitive abilities are organized in the brain and spinal cord. Volumetric measurements of different brain regions were made in more than 150 species of ray finned fishes as well as in several outgroups. In Actanthopterygii, the hypothalamus shows greatest enlargement most likely due to an enormous visual input via the nucleus glomerulosos. The telencephalon is highly differentiated in many acanthopterygii, mostly coral reef species, but its relative size is not much effected. There is, however, a clear shift from olfactory to visual functions in ray finned fishes. In species with a highly differentiated telencephalon, the area where place memory may be located is very prominent. In basal ray finned fishes, lungfish, amphibia and elasmobranchs, the olfactory bulb is relatively large and the ratio of the olfactory bulb and telencephalon large as well. This holds also for elopomorpha and spiny eels, but in most other groups vision dominates. Apart from differences between larger clades, variation in brain architecture are also seen in closely related species and even between sexes of the same species. Profound differences are present in the cerebellum between male and female swordtails and in the telencephalon of sticklebacks. Morphometric analysis of brain architecture turned out to be an important tool to study the evolution and adaptations of the brain in fishes.

  18. Biogeographical consequences of Cenozoic tectonic events within East Asian margins: a case study of Hynobius biogeography.

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    Jun Li

    Full Text Available Few studies have explored the role of Cenozoic tectonic evolution in shaping patterns and processes of extant animal distributions within East Asian margins. We select Hynobius salamanders (Amphibia: Hynobiidae as a model to examine biogeographical consequences of Cenozoic tectonic events within East Asian margins. First, we use GenBank molecular data to reconstruct phylogenetic interrelationships of Hynobius by bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. Second, we estimate the divergence time using the bayesian relaxed clock approach and infer dispersal/vicariance histories under the 'dispersal-extinction-cladogenesis' model. Finally, we test whether evolutionary history and biogeographical processes of Hynobius should coincide with the predictions of two major hypotheses (the 'vicariance'/'out of southwestern Japan' hypothesis. The resulting phylogeny confirmed Hynobius as a monophyletic group, which could be divided into nine major clades associated with six geographical areas. Our results show that: (1 the most recent common ancestor of Hynobius was distributed in southwestern Japan and Hokkaido Island, (2 a sister taxon relationship between Hynobius retardatus and all remaining species was the results of a vicariance event between Hokkaido Island and southwestern Japan in the Middle Eocene, (3 ancestral Hynobius in southwestern Japan dispersed into the Taiwan Island, central China, 'Korean Peninsula and northeastern China' as well as northeastern Honshu during the Late Eocene-Late Miocene. Our findings suggest that Cenozoic tectonic evolution plays an important role in shaping disjunctive distributions of extant Hynobius within East Asian margins.

  19. Water quality assessment of the Sinchun stream based on epilithic diatom communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeon Jeong; Choi, Jae Sin; Kim, Han Soon

    2014-11-01

    Water quality was assessed 11 sites on the Sinchun Stream, in the region of Daegu City (South Korea), from May 2007 to March 2008 using Diatom Assemblage Index to Organic Water Pollution (DAIpo) and Trophic Diatom Index (TDI). The reference sites were unaffected by effluent from a closed mine or treated sewage and had, epilithic diatom communities that were dominated by saproxenous taxa such as Achnanthes convergens and Cocconeisplacentula var. lineata. The water quality of these sites had DAIpo values ranging between 77.5-93.8 and TDI values between 51.3-67.6, indicating β-oligosaprobic and mesotrophic environments, respectively. Study sites affected by effluent from the closed mine had epilithic diatom communities that were dominated by acidobiontic diatoms, such as Eunotia exigua and Achnanthidium minutissimum. The water quality of these sites had DAlpo values of 45.9-70.8, indicating β-mesosaprobic to α-oligosaprobic environments, whereas TDI ranged between 1.7-66.9, indicating an oligotrophic to mesotrophic environment. Downstream sites affected by the influx of mine effluent and treated sewage had many species and a high percentage of saprophilous taxa, including Fragilaria construens var. venter and Nitzschia amphibia. The water quality of these regions had DAIpo values ranging between 21.8-33.1 and TDI values between 67.5-76.7, indicating α-mesosaprobic and eutrophic environments, respectively.

  20. Response of a phytoplanktonic assemblage to copper and zinc enrichment in microcosm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Lalit K; Han, T; Gaur, J P

    2015-04-01

    The response of a laboratory-raised phytoplankton assemblage to copper and zinc enrichment was studied. Higher intracellular accumulation of both the test metals caused disappearance of metal sensitive species, loss of diversity and species richness, reduced growth rate, Chl a and biovolume; however, the community could recover after 14 days of incubation. Cyanobacteria showed marked sensitivity to both the test metals besides some diatoms, such as, Cyclotella meneghiniana and Melosira granulata. Metal enrichment enhanced the relative abundance of species like Scenedesmus quadricauda, Oocystis borgei, Achnanthes exigua, Fragilaria capucina and Nitzschia amphibia, and these were apparently metal tolerant. Cu and Zn stress induces formation of lipid bodies (bigger in size as well as in number) and morphological abnormalities in diatoms. Among these two metals, Cu impact was higher than Zn despite the fact that the intracellular accumulation of Zn was higher than Cu. Deformed raphe and mixed deformities in diatoms were exclusively found under heavy metal stress which was well supported by regression analysis. Finally the present study gives new insight for using diatoms as an effective tool for biomonitoring and biofuel production.

  1. Evolutionary cytogenetics in salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessions, Stanley K

    2008-01-01

    Salamanders (Amphibia: Caudata/Urodela) have been the subject of numerous cytogenetic studies, and data on karyotypes and genome sizes are available for most groups. Salamanders show a more-or-less distinct dichotomy between families with large chromosome numbers and interspecific variation in chromosome number, relative size, and shape (i.e. position of the centromere), and those that exhibit very little variation in these karyological features. This dichotomy is the basis of a major model of karyotype evolution in salamanders involving a kind of 'karyotypic orthoselection'. Salamanders are also characterized by extremely large genomes (in terms of absolute mass of nuclear DNA) and extensive variation in genome size (and overall size of the chromosomes), which transcends variation in chromosome number and shape. The biological significance and evolution of chromosome number and shape within the karyotype is not yet understood, but genome size variation has been found to have strong phenotypic, biogeographic, and phylogenetic correlates that reveal information about the biological significance of this cytogenetic variable. Urodeles also present the advantage of only 10 families and less than 600 species, which facilitates the analysis of patterns within the entire order. The purpose of this review is to present a summary of what is currently known about overall patterns of variation in karyology and genome size in salamanders. These patterns are discussed within an evolutionary context.

  2. The general ultrastructure of the carotid body of the domestic fowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, R D; King, A S; King, D Z; French, E I

    1975-10-27

    Electron microscopic studies of the carotid body of the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus) have shown Type I and Type II cells combined with axons into compact groups. The many Type I cells in the depths of the organ had a body, containing the nucleus, and an elongated, flared process. Some of the Type I cells in the superficial regions tended to be spindle-shaped. Type I cells were characterised by membrane-bound, dense-cored vesicles about 120 nm in diameter. Type II cells invested the Type I cells and had axons embedded in them as in Schwann cells. The fine structure of the carotid body in the domestic fowl resembles that of the Lovebird (Uroloncha domestica) and of various amphibia and mammals. The possibility is discussed that the Type I cells may have a chemoreceptor or a general secretory function, or even both of these axons leading to or from Type I cells. The main role of the Type II cells seems to be to provide a pathway for functions together.

  3. Distributional Patterns of Diatoms and Limnodrilus Oligochaetes in a Kenyan Dry Streambed Following the 1999-2000 Drought Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathooko, Jude M.; Mpawenayo, Balthazar; Kipkemboi, Julius K.; M'erimba, Charles M.

    2005-05-01

    Drought is a natural phenomenon experienced by many intermittent and also seasonal lotic systems. It has diverse effects on the structure and distribution of biological communities through habitat transition from wetted to terrestrial conditions. The Njoro River, a tropical stream, was drought-stressed between late 1999 and mid 2000, providing an opportunity to sample and describe the distributional patterns of diatoms and Limnodrilus oligochaetes in the vertical sediment profile. The dispersion of Limnodrilus oligochaetes with sediment depth profile varied from quasi-random (i.e. exponent k of the negative binomial distribution >2.0 or species contributing less than 1% of all the diatoms collected from the riverbed. Contagious dispersion was a common feature among the diatom species. The distribution of Fragilaria ulna was largely quasi-random in all sites, with Nitzschia amphibia and Cocconeis placentula demonstrating quasi-random distribution in the Kerma vertical sediment profile. Escape from stranding to deeper sediment strata as the drought progressed was not a universal response among the diatom species. Our results showed that drought-stress altered the structure of biological assemblages and also emphasized the need for the management of tropical lotic systems and their catchments for flow permanence.

  4. Progression in the study on the phagocytosis function of B lymphocyte%B淋巴细胞吞噬功能研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高杨; 高继鑫; 刘玉峰

    2009-01-01

    以往的观点认为只有巨噬细胞、单核细胞、粒细胞和树突状细胞是专职的吞噬细胞,而B细胞作为免疫系统的抗体产生细胞,虽然能够产生特异的免疫球蛋白与抗原结合,却不具备吞噬能力.但最近的研究指出硬骨鱼类(彩虹鳟鱼)和两栖类(爪蟾)的B细胞可以吞噬颗粒抗原,首次揭示了进化上较为原始的B细胞同样具有吞噬能力.众多研究提示哺乳动物B-1 B细胞很可能具有吞噬能力.%It was accepted in the past that only these cells such as macrophage, histoleucocyte, granular cell and dendritic cell are phagocytes, while B lymphocyte has no ability to phagocytize, although it can generate specific immune globulin for antigen binding. However recent studies indicate that B lymphocyte of osteichthyes (trout) and amphibia (xenopus laevis) can phagocytize particulate antigen, these studies for the first time re-vealed that relatively archaic B lymphocyte has ability to phagocytize too. Numerous studies reveal that B-1 cell in mammalian probably has ability to phagocytize.

  5. Environmental sex reversal, Trojan sex genes, and sex ratio adjustment: conditions and population consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelkens, Rike B; Wedekind, Claus

    2010-02-01

    The great diversity of sex determination mechanisms in animals and plants ranges from genetic sex determination (GSD, e.g. mammals, birds, and most dioecious plants) to environmental sex determination (ESD, e.g. many reptiles) and includes a mixture of both, for example when an individual's genetically determined sex is environmentally reversed during ontogeny (ESR, environmental sex reversal, e.g. many fish and amphibia). ESD and ESR can lead to widely varying and unstable population sex ratios. Populations exposed to conditions such as endocrine-active substances or temperature shifts may decline over time due to skewed sex ratios, a scenario that may become increasingly relevant with greater anthropogenic interference on watercourses. Continuous exposure of populations to factors causing ESR could lead to the extinction of genetic sex factors and may render a population dependent on the environmental factors that induce the sex change. However, ESR also presents opportunities for population management, especially if the Y or W chromosome is not, or not severely, degenerated. This seems to be the case in many amphibians and fish. Population growth or decline in such species can potentially be controlled through the introduction of so-called Trojan sex genes carriers, individuals that possess sex chromosomes or genes opposite from what their phenotype predicts. Here, we review the conditions for ESR, its prevalence in natural populations, the resulting physiological and reproductive consequences, and how these may become instrumental for population management.

