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Sample records for platycodon grandiflorum ameliorate

  1. Cytotoxic Triterpenoid Saponins from the Roots of Platycodon grandiflorum

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    Jing-Kui Tian

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioguided fractionation of the ethanol extracts obtained from Platycodon grandiflorum roots led to isolation of two new triterpenoid saponins, characterized as 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2β,12α,16α,23,24-pentahydroxyoleanane-28(13-lactone (1 and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2β,12α,16α,23α-tetrahydroxyoleanane-28(13- lactone (2 by 1D- and 2D-NMR and MS techniques, as well as chemical means. Both compounds showed cytotoxic activity against human ECA-109 cells.

  2. Molecular marker development and genetic diversity exploration by RNA-seq in Platycodon grandiflorum.

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    Kim, Hyun Jung; Jung, Jungsu; Kim, Myung-Shin; Lee, Je Min; Choi, Doil; Yeam, Inhwa

    2015-10-01

    Platycodon grandiflorum, generally known as the bellflower or balloon flower, is the only species in the genus Platycodon of the family Campanulaceae. Platycodon plants have been traditionally used as a medicinal crop in East Asia for their antiphlogistic, antitussive, and expectorant properties. Despite these practical uses, marker-assisted selection and molecular breeding in platycodons have lagged due to the lack of genetic information on this genus. In this study, we performed RNA-seq analysis of three platycodon accessions to develop molecular markers and explore genetic diversity. First, genic simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were retrieved and compared; dinucleotide motifs were the most abundant repeats (39%-40%) followed by trinucleotide (25%-31%), tetranucleotide (1.5%-1.9%), and pentanucleotide (0.3%-1.0%) repeats. The result of in silico SSR analysis, three SSR markers were detected and showed possibility to distinguish three platycodon accessions. After several filtering procedures, 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to design 40 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers. Twelve of these PCR-based markers were validated as highly polymorphic and utilized to investigate genetic diversity in 21 platycodon accessions collected from various regions of South Korea. Collectively, the 12 markers yielded 35 alleles, with an average of 3 alleles per locus. Polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.087 to 0.693, averaging 0.373 per locus. Since platycodon genetics have not been actively studied, the sequence information and the DNA markers generated from our research have the potential to contribute to further genetic improvements, genomic studies, and gene discovery in this genus.

  3. [Comparative study on the erect and fallen types of Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) DC].

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    Gao, W; Tang, X; Li, Z; Xiao, P

    1997-03-01

    Based on botanica characters, phenophase, yield and content of active constituents, the erect and fallen types of platycodon grandiflorum were compared. The results show that the comprehensive characters of erect type are better than those of fallen type and the erect type is therefore good for popularization. Some specific characters of the fallen type are better than those of the erect type, and the fallen type is therefore to be preserved as one of the germ plasm resources.

  4. Platycosides from the Roots of Platycodon grandiflorum and Their Health Benefits

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    Nyakudya, Elijah; Jeong, Jong Hoon; Lee, Nam Keun; Jeong, Yong-Seob

    2014-01-01

    The extracts and pure saponins from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (PG) are reported to have a wide range of health benefits. Platycosides (saponins) from the roots of PG are characterized by a structure containing a triterpenoid aglycone and two sugar chains. Saponins are of commercial significance, and their applications are increasing with increasing evidence of their health benefits. The biological effects of saponins include cytotoxic effects against cancer cells, neuroprotective a...

  5. Candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins in Platycodon grandiflorum identified by transcriptome analysis

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    Chunhua eMa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platycodon grandiflorum is the only species in the genus Platycodon of the family Campanulaceae, which has been traditionally used as a medicinal plant for its lung-heat-clearing, antitussive, and expectorant properties in China, Japanese and Korean. Oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins were the main chemical components of P. grandiflorum and platycodin D was the abundant and main bioactive component, but little is known about their biosynthesis in plants. Hence, P. grandiflorum is an ideal medicinal plant for studying the biosynthesis of Oleanane-type saponins. In addition, the genomic information of this important herbal plant is unavailable.Principal Findings:A total of 58,580,566 clean reads were obtained, which were assembled into 34,053 unigenes, with an average length of 936 bp and N50 of 1,661 bp by analyzing the transcriptome data of P. grandiflorum. Among these 34,053 unigenes, 22,409 unigenes (65.80% were annotated based on the information available from public databases, including Nr, NCBI, Swiss-Prot, KOG and KEGG. Furthermore, 21 candidate cytochrome P450 genes and 17 candidate UDP-glycosyltransferase genes most likely involved in triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis pathway were discovered from the transcriptome sequencing of P. grandiflorum. In addition, 10,626 SSRs were identified based on the transcriptome data, which would provide abundant candidates of molecular markers for genetic diversity and genetic map for this medicinal plant.Conclusion:The genomic data obtained from P. grandiflorum, especially the identification of putative genes involved in triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis pathway, will facilitate our understanding of the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins at molecular level.

  6. [Effects of applying controlled-release compound fertilizer on Platycodon grandiflorum growth].

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    Zhu, Li-xiang; Wang, Jian-hua

    2010-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in 2008 to study the effects of applying controlled-release compound fertilizer (N:P2O5:K2O = 14:14:14) on the growth of Platycodon grandiflorum in the medicinal herbal farm of Shandong Agricultural University. Comparing with the application of common compound fertilizer (N:P2O5: K2O=15: 15: 15), applying equivalent amount of the controlled-release fertilizer increased the leaf chlorophyll content, root volume, root activity, and root diameter of P. grandiflorum at the late growth stage, but decreased the root length. When the N application rate was 0.24 and 0.32 g x kg(-1) soil, applying the controlled-release compound fertilizer increased the root yield by 26.78% and 22.50%, and the root soluble sugar, protein, and total saponin contents by 9.77% and 6.99%, 11.38% and 2.20%, and 8.85% and 5.47%, respectively, compared with applying the common compound fertilizer. More nitrogen application made the root soluble sugar content decreased but the total saponin content increased. Under our experimental condition, applying the controlled-release compound fertilizer with an application rate of 0.24 g N x kg(-1) soil could obtain the best effect for P. grandiflorum.

  7. Evaluation of the spermicidal and contraceptive activity of Platycodin D, a Saponin from Platycodon grandiflorum.

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    Zongliang Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The extract of Platycodon grandiflorum has been reported to have effective spermicidal activity. This study was designed to evaluate the spermicidal and contraceptive activity, as well as the safety, of Platycodin D (PD, a major saponin in Platycodon grandiflorum. METHODS: Using the computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA test criteria, the sperm-immobilizing activity of PD was studied using highly motile human sperm. The sperm viability was assessed by fluorescent staining using SYBR-14 (living sperm and propidium iodide (dead sperm. The sperm membrane integrity was assessed by evaluating the hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS and examinations by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The in vivo contraceptive efficacy was evaluated in rats using post-intrauterine PD application. The comet assay was employed to determine whether PD caused DNA damage in the sperm. Vaginal biopsies were also performed to determine whether the PD gel induced vaginal inflammation. RESULTS: A dose-dependent effect of PD on the sperm motility and viability was observed. The maximum spermicidal effect was observed with a 0.25 mM concentration of PD. More than 70% of the PD-treated sperm lost their HOS responsiveness at a concentration of 0.20 mM PD, indicating that PD caused injury to the sperm plasma membrane. TEM and SEM revealed significant damage to both the head and tail membranes of the sperm. PD decreased the fertility to zero in rats, was non-DNA damaging and was not harmful to the vaginal tissue in the rats. CONCLUSION: PD has significant spermicidal activity that should be explored in further studies.

  8. Platycosides from the Roots of Platycodon grandiflorum and Their Health Benefits.

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    Nyakudya, Elijah; Jeong, Jong Hoon; Lee, Nam Keun; Jeong, Yong-Seob

    2014-06-01

    The extracts and pure saponins from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (PG) are reported to have a wide range of health benefits. Platycosides (saponins) from the roots of PG are characterized by a structure containing a triterpenoid aglycone and two sugar chains. Saponins are of commercial significance, and their applications are increasing with increasing evidence of their health benefits. The biological effects of saponins include cytotoxic effects against cancer cells, neuroprotective activity, antiviral activity, and cholesterol lowering effects. Saponins with commercial value range from crude plant extracts, which can be used for their foaming properties, to high purity saponins such as platycodin D, which can be used for its health applications (e.g., as a vaccine adjuvant). This review reveals that platycosides have many health benefits and have the potential to be used as a remedy against many of the major health hazards (e.g., cancer, obesity, alzheimer's) faced by populations around the world. Methods of platycoside purification and analysis are also covered in this review.

  9. Root Rot of Balloon Flower (Platycodon grandiflorum) Caused by Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum.

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    Jeon, Chi Sung; Kim, Gyoung Hee; Son, Kyeong In; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Jeon, Kwon-Seok; Yoon, Jun-Hyuck; Koh, Young Jin

    2013-12-01

    Balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorum) is a kind of mountain herbs whose roots have restorative properties and the cultivating acreage of balloon flower has been steadily increasing in Korea. More frequent rain and high amount of rainfalls as a result of climate changes predisposed balloon flower to the outbreaks of root rot at high-density cultivation area in recent years. Root crowns were usually discolored into brown to blackish brown at first and the infected plants showed slight wilting symptom at early infection stage. Severely infected roots were entirely rotted and whole plants eventually died at late infection stage. The overall disease severities of root rot of balloon flower were quite variable according to the surveyed fields in Jeonnam, Gyeongnam and Jeju Provinces, which ranged from 0.1% to 40%. The root rot occurred more severely at the paddy or clay soils than the sandy soils and their severities were much higher at lowland than upland in the same localty. The disease increased with aging of the balloon flower. The causal fungi were identified as Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum on the basis of their mycological characteristics. The optimum temperature ranges of their mycelial growths was found to be 24°C. The pathogenic characters of F. solani and F. oxysporum treated by artificial wounding inoculation on healthy roots of balloon flower revealed that F. solani was more virulent than F. oxysporum. This study identified the causal agents of root rot of balloon flower as Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum, probably for the first time.

  10. Microbial conversion of major ginsenosides in ginseng total saponins by Platycodon grandiflorum endophytes

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    Lei Cui

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: This is the first report about conversion of major ginsenosides into minor ginsenosides by fermentation with P. grandiflorum endophytes. The results of the study indicate endophyte JG09 would be a potential microbial source for obtaining minor ginsenosides.

  11. Flowering Phenology and Reproductive Characteristics of Platycodon grandiflorum%桔梗开花物候与生殖特征

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    于营; 郭靖; 王志清; 韩月乔; 欧阳艳飞

    2014-01-01

    White and purple Platycodon grandiflorum populations were taken as test objects to study their phenology and reproductive characteristics .Single flowers′floral dynamics ,flowering phenology indexes and fruit setting rate of the two populations were analyzed ,and the effects of flowering phenology indexes on the reproductive success of P . grandiflorum were studied .The flowering span of P . grandiflorum was from early July to mid and late September ,and the flowering phase of the population ,individual , and single flower lasted approximately 35~47 ,26~31 ,and 5~7 days ,respectively .The flowering am-plitude curves of the populations at individual level were of single peak and higher synchrony ,taking on a“mass-flowering” pattern . Correlation analysis showed that white flower P . grandiflorum fruit setting number had significantly positive correlation with flourishing flowering date and bud number and purple flower P . grandiflorum fruit setting number had significantly positive correlation with bud number .Vari-ation coefficient analysis of flowering phenology indicated that there existed significant differences in the total flower number ,flowering amplitude ,peak flowering date ,last flowering date and fruit setting ,but less difference in synchrony index ,first flowering date ,flowering duration and fruit setting number among the two populations .%研究了白花桔梗和紫花桔梗的开花物候和生殖特征,分析了2个群体的单花开花动态、开花物候指数和结实率,以及开花物候指数对桔梗生殖成功的影响。结果表明:桔梗花期为7月初至9月中下旬,桔梗开花一般历时35~47 d ,单株花期一般为26~31 d ,单花花期一般为5~7 d。2个群体个体水平的开花振幅曲线呈单峰型曲线,并且开花同步指数较高,表现出一种集中开花式样。相关分析表明:白花桔梗中,坐果数与开花高峰期和花蕾数呈极显著正相关,紫花桔梗中坐果

  12. [Effect of seed soaking with aluminum on seed germination and seedling physiology of Platycodon grandiflorum].

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    Zhu, Lixiang; Wang, Jianhua; Fang, Xinsheng; Wang, Yong; Hao, Junkai; Weiwei, Ma; Jiao, Tianying

    2010-12-01

    In order to study the effect of seed soaking with different aluminum solution on seed germination and seedling physiological characteristics of Platycondon grandiflorum, two P. grandiflorum varieties'seed (the white flower and the purple flower) were soaked in Al3+ solution with different concentrations (0, 10, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg x L) for 24 h, then germinated in illumination incubator. Results showed that the aluminum toxicity on the trends of the germination rate, germination index and vigor index was positive associated with its concentration, and the Al tolerance of the purple was slightly greater than that of the white. There were some relationships between the physiological indices, which were the leakage rate of electrolyte, the malonaldehyde (MDA) content, the activities of peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) , the free praline(Pro) and the soluble sugar contents, with the concentrations of Al. It was suggested that there was Al tolerance difference between the two P. grandiflorum varieties: the purple flower was greater than the white.

  13. 桔梗现代研究及应用特点分析%Modern Research and Application Characteristics Analysis of Platycodon Grandiflorum

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    蒋娜; 苗明三

    2015-01-01

    桔梗含有三萜皂苷、多糖、黄酮、甾醇、脂肪酸以及微量元素等,具有祛痰、镇咳、抗炎、免疫调节、抗肿瘤、保肝、调节血脂、降血糖、抗肥胖、抗疲劳等药理作用。未来桔梗的食疗及在糖尿病、心脑血管病方面的应用将是研究的重点。%Jiegeng( Platycodon Grandiflorum)contains triterpenoid saponins,polysaccharides and it has roles of removing phlegm,relie­ ving cough,and anti­inflammatory,immunomodulatory,antitumor,liver protection,regulating blood fat,antidiabetics,anti­obesity,fatigue resistance and other pharmacological effects. Jiegeng( Platycodon Grandiflorum)diet and the application in diabetes,cardio­cerebrovas­ cular disease will be the focus of the research and application in the future.

  14. Enhancement of Chlorogenic Acid Production in Hairy Roots of Platycodon grandiflorum by Over-Expression of An Arabidopsis thaliana Transcription Factor AtPAP1

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    Pham Anh Tuan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To improve the production of chlorogenic acid (CGA in hairy roots of Platycodon grandiflorum, we induced over-expression of Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor production of anthocyanin pigment (AtPAP1 using an Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation system. Twelve hairy root lines showing over-expression of AtPAP1 were generated. In order to investigate the regulation of AtPAP1 on the activities of CGA biosynthetic genes, the expression levels of seven P. grandiflorum CGA biosynthetic genes were analyzed in the hairy root line that had the greatest accumulation of AtPAP1 transcript, OxPAP1-1. The introduction of AtPAP1 increased the mRNA levels of all examined CGA biosynthetic genes and resulted in a 900% up-regulation of CGA accumulation in OxPAP1-1 hairy roots relative to controls. This suggests that P. grandiflorum hairy roots that over-express the AtPAP1 gene are a potential alternative source of roots for the production of CGA.

  15. Enhancement of chlorogenic acid production in hairy roots of Platycodon grandiflorum by over-expression of an Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor AtPAP1.

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    Tuan, Pham Anh; Kwon, Do Yeon; Lee, Sanghyun; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Park, Nam Il; Park, Sang Un

    2014-08-22

    To improve the production of chlorogenic acid (CGA) in hairy roots of Platycodon grandiflorum, we induced over-expression of Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor production of anthocyanin pigment (AtPAP1) using an Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation system. Twelve hairy root lines showing over-expression of AtPAP1 were generated. In order to investigate the regulation of AtPAP1 on the activities of CGA biosynthetic genes, the expression levels of seven P. grandiflorum CGA biosynthetic genes were analyzed in the hairy root line that had the greatest accumulation of AtPAP1 transcript, OxPAP1-1. The introduction of AtPAP1 increased the mRNA levels of all examined CGA biosynthetic genes and resulted in a 900% up-regulation of CGA accumulation in OxPAP1-1 hairy roots relative to controls. This suggests that P. grandiflorum hairy roots that over-express the AtPAP1 gene are a potential alternative source of roots for the production of CGA.

  16. 桔梗内生真菌的分离鉴定及其生物学特性研究%Isolation, Identification and Biological Characterization of Endophytic Fungi from Platycodon grandiflorum

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    潘景芝; 时东方; 周勇; 王琦

    2007-01-01

    为了解药用植物桔梗(Platycodon grandiflorum)内生真菌的组成情况,利用组织分离法,从桔梗的根部分离得到菌落形态一致的链格孢菌,根据其形态特征及生物学特性,鉴定为桔梗链格孢(Alternaria platycodonis T.Y.Zhang).

  17. The growth and saponin production of Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq. A. DC. (Chinese bellflower hairy roots cultures maintained in shake flasks and mist bioreactor

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    Natalia Urbańska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The growth and saponin accumulation were measured in two lines of transgenic hairy roots of Platycodon grandiflorum, Pl 6 and Pl 17, cultured for 8 weeks in 250-ml shake flasks containing 50 ml of hormone-free woody plant medium supplemented with 40 g/l sucrose and in the Pl 17 line cultured for 12 weeks in a 5-l mist bioreactor containing 1.5 l of the same medium. With both methods, the growth of transgenic hairy roots was assessed as both fresh and dry weight and the biomass growth was correlated with the conductivity and sucrose uptake. The accumulation of saponins was measured and compared with that in roots derived from the field cultivation. The saponin concentrations were significantly higher in the two hairy root lines cultured in shake flasks [6.92 g/100 g d.w. (g% and 5.82 g% in Pl 6 and Pl 17, respectively] and the line cultured in the bioreactor (5.93 g% than in the roots derived from the field cultivation (4.02 g%. The results suggest that cultures of P. grandiflorum hairy roots may be a valuable source for obtaining saponins.

  18. Purification and Content Determination of the Polysaccharides from Platycodon grandiflorum%桔梗多糖的分离纯化与含量测定

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    贾林; 陆金健; 卢德赵; 施佳杰; 周文雅; 沃兴德

    2011-01-01

    To purify the polysaccharide from Platycodon grandiflorum via ion-exchange chromatography and detect the contents of saccharide and protein, the crude polysaccharide named PPS80 was extracted from Platycodon grandiflorum using hot water-ethanol fractional precipitation.After removing the protein by Sevage method, the polysaccharide was purified and identified with DEAE-Sepharose FF ion-exchange chromatography and Sephadex G-75 gel chromatography, respectively.The contents of saccharide and protein were determined by phenol-sulfate acid method and Coomassie brilliant blue staining assay, respectively.The results showed that two homogeneous constituents were isolated from PPS80 named as PPS80-Ⅰ and PPS80-Ⅱ.It was determined that PPS80-Ⅰ contained 90.32% saccharides and 0.48% proteins, while PPS80-Ⅱ contained 86.75% saccharides and 1.96% proteins, respectively.Two homogeneous constituents of polysaccharides were efficiently purified from the crude polysaccharide PPS80 via DEAE-Sepharose FF ion-exchange chromatography and Sephadex G-75 gel chromatography.These results laid an experimental foundation for further research on the polysaccharides from Platycodon grandiflorum.%利用离子交换凝胶柱层析法分离纯化桔梗多糖,并对纯化组分进行纯度鉴定和糖含量及蛋白质含量测定.桔梗饮片经热水浸提、乙醇分步沉淀得桔梗粗多糖PPS80,Sevage法脱蛋白后,通过DEAE-Sepharose FF离子交换和Sephadex G-75凝胶柱层析进行纯化鉴定.分别采用苯酚-硫酸法和考马斯亮蓝染色法测定纯化后各组分的糖和蛋白质含量.试验结果表明,从桔梗粗多糖PPS80中分离得到2个均一性组分PPS80-I和PPS80-Ⅱ,糖含量分别为90.32%和86.75%,蛋白质含量分别为0.48%和1.96%.该试验首次采用DEAE-Sepharose FF离子交换柱层析结合Sephadex G-75凝胶柱层析有效分离纯化出桔梗多糖均一性组分,为桔梗多糖的进一步研究提供基础.

  19. Saponins, especially platycodin D, from Platycodon grandiflorum modulate hepatic lipogenesis in high-fat diet-fed rats and high glucose-exposed HepG2 cells

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    Hwang, Yong Pil [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, International University of Korea, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Khanal, Tilak; Song, Gye Young [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Myoung Soo [College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun-Sun [Molecular Cancer Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Chul; Lee, Young Chun [Division of Food Science, International University of Korea, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hye Gwang, E-mail: hgjeong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a central role in controlling hepatic lipid metabolism through modulating the downstream acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) pathway. Saponins, particularly platycodin D, from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (Changkil saponins, CKS) have a variety of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CKS on hepatic lipogenesis and on the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, and the mechanisms involved. CKS attenuated fat accumulation and the induction of the lipogenic genes encoding SREBP-1c and fatty acid synthase in the livers of HFD-fed rats and in steatotic HepG2 cells. Blood biochemical analyses and histopathological examinations showed that CKS prevented liver injury. CKS and platycodin D each increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in HFD-fed rats and HepG2 cells. The use of specific inhibitors showed that platycodin D activated AMPK via SIRT1/CaMKKβ in HepG2 cells. This study demonstrates that CKS or platycodin D alone can regulate hepatic lipogenesis via an AMPK-dependent signalling pathway. - Highlights: ► CKS attenuated fat accumulation in HFD-fed rats and in steatotic HepG2 cells. ► CKS and its major component, platycodin D, inhibited the levels of SREBP-1 and FAS. ► CKS and platycodin D increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC. ► Platycodin D activated AMPK via SIRT1/CaMKKβ in HepG2 cells.

  20. Platycodon grandiflorum extract represses up-regulated adipocyte fatty acid binding protein triggered by a high fat feeding in obese rats

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    Yoon Shin Park; Yoosik Yoon; Hong Seok Ahn

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of Platycodon grandiflorum extract (PGE) on lipid metabolism and FABP mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue of high fat diet-induced obese rats.METHODS: PGE was treated to investigate the inhibitory effect on the pre-adipocyte 3T3-L1 differentiation and pancreatic lipase activity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with an average weight of 439.03 ± 7.61 g were divided into four groups: the control groups that fed an experimental diet alone (C and H group) and PGE treatment groups that administered PGE along with a control diet or HFD at a concentration of 150 mg/kg body weight (C + PGE and H + PGE group, respectively) for 7 wk. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerol (TG) concentrations were measured from the tail vein of rats. Adipocyte cell area was measured from subcutaneous adipose tissue and the fatty acid binding protein (FABP) mRNA expression was analyzed by northern blot analysis.RESULTS: PGE treatment inhibited 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation, and also decreased pancreatic lipase activity. In this experiment, PGE significantly reduced plasma TC and TG concentrations as well as body weight and subcutaneous adipose tissue weight. PGE also significantly decreased the size of subcutaneous adipocytes. Furthermore, it significantly repressed the up-regulation of FABP mRNA expression induced by a high-fat feeding in subcutaneous adipose tissue.CONCLUSION: PGE has a plasma lipid lowering-effect and anti-obesity effect in obese rats fed a high fat diet.From these results, we can suggest the possibility that PGE can be used as a food ingredient or drug component to therapeutically control obesity.

  1. 不同贮藏温度对桔梗花粉生活力及授粉结实能力的影响%Effect of Storage Temperature on Pollen Viability and Seeds Setting of Platycodon grandiflorum

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    刘自刚

    2011-01-01

    以ME3+BK+100 g/L蔗糖+150 g/L PEG4000作为培养基,把桔梗新鲜花粉在不同的温度下进行培养,结果表明,30℃培养1.5 h为花粉萌发和花粉管生长的最佳培养条件.把桔梗花粉贮藏在不同的温度下,结果显示:低温贮藏可明显延长花粉的寿命,常温下花粉仅能贮藏4d左右,但在10、4、-20℃下贮藏,花粉寿命可分别达60、90、150d以上;随着贮藏时间的延长,花粉的授粉结实率均呈下降趋势,但低温贮藏可明显减缓结实率下降的速度.%Pollens of Platycodon grandiflorum were cultured in the culture medium of ME3+BK+10% sucrose+150 g/L PEG (pH5.8). The results showed that the pollen germination were best at 30℃ for 1.5 h. Pollens of Platycodon grandiflorum were stored under different temperatures. The result showed that life of pollen at being stored under low temperature was prolonged significantly. The life span on pollen stored at 10 ℃, 4℃ and -20℃ in icebox was 60 d, 90 d and 150 d, respectively, while that for ambient temperature was about 4 d. Seeds setting of pollen after stored under different temperature was decreased with the storagetime extended, and seeds setting of pollen under ambient temperature storage was lower than those under low storage temperature.

  2. Effect of chlorpromazine combined with Platycodon grandiflorum on change of dopamine in rat striatum by microdialysis%桔梗与氯丙嗪伍用对大鼠脑纹状体多巴胺的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何新荣; 宦定才; 曹征; 刘萍

    2009-01-01

    目的:研究桔梗与氯丙嗪联合应用对大鼠脑纹状体单胺类神经递质多巴胺的影响,探讨中西药配伍应用后可能发生的药物相互作用与机制.方法:大鼠随机分成4组:生理盐水组、桔梗(生药15.2 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1))单独给药组、氯丙嗪(20mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1))单独给药组、氯丙嗪与桔梗(20 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)+15.2 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1))合并给药组,每组6只,给药10 d后,利用微透析法在大鼠脑纹状体取样,HPLC检测透析液中多巴胺水平.结果:药后140 min(取样点80 min)时,氯丙嗪+桔梗组中多巴胺水平(1.52±0.34)μg-L~(-1)显著高于氯丙嗪组(1.25±0.22)μg·L~(-1)(P<0.05)和生理盐水组(1.06±0.24)μg·L~(-1)(P<0.01).结论:桔梗与氯丙嗪合用后大鼠脑内多巴胺水平升高,治疗时同时给予桔梗,可以减少氯丙嗪的用量,达到保持疗效,降低其不良反应的目的.%Objective:To study the effects of chlorpromazine combined with Platycodon grandiflorum on the striatal extracellular dopamine Ievel in rats and to research the interaction and the mechanism of action after combining traditional Chinese medicine with western medicine.Method:Twenty four rats were randomly assigned into four groups:the control group,Platycodon group,chlorpromazine group and chlorpromazined combined with P. grandiflorum group.The level of dopamine in CSF microdialysis samples Was detected with high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detector after administration for 10 days.Result:The CSF level of DA(1.52±0.34)μg·L~(-1)was significantly higher(P<0.01)in chlorpromazine combined with P. grandiflorum group than that in the chlorpromazine group(1.25±0.22)μg·L~(-1)(P<0.05)and that in the normal control(1.06±0.24)μg·L~(-1)(P<0.01).Conclusion:The combining utilization of P. grandiflorum and chlorpromazine may increase the DA concentration of monoamine neurotransmitters,which results in under the therapeutic effect is maintained,the dosage of

  3. 氮磷钾对桔梗生长及次生代谢产物的影响%Effects of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium on the growth and secondary metabolites of Platycodon grandiflorum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 王渭玲; 徐福利; 曹鲜艳; 黄淑华; 张晓虎; 何军

    2012-01-01

    Based on the D-saturation optimal design with three factors of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium,a field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of fertilization with different nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium ratios on the growth and effective ingredients of Platycodon grandiflorum.This study showed that the fertilization greatly increased the medicinal yield of P.grandiflorum.The contribution of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium to the medicinal yield was nitrogenpotassiumphosphorus.The effect of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium application on the content of platycodin was also following the pattern as nitrogenpotassiumphosphorus.The effect of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium application on the polysaccharide content was phosphorusnitrogenpotassium.Nevertheless,both nitrogen and phosphorus had a negative effect on the accumulation of total flavone in P.grandiflorum.In terms of the medicinal yield and the content of platycodin,the optimal fertilization combination was 150 kg·hm-2 N,79.41 kg·hm-2 P2O5 together with 225 kg·hm-2 K2O.%通过田间试验,采用氮、磷、钾三因素二次D-饱和最优设计研究了氮、磷、钾肥及其配比施肥对桔梗(Platyc-odon grandiflorum)生长及次生代谢产物的影响。试验结果表明,施肥能显著提高桔梗药材产量,氮、磷、钾元素对桔梗药材产量影响依次为氮〉钾〉磷。氮、磷、钾元素对桔梗总皂苷含量影响依次为氮〉钾〉磷,对桔梗植株多糖含量影响依次为磷〉氮〉钾;氮、磷对黄酮积累表现出一定负效应。依据桔梗药材产量及总皂苷含量提出桔梗合理施肥方案为N 150kg.hm-2、P2O579.41kg.hm-2、K2O 225kg.hm-2。

  4. Determination of the platycodin D in platycodon Grandiflorum extracts using reversed phase-high performance Liquid Chromatography-Evaporative Light-scattering Detector%RP-HPLC-ELSD法测定贝杏止咳膏中桔梗皂苷D的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙芳

    2011-01-01

    Objective A method for the determination of the platycodin D in Platycodon Grandiflorum extracts was developed using reversed phase-high performance Liquid Chromatography- Evaporative Light-scattering Detector(RP-HPLC-ELSD). Methods The RP-HPLC-ELSD separation was carried out on a C18 (4.6 mm×250 mm,5 μm) with Acetonitrile-water(25:75,v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min in 30 ℃, and detected at 210 nm. Results The mean recoveries of RP-HPLCELSD were 97.62%, and the relative standard deviations(RSD)were 0.84%(n=6). Conclusions The method of RP-HPLC-ELSD is convenient ,accurate and trustworthy. And could be used for Quality control of the platycodon Grandiflorum%目的:建立反相高效液相色谱-蒸发光散射检测法(RP-HPLC-ELSD)测定贝杏止咳膏中桔梗皂苷D含量的方法.方法:以甲醇溶液沉淀贝杏止咳膏中的蛋白,同时提取桔梗皂苷D,采用十八烷基硅烷键合硅胶色谱柱;流动相为乙腈-水(25∶75);流速为0.5 mL/min;蒸发光散射检测器检测,波长为210 nm;柱温为30 ℃.结果:RP-HPLC-ELSD的平均加样回收率为97.62%,RSD%为0.84%(n=6).结论:该方法简便易行,准确可靠,可用于贝杏止咳膏的质量控制.

  5. Effect of Nitrogen Levels and Forms on Growth and Uptake of Nitrogen and Phosphorus of Hydroponic Platycodon grandiflorum%氮水平和形态对水培桔梗生长及氮磷吸收的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵姣姣; 杨其长; 刘文科

    2013-01-01

    Effect of nitrogen nutrition conditions on growth and absorption of nitrogen and phosphorus of Platyc-odon grandiflorum were studied by designing 4 nitrogen levels ( N1、N2.5、N5、N7.5 ) and 4 nitrogen forms ( N5、N4+A1、N2.5+A2.5、N1+A4) of Platycodongrandiflorum as test material.The results showed that:roots were higher than shoots of root fresh weight in N 1,N2.5 and N5 of Platycodon grandiflorum,and shoots were higher than root of dry weight in N1 and N7.5.The maximum of dry weight on shoot and root were existed in N 7.5 and N5 re-spectively.Chlorophyll content and fresh weight of shoot and root in N 7.5 and N5 were higher than that of N2.5 and N1,root fresh weight of N5 was slightly higher than N7.5.Nitrogen content and uptake of shoots were higher than root,and phosphorus content of N2.5,N5 and N7.5 in roots were higher than shoots,phosphorus uptake a-mount of shoots in N1 and N7.5 were higher than that of roots ,and phosphorus uptake amount in N 2.5 and N5 were instead .The maximum of nitrogen uptake of shoots were in N 7 .5 ,the nitrogen content of whole plant and root nitro-gen uptake of were higher than that of N 1 and N2.5.The maximum of nitrogen and phosphorus uptake of shoots , phosphorus content and uptake of root were N 7.5,andthe absorption of phosphorus in root decreased with nitrogen concentration increasing .Dry and fresh weight of shoots was higher than roots in all treatments of nitrogen forms .All biomass index were minimum of N 1+A4 ,and root length were decreased with ammonium nitrate ratio .Shoot fresh weight of N4+A1 were higher than that of N 2 .5 +A2 .5 and N5 +A0 , and the maximum of root dry and fresh weight were N5+A0,and the second was N2.5+A2.5.Nitrogen uptake of shoots were higher than that of roots ex-cept N1+A4 ,of shoot in N5+A0 and N4+A1 were higher than that of roots ,however nitrogen content of other two treatments were instead .In all treatments phosphorus content of roots were higher than that of shoots ,and phosphor

  6. Effects of Rhizobium on Microorganisms and Enzymatic Activities in Rhizosphere Soil During Platycodon Grandiflorum Seedling Stage%根瘤菌对桔梗幼苗根际土壤微生物种群和酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀玉良

    2015-01-01

    The effects of rhizobium on enzymatic activities and microbial community in rhizosphere soil of platycodon grandiflorum during seeding stage were studied by using a pot seeding experiment. The results showed that rhizobium could significantly regulate soil microbial community in rhizosphere soil during platycodon grandiflorum seedling stage (P<0.01), however, it produced different effects on bacteria, actinomycete and fungi. In the 28th day after sowing, the amount of bacteria and actinomycete under inoculation treatment was increased by 40.53% and 48.05% respectively, but the amount of fungi was reduced by 22.90%, compared with those under control treatment; moreover, the amount of rhizobium under inoculation treatment was 190.90% more than that in the sowing day. Besides rhizobium could also improve the activities of urease, phosphatase and invertase(P<0.01), which were increased by 25.80%, 25.93% and 32.33% respectively under inoculation treatment. From the significant role of Rhizobia in regulating rhizosphere microorganisms and soil enzyme activity of platycodon grandiflorum during seedling stage the conclusion can be drawn that rhizobium has a certain application development potential in improving soil micro -ecological environment and improving soil fertility and overcoming the continuous cropping obstacle of platycodon production.%采用钵盘育苗试验,研究了根瘤菌对桔梗幼苗根际微生物种群和土壤酶活性的影响。结果表明:根瘤菌能显著地调节桔梗幼苗根际土壤微生物种群组成(P<0.01),表现出对细菌、真菌和放线菌数量的影响程度明显不同,与对照相比,根瘤菌接种处理28 d后的桔梗幼苗根际土壤细菌和放线菌数量分别增加了40.53%和48.05%,而真菌数量则减少了22.90%,根瘤菌的数量与刚接种时相比增加了190.90%;除了影响根际微生物种群结构外,根瘤菌也能显著提高土壤脲酶、磷酸酶和蔗糖酶的活性(P<0.01)

  7. 桔梗水浸提液对3种作物种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响%Effects of aqueous extracts from Platycodon grandiflorum on seed germination and growth of three different kinds of crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李尚擘; 刘瑞姣; 聂传朋; 李焰焰

    2015-01-01

    桔梗在生产中连作会大幅减产. 为探明其适宜的轮作作物,研究了桔梗地上部与根部不同浓度水浸液对小麦、萝卜和黄豆种子萌发及幼苗生长的影响. 测定了种子萌发(发芽率、发芽势、发芽指数、相对活力指数)、幼苗生长(苗高、根长)与生物量(苗地上部与根部鲜重)等指标. 结果表明,两类浸提液对3种作物种子均表现为低浓度促进、高浓度抑制的效应,且根部浸液的作用效果强于地上部浸液;3种幼苗均表现为根部比地上部对浸提液的反应更敏感;通过综合效应指标对比本试验的3种作物,萝卜更适宜与桔梗轮作.%In Platycodon grandiflorum production, continuous cropping results in a considerable reduction of crop yield. In order to find out the proper crop rotation of P. grandiflorum, aqueous extracts of different concentrations of P. grandiflorum were prepared. The effects of those extracts on Glycine max, Triticum aestivum and Raphanus sativus seed germination and seedling growth were studied. The germination indexes ( germination rate, germination potential, germination index and relative vigor index) , growth indexes ( seed-ling height and root length) and biomass ( shoot and root fresh weight) were measured. The results showed that the effects of two ex-tracts on the three seeds showed the inhibition with a low concentration, and the promotion with high concentration. The root extract effect was stronger than the shoot extracts. The responses of three seedlings roots' on the two extracts were more sensitive than the shoots'. The comprehensive effect indexes of the three crops indicated that radish is more suitable to P. grandiflorum rotation cropping.

  8. Anti-Allergic Activity of a Platycodon Root Ethanol Extract

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    Dong-Yeul Kwon

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Platycodon grandiflorum (Campanulaceae is used as traditional medicine in Asian countries. In Korean traditional medicine, Platycodon root has been widely used since ancient times as a traditional drug to treat cold, cough and asthma. However, its effects on bone marrow-derived mast cell (BMMC-mediated allergy and inflammation mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, the biological effect of Platycodon root ethanol extract (PE was evaluated in BMMC after induction of allergic mediators by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA plus calcium ionophore A23187 (A23187 stimulation. The effect of PE on the production of several allergic mediators, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6, prostaglandin D2 (PGD2, leukotriene C4 (LTC4, β-Hexosaminidase (β-Hex and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 protein, was investigated. The results demonstrate that PE inhibits PMA + A23187 induced production of IL-6, PGD2, LTC4, β-Hexosaminidase and COX-2 protein. Taken together, these results indicate that PE has the potential for use in the treatment of allergy.

  9. Long-Term Consumption of Platycodi Radix Ameliorates Obesity and Insulin Resistance via the Activation of AMPK Pathways

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    Chae Eun Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effects and mechanism of Platycodi radix, having white balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorum for. albiflorum (Honda H. Hara on obesity and insulin resistance. The extracts of Platycodi radix with white balloon flower were tested in cultured cells and administered into mice on a high-fat diet. The Platycodi radix activated the AMPK/ACC phosphorylation in C2C12 myotubes and also suppressed adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. In experimental animal, it suppressed the weight gain of obese mice and ameliorated obesity-induced insulin resistance. It also reduced the elevated circulating mediators, including triglyceride (TG, T-CHO, leptin, resistin, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1 in obesity. As shown in C2C12 myotubes, the administration of Platycodi radix extracts also recovered the AMPK/ACC phosphorylation in the muscle of obese mice. These results suggest that Platycodi radix with white balloon flower ameliorates obesity and insulin resistance in obese mice via the activation of AMPK/ACC pathways and reductions of adipocyte differentiation.

  10. Secoiridoid components from Jasminum grandiflorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhu, Samir Kumar; Khan, Md Sojib; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Ishibashi, Masami

    2007-07-01

    Secoiridoid glucosides, 2''-epifraxamoside and demethyl-2''-epifraxamoside, and the secoiridoid, jasminanhydride were isolated from Jasminum grandiflorum together with four previously known phenolics and a triterpene. Structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis. Stereochemistry of the compounds was determined by differential NOE experiment.

  11. Phytopharmacological Profile of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. (Oleaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Mittal; Satish, Sardana; Anima, Pandey

    2016-04-01

    Plants are the real basis towards animal life and are also central to people's livelihood. The contributions of the plants in performing varied religious celebrations and in other multiple beneficiaries like medicine, human happiness as well as in treating deadly diseases can never be neglected. In treating diseases, the plants and their constituents are better choice than any other synthetic chemical. The nature has been kind enough to provide the human beings with various types of medicinal plants and in the real sense these form the storehouse of curing almost all the ailments. Consequently, most of the drugs which are being used in preparing formulations have their origin and roots in the plants which form the chief natural source of medicines. Even in modern era, the plant-derived drugs are being extensively used, either in their original or semi-synthetic form. It is because their natural phytoconstituents are highly innocuous posing relatively fewer or no side effects. Based upon their observations, analysis and experience, our ancestors used many plants for medicinal purposes and thus their efforts need to be supported by scientific evidence. Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. is one of such important plants. It has been extensively used by the tribes all over India to treat different diseases which mainly include body pains, toothache, stomach ache, ulcers, and sexual impotency. Chemistry of the plant revealed the presence of mainly secoiridoids, terpenoids, flavonoids and tannins. Not much scientific support was given to the folklore claims for this plant but some of its traditional uses were investigated like spasmolytic, wound healing, antimicrobial, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, antiulcer and antioxidant activities. This article is the review of research works done on the plant Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. to date. As a part of it the local names, morphology, traditional claims, chemistry and pharmacological activities have been discussed.

  12. [Iridoid glycosides from buds of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gui-qin; Yin, Zhi-feng; Liu, Yu-cui; Li, Hong-bo

    2011-10-01

    The study on the buds of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum was carried out to look for anti-HBV constituents. The isolation and purification were performed by HPLC and chromatography on silica gel, polyamide and Sephadex LH-20 column. The structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Six iridoid glycosides were identified as jasgranoside B (1), 6-O-methy-catalpol (2), deacetyl asperulosidic acid (3), aucubin (4), 8-dehydroxy shanzhiside (5), and loganin (6). Jasgranoside B (1) is a new compound. Compounds 2-6 were isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum for the first time.

  13. [Glycosides from flowers of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gui-qin; Xia, Jing-jing; Dong, Jun-xing

    2007-10-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the flower of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum. The compounds were isolated and purified by re-crystallization and chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column. Their structures were elucidated on the physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Seven glycosides were identified as kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->3)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->6)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside (I), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (II), 7-ketologanin (III), oleoside-11-methyl ester (IV), 7-glucosyl-l1-methyl oleoside (V), ligstroside (VI), oleuropein (VII). Compound I is a new compound. Compounds III and V were isolated from the family of Jasminum for the first time and compounds II, IV and VI were isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum for the first time.

  14. Antiulcer and in vitro antioxidant activities of Jasminum grandiflorum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umamaheswari, M; Asokkumar, K; Rathidevi, R; Sivashanmugam, A T; Subhadradevi, V; Ravi, T K

    2007-04-04

    The study was aimed at evaluating the antiulcer and antioxidant activities of 70% ethanolic axtract of leaves of Jasminum grandiflorum L. (JGLE). The leaves of Jasminum grandiflorum L. (Family: Oleaceae) is used in folk medicine for treating ulcerative stomatitis, skin diseases, ulcers, wounds, corns - a hard or soft hyperkeratosis of the sole of the human foot secondary to friction and pressure (Stedman's Medical Dictionary, 28th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia. p. 443), etc., Antiulcerogenic activity of JGLE (100 and 200 mg/kg, b.w., orally) was evaluated employing aspirin + pylorus ligation (APL) and alcohol (AL) induced acute gastric ulcer models and ulcer-healing activity using acetic acid-induced (AC) chronic ulcer model in rats. Both the antisecretory and cytoprotection hypothesis were evaluated. The antioxidant activity of JGLE has been assayed by using in vitro methods like 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazylhydrate (DPPH) assay, reductive ability, superoxide anion scavenging activity, nitric oxide scavenging activity and total phenolic content, in order to explain the role of antioxidant principles in the antiulcerogenic activity of the extract. There was a significant (P<0.01) dose-dependent decrease in the ulcerative lesion index produced by all the three models in rats as compared to the standard drug famotidine (20 mg/kg, b.w. orally). The reduction in gastric fluid volume, total acidity and an increase in the pH of the gastric fluid in APL rats proved the antisecretory activity of JGLE. Additionally, JGLE completely healed the ulcer within 20 days of treatment in AC model as evidenced by histopathological studies. Like antiulcer activity, the free radical scavenging activities of JGLE depends on concentration and increased with increasing amount of the extract. These results suggest that leaves of Jasminum grandiflorum possess potential antiulcer activity, which may be attributed to its antioxidant mechanism of action.

  15. Characterization and Isolation of a New Flavonoid from Viburnum grandiflorum

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    Ghias Uddin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study a new flavoniod 1 along with Betulin 2 Betulinic acid 3, Oleanolic acid 4 andUrsolic acid 5 were isolated from the aerial part of Viburnum grandiflorum Wall. ex DC as white amorphous powder from the chloroform fraction. On the bases of different modern spectroscopic techniques such as EIMS, UV, IR, NMR, HSQC, HMBC, COSY and NOESY the structure of compound 1 was elucidate as 6,7-bis (propenyloxy-2-ethoxy-5-hydroxy-3-(4-methoxyphenyl-4H-chromen-4-one (Grandinoid.

  16. Phytochemical Investigation and Antimicrobial Screening of Cardiospermun grandiflorum (Sweet [Sapindaceae

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    Olaoluwa O. Olaoluwa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Methanol extract of the aerial parts of Cardiospermum grandiflorum was investigated for the phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activities. The extract was screened for the presence of saponins, tannins, steroids, alkaloids, reducing sugars, glucosides and flavonoids using standard methods. Antimicrobial assay was carried out on the extract against two gram positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis; three gram negative bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiellac pneumonas and fungi: Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer and Pencilillum notatum by the agar diffusion method between concentrations 6.25 – 200 mg/ml. Preliminary screening of methanol extract of C. grandiflorum revealed the presence tannins, steroids and reducing sugars. The extract showed average activity against the organisms used and was most active on C. albicans between concentrations 50-200 mg/ml with zones of inhibition between 12-16 mm. Phytochemical investigation of the methanol extract yielded L-pinitol. The structure and relative configuration of the compound was elucidated on the basis of the spectroscopic data, especially MS and NMR techniques.

  17. [A new secoiridoid from the flowers of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gui-Qin; Yin, Zhi-Feng; Dong, Jun-Xing

    2008-05-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the flowers of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum, the compounds were isolated and purified by HPLC, recrystallization and chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Six secoiridoids were identified as jasgranoside (I), jaspolyoside (II), 8-epi-kingiside (III), 10-hydroxy-oleuropein (IV), 10-hydroxy-ligstroside (V), oleoside-7, 11-dimethyl ester (VI). Compound I is a new compound. Compounds II, III, IV, V and VI were isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum for the first time.

  18. Phytophthora x pelgrandis, a new natural hybrid pathogenic to Pelargonium grandiflorum hort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirenberg, Helgard I; Gerlach, Wolfram F; Gräfenhan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    A new Phytophthora hybrid of Ph. cactorum (Leb. & Cohn) Schroet. and Ph. nicotianaevan Breda de Haan pathogenic to cultivars of Pelargonium grandiflorum hort. is described as Phytophthora X pelgrandis and its morphological features are documented. Morphological, physiological (e.g., temperature requirements) and molecular data (DNA sequencing, random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR) are presented for isolates of the Phytophthora hybrid. Pathogenicity was tested on cultivars of P. grandiflorum and Nicotiana tabacum. For comparison cultures of the parental species and additional Phytophthora taxa also were examined.

  19. [Triterpenoid saponins from flower bud of Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gui-Qin; Dong, Jun-Xing

    2008-01-01

    To study the chemical constituent bud of the flowers of Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum. The compounds were isolated and purified by recrystallization and chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH - 20 column. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Six triterpenoid saponins were identified as 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl- hederagenin-28-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl (1 --> 6)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl ester (1), hederagenin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (2), 2alpha, 3beta, 23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (3), hederagenin-3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1 --> 3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (4), 2alpha, 3beta, 23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (5), hederagenin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (6). Compound 1 is a new compound. Compounds 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 were isolated from the genus Jasminum for the first time.

  20. Chromatin differentiation between Theobroma cacao L. and T. grandiflorum Schum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane G. Dantas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of mitotic chromosomes of Theobroma cacao (cacao and T. grandiflorum (cupuaçu was performed aiming to identify cytological differences between the two most important species of this genus. Both species have symmetric karyotypes, with 2n = 20 metacentric chromosomes ranging in size from 2.00 to 1.19 µm (cacao and from 2.21 to 1.15 mm (cupuaçu. The interphase nuclei of both species were of the arreticulate type, displaying up to 20 chromocentres, which were more regularly shaped in cacao than in cupuaçu. Prophase chromosomes of both species were more condensed in the proximal region, sometimes including the whole short arm. Both species exhibited only one pair of terminal heterochromatic bands, positively stained with chromomycin A3, which co-localized with the single 45S rDNA site. Each karyotype displayed a single 5S rDNA site in the proximal region of another chromosome pair. Heterochromatic bands were also observed on the centromeric/pericentromeric regions of all 20 chromosomes of cacao after C-banding followed by Giemsa or DAPI staining, whereas in cupuaçu they were never detected. These data suggest that the chromosomes of both species have been largely conserved and their pericentromeric chromatin is the only citologically differentiated region.

  1. Anti-HIV-1 activities of the extracts from the medicinal plant Linum grandiflorum Desf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed, Magdy M. D.; Christensen, Lars Porskjær; Ibrahim, Nabaweya A.

    2009-01-01

    As part of our screening of anti-AIDS agents from natural sources e.g. Ixora undulata, Paulownia tomentosa, Fortunella margarita, Aegle marmelos and Erythrina abyssinica, the different organic and aqueous extracts of Linum grandiflorum leaves and seeds were evaluated in vitro by the microculture ...

  2. New acylated flavone and cyanogenic glycosides from Linum grandiflorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed, Magdy M. D.; Christensen, Lars Porskjær; Ibrahim, Nabaweya A.

    2009-01-01

    The first investigation of Linum grandiflorum resulted in the isolation of one new acylated flavone O-diglycoside known as luteolin 7-O-a-D-(6000-E-feruloyl)glucopyranosyl (1!2)--D-glucopyranoside, and one new cyanogenic glycoside known as 2-[(30-isopropoxy-O--D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-2-methylbutane...

  3. Introduction of Delta-endotoxin Gene of Bacillus thuringiensis to Chrysanthemum [Dendranthema grandiflorum(Ramat.) Kitamura] for Insect Resistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shinoyama, Harue; Komano, Masayasu; Nomura, Yukio; Nagai, Teruyuki

    2002-01-01

    We introduced a truncated delta-endotoxin gene, cry1Ab of Bacillus thuringiensis which has a specific biological activity against lepidopteran insects into chrysanthemum [Dendranthema × grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura...

  4. Antinociceptive and anticonvulsant activities of hydroalcoholic extract of Jasminum grandiflorum (jasmine) leaves in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajesh K; Reddy, Pooja S

    2013-10-01

    Jasminum grandiflorum belongs to the family Oleaceae and is known to have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiulcer activities. The present study was undertaken to study its analgesic and anticonvulsant effects in rats and mice. The antinociceptive activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of J. grandiflorum leaves (HEJGL) was studied using tail flick and acetic acid - induced writhing method. Similarly, its anticonvulsant activity was observed by maximal electroshock (MES) method and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) method. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's test. At doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, HEJGL showed significant analgesic and anticonvulsant effects in experimental animals. In view of its analgesic and anticonvulsant activity, the JGL extract can be used in painful conditions as well as in seizure disorders.

  5. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors from Jasminum azoricum and Jasminum grandiflorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somanadhan, B; Smitt, U W; George, V; Pushpangadan, P; Rajasekharan, S; Duus, J O; Nyman, U; Olsen, C E; Jaroszewski, J W

    1998-04-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of extracts of the aerial parts of Jasminum azoricum var. travancorense, using an in vitro ACE inhibition assay, led to isolation of three oligomeric, iridoid-type compounds, which were named sambacein I-III. Their structures are based on spectroscopic and chemical evidence. Similarly, fractionation of extracts of aerial parts of J. grandiflorum resulted in the isolation of the previously reported ACE inhibitor, oleacein. The IC50 values of purified ACE inhibitors were 26-36 microM. Moreover, 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethanol, isoquercitrin and ursolic acid were isolated from J. grandiflorum. Sambaceins and oleacein are formed from genuine iridoid glucosides during processing of the plant material. NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the level of the ACE inhibitors in the traditional medicines prepared in Kerala from these Jasminum species.

  6. Preparation and Characterization of Nano-selenium Using Platycodon Grandiflorum Polysaccharides as Soft Template%桔梗多糖软模板法制备纳米硒及表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑晓凤; 侯丽然; 廉亚楠; 赵胜男; 李贵森; 高金波

    2016-01-01

    以桔梗多糖为模板,通过亚硒酸钠与抗坏血酸反应制备纳米硒,探讨多糖浓度,抗坏血酸和亚硒酸钠配比,反应时间,反应温度等条件对产物粒度的大小、形貌的影响,并通过光谱法,透射电镜(TEM)以及X射线衍射(XRD)等手段对产物进行表征.结果表明当多糖浓度为100 mg/L,抗坏血酸和亚硒酸钠物质的量比值为3∶1,40℃条件下反应4h得到的纳米硒粒径最小,平均粒径约为40 nm左右.

  7. 桔梗皂苷对高胆固醇血大鼠低密度脂蛋白受体的调节%Regulation of PlatycodonGrandiflorumSaponin on Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor in High Blood Cholesterol Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨桂英; 吴敬涛

    2015-01-01

    以高脂乳剂诱导高胆固醇血大鼠模型,研究肝脏胆固醇代谢相关的低密度脂蛋白受体( LDL-r)的活性.灌喂SD大鼠高脂乳剂饮食42d,建立高胆固醇血模型;随机将高胆固醇血大鼠分成4组:空白组、高脂组、低皂苷剂量组、高皂苷剂量组,分别按每千克体质量30、100 mg给以桔梗皂苷降胆固醇,连续21d;分别利用免疫组织化学方法和免疫印迹方法检测LDL-r的蛋白变化,利用PCR方法检测LDL-r基因表达水平.结果表明,低、高剂量桔梗皂苷均能显著降低( P<0.01)高脂乳剂诱导的高胆固醇血大鼠的LDL-r,提示桔梗皂苷降低血胆固醇的作用是通过LDL-r转运胆固醇的作用实现的.%The high cholesterol blood model of the rats induced by high fat emulsion was established to study the activity of platycodongrandiflorumsaponin on cholesterol metabolism -related low density lipoprotein receptor ( LDL-r) in liver.After SD rats were fed foods with high fat emulsion 42 d, high cholesterol blood model was set up .Random , high cholesterol blood rats were divided into 4 groups:Blank group , High fat and Low saponin dose group .Respectively , according to 30 or 100 mg of saponin per kilogram of body to drop cho-lesterol , continuous 21 d.Immunohistochemical method and Western blot method to detect changes of LDL -rprotein expression levels in liver , Polymerase chain reaction ( PCR) to detect of LDL-r gene expression lev-els were used.The results show that the low and high dose of saponin can significantly (P<0.01) reduce the LDL-r of high cholesterol blood rats induced by high fat emulsion , which prompt that the action of platyc-odongrandiflorumsaponin on highcholesterol blood rats can be come true is the modulatory role of LDL -r transporting cholesterol .

  8. 桔梗染色体数目与减数分裂的细胞遗传学观察%Observation of Chromosome Number and Cytology Observation on Meiosis of Platycodon grandiflorum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨福红; 鲍国军; 周海燕; 张岩竹

    2016-01-01

    分别以桔梗根尖和花粉为材料,通过压片法确定桔梗的染色体数目,观察花粉母细胞减数分裂行为。结果表明,桔梗的染色体数目为2n=18,染色体基数x=9。桔梗花粉母细胞减数分裂过程中,绝大多数细胞分裂正常,极个别细胞在后期Ⅰ出现染色体桥,后期Ⅱ出现不均等分离等现象。%In this paper,The chromosome number ofPlatycodongrandiflorumare investigated with conventional plant root tip squashing method and studied on its meiosis course of pollen mother cell. The result shows that the chromosome number is 18 and its basic chromosome number is 9. In the meiosis course of pollen mother cell onPlatycodongrandiflorum,the most of cell division is normal,but we found some special Phenomenon in a small number of cells,such as chromosome bridge in anaphaseⅠand unequal separation of chromosome in metaphaseⅡ,and so on.

  9. Diversidad de trips en crisantemo Dendranthema grandiflorum (RAMAT.) KITAM., en Texcoco, Estado de México.

    OpenAIRE

    Loera Alvarado, Esperanza

    2013-01-01

    La floricultura es la principal actividad agrícola que se realiza en la zona de Texcoco, Estado de México, siendo el crisantemo Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitam., el cultivo de mayor importancia. Este cultivo, en los últimos años ha presentado problemas en su producción causados principalmente por plagas y enfermedades, siendo los trips una de las plagas más importantes, tanto por los daños directos que causan al alimentarse del cultivo, como por los daños indirectos al transmitir el ...

  10. Efficacy of Jasminum grandiflorum L. leaf extract on dermal wound healing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Adya P; Kumar, Mohan; Tripathi, Yamini B

    2013-12-01

    Wound healing is a fundamental response to tissue injury and natural products accelerate the healing process. Here, we have explored the efficacy of topical administration of an ointment, prepared by methanolic extract of Jasminum grandiflorum L. (Oleaceae) leaves, on cutaneous wound healing in rats. The topical application of the Jasminum ointment on full thickness excision wounds accelerated the healing process. Tissue growth and collagen synthesis were significantly higher determined by total hydroxyl proline, hexosamine, protein and DNA content. The response was concentration- and time-dependent, when observed on days 4, 8 and 12 after wound creation. The rate of wound healing was faster as determined by wound contraction, tensile strength and other histopathological changes. In addition, this ointment also raised the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) with high GSH content and low lipid peroxidation products in wound tissue. Thus, it could be suggested that the ointment from the methanolic extract of J. grandiflorum leaf improves the rate of wound healing by enhancing the rate of collagen synthesis and also by improving the antioxidant status in the newly synthesised healing wound tissue. © 2012 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  11. Isolation of bioactive antioxidant compounds from the aerial parts ofAllium roseum var.grandiflorum subvar.typicum Regel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lamia Sakka Rouis-Soussi; Asma El Ayeb; Saoussen Ben Salem; Hichem Ben Jannet; Fethia Harzallah-Skhiri

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To assess the antioxidant activity of aerial parts ofAllium roseum var.grandiflorum subvar. typicum Regel. (A. roseumvar.grandiflorum subvar. typicum Regel.) for the first time, as well as to isolate the main bioactive compounds. Methods: The chloroformic extract ofAllium roseum(A. roseum) and their fractions obtained by subjection to a chromatographic study were tested for their antioxidant activities by using 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays. An activity-guided purification was conducted to isolate five compounds in pure form where their structures were identified by means of nuclear magnetic resonance analyses, including 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. Results:The evaluation of the antioxidant activity of chloroformic extract and their fractions fromA. roseum var.grandiflorum subvar. typicum Regel. showed interesting results. The active chloroformic extract afforded five isolated compounds where their structures were identified asβ-sitosterol (1), chrysoeriol (2), luteolin (3), apigenin (4), andβ-sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucoside (5). All the compounds were isolated for the first time from theA. roseum var.grandiflorum subvar. typicum Regel. The three flavonoids (2–4) exhibited the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 62.28, 21.26 and 513.42μg/mL, respectively (2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay) and 218.00, 73.50 and 877.66μg/mL, respectively [2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assay]. An important value of trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (2.10 mmol/L) was reported for luteolin (3). Conclusions:These results may suggest that theA. roseum var.grandiflorum subvar. typicum Regel. have great potential as a source of a natural preservative ingredient in beneficial for natural health products.

  12. Influence of greenhouse climate and plant density on external quality of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat.)Kitamura) : First steps towards a quality model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, S.M.P.; Heuvelink, E.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of greenhouse climate and plant density on external quality of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum syn. Chrysanthemum morifolium) are reviewed. The external quality aspects analysed in this paper are stem morphology (length, diameter and "strength"), leaf morphology (number and

  13. Assessing Jasminum grandiflorum L. authenticity by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n) and effects on physiological enzymes and oxidative species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreres, Federico; Grosso, Clara; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2014-01-01

    The dried flower buds of Jasminum grandiflorum L. are widely consumed as infusion and used in traditional medicine for psychiatric disorders. It is important to have a well-established method for the chemical characterization of J. grandiflorum since there are resemblances with a toxic species, Gelsemium sempervirens (L.) Jaume Saint-Hilaire. HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n) analysis allowed identifying six phenolic compounds for the first time. Moreover, the evaluation of in vitro activity against central nervous system (CNS) related enzymes was undertaken for the first time, as well as against reactive species in order to support the efficacy towards CNS disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fragmentação mecânica de amêndoas de cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum Mechanical fragmentation of cupuassu kernels (Theobroma grandiflorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Albuquerque Vilalba

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum é uma fruta nativa da região amazônica brasileira cujas sementes convenientemente fermentadas, secas e torradas podem ser utilizadas para a obtenção de um produto similar ao chocolate. Este trabalho objetivou pesquisar uma forma alternativa de quebra da amêndoa seca sem torrar, através de um beneficiador de cilindros, seguida da utilização de um jogo de peneiras para a separação das frações fragmentadas. Os fatores estudados no rendimento da obtenção dos nibs (cotilédones fragmentados e na verificação da pureza deste material (percentual de casca e gérmen foram a umidade da amêndoa inteira e a velocidade diferencial dos cilindros de borracha do beneficiador. Pelos resultados obtidos, verificou-se que a umidade da amêndoa inteira foi a variável que apresentou maior influência na quebra. Os maiores percentuais de recuperação de nibs foram conseguidos na umidade de 5%. A variação dos níveis da velocidade diferencial não causou diferença significativa no rendimento de obtenção dos nibs. Em relação aos valores dos percentuais de casca e gérmen nos nibs, nenhuma variável estudada apresentou influência significativa nos valores desta resposta, mesmo assim todos os resultados foram bastante satisfatórios, apresentando valores abaixo de 1,75%. O rendimento deste processo alternativo está em torno de 90% de obtenção dos cotilédones encontrados em uma determinada massa de amêndoas. Como conclusão, o processo proposto constituiu-se em alternativa mecanizada tecnicamente válida, que apresentou bom rendimento de recuperação dos nibs, com percentuais de casca e gérmen abaixo do tolerado.Cupuassu (theobroma grandiflorum is a native fruit from the Brazilian Amazon region whose seeds suitably fermented, dried and roasted can be used to manufacture a product similar to chocolate. This work aimed at devising an alternative way of cracking the dried but not roasted kernels by using a

  15. Calogênese do híbrido Theobroma grandiflorum x T. obovatum (Sterculiaceae Calogenesis of Theobroma grandiflorum x. T. obovatum hibrid (Sterculiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgini Augusto Venturieri

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O declínio da cacauicultura na amazônia tem sido causado pela doença vassoura-de-bruxa (Crinipellis perniciosa. Um híbrido interespecífico do mesmo gênero (Theobroma grandiflorum x T. obovatum tem demonstrando resistência a esta doença. Avaliou-se a calogênese deste híbrido com a finalidade de sua propagação massiva. Os explantes usados (tegumento, cotilédone e embrião foram postos para desenvolver em condições estéreis em meio de cultura LPm mais água de coco (50 ml/l, glucose (20 g/l, 2,4 - D (2 mg/l, Thidiazuron - TDZ nas concentrações de 0, 5 e 10 µg/l, carvão ativado (2 g/l em gelrite (2 g/l a um pH de 5,8. Cada concentração de TDZ x tipo de tecido foi considerado um tratamento. As culturas foram mantidas no escuro, à temperatura de 22 ± 2 ºC. Os tecidos não mostraram diferenças significativas quanto a proporção do explante recoberto por calos (p= 0,14 embora notou-se que nos cotilédones tenha sido maior. A dosagem de TDZ nitidamente não influenciou no recobrimento de calos (p= 0,94. Quanto a freqüência, os tecidos mostraram diferentes capacidades de desenvolver calos (p= 0,02 sem mostrar-se influenciados pela dosagem de TDZ (p = 0,66. Os explantes de cotilédones foram os que formaram calos em maior freqüência. Houve uma leve tendência de que quanto menor a dosagem de TDZ maior a freqüência de calos obtidos. Não foi constatada interação entre tipo de calo/frasco x dosagem de TDZ (p = 0,32.Decline of cocoa plantations in Amazonia has been attributed to Witches-broom-disease (Crinipellis perniciosa. An interspecific hybrid (Theobroma grandiflorum x T. obovatum has demonstrated resistance to this disease. Calogenesis of this hybrid was evaluated, in preparation for its mass propagation. The explants used (tegument, cotyledons and embryos were developed in sterile conditions in LPm media plus coconut milk (50 ml/l, glucose (20 g/l, 2,4 - D (2 mg/l, Thidiazuron - TDZ at concentrations of 0, 5 e 10 µg

  16. Crescimento e absorção de nutrientes pelo Lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum cultivado em solo Growing and nutrients absorption by lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum cultivated in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica S. de Camargo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum é uma planta ornamental com grande procura pelo mercado consumidor, mas há poucas informações sobre sua nutrição em condições edafo-climáticas tropicais. Neste trabalho avaliou-se o crescimento e a absorção de nutrientes pelo lisianthus (var. Echo em estufa comercial. Plântulas de lisianthus foram transplantadas para canteiros aos 60 dias após a semeadura, em outubro de 1999. As amostragens do material vegetal foram feitas aos 8; 22; 36; 50; 64; 78; 92; 106 e 120 dias após o transplantio. O crescimento em altura e a produção de matéria seca da parte aérea foram lentos até os 36 dias e atingiram altura de 90,5 cm e produção de matéria seca de 28,4 g por planta no final do ciclo. A absorção de nutrientes (kg ha-1 pela parte aérea do lisianthus aos 120 dias foi: 238,8 de N, 157,1 de K, 33,9 de S, 17,5 de Mg, 14,9 de P, 10,6 de Ca e para os micronutrientes (g ha-1: 1281,3 de Fe, 294,4 de B, 127,1 de Mn, 121,1 de Zn e 35,8 de Cu.Lisianthus is a cut flower crop that has been intensively studied around the world. However, there is not enough information about its nutrition under tropical conditions. In this work the growth and nutrient absorption of lisianthus (var. Echo cultivated in soil was evaluated. Seedlings were transplanted 60 days after sowing in October 99. Plant samples were taken at 8; 22; 36; 50; 64; 78; 92; 106 and 120 days after transplanting. Plant growth and dry matter production were slow in the beginning but plants reached 90.5 cm in height and 28.4 of dry weight at the end of cycle. Nutrient uptake (kg ha-1 at 120 days was: 238.8 of N, 157.1 of K, 33.9 of S, 17.5 of Mg, 14.9 of P, 10.6 of Ca and micronutrients (g ha-1: 1281.3 of Fe, 294.4 of B, 127.1 of Mn, 121.1 of Zn and 35.8 of Cu.

  17. Impacts of Strigolactone on Shoot Branching under Phosphate Starvation in Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum cv. Jinba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin eXi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum cv. Jinba shoot branching is determined by bud outgrowth during the vegetative growth stage. The degree of axillary bud outgrowth is highly influenced by environmental conditions, such as nutrient availability. Here, we demonstrated that phosphorus (Pi starvation significantly reduces axillary bud outgrowth in chrysanthemum. A strigolactone (SL biosynthesis gene, DgCCD7, was isolated and characterized as an ortholog of MAX3/DAD3/RMS5/D17. By using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS, three putative SLs were identified and detected strong induction under Pi starvation conditions. Determinations of the distribution of SLs and negative regulation of DgCCD7/8 time-course in root indicated systemic response of SL. However, temporal expression patterns of biosynthesis and signaling genes in nodes revealed that Pi starvation causes a local response of SL pathway. Application of modified node segments treated with or without auxin and Pi revealed that in the absence of exogenous auxin, Pi delay axillary buds outgrowth and up-regulating local SL pathway genes. These data indicate that an auxin-SL regulatory loop respond to Pi starvation for delaying bud outgrowth locally, root biosynthesized SLs are transported acropetally and function in shoot branching inhibition under Pi starvation. We propose that SLs contribute to chrysanthemum shoot branching control in response to Pi-limiting conditions in a systemic way.

  18. Methanolic extract of leaves of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn modulates oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Adya Prasad; Tripathi, Yamini Bhusan

    2011-10-01

    The leaves of Jasminum grandiflorum (JG) are in clinical use in Ayurveda for wound management. Since, oxidative stress and inflammation are the primary causes in delayed wound healing, so here its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities have been investigated using in vitro as well as in vivo models. The solvent-free methanolic extract of dried leaves of JG were tested for its trapping capacity toward pre-generated ABTS•+ radicals, instantly generated superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, along with metal chelation property, reducing power and total phenolic content. Further, it was tested on LPS-induced nitric oxide and cell viability, on primary culture of rat peritoneal macrophages. Its anti-inflammatory property was also tested on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. This extract significantly inhibited iron-induced lipid peroxidation and trapped ABTS•+, superoxide and OH radicals. It significantly inhibited nitric oxide (NO) release, without affecting the cell viability at 800 μg/ml concentration and reduced the formation of paw edema in rats. Thus, it could be suggested that the aforesaid anti-inflammatory properties of JG leaves are associated to its high phenolic content (2.25±0.105 mg/l of gallic acid equivalent), reducing power and its free radical-scavenging property.