  6. The smelling of Hedione results in sex-differentiated human brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallrabenstein, I; Gerber, J; Rasche, S; Croy, I; Kurtenbach, S; Hummel, T; Hatt, H

    2015-06-01

    A large family of vomeronasal receptors recognizes pheromone cues in many animals including most amphibia, reptiles, rhodents, and other mammals. Humans possess five vomeronasal-type 1 receptor genes (VN1R1-VN1R5), which code for proteins that are functional in recombinant expression systems. We used two different recombinant expression systems and identified Hedione as a ligand for the putative human pheromone receptor VN1R1 expressed in the human olfactory mucosa. Following the ligand identification, we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in healthy volunteers to characterize the in vivo action of the VN1R1 ligand Hedione. In comparison to a common floral odor (phenylethyl alcohol), Hedione exhibited significantly enhanced activation in limbic areas (amygdala, hippocampus) and elicited a sex-differentiated response in a hypothalamic region that is associated with hormonal release. Utilizing a novel combination of methods, our results indicate that the putative human pheromone receptor VN1R1 is involved in extra-olfactory neuronal activations induced by the odorous substance Hedione. The activation of VN1R1 might play a role in gender-specific modulation of hormonal secretion in humans.

  7. Characterization of a complete immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region germ-line gene of rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, T; Chen, T; Törmänen, V

    1990-10-01

    A germ-line heavy-chain variable region (VH) gene (RTVH431) has been isolated from a rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and characterized by complete nucleotide sequencing. It is characteristic of VH, as shown by the conserved octamer and TATA motif in the 5' region, the heptamernonamer recombination signal sequence in the 3' region, and the 18-amino-acid-long hydrophobic leader interrupted by an intron. The 98-amino-acid-long VH coding region has 50-70% nucleotide sequence homology and 40-60% amino acid sequence homology with VHS of various vertebrate species. We have also found unique or species-specific amino acid residues in the VHS of rainbow trout, amphibia (Xenopus), reptile (Caiman), and shark (Heterodontus) in our sequence analyses. The RTVH431 has an unusual amino acid in the conserved 34th position in complementarity-determining region 1 of VH. Southern hybridization results suggest the presence of a large gene family related to RTVH431 in the trout genome. The complex evolution of antibody V genes is discussed.

  8. Marcello Malpighi and the discovery of the pulmonary capillaries and alveoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B

    2013-03-15

    Marcello Malpighi (1628-1694) was an Italian scientist who made outstanding contributions in many areas, including the anatomical basis of respiration in amphibia, mammals, and insects and also in the very different fields of embryology and botany. He was one of the first biologists to make use of the newly invented microscope and is best known as the discoverer of the pulmonary capillaries and alveoli. However, he also discovered the spiracles and tracheae that enable respiration in insects. His studies of the embryology of the chicken were far ahead of his time; he then turned to the anatomy of plants, where he made important contributions. Indeed, in some articles Malpighi is referred to as the father of embryology and in other publications as one of the fathers of plant anatomy. His work on the lung was chiefly carried out on the frog; he referred to this animal as the "microscope of nature" because it allowed him to see structures that were not visible in larger animals such as mammals. He also argued that nature undertakes its great works in larger animals after a series of attempts in lower animals. For breadth of interest, innovation, and productivity, it is not easy to think of his equal in the field of life sciences.

  9. Structural and functional analogs of the novel mammalian neuropeptide, neuromedin S (NmS), in the dermal venoms of Eurasian bombinid toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianbao; Zhou, Mei; Walker, Brian; Harriot, Pat; Mori, Kenji; Miyazato, Mikiya; Kangawa, Kenji; Shaw, Chris

    2006-06-23

    We report the isolation and structural characterization of two neuromedin S (NmS) analogs, (NmS-17 and NmS-33), from the dermal venoms of Eurasian bombinid toads. NmS is a novel neuromedin U (NmU)-related peptide with potent anorexigenic and circadian rhythm-modulating properties recently discovered in mammals. Cloning of NmS precursor-encoding cDNAs from skin venom-derived libraries revealed the presence of a high degree of transcript splice variation comparable to that found previously for NmU in both amphibian skin and mammalian brain. Synthetic replicates of both amphibian NmS peptides evoked robust and dose-dependent transient increases in intracellular calcium ion concentrations in CHO cells that had been stably transfected with either FM-3/GPR66 or FM-4/TGR-1 human NmU receptors. The potency and efficacy of these amphibian skin peptides at such receptors were comparable to those observed with human NmS and rat NmS. These data show that NmS and NmU genes had already diverged at the level of the Amphibia and that differential splicing of their transcribed mRNAs has been highly conserved throughout tetrapod vertebrate evolution indicative of fundamental biological function. NmS is additionally a novel neuropeptide homolog that can be added to the biologically active peptide arsenal of amphibian venom/defensive skin secretions.

  10. Chapter 9: understanding the nervous system in the 18th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher U M

    2010-01-01

    The 18th century was an age of transition. The time-honored neuropsychology of classical and medieval times, mechanized in Descartes' hydraulic neurophysiology, was undermined by microscopical observations and careful physiological experimentation. Yet it was not until the very end of the century, when work on electric fish and amphibia began to suggest an acceptable successor to "animal spirit," that the old understanding of human neurophysiology began to fade. This chapter traces this slow retreat from the iatrophysics of the early part of the century, with its hollow nerves and animal spirits, through a number of stop-gap explanations involving mysterious subtle fluids or forces described variously as irritability, élan vital, vis viva, vis insita, the spirit of animation etc., or perhaps involving vibrations and vibratiuncles and mysterious magnetic effluvia, to the dawning electrophysiology of the end of the century and the beginning of the next. This developing understanding filtered slowly through to affect medical education, and the 18th century saw the development of strong medical schools at Leiden, Edinburgh, Paris, Bologna and London. Associated with these developments there was a great increase, as a well-known physician looking back at the beginning of the following century noted, in a class of diseases that had little concerned physicians in the preceding century - "nervous disorders."

  11. Drought, Deluge and Declines: The Impact of Precipitation Extremes on Amphibians in a Changing Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan C. Walls

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Class Amphibia is one of the most severely impacted taxa in an on-going global biodiversity crisis. Because amphibian reproduction is tightly associated with the presence of water, climatic changes that affect water availability pose a particularly menacing threat to both aquatic and terrestrial-breeding amphibians. We explore the impacts that one facet of climate change—that of extreme variation in precipitation—may have on amphibians. This variation is manifested principally as increases in the incidence and severity of both drought and major storm events. We stress the need to consider not only total precipitation amounts but also the pattern and timing of rainfall events. Such rainfall “pulses” are likely to become increasingly more influential on amphibians, especially in relation to seasonal reproduction. Changes in reproductive phenology can strongly influence the outcome of competitive and predatory interactions, thus potentially altering community dynamics in assemblages of co-existing species. We present a conceptual model to illustrate possible landscape and metapopulation consequences of alternative climate change scenarios for pond-breeding amphibians, using the Mole Salamander, Ambystoma talpoideum, as an example. Although amphibians have evolved a variety of life history strategies that enable them to cope with environmental uncertainty, it is unclear whether adaptations can keep pace with the escalating rate of climate change. Climate change, especially in combination with other stressors, is a daunting challenge for the persistence of amphibians and, thus, the conservation of global biodiversity.

  12. Cenoses of phototrophic algae of ultrasaline lakes in the Kulunda steppe (Altai krai, Russian Federation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapozhnikov, Ph. V.; Kalinina, O. Yu.; Nikitin, M. A.; Samylina, O. S.

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, expeditions of the Institute of Microbiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, delivered samples of algo-bacterial mats from Kulunda steppe alkaline lakes (Petukhovskoe alkaline lake, Tanatar VI, and Gorchina III). The filamentous alga Ctenocladus circinnatus (Chlorophyta) acted as an edificator of the mats. The composition of cenoses algocomponents also included chlorophytes Dunaliella viridis and Picocystis salinarum as well as diatoms Anomeoneis sphaerophora, Brachysira brebissonii, B. zellensis, Mastogloia pusilla var. subcapitata, Nitzschia amphibia, N. cf. communis, and Nitzschia sp. 1. The composition and structure of phototrophic algae cenoses (including diatom taxocenes) were described for the investigated lakes for the first time. For the period from 2011 to 2012, the total mineralization significantly increased in lakes. This involved sensible alterations of cenoses. B. zellensis was the most permanent component of diatom taxocenes in both seasons. In the summer of 2011, it was often accompanied by A. sphaerophora and B. brebissonii. In the summer of 2012, A. sphaerophora was found only singularly in Lake Gorchina III, and some biotopes of Lake Tanatar VI were massively inhabited by N. cf. communis, including colonies that had not been previously described for the species. The genetic analysis of three diatoms, which are markedly different from each other in their appearance and were sampled from different lakes but were all determined as Nitzschia cf. communis, showed their complete similarity to each other with the 18S rRNA gene fragment and the highest similarity of all the three diatoms with the species Nitzschia communis.

  13. The Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo diet in the Trøndelag region (Central Norway

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    Obuch Ján

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Between 2008 and 2015 we collected pellets of the Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo in the Trøndelag region of central Norway and identified the food remains in these samples. We collected material at 45 sites with samples from a total of 76 nests. Some of the samples were from older and already abandoned nests, but at several sites we also found and collected fresh B. bubo pellets. In total 40,766 items of prey were identified from the osteological material. The most dominant food components were mammals (Mammalia, 25 species, 63.5%. The species representation of birds was very diverse (Aves, more than 150 species, 19.4%. Of amphibians (Amphibia, 1 6.8%, the well-represented species were Rana temporaria. Fish (Pisces, 0.3% were represented rarely, while invertebrates were represented only sporadically (Invertebrata, 0.05%. A special composition was found in the diet spectra of the mammals and birds in the mountainous areas at altitudes between 220-780 m above sea level. The highest proportion of frogs was found in areas in the proximity of the mainland shore. On the northern islands located near the coast a significant proportion of the B. bubo diet consisted of rodents (Rodentia. On the more isolated southern islands of Frøya, Hitra and Storfosna the main prey was sea birds, and of the mammals there were also hedgehogs and rats.

  14. 常用实验脊椎动物形态解剖结构比较%Comparison of Morphological and Anatomic Structure of Vertebrates Commonly Used in Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐虎; 梁小锦; 叶强; 赵芯芯; 杨芳; 张佩君

    2015-01-01

    脊椎动物常被选为科学研究动物材料,在鱼纲、两栖纲、爬行纲、鸟纲和哺乳纲动物中选择几种代表动物进行解剖学研究,针对外形特征、骨骼系统、呼吸系统、消化系统、循环系统、生殖系统中一般相同特征和部分特征的不同点进行排列比较,并对部分系统做简要描述。%Vertebrates are often selected as scientific research material. In this paper, several representative animals of Pisces, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia were anatomically studied. The common similar and different characteristics of the shape feature, the skeletal system, respiratory system, digestive system, circulatory system and reproductive system of the selected animals are compared, and some certain above systems were described briefly.