  19. Antiviral efficacy against hepatitis B virus replication of oleuropein isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guiqin; Yin, Zhifeng; Dong, Junxing

    2009-09-07

    Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum (JOG) is a folk medicine used for the treatment of hepatitis in south of China. Phytochemical studies showed that secoiridoid glycosides are the typical constituents of this plant. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of oleuropein (Ole) derived from the flowers of JOG on hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication in HepG2 2.2.15 cell line in vitro and duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) replication in ducklings in vivo. The extracellular hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) concentrations in cell culture medium were determined by ELISA. DHBV in duck serum was analyzed by dot blot. Ole blocks effectively HBsAg secretion in HepG2 2.2.15 cells in a dose-dependent manner (IC(50)=23.2 microg/ml). Ole (80 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, twice daily) also reduced viremia in DHBV-infected ducks. Ole therefore warrants further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent for HBV infection.

  20. EVALUATION OF JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM FOR HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY IN ISONIAZID INDUCED LIVER DAMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant Pawar et al

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study was designed to evaluate hepatoprotective effect of the ethanolic leaves extract of Jasminum grandiflorum (JG in Isoniazid (INH induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats. Materials and methods: Mature leaves of JG were collected, authenticated and subjected to successive ethanolic extraction. Hepatic damage was induced in wistar rats by administering INH (54mg/kg, p.o. once a daily for 30 days followed by administration of JG (200mg/kg, p.o. 1h.prior to the administration of INH (54mg/kg, p.o. once daily. Silymarin (50mg/kg. p. o was used as standard for 30 days.Result: Elevated levels of Aspartate transaminase, Alanine transaminase, and Lipid profile following INH administration were significantly lowered by JG treatment. Deposition of collagen was observed in liver and found to be less in JG treated animals; Pretreatment of rats with JG significantly decreases Lipid peroxidation (LPO and increases the antioxidant activities.Conclusion: The study reveals the hepatoprotective activity of leaves extract of JG in isoniazid induced liver damage.

  1. Liquid CO2 extraction of Jasminum grandiflorum and comparison with conventional processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Om; Sahoo, Deeptanjali; Rout, Prasant Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The concrete (0.35%) of Jasminum grandiflorum L. flowers was prepared by extraction in n-pentane, and the absolute (0.27%) by fractionation of the n-pentane extract (concrete) with cold methanol. Direct extraction of flowers with liquid CO2 gave a relatively fat-free product in 0.26% yield. The liquid CO2 extract was enriched with terpenoids and benzenoids, thus providing the organoleptically accepted product. The major compounds, such as benzyl acetate, (E,E)-alpha-farnesene and (Z)-3-hexenyl benzoate, along with compounds like indole, methyl anthranilate, (Z)-jasmone, (Z)-methyl jasmonoate and (Z)-methyl epi-jasmonoate, are responsible for the high diffusivity of the jasmine fragrance. These compounds have been obtained with improved recoveries in the liquid CO2 extract. On the other hand, the yield of the essential oil was poor (0.05%), and some polar compounds (oxygenated terpenoids) were recovered in less amounts in comparison with either the n-pentane or liquid CO2 extract.

  2. Colorimetric analysis of edible flower of Dendranthema grandiflorum processed by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Amanda C. Ramos; Rodrigues, Flavio Thihara; Fanaro, Gustavo Bernardes; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: amandaramosk@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Edible flowers can be used to add flavor, color, taste and visual appeal to culinary preparations as salads, soups, desserts and drinks. There are many edible flowers rich in minerals, vitamins, pollen, nectar and other essential nutrients that are important for human nutrition. Food irradiation is a viable technology for disinfestation of insect, to increase extending the shelf life of perishable products and improving the hygienic quality of food. The irradiation technology is a good alternative method to replace chemical fumigation of pest insects present in foods and flowers. The purpose of this study was evaluate the color of Dendranthema grandiflorum exposed low-dose ionizing radiation: 0.3 kGy, 0.4 kGy, 0.5 kGy, 0.6 kGy, 0.7 kGy, and 0.8 kGy of {sup 60}Co using colorimeter (Konica Minolta Chroma Meter CR-400), were used samples of chrysanthemum in yellow, white and red. The petals of the flowers were used for the chromaticity value. The samples of irradiated chrysanthemum (white, yellow and red) processed with 0.3 to 0.6 kGy haven't shown significantly difference when compared to the control sample, the dose of 0.3 kGy, dose it is necessary to sterilize. (author)

  3. Anti-hepatitis B Virus Activity of 8-epi-Kingiside in Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Gui-qin; YIN; Zhi-feng; LIU; Li-yan; MAO; Xiao-xia; SU; Zhan-hui

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of 8-epi-kingiside (8-Epik) derived from the buds of Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum (JOG) on hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication in HepG2 2.2.15 cell line in vitro and duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) replication in ducklings in vivo. Methods The concentration of extracellular hepatitis B e antigen and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in cell culture medium was determined by ELISA, respectively. The anti-HBV effects of 8-Epik were also demonstrated in the model of DHBV. 8-Epik was ip given (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg, twice daily) to the DHBV-infected ducklings for 10 d. The isotonic saline liquid diet was ip given as negative control and Lamivudine (50 mg/kg, twice daily) was given as positive control. DHBV DNA was measured at days 0 (T0), 5 (T5), 10 (T10), and day 3 after cessation of treatment (P3) by dot blotting. Results 8-Epik effectively blocked HBsAg secretion in HepG2 2.2.15 cells in a dose-dependent manner [IC 50 = (19.4 ± 1.04) μg/mL]. 8-Epik (40 or 80 mg/kg, ip, twice daily) also reduced viremia in DHBV-infected ducks. Conclusion Therefore, 8-Epik is warranted as a potential therapeutic agent for HBV infection.

  4. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Allium roseum L. var. grandiflorum Briq. Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touihri, Imen; Boukhris, Maher; Marrakchi, Naziha; Luis, José; Hanchi, Belgacem; Kallech-Ziri, Olfa

    2015-01-01

    Allium roseum L. (Alliaceae) endemic mediterranean specie was represented in the North Africa by 12 different taxa. In the present study, chemical composition, antiproliferative, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil extracted from A. roseum var. grandiflorum Briq. bulbs collected in the North of Tunisia were investigated. Chemical characterization has shown methyl methanethiosulfinate as major sulphurous compounds. A. roseum bulbs essential oil provides interesting antiproliferative activity against two human colonic adenocarcinoma HT29 and CACO2 cell lines in dose-dependent manner with a half-maximal inhibition (IC50) of 4.64 µg/mL and 8.22 µg/mL respectively. The antioxidant activity, as determined by FRAP assay, was 285 µmol equivalent Trolox/g of essential oil. The scavenging effect on DPPH radicals of essential oil was estimated as IC50 values at 156 µg/mL. The inhibition of superoxide anion production in a model of cancer cell lines was significant for both lines HT29 and CACO2 with IC50 of 20.25 µg/mL and 29.12 µg/mL respectively. Allium roseum essential oil exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities with a high effectiveness against Candida albicans given by an MIC value of 0.019 mg/mL. This biological effect appears to be related mainly to the presence of organosulfur compounds.

  5. Caracterización del proceso de fermentación del grano de Copoazú (Theobroma grandiflorum Willd. ex Spreng) / Characterization of fermentation process of Copoazú (Theobroma grandiflorum Willd. ex Spreng) Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Robayo, Zulma Rocío

    2010-01-01

    El copoazú (Theobroma grandiflorum Willd. ex Spreng) es una planta amazónica cuya la semilla se utiliza para obtener cupulate. La fermentación se convierte en el principal proceso de beneficio para la semilla, ya que contribuye a generar los precursores del aroma y sabor típicos del grano de la misma forma que sucede con el cacao. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo la caracterización de tres tipos de fermentación de semillas de copoazú: en el primero (FC1) se remociones a las 48, 96 y 120...

  6. The ecology, biogeography, history and future of two globally important weeds: Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. and C. grandiflorum Sw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enelge Gildenhuys

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Members of the balloon vine genus, Cardiospermum, have been extensively moved around the globe as medicinal and horticultural species, two of which are now widespread invasive species; C. grandiflorum and C. halicacabum. A third species, C. corindum, may also have significant invasion potential. However, in some regions the native status of these species is not clear, hampering management. For example, in South Africa it is unknown whether C. halicacabum and C. corindum are native, and this is a major constraint to on-going biological control programmes against invasive C. grandiflorum. We review the geography, biology and ecology of selected members of the genus with an emphasis on the two most widespread invaders, C. halicacabum and C. grandiflorum. Specifically, we use molecular data to reconstruct a phylogeny of the group in order to shed light on the native ranges of C. halicacabum and C. corindum in southern Africa. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that southern African accessions of these species are closely related to South American taxa indicating human-mediated introduction and/or natural long distance dispersal. Then, on a global scale we use species distribution modelling to predict potential suitable climate regions where these species are currently absent. Native range data were used to test the accuracy with which bioclimatic modelling can identify the known invasive ranges of these species. Results show that Cardiospermum species have potential to spread further in already invaded or introduced regions in Australia, Africa and Asia, underlining the importance of resolving taxonomic uncertainties for future management efforts. Bioclimatic modelling predicts Australia to have highly favourable environmental conditions for C. corindum and therefore vigilance against this species should be high. Species distribution modelling showed that native range data over fit predicted suitable ranges, and that factors other than climate influence

  7. Application of mycorrhizas to ornamental horticultural crops: lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum) as a test case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Ornamental crops are high-cash crops, grown under greenhouse conditions in semi-arid regions in Israel where a reduction in the native population of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is expected due to routine soil disinfection. The application of AMF inoculum to the soil has been shown to be effective at improving plant growth and enhancing plant resilience to abiotic and biotic stresses. One of our aims is to introduce mycorrhizal application to ornamental crops, and a test case is presented here for two cultivars of lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum), one of the major ornamental crops grown in Israel. Several different methods of AMF application and their effects on growth, yield and vase life were examined in lisianthus grown in two different semi-arid locations in southern Israel. AMF enhanced lisianthus growth and yield, especially when introduced to the growth medium during seeding and to the pit hole during planting. Significantly enhanced growth and yield parameters included flowering stem length (58 {+-} 0.7 and 65.1 {+-} 0.7 cm for control and AMF treated, respectively) and number of flowering stems per square meter (73 {+-} 9 and 106 {+-} 6 for control and AMF treated, respectively); positive but non-significant effects were recorded on stem weight, number of flowers per stem and vase life of cut flowers. Yield enhancement was recorded under both low and regular phosphorus conditions. Although not significant, higher resilience against two pathogenic fungi was also recorded following AMF inoculation (23 {+-} 13 and 41 {+-} 10 surviving plants for control and AMF treated, respectively). Hence, AMF is suggested to be a useful growth amendment for promotion of lisianthus commercial production, and may potentially be applied to additional ornamental crops. (Author) 23 refs.

  8. Effect of Silver Nanoparticles and Sodium Silicate on Vase Life and Quality of Cut Chrysanthemum Dendranthema grandiflorum L. (Flower

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    S. Kazemipour

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dendranthema grandiflorum L. is one of the widely cultivated flowers around the world for producing of cut flowers. Nanometer-sized silver particles are used in various applications as an anti-microbial compound. This experiment was carried out to study the effects of silver nanoparticles (0, 5, 10 and 20 mg/L and sodium silicate (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/L on longevity and quality of cut chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum L. flowers. A factorial experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with 16 treatments, 3 replications, 48 plots and 192 cut flowers. The cut flowers were pulsed for 24 h with pulse solutions and then transported to 300 mg L-1 8-hidroxy quinoline sulfate and 3% sucrose. The characteristics such as vase life, loss of fresh weight, number of bacterial colonies in stem, lipid peroxidation, and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD were measured. Results showed that all treatments had positive effects on the vase life of flowers. Pulse solution with 10 mg/L silver nanoparticles and 100 mg/L sodium silicate and interaction between them, increased vase life compared to the control (3.21, 4.46 and 8.50 days, respectively. In addition, the flowers pulsed with silver nanoparticles and sodium silicate exhibited higher activity of SOD, compared to control. The present study showed that using proper concentrations of silver nanoparticles and sodium silicate can enhance the vase life of cut chrysanthemum flowers.

  9. Toxicity of a subchronic treatment with hydroalcoholic crude extract from Solanum grandiflorum (Ruiz et Pav) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Angelis Pereira, Michel C; Carvalho, José C T; Lima, Leonardo M; Caputo, Lucélia R G; Ferreira, Luciano R; Fiorini, João E; Bastos, Jairo K

    2003-11-01

    The toxic effect of the hydroalcoholic crude extract (HACE) from the fruits of the Solanum grandiflorum was evaluated following subchronic treatment (p.o.) in Wistar rats for 65 days using the dose of 2 mg/kg. The LD(50) in mice was 50 mg/kg (p.o.). At the end of treatment, the consumption of water remained within the normal patterns. On the other hand, the consumption of food had 40% reduction in the period between the 18th and the 40th day after the beginning of the study. The diuresis showed a wide variation in volume which started at the 8th day of treatment until the end of the study. This finding was correlated with macroscopic observations of the kidneys which presented nephromegaly (70%) when compared to the control group. Moreover, for the histopathological study, it was observed degeneration and glomerular necrosis (100%), tubular lesions (80%), and hypercellular lesions (100%) in the treated group. The ponderal development of the treated group was increased compared to the control group. The weight of some of the organs, including kidneys, lungs, and pancreas, was also increased in the treated group (P<0.05, Student "t" test). These data suggest a nephrotoxicity following a subchronic treatment of the hydroalcoholic crude extract from Solanum grandiflorum.

  10. Anthocyanin and Carotenoid Contents in Different Cultivars of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum Ramat. Flower

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    Chang Ha Park

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The flowers of twenty-three cultivars of Dendranthema grandiflorum Ramat. were investigated to determine anthocyanin and carotenoid levels and to confirm the effects of the pigments on the flower colors using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS. The cultivars contained the anthocyanins cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3g and cyanidin 3-(3ʺ-malonoyl glucoside (C3mg and the following carotenoids: lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, 13-cis-β-carotene, α-carotene, trans-β-carotene, and 9-cis-β-carotene. The cultivar “Magic” showed the greatest accumulation of total and individual anthocyanins, including C3g and C3gm. On the other hand, the highest level of lutein and zeaxanthin was noted in the cultivar “Il Weol”. The cultivar “Anastasia” contained the highest amount of carotenoids such as trans-β-carotene, 9-cis-β-carotene, and 13-cis-β-carotene. The highest accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin and α-carotene was noted in the cultivar “Anastasia” and “Il Weol”. Our results suggested that ‘Magic”, “Angel” and “Relance’ had high amounts of anthocyanins and showed a wide range of red and purple colors in their petals, whereas “Il Weol’, “Popcorn Ball’ and “Anastasia” produced higher carotenoid contents and displayed yellow or green petal colors. Interestingly, “Green Pang Pang”, which contained a high level of anthocyanins and a medium level of carotenoids, showed the deep green colored petals. “Kastelli”, had high level of carotenoids as well as a medium level of anthocyanins and showed orange and red colored petals. It was concluded that each pigment is responsible for the petal’s colors and the compositions of the pigments affect their flower colors and that the cultivars could be a good source for pharmaceutical, floriculture, and pigment industries.

  11. Platycodon grandiflorus Root Extract Attenuates Body Fat Mass, Hepatic Steatosis and Insulin Resistance through the Interplay between the Liver and Adipose Tissue

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    Ye Jin Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Platycodon grandiflorus root, a Korean medicinal food, is well known to have beneficial effects on obesity and diabetes. In this study, we demonstrated the metabolic effects of P. grandiflorus root ethanol extract (PGE, which is rich in platycodins, on diet-induced obesity. C57BL/6J mice (four-week-old males were fed a normal diet (16.58% of kilocalories from fat, high-fat diet (HFD, 60% of kilocalories from fat, and HFD supplemented with 5% (w/w PGE. In the HFD-fed mice, PGE markedly suppressed the body weight gain and white fat mass to normal control level, with simultaneous increase in the expression of thermogenic genes (such as SIRT1, PPARα, PGC1α, and UCP1, that accompanied changes in fatty acid oxidation (FAO and energy expenditure. In addition, PGE improved insulin sensitivity through activation of the PPARγ expression, which upregulates adiponectin while decreasing leptin gene expression in adipocytes. Furthermore, PGE improved hepatic steatosis by suppressing hepatic lipogenesis while increasing expression of FAO-associated genes such as PGC1α. PGE normalized body fat and body weight, which is likely associated with the increased energy expenditure and thermogenic gene expression. PGE can protect from HFD-induced insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis by controlling lipid and glucose metabolism.

  12. Platycodon grandiflorus Root Extract Attenuates Body Fat Mass, Hepatic Steatosis and Insulin Resistance through the Interplay between the Liver and Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ye Jin; Choi, Ji-Young; Ryu, Ri; Lee, Jeonghyeon; Cho, Su-Jung; Kwon, Eun-Young; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Rina, Yu; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2016-08-30

    The Platycodon grandiflorus root, a Korean medicinal food, is well known to have beneficial effects on obesity and diabetes. In this study, we demonstrated the metabolic effects of P. grandiflorus root ethanol extract (PGE), which is rich in platycodins, on diet-induced obesity. C57BL/6J mice (four-week-old males) were fed a normal diet (16.58% of kilocalories from fat), high-fat diet (HFD, 60% of kilocalories from fat), and HFD supplemented with 5% (w/w) PGE. In the HFD-fed mice, PGE markedly suppressed the body weight gain and white fat mass to normal control level, with simultaneous increase in the expression of thermogenic genes (such as SIRT1, PPARα, PGC1α, and UCP1), that accompanied changes in fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and energy expenditure. In addition, PGE improved insulin sensitivity through activation of the PPARγ expression, which upregulates adiponectin while decreasing leptin gene expression in adipocytes. Furthermore, PGE improved hepatic steatosis by suppressing hepatic lipogenesis while increasing expression of FAO-associated genes such as PGC1α. PGE normalized body fat and body weight, which is likely associated with the increased energy expenditure and thermogenic gene expression. PGE can protect from HFD-induced insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis by controlling lipid and glucose metabolism.

  13. Evaluation of allelopathic, decomposition and cytogenetic activities of Jasminum officinale L. f. var. grandiflorum (L.) Kob. on bioassay plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerarak, Montinee; Laosinwattana, Chamroon; Charoenying, Patchanee

    2010-07-01

    Methanolic extracts prepared from dried leaves of Jasminum officinale f. var. grandiflorum (L.) Kob. (Spanish jasmine) inhibited seed germination and stunted both root and shoot length of the weeds Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. and Phaseolus lathyroides L. The main active compound was isolated and determined by spectral data as a secoiridoid glucoside named oleuropein. In addition, a decrease in allelopathic efficacy appeared as the decomposition periods increased. The mitotic index in treated onion root tips decreased with increasing concentrations of the extracts and longer periods of treatment. Likewise, the mitotic phase index was altered in onion incubated with crude extract. Furthermore, crude extract produced mitotic abnormalities resulting from its action on chromatin organization and mitotic spindle. Copyright (c)2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Response of cupuassu embryonic axes (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum.) to salts concentration, sucrose doses and culture medium renewal

    OpenAIRE

    FERREIRA MARIA DAS GRAÇAS RODRIGUES; NINAMANGO CÁRDENAS FERNANDO ENRIQUE; CARVALHO CARLOS HENRIQUE SIQUEIRA DE; CARNEIRO ANDRÉA ALMEIDA; DAMIÃO FILHO CARLOS FERREIRA

    2002-01-01

    Foram estudados os efeitos da concentração de sais, doses de sacarose e freqüência de renovação do meio de cultura para o desenvolvimento de eixos embrionários de cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum.). Testaram-se 2 concentrações de sais MS (100 e 50%), 2 níveis de sacarose (1,5 e 3%) e 3 freqüências de renovação dos meios (sem renovação, renovação aos 30 e aos 60 dias), com os meios acrescidos de ANA (0,5 mg/L) e BAP (0,3 mg/L.), semi-solidificados com ágar 0,7% e pH 5,7. Observou-se que a...

  15. Chemical and rheological properties of a starch-rich fraction from the pulp of the fruit cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vriesmann, Lucia C.; Silveira, Joana L.M. [Universidade Federal do Parana, Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, CP 19046, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba-PR (Brazil); Petkowicz, Carmen L. de O [Universidade Federal do Parana, Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, CP 19046, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba-PR (Brazil)], E-mail: clop@ufpr.br

    2009-03-01

    The pulp obtained from the fruit of cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) was extracted with hot aqueous 0.1% citric acid to give fraction 0.1CA-2 in 15% yield. This was the predominant component polysaccharide, 91% of which was composed of starch, by an iodine test and monosaccharide composition, and its {sup 13}C NMR spectrum was consistent with that of a high amylose starch. The content of amylose found in fraction 0.1CA-2 was 71%. This value is higher than those of common starches of cereal grains, tubers, roots, and other fruits. The fraction was submitted to rheological examination, gels being prepared on heating with concentrations of 4 to 7% (w/w). A non-Newtonian behavior was observed, and gel viscosity and strength depended on the concentration. The presence of starch, as well as the presence of previously investigated pectin, conferred the high viscosity and gelling capability of the pulp.

  16. Scent from Jasminum grandiflorum flowers: Investigation of the change in linalool enantiomers at various developmental stages using chemical and molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragadheesh, V S; Chanotiya, Chandan S; Rastogi, Shubhra; Shasany, Ajit K

    2017-08-01

    Jasminum species are among the most preferred fresh cut flowers in India since ancient times. The plant produces small and fragrant flowers, which are of great demand in the preparation of fragrant garlands and also in perfume industries. Floral volatile of Jasminum grandiflorum L. (Family: Oleaceae) was extracted using solid-phase microextraction and analyzed in enantioselective gas chromatography. Chemical classes of identified volatiles revealed the presence of terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and fatty acid derivatives. Marker constituent of flower volatiles, linalool was selected for analytical characterization on ethyl- and acetyl-β-cyclodextrin stationary phase. (R)-(-)-Linalool was found as major enantiomer in volatiles of floral buds whereas (S)-(+)-linalool predominated in the volatiles of matured flowers. Simultaneously, a quantitative real-time PCR was performed to find the gene expression of linalool synthase to investigate the mechanism of enantiomeric inversion. The emission pattern of (R)-(-)-linalool at different flower developmental stages was well correlated (P = 0.01) with the gene expression of the cloned linalool synthase from J. grandiflorum. We observed that the successive change in (R)- to (S)-linalool ratio from bud to mature flower was mainly due to the enantio- specific transformation and temporal decline of (R)-linalool producing gene in J. grandiflorum. This enantiomeric change also leads to the difference in flower aroma. Furthermore, this is probably the reason behind consumer's acceptance for jasmine buds rather than bloomed flowers in cut flower segments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Antimicrobial Effect of Jasminum grandiflorum L. and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. Extracts Against Pathogenic Oral Microorganisms--An In Vitro Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Batra, Mehak; Sharda, Archana J; Asawa, Kailash; Sanadhya, Sudhanshu; Daryani, Hemasha; Ramesh, Gayathri

    2015-01-01

    To assess and compare the antimicrobial potential and determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Jasminum grandiflorum and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis extracts as potential anti-pathogenic agents in dental caries. Aqueous and ethanol (cold and hot) extracts prepared from leaves of Jasminum grandiflorum and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis were screened for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using the agar well diffusion method. The lowest concentration of every extract considered as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for both test organisms. Statistical analysis was performed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). At lower concentrations, hot ethanol Jasminum grandiflorum (10 μg/ml) and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (25 μg/ml) extracts were found to have statistically significant (P≤0.05) antimicrobial activity against S. mutans and L. acidophilus with MIC values of 6.25 μg/ml and 25 μg/ml, respectively. A proportional increase in their antimicrobial activity (zone of inhibition) was observed. Both extracts were found to be antimicrobially active and contain compounds with therapeutic potential. Nevertheless, clinical trials on the effect of these plants are essential before advocating large-scale therapy.

  18. Flowering levels, harvest season and yields of cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum Níveis de floração, período de safra e produção do cupuaçuzeiro (Theobroma grandiflorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgini Augusto Venturieri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, a specie native to Amazonia, has been planted commercially in Brazil to satisfy the demand for the flavorful juice obtained from the pulp around its seeds. The trees are notorious for low and irregular fruit production. Data gathered over two seasons from trees in a germplasm collection in Pará, Brazil, showed that some of them fruited more regularly than others. Differences in fruit production correlated to differences in flower production. Tree-to-tree variation in flower production, fruit production, and consistency of both over time suggest considerable scope for improving yields by selection. Hand pollinations resulted in a much higher frequency of fruit set than open pollinations, indicating that lack of effective pollination is also a reason for low yield. However, attempts to increase the level of effective pollination are handicapped by low knowledge about the pollinators of cupuassu and their behavior.Cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum é uma espécie nativa da Amazônia que vem sendo plantada comercialmente no Brasil para satisfazer a demanda pelo seu suco, de sabor marcante, obtido da polpa que envolve as suas sementes. As árvores não notórias pela sua baixa e irregular produtividade. Dados obtidos de dois períodos produtivos, de árvores de uma coleção de germoplasma no estado do Pará, Brasil, mostraram que algumas delas frutificam mais irregularmente que outras. Diferenças na produção de frutos foram correlacionadas à diferenças na produção de flores. Variações entre plantas nas produções de flores e de frutos, e a repetibilidade de ambos ao longo do tempo sugerem melhoria das colheitas por seleção. Polinizações manuais resultaram em aumento no pegamento dos frutos, indicando que a falta de polinizador efetivo é também um causa da produtividade baixa. Entretanto, tentativas para aumentar o nível de polinização efetiva são dificultadas pelo pouco conhecimento sobre os

  19. EVALUACIÓN DE DOS TRATAMIENTOS FOTOPERIÓDICOS EN CRISANTEMO (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam., BAJO CONDICIONES DEL INTERTRÓPICO ANDINO ALTO EVALUATION OF TWO PHOTOPERIOD TREATMENTS IN CHRYSANTHEMUM (Dendranthema grandiflorum ((Ramat. Kitam., UNDER CONDITIONS OF HIGH ANDEAN INTERTROPIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fáber de Jesús Chica Toro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En la floricultura colombiana, cerca del 14 % de los costos de producción del crisantemo o pompón (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam., está representado por la luz complementaria requerida para controlar su floración. Con el fin de encontrar un protocolo que hiciera uso de un menor suministro de luz, en este trabajo se compararon los efectos de dos esquemas de complemento lumínico nocturno sobre algunas características precosecha y poscosecha en dos variedades comerciales tipo spider de crisantemo: Super White y Super Yellow. El esquema testigo de suplemento lumínico nocturno consistió en aportar la adición durante 28 días para la variedad Super Yellow, y 26 para la variedad Super White. La propuesta alternativa de adición lumínica nocturna consistió en interrumpir el estímulo durante una noche completa cada dos días. Tal disminución del estímulo lumínico, en aproximadamente un 30 %, no afectó el crecimiento ni las características poscosecha de las variedades evaluadas.In Colombian floriculture, nearly 14% of the production costs of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam. consists of the additional lighting required to control its flowering. In order to find a protocol that consumes a lower amount of electricity, this study compared the effects of two supplementary noctural lighting schemes on several preharvest and postharvest characteristics in two commercial varieties of chrysanthemum: Super White and Super Yellow. The control nocturnal lighting scheme consisted of providing the supplemental lighting during 28 days for the Super Yellow variety and during 26 days for the Super White variety. The alternative nocturnal lighting scheme consisted of interrupting the stimulus during one complete night every two days. This approximately 30% reduction in light stimulation did not affect either growth or postharvest characteristics of the varieties evaluated.

  20. El sistema flotante como alternativa para la producción de plantines de Lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum L. The floating system as an alternative for the production of Lisianthus seedlings (Eustoma grandiflorum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Barbaro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La producción de plantines de Lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum L. se realiza mediante semillas sembradas en bandejas multiceldas, con control de temperatura y humedad. En la Argentina la producción no suele ser eficiente, y se obtienen plantines desuniformes y de reducido desarrollo. Otra forma de producción es el sistema flotante, empleado en la producción de plantines de tabaco y especies hortícolas. Consiste en la utilización de bandejas de poliestireno, las cuales flotan sobre una pileta desde la siembra al transplante. En este trabajo se evaluó el sistema flotante como alternativa al sistema convencional para la producción de plantines de Lisianthus. Se realizaron ensayos en tres fechas y las variables evaluadas fueron porcentaje de germinación y plantines para transplante, peso fresco y seco de la parte aérea y radicular, número de pares de hojas y longitud del primer par de hojas verdaderas. Los porcentajes de germinación y plantines para transplante no se diferenciaron entre los sistemas, pero en las restantes variables los plantines del sistema flotante superaron a los del convencional. Se concluye que el sistema flotante es una alternativa mejor que el sistema convencional, y que los plantines de Lisianthus obtenidos son de mayor tamaño, calidad y homogeneidad en menor tiempo.The production of Lisianthus seedlings (Eustoma grandiflorum L. is carried out on plug trays under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. Seedling production in Argentina is not efficient, and the seedlings obtained are not uniform and have reduced development. Another seedling production method is the floating system, which is used in the production of tobacco and horticultural seedlings. This method consists in the utilization of polystyrene trays floating on water tanks from sowing to transplant. This work evaluated the floating system for Lisianthus seedling production as an alternative to the conventional way. Experiments were carried

  1. FOOD-PACKAGING INTERACTION ON THE STABILITY OF CANNED SWEETENED CUPUAÇU (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum. PUREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA TERESA DE ALVARENGA FREIRE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cupuaçu ( Theobroma grandiflorum Schum. is an exotic fruit with a promising economic potential, particularly due to its strong aroma and creamy texture. This study aimed to produce sweetened cupuaçu puree and evaluate the effects of packaging corrosion on its sensory properties and shelf - life in tinplated cans. After 240 days of storage, the commercially sterile product had average sensory analysis scores of 5.89 ± 0.21, 5.39 ± 0.30, 5.45 ± 0.21 and 5.49 ± 0.25, for appearance, aroma, flavor and overall appreciation, respectively. Sensory acceptance scores did not change during storage (p>0.05. Corrosion potential and low tin and iron levels in the product, which are parameters used to evaluate food - packaging interaction, demonstrated the product remained food - safe throughout its shelf - life. Tinplate is a promising packaging material for sweetened cupuaçu puree due to its mechanical and protective properties. Furthermore, tin plating is an economically viable food technology to extend the shelf - life of cupuaçu products and expand its domestic and international markets.

  2. Effect of petroleum ether extract from Platycodon grandiflorum roots on pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of tylosin tartrate in mice after oral administration%桔梗石油醚提取物对酒石酸泰乐菌素在小鼠体内的药代动力学及组织分布的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雯; 李英伦; 叶刚; 施飞

    2015-01-01

    以酒石酸泰乐菌素为靶标药物,探究药物中加入桔梗石油醚提取物对小鼠血浆中的药代动力学特征及组织分布的影响.采用高效液相色谱法测定不同时间点小鼠血浆及心脏、肝、肺、肾中酒石酸泰乐菌素的浓度,运用PKsolver程序及SPSS 19.0统计软件处理数据,用非房室模型分析药代动力学参数.结果表明:酒石酸泰乐菌素的血-药时曲线呈现多峰;与对照组(药物未加桔梗石油醚提取物)相比,桔梗石油醚提取物组(桔梗组)消除半衰期和达峰时间均变短,达峰浓度降低;药时曲线下面积减少,而表观分布容积增加;平均滞留时间缩短,而药物清除率增大;组织分布图显示,与对照组相比,桔梗石油醚组小鼠心脏中的药物浓度明显比肺、肝、肾中药物浓度高,说明桔梗石油醚提取物改变了酒石酸泰乐菌素在小鼠体内的组织分布.综合分析,桔梗石油醚提取物对酒石酸泰乐菌素在小鼠体内的药代动力学特征有较大影响,表现为加快了药物的吸收速度,但减轻了吸收程度;使药物在体内分布更广泛,却加快了其在体内的消除速度.

  3. Effect of ethyl acetate extract of Platycodon grandiflorum roots on pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of tylosin tartrate in mice after oral administration%桔梗乙酸乙酯提取段对酒石酸泰乐菌素在小鼠血浆和肺组织中药动学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雯; 李英伦; 叶刚; 施飞; 靳茹文

    2016-01-01

    采用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定不同时间点小鼠血浆和肺组织中酒石酸泰乐菌素的浓度,运用PKsolver程序及SPSS13.0统计软件处理和分析数据,计算相关药代动力学参数.结果显示:与对照组相比,乙酸乙酯组半衰期(t1/2)变短,Cmax增大、,药时曲线下面积(AUC)增加、Tmax与平均滞留时间(MRTo-inf_obs)缩短,而表观分布容积(Vz/F_obs)与消除率(Cl/F_obs)变小;肺组织分布图显示药物浓度高于对照组.结果表明:桔梗乙酸乙酯提取活性段对酒石酸泰乐菌素在小鼠体内的药动学特征有较大影响,表现为加快了酒石酸泰乐菌素的吸收速度,并增加了吸收程度;但药物在体内分布变窄,却增加了其在肺中的药物浓度.

  4. 桔梗、甘草及其组成的复方对口腔病原菌生长影响的体外实验%Effects of Platycodon grandiflorum,Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch or the compound of both on the growth of oral pathogens in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄冰冰; 樊明文; 杨祥良; 韩定献; 陈亚军

    2003-01-01

    目的:探讨桔梗、甘草及其组成的复方中药对常见致龋菌和牙周病原菌生长的影响.方法:用φ=65%的乙醇溶液分别对桔梗、甘草及其组成的复方中药进行初步提取,观察3 种粗提物对常见口腔致病菌生长的抑制影响,并检测其最小抑菌浓度(minimal inhibitory concentration,MIC)和最小杀菌浓度(minimal bactericidal concentration,MBC).结果:桔梗不影响口腔致病菌的生长,甘草仅对致龋菌有抑制作用,对S.mutans MT8148和S.sobrinus 6715的MIC均为3.91 mg/ml;而桔梗和甘草组成的复方明显抑制4种实验菌株的生长,对S.mutans MT8148和S.sobrinus 6715的MIC为1.96 mg/ml, 对P.gingivalis 381的MIC为3.91 mg/ml,B.forsythus 43037的MIC为7.81 mg/ml.结论:桔梗和甘草组成的复方抑菌和杀菌效果均优于单味药.

  5. Microencapsulación de compuestos con poder antioxidante extraídos a partir de semillas sin fermentar de Theobroma cacao y Theobroma grandiflorum

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Ardila, Yenny Mayerly

    2013-01-01

    Las semillas de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) y copoazú (Theobroma grandiflorum) pueden ser consideradas fuentes de compuestos bioactivos catalogándolos como alimentos funcionales con propiedades fitoactivas. Se determinaron los mejores parámetros de la extracción asistida por microondas para los compuestos polifenoles de semillas sin fermentar de cacao y copoazú, mediante la evaluación del efecto individual de las variables relación solvente/muestra, potencia, tiempo y ciclos de ...

  6. Selection of Reference Genes for Expression Study in Pulp and Seeds of Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng.) Schum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz dos Santos, Lucas; Santana Silva, Raner José; Oliveira Jordão do Amaral, Daniel; Barbosa de Paula, Márcia Fabiana; Ludke Falcão, Loeni; Legavre, Thierry; Alves, Rafael Moyses

    2016-01-01

    Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum [Willd. ex Spreng.] Schum) is a species of high economic importance in Brazil with great potential at international level due to the multiple uses of both its seeds and pulp in the industry of sweets and cosmetics. For this reason, the cupuassu breeding program focused on the selection of genotypes with high pulp and seed quality—selection associated with the understanding of the mechanisms involved in fruit formation. Gene expression is one of the most used approaches related to such understanding. In this sense, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a powerful tool, since it rapidly and reliably quantifies gene expression levels across different experimental conditions. The analysis by qPCR and the correct interpretation of data depend on signal normalization using reference genes, i.e. genes presenting a uniform pattern of expression in the analyzed samples. Here, we selected and analyzed the expression of five genes from cupuassu (ACP, ACT, GAPDH, MDH, TUB) to be used as candidates for reference genes on pulp and seed of young, maturing and mature cupuassu fruits. The evaluation of the gene expression stability was obtained using the NormFinder, geNorm and BestKeeper programs. In general, our results indicated that the GAPDH and MDH genes constituted the best combination as reference genes to analyze the expression of cupuassu samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report of reference gene definition in cupuassu, and these results will support subsequent analysis related to gene expression studies in cupuassu plants subjected to different biotic or abiotic conditions as well as serve as a tool for diversity analysis based on pulp and seed quality. PMID:27501324

  7. Chemopreventive efficacy and anti-lipid peroxidative potential of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolanjiappan, K; Manoharan, S

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemopreventive efficacy and anti-lipid peroxidative potential of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced rat mammary carcinogenesis. Mammary tumors were developed by a single subcutaneous injection of 25 mg DMBA in 1 mL emulsion of sunflower oil and physiological saline. The tumor incidence and tumor volume that formed in the breast were determined. Oral administration of ethanolic extract of J. grandiflorum flowers (JgEt) at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight for 14 weeks to DMBA-injected animals completely prevented the formation of tumors in the pre-initiation period. JgEt also exerted significant anti-lipid peroxidative effect and improved the antioxidant defense system in DMBA-treated rats. The results of this study clearly indicate that JgEt has potent chemopreventive efficacy in experimental mammary carcinogenesis and further studies are warranted to isolate and characterize the bioactive principle from JgEt.

  8. Qualidade de luz no cultivo in vitro de Dendranthema grandiflorum cv. Rage: características morfofisiológicas Quality of light on the in vitro culture of Dendranthema grandiflorum cv. Rage: morphophysiological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francyane Tavares Braga

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Na micropropagação a manutenção das salas de crescimento torna a técnica onerosa, aumentando assim, a necessidade de conduzir estudos envolvendo a manipulação e o controle das condições de cultivo para otimizar o crescimento in vitro. A qualidade de luz pode alterar a morfogênese das plantas por meio de uma série de processos mediados por receptores, que absorvem a luz na região do vermelho e azul do espectro, sendo, portanto, uma maneira viável de aumentar a qualidade das mudas micropropagadas. Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar o efeito da qualidade de luz, na morfofisiologia de crisântemo [Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam] micropropagadas. Os explantes constituíram-se de segmentos nodais cultivados in vitro contendo uma gema. Foi utilizado o meio MS acrescido de 15g.L-1 de sacarose e as condições de incubação foram: (SC sala de crescimento, sendo este o tratamento controle; (CV casa-de-vegetação luz natural e casa-de-vegetação com sombrite 50% nas cores: preto, vermelho e azul. A avaliação foi efetuada 60 dias após a implantação do ensaio. Para número de folhas, SC mostrou-se a forma mais efetiva de incubação, com maior número médio de folhas. O mesmo ocorreu com número de raízes, brotações e comprimento médio de raízes. Para comprimento de parte aérea, SC e CV com proteção de sombrite: azul, preto e vermelho foram mais eficientes. Quanto aos aspectos anatômicos, para densidade estomática o maior número de estômatos/mm² foi observado em CV sem sombrite e CV com sombrite vermelho. Para diâmetros polar e equatorial dos estômatos, CV sem sombrite, seguidos de CV azul, vermelho, apresentaram maiores diâmetros. Com os resultados apresentados, é possível recomendar a utilização de luz natural no cultivo in vitro de crisântemo, porém não é recomendado a manipulação da qualidade espectral.In micropropagation, the maintenance of the growth rooms is labor-consuming and

  9. Study on Growth-promoting Effect of Robinia pseudoacacia Rhizobia on Platycodon gradiflorus%刺槐根瘤菌对桔梗的促生作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀玉良

    2014-01-01

    In order to screen out rhizobia strains with obvious growth -promoting effect on Platycodon gradiflorus, we used dif-ferent strains of Robinia pseudoacacia Linn.rhizobia to inoculate P.gradiflorus, and determined the whole -plant length, stem length, root length, whole-plant weight, stem fresh weight and root fresh weight of P.gradiflorus.The results showed that R. pseudoacacia rhizobia strains SLCH171, SLCH023, SLCH184, SLCH091, SLCH034, SLCH145, SLCH079 and SLCH139 had ob-vious growth-promoting effects on the whole -plant length, root length, whole-plant fresh weight, stem fresh weight and root fresh weight of P.gradiflorus, especially SLCH171, SLCH023 and SLCH184 had very significant influences on the agronomic traits and biomass of P.gradiflorus, and these 3 strains could significantly increase the root length , root weight , related biomass and yield of P.gradiflorus.These results could provide a basis for the further development of P.gradiflorus bio-fertilizer.%用不同刺槐(Robinia pseudoacacia Linn.)根瘤菌菌株接种桔梗(Platycodon gradiflorus),通过对桔梗的全株长、茎部长、根部长度及桔梗的全株重、茎鲜重、根鲜重等生物量的测定,考察刺槐根瘤菌对桔梗的促生作用,从试验菌株中筛选出具有明显促生作用的根瘤菌菌株。测定结果表明:刺槐根瘤菌菌株SLCH171、SLCH023、SLCH184、SLCH091、SLCH034、SLCH145、SLCH074、SLCH139对桔梗的全株长、根长、全株鲜重、茎鲜重和根鲜重都具有明显的促生作用,尤其是SLCH171、SLCH023、SLCH184这3株菌对桔梗的农艺性状和生物量影响达到了极显著的水平,尤其是能显著增加桔梗的根长度、重量和相关生物量,因而可提高桔梗的产量,为进一步研制桔梗促生菌肥提供了依据。

  10. Resposta de eixos embrionários de cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum. à concentração de sais, doses de sacarose e renovação do meio de cultivo Response of cupuassu embryonic axes (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum. to salts concentration, sucrose doses and culture medium renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA DAS GRAÇAS RODRIGUES FERREIRA

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados os efeitos da concentração de sais, doses de sacarose e freqüência de renovação do meio de cultura para o desenvolvimento de eixos embrionários de cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum.. Testaram-se 2 concentrações de sais MS (100 e 50%, 2 níveis de sacarose (1,5 e 3% e 3 freqüências de renovação dos meios (sem renovação, renovação aos 30 e aos 60 dias, com os meios acrescidos de ANA (0,5 mg/L e BAP (0,3 mg/L., semi-solidificados com ágar 0,7% e pH 5,7. Observou-se que a utilização do meio MS na concentração de sais completa, com a adição de 3% de sacarose e renovações do meio em intervalos de 30 dias, apresentou melhor desenvolvimento dos eixos embrionários.The effects of concentration of salts and sucrose and culture medium renewal frequency on cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum. embryonic axes development were studied. Two salts concentrations of MS (100 and 50%, two sucrose levels (1.5 and 3% and three explants subcultives (without medium renewal, renewal at 30 and 60 days were tested, with NAA (0.5 mg/L and BAP (0.3 mg/L in the MS medium. The use of MS at full concentration, with addition of 3% of sucrose, and renewals of the medium at 30 day intervals promoted better cupuassu embryonic axes development.

  11. Neurite Outgrowth in PC12 Cells Stimulated by Components from Dendranthema × grandiflorum cv. “Mottenohoka” Is Enhanced by Suppressing Phosphorylation of p38MAPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuyoshi Nishina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Components from Dendranthema × grandiflorum cv. “Mottenohoka” that promote neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells were identified and the mechanism of neurite outgrowth stimulated by isolated components was studied. Components that promoted the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2 of PC12 cells were isolated. From various structural analyses, the active components were identified as acacetin and luteolin. The effects of acacetin or luteolin on PC12 cells were evaluated by electro-blotting and immunostaining. Slight neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells was observed within 2 days of culture after stimulation by luteolin or acacetin. However, NGF-stimulation induced remarkable neurite outgrowth in comparison. Neurite outgrowth by luteolin or acacetin was significantly enhanced by pretreatment with SB203580 (a p38MAPK inhibitor. The results of this study into the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 and p38MAPK by flavonoids suggest that the inhibition of p38MAPK phosphorylation may effectively enhance neurite outgrowth.

  12. CARACTERIZAÇÃO FÍSICO-QUÍMICA E REOLÓGICAS DA POLPA DE CUPUAÇU CONGELADA (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Vicente Vieira Andrade Gonçalves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cupuaçu, uma das principais e mais consumidas frutas da região amazônica brasileira, pertence à família Sterculiacea, cuja denominação binomial é Theobroma grandiflorum schum. É uma fruta típica da Amazônia, sendo cultivada nos estados do Pará, Maranhão e Tocantins. Esta fruta apresenta crescente utilização no Brasil para o mercado interno e externo, sendo comumente comercializada como polpa congelada. Apesar de sua importância, há poucos dados de caracterização e contaminação da polpa de cupuaçu. Amostras de polpa de cupuaçu foram avaliadas quanto à viscosidade aparente, tensão de cisalhamento, umidade, cinzas, nitrogênio total, extrato etéreo, acidez, sólidos solúveis e pH. Os resultados demonstram a necessidade de aprimorar as boas práticas agrícolas e de fabricação e implantação de sistemas de controle de qualidade para minimização dos riscos associados à contaminação por micro-organismos.

  13. Exploratory Studies on the in Vitro Anti-inflammatory Potential of Two Herbal Teas (Annona muricata L. and Jasminum grandiflorum L.), and Relation with Their Phenolic Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Andreia P; Sá, Ivone; Pereira, David M; Gonçalves, Rui F; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia

    2017-06-01

    The need of new anti-inflammatory drugs has led to the search for safer and more potent molecules in distinct sources, such as natural products. This work aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory potential of aqueous extracts from two herbal teas (Annona muricata L. and Jasminum grandiflorum L.) in RAW 264.7 macrophages cells and in cell-free assays. Furthermore, the phenolic composition of both extracts and of their hydrolysates was characterized by HPLC-DAD, in order to establish possible relationships with the biological activity. In a general way, A. muricata displayed a stronger capacity to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production and the activity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2 ), displaying an IC50 value of 142 μg/ml against this enzyme. A deeper look at phenolic compounds revealed that aglycones had more capacity to inhibit NO and PLA2 than their corresponding glycosides, quercetin being clearly the most potent one (IC50  = 7.47 and 1.36 μm, respectively). In addition, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, at 1.56 μm, could also inhibit PLA2 (ca. 35%). Our findings suggest that the consumption of both herbal teas may be a preventive approach to inflammatory disorders. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  14. Crecimiento vegetativo y floral del crisantemo [Dendranthema x grandiflorum (Ramat) Kitamura] en respuesta a la presión osmótica de la solución nutritiva

    OpenAIRE

    A. E. Becerril-Román; V. A. González-Hernández; J. S. Flores-Ruvalcaba; L. Tijerina-Chávez; T. Vásquez-Rojas

    2005-01-01

    En México, el crisantemo [Dendranthema x grandiflorum (Ramat) Kitamura cv. Polaris White] es uno de los cultivos ornamentales que presentan la mayor superficie cultivada. Sin embargo, se desconocen sus requerimientos nutrimentales en condiciones hidropónicas, constituyendo lo anterior una mayor limitante al utilizar una alta densidad de población. Por consiguiente, se evaluó el efecto de la presión osmótica de la solución nutritiva (0.018, 0.027, 0.036 y 0.045 MPa) sobre el crecimiento y flor...

  15. Black ginseng extract ameliorates hypercholesterolemia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Saba

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Administration of BG extracts to Sprague Dawley rats fed with high-cholesterol diet ameliorated hypercholesterolemia, which was mediated via modulation of cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes. This data throw a light on BG's cardioprotective effects.

  16. Endophytic fungal diversity in Theobroma cacao (cacao) and T. grandiflorum (cupuaçu) trees and their potential for growth promotion and biocontrol of black-pod disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Rogério Eiji; Pomella, Alan William V; Costa, Heron Salazar; Bezerra, José Luiz; Loguercio, Leandro L; Pereira, José O

    2010-01-01

    The endophytic niches of plants are a rich source of microbes that can directly and indirectly promote plant protection, growth and development. The diversity of culturable endophytic fungi from stems and branches of Theobroma cacao (cacao) and Theobroma grandiflorum (cupuaçu) trees growing in the Amazon region of Brazil was assessed. The collection of fungal endophytic isolates obtained was applied in field experiments to evaluate their potential as biocontrol agents against Phytophthora palmivora, the causal agent of the black-pod rot disease of cacao, one of the most important pathogens in cocoa-producing regions worldwide. The isolated endophytic fungi from 60 traditional, farmer-planted, healthy cacao and 10 cupuaçu plants were cultured in PDA under conditions inducing sporulation. Isolates were classified based upon the morphological characteristics of their cultures and reproductive structures. Spore suspensions from a total of 103 isolates that could be classified at least up to genus level were tested against P. palmivora in pods attached to cacao trees in the field. Results indicated that ∼70% of isolates showed biocontrol effects to a certain extent, suggesting that culturable endophytic fungal biodiversity in this system is of a mostly mutualistic type of interaction with the host. Eight isolates from genera Trichoderma (reference isolate), Pestalotiopsis, Curvularia, Tolypocladium and Fusarium showed the highest level of activity against the pathogen, and were further characterized. All demonstrated their endophytic nature by colonizing axenic cacao plantlets, and confirmed their biocontrol activity on attached pods trials by showing significant decrease in disease severity in relation to the positive control. None, however, showed detectable growth-promotion effects. Aspects related to endophytic biodiversity and host-pathogen-endophyte interactions in the environment of this study were discussed on the context of developing sustainable strategies

  17. Dietary amelioration of Helicobacter infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Jed W; Stephenson, Katherine K; Wallace, Alison J

    2015-06-01

    We review herein the basis for using dietary components to treat and/or prevent Helicobacter pylori infection, with emphasis on (a) work reported in the last decade, (b) dietary components for which there is mechanism-based plausibility, and (c) components for which clinical results on H pylori amelioration are available. There is evidence that a diet-based treatment may reduce the levels and/or the virulence of H pylori colonization without completely eradicating the organism in treated individuals. This concept was endorsed a decade ago by the participants in a small international consensus conference held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, and interest in such a diet-based approach has increased dramatically since then. This approach is attractive in terms of cost, treatment, tolerability, and cultural acceptability. This review, therefore, highlights specific foods, food components, and food products, grouped as follows: bee products (eg, honey and propolis); probiotics; dairy products; vegetables; fruits; oils; essential oils; and herbs, spices, and other plants. A discussion of the small number of clinical studies that are available is supplemented by supportive in vitro and animal studies. This very large body of in vitro and preclinical evidence must now be followed up with rationally designed, unambiguous human trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dietary Amelioration of Helicobacter Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Jed W.; Stephenson, Katherine K.; Wallace, Alison J.

    2015-01-01

    We review herein the basis for using dietary components to treat and/or prevent Helicobacter pylori infection, with emphasis on: (a) work reported in the last decade, (b) dietary components for which there is mechanism-based plausibility, and (c) components for which clinical results on H. pylori amelioration are available. There is evidence that a diet-based treatment may reduce the levels and/or the virulence of H. pylori colonization without completely eradicating the organism in treated individuals. This concept was endorsed a decade ago by the participants in a small international consensus conference held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, and interest in such a diet-based approach has increased dramatically since then. This approach is attractive in terms of cost, treatment, tolerability and cultural acceptability. This review therefore highlights specific foods, food components, and food products, grouped as follows: bee products (e.g. honey and propolis), probiotics, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, oils, essential oils, and herbs, spices and other plants. A discussion of the small number of clinical studies that are available is supplemented by supportive in vitro and animal studies. This very large body of in vitro and pre-clinical evidence must now be followed up with rationally designed, unambiguous human trials. PMID:25799054

  19. Fucoidan Extracts Ameliorate Acute Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Qi Ying; Eri, Rajaraman D; Fitton, J Helen; Patel, Rahul P; Gueven, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are an important cause of morbidity and impact significantly on quality of life. Overall, current treatments do not sustain a long-term clinical remission and are associated with adverse effects, which highlight the need for new treatment options. Fucoidans are complex sulphated, fucose-rich polysaccharides, found in edible brown algae and are described as having multiple bioactivities including potent anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of two different fucoidan preparations, fucoidan-polyphenol complex (Maritech Synergy) and depyrogenated fucoidan (DPF) was evaluated in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) mouse model of acute colitis. Mice were treated once daily over 7 days with fucoidans via oral (Synergy or DPF) or intraperitoneal administration (DPF). Signs and severity of colitis were monitored daily before colons and spleens were collected for macroscopic evaluation, cytokine measurements and histology. Orally administered Synergy and DPF, but not intraperitoneal DPF treatment, significantly ameliorated symptoms of colitis based on retention of body weight, as well as reduced diarrhoea and faecal blood loss, compared to the untreated colitis group. Colon and spleen weight in mice treated with oral fucoidan was also significantly lower, indicating reduced inflammation and oedema. Histological examination of untreated colitis mice confirmed a massive loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells, infiltration of immune cells and oedema, while all aspects of this pathology were alleviated by oral fucoidan. Importantly, in this model, the macroscopic changes induced by oral fucoidan correlated significantly with substantially decreased production of at least 15 pro-inflammatory cytokines by the colon tissue. Overall, oral fucoidan preparations significantly reduce the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis and could therefore represent

  20. Seasonal dynamics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in plants of Theobroma grandiflorum Schum and Paullinia cupana Mart. of aN agroforestry system in Central Amazonia, Amazonas State, Brazil Dinâmica sazonal de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em plantas de Theobroma grandiflorum Schum e Paullinia cupana Mart. de um sistema agroflorestal na Amazônia Central, Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlem Nascimento de Oliveira

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal dynamics of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF was investigated in the rhizosphere of two fruit species in a terra firme (upland ecosystem in Central Amazonia. Two host species (Theobroma grandiflorum and Paullinia cupana and nine sampling months (August, September and December/1998, February, April, May and December/1999, February and May/2000 were studied in a completely randomized design, with five replications, set in a 2 x 9 factorial experiment. Soil (0-20 cm depth and root samples were collected between August 1998 and May 2000. The mean percent colonization of AMF for both species reached maximal values in February and May 2000 (rainy season. In April and May 1999, February and May 2000 (rainy season the highest AMF spore numbers were registered. The pluvial precipitation was significantly positively correlated with AMF number spores for both fruit species, and significant positive correlation only with AMF colonization of P. cupana. Soil moisture content was positively correlated with colonization and spore numbers of AMF for both species evaluated. AMF colonization and AMF spore numbers of T. grandiflorum were positively correlated with soil Mg and K concentrations. AMF spore numbers of T. grandiflorum were also negatively correlated with effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC. AMF colonization and AMF spore numbers in the rhizosphere of P. cupana were positively correlated with pH and Mn concentrations. AMF colonization was also positively correlated with AMF spore numbers for both species evaluated. In conclusion, this study showed that AMF colonization and sporulation are seasonal and dependent on host plant species, pluvial precipitation, soil moisture content and soil chemistry in Central Amazonia conditions.A dinâmica sazonal de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA foi investigada na rizosfera de duas espécies frutíferas em um ecossistema de terra firme na Amazônia Central. Adotou-se o delineamento

  1. ANTIOXIDANTS AMELIORATION OF ARSENICAL-INDUCED EFFECTS IN VIVO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioxidant amelioration of arsenical-induced effects in vivo. ES Hunter and EH Rogers. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC. Antioxidants have been reported to ameliorate the effects of many developmental toxicants. We tested the hypothesis that oxi...

  2. Calcium ameliorates diarrhea in immune compromised children

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Sam X.; Bai, Harrison X.; Gonzalez-Peralta, Regino; Mistry, Pramod K.; Gorelick, Fred S.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of infectious diarrheas remains a challenge, particularly in immunocompromised patients in whom infections usually persist and resultant diarrhea is often severe and protracted. Children with infectious diarrhea who become dehydrated are normally treated with oral or intravenous rehydration therapy. Although rehydration therapy can replace the loss of fluid, it does not ameliorate diarrhea. Thus, over the past decades, there has been continuous effort to search for ways to safely st...

  3. Cacao polyphenols ameliorate autoimmune myocarditis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempo, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Watanabe, Ryo; Wakayama, Kouji; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Komuro, Issei; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2016-04-01

    Myocarditis is a clinically severe disease; however, no effective treatment has been established. The aim of this study was to determine whether cacao bean (Theobroma cacao) polyphenols ameliorate autoimmune myocarditis. We used an experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) model in Balb/c mice. Mice with induced EAM were treated with a cacao polyphenol extract (CPE, n=12) or vehicle (n=12). On day 21, hearts were harvested and analyzed. Elevated heart weight to body weight and fibrotic area ratios as well as high cardiac cell infiltration were observed in the vehicle-treated EAM mice. However, these increases were significantly suppressed in the CPE-treated mice. Reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed that mRNA expressions of interleukin (Il)-1β, Il-6, E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and collagen type 1 were lower in the CPE group compared with the vehicle group. The mRNA expressions of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (Nox)2 and Nox4 were increased in the vehicle-treated EAM hearts, although CPE treatment did not significantly suppress the transcription levels. However, compared with vehicle treatment of EAM hearts, CPE treatment significantly suppressed hydrogen peroxide concentrations. Cardiac myeloperoxidase activity, the intensity of dihydroethidium staining and the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB p65 were also lower in the CPE group compared with the vehicle group. Our data suggest that CPE ameliorates EAM in mice. CPE is a promising dietary supplement to suppress cardiovascular inflammation and oxidative stress.

  4. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition ameliorates deficits in motivational drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinowich Keri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apathy is frequently observed in numerous neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, as well as neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Apathy is defined as a lack of motivation characterized by diminished goal-oriented behavior and self-initiated activity. This study evaluated a chronic restraint stress (CRS protocol in modeling apathetic behavior, and determined whether administration of an anticholinesterase had utility in attenuating CRS-induced phenotypes. Methods We assessed behavior as well as regional neuronal activity patterns using FosB immunohistochemistry after exposure to CRS for 6 h/d for a minimum of 21 d. Based on our FosB findings and recent clinical trials, we administered an anticholinesterase to evaluate attenuation of CRS-induced phenotypes. Results CRS resulted in behaviors that reflect motivational loss and diminished emotional responsiveness. CRS-exposed mice showed differences in FosB accumulation, including changes in the cholinergic basal forebrain system. Facilitating cholinergic signaling ameliorated CRS-induced deficits in initiation and motivational drive and rescued immediate early gene activation in the medial septum and nucleus accumbens. Conclusions Some CRS protocols may be useful for studying deficits in motivation and apathetic behavior. Amelioration of CRS-induced behaviors with an anticholinesterase supports a role for the cholinergic system in remediation of deficits in motivational drive.

  5. Use of Coffee Pulp and Minerals for Natural Soil Ameliorant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujiyanto Pujiyanto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In coffee plantation, solid waste of coffee pulp is usually collected as heap nearby processing facilities for several months prior being used as compost. The practice is leading to the formation of odor and liquid which contaminate the environment. Experiments to evaluate the effect of natural soil ameliorant derived from coffee pulp and minerals were conducted at The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember, East Java. The experiments were intended to optimize the use of coffee pulp to support farming sustainability and minimize negative impacts of solid waste disposal originated from coffee cherry processing. Prior to applications, coffee pulp was hulled to organic paste. The paste was then mixed with 10% minerals (b/b. Composition of the minerals was 50% zeolite and 50% rock phosphate powder. The ameliorant was characterized for their physical and chemical properties. Agronomic tests were conducted on coffee and cocoa seedling. The experiments were arranged according to Randomized Completely Design with 2 factors, consisted of natural ameliorant and inorganic fertilizer respectively. Natural ameliorant derived from coffee pulp was applied at 6 levels: 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 g dry ameliorant/seedling of 3 kg soil, equivalent to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% (b/b of ameliorant respectively. Inorganic fertilizer was applied at 2 levels: 0 and 2 g fertilizer/application of N-P-K compound fertilizer of 15-15-15 respectively. The inorganic fertilizer was applied 4 times during nursery of coffee and cocoa. The result of the experiment indicated that coffee pulp may be used as natural soil ameliorant. Composition of ameliorant of 90% coffee pulp and 10% of minerals has good physical and chemical characteristics for soil amelioration. The composition has high water holding capacity; cations exchange capacity, organic carbon and phosphorus contents which are favorable to increase soil capacity to support plant growth. Application of

  6. Ameliorated GA approach for base station planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andong; Sun, Hongyue; Wu, Xiaomin

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we aim at locating base station (BS) rationally to satisfy the most customs by using the least BSs. An ameliorated GA is proposed to search for the optimum solution. In the algorithm, we mesh the area to be planned according to least overlap length derived from coverage radius, bring into isometric grid encoding method to represent BS distribution as well as its number and develop select, crossover and mutation operators to serve our unique necessity. We also construct our comprehensive object function after synthesizing coverage ratio, overlap ratio, population and geographical conditions. Finally, after importing an electronic map of the area to be planned, a recommended strategy draft would be exported correspondingly. We eventually import HongKong, China to simulate and yield a satisfactory solution.

  7. Amelioration of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh A Maheshwari

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: This finding suggests that simvastatin and rosuvastatin may have a protective effect against cisplatin-induced kidney damage via amelioration of lipid peroxidation as well as due to improvement of renal function, and lipid-lowering effects.

  8. Resveratrol Pretreatment Ameliorates TNBS Colitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Gulserap; Yildiz, Yuksel; Ulutas, Pinar A; Yaylali, Asl; Ural, Muruvvet

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory disease in humans constituting a major health concern today whose prevalence has been increasing over the world. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and disturbed capacity of antioxidant defense in IBD subjects have been reported. Antioxidants may play a significant role in IBD treatment. This study aimed at evaluating ameliorative effects of intraperitoneal resveratrol pretreatment on trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Thirty five Wistar-Albino female rats were divided equally into five groups. Inflammation was induced by the intrarectal administration of TNBS under anesthesia. Intraperitoneal administration of resveratrol (RSV) at a concentration of 10mg/kg/day for 5 days before the induction of colitis significantly reduced microscopy score and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and increased glutathione peroxidase (GSH Px) activity compared to TNBS and vehicle groups. Also an insignificant increase in catalase (CAT) activity was observed in the RSV treated group compared to TNBS and vehicle groups. In this paper, the most recent patent on the identification and treatment of IBD was indicated. In conclusion, antioxidant RSV proved to have a beneficial effect on TNBS colitis in rats. In light of these advantageous results, the RSV can be considered as adjuvant agent in IBD treatments.

  9. Rutin ameliorates obesity through brown fat activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaoxue; Wei, Gang; You, Yilin; Huang, Yuanyuan; Lee, Hyuek Jong; Dong, Meng; Lin, Jun; Hu, Tao; Zhang, Hanlin; Zhang, Chuanhai; Zhou, Huiqiao; Ye, Rongcai; Qi, Xiaolong; Zhai, Baiqiang; Huang, Weidong; Liu, Shunai; Xie, Wen; Liu, Qingsong; Liu, Xiaomeng; Cui, Chengbi; Li, Donghao; Zhan, Jicheng; Cheng, Jun; Yuan, Zengqiang; Jin, Wanzhu

    2017-01-01

    Increasing energy expenditure through activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a critical approach to treating obesity and diabetes. In this study, rutin, a natural compound extracted from mulberry and a drug used as a capillary stabilizer clinically for many years without any side effects, regulated whole-body energy metabolism by enhancing BAT activity. Rutin treatment significantly reduced adiposity, increased energy expenditure, and improved glucose homeostasis in both genetically obese (Db/Db) and diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice. Rutin also induced brown-like adipocyte (beige) formation in subcutaneous adipose tissue in both obesity mouse models. Mechanistically, we found that rutin directly bound to and stabilized SIRT1, leading to hypoacetylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α protein, which stimulated Tfam transactivation and eventually augmented the number of mitochondria and UCP1 activity in BAT. These findings reveal that rutin is a novel small molecule that activates BAT and may provide a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of metabolic disorders.-Yuan, X., Wei, G., You, Y., Huang, Y., Lee, H. J., Dong, M., Lin, J., Hu, T., Zhang, H., Zhang, C., Zhou, H., Ye, R., Qi, X., Zhai, B., Huang, W., Liu, S., Xie, W., Liu, Q., Liu, X., Cui, C., Li, D., Zhan, J., Cheng, J., Yuan, Z., Jin, W. Rutin ameliorates obesity through brown fat activation. © FASEB.

  10. Amelioration of safety management in infrastructure projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Gopinath S.Mohite

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Accidents are a major public health concern, resulting in an estimated 1.2 million deaths and 50 million injuries worldwide each year specifically, the relationships between drivers' characteristics and road accidents are not fully understood. Many factors are involved in the accident occurrence at construction site. Some important elements that create a significant portion of accidents include: safety management error, poor training programs, human element, act of god, outdated procedure and no clear monitoring policy. Although some of these items are inevitable, but the occurrence of the largest part can be prevented. Therefore, for ameliorating the safety in a project each of these items should be analyzed and a practical approach introduced. In general, near miss, incident and accident are three dependent levels that mainly lead to injury. Risk and hazard are allocated in first level which means near miss, therefore, no on-time identification of hazard and risk causes to create incident and preventing accident in incident stage is unavoidable.

  11. Wnt7a treatment ameliorates muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Maltzahn, Julia; Renaud, Jean-Marc; Parise, Gianni; Rudnicki, Michael A

    2012-12-11

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating genetic muscular disorder of childhood marked by progressive debilitating muscle weakness and wasting, and ultimately death in the second or third decade of life. Wnt7a signaling through its receptor Fzd7 accelerates and augments regeneration by stimulating satellite stem cell expansion through the planar cell polarity pathway, as well as myofiber hypertrophy through the AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) anabolic pathway. We investigated the therapeutic potential of the secreted factor Wnt7a for focal treatment of dystrophic DMD muscles using the mdx mouse model, and found that Wnt7a treatment efficiently induced satellite cell expansion and myofiber hypertrophy in treated mucles in mdx mice. Importantly, Wnt7a treatment resulted in a significant increase in muscle strength, as determined by generation of specific force. Furthermore, Wnt7a reduced the level of contractile damage, likely by inducing a shift in fiber type toward slow-twitch. Finally, we found that Wnt7a similarly induced myotube hypertrophy and a shift in fiber type toward slow-twitch in human primary myotubes. Taken together, our findings suggest that Wnt7a is a promising candidate for development as an ameliorative treatment for DMD.

  12. Pomegranate: a fruit that ameliorates metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjakovic, Svjetlana; Jungbauer, Alois

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranate is an ancient fruit that is still part of the diet in the Mediterranean area, the Middle East, and India. Health-promoting effects have long been attributed to this fruit. Modern research corroborates the use of pomegranate as a folk remedy for diabetes and metabolic syndrome, and is responsible for a new evaluation of nutritional and pharmaceutical aspects of pomegranate in the general public. In the last decade, industry and agricultural production have been adapted to meet higher market demands for pomegranate. In vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated that pomegranate exerts hypoglycaemic effects, including increased insulin sensitivity, inhibition of α-glucosidase, and impact on glucose transporter type 4 function, but is also responsible for a reduction of total cholesterol, and the improvement of blood lipid profiles, as well as anti-inflammatory effects through the modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor pathways. These effects may also explain how pomegranate-derived compounds function in the amelioration of adverse health effects caused by metabolic syndrome. Pomegranate contains polyphenols such as ellagitannins and anthocyanins, as well as phenolic acids, fatty acids and a variety of volatile compounds. Ellagitannins are some of the most prevalent compounds present in pomegranate, and may be responsible for certain benevolent characteristics associated with pomegranate. A brief overview of rising health problems due to obesity will be provided, followed by characterisation of the biological activity, bioavailability, and safety of pomegranate and pomegranate-derived compounds. Although the fruit is consumed in many countries, epidemiological and clinical studies are unavailable. Additional research is necessary to corroborate the promise of current in vivo and in vitro findings.

  13. Zinc Deficiency in Humans and its Amelioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashbir Singh Shivay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency in humans has recently received considerable attention. Global mortality in children under 5 years of age in 2004 due to Zn deficiency was estimated at 4,53,207 as against 6,66,771 for vitamin A deficiency; 20,854 for iron deficiency and 3,619 for iodine deficiency. In humans 2800-3000 proteins contain Zn prosthetic group and Zn is an integral component of zinc finger prints that regulate DNA transcription. Zinc is a Type-2 nutrient, which means that its concentration in blood does not decrease in proportion of the Zn deficiency. Adverse effects of Zn deficiency vary with age: low weight gain, diarrhoea, aneroxia and neurobehavioral disturbances are observed in infants, while skin changes and dwarfism are frequent in toddlers and adolescents. Common manifestations of Zn deficiency among elderly include hypogeusia, chronic non-healing ulcers and recurrent infections.Ameliorative measures of Zn deficiency in humans can be classified in two groups, namely, nutraceutical and biofortification of food grains. Nutraceutical interventions include pharmaceutical supplements, dietary supplements and dietary diversification, while biofortification of food grains can be achieved by genetic modification (GM of crops or by agronomic techniques that include soil or/and foliar fertilization of crops.The major disadvantage of nutraceutical approaches is that the major beneficiaries are urban people and the poor rural masses that need adequate Zn nutrition most are left out. Genetic biofortification of food grains requires large amounts of funds and a fairly long-period of time. Further, a large number of countries have not yet accepted genetically modified (GM foods. On the other hand agronomic biofortification of food grains yields immediate effects and rural and urban people are equally benefitted. Our studies have shown that Zn concentration in cereals (rice, wheat etc and pulses can be considerably increased by soil or/and foliar

  14. Amelioration of painful crises in sickle cell disease by venesections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombos, Yannis; Tzanetea, Revekka; Kalotychou, Vassiliki; Konstantopoulos, Kostas; Simitzis, Spyros; Tassiopoulos, Thomas; Aessopos, Athanasios; Fessas, Phaedon

    2002-01-01

    Sickle cell disease patients who acquire iron deficiency may experience a degree of amelioration from painful crises in terms of frequency, severity, and duration. This observation prompted us to identify the potential utility of iron load reduction in the management of this disease. Thirteen sickle cell patients not ameliorated by conventional treatment entered a weekly venesection protocol. Hematological values and painful crises of all degrees of severity were recorded and compared to those of the last 12 months before venesection for each case separately ("historical controls"). A decrease was noted in the frequency and intensity of several types of painful crises. Reduction of iron load by venesection seems to be a simple, safe, side-effect-free, and efficient way of preventing and ameliorating to a large extent painful crises in sickle cell disease. The biological effects of venesection on other parameters of sickle cell disease remain to be determined.

  15. Platycodin D, a metabolite of Platycodin grandiflorum, inhibits highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer growth in vitro and in vivo by targeting the MDM2 oncogene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ya; Lu, Zong-Liang; Wang, Jia-Jia; Zhou, Rui; Guo, Jing; Liu, Jie; Sun, Hai-Lan; Wang, He; Song, Wei; Yang, Jian; Xu, Hong-Xia

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore the in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects of Platycodin D (PD), derived from Platycodin grandiflorum, on highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Using the MTT assay, we found that PD inhibited MDA-MB-231 cell growth in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC50 value of 7.77±1.86 µM. Further studies showed that PD had anti-proliferative effects and induced cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. To explore the detailed mechanism(s) by which PD suppressed MDA-MB-231 cell growth, western blot analyses were used to detect the expression levels of proteins related to cell proliferation and survival. The data showed that PD decreased the expression of proteins related to the G0/G1 phases, downregulated the protein expression of MDM2, MDMX, and mutant p53, and increased the expression levels of p21 and p27 in vitro. We verified the effects of PD on the expression of MDM2, MDMX, mutant p53, p21 and p27 using a pcDNA3-Flag-MDM2 plasmid and MDM2 siRNA transfection, and found that PD inhibited MDA-MB-231 cell viability by targeting MDM2 and mutant p53. Compared with the corresponding parental cells, the cells with siRNA-MDM2 transfection had a greater decrease in cell viability and proliferation, while those with pcDNA3-MDM2 plasmid transfection did not show any increase in the effects of PD. We also established a MDA-MB-231 xenograft model in BALB/c nude mice, and found that PD significantly inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 xenograft tumors in these mice. The expression levels of various proteins in the tumor tissue exhibited changes similar to those observed in vitro. These findings indicate that PD exerted in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects against MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, that PD is a potential MDM2/MDMX inhibitor, and that the anticancer effects of PD were likely associated with its inhibition of these proteins. Our observations help to identify a mechanism by which PD functions as

  16. Antibiotics can ameliorate circulatory complications of liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bjørn Stæhr; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B

    2011-01-01

    . This review focuses on how broad spectrum antibiotics can ameliorate the haemodynamic consequences of bacterial translocation. It is possible that the use of broad spectrum antibiotics in the future may be used to prevent other complications of liver cirrhosis than spontaneous bacterial peritonitis...

  17. Dose-Dependent Amelioration of Gentamicin-Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dose-Dependent Amelioration of Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Swiss Albino ... Purpose: To evaluate the effect of vitamin B-complex on the nephrotoxicity of ... increase in serum urea and creatine while 3ml/kg of the same drug ...

  18. Designing urban parks that ameliorate the effects of climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, R.D.; Vanos, J.; Kenny, N.; Lenzholzer, S.

    2015-01-01

    Many inhabitants of cities throughout the world suffer from health problems and discomfort that are caused by overheating of urban areas, and there is compelling evidence that these problems will be exacerbated by global climate change. Most cities are not designed to ameliorate these effects althou

  19. Social buffering ameliorates conditioned fear responses in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Akiko; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2016-05-01

    The stress experienced by an animal is ameliorated when the animal is exposed to distressing stimuli along with a conspecific animal(s). This is known as social buffering. Previously, we found that the presence of an unfamiliar male rat induced social buffering and ameliorated conditioned fear responses of a male rat subjected to an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS). However, because our knowledge of social buffering is highly biased towards findings in male subjects, analyses using female subjects are crucial for comprehensively understanding the social buffering phenomenon. In the present studies, we assessed social buffering of conditioned fear responses in female rats. We found that the estrus cycle did not affect the intensity of the rats' fear responses to the CS or their degree of vigilance due to the presence of a conspecific animal. Based on these findings, we then assessed whether social buffering ameliorated conditioned fear responses in female rats without taking into account their estrus cycles. When fear conditioned female rats were exposed to the CS without the presence of a conspecific, they exhibited behavioral responses, including freezing, and elevated corticosterone levels. By contrast, the presence of an unfamiliar female rat suppressed these responses. Based on these findings, we conclude that social buffering can ameliorate conditioned fear responses in female rats.

  20. Glycine preconditioning to ameliorate pulmonary ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommer, Sebastian-Patrick; Sommer, Stefanie; Sinha, Bhanu; Leyh, Rainer G.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of glycine (Gly) preconditioning on ischemia reperfusion (IR)-induced pulmonary mitochondrial injury to research the previously, in pig lungs, demonstrated Gly-dependent amelioration of pulmonary IR injury. IR injury was induced in rat lungs by 30 min pulmonary hilum c

  1. Designing urban parks that ameliorate the effects of climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, R.D.; Vanos, J.; Kenny, N.; Lenzholzer, S.

    2015-01-01

    Many inhabitants of cities throughout the world suffer from health problems and discomfort that are caused by overheating of urban areas, and there is compelling evidence that these problems will be exacerbated by global climate change. Most cities are not designed to ameliorate these effects

  2. Application of actinomycetes to soil to ameliorate water repellency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, F; El-Tarabily, K A; Petrie, S; Chen, C; Dell, B

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel isolation technique using a mixture of Bacillus and Streptomyces phages to selectively isolate wax-utilizing non-streptomycete actinomycetes effective in ameliorating water repellency in a problem soil. Phages added to a soil suspension reduced the dominance of Bacillus and Streptomyces isolates and significantly increased the number of non-streptomycete actinomycetes on isolation plates. Promising isolates, grown on a medium containing beeswax as sole carbon source, were selected for application to water repellent soil. Their addition significantly reduced water repellency. Phage application significantly increased the isolation of non-streptomycete actinomycetes. Wax-utilizing isolates were found to significantly reduce water repellency in a problem soil. The phage technique can be used for the routine isolation of non-streptomycete actinomycetes. Beeswax medium can be used to selectively isolate wax-utilizing micro-organisms with the potential to ameliorate water repellency in soil.

  3. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum – brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma – red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as a function of the origin of seaweed, there are several defining and consistent characteristics of seaweed biochar, in particular a relatively low C content and surface area but high yield, essential trace elements (N, P and K) and exchangeable cations (particularly K). The pH of seaweed biochar ranges from neutral (7) to alkaline (11), allowing for broad-spectrum applications in diverse soil types. We find that seaweed biochar is a unique material for soil amelioration that is consistently different to biochar derived from ligno-cellulosic feedstock. Blending of seaweed and ligno-cellulosic biochar could provide a soil ameliorant that combines a high fixed C content with a mineral-rich substrate to enhance crop productivity. PMID:25856799

  4. Arsenic toxicity in mice and its possible amelioration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. J. Verma; Archana Vasu, Abdu; Alim Saiyed

    2004-01-01

    Oral administration of arsenic trioxide(3 and 6 mg/kg body weight/d) for 30 d caused, as compared with vehicle control, dose- dependent significant reductions in body weight, absolute weight, protein, glycogen, as well as, total, dehydro and reduced ascorbic acid contents both in the liver) and kidney of arsenic- treated mice. Succinic dehydrogenase(SDH) and phosphorylase(only in the liver activities were significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Acid phosphatase activity was significantly decreased in the liver of low dose arsenic-treated animals; however, significant rise in its activity was observed in high dose group. As compared with vehicle control, treatment also caused significant dose-dependent reductions in SDH, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase activities in the kidney of mice. Vitamin E cotreatment as well as, 30 d withdrawal of arsenic trioxide treatment with or without vitamin E caused significant amelioration in arsenic-induced toxicity in mice. Administration of vitamin E during withdrawal of treatment also caused significant amelioration as compared from only withdrawal of the treatment. It is concluded that vitamin E ameliorates arsenic-induced toxicities in the liver and kidney of mice.

  5. Landscape Planning of Forest Amelioration on Irrigated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruleva Olga Vasilyevna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors study the landscape program which supposes the formation of land use system aimed at connection of protective shelterbelts to geo-morphological watershed elements, relief, unsimilarity of agricultural territories, adapted to the dynamically balanced state of substance and energy within a landscape. Such approach favors the development of agricultural lands estimation system by means of forest amelioration. It happens due to transformation (reorganization of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of energy mass transfer. Consequently, the radiation, heat, soil, hydrophysical and hydrodynamical processes change as well. So, the area adjoining the protective forest belt is the area of determined processes, while further from the forest belt the space is open for changes of all the characteristics. While estimating lands geoecology, the agroforest landscape was considered as a modification of agricultural landscape forming and functioning under the influence of protective shelterbelts. The landscape unsimilarity of the territory should be taken into account during the optimum organization of irrigated farming. It was made by means of desiphering space photos. According to bioclimatical zonal indications, the dry steppe and desert steppe agrolandscape types have been determined. The irrigated soils of the Volgograd region are located mainly in dry steppe agroforest landscapes on dark-chestnut and chestnut soils within natural ameliorative areas of Privolzhskaya and Ergeninskaya Hills and partly in Zavolzhskaya river delta plain; in semi-desert agroforest landscapes on light-chestnut soils within Zavolzhskaya river delta plain and Sarpinskaya lowlands. The favourable hydrogeological ameliorative situation on the territory of southern Privolzhskaya Hill gives the opportunity to revive the irrigation in the Volgograd region and therefore to increase the productivity and sustainability of agricultural production on a higher scientific

  6. A note on inventory model for ameliorating items with time dependent second order demand rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobinda Chandra Panda

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper is concerned with the development of ameliorating inventory models. The ameliorating inventory is the inventory of goods whose utility increases over the time by ameliorating activation. Material and Methods: This study is performed according to two areas: one is an economic order quantity (EOQ model for the items whose utility is ameliorating in accordance with Weibull distribution, and the other is a partial selling quantity (PSQ model developed for selling the surplus inventory accumulated by ameliorating activation with linear demand. The aim of this paper was to develop a mathematical model for inventory type concerned in the paper. Numerical examples were presented show the effect of ameliorating rate on inventory polices.  Results and Conclusions:  The inventory model for items with Weibull ameliorating is developed. For the case of small ameliorating rate (less than linear demand rate, EOQ model is developed, and for the case where ameliorating rate is greater than linear demand rate, PSQ model is developed.  .  

  7. Roscovitine ameliorates endotoxin-induced uveitis through neutrophil apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhao-Xin; Qiu, Suo; Lou, Bing-Sheng; Yang, Yao; Wang, Wen-Cong; Lin, Xiao-Feng

    2016-08-01

    Neutrophils have been recognized as critical response cells during the pathogenesis of endotoxin‑induced uveitis (EIU). Apoptosis of neutrophils induced by roscovitine has previously been demonstrated to ameliorate inflammation in several in vivo models. The present study aimed to assess whether roscovitine ameliorates EIU. EIU was induced in female C57BL/6 mice by a single intravitreal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 250 ng). The mice were divided into three groups as follows: LPS alone, LPS plus vehicle, LPS plus roscovitine (50 mg/kg). The mice were euthanized 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after LPS‑induced uveitis. Accumulation of inflammatory cells in the vitreous body was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, and quantified following hematoxylin and eosin staining. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick‑end labeling was performed to detect of apoptotic cells. The mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines were analyzed by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the changes in protein levels were analyzed by western blotting. Inflammatory cells accumulated in the vitreous near the optic nerve head and the quantity peaked at 24 h after LPS injection. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the majority of the inflammatory cells were neutrophils. The number of infiltrating cells was similar in the LPS and LPS plus vehicle groups, while there were significantly less in the roscovitine group at 24 h. Apoptosis of neutrophils was observed between 12 and 48 h after roscovitine injection, while no apoptosis was observed in the other groups. The mRNA expression levels of GMCSF, CINC‑1 and ICAM‑1 peaked at 12 h after LPS injection, and decreased to normal levels at 72 h. This trend in mRNA expression was similar in the LPS and LPS plus vehicle groups; however, the expression levels decreased more quickly in the roscovitine group at 24 and 48 h. Following roscovitine administration, upregulated cleaved caspase 3 expression levels

  8. Biochar Ameliorate Drought and Salt Stress in Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem Akhtar, Saqib

    objectives of the present PhD project were to reveal the mechanisms by which biochar addition mitigates negative effect of drought and salinity stress on plants and to test the efficacy of biochar when applied in combination with already existing drought (like DI and PRD) and salt management (inoculation...... integrated drought (i.e., DI and PRD) and salt (i.e., inoculating plant with PGPB) management approaches. It is concluded that incorporation of biochar could be successfully used to ameliorate drought and salt stress in plants. However, further research is warranted under drought prone and salt affected...

  9. Rebamipide ameliorates atherosclerosis by controlling lipid metabolism and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhun, JooYeon; Kwon, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Se-Young; Jeong, Jeong-Hee; Na, Hyun Sik; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Seung Hoon; Jung, KyungAh; Min, Jun-Ki; Cho, Mi-La

    2017-01-01

    The oral administration of rebamipide decreased plaque formation in atherosclerotic lesions as well as the markers of metabolic disorder in ApoE-deficient mice with atherosclerosis. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were also suppressed by rebamapide. In addition, the population of Th17 was decreased, whereas Treg was increased in the spleen of rebamipide-treated ApoE deficient mice. Rebamipide also ameliorated the severity of obese arthritis and has the capability to reduce the development of atherosclerosis by controlling the balance between Th17 and Treg cells. Thus, rebamipide could be a therapeutic agent to improve the progression of inflammation in metabolic diseases.

  10. Biochar Ameliorate Drought and Salt Stress in Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem Akhtar, Saqib

    objectives of the present PhD project were to reveal the mechanisms by which biochar addition mitigates negative effect of drought and salinity stress on plants and to test the efficacy of biochar when applied in combination with already existing drought (like DI and PRD) and salt management (inoculation...... integrated drought (i.e., DI and PRD) and salt (i.e., inoculating plant with PGPB) management approaches. It is concluded that incorporation of biochar could be successfully used to ameliorate drought and salt stress in plants. However, further research is warranted under drought prone and salt affected...

  11. Heregulin ameliorates the dystrophic phenotype in mdx mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Thomas O B; Bogdanovich, Sasha; Jensen, Claus J

    2004-01-01

    Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal neuromuscular disease caused by absence of dystrophin. Utrophin is a chromosome 6-encoded dystrophin-related protein (DRP), sharing functional motifs with dystrophin. Utrophin's ability to compensate for dystrophin during development and when...... ectodomain for 3 months in vivo resulted in up-regulation of utrophin, a marked improvement in the mechanical properties of muscle as evidenced by resistance to eccentric contraction mediated damage, and a reduction of muscle pathology. The amelioration of dystrophic phenotype by heregulin-mediated utrophin...

  12. Losartan ameliorates dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and uncovers new disease mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Alexander; Thriene, Kerstin; Mittapalli, Venugopal; Kern, Johannes S; Kiritsi, Dimitra; Dengjel, Jörn; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2015-07-20

    Genetic loss of collagen VII causes recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB)-a severe skin fragility disorder associated with lifelong blistering and disabling progressive soft tissue fibrosis. Causative therapies for this complex disorder face major hurdles, and clinical implementation remains elusive. Here, we report an alternative evidence-based approach to ameliorate fibrosis and relieve symptoms in RDEB. Based on the findings that TGF-β activity is elevated in injured RDEB skin, we targeted TGF-β activity with losartan in a preclinical setting. Long-term treatment of RDEB mice efficiently reduced TGF-β signaling in chronically injured forepaws and halted fibrosis and subsequent fusion of the digits. In addition, proteomics analysis of losartan- vs. vehicle-treated RDEB skin uncovered changes in multiple proteins related to tissue inflammation. In line with this, losartan reduced inflammation and diminished TNF-α and IL-6 expression in injured forepaws. Collectively, the data argue that RDEB fibrosis is a consequence of a cascade encompassing tissue damage, TGF-β-mediated inflammation, and matrix remodeling. Inhibition of TGF-β activity limits these unwanted outcomes and thereby substantially ameliorates long-term symptoms.

  13. Incremental Beliefs About Ability Ameliorate Self-Doubt Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Past research has typically shown negative effects of self-doubt on performance and psychological well-being. We suggest that these self-doubt effects largely may be due to an underlying assumption that ability is innate and fixed. The present research investigated the main hypothesis that incremental beliefs about ability might ameliorate negative effects of self-doubt. We examined our hypotheses using two lab tasks: verbal reasoning and anagram tasks. Participants’ self-doubt was measured and beliefs about ability were measured after participants read articles advocating either for incremental or entity theories of ability. American College Testing (ACT scores were obtained to index actual ability level. Consistent with our hypothesis, for participants who believed ability was relatively fixed, higher self-doubt was associated with increased negative affect and lower task performance and engagement. In contrast, for participants who believed that ability was malleable, negative self-doubt effects were ameliorated; self-doubt was even associated with better task performance. These effects were further moderated by participants’ academic ability. These findings suggest that mind-sets about ability moderate self-doubt effects. Self-doubt may have negative effects only when it is interpreted as signaling that ability is immutably low.

  14. Phytoceramide Shows Neuroprotection and Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seikwan Oh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The function and the role phytoceramide (PCER and phytosphingosine (PSO in the central nervous system has not been well studied. This study was aimed at investigating the possible roles of PCER and PSO in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured neuronal cells and memory function in mice. Phytoceramide showed neuro-protective activity in the glutamate-induced toxicity in cultured cortical neuronal cells. Neither phytosphingosine nor tetraacetylphytosphingosine (TAPS showed neuroproective effects in neuronal cells. PCER (50 mg/kg, p.o. recovered the scopolamine-induced reduction in step-through latency in the passive avoidance test; however, PSO did not modulate memory function on this task. The ameliorating effects of PCER on spatial memory were confirmed by the Morris water maze test. In conclusion, through behavioral and neurochemical experimental results, it was demonstrated that central administration of PCER produces amelioration of memory impairment. These results suggest that PCER plays an important role in neuroprotection and memory enhancement and PCER could be a potential new therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.

  15. Saline-alkali land in the Yellow River Delta:amelioration zonation based on GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Soil salinization is one of the major land degradation types andhas greatly influenced sustainable agricultural development. Zonation of saline-alkali land is the precondition for effective amelioration. The present situation of saline-alkali land is monitored by remote sensing image processing. Causes for land salinization are analyzed, especially the two key factors, ground water depth and its mineralization degree, are analyzed by using long-term observation data. Previously,zonation of saline-alkali soil was made descriptively and artificially. Based on the present situation of saline-alkali land, ground water depth and ground water mineralization degree, the zonation of salinealkali land for amelioration in the Yellow River Delta was completed quantitatively. Four different ypes of saline-alkali land amelioration zones are delineated, namely, easy ameliorated zone,elatively difficult ameliorated zone, difficult ameliorated zone and unfavorable ameliorated zone.Countermeasures for ameliorating saline-alkali soils are put forward according to ecological conditions of different saline-alkali land zones.

  16. 27 CFR 24.304 - Chaptalization (Brix adjustment) and amelioration record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chaptalization (Brix adjustment) and amelioration record. 24.304 Section 24.304 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Chaptalization (Brix adjustment) and amelioration record. (a) General. A proprietor who chaptalizes juice...

  17. Flemingia macrophylla Extract Ameliorates Experimental Osteoporosis in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ya Ho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Flemingia macrophylla (Leguminosae, a native plant of Taiwan, is used as folk medicine. An in vitro study showed that a 75% ethanolic extract of F. macrophylla (FME inhibited osteoclast differentiation of cultured rat bone marrow cells, and the active component, lespedezaflavanone A (LDF-A, was isolated. It was found that oral administration of FME for 13 weeks suppressed bone loss in ovariectomized rats, an experimental model of osteoporosis. In addition, FME decreased urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations but did not inhibit serum alkaline phosphatase activities, indicating that it ameliorated bone loss via inhibition of bone resorption. These results suggest that FME may represent a useful remedy for the treatment of bone resorption diseases, such as osteoporosis. In addition, LDF-A could be used as a marker compound to control the quality of FME.

  18. Quercetin Treatment Ameliorates Systemic Oxidative Stress in Cirrhotic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Emanuelle Kerber; Bona, Silvia; Di Naso, Fábio Cangeri; Porawski, Marilene; Tieppo, Juliana; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether the antioxidant quercetin protects against liver injury and ameliorates the systemic oxidative stress in rats with common bile duct ligation. Secondary biliary cirrhosis was induced through 28 days of bile duct obstruction. Animals received quercetin (Q) after 14 days of obstruction. Groups of control (CO) and cirrhotic (CBDL) animals received a daily 50 mg/kg body weight i.p. injection of quercetin (CO + Q; CBDL + Q) or vehicle (CO; CBDL). Quercetin corrected the reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase CAT, and glutathione peroxidase GPx activities and prevented the increase of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), aminotransferases, and alkaline phosphatase in cirrhotic animals. Quercetin administration also corrected the reduced total nitrate concentration in the liver and prevented liver fibrosis and necrosis. These effects suggest that quercetin might be a useful agent to preserve liver function and prevent systemic oxidative stress. PMID:21991520

  19. Granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis ameliorates sepsis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuai; Xu, Qingqing; Deng, Bo; Zheng, Yin; Tian, Hongyan; Wang, Li; Ding, Feng

    2017-12-01

    Overwhelming activation of granulocytes and monocytes is central to inflammatory responses during sepsis. Granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis (GMA) is an extracorporeal leukocyte apheresis device filled with cellulose acetate beads and selectively adsorbs granulocytes and monocytes from the peripheral blood. In this study, septic rats received the GMA treatment for 2 h at 18 h after cecal ligation and puncture. GMA selectively adsorbed activated neutrophils and monocytes from the peripheral blood, reduced serum inflammatory cytokine expression, and seemed to improve organ injuries and animal survival. GMA potentially reduced lung injury by alleviating the infiltration of inflammatory cells and the secretion of cytokines. This study showed that selective granulocyte and monocyte adsorption with cellulose acetate beads might ameliorate cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis and improve survival and organ function.

  20. Calcitonin, as SMS 201-995, ameliorates the VIPoma syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, A; Gambuzza, C; Bertoni, F; Baschieri, L

    1993-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for diarrhea, abdominal and back pain, weight loss, low serum potassium level. Pathological findings and high circulating Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) levels allowed us to diagnose "VIPoma syndrome". The patient underwent a treatment with SMS 201-995 with improvement of symptomatology and reduction of circulating VIP levels. After a wash-out period the patient was treated with salmon calcitonin with a net improvement of diarrhea, normalization of potassium serum level and reduction of VIP level. The symptomatology recurred after calcitonin withdrawal. These data confirm the effectiveness of SMS 201-995 in the VIPoma syndrome and suggest that calcitonin may ameliorate symptomatology and reduce circulating VIP level in patients with VIPoma tumor.

  1. Pleurotus eryngii Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Lung Inflammation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junya Kawai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus eryngii (P. eryngii is consumed as a fresh cultivated mushroom worldwide and demonstrated to have multiple beneficial effects. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of P. eryngii in mice with acute lung injury (ALI. Intranasal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS (10 μg/site/mouse induced marked lung inflammation (increase in the number of inflammatory cells, protein leakage, and production of nitric oxide in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as well as histopathological damage in the lung, 6 h after treatment. Mice administered heat-treated P. eryngii (0.3–1 g/kg, p.o. (HTPE 1 h before LPS challenge showed decreased pulmonary inflammation and ameliorated histopathological damage. These results suggest that HTPE has anti-inflammatory effects against ALI. Thus, P. eryngii itself may also have anti-inflammatory effects and could be a beneficial food for the prevention of ALI induced by bacterial infection.

  2. Amelioration of arsenic toxicity by phosphate salts in mungbean seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarnakar, Arpita; Mukherji, Subhendu

    2005-07-01

    Sodium arsenate (Na2HAsO4.7H2O) is a potent inhibitor of mungbean seed germination and seedling growth. Germination is totally stopped at or above 50 microM Na2HAsO4.7H2O. Inhibition of seedling elongation started at a lower concentration of 5 microM As(V) and was drastically reduced at 20 microM As(V). Nutrients like salts of macroelements viz., NaH2PO4.2H2O, KH2PO4, K2SO4, MgSO4.7H2O, CaCl2.2H2O, (NH4)2SO4 NH4NO3 solutions at a concentration of 10mM and microelements viz., ZnSO4, CuSO4.5H2O, Na2MoO4.2H2O, MnCl2.4H2O, CoCl2.6H2O, FeSO4.7H2O solutions at a concentration of 1mM could help to ameliorate the toxic effects of As(V) to different degrees. Amelioration of As(V) toxicity was possible only when the mungbean seeds were pretreated with the above mentioned nutrients for 24 hr and then transferred to sodium arsenate. Simultaneous treatment of nutrients with As(V) or using nutrient solutions following As(V) treatment were of no help to reverse the toxic effects of sodium arsenate.

  3. NLRP3 deficiency ameliorates neurovascular damage in experimental ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Ziying; Wei, Xinbing; Han, Huirong; Meng, Xianfang; Zhang, Yan; Shi, Weichen; Li, Fengli; Xin, Tao; Pang, Qi; Yi, Fan

    2014-04-01

    Although the innate immune response to induce postischemic inflammation is considered as an essential step in the progression of cerebral ischemia injury, the role of innate immunity mediator NLRP3 in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke is unknown. In this study, focal ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion in NLRP3(-/-), NOX2(-/-), or wild-type (WT) mice. By magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Evans blue permeability, and electron microscopic analyses, we found that NLRP3 deficiency ameliorated cerebral injury in mice after ischemic stroke by reducing infarcts and blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage. We further showed that the contribution of NLRP3 to neurovascular damage was associated with an autocrine/paracrine pattern of NLRP3-mediated interleukin-1β (IL-1β) release as evidenced by increased brain microvessel endothelial cell permeability and microglia-mediated neurotoxicity. Finally, we found that NOX2 deficiency improved outcomes after ischemic stroke by mediating NLRP3 signaling. This study for the first time shows the contribution of NLRP3 to neurovascular damage and provides direct evidence that NLRP3 as an important target molecule links NOX2-mediated oxidative stress to neurovascular damage in ischemic stroke. Pharmacological targeting of NLRP3-mediated inflammatory response at multiple levels may help design a new approach to develop therapeutic strategies for prevention of deterioration of cerebral function and for the treatment of stroke.

  4. Brain microvascular endothelial cell transplantation ameliorates ischemic white matter damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Sandra; Kurachi, Masashi; Shibasaki, Koji; Naruse, Masae; Yoshimoto, Yuhei; Mikuni, Masahiko; Imai, Hideaki; Ishizaki, Yasuki

    2012-08-21

    Ischemic insults affecting the internal capsule result in sensory-motor disabilities which adversely affect the patient's life. Cerebral endothelial cells have been reported to exert a protective effect against brain damage, so the transplantation of healthy endothelial cells might have a beneficial effect on the outcome of ischemic brain damage. In this study, endothelin-1 (ET-1) was injected into the rat internal capsule to induce lacunar infarction. Seven days after ET-1 injection, microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) were transplanted into the internal capsule. Meningeal cells or 0.2% bovine serum albumin-Hank's balanced salt solution were injected as controls. Two weeks later, the footprint test and histochemical analysis were performed. We found that MVEC transplantation improved the behavioral outcome based on recovery of hind-limb rotation angle (P<0.01) and induced remyelination (P<0.01) compared with the control groups. Also the inflammatory response was repressed by MVEC transplantation, judging from fewer ED-1-positive activated microglial cells in the MVEC-transplanted group than in the other groups. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which MVECs ameliorate ischemic damage of the white matter may provide important information for the development of effective therapies for white matter ischemia.

  5. Bushen Yisui Capsule ameliorates axonal injury in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Fang; Lei Wang; Qi Zheng; Tao Yang; Hui Zhao; Qiuxia Zhang; Kangning Li; Li Zhou; Haiyang Gong; Yongping Fan

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary clinical study by our group demonstrated Bushen Yisui Capsule (formerly cal ed Er-huang Formula) in combination with conventional therapy is an effective prescription for the treat-ment of multiple sclerosis. However, its effect on axonal injury during early multiple sclerosis re-mains unclear. In this study, a MOG 35-55-immunized C57BL/6 mouse model of experimental au-toimmune encephalomyelitis was intragastrical y administered Bushen Yisui Capsule. The results showed that Bushen Yisui Capsule effectively improved clinical symptoms and neurological function of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In addition, amyloid precursor protein expression was down-regulated and microtubule-associated protein 2 was up-regulated. Experimental findings indicate that the disease-preventive mechanism of Bushen Yisui Capsule in experimental autoim-mune encephalomyelitis was mediated by amelioration of axonal damage and promotion of rege-neration. But the effects of the high-dose Bushen Yisui Capsule group was not better than that of the medium-dose and low-dose Bushen Yisui Capsule group in preventing neurological dysfunction.

  6. Yangjing Capsule Ameliorates Spermatogenesis in Male Mice Exposed to Cyclophosphamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongle Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yangjing capsule (YC, a traditional Chinese compound herbal preparation, has been proven as an effective drug to improve spermatogenesis in clinical practice. However, its pharmacological mechanisms were not fully clarified. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of YC on spermatogenesis in the mouse model of spermatogenesis dysfunction induced by cyclophosphamide (CP. The administration of YC significantly increased the epididymal index, sperm count, and sperm motility of model mice. Histopathological changes demonstrated that CP caused obvious structural damage to testis, which were reversed by the administration of YC. Results from TUNEL assay showed that treatment with YC dramatically decreased the apoptosis of spermatogenic cell induced by CP. Moreover, YC treatment could inhibit the mRNA and protein expression of Bax to Bcl-2 and also raised expression of AR at both mRNA and protein levels. These data suggest that YC might ameliorate spermatogenesis in male mice exposed to CP through inhibiting the apoptosis of spermatogenic cell and enhancing the actions of testosterone in spermatogenesis.

  7. Astragaloside IV ameliorates renal injury in db/db mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huili; Wang, Wenjing; Han, Pengxun; Shao, Mumin; Song, Gaofeng; Du, Heng; Yi, Tiegang; Li, Shunmin

    2016-09-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a lethal complication of diabetes mellitus and a major type of chronic kidney disease. Dysregulation of the Akt pathway and its downstream cascades, including mTOR, NFκB, and Erk1/2, play a critical role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Astragaloside IV is a major component of Huangqi and exerts renal protection in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes. The current study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of diet supplementation of AS-IV on renal injury in db/db mice, a type 2 diabetic mouse model. Results showed that administration of AS-IV reduced albuminuria, ameliorated changes in the glomerular and tubular pathology, and decreased urinary NAG, NGAL, and TGF-β1 in db/db mice. AS-IV also attenuated the diabetes-related activation of Akt/mTOR, NFκB, and Erk1/2 signaling pathways without causing any detectable hepatotoxicity. Collectively, these findings showed AS-IV to be beneficial to type 2 diabetic nephropathy, which might be associated with the inhibition of Akt/mTOR, NFκB and Erk1/2 signaling pathways.

  8. Ameliorative Effect of Allopurinol on Vascular Complications of Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany M. El-Bassossy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate the possible protective effect of allopurinol (Allo on experimentally induced insulin resistance (IR and vascular complications. Rats were divided into four groups: control, IR, allopurinol-treated IR (IR-Allo, and allopurinol-treated control (Allo. IR was induced by adding fructose and high fat, high salt diet for 12 weeks. The results showed that Allo has alleviated the increased level of TNF-α and the systolic, diastolic, mean, and notch pressure observed in IR with no change in pulse pressure. In addition, Allo decreased the heart rate in the treated group compared to IR rats. On the other hand, it has no effect on increased levels of insulin, glucose, fructosamine, or body weight gain compared to IR group, while it increased significantly the insulin level and body weight without hyperglycemia in the control group. Moreover, Allo treatment ameliorated increased level of 4HNE, Ang II, and Ang R1. In conclusion, the results of the current study show that Allo has a protective effect on vascular complications of IR which may be attributed to the effect of Allo on decreasing the TNF-α, 4HNE, Ang II, and Ang R1 as well as increasing the level of insulin secretion.

  9. Probiotic BIFICO cocktail ameliorates Helicobacter pylori induced gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Jing; Liu, Wei; Chang, Zhen; Shen, Hui; He, Li-Juan; Wang, Sha-Sha; Liu, Lu; Jiang, Yuan-Ying; Xu, Guo-Tong; An, Mao-Mao; Zhang, Jun-Dong

    2015-06-07

    To determine the protective effect of triple viable probiotics on gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and elucidate the possible mechanisms of protection. Colonization of BIFICO strains in the mouse stomach was determined by counting colony-forming units per gram of stomach tissue. After treatment with or without BIFICO, inflammation and H. pylori colonization in the mouse stomach were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin and Giemsa staining, respectively. Cytokine levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Milliplex. The activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and MAPK signaling in human gastric epithelial cells was evaluated by Western blot analysis. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 mRNA expression in the mouse stomach. We demonstrated that BIFICO, which contains a mixture of Enterococcus faecalis, Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus acidophilus, was tolerant to the mouse stomach environment and was able to survive both the 8-h and 3-d courses of administration. Although BIFICO treatment had no effect on the colonization of H. pylori in the mouse stomach, it ameliorated H. pylori-induced gastritis by significantly inhibiting the expression of cytokines and chemokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-6, G-CSF and MIP-2 (P gastritis by inhibiting the inflammatory response in gastric epithelial cells.

  10. Ozone therapy ameliorates paraquat-induced lung injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldirim, Umit; Uysal, Bulent; Yuksel, Ramazan; Macit, Enis; Eyi, Yusuf E; Toygar, Mehmet; Tuncer, Salim K; Ardic, Sukru; Arziman, Ibrahim; Aydin, Ibrahim; Oztas, Yesim; Karslioglu, Yildirim; Topal, Turgut

    2014-12-01

    Paraquat (PQ) overdose can cause acute lung injury and death. Ozone therapy (OT) was previously demonstrated to alleviate inflammation and necrosis in various pathologies. We therefore hypothesized that OT has ameliorative and preventive effects on PQ-induced lung damage due to anti-inflammatory and antioxidants properties. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 24) were separated into three groups: sham, PQ, and PQ+OT groups. 15 mg/kg PQ was administered intraperitoneally in PQ and PQ+OT groups to induce experimental lung injury. One hour after PQ treatment, PQ+OT group was administered a single dose of ozone-oxygen mixture (1 mg/kg/day) by intraperitoneal route for four consecutive days. The animals were sacrificed on fifth day after PQ administration. Blood samples and lung tissues were collected to evaluate the inflammatory processes, antioxidant defense and pulmonary damage. Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and neopterin levels, tissue oxidative stress parameters, total TGF-β1 levels, and histological injury scores in PQ+OT group were significantly lower than PQ group (Ptherapy.

  11. Emodin ameliorates lipopolysaccharides-induced corneal inflammation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Ling; Chen; Jing-Jing; Zhang; Xin; Kao; Lu-Wan; Wei; Zhi-Yu; Liu

    2015-01-01

    · AIM: To investigate the effect of emodin on pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharides(LPS)-induced corneal inflammation in rats.· METHODS: Corneal infection was induced by pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS in Wistar rats. The inflammation induced by LPS were examined by slit lamp microscope and cytological checkup of aqueous humor.Corneal tissue structure was observed by hematoxylin and eosin(HE) staining. The activation of nuclear factor kappa B(NF-κB) was determined by Western blot.Messenger ribonucleic acid(m RNA) of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) in LPS-challenged rat corneas were measured with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR).· RESULTS: Typical manifestations of acute corneal inflammation were observed in LPS-induce rat model,and the corneal inflammatory response and structure were improved in rats pretreated with emodin. Treatment with emodin could improve corneal structure, reduce corneal injure by reducing corneal inflammatory response. Emodin could inhibit the decreasing lever of inhibitor of kappa B alpha(IкBα) express, and the m RNA expression of TNF-α and ICAM-1 in corneal tissues was also inhibited by emodin. The differences were statistically significant between groups treated with emodin and those without treatment(P <0.01).·CONCLUSION: Emodin could ameliorate LPS-induced corneal inflammation, which might via inhibiting the activation of NF-κB.

  12. Food Restriction Ameliorates the Development of Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Gina; Hein, Kyaw Zaw; Nin, Veronica; Edwards, Marika; Chini, Claudia C S; Hopp, Katharina; Harris, Peter C; Torres, Vicente E; Chini, Eduardo N

    2016-05-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a genetic disorder characterized by the accumulation of kidney cysts that ultimately leads to loss of renal function and kidney failure. At present, the treatment for ADPKD is largely supportive. Multiple studies have focused on pharmacologic approaches to slow the development of the cystic disease; however, little is known about the role of nutrition and dietary manipulation in PKD. Here, we show that food restriction (FR) effectively slows the course of the disease in mouse models of ADPKD. Mild to moderate (10%-40%) FR reduced cyst area, renal fibrosis, inflammation, and injury in a dose-dependent manner. Molecular and biochemical studies in these mice indicate that FR ameliorates ADPKD through a mechanism involving suppression of the mammalian target of the rapamycin pathway and activation of the liver kinase B1/AMP-activated protein kinase pathway. Our data suggest that dietary interventions such as FR, or treatment that mimics the effects of such interventions, may be potential and novel preventive and therapeutic options for patients with ADPKD. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  13. Heregulin ameliorates the dystrophic phenotype in mdx mice.

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    Krag, Thomas O B; Bogdanovich, Sasha; Jensen, Claus J; Fischer, M Dominik; Hansen-Schwartz, Jacob; Javazon, Elisabeth H; Flake, Alan W; Edvinsson, Lars; Khurana, Tejvir S

    2004-09-21

    Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal neuromuscular disease caused by absence of dystrophin. Utrophin is a chromosome 6-encoded dystrophin-related protein (DRP), sharing functional motifs with dystrophin. Utrophin's ability to compensate for dystrophin during development and when transgenically overexpressed has provided an important impetus for identifying activators of utrophin expression. The utrophin promoter A is transcriptionally regulated in part by heregulin-mediated, extracellular signal-related kinase-dependent activation of the GABP(alpha/beta) transcription factor complex. Therefore, this pathway offers a potential mechanism to modulate utrophin expression in muscle. We tested the ability of heregulin to improve the dystrophic phenotype in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Intraperitoneal injections of a small peptide encoding the epidermal growth factor-like region of heregulin ectodomain for 3 months in vivo resulted in up-regulation of utrophin, a marked improvement in the mechanical properties of muscle as evidenced by resistance to eccentric contraction mediated damage, and a reduction of muscle pathology. The amelioration of dystrophic phenotype by heregulin-mediated utrophin up-regulation offers a pharmacological therapeutic modality and obviates many of the toxicity and delivery issues associated with viral vector-based gene therapy for DMD.

  14. Transcranial amelioration of inflammation and cell death after brain injury

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    Roth, Theodore L.; Nayak, Debasis; Atanasijevic, Tatjana; Koretsky, Alan P.; Latour, Lawrence L.; McGavern, Dorian B.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is increasingly appreciated to be highly prevalent and deleterious to neurological function. At present, no effective treatment options are available, and little is known about the complex cellular response to TBI during its acute phase. To gain insights into TBI pathogenesis, we developed a novel murine closed-skull brain injury model that mirrors some pathological features associated with mild TBI in humans and used long-term intravital microscopy to study the dynamics of the injury response from its inception. Here we demonstrate that acute brain injury induces vascular damage, meningeal cell death, and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that ultimately breach the glial limitans and promote spread of the injury into the parenchyma. In response, the brain elicits a neuroprotective, purinergic-receptor-dependent inflammatory response characterized by meningeal neutrophil swarming and microglial reconstitution of the damaged glial limitans. We also show that the skull bone is permeable to small-molecular-weight compounds, and use this delivery route to modulate inflammation and therapeutically ameliorate brain injury through transcranial administration of the ROS scavenger, glutathione. Our results shed light on the acute cellular response to TBI and provide a means to locally deliver therapeutic compounds to the site of injury.

  15. Magnesium lithospermate B ameliorates renal cortical microperfusion in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-guang CHEN; Yi-ping WANG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of magnesium lithospermate B (MLB) isolated from Salviae miltiorrhizae on renal microcirculation, and renal and systemic hemodynamics in Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: MLB (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg) was injected intravenously and renal blood flow (RBF), renal cortical microperfusion (RCM), and systemic hemodynamic function parameters including heart rate (HR),mean arterial pressure (MAP), left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), and maximal velocity of pressure increase (dp/dtmax) were measured for 45 min after administration. Results: Intravenous MLB at doses of 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg increased RCM significantly, but had no obvious effects on RBF or systemic hemodynamics. The effect of MLB on RCM reached its peak 15 min after injection and returned to baseline after 45 min. Up to60 mg/kg MLB increased RCM by 62.4%±20.2% (changes from baseline, P<0.01),whereas RBF (3.7%±9.7% vs baseline) and renal vascular resistance (-1.4%±9.1%vs baseline) did not obviously change. Conclusion: These results indicate that MLB ameliorates renal microcirculation in a dose-dependent manner, which may be related to the renoprotective effects of MLB.

  16. Coniferyl Aldehyde Ameliorates Radiation Intestine Injury via Endothelial Cell Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ye Ji; Jung, Myung Gu; Lee, Yoonjin; Lee, Haejune [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yunsil [Ewha Woman' s Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Younggyu [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Cancer treatments related gastrointestinal toxicity has also been recognized as a significant economic burden. Especially, extensive apoptosis of microvascular endothelial cell of the lamina propria is the primary lesion initiating intestinal radiation damage after abdominal radiation therapy. Coniferyl aldehyde (CA) is phenolic compounds isolated from cork stoppers, and one of the major pyrolysis products of lignin. Shi H. was support for the empirical use of CA as a medicinal food for cardiovascular diseases. CA has positive effect in broad way but there is no consequence in radiation induced intestine damage. Here, we investigate effect of CA on small intestine after abdominal IR to mice in this study. In this study, CA increased the survival rate in C3H mice against 13.5 Gy abdominal IR. We found CA protects small intestine via preventing endothelial cell apoptosis and enhancing their angiogenic activity. CA also showed protective effect on crypt cell survival. Endothelial cell survival may affect crypt cell protection against IR. From this data, we concluded that CA is effective for protection against abdominal radiation injury. CA could ameliorate side-effect of radiation therapy.

  17. Thiazolidinediones attenuate lipolysis and ameliorate dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinhan; Xu, Chong; Kuang, Jiangying; Liu, Qinhui; Jiang, Hongfeng; Mo, Li; Geng, Bin; Xu, Guoheng

    2015-07-01

    Elevated levels of circulating free fatty acids induce insulin resistance and often occur in obese and diabetic conditions. One pharmacological basis for the antidiabetic effects of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) is that TZDs reduce levels of circulating FFAs by accelerating their uptake and reesterification from plasma into adipocytes. Here, we investigated whether TZDs affect adipose lipolysis, a process controlling triglyceride hydrolysis and FFA efflux to the bloodstream. The effects of TZDs on lipolysis were investigated in primary rat adipocytes in vitro and in rats in vivo. In rat primary adipocytes, the TZDs pioglitazone, rosiglitazone and troglitazone inhibited the lipolytic reaction dose- and time-dependently and in a post-receptor pathway by decreasing cAMP level and total lipase activity. TZDs increased the phosphorylation of Akt/protein kinase B, an action required for activating cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase 3B, a major enzyme responsible for cAMP hydrolysis in adipocytes. Furthermore, rosiglitazone inhibited the lipolytic action in dexamethasone-stimulated adipocytes, thereby preventing the increased level of circulating FFAs, and ameliorated insulin resistance in vivo in dexamethasone-treated rats. TZDs may attenuate lipolysis and FFA efflux by activating Akt signaling to decrease cAMP level and hence reduce lipase activity in adipocytes. Inhibiting lipolysis and FFA efflux with TZDs could be a pharmacological basis by which TZDs antagonize diabetes, particularly in patients with hypercortisolemia or glucocorticoid challenge. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Ameliorative property of Teucrium polium on second degree burn

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    Ansari Roya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traditionally, burn wound healing activities have been claimed for Teucrium polium. Teucrium polium possesses antioxidant and inflammatory activities and seems to ameliorate burn wound healing. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of Teucrium polium on burn healing in Balb/C mice. Materials and Methods: In this preclinical experimental study 56 mice were randomly designated into 4 equal groups. Burn wounds were made using a hot plate with a surface area of 1.5 cm2. Animals were treated with Teucrium 2%, Silver sulfadiazine or Vaseline 2 times per day for 21 days. The forth group received no treatment. Results: The percentage of burn wounds healing and total time required for complete healing were evaluated and compared in different groups. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test. Conclusion: Teucrium extract accelerated the burn wound healing more rapidly than control groups (p<0.01. Teucrium polium is effective on burn wounds healing and might be beneficial in these groups of patients.

  19. Glycine and Folate Ameliorate Models of Congenital Sideroblastic Anemia.

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    J Pedro Fernández-Murray

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sideroblastic anemias are acquired or inherited anemias that result in a decreased ability to synthesize hemoglobin in red blood cells and result in the presence of iron deposits in the mitochondria of red blood cell precursors. A common subtype of congenital sideroblastic anemia is due to autosomal recessive mutations in the SLC25A38 gene. The current treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia is chronic blood transfusion coupled with iron chelation. The function of SLC25A38 is not known. Here we report that the SLC25A38 protein, and its yeast homolog Hem25, are mitochondrial glycine transporters required for the initiation of heme synthesis. To do so, we took advantage of the fact that mitochondrial glycine has several roles beyond the synthesis of heme, including the synthesis of folate derivatives through the glycine cleavage system. The data were consistent with Hem25 not being the sole mitochondrial glycine importer, and we identify a second SLC25 family member Ymc1, as a potential secondary mitochondrial glycine importer. Based on these findings, we observed that high levels of exogenous glycine, or 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-Ala a metabolite downstream of Hem25 in heme biosynthetic pathway, were able to restore heme levels to normal in yeast cells lacking Hem25 function. While neither glycine nor 5-Ala could ameliorate SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia in a zebrafish model, we determined that the addition of folate with glycine was able to restore hemoglobin levels. This difference is likely due to the fact that yeast can synthesize folate, whereas in zebrafish folate is an essential vitamin that must be obtained exogenously. Given the tolerability of glycine and folate in humans, this study points to a potential novel treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia.

  20. Aedes aegypti salivary gland extract ameliorates experimental inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales-Campos, Helioswilton; de Souza, Patricia Reis; Basso, Paulo José; Ramos, Anderson Daniel; Nardini, Viviani; Chica, Javier Emílio Lazo; Capurro, Margareth Lara; Sá-Nunes, Anderson; de Barros Cardoso, Cristina Ribeiro

    2015-05-01

    Current therapies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are not totally effective, resulting in persistent and recurrent disease for many patients. Mosquito saliva contains immunomodulatory molecules and therein could represent a novel therapy for IBD. Here, we demonstrated the therapeutic activity of salivary gland extract (SGE) of Aedes aegypti on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. For this purpose, C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to 3% DSS in drinking water and treated with SGE at early (days 3-5) or late (days 5-8) time points, followed by euthanasia on days 6 and 9, respectively, for sample collection. The results showed an improvement in clinical disease outcome and postmortem scores after SGE treatment, accompanied by the systemic reduction in peripheral blood lymphocytes, with no impact on bone marrow and mesenteric lymph nodes cellularity or macrophages toxicity. Moreover, a local diminishment of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-5 cytokines together with a reduction in the inflammatory area were observed in the colon of SGE-treated mice. Strikingly, early treatment with SGE led to mice protection from a late DSS re-challenging, as observed by decreased clinical and postmortem scores, besides reduced circulating lymphocytes, indicating that the mosquito saliva may present components able to prevent disease relapse. Indeed, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments pointed to a major SGE pool fraction (F3) able to ameliorate disease signs. In conclusion, SGE and its components might represent a source of important immunomodulatory molecules with promising therapeutic activity for IBD.

  1. PEG minocycline-liposomes ameliorate CNS autoimmune disease.

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    Wei Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Minocycline is an oral tetracycline derivative with good bioavailability in the central nervous system (CNS. Minocycline, a potent inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9, attenuates disease activity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS. Potential adverse effects associated with long-term daily minocycline therapy in human patients are concerning. Here, we investigated whether less frequent treatment with long-circulating polyethylene glycol (PEG minocycline liposomes are effective in treating EAE. FINDINGS: Performing in vitro time kinetic studies of PEG minocycline-liposomes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, we determined that PEG minocycline-liposome preparations stabilized with CaCl(2 are effective in diminishing MMP-9 activity. Intravenous injections of PEG minocycline-liposomes every five days were as effective in ameliorating clinical EAE as daily intraperitoneal injections of minocycline. Treatment of animals with PEG minocycline-liposomes significantly reduced the number of CNS-infiltrating leukocytes, and the overall expression of MMP-9 in the CNS. There was also a significant suppression of MMP-9 expression and proteolytic activity in splenocytes of treated animals, but not in CNS-infiltrating leukocytes. Thus, leukocytes gaining access to the brain and spinal cord require the same absolute amount of MMP-9 in all treatment groups, but minocycline decreases the absolute cell number. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that less frequent injections of PEG minocycline-liposomes are an effective alternative pharmacotherapy to daily minocycline injections for the treatment of CNS autoimmune diseases. Also, inhibition of MMP-9 remains a promising treatment target in EAE and patients with MS.

  2. Economic recession and suicidal behaviour: Possible mechanisms and ameliorating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haw, Camilla; Hawton, Keith; Gunnell, David; Platt, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    A growing body of research evidence from countries around the world indicates that economic recession is associated with increases in suicide, particularly in males of working age. To explore contributory and ameliorating factors associated with economic recession and suicide and thereby stimulate further research in this area and encourage policy makers to consider how best to reduce the impact of recession on mental health and suicidal behaviour. We conducted a selective review of the worldwide literature focusing on possible risk factors, mechanisms and preventative strategies for suicidal behaviour linked to economic recession. A model of how recession might affect suicide rates is presented. A major and often prolonged effect of recession is on unemployment and job insecurity. Other important effects include those exerted by financial loss, bankruptcy and home repossession. It is proposed these factors may lead directly or indirectly to mental health problems such as depression, anxiety and binge drinking and then to suicidal behaviour. Countries with active labour market programmes and sustained welfare spending during recessions have less marked increases in suicide rates than those that cut spending on welfare and job-search initiatives for the unemployed. Other measures likely to help include targeted interventions for unemployed people, membership of social organisations and responsible media reporting. Good primary care and mental health services are needed to cope with increased demand in times of economic recession but some governments have in fact reduced healthcare spending as an austerity measure. The research evidence linking recession, unemployment and suicide is substantial, but the evidence for the other mechanisms we have investigated is much more tentative. We describe the limitations of the existing body of research as well as make suggestions for future research into the effects of economic recession on suicidal behaviour. © The Author

  3. Matrine ameliorates spontaneously developed colitis in interleukin-10-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cong; Xu, Zheng; Gai, Renhua; Huang, Kehe

    2016-07-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10)-deficient mice spontaneously develop T cell-mediated colitis. Previous reports have shown that Matrine may reduce the symptoms of acute colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). However, whether Matrine impacts chronic colitis remains unknown. In this study, we investigated whether Matrine could limit the symptoms of spontaneously developed colitis and its potential molecular mechanisms. IL-10 deficient mice were given Matrine or a PBS control by oral gavage daily for 4weeks and were euthanized at week 2 or week 4. We measured body weight, colon length and weight, and histological scores. We also evaluated the spontaneous secretion of IL-12/23p40, IFN-γ and IL-17 in colon explant cultures as well as IFN-γ and IL-17 secretion in unseparated mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells, and assessed IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA expression in colon tissue. In addition, we analyzed the proportions of CD4-positive and CD8-positive cells in unseparated MLN cells. Our results show that Matrine-treated mice exhibited better body weight recovery than controls and that histological scores and spontaneously secreted IL-12/23p40, IFN-γ and IL-17 in colon tissue were significantly decreased in treated mice compared with controls. The proportion of CD4-positive cells of MLNs in treated mice was significantly smaller than that in controls at week 4. Both cytokine production and mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-17 were significantly reduced in treated mice compared with controls. Taken together, our results indicate that Matrine may ameliorate spontaneously developed chronic colitis and could be considered as a therapeutic alternative for chronic colitis.

  4. C-PEPTIDE AMELIORATES KIDNEY INJURY FOLLOWING HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chima, Ranjit S; Maltese, Giuseppe; LaMontagne, Timberly; Piraino, Giovanna; Denenberg, Alvin; O’Connor, Michael; Zingarelli, Basilia

    2013-01-01

    Reperfusion injury following hemorrhagic shock is accompanied by the development of a systemic inflammatory state that may lead to organ failure. C-peptide has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects in sepsis and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, and to ameliorate renal dysfunction in diabetic animals. Hence, we investigated the effect of C-peptide on kidney injury following hemorrhagic shock. We hypothesized that C-peptide would exert reno-protective effects by blunting inflammation. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in male rats (3–4 months old) by withdrawing blood from the femoral artery to a mean arterial pressure of 50 mmHg. Animals were kept in shock for 3h at which time they were rapidly resuscitated by returning their shed blood. At the time of resuscitation and every hour thereafter, one group of animals received C-peptide (280 nmol/kg intravenously) while another group received vehicle. Hemorrhagic shock resulted in significant rise in plasma levels of creatinine and elevated kidney neutrophil infiltration as evaluated by myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in vehicle-treated rats in comparison with sham rats, thus suggesting kidney injury. Treatment with C-peptide significantly attenuated the rise in creatinine and kidney MPO activity when compared to vehicle group. At a molecular level these effects of C-peptide were associated with reduced expression of the c-Fos subunit and reduced activation of the pro-inflammatory kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and subsequently, reduced DNA binding of activator protein-1 (AP-1) in the kidney. Thus, our data suggest that C-peptide may exert reno-protective effects following hemorrhagic shock by modulating AP-1 signaling. PMID:21263384

  5. Telmisartan ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atawia, Reem T; Esmat, Ahmed; Elsherbiny, Doaa A; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal

    2017-02-01

    This study assessed the potential hepatoprotective effect of telmisartan (TLM), a selective angiotensin II type 1 (AT1 ) receptor blocker, on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced acute hepatotoxity in rats. Intraperitoneal injection of male Wistar rats with CCl4 1 mL kg(-1) , 1:1 mixture with corn oil for 3 days increased serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase activities as well as total bilirubin, triglycerides and total cholesterol levels. This is in addition to the disrupted histological architecture in the CCl4 group. Rats receiving CCl4 and co-treated with TLM (3 and 10 mg kg(-1) , orally) showed ameliorated serum biochemical and histological changes almost to the control level. Nevertheless, rats treated with TLM (1 mg kg(-1) ) didn't show any significant changes compared to CCl4 intoxicated group. In addition, TLM rectified oxidative status disrupted by CCl4 intoxication. Interestingly, TLM protected against CCl4 -induced expressions of nuclear factor-κB, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-II, in a dose related manner. Moreover, TLM (3 and 10 mg kg(-1) ) significantly modified CCl4 -induced elevation in tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide levels. Furthermore, TLM showed a marked decline in CD68+ cells stained areas and reduced activity of myeloperoxidase enzyme compared to CCl4 -intoxicated group. In conclusion, both doses of TLM (3 and 10 mg kg(-1) ) showed significant hepato-protective effects. However, TLM at a dose of 10 mg kg(-1) didn't show significant efficacy above 3 mg kg(-1) which is nearly equivalent to the human anti-hypertensive dose of 40 mg. Thus, may be effective in guarding against several hepatic complications due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 359-370, 2017.

  6. NAD+ biosynthesis ameliorates a zebrafish model of muscular dystrophy.

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    Michelle F Goody

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophies are common, currently incurable diseases. A subset of dystrophies result from genetic disruptions in complexes that attach muscle fibers to their surrounding extracellular matrix microenvironment. Cell-matrix adhesions are exquisite sensors of physiological conditions and mediate responses that allow cells to adapt to changing conditions. Thus, one approach towards finding targets for future therapeutic applications is to identify cell adhesion pathways that mediate these dynamic, adaptive responses in vivo. We find that nicotinamide riboside kinase 2b-mediated NAD+ biosynthesis, which functions as a small molecule agonist of muscle fiber-extracellular matrix adhesion, corrects dystrophic phenotypes in zebrafish lacking either a primary component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex or integrin alpha7. Exogenous NAD+ or a vitamin precursor to NAD+ reduces muscle fiber degeneration and results in significantly faster escape responses in dystrophic embryos. Overexpression of paxillin, a cell adhesion protein downstream of NAD+ in this novel cell adhesion pathway, reduces muscle degeneration in zebrafish with intact integrin receptors but does not improve motility. Activation of this pathway significantly increases organization of laminin, a major component of the extracellular matrix basement membrane. Our results indicate that the primary protective effects of NAD+ result from changes to the basement membrane, as a wild-type basement membrane is sufficient to increase resilience of dystrophic muscle fibers to damage. The surprising result that NAD+ supplementation ameliorates dystrophy in dystrophin-glycoprotein complex- or integrin alpha7-deficient zebrafish suggests the existence of an additional laminin receptor complex that anchors muscle fibers to the basement membrane. We find that integrin alpha6 participates in this pathway, but either integrin alpha7 or the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex is required in conjunction

  7. GPNMB ameliorates mutant TDP-43-induced motor neuron cell death.

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    Nagahara, Yuki; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Ohuchi, Kazuki; Ito, Junko; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Hara, Hideaki

    2017-08-01

    Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) aggregates are observed in the spinal cord of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients, but the detailed localization is still unclear. Mutations of transactive response DNA binding protein 43kDa (TDP-43) are associated with neurodegenerative diseases including ALS. In this study, we evaluated the localization of GPNMB aggregates in the spinal cord of ALS patients and the effect of GPNMB against mutant TDP-43 induced motor neuron cell death. GPNMB aggregates were not localized in the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocyte and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1 (Iba1)-positive microglia. GPNMB aggregates were localized in the microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2)-positive neuron and neurofilament H non-phosphorylated (SMI-32)-positive neuron, and these were co-localized with TDP-43 aggregates in the spinal cord of ALS patients. Mock or TDP-43 (WT, M337V, and A315T) plasmids were transfected into mouse motor neuron cells (NSC34). The expression level of GPNMB was increased by transfection of mutant TDP-43 plasmids. Recombinant GPNMB ameliorated motor neuron cell death induced by transfection of mutant TDP-43 plasmids and serum-free stress. Furthermore, the expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and phosphorylated Akt were decreased by this stress, and these expressions were increased by recombinant GPNMB. These results indicate that GPNMB has protective effects against mutant TDP-43 stress via activating the ERK1/2 and Akt pathways, and GPNMB may be a therapeutic target for TDP-43 proteinopathy in familial and sporadic ALS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Amelioration of acidic soil using various renewable waste resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Chang, Yoon-Young; Ok, Yong Sik; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, improvement of acidic soil with respect to soil pH and exchangeable cations was attempted for sample with an initial pH of approximately 5. Acidic soil was amended with various waste resources in the range of 1 to 5 wt.% including waste oyster shells (WOS), calcined oyster shells (COS), Class C fly ash (FA), and cement kiln dust (CKD) to improve soil pH and exchangeable cations. Upon treatment, the soil pH was monitored for periods up to 3 months. The exchangeable cations were measured after 1 month of curing. After a curing period of 1 month, a maize growth experiment was conducted with selected-treated samples to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. The treatment results indicate that in order to increase the soil pH to a value of 7, 1 wt.% of WOS, 3 wt.% of FA, and 1 wt.% of CKD are required. In the case of COS, 1 wt.% was more than enough to increase the soil pH value to 7 because of COS's strong alkalinity. Moreover, the soil pH increases after a curing period of 7 days and remains virtually unchanged thereafter up to 1 month of curing. Upon treatment, the summation of cations (Ca, Mg, K, and Na) significantly increased. The growth of maize is superior in the treated samples rather than the untreated one, indicating that the amelioration of acidic soil is beneficial to plant growth, since soil pH was improved and nutrients were replenished.

  9. Oxytocin ameliorates the immediate myocardial injury in heart transplant through down regulation of the neutrophil dependent myocardial apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Fadhil Al-Amran

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Oxytocin ameliorates myocardial injury in heart transplant through down-regulation the myocardial inflammatory response, reactive oxygen species, and neutrophil-dependant myocardial apoptosis.

  10. The Effectiveness of Ameliorant to Increase Carbon Stock of Oilpalm and Rubber Plantation on Peatland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Dariah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Application of peatland amelioration can improve soil quality, reduce GHG emissions, and increase carbon sequestration. The research aimed to study the effect of peatland amelioration on oil palm and rubber carbon stock improvement. Research was conducted from August 2013 until June 2014. The researches on oil palm were done in Arang-arang Village, Kumpeh Subdistrict, Muaro Jambi District, and in Lubuk Ogong Village, Bandar Seikijang Sub-district, Pelalawan District. Both sites are in Jambi and Riau Province. The research on rubber was done in Jabiren Village, Jabiren Raya Subdistrict, Pulang Pisau District, Central Kalimantan Province. The study used a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD, in four treatments and four replications. The treatments were pugam (peat fertilizer enriched by polyvalent cation, manure; empty fruit bunch compost, and control (no application. The measurement of C stock was performed 10 months after application using nondestructive methods. The results showed that peatland amelioration treatments had no significant effect to improve C stock on oil palm in 6 years old and 7 years old of rubber. After 10 months of amelioration application, the treatments increased C - stock of oil palm and rubber were 2.1-2.4 Mg ha-1 and 5-11 Mg ha-1, respectively. Longer time observation may be needed to study the effect of ameliorant on C-stock of annual crops.

  11. Pregnancy amelioration of arthritis in SKG mice corresponds with alterations in serum amyloid A3 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Laura A; Stefanski, Adrianne L; Peterson, Lisa K; Rumer, Kristen K; Vondracek, Andrea; Phang, Tzu L; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Winn, Virginia D; Dragone, Leonard L

    2012-06-30

    OBJECTIVES: Pregnancy leads to rheumatoid arthritis remission in humans. The objective of this study was to determine if the SKG mouse could serve as a model for pregnancy-associated inflammatory arthritis amelioration. In addition, the maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) transcriptome was assessed to define a biomarker associated with remission. METHODS: Cohorts of zymosan-treated pregnant SKG mice and controls were monitored for arthritis progression. Microarray analysis evaluated alterations in gene expression in maternal PBMCs at embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) between arthritic and pregnancy-remitted mice. A selected target, serum amyloid A3 (SAA3), was further investigated using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Pregnancy resulted in complete or partial remission in the majority of the zymosan-treated SKG mice. Twenty-seven transcripts were differentially expressed in the PBMCs between arthritic and pregnancy-remitted mice. Expression and plasma SAA3 levels decreased with pregnancy-induced arthritis amelioration and plasma SAA3 levels correlated with arthritis severity. CONCLUSIONS: These results establish the SKG mouse as a model system to study pregnancy-induced amelioration of arthritis. These studies also establish SAA3 as a biomarker of arthritis amelioration in SKG mice. This model can be used to elucidate the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the impact of pregnancy on the maternal immune system that results in arthritis amelioration.

  12. Assessment of changes of some functions of Ukrainian acid soils after chemical amelioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapko Yurij

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article was to determine the effectiveness of lime of different origin for chemical amelioration of soils and examine its impact on soil functions such as productivity, habitat, regulation of water quality, and the protective buffer biogeocenotic screen. Limy ameliorants were applied in small local field experiment on Luvic Chernozem, and experiment with lysimeter columns was carried out on Albic Luvisol. The number of the main groups of microflora and enzymatic activity of soil was determined in soil samples taken for the analysis from the root zone. Research concerning the influence of natural and industrial origin ameliorants on soil as habitat showed the correlation of sugar beets productivity with soil biogenic. The increase of biomultiplicity of soil microbiota after addition of a cement dust and negative influence of red sludge on soil as habitat for living organisms was observed. Research involving the influence of ameliorants on soil by lime as the protective buffer biogeocenotic screen was carried out using lysimeter columns. It was stated that the addition of limy ameliorants reduces mobility of heavy metals.

  13. SIRT2 ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ae Sin; Jung, Yu Jin; Kim, Dal; Nguyen-Thanh, Tung [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Kyung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sik [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Kwang [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won, E-mail: kwon@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-08

    deficiency of SIRT2 ameliorates iNOS, NO expression and reactive oxygen species production with suppressing LPS-induced activation of NFκB in macrophages.

  14. Low concentrations of human neutrophil peptide ameliorate experimental murine colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Takuro; Sakiyama, Toshio; Kanmura, Shuji; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Ibusuki, Kazunari; Tanoue, Shiroh; Komaki, Yuga; Arima, Shiho; Nasu, Yuichiro; Sasaki, Fumisato; Taguchi, Hiroki; Numata, Masatsugu; Uto, Hirofumi; Tsubouchi, Hirohito; Ido, Akio

    2016-12-01

    amelioration at low concentrations and an aggravation at high concentrations. Low concentrations of HNPs may contribute to the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis.

  15. Bosutinib Therapy Ameliorates Lung Inflammation and Fibrosis in Experimental Silicosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Priscila J.; Clevelario, Amanda L.; Padilha, Gisele A.; Silva, Johnatas D.; Kitoko, Jamil Z.; Olsen, Priscilla C.; Capelozzi, Vera L.; Rocco, Patricia R. M.; Cruz, Fernanda F.