  15. 贵州省六盘水明湖国家湿地公园脊椎动物资源调查研究%An Iinvestigation of Vertebrate Resources in Minghu National Wetland Park of Liupanshui, Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红; 李松; 熊荣川; 田应洲

    2013-01-01

    六盘水明湖国家湿地公园脊椎动物资源共有263种,其中鱼类5目6科14种;两栖动物2目8科20种;爬行动物2目5科28种;鸟类17目45科181种;兽类6目10科20种。黑鹳为中华人民共和国Ⅰ级野生保护动物,贵州疣螈、白腹锦鸡等25种动物为国家Ⅱ级野生保护动物。%The present paper reports that there are 263 species vertebrate resources distributed in Minghu Na-tional Wetland Park of Liupanshui. Among them are 14 species fishes belonging to 6 families, 5 orders, There are 20 species amphibia belonging to 8 families, 2 orders. There are 28 species reptiles, belonging to 5 fami-lies, 2 orders. There are 181 species avifauna belonging to 45 families, 17 orders, And, there are 20 species beasts belonging to 10 families, 6 orders. Ciconia nigra is the national-level protection species of wild ani-mals of gradeⅠ. Moreover, Tylototriton kweichowensis, Chrysolophus amherstiae and other 25 kinds of ani-mal are the protectied species of wild animals of gradeⅡ.

  16. Identification, expression, and characterization of the highly conserved D-xylose isomerase in animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Ding; Yigang Teng; Qiuyu Yin; Wei Chen; Fukun Zhao

    2009-01-01

    D-xylose is a necessary sugar for animals. The xylanase from a mollusk, Ampullaria crossean, was previously reported by our laboratory. This xylanase can degrade the xylan into D-xylose. But there is still a gap in our knowledge on its metabolic pathway. The question is how does the xylose enter the pentose pathway? With the help of genomic databases and bioinformatic tools, we found that some animals, such as bacteria, have a highly conserved D-xylose isomerase (EC 5.3.1.5). The xylose isomerase from a sea squirt, Ciona intestinali, was heterogeneously expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to confirm its function. The recombinant enzyme had good thermal stability in the presence of Mg2+. At the optimum temperature and optimum pH environment, its specific activity on D-xylose was 0.331μmol/mg/min. This enzyme exists broadly in many animals, but it disappeared in the genome of Amphibia-like Xenopus laevis. Its sequence was highly conserved. The xylose isomerases from animals are very interesting proteins for the study of evolution.

  17. FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey. Report on the environmental effect survey (animals/plants, No. B-7 Kuwanosawa area); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (doshokubutsu, No.B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This survey was conducted to estimate effects of drilling of geothermal exploration well on the environment, aiming at grasping the present state of environmental elements before the survey/development. As a result of the literature survey, the following distribution were confirmed in the fauna: 5 orders 10 families 19 species in the mammalia, 10 orders 25 families 73 species in the aves, 1 order 3 families 6 species in the reptilia, 2 orders 6 families 9 species in the amphibia, and 17 orders 179 families 719 species in the insecta. In the flora, a distribution of 132 families 670 species was confirmed. The results of studying the above indicated that in the fauna, there were 10 species such as antelope as valuable animal in the area surveyed and that it is necessary to pay much attention to the environmental preservation of the habitat for those animals in the well drilling associated with geothermal survey. In the flora, the 13 valuable animals selected as animal having a fear of extinction in the 'plant-version red list' were confirmed in the area surveyed and the periphery. Further, as to the plant colony, there are no important colonies in terms of preservation. In well drilling, important things are efforts exerted to restore to the original state of the area altered, prevention of the washed-away of mud water, etc., and efforts exerted to preserve the environment of vegetation. (NEDO)

  18. A microcosm system to evaluate the toxicity of the triazine herbicide simazine on aquatic macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vervliet-Scheebaum, Marco, E-mail: marco.vervliet@biologie.uni-freiburg.d [Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Schaenzlestr. 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Straus, Alain [Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Schaenzlestr. 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Tremp, Horst [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University Koblenz-Landau, Fortstr. 7, 76829 Landau (Germany); Hamer, Mick [Ecological Sciences, Syngenta Crop Protection AG, Jealott' s Hill International Research Centre, Bracknell, Berkshire RG42 6EY (United Kingdom); Maund, Stephen J. [Ecological Sciences, Syngenta Crop Protection AG, 4002 Basel (Switzerland); Wagner, Edgar [Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Schaenzlestr. 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Schulz, Ralf [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University Koblenz-Landau, Fortstr. 7, 76829 Landau (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    This study evaluates the effects of the triazine herbicide simazine in an outdoor pond microcosm test system that contained two submerged rooted species (Myriophyllum spicatum and Elodea canadensis) and two emergent rooted species (Persicaria amphibia and Glyceria maxima) over a period of 84 days. Simazine was applied to the microcosms at nominal concentrations of 0.05, 0.5 and 5 mg/L. General biological endpoints and physiological endpoints were used to evaluate herbicide toxicity on macrophytes and the algae developing naturally in the system. Concentration-related responses of macrophytes and algae were obtained for the endpoints selected, resulting in a no observed ecologically adverse effect concentration (NOEAEC) at simazine concentrations of 0.05 mg active ingredient/L after 84 days. E. canadensis was the most negatively affected species based on length increase, which was consistently a very sensitive parameter for all macrophytes. The experimental design presented might constitute a suitable alternative to conventional laboratory single-species testing. - Simazine at concentrations of 0.05 mg/L does not cause long-term negative effects to aquatic macrophytes or algae.

  19. Survey on acceleration of geothermal development in fiscal 1998. Report on survey for influence on environment (No. B-7, Kuwanosawa district); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa.Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (No. B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    A survey was performed on the current situation in the Kuwanosawa district in Akita Prefecture to identify influence on the surrounding environment due to drilling of geothermal structure testing wells. The survey on animals covered mammals of five divisions, 10 families and 19 species, Aves of ten divisions, 25 families and 73 species, reptiles of one division, 3 families and 6 species, Amphibia of two divisions, 6 families, 9 species, and Insects of 17 divisions, 179 families and 719 species. Precious animals of a several species including black salamander were identified. In the plant survey, 132 families and 670 species were identified, with several species listed as the precious plants. In the survey of hot springs, those at three locations were all high-temperature hot springs at as high as 53.8 to 96.9 degrees C. Amount of discharge, pH and electrical conductivity differ largely by the hot springs. The hot spring in Takamatsu did not show large variation throughout the survey period. The Ogura Inn at Doroyu Spa has small variation in pH and hot spring temperature, but large variation in the amount of discharge and Al{sup 3+} concentration. Correlation was recognized between hot spring temperature and amount of discharge, between hot spring temperature and anion, between amount of discharge and electric conductivity, and between amount of discharge and anion. (NEDO)

  20. Pathogenesis of infantile hemangiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uihlein, Lily Changchien; Liang, Marilyn G; Mulliken, John B

    2012-08-01

    1.Review the key features of the life cycle of infantile hemangiomas.2.Highlight cellular and molecular pathways involved in hemangioma-genesis.3.Discuss theories that may account for hemangioma-genesis.In the past, it was believed that a mother's visual impressions or behavior during pregnancy caused the growth of infantile hemangioma in her unborn child. She might have had an excessive craving for strawberries, witnessed the slaughter of an animal, directly contacted human or animal blood, or mocked a child with a similar birthmark.1 This folklore began to slowly fade once hemangiomas were examined through the light microscope. In 1863, Virchow2 suggested that hemangiomas are composed of proliferating new blood vessels resulting from progressive irritation of tissue. In 1933, Laidlow and Murray3 proposed a phylogenetic origin for hemangiomas and hypothesized that hemangiomas are remnants of vascular tufts functioning as accessory lungs for primitive amphibia. Pack and Miller4 (1950) hypothesized that hemangiomas develop from embryonic islands of angioblastic cells that were isolated from the systemic vasculature during fetal development. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Stepwise enrichment of 15N along food chains: Further evidence and the relation between δ 15N and animal age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa, Masao; Wada, Eitaro

    1984-05-01

    The isotopic composition of nitrogen was measured in marine and fresh-water animals from the East China Sea, The Bering Sea, Lake Ashinoko and Usujiri intertidal zone. Primary producers, showed average δ15Nversus atmospheric nitrogen of +5.0%. (+3.4 to +7.5) in the Bering Sea and Lake Ashinoko, and +6.8%. (+6.0 to +7.6) in Usujiri intertidal zone. Blue green algae from the East China Sea show an average -0.55%. (-0.8 to +1.2). All consumers, Zooplankton, fish and bird exhibited Stepwise enrichment of 15N with increasing trophic level. The 15N enrichment at a single feeding process ranged from +1.3 to +5.3 averaging +3.4 ± 1.1%.. This isotopic fractionation seems to be independent of habitat. The effect of age in animals was obtained by analyzing two marine mussels. The soft tissue nitrogen showed +2.0%. enrichment relative to that of primary producers, and the magnitude was almost constant with shell ages ranging from 0 to 8 years. A similar 15N enrichment occurs in all Molluscs, Crustaceans, Insecta, Amphibia, Fish, Ave and Mammal species regardless of the difference in the form of excreted nitrogen and in laboratory cultured fish, brine shrimp and mice (+2.9 to +4.9%.). The excreted ammonia from guppy was sufficiently light to balance the concentration of 15N to animal body.

  2. A neural network dynamics that resembles protein evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrán, Edgardo A.; Ferrara, Pascual

    1992-06-01

    We use neutral networks to classify proteins according to their sequence similarities. A network composed by 7 × 7 neurons, was trained with the Kohonen unsupervised learning algorithm using, as inputs, matrix patterns derived from the bipeptide composition of cytochrome c proteins belonging to 76 different species. As a result of the training, the network self-organized the activation of its neurons into topologically ordered maps, wherein phylogenetically related sequences were positioned close to each other. The evolution of the topological map during learning, in a representative computational experiment, roughly resembles the way in which one species evolves into several others. For instance, sequences corresponding to vertebrates, initially grouped together into one neuron, were placed in a contiguous zone of the final neural map, with sequences of fishes, amphibia, reptiles, birds and mammals associated to different neurons. Some apparent wrong classifications are due to the fact that some proteins have a greater degree of sequence identity than the one expected by phylogenetics. In the final neural map, each synaptic vector may be considered as the pattern corresponding to the ancestor of all the proteins that are attached to that neuron. Although it may be also tempting to link real time with learning epochs and to use this relationship to calibrate the molecular evolutionary clock, this is not correct because the evolutionary time schedule obtained with the neural network depends highly on the discrete way in which the winner neighborhood is decreased during learning.

  3. Biogeographic analysis reveals ancient continental vicariance and recent oceanic dispersal in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyron, R Alexander

    2014-09-01

    Amphibia comprises over 7000 extant species distributed in almost every ecosystem on every continent except Antarctica. Most species also show high specificity for particular habitats, biomes, or climatic niches, seemingly rendering long-distance dispersal unlikely. Indeed, many lineages still seem to show the signature of their Pangaean origin, approximately 300 Ma later. To date, no study has attempted a large-scale historical-biogeographic analysis of the group to understand the distribution of extant lineages. Here, I use an updated chronogram containing 3309 species (∼ 45% of extant diversity) to reconstruct their movement between 12 global ecoregions. I find that Pangaean origin and subsequent Laurasian and Gondwanan fragmentation explain a large proportion of patterns in the distribution of extant species. However, dispersal during the Cenozoic, likely across land bridges or short distances across oceans, has also exerted a strong influence. Finally, there are at least three strongly supported instances of long-distance oceanic dispersal between former Gondwanan landmasses during the Cenozoic. Extinction from intervening areas seems to be a strong factor in shaping present-day distributions. Dispersal and extinction from and between ecoregions are apparently tied to the evolution of extraordinarily adaptive expansion-oriented phenotypes that allow lineages to easily colonize new areas and diversify, or conversely, to extremely specialized phenotypes or heavily relictual climatic niches that result in strong geographic localization and limited diversification.

  4. Drought, deluge and declines: the impact of precipitation extremes on amphibians in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Susan C; Barichivich, William J; Brown, Mary E

    2013-03-11

    The Class Amphibia is one of the most severely impacted taxa in an on-going global biodiversity crisis. Because amphibian reproduction is tightly associated with the presence of water, climatic changes that affect water availability pose a particularly menacing threat to both aquatic and terrestrial-breeding amphibians. We explore the impacts that one facet of climate change-that of extreme variation in precipitation-may have on amphibians. This variation is manifested principally as increases in the incidence and severity of both drought and major storm events. We stress the need to consider not only total precipitation amounts but also the pattern and timing of rainfall events. Such rainfall "pulses" are likely to become increasingly more influential on amphibians, especially in relation to seasonal reproduction. Changes in reproductive phenology can strongly influence the outcome of competitive and predatory interactions, thus potentially altering community dynamics in assemblages of co-existing species. We present a conceptual model to illustrate possible landscape and metapopulation consequences of alternative climate change scenarios for pond-breeding amphibians, using the Mole Salamander, Ambystoma talpoideum, as an example. Although amphibians have evolved a variety of life history strategies that enable them to cope with environmental uncertainty, it is unclear whether adaptations can keep pace with the escalating rate of climate change. Climate change, especially in combination with other stressors, is a daunting challenge for the persistence of amphibians and, thus, the conservation of global biodiversity.

  5. Assessing the Legacy of Red Mud Pollution in a Shallow Freshwater Lake: Arsenic Accumulation and Speciation in Macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewska, Justyna P; Meharg, Andrew A; Heal, Kate V; Carey, Manus; Gunn, Iain D M; Searle, Kate R; Winfield, Ian J; Spears, Bryan M

    2016-09-06

    Little is known about long-term ecological responses in lakes following red mud pollution. Among red mud contaminants, arsenic (As) is of considerable concern. Determination of the species of As accumulated in aquatic organisms provides important information about the biogeochemical cycling of the element and transfer through the aquatic food-web to higher organisms. We used coupled ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to assess As speciation in tissues of five macrophyte taxa in Kinghorn Loch, U.K., 30 years following the diversion of red mud pollution from the lake. Toxic inorganic As was the dominant species in the studied macrophytes, with As species concentrations varying with macrophyte taxon and tissue type. The highest As content measured in roots of Persicaria amphibia (L.) Gray (87.2 mg kg(-1)) greatly exceeded the 3-10 mg kg(-1) range suggested as a potential phytotoxic level. Accumulation of toxic As species by plants suggested toxicological risk to higher organisms known to utilize macrophytes as a food source.

  6. Cytological and molecular analysis in the rare discoglossid species, Alytes muletensis (Sanchiz & Adrover 1977) and its bearing on archaeobatrachian phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odierna, G; Andreone, F; Aprea, G; Arribas, O; Capriglione, T; Vences, M

    2000-01-01

    Cytogenetic and molecular data on Alytes muletensis (Amphibia: Discoglossidae) are compared with other representatives of archaeobatrachian frogs: Bombina variegata pachypus, Pelobates cultripes, Pelodytes punctatus, Xenopus laevis, and Discoglossus. A. muletensis has the karyotype typical for the genus Alytes, 38 elements with either one or two arms, some of which can be considered as 'microchromosomes'. The NORs are located on the telomeres of the tenth chromosome pair which agrees with the state in A. obstetricians but differs from A. cisternasii reflecting phylogenetic affinities. C-banding and staining with DAPI and chromomycin A3 revealed important blocks of telomeric CMA-positive heterochromatin on the smaller chromosomes of Alytes, similar to the state found in Discoglossus. Phylogenetic analysis of 750 bp of fragments of the mitochondrial 16S and 12S rRNA genes corroborated that Discoglossus and Alytes are sister taxa which together probably form the sister group of the Bombinatorinae. Centromeric heterochromatin in Alytes may be responsible for the retention of a plesiomorphic asymmetric karyotype which independently has evolved into a symmetric karyotype through centric fusions in Bombina and Discoglossus. The HindIII satellite DNA family was present in all archaeobatrachians studied but absent in hyloid and ranoid neobatrachians.

  7. A myogenic precursor cell that could contribute to regeneration in zebrafish and its similarity to the satellite cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Ashley L; Gurevich, David B; Currie, Peter D

    2013-09-01

    The cellular basis for mammalian muscle regeneration has been an area of intense investigation over recent decades. The consensus is that a specialized self-renewing stem cell, termed the satellite cell, plays a major role during the process of regeneration in amniotes. How broadly this mechanism is deployed within the vertebrate phylogeny remains an open question. A lack of information on the role of cells analogous to the satellite cell in other vertebrate systems is even more unexpected given the fact that satellite cells were first designated in frogs. An intriguing aspect of this debate is that a number of amphibia and many fish species exhibit epimorphic regenerative processes in specific tissues, whereby regeneration occurs by the dedifferentiation of the damaged tissue, without deploying specialized stem cell populations analogous to satellite cells. Hence, it is feasible that a cellular process completely distinct from that deployed during mammalian muscle regeneration could operate in species capable of epimorphic regeneration. In this minireview, we examine the evidence for the broad phylogenetic distribution of satellite cells. We conclude that, in the vertebrates examined so far, epimorphosis does not appear to be deployed during muscle regeneration, and that analogous cells expressing similar marker genes to satellite cells appear to be deployed during the regenerative process. However, the functional definition of these cells as self-renewing muscle stem cells remains a final hurdle to the definition of the satellite cell as a generic vertebrate cell type.

  8. Ossification sequence heterochrony among amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Sean M; Harrison, Luke B; Sheil, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    Heterochrony is an important mechanism in the evolution of amphibians. Although studies have centered on the relationship between size and shape and the rates of development, ossification sequence heterochrony also may have been important. Rigorous, phylogenetic methods for assessing sequence heterochrony are relatively new, and a comprehensive study of the relative timing of ossification of skeletal elements has not been used to identify instances of sequence heterochrony across Amphibia. In this study, a new version of the program Parsimov-based genetic inference (PGi) was used to identify shifts in ossification sequences across all extant orders of amphibians, for all major structural units of the skeleton. PGi identified a number of heterochronic sequence shifts in all analyses, the most interesting of which seem to be tied to differences in metamorphic patterns among major clades. Early ossification of the vomer, premaxilla, and dentary is retained by Apateon caducus and members of Gymnophiona and Urodela, which lack the strongly biphasic development seen in anurans. In contrast, bones associated with the jaws and face were identified as shifting late in the ancestor of Anura. The bones that do not shift late, and thereby occupy the earliest positions in the anuran cranial sequence, are those in regions of the skull that undergo the least restructuring throughout anuran metamorphosis. Additionally, within Anura, bones of the hind limb and pelvic girdle were also identified as shifting early in the sequence of ossification, which may be a result of functional constraints imposed by the drastic metamorphosis of most anurans.

  9. Amphibians do not follow Bergmann's rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Dean C; Church, James O

    2008-02-01

    The tendency for organisms to be larger in cooler climates (Bergmann's rule) is widely observed in endotherms, and has been reputed to apply to some ectotherms including amphibians. However, recent reports provide conflicting support for the pattern, questioning whether Bergmann's clines are generally present in amphibians. In this study, we measured 96,996 adult Plethodon from 3974 populations to test for the presence of Bergmann's clines in these salamanders. Only three Plethodon species exhibited a significant negative correlation between body size and temperature consistent with Bergmann's rule, whereas 37 of 40 species did not display a pattern consistent with this prediction. Further, a phylogenetic comparative analysis found no relationship between body size and temperature among species. A meta-analysis combining our data with the available data for other amphibian species revealed no support for Bergmann's rule at the genus (Plethodon), order (Caudata), or class (Amphibia) levels. Our findings strongly suggest that negative thermal body size clines are not common in amphibians, and we conclude that Bergmann's rule is not generally applicable to these taxa. Thus, evolutionary explanations of Bergmann's clines in other tetrapods need not account for unique life-history attributes of amphibians.

  10. The 22 S cylinder particles of Xenopus laevis. II. Immunological characterization and localization of their proteins in tissues and cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hügle, B; Kleinschmidt, J A; Franke, W W

    1983-11-01

    Cylinder-shaped particles of 10 nm diameter were isolated from nuclei of Xenopus laevis oocytes and purified by sucrose gradient centrifugation and DEAE-Sephacel chromatography. Antibodies to protein constituents of these isolated particles were elicited in guinea pigs and examined by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation techniques as well as by immunofluorescence microscopy. The antibodies reacted with only two out of the 12 constituent polypeptides characteristic for these particles when examined in the denatured state by the immunoblotting technique, including the largest component of Mr 30 000, but were able to precipitate the whole ensemble of these polypeptides in immunoprecipitation experiments, in agreement with the notion that these proteins form the 22 S particle complex. The antibodies displayed a rather narrow range of interspecies cross-reactivity, showing reaction with cells of other amphibia but not with avian and mammalian cells. In oocytes as well as in transcriptionally active somatic cells the antigen was localized in the nucleoplasm, excluding nucleoli, as well as in the cytoplasm, usually suggesting a higher concentration in the nucleoplasm. During mitosis, the proteins were dispersed throughout the cytoplasm whereas the chromosomes were negative. Inactive cells such as mature erythrocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa were negative. These immunolocalization findings support our conclusion based on fractionation studies that the cylindershaped particles and their protein constituents occur both in the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm of a broad range of cell types.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Drought, deluge and declines: the impact of precipitation extremes on amphibians in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Susan C.; Barichivich, William J.; Brown, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    The Class Amphibia is one of the most severely impacted taxa in an on-going global biodiversity crisis. Because amphibian reproduction is tightly associated with the presence of water, climatic changes that affect water availability pose a particularly menacing threat to both aquatic and terrestrial-breeding amphibians. We explore the impacts that one facet of climate change—that of extreme variation in precipitation—may have on amphibians. This variation is manifested principally as increases in the incidence and severity of both drought and major storm events. We stress the need to consider not only total precipitation amounts but also the pattern and timing of rainfall events. Such rainfall “pulses” are likely to become increasingly more influential on amphibians, especially in relation to seasonal reproduction. Changes in reproductive phenology can strongly influence the outcome of competitive and predatory interactions, thus potentially altering community dynamics in assemblages of co-existing species. We present a conceptual model to illustrate possible landscape and metapopulation consequences of alternative climate change scenarios for pond-breeding amphibians, using the Mole Salamander, Ambystoma talpoideum, as an example. Although amphibians have evolved a variety of life history strategies that enable them to cope with environmental uncertainty, it is unclear whether adaptations can keep pace with the escalating rate of climate change. Climate change, especially in combination with other stressors, is a daunting challenge for the persistence of amphibians and, thus, the conservation of global biodiversity.