    2017-01-01

    Silicosis is an occupational lung disease for which no effective therapy exists. We hypothesized that bosutinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, might ameliorate inflammatory responses, attenuate pulmonary fibrosis, and thus improve lung function in experimental silicosis. For this purpose, we investigated the potential efficacy of bosutinib in the treatment of experimental silicosis induced in C57BL/6 mice by intratracheal administration of silica particles. After 15 days, once disease was established, animals were randomly assigned to receive DMSO or bosutinib (1 mg/kg/dose in 0.1 mL 1% DMSO) by oral gavage, twice daily for 14 days. On day 30, lung mechanics and morphometry, total and differential cell count in alveolar septa and granuloma, levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-4, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and vascular endothelial growth factor in lung homogenate, M1 and M2 macrophages, total leukocytes, and T cells in BALF, lymph nodes, and thymus, and collagen fiber content in alveolar septa and granuloma were analyzed. In a separate in vitro experiment, RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to silica particles in the presence or absence of bosutinib. After 24 h, gene expressions of arginase-1, IL-10, IL-12, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, and caspase-3 were evaluated. In vivo, in silicotic animals, bosutinib, compared to DMSO, decreased: (1) fraction area of collapsed alveoli, (2) size and number of granulomas, and mononuclear cell granuloma infiltration; (3) IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and TGF-β levels in lung homogenates, (4) collagen fiber content in lung parenchyma, and (5) viscoelastic pressure and static lung elastance. Bosutinib also reduced M1 cell counts while increasing M2 macrophage population in both lung parenchyma and granulomas. Total leukocyte, regulatory T, CD4+, and CD8+ cell counts in the lung-draining lymph

  16. Polymerase I pathway inhibitor ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiron, Anat; Mashiach, Roi; Zilkha-Falb, Rina; Meijler, Michael M; Gurevich, Michael

    2013-10-15

    Applying high throughput gene expression microarrays we identified that the suppression of polymerase 1 (POL1) pathway is associated with benign course of multiple sclerosis (MS). This finding supports the rationale for direct targeting of the POL1 transcription machinery as an innovative strategy to suppress MS. To evaluate the effects of a specific polymerase I inhibitor (POL1-I) on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), we immunized female C57BL/6J mice (8 weeks) with MOG35-55/CFA. A new POL1-I was administered at a daily dose of 12.5mg/kg body weight by oral gavage either from the day of immunization until disease onset (EAE score 1.0, immunization model), at disease onset (EAE score=1.0) for the following 14 days (treatment model), or by alternate daily dose of 25.0mg/kg body weight, by oral gavage from the day of immunization for the following 25 days (combined model). POL1-I remarkably suppressed EAE in the immunization model; while in the Vehicle group the onset of EAE occurred on day 10.0±0.4 with maximal clinical score of 3.2±0.2, in the POL1-I treated mice onset was significantly delayed and occurred on day 16.9±1.1 (p=0.001), and maximal disease score 2.0±0.1 was reduced (p=0.004). In the treatment model POL1-I treatment significantly reduced disease activity; maximal score was 2.0±0.5 while in the Vehicle group it reached a mean maximal score of 3.9±0.1, (p=0.0008). In the combined model, POL1-I treatment completely inhibited disease activity. The effect of POL1-I treatment was modulated through decreased expression of POL1 pathway key-related genes LRPPRC, pre-RNA, POLR1D and RRN3 together with activation of P53 dependent apoptosis of CD4+ splenocytes. Our findings demonstrate that POL1 pathway inhibition delayed and suppressed the development of EAE and ameliorated the disease in mice with persistent clinical signs.

  17. Repetitive training for ameliorating upper limbs spasm of hemiplegic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Zhu; Lin Liu; Weiqun Song

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The main aim of rehabilitation is to ameliorate motor function and use the damaged limbs in the activities of daily living.Several factors are needed in the self-recovery of the patients,and the most important one is to reduce spasm.Some mechanical repetitive movements can affect and change the excitability of motor neurons.OBJECTIVE:To observe the effect of repetitive training on ameliorating spasm of upper limbs of hemiplegic patients.DESIGN:A self-controlled observation before and after training.SETTING:Department of Rehabilitation,Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University.PARTICI PANTS: Seven hemiplegic patients induced by brain injury were selected from the Department of Rehabilitation,Xuanwu Hospital,Capital Medical University from March to June in 2005.Inclusive criteria:①Agreed and able to participate in the 30-minute training of hand function; ②Without disturbance of understanding.The patients with aphasia or apraxia,manifestation of shoulder pain,and severe neurological or mental defects.For the 7 patients,the Rivermead motor assessment(RMA)scores ranged 0-10 points,the Rivermead mobility index(RMI)ranged 1-3,and modified Ashworth scale(MAS)was grade 2-4.Their horizontal extension of shoulder joint was 0°-30°,anteflextion was 0°-50°,internal rotation was 50°-90°,external rotation was 0°-10°:and the elbow joint could extend for 15°-135°.METHODS:The viva 2 serial MOTOmed exerciser(Reck Company,Germany)was used.There were three phases of A-B-A.①The phase A lasted for 1 week.The patient sat on a chair facting to the MOTOmed screen.and did the circumduction of upper limbs forwardly,30 minutes a day and 5 days a week.②The phase B lasted for 3 weeks.The training consisted of forward circumduction of upper limbs for 15 minutes.followed by backward ones for 15 minutes and 5-minute rest.③The training in the phase A was performed again for 2 weeks.The extensions of upper limbs were recorded at phase A,the extension and flexion of

  18. Linoleic and alpha linolenic acids ameliorate streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetti, Lea; Werner, Haim; Leikin-Frenkel, Alicia

    2014-02-01

    Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in mice progresses with decreased desaturase activities and alterations in the metabolism of essential fatty acids (EFA). Based on our previous studies with soybean oil that ameliorated the STZ damage in mice, we tested here the accountability of its main EFA components, i.e. linoleic acid (LA) and alpha linolenic acid (ALA), in the prevention of pancreas damage and Δ6 desaturase decrease. Seven days after injection with STZ and EFA gavage, ICR mice were sacrificed. Plasma glucose and insulin levels, pancreas histology and liver fatty acid desaturases were analysed. EFA reduced pancreas damage, insulin and glucose plasma levels and restored Δ6 desaturase activity and mRNA expression levels. By reducing pancreas damage, EFA ameliorated insulin levels, Δ6 desaturase and fatty acid metabolism. LA further enhanced Fads2 promoter activity. EFA ameliorate STZ induced diabetes in mice.

  19. Vitamin E ameliorates aflatoxin-induced biochemical changes in the testis of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.J. Verma; Anita Nair

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To assess the effect of aflatoxin on biochemical changes in the testis of mice and the possibility of amelioration by vitamin E treatment. Methods: Adult male albino mice were orally administered with 25 or 50 tg of aflatoxin/animal/day (750 or 1500 μg/kg body weight) for 45 days. The testis was isolated and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: There was a significant, dose-dependent reduction in DNA, RNA, protein, sialic acid contents and the activities of succinic dehydrogenase, adenosine triphosphatase and alkaline phosphatase in the testis of aflatoxintreated mice as compared to the vehicle control. However, the acid phosphatase activity was significantly increased in the aflatoxin-treated mice. Vitamin E (2 mg/animal/day) treatment significantly ameliorated the aflatoxin-induced changes, except the acid and alkaline phosphatase activities in the high dose group. Conclusion: Vitamin E treatment ameliorates the aflatoxin-induced changes in the testis of mice.

  20. Ginger and alpha lipoic acid ameliorate age-related ultrastructural changes in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Y I; Hegazy, H G

    2016-01-01

    Because of the important role that oxidative stress is thought to play in the aging process, antioxidants could be candidates for preventing its related pathologies. We investigated the ameliorative effects of two antioxidant supplements, ginger and alpha lipoic acid (ALA), on hepatic ultrastructural alterations in old rats. Livers of young (4 months) and old (24 months) Wistar rats were studied using transmission electron microscopy. Livers of old rats showed sinusoidal collapse and congestion, endothelial thickening and defenestration, and inconsistent perisinusoidal extracellular matrix deposition. Aged hepatocytes were characterized by hypertrophy, cytoplasmic vacuolization and a significant increase in the volume densities of the nuclei, mitochondria and dense bodies. Lipofuscin accumulation and decreased microvilli in bile canaliculi and space of Disse also were observed. The adverse alterations were ameliorated significantly by both ginger and ALA supplementation; ALA was more effective than ginger. Ginger and ALA appear to be promising anti-aging agents based on their amelioration of ultrastructural alterations in livers of old rats.

  1. Datos experimentales de la cinética del secado y del modelo matemático para pulpa de cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum en rodajas Kinetic drying experimental data and mathematical model for cupuaçu pulp (Theobroma grandiflora slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Damian Giraldo-Zuniga

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo fueron obtenidos experimentalmente la cinética del secado de la pulpa de cupuaçu en forma de rodajas con espesor de 0,5 cm. El secado fue realizado utilizándose un secador laboratorial de bandejas, a las temperaturas de 50, 60 y 70 ºC y a la velocidad del aire de secado de 1,5 m/s. De acuerdo con los datos de la cinética del secado se puede observar que cuanto mayor es la temperatura del secado mayor es la velocidad del secado. El tiempo requerido para secar el producto hasta una humedad del 20%, fueron 9,2, 8,1 y 7,3 horas para las temperaturas de secado de 50, 60 y 70 ºC respectivamente. Las curvas experimentales del secado fueron ajustados al modelo difusional de Fick considerándose la muestra como una lámina infinita y al modelo de Page. Los dos modelos se ajustaron bien a los datos experimentales. Los coeficientes de difusión del modelo de Fick variaron de 1.171 a 1.561 m/s².This work examined experimentally the kinetics of drying cupuaçu pulp (Theobroma grandiflorum slices. The experimental runs were driven in a laboratory dryer, at temperatures of 50, 60 and 70 ºC and an air drying velocity of 1.5 m/s. According to the kinetics study, increasing the temperature led to a decrease in drying time. The required drying times were 9.2, 8.1 and 7.3 hours for drying temperatures of 50, 60 and 70 ºC respectively. The experimental drying curves were adjusted to Fick's diffusional model for an infinite lamina with shrinkage and Page model. The diffusion coefficients of the Fick model varied between 1.171 and 1.561 m/s².

  2. Keratinocyte growth factor gene therapy ameliorates ulcerative colitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Jie Liu; Ji-De Jin; Tong-De Lv; Zu-Ze Wu; Xiao-Qin Ha

    2011-01-01

    /mg, P < 0.01; d 10: 46.10 ± 6.23 vs 25.35 ± 4.76 and 27.82 ± 6.42 U/mg, P < 0.01) and MDA contents decreased accordingly (d 7: 7.40 ± 0.88 vs 9.81 ± 1.21 and 10.45 ± 1.40 nmol/mg, P < 0.01; d 10: 4.36 ± 0.62 vs 8.41 ± 0.92 and 8.71 ± 1.27 nmol/mg, P < 0.01), compared with SP and control groups. CONCLUSION: KGF gene therapy mediated by attenuated Salmonella ameliorates ulcerative colitis induced by acetic acids, and it may be a safe and effective treatment for ulcerative colitis.

  3. Effects of forest road amelioration techniques on soil bulk density, surface runoff, sediment transport, soil moisture and seedling growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy K. Kolka; Mathew F. Smidt

    2004-01-01

    Although numerous methods have been used to retire roads, new technologies have evolved that can potentially ameliorate soil damage, lessen ,the generation of nonpoint source pollution and increase tree productivity on forest roads. In this study we investigated the effects of three forest road amelioration techniques, subsoiling, recontouring and traditional...

  4. Effect of Soil Ameliorators on Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Communities that Colonize Seedlings of Pinus densiflora in Abandoned Coal Mine Spoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Hwa; Eo, Ju-Kyeong; Lee, Chang-Seok; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2012-09-01

    In this study, the effect of soil ameliorators on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities in coal mine spoils was investigated. Organic fertilizers and slaked lime were applied as soil ameliorators in 3 abandoned coal mine spoils. One year after the initial treatment, roots of Pinus densiflora seedlings were collected and the number of ECM species, colonization rate, and species diversity were assessed. The results showed that the soil ameliorators significantly increased ECM colonization on the roots of P. densiflora. The results suggest that soil ameliorators can have a positive effect on ECM fungi in terms of growth of host plants and show the potential use of soil ameliorator treatment for revegetation with ECM-colonized pine seedlings in the coal mine spoils.

  5. Clinical Aspects of Pregnancy-induced Amelioration of Rheumatoid Arthritis: PARA-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.A. de Man (Yael)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn this PhD thesis, embedded in the PARA (Pregnancy-induced Amelioration of Rheumatoid Arthritis) study, several clinical aspects of the spontaneously occurring pregnancy-induced improvement of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are addressed. An overview is given of inflammatory rheumatic disea

  6. Synergistic antioxidant action of Phikud Navakot ameliorates hydrogen peroxide-induced stress in human endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonthaneth Nalinratana

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that the synergistic antioxidant action of PN ameliorates endothelial stress, which may provide some clues for understanding the traditional use of PN for the treatment of circulatory disorder. Additionally, the selection of a suitable solvent for the extraction of PN herbal combination is essential for maximal efficacy and safety.

  7. An Overview of Sleep Deprivation and The Ameliorative Effects of Modafinil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    Nap: Evolution, Chronobiology, and Functions of Polyphasic and Ultrashort Sleep , C. Stampi, Editor. 1992, Birkhauser: Boston. p. 217-241. 3. Babkoff...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP013763 TITLE: An Overview of Sleep Deprivation and The Ameliorative...Effects of Modafinil DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited rhis paper is part of the following report: TITLE: Sleep

  8. Spironolactone ameliorates transplant vasculopathy in renal chronic transplant dysfunction in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waanders, Femke; Rienstra, Heleen; Boer, Mark Walther; Zandvoort, Andre; Rozing, Jan; Navis, Gerjan; van Goor, Harry; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk

    2009-01-01

    Waanders F, Rienstra H, Walther Boer M, Zandvoort A, Rozing J, Navis G, van Goor H, Hillebrands JL. Spironolactone ameliorates transplant vasculopathy in renal chronic transplant dysfunction in rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 296: F1072-F1079, 2009. First published February 25, 2009; doi:10.1152/aj

  9. 18 CFR 2.23 - Use of reserved authority in hydropower licenses to ameliorate cumulative impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of reserved authority in hydropower licenses to ameliorate cumulative impacts. 2.23 Section 2.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES...

  10. Pollen Viability,Pistil Receptivity and Embryogenesis in the Cross between Dendranthema indicum and D.grandiflorum%野菊与菊花杂交中花粉活力和柱头可授性及胚胎发育研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙春青; 陈发棣; 房伟民; 刘兆磊; 侯喜林; 滕年军

    2009-01-01

    应用石蜡制片、活体压片、光学显微镜及扫描电子显微镜观察等方法,研究了四倍体河南云台山野菊(Dendranthema indicum)与栽培菊花'钟山金山'(D.grandiflorum 'Zhongshanjinshan')种间杂交中父本花粉活力、花粉在柱头萌发、花粉管生长及胚胎发育情况等.结果发现,父本云台山野菊的花粉活力在授粉时为12%左右.人工授粉后的不同时间,在柱头上都观察到正常萌发的花粉粒,且花粉管都能进入柱头,其中,在授粉后0.5 h时,平均每柱头有5.9粒花粉萌发;12 h时,为59.9粒;而24和48 h时,则分别降为47.1和35.7粒.此外,在授粉后8、10、12和15 d时,分别在49.1%、40.8%、39.7%和38.5%子房内观察到正常发育的胚胎,最终杂交结实率为44.8%,而母本自然开放结实率为52.3%.研究表明,授粉前其多数母本雌蕊发育良好、授粉后多数花粉能在柱头正常萌发和花粉管正常生长,在受精后大部分胚胎发育正常是野菊与栽培菊种间杂交较高结实率的重要保证,而授粉前父本较低的花粉活力对杂交结实率影响不大.%Pollen viability of male parent,pollen germination and pollen tube growth on the stigmas,and embryogenesis were investigated in the cross between Dendranthema indicum and D.grandiflorum using technique of paraffin section,temporary mount method,light microscopy,and scanning electron microscopy as well.It was found that pollen viability was approximately 12% just before pollination,and many pollen grains germinated and pollen tubes penetrated stigmas normally during different time after pollination.There was an average of 5.9 germinated pollen grains on each stigma at 0.5 h after pollination and the number reached the highest value,59.9 at 12 h after pollination.Then the number was decreased to 47.1 and 35.7 at 24 and 48 h after pollination,respectively.In addition,normal embryos were observed in 49.1%,40.8%,39.7% and 38.5% ovaries at 8,10,12 and 15 d after

  11. Avaliação genética de indivíduos e progênies de cupuaçuzeiro no estado do Pará e estimativas de parâmetros genéticos Genetic evaluation of individuals and progenies of Theobroma grandiflorum in the state of Pará and estimates of genetic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Moysés Alves

    2008-09-01

    seleção recorrente para melhorar, gradativamente, o nível de resistência. Parece suficiente considerar na seleção apenas o número de vassouras, não sendo necessário considerar o peso. A correlação entre resistência no fruto e na inflorescência foi alta (0.84, indicando algum controle genético comum aos dois caracteres. Foram identificadas progênies superiores, simultaneamente, para produção de frutos e resistência à vassoura.This paper deals with the genotypic evaluation of Theobroma grandiflorum progenies in the Pará State for the characters number of fruits (NF in four harvests, intensity of occurrence of witch's broom disease in the inflorescences (WBI and in the fruits (WBF and weight of branches with witch's broom (WWB. Also, it presents estimates of genetic parameters that allow to infer on the genetic control and level of genetic variability in the appraised germplasm. All the characters presented considerable genetic variability, with coefficients of genetic variation varying from 27% to 88% at progenies level and from 38% to 123% at individual level. This reveals excellent possibilities for the selection in that hybrid experimental population. The estimates of individual narrow sense heritabilities, in a harvest, varied from 25% to 54% and the individual repeatabilities for NF was equal at 35%. With the four accomplished harvests the individual heritability increased to 48%, providing selective accuracy of 70%, for the individuals' selection. The gain in efficiency, when using more than five crops is practically worthless. For NF, genetic gains above 60% can be obtained with the selection of the best five individuals. Individuals with annual production of 17 fruits can be selected, value which is much more superior to the general average of 10 fruits, found in the commercial plantations. Superior genetic gains can be obtained with clone propagation of the best individuals in relation to the sexual propagation and for the best individual the

  12. Sesamin ameliorates oxidative liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Dan; Zhu, Chang-Qing; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Sesamin is naturally occurring lignan from sesame oil with putative antioxidant property. The present study was designed to investigate the protective role of sesamin against carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative liver injury. Male Wistar albino rats (180-200 g) were divided in to 5 groups (n=6). Hepatotoxicity was induced by the administration of CCl4 (0.1 ml/100 g bw., 50% v/v with olive oil) intraperitoneally. Sesamin was administered in two different dose (5 and 10 ml/kg bw) to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity. Sesamin significantly reduced the elevated serum liver marker enzymes (Psesamin treated groups shows the amelioration of oxidative stress induced by CCl4. Histopathological report also supported the hepatoprotection offered by sesamin. Sesamin effects in both the dose were in comparable to reference standard drug silymarin. From these above findings it has been concluded that sesamin ameliorate the oxidative liver injury in terms of reduction of lipid peroxidation and enhancement of liver antioxidant enzymes.

  13. Selecting an economically justifiable method of calculating ameliorant application rates for solonetzes with different sodium contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voropaeva, Z. I.

    2010-01-01

    The comparative assessment of methods for the calculation of the gypsum application rates based on the exchangeable sodium (Gedroits, Schollenberger), the estimated sodium (Schoonover), and the soil’s requirement for calcium (the version of the Omsk State Agrarian University) showed that, for the chemical amelioration of solonetzes with different contents of exchangeable sodium in Western Siberia, it is economically and ecologically advisable to calculate the ameliorant application rates from the estimated sodium. It was experimentally shown that the content of displaced magnesium used by Schoonover is a more efficient unified criterion than the value of the calcium adsorption by zonal soils. For improving the method’s accuracy, it was proposed to change the conditions of the soil preparation by regulating the concentration of the displacing solution, the interaction time, and the temperature.

  14. Ameliorate Threshold Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithm for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOSTAFA BAGHOURI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ameliorating the lifetime in heterogeneous wireless sensor network is an important task because the sensor nodes are limited in the resource energy. The best way to improve a WSN lifetime is the clustering based algorithms in which each cluster is managed by a leader called Cluster Head. Each other node must communicate with this CH to send the data sensing. The nearest base station nodes must also send their data to their leaders, this causes a loss of energy. In this paper, we propose a new approach to ameliorate a threshold distributed energy efficient clustering protocol for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks by excluding closest nodes to the base station in the clustering process. We show by simulation in MATLAB that the proposed approach increases obviously the number of the received packet messages and prolongs the lifetime of the network compared to TDEEC protocol.

  15. Characteristics of biomass ashes from different materials and their ameliorative effects on acid soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Renyong; Li, Jiuyu; Jiang, Jun; Mehmood, Khalid; Liu, Yuan; Xu, Renkou; Qian, Wei

    2017-05-01

    The chemical characteristics, element contents, mineral compositions, and the ameliorative effects on acid soils of five biomass ashes from different materials were analyzed. The chemical properties of the ashes varied depending on the source biomass material. An increase in the concrete shuttering contents in the biomass materials led to higher alkalinity, and higher Ca and Mg levels in biomass ashes, which made them particularly good at ameliorating effects on soil acidity. However, heavy metal contents, such as Cr, Cu, and Zn in the ashes, were relatively high. The incorporation of all ashes increased soil pH, exchangeable base cations, and available phosphorus, but decreased soil exchangeable acidity. The application of the ashes from biomass materials with a high concrete shuttering content increased the soil available heavy metal contents. Therefore, the biomass ashes from wood and crop residues with low concrete contents were the better acid soil amendments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) ameliorates multiple sclerosis in mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Katia; Fagone, Paolo; Bendtzen, Klaus; Meroni, Pier Luigi; Quattrocchi, Cinzia; Mammana, Santa; Di Rosa, Michelino; Malaguarnera, Lucia; Coco, Marinella; Magro, Gaetano; Di Marco, Roberto; Nicoletti, Ferdinando

    2014-12-01

    Increasing evidence supports the role of epigenetics in the development of autoimmune disorders and the possibility of using epigenetic modifying drugs in the context of MS has not yet been investigated. We have explored the effect of the hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) in two murine models of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). DAC treatment was associated with a significant amelioration of the clinical and histological hallmarks of EAE in both models. These effects were observed both in prophylactic and therapeutic regimens. The milder course of the disease was associated with a reduction in the number of spinal cord infiltrating lymphocytes and amelioration of the histopathological signs associated with EAE. In addition, increased transcript levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines and decreased mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory mediators were also observed. Finally, DAC treatment increased the percentage of circulating regulatory T cells by inducing Foxp3 expression via demethylation of a CpG island in Foxp3.

  17. Lagenaria siceraria ameliorates atheromatous lesions by modulating HMG–CoA reductase and lipoprotein lipase enzymes activity in hypercholesterolemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun Singh Rajput

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: It can be concluded that ethanolic extract of fruits of L. siceraria contains active components which ameliorates the atheromatous lesions in rat aorta and lowers the risk of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rats.

  18. Cancer ameliorating potential of Phyllanthus amarus: In vivo and in vitro studies against Aflatoxin B1 toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sultan Ahmad

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Ameliorating potential of P. amarus was dose and duration dependant. These extracts significantly reduced the mutagenicity and genotoxicity that were produced due to AFB1 treatment both in vitro and in vivo.

  19. Baicalin ameliorates neuropathic pain by suppressing HDAC1 expression in the spinal cord of spinal nerve ligation rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Hwan Cherng

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: The present findings suggest that baicalin can ameliorate neuropathic pain by suppressing HDAC1 expression and preventing histone-H3 acetylation in the spinal cord dorsal horn of SNL rats.

  20. Ameliorative effect of antioxidants (vitamins C and E against abamectin toxicity in liver, kidney and testis of male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wilson Magdy

    2016-10-01

    In conclusion, it appears that vitamins C and E, or in combination (as antioxidants ameliorate the hepato-renal and testicular toxicity of abamectin, but are not completely protective, especially in liver tissue.

  1. Social buffering ameliorates conditioned fear responses in the presence of an auditory conditioned stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Yukari

    2017-01-01

    Social buffering is a phenomenon in which stress in an animal is ameliorated when the subject is accompanied by a conspecific animal(s) during exposure to distressing stimuli. Previous studies of social buffering of conditioned fear responses in rats have typically used a 3-s auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) as a stressor, observing stress responses during a specified experimental period. Because a 3-s CS is extremely short compared with a typical experimental period, freezing has thus been observed primarily in the absence of the CS. Therefore, it has been unclear whether social buffering ameliorates conditioned fear responses in the presence of the CS. To clarify this issue, the current study assessed the effects of social buffering on conditioned fear responses in the presence of a 20-s CS. We measured the percentage of time spent freezing during the 20-s period following the onset of the CS. When conditioned subjects were exposed to the 20-s CS alone, they exhibited a high percentage of freezing in the presence of the CS. The presence of another non-conditioned rat completely blocked this response. The same result was observed when freezing was observed primarily in the absence of the 3-s CS. In addition, we confirmed that the presence of an associate ameliorated conditioned fear responses induced by a 20-s CS or 3-s CS when the duration and frequency of fear responses was measured. These findings indicate that social buffering ameliorates conditioned fear responses in the presence of an auditory CS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of sodium fluoride in maternal and offspring rats and its amelioration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SnehaPanchal; RamtejJ. Verma

    2014-01-01

    High fluoride content is known to cause dental and skeletal abnormalities. In addition, present review indicates that sodium fluoride consumption caused increased number of r=esorptions and dead foetuses. Various skeletal anomalies such as wavy ribs, presence of 14th ribs, lacking 6th sternebrae and incompete ossification of skull occur. All these changes could be due to oxidative stress caused by fluoride consumption. Fluoride-induced changes could be successfully ameliorated by cotreatment with vitamins and calcium.

  3. Clinical Aspects of Pregnancy-induced Amelioration of Rheumatoid Arthritis: PARA-study

    OpenAIRE

    Man, Yael

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn this PhD thesis, embedded in the PARA (Pregnancy-induced Amelioration of Rheumatoid Arthritis) study, several clinical aspects of the spontaneously occurring pregnancy-induced improvement of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are addressed. An overview is given of inflammatory rheumatic diseases and the current knowledge about their disease courses and treatment options during pregnancy and postpartum. This thesis focuses firstly on the description of tools to objectively measure the di...

  4. Sodium fusidate (fusidin) ameliorates the course of monophasic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in the Lewis rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Marco, R; Puglisi, G; Papaccio, G;

    2001-01-01

    We have evaluated the effect of the immunosuppressant sodium fusidate (fusidin) on the course of acute monophasic experimental encephalomyelitis (EAE) in male Lewis rats. Prophylactic treatment with fusidin, 80 or 120 mg/kg bd wt., markedly ameliorated the course of the disease in rats immunized ....... These data provide further evidence for the anti-inflammatory effect of fusidin and suggest that this drug may be valuable for the treatment of human multiple sclerosis....

  5. Salvianolic acid A as a multifunctional agent ameliorates doxorubicin-induced nephropathy in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hua-Ying Fan; Ming-Yan Yang; Dong Qi; Zuo-Kai Zhang; Lin Zhu; Xiu-Xin Shang-Guan; Ke Liu; Hui Xu; Xin Che

    2015-01-01

    Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is still a therapeutic challenge. To date there is no ideal treatment. Evidence suggest that multidrug therapy has more effect than monotherapy in amelioration of renal injury. Salvianolic acid A (SAA) is the major active component of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Bunge. Previous studies have demonstrated that SAA is a multi-target agent and has various pharmacological activities. The pleiotropic properties of SAA predict its potential in the treatment of NS. The study investi...

  6. Vulnerability of Gastric Mucosa in Diabetic Rats, Its Pathogenesis and Amelioration by Cuminum cyminum

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Various studies have indicated that peptic ulcers occurring during the course of diabetic state are more severe and often associated with complications such as gastrointestinal bleeding. This study is the first attempt to understand the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers occurring during the diabetic state considering alternate biochemical pathways using suitable markers and its amelioration by Cuminum cyminum. In this study, diabetic rats showed a progressive increase in the stomach advanced gly...

  7. Effect of sodium fluoride in maternal and offspring rats and its amelioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Panchal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available High fluoride content is known to cause dental and skeletal abnormalities. In addition, present review indicates that sodium fluoride consumption caused increased number of r=esorptions and dead foetuses. Various skeletal anomalies such as wavy ribs, presence of 14th ribs, lacking 6th sternebrae and incompete ossification of skull occur. All these changes could be due to oxidative stress caused by fluoride consumption. Fluoride-induced changes could be successfully ameliorated by cotreatment with vitamins and calcium.

  8. Amelioration of Chemotherapy-Induced Intestinal Mucositis by Orally Administered Probiotics in a Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-Yan Yeung; Wai-Tao Chan; Chun-Bin Jiang; Mei-Lien Cheng; Chia-Yuan Liu; Szu-Wen Chang; Jen-Shiu Chiang Chiau; Hung-Chang Lee

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Intestinal mucositis is a frequently encountered side effect in oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy. No well-established or up to date therapeutic strategies are available. To study a novel way to alleviate mucositis, we investigate the effects and safety of probiotic supplementation in ameliorating 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in a mouse model. Methods Seventy-two mice were injected saline or 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) intraperitoneally daily. Mice were either orall...

  9. Synergism of atenolol and nitrendipine on hemody-namic amelioration and organ protection in hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He-huiXIE; Chao-yuMIAO; Yuan-yingJIANG; Ding-fengSU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: This study was designed to investigate the possible synergism of atenolol and nitrendipine on blood pressure (BP) and blood pressure variability (BPV) reductions, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) amelioration, and organ protection in hypertensive rats. METHODS:The dose is 20 mg/kg for atenolol, 10 mg/kg for nitrendipine and the combination of these two drugs. In acute study, a single dose was given via a catheter previously inserted

  10. Treadmill exercise ameliorates disturbance of spatial learning ability in scopolamine-induced amnesia rats

    OpenAIRE

    Heo, Yu-Mi; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Su-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Wook; Baek, Sang-Bin; Baek, Seung-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is the most common neurodegenerative disease and this disease induces progressive loss of memory function Scopolamine is a non-selective muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist and it induces impairment of learning ability. Exercise is known to ameliorate memory deficits induced by various brain diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effect of treadmill exercise on spatial learning ability in relation with cell proliferation in the hippocampus using the sco...

  11. Use of vegetation to ameliorate building microclimates: an assessment of energy-conservation potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, B.A.; Taylor, F.G.; Wendt, R.L.

    1982-04-01

    The space-conditioning energy conservation potentials of landscapes designed to ameliorate building microclimates are evaluated. The physical bases for vegetative modifications of climate are discussed, and results of past study of the effects of vegetation on space-conditioning energy consumption in buildings are reviewed. The state-of-the-art of energy-conserving landscape designs is assessed and recommendations are presented for further research.

  12. Mucosal Administration of Collagen V Ameliorates the Atherosclerotic Plaque Burden by Inducing Interleukin 35-dependent Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Arick C; Huang, Guorui; Jankowska-Gan, Ewa; Massoudi, Dawiyat; Kernien, John F; Vignali, Dario A; Sullivan, Jeremy A; Wilkes, David S; Burlingham, William J; Greenspan, Daniel S

    2016-02-12

    We have shown previously that collagen V (col(V)) autoimmunity is a consistent feature of atherosclerosis in human coronary artery disease and in the Apoe(-/-) mouse model. We have also shown sensitization of Apoe(-/-) mice with col(V) to markedly increase the atherosclerotic burden, providing evidence of a causative role for col(V) autoimmunity in atherosclerotic pathogenesis. Here we sought to determine whether induction of immune tolerance to col(V) might ameliorate atherosclerosis, providing further evidence for a causal role for col(V) autoimmunity in atherogenesis and providing insights into the potential for immunomodulatory therapeutic interventions. Mucosal inoculation successfully induced immune tolerance to col(V) with an accompanying reduction in plaque burden in Ldlr(-/-) mice on a high-cholesterol diet. The results therefore demonstrate that inoculation with col(V) can successfully ameliorate the atherosclerotic burden, suggesting novel approaches for therapeutic interventions. Surprisingly, tolerance and reduced atherosclerotic burden were both dependent on the recently described IL-35 and not on IL-10, the immunosuppressive cytokine usually studied in the context of induced tolerance and amelioration of atherosclerotic symptoms. In addition to the above, using recombinant protein fragments, we were able to localize two epitopes of the α1(V) chain involved in col(V) autoimmunity in atherosclerotic Ldlr(-/-) mice, suggesting future courses of experimentation for the characterization of such epitopes.

  13. β-glycosphingolipids ameliorated non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in the Psammomys obesus model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zigmond E

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ehud Zigmond,1,* Oshrat Tayer-Shifman,1,* Gadi Lalazar,1 Ami Ben Ya'acov,1 Sarah Weksler-Zangen,2 David Shasha,1 Miriam Sklair-Levy,3 Lidya Zolotarov,1 Zvi Shalev,1 Rony Kalman,2 Ehud Ziv,2 Itamar Raz,2 Yaron Ilan1 1Liver Unit, 2Diabetes Unit, 3Department of Radiology, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Liver steatosis is a common characteristic of obesity and type 2 diabetes, and fatty liver disease is increasingly recognized as a major health burden. Accumulating evidence suggests that β-glycosphingolipids play an important role in insulin sensitivity and thus could affect hepatic steatosis. To determine the effect associated with β-glycosphingolipid-mediated amelioration of liver injury, seven groups of Psammomys obesus on a high-energy diet were studied. Animals were treated with daily injections of β-glucosylceramide, β-lactosylceramide, or a combination of both. β-glycosphingolipids ameliorated the hepatic injury manifested by decreased liver enzymes, liver weight, and hepatic fat, and improved liver histology. Administration of both β-glucosylceramide and β-lactosylceramide also decreased interferon (IFN-γ serum levels. These effects were associated with improved serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels. These data suggest that β-glycosphingolipids ameliorate liver injury in an animal model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.Keywords: NAFLD, glycolipids, STAT, NASH, insulin resistance, diabetes

  14. The Ameliorative Effects of L-2-Oxothiazolidine-4-Carboxylate on Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ho Shin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the ameliorative effects and the mechanism of action of L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC on acetaminophen (APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Mice were randomly divided into six groups: normal control group, APAP only treated group, APAP + 25 mg/kg OTC, APAP + 50 mg/kg OTC, APAP + 100 mg/kg OTC, and APAP + 100 mg/kg N-acetylcysteine (NAC as a reference control group. OTC treatment significantly reduced serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels in a dose dependent manner. OTC treatment was markedly increased glutathione (GSH production and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px activity in a dose dependent manner. The contents of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal in liver tissues were significantly decreased by administration of OTC and the inhibitory effect of OTC was similar to that of NAC. Moreover, OTC treatment on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity significantly reduced the formation of nitrotyrosin and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling positive areas of liver tissues in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, the activity of caspase-3 in liver tissues was reduced by administration of OTC in a dose dependent manner. The ameliorative effects of OTC on APAP-induced liver damage in mice was similar to that of NAC. These results suggest that OTC has ameliorative effects on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in mice through anti-oxidative stress and anti-apoptotic processes.

  15. Dietary phosphate restriction ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in adenine-induced kidney disease rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Tan Vu; Watari, Eriko; Taketani, Yutaka; Kitamura, Tomoyo; Shiota, Asuka; Tanaka, Terumi; Tanimura, Ayako; Harada, Nagakatsu; Nakaya, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Hironori; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Takeda, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia causes endothelial dysfunction as well as vascular calcification. Management of serum phosphate level by dietary phosphate restriction or phosphate binders is considered to be beneficial to prevent chronic kidney disease patients from cardiovascular disease, but it has been unclear whether keeping lower serum phosphate level can ameliorate endothelial dysfunction. In this study we investigated whether low-phosphate diet can ameliorate endothelial dysfunction in adenine-induced kidney disease rats, one of useful animal model of chronic kidney disease. Administration of 0.75% adenine-containing diet for 21 days induced renal failure with hyperphosphatemia, and impaired acetylcholine-dependent vasodilation of thoracic aortic ring in rats. Then adenine-induced kidney disease rats were treated with either control diet (1% phosphate) or low-phosphate diet (0.2% phosphate) for 16 days. Low-phosphate diet ameliorated not only hyperphosphatemia but also the impaired vasodilation of aorta. In addition, the activatory phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase at serine 1177 and Akt at serine 473 in the aorta were inhibited by in adenine-induced kidney disease rats. The inhibited phosphorylations were improved by the low-phosphate diet treatment. Thus, dietary phosphate restriction can improve aortic endothelial dysfunction in chronic kidney disease with hyperphosphatemia by increase in the activatory phosphorylations of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and Akt. PMID:22798709

  16. Ameliorative effect of vitamin E on aflatoxin-induced lipid peroxidation in the testis of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.J. Verma; Anita Nair

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the ameliorative effect of vitamin E on aflatoxin-induced lipid peroxidation in the testis. Methods: Adult male albino mice were orally administered 25 or 50 μg of aflatoxin in 0.2 mL olive oil per d for 45 d.The testis was isolated, blotted free of blood and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: There was a dose-dependent significantlyhigher lipid peroxidation in the testis of aflatoxin treated mice than in the controls. The levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as glutathione, total and reduced ascorbic acid, as well as the activities of enzymatic antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase were significantly lower in the testis of aflatoxin treated mice. Vitamin E (2 mg/d per animal; orally) pretreatment significantly ameliorates the aflatoxin-induced lipid peroxidation which could be due to higher enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the testis of mice as compared with those given aflatoxin alone. Conclusion: Vitamin E pretreatment significantly ameliorates aflatoxininduced lipid peroxidation in the testis of mice.

  17. Synergistic effect of Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ameliorates drought stress in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Mishra, Sankalp; Dixit, Vijaykant; Kumar, Manoj; Agarwal, Lalit; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2016-01-01

    Two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) Pseudomonas putida NBRIRA and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NBRISN13 with ability to tolerate abiotic stress along with multiple PGP traits like ACC deaminase activity, minerals solubilisation, hormones production, biofilm formation, siderophore activity were evaluated for their synergistic effect to ameliorate drought stress in chickpea. Earlier we have reported both the strains individually for their PGP attributes and stress amelioration in host plants. The present study explains in detail the possibilities and benefits of utilizing these 2 PGPR in consortium for improving the chickpea growth under control and drought stressed condition. In vitro results clearly demonstrate that both the PGPR strains are compatible to each other and their synergistic growth enhances the PGP attributes. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of inoculation of both strains individually and consortia in drought tolerant and sensitive cultivars (BG362 and P1003). The growth parameters were observed significantly higher in consortium as compared to individual PGPR. Colonization of both PGPR in chickpea rhizosphere has been visualized by using gfp labeling. Apart from growth parameters, defense enzymes, soil enzymes and microbial diversity were significantly modulated in individually PGPR and in consortia inoculated plants. Negative effects of drought stress has been ameliorated and apparently seen by higher biomass and reversal of stress indicators in chickpea cultivars treated with PGPR individually or in consortia. Findings from the present study demonstrate that synergistic application has better potential to improve plant growth promotion under drought stress conditions.

  18. Immunomodulatory Activities of the Benzoxathiole Derivative BOT-4-One Ameliorate Pathogenic Skin Inflammation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Gyu; Cho, Nam-Chul; Jeong, Ae Jin; Li, Yu-Chen; Rhie, Sung-Ja; Choi, Jung Sook; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Youngsoo; Kim, Yong-Nyun; Kim, Myoung-Hwan; Pae, Ae Nim; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Kim, Byung-Hak

    2016-01-01

    T-cell-mediated immune responses play an important role in body protection. However, aberrantly activated immune responses are responsible for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The regulation of pathologic immune responses may be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of these diseases. Despite that multiple pharmacologic properties of benzoxathiole derivatives have been defined, the molecular mechanisms underlying these properties remain to be clarified. Here, we demonstrated the benzoxathiole derivative 2-cyclohexylimino-6-methyl-6,7-dihydro-5H-benzo[1,3]oxathiol-4-one (BOT-4-one) regulated immune responses and ameliorated experimentally induced inflammatory skin diseases both in vitro and in vivo. BOT-4-one inhibited the differentiation of CD4(+) T-cell subsets by regulating the expression and production of T-cell lineage-specific master transcription factors and cytokines and activating the signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins. In addition, BOT-4-one inhibited TCR-mediated Akt and NF-κB signaling. Topical application of BOT-4-one ameliorated experimentally induced inflammatory skin diseases in mice models such as 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene-induced contact and atopic dermatitis and IL-23-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation. Our study demonstrated that BOT-4-one ameliorates inflammatory skin diseases by suppressing the pathogenic CD4(+) T cell differentiation and overall immune responses.

  19. The amelioration effect of tranexamic acid in wrinkles induced by skin dryness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Daijiro; Takahashi, Yumi; Mafune, Eiichi

    2016-05-01

    Tranexamic acid (trans-4-aminomethylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid) is a medical amino acid widely used as an anti-inflammatory and a whitening agent. This study examined the effect of tranexamic acid administration in wrinkle formation following skin dryness. We administered tranexamic acid (750mg/kg/day) orally for 20 consecutive days to Naruto Research Institute Otsuka Atrichia (NOA) mice, which naturally develop skin dryness. In these NOA mice, deterioration of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), generation of wrinkles, decrease of collagen type I, and increases in mast cell proliferation and tryptase and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1) release were observed. However, these symptoms were improved by tranexamic acid treatment. Moreover, the increase in the β-endorphin level in the blood and the expression of μ-opioid receptor on the surface of fibroblasts increased by tranexamic acid treatment. In addition, when the fibroblasts induced by tranexamic acid treatment were removed, the amelioration effect by tranexamic acid treatment was halved. On the other hand, tranexamic acid treated NOA mice and mast cell removal in tranexamic acid treated NOA mice did not result in changes in the wrinkle amelioration effect. Additionally, the amelioration effect of mast cell deficient NOA mice was half that of tranexamic acid treated NOA mice. These results indicate that tranexamic acid decreased the proliferation of mast cells and increases the proliferation of fibroblasts, subsequently improving wrinkles caused by skin dryness.

  20. Amelioration of murine immune thrombocytopenia by CD44 antibodies: a potential therapy for ITP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Andrew R; Song, Seng; Suppa, Sara J; Ma, Shuhua; Reilly, Michael P; Andre, Pierrette; McKenzie, Steven E; Lazarus, Alan H

    2011-01-20

    To explore the potential for monoclonal antibodies as a treatment for immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) and to further explore their mechanisms of action, we tested 8 monoclonal CD44 antibodies in murine ITP and found 4 antibodies that could successfully ameliorate ITP; 2 of these antibodies function at a full 3-log fold lower dosage compared with IVIg. Further characterization of the 2 most successful antibodies (5035-41.1D and KM114) demonstrated that, similar to IVIg: (1) the presence of the inhibitory IgG receptor FcγRIIB was required for their ameliorative function, (2) complement-deficient mice responded to anti-CD44 treatment, and (3) human transgenic FcγRIIA-expressing mice also responded to the CD44 therapeutic modality. Dissimilar to IVIg, the Fc portion of the CD44 antibody was not required. These data demonstrate that CD44 antibodies can function therapeutically in murine ITP and that they could potentially provide a very-low-dose recombinant therapy for the amelioration of human ITP.

  1. Intravenous immunoglobulin ameliorates ITP via activating Fc gamma receptors on dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siragam, Vinayakumar; Crow, Andrew R; Brinc, Davor; Song, Seng; Freedman, John; Lazarus, Alan H

    2006-06-01

    Despite a more than 20-year experience of therapeutic benefit, the relevant molecular and cellular targets of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in autoimmune disease remain unclear. Contrary to the prevailing theories of IVIg action in autoimmunity, we show that IVIg drives signaling through activating Fc gamma receptors (Fc gammaR) in the amelioration of mouse immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). The actual administration of IVIg was unnecessary because as few as 10(5) IVIg-treated cells could, upon adoptive transfer, ameliorate ITP. IVIg did not interact with the inhibitory Fc gammaRIIB on the initiator cell, although Fc gammaRIIB does have a role in the late phase of IVIg action. Notably, only IVIg-treated CD11c+ dendritic cells could mediate these effects. We hypothesize that IVIg forms soluble immune complexes in vivo that prime dendritic-cell regulatory activity. In conclusion, the clinical effects of IVIg in ameliorating ITP seem to involve the acute interaction of IVIg with activating Fc gammaR on dendritic cells.

  2. Evaluating Theobroma grandiflorum for comparative genomic studies with Theobroma cacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seeds of Theobroma cacao (cacao) are the source of cocoa, the raw material for the multi-billion dollar chocolate industry. Cacao’s two most important traits are its unique seed storage triglyceride (cocoa butter) and the flavor of its fermented beans (chocolate). The genome of T. cacao is bei...

  3. Dietary -carbamylglutamate and rumen-protected -arginine supplementation ameliorate fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Sun, L W; Wang, Z Y; Deng, M T; Zhang, G M; Guo, R H; Ma, T W; Wang, F

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted with an ovine intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) model to test the hypothesis that dietary -carbamylglutamate (NCG) and rumen-protected -Arg (RP-Arg) supplementation are effective in ameliorating fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes. Beginning on d 35 of gestation, ewes were fed a diet providing 100% of NRC-recommended nutrient requirements, 50% of NRC recommendations (50% NRC), 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 20 g/d RP-Arg (providing 10 g/d of Arg), and 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 5 g/d NCG product (providing 2.5 g/d of NCG). On d 110, maternal, fetal, and placental tissues and fluids were collected and weighed. Ewe weights were lower ( < 0.05) in nutrient-restricted ewes compared with adequately fed ewes. Maternal RP-Arg or NCG supplementation did not alter ( = 0.26) maternal BW in nutrient-restricted ewes. Weights of most fetal organs were increased ( < 0.05) in RP-Arg-treated and NCG-treated underfed ewes compared with 50% NRC-fed ewes. Supplementation of RP-Arg or NCG reduced ( < 0.05) concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, triglycerides, and ammonia in serum of underfed ewes but had no effect on concentrations of lactate and GH. Maternal RP-Arg or NCG supplementation markedly improved ( < 0.05) concentrations of AA (particularly arginine-family AA and branched-chain AA) and polyamines in maternal and fetal plasma and in fetal allantoic and amniotic fluids within nutrient-restricted ewes. These novel results indicate that dietary NCG and RP-Arg supplementation to underfed ewes ameliorated fetal growth restriction, at least in part, by increasing the availability of AA in the conceptus and provide support for its clinical use to ameliorate IUGR in humans and sheep industry production.

  4. Atorvastatin ameliorates arsenic-induced hypertension and enhancement of vascular redox signaling in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarath, Thengumpallil Sasindran; Waghe, Prashantkumar; Gupta, Priyanka; Choudhury, Soumen; Kannan, Kandasamy [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, 243122 Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh (India); Pillai, Ayyappan Harikrishna [Division of Animal Biochemistry, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, 243122 Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh (India); Harikumar, Sankaran Kutty; Mishra, Santosh Kumar [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, 243122 Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh (India); Sarkar, Souvendra Nath, E-mail: snsarkar1911@rediffmail.com [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, 243122 Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2014-11-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure has been linked to elevated blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases, while statins reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease predominantly by their low density lipoprotein-lowering effect. Besides, statins have other beneficial effects, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We evaluated whether atorvastatin, a widely used statin, can ameliorate arsenic-induced increase in blood pressure and alteration in lipid profile and also whether the amelioration could relate to altered NO and ROS signaling. Rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (100 ppm) through drinking water for 90 consecutive days. Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg bw, orally) was administered once daily during the last 30 days of arsenic exposure. On the 91st day, blood was collected for lipid profile. Western blot of iNOS and eNOS protein, NO and 3-nitrotyrosine production, Nox-4 and p22Phox mRNA expression, Nox activity, ROS generation, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants were evaluated in thoracic aorta. Arsenic increased systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure, while it decreased HDL-C and increased LDL-C, total cholesterol and triglycerides in serum. Arsenic down-regulated eNOS and up-regulated iNOS protein expression and increased basal NO and 3-nitrotyrosine level. Arsenic increased aortic Nox-4 and p22Phox mRNA expression, Nox activity, ROS generation and lipid peroxidation. Further, arsenic decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase and depleted aortic GSH content. Atorvastatin regularized blood pressure, improved lipid profile and attenuated arsenic-mediated redox alterations. The results demonstrate that atorvastatin has the potential to ameliorate arsenic-induced hypertension by improving lipid profile, aortic NO signaling and restoring vascular redox homeostasis. - Highlights: • Arsenic increased systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure and caused dyslipidemia. • Arsenic increased

  5. Synergism of irbesartan and amlodipine on hemodynamic amelioration and organ protection in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen SHANG; Ping HAN; Cheng-bing YANG; Xiao-wen GU; Wei ZHANG; Li-ping XU; Shou-ting FU; Ding-feng SU; He-hui XlE

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the synergism of low-doses of amlodipine and irbesartan on reduction of blood pressure variability (BPV),amelioration of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and organ protection in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).Methods:The rats were administered amlodipine (1 mg-kgl.dl) alone,irbesartan (10 mg·kg-1·d-1) alone,or the combination of the two drugs for 4 months.The drugs were mixed into the rat chow.Blood pressure (BP) was continuously monitored in conscious animals.After the determination of BRS,the rats were killed for morphological evaluation of organ damages.Results:The combination of low-dose irbesartan and amlodipine had statistically significant synergism on reduction of BP and BPV,amelioration of BRS and organ protection in SHR.Multiple regression analysis showed that the decrease in left ventricular hypertrophy was associated with the decrease in systolic BPV (r=0.665,P<0.01); the decrease in aortic hypertrophy was associated with the increase in BRS (r=0.656,P<0.01); and the amelioration in renal lesion was associated with the increase in BRS (r=0.763,P<0.01)and the decrease in systolic BPV (r=0.706,P<0.01).Conclusion:Long-term treatment with a combination of low-doses of amlodipine and irbesartan showed significant synergism on reduction of BP and BPV,restoration of BRS and organ protection in SHR.Besides BP reduction,the enhancement of BRS and reduction of BPV might contribute to the organ protection.

  6. EGCG ameliorates diet-induced metabolic syndrome associating with the circadian clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Yashi; Qi, Guoyuan; Fan, Rong; Ji, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhigang; Liu, Xuebo

    2017-06-01

    In response to the daily light-dark (LD) cycle, organisms on Earth have evolved with the approximately 24-h endogenous oscillations to coordinate behavioral and physiological processes, including feeding, sleep, and metabolism homeostasis. Circadian desynchrony triggered by an energy-dense diet rich in fats and fructose is intimately connected with a series of metabolic disorders. Previous studies revealed that (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) could mitigate metabolic misalignment; however, only a few reports have focused on its potential effect on directly manipulating circadian rhythms to ameliorate metabolic syndrome. Our goal was to investigate the regulating effect of EGCG treatment on metabolic misalignment triggered by a high-fat and high-fructose diet (HFFD) associating with the circadian clock. Our results indicated that HFFD treatment partially exhibited poor circadian oscillations of the core clock gene and the clock-controlled gene in the liver and fat relative to the control group. EGCG administration may ameliorate the diet-dependent decline in circadian function by controlling the Sirt1-PGC1αloop, implying the existence of an EGCG-entrainable oscillator. Subsequently, reducing fatty acid synthesis and elevating β-oxidation in the liver coupled with the increasing brown adipose tissue (BAT) energy expenditure observed in the EGCG group of mice prevented the adipocyte hypertrophy and fat accumulations common to BAT and white adipose tissue (WAT) derived from the HFFD mice. This study is the first to provide compelling evidences that EGCG may ameliorate diet-induced metabolic misalignment by regulating the rhythmic expression of the circadian clock genes in the liver and fat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Exercise Ameliorates High Fat Diet Induced Cardiac Dysfunction by Increasing Interleukin 10

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    Varun eKesherwani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that a sedentary lifestyle and a high fat diet (HFD leads to cardiomyopathy. Moderate exercise ameliorates cardiac dysfunction, however underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Increased inflammation due to induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and attenuation of anti-inflammatory cytokine such as interleukin10 (IL-10 contributes to cardiac dysfunction in obese and diabetics. We hypothesized that exercise training ameliorates HFD- induced cardiac dysfunction by mitigating obesity and inflammation through upregulation of IL-10 and downregulation of TNF-α. To test this hypothesis, eight week old, female C57BL/6J mice were fed with HFD and exercised (swimming 1hr/day for 5 days/week for eight weeks. The four treatment groups: normal diet (ND, HFD, HFD + exercise (HFD + Ex and ND + Ex were analyzed for mean body weight, blood glucose level, TNF-α, IL-10, cardiac fibrosis by Masson Trichrome, and cardiac dysfunction by echocardiography. Mean body weights were increased in HFD but comparatively less in HFD + Ex. The level of TNF-α was elevated and IL-10 was downregulated in HFD but ameliorated in HFD + Ex. Cardiac fibrosis increased in HFD and was attenuated by exercise in the HFD + Ex group. The percentage ejection fraction and fractional shortening were decreased in HFD but comparatively increased in HFD + Ex. There was no difference between ND and ND + Ex for the above parameters except an increase in IL-10 level following exercise. Based on these results, we conclude that exercise mitigates HFD- induced cardiomyopathy by decreasing obesity, inducing IL-10, and reducing TNF-α in mice.

  8. Silymarin and Nigella sativa extract ameliorate paracetamol induced oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham Zakaria Hamza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the ameliorative role of silymarin or/and Nigella sativa (N. sativa water extract against N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP-induced renal function deterioration in male mice at the biochemical levels. Methods: The mice were divided into seven groups (10/group. The first group was served as control. The second group was treated with dose of APAP. The third and fourth groups were treated with silymarin alone and N. sativa water extract alone, respectively. The fifth and sixth groups were treated with combination of APAP with silymarin and APAP with N. sativa water extract, respectively. The seventh group was treated with a combination of both ameliorative compounds (silymarin and N. sativa water extract with APAP and all animals were treated for a period of 30 days. Results: Exposure to APAP at the treated dose for mice led to an alteration of kidney function parameters, increase in the level of serum urea and creatinine. Also, paracetamol administration induced oxidative stress in kidney homogenates by increasing malondialdhyde level and decreasing superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and this stress was ameliorated by administration of either silymarin or N. sativa water extract. Conclusions: Administration of silymarin or/and N. sativa water extract to APAP-treated mice alleviate the toxicity of APAP, and this appeared clearly by biochemical improvement of kidney function parameters and antioxidant parameters. But, the alleviation is more pronounced with the both antioxidants. Thus, the pronounce effect of silymarin and N. sativa water extract is most effective in reducing the toxicity induced by APAP and improving the kidney function parameters and antioxidant status of kidney of male mice.

  9. CD44 antibodies and immune thrombocytopenia in the amelioration of murine inflammatory arthritis.

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    Patrick J Mott

    Full Text Available Antibodies to CD44 have been used to successfully ameliorate murine models of autoimmune disease. The most often studied disease model has been murine inflammatory arthritis, where a clear mechanism for the efficacy of CD44 antibodies has not been established. We have recently shown in a murine passive-model of the autoimmune disease immune thrombocytopenia (ITP that some CD44 antibodies themselves can induce thrombocytopenia in mice, and the CD44 antibody causing the most severe thrombocytopenia (IM7, also is known to be highly effective in ameliorating murine models of arthritis. Recent work in the K/BxN serum-induced model of arthritis demonstrated that antibody-induced thrombocytopenia reduced arthritis, causing us to question whether CD44 antibodies might primarily ameliorate arthritis through their thrombocytopenic effect. We evaluated IM7, IRAWB14.4, 5035-41.1D, KM201, KM114, and KM81, and found that while all could induce thrombocytopenia, the degree of protection against serum-induced arthritis was not closely related to the length or severity of the thrombocytopenia. CD44 antibody treatment was also able to reverse established inflammation, while thrombocytopenia induced by an anti-platelet antibody targeting the GPIIbIIIa platelet antigen, could not mediate this effect. While CD44 antibody-induced thrombocytopenia may contribute to some of its therapeutic effect against the initiation of arthritis, for established disease there are likely other mechanisms contributing to its efficacy. Humans are not known to express CD44 on platelets, and are therefore unlikely to develop thrombocytopenia after CD44 antibody treatment. An understanding of the relationship between arthritis, thrombocytopenia, and CD44 antibody treatment remains critical for continued development of CD44 antibody therapeutics.

  10. Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 and IDR-1 Ameliorate MRSA Pneumonia in Vivo

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    Man Hou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The only human cathelicidin, LL-37, and the innate defense regulator peptide IDR-1, which have been proven to have antimicrobial activity, represent essential elements of immunity. Our previous study showed that the peptide LL-37 was protective in vitro to attenuate LTA-induced inflammatory effects. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA causes a multitude of serious and sometimes life-threatening diseases around the globe. However, the effect of LL-37 and IDR-1 in MRSA-induced pneumonia is unknown. In the present study, we explored the potential of LL-37 and IDR-1 in ameliorating MRSA-induced pneumonia in vivo. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups and perfused intratracheally with PBS, peptide, MRSA and MRSA plus peptide, respectively. Pulmonary tissue pathology, ELISA and quantitative RT-PCR were employed. The relative signal pathways were further explored by western blot analysis. Results: Pathological analysis of the lung tissue sections demonstrated that, when compared with the MRSA-treated group, both the LL-37 and IDR-1 could ameliorate the MRSA-induced pneumonia. The phosphorylation of JNK and Akt were markedly decreased in the peptide plus MRSA-treated group compared with the MRSA-treated group. Furthermore, both of them also reduced TNF-α and IL-6 production in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum in vivo. Conclusion: We report the first evidence of peptides inhibiting inflammation, decreasing the release of inflammatory cytokines and restoring pulmonary function in vivo. The antimicrobial peptide LL-37 and IDR-1 could ameliorate MRSA-induced pneumonia by exerting an anti-inflammatory property and attenuating pro-inflammatory cytokine release, thus providing support for the hypothesis that both innate and synthetic peptides could protect against MRSA in vivo.

  11. Ameliorative Effect of Ocimum Sanctum on Meloxicam Induced Toxicity in Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mahaprabhu, R.; Bhandarkar, A. G.; Jangir, Babu Lal; Rahangadale, S. P.; Kurkure, N. V.

    2011-01-01

    An ameliorating effect of Ocimum sanctum on the toxic effect of meloxicam, a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug was studied by evaluating haemato-biochemical parameters, oxidative stress, gross and histopathological changes in various organs of Wistar rats. A total of thirty-six male rats were divided in six experimental groups each comprising of six rats and numbered from G1 to G6. Meloxicam toxicity was induced by oral feeding of meloxicam at 1.2 mg/kg and 2.4 mg/kg body weight in G2 ...

  12. Effect of infrared lamps to ameliorate cold stress in Vrindavani calves

    OpenAIRE

    Showkat A. Bhat; Bharat Bhushan; Sajad A. Sheikh; Chandrasekar, T.; Asu Singh Godara; Pranay Bharti; K. Puhle Japheth

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to determine the effect of infrared lamps to ameliorate cold stress in Vrindavani (Holstein Friesian × Brown Swiss × Jersey × Hariana) calves. Materials and Methods: For the present investigation, ten newborn Vrindavani calves were randomly divided into two groups (G1 and G2) of five each. The experiment was conducted from 2nd November to 8th February when the environmental temperature was at the lowest. The calves of G1 were provided with no additional protec...

  13. Effect of Furfural Residue on Control of Soil Alkalization and Amelioration of Solonetz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAIAXING; SONGRONGHUA; 等

    1998-01-01

    Furfural residue ,an industrial waste,is a kind of strongly acidic organic materials.Its comprehensive utilization in agriculture showed a significant effect on control of soil alkaliztion,amelioration of solonetz and increase of crop yields.In detail it may adjust pH,depress alkalinity,reduce bulk density and compactness and increase water permeability and retention ability of the soil.Meanwhile agricultural use of furfural residue provided an effective way to avoid its pollution of the soil,water and air.

  14. Blocking IL-21 signaling ameliorates xenogeneic GVHD induced by human lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Hippen, Keli L.; Bucher, Christoph; Schirm, Dawn K.; Bearl, Amanda M.; Brender, Ty; Mink, Kathy A.; Waggie, Kimberly S; Peffault de Latour, Regis; Janin, Anne; Curtsinger, Julie M.; Dillon, Stacey R.; Miller, Jeffrey S.; Socie, Gerard; Blazar, Bruce R.

    2012-01-01

    In rodent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) models, anti–IL-21 neutralizing mAb treatment ameliorates lethality and is associated with decreases in Th1 cytokine production and gastrointestinal tract injury. GVHD prevention was dependent on the in vivo generation of donor-inducible regulatory T cells (Tregs). To determine whether the IL-21 pathway might be targeted for GVHD prevention, skin and colon samples obtained from patients with no GVHD or grade 2 to 4 GVHD were analyzed for IL-21 protei...

  15. Ameliorating Hemorheology by Direct Hemoperfusion with a Polymyxin B-immobilized Adsorbent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yuan; Wang Xiang; Gao Wei; Cai Shaoxi

    2004-01-01

    Direct hemoperfusion (DHP) with an adsorbent column using polymyxin B-immobilized polystyrene beads has been used to investigate the changes of hemorheology in rabbits with endotoxemia. We measured whole blood viscosity and hemotocrit before and after DHP with polymyxin B-immobilized polystyrene beads. Reduction in blood endotoxin concentration by DHP therapy positively correlated with improvement in hemorheological indexs. Our findings indicate that the amelioration in hemorheology was related directly to endotoxin removal by the adsorbent column with polymyxin B-immobilize polystyrene beads. So DHP with polymyxin B-immobilized polystyrene beads seems to be an important therapeutic strategy for endotoxemia.

  16. Blonanserin, an antipsychotic and dopamine D₂/D₃receptor antagonist, and ameliorated alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Manabu; Ujike, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Blonanserin (BNS) is used for treatment of both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia in Japan and Korea. Because BNS has weak α1 receptor blocking activities and is almost devoid of histamine H1 and muscarinic M1 antagonist activity, BNS is better tolerated than other atypical antipsychotics. A high degree of D₃ receptor blockage is reported to be predictive of drug abuse and alcoholism, and BNS has strong D₃ receptor antagonism. Thus, BNS may be useful in the treatment of alcoholism. We present a case in which BNS ameliorated alcohol dependence.

  17. Exploring the ameliorative potential of Punica granatum in dextran sulfate sodium induced ulcerative colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kavinder; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh; Singh, Nirmal

    2009-11-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of Punica granatum in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced ulcerative colitis. DSS (2%) was administered orally in drinking water for 7 days to induce ulcerative colitis. The extent and severity of ulceration was analysed macroscopically, histopathologically and using a disease activity index. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a specific marker of inflammation; histamine, a marker of mast cell degranulation; superoxide anion generation and, lipid peroxides were analysed. Administration of DSS resulted in a significant development of ulceration in the colon along with a rise in histamine, MPO activity and oxidative stress. Treatment with Punica granatum extract and its ellagic acid rich fraction (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg p.o.) significantly attenuated DSS-induced colonic inflammation along with attenuation of histamine, MPO and oxidative stress. The antiulcerative effect of Punica granatum extract and its ellagic acid rich fraction were comparable to sulphasalazine (100 mg/kg, p.o.) and sodium cromoglycate (40 mg/kg i.p). It is concluded that Punica granatum has a potential for ameliorating DSS-induced colitis and its ellagic acid rich fraction may be responsible for this effect. Further, the antiulcerative effects may be attributed to mast cell stabilizing, antiinflammatory and antioxidant actions.

  18. Ameliorative potential of Ocimum sanctum in chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GURPREET KAUR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of Ocimumsanctum and its saponin rich fraction in chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats. The chronic constriction injury was induced by placing four loose ligatures around the sciatic nerve, proximal to its trifurcation. The mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, paw heat hyperalgesia and cold tail hyperalgesia were assessed by performing the pinprick, acetone, hot plate and cold tail immersion tests, respectively. Biochemically, the tissue thio-barbituric acid reactive species, super-oxide anion content (markers of oxidative stress and total calcium levels were measured. Chronic constriction injury was associated with the development of mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, heat and cold hyperalgesia along with an increase in oxidative stress and calcium levels. However, administration of Ocimumsanctum (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. and its saponin rich fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. for 14 days significantly attenuated chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain as well as decrease the oxidative stress and calcium levels. It may be concluded that saponin rich fraction of Ocimum sanctum has ameliorative potential in attenuating painful neuropathic state, which may be attributed to a decrease in oxidative stress and calcium levels.

  19. Oroxylin A, but Not Vasopressin, Ameliorates Cardiac Dysfunction of Endotoxemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Hung Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mortality in septic patients with myocardial dysfunction is higher than those without it. Beneficial effects of flavonoid oroxylin A (Oro-A on endotoxemic hearts were evaluated and compared with that of arginine vasopressin (AVP which is used to reverse hypotension in septic patients. Endotoxemia in rats was induced by one-injection of lipopolysaccharides (LPS, 10 mg/kg, i.p., and hearts were isolated 5-hrs or 16-hrs later. Isolated hearts with constant-pressure or constant-flow mode were examined by Langendorff technique. Rate and force of contractions of isolated atrial and ventricular strips were examined by tissue myography. Isolated endotoxemic hearts were characterized by decreased or increased coronary flow (CF in LPS-treated-for-5hr and LPS-treated-for-16-hr groups, respectively, with decreased inotropy in both groups. Oro-A-perfusion ameliorated while AVP-perfusion worsened the decreased CF and inotropy in both preparations. Oro-A and AVP, however, did not affect diminished force or rate of contraction of atrial and ventricular strips of endotoxemic hearts. Oro-A-induced CF increase was not affected following coronary endothelium-denudation with saponin. These results suggest that Oro-A ameliorates LPS-depressed cardiac functions by increasing CF, leading to positive inotropy. In contrast, AVP aggravates cardiac dysfunction by decreasing CF. Oro-A is a potentially useful candidate for treating endotoxemia complicated with myocardial dysfunction.

  20. LINGO-1 antibody ameliorates myelin impairment and spatial memory deficits in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun-Jun; Ren, Qing-Guo; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Jun

    2015-09-18

    More than 50% of multiple sclerosis patients develop cognitive impairment. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear, and there is no effective treatment. LINGO-1 (LRR and Ig domain containing NOGO receptor interacting protein 1) has been identified as an inhibitor of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination. Using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model, we assessed cognitive function at early and late stages of EAE, determined brain expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) and investigated whether the LINGO-1 antibody could restore deficits in learning and memory and ameliorate any loss of MBP. We found that deficits in learning and memory occurred in late EAE and identified decreased expression of MBP in the parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and fimbria-fornix. Moreover, the LINGO-1 antibody significantly improved learning and memory in EAE and partially restored MBP in PHC. Furthermore, the LINGO-1 antibody activated the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway regulating myelin growth. Our results suggest that demyelination in the PHC and fimbria-fornix might contribute to cognitive deficits and the LINGO-1 antibody could ameliorate these deficits by promoting myelin growth in the PHC. Our research demonstrates that LINGO-1 antagonism may be an effective approach to the treatment of the cognitive impairment of multiple sclerosis patients.

  1. Hypothermia ameliorates gastrointestinal ischemic injury sustained in a porcine cardiac arrest model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yi; WANG Shuo; LI Chun-sheng

    2012-01-01

    Background During cardiac arrest,the gastrointestinal tract is sensitive to ischemia.Protection of the gastrointestinal tract is a critical factor in determining prognosis following cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).This study seeks to determine the extent of gastrointestinal tract injury and the potential protective effect of inducing hypothermia following a porcine cardiac arrest model and CPR.Methods Ventricular fibrillation was induced by programmed electrical stimulation in 16 male domestic pigs (n=8 per group).Four minutes after ventricular fibrillation,CPR was performed.Pigs that successfully restored spontaneous circulation then received intravenous infusions of saline at either 4C or room temperature to produce hypothermic and control conditions respectively.Serum diamine oxidase and gastrointestinal adenosine triphosphate enzyme activity were determined and histopathology of the gastrointestinal tract was performed by light microscopy and electron microscopy.Results Significant injury of the gastrointestinal tract after CPR was found.Na+-K+ and Ca2+ adenosine triphosphate enzyme activity in the gastric tissue were significantly high in animals receiving hypothermia treatment compared to controls.Hypothermia also significantly reduced serum diamine oxidase after CPR compared to the control group.Moreover,severe injury sustained by the gastrointestinal tissue was significantly ameliorated under hypothermic conditions compared to controls.Conclusions Gastrointestinal injury and abnormal energy metabolism are strikingly evident following CPR.Hypothermia,which is induced by an infusion of 4C saline,can rapidly reduce internal body temperature,improve energy metabolism,and ameliorate injury to the gastrointestinal mucosa after CPR.