  12. Calcium Binding and Disulfide Bonds Regulate the Stability of Secretagogin towards Thermal and Urea Denaturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiffert, Tanja; Ní Mhurchú, Niamh; O’Connell, David; Linse, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Secretagogin is a calcium-sensor protein with six EF-hands. It is widely expressed in neurons and neuro-endocrine cells of a broad range of vertebrates including mammals, fishes and amphibia. The protein plays a role in secretion and interacts with several vesicle-associated proteins. In this work, we have studied the contribution of calcium binding and disulfide-bond formation to the stability of the secretagogin structure towards thermal and urea denaturation. SDS-PAGE analysis of secretagogin in reducing and non-reducing conditions identified a tendency of the protein to form dimers in a redox-dependent manner. The denaturation of apo and Calcium-loaded secretagogin was studied by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy under conditions favoring monomer or dimer or a 1:1 monomer: dimer ratio. This analysis reveals significantly higher stability towards urea denaturation of Calcium-loaded secretagogin compared to the apo protein. The secondary and tertiary structure of the Calcium-loaded form is not completely denatured in the presence of 10 M urea. Reduced and Calcium-loaded secretagogin is found to refold reversibly after heating to 95°C, while both oxidized and reduced apo secretagogin is irreversibly denatured at this temperature. Thus, calcium binding greatly stabilizes the structure of secretagogin towards chemical and heat denaturation. PMID:27812162

  13. Evolution of the Vertebrate Resistin Gene Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qingda; Tan, Huanran; Irwin, David M

    2015-01-01

    Resistin (encoded by Retn) was previously identified in rodents as a hormone associated with diabetes; however human resistin is instead linked to inflammation. Resistin is a member of a small gene family that includes the resistin-like peptides (encoded by Retnl genes) in mammals. Genomic searches of available genome sequences of diverse vertebrates and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine the size and origin of the resistin-like gene family. Genes encoding peptides similar to resistin were found in Mammalia, Sauria, Amphibia, and Actinistia (coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish), but not in Aves or fish from Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, or Agnatha. Retnl originated by duplication and transposition from Retn on the early mammalian lineage after divergence of the platypus, but before the placental and marsupial mammal divergence. The resistin-like gene family illustrates an instance where the locus of origin of duplicated genes can be identified, with Retn continuing to reside at this location. Mammalian species typically have a single copy Retn gene, but are much more variable in their numbers of Retnl genes, ranging from 0 to 9. Since Retn is located at the locus of origin, thus likely retained the ancestral expression pattern, largely maintained its copy number, and did not display accelerated evolution, we suggest that it is more likely to have maintained an ancestral function, while Retnl, which transposed to a new location, displays accelerated evolution, and shows greater variability in gene number, including gene loss, likely evolved new, but potentially lineage-specific, functions.

  14. Evolution of the Vertebrate Resistin Gene Family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingda Hu

    Full Text Available Resistin (encoded by Retn was previously identified in rodents as a hormone associated with diabetes; however human resistin is instead linked to inflammation. Resistin is a member of a small gene family that includes the resistin-like peptides (encoded by Retnl genes in mammals. Genomic searches of available genome sequences of diverse vertebrates and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine the size and origin of the resistin-like gene family. Genes encoding peptides similar to resistin were found in Mammalia, Sauria, Amphibia, and Actinistia (coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish, but not in Aves or fish from Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, or Agnatha. Retnl originated by duplication and transposition from Retn on the early mammalian lineage after divergence of the platypus, but before the placental and marsupial mammal divergence. The resistin-like gene family illustrates an instance where the locus of origin of duplicated genes can be identified, with Retn continuing to reside at this location. Mammalian species typically have a single copy Retn gene, but are much more variable in their numbers of Retnl genes, ranging from 0 to 9. Since Retn is located at the locus of origin, thus likely retained the ancestral expression pattern, largely maintained its copy number, and did not display accelerated evolution, we suggest that it is more likely to have maintained an ancestral function, while Retnl, which transposed to a new location, displays accelerated evolution, and shows greater variability in gene number, including gene loss, likely evolved new, but potentially lineage-specific, functions.

  15. Effects of Sulfate on the Community Structure of Phytoplankton in Freshwater%硫酸盐对淡水浮游藻类群落结构的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟远; 樊娟; 刘春光; 庄源益

    2009-01-01

    In order to promote the understanding of sulfate enrichnment on the growth and .sucession of phytoplanktion cotomunities in eutrophic freshwater body laboratory experiment of phytoplankton in a landscapc water body was conducted.Three treatment groups were set up in experiment:cantroal (G0),step by step enrichmenl (G1) and eurichmet at a time (G2). The resolt indicated that the addition of sulfate promoted the increase of Chloropbyta species and biomass, while inhibited the growth of native Cyanobacteria and diatom species. Species and biomass. of G0, G1 group were similar and much higher than those of G2 group. Avcrage biomass of G0, Gland G2 group was 98.46, 96.09 and 81.19 mg·L~(-1) , respectively. C0 group was almost always dominated by Cyanobacteria species such as P. corium and O. amphibia, dominant species in G1 and G2 groups changed from Cyannbacteria species to Chlorophyta species including S. quadricauda, G. radiate and S. obliqus. Compared with that of control group GO (1.49±0.32),the average community diversity indices of G1 (1.70 ±0.1g)and G2 groups ( 1.68±0.40) were elevated.%为了解硫酸盐含量增加对富营养化淡水水体藻类生长及群落演替的影响,对天津市某景观水体藻类进行了室内模拟试验研究.按硫酸盐投加方式分设对照组(G0)、逐步投加组(G1)和一次性投加组(G2).结果表明,向水中投加一定浓度硫酸盐可以抑制原有蓝藻和硅藻生长,而绿藻种类和生物量增加.G0和G1组的种类数和生物量相近但是大于G2组.G0、G1和G2组的平均总生物量分别为98.46、96.09和81.19 mg·L~(-1).对照组几乎始终是皮状席藻(P.corium)和两栖颤藻(0.amphibia)等蓝藻为第一优势种,而投加硫酸盐的G1和G2组优势种从皮状席藻和小颤藻(0.tenuis)等蓝藻向四尾栅藻(S.quadricauda)、放射多芒藻(G.radiate)和斜生栅藻(S.obliqus)等绿藻演替.群落平均多样性指数与对照组G0(1.49±0.32)相比,投加硫酸盐的G1(1.70±0

  16. 凹耳蛙MHC Ⅱ类B基因第二外显子多态性分析%Polymorphism of exon 2 of MHC Class Ⅱ B gene in the Chinese concave-eared torrent frog (Odorrana tormota)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李方; 疏义林; 吴海龙

    2012-01-01

    Currently, amphibians are experiencing global population decline, and it is believed that several amphibian mass extinction events were caused by environmental pathogens (such as chytrid fungus). Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes play a critical role in the course of immune response in all jawed vertebrates. MHC gene is considered to be one of the best candidates to analyze animal's adaptive evolution because its polymorphisms are usually associated with resistance or susceptibility to animal diseases. Here, we report our preliminary research on the allelic diversity of MHC class II B gene from the Chinese concave-eared frog (Odorrana tormota), a species endemic to eastern China. We initially amplified a 180-bp fragment of MHC II exon2 gene in O. Tormota using published polymerase chain reaction primers. Based on these results, we successfully obtained sequences of the gene's flanking regions using a ligation-mediated PCR method. After splicing, we obtained a sequence with length of 2,030 bp including whole exon2 and partial sequences of intronl and intron2. Then two exon2-specific primers (IIQ1BU/IIQ1BD) were designed forthe species and were used to investigate the B gene diversity of a wild population (Huangshan Mt., ?=32) using PCR, cloning and sequencing. In total, 34 distinct alleles were obtained and 2 to 5 alleles were found per individual. The proportion of variable sites for nucleotide and amino acid sequences across the 34 alleles was 16.17% (33/204) and 26.87% (18/67), respectively, and the majority of variable amino acids were located in antigen binding sites (ABS). Based on cDNA data and individual allelic diversity, we conclude that O. Tormota possesses at least three class II B loci. These results showed that though the species exhibits a restricted distribution, the Chinese concave-eared frog displays high diversity at the B loci compared to that of other species in Ranidae. Patterns of nucleotide substitution exhibited the signature of

  17. Regulator of complement activation (RCA) gene cluster in Xenopus tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Yuzuru; Matsumoto, Misako; Seya, Tsukasa

    2009-05-01

    Genome and expressed sequence tag information of Xenopus tropicalis suggested that short-consensus repeat (SCR)-containing proteins are encoded by three genes that are mapped within a 300-kb downstream of PFKFB2, which is a marker gene for the regulator of complement activation (RCA) loci in human and chicken. Based on this observation, we cloned the three cDNAs of these proteins using 3'- or 5'-RACE technique. Since their primary structures and locations of the proximity to the PFKFB2 locus, we named them amphibian RCA protein (ARC) 1, 2, and 3. Expression in human HEK293 or CHO cells suggested that ARC1 is a soluble protein of Mr approximately 67 kDa, ARC2 is a membrane protein with Mr 44 kDa, and ARC3 a secretary protein with a putative transmembrane region. They were N-glycosylated during maturation. In human and chicken RCA clusters, the order in which genes for soluble, GPI-anchored, and membrane forms of SCR proteins are arranged is from the distant to proximity to the PFKFB2 gene. However, the amphibian ARC1, 2, and 3 resembled one another and did not reflect the same order found in human and chicken RCA genes. This may be due to self-duplication of ARCs to form a family, and it evolved after the amphibia separated from the ancestor of the amniotes, which possessed soluble, GPI-anchored, and membrane forms of SCR protein members. Taken together, frog possesses a RCA locus, but the constitution of the ARC proteins differs from that of the amniotes with a unique self-resemblance.

  18. Assessing risks to non-target species during poison baiting programs for feral cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Buckmaster

    Full Text Available Poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. However, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. Here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in Australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (Felis catus. These baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the bait medium within an acid-soluble polymer capsule (hard shell delivery vehicle, or HSDV that disintegrates after ingestion. Using criteria based on body size, diet and feeding behaviour, we assessed 221 of Australia's 3,769 native vertebrate species as likely to consume cat-baits, with 47 of these likely to ingest implanted HSDVs too. Carnivorous marsupials were judged most likely to consume both the baits and HSDVs, with some large-bodied and ground-active birds and reptiles also consuming them. If criteria were relaxed, a further 269 species were assessed as possibly able to consume baits and 343 as possibly able to consume HSDVs; most of these consumers were birds. One threatened species, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii was judged as definitely able to consume baits with implanted HSDVs, whereas five threatened species of birds and 21 species of threatened mammals were rated as possible consumers. Amphibia were not considered to be at risk. We conclude that most species of native Australian vertebrates would not consume surface-laid baits during feral cat control programs, and that significantly fewer would be exposed to poisoning if HSDVs were employed. However, risks to susceptible species should be quantified in field or pen trials prior to the implementation of a control program, and minimized further by applying baits at times and in places where non-target species have little access.