  2. Peripheral oxytocin treatment ameliorates obesity by reducing food intake and visceral fat mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maejima, Yuko; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Yamahara, Yui; Kodaira, Misato; Sedbazar, Udval; Yada, Toshihiko

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that oxytocin (Oxt) is implicated in energy metabolism. We aimed to explore acute and sub-chronic effects of peripheral Oxt treatment via different routes on food intake and energy balance. Intraperitoneal (ip) injection of Oxt concentration-dependently decreased food intake in mice. Ip Oxt injection induced c-Fos expression in the hypothalamus and brain stem including arcuate nucleus (ARC), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Subcutaneous (sc) injection of Oxt suppressed food intake in normal and high fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Daily sc injection of Oxt for 17 days in DIO mice reduced food intake for 6 days and body weight for the entire treatment period and additional 9 days after terminating Oxt. Oxt infusion by sc implanted osmotic minipumps for 13 days in DIO mice reduced food intake, body weight, and visceral fat mass and adipocyte size. Oxt infusion also decreased respiratory quotient specifically in light phase, ameliorated fatty liver and glucose intolerance, without affecting normal blood pressure in DIO mice. These results demonstrate that peripheral Oxt treatment reduces food intake and visceral fat mass, and ameliorates obesity, fatty liver and glucose intolerance. Peripheral Oxt treatment provides a new therapeutic avenue for treating obesity and hyperphagia.

  3. Pathological Effects of Aflatoxin and Their Amelioration by Vitamin E in White Leghorn Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajid A Khan, M Zargham Khan*, Ahrar Khan and Iftikhar Hussain1

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available White Leghorn layer breeder hens, 30 weeks of age, were divided into 12 groups (A-L. Group A was kept on basal feed and served as control, while group B was offered feed supplemented with vitamin E (100 mg/Kg. Groups C-G were offered feed containing 100, 500, 2,500, 5,000 and 10,000 µg/Kg aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, respectively, whereas groups H-L were offered same dietary levels of AFB1 along with vitamin E (100 mg/Kg. The experimental feeds were offered for three weeks and afterward all the groups were switched over to basal feed for next two weeks. Body weight, absolute and relative weights of liver and kidneys of AF fed birds were significantly higher than control group. Pathological lesions in aflatoxin (AF fed birds included enlarged, pale and friable liver, swollen kidneys and hemorrhages on different organs. Histopathological lesions in liver included fatty change, congestion and hemorrhages, while in kidneys tubular necrosis, cellular infiltration, congestion and hemorrhages were found in groups fed AFB1 at 500 μg/Kg and higher doses. In AF fed hens, no significant ameliorative effects of vitamin E could be observed upon AF induced decrease in feed intake, gross pathology and histopathological alterations and organ weight except body weights. It was concluded that the vitamin E ameliorated the AFB1 induced toxic effects in some of parameters studied.

  4. Use of ethylenediurea (EDU) to ameliorate ozone effects on purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szantoi, Zoltan [School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)], E-mail: szantzo@auburn.edu; Chappelka, Arthur H. [School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)], E-mail: chappah@auburn.edu; Muntifering, Russell B. [Animal Sciences Department, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)], E-mail: muntirb@auburn.edu; Somers, Greg L. [School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)], E-mail: somergl@auburn.edu

    2007-11-15

    Purple coneflower plants (Echinacea purpurea) were placed into open-top chambers (OTCs) for 6 and 12 weeks in 2003 and 2004, respectively, and exposed to charcoal-filtered air (CF) or twice-ambient (2x) ozone (O{sub 3}) in 2003, and to CF, 2x or non-filtered (NF), ambient air in 2004. Plants were treated with ethylenediurea (EDU) weekly as a foliar spray. Foliar symptoms were observed in >95% of the plants in 2x-treated OTCs in both years. Above-ground biomass was not affected by 2x treatments in 2003, but root and total-plant biomass decreased in 2004. As a result of higher concentrations of select cell wall constituents (% ADF, NDF and lignin) nutritive quality was lower for plants exposed to 2x-O{sub 3} in 2003 and 2004 (26% and 17%, respectively). Significant EDU x O{sub 3} interactions for concentrations of cell wall constituents in 2003 indicated that EDU ameliorated O{sub 3} effects on nutritive quality. Interactions observed in 2004 were inconsistent. - EDU can potentially ameliorate negative effects of O{sub 3} on nutritive quality in purple coneflower.

  5. Treatment with Anti-EGF Ab Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis via Induction of Neurogenesis and Oligodendrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifat Amir-Levy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The neural stem cells (NSCs migrate to the damaged sites in multiple sclerosis (MS and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. However, the differentiation into neurons or oligodendrocytes is blocked. Epidermal growth factor (EGF stimulates NSC proliferation and mobilization to demyelinated lesions but also induces astrogenesis and glial scar. Objective. To examine the clinical and histopathological effects of EGF neutralization on EAE. Methods. EAE-induced SJL mice were intravenously treated with either anti-EGF neutralizing antibody (Ab or isotype control or PBS. On day 9 after immunization, 3 mice of each group were daily treated for 9 days with BrdU and then sacrificed for immunohistochemical analysis. Results. Treatment with anti-EGF Ab significantly ameliorated EAE symptoms during the second relapse. Anti-EGF Ab induced a shift from BrdU+GFAP+ NSCs to BrdU+DCX+ neuroblasts in the subventricular zone (SVZ, increased BrdU+NeuN+ neurons in the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus, and increased BrdU+O4+ oligodendrocytes in the SVZ. There was no change in the inflammatory infiltrates in response to anti-EGF Ab. Conclusions. Therapy with anti-EGF Ab ameliorates EAE via induction of neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis. No immunosuppressive effect was found. Further investigation is needed to support these notions of beneficial effect of anti-EGF Ab in MS.

  6. Bacopa monniera leaf extract ameliorates hypobaric hypoxia induced spatial memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hota, Sunil Kumar; Barhwal, Kalpana; Baitharu, Iswar; Prasad, Dipti; Singh, Shashi Bala; Ilavazhagan, Govindasamy

    2009-04-01

    Hypobaric hypoxia induced memory impairment has been attributed to several factors including increased oxidative stress, depleted mitochondrial bioenergetics, altered neurotransmission and apoptosis. This multifactorial response of the brain to hypobaric hypoxia limits the use of therapeutic agents that target individual pathways for ameliorating hypobaric hypoxia induced memory impairment. The present study aimed at exploring the therapeutic potential of a bacoside rich leaf extract of Bacopa monniera in improving the memory functions in hypobaric conditions. The learning ability was evaluated in male Sprague Dawley rats along with memory retrieval following exposure to hypobaric conditions simulating an altitude of 25,000 ft for different durations. The effect of bacoside administration on apoptosis, cytochrome c oxidase activity, ATP levels, and oxidative stress markers and on plasma corticosterone levels was investigated. Expression of NR1 subunit of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, neuronal cell adhesion molecules and was also studied along with CREB phosphorylation to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of bacoside action. Bacoside administration was seen to enhance learning ability in rats along with augmentation in memory retrieval and prevention of dendritic atrophy following hypoxic exposure. In addition, it decreased oxidative stress, plasma corticosterone levels and neuronal degeneration. Bacoside administration also increased cytochrome c oxidase activity along with a concomitant increase in ATP levels. Hence, administration of bacosides could be a useful therapeutic strategy in ameliorating hypobaric hypoxia induced cognitive dysfunctions and other related neurological disorders.

  7. Dietary Consumption of Virgin Coconut Oil Ameliorates Lipid Profiles in Diabetic Rats

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    A. M. Akinnuga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Virgin coconut oil (VCO is a saturated fat with promising antidiabetic properties but its ameliorative effect on lipid profiles in diabetics is rarely reported. Therefore, in this study, a total of fifteen (15 male rats weighing 200–250 g were divided into 3 experimental groups (n=5. Group I (control and Group II (diabetic control group were fed a normal rat chow while Group III (diabetic test group was fed a 10% VCO diet for 3 weeks. Group II and Group III were made diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg of alloxan. After 72 hours of injection, blood glucose was tested to confirm diabetes mellitus. After 3 weeks, the animals were sacrificed to collect blood samples for lipid profile analysis. The results showed a significant increase in concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein and decrease in concentration of high density lipoprotein in Group II when compared to Group I. Also, the concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein except high density lipoprotein significantly reduced in Group III when compared to Group II (P<0.01, 0.001. VCO consumption can be claimed to ameliorate lipid levels in diabetes mellitus.

  8. Anti-IL-6 receptor antibody does not ameliorate radiation pneumonia in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    OGATA, TOSHIYUKI; YAMAZAKI, HIDEYA; TESHIMA, TERUKI; TSUCHIYA, TAKAHIRO; NISHIMOTO, NORIHIRO; MATSUURA, NARIAKI

    2012-01-01

    We previously showed that early administration of monoclonal anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody (IL-6RA) does not prevent radiation-induced lung injury in mice. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a higher dose and longer course of IL-6RA treatment was effective in ameliorating radiation pneumonia. C57Bl/6J mice received thoracic irradiation of 12 Gy, and were intraperitoneally injected with the IL-6RA, namely MR16-1, or with control rat IgG 4 times, once immediately following exposure and then weekly from 1 to 3 weeks after irradiation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to analyze the plasma levels of IL-6 and serum amyloid A (SAA). Lung injury was assessed by histological staining with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and by measuring wet lung weight. We observed marked upregulation of IL-6 in IL-6RA-treated mice compared to the IgG-treated control group, whereas IL-6RA did not increase the production of SAA in the group receiving irradiation. However, radiation pneumonia, as evaluated by H&E staining and lung weight showed no differences between the IL-6RA-treated mice and the controls. Long-term treatment with high-dose IL-6RA does not ameliorate radiation pneumonia. PMID:22984368

  9. Amelioration of the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapeutic agents by grape seed proanthocyanidin extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, S S; Kuszynski, C A; Benner, E J; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D

    1999-01-01

    Anticancer chemotherapeutic agents are effective in inhibiting growth of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, however, toxicity to normal cells is a major problem. In this study, we assessed the effect of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) to ameliorate chemotherapy-induced toxic effects in cultured Chang epithelial cells, established from nonmalignant human tissue. These cells were treated in vitro with idarubicin (Ida) (30 nM) or 4-hydroxyperoxycyclophosphamide (4HC) (1 microg/ml) with or without GSPE (25 microg/ml). The cells were grown in vitro and the growth rate of the cells was determined using the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; thiazolyl blue] assay. Our results showed that GSPE decreased the growth inhibitory and cytotoxic effects of Ida as well as 4HC on Chang epithelial cells in vitro. Because these chemotherapeutic agents are known to induce apoptosis in the target cells, we analyzed the Chang epithelial cells for apoptotic cell population by flow cytometry. There was a significant decrease in the number of cells undergoing apoptosis following treatment with GSPE. We also found increased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in GSPE-treated cells using western blot techniques. Thus, these results indicate that GSPE can be a potential candidate to ameliorate the toxic effects associated with chemotherapeutic agents and one of the mechanisms of action of GSPE includes upregulation of Bcl-2 expression.

  10. Sesamin Ameliorates High-Fat Diet–Induced Dyslipidemia and Kidney Injury by Reducing Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruijuan; Yu, Yan; Deng, Jianjun; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Jinghua; Cheng, Yue; Luo, Xiaoqin; Han, Bei; Yang, Haixia

    2016-01-01

    The study explored the protective effect of sesamin against lipid-induced renal injury and hyperlipidemia in a rat model. An animal model of hyperlipidemia was established in Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-five adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. The control group was fed a standard diet, while the other four groups were fed a high-fat diet for 5 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. Three groups received oral sesamin in doses of 40, 80, or 160 mg/(kg·day). Seven weeks later, the blood lipids, renal function, antioxidant enzyme activities, and hyperoxide levels in kidney tissues were measured. The renal pathological changes and expression levels of collagen type IV (Col-IV) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were analyzed. The administration of sesamin improved the serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein-B, oxidized-low-density lipoprotein, and serum creatinine levels in hyperlipidemic rats, while it increased the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein-A levels. Sesamin reduced the excretion of 24-h urinary protein and urinary albumin and downregulated α-SMA and Col-IV expression. Moreover, sesamin ameliorated the superoxide dismutase activity and reduced malondialdehyde levels in kidney tissue. Sesamin could mediate lipid metabolism and ameliorate renal injury caused by lipid metabolism disorders in a rat model of hyperlipidemia. PMID:27171111

  11. Sesamin Ameliorates High-Fat Diet-Induced Dyslipidemia and Kidney Injury by Reducing Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruijuan; Yu, Yan; Deng, Jianjun; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Jinghua; Cheng, Yue; Luo, Xiaoqin; Han, Bei; Yang, Haixia

    2016-05-09

    The study explored the protective effect of sesamin against lipid-induced renal injury and hyperlipidemia in a rat model. An animal model of hyperlipidemia was established in Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-five adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. The control group was fed a standard diet, while the other four groups were fed a high-fat diet for 5 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. Three groups received oral sesamin in doses of 40, 80, or 160 mg/(kg·day). Seven weeks later, the blood lipids, renal function, antioxidant enzyme activities, and hyperoxide levels in kidney tissues were measured. The renal pathological changes and expression levels of collagen type IV (Col-IV) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were analyzed. The administration of sesamin improved the serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein-B, oxidized-low-density lipoprotein, and serum creatinine levels in hyperlipidemic rats, while it increased the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein-A levels. Sesamin reduced the excretion of 24-h urinary protein and urinary albumin and downregulated α-SMA and Col-IV expression. Moreover, sesamin ameliorated the superoxide dismutase activity and reduced malondialdehyde levels in kidney tissue. Sesamin could mediate lipid metabolism and ameliorate renal injury caused by lipid metabolism disorders in a rat model of hyperlipidemia.

  12. Sesamin Ameliorates High-Fat Diet–Induced Dyslipidemia and Kidney Injury by Reducing Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijuan Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study explored the protective effect of sesamin against lipid-induced renal injury and hyperlipidemia in a rat model. An animal model of hyperlipidemia was established in Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-five adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. The control group was fed a standard diet, while the other four groups were fed a high-fat diet for 5 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. Three groups received oral sesamin in doses of 40, 80, or 160 mg/(kg·day. Seven weeks later, the blood lipids, renal function, antioxidant enzyme activities, and hyperoxide levels in kidney tissues were measured. The renal pathological changes and expression levels of collagen type IV (Col-IV and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA were analyzed. The administration of sesamin improved the serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein-B, oxidized-low-density lipoprotein, and serum creatinine levels in hyperlipidemic rats, while it increased the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein-A levels. Sesamin reduced the excretion of 24-h urinary protein and urinary albumin and downregulated α-SMA and Col-IV expression. Moreover, sesamin ameliorated the superoxide dismutase activity and reduced malondialdehyde levels in kidney tissue. Sesamin could mediate lipid metabolism and ameliorate renal injury caused by lipid metabolism disorders in a rat model of hyperlipidemia.

  13. Inhibition of G0/G1 Switch 2 Ameliorates Renal Inflammation in Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Naoya Matsunaga

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a global health problem, and novel therapies to treat CKD are urgently needed. Here, we show that inhibition of G0/G1 switch 2 (G0s2 ameliorates renal inflammation in a mouse model of CKD. Renal expression of chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 (Ccl2 was increased in response to p65 activation in the kidneys of wild-type 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6Nx mice. Moreover, 5/6Nx Clk/Clk mice, which carry homozygous mutations in the gene encoding circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK, did not exhibit aggravation of apoptosis or induction of F4/80-positive cells. The renal expression of G0s2 in wild-type 5/6Nx mice was important for the transactivation of Ccl2 by p65. These pathologies were ameliorated by G0s2 knockdown. Furthermore, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of G0s2 expression was identified by high-throughput chemical screening, and the inhibitor suppressed renal inflammation in 5/6Nx mice. These findings indicated that G0s2 inhibitors may have applications in the treatment of CKD.

  14. Intermedin ameliorates IgA nephropathy by inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhong; Tian, Jihua; Guo, Haixiu; Mi, Yang; Zhang, Ruijing; Li, Rongshan

    2016-05-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most frequent form of glomerulonephritis worldwide. The role of oxidative stress and inflammation in the pathogenesis of IgAN has been reported. Intermedin (IMD) is a newly discovered peptide that is closely related to adrenomedullin. We have recently reported that IMD can significantly reduce renal ischemia/reperfusion injury by diminishing oxidative stress and suppressing inflammation. The present study was designed to explore whether IMD ameliorates IgAN via oxidative stress- and inflammation-dependent mechanisms. Our results showed that IMD administration resulted in the prevention of albuminuria and ameliorated renal pathomorphological changes. These findings were associated with (1) decreased renal TGF-β1 and collagen IV expression, (2) an increased SOD level and reduced MDA level, (3) the inhibition of the renal activation of NF-κB p65 and (4) the downregulation of the expression of inflammatory factors (TNF-α, MCP-1 and MMP-9) in the kidney. These results indicate that IMD in the kidney protects against IgAN by reducing oxidative stress and suppressing inflammation.

  15. Rikkunshito Ameliorates Cancer Cachexia Partly through Elevation of Glucarate in Plasma

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    Katsuya Ohbuchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cachexia, which is characterized by decreased food intake, weight loss and systemic inflammation, increases patient’s morbidity and mortality. We previously showed that rikkunshito (RKT, a Japanese traditional herbal medicine (Kampo, ameliorated the symptoms of cancer cachexia through ghrelin signaling-dependent and independent pathways. To investigate other mechanisms of RKT action in cancer cachexia, we performed metabolome analysis of plasma in a rat model bearing the Yoshida AH-130 hepatoma. A total of 110 metabolites were detected in plasma and RKT treatment significantly altered levels of 23 of those metabolites in cachexia model rats. Among them, glucarate, which is known to have anticarcinogenic activity through detoxification of carcinogens via inhibition of β-glucuronidase, was increased in plasma following administration of RKT. In our AH-130 ascites-induced cachexia rat model, administration of glucarate delayed onset of weight loss, improved muscle atrophy, and reduced ascites content. Additionally, glucarate reduced levels of plasma interferon-γ (IFN-γ in tumor-bearing rats and was also found to suppress LPS-induced IFN-γ expression in splenocytes in vitro. These results suggest that glucarate has anti-inflammatory activity via a direct effect on immune host cells and suggest that RKT may also ameliorate inflammation partly through the elevation of glucarate in plasma.

  16. Choline and betaine ameliorate liver lipid accumulation induced by vitamin B6 deficiency in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Erina; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Fujishita, Mayuko; Ota, Yuki; Yamamoto, Kohei; Nakagawa, Tomoyuki; Hayakawa, Takashi

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the efficacy of supplementing the diet with choline or betaine in ameliorating lipid accumulation induced by vitamin B6 (B6) deficiency in rat liver. Male Wistar rats were fed a control, B6-deficient, choline-supplemented (2, 4, or 6 g choline bitartrate/kg diet) B6-deficient diet or betaine-supplemented (1, 2, or 4 g betaine anhydrous/kg diet) B6-deficient diet for 35 d; all diets contained 9 g L-methionine (Met)/kg diet. Choline or betaine supplementation attenuated liver lipid deposition and restored plasma lipid profiles to control levels. These treatments restored the disruptions in Met metabolism and the phosphatidylcholine (PC)/phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) ratio induced by B6 deficiency in liver microsomes. These results suggest that choline and betaine ameliorated liver lipid accumulation induced by B6 deficiency via recovery of Met metabolism and very low-density lipoprotein secretion by restoring the supply of PC derived from PE.

  17. Dihydro-Resveratrol Ameliorates Lung Injury in Rats with Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ze-Si; Ku, Chuen Fai; Guan, Yi-Fu; Xiao, Hai-Tao; Shi, Xiao-Ke; Wang, Hong-Qi; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Tsang, Siu Wai; Zhang, Hong-Jie

    2016-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process originated in the pancreas; however, it often leads to systemic complications that affect distant organs. Acute respiratory distress syndrome is indeed the predominant cause of death in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. In this study, we aimed to delineate the ameliorative effect of dihydro-resveratrol, a prominent analog of trans-resveratrol, against acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury and the underlying molecular actions. Acute pancreatitis was induced in rats with repetitive injections of cerulein (50 µg/kg/h) and a shot of lipopolysaccharide (7.5 mg/kg). By means of histological examination and biochemical assays, the severity of lung injury was assessed in the aspects of tissue damages, myeloperoxidase activity, and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. When treated with dihydro-resveratrol, pulmonary architectural distortion, hemorrhage, interstitial edema, and alveolar thickening were significantly reduced in rats with acute pancreatitis. In addition, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the activity of myeloperoxidase in pulmonary tissues were notably repressed. Importantly, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation was attenuated. This study is the first to report the oral administration of dihydro-resveratrol ameliorated acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury via an inhibitory modulation of pro-inflammatory response, which was associated with a suppression of the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  18. Pyrroloquinoline quinone ameliorates l-thyroxine-induced hyperthyroidism and associated problems in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narendra; Kar, Anand; Panda, Sunanda

    2014-08-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is believed to be a strong antioxidant. In this study, we have evaluated its hitherto unknown role in l-thyroxin (L-T4 )-induced hyperthyroidism considering laboratory rat as a model. Alterations in the serum concentration of thyroxin (T4 ) and triiodothyronine (T3 ); lipid peroxidation (LPO) of liver, kidney, heart, muscles and brain; in the endogenous antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione and in serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotien, triglycerides, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and urea were evaluated. Administration of l-T4 (500-µg kg(-1) body weight) enhanced not only the serum T3 and T4 levels but also the tissue LPO, serum SGOT, SGPT and urea with a parallel decrease in the levels of antioxidants and serum lipids. However, on simultaneous administration of PQQ (5 mg kg(-1) for 6 days), all these adverse effects were ameliorated, indicating the potential of PQQ in the amelioration of hyperthyroidism and associated problems. Possibly, the curative effects were mediated through inhibition of oxidative stress. We suggest that PQQ may be considered for therapeutic use for hyperthyroidism after dose standardization.

  19. Amelioration of Saline-Sodic Soils with Tillage Implements and Sulfuric Acid Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.SADIQ; G.HASSAN; S.M.MEHDI; N.HUSSAIN; M.JAMIL

    2007-01-01

    Amelioration of saline-sodic soils through land preparation with three tillage implements(disc plow,rotavator and cultivator)each followed by application of sulfuric acid at 20%of gypsum(CaSO4·2H2O)requirement or no sulfuric acid application during crop growth period was evaluated in a field study for 2.5 years at three sites,i.e., Jhottianwala, Gabrika(Thabal),and Thatta Langar,in Tehsil Piudi Bhattian,Hafizabad District,Pakistan.Within 2.5 years,there was a decrease in the salinity parameters measured(electrical conductivity,pH,and sodium adsorption ratio),with a gradual increase in rice and wheat grain yields.It was observed that the disc plow,which not only ensured favorable yields but also helped improve soil health at all the three sites,was the most effective tillage implement.Also,application of sulfuric acid resulted in higher yields and promoted rapid amelioration of the saline-sodic soils.

  20. Ameliorating Effects of Iron and Zinc on Vigna mungo L. Treated with Tannery Effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shefali; Mishra, Kumkum; Tandon, Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Different dilutions, that is, 25, 50, 75, and 100%, of tannery effluent (TE) were chosen for the present study to assess the phytotoxic effects on Vigna mungo L. For amelioration purposes, different levels and combinations of iron and zinc were supplied to the plants along with 50% TE that is chosen on the basis of prior test under Petri dish culture. Cytotoxic and biochemical analysis and plant tolerance index (PTI) of plant were observed. Mitotic index deceased with increase in effluent concentration whereas abnormality % was increased. The pigments (chlorophyll a, total, and carotenoids) were decreased with increasing treatment levels of TE at both growth stages. However, carotenoid content increased significantly at all dilution levels of TE after first growth stage. Chlorophyll b was increased significantly after 35 days of growth but decreased after 70 days. The protein contents were also significantly decreased with increase in all TE treatments and increased significantly in zinc recovery treatments. Activities of catalase and peroxidase enzymes were significantly affected and increased significantly with effluent treatments. PTI showed an enhanced tolerance capacity of plant with treatment of iron and zinc. A negative correlation was found (r = -0.97) between plant height and different dilutions of effluent whereas it was positively correlated (r = 0.95) with iron and zinc treatments. The study represents the ameliorative effect of iron and zinc for phytotoxic damage in V. mungo caused by tannery effluent.

  1. Ameliorating Effects of Iron and Zinc on Vigna mungo L. Treated with Tannery Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shefali Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different dilutions, that is, 25, 50, 75, and 100%, of tannery effluent (TE were chosen for the present study to assess the phytotoxic effects on Vigna mungo L. For amelioration purposes, different levels and combinations of iron and zinc were supplied to the plants along with 50% TE that is chosen on the basis of prior test under Petri dish culture. Cytotoxic and biochemical analysis and plant tolerance index (PTI of plant were observed. Mitotic index deceased with increase in effluent concentration whereas abnormality % was increased. The pigments (chlorophyll a, total, and carotenoids were decreased with increasing treatment levels of TE at both growth stages. However, carotenoid content increased significantly at all dilution levels of TE after first growth stage. Chlorophyll b was increased significantly after 35 days of growth but decreased after 70 days. The protein contents were also significantly decreased with increase in all TE treatments and increased significantly in zinc recovery treatments. Activities of catalase and peroxidase enzymes were significantly affected and increased significantly with effluent treatments. PTI showed an enhanced tolerance capacity of plant with treatment of iron and zinc. A negative correlation was found (r=-0.97 between plant height and different dilutions of effluent whereas it was positively correlated (r=0.95 with iron and zinc treatments. The study represents the ameliorative effect of iron and zinc for phytotoxic damage in V. mungo caused by tannery effluent.

  2. Inhibition of autophagy ameliorates atherogenic inflammation by augmenting apigenin-induced macrophage apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qun; Zeng, Ping; Liu, Yuanliang; Wen, Ge; Fu, Xiuqiong; Sun, Xuegang

    2015-07-01

    Increasing evidences showed that the survival of macrophages promotes atherogenesis. Macrophage apoptosis in the early phase of atherosclerotic process negatively regulates the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. We demonstrated that a natural anti-oxidant apigenin could ameliorate atherogenesis in ApoE(-/-) mice. It reduced the number of foam cells and decreased the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-6. Our results showed that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) led to the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Apigenin-induced apoptosis and downregulated the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β. It is further supported by the use of zVAD, a pan-caspase inhibitor, demonstrating that apigenin lowered cytokine profile through induction of macrophage apoptosis. Moreover, apigenin-induced Atg5/Atg7-dependent autophagy in macrophages pretreated with oxLDL. Results illustrated that autophagy inhibition increased apigenin-induced apoptosis through activation of Bax. The present findings suggest that oxLDL maintained the survival of macrophages and activated the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines to initiate atherosclerosis. Apigenin-induced apoptosis of lipid-laden macrophages and resolved inflammation to ameliorate atherosclerosis. In conclusion, combination of apigenin with autophagy inhibition may be a promising strategy to induce foam cell apoptosis and subdue atherogenic cytokines.

  3. Exogenous iodide ameliorates perchlorate-induced thyroid phenotypes in threespine stickleback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardell, Alison M; von Hippel, Frank A; Adams, Elise M; Dillon, Danielle M; Petersen, Ann M; Postlethwait, John H; Cresko, William A; Buck, C Loren

    2017-03-01

    Perchlorate is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant that has widespread endocrine disrupting effects in vertebrates, including threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). The target of perchlorate is thyroid tissue where it induces changes in the organization, activation, and morphology of thyroid follicles and surrounding tissues. To test the hypothesis that some phenotypes of perchlorate toxicity are not mediated by thyroid hormone, we chronically exposed stickleback beginning at fertilization to perchlorate (10, 30, 100ppm) or control water with and without supplementation of either iodide or thyroxine (T4). Stickleback were sampled across a one-year timespan to identify potential differences in responses to treatment combinations before and after sexual maturation. We found that most thyroid histomorphological phenotypes induced by perchlorate (follicle proliferation, reduced follicle area (adults only), colloid depletion, thyrocyte hypertrophy (subadults only)) were significantly ameliorated by exogenous iodide supplementation. In contrast, treatment with exogenous T4 did not correct any of the thyroid-specific histopathologies induced by perchlorate. Whole-body thyroid hormone concentrations were not significantly affected by perchlorate exposure; however, supplementation with iodide and T4 significantly increased T4 concentrations. This study also revealed an increased erythrocyte area in the thyroid region of perchlorate-exposed adults, while lipid droplet number increased in perchlorate-exposed subadults. Increased erythrocyte area was ameliorated by both iodide and T4, while neither supplement was able to correct lipid droplet number. Our finding on lipid droplets indicates that exposure to perchlorate in early development may have obesogenic effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Salvianolic acid A as a multifunctional agent ameliorates doxorubicin-induced nephropathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hua-Ying; Yang, Ming-Yan; Qi, Dong; Zhang, Zuo-Kai; Zhu, Lin; Shang-Guan, Xiu-Xin; Liu, Ke; Xu, Hui; Che, Xin

    2015-07-21

    Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is still a therapeutic challenge. To date there is no ideal treatment. Evidence suggest that multidrug therapy has more effect than monotherapy in amelioration of renal injury. Salvianolic acid A (SAA) is the major active component of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Bunge. Previous studies have demonstrated that SAA is a multi-target agent and has various pharmacological activities. The pleiotropic properties of SAA predict its potential in the treatment of NS. The study investigated the effect of SAA on doxorubicin-induced nephropathy. The kidney function related-biochemical changes, hemorheological parameters and oxidative stress status were determined, and histological examination using light and transmission electron microcopies and western blot analysis were also performed. Results revealed that treatment with SAA alleviated histological damages, relieved proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia and hyperlipidemia, reduced oxidative stress, as well as improving hemorheology. Furthermore, SAA restored podocin expression, down-regulated the expression of NF-κB p65 and p-IκBα while up-regulating IκBα protein expression. Overall, as a multifunctional agent, SAA has a favorable renoprotection in doxorubicin-induced nephropathy. The anti-inflammation, antioxidant, amelioration of podocyte injury, improvement of hemorheology and hypolipidemic properties may constituent an important part of its therapeutic effects. All these indicate that SAA is likely to be a promising agent for NS.

  5. A mucoactive drug carbocisteine ameliorates steroid resistance in rat COPD model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun; Yu, Ping; Lu, Juan-Juan; Lu, Hao-Zhong; Zhu, Liang; Yu, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Hong-Zhuan; Cui, Yong-Yao

    2016-08-01

    Steroid insensitivity has been commonly found in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, which is mediated by the reduction of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 2. Here we aimed to establish a steroid resistant model on experimental COPD rats and evaluate the effect of carbocisteine (S-CMC), a mucoactive drug. Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) caused marked pathological features of COPD which are insensitive to DEX associated with the down-regulation of HDAC2 expression/activity. The DEX insensitivity observed in COPD featured rats was improved by S-CMC in the aspects of inhibiting chronic lung inflammation (total and differential inflammatory cell counts, inflammatory cytokines release and inflammatory cells infiltration); ameliorating airway remodeling (thickness of airway epithelium and smooth muscle, airway fibrosis, and the level of α-SMA and TGF-β1); improving emphysema (emphysema index D2, level of MMP-9 in BALF and the expression of alpha-1 antitrypsin) and preventing impairments of lung function (PEF, IP and IP-slope). Simultaneously, down-regulation of HDAC2 expression/activity was ameliorated by S-CMC treatment. These results indicate that the rat COPD model with steroid resistance was established by active smoking in a short time frame and demonstrate that the failure of steroid therapy can be restored by S-CMC accompanied by increasing HDAC2 expression/activity, providing additional evidence that S-CMC might be used for GC resistance in COPD.

  6. Inorganic materials as ameliorants for soil remediation of metal toxicity to wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Filho, Mateus Rosas; Siqueira, José Oswaldo; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Soares, Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa; Curi, Nilton

    2011-01-01

    The ameliorating effects of different inorganic materials were investigated on a soil originating from a zinc smelter dumping site contaminated by toxic metals. Wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) was used as a test plant. The soil was amended with different doses of mining sludge, Perferric Red Latosol (LVj), steel shots, cyclonic ash, silifertil, and superphosphate. The most effective amendments improved plant growth with 45% and reduced metal uptake by over 70% in comparison to untreated soil. Reductions in availability as estimated by BaCl2-extractable metals reached up to 90% for Zn and 65% for Cd as compared to unamended soil. These reductions were associated with lower shoot and root metal contents. Shoot Zn content was reduced from 1,369 microg g(-1) in plants grown on untreated soil to 377 microg g(-1) when grown on cyclonic ash amended soil while Cd decreased from 267 to 44 microg g(-1) in steel shots amended soil. Superphosphate addition had no ameliorating effect. On the contrary, it increased BaCl2-extractable amounts of Zn. Considering all parameters we determined, steel shots, cyclonic ash and silifertil are the most promising for remediating metal contaminated soil in the tropics. Further studies evaluating impacts, cost-effectiveness and durability of effects will be conducted.

  7. Evaluation of promising technologies for soil salinity amelioration in Timpaki (Crete): a participatory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagea, I. S.; Daliakopoulos, I. N.; Tsanis, I. K.; Schwilch, G.

    2016-02-01

    Soil salinity management can be complex, expensive, and time demanding, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Besides taking no action, possible management strategies include amelioration and adaptation measures. Here we apply the World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT) framework for the systematic analysis and evaluation and selection of soil salinisation amelioration technologies in close collaboration with stakeholders. The participatory approach is applied in the RECARE (Preventing and Remediating degradation of soils in Europe through Land Care) project case study of Timpaki, a semi-arid region in south-central Crete (Greece) where the main land use is horticulture in greenhouses irrigated by groundwater. Excessive groundwater abstractions have resulted in a drop of the groundwater level in the coastal part of the aquifer, thus leading to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinisation. The documented technologies are evaluated for their impacts on ecosystem services, cost, and input requirements using a participatory approach and field evaluations. Results show that technologies which promote maintaining existing crop types while enhancing productivity and decreasing soil salinity are preferred by the stakeholders. The evaluation concludes that rainwater harvesting is the optimal solution for direct soil salinity mitigation, as it addresses a wider range of ecosystem and human well-being benefits. Nevertheless, this merit is offset by poor financial motivation making agronomic measures more attractive to users.

  8. Oral administration of Bifidobacterium longum ameliorates influenza virus infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwabuchi, Noriyuki; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Yaeshima, Tomoko; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether the oral administration of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 could ameliorate influenza virus (IFV) infection in a mice model. Mice were orally administrated BB536 or saline for 2 weeks and then infected with IFV. Orally administered BB536 significantly alleviated symptoms, reduced the loss of body weight, and inhibited viral proliferation in the lungs relative to the control group findings. Histopathological findings in the lungs were improved in the BB536 group compared to control group findings. There was no significant difference in the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-10 and IL-12p40 in the lungs between the groups, but the levels of IL-6 and IFN-γ were lower (p=0.076, 0.103, respectively) in the BB536 group compared with those of control group. The levels of IL-6 and IL-10 correlated significantly with the values of weight loss, and the levels of IFN-γ correlated with the virus titers in the lungs. These results suggested the potential of the oral administration of BB536 in ameliorating IFV infection and the possible involvement of anti-inflammatory effects of BB536 in the anti-infection effects against IFV.

  9. Evaluation of soil salinity amelioration technologies in Timpaki, Crete: a participatory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Panagea

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity management can be complex, expensive and time demanding, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Besides taking no action, possible management strategies include amelioration and adaptation measures. Here we use the World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT framework for the systematic analysis and evaluation of soil salinisation amelioration technologies in close collaboration with stakeholders. The participatory approach is applied in the RECARE Project Case Study of Timpaki, a semi-arid region in south-central Crete (Greece where the main land use is horticulture in greenhouses irrigated by groundwater. Excessive groundwater abstractions have resulted in a drop of the groundwater level in the coastal part of the aquifer, thus leading to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinisation. The documented technologies are evaluated for their impacts on ecosystem services, cost and input requirements using a participatory approach and field evaluations. Results show that technologies which promote maintaining existing crop types while enhancing productivity and decreasing soil salinity are preferred by the stakeholders. The evaluation concludes that rain water harvesting is the optimal solution for direct soil salinity mitigation, whereas green manuring and the use of biological agents can support increasing production/efficiency and improving soil properties.

  10. Ameliorative effect of grapefruit juice on amiodarone-induced cytogenetic and testicular damage in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saber Abdelruhman Sakr; Mohamed El-said Zoil; Samraa Samy El-shafey

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the ameliorative role of grapefruit juice on the cytogenetic and testicular damage induced by the antiarrythmic drug amiodarone in albino rats. Methods: Animals were divided into four groups. Group I was considered as control. Group II was given grapefruit juice at a dose level of 27 mL/kg body weight. Group III was orally administered amiodarone (18 mg/kg body weight) daily for 5 weeks. Animals were sacrificed after 5 weeks of treatment. Bone marrow was collected from the femurs for analysis of chromosomal aberrations and mitotic indices. Testes were removed and stained with H&E for histological examination. Sperms were collected from epidedymis for detection of sperm head abnormalities. Comet assay was used to detect DNA damage. Results: Amiodarone treatment caused a significant increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations, decreased the mitotic index and increased DNA damage. The testis showed many histopathological alterations, inhibition of spermatogenesis and morphometric changes. The number of sperm head abnormalities was increased. Treating animals with amiodarone and grapefruit juice caused a reduction in chromosomal aberrations, mitotic index, DNA damage and testicular alterations caused by amiodarone. Conclusions:The results of this study indicated that grapefruit juice ameliorates the cytotoxicty and testicular alterations induced by amiodarone in albino rats and this is may be due to the potent antioxidant effects of its components.

  11. Ameliorative effect of Leucas cephalotes extract on isoniazid and rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bhini Bais; Payal Saiju

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate ameliorative effect of alcoholic extract of whole herb of Lucas cephalotes (L. cephalotes) on isoniazid and rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity. Methods: Hepatoprotective potential of alcoholic extract of L. cephalotes was ascertained at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg in Sprague Dawley rats. Animals were intoxicated with isoniazid and rifampicin (100 mg/kg each, i.p.) for 21 d. Assessment was done on the basis of liver function test (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin);effect on enzymes involved in oxidative stress (lipid peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione and catalase) and histology of liver were assessed as well. Comparison among different treatment group was done using One way ANOVA followed by Benferroni’s t test. Results: It was observed that at both of the selected doses extract exhibited significant ameliorative effect. In animals treated with the extract at both doses, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin and lipid peroxidase level was found to be significantly less (P Conclusions:From the present study it can be concluded that alcoholic extract of L. cephalotes possesses significant hepatoprotective potential against isoniazid and rifampicin induced heptoxicity.

  12. Cisplatin-induced acute renal failure is ameliorated by erdosteine in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyurt, Hüseyin; Yildirim, Zeki; Kotuk, Mahir; Yilmaz, H Ramazan; Yağmurca, Murat; Iraz, Mustafa; Söğüt, Sad; Gergerlioglu, Serdar

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the optimum dosage of erdosteine to ameliorate cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Three different doses of erdosteine at 25, 50 and 75 mg kg(-1) were studied in rats. Intraperitoneal administration of 7 mg kg(-1) cisplatin led to acute renal failure, as indicated by kidney histology and increases in plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. At 5 days after cisplatin injection the BUN level was increased significantly from 15.1 +/- 4.3 to 126.7 +/- 152.6 mg dl(-1) and plasma creatinine levels increased from 0.37 +/- 0.005 to 1.68 +/- 1.9 mg dl(-1). When the rats were administered 50 and 75 mg kg(-1) erdosteine 24 h before cisplatin injection that was continued until sacrifice (total of 6 days), the BUN and creatinine levels remained similar to control levels and the grade of histology was similar. Erdosteine at doses of 50 and 75 mg kg(-1) ameliorates cisplatin-induced renal failure. The optimum dose of erdosteine may be 50 mg kg(-1) in this study.

  13. Enhancing Mitofusin/Marf ameliorates neuromuscular dysfunction in Drosophila models of TDP-43 proteinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Bilal; Cabirol-Pol, Marie-Jeanne; Miguel, Laetitia; Whitworth, Alexander J; Lecourtois, Magalie; Liévens, Jean-Charles

    2017-06-01

    Transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) is considered a major pathological protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. The precise mechanisms by which TDP-43 dysregulation leads to toxicity in neurons are not fully understood. Using TDP-43-expressing Drosophila, we examined whether mitochondrial dysfunction is a central determinant in TDP-43 pathogenesis. Expression of human wild-type TDP-43 in Drosophila neurons results in abnormally small mitochondria. The mitochondrial fragmentation is correlated with a specific decrease in the mRNA and protein levels of the Drosophila profusion gene mitofusin/marf. Importantly, overexpression of Marf ameliorates defects in spontaneous walking activity and startle-induced climbing response of TDP-43-expressing flies. Partial inactivation of the mitochondrial profission factor, dynamin-related protein 1, also mitigates TDP-43-induced locomotor deficits. Expression of TDP-43 impairs neuromuscular junction transmission upon repetitive stimulation of the giant fiber circuit that controls flight muscles, which is also ameliorated by Marf overexpression. We show here for the first time that enhancing the profusion gene mitofusin/marf is beneficial in an in vivo model of TDP-43 proteinopathies, serving as a potential therapeutic target. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluating the ameliorative potential of plant flavonoids and their nanocomposites in bleomycin induced idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srabani Kar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pulmonary Fibrosis can severely disrupt lung function. The cause of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF is still unclear. The treatment currently available for IPF provides minimal benefits. Bleomycin is used in research to induce experimental pulmonary fibrosis in animals. Plant flavonoids such as fisetin and curcumin are known for their anti-inflammatory properties. The aim was to demonstrate the path of physiological changes in bleomycin induced IPF and to further evaluate the reversal and ameliorative potentials of some plant flavonoids and their nanocomposites. Bleomycin administration is known to damage the lung epithelial cells resulting in lower cell numbers. Results: Our colony forming assay in BALF also demonstrated a reduction (1.65 fold in colony-forming unit after bleomycin administration. The number of colonies increased upon treatment with fisetin(1.20 fold and curcumin (1.13 fold respectively. MTT proliferation assay demonstrated a significant increase in the number of viable cells upon treatment with curcumin (1.42 fold and fisetin (1.74 fold respectively, in the lung. The NBT assay demonstrated a significant effect of curcumin in BALF, lung and peripheral blood. A significant effect of fisetin was observed in BALF and peripheral blood. Conclusion: These findings were also supported by the histological analyses of the lung samples. Curcumin showed highestpotential for the treatment of IPF and fisetin showed its ameliorative effect. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(7.000: 707-722

  15. Insulin receptor isoform A ameliorates long-term glucose intolerance in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Castroverde, Sabela; Gómez-Hernández, Almudena; Fernández, Silvia; García-Gómez, Gema; Di Scala, Marianna; González-Aseguinolaza, Gloria; Fernández-Millán, Elisa; González-Rodríguez, Águeda; García-Bravo, María; Chambon, Pierre; Álvarez, Carmen; Perdomo, Liliana; Beneit, Nuria; Escribano, Oscar; Benito, Manuel

    2016-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disease and its pathogenesis involves abnormalities in both peripheral insulin action and insulin secretion. Previous in vitro data showed that insulin receptor isoform A, but not B, favours basal glucose uptake through its specific association with endogenous GLUT1/2 in murine hepatocytes and beta cells. With this background, we hypothesized that hepatic expression of insulin receptor isoform A in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes could potentially increase the glucose uptake of these cells, decreasing the hyperglycaemia and therefore ameliorating the diabetic phenotype. To assure this hypothesis, we have developed recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors expressing insulin receptor isoform A (IRA) or isoform B (IRB) under the control of a hepatocyte--specific promoter. Our results demonstrate that in the long term, hepatic expression of IRA in diabetic mice is more efficient than IRB in ameliorating glucose intolerance. Consequently, it impairs the induction of compensatory mechanisms through beta cell hyperplasia and/or hypertrophy that finally lead to beta cell failure, reverting the diabetic phenotype in about 8 weeks. Our data suggest that long-term hepatic expression of IRA could be a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  16. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibition by Pterocarpus marsupium and Eugenia jambolana ameliorates streptozotocin induced Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaraju, Jayasankar; Madhunapantula, Subbarao V; Chinni, Santhivardhan; Khatwal, Rizwan Basha; Dubala, Anil; Muthureddy Nataraj, Satish Kumar; Basavan, Duraiswamy

    2014-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is characterized by the loss of normal functions of brain cells and neuronal death, ultimately leading to memory loss. Recent accumulating evidences have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of anti-diabetic agents, such as dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), providing opportunities to explore and test the DPP-4 inhibitors for treating this fatal disease. Prior studies determining the efficacy of Pterocarpus marsupium (PM, Fabaceae) and Eugenia jambolana (EJ, Myrtaceae) extracts for ameliorating type 2 diabetes have demonstrated the DPP-4 inhibitory properties indicating the possibility of using of these extracts even for the treating AD. Therefore, in the present study, the neuroprotective roles of PM and EJ for ameliorating the streptozotocin (STZ) induced AD have been tested in rat model. Experimentally, PM and EJ extracts, at a dose range of 200 and 400mg/kg, were administered orally to STZ induced AD Wistar rats and cognitive evaluation tests were performed using radial arm maze and hole-board apparatus. Following 30 days of treatment with the extracts, a dose- and time-dependent attenuation of AD pathology, as evidenced by decreasing amyloid beta 42, total tau, phosphorylated tau and neuro-inflammation with an increase in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels was observed. Therefore, PM and EJ extracts contain cognitive enhancers as well as neuroprotective agents against STZ induced AD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Amelioration of behavioral abnormalities in BH(4-deficient mice by dietary supplementation of tyrosine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Su Kwak

    Full Text Available This study reports an amelioration of abnormal motor behaviors in tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4-deficient Spr (-/- mice by the dietary supplementation of tyrosine. Since BH4 is an essential cofactor for the conversion of phenylalanine into tyrosine as well as the synthesis of dopamine neurotransmitter within the central nervous system, the levels of tyrosine and dopamine were severely reduced in brains of BH4-deficient Spr (-/- mice. We found that Spr (-/- mice display variable 'open-field' behaviors, impaired motor functions on the 'rotating rod', and dystonic 'hind-limb clasping'. In this study, we report that these aberrant motor deficits displayed by Spr (-/- mice were ameliorated by the therapeutic tyrosine diet for 10 days. This study also suggests that dopamine deficiency in brains of Spr (-/- mice may not be the biological feature of aberrant motor behaviors associated with BH4 deficiency. Brain levels of dopamine (DA and its metabolites in Spr (-/- mice were not substantially increased by the dietary tyrosine therapy. However, we found that mTORC1 activity severely suppressed in brains of Spr (-/- mice fed a normal diet was restored 10 days after feeding the mice the tyrosine diet. The present study proposes that brain mTORC1 signaling pathway is one of the potential targets in understanding abnormal motor behaviors associated with BH4-deficiency.

  18. Ameliorative Effect of Ginsenoside Rg1 on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cognitive Impairment: Role of Cholinergic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yang; Peng, Jian; Wang, Xiaona; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Tianyin

    2017-01-11

    Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce systemic inflammation, and therefore disrupt learning and memory processes. Ginsenoside Rg1, a major bioactive component of ginseng, is shown to greatly improve cognitive function. The present study was designed to further investigate whether administration of ginsenoside Rg1 can ameliorate LPS-induced cognitive impairment in the Y-maze and Morris water maze (MWM) task, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Results showed that exposure to LPS (500 μg/kg) significantly impaired working and spatial memory and that repeated treatment with ginsenoside Rg1 (200 mg/kg/day, for 30 days) could effectively alleviate the LPS-induced cognitive decline as indicated by increased working and spatial memory in the Y-maze and MWM tests. Furthermore, ginsenoside Rg1 treatment prevented LPS-induced decrease of acetylcholine (ACh) levels and increase of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Ginsenoside Rg1 treatment also reverted the decrease of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) protein expression in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus of LPS-treated rats. These findings suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 has protective effect against LPS-induced cognitive deficit and that prevention of LPS-induced changes in cholinergic system is crucial to this ameliorating effect.

  19. Green tea epigallo-catechin-galleate ameliorates the development of obliterative airway disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Olin D; Kleibrink, Bjoern E; Schuette-Nuetgen, Katharina; Khatwa, Umakanth U; Mfarrej, Bechara; Subramaniam, Meera

    2011-09-01

    Lung transplantation has the worst outcome compared to all solid organ transplants due to chronic rejection known as obliterative bronchiolitis (OB). Pathogenesis of OB is a complex interplay of alloimmune-dependent and -independent factors, which leads to the development of inflammation, fibrosis, and airway obliteration that have been resistant to therapy. The alloimmune-independent inflammatory pathway has been the recent focus in the pathogenesis of rejection, suggesting that targeting this may offer therapeutic benefits. As a potent anti-inflammatory agent, epigallo-catechin-galleate (EGCG), a green tea catechin, has been very effective in ameliorating inflammation in a variety of diseases, providing the rationale for its use in this study in a murine heterotopic tracheal allograft model of OB. Mice treated with EGCG had reduced inflammation, with significantly less neutrophil and macrophage infiltration and significantly reduced fibrosis. On further investigation into the mechanisms, inflammatory cytokines keratinocyte (KC), interleukin-17 (IL-17), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), involved in neutrophil recruitment, were reduced in the EGCG-treated mice. In addition, monocyte chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was significantly reduced by EGCG treatment. Antifibrotic cytokine interferon-γ-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) was increased and profibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) was reduced, further characterizing the antifibrotic effects of EGCG. These findings suggest that EGCG has great potential in ameliorating the development of obliterative airway disease.

  20. Honey Supplementation in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Elicits Antihypertensive Effect via Amelioration of Renal Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo O. Erejuwa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis and/or maintenance of elevated blood pressure in hypertension. This study investigated the effect of honey on elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. It also evaluated the effect of honey on the amelioration of oxidative stress in the kidney of SHR as a possible mechanism of its antihypertensive effect. SHR and Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats were randomly divided into 2 groups and administered distilled water or honey by oral gavage once daily for 12 weeks. The control SHR had significantly higher SBP and renal malondialdehyde (MDA levels than did control WKY. The mRNA expression levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 and glutathione S-transferase (GST were significantly downregulated while total antioxidant status (TAS and activities of GST and catalase (CAT were higher in the kidney of control SHR. Honey supplementation significantly reduced SBP and MDA levels in SHR. Honey significantly reduced the activities of GST and CAT while it moderately but insignificantly upregulated the Nrf2 mRNA expression level in the kidney of SHR. These results indicate that Nrf2 expression is impaired in the kidney of SHR. Honey supplementation considerably reduces elevated SBP via amelioration of oxidative stress in the kidney of SHR.

  1. Genipin inhibits mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 expression and ameliorates podocyte injury in diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Qiu

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is one of the most common causes of end stage renal disease (ESRD in China, which requires renal replacement therapy. Recent investigations have suggested an essential role of podocyte injury in the initial stage of DN. This study investigated the potential therapeutic role of genipin, an active extract from a traditional Chinese medicine, on progression of DN in diabetic mice induced by intraperitoneally injection of streptozocin (STZ. In diabetic mice, orally administration of genipin postponed the progression of DN, as demonstrated by ameliorating body weight loss and urine albumin leakage, attenuating glomerular basement membrane thickness, restoring the podocyte expression of podocin and WT1 in diabetic mice. The protective role of genipin on DN is probably through suppressing the up-regulation of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 in diabetic kidneys. Meanwhile, through inhibiting the up-regulation of UCP2, genipin restores podocin and WT1 expression in cultured podocytes and attenuates glucose-induced albumin leakage through podocytes monolayer. Therefore, these results revealed that genipin inhibited UCP2 expression and ameliorated podocyte injury in DN mice.

  2. Decitabine treatment could ameliorate primary iron-overload in myelodysplastic syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shucheng, Gu; Chunkang, Chang; Youshan, Zhao; Juan, Guo; Chengming, Fei; Xi, Zhang; Chao, Xiao; Xiao, Li

    2015-04-01

    In order to research how does hypomethylating agents ameliorate iron metabolism in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), we performed methylation-specific, polymerase chain reaction (MSP), bisulfate genomic sequencing polymerase chain reaction (BSP), quantitative real-time PCR and western blot of hemojuvelin (HJV) and ELISA assay for hepcidin before and after demethylating therapy (decitabine) to determine whether the change of HJV methylation status would have an influence on hepcidin expression. Eleven of 22 MDS patients achieved CR or PR according to IWG criteria (50%). HJV mRNA was induced in decitabine responders (p = .006 comparing pre/post decitabine treatment) but not in non-responders (p = .121). Similarly, hepcidin serum expression increased from 320.77 ± 34.8 μg/L to 366.77 ± 21.90 μg/L (p = .012) in responders but did not significantly change in non-responders (p = .058), while no difference of adjusted serum ferritin (ASF) was found. In conclusion, hypermethylation of HJV promoter region could silence the gene expression and demethylating therapy might ameliorate iron-overload through HJV demethylation.

  3. Low-dose thalidomide ameliorates cytopenias and splenomegaly in myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia: a phase II trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Monia; Barosi, Giovanni; Balestri, Francesca

    2004-01-01

    daily and increasing to 400 mg as tolerated. RESULTS: Half of the patients sustained daily doses more than 100 mg and the drop-out rate was 51% at 6 months: the drop-out rate was lower in patients with high baseline fatigue score. At efficacy analysis, anemia was ameliorated in 22% of the patients...... score occurred in 31% of patients and was associated with a significant reduction of fatigue. Disease severity amelioration was independently predicted by a high baseline myeloproliferative index (ie, large splenomegaly, thrombocytosis, or leukocytosis). CONCLUSION: Low-dose thalidomide displays...

  4. Cyclosporine A, FK506, and NIM811 ameliorate prolonged CBF reduction and impaired neurovascular coupling after cortical spreading depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Piilgaard; Witgen, Brent Marvin; Rasmussen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    that cyclosporine A (CsA), which blocks both mPTP and CaN, ameliorates the persistent reduction of cerebral blood flow (CBF), impaired vascular reactivity, and a persistent rise in the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)) following CSD. In addition to CsA, we used the specific mPTP blocker NIM811......), and neurovascular and neurometabolic coupling were unaffected by all three drugs under control conditions. NIM811 augmented the rise in CBF observed during CSD. Cyclosporine A and FK506 ameliorated the persistent decrease in CBF after CSD. All three drugs prevented disruption of neurovascular coupling after CSD...

  5. Oral intake of hydrogen-rich water ameliorated chlorpyrifos-induced neurotoxicity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tingting; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Mengyu; Xie, Fei; Ma, Xuemei, E-mail: xmma@bjut.edu.cn; Zhao, Pengxiang; Liu, Yunqi; Li, Jiala; Wang, Minglian; Yang, Zhaona; Zhang, Yutong

    2014-10-01

    Chronic exposure to low-levels of organophosphate (OP) compounds, such as chlorpyrifos (CPF), induces oxidative stress and could be related to neurological disorders. Hydrogen has been identified as a novel antioxidant which could selectively scavenge hydroxyl radicals. We explore whether intake of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) can protect Wistar rats from CPF-induced neurotoxicity. Rats were gavaged daily with 6.75 mg/kg body weight (1/20 LD{sub 50}) of CPF and given HRW by oral intake. Nissl staining and electron microscopy results indicated that HRW intake had protective effects on the CPF-induced damage of hippocampal neurons and neuronal mitochondria. Immunostaining results showed that the increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in astrocytes induced by CPF exposure can be ameliorated by HRW intake. Moreover, HRW intake also attenuated CPF-induced oxidative stress as evidenced by enhanced level of MDA, accompanied by an increase in GSH level and SOD and CAT activity. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity tests showed significant decrease in brain AChE activity after CPF exposure, and this effect can be ameliorated by HRW intake. An in vitro study demonstrated that AChE activity was more intense in HRW than in normal water with or without chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO), the metabolically-activated form of CPF. These observations suggest that HRW intake can protect rats from CPF-induced neurotoxicity, and the protective effects of hydrogen may be mediated by regulating the oxidant and antioxidant status of rats. Furthermore, this work defines a novel mechanism of biological activity of hydrogen by directly increasing the AChE activity. - Highlights: • Hydrogen molecules protect rats from CPF-induced damage of hippocampal neurons. • The increased GFAP expression induced by CPF can also be ameliorated by hydrogen. • Hydrogen molecules attenuated the increase in CPF-induced oxidative stress. • Hydrogen molecules attenuated AChE inhibition in vivo

  6. Natural Amelioration in Flooded Mine Shafts and Related Changes in Arsenic Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, R.; Cox, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    Metal and sulfate concentrations have decreased in nine flooded mine shafts in Butte, Montana since mining operations ceased in 1982. In addition to our data, thirty years of groundwater monitoring data provided by the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology (MBMG) indicated that each site continues to undergo natural amelioration - defined as a reduction in dissolved metal and sulfate concentrations and an increase in pH without assisted remediation or water treatment. Microbiological and water samples taken from these nine mines represented three distinct geochemical zones. The groundwater divide located between these zones separates differences in sulfate and carbonate bedrock composition, which contributes to changes in water-rock interactions. The MBMG recorded sulfate levels as high as 100 mM and metal concentrations at 375, 2.69, and 10,800 mM for Cu, Fe, and Zn, respectively, upon initial shutdown of the mines. Over time, pH values have increased by 0.5 to 2 and metal concentrations have decreased by several orders of magnitude. Notable exceptions to amelioration were three mines (Anselmo, Steward, and Kelley) located east of the groundwater divide. These mines were lower in pH (between 3.5-6.5) than the west (between 6.0-7.5), contained trace amounts of sulfide (0.3-0.5 µM), were lower in dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations than the west side (an average of 100 mg/L versus 200 mg/L), and contained reduced iron(II) and arsenic(III) species. In the Anselmo and Steward, arsenic levels have been increasing at rates of 0.2 and 1.4 µMyr-1 and iron levels at 29.5 and 105.3 µMyr-1, respectively. Increasing arsenic concentrations at a rate of 5.3 µMyr-1 were also measured in the Kelley but iron concentrations were decreasing at a rate of 1392 µMyr-1. In addition, the pH in the Kelley mine has continuously decreased since 1990 for a total change of one pH unit, and the temperature has increased by 18°C. Combining aqueous geochemistry and microbial diversity

  7. The sustainable management of ameliorated peatlands on changed land use conditions; scenarios of constrains and possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanskiy, , Merrit; Vollmer, Elis; Penu, Priit

    2015-04-01

    The utilization of organic soils for forestry or agriculture requires the land amelioration that could result on the peat losses from 15 to 20 t ha-1 in a year on following five years. After five years, the peat losses will be 5 - 15 t ha-1 in a year. The agricultural land resource on different types of organic soils (including ameliorated bogs) in Estonia is 360 000 ha that comprises 41% of total agricultural land area. The landscape iself is a valuable resource that considered to be a set of characteristics that satisfy needs of people using the landscape: economical or non-economical value; ecological, social, recreational, aesthetical, educational, scientific or even protective value. More diverse landscapes have higher biodiversity and yield more services to public, they are also seen as more sustainable and resilient to short-term changes. In order to maintain landscape diversity, sustainable maintenance is important. The purpose of current study was to estimate the land use potential on three different ameliorated peat areas and to develop the methodology for the futher sustainable utilization in order to secure the best ecological functioning of soil while taking into account maintaining and increasing landscape value. Therefore, site specific soil sampling (n=77) was carried out on predetermined eight study sites. Soil samples were analyzed for main agrochemical parameters (n=17; pHKCl, P, K, C%, N%, S%, ash, main anions and cations). This enables determing site-specific best suitable crops and land use scenarios. For the land resource description (soils type, topology) the digital soil map (1: 10,000) and field sudy based database were used for describing the model areas. For more specific identification of the field layers the Agricultural Registers and Information Board (ARIB) and databases of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) payments were used for subsidy schemes chekout. Estonian Nature Information System map tool was used to specify the

  8. Drug: D08697 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08697 Mixture, Drug Platycodon fluidextract - glycyrrhiza extract - plantago herb ...extract - peony root extract - dihydrocodeine phosphate mixt; Opisezol codeine (TN) Platycodon fluidextract ... Antitussives and expectorants 2249 Others D08697 Platycodon fluidextract - glycyrrhiza extract - plantago h

  9. Ameliorative effect of Morus alba leaves extract against developmental retinopathy in pups of diabetic and aluminum intoxicated pregnant albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan; El-Sayyed; Gamal; Badawy; Sobhy; Hassab; Elnabi; Ibrahim; El-Elaimy; Eman; Al; Shehari

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible ameliorative effect of crude water extract of Morus alba(M. alba) leaves on retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to diabetes and/or Al intoxication.Methods: Both control and experimental groups were subjected to certain integrated approaches, namely, biochemical assessments, light microscopic investigation, transmission electron microscopic investigation, single cell gel electrophoresis(comet assay) and determination of DNA fragmentation.Results: The retina of pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers exhibited abnormal alterations in retinal cell layers including retinal pigmented epithelium, photoreceptor inner segment and ganglion cells. Increased incidence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis were evident in pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers. However, retina of pups maternally received M. alba extract plus diabetes or Al-intoxicated alone or in combination showed marked amelioration. Less degree of ameliorations was seen in retina of pups maternally subjected to combined treatment. Furthermore, application of crude water extract of M.alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose as well as Al concentration.Conclusions: Based on the results of the present study, M. alba extract is effective against experimentally diabetic and Al-induced developmental retinopathy.

  10. Intestinal ameliorative effects of traditional Ogi-tutu, Vernonia amygdalina and Psidium guajava in mice infected with Vibrio cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shittu, Olufunke B; Ajayi, Olusola L; Bankole, Samuel O; Popoola, Temitope Os

    2016-06-01

    Cholera, a severe acute watery diarrhea caused by Vibrio cholerae is endemic in Nigeria with most cases occurring in the rural areas. In South West Nigeria, some individuals resort to alternative treatments such as Ogi-tutu, Psidium guajava and Vernonia amygdalina during infections. The effectiveness of these alternatives in the prevention and treatment of V. cholerae infection requires experimental investigation. This study was designed to investigate the ameliorative effects of Ogi-tutu, Vernonia amygdalina and Psidium guajava on intestinal histopathology of experimental mice infected with V. cholerae. Preliminary investigation of in vitro vibriocidal activities of these alternatives were carried out using agar cup diffusion assay. For ameliorative effects, adult mice were inoculated with 100 µl (106 cells) of Vibrio cholerae and dosed at 0 h (immediate prevention) and 4 h (treatment of infection) and their intestines were histopathologically evaluated. The histopathological changes were the same irrespective of the treated groups, but the lesions varied in extent and severity. The ameliorative effects in decreasing order were V. amygdalina > P. guajava > Ogi-tutu. V. amygdalina gave the best ameliorative effects in the prevention and treatment of V. cholerae infection.

  11. Bezafibrate ameliorates diabetes via reduced steatosis and improved hepatic insulin sensitivity in diabetic TallyHo mice

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    Andras Franko

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Our data showed that BEZ ameliorates diabetes probably via reduced steatosis, enhanced hepatic mitochondrial mass, improved metabolic flexibility and elevated hepatic insulin sensitivity in TallyHo mice, suggesting that BEZ treatment could be beneficial for patients with NAFLD and impaired glucose metabolism.

  12. Nrg4 promotes fuel oxidation and a healthy adipokine profile to ameliorate diet-induced metabolic disorders

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    Zhimin Chen

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: Nrg4 exerts pleiotropic beneficial effects on energy balance and glucose and lipid metabolism to ameliorate obesity-associated metabolic disorders. Biologic therapeutics based on Nrg4 may improve both type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in patients.

  13. Sex differences regarding the amelioration of wrinkles due to skin dryness by the administration of tranexamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Daijiro; Iizuka, Yasutaka; Yamaguchi, Tomohiko

    2016-10-01

    Tranexamic acid (trans-4-aminomethylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid) exerts an amelioration effect on wrinkle formation due to skin dryness. We examined the sex differences in this effect. We administered tranexamic acid (750mg/kg/day) orally for 20 consecutive days to male and female Naruto Research Institute Otsuka Atrichia (NOA) mice, which naturally develop skin dryness. In the treated female mice, the amelioration effect on the wrinkle score, deterioration of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), capacitance, and decrease in the expression of collagen type I was stronger than in the male treated mice. Furthermore, the level of β-endorphin in the plasma and the expression of β-endorphin, μ-opioid receptor, and macrophages in the dorsal skin increased after the administration of tranexamic acid, and this increase was higher in female mice than in males. In addition, the macrophage production was increased by the administration of tranexamic acid in the ovary but did not change after administration in the testes. A histological examination revealed that these macrophages produce the β-endorphin, clarifying the source of the elevated levels. The amelioration effect in the female treated mice was decreased by the administration of clophosome (a macrophage inhibitor) to a degree that did not markedly differ from the effect observed in the male treated mice. These results suggest that the amelioration effect on wrinkles is stronger in female NOA mice than in males and that β-endorphin produced by macrophages plays an important role in this sex difference.

  14. How to Cheat and Not Feel Guilty: Cognitive Dissonance and Its Amelioration in the Domain of Academic Dishonesty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Jason M.

    2017-01-01

    The belief that cheating is wrong doesn't prevent its enactment. For example, many students cheat despite believing that is wrong or unjustifiable. The question taken up in this article concerns how the resulting cognitive dissonance is ameliorated; that is, how do students cheat and not feel guilty? This article will describe two "good"…

  15. Ameliorative potential of Tamarindus indica on high fat diet induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan, Suja Rani; Joseph, Joshua Allan; Anandakumar, Senthilkumar; Venkatesan, Vijayabalaji; Madhavan, Chandrasekharan Nair Ariyattu; Agarwal, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the prevalence of which is rising globally with current upsurge in obesity, is one of the most frequent causes of chronic liver diseases. The present study evaluated the ameliorative effect of extract of Tamarindus indica seed coat (ETS) on high fat diet (HFD) induced NAFLD, after daily administration at 45, 90, and 180 mg/kg body weight dose levels for a period of 6 weeks, in albino Wistar rats. Treatment with ETS at all tested dose levels significantly attenuated the pathological alterations associated with HFD induced NAFLD viz. hepatomegaly, elevated hepatic lipid and lipid peroxides, serum alanine aminotransferase, and free fatty acid levels as well as micro-/macrohepatic steatosis. Moreover, extract treatment markedly reduced body weight and adiposity along with an improvement in insulin resistance index. The study findings, therefore suggested the therapeutic potential of ETS against NAFLD, acting in part through antiobesity, insulin sensitizing, and antioxidant mechanisms.

  16. Ameliorative Potential of Tamarindus indica on High Fat Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats

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    Suja Rani Sasidharan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, the prevalence of which is rising globally with current upsurge in obesity, is one of the most frequent causes of chronic liver diseases. The present study evaluated the ameliorative effect of extract of Tamarindus indica seed coat (ETS on high fat diet (HFD induced NAFLD, after daily administration at 45, 90, and 180 mg/kg body weight dose levels for a period of 6 weeks, in albino Wistar rats. Treatment with ETS at all tested dose levels significantly attenuated the pathological alterations associated with HFD induced NAFLD viz. hepatomegaly, elevated hepatic lipid and lipid peroxides, serum alanine aminotransferase, and free fatty acid levels as well as micro-/macrohepatic steatosis. Moreover, extract treatment markedly reduced body weight and adiposity along with an improvement in insulin resistance index. The study findings, therefore suggested the therapeutic potential of ETS against NAFLD, acting in part through antiobesity, insulin sensitizing, and antioxidant mechanisms.

  17. Bacterial and Archaeal α-amylases: Diversity and amelioration of the desirable characteristics for industrial applications

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    Deepika Mehta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial enzyme market has been projected to reach US$ 6.2 billion by 2020. Major reasons for continuous rise in the global sales of microbial enzymes are because of increase in the demand for consumer goods and biofuels. Among major industrial enzymes that find applications in baking, alcohol, detergent and textile industries are α-amylases. These are produced by a variety of microbes, which randomly cleave α-1,4-glycosidic linkages in starch leading to the formation of limit dextrins. α-Amylases from different microbial sources vary in their properties, thus, suit specific applications. This review focuses on the native and recombinant α-amylases from bacteria and archaea, their production and the advancements in the molecular biology, protein engineering and structural studies, which aid in ameliorating their properties to suit the targeted industrial applications.

  18. Berberine Ameliorates Allodynia Induced by Chronic Constriction Injury of the Sciatic Nerve in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jee

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether berberine could ameliorate allodynia induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in rats. After inducement of CCI, significant increases in the number of paw lifts from a cold plate test (cold allodynia) and decreased paw withdrawal threshold in the von Frey hair stimulation test (mechanical allodynia) were observed. However, these cold and mechanical allodynia were markedly alleviated by berberine administration in a dose-dependent manner. Sciatic nerve myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde activities were also attenuated by berberine administration. Continuous injection for 7 days induced no development of tolerance. The antiallodynic effect of 20 mg/kg berberine was comparable to that of amitriptyline 10 mg/kg. This study demonstrated that berberine could mitigate allodynia induced by CCI, a neuropathic pain model, and it suggested that the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties of berberine contributed to the antiallodynic effect in the CCI model.