  19. Assessing risks to non-target species during poison baiting programs for feral cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmaster, Tony; Dickman, Christopher R; Johnston, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. However, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. Here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in Australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (Felis catus). These baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the bait medium within an acid-soluble polymer capsule (hard shell delivery vehicle, or HSDV) that disintegrates after ingestion. Using criteria based on body size, diet and feeding behaviour, we assessed 221 of Australia's 3,769 native vertebrate species as likely to consume cat-baits, with 47 of these likely to ingest implanted HSDVs too. Carnivorous marsupials were judged most likely to consume both the baits and HSDVs, with some large-bodied and ground-active birds and reptiles also consuming them. If criteria were relaxed, a further 269 species were assessed as possibly able to consume baits and 343 as possibly able to consume HSDVs; most of these consumers were birds. One threatened species, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) was judged as definitely able to consume baits with implanted HSDVs, whereas five threatened species of birds and 21 species of threatened mammals were rated as possible consumers. Amphibia were not considered to be at risk. We conclude that most species of native Australian vertebrates would not consume surface-laid baits during feral cat control programs, and that significantly fewer would be exposed to poisoning if HSDVs were employed. However, risks to susceptible species should be quantified in field or pen trials prior to the implementation of a control program, and minimized further by applying baits at times and in places where non-target species have little access.

  20. Assembly of ovarian follicles in the caecilians Ichthyophis tricolor and Gegeneophis ramaswamii: light and transmission electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyo, R S; Sreejith, P; Divya, L; Oommen, O V; Akbarsha, M A

    2007-08-01

    Though much is known about various aspects of reproductive biology of amphibia, there is little information on the cellular and mechanistic basis of assembly of ovarian follicles in this group. This is especially true of the caecilians. Therefore, taking advantage of the abundant distribution of caecilians in the Western Ghats of India, two species of caecilians, Ichthyophis tricolor and Gegeneophis ramaswamii, were subjected to light and transmission electron microscopic analysis to trace the sequential changes during the assembly of ovarian follicles. The paired ovaries of these caecilians are elongated sac-like structures each including numerous vitellogenic follicles. The follicles are connected by a connective tissue stroma. This stroma contains nests of oogonia, primary oocytes and pregranulosa cells as spatially separated nests. During assembly of follicles the oocytes increase in size and enter the meiotic prophase when the number of nucleoli in the nucleus increases. The mitochondrial cloud or Balbiani vitelline body, initially localized at one pole of the nucleus, disperses through out the cytoplasm subsequently. Synaptonemal complexes are prominent in the pachytene stage oocytes. The pregranulosa cells migrate through the connective tissue fibrils of the stroma and arrive at the vicinity of the meiotic prophase oocytes. On contacting the oocyte, the pregranulosa cells become cuboidal in shape, wrap the diplotene stage oocyte as a discontinuous layer and increase the content of cytoplasmic organelles and inclusions. The oocytes increase in size and are arrested in diplotene when the granulosa cells become flat and form a continuous layer. Soon a perivitelline space appears between the oolemma and granulosa cells, completing the process of assembly of follicles. Thus, the events in the establishment of follicles in the caecilian ovary are described.

  1. Using catenas for GIS-based mapping of NW Mediterranean littoral habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Simone; Cefalì, Maria Elena; Terradas, Marc; Chappuis, Eglantine; Ballesteros, Enric

    2014-06-01

    Studies aimed at describing habitats and mapping their distributions are pivotal to implementing management plans and to effectively guide conservation measures. We developed a novel approach of data collection and entry (CAT-LIT) to establish a detailed cartography of the littoral habitats found along the Catalan coast (Spain). Field data were recorded using coded, two-digit hierarchical lists (e.g. Aa, Ab, etc.) of horizons found at each point along the coast, called catenas. The horizons were either dominated by species (on the rocky bottoms) or sediment types (on the beaches) and corresponded to LPRE, EUNIS and CORINE habitats. Catenas were transferred into a database and calculations about the extent of bottom types, habitats, and catenas themselves along the coast were carried out with GIS tools. In addition, habitat link richness was calculated and represented using network analysis programs. The application of CAT-LIT to the Catalan coast showed that the habitats dominated by the lichen Verrucaria amphibia and the flattened barnacle Euraphia depressa and those dominated by the barnacle Chthamalus spp. were almost ubiquitous. Those dominated by the red alga Corallina elongata, the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the red alga Rissoella verruculosa were also common. Because of the frequency of their connections, those habitats formed a huge hub of links in the networks. By using catenas, the habitats can be viewed using GIS based programs keeping the catena as the main informational and ecological unit. The catenas allow maximum compactness when vertically distributed habitats are to be shown on a 2D map. The complete cartography and dataset on the spatial distribution of the littoral habitats from Catalonia is valuable for coastal management and conservation to study changes in the habitat distribution and relate such changes to anthropogenic pressures. Furthermore, the CAT-LIT can be easily adapted to shores of other seas and oceans to obtain accurate

  2. Catalogue and evaluation of aquatic plants in estany de Sils (La Selva, Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mercadal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the eighteenth century, botanists in the southwest of Europe have recognized Estany de Sils (La Selva, Catalonia as having a unique plant population, especially with regard to aquatic plants. Despite the lake being definitively drained in 1851, there is still today a fairly diverse aquatic flora in the remaining marshes and seasonal ponds. In this work, we present the catalogue of the flora of the aquatic plants in this Mediterranean wetland, compiled from field trips and from consultation of various herbaria and botanical works. Thus, according to our data, in the last 300 years, 37 aquatic plants have populated the lake, 12 of which are currently thought to have become locally extinct (although the presence of three of them is in doubt. The plants that have disappeared include Trapa natans, Marsilea quadrifolia, Najas minor and Rorippa amphibia. In addition, using the catalogue of flora, and following the criteria proposed by researchers of the Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid, we have carried out a botanical evaluation of Estany de Sils as a wetland area (IH index. Its botanical value has been found to be very high (an IH of 7.0 in 1850 compared to an IH of 6.9 in 2014 and the lake can still be considered a wetland of European importance nowadays. It must be noted, that the 30.6% and the 19.4% of the vascular aquatic plants existing in Catalan Countries and Spain, respectively, have been observed in the study area.

  3. [Phytoplankton community structure and assessment of water quality in the middle and lower reaches of Fenhe River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ai-Ai; Feng, Jia; Xie, Shu-Lian

    2014-03-01

    To understand the distribution of phytoplankton and the water quality in the middle and lower reaches of Fenhe River, 18 sampling sites were selected for specimen collection, species identification and data analysis. The results showed that: (1) There were 298 species of phytoplankton under the membership of 8 divisions and 96 genera, among which, Bacillariophyta was the dominant division, with a total of 127 species of 27 genera, followed by Chlorophyta, with 104 species of 41 genera, and Cyanophyta, with 45 species of 20 genera. Only 22 species of 8 genera belonged to Euglenophyta, Cryptophyta, Pyrrophyta, Chrysophyta and Xanthophyta. The number of species in wet season was higher than that in dry season at all sites. Dominant species included Cyclotella meneghiniana, Synedra acus, Navicula cryptocephala, Nitzschia palea of Bacillariophyta, Chlorella vulgaris of Chlorophyta, Oscillatoria tenuis, O. amphibia of Cyanophyta, most of which were indicator species of alpha- and beta-mesosaprobic type. Cell density was higher in wet season and lower in dry season. (2) Shannon-Wieaver species diversity index ranged from 1 to 3 basically. Margalef species richness index ranged from 0.5 to 2. Pielou evenness index ranged 0.3-0.8. (3) During the wet season, most dominant species of Chlorophyta and Euglenophyta had higher correlation with chemical oxygen demand (COD), conductivity and ammonia nitrogen. The dominant species of Cyanophyta were greatly influenced by the contents of water temperature and chromium (Cr). The distribution of dominant species of Bacillariophyta was complicatedly related with environmental factors. During the dry season, there was a higher correlation between the members of Cyanophyta and ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus, COD. The species of Chlorophyta and Euglenophyta were mainly influenced by the dissolved oxygen and total phosphorus. The bacillariophytes were mainly related with total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen, pH and cadmium (Cd). In

  4. Pentastomídeos de répteis do Brasil: revisão dos cephalobaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arandas Rêgo

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados os Cephalobaenidae (Pentastomida, depositados na coleção helmintológica do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz e na coleção de parasitologia do Instituto Butantan. São redescritas e discutidas as espécies, Cephalobaena tetrapoda, C. freitasi, C. giglioli, Raillietiella furcocerca e Mahafaliella venteli. Esses parasitas foram coletados dos répteis: Lachesis sp., Drymarchon c. corais, Xenodon merremii, Crotatus terrificus, Amphisbaena sp., Tropidurus torquatus, Bothrops atrox, Mabuya punctata e de Bufo paracnemis (anfíbio.In this work the author studies Cephalobaenidae parasites using specimens from the helminthological collection of the Oswaldo Cruz and Butantan Institutes. This material was collected from Lachesis sp., Drymarchon corais, Xenodon merremii, Crotalus terrificus, Amphisbaena sp., Tropidurus torquatus, Bothrops atrox, Mabuya punctata (Reptilia and Bufo paracnemis (Amphibia. The species studied are Cephalobaena tetrapoda Heymons, 1922, Cephalobaena giglioli (Hett, 1924 comb. n., Cephalobaena freitasi (Motta & Gomes, 1968 comb. n., Raillietiella furcocerca (Diesing, 1836 and Mahafaliella venteli (Motta, 1965. C. recurvocauda becomes a synonym of C. tetrapoda and as do the specimens that Motta called erronously R. furcocerca. Raillietiella giglioli is changed to Cephalobaena giglioli (Hett, 1924 comb. n. The author describes here the male of C. giglioli for the first time. Travassostulida freitasi and T. acutiacanthus enter in synonymy with C. freitasi, and T. acutiacanthus is considered to be a subspecies of C. freitasi. Raillietiella gomesi becomes a synonym of R. furcocerca. The author discusses Mahafaliella venteli, and also questions the validity of the genus Gretillaria proposed by Motta for some species of Raillietiella. The latter is considered a synonym of Raillietiella.