  19. Design and synthesis of novel arctigenin analogues for the amelioration of metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Shudong; Huang, Suling; Gong, Jian; Shen, Yu; Zeng, Limin; Feng, Ying; Ren, Wenming; Leng, Ying; Hu, Youhong

    2015-04-09

    Analogues of the natural product (-)-arctigenin, an activator of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase, were prepared in order to evaluate their effects on 2-deoxyglucose uptake in L6 myotubes and possible use in ameliorating metabolic disorders. Racemic arctigenin 2a was found to display a similar uptake enhancement as does (-)-arctigenin. As a result, the SAR study was conducted utilizing racemic compounds. The structure-activity relationship study led to the discovery of key substitution patterns on the lactone motif that govern 2-deoxyglucose uptake activities. The results show that replacement of the para-hydroxyl group of the C-2 benzyl moiety of arctigenin by Cl has a pronounced effect on uptake activity. Specifically, analogue 2p, which contains the p-Cl substituent, stimulates glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation in L6 myotubes.

  20. Dammarane Sapogenins Ameliorates Neurocognitive Functional Impairment Induced by Simulated Long-Duration Spaceflight

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    Xiaorui Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence indicates the occurrence of cognitive impairment in astronauts under spaceflight compound conditions, but the underlying mechanisms and countermeasures need to be explored. In this study, we found that learning and memory abilities were significantly reduced in rats under a simulated long-duration spaceflight environment (SLSE, which includes microgravity, isolation confinement, noises, and altered circadian rhythms. Dammarane sapogenins (DS, alkaline hydrolyzed products of ginsenosides, can enhance cognition function by regulating brain neurotransmitter levels and inhibiting SLSE-induced neuronal injury. Bioinformatics combined with experimental verification identified that the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway was inhibited and the MAPK pathway was activated during SLSE-induced cognition dysfunction, whereas DS substantially ameliorated the changes in brain. These findings defined the characteristics of SLSE-induced cognitive decline and the mechanisms by which DS improves it. The results provide an effective candidate for improving cognitive function in spaceflight missions.

  1. Probiotic foods: Can their increasing use in India ameliorate the burden of chronic lifestyle disorders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Hajela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which, when ingested in adequate amounts, confer health benefits on the host. Chronic diseases such as diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, coronary artery disease, a variety of chronic inflammatory disorders with an immune basis, and some forms of cancer are increasing in incidence around the world and in India, and may be attributable in part to rapid changes in our lifestyle. There is considerable public interest in India in the consumption of probiotic foods. This brief review summarizes the background of the gut microbiota, the immunological reactions induced by these, the evidence linking the microbiota to health outcomes, and the evidence linking the use of probiotics for amelioration of chronic lifestyle diseases.

  2. Nigerian Honey Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O; Nwobodo, Ndubuisi N; Akpan, Joseph L; Okorie, Ugochi A; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum T; Ezeokpo, Basil C; Nwadike, Kenneth I; Erhiano, Erhirhie; Abdul Wahab, Mohd S; Sulaiman, Siti A

    2016-02-24

    Diabetic dyslipidemia contributes to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Hence, its treatment is necessary to reduce cardiovascular events. Honey reduces hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. The reproducibility of these beneficial effects and their generalization to honey samples of other geographical parts of the world remain controversial. Currently, data are limited and findings are inconclusive especially with evidence showing honey increased glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic patients. It was hypothesized that this deteriorating effect might be due to administered high doses. This study investigated if Nigerian honey could ameliorate hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. It also evaluated if high doses of honey could worsen glucose and lipid abnormalities. Honey (1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 g/kg) was administered to diabetic rats for three weeks. Honey (1.0 or 2.0 g/kg) significantly (p honey (3.0 g/kg) significantly (p honey using Nigerian honey. However, none of the doses deteriorated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia.

  3. Alpha-tocopherol ameliorates cypermethrin-induced toxicity and oxidative stress in the nematode Caenorhabdtis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashikumar, Shivaiah; Rajini, P S

    2011-06-01

    Oxidative stress and other effects induced by cypermethrin (CYP, 15 mM) and their amelioration by alpha-tocopherol (400 microM) was studied in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The worms exposed for 4 h to CYP showed increased levels of reactive oxygen species (46%), H2O2 (37%) and protein carbonyls (29%), accompanied by decreased lifespan and brood size. However, exposure to both CYP and alpha-tocopherol resulted in diminution of above alterations with the worms exhibiting relatively lower levels of ROS (30%), H2O2 (15%), protein carbonyls (14%), altered antioxidant enzyme activities and normal lifespan and brood size. The results suggest that CYP induces oxidative stress in C. elegans and the strategy of intervention with alpha-tocopherol could be exploited to offset this induced oxidative stress.

  4. Amelioration of bromobenzene hepatotoxicity by Withania somnifera pretreatment: Role of mitochondrial oxidative stress

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    Mahima Vedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the possible protective role of Withania somnifera (Linn. Dunal (Solanaceae root powder against bromobenzene-induced oxidative damage in rat liver mitochondria. Administration of bromobenzene (10 mmol/kg body weight to rats resulted in increased levels of liver marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation, TNF-α, IL-1β and VEGF. There was also marked depletion in the levels of mitochondrial enzymes and antioxidant activity. Pre-treatment with W. somnifera significantly decreased the levels of liver marker enzymes, TNF-α, IL-1β, VEGF and ameliorated histopathological manifestations in bromobenzene-treated rats. The molecular docking analysis predicted that the pro-inflammatory mediator NF-κB showed significant interaction with selected various active components of W. somnifera (withaferin A, withanolide D and withanolide E. This study demonstrates a good protective effect of W. somnifera against bromobenzene-induced oxidative stress.

  5. Amelioration of soil PAH and heavy metals by combined application of fly ash and biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masto, Reginald; George, Joshy; Ansari, Md; Ram, Lal

    2016-04-01

    Generation of electricity through coal combustion produces huge quantities of fly ash. Sustainable disposal and utilization of these fly ash is a major challenge. Fly ash along with other amendments like biochar could be used for amelioration of soil. In this study, fly ash and biochar were used together for amelioration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated soil. Field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of fly ash and biochar on the amelioration of soil PAH, and the yield of Zea mays. The treatments were control, biochar (4 t/ha), fly ash (4 t/ha), ash + biochar ( 2 + 2 t/ha). Soil samples were collected after the harvest of maize crop and analysed for chemical and biological parameters. Thirteen PAHs were analysed in the postharvest soil samples. Soil PAHs were extracted in a microwave oven at 120 °C using hexane : acetone (1:1) mixture. The extracted solutions were concentrated, cleaned and the 13 PAHs [Acenaphthene (Ace), fluorene (Flr), phenanthrene (Phn), anthracene(Ant), pyrene(Pyr), benz(a)anthracene (BaA), chrysene (Chy), benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF), benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF), benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene (BghiP), dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene)(Inp)] were analysed using GC-MS. The mean pH increased from 6.09 in control to 6.64 and 6.58 at biochar and fly ash treated soils, respectively. N content was not affected, whereas addition of biochar alone and in combination with fly ash, has significantly increased the soil organic carbon content. P content was almost double in combined (9.06 mg/kg) treatment as compared to control (4.32 mg/kg). The increase in K due to biochar was 118%, whereas char + ash increased soil K by 64%. Soil heavy metals were decreased: Zn (-48.4%), Ni (-41.4%), Co (-36.9%), Cu (-35.7%), Mn (-34.3%), Cd (-33.2%), and Pb (-30.4%). Soil dehydrogenase activity was significantly increased by ash and biochar treatments and the maximum activity was observed for the combined

  6. Bacterial and Archaeal α-Amylases: Diversity and Amelioration of the Desirable Characteristics for Industrial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Deepika; Satyanarayana, Tulasi

    2016-01-01

    Industrial enzyme market has been projected to reach US$ 6.2 billion by 2020. Major reasons for continuous rise in the global sales of microbial enzymes are because of increase in the demand for consumer goods and biofuels. Among major industrial enzymes that find applications in baking, alcohol, detergent, and textile industries are α-amylases. These are produced by a variety of microbes, which randomly cleave α-1,4-glycosidic linkages in starch leading to the formation of limit dextrins. α-Amylases from different microbial sources vary in their properties, thus, suit specific applications. This review focuses on the native and recombinant α-amylases from bacteria and archaea, their production and the advancements in the molecular biology, protein engineering and structural studies, which aid in ameliorating their properties to suit the targeted industrial applications.

  7. Ameliorative effect of vitamin E on potassium dichromate-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

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    Ali A. Shati

    2014-07-01

    There was a significant accumulation of Cr in the livers of the Cr group compared with the control group. In addition, exposure to K2Cr2O7 induced significant increases in the level of thiobarbituric-reactive substances (TBARS and significant decreases in glutathione (GSH content and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in the Cr group compared with the control group. Moreover, livers of the Cr group showed major histological alterations, such as severe necrosis, increased lymphocytic infiltration, and a significant decrease in the DNA content. Oral vitamin E administration concomitant with K2Cr2O7 ameliorated all these changes and resulted in normal hepatic histological and cellular contents. In conclusion, oral vitamin E administration has a hepatoprotective role against K2Cr2O7-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

  8. AN AMELIORATED DETECTION STATISTICS FOR ADAPTIVE MASK MEDIAN FILTRATION OF HEAVILY NOISED DIGITAL IMAGES

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    Geeta Hanji

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Noise reduction is an important area of research in image processing applications. The performance of the digital image noise filtering method primarily depends upon the accuracy of noise detection scheme. This paper presents an effective detector based, adaptive mask, median filtration of heavily noised digital images affected with fixed value (or salt and pepper impulse noise. The proposed filter presents a novel approach; an ameliorated Rank Ordered Absolute Deviation (ROAD statistics to judge whether the input pixel is noised or noise free. If a pixel is detected as corrupted, it is subjected to adaptive mask median filtration; otherwise, it is kept unchanged. Extensive experimental results and comparative performance evaluations demonstrate that the proposed filter outperforms the existing decision type, median based filters with powerful noise detectors in terms of objective performance measures and visual retrieviation accuracy.

  9. Pycnogenol ameliorates depression-like behavior in repeated corticosterone-induced depression mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lin; Mochizuki, Miyako; Hasegawa, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is considered to be a mechanism of major depression. Pycnogenol (PYC) is a natural plant extract from the bark of Pinus pinaster Aiton and has potent antioxidant activities. We studied the ameliorative effect of PYC on depression-like behavior in chronic corticosterone- (CORT-) treated mice for 20 days. After the end of the CORT treatment period, PYC (0.2 mg/mL) was orally administered in normal drinking water. Depression-like behavior was investigated by the forced swimming test. Immobility time was significantly longer by CORT exposure. When the CORT-treated mice were supplemented with PYC, immobility time was significantly shortened. Our results indicate that orally administered PYC may serve to reduce CORT-induced stress by radical scavenging activity.

  10. Pycnogenol Ameliorates Depression-Like Behavior in Repeated Corticosterone-Induced Depression Mice Model

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    Lin Mei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is considered to be a mechanism of major depression. Pycnogenol (PYC is a natural plant extract from the bark of Pinus pinaster Aiton and has potent antioxidant activities. We studied the ameliorative effect of PYC on depression-like behavior in chronic corticosterone- (CORT- treated mice for 20 days. After the end of the CORT treatment period, PYC (0.2 mg/mL was orally administered in normal drinking water. Depression-like behavior was investigated by the forced swimming test. Immobility time was significantly longer by CORT exposure. When the CORT-treated mice were supplemented with PYC, immobility time was significantly shortened. Our results indicate that orally administered PYC may serve to reduce CORT-induced stress by radical scavenging activity.

  11. Dexamethasone palmitate ameliorates macrophages-rich graft-versus-host disease by inhibiting macrophage functions.

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    Satoshi Nishiwaki

    Full Text Available Macrophage infiltration of skin GVHD lesions correlates directly with disease severity, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear and GVHD with many macrophages is a therapeutic challenge. Here, we characterize the macrophages involved in GVHD and report that dexamethasone palmitate (DP, a liposteroid, can ameliorate such GVHD by inhibiting macrophage functions. We found that host-derived macrophages could exacerbate GVHD in a mouse model through expression of higher levels of pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IFN-γ, and lower levels of anti-inflammatory IL-10 than resident macrophages in mice without GVHD. DP significantly decreased the viability and migration capacity of primary mouse macrophages compared to conventional dexamethasone in vitro. DP treatment on day 7 and day 14 decreased macrophage number, and attenuated GVHD score and subsequent mortality in a murine model. This is the first study to provide evidence that therapy for GVHD should be changed on the basis of infiltrating cell type.

  12. “The Mind Is Its Own Place”: Amelioration of Claustrophobia in Semantic Dementia

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    Camilla N. Clark

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phobias are among the few intensely fearful experiences we regularly have in our everyday lives, yet the brain basis of phobic responses remains incompletely understood. Here we describe the case of a 71-year-old patient with a typical clinicoanatomical syndrome of semantic dementia led by selective (predominantly right-sided temporal lobe atrophy, who showed striking amelioration of previously disabling claustrophobia following onset of her cognitive syndrome. We interpret our patient’s newfound fearlessness as an interaction of damaged limbic and autonomic responsivity with loss of the cognitive meaning of previously threatening situations. This case has implications for our understanding of brain network disintegration in semantic dementia and the neurocognitive basis of phobias more generally.

  13. Amelioration of ionizing radiation induced lipid peroxidation in mouse liver by Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Mahuya; Das, Dipesh Kr; Datta, Sanjukta; Ghosh, Santinath; Dey, Sanjit

    2012-03-01

    Protective effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MoLE) against radiation-induced lipid peroxidation has been investigated. Swiss albino mice, selected from an inbred colony, were administered with MoLE (300 mg/kg body wt) for 15 days before exposing to a single dose of 5 Gy 60Co-gamma radiation. After treatments, animals were necropsied at different post irradiation intervals (days 1, 7 and 15) and hepatic lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents were estimated to observe the relative changes due to irradiation and its possible amelioration by MoLE. It was observed that, MoLE treatment restored GSH in liver and prevented radiation induced augmentation in hepatic lipid peroxidation. Phytochemical analysis showed that MoLE possess various phytochemicals such as ascorbic acid, phenolics (catechin, epicatechin, ferulic acid, ellagic acid, myricetin) etc., which may play the key role in prevention of hepatic lipid peroxidation by scavenging radiation induced free radicals.

  14. Smart Soup, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, ameliorates amyloid pathology and related cognitive deficits.

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    Yujun Hou

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes substantial public health care burdens. Intensive efforts have been made to find effective and safe disease-modifying treatment and symptomatic intervention alternatives against AD. Smart Soup (SS, a Chinese medicine formula composed of Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii (AT, Poria cum Radix Pini (PRP and Radix Polygalae (RP, is a typical prescription against memory deficits. Here, we assessed the efficacy of SS against AD. Oral administration of SS ameliorated the cognitive impairment of AD transgenic mice, with reduced Aβ levels, retarded Aβ amyloidosis and reduced Aβ-induced gliosis and neuronal loss in the brains of AD mice. Consistently, SS treatment reduced amyloid-related locomotor dysfunctions and premature death of AD transgenic Drosophila. Mechanistic studies showed that RP reduced Aβ generation, whereas AT and PRP exerted neuroprotective effects against Aβ. Taken together, our study indicates that SS could be effective against AD, providing a practical therapeutic strategy against the disease.

  15. Probiotic foods: can their increasing use in India ameliorate the burden of chronic lifestyle disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajela, Neerja; Nair, G Balakrish; Ramakrishna, B S; Ganguly, N K

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which, when ingested in adequate amounts, confer health benefits on the host. Chronic diseases such as diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, coronary artery disease, a variety of chronic inflammatory disorders with an immune basis, and some forms of cancer are increasing in incidence around the world and in India, and may be attributable in part to rapid changes in our lifestyle. There is considerable public interest in India in the consumption of probiotic foods. This brief review summarizes the background of the gut microbiota, the immunological reactions induced by these, the evidence linking the microbiota to health outcomes, and the evidence linking the use of probiotics for amelioration of chronic lifestyle diseases.

  16. Enhanced interannual precipitation variability increases plant functional diversity that in turn ameliorates negative impact on productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherardi, Laureano A; Sala, Osvaldo E

    2015-12-01

    Although precipitation interannual variability is projected to increase due to climate change, effects of changes in precipitation variance have received considerable less attention than effects of changes in the mean state of climate. Interannual precipitation variability effects on functional diversity and its consequences for ecosystem functioning are assessed here using a 6-year rainfall manipulation experiment. Five precipitation treatments were switched annually resulting in increased levels of precipitation variability while maintaining average precipitation constant. Functional diversity showed a positive response to increased variability due to increased evenness. Dominant grasses decreased and rare plant functional types increased in abundance because grasses showed a hump-shaped response to precipitation with a maximum around modal precipitation, whereas rare species peaked at high precipitation values. Increased functional diversity ameliorated negative effects of precipitation variability on primary production. Rare species buffered the effect of precipitation variability on the variability in total productivity because their variance decreases with increasing precipitation variance.

  17. The Roles of Exercise and Yoga in Ameliorating Depression as a Risk Factor for Cognitive Decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are no effective pharmaceutical treatments to reduce cognitive decline or prevent dementia. At the same time, the global population is aging, and rates of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are on the rise. As such, there is an increasing interest in complementary and alternative interventions to treat or reduce the risk of cognitive decline. Depression is one potentially modifiable risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia. Notably, exercise and yoga are two interventions known to both reduce symptoms of depression and improve cognitive function. The current review discusses the efficacy of exercise and yoga to ameliorate depression and thereby reduce the risk of cognitive decline and potentially prevent dementia. Potential mechanisms of change, treatment implications, and future directions are discussed. PMID:28044084

  18. AMELIORATION OF GENOTOXICITY BY PAPAYA EXTRACT INDUCED BY ARSENIC CONTAMINATED DRINKING WATER

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    DHARMSHILA KUMARI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is an established genotoxic carcinogen in human. Arsenic trioxide (0.04mg/animal when administeredorally daily to albino swiss mice for 15 continuous days, increased the incidence of abnormalities to 30.6% inmeiotic metaphase chromosome, 5.88% in the gross morphology of sperm head and decreased the sperm countper unit volume of caput epididymal suspension to 64.16 in comparison to the control. The concurrent treatmentof papaya fruit extract and arsenic trioxide significantly decreased the abnormalities to19.6% in meioticchromosome, 4.16% in the sperm head morphology and increased the mean count of sperm to 82.28. Theincrease in abnormality of meiotic chromosome as well as abnormality in gross morphology of the sperm headand decrease in sperm count, as observed upon arsenic trioxide treatment, were ameliorated by the aqueouspapaya fruit extract. Therefore, it is suggested that the papaya fruit extract may reduce the risk of arsenic-inducedgenotoxicity.

  19. Reactivation of autophagy by spermidine ameliorates the myopathic defects of collagen VI-null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisam, Martina; Pirozzi, Marinella; Castagnaro, Silvia; Blaauw, Bert; Polishchuck, Roman; Cecconi, Francesco; Grumati, Paolo; Bonaldo, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a self-degradative process responsible for the clearance of damaged or unnecessary cellular components. We have previously found that persistence of dysfunctional organelles due to autophagy failure is a key event in the pathogenesis of COL6/collagen VI-related myopathies, and have demonstrated that reactivation of a proper autophagic flux rescues the muscle defects of Col6a1-null (col6a1(-/-)) mice. Here we show that treatment with spermidine, a naturally occurring nontoxic autophagy inducer, is beneficial for col6a1(-/-) mice. Systemic administration of spermidine in col6a1(-/-) mice reactivated autophagy in a dose-dependent manner, leading to a concurrent amelioration of the histological and ultrastructural muscle defects. The beneficial effects of spermidine, together with its being easy to administer and the lack of overt side effects, open the field for the design of novel nutraceutical strategies for the treatment of muscle diseases characterized by autophagy impairment.

  20. Hydroxycitric acid ameliorates inlfammation and oxidative stress in mouse models of multiple sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahdi Goudarzvand; Shahin Khadem Azarian; Abbas Mirshaifey; Gholamreza Azizi; Sanaz Afraei; Somaye Yaslianifard; Saleh Ghiasy; Ghazal Sadri; Mustafa Kalvandi; Tina Alinia; Ali Mohebbi; Reza Yazdani

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is derived primarily from the Garcinia plant and is widely used for its anti-in-lfammatory effects. Multiple sclerosis can cause an inlfammatory demyelination and axonal damage. In this study, to validate the hypothesis that HCA exhibits therapeutic effects on multiple sclerosis, we established female C57BL/6 mouse models of multiple sclerosis,i.e., experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, using Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) emulsion containing myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (35–55). Treatment with HCA at 2 g/kg/d for 3 weeks obviously improved the symptoms of nerve injury of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice, decreased serum interleulin-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde levels, and increased superoxide dismutase and glutathione reduc-tase activities. hTese ifndings suggest that HCA exhibits neuroprotective effects on multiple sclerosis-caused nerve injury through ameliorating inlfammation and oxidative stress.

  1. Hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) ameliorates multiple sclerosis in mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangano, Katia; Fagone, Paolo; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports the role of epigenetics in the development of autoimmune disorders and the possibility of using epigenetic modifying drugs in the context of MS has not yet been investigated. We have explored the effect of the hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) in two...... murine models of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). DAC treatment was associated with a significant amelioration of the clinical and histological hallmarks of EAE in both models. These effects were observed both in prophylactic and therapeutic regimens. The milder course of the disease....... Finally, DAC treatment increased the percentage of circulating regulatory T cells by inducing Foxp3 expression via demethylation of a CpG island in Foxp3....

  2. Amelioration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis through transplantation of placental derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Tian, Kewei; Wang, Beibei; Han, Shu

    2017-01-01

    Placental derived mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs) have been suggested as a possible source of cells to treat multiple sclerosis (MS) due to their immunomodulatory functions, lack of ethical concerns, and potential to differentiate into neurons and oligodendrocytes. To investigate whether PMSCs share similar characteristics with embryonic mesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs), and if transplanted PMSCs have the ability to integrate and replace degenerated neural cells, we transplanted rat PMSCs and EMSCs into the central nervous system (CNS) of Lewis rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Our findings demonstrated that transplanted PMSCs, similar to EMSCs, were effective in decreasing infiltrating inflammatory cells, preserving axons, and ameliorating demyelination, thereby improving the neurological functions of animals. Moreover, both PMSCs and EMSCs had the ability to migrate into inflamed tissues and express neural–glial lineage markers. These findings suggest that PMSCs may replace EMSCs as a source of cells in MS stem cell therapy. PMID:28186117

  3. Enhanced killing activity of regulatory T cells ameliorates inflammation and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenasy, Nadir

    2013-08-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) are pivotal suppressor elements in immune homeostasis with potential therapeutic applications in inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Using Treg as vehicles for targeted immunomodulation, a short-lived Fas-ligand (FasL) chimeric protein (killer Treg) was found efficient in preventing the progression of autoimmune insulitis in NOD mice, and amelioration of chronic colitis and graft versus host disease. The main mechanisms of disease suppression by killer Treg are: a) in the acute phase induction of apoptosis in effector cells at the site of inflammation decreases the pathogenic burden, and b) persistent increase in FoxP3⁺ Treg with variable CD25 co-expression induced by FasL sustains disease suppression over extended periods of time. Reduced sensitivity of Treg to receptor-mediated apoptosis under inflammatory conditions makes them optimal vehicles for targeted immunotherapy using apoptotic agents.

  4. Arctigenin isolated from the seeds of Arctium lappa ameliorates memory deficits in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In-Ah; Joh, Eun-Ha; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2011-09-01

    The seeds of Arctium lappa L. (AL, family Asteraceae), the main constituents of which are arctiin and arctigenin, have been used as an herbal medicine or functional food to treat inflammatory diseases. These main constituents were shown to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Arctigenin more potently inhibited AChE activity than arctiin. Arctigenin at doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg (p. o.) potently reversed scopolamine-induced memory deficits by 62 % and 73 %, respectively, in a passive avoidance test. This finding is comparable with that of tacrine (10 mg/kg p. o.). Arctigenin also significantly reversed scopolamine-induced memory deficits in the Y-maze and Morris water maze tests. On the basis of these findings, arctigenin may ameliorate memory deficits by inhibiting AChE.

  5. Long-acting glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide ameliorates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Chen; Zvibel, Isabel; Spektor, Lior; Mantelmacher, Fernanda Dana; Vugman, Milena; Thurm, Tamar; Khatib, Marian; Elmaliah, Elinor; Halpern, Zamir; Fishman, Sigal

    2014-10-15

    Obesity induces low-grade chronic inflammation, manifested by proinflammatory polarization of adipose tissue innate and adaptive resident and recruited immune cells that contribute to insulin resistance (IR). The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin hormone that mediates postprandial insulin secretion and has anabolic effects on the adipose tissue. Importantly, recent evidence suggested that GIP is a potential suppressor of inflammation in several metabolic models. In this study, we aimed to investigate the immunoregulatory role of GIP in a murine model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) using the long-acting GIP analog [d-Ala(2)]GIP. Administration of [d-Ala(2)]GIP resulted in adipocytes of increased size, increased levels of adipose tissue lipid droplet proteins, indicating better lipid storage capacity, and reduced adipose tissue inflammation. Flow cytometry analysis revealed reduced numbers of inflammatory Ly6C(hi) monocytes and F4/80(hi)CD11c(+) macrophages, associated with IR. In addition, [d-Ala(2)]GIP reduced adipose tissue infiltration of IFN-γ-producing CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, [d-Ala(2)]GIP treatment induced a favorable adipose tissue adipokine profile, manifested by a prominent reduction in key inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ) and chemokines (CCL2, CCL8, and CCL5) and an increase in adiponectin. Notably, [d-Ala(2)]GIP also reduced the numbers of circulating neutrophils and proinflammatory Ly6C(hi) monocytes in mice fed regular chow or a high-fat diet. Finally, the beneficial immune-associated effects were accompanied by amelioration of IR and improved insulin signaling in liver and adipose tissue. Collectively, our results describe key beneficial immunoregulatory properties for GIP in DIO and reveal that its augmentation ameliorates adipose tissue inflammation and improves IR. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. Propofol ameliorates doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and cellular apoptosis in rat cardiomyocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, H.C. [Cardiovascular Center and Department of Anesthesiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine and Cardiovascular Research Center, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Y.C. [Graduate Institute of Natural Healing Sciences, Nanhua University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Wang, L.C. [Cardiovascular Center and Department of Anesthesiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Ting, C.T.; Lee, W.L. [Cardiovascular Center and Department of Anesthesiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine and Cardiovascular Research Center, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, H.W. [Cardiovascular Center and Department of Anesthesiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wang, K.Y. [Cardiovascular Center and Department of Anesthesiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine, Chung-Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wu, A. [College of Biological Science, University of California, Davis (United States); Su, C.S. [Cardiovascular Center and Department of Anesthesiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine and Cardiovascular Research Center, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liu, T.J., E-mail: trliu@vghtc.gov.tw [Cardiovascular Center and Department of Anesthesiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine and Cardiovascular Research Center, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-12-15

    Background: Propofol is an anesthetic with pluripotent cytoprotective properties against various extrinsic insults. This study was designed to examine whether this agent could also ameliorate the infamous toxicity of doxorubicin, a widely-used chemotherapeutic agent against a variety of cancer diseases, on myocardial cells. Methods: Cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were administrated with vehicle, doxorubicin (1 {mu}M), propofol (1 {mu}M), or propofol plus doxorubicin (given 1 h post propofol). After 24 h, cells were harvested and specific analyses regarding oxidative/nitrative stress and cellular apoptosis were conducted. Results: Trypan blue exclusion and MTT assays disclosed that viability of cardiomyocytes was significantly reduced by doxorubicin. Contents of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species were increased and antioxidant enzymes SOD1, SOD2, and GPx were decreased in these doxorubicin-treated cells. Mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and membrane potential were also depressed, along with activation of key effectors downstream of mitochondrion-dependent apoptotic signaling. Besides, abundance of p53 was elevated and cleavage of PKC-{delta} was induced in these myocardial cells. In contrast, all of the above oxidative, nitrative and pro-apoptotic events could be suppressed by propofol pretreatment. Conclusions: Propofol could extensively counteract oxidative/nitrative and multiple apoptotic effects of doxorubicin in the heart; hence, this anesthetic may serve as an adjuvant agent to assuage the untoward cardiac effects of doxorubicin in clinical application. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We evaluate how propofol prevents doxorubicin-induced toxicity in cardiomyocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Propofol reduces doxorubicin-imposed nitrative and oxidative stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Propofol suppresses mitochondrion-, p53- and PKC-related apoptotic signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Propofol ameliorates apoptosis and

  7. Electroacupuncture Ameliorates Propofol-Induced Cognitive Impairment via an Opioid Receptor-Independent Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Wang, Xin-Juan; Wang, Na; Cui, Cai-Lian; Wu, Liu-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    While general anesthesia is known to induce cognitive deficits in elderly and pediatric patients, its influence on adults is less well-characterized. The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of propofol on the learning and memory of young adult rats, as well as the potential neuroprotective role of electroacupuncture (EA) in propofol-induced cognitive impairment. Intravenous anesthesia with propofol was administered to young adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for 6 h, and EA was administered three times before and after anesthesia. The Morris Water Maze (MWM) test was conducted to determine the rat's cognitive performance following the anesthesia treatment. Our results showed that propofol induced obvious cognitive impairment in young adult rats, which could be ameliorated by multiple EA treatments. Moreover, the decreased level of phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (pGSK-3β) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus accompanying the cognitive impairment was also reversed by EA treatment. Further experiments demonstrated that neither 2 nor 10 mg/kg (I.P.) naloxone blocked the effect of EA, indicating that the neuroprotective effect of EA on propofol-induced cognitive impairment was not mediated via the opioid receptors. The present study suggests that EA could ameliorate the cognitive impairment induced by prolonged anesthesia with propofol in young adult rats, which is likely associated with pGSK-3β levels in the CA1 independently of opioid receptors. These findings imply that EA may be used as a potential neuroprotective therapy for post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD).

  8. Calhex231 Ameliorates Cardiac Hypertrophy by Inhibiting Cellular Autophagy in Vivo and in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i homeostasis, an initial factor of cardiac hypertrophy, is regulated by the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR and is associated with the formation of autolysosomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Calhex231, a CaSR inhibitor, on the hypertrophic response via autophagy modulation. Methods: Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC in 40 male Wistar rats, while 10 rats underwent a sham operation and served as controls. Cardiac function was monitored by transthoracic echocardiography, and the hypertrophy index was calculated. Cardiac tissue was stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E or Masson's trichrome reagent and examined by transmission electron microscopy. An angiotensin II (Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy model was established and used to test the involvement of active molecules. Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i was determined by the introduction of Fluo-4/AM dye followed by confocal microscopy. The expression of various active proteins was analyzed by western blot. Results: The rats with TAC-induced hypertrophy had an increased heart size, ratio of heart weight to body weight, myocardial fibrosis, and CaSR and autophagy levels, which were suppressed by Calhex231. Experimental results using Ang II-induced hypertrophic cardiomyocytes confirmed that Calhex231 suppressed CaSR expression and downregulated autophagy by inhibiting the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent-protein kinase-kinase-β (CaMKKβ- AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway to ameliorate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Conclusions: Calhex231 ameliorates myocardial hypertrophy induced by pressure-overload or Ang II via inhibiting CaSR expression and autophagy. Our results may support the notion that Calhex231 can become a new therapeutic agent for the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy.

  9. Biochemical efficacy of vitamin D in ameliorating endocrine and metabolic disorders in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Kadry M; Shaheen, Hazem

    2014-05-01

    Due to the biochemical role of vitamin D (Vit D) in the endocrine system, especially its potential anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating properties, there is an increased interest in its potential role in the prevention and control of diabetes mellitus. This study evaluated the potential therapeutic efficacy of Vit D in averting the detrimental effects of both types of diabetes mellitus. A total of 50 male Wistar rats were allotted into five groups: a placebo group; a nongenetic model of type 1 diabetes in rats (T1D), injected with a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ; 65 mg/kg, ip); a nongenetic model of type 2 diabetes in rats (T2D), given a short-term high-fat diet followed by a single low dose of STZ (35 mg/kg, ip); fourth and fifth groups that were gastrogavaged with Vit D (10 IU/kg) three days after the induction of T1D and T2D, respectively, which was continued daily throughout the experiment. Vit D (10 IU/kg/60 days) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased fasting plasma glucose, ketoacidosis (decreased non-esterified fatty acid and β-hydroxyl butyric acid), pro-inflammatory interleukin-6, HbA1c in T1D and T2D and insulin resistance index by 33% in T2D. Interestingly, Vit D significantly (p < 0.05) increased fasting plasma insulin by 144% in T1D, plasma Ca level, insulin sensitivity index, and β-cell function index in T1D and T2D. Vit D ameliorated the deleterious biochemical impact of diabetes mellitus, likely by increasing insulin secretion and sensitivity, ameliorating the β-cell function, and decreasing the number of pro-inflammatory cytokines and insulin resistance.

  10. Ameliorative Potentials of Ginger (Z. officinale Roscoe) on Relative Organ Weights in Streptozotocin induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleazu, C O; Iroaganachi, M; Okafor, P N; Ijeh, I I; Eleazu, K C

    2013-06-01

    The ameliorating potentials of ginger incorporated feed (10%) on the relative organ weights of Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats was investigated. The experiment lasted for three weeks. Results show that administration of 10% ginger feed to the diabetic rats of group 3, resulted in a 29.81% decrease in their resulting hyperglycemia with a corresponding amelioration of elevated urinary protein, sugars, specific gravity as well as renal growth. In addition, administration of the ginger incorporated feeds to the diabetic rats of group 3, resulted in 9.88% increase in body weight with a corresponding 60.24% increase in growth compared with the non-diabetic rats administered standard rat pellets that had 6.21% increase in weight with a corresponding 60.14% increase in growth unlike the diabetic control rats that recorded 28.62% decrease in body weight with a corresponding 239.9% decrease in growth rates. Analysis of the chemical composition of the flour of the ginger incorporated feed indicated that it contained moderate amounts of moisture, crude fibre, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, Fe and Zn but considerable amounts of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, ash, flavonoids, calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorous and energy value. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the liver and relative liver weights of the diabetic control rats and the diabetic -ginger treated rats. In addition, there were no significant differences in the kidney weights of the non-diabetic, diabetic control and diabetic treated rats (P>0.05) while there were significant differences in the relative kidney weights of the non-diabetic rats and the diabetic rats treated with ginger feeds (Pginger in the dietary management of diabetes mellitus could be a breakthrough in the search for novel plants that could prevent the development of diabetic glomerular hypertrophy.

  11. Rikkunshito ameliorates cachexia associated with bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in mice by stimulating ghrelin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubouchi, Hironobu; Yanagi, Shigehisa; Miura, Ayako; Mogami, Sachiko; Yamada, Chihiro; Iizuka, Seiichi; Hattori, Tomohisa; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2014-10-01

    Cachexia is a frequent complication in patients with respiratory failure, such as lung fibrosis, and it is a determining factor for functional capacity, health status, and mortality. Reductions in body weight and skeletal muscle mass are key features of cachexia that are resistant to current therapies. Rikkunshito (RKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, is widely used for the treatment for patients with gastrointestinal symptoms and known to stimulate ghrelin secretion. By using bleomycin (BLM)-induced lung fibrosis mice in this study, we tested our hypothesis that RKT administration could ameliorate pulmonary cachexia. After BLM administration, mice were provided with either RKT or distilled water on a daily basis. Compared with the BLM-injected mice, the RKT-treated mice had smaller reductions of food intake and body weight. Skeletal muscle weights were retained in the RKT-treated mice, in conjunction with reduced expressions of MuRF-1 and atrogin-1 in the lysates of skeletal muscle found in lung fibrosis. Rikkunshito administration restored the plasma concentrations of ghrelin in BLM-injected mice. The anticachectic efficacies of RKT administration in BLM-injected mice were canceled by the concurrent treatment of a ghrelin receptor antagonist. Rikkunshito administration did not decrease the degree of loss of body weight or food intake reduction in either ghrelin-deficient mice or growth hormone secretagogue receptor-deficient mice. Our results indicate that RKT administration exerts protective effects on pulmonary cachexia by ameliorating skeletal muscle wasting and food intake reduction as mediated by the ghrelin system and, thus, highlight RKT as a potential therapeutic agent for the management of lung fibrosis.

  12. Candesartan and glycyrrhizin ameliorate ischemic brain damage through downregulation of the TLR signaling cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Waleed; Safwet, Nancy; El-Maraghy, Nabila N; Zakaria, Mohamed N M

    2014-02-01

    Stroke is the second leading cause of death in industrialized countries and the most frequent cause of permanent disability in adults worldwide. The final outcome of stroke is determined not only by the volume of the ischemic core, but also by the extent of secondary brain damage inflicted to penumbral tissues by brain swelling, impaired microcirculation, and inflammation. The only drug approved for the treatment ischemic stroke is recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). The current study was designed to investigate the protective effects of candesartan (0.15 mg/kg, orally) and glycyrrhizin (30 mg/kg, orally) experimentally-induced ischemic brain damage in C57BL/6 mice (middle cerebral artery occlusion, MCAO) in comparison to the effects of a standard neuroprotective drug (cerebrolysin, 7.5 mg/kg, IP). All drugs were administered 30 min before and 24h after MCAO. Both candesartan and glycyrrhizin ameliorated the deleterious effects of MCAO as indicated by the improvement in the performance of the animals in behaviour tests, reduction in brain infarction, neuronal degeneration, and leukocyte infiltration. In addition, MCAO induced a significant upregulation in the different elements of the TLR pathway including TLR-2 and TLR-4, Myd88, TRIF and IRF-3 and the downstream effectors TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and NF-kB. All these changes were significantly ameliorated by treatment with candesartan and glycyrrhizin. The results of the current study represent a new indication for both candesartan and glycyrrhizin in the management of ischemic stroke with effects comparable to those of the standard neuroprotective drug cerebrolysin.

  13. Inhibition of Protease-activated Receptor 1 Ameliorates Intestinal Radiation Mucositis in a Preclinical Rat Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Junru; Kulkarni, Ashwini [Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Chintala, Madhu [Schering-Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, New Jersey (United States); Fink, Louis M. [Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States); Hauer-Jensen, Martin, E-mail: mhjensen@life.uams.edu [Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Surgery Service, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine, using a specific small-molecule inhibitor of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) signaling, whether the beneficial effect of thrombin inhibition on radiation enteropathy development is due to inhibition of blood clotting or to cellular (PAR1-mediated) thrombin effects. Methods and Materials: Rats underwent fractionated X-irradiation (5 Gy Multiplication-Sign 9) of a 4-cm small-bowel segment. Early radiation toxicity was evaluated in rats receiving PAR1 inhibitor (SCH602539, 0, 10, or 15 mg/kg/d) from 1 day before to 2 weeks after the end of irradiation. The effect of PAR1 inhibition on development of chronic intestinal radiation fibrosis was evaluated in animals receiving SCH602539 (0, 15, or 30 mg/kg/d) until 2 weeks after irradiation, or continuously until termination of the experiment 26 weeks after irradiation. Results: Blockade of PAR1 ameliorated early intestinal toxicity, with reduced overall intestinal radiation injury (P=.002), number of myeloperoxidase-positive (P=.03) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive (P=.04) cells, and collagen III accumulation (P=.005). In contrast, there was no difference in delayed radiation enteropathy in either the 2- or 26-week administration groups. Conclusion: Pharmacological blockade of PAR1 seems to reduce early radiation mucositis but does not affect the level of delayed intestinal radiation fibrosis. Early radiation enteropathy is related to activation of cellular thrombin receptors, whereas platelet activation or fibrin formation may play a greater role in the development of delayed toxicity. Because of the favorable side-effect profile, PAR1 blockade should be further explored as a method to ameliorate acute intestinal radiation toxicity in patients undergoing radiotherapy for cancer and to protect first responders and rescue personnel in radiologic/nuclear emergencies.

  14. Trypanosome lytic factor, an antimicrobial high-density lipoprotein, ameliorates Leishmania infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Samanovic

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading microorganisms. Trypanosome Lytic Factor (TLF is a minor sub-fraction of human high-density lipoprotein that provides innate immunity by completely protecting humans from infection by most species of African trypanosomes, which belong to the Kinetoplastida order. Herein, we demonstrate the broader protective effects of human TLF, which inhibits intracellular infection by Leishmania, a kinetoplastid that replicates in phagolysosomes of macrophages. We show that TLF accumulates within the parasitophorous vacuole of macrophages in vitro and reduces the number of Leishmania metacyclic promastigotes, but not amastigotes. We do not detect any activation of the macrophages by TLF in the presence or absence of Leishmania, and therefore propose that TLF directly damages the parasite in the acidic parasitophorous vacuole. To investigate the physiological relevance of this observation, we have reconstituted lytic activity in vivo by generating mice that express the two main protein components of TLFs: human apolipoprotein L-I and haptoglobin-related protein. Both proteins are expressed in mice at levels equivalent to those found in humans and circulate within high-density lipoproteins. We find that TLF mice can ameliorate an infection with Leishmania by significantly reducing the pathogen burden. In contrast, TLF mice were not protected against infection by the kinetoplastid Trypanosoma cruzi, which infects many cell types and transiently passes through a phagolysosome. We conclude that TLF not only determines species specificity for African trypanosomes, but can also ameliorate an infection with Leishmania, while having no effect on T. cruzi. We propose that TLFs are a component of the innate immune system that can limit infections by their ability to selectively damage pathogens in phagolysosomes within the reticuloendothelial system.

  15. Metformin ameliorates ionizing irradiation-induced long-term hematopoietic stem cell injury in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guoshun; Wu, Hongying; Zhang, Junling; Li, Deguan; Wang, Yueying; Wang, Yingying; Zhang, Heng; Lu, Lu; Li, Chengcheng; Huang, Song; Xing, Yonghua; Zhou, Daohong; Meng, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) not only by the radiolysis of water but also through IR-induced perturbation of the cellular metabolism and disturbance of the balance of reduction/oxidation reactions. Our recent studies showed that the increased production of intracellular ROS induced by IR contributes to IR-induced late effects, particularly in the hematopoietic system, because inhibition of ROS production with an antioxidant after IR exposure can mitigate IR-induced long-term bone marrow (BM) injury. Metformin is a widely used drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Metformin also has the ability to regulate cellular metabolism and ROS production by activating AMP-activated protein kinase. Therefore, we examined whether metformin can ameliorate IR-induced long-term BM injury in a total-body irradiation (TBI) mouse model. Our results showed that the administration of metformin significantly attenuated TBI-induced increases in ROS production and DNA damage and upregulation of NADPH oxidase 4 expression in BM hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). These changes were associated with a significant increase in BM HSC frequency, a considerable improvement in in vitro and in vivo HSC function, and complete inhibition of upregulation of p16Ink4a in HSCs after TBI. These findings demonstrate that metformin can attenuate TBI-induced long-term BM injury at least in part by inhibiting the induction of chronic oxidative stress in HSCs and HSC senescence. Therefore, metformin has the potential to be used as a novel radioprotectant to ameliorate TBI-induced long-term BM injury. PMID:26086617

  16. Cyclic MOG35-55 ameliorates clinical and neuropathological features of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourbopoulos, Athanasios; Deraos, George; Matsoukas, Minos-Timotheos; Touloumi, Olga; Giannakopoulou, Aggeliki; Kalbacher, Hubert; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos; Apostolopoulos, Vasso; Matsoukas, John

    2017-08-01

    EAE is induced to susceptible mice using linear peptides of myelin proteins of the central nervous system. Specific peptide motifs within the peptide-binding groove of the MHC peptide-complex determines the affinity of the peptide in each animal and the consequent T-cell receptor recognition and activation of the cell. Altered peptide ligand (APL) vaccination is a novel approach based on an effort to induce T-cell tolerance or alter cytokine profile from pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory. In the present study we synthesized the MOG35-55 peptide and altered its 3-dimensional conformation to make it a cyclic one (c-MOG35-55). EAE was induced in C57BL/6 mice and pathology was studied on acute and chronic phase of the disease. Our data indicates that c-MOG35-55 peptide alone induces a mild transient acute phase without chronic axonopathy. Administration of the c-MOG35-55 peptide at a 1:1 ratio during disease induction significantly ameliorates clinical disease and underlying pathology, such as demyelination and axonopathy in the acute and chronic phases. Binding and structural studies revealed milder interactions between the c-MOG35-55 and mouse or human MHC class II alleles (H2-IA(b) and HLA-DR2). Collectively, we provide data supporting for the first time the concept that the cyclic modification of an established encephalitogenic peptide ameliorates the clinical outcomes and underlying pathological processes of EAE. Such a cyclic modification of linear peptides could provide a novel treatment approach for future, patient-selective, immunomodulative treatments of multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Uric acid ameliorates indomethacin-induced enteropathy in mice through its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutake, Yuichi; Tomita, Kengo; Higashiyama, Masaaki; Furuhashi, Hirotaka; Shirakabe, Kazuhiko; Takajo, Takeshi; Maruta, Koji; Sato, Hirokazu; Narimatsu, Kazuyuki; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Okada, Yoshikiyo; Kurihara, Chie; Watanabe, Chikako; Komoto, Shunsuke; Nagao, Shigeaki; Matsuo, Hirotaka; Miura, Soichiro; Hokari, Ryota

    2017-03-14

    Uric acid is excreted from blood into the intestinal lumen, yet the roles of uric acid in intestinal diseases remain to be elucidated. In this study, we aimed to determine whether uric acid could reduce endpoints associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced enteropathy. A mouse model of NSAID-induced enteropathy was generated by administering indomethacin intraperitoneally to 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice, and then vehicle or uric acid was administered orally. A group of mice treated with indomethacin was also concurrently administered inosinic acid, a uric acid precursor, and potassium oxonate, an inhibitor of uric acid metabolism, intraperitoneally. For in vitro analysis, Caco-2 cells treated with indomethacin were incubated in the presence or absence of uric acid. Oral administration of uric acid ameliorated NSAID-induced enteropathy in mice even though serum uric acid levels did not increase. Intraperitoneal administration of inosinic acid and potassium oxonate significantly elevated serum uric acid levels and ameliorated NSAID-induced enteropathy in mice. Both oral uric acid treatment and intraperitoneal treatment with inosinic acid and potassium oxonate significantly decreased lipid peroxidation in the ileum of mice with NSAID-induced enteropathy. Treatment with uric acid protected Caco-2 cells from indomethacin-induced oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and cytotoxicity. Uric acid within the intestinal lumen and in serum had a protective effect against NSAID-induced enteropathy in mice, through its antioxidant activity. Uric acid could be a promising therapeutic target for NSAID-induced enteropathy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Selenium ameliorates carbimazole induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in Albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saber Abdel-Rahman Sakr; Faten Roshdy Abdel-Ghafar; Samah Mohamed Abo-El-Yazid

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of the antithyroid drug, carbimazole on liver of albino rats and the possible ameliorative role of selenium. Methods:Four groups of rats were used (n=10), Group 1 served as normal control, Group 2 was orally given sodium selenite (10μg/kg body weight) daily for 8 weeks, Group 3 was orally given carbimazole at a dose level of 1.35 mg/kg body weight, Group 4 was orally administered carbimazole and sodium selenite daily for 8 weeks. Rats in control and treated groups were sacrificed by cervical decapitation after 8 weeks of treatment, their livers were removed and stained with H&E for histological examinations. Alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were determined in the sera. Malondialdehyde and the antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase were measured in the liver. Results:Cytoplasmic vacuolation of the hepatocytes, necrosis, leucocytic infiltrations, blood vessels congestion and fatty degeneration were observed in liver of carbimazole-treated animals. Carbimazole caused marked elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. It also caused an increase in malondialdehyde and depletion of the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase in the liver. Treating animals with carbimazole and selenium led to an improvement in both the histological and biochemical alterations induced by carbimazole. Moreover, selenium reduced the level of malondialdehyde and increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase. Conclusions:It is concluded that the ameliorative effect of selenium against the hepatotoxicity of carbimazole is attributed to its antioxidant properties.

  19. miR-200b precursor can ameliorate renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis.

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    Shigeyoshi Oba

    Full Text Available Members of the miR-200 family of micro RNAs (miRNAs have been shown to inhibit epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. EMT of tubular epithelial cells is the mechanism by which renal fibroblasts are generated. Here we show that miR-200 family members inhibit transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta-induced EMT of tubular cells. Unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO is a common model of EMT of tubular cells and subsequent tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In order to examine the role of miR-200 family members in tubulointerstitial fibrosis, their expression was investigated in the kidneys of UUO mice. The expression of miR-200 family miRNAs was increased in a time-dependent manner, with induction of miR-200b most pronounced. To clarify the effect of miR-200b on tubulointerstitial fibrosis, we injected miR-200b precursor intravenously. A single injection of 0.5 nM miR-200b precursor was sufficient to inhibit the increase of collagen types I, III and fibronectin in obstructed kidneys, and amelioration of fibrosis was confirmed by observation of the kidneys with Azan staining. miR-200 family members have been previously shown to inhibit EMT by reducing the expression of ZEB-1 and ZEB-2 which are known repressors of E-cadherin. We demonstrated that expression of ZEB-1 and ZEB-2 was increased after ureter obstruction and that administration of the miR-200b precursor reversed this effect. In summary, these results indicate that miR-200 family is up-regulated after ureter obstruction, miR-200b being strongly induced, and that miR-200b ameliorates tubulointerstitial fibrosis in obstructed kidneys. We suggest that members of the miR-200 family, and miR-200b specifically, might constitute novel therapeutic targets in kidney disease.

  20. Intranasal telmisartan ameliorates brain pathology in five familial Alzheimer's disease mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torika, Nofar; Asraf, Keren; Cohen, Hagit; Fleisher-Berkovich, Sigal

    2017-08-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a major circulative system engaged in homeostasis modulation. Angiotensin II (Ang II) serves as its main effector hormone upon binding to its primary receptor, Ang II receptor type 1 (AT1R). It is well established that an intrinsic independent brain RAS exists. Abnormal AT1R activation both in the periphery and in the brain probably contributes to the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology that is characterized, among others, by brain inflammation. Moreover, treatment with drugs that block AT1R (AT1R blockers, ARBs) ameliorates most of the clinical risk factors leading to AD. Previously we showed that short period of intranasal treatment with telmisartan (a brain penetrating ARB) reduced brain inflammation and ameliorated amyloid burden (a component of Alzheimer's plaques) in AD transgenic mouse model. In the present study, we aimed to examine the long-term effect of intranasally administrated telmisartan on brain inflammation features including microglial activation, astrogliosis, neuronal loss and hippocampus-dependent cognition in five-familial AD mouse model (5XFAD). Five month of intranasal treatment with telmisartan significantly reduced amyloid burden in the cortex and hippocampus of 5XFAD mice as compared with the vehicle-treated 5XFAD group. Similar effects were also observed for CD11b staining, which is a marker for microglial accumulation. Telmisartan also significantly reduced astrogliosis and neuronal loss in the cortex of 5XFAD mice compared with the vehicle-treated group. Improved spatial acquisition of the 5XFAD mice following long-term intranasal administration of telmisartan was also observed. Taken together, our data suggest a significant role for AT1R blockage in mediating neuronal loss and cognitive behavior, possibly through regulation of amyloid burden and glial inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Reducing Timp3 or Vitronectin Ameliorates Disease Manifestations in CADASIL Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Carmen; Cognat, Emmanuel; Ghezali, Lamia; Baron-Menguy, Céline; Aubin, Déborah; Mesnard, Laurent; Stöhr, Heidi; Domenga-Denier, Valérie; Nelson, Mark T.; Joutel, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Objective CADASIL is a genetic paradigm of cerebral small vessel disease caused by NOTCH3 mutations that stereotypically lead to the extracellular deposition of NOTCH3 ectodomain (Notch3ECD) on the vessels. TIMP3 and vitronectin are 2 extracellular matrix proteins that abnormally accumulate in Notch3ECD-containing deposits on brain vessels of mice and patients with CADASIL. Herein, we investigated whether increased levels of TIMP3 and vitronectin are responsible for aspects of CADASIL disease phenotypes. Methods Timp3 and vitronectin expression were genetically reduced in TgNotch3R169C mice, a well-established preclinical model of CADASIL. A mouse overexpressing human TIMP3 (TgBAC-TIMP3) was developed. Disease-related phenotypes, including cerebral blood flow (CBF) deficits, white matter lesions, and Notch3ECD deposition, were evaluated between 6 and 20 months of age. Results CBF responses to neural activity (functional hyperemia), topical application of vasodilators, and decreases in blood pressure (CBF autoregulation) were similarly reduced in TgNotch3R169C and TgBAC-TIMP3 mice, and myogenic responses of brain arteries were likewise attenuated. These defects were rescued in TgNotch3R169C mice by haploinsufficiency of Timp3, although the number of white matter lesions was unaffected. In contrast, haploinsufficiency or loss of vitronectin in TgNotch3R169C mice ameliorated white matter lesions, although CBF responses were unchanged. Amelioration of cerebrovascular reactivity or white matter lesions in these mice was not associated with reduced Notch3ECD deposition in brain vessels. Interpretation Elevated levels of TIMP3 and vitronectin, acting downstream of Notch3ECD deposition, play a role in CADASIL, producing divergent influences on early CBF deficits and later white matter lesions. PMID:26648042

  2. Catechin Treatment Ameliorates Diabetes and Its Complications in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Farkhondeh, Tahereh

    2017-01-01

    Context: Diabetes mellitus causes atherosclerosis and lipid abnormalities. Hypolipidemic and antioxidative properties of catechin (CTN) have been reported in several studies. Objective: This study assesses the possible protective effects of CTN against oxidative damage in the diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into the control, untreated diabetic, and 3 CTN-treated diabetic groups (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg/d, intraperitoneal). The diabetic rats were induced by streptozotocin. Catechin was injected for 4 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, glucose, lipid profile, apoprotein A-I (apo A-I), apoprotein B (apo B), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and antioxidant enzymes including glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities were determined in serum. Statistical analyses were performed using the InStat 3.0 program. Results: Streptozotocin caused an elevation of glucose, MDA, triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and apo B with reduction in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apo A-I, SOD, CAT, and GST in the serum (P < .05). The findings showed that the significant elevation in the body weight, glucose, MDA, TG, TC, LDL-C, and apo B and reduction in HDL-C, apo A-I, SOD, CAT, and GST were ameliorated in the CTN-treated diabetic groups versus the untreated group, in a dose-dependent manner (P < .05). Conclusion: The present investigation proposes that CTN may ameliorate diabetes and its complications by modification of oxidative stress. PMID:28228702

  3. Manual therapy ameliorates delayed-onset muscle soreness and alters muscle metabolites in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakawa, Susumu; Takamoto, Kouichi; Nakamura, Tomoya; Sakai, Shigekazu; Matsuda, Teru; Taguchi, Toru; Mizumura, Kazue; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-02-01

    Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) can be induced by lengthening contraction (LC); it can be characterized by tenderness and movement-related pain in the exercised muscle. Manual therapy (MT), including compression of exercised muscles, is widely used as physical rehabilitation to reduce pain and promote functional recovery. Although MT is beneficial for reducing musculoskeletal pain (i.e. DOMS), the physiological mechanisms of MT remain unclear. In the present study, we first developed an animal model of MT in DOMS; LC was applied to the rat gastrocnemius muscle under anesthesia, which induced mechanical hyperalgesia 2-4 days after LC. MT (manual compression) ameliorated mechanical hyperalgesia. Then, we used capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (CE-TOFMS) to investigate early effects of MT on the metabolite profiles of the muscle experiencing DOMS. The rats were divided into the following three groups; (1) normal controls, (2) rats with LC application (LC group), and (3) rats undergoing MT after LC (LC + MT group). According to the CE-TOFMS analysis, a total of 171 metabolites were detected among the three groups, and 19 of these metabolites were significant among the groups. Furthermore, the concentrations of eight metabolites, including branched-chain amino acids, carnitine, and malic acid, were significantly different between the LC + MT and LC groups. The results suggest that MT significantly altered metabolite profiles in DOMS. According to our findings and previous data regarding metabolites in mitochondrial metabolism, the ameliorative effects of MT might be mediated partly through alterations in metabolites associated with mitochondrial respiration.

  4. Swimming exercise ameliorates depression-like behaviors induced by prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weina; Xu, Yongjun; Lu, Jianqiang; Zhang, Yanmin; Sheng, Hui; Ni, Xin

    2012-08-30

    Prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids (GCs) leads to affective dysfunction in adulthood, which may be associated with the alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Physical exercise has been shown to ameliorate depressive symptoms. The objectives of present study were to investigate whether prenatal exposure to GCs induces depression-like behaviors in adult offspring rats, and determine whether swimming exercise alleviates the depression-like behaviors induced by this paradigm. Pregnant rats received dexamethasone (DEX) (0.1mg/kg/day) in the last third of pregnancy or vehicle. DEX treatment reduced body weight in 1, 3, 6, 9-week old male offspring, and 3, 6, 9-week old female offspring. DEX treatment resulted in an elevated level of serum corticosterone in adult offspring (9weeks). Female and male adult offspring rats exhibited decreased number of poking into holes and rearing and decreased central distance traveled in open field test (OFT), and reduced sucrose consumption, suggesting prenatal DEX exposure increase depression-like behaviors in the adult offspring rats. Four-week swimming exercise reduced serum corticosterone levels, and alleviated the depressive behavior by reversing the decreased number of poking into holes and rearing as well as decreased central distance traveled, and reversing the reduced sucrose consumption in male and female adult offspring. These findings suggested prenatal exposure to GCs increase the activity of HPA axis and depression-like behaviors of adult offsprings. Swimming exercise decreases HPA activity and ameliorates depression in rats exposed to DEX prenatally. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Total saponin of Dioscoreae hypoglaucae rhizoma ameliorates streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo C

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Changrun Guo,1 Gang Ding,2 Wenzhe Huang,2 Zhenzhong Wang,2 Zhaoqing Meng,1,2 Wei Xiao2 1State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2Jiangsu Kanion Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd, Lianyungang City, People’s Republic of China Background: Diabetic nephropathy has become the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Therefore, there is an urgent need for more effective and safer drugs for use in this condition.Purpose: The aims of this study were to investigate the ameliorative effects of total saponin of Dioscoreae hypoglaucae rhizoma (TSD on diabetic nephropathy and to explore the potential underlying mechanism(s.Methods: Rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were orally treated with TSD at 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg/d for 12 weeks. At the end of the treatment, blood, urine, and kidneys were collected for biochemical and histological examination.Results: The results demonstrated that TSD significantly decreased the fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, urinary protein, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen levels in diabetic rats. The results of histological examinations showed that TSD ameliorated glomerular and tubular pathological changes in diabetic rats. Furthermore, TSD significantly prevented oxidative stress and reduced the renal levels of advanced glycation end products, transforming growth factor-β1, connective tissue growth factor, and tumor necrosis factor-α.Conclusion: This study demonstrated the renoprotective effects of TSD in experimental diabetic nephropathy via a number of different mechanisms. Keywords: total saponin of Dioscoreae hypoglaucae rhizoma, diabetic nephropathy, oxidative stress, AGEs, TGF-β1

  6. Piromelatine ameliorates memory deficits associated with chronic mild stress-induced anhedonia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wan; Xie, Heng; Laudon, Moshe; Zhou, Shouhong; Tian, Shaowen; You, Yong

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that piromelatine (a melatonin and serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT1D agonist) exerts an antidepressant activity in rodent models of acute stress and improves cognitive impairments in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the role of piromelatine in chronic stress-induced memory dysfunction remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether piromelatine ameliorates chronic mild stress (CMS)-induced memory deficits and explore the underlying mechanisms. Rats were exposed randomly to chronic mild stressors for 7 weeks to induce anhedonia (reflected by a significant decrease in sucrose intake), which was used to select rats vulnerable (CMS-anhedonic, CMSA) or resistant (CMS-resistant, CMSR) to stress. Piromelatine (50 mg/kg) was administered daily during the last 2 weeks of CMS. The tail suspension and forced swimming tests were adopted to further characterize vulnerable and resilient rats. The Y-maze and novel object recognition (NOR) tests were used to evaluate memory performance. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), phosphorylated CREB (pCREB), and cytogenesis were measured in the hippocampus. We found that only CMSA rats displayed significant increases in immobility time in the tail suspension and forced swimming tests; memory deficits in the Y-maze and NOR tests; significant decreases in hippocampal BDNF, CREB, and pCREB expression; and cytogenesis. All these anhedonia-associated effects were reversed by piromelatine. Piromelatine ameliorates memory deficits associated with CMS-induced anhedonia in rats and this effect may be mediated by restoring hippocampal BDNF, CREB, and cytogenesis deficits.

  7. Ghrelin ameliorates the human alveolar epithelial A549 cell apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chunrong; Zheng, Haichong; He, Wanmei; Lu, Guifang; Li, Xia [Department of Medical Intensive Care Unit, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Deng, Yubin, E-mail: dengyub@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Research Center of Translational Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Zeng, Mian, E-mail: zengmian2004@163.com [Department of Medical Intensive Care Unit, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2016-05-20

    Ghrelin is a gastric acyl-peptide that plays an inhibitory role in cell apoptosis. Herein we investigate the protective effects of ghrelin in LPS-induced apoptosis of human alveolar epithelial A549 cells, along with the possible molecular mechanisms. LPS exposure impaired cell viability and increased apoptosis of A549 cells significantly in concentration- and time-dependent manners embodied in increased Bax and cleaved caspase-3 production, coupled with decreased Bcl-2 levels. Simultaneously, LPS remarkably decreased the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinas (ERK) in A549 cells. However, ghrelin'pretreatment ameliorated LPS-caused alterations in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 expression, whereas activated the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling. These results demonstrate that ghrelin lightens LPS-induced apoptosis of human alveolar epithelial cells partly through activating the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathway and thereby might benefit alleviating septic ALI. -- Graphical abstract: Ghrelin ameliorates the human alveolar epithelial A549 cells apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide partly through activating the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathway. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •It has been observed that LPS insult significantly increased apoptosis in A549 cells. •Both Akt and ERK signaling are critical adapter molecules to mediate the ghrelin-mediated proliferative effect. •Ghrelin may have a therapeutic effect in the prevention of LPS-induced apoptosis.

  8. Calhex₂₃₁ Ameliorates Cardiac Hypertrophy by Inhibiting Cellular Autophagy in Vivo and in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Wang, Chao; Sun, Dianjun; Jiang, Shuangquan; Li, Hong; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Yajun; Xi, Yuhui; Shi, Sa; Lu, Fanghao; Tian, Ye; Xu, Changqing; Wang, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) homeostasis, an initial factor of cardiac hypertrophy, is regulated by the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and is associated with the formation of autolysosomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Calhex231, a CaSR inhibitor, on the hypertrophic response via autophagy modulation. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in 40 male Wistar rats, while 10 rats underwent a sham operation and served as controls. Cardiac function was monitored by transthoracic echocardiography, and the hypertrophy index was calculated. Cardiac tissue was stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) or Masson’s trichrome reagent and examined by transmission electron microscopy. An angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy model was established and used to test the involvement of active molecules. Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was determined by the introduction of Fluo-4/AM dye followed by confocal microscopy. The expression of various active proteins was analyzed by western blot. The rats with TAC-induced hypertrophy had an increased heart size, ratio of heart weight to body weight, myocardial fibrosis, and CaSR and autophagy levels, which were suppressed by Calhex231. Experimental results using Ang II-induced hypertrophic cardiomyocytes confirmed that Calhex231 suppressed CaSR expression and downregulated autophagy by inhibiting the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent-protein kinase-kinase-β (CaMKKβ)– AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway to ameliorate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Calhex231 ameliorates myocardial hypertrophy induced by pressure-overload or Ang II via inhibiting CaSR expression and autophagy. Our results may support the notion that Calhex231 can become a new therapeutic agent for the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Ameliorating antipsychotic-induced weight gain by betahistine: Mechanisms and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Pai, Nagesh; Deng, Chao

    2016-04-01

    Second generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) cause substantial body weight gain/obesity and other metabolic side-effects such as dyslipidaemia. Their antagonistic affinity to the histaminergic H1 receptor (H1R) has been identified as one of the main contributors to weight gain/obesity side-effects. The effects and mechanisms of betahistine (a histaminergic H1R agonist and H3 receptor antagonist) have been investigated for ameliorating SGA-induced weight gain/obesity in both animal models and clinical trials. It has been demonstrated that co-treatment with betahistine is effective in reducing weight gain, associated with olanzapine in drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia, as well as in the animal models of both drug-naïve rats and rats with chronic, repeated exposure to olanzapine. Betahistine co-treatment can reduce food intake and increase the effect of thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue by modulating hypothalamic H1R-NPY-AMPKα (NPY: neuropeptide Y; AMPKα: AMP-activated protein kinase α) pathways, and ameliorate olanzapine-induced dyslipidaemia through modulation of AMPKα-SREBP-1-PPARα-dependent pathways (SREBP-1: Sterol regulatory element binding protein 1; PPARα: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α) in the liver. Although reduced locomotor activity was observed from antipsychotic treatment in rats, betahistine did not affect locomotor activity. Importantly, betahistine co-treatment did not influence the effects of antipsychotics on serotonergic receptors in the key brain regions for antipsychotic therapeutic efficacy. However, betahistine co-treatment reverses the upregulated dopamine D2 binding caused by chronic olanzapine administration, which may be beneficial in reducing D2 supersensitivity often observed in chronic antipsychotic treatment. Therefore, these results provide solid evidence supporting further clinical trials in treating antipsychotics-induced weight gain using betahistine in patients with schizophrenia and other mental

  10. A humanin derivative reduces amyloid beta accumulation and ameliorates memory deficit in triple transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Niikura

    Full Text Available Humanin (HN, a 24-residue peptide, was identified as a novel neuroprotective factor and shows anti-cell death activity against a wide spectrum of Alzheimer's disease (AD-related cytotoxicities, including exposure to amyloid beta (Abeta, in vitro. We previously demonstrated that the injection of S14G-HN, a highly potent HN derivative, into brain ameliorated memory loss in an Abeta-injection mouse model. To fully understand HN's functions under AD-associated pathological conditions, we examined the effect of S14G-HN on triple transgenic mice harboring APP(swe, tau(P310L, and PS-1(M146V that show the age-dependent development of multiple pathologies relating to AD. After 3 months of intranasal treatment, behavioral analyses showed that S14G-HN ameliorated cognitive impairment in male mice. Moreover, ELISA and immunohistochemical analyses showed that Abeta levels in brains were markedly lower in S14G-HN-treated male and female mice than in vehicle control mice. We also found the expression level of neprilysin, an Abeta degrading enzyme, in the outer molecular layer of hippocampal formation was increased in S14G-HN-treated mouse brains. NEP activity was also elevated by S14G-HN treatment in vitro. These findings suggest that decreased Abeta level in these mice is at least partly attributed to S14G-HN-induced increase of neprilysin level. Although HN was identified as an anti-neuronal death factor, these results indicate that HN may also have a therapeutic effect on amyloid accumulation in AD.

  11. Silicon-Mediated Amelioration of Fe2+ Toxicity in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU You-Qiang; SHEN Hong; WU Dao-Ming; CAI Kun-Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Silicon (Si) can enhance the resistance of plants to many abiotic stresses. To explore whether Si ameliorates Fe2+ toxicity,a hydroponic experiment was performed to investigate whether and how Si detoxifies Fe2+ toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) roots.Results indicated that rice cultivar Tianyou 998 (TY998) showed greater sensitivity to Fe2+ toxicity than rice cultivar Peizataifeng (PZTF).Treatment with 0.1 mmol L-1 Fe2+ inhibited TY998 root elongation and root biomass significantly.Reddish iron plaque was formed on root surface of both cultivars.TY998 had a higher amount of iron plaque than PZTF.Addition of Si to the solution of Fe treatment decreased the amount of iron plaque on root surface by 17.6% to 37.1% and iron uptake in rice roots by 37.0% to 40.3%,and subsequently restored root elongation triggered by Fe2+ toxicity by 13.5% in the TY998.Compared with Fe treatment,the addition of 1 mmol L-1 Si to the solution of Fe treatment increased xylem sap flow by 19.3% to 24.8% and root-shoot Fe transportation by 45.0% to 78.6%.Furthermore,Si addition to the solution of Fe treatment induced root cell wall to thicken.These results suggested that Si could detoxify Fe2+ toxicity and Si-mediated amelioration of Fe2+ toxicity in rice roots was associated with less iron plaque on root surface and more Fe transportation from roots to shoots.