  5. 湖南东安紫水国家湿地公园脊椎动物资源调查%Investigation of vertebrate resources in the National Wetland Park in Dongan, Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋秀丽; 俞学辉; 蒋学军

    2016-01-01

    Species of animals in Dongan Zishui wetland national park are investigated. The report shows that there are 192 species vertebrate resources distributed in Dong an purple water National Wetland Park. And there are 39 species fishes belonging to11 families,4 orders, 14 species amphibia belonging to 5 families, 2 orders, 22 species reptiles, belonging to 7 families, 3 orders, 97 species avifauna belonging to 36 families,13 orders, and, there are 20 species beasts belonging to 15 families, 6 orders, and there are wild animals of gradeⅡAndrias daνitianus, Rana rugulosa, Aix galericulata, Accipiter gentilis, Accipiter νirgatus, Accipiter gularisgularis, Spilornis cheela, Falco subbuteo and so on. The countermeasure is put forward.%对东安紫水湿地国家公园大量的野外动物资源进行了调查,结果如下:野生脊椎动物共计192种,隶属于28目74科,其中鱼类有4目11科39种;两栖动物有2目5科14种;爬行动物有3目7科22种;鸟类有13目36科97种;哺乳动物为6目15科20种。国家Ⅱ级野生保护动物有大鲵、虎纹蛙、鸳鸯、苍鹰、松雀鹰、日本松雀鹰、蛇雕、燕隼等12种,并提出了对野生动物保护对策。

  6. 乌江中上游水体营养状况底栖硅藻指示性属种的研究%Study on the Diatom Indicative Species of Eutrophication of Water Body in the Middle and Upper of Wujiang River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭云; 赵宇中; 张波; 杨飞; 杨大鹏; 支崇远

    2010-01-01

    首次对乌江中上游底栖硅藻和水环境因子间关系进行系统定量研究.对底栖硅藻和水环境因子进行主成分分析和相关分析.结果表明,总磷是影响底栖硅藻属种分布的第一显著因子.利用加权平均回归方法,计算出底栖硅藻属种对总磷指标响应的生态最佳值和忍耐值,提取出的Nitzschia frustulutm(Kütz.)Grun.、Nitzschia fonticola Grun.、Nitzschia palea(Kütz.)W.Sminth、Surirella angusta Kütz.Nitzschia amphibia Grun.等17种硅藻是乌江中上游河流富营养化发生的指示性属种.而Achnanthes minutissima Kütz.、Cymbella affinis、Diatoma vulagaris Bory、Navicula protracta(Grun.)Cleve等9种硅藻是乌江中上游中营养化水体的指示性属种,对较低营养水体有一定的指示意义.底栖硅藻指示性属种的提取对富营养化河流的治理和合理利用提供科学依据,为用硅藻监测、评价水质和建立河流水质监测体系提供理论基础.

  7. 广东象头山保护区野生动物资源调查和保护对策%Investigation and Protective Strategies of Wildlife Resources of Xiangtoushan Natural Reserve in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨道德; 吴宏道; 朱德冲; 张应扬

    2001-01-01

    Trusted by Huizhou City Forestry Bureau of Gu angdong Prov. With the study of the state of wildlife resources and the wildli fe protection, we carried out the integrated investigation of wildlife resources in Xiangtoushan Natural Reserve during the period from May to June,1999. 203 species belonging to 4 classes,25 orders,9 families are recor ded. Among them, 19 species belong to Amphibia, 42 to Reptilis, 113 to Aves, and 29 to Mammalia. And 25 species belong to National important protected wildlife of China. According to the geological division, this natural reserve is part of Fujiang-Guangdong coastland sub-district,South China district,Orient al Kingdom; So 157 of the species are Oriental ones. The state of wildlife re sources and their distribution are discussed. At last, some good suggestions are provided to promote the wildlife conservation and management.%为掌握资源现状,受惠州市林业局委托,于1999年 5~6月对象头山自然保护区的野生动物资源进行了综合考察,共发现野生动物203种,隶属4纲 25目69科,其中两栖纲、爬行纲、鸟纲和哺乳纲分别有19、42、113和29种.东洋界种类占7 7.33%,动物地理区划属东洋界华南区闽广沿海亚区.国家一、二级保护动物分别有2和23种 .最后分析了资源状况,并提出了保护对策.

  8. Trichospirura aethiopica n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae from Malacomys longipes (Rodentia: Muridae in Gabon, first record of the genus in the Ethiopian Realm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bain Odile

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichospirura aethiopica n. sp. is described from unidentified tubular structures (pancreatic ducts? near the stomach of the murid Malacomys longipes Milne-Edwards, 1877 in Gabon. The extremely long and narrow buccal capsule, posterior position of the vulva, unequal spicules and absence of caudal alae readily identified the specimens as belonging to Trichospirura Smith & Chitwood, 1967, but a combination of several characters distinguished them from the described species in this genus. Males of the new species are characterized by the absence of precloacal papillae, the presence of four pairs of postcloacal papillae and a left spicule length of 165–200 μm. With only five nominal and one unnamed species, the host range of Trichospirura extends into the Neotropical, Indo-Malayan and Ethiopian Realms and comprises three classes of vertebrates, Amphibia, Reptilia and Mammalia, suggesting a larger species diversity than that currently recorded. Detection is difficult as predilection sites are often outside the gut lumen. It was noted that, irrespective of their geographic origin, species from mammals share certain characters (shorter left spicule and absence of precloacal papillae that oppose them to those from amphibians and reptiles. A hypothesis for the origin of Trichospirura in mammals through a remote host-switching event in tupaiids in southern Asia, likely facilitated by the intermediate hosts, and for their subsequent migration to the Ethiopian and finally Neotropical Realm is proposed. Regarding the two species from anurans and saurians in the Antilles, one or two host-switching events are considered equally possible, based on morphological characters.

  9. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF BENTHIC DIATOMS IN FUBAO BAY,DIANCHI LAKE%滇池福保湾底栖硅藻的时空分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴国凤; 阎春兰; 王海英; 刘国祥

    2010-01-01

    为了揭示入湖河流的污染负荷对滇池福保湾沿岸带底栖硅藻群落的影响,在不同季节采集研究了该湖湾6个样点的底栖硅藻样品,分析其群落结构的物种组成、细胞密度和多样性指数等.研究发现:东部沿岸区在调查期间的大多数月份是极小曲壳藻(Achnanthes minutissima)占绝对或主要优势,其相对丰富度最高可达79.5%;在1~7月份,西部沿岸区的优势种类主要是异极藻属(Gomphonema spp.),污染最为严重的河口区是耐污性的具柄双眉藻(Amphora pediculus)和两栖菱形藻(Nitzschia amphibia)占优势,而在调查的中后期,极小曲壳藻逐渐发展为这两区的优势种类.同时发现底栖硅藻密度随着与河口间距离的增加而逐渐升高.以上结果表明入湖河流的污染负荷对受纳湖湾底栖硅藻的密度和时空变化有较大影响.

  10. Evolution of the α-Subunit of Na/K-ATPase from Paramecium to Homo sapiens: Invariance of Transmembrane Helix Topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Gene A; Kostellow, Adele B; Liu, Lijun; Gupta, Raj K; Askari, Amir

    2016-05-01

    Na/K-ATPase is a key plasma membrane enzyme involved in cell signaling, volume regulation, and maintenance of electrochemical gradients. The α-subunit, central to these functions, belongs to a large family of P-type ATPases. Differences in transmembrane (TM) helix topology, sequence homology, helix-helix contacts, cell signaling, and protein domains of Na/K-ATPase α-subunit were compared in fungi (Beauveria), unicellular organisms (Paramecia), primitive multicellular organisms (Hydra), and vertebrates (Xenopus, Homo sapiens), and correlated with evolution of physiological functions in the α-subunit. All α-subunits are of similar length, with groupings of four and six helices in the N- and C-terminal regions, respectively. Minimal homology was seen for protein domain patterns in Paramecium and Hydra, with high correlation between Hydra and vertebrates. Paramecium α-subunits display extensive disorder, with minimal helix contacts. Increases in helix contacts in Hydra approached vertebrates. Protein motifs known to be associated with membrane lipid rafts and cell signaling reveal significant positional shifts between Paramecium and Hydra vulgaris, indicating that regional membrane fluidity changes occur during evolution. Putative steroid binding sites overlapping TM-3 occurred in all species. Sites associated with G-protein-receptor stimulation occur both in vertebrates and amphibia but not in Hydra or Paramecia. The C-terminus moiety "KETYY," necessary for the Na(+) activation of pump phosphorylation, is not present in unicellular species indicating the absence of classical Na(+)/K(+)-pumps. The basic protein topology evolved earliest, followed by increases in protein domains and ordered helical arrays, correlated with appearance of α-subunit regions known to involve cell signaling, membrane recycling, and ion channel formation.

  11. Evolution of the plasma and tissue kallikreins, and their alternative splicing isoforms.

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    Vassiliki Lila Koumandou

    Full Text Available Kallikreins are secreted serine proteases with important roles in human physiology. Human plasma kallikrein, encoded by the KLKB1 gene on locus 4q34-35, functions in the blood coagulation pathway, and in regulating blood pressure. The human tissue kallikrein and kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs have diverse expression patterns and physiological roles, including cancer-related processes such as cell growth regulation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA, the product of the KLK3 gene, is the most widely used biomarker in clinical practice today. A total of 15 KLKs are encoded by the largest contiguous cluster of protease genes in the human genome (19q13.3-13.4, which makes them ideal for evolutionary analysis of gene duplication events. Previous studies on the evolution of KLKs have traced mammalian homologs as well as a probable early origin of the family in aves, amphibia and reptilia. The aim of this study was to address the evolutionary and functional relationships between tissue KLKs and plasma kallikrein, and to examine the evolution of alternative splicing isoforms. Sequences of plasma and tissue kallikreins and their alternative transcripts were collected from the NCBI and Ensembl databases, and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis was performed by Bayesian as well as maximum likelihood methods. Plasma and tissue kallikreins exhibit high sequence similarity in the trypsin domain (>50%. Phylogenetic analysis indicates an early divergence of KLKB1, which groups closely with plasminogen, chymotrypsin, and complement factor D (CFD, in a monophyletic group distinct from trypsin and the tissue KLKs. Reconstruction of the earliest events leading to the diversification of the tissue KLKs is not well resolved, indicating rapid expansion in mammals. Alternative transcripts of each KLK gene show species-specific divergence, while examination of sequence conservation indicates that many annotated human KLK isoforms

  12. Epilithic diatom assemblages and their relationships with environmental variables in the Nilüfer Stream Basin, Bursa, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacaoğlu, Didem; Dalkıran, Nurhayat

    2017-05-01

    Patterns of epilithic diatom species distribution in relation to environmental variables from 12 sampling sites on the main stream and some of its tributaries in the Nilüfer Stream Basin were determined using multivariate statistical techniques. The stream basin has been heavily influenced by anthropogenic effects. The upper part of the basin that is distant from pollution sources mostly has a spring water quality, while the lower part where the stream flows through the urban area and receives domestic and industrial wastewater has a quite low quality. Ordination techniques using both diatom taxa and 21 environmental variables revealed non- to slightly polluted upper basin sites and highly polluted lower basin sites along the stream. The results showed that the stream catchment is polluted gradually from upstream to downstream and that most of the downstream sites have very low water quality especially in summer months. A total of 134 epilithic diatom taxa belonging to 50 genera were recorded for 12 sample sites. Partial CCA results indicated that water temperature (T), discharge (Q), and total phosphorus (TP) were the most important variables affecting the distribution of diatom species. Unpolluted or slightly polluted upper basin sites were dominated by Achnanthidium minutissimum, Cocconeis placentula var. euglypta, Gomphonema olivaceum, and Navicula tripunctata. Highly polluted lower basin sites were characterized by high levels of organic and inorganic matters and low dissolved oxygen (DO) values. Species widespread in the highly polluted lower basin sites such as Nitzschia umbonata, Nitzschia amphibia, Nitzschia capitellata, Nitzschia palea, Nitzschia paleacea, Luticola mutica, and Stephanodiscus niagarae were mostly related to pollution indicator variables such as ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N), sodium (Na(+)), total phosphorus (TP), and total organic matter (TOM).