  12. Combination of telmisartan with sildenafil ameliorate progression of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mahdy, Nageh Ahmed; El-Sayad, Magda El-Sayed; El-Kadem, Aya Hassan

    2016-07-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease in the world. Several signaling pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of DN including elevation in level of angiotensin II, formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE), activation of protein kinase c (PKC), and lipid accumulation. These pathways activate one another mutually leading to oxidative stress, increasing expression of transforming growth factor beta-1(TGF-β 1) and release of interleukins and adhesion molecules, so the aim of this study is to interrupt more than pathogenic pathway to ameliorate the progression of DN. In the present study, white male rats (N=48) were divided into six groups (8 rats each), the first two groups served as normal control and a control vehicle group while the remaining four groups were rendered diabetic by a single intraperitoneal injection of Streptozotocin (STZ) and being left for 4 weeks to develop DN. Thereafter, the rats were divided into DN group, DN group receiving Telmisartan or Sildenafil or Telmisartan Sildenafil combination. After the specified treatment period, urine samples were collected (using metabolic cages) to measure proteinuria, animals were then euthanized, blood and tissue samples were collected for measurement of Blood glucose,BUN, S.Cr, LDL, NO, TGF-β1, IL-1β, AGEPs, and SOD. The combination therapy showed significant decrease in BUN, S.Cr,LDL, TGF-β1, IL-1β, Proteinuria and AGEPs and significant increase in SOD and NO. The findings showed that combination therapy was able to ameliorate DN and that the effects were superior to the single drugs alone.

  13. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities of olmesartan medoxomil ameliorate experimental colitis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagib, Marwa M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University, Cairo (Egypt); Tadros, Mariane G., E-mail: mirogeogo@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); ELSayed, Moushira I. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University, Cairo (Egypt); Khalifa, Amani E. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-08-15

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) driven through altered immune responses with production of proinflammatory cytokines. Many therapies are used, but side effects and loss of response limit long-term effectiveness. New therapeutic strategies are thus needed for patients who don't respond to current treatments. Recently, there is suggested involvement of the proinflammatory hormone angiotensin II in inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of olmesartan medoxomil (OLM-M), an angiotensin II receptor blocker in ameliorating ulcerative colitis. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats by administration of 5% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in drinking water for 5 days. OLM-M (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg) was administered orally during 21 days prior to the induction of colitis, and for 5 days after. Sulfasalazine (500 mg/kg) was used as reference drug. All animals were tested for changes in colon length, disease activity index (DAI) and microscopic damage. Colon tissue concentration/activity of tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α), myeloperoxidase (MPO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed. Results showed that the OLM-M dose-dependently ameliorated the colonic histopathological and biochemical injuries, an effect that is comparable or even better than that of the standard sulfasalazine. These results suggest that olmesartan medoxomil may be effective in the treatment of UC through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. - Highlights: • Olmesartan medoximil reduced dextran sodium sulphate- induced colitis. • Mechanism involved anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects dose- dependently. • It suppressed malondialdehyde and restored reduced glutathione levels. • It reduced inflammatory markers levels and histological changes.

  14. Amelioration of Chemotherapy-Induced Intestinal Mucositis by Orally Administered Probiotics in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chun-Bin; Cheng, Mei-Lien; Liu, Chia-Yuan; Chang, Szu-Wen; Chiang Chiau, Jen-Shiu; Lee, Hung-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Intestinal mucositis is a frequently encountered side effect in oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy. No well-established or up to date therapeutic strategies are available. To study a novel way to alleviate mucositis, we investigate the effects and safety of probiotic supplementation in ameliorating 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in a mouse model. Methods Seventy-two mice were injected saline or 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) intraperitoneally daily. Mice were either orally administrated daily saline, probiotic suspension of Lactobacillus casei variety rhamnosus (Lcr35) or Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum (LaBi). Diarrhea score, pro-inflammatory cytokines serum levels, intestinal villus height and crypt depth and total RNA from tissue were assessed. Samples of blood, liver and spleen tissues were assessed for translocation. Results Marked diarrhea developed in the 5-FU groups but was attenuated after oral Lcr35 and LaBi administrations. Diarrhea scores decreased significantly from 2.64 to 1.45 and 0.80, respectively (Pprobiotics administration. We also found TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA expressions were up-regulated in intestinal mucositis tissues following 5-FU treatment (TNF-α: 4.35 vs. 1.18, IL-1β: 2.29 vs. 1.07, IL-6: 1.49 vs. 1.02) and that probiotics treatment suppressed this up-regulation (Pprobiotics Lcr35 and LaBi can ameliorate chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis in a mouse model. This suggests probiotics may serve as an alternative therapeutic strategy for the prevention or management of chemotherapy-induced mucositis in the future. PMID:26406888

  15. Ameliorative effects of arctiin from Arctium lappa on experimental glomerulonephritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Guo; Wu, Jin-Zhong; Sun, Lian-Na; Han, Ting; Du, Jian; Ye, Qi; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Yu-Guang

    2009-11-01

    Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) remains the most common cause of adult-onset nephrotic syndrome in the world and up to 40% of untreated patients will progress to end-stage renal disease. Although the treatment of MGN with immunosuppressants or steroid hormones can attenuate the deterioration of renal function, numerous treatment-related complications have also been established. In this study, the ameliorative effects of arctiin, a natural compound isolated from the fruits of Arctium lappa, on rat glomerulonephritis induced by cationic bovine serum albumin (cBSA) were determined. After oral administration of arctiin (30, 60, 120 mg/kgd) for three weeks, the levels of serum creatinine (Scr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and 24-h urine protein content markedly decreased, while endogenous creatinine clearance rate (ECcr) significantly increased. The parameters of renal lesion, hypercellularity, infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN), fibrinoid necrosis, focal and segmental proliferation and interstitial infiltration, were reversed. In addition, we observed that arctiin evidently reduced the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), suppressed nuclear factor-kappaB p65 (NF-kappaB) DNA binding activity, and enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. These findings suggest that the ameliorative effects of arctiin on glomerulonephritis is carried out mainly by suppression of NF-kappaB activation and nuclear translocation and the decreases in the levels of these pro-inflammatory cytokines, while SOD is involved in the inhibitory pathway of NF-kappaB activation. Arctiin has favorable potency for the development of an inhibitory agent of NF-kappaB and further application to clinical treatment of glomerulonephritis, though clinical studies are required.

  16. Sustainable poverty amelioration through early life education in a peri-urban community of Lagos, Nigeria

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    Olayinka A. Abosede

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Daycare centres/nurseries have become popular because of the need for working mothers to leave young children with caregivers. However, the high poverty level (54% relative and 35% extreme poverty makes it difficult for disadvantaged parents to pay the high fees charged by the centres. This study describes an attempt to economically empower mothers through the organisation of free early life education in a peri-urban community in Lagos.Objectives: The aim of the study was to examine early life education for under-fives as a means of economic empowerment of mothers and sustainable poverty amelioration. Method: The methodology included a non-randomised selection of 34 disadvantaged mothers by criteria, a prospective intervention utilising community resources to organise early childhood education, an in-depth interview of mothers, and observation of the outcomes over a 5-year period.Results: The result of the study showed that no mother preferred keeping a child older than three years at home. Access to early childhood education gave mothers opportunity to undergo vocational training (1, 2.8% and take up new/additional jobs (12, 35.3%. All mothers and 32 (80% of the participating families more than doubled their income, earning up to twenty thousand Naira (approximately $182 per month from the first year of participation. Finally, selection criteria and periodic assessment of immunisation/growth monitoring records of participants’ children improved compliance with primary health care service utilisation.Conclusion: Organisation of early childhood education had the potential for sustainable poverty amelioration through economic empowerment of mothers.

  17. Solubilization of menthol by platycodin D in aqueous solution: an integrated study of classical experiments and dissipative particle dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Haiou; Yin, Qianqian; Wan, Guang; Dai, Xingxing; Shi, Xinyuan; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2015-03-01

    Menthol (M) and platycodin D (PD) are the main active ingredients in Mentha haplocalyx and Platycodon grandiflorum A. DC., respectively. They are commonly used in combination in traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, laboratory experiments and computer simulations were used to investigate the solubilization of M by PD, which was believed to be one of the main causes of the synergistic effect of M. haplocalyx and P. grandiflorum A. DC. Results showed that both the method by which M was added and the concentration of PD had significant effects on the solubilization efficiency of M, and these influences were closely associated with each other. Temperature, an important environmental condition, was also found to have a significant effect on the solubilization effect of PD. These findings not only clarify the molecular basis of the solubilization effect, including amount solubilized at the macroscale and the structures of the micelles, and the drug loading mechanisms and processing at the mesoscale. This work may provide some guidance for the further development of saponins and fundamental research in the drug delivery system.

  18. Changes in the properties of a crusty solonetz with soda salinization after single and repeated amelioration with phosphogypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voropaeva, Z. I.; Trotsenko, I. A.; Parfenov, A. I.

    2011-03-01

    Different effects of single and repeated application of various rates of phosphogypsum to a crusty meadow chernozemic high-sodium solonetz with soda salinization formed in the zone of insufficient moistening in the forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia (the Ishim-Irtysh interfluve area) with the mean annual precipitation of 325 mm are revealed. Repeated phosphogypsum application provided a higher saturation of the soil exchange complex with exchangeable calcium, deeper desalinization of the soil profile, and more intensive removal of the exchange products beyond the 1-m-thick layer as compared to a single phosphogypsum application. The soil reclamation results in the soil profile's differentiation into three zones with respect to the salt content: the desalinization, transit, and accumulation zones. The greater the ameliorant rate, the higher the soil desalinization upon a single application of phosphogypsum. Upon the repeated phosphogypsum application, the zones of desalinization and salt transit are thicker irrespectively of the ameliorant rate. Despite the additional salt application, the degree of salinization in the upper 2 m does not increase. Data of the long-term investigations show that a single gypsum application exerts a favorable and long-term ameliorative effect. In the solonetz repeatedly ameliorated with phosphogypsum at the rates of 8 and 16 t/ha, the amount of the reacted phosphogypsum considerably exceeds the applied calculated rate and is almost equal to that upon a single application of phosphogypsum at the double rate (32 t/ha). It has been shown that not only the repeatedly applied phosphogypsum but also the soil calcium participates in the exchange reactions. This makes it possible to apply smaller rates of the ameliorant or calculate its rate for the upper 10-cm-thick layer.

  19. Drug: D06703 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available y) Platycodon root Major component: Platycodin [CPD:C17443 C17487 C17410] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs... 5100 Crude drugs D06703 Platycodon root (JP16); Powdered platycodon root (JP16) Traditional ...scharge Drugs for pus discharge D06703 *Platycodon root; Powdered platycodon root; Platycodon root Crude drugs

  20. Plecanatide and dolcanatide, novel guanylate cyclase-C agonists, ameliorate gastrointestinal inflammation in experimental models of murine colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kunwar; Shailubhai; Vaseem; Palejwala; Krishna; Priya; Arjunan; Sayali; Saykhedkar; Bradley; Nefsky; John; A; Foss; Stephen; Comiskey; Gary; S; Jacob; Scott; E; Plevy

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of orally administeredplecanatide or dolcanatide, analogs of uroguanylin, on amelioration of colitis in murine models.METHODS: The cyclic guanosine monophosphate(cG MP) stimulatory potency of plecanatide and dolcanatide was measured using a human colon carcinoma T84 cellbased assay. For animal studies all test agents were formulated in phosphate buffered saline. Sulfasalazine or 5-amino salicylic acid(5-ASA) served as positive controls. Effect of oral treatment with test agents on amelioration of acute colitis induced either by dextran sulfate sodium(DSS) in drinking water or by rectal instillation of trinitrobenzene sulfonic(TNBS) acid, was examined in BALB/c and/or BDF1 mice. Additionally, the effect of orally administered plecanatide on the spontaneous colitis in T-cell receptor alpha knockout(TCRα-/-) mice was also examined. Amelioration of colitis was assessed by monitoring severity of colitis, disease activity index and by histopathology. Frozen colon tissues were used to measure myeloperoxidase activity.RESULTS: Plecanatide and dolcanatide are structurally related analogs of uroguanylin, which is an endogenous ligand of guanylate cyclase-C(GC-C). As expected from the agonists of GC-C, both plecanatide and dolcanatide exhibited potent cG MP-stimulatory activity in T84 cells. Once-daily treatment by oral gavage with either of these analogs(0.05-0.5 mg/kg) ameliorated colitis in both DSS and TNBS-induced models of acute colitis, as assessed by body weight, reduction in colitis severity(P < 0.05) and disease activity index(P < 0.05). Amelioration of colitis by either of the drug candidates was comparable to that achieved by orally administered sulfasalazine or 5-ASA. Plecanatide also effectively ameliorated colitis in TCRα-/- mice, a model of spontaneous colitis. As dolcanatide exhibited higher resistance to proteolysis in simulated gastric and intestinal juices, it was selected for further studies. CONCLUSION: This is the first

  1. Curcuma oil ameliorates insulin resistance & associated thrombotic complications in hamster & rat

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    Vishal Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Curcuma oil (C. oil isolated from turmeric (Curcuma longa L. has been shown to have neuro-protective, anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-hyperlipidaemic effects in experimental animal models. However, its effect in insulin resistant animals remains unclear. The present study was carried out to investigate the disease modifying potential and underlying mechanisms of the C. oil in animal models of diet induced insulin resistance and associated thrombotic complications. Methods: Male Golden Syrian hamsters on high fructose diet (HFr for 12 wk were treated orally with vehicle, fenofibrate (30 mg/kg or C. oil (300 mg/kg in the last four weeks. Wistar rats fed HFr for 12 wk were treated orally with C. oil (300 mg/kg in the last two weeks. To examine the protective effect of C. oil, blood glucose, serum insulin, platelet aggregation, thrombosis and inflammatory markers were assessed in these animals. Results: Animals fed with HFr diet for 12 wk demonstrated hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, alteration in insulin sensitivity indices, increased lipid peroxidation, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, platelet free radical generation, tyrosine phosphorylation, aggregation, adhesion and intravascular thrombosis. Curcuma oil treatment for the last four weeks in hamsters ameliorated HFr-induced hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation, and thrombosis. In HFr fed hamsters, the effect of C. oil at 300 mg/kg [ ] was comparable with the standard drug fenofibrate. Curcuma oil treatment in the last two weeks in rats ameliorated HFr-induced hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia by modulating hepatic expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator 1 (PGC-1α and PGC-1β genes known to be involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. Interpretation

  2. Curcuma oil ameliorates insulin resistance & associated thrombotic complications in hamster & rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vishal; Jain, Manish; Misra, Ankita; Khanna, Vivek; Prakash, Prem; Malasoni, Richa; Dwivedi, Anil Kumar; Dikshit, Madhu; Barthwal, Manoj Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Curcuma oil (C. oil) isolated from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) has been shown to have neuro-protective, anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-hyperlipidaemic effects in experimental animal models. However, its effect in insulin resistant animals remains unclear. The present study was carried out to investigate the disease modifying potential and underlying mechanisms of the C. oil in animal models of diet induced insulin resistance and associated thrombotic complications. Male Golden Syrian hamsters on high fructose diet (HFr) for 12 wk were treated orally with vehicle, fenofibrate (30 mg/kg) or C. oil (300 mg/kg) in the last four weeks. Wistar rats fed HFr for 12 wk were treated orally with C. oil (300 mg/kg) in the last two weeks. To examine the protective effect of C. oil, blood glucose, serum insulin, platelet aggregation, thrombosis and inflammatory markers were assessed in these animals. Animals fed with HFr diet for 12 wk demonstrated hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, alteration in insulin sensitivity indices, increased lipid peroxidation, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, platelet free radical generation, tyrosine phosphorylation, aggregation, adhesion and intravascular thrombosis. Curcuma oil treatment for the last four weeks in hamsters ameliorated HFr-induced hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation, and thrombosis. In HFr fed hamsters, the effect of C. oil at 300 mg/kg [ ] was comparable with the standard drug fenofibrate. Curcuma oil treatment in the last two weeks in rats ameliorated HFr-induced hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia by modulating hepatic expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator 1 (PGC-1)α and PGC-1β genes known to be involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. High fructose feeding to rats and hamsters led to the development of insulin

  3. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor ameliorates brain stem cardiovascular dysregulation during experimental temporal lobe status epilepticus.

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    Ching-Yi Tsai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Status epilepticus (SE is an acute, prolonged epileptic crisis with a mortality rate of 20-30%; the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. We assessed the hypothesis that brain stem cardiovascular dysregulation occurs during SE because of oxidative stress in rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM, a key nucleus of the baroreflex loop; to be ameliorated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF via an antioxidant action. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a clinically relevant experimental model of temporal lobe SE (TLSE using Sprague-Dawley rats, sustained hippocampal seizure activity was accompanied by progressive hypotension that was preceded by a reduction in baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone; heart rate and baroreflex-mediated cardiac responses remained unaltered. Biochemical experiments further showed concurrent augmentation of superoxide anion, phosphorylated p47(phox subunit of NADPH oxidase and mRNA or protein levels of BDNF, tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB, angiotensin AT1 receptor subtype (AT1R, nitric oxide synthase II (NOS II or peroxynitrite in RVLM. Whereas pretreatment by microinjection bilaterally into RVLM of a superoxide dismutase mimetic (tempol, a specific antagonist of NADPH oxidase (apocynin or an AT1R antagonist (losartan blunted significantly the augmented superoxide anion or phosphorylated p47(phox subunit in RVLM, hypotension and the reduced baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone during experimental TLSE, pretreatment with a recombinant human TrkB-Fc fusion protein or an antisense bdnf oligonucleotide significantly potentiated all those events, alongside peroxynitrite. However, none of the pretreatments affected the insignificant changes in heart rate and baroreflex-mediated cardiac responses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that formation of peroxynitrite by a reaction between superoxide anion generated by NADPH oxidase in RVLM on activation by AT1R and NOS II

  4. Biologically Synthesized Gold Nanoparticles Ameliorate Cold and Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress in Escherichia coli

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    Xi-Feng Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to their unique physical, chemical, and optical properties, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs have recently attracted much interest in the field of nanomedicine, especially in the areas of cancer diagnosis and photothermal therapy. Because of the enormous potential of these nanoparticles, various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been adopted for their synthesis. Synthetic antioxidants are dangerous to human health. Thus, the search for effective, nontoxic natural compounds with effective antioxidative properties is essential. Although AuNPs have been studied for use in various biological applications, exploration of AuNPs as antioxidants capable of inhibiting oxidative stress induced by heat and cold stress is still warranted. Therefore, one goal of our study was to produce biocompatible AuNPs using biological methods that are simple, nontoxic, biocompatible, and environmentally friendly. Next, we aimed to assess the antioxidative effect of AuNPs against oxidative stress induced by cold and heat in Escherichia coli, which is a suitable model for stress responses involving AuNPs. The response of aerobically grown E. coli cells to cold and heat stress was found to be similar to the oxidative stress response. Upon exposure to cold and heat stress, the viability and metabolic activity of E. coli was significantly reduced compared to the control. In addition, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA and leakage of proteins and sugars were significantly elevated, and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH and adenosine triphosphate (ATP significantly lowered compared to in the control. Concomitantly, AuNPs ameliorated cold and heat-induced oxidative stress responses by increasing the expression of antioxidants, including glutathione (GSH, glutathione S-transferase (GST, super oxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT. These consistent physiology and biochemical data suggest that AuNPs can ameliorate cold and

  5. [Environmental Effect of Substrate Amelioration on Lake: Effects on Phragmites communis Growth and Photosynthetic Fluorescence Characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ju-hua; Zhong, Ji-cheng; Fan, Cheng-xin; Huang, Wei; Shang, Jing-ge; Gu, Xiao-zhi

    2015-12-01

    Growth of rooted aquatic macrophytes was affected by the nature and composition of lake bottom sediments. Obviously, it has been recognized as an important ecological restoration measure by improving lake substrate and then reestablishing and restoring aquatic macrophytes in order to get rid of the environmental problem of lake. This study simulated five covering thickness to give an insight into the influence of substrate amelioration on Phragmites communis growth and photosynthetic fluorescence characteristics. The results showed that the total biomass, plant height, leaf length and leaf width of Phragmites communis under capping 5 cm were much more significant than those of capping 18 cm (P Phragmites communis , but the growth of control group Phragmites communis was slightly constrained by eutrophicated sediment. In addition, as the capping thickness growing, the underground: shoot biomass ratio of the plant would be reduced dramatically, in order to acquire much more nutrients from sediment for plant growing, the underground biomass of Phragmites communis would be preferentially developed, especially, the biomass of fine root. However, Photosystem II (PS II) photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), quantum yield (Yield), photochemical quenching (qP), non-photochemical quenching (qN) of Phragmites communis under different treatments had no significant differences (P > 0.05), furthermore, with much greater capping thickness, the photosynthesis structure of PS II would be much easier destroyed, and PS II would be protected by increasing heat dissipating and reducing leaf photosynthetic area and leaf light-captured pigment contents. In terms of the influence of sediment amelioration by soil exchange on the growth and photosynthetic fluorescence characteristics of Phragmites communis, plant growth could be effectively promoted under capping 2 cm and capping 5 cm by increasing the Eh value and nutrient content, whereas plant under capping 18 cm would be much easier

  6. Paroxetine ameliorates changes in hippocampal energy metabolism in chronic mild stress-exposed rats

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    Khedr LH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lobna H Khedr, Noha N Nassar, Ezzeldin S El-Denshary, Ahmed M Abdel-tawab 1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University, 2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, 3Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt Abstract: The molecular mechanisms underlying stress-induced depression have not been fully outlined. Hence, the current study aimed at testing the link between behavioral changes in chronic mild stress (CMS model and changes in hippocampal energy metabolism and the role of paroxetine (PAROX in ameliorating these changes. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: vehicle control, CMS-exposed rats, and CMS-exposed rats receiving PAROX (10 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally. Sucrose preference, open-field, and forced swimming tests were carried out. Corticosterone (CORT was measured in serum, while adenosine triphosphate and its metabolites, cytosolic cytochrome-c (Cyt-c, caspase-3 (Casp-3, as well as nitric oxide metabolites (NOx were measured in hippocampal tissue homogenates. CMS-exposed rats showed a decrease in sucrose preference as well as body weight compared to control, which was reversed by PAROX. The latter further ameliorated the CMS-induced elevation of CORT in serum (91.71±1.77 ng/mL vs 124.5±4.44 ng/mL, P<0.001 as well as the changes in adenosine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate (3.76±0.02 nmol/mg protein vs 1.07±0.01 nmol/mg protein, P<0.001. Furthermore, PAROX reduced the expression of Cyt-c and Casp-3, as well as restoring NOx levels. This study highlights the role of PAROX in reversing depressive behavior associated with stress-induced apoptosis and changes in hippocampal energy metabolism in the CMS model of depression. Keywords: rats, CMS, hippocampus, paroxetine, apoptosis, adenine nucleotides, cytochrome-c, caspase-3

  7. Mesenchymal stem cells transplantation mildly ameliorates experimental diabetic nephropathy in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hong; TIAN Hao-ming; LONG Yang; ZHANG Xiang-xun; ZHONG Li; DENG Li; CHEN Xiao-he; LI Xiu-qun

    2009-01-01

    Background Diabetic nephropathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus.This study aimed to explore whether mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs)transplantation could attenuate diabetic nephropathy in experimental diabetic rats.Methods Sprague-Dawley rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin(STZ)(60 mg/kg).Diabetic rats were randomized to four groups:diabetes control group(DC),ciclosporin A group(CsA),MSC group,and MSC+CsA group(MSCA).Bone marrow mesenchymal stern cells were cultured,identified and labeled by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine(BrdU)in vitro.Then they were transplanted to diabetic rats via introcardiac infusion.Ciclosporin A was administered daily at 5 mg/kg.At 1,2,4,8 weeks after transplantation,random blood glucose,urine albumin/creatinine ratio(Alb/Cr),endogenous creatinine clearance rate and renal mass index were tested.Renal morphology and labeled cells were examined.Results Cultured MSCs expressed mesenchymal cell phenotype,and could be multidifferentiated to osteogenic and adipogenic cells.Labeled MSCs could be detected in the kidney of nephropathic rats,mainly in renal interstitium,but they did not propagate after engrafting in kidney.Over the course of the experiment,MSCA group showed a significant decrease in blood glucose compared with MSC group,CsA group and DC group(P<0.05,respectively).The Alb/Cr in MSCA group and MSC group were significantly lower than CsA group and DC group(P<0.05).And the Alb/Cr in MSCA group showed a significant decrease compared with MSC group(0.74 vs 0.84,P<0.05).There was a significant difference in renal mass index between the MSCA group and DC group(5.66 vs 6.37,P<0.05).No significant difference was found in creatinine clearance rate among 4 groups(P>0.05).Treatment with MSC+CsA significantly ameliorated the morphology of diabetic kidney.Conclusion MSC could mildly ameliorate diabetic nephropathy by decreasing blood glucose,Alb/Cr ratio and renal mass index.

  8. Melatonin ameliorates experimental hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru-Tao Hong; Jian-Ming Xu; Qiao Mei

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the protective effects of melatonin on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis in experimental rats. METHODS:All rats were randomly divided into normal control group, model control group treated with CCl4 for 12 wk, CCl4 + NAC group treated with CCl4 + NAC (100 mg/kg, i.p.) for 12 wk, CCl4 + MEL-1 group treated with CCl4 + melatonin (2.5 mg/kg) for 12 wk, CCl4 + MEL-2 group treated with CCl4 + melatonin (5.0 mg/kg) for 12 wk, and CCl4 + MEL-3 group treated with CCl4 + melatonin (10 mg/kg). Rats in the treatment groups were injected subcutaneously with sterile CCl4 (3 mL/kg, body weight) in a ratio of 2:3 with olive oil twice a week. Rats in normal control group received hypodermic injection of olive oil at the same dose and frequency as those in treatment groups. At the end of experiment, rats in each group were anesthetized and sacrificed. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and Van Gieson staining were used to examine changes in liver pathology. Serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and protein concentration were measured with routine laboratory methods using an autoanalyzer. Hydroxyproline (HYP) content in liver and malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels in liver homogenates were assayed by spectrophotometry. Serum hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), and procollagen Ⅲ N-terminal peptide (PⅢNP) were determined by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS:Pathologic grading showed that the fibrogenesis was much less severe in CCl4 + MEL3 group than in model control group ( u = 2.172, P < 0.05), indicating that melatonin (10 mg/kg) can significantly ameliorate CCl4-induced hepatic fibrotic changes. The serum levels of ALT and AST were markedly lower in CCl4 + MEL treatment groups (5, 10 mg/kg) than in model control group (ALT:286.23 serum laminin (LN) and hyaluronic acid (HA) levels and hydroxyproline (HYP) contents in liver were significantly lower in CCl4 + MEL-3 group (10

  9. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate inflammatory factor-induced dysfunction of INS-1 cells on chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Yao, Zhina; Lin, Peng; Hou, Xinguo; Chen, Li

    2014-05-01

    Using a microfluidic chip, we have investigated whether bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) could ameliorate IL-1β/IFN-γ-induced dysfunction of INS-1 cells. BM-MSCs were obtained from diabetes mellitus patients and their cell surface antigen expression profiles were analyzed by flow cytometric. INS-1 cells were cocultured with BM-MSCs on a microfluidic chip with persistent perfusion of medium containing 1 ng/mL IL-1β and 2.5 U/mL IFN-γ for 72 h. BM-MSCs could partially rescue INS-1 cells from cytokine-induced dysfunction and ameliorate the expression of insulin and PDX-1 gene in INS-1 cells. Thus BM-MSCs can be viewed as a promising stem cell source to depress inflammatory factor-induced dysfunction of pancreatic β cells in diabetic patients.

  10. A study of the ameliorating effects of carnitine on hepatic steatosis induced by total parenteral nutrition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li-Jian; Yin, Xiao-Yu; Luo, Shi-Min; Zheng, Jin-Fang; Lu, Ming-De; Huang, Jie-Fu

    1999-08-01

    AIM:To investigate the effects of carnitine on ameliorating hepatic steatosis induced by total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in animal model.METHODS: Eighteen normal Wistar rats and 19 cirrhotic Wistar rats induced by carbon tetrachloride were randomly divided into three groups, i.e., free access to food and drink (group A), TPN (group B) and TPN+carnitine (group C) for one week, respectively. Hepatic function, histology and its fat content were determined on the 7th day.RESULTS: Hepatic triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (CHO) contents were significantly higher in groups B and C than in group A,and significantly lower in group C than in group B in both normal and cirrhotic rats (all P Carnitine can ameliorate hepatic steatosis associated with TPN in both non-cirrhotic and cirrhotic rats.

  11. Ameliorative properties of Iranian Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seeds and Punica granatum L. peel extracts in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetic guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Abdel Salam Ahmed Hasona

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: The Iranian T. foenum-graecum seeds and P. granatum peel extracts are significantly potent in ameliorating diabetic condition induced by streptozotocin and improving various biochemical parameters in serum and liver of guinea pigs.

  12. 阿霉素改善三叉神经痛的疗效分析%Effect analysis of adriamycin on amelioration of trifacial neuralgia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊懋昌; 史有亮

    2002-01-01

    @@ Backgroud:Trifacial neuralgia is a refractory disease.Radio-frequency,operation or blocking with anhydrous alcohol in Western medicine get no satisfying effect. Objective:To investigate the effect of adriamycin on amelioration of trifacial neuralgia.

  13. Enhanced proliferation of acinar and progenitor cells by prophylactic pilocarpine treatment underlies the observed amelioration of radiation injury to parotid glands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burlage, Fred R.; Faber, Hette; Kampinga, Harm H.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Vissink, Arjan; Coppes, Rob P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Administration of pilocarpine before irradiation can ameliorate radiation-induced hyposalivation. Indirect evidence Suggests that this effect may be mediated through induction of a compensatory response. In this study, this hypothesis is tested directly, by assessing the proliferation of

  14. Geniposide ameliorates TNBS-induced experimental colitis in rats via reducing inflammatory cytokine release and restoring impaired intestinal barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Li, Yan-Li; Xu, Ming; Yu, Chang-Chun; Lian, Meng-Qiao; Tang, Ze-Yao; Li, Chuan-Xun; Lin, Yuan

    2017-03-06

    Geniposide is an iridoid glycosides purified from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, which is known to have antiinflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-tumor activities. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of geniposide on experimental rat colitis and to reveal the related mechanisms. Experimental rat colitis was induced by rectal administration of a TNBS solution. The rats were treated with geniposide (25, 50 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), ig) or with sulfasalazine (SASP, 100 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), ig) as positive control for 14 consecutive days. A Caco-2 cell monolayer exposed to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) was used as an epithelial barrier dysfunction model. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) was measured to evaluate intestinal barrier function. In rats with TNBS-induced colitis, administration of geniposide or SASP significantly increased the TNBS-decreased body weight and ameliorated TNBS-induced experimental colitis and related symptoms. Geniposide or SASP suppressed inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) release and neutrophil infiltration (myeloperoxidase activity) in the colon. In Caco-2 cells, geniposide (25-100 μmol/L) ameliorated LPS-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction via dose-dependently increasing transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). The results from both in vivo and in vitro studies revealed that geniposide down-regulated NF-κB, COX-2, iNOS and MLCK protein expression, up-regulated the expression of tight junction proteins (occludin and ZO-1), and facilitated AMPK phosphorylation. Both AMPK siRNA transfection and AMPK overexpression abrogated the geniposide-reduced MLCK protein expression, suggesting that geniposide ameliorated barrier dysfunction via AMPK-mediated inhibition of the MLCK pathway. In conclusion, geniposide ameliorated TNBS-induced experimental rat colitis by both reducing inflammation and modulating the disrupted epithelial barrier function via activating the AMPK signaling pathway..

  15. Green Tea Potentially Ameliorates Bisphenol A-Induced Oxidative Stress: An In Vitro and In Silico Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiral Suthar

    2014-01-01

    . Concurrent addition of different concentrations (10–50 μg/mL of green tea extract to reaction mixture containing high dose of bisphenol A (250 μg/mL caused concentration-dependent amelioration in bisphenol A-induced hemolysis. The effect was significant (P<0.05. It is concluded that BPA-induced oxidative stress could be significantly mitigated by green tea extract.

  16. Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids ameliorates neuronal damage and reduces lesion extent in a mouse model of transient ischemic attack

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-san Miao; Lin Guo; Rui-qi Li; Xiao-lei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are a major component in the traditional Chinese medicine Radix Ilicis Pubescentis. Previous studies have shown that the administration of Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids is protective in cerebral ischemia. However, to our knowledge, no studies have examined whether the total flavonoids extracted from Radix Ilicis Pubescentis prevent or ameliorate neuronal damage following transient ischemic attacks. Therefore, Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids question and the po...

  17. Modelling of {sup 137}Cs behaviour in the soil-plant system following the application of ameliorants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiridonov, S.; Fesenko, S.; Sanzharova, N. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    A set of countermeasures aimed at reducing {sup 137}Cs uptake by plant products includes agrochemical measures based on changes in the soil properties after the application of ameliorants. The dynamic models for studying the effect of the application of potassium fertilizers and dolomite powder on {sup 137}Cs accumulation in plants are presented. Conceptual approaches to the development of models are based on the identification of mechanisms governing a complex of physico-chemical processes in soil after the use of ameliorants. The following assumptions were used in the development of models: - dynamics of {sup 137}Cs distribution in each soil layer depends on the sorption processes characterized by different time to achieve quasi-equilibrium (exchangeable uptake and fixation by clay minerals) as well as on vertical migration process; - change in {sup 137}Cs content in soil solution results from the radionuclide sorption on selective and nonselective exchange sites; - uptake of extra amounts of K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} in soil solution produces effect on processes of {sup 137}Cs exchangeable sorption and initiate specific processes responsible for {sup 137}Cs fixation in the crystal lattice of clay minerals; - Ca{sup 2+} and K{sup +} cations have a competing effect on {sup 137}Cs uptake by plants from soil solution, which along with the fixation processes, causes lower accumulation of this radionuclide by plants during the application of ameliorants. The developed models were parameterized for soils of the coniferous forest located in the Bryansk region in area suffered from the radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl accident. Effects of ameliorants and time of their application on {sup 137}Cs behaviour in the soil-plant system are assessed. The contribution of soil chemical and biological processes to the decrease in the radionuclide uptake by plants is estimated. (author)

  18. Heat shock protein 90 is a potential therapeutic target for ameliorating skeletal muscle abnormalities in Parkinson’s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nour Erekat; Ahed Al-Khatib; Muhammed Al-Jarrah

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have conifrmed that heat shock protein 90 overexpression can lead to dopami-nergic neuronal death. This study was designed to further investigate what effects are produced by heat shock protein 90 after endurance exercise training. Immunohistochemistry results showed that exercise training signiifcantly inhibited heat shock protein 90 overexpression in the soleus and gastrocnemius in Parkinson’s disease rats, which is a potential therapeutic target for ameliorating skeletal muscle abnormalities in Parkinson’s disease.

  19. Melatonin ameliorates metabolic risk factors, modulates apoptotic proteins, and protects the rat heart against diabetes-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ali H; El-Missiry, Mohamed A; Othman, Azza I

    2015-01-15

    The present study investigated the ability of melatonin in reducing metabolic risk factors and cardiac apoptosis induced by diabetes. Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected into male rats, and after diabetic induction melatonin (10mg/kg i.g.) was administered orally for 21 days. Diabetic hearts showed increased number of apoptotic cells with downregulation of Bcl-2 and activation of p53 and CD95 as well as the caspases 9, 8 and 3. In addition, there was a significant decrease in insulin level, hyperglycemia, elevated HOMA-IR, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low and very low-density lipoprotein and decreased high-density lipoprotein. These changes were coupled with a significant increase in the activities of creatin kinase-MB (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the serum of the diabetic rats indicating myocardium injury. Oral administration of melatonin for 3 weeks after diabetes induction ameliorated the levels of hyperglycemia, insulin, HbA1c, lipids profile and HOMA-IR. The oral melatonin treatment of diabetic rats significantly decreased the number of apoptotic cells in the heart compared to diabetic rats. It enhanced Bcl-2 expression and blocked the activation of CD95 as well as caspases 9, 8 and 3. These changes were accompanied with significant improvement of CK-MB and LDH in the serum indicating the ameliorative effect of melatonin on myocardium injury. Melatonin effectively ameliorated diabetic myocardium injury, apoptosis, reduced the metabolic risk factors and modulated important steps in both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis. Thus, melatonin may be a promising pharmacological agent for ameliorating potential cardiomyopathy associated with diabetes.

  20. Pirfenidone ameliorates murine chronic GVHD through inhibition of macrophage infiltration and TGF-β production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jing; Paz, Katelyn; Flynn, Ryan; Vulic, Ante; Robinson, Tara M; Lineburg, Katie E; Alexander, Kylie A; Meng, Jingjing; Roy, Sabita; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Loschi, Michael; Hill, Geoffrey R; Serody, Jonathan S; Maillard, Ivan; Miklos, David; Koreth, John; Cutler, Corey S; Antin, Joseph H; Ritz, Jerome; MacDonald, Kelli P; Schacker, Timothy W; Luznik, Leo; Blazar, Bruce R

    2017-03-02

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is hampered by chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) resulting in multi-organ fibrosis and diminished function. Fibrosis in lung and skin leads to progressive bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) and scleroderma, respectively, for which new treatments are needed. We evaluated pirfenidone, a FDA approved drug for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, for its therapeutic effect in cGVHD mouse models with distinct pathophysiology. In a full MHC-mismatched, multi-organ system model with BO, donor T cell responses that support pathogenic antibody production are required for cGVHD development. Pirfenidone treatment beginning one month post-transplant restored pulmonary function and reversed lung fibrosis, which was associated with reduced macrophage infiltration and TGF-β production. Pirfenidone dampened splenic germinal center B cell and T follicular helper cell frequencies that collaborate to produce antibody. In both a minor histocompatibility antigen-mismatched as well as a MHC-haploidentical model of sclerodermatous cGVHD, pirfenidone significantly reduced macrophages in the skin, although clinical improvement of scleroderma was only seen in one model. In vitro chemotaxis assays demonstrated that pirfenidone impaired macrophage migration to MCP-1 as well as IL-17A, that has been linked to cGVHD generation. Taken together, our data suggest that pirfenidone is a potential therapeutic agent to ameliorate fibrosis in cGVHD.

  1. Correction of Cortisol Overreplacement Ameliorates Morbidities in Patients with Hypopituitarism: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Danilowicz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: Hyporituitarism in adults is known to be associated with deleterious effects on body composition, lipid profile and quality of life (QoL. This was attributed to GH deficiency. The potential role of glucocorticoid overreplacement had never been investigated. Objective: To investigate whether reduction in glucocorticoid replacement dose to more physiological one could ameliorate the "AO-GHD"-attributed symptomatology in patients with hypopituitarism. Design: Eleven patients with panhypopituitarism taking 20-30 mg/day of hydrocortisone, but on no GH replacement were switched to 10 to 15 mg of hydrocortisone daily. Both basally and 6-12 months later, their body mass index, body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, lipid profile, and the score of quality of life, QOL-AGHDA were measured. Results: Within 6-12 months of lower hydrocortisone dose, subjects lost an average of 7.1 kg of total body fat and 4.1 kg of abdominal fat. No changes were seen in lean body mass, bone mineral content and HOMA-IR Plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations decreased significantly (<0.05 and the QoL improved (p=0.018. Conclusions: Our pilot study suggests that decreasing the glucocorticoid replacement dose to ~ 15 mg/ day is beneficial in terms of patients' body composition, lipid profile and quality of life.

  2. Corosolic acid ameliorates acute inflammation through inhibition of IRAK-1 phosphorylation in macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Jae; Cha, Ji-Young; Kang, Hye Suk; Lee, Jae-Ho; Lee, Ji Yoon; Park, Jae-Hyung; Bae, Jae-Hoon; Song, Dae-Kyu; Im, Seung-Soon

    2016-01-01

    Corosolic acid (CA), a triterpenoid compound isolated from Lagerstroemia speciosa L. (Banaba) leaves, exerts anti-inflammatory effects by regulating phosphorylation of interleukin receptor- associated kinase (IRAK)-2 via the NF-κB cascade. However, the protective effect of CA against endotoxic shock has not been reported. LPS (200 ng/mL, 30 min) induced phosphorylation of IRAK-1 and treatment with CA (10 μM) significantly attenuated this effect. In addition, CA also reduced protein levels of NLRP3 and ASC which are the main components of the inflammasome in BMDMs. LPS-induced inflammasome assembly through activation of IRAK-1 was down-regulated by CA challenge. Treatment with Bay11-7082, an inhibitor of IκB-α, had no effect on CA-mediated inhibition of IRAK-1 activation, indicating that CA-mediated attenuation of IRAK-1 phosphorylation was independent of NF-κB signaling. These results demonstrate that CA ameliorates acute inflammation in mouse BMDMs and CA may be useful as a pharmacological agent to prevent acute inflammation. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(5): 276-281] PMID:26615974

  3. Alteration of the Intestinal Environment by Lubiprostone Is Associated with Amelioration of Adenine-Induced CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Eikan; Fukuda, Shinji; Shima, Hisato; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Akiyama, Yasutoshi; Takeuchi, Yoichi; Fukuda, Noriko N; Suzuki, Takehiro; Suzuki, Chitose; Yuri, Akinori; Kikuchi, Koichi; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Ito, Sadayoshi; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Abe, Takaaki

    2015-08-01

    The accumulation of uremic toxins is involved in the progression of CKD. Various uremic toxins are derived from gut microbiota, and an imbalance of gut microbiota or dysbiosis is related to renal failure. However, the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the relationship between the gut microbiota and renal failure are still obscure. Using an adenine-induced renal failure mouse model, we evaluated the effects of the ClC-2 chloride channel activator lubiprostone (commonly used for the treatment of constipation) on CKD. Oral administration of lubiprostone (500 µg/kg per day) changed the fecal and intestinal properties in mice with renal failure. Additionally, lubiprostone treatment reduced the elevated BUN and protected against tubulointerstitial damage, renal fibrosis, and inflammation. Gut microbiome analysis of 16S rRNA genes in the renal failure mice showed that lubiprostone treatment altered their microbial composition, especially the recovery of the levels of the Lactobacillaceae family and Prevotella genus, which were significantly reduced in the renal failure mice. Furthermore, capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolome analysis showed that lubiprostone treatment decreased the plasma level of uremic toxins, such as indoxyl sulfate and hippurate, which are derived from gut microbiota, and a more recently discovered uremic toxin, trans-aconitate. These results suggest that lubiprostone ameliorates the progression of CKD and the accumulation of uremic toxins by improving the gut microbiota and intestinal environment.

  4. Tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) inhibition ameliorates neurodegeneration by modulation of kynurenine pathway metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Carlo; Sathyasaikumar, Korrapati V.; Sograte Idrissi, Shama; Notarangelo, Francesca M.; Estranero, Jasper G.; Moore, Gareth G. L.; Green, Edward W.; Kyriacou, Charalambos P.; Schwarcz, Robert; Giorgini, Flaviano

    2016-01-01

    Metabolites of the kynurenine pathway (KP) of tryptophan (TRP) degradation have been closely linked to the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders. Recent work has highlighted the therapeutic potential of inhibiting two critical regulatory enzymes in this pathway—kynurenine-3-monooxygenase (KMO) and tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO). Much evidence indicates that the efficacy of KMO inhibition arises from normalizing an imbalance between neurotoxic [3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK); quinolinic acid (QUIN)] and neuroprotective [kynurenic acid (KYNA)] KP metabolites. However, it is not clear if TDO inhibition is protective via a similar mechanism or if this is instead due to increased levels of TRP—the substrate of TDO. Here, we find that increased levels of KYNA relative to 3-HK are likely central to the protection conferred by TDO inhibition in a fruit fly model of Huntington’s disease and that TRP treatment strongly reduces neurodegeneration by shifting KP flux toward KYNA synthesis. In fly models of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, we provide genetic evidence that inhibition of TDO or KMO improves locomotor performance and ameliorates shortened life span, as well as reducing neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's model flies. Critically, we find that treatment with a chemical TDO inhibitor is robustly protective in these models. Consequently, our work strongly supports targeting of the KP as a potential treatment strategy for several major neurodegenerative disorders and suggests that alterations in the levels of neuroactive KP metabolites could underlie several therapeutic benefits. PMID:27114543

  5. Delivery of Placenta-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ameliorates Ischemia Induced Limb Injury by Immunomodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peripheral artery disease (PAD is a major health burden in the world. Stem cell-based therapy has emerged as an attractive treatment option in regenerative medicine. In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that stem cell-based therapy can ameliorate ischemia induced limb injury. Methods: We isolated mesenchymal stem cells derived from human placentas (PMSCs and intramuscularly transplanted them into injured hind limbs. Treatment with PMSCs reduced acute muscle fibers apoptosis induced by ischemia. Results: PMSC treatment significantly enhanced regeneration of the injured hind limb by reducing fibrosis and enhancing running capacity when the animals were subjected to treadmill training. Mechanistically, injected PMSCs can modulate acute inflammatory responses by reducing neutrophil and macrophage infiltration following limb ischemia. ELISA assays further confirmed that PMSC treatment can also reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6, and enhance anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10 at the injury sites. Conclusion: Taken together, our results demonstrated that PMSCs can be a potential effective therapy for treatment of PAD via immunomodulation.

  6. Ganoderma atrum Polysaccharide Ameliorates Hyperglycemia-Induced Endothelial Cell Death via a Mitochondria-ROS Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Juan; Nie, Shao-Ping; Yao, Yu-Fei; Liu, Xiao-Zhen; Shao, Deng-Yin; Gong, De-Ming; Cui, Steve W; Phillips, Glyn O; He, Ming; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2015-09-23

    The aim of the present study was to examine the role of Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide (PSG-1) in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial function in hyperglycemia-induced angiopathy. In this work, ROS scavenger, oxidizing agent tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBH), mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) blockers, and caspase inhibition are used to investigate whether PSG-1 may promote survival of human umbilical vein cells (HUVECs) through preventing the overproduction of ROS and mitochondrial dysfunction. Experimental results show that exposure of HUVECs to 35.5 mmol/L glucose increases the proportion of cells undergoing apoptosis. PSG-1, mPTP blocker, or caspase inhibition can reduce apoptosis and ROS generation. PSG-1 also increases mitochondrial Bcl-2 protein formation and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) but inhibits Bax translocation, cytochrome c release, and caspase activation. In summary, vascular protection of PSG-1 can be mediated by a mitochondria-ROS pathway. ROS generation and mPTP induction are critical for high glucose-mediated apoptosis. PSG-1 ameliorates endothelial dysfunction by inhibiting oxidative stress and subsequent mitochondrial dysfunction.

  7. Amelioration of nitrobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity by the ethanol extract of the herb Euphorbia hirta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Suganya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Euphorbia hirta (L. (Euphorbiaceae is a very popular herb amongst practitioners of traditional medicine and used in the treatment of female disorders, respiratory ailments, tumors, jaundice, digestive problems, wounds, etc. We aimed to evaluate the protective effect of E. hirta against nitrobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats. Materials and Methods: The nephroprotective activity of the ethanol extract of E. hirta (400 mg/kg body weight was studied in nitrobenzene-induced albino rats (1000 mg/kg body weight. The activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH, total thiols and vitamin C in the kidney tissues were determined. Histopathologic investigation was performed in the kidney tissue samples. Results: Nitrobenzene administration significantly (P < 0.01 enhanced the lipid peroxidation and significantly (P < 0.05 depleted the levels of SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GSH, total thiols and vitamin C. Treatment with the ethanol extract of E. hirta significantly normalized the antioxidant levels. The nephroprotective activity was also supported by histopathologic studies of kidney tissue. Conclusion: The results indicate that the ethanol extract of E. hirta ameliorates renal dysfunction and could be used as an effective protector against nitrobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity, primarily through its antioxidant capacity.

  8. Special low-protein foods ameliorate postprandial off in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barichella, Michela; Marczewska, Agnieszka; De Notaris, Roberta; Vairo, Antonella; Baldo, Cinzia; Mauri, Andrea; Savardi, Chiara; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2006-10-01

    Protein intake interferes with levodopa therapy. Patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) should restrict daily protein intake and shift protein intake to the evening. For further reduction of protein intake in the first part of the day, special low-protein products (LPP) should be used instead of normal food products at breakfast and lunch. We studied the efficacy of LPP on postprandial off periods, in PD patients on levodopa therapy. The methods included a randomized, cross-over, single-blind, pilot clinical trial comparing a 2-month balanced diet with a 2-month LPP diet in 18 PD patients with motor fluctuations. The off phases were significantly shorter after LPP diet than after balanced diet (postprandial off, 49 +/- 73 min vs. 79 +/- 72 min and total off, 164 +/- 148 min vs. 271 +/- 174 min, both P < 0.0001). Moreover, a reduction in total off time during LPP diet (3.3 +/- 2.7 hr vs. 4.7 +/- 3.3 hr, P < 0.0001), occurred also in the 9 patients who did not experience subjective benefit. No significant changes in hematological and biochemical variables or body composition were recorded; a slight reduction in body weight (mean, -1.8%) was observed. Consumption of LPP in the first part of the day ameliorates off periods in PD patients, but additional studies including pharmacokinetics are needed.

  9. Preventive Intra Oral Treatment of Sea Cucumber Ameliorate OVA-Induced Allergic Airway Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da-In; Park, Mi-Kyung; Kang, Shin Ae; Choi, Jun-Ho; Kang, Seok-Jung; Lee, Jeong-Yeol; Yu, Hak Sun

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumber extracts have potent biological effects, including anti-viral, anti-cancer, antibacterial, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammation effects. To understand their anti-asthma effects, we induced allergic airway inflammation in mice after 7 oral administrations of the extract. The hyper-responsiveness value in mice with ovalbumin (OVA)-alum-induced asthma after oral injection of sea cucumber extracts was significantly lower than that in the OVA-alum-induced asthma group. In addition, the number of eosinophils in the lungs of asthma-induced mice pre-treated with sea cucumber extract was significantly decreased compared to that of PBS pre-treated mice. Additionally, CD4[Formula: see text]CD25[Formula: see text]Foxp3[Formula: see text]T (regulatory T; Treg) cells significantly increased in mesenteric lymph nodes after 7 administrations of the extract. These results suggest that sea cucumber extract can ameliorate allergic airway inflammation via Treg cell activation and recruitment to the lung.

  10. Ameliorative effect of Matricaria chamomilla.L on paraquat: Induced oxidative damage in lung rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Ranjbar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Herbal medicines have been long used for antioxidant properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of hydroalcholic extract Matricaria chamomilla. L (M. chamomilla against Paraquat (PQ induced pulmonary injury in association with its antioxidant activity. Materials and Methods: Effective doses of PQ (5 mg/kg/day and M. chamomilla (50 mg/kg/day were administered alone or in combination for 7 days. At the end of the experiment, lung tissue of the animals was separated. The activity of enzymatic scavengers such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx and superoxide dismutase (SOD, lipid peroxidation (LPO and total antioxidant power (TAP were measured. Results: In these samples, the LPO, SOD, and GPx were higher in the PQ group as compared with controls. M. chamomilla extract ameliorated LPO, SOD, GPx and increased TAP in plasma and lung tissue of PQ induced changes. Co administration of PQ with M. chamomilla improved LPO and SOD, and GPx. Conclusion: M. chamomilla as natural antioxidant may be considered beneficial for the protection oxidative lung injury in PQ poisoning.

  11. Manganese-induced oxidative stress in two ontogenetic stages of chamomile and amelioration by nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováčik, Jozef; Babula, Petr; Hedbavny, Josef; Švec, Pavel

    2014-02-01

    Impact of manganese (Mn(2+)) excess (100, 500 and 1000 μM over 7 days) on two ontogenetic stages (7-week-old plants and 7-day-old seedlings) of Matricaria chamomilla was compared. Mn excess depressed growth of seedlings (but not germination) and stimulated oxidative stress (ROS and lipid peroxidation) in both plants and seedlings. Growth inhibition could be evoked by higher Mn uptake and higher translocation factor in seedlings than in plants. Total thiols staining revealed elevation in almost all treatments. In 7-week-old plants, activity of peroxidases increased slightly and rather decreased under high Mn doses. Superoxide rather than hydrogen peroxide contributed to visualized ROS presence. Fluorescence of nitric oxide (NO) showed stimulation in plants but decrease in seedlings. Impact of exogenous nitric oxide donor (sodium nitroprusside/SNP) was therefore tested and results showed amelioration of 1000 μM Mn-induced oxidative stress in seedlings (decrease in H2O2 and increase in NO content while antioxidative enzyme activities were variably affected) concomitantly with depleted Mn accumulation. It is concluded that NO participates in tolerance to Mn excess but negative effects of the highest SNP dose were also observed. Extensive fluorescence microscopy is also explanatively discussed.

  12. Omigapil ameliorates the pathology of muscle dystrophy caused by laminin-alpha2 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Michael; Meinen, Sarina; Barzaghi, Patrizia; Sumanovski, Lazar T; Courdier-Früh, Isabelle; Rüegg, Markus A; Meier, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Laminin alpha2-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy, called MDC1A, is a rare, devastating genetic disease characterized by severe neonatal hypotonia ("floppy infant syndrome"), peripheral neuropathy, inability to stand or walk, respiratory distress, and premature death in early life. Transgenic overexpression of the apoptosis inhibitor protein BCL-2, or deletion of the proapoptotic Bax gene in a mouse model for MDC1A prolongs survival and mitigates pathology, indicating that apoptotic events are involved in the pathology. Here we demonstrate that the proapoptotic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)-Siah1-CBP/p300-p53 pathway is activated in a mouse model for MDC1A. Moreover, we show that omigapil, which inhibits GAPDH-Siah1-mediated apoptosis, ameliorates several pathological hallmarks in the MDC1A mouse model. Specifically, we demonstrate that treatment with omigapil inhibits apoptosis in muscle, reduces body weight loss and skeletal deformation, increases locomotive activity, and protects from early mortality. These data qualify omigapil, which is in late phase of clinical development for human use, as a drug candidate for the treatment of MDC1A.

  13. Vanadium-enriched chickpea sprout ameliorated hyperglycemia and impaired memory in streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xueqin; Zhang, Ling; Xia, Qing; Sun, Zhaofeng; Zhao, Xiaomin; Cai, Hongxin; Yang, Xiaoda; Xia, Zuoli; Tang, Yujing

    2008-10-01

    Vanadium compounds have been recognized for their hypoglycemic effects; however, potential short and long-term vanadium toxicity has slowed the acceptance for therapeutic use. In the present work, three batches of vanadium-enriched chickpea sprout (VCS) were prepared by incubating chickpea seeds in presence of 200, 100, and 50 microg/ml of sodium orthovanadate (SOV). The effects of oral administration of chickpea sprout (CS) and VCS food for 8 weeks on streptozotocin-induced (STZ) diabetic rats were investigated. Both CS and VCS food was found to ameliorate some hyperglycemic symptoms of the diabetic rats, i.e. improve lipid metabolism, decrease blood glucose level, prevent body weight loss, and reduce impairment of diabetic related spatial learning and memory. Serum insulin was substantially elevated in treated diabetic rats, which is probably one important reason for the hypoglycemic effect. Compared with CS alone, VCS100 food exhibited remarkably enhanced effectiveness in alleviating diabetes induced hyperglycemia and memory loss. Moreover, vanadium-enriched chickpeas appeared to abolish the vanadium induced toxicity associated with administration of this metal for diabetes during the 8-week study period. This study suggested further work of the vanadium speciation in CS and novel hypoglycemic mechanism for the antidiabetic activity of vanadium agents. Vanadium containing (VCS) food could be a dietary supplement for the diabetic status.

  14. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition ameliorates nicotine-induced sperm function decline in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    IP Oyeyipo; Y Raji; AdeyomboF Bolarinwa

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effects of inhibiting nitric oxide synthase as a means of intervention in nicotine-induced infertility in male rats.Methods:Forty-eight male and thirty female Wistar rats (180-200 g) were randomly assigned to six groups and treated orally for 30 days with saline (control), nicotine (0.5 mg/kg, 1.0 mg/kg) with or without NG Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester (L- NAME, 50 mg/kg). Treated male rats were cohabited with untreated females in ratio 1:2 for fertility studies. Sperm analysis was done by microscopy. Results:There was a significant decrease in the epididymal sperm motility and count after nicotine treatment. However, the percentage of abnormality significantly increased in nicotine treatment groups. Fertility studies revealed that nicotine reduced libido in male rats and decreased litter weight and number delivered by the untreated female during the experiments. Co-treatment with L-NAME effectively reversed the nicotine-mediated alterations in the sperm functional parameters, fertility indexes and hormone when compared to nicotine only.Conclusion: Taken together, the present data indicate the abilities of L-NAME to ameliorate nicotine-induced spermatotoxic effects in male rats via a mechanism dependent on the circulating testosterone level.

  15. Perk Ablation Ameliorates Myelination in S63del-Charcot–Marie–Tooth 1B Neuropathy

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    Nicolò Musner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In peripheral nerves, P0 glycoprotein accounts for more than 20% of myelin protein content. P0 is synthesized by Schwann cells, processed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and enters the secretory pathway. However, the mutant P0 with S63 deleted (P0S63del accumulates in the ER lumen and induces a demyelinating neuropathy in Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 1B (CMT1B–S63del mice. Accumulation of P0S63del in the ER triggers a persistent unfolded protein response. Protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK is an ER stress sensor that phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2alpha in order to attenuate protein synthesis. We have shown that increasing phosphophorylated-eIF2alpha (P-eIF2alpha is a potent therapeutic strategy, improving myelination and motor function in S63del mice. Here, we explore the converse experiment: Perk haploinsufficiency reduces P-eIF2alpha in S63del nerves as expected, but surprisingly, ameliorates, rather than worsens S63del neuropathy. Motor performance and myelin abnormalities improved in S63del//Perk+/− compared with S63del mice. These data suggest that mechanisms other than protein translation might be involved in CMT1B/S63del neuropathy. In addition, Perk deficiency in other cells may contribute to demyelination in a non–Schwann-cell autonomous manner.

  16. Riboflavin Arrests Cisplatin-Induced Neurotoxicity by Ameliorating Cellular Damage in Dorsal Root Ganglion Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Maria; Naseem, Imrana; Hassan, Iftekhar; Khan, Aijaz A; Alhazza, Ibrahim M

    2015-01-01

    Cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum II- (CP-) induced neurotoxicity is one of the least explored aspects of this drug. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells are considered as the primary target, and their damage plays a vital role in pathogenesis and etiology of CP-induced neurotoxicity. The present study is aimed at confirming if riboflavin (RF) has any protective role in shielding the DRG from CP-induced toxicity. After conducting the established treatment strategy on mice under photoillumination, it was observed that, despite the fact that RF alone is partially toxic, its combination with CP significantly ameliorated the drug-induced damage in DRG cells as evidenced by histological analysis. In addition, it was interesting to observe that the combination group (RF + CP) was able to induce apoptosis in the target cells up to a significant extent which is considered as the most preferred way of countering cancer cells. Therefore, RF can act as an effective adjuvant compound in CP-based chemoradiotherapy to improve clinical outcomes in the contemporary anticancer treatment regimes.

  17. Riboflavin Arrests Cisplatin-Induced Neurotoxicity by Ameliorating Cellular Damage in Dorsal Root Ganglion Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Salman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum II- (CP- induced neurotoxicity is one of the least explored aspects of this drug. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG cells are considered as the primary target, and their damage plays a vital role in pathogenesis and etiology of CP-induced neurotoxicity. The present study is aimed at confirming if riboflavin (RF has any protective role in shielding the DRG from CP-induced toxicity. After conducting the established treatment strategy on mice under photoillumination, it was observed that, despite the fact that RF alone is partially toxic, its combination with CP significantly ameliorated the drug-induced damage in DRG cells as evidenced by histological analysis. In addition, it was interesting to observe that the combination group (RF + CP was able to induce apoptosis in the target cells up to a significant extent which is considered as the most preferred way of countering cancer cells. Therefore, RF can act as an effective adjuvant compound in CP-based chemoradiotherapy to improve clinical outcomes in the contemporary anticancer treatment regimes.

  18. Searching for a placental derived ES-62-like molecule to explain rheumatoid arthritis amelioration in pregnancy

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    Craig D. Scoville

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The majority of women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA experience disease amelioration during pregnancy for unclear reasons. One possible explanation pursued and described here is whether the placenta produces a protein similar to the immunomodulating protein, ES-62, excreted by filarial nematodes. This protein has also been shown to reduce disease activity in animal models of RA. Eleven human placentas were prepared and a polyclonal anti-ES-62 antiserum was used to identify if any ES-62-like molecule exists from human placental tissues. Any bands identified were then excised from the gel and sent for mass spectrometry and protein identification. The anti-serum showed consistent cross reactivity with the heavy chain from immunoglobulin G (IgG from the eleven human placentas by mass spectrometry. No primary sequence homology between the heavy chain of IgG and ES-62 was identified. The placenta does not produce an ES-62-like molecule. However the binding of the antiserum to the Fc region of IgG suggests that this may be a possible mechanism for rheumatoid factor production in some patients with chronic filarial infections.

  19. Puerarin Ameliorates D-Galactose Induced Enhanced Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Tau Hyperphosphorylation in Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Tao; Yin, Ni-Na; Han, Yong-Ming; Yuan, Fang; Duan, Yan-Jun; Shen, Feng; Zhang, Yan-Hong; Chen, Ze-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced neurogenesis has been reported in the hippocampus of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized with amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation, tau hyperphosphorylation, and progressive neuronal loss. Previously we reported that tau phosphorylation played an essential role in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and activation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3), a crucial tau kinase, could induce increased hippocampal neurogenesis. In the present study, we found that treatment of D-galactose rats with Puerarin could significantly improve behavioral performance and ameliorate the enhanced neurogenesis and microtubule-associated protein tau hyperphosphorylation in the hippocampus of D-galactose rat brains. FGF-2/GSK-3 signaling pathway might be involved in the effects of Puerarin on hippocampal neurogenesis and tau hyperphosphorylation. Our finding provides primary in vivo evidence that Puerarin can attenuate AD-like enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis and tau hyperphosphorylation. Our finding also suggests Puerarin can be served as a treatment for age-related neurodegenerative disorders, such as AD.

  20. Circumventing furin enhances factor VIII biological activity and ameliorates bleeding phenotypes in hemophilia models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siner, Joshua I.; Samelson-Jones, Benjamin J.; Crudele, Julie M.; French, Robert A.; Lee, Benjamin J.; Zhou, Shanzhen; Merricks, Elizabeth; Raymer, Robin; Camire, Rodney M.; Arruda, Valder R.

    2016-01-01

    Processing by the proprotein convertase furin is believed to be critical for the biological activity of multiple proteins involved in hemostasis, including coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). This belief prompted the retention of the furin recognition motif (amino acids 1645–1648) in the design of B-domain–deleted FVIII (FVIII-BDD) products in current clinical use and in the drug development pipeline, as well as in experimental FVIII gene therapy strategies. Here, we report that processing by furin is in fact deleterious to FVIII-BDD secretion and procoagulant activity. Inhibition of furin increases the secretion and decreases the intracellular retention of FVIII-BDD protein in mammalian cells. Our new variant (FVIII-ΔF), in which this recognition motif is removed, efficiently circumvents furin. FVIII-ΔF demonstrates increased recombinant protein yields, enhanced clotting activity, and higher circulating FVIII levels after adeno-associated viral vector–based liver gene therapy in a murine model of severe hemophilia A (HA) compared with FVIII-BDD. Moreover, we observed an amelioration of the bleeding phenotype in severe HA dogs with sustained therapeutic FVIII levels after FVIII-ΔF gene therapy at a lower vector dose than previously employed in this model. The immunogenicity of FVIII-ΔF did not differ from that of FVIII-BDD as a protein or a gene therapeutic. Thus, contrary to previous suppositions, FVIII variants that can avoid furin processing are likely to have enhanced translational potential for HA therapy. PMID:27734034

  1. Ameliorative Influence of Green Tea Extract on Copper Nanoparticle-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Marwa A.; Khalaf, A. A.; Galal, Mona K.; Ogaly, Hanan A.; H. M. Hassan, Azza

    2015-09-01

    The potential toxicity of copper nanoparticles (CNPs) to the human health and environment remains a critical issue. In the present study, we investigated the protective influence of an aqueous extract of green tea leaves (GTE) against CNPs-induced (20-30 nm) hepatotoxicity. Four different groups of rats were used: group I was the control, group II received CNPs (40 mg/kg BW), group III received CNPs plus GTE, and group IV received GTE alone. We highlighted the hepatoprotective effect of GTE against CNPs toxicity through monitoring the alteration of liver enzyme activity, antioxidant defense mechanism, histopathological alterations, and DNA damage evaluation. The rats that were given CNPs only had a highly significant elevation in liver enzymes, alteration in oxidant-antioxidant balance, and severe pathological changes. In addition, we detected a significant elevation of DNA fragmentation percentage, marked DNA laddering, and significance over expression of both caspase-3 and Bax proteins. The findings for group III clarify the efficacy of GTE as a hepatoprotectant on CNPs through improving the liver enzyme activity, antioxidant status, as well as suppressing DNA fragmentation and the expression of the caspase-3 and Bax proteins. In conclusion, GTE was proved to be a potential hepatoprotective additive as it significantly ameliorates the hepatotoxicity and apoptosis induced by CNPs.

  2. Kalpaamruthaa ameliorates mitochondrial and metabolic alterations in diabetes mellitus induced cardiovascular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, Raja; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanadham

    2014-12-01

    Efficacy of Kalpaamruthaa on the activities of lipid and carbohydrate metabolic enzymes, electron transport chain complexes and mitochondrial ATPases were studied in heart and liver of experimental rats. Cardiovascular damage (CVD) was developed in 8 weeks after type 2 diabetes mellitus induction with high fat diet (2 weeks) and low dose of streptozotocin (2 × 35 mg/kg b.w. i.p. in 24 hr interval). In CVD-induced rats, the activities of total lipase, cholesterol ester hydrolase and cholesterol ester synthetase were increased, while lipoprotein lipase and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activities were decreased. The activities of lipid-metabolizing enzymes were altered by Kalpaamruthaa in CVD-induced rats towards normal. Kalpaamruthaa modulated the activities of glycolytic enzymes (hexokinase, phosphogluco-isomerase, aldolase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), gluconeogenic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase) and glycogenolytic enzyme (glycogen phosphorylase) along with increased glycogen content in the liver of CVD-induced rats. The activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, Complexes and ATPases (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase) were decreased in CVD-induced rats, which were ameliorated by the treatment with Kalpaamruthaa. This study ascertained the efficacy of Kalpaamruthaa for the treatment of CVD in diabetes through the modulation of metabolizing enzymes and mitochondrial dysfunction.

  3. Evening primrose oil ameliorates platelet aggregation and improves cardiac recovery in myocardial-infarct hypercholesterolemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo-Gresha, Noha M; Abel-Aziz, Eman Z; Greish, Sahar M

    2014-01-01

    Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFA) are well known for their role in cardiovascular disease (CVD). We proposed that Evening prime rose oil (EPO) can improve the outcome of a heart with myocardial infarction (MI) in the presence of diet-induced hyperaggregability. This study was designed to examine its cholesterol lowering, antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory effects. High fat diet was administered for 4 weeks then MI was induced by isoproterenol (85 mg/kg/s.c./24 h). Treatment with EPO (5 or 10 gm/kg/day) for 6 weeks improved the electrocardiographic pattern, serum lipid profile, cardiac biomarkers as well as Platelet aggregation percent. We reported decreased serum level of TNF-α, IL-6 and COX-2 with attenuation of TNF-α and TGF-β in the cardiac homogenate. Moreover, histopathology revealed marked amelioration. Finally, we provide evidence that EPO improve cardiac recovery in hypercholesterolemic myocardial infarct rats. These effects are attributed to direct hypocholesterolemic effect and indirect effect on the synthesis of eicosanoids (prostaglandins, cytokines).