  13. Percepção entomológica por docentes e discentes do município de Santa Cruz do Xingu, Mato Grosso, Brasil

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    Anna Frida Hatsue Modro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n2p153 Este trabalho objetivou identificar e interpretar a percepção entomológica de alunos e professores residentes em Santa Cruz do Xingu, região do Médio Araguaia. Entrevistas semi-estruturadas foram realizadas em dezembro de 2006 com alunos e professores dos ensinos fundamental, médio e Educação de Jovens e Adultos em dezembro de 2006, no Município de Santa Cruz do Xingu, Mato Grosso. Dos seres vivos percebidos como “insetos” por todos os entrevistados, 82,75% pertenceram à Classe Insecta, as demais citações foram pertencentes ao Reino Fungi e a outras Classes do Reino Animalia (Amphibia, Arachnida, Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Gastropoda, Mammalia e Reptilia. Os “insetos” foram definidos, como bichos pequenos, nojentos ou perigosos. Em contato com os “insetos”, 76% dos entrevistados admitiram matá-los e a maior razão para tal reação foi o dano psicológico causado pela presença destes animais (65%. Para 78% dos entrevistados, os “insetos” foram seres sem importância positiva. Devido ao pouco conhecimento sobre os seus aspectos positivos, a percepção dos “insetos” por alunos e professores residentes da região de Santa Cruz do Xingu está relacionada, principalmente, à atribuição de qualidades negativas a estes animais, provocando reações de agressividade contra os “insetos” assim que percebidos no ambiente.

  14. Two novel antimicrobial peptides from skin venoms of spadefoot toad Megophrys minor.

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    Yang, Hong-Ling; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Xuan; Kong, Yi

    2016-04-01

    Amphibian skin contains rich bioactive peptides. Especially, a large amount of antimicrobial peptides have been identified from amphibian skin secretions. Antimicrobial peptides display potent cytolytic activities against a range of pathogenic bacteria and fungi and play important defense roles. No antimicrobial peptides have been reported from toads belonging to the family of Pelobatidae. In this work, two novel antimicrobial peptides (Megin 1 and Megin 2) were purified and characterized from the skin venoms of spadefoot toad Megophrys minor (Pelobatidae, Anura, Amphibia). Megin 1 had an amino acid sequence of FLKGCWTKWYSLKPKCPF-NH2, which was composed of 18 amino acid residues and contained an intra-molecular disulfide bridge and an amidated C-terminus. Megin 2 had an amino acid sequence of FFVLKFLLKWAGKVGLEHLACKFKNWC, which was composed of 27 amino acid residues and contained an intra-molecular disulfide bridge. Both Megin 1 and Megin 2 showed potential antimicrobial abilities against bacteria and fungi. The MICs of Megin 1 against Escherichia coli, Bacillus dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Candida albicans were 25, 3, 6.25, 3, and 50 μg·mL(-1), respectively. The corresponding MICs for Megin 2 were 6.25, 1.5, 12.5, 1.5, and 12.5 μg·mL(-1), respectively. They also exerted strong hemolytic activity against human and rabbit red cells. The results suggested that megin peptides in the toad skin of M. minor displayed toxic effects on both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. This was the first report of antimicrobial peptides from amphibians belonging to the family of Pelobatidae.

  15. Neogene amphibians and reptiles (Caudata, Anura, Gekkota, Lacertilia, and Testudines) from the south of Western Siberia, Russia, and Northeastern Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazhigin, Vladimir S.

    2017-01-01

    Background The present-day amphibian and reptile fauna of Western Siberia are the least diverse of the Palaearctic Realm, as a consequence of the unfavourable climatic conditions that predominate in this region. The origin and emergence of these herpetofaunal groups are poorly understood. Aside from the better-explored European Neogene localities yielding amphibian and reptile fossil remains, the Neogene herpetofauna of Western Asia is understudied. The few available data need critical reviews and new interpretations, taking into account the more recent records of the European herpetofauna. The comparison of this previous data with that of European fossil records would provide data on palaeobiogeographic affiliations of the region as well as on the origin and emergence of the present-day fauna of Western Siberia. An overview of the earliest occurrences of certain amphibian lineages is still needed. In addition, studies that address such knowledge gaps can be useful for molecular biologists in their calibration of molecular clocks. Methods and Results In this study, we considered critically reviewed available data from amphibian and reptile fauna from over 40 Western Siberian, Russian and Northeastern Kazakhstan localities, ranging from the Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene. Herein, we provided new interpretations that arose from our assessment of the previously published and new data. More than 50 amphibians and reptile taxa were identified belonging to families Hynobiidae, Cryptobranchidae, Salamandridae, Palaeobatrachidae, Bombinatoridae, Pelobatidae, Hylidae, Bufonidae, Ranidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, and Emydidae. Palaeobiogeographic analyses were performed for these groups and palaeoprecipitation values were estimated for 12 localities, using the bioclimatic analysis of herpetofaunal assemblages. Conclusion The Neogene assemblage of Western Siberia was found to be dominated by groups of European affinities, such as Palaeobatrachidae, Bombina, Hyla, Bufo

  16. Survey Research on Species of Predatory Natural Enemy in Paddy Ecosystem of Tongliao Areas%通辽地区稻田生态系统捕食性天敌种类的调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安瑞军; 石凯; 李嫒嫒; 张冬梅

    2012-01-01

    为探讨稻田害虫的生物防治及生态控制技术,以稻田捕食性天敌为研究材料,采用田间调查、采集标本、室内鉴定的方法,对稻田捕食性天敌进行了初步研究。研究结果表明:在通辽地区稻田生态系统中,有捕食性天敌20科59种,其中捕食性昆虫属于蜻蜓目、螳螂目、脉翅目、半翅目、鞘翅目5个目的10科32种,捕食性蜘蛛9科25种。优势种主要是黑肩绿盲蝽、青翅隐翅虫、龟纹瓢虫、草间小黑蛛、机敏漏斗蛛,占捕食性天敌总量的45.5%。%In order to explore the biological control and ecological control techniques to paddy pests,the predatory natural enemy of paddy field was studied in 2005-2008 in Tongliao,Inner Mongolia,China by using field survey,collecting specimens and indoor identification method.It is found that there were 59 predator species belonging to 20 families in paddy ecosystem of Tongliao Areas.Among of them,32 species of insect belonged to 10 families and 5 orders,25 species of spider belonged to 9 families,and 2 species of frog belonged to Ranidae were identified.The five insect orders were Odonata,Mantodea,Neuroptera,Hemiptera and Coleoptera.The dominant species were Cyrtorrhinus lividipennis Reuter,Paederus fuscipes Curtis,Propylea japonica(Thunberg),Erigonidium graminicolum(Sundevall) and Agelena difficilis Fox,and they accounted for 45.5% of the total number of predatory natural enemy.

  17. Assessing Aquatic Ecological Risk of Aniline by Species Sensitivity Distributions%应用物种敏感性分布评估苯胺的水生生态风险

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡习邦; 曾东; 王俊能; 贺德春; 许振成

    2016-01-01

    Species sensitivity distributions (SSD) method was used to assess the ecological risk of aniline for freshwater organisms. The hazardous concentration for 5% of the species (HC5) was calculated, and the distinguished character of hazardous concentrations of aniline to different species was analyzed. The acute ecological risks of the aniline and the sensitivity of different freshwater species were assessed in the different surface water body in China, including environmental accident water. The results showed that different organisms have different tolerance range of aniline. That was in the order of Molluscas < Arthropod < Algae < Crustacean < Amphibia < Worms < Fishes < Ciliophora < Annelida. The wider tolerance range of aniline for organisms indicated that the increasing trend of ecological risk would slow down when the aniline’s concentration increased. The HC5 for all the species from low to high was in the order of Crustacean < Worms < Fishes < Molluscas < Arthropod < Algae < Amphibia < Ciliophora < Algae < Annelida < Arthropod < Molluscas < Amphibia. The lower HC5 is, the higher ecological risk of aniline for species is. Crustacean was the most sensitive specie among all the freshwater species with the HC5 of 2.29μg·L-1. Meanwhile, the HC5 for all of the freshwater species came up to 4.72μg·L-1. The value of Potential affected fraction (PAF) reflected the different damage degree in different pollution scenario. There was very low aquatic ecological riskby using SSD to assess the acute ecological risk assessment of aniline from several surface water body in China, which the PAF value was close to 0. It was obviously posed ecological damage to crustacean and worms during the aniline spilling accident in Shanxi Province.%应用物种敏感性分布(Species Sensitivity Distribution,SSD)方法构建了淡水生物对苯胺(Aniline)的敏感性分布曲线,计算了苯胺对不同生物的5%危害浓度(HC5),分析比较不同类别生物

  18. Spray droplet size, drift potential, and risks to nontarget organisms from aerially applied glyphosate for coca control in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Andrew J; Solomon, Keith R; Marshall, E J P

    2009-01-01

    end of the spray boom as recorded electronically +/-5%) for protection of sensitive plants were 50-120 m for coca spray scenarios and considerably lower for poppy spray scenarios. The equivalent buffer zone for amphibia was 5 m. The low toxicity of glyphosate to humans suggests that these aerial applications are not a concern for human health.

  19. Gene structure, transcripts and calciotropic effects of the PTH family of peptides in Xenopus and chicken

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    Power Deborah M

    2010-12-01

    have 2 genes and lack PTH-L. It is hypothesized that genes of the PTH family appeared at approximately the same time during the vertebrate radiation and evolved via gene duplication/deletion events. PTH-L was lost from the genome of eutherian mammals and PTH, which has a paracrine distribution in lower vertebrates, became the product of a specific endocrine tissue in Amphibia, the parathyroid gland. The PTHrP gene organisation diverged and became more complex in vertebrates and retained its widespread tissue distribution which is congruent with its paracrine nature.

  20. Base composition, selection, and phylogenetic significance of indels in the recombination activating gene-1 in vertebrates

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    Vences Miguel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Recombination Activating Proteins, RAG1 and RAG2, play a crucial role in the immune response in vertebrates. Among the nuclear markers currently used for phylogenetic purposes, Rag1 has especially enjoyed enormous popularity, since it successfully contributed to elucidating the relationships among and within a large variety of vertebrate lineages. We here report on a comparative investigation of the genetic variation, base composition, presence of indels, and selection in Rag1 in different vertebrate lineages (Actinopterygii, Amphibia, Aves, Chondrichthyes, Crocodylia, Lepidosauria, Mammalia, and Testudines through the analysis of 582 sequences obtained from Genbank. We also analyze possible differences between distinct parts of the gene with different type of protein functions. Results In the vertebrate lineages studied, Rag1 is over 3 kb long. We observed a high level of heterogeneity in base composition at the 3rd codon position in some of the studied vertebrate lineages and in some specific taxa. This result is also paralleled by taxonomic differences in the GC content at the same codon position. Moreover, positive selection occurs at some sites in Aves, Lepidosauria and Testudines. Indels, which are often used as phylogenetic characters, are more informative across vertebrates in the 5' than in the 3'-end of the gene. When the entire gene is considered, the use of indels as phylogenetic character only recovers one major vertebrate clade, the Actinopterygii. However, in numerous cases insertions or deletions are specific to a monophyletic group. Conclusions Rag1 is a phylogenetic marker of undoubted quality. Our study points to the need of carrying out a preliminary investigation on the base composition and the possible existence of sites under selection of this gene within the groups studied to avoid misleading resolution. The gene shows highly heterogeneous base composition, which affects some taxa in particular and