  4. bFGF Protects Pre-oligodendrocytes from Oxygen/Glucose Deprivation Injury to Ameliorate Demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xuebin; Guo, Rui; Zhang, Zhenzhong; Ma, Li; Wu, Xiuxiang; Luo, Mengjiao; Dong, Fuxing; Yao, Ruiqin

    2015-10-01

    One of the pathological hallmarks of periventricular white matter injury is the vulnerability of pre-oligodendrocytes (preOLs) to hypoxia-ischemia (HI). There is increasing evidence that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is an important signaling molecule for neurogenesis and neuroprotection in the central nervous system. However, it is unknown whether bFGF protects preOLs from oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD) damage in vitro and promotes remyelination in HI-induced rats. In this present study, bFGF exerted a protective effect on myelin by increasing the myelin thickness, the number of myelinated axons, and myelin basic protein expression in the HI-induced demyelinated neonatal rat corpus callosum. In vitro, bFGF ameliorated the impaired mitochondria and cell processes induced by OGD to promote the survival of isolated O4-positive preOLs. Additionally, the expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) was dramatically up-regulated in the preOLs after bFGF administration in vivo and in vitro. Thus, bFGF-stimulated remyelination in HI-induced rats by protecting the preOLs from hypoxic injury, and the mechanism involved may be mediated by FGFR3.

  5. Grape seed pro-anthocyanidins ameliorates radiation-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yijuan; Liu, Wen; Liu, Hu; Yang, Yanyong; Cui, Jianguo; Zhang, Pei; Zhao, Hainan; He, Feng; Cheng, Ying; Ni, Jin; Cai, Jianming; Li, Bailong; Gao, Fu

    2014-07-01

    Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a potentially fatal and dose-limiting complication of thoracic radiotherapy. This study was to investigate the protective effects of grape seed pro-anthocyanidins (GSPs), an efficient antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic agent, on RILI. In our study, it was demonstrated that acute and late RILI was ameliorated after GSPs treatment possibly through suppressing TGF-β1/Smad3/Snail signalling pathway and modulating the levels of cytokines (interferon-γ, IL-4 and IL-13) derived from Th1/Th2 cells. In addition, a sustained high level of PGE2 was also maintained by GSPs treatment to limited fibroblast functions. As shown by electron spin resonance spectrometry, GSPs could scavenge hydroxyl radical (•OH) in a dose-dependent manner, which might account for the mitigation of lipid peroxidation and consequent apoptosis of lung cells. In vitro, GSPs radiosensitized lung cancer cell A549 while mitigating radiation injury on normal alveolar epithelial cell RLE-6TN. In conclusion, the results showed that GSPs protects mice from RILI through scavenging free radicals and modulating RILI-associated cytokines, suggesting GSPs as a novel protective agent in RILI. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  6. Sesamin Ameliorates Advanced Glycation End Products-Induced Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction and Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiang; Wang, Guo-Dong; Ma, Ming-Zhe; Deng, Ru-Yuan; Guo, Li-Qun; Zhang, Jun-Xiu; Yang, Jie-Ren; Su, Qing

    2015-06-09

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), the direct modulators of β-cells, have been shown to cause insulin-producing β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis through increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Sesamin has been demonstrated to possess antioxidative activity. This study was designed to investigate whether sesamin protects against AGEs-evoked β-cell damage via its antioxidant property. The effects of sesamin were examined in C57BL/6J mice and MIN6 cell line. In in vivo studies, mice were intraperitoneally injected with AGEs (120 mg/kg) and orally treated with sesamin (160 mg/kg) for four weeks. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance and insulin releasing tests were performed. Insulin content, ROS generation and β-cell apoptosis in pancreatic islets were also measured. In in vitro studies, MIN6 cells were pretreated with sesamin (50 or 100 μM) and then exposed to AGEs (200 mg/L) for 24 h. Insulin secretion, β-cell death, ROS production as well as expression and activity of NADPH oxidase were determined. Sesamin treatment obviously ameliorated AGE-induced β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis both in vivo and in vitro. These effects were associated with decreased ROS production, down-regulated expression of p67(phox) and p22(phox), and reduced NADPH oxidase activity. These results suggest that sesamin protects β-cells from damage caused by AGEs through suppressing NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative stress.

  7. Sesamin ameliorates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity: involvement of Sirt1 and Mn-SOD pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Suwen; Li, Qian; Liu, Yi; Xiong, Chen; Li, Junxia; Zhang, Rong; Niu, Yujie; Zhao, Lijuan; Wang, Yongli; Guo, Huicai

    2014-01-13

    Oxidative stress caused by doxorubicin (DOX) is believed to be a major underlying molecular mechanism of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Sesamin (Ses), an active component extracted from sesame seeds, exhibits antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, possible protective mechanisms of Ses on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity were investigated in rats and cultured H9C2 cells. We demonstrated that Ses exhibits a significant protective effect on cardiac tissue in animal and cell models of DOX-induced cardiac injury. Moreover, Ses can ameliorate DOX-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage. Further studies suggested that Ses is able to up-regulate the protein expression of Mn-SOD in normal rats and to restore the decreased expression of Mn-SOD in DOX-induced cardiac injury rats. Exposure to Ses or DOX alone slightly increased the protein expression of Sirt1; however, a more remarkable increase in Sirt1 protein level was detected in the Ses+DOX group. Treatment with a pan-sirtuin inhibitor (nicotinamide) or a Sirt1-specific inhibitor (EX-527) partially antagonised the effect of Ses on DOX-induced mitochondrial damage and completely abolished the effect of Ses on Mn-SOD expression. These findings indicate that the protective mechanisms of Ses on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity are involved in the alleviation of oxidative stress injury and Mn-SOD dysfunction, partially via the activation of Sirt1.

  8. A Short Antisense Oligonucleotide Ameliorates Symptoms of Severe Mouse Models of Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Keil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports underscore the unparalleled potential of antisense-oligonucleotide (ASO-based approaches to ameliorate various pathological conditions. However, in vivo studies validating the effectiveness of a short ASO (<10-mer in the context of a human disease have not been performed. One disease with proven amenability to ASO-based therapy is spinal muscular atrophy (SMA. SMA is a neuromuscular disease caused by loss-of-function mutations in the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1 gene. Correction of aberrant splicing of the remaining paralog, SMN2, can rescue mouse models of SMA. Here, we report the therapeutic efficacy of an 8-mer ASO (3UP8i in two severe models of SMA. While 3UP8i modestly improved survival and function in the more severe Taiwanese SMA model, it dramatically increased survival, improved neuromuscular junction pathology, and tempered cardiac deficits in a new, less severe model of SMA. Our results expand the repertoire of ASO-based compounds for SMA therapy, and for the first time, demonstrate the in vivo efficacy of a short ASO in the context of a human disease.

  9. Adolescents’ Sense of Community and Involvement in Playground Activities: Panacea to Ameliorate Social Vices and Delinquencies

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    Oluwagbemiga Paul Agboola

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have identified defects in the physical environments in which they interact and play, which has resulted in a decline the expected values initiated in both the social, physical and psychological developments. The role of playground in the development of adolescent’s health, moral and social standard has attracted lower interest in the recent time. The adolescent sense of community relates to a positive experience in the community open space setting such as playground and social well-being with their peers in general. Over time, little efforts have been initiated by the researchers towards these phenomena. This current study fills the gap by examining the adolescents’ sense of community through a quantitative survey via appraisal of the quality of community playground, emotional connection and effects of their participation in playground activities on ameliorating the delinquents’ behavior and social vices. Completed survey questionnaires retrieved from a total number of 69 purposive respondents who are adolescents from three towns and analyzed through relative importance index (RII via Likert scale. Results from the analysis indicated that adolescents’ positive attitudinal changes and reduction in social vices and delinquent’s behavior could be achieved through their involvements in quality and well-equipped playgrounds. Similarly, the significant role of sense of community in enhancing adolescent social participation in playground activities contributes to a major role in increasing their social well-being and togetherness. Thus, the study recommends appropriate future planning, design, and management of neighborhood playgrounds in Nigeria.

  10. Fluoxetine treatment ameliorates depression induced by perinatal arsenic exposure via a neurogenic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Christina R; Solomon, Benjamin R; Ulibarri, Adam L; Allan, Andrea M

    2014-09-01

    Several epidemiological studies have reported an association between arsenic exposure and increased rates of psychiatric disorders, including depression, in exposed populations. We have previously demonstrated that developmental exposure to low amounts of arsenic induces depression in adulthood along with several morphological and molecular aberrations, particularly associated with the hippocampus and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The extent and potential reversibility of this toxin-induced damage has not been characterized to date. In this study, we assessed the effects of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant, on adult animals exposed to arsenic during development. Perinatal arsenic exposure (PAE) induced depressive-like symptoms in a mild learned helplessness task and in the forced swim task after acute exposure to a predator odor (2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline, TMT). Chronic fluoxetine treatment prevented these behaviors in both tasks in arsenic-exposed animals and ameliorated arsenic-induced blunted stress responses, as measured by corticosterone (CORT) levels before and after TMT exposure. Morphologically, chronic fluoxetine treatment reversed deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) after PAE, specifically differentiation and survival of neural progenitor cells. Protein expression of BDNF, CREB, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and HDAC2 was significantly increased in the dentate gyrus of arsenic animals after fluoxetine treatment. This study demonstrates that damage induced by perinatal arsenic exposure is reversible with chronic fluoxetine treatment resulting in restored resiliency to depression via a neurogenic mechanism.

  11. Resveratrol Ameliorates the Depressive-Like Behaviors and Metabolic Abnormalities Induced by Chronic Corticosterone Injection

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    Yu-Cheng Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic glucocorticoid exposure is known to cause depression and metabolic disorders. It is critical to improve abnormal metabolic status as well as depressive-like behaviors in patients with long-term glucocorticoid therapy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on the depressive-like behaviors and metabolic abnormalities induced by chronic corticosterone injection. Male ICR mice were administrated corticosterone (40 mg/kg by subcutaneous injection for three weeks. Resveratrol (50 and 100 mg/kg, fluoxetine (20 mg/kg and pioglitazone (10 mg/kg were given by oral gavage 30 min prior to corticosterone administration. The behavioral tests showed that resveratrol significantly reversed the depressive-like behaviors induced by corticosterone, including the reduced sucrose preference and increased immobility time in the forced swimming test. Moreover, resveratrol also increased the secretion of insulin, reduced serum level of glucose and improved blood lipid profiles in corticosterone-treated mice without affecting normal mice. However, fluoxetine only reverse depressive-like behaviors, and pioglitazone only prevent the dyslipidemia induced by corticosterone. Furthermore, resveratrol and pioglitazone decreased serum level of glucagon and corticosterone. The present results indicated that resveratrol can ameliorate depressive-like behaviors and metabolic abnormalities induced by corticosterone, which suggested that the multiple effects of resveratrol could be beneficial for patients with depression and/or metabolic syndrome associated with long-term glucocorticoid therapy.

  12. Sida rhomboidea.Roxb leaf extract ameliorates gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2010-10-28

    Sida rhomboidea.Roxb (SR) known as "Mahabala" in Ayurveda and marketed as "Shahadeyi" is used in ethnomedicine to treat ailments such as dysuria and urinary disorders. To evaluate nephroprotective potential of SR against gentamicin (GM) induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction. Nephrotoxicity was induced in rats with GM (100 mg/kg bodyweight (i.p.) for 8 days) and were treated with SR extract (200 and 400 mg/kg bodyweight (p.o.) for 8 days) or 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (vehicle). Plasma and urine urea and creatinine, renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants along with lipid peroxidation were evaluated in various experimental groups. GM treatment induced significant elevation (p<0.05) in plasma and urine urea, creatinine, renal lipid peroxidation along with significant decrement (p<0.05) in renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. SR treatment to GM treated rats (GM+SR) recorded significant decrement (p<0.05) in plasma and urine urea and creatinine, renal lipid peroxidation along with significant increment (p<0.05) in renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. SR leaf extract ameliorates GM induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction and thus validates its ethnomedicinal use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Huperzine A Ameliorates Cognitive Deficits in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Xiao-Yuan Mao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to probe the effects of Huperzine A (HupA on diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD using a streptozotocin (STZ-injected rat model. Diabetic rats were treated with HupA (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg for seven weeks. Memory functions were evaluated by the water maze test. Nissl staining was selected for detecting neuronal loss. Protein and mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF were analyzed by ELISA and real-time PCR, respectively. The activities of choline acetylase (ChAT, Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, catalase (CAT, NF-κB p65 unit, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and caspase-3 were measured using corresponding kits. After seven weeks, diabetic rats exhibited remarkable reductions in: body weight, percentage of time spent in target quadrant, number of times crossing the platform, ChAT and BDNF levels, SOD, GSH-Px and CAT accompanied with increases in neuronal damage, plasma glucose levels, escape latency, mean path length, AChE, MDA level as well as CAT, NF-κB p65 unit, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and caspase-3 in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Supplementation with HupA significantly and dose-dependently reversed the corresponding values in diabetes. It is concluded that HupA ameliorates DACD via modulating BDNF, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis.

  14. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii inhibits interleukin-17 to ameliorate colorectal colitis in rats.

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    Mingming Zhang

    Full Text Available It has been shown that Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (F. prausnitzii, one of the dominant intestinal bacterial flora, may protect colonic mucosa against the development of inflammation and subsequent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, with the underlying mechanisms being unclear.The impacts of F. prausnitzii and its metabolites on IL-23/Th17/IL-17 pathway markers were determined in human monocytes and a rat model of colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. F. prausnitzii and its culture medium (containing complete metabolites were used to treat the rats in vivo, as well as rat splenocytes and human monocytes in vitro. Inflammatory cytokines were measured in colon tissue, plasma and cell culture medium.The culture supernatant of F. prausnitzii increased plasma anti-Th17 cytokines (IL-10 and IL-12and suppressed IL-17 levels in both plasma and colonic mucosa, with ameliorated colonic colitis lesions. This inhibition of IL-17 release has also been observed in both rat splenocytes and human venous monocytes in vitro. The culture supernatant of F. prausnitzii also suppressed Th17 cell differentiation induced by cytokines (TGF-ß and IL-6 and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs in vitro. The metabolites of F. prausnitzii in the culture supernatant exert a stronger anti-inflammatory effect than the bacterium itself. F. prausnitzii protected the colon mucosa against the development of IBD by its metabolites, suggesting a promising potential for the use of F. prausnitzii and its metabolic products in the treatment of IBD.

  15. Cisplatin-induced testicular dysfunction and its amelioration by Launaea taraxacifolia leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adejuwon, S A; Femi-Akinlosotu, O M; Omirinde, J O

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates the ameliorative potential of Launea taraxacifolia (LT) aqueous leaf extract on cisplatin-induced testicular dysfunction in Wistar rats. Thirty rats were randomly divided into six groups (A-F) of 5 rats each: Group A which served as control received water; Group B was intraperitoneally (ip) injected 10 mg kg(-1) body wt cisplatin on day 21; Groups C and D were given 100 and 400 mg of LT via oral administration, respectively, for 21 days while Groups E and F received similar treatment as Groups C and D, respectively, and then exposed to ip administration of 10 mg kg(-1) body weight cisplatin on the 21st day. Exclusively, Cisplatin-exposed Group B rats showed reduced sperm characteristics and increased sperm morphological abnormalities; distorted histological architecture of seminiferous tubules; significantly increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH)levels in the testes. These parameters in LT alone treated Groups C and D were not markedly different compared with the control group. The rats with the combined treatment in Groups E and F showed significantly improved sperm parameters, testicular histo-architecture and antioxidant enzymatic activities. Conclusively, aqueous extract of L. taraxacifolia has protective potential against cisplatin damage.

  16. Topical application of glycyrrhizin preparation ameliorates experimentally induced colitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomohiro Kudo; Shinichi Okamura; Yajing Zhang; Takashige Masuo; Masatomo Mori

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To examine the efficacy of glycyrrhizin preparation (GL-p) in the treatment of a rat model of ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: Experimental colitis was induced by oral administration of dextran sodium sulfate. Rats with colitis were intrarectally administered GL-p or saline. The extent of colitis was evaluated based on body weight gain,colon wet weight,and macroscopic damage score. The expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the inflamed mucosa were measured by cytokine antibody array analysis. The effect of GL-p on myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the inflamed mucosa and purified enzyme was assayed. RESULTS: GL-p treatment significantly ameliorated the extent of colitis compared to sham treatment with saline. Cytokine antibody array analysis showed that GL-p treatment significantly decreased the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines,including interleukin (IL)-1β,IL-6,tumor necrosis factor-α,cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-2,and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the inflamed mucosa. Furthermore,GL-p inhibited the oxidative activity of mucosal and purified MPO. CONCLUSION: GL-p enema has a therapeutic effect on experimental colitis in rats and may be useful in the treatment of UC.

  17. Targeting of the pulmonary capillary vascular niche promotes lung alveolar repair and ameliorates fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhongwei; Lis, Raphael; Ginsberg, Michael; Chavez, Deebly; Shido, Koji; Rabbany, Sina Y; Fong, Guo-Hua; Sakmar, Thomas P; Rafii, Shahin; Ding, Bi-Sen

    2016-02-01

    Although the lung can undergo self-repair after injury, fibrosis in chronically injured or diseased lungs can occur at the expense of regeneration. Here we study how a hematopoietic-vascular niche regulates alveolar repair and lung fibrosis. Using intratracheal injection of bleomycin or hydrochloric acid in mice, we show that repetitive lung injury activates pulmonary capillary endothelial cells (PCECs) and perivascular macrophages, impeding alveolar repair and promoting fibrosis. Whereas the chemokine receptor CXCR7, expressed on PCECs, acts to prevent epithelial damage and ameliorate fibrosis after a single round of treatment with bleomycin or hydrochloric acid, repeated injury leads to suppression of CXCR7 expression and recruitment of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1)-expressing perivascular macrophages. This recruitment stimulates Wnt/β-catenin-dependent persistent upregulation of the Notch ligand Jagged1 (encoded by Jag1) in PCECs, which in turn stimulates exuberant Notch signaling in perivascular fibroblasts and enhances fibrosis. Administration of a CXCR7 agonist or PCEC-targeted Jag1 shRNA after lung injury promotes alveolar repair and reduces fibrosis. Thus, targeting of a maladapted hematopoietic-vascular niche, in which macrophages, PCECs and perivascular fibroblasts interact, may help to develop therapy to spur lung regeneration and alleviate fibrosis.

  18. Neural correlates underlying naloxone-induced amelioration of sexual behavior deterioration due to an alarm pheromone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya eKobayashi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sexual behavior is suppressed by various types of stressors. We previously demonstrated that an alarm pheromone released by stressed male Wistar rats is a stressor to other rats, increases the number of mounts needed for ejaculation, and decreases the hit rate (described as the number of intromissions/sum of the mounts and intromissions. This deterioration in sexual behavior was ameliorated by pretreatment with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. However, the neural mechanism underlying this remains to be elucidated. Here, we examined Fos expression in 31 brain regions of pheromone-exposed rats and naloxone-pretreated pheromone-exposed rats 60 min after 10 intromissions. As previously reported, the alarm pheromone increased the number of mounts and decreased the hit rate. In addition, Fos expression was increases in the anterior medial division, anterior lateral division and posterior division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, parvocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, dorsolateral and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, and nucleus paragigantocellularis. Fos expression decreased in the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Pretreatment with naloxone blocked the pheromone-induced changes in Fos expression in the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, and nucleus paragigantocellularis. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the alarm pheromone deteriorated sexual behavior by activating the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray-nucleus paragigantocellularis cluster and suppressing the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus via the opioidergic pathway.

  19. Coffee bean polyphenols ameliorate postprandial endothelial dysfunction in healthy male adults.

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    Ochiai, Ryuji; Sugiura, Yoko; Otsuka, Kazuhiro; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa; Hashiguchi, Teruto

    2015-05-01

    To reveal the effect of coffee bean polyphenols (CBPs) on blood vessels, this study aimed to investigate the effect of CBPs on acute postprandial endothelial dysfunction. Thirteen healthy non-diabetic men (mean age, 44.9 ± 1.4 years) consumed a test beverage (active: containing CBPs, placebo: no CBPs) before a 554-kcal test meal containing 14 g of protein, 30 g of fat and 58 g of carbohydrates. Then, a crossover analysis was performed to investigate the time-dependent changes in flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in the brachial artery. In the active group, the postprandial impairment of FMD was significantly improved, the two-hour postprandial nitric oxide metabolite levels were significantly increased and the six-hour postprandial urinary 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α levels were significantly reduced compared to the placebo group. The test meal increased the levels of blood glucose, insulin and triglycerides in both groups with no significant intergroup differences. These findings indicate that CBPs intake ameliorates postprandial endothelial dysfunction in healthy men.

  20. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea: environmental and socioeconomic status, future prognosis and ameliorative policy options.

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    DeVantier, Lyndon; Alcala, Angel; Wilkinson, Clive

    2004-02-01

    The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea, with neighboring Indonesian Seas and South China Sea, lies at the center of the world's tropical marine biodiversity. Encircled by 3 populous, developing nations, the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia, the Sea and its adjacent coastal and terrestrial ecosystems, supports ca. 33 million people, most with subsistence livelihoods heavily reliant on its renewable natural resources. These resources are being impacted severely by rapid population growth (> 2% yr-1, with expected doubling by 2035) and widespread poverty, coupled with increasing international market demand and rapid technological changes, compounded by inefficiencies in governance and a lack of awareness and/or acceptance of some laws among local populations, particularly in parts of the Philippines and Indonesia. These key root causes all contribute to illegal practices and corruption, and are resulting in severe resource depletion and degradation of water catchments, river, lacustrine, estuarine, coastal, and marine ecosystems. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea forms a major geopolitical focus, with porous borders, transmigration, separatist movements, piracy, and illegal fishing all contributing to environmental degradation, human suffering and political instability, and inhibiting strong trilateral support for interventions. This review analyzes these multifarious environmental and socioeconomic impacts and their root causes, provides a future prognosis of status by 2020, and recommends policy options aimed at amelioration through sustainable management and development.

  1. Arctium lappa ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in rats fed with high fat/cholesterol diets

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    Lee Yun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae, burdock, is a medicinal plant that is popularly used for treating hypertension, gout, hepatitis, and other inflammatory disorders. This study was performed to test the effect of ethanol extract of Arctium lappa L. (EAL seeds on vascular reactivity and inflammatory factors in rats fed a high fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD. Method EAL-I (100 mg·kg−1/day, EAL-II (200 mg·kg−1/day, and fluvastatin (3 mg·kg−1/day groups initially received HFCD alone for 8 weeks, with EAL supplementation provided during the final 6 weeks. Results Treatment with low or high doses of EAL markedly attenuated plasma levels of triglycerides and augmented plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL markedly reduced impairments of acetylcholine (ACh-induced relaxation of aortic rings. Furthermore, chronic treatment with EAL significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP and maintained smooth and flexible intimal endothelial layers in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL suppressed upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1, and E-selectin in the aorta. Chronic treatment with EAL also suppressed increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 expression. These results suggested that EAL can inhibit HFCD-induced vascular inflammation in the rat model. Conclusion The present study provides evidence that EAL ameliorates HFCD-induced vascular dysfunction through protection of vascular relaxation and suppression of vascular inflammation.

  2. Aliskiren ameliorates sympathetic nerve sprouting and suppresses the inducibility of ventricular tachyarrhythmia in postinfarcted rat heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Yin-yu; BAO Zhi-wei; WEI Mei-fang; ZHU Jian-hua; GUI Le

    2013-01-01

    Background Aliskiren is an oral renin inhibitor,which inhibits the first rate limiting step in the renin angiotensin aldosterone system.In this study,sympathetic nerve sprouting and the inducibility of ventricular fibrillation after aliskiren treatment in myocardial infarction were investigated.Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats after coronary artery ligation were randomly allocated to four groups:angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril,angiotensin receptor blocker valsartan,β adrenergic receptor blocker carvedilol and rennin inhibitor aliskiren treatment for six weeks.Electrophysiological study,histological examination and Western blotting were performed.Results The plasma norepinephrine level and sympathetic nerve innervation significantly increased in treated infarcted rats compared to untreated rats.Aliskiren treatment reduced the sympathetic nerve innervations after myocardial infarction.There is no significant difference in sympathetic nerve innervations after myocardial infarction among the enalapril,valsartan,carvediloand or aliskiren treated groups.Programmed electrical stimulation study showed that inducible ventricular arrhythmia was reduced,ventricular fibrillation threshold was increased and ventricular effective refractory period was prolonged in enalapril,valsartan,carvedilol and aliskiren treated infarcted rats compared to untreated infarcted rats.Cardiomyocytic apoptosis in infarcted region was significantly decreased in enalapril,valsartan,carvedilol and aliskiren treated infarcted rats.Conclusions Aliskiren ameliorated cardiomyocytic apoptosis,attenuated the sympathetic nerve innervations and reduced the vulnerability of ventricular arrhythmias after myocardial infarction.Enalapril,valsartan and carvedilol have similar effects as aliskiren on cardiomyocytic apoptosis,sympathetic nerve innervations and vulnerability of ventricular arrhythmias after myocardial infarction.

  3. Sodium alginate ameliorates indomethacin-induced gastrointestinal mucosal injury via inhibiting translocation in rats

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    Yamamoto, Atsuki; Itoh, Tomokazu; Nasu, Reishi; Nishida, Ryuichi

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of sodium alginate (AL-Na) on indomethacin-induced small intestinal lesions in rats. METHODS: Gastric injury was assessed by measuring ulcerated legions 4 h after indomethacin (25 mg/kg) administration. Small intestinal injury was assessed by measuring ulcerated legions 24 h after indomethacin (10 mg/kg) administration. AL-Na and rebamipide were orally administered. Myeloperoxidase activity in the stomach and intestine were measured. Microvascular permeability, superoxide dismutase content, glutathione peroxidase activity, catalase activity, red blood cell count, white blood cell count, mucin content and enterobacterial count in the small intestine were measured. RESULTS: AL-Na significantly reduced indomethacin-induced ulcer size and myeloperoxidase activity in the stomach and small intestine. AL-Na prevented increases in microvascular permeability, superoxide dismutase content, glutathione peroxidase activity and catalase activity in small intestinal injury induced by indomethacin. AL-Na also prevented decreases in red blood cells and white blood cells in small intestinal injury induced by indomethacin. Moreover, AL-Na suppressed mucin depletion by indomethacin and inhibited infiltration of enterobacteria into the small intestine. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that AL-Na ameliorates non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced small intestinal enteritis via bacterial translocation. PMID:24627600

  4. Schisandrae Fructus Supplementation Ameliorates Sciatic Neurectomy-Induced Muscle Atrophy in Mice

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    Joo Wan Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the possible beneficial skeletal muscle preserving effects of ethanol extract of Schisandrae Fructus (EESF on sciatic neurectomy- (NTX- induced hindlimb muscle atrophy in mice. Here, calf muscle atrophy was induced by unilateral right sciatic NTX. In order to investigate whether administration of EESF prevents or improves sciatic NTX-induced muscle atrophy, EESF was administered orally. Our results indicated that EESF dose-dependently diminished the decreases in markers of muscle mass and activity levels, and the increases in markers of muscle damage and fibrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, cytokines, and apoptotic events in the gastrocnemius muscle bundles are induced by NTX. Additionally, destruction of gastrocnemius antioxidant defense systems after NTX was dose-dependently protected by treatment with EESF. EESF also upregulated muscle-specific mRNAs involved in muscle protein synthesis but downregulated those involved in protein degradation. The overall effects of 500 mg/kg EESF were similar to those of 50 mg/kg oxymetholone, but it showed more favorable antioxidant effects. The present results suggested that EESF exerts a favorable ameliorating effect on muscle atrophy induced by NTX, through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects related to muscle fiber protective effects and via an increase in protein synthesis and a decrease in protein degradation.

  5. Reducing TMPRSS6 ameliorates hemochromatosis and β-thalassemia in mice.

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    Guo, Shuling; Casu, Carla; Gardenghi, Sara; Booten, Sheri; Aghajan, Mariam; Peralta, Raechel; Watt, Andy; Freier, Sue; Monia, Brett P; Rivella, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    β-Thalassemia and HFE-related hemochromatosis are 2 of the most frequently inherited disorders worldwide. Both disorders are characterized by low levels of hepcidin (HAMP), the hormone that regulates iron absorption. As a consequence, patients affected by these disorders exhibit iron overload, which is the main cause of morbidity and mortality. HAMP expression is controlled by activation of the SMAD1,5,8/SMAD4 complex. TMPRSS6 is a serine protease that reduces SMAD activation and blocks HAMP expression. We identified second generation antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) targeting mouse Tmprss6. ASO treatment in mice affected by hemochromatosis (Hfe(-/-)) significantly decreased serum iron, transferrin saturation and liver iron accumulation. Furthermore, ASO treatment of mice affected by β-thalassemia (HBB(th3/+) mice, referred to hereafter as th3/+ mice) decreased the formation of insoluble membrane-bound globins, ROS, and apoptosis, and improved anemia. These animals also exhibited lower erythropoietin levels, a significant amelioration of ineffective erythropoiesis (IE) and splenomegaly, and an increase in total hemoglobin levels. These data suggest that ASOs targeting Tmprss6 could be beneficial in individuals with hemochromatosis, β-thalassemia, and related disorders.

  6. AMIGO2 modulates T cell functions and its deficiency in mice ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

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    Li, Zhilin; Khan, Mohd Moin; Kuja-Panula, Juha; Wang, Hongyun; Chen, Yu; Guo, Deyin; Chen, Zhi Jane; Lahesmaa, Riitta; Rauvala, Heikki; Tian, Li

    2017-05-01

    The immune function of AMIGO2 is currently unknown. Here, we revealed novel roles of AMIGO2 in modulating T-cell functions and EAE using Amigo2-knockout (AMG2KO) mice. Amigo2 was abundantly expressed by murine T helper (Th) cells. Its deficiency impaired transplanted T-cell infiltration into the secondary lymphoid organs and dampened Th-cell activation, but promoted splenic Th-cell proliferation and abundancy therein. AMG2KO Th cells had respectively elevated T-bet in Th1- and GATA-3 in Th2-lineage during early Th-cell differentiation, accompanied with increased IFN-γ and IL-10 but decreased IL-17A production. AMG2KO mice exhibited ameliorated EAE, dampened spinal T-cell accumulation, decreased serum IL-17A levels and enhanced splenic IL-10 production. Adoptive transfer of encephalitogenic AMG2KO T cells induced milder EAE and dampened spinal Th-cell accumulation and Tnf expression. Mechanistically, Amigo2-overexpression in 293T cells dampened NF-kB transcriptional activity, while Amigo2-deficiency enhanced Akt but suppressed GSK-3β phosphorylation and promoted nuclear translocations of NF-kB and NFAT1 in Th-cells. Collectively, our data demonstrate that AMIGO2 is important in regulating T-cell functions and EAE, and may be harnessed as a potential therapeutic target for multiple sclerosis.

  7. Shikonin ameliorates isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial damage through suppressing fibrosis, inflammation, apoptosis and ER stress.

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    Yang, Jun; Wang, Zhao; Chen, Dong-Lin

    2017-09-01

    Shikonin, isolated from the roots of herbal plant Lithospermum erythrorhizon, is a naphthoquinone. It has been reported to exert beneficial anti-inflammatory effects and anti-oxidant properties in various diseases. Isoproterenol (ISO) has been widely used to establish cardiac injury in vivo and in vitro. However, shikonin function in ISO-induced cardiac injury remains uncertain. In our study, we attempted to investigate the efficiency and possible molecular mechanism of shikonin in cardiac injury treatment induced by ISO. In vivo, C57BL6 mice were subcutaneously injected with 5mg/kg ISO to induce heart failure. And mice were given a gavage of shikonin (2 or 4mg/kg/d, for four weeks). Cardiac function, fibrosis indices, inflammation response, apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were calculated. Pathological alterations, fibrosis-, inflammation-, apoptosis- and ER stress-related molecules were examined. In ISO-induced cardiac injury, shikonin significantly ameliorated heart function, decreased myocardial fibrosis, suppressed inflammation, attenuated apoptosis and ER stress through impeding collagen accumulation, Toll like receptor 4/nuclear transcription factor κB (TLR4/NF-κB), Caspase-3 and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) signaling pathways activity, relieving heart failure in vivo. Also, in vitro, shikonin attenuated ISO-induced cardiac muscle cells by reducing fibrosis, inflammation, apoptosis and ER stress. Our findings indicated that shikonin treatment attenuated ISO-induced heart injury, providing an effective therapeutic strategy for heart failure treatment for future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Dimethyl Fumarate Ameliorates Lewis Rat Experimental Autoimmune Neuritis and Mediates Axonal Protection.

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    Kalliopi Pitarokoili

    Full Text Available Dimethyl fumarate is an immunomodulatory and neuroprotective drug, approved recently for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. In view of the limited therapeutic options for human acute and chronic polyneuritis, we used the animal model of experimental autoimmune neuritis in the Lewis rat to study the effects of dimethyl fumarate on autoimmune inflammation and neuroprotection in the peripheral nervous system.Experimental autoimmune neuritis was induced by immunization with the neuritogenic peptide (amino acids 53-78 of P2 myelin protein. Preventive treatment with dimethyl fumarate given at 45 mg/kg twice daily by oral gavage significantly ameliorated clinical neuritis by reducing demyelination and axonal degeneration in the nerve conduction studies. Histology revealed a significantly lower degree of inflammatory infiltrates in the sciatic nerves. In addition, we detected a reduction of early signs of axonal degeneration through a reduction of amyloid precursor protein expressed in axons of the peripheral nerves. This reduction correlated with an increase of nuclear factor (erythroid derived 2-related factor 2 positive axons, supporting the neuroprotective potential of dimethyl fumarate. Furthermore, nuclear factor (erythroid derived 2-related factor 2 expression in Schwann cells was only rarely detected and there was no increase of Schwann cells death during EAN.We conclude that immunomodulatory and neuroprotective dimethyl fumarate may represent an innovative therapeutic option in human autoimmune neuropathies.

  9. Ameliorative effects of 7-methylcoumarin and 7-methoxycoumarin against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

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    Sancheti, Sandesh; Sancheti, Shruti; Seo, Sung-Yum

    2013-01-01

    The available conventional remedies for the treatment of drug-induced liver diseases are highly inadequate and possess serious adverse effects; therefore, the development of new, effective drugs is considered necessary. This article explores the hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential of 7-methylcoumarin (MC) and 7-methoxycoumarin (MOC) in CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. MC and MOC individually, at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, were administered orally once-daily for 7 days. The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters, such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum bilirubin (TB), total protein (TP), and albumin (TA). Serum antioxidant enzyme [e.g., superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)] levels were determined. Also, thiobarbituric-acid-related substances (TBARS) levels, along with histopathological studies of liver tissue, were scrutinized. Pretreatment with MC and MOC significantly decreased ALT, AST, and TB in the serum of CCl(4)-induced liver damaged rats in a dose-dependent manner. TA and TP levels in the serum were also restored significantly in all presupplemented MC and MOC groups. In addition, oxidative stress induced by CCl(4) was prevented significantly; thereby, increasing SOD and CAT levels and decreasing TBARS levels in liver homogenates. Histopathological studies revealed the ameliorative natures of both the compounds. This study demonstrates the strong hepatoprotective activity of MC and MOC, which could be attributed to their potent antioxidant effects.

  10. Syzygium Cumini (L. Seeds Extract Ameliorates Cisplatin Induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Wistar Rats

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    R.Maheswari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of cisplatin, cis-[Pt(II(NH(3(2Cl(2] ([PtCl2(NH32] or CDDP, was a corner stone which triggered the interest in platinum(II-and other metal-containing compounds as potential anticancer drugs. Cisplatin, is one of the most potent chemotherapy drugs widely used for cancer treatment. In our present study, an attempt has been made to study the effect of Cisplatin on biochemical and histopathological parameters and ameliorating effects of the Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract or Eugena Jambolana in male wistar rats. Adult male wistar rats were divided into four different groups. Group I Served as vehicle treated normal saline (Control, Group II Rats received single intra-peritoneal (Ip injection of cisplatin (7mg/kg bw, Group III received Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract 400mg/kg/bw orally for 7 days beginning one day prior to cisplatin (CP injection. Group IV Rats received alone Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract (400mg/kg bw treated. Cisplatin exposure leads to adverse effects on hematological, hepatotoxic parameters including Erythrocytes (RBCs. Cisplatin induction leads to reduction in the levels of Enzymic and Non-Enzymic antioxidants levels. However, on treatment with Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract normalized the levels of all the biochemical and hematological parameters. These findings highlight the efficacy of Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract as protective effects Cisplatin induced hepatotoxicity.

  11. Does intraperitoneal medical ozone preconditioning and treatment ameliorate the methotrexate induced nephrotoxicity in rats?

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    Aslaner, Arif; Çakır, Tuğrul; Çelik, Betül; Doğan, Uğur; Mayir, Burhan; Akyüz, Cebrail; Polat, Cemal; Baştürk, Ahmet; Soyer, Vural; Koç, Süleyman; Şehirli, Ahmet Özer

    2015-01-01

    Methotrexate is a chemotherapeutic agent used for many cancer treatments. It leads to toxicity with its oxidative injury. The purpose of our study is investigating the medical ozone preconditioning and treatment has any effect on the methotrexate-induced kidneys by activating antioxidant enzymes in rats. Eighteen rats were divided into three equal groups; control, Mtx without and with medical ozone. Nephrotoxicity was performed with a single dose of 20 mg/kg Mtx intraperitoneally at the fifteenth day of experiment on groups 2 and 3. Medical ozone preconditioning was performed at a dose of 25 mcg/ml (5 ml) intraperitoneally everyday in the group 3 and treated with medical ozone for five more days while group 2 was received only 5 ml of saline everyday for twenty days. All rats were sacrificed at the end of third week and the blood and kidney tissue samples were obtained to measure the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, malondialdehyde, glutathione and myeloperoxidase. Kidney injury score was evaluated histolopatologically. Medical ozone preconditioning and treatment ameliorated the biochemical parameters and kidney injury induced by Mtx. There was significant increase in tissue MDA, MPO activity, TNF-α and IL-1β (Pnephrotoxicity induced by Mtx in rats by activating antioxidant enzymes and prevented renal tissue.

  12. Resveratrol Ameliorated Vascular Calcification by Regulating Sirt-1 and Nrf2.

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    Zhang, P; Li, Y; Du, Y; Li, G; Wang, L; Zhou, F

    2016-12-01

    Pathologic vascular calcification is a significant reason for mortality and morbidity in patients who suffer from end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Resveratrol, a scavenger for many free radicals, is a crucial compound for biomedicine. However, the role and mechanism of resveratrol in vascular calcification is still unknown. In this study, to mimic vascular calcification in ESRD, we used β-glyceophosphate to stimulate the rat vascular smooth muscle cells (RASMCs). We investigate the therapeutic role of resveratrol pretreatment in vascular calcification. In the current in vitro study, we observe the effects of resveratrol on improving intracellular calcium deposition and protecting against mitochondria dysfunction in calcific RASMCs. Resveratrol decreased the mRNA level of fibroblast growth factor-23, then increased the mRNA level of klotho and the nuclear transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 [Nrf2]) in RASMCs after calcification. Further, resveratrol activated the expression of sirtuin-1 and Nrf2, and inhibited the expression of osteopontin, runt-related transcription factor 2, and heme oxygenase-1. Our study shows that resveratrol could ameliorate oxidative injury of RASMCs by preventing vascular calcification-induced calcium deposition and mitochondria dysfunction through involving sirtuin-1 and Nrf2. These results might indicate a novel role for resveratrol in resistance to oxidative stress for ESRD patients suffering from vascular calcification.

  13. Melatonin ameliorates low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress in young Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

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    Agil, Ahmad; Reiter, Russel J; Jiménez-Aranda, Aroa; Ibán-Arias, Ruth; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Marchal, Juan Antonio; Adem, Abdu; Fernández-Vázquez, Gumersindo

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress in young male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, an experimental model of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). ZDF rats (n = 30) and lean littermates (ZL) (n = 30) were used. At 6 wk of age, both lean and fatty animals were subdivided into three groups, each composed of 10 rats: naive (N), vehicle treated (V), and melatonin treated (M) (10 mg/kg/day) for 6 wk. Vehicle and melatonin were added to the drinking water. Pro-inflammatory state was evaluated by plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Also, oxidative stress was assessed by plasma lipid peroxidation (LPO), both basal and after Fe(2+)/H2O2 inducement. ZDF rats exhibited higher levels of IL-6 (112.4 ± 1.5 pg/mL), TNF-α (11.0 ± 0.1 pg/mL) and CRP (828 ± 16.0 µg/mL) compared with lean rats (IL-6, 89.9 ± 1.0, P Melatonin lowered IL-6 (10%, P Melatonin improved basal LPO (15%, P melatonin administration ameliorates the pro-inflammatory state and oxidative stress, which underlie the development of insulin resistance and their consequences, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

  14. Perk Ablation Ameliorates Myelination in S63del-Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1B Neuropathy.

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    Musner, Nicolò; Sidoli, Mariapaola; Zambroni, Desireè; Del Carro, Ubaldo; Ungaro, Daniela; D'Antonio, Maurizio; Feltri, Maria L; Wrabetz, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    In peripheral nerves, P0 glycoprotein accounts for more than 20% of myelin protein content. P0 is synthesized by Schwann cells, processed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and enters the secretory pathway. However, the mutant P0 with S63 deleted (P0S63del) accumulates in the ER lumen and induces a demyelinating neuropathy in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B (CMT1B)-S63del mice. Accumulation of P0S63del in the ER triggers a persistent unfolded protein response. Protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) is an ER stress sensor that phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2alpha) in order to attenuate protein synthesis. We have shown that increasing phosphophorylated-eIF2alpha (P-eIF2alpha) is a potent therapeutic strategy, improving myelination and motor function in S63del mice. Here, we explore the converse experiment:Perkhaploinsufficiency reduces P-eIF2alpha in S63del nerves as expected, but surprisingly, ameliorates, rather than worsens S63del neuropathy. Motor performance and myelin abnormalities improved in S63del//Perk+/- compared with S63del mice. These data suggest that mechanisms other than protein translation might be involved in CMT1B/S63del neuropathy. In addition,Perkdeficiency in other cells may contribute to demyelination in a non-Schwann-cell autonomous manner.

  15. Prevention effects ameliorate the prospective association between nonsupportive parenting and diminished telomere length.

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    Brody, Gene H; Yu, Tianyi; Beach, Steven R H; Philibert, Robert A

    2015-02-01

    Telomere length (TL) is an indicator of general systemic aging, with diminished TL associated with several chronic diseases of aging and with heightened mortality risk. Research has begun to focus on the ways in which stress contributes to telomere attrition. The purposes of this study were (a) to establish whether exposure to nonsupportive parenting, defined as high levels of conflict and rancor with low levels of warmth and emotional support, at age 17 would forecast TL 5 years later; and (b) to determine whether participation in an efficacious family-centered prevention program could ameliorate any associations that emerged. Rural African American adolescents participated in the Adults in the Making (AIM) program or a control condition. Primary caregivers provided data on nonsupportive parenting during a pretest when adolescents were age 17. Adolescents provided data on anger at the pretest and at a posttest administered 7 months later. When the youths were age 22, TL was assayed from a blood draw. The results indicated that heightened nonsupportive parenting forecast diminished TL among young adults in the control condition but not among those who participated in AIM; socioeconomic status risk, life stress, and the use of alcohol and cigarettes at age 17, and blood pressure and body mass index at age 22, were controlled. Subsequent exploratory analyses suggested that AIM-induced reductions in adolescents' anger served as a mediator connecting group assignment to TL. The results suggest that the cellular-level sequelae of nonsupportive parenting and stress are not immutable.

  16. Targeting AGEs Signaling Ameliorates Central Nervous System Diabetic Complications in Rats

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    Mohamed Naguib Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic endocrine disorder associated with several complications as hypertension, advanced brain aging, and cognitive decline. Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs is an important mechanism that mediates diabetic complications. Upon binding to their receptor (RAGE, AGEs mediate oxidative stress and/or cause cross-linking with proteins in blood vessels and brain tissues. The current investigation was designed to investigate the effect of agents that decrease AGEs signaling, perindopril which increases soluble RAGE (sRAGE and alagebrium which cleaves AGEs cross-links, compared to the standard antidiabetic drug, gliclazide, on the vascular and central nervous system (CNS complications in STZ-induced (50 mg/kg, IP diabetes in rats. Perindopril ameliorated the elevation in blood pressure seen in diabetic animals. In addition, both perindopril and alagebrium significantly inhibited memory decline (performance in the Y-maze, neuronal degeneration (Fluoro-Jade staining, AGEs accumulation in serum and brain, and brain oxidative stress (level of reduced glutathione and activities of catalase and malondialdehyde. These results suggest that blockade of AGEs signaling after diabetes induction in rats is effective in reducing diabetic CNS complications.

  17. Diesel Exhaust Particles Induce Impairment of Vascular and Cardiac Homeostasis in Mice: Ameliorative Effect of Emodin

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    Abderrahim Nemmar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: There is strong epidemiological and clinical evidence that components of the cardiovascular system are adversely affected by particulate air pollutants through the generation of inflammation and oxidative stress. Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone, which is commonly found in the roots of rhubarb plant, has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, its possible protective effect on the cardiovascular effect of particulate air pollutants has never been reported before. Methods: We tested, in Tuck-Ordinary mice, the possible ameliorative effect of emodin on the acute (24h cardiovascular effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP, 1 mg/kg or saline (control. Emodin (4 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally 1h before and 7h after pulmonary exposure to DEP. Twenty four h following DEP exposure, several cardiovascular endpoints were assessed. Results: Emodin significantly prevented the increase of leukocyte (n=8, Pin vivo prothrombotic effect of DEP in pial arterioles (n=6, Pin vitro in whole blood (n=4-5, PConclusion: We conclude that emodin treatment has consistently protected against DEP-induced impairment of vascular and cardiac homeostasis in mice. Our study provides experimental evidence that the use of functional food such as emodin, pending further studies, can be considered a useful agent and may have the potential to protect or mitigate the cardiovascular detrimental effects observed in people living in cities with high concentrations of particulate air pollution.

  18. Salvianolic acid B ameliorates CNS autoimmunity by suppressing Th1 responses.

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    Dong, Zhihui; Ma, Dihui; Gong, Ye; Yu, Tingmin; Yao, Gang

    2016-04-21

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), is a Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated CNS autoimmune disease. Therefore, immune regulation is a key target for therapy. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) is a major water-soluble bioactive component of the famous traditional Chinese medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza, which is notable for its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Thus Sal B, by impairing Th1 or Th17 responses in EAE/MS, might ameliorate the crippling symptoms. Here we show that the intraperitoneal administration of 30mg/kg Sal B daily for 14 days after the onset of MOG-induced EAE in mice effectively reduced its severity. Additionally, Sal B treatment downgraded the infiltration of inflammatory cells, limited astrogliosis and blocked Th1 responses other than that of Th17. These results indicated that Sal B may serve as an effective therapeutic agent for MS/EAE by inhibiting Th1 cell responses.

  19. Rebamipide ameliorates radiation-induced intestinal injury in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sehwan; Jang, Hyo-Sun; Myung, Hyun-Wook; Myung, Jae Kyung; Kang, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Min-Jung; Lee, Seung Bum; Jang, Won-Suk; Lee, Sun-Joo; Jin, Young-Woo; Lee, Seung-Sook; Park, Sunhoo

    2017-08-15

    Radiation-induced enteritis is a major side effect in cancer patients undergoing abdominopelvic radiotherapy. Radiation exposure produces an uncontrolled inflammatory cascade and epithelial cell loss leading to impaired epithelial barrier function. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of rebamipide on regeneration of the intestinal epithelia after radiation injury. The abdomens of C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 13Gy of irradiation (IR) and then the mice were treated with rebamipide. Upon IR, intestinal epithelia were destroyed structurally at the microscopic level and bacterial translocation was increased. The intestinal damage reached a maximum level on day 6 post-IR and intestinal regeneration occurred thereafter. We found that rebamipide significantly ameliorated radiation-induced intestinal injury. In mice treated with rebamipide after IR, intestinal barrier function recovered and expression of the tight junction components of the intestinal barrier were upregulated. Rebamipide administration reduced radiation-induced intestinal mucosal injury. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9) were significantly reduced upon rebamipide administration. Intestinal cell proliferation and β-catenin expression also increased upon rebamipide administration. These data demonstrate that rebamipide reverses impairment of the intestinal barrier by increasing intestinal cell proliferation and attenuating the inflammatory response by inhibiting MMP9 and proinflammatory cytokine expression in a murine model of radiation-induced enteritis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A gut microbiota-targeted dietary intervention for amelioration of chronic inflammation underlying metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shuiming; Fei, Na; Pang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Jian; Wang, Linghua; Zhang, Baorang; Zhang, Menghui; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Chenhong; Li, Min; Sun, Lifeng; Xue, Zhengsheng; Wang, Jingjing; Feng, Jie; Yan, Feiyan; Zhao, Naisi; Liu, Jiaqi; Long, Wenmin; Zhao, Liping

    2014-02-01

    Chronic inflammation induced by endotoxin from a dysbiotic gut microbiota contributes to the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. Modification of gut microbiota by a diet to balance its composition becomes a promising strategy to help manage obesity. A dietary scheme based on whole grains, traditional Chinese medicinal foods, and prebiotics (WTP diet) was designed to meet human nutritional needs as well as balance the gut microbiota. Ninety-three of 123 central obese volunteers (BMI ≥ 28 kg m(-2) ) completed a self-controlled clinical trial consisting of 9-week intervention on WTP diet followed by a 14-week maintenance period. The average weight loss reached 5.79 ± 4.64 kg (6.62 ± 4.94%), in addition to improvement in insulin sensitivity, lipid profiles, and blood pressure. Pyrosequencing of fecal samples showed that phylotypes related to endotoxin-producing opportunistic pathogens of Enterobacteriaceae and Desulfovibrionaceae were reduced significantly, while those related to gut barrier-protecting bacteria of Bifidobacteriaceae increased. Gut permeability, measured as lactulose/mannitol ratio, was decreased compared with the baseline. Plasma endotoxin load as lipopolysaccharide-binding protein was also significantly reduced, with concomitant decrease in tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and an increase in adiponectin. These results suggest that modulation of the gut microbiota via dietary intervention may enhance the intestinal barrier integrity, reduce circulating antigen load, and ultimately ameliorate the inflammation and metabolic phenotypes.

  1. Vulnerability of Gastric Mucosa in Diabetic Rats, Its Pathogenesis and Amelioration by Cuminum cyminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vador, N; Jagtap, Aarti G; Damle, Archana

    2012-09-01

    Various studies have indicated that peptic ulcers occurring during the course of diabetic state are more severe and often associated with complications such as gastrointestinal bleeding. This study is the first attempt to understand the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers occurring during the diabetic state considering alternate biochemical pathways using suitable markers and its amelioration by Cuminum cyminum. In this study, diabetic rats showed a progressive increase in the stomach advanced glycated end products formation, gastric mucosal tumour necrosis factor-α and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels as compared to normal control (nondiabetic) rats. There was decrease in gastric mucosal content, antioxidant enzymes and cellular ATPase enzyme levels of diabetic gastric mucosa when compared to the normal control group. mRNA expression of epidermal growth factor was found to be significantly higher as compared to normal control animals. Further methanol extract of Cuminum cyminum treatment to diabetic animals caused a reduction in blood glucose, and ulcer score when compared to diabetic control rats. It significantly increased gastric mucus content, antioxidant status and cellular ATPase enzyme levels as compared to diabetic control animals. Methanol extract of Cuminum cyminum inhibited advanced glycated end products formation in vitro as well as in vivo.

  2. Vulnerability of gastric mucosa in diabetic rats, its pathogenesis and amelioration by Cuminum cyminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Vador

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have indicated that peptic ulcers occurring during the course of diabetic state are more severe and often associated with complications such as gastrointestinal bleeding. This study is the first attempt to understand the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers occurring during the diabetic state considering alternate biochemical pathways using suitable markers and its amelioration by Cuminum cyminum. In this study, diabetic rats showed a progressive increase in the stomach advanced glycated end products formation, gastric mucosal tumour necrosis factor-α and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels as compared to normal control (nondiabetic rats. There was decrease in gastric mucosal content, antioxidant enzymes and cellular ATPase enzyme levels of diabetic gastric mucosa when compared to the normal control group. mRNA expression of epidermal growth factor was found to be significantly higher as compared to normal control animals. Further methanol extract of Cuminum cyminum treatment to diabetic animals caused a reduction in blood glucose, and ulcer score when compared to diabetic control rats. It significantly increased gastric mucus content, antioxidant status and cellular ATPase enzyme levels as compared to diabetic control animals. Methanol extract of Cuminum cyminum inhibited advanced glycated end products formation in vitro as well as in vivo.

  3. Mannose-binding lectin blunts macrophage polarization and ameliorates lupus nephritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxing Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Deficiency in clearance of self nuclear antigens, including DNA, is the hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, a chronic autoimmnue disease characterized by the production of various autoantibodies, immune complex deposition and severe organ damage. Our previous studies revealed that administration of syngeneic BALB/c mice with activated lymphocyte-derived DNA (ALD-DNA could induce SLE disease. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL, a secreted pattern recognition receptor with binding activity to DNA, has been proved to be a modulator of inflammation, but whether MBL takes responsibility for DNA clearance, modulates the DNA-mediated immune responses, and is involved in the development of DNA-induced SLE disease remain poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The levels of serum MBL significantly decreased in lupus mice induced by ALD-DNA and were negatively correlated with SLE disease. MBL blunted macrophage M2b polarization by inhibiting the MAPK and NF-κB signaling while enhancing the activation of CREB. Furthermore, MBL suppressed the ability of ALD-DNA-stimulated macrophages to polarize T cells toward Th1 cells and Th17 cells. Importantly, MBL supplement in vivo could ameliorate lupus nephritis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest MBL supplement could alleviate SLE disease and might imply a potential therapeutic strategy for DNA-induced SLE, which would further our understanding of the protective role of MBL in SLE disease.

  4. Lycopene Pretreatment Ameliorates Acute Ethanol Induced NAD+ Depletion in Human Astroglial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Guest

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with reduced brain volume and cognition. While the mechanisms by which ethanol induces these deleterious effects in vivo are varied most are associated with increased inflammatory and oxidative processes. In order to further characterise the effect of acute ethanol exposure on oxidative damage and NAD+ levels in the brain, human U251 astroglioma cells were exposed to physiologically relevant doses of ethanol (11 mM, 22 mM, 65 mM, and 100 mM for ≤ 30 minutes. Ethanol exposure resulted in a dose dependent increase in both ROS and poly(ADP-ribose polymer production. Significant decreases in total NAD(H and sirtuin 1 activity were also observed at concentrations ≥ 22 mM. Similar to U251 cells, exposure to ethanol (≥22 mM decreased levels of NAD(H in primary human astrocytes. NAD(H depletion in primary astrocytes was prevented by pretreatment with 1 μM of lycopene for 3.5 hours. Unexpectedly, in U251 cells lycopene treatment at concentrations ≥ 5 μM resulted in significant reductions in [NAD(H]. This study suggests that exposure of the brain to alcohol at commonly observed blood concentrations may cause transitory oxidative damage which may be at least partly ameliorated by lycopene.

  5. Extract of Moringa oleifera leaves ameliorates streptozotocin-induced Diabetes mellitus in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassa, Hanan Dawood; Tohamy, Adel Fathy

    2014-06-01

    Medicinal plants attract growing interest in the therapeutic management of Diabetes mellitus. Moringa oleifera is a remarkably nutritious vegetable with several antioxidant properties. The present study assessed the possible antioxidant and antidiabetic effects of an aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves in treating streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rats. The antidiabetic effects of aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves were assessed histomorphometrically, ultrastructurally and biochemically. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was monitored and morphometric measurements of β-cells of islets of Langerhans (modified Gomori's stain) and collagen fibers (Mallory's trichrome stain) were performed. The antioxidant effects of M. oleifera leaves were determined by measuring the reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, in pancreatic tissue. M. oleifera treatment significantly ameliorated the altered FPG (from 380% to 145%), reduced glutathione (from 22% to 73%) and malondialdehyde (from 385% to 186%) compared to control levels. The histopathological damage of islet cells was also markedly reversed. Morphometrically, M. oleifera significantly increased the areas of positive purple modified Gomori stained β-cells (from 60% to 91%) and decreased the area percentage of collagen fibers (from 199% to 120%) compared to control values. Experimental findings clearly indicate the potential benefits of using the aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves as a potent antidiabetic treatment.

  6. Targeting the transcription factor Nrf2 to ameliorate oxidative stress and inflammation in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Stacey; Pergola, Pablo E; Zager, Richard A; Vaziri, Nosratola D

    2013-06-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are mediators in the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its complications, and they are inseparably linked as each begets and amplifies the other. CKD-associated oxidative stress is due to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and diminished antioxidant capacity. The latter is largely caused by impaired activation of Nrf2, the transcription factor that regulates genes encoding antioxidant and detoxifying molecules. Protective effects of Nrf2 are evidenced by amelioration of oxidative stress, inflammation, and kidney disease in response to natural Nrf2 activators in animal models, while Nrf2 deletion amplifies these pathogenic pathways and leads to autoimmune nephritis. Given the role of impaired Nrf2 activity in CKD-induced oxidative stress and inflammation, interventions aimed at restoring Nrf2 may be effective in retarding CKD progression. Clinical trials of the potent Nrf2 activator bardoxolone methyl showed significant improvement in renal function in CKD patients with type 2 diabetes. However, due to unforeseen complications the BEACON trial, which was designed to investigate the effect of this drug on time to end-stage renal disease or cardiovascular death in patients with advanced CKD, was prematurely terminated. This article provides an overview of the role of impaired Nrf2 activity in the pathogenesis of CKD-associated oxidative stress and inflammation and the potential utility of targeting Nrf2 in the treatment of CKD.

  7. Efficacy of bentonite clay in ameliorating aflatoxicosis in piglets fed aflatoxin contaminated diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieu, Nguyen Quang; Ogle, Brian; Pettersson, Hans

    2008-12-01

    The efficacy of locally produced bentonite was evaluated with respect to ameliorating the adverse effects of aflatoxins (AF) in piglets fed AF contaminated diets. Forty eight piglets were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 1) 0 g of bentonite and 0 microg AF/kg feed (control); 2) 4 g of bentonite plus 200 microg AF/kg feed (AF + Bento 4); 3) 5 g of bentonite plus 200 microg AF/kg feed (AF + Bento 5) and 4) 0 g of bentonite plus 200 microg AF/kg feed (AFA). Piglets in the AFA treatment had lower overall average daily weight gain (ADG), feed conversion efficiency, albumin (ALB) and total protein (TP) compared to the control diet, while mean serum leukocyte and enzyme activities (glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphate (ALP) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH)) were significant increased. The inclusion of bentonite at 0.4% or 0.5% in the AF contaminated diet restored the lower performance, feed efficiency and abnormal blood profiles of the piglets given AF and no differences between 0.4 and 0.5% inclusion of bentonite. The findings in the present study provide critically needed confirmation that bentonite has the ability to reduce the adverse effects of AF.

  8. Fly ash as a soil ameliorant for improving crop production - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jala, S.; Goyal, D. [Deemed University, Patiala (India)

    2006-06-15

    Fly ash, a resultant of combustion of coal at high temperature, has been regarded as a problematic solid waste all over the world. Many possible beneficial applications of fly ash are being evaluated to minimize waste, decrease cost of disposal and provide value-added products. The conventional disposal methods for fly ash lead to degradation of arable land and contamination of the ground water. However fly ash is a useful ameliorant that may improve the physical, chemical and biological properties of problem soils and is a source of readily available plant macro and micronutrients. In conjunction with organic manure and microbial inoculants, fly ash can enhance plant biomass production from degraded soils. Detailed studies on the nature and composition of fly ash, conducted during the latter half of the 20th century have helped in repeatedly confirming the various useful applications of this hitherto neglected industrial waste. The purpose of this paper is to review the available information on various attributes of fly ash and explore the possibility of exploiting them for agronomic advantage.

  9. FNDC5 overexpression and irisin ameliorate glucose/lipid metabolic derangements and enhance lipolysis in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Dan; Sun, Hai-Jian; Ding, Lei; Wang, Jue-Jin; Chen, Qi; Li, Yue-Hua; Zhou, Ye-Bo; Han, Ying; Zhang, Feng; Gao, Xing-Ya; Kang, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Guo-Qing

    2015-09-01

    Irisin is a cleaved and secreted fragment of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5), and contributes to the beneficial effects of exercise on metabolism. Here we report the therapeutical effects of FNDC5/irisin on metabolic derangements and insulin resistance in obesity, and show the lipolysis effect of irisin and its signal molecular mechanism. In obese mice, lentivirus mediated-FNDC5 overexpression enhanced energy expenditure, lipolysis and insulin sensitivity, and reduced hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinism, blood pressure and norepinephrine levels; it increased hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) expression and phosphorylation, and reduced perilipin level and adipocyte diameter in adipose tissues. Subcutaneous perfusion of irisin reduced hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia, and improved insulin resistance. Either FNDC5 overexpression or irisin perfusion only induced a tendency toward a slight decrease in body weight in obese mice. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, irisin enhanced basal lipolysis rather than isoproterenol-induced lipolysis, which were prevented by inhibition of adenylate cyclase or PKA; irisin increased the HSL and perilipin phosphorylation; it increased PKA activity, and cAMP and HSL mRNA levels, but reduced perilipin expression. These results indicate that FNDC5/irisin ameliorates glucose/lipid metabolic derangements and insulin resistance in obese mice, and enhances lipolysis via cAMP-PKA-HSL/perilipin pathway. FNDC5 or irisin can be taken as an effective therapeutic strategy for metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Treatment of GABA from Fermented Rice Germ Ameliorates Caffeine-Induced Sleep Disturbance in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabunga, Darine Froy N; Gonzales, Edson Luck T; Kim, Hee Jin; Choung, Se Young

    2015-05-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, is involved in sleep physiology. Caffeine is widely used psychoactive substance known to induce wakefulness and insomnia to its consumers. This study was performed to examine whether GABA extracts from fermented rice germ ameliorates caffeine-induced sleep disturbance in mice, without affecting spontaneous locomotor activity and motor coordination. Indeed, caffeine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) delayed sleep onset and reduced sleep duration of mice. Conversely, rice germ ferment extracts-GABA treatment (10, 30, or 100 mg/kg, p.o.), especially at 100 mg/kg, normalized the sleep disturbance induced by caffeine. In locomotor tests, rice germ ferment extracts-GABA slightly but not significantly reduced the caffeine-induced increase in locomotor activity without affecting motor coordination. Additionally, rice germ ferment extracts-GABA per se did not affect the spontaneous locomotor activity and motor coordination of mice. In conclusion, rice germ ferment extracts-GABA supplementation can counter the sleep disturbance induced by caffeine, without affecting the general locomotor activities of mice.

  11. Exosomes derived from MSCs ameliorate retinal laser injury partially by inhibition of MCP-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bo; Shao, Hui; Su, Chang; Jiang, Yuanfeng; Chen, Xiteng; Bai, Lingling; Zhang, Yan; Li, Qiutang; Zhang, Xiaomin; Li, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    Although accumulated evidence supports the notion that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) act in a paracrine manner, the mechanisms are still not fully understood. Recently, MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-Exos), a type of microvesicle released from MSCs, were thought to carry functional proteins and RNAs to recipient cells and play therapeutic roles. In the present study, we intravitreally injected MSCs derived from either mouse adipose tissue or human umbilical cord, and their exosomes to observe and compare their functions in a mouse model of laser-induced retinal injury. We found that both MSCs and their exosomes reduced damage, inhibited apoptosis, and suppressed inflammatory responses to obtain better visual function to nearly the same extent in vivo. Obvious down-regulation of monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 in the retina was found after MSC-Exos injection. In vitro, MSC-Exos also down-regulated MCP-1 mRNA expression in primarily cultured retinal cells after thermal injury. It was further demonstrated that intravitreal injection of an MCP-1-neutralizing antibody promoted the recovery of retinal laser injury, whereas the therapeutic effect of exosomes was abolished when MSC-Exos and MCP-1 were administrated simultaneously. Collectively, these results suggest that MSC-Exos ameliorate laser-induced retinal injury partially through down-regulation of MCP-1. PMID:27686625

  12. Rapamycin ameliorates chitosan nanoparticle-induced developmental defects of preimplantation embryos in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Jung; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Kim, DaSom; Jang, Hyung Seok; Park, Woo-Jin; Cho, Ssang-Goo; Park, Chankyu; Song, Hyuk; Seo, Han Geuk; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) are used as drug or gene delivery vehicles. However, a detailed understanding of the effects of CSNPs on embryonic development remains obscure. Here, we show that CSNPs can be internalized into mouse blastocysts, such as the zona pellucida, the perivitelline space, and the cytoplasm. Consequently, CSNPs-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress increases both of Bip/Grp78, Chop, Atf4, Perk, and Ire1a mRNAs expression levels, and reactive oxygen species. Moreover, CSNPs show double- and multi-membraned autophagic vesicles, and lead to cell death of blastocoels. Conversely, treatment with rapamycin, which plays an important role as a central regulator of cellular proliferation and stress responses, decreased CSNPs-induced mitochondrial Ca+2 overloading, apoptosis, oxidative stress, ER stress, and autophagy. In vivo studies demonstrated that CSNPs injection has significant toxic effect on primordial and developing follicles. Notably, rapamycin rescued oxidative stress-induced embryonic defects via modulating gene expression of sirtuin and mammalian target of rapamycin. Interestingly, CSNPs treatment alters epigenetic reprogramming in mouse embryos. Overall, these observations suggest that rapamycin treatment could ameliorate CSNPs-induced developmental defects in preimplantation embryos. The data from this study would facilitate to understand the toxicity of these CSNPs, and enable the engineering of safer nanomaterials for therapeutic applications. PMID:27463007

  13. Lowered insulin signalling ameliorates age-related sleep fragmentation in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Metaxakis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep fragmentation, particularly reduced and interrupted night sleep, impairs the quality of life of older people. Strikingly similar declines in sleep quality are seen during ageing in laboratory animals, including the fruit fly Drosophila. We investigated whether reduced activity of the nutrient- and stress-sensing insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IIS/TOR signalling network, which ameliorates ageing in diverse organisms, could rescue the sleep fragmentation of ageing Drosophila. Lowered IIS/TOR network activity improved sleep quality, with increased night sleep and day activity and reduced sleep fragmentation. Reduced TOR activity, even when started for the first time late in life, improved sleep quality. The effects of reduced IIS/TOR network activity on day and night phenotypes were mediated through distinct mechanisms: Day activity was induced by adipokinetic hormone, dFOXO, and enhanced octopaminergic signalling. In contrast, night sleep duration and consolidation were dependent on reduced S6K and dopaminergic signalling. Our findings highlight the importance of different IIS/TOR components as potential therapeutic targets for pharmacological treatment of age-related sleep fragmentation in humans.

  14. Paeoniflorin ameliorates acute necrotizing pancreatitis and pancreatitis‑induced acute renal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Weixing; Shi, Qiao; Zhao, Liang; Mei, Fangchao; Li, Chen; Zuo, Teng; He, Xiaobo

    2016-08-01

    Acute renal injury caused by acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) is a common complication that is associated with a high rate of mortality. Paeoniflorin is the active ingredient of paeonia radix and exhibits a number of pharmacological effects, such as anti‑inflammatory, anticancer, analgesic and immunomodulatory effects. The present study detected the potential treatment effects of paeoniflorin on acute renal injury induced by ANP in a rat model. The optimal dose of paeoniflorin for preventing acute renal injury induced by ANP was determined. Then, the possible protective mechanism of paeoniflorin was investigated. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α, interleukin (IL)‑1β and IL‑6 were measured with enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay kits. Renal inflammation and apoptosis were measured by immunohistochemistry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. The expression of nitric oxide in kidney tissues was also evaluated. The p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were measured by western blotting. The results shown that paeoniflorin may ameliorate acute renal injury following ANP in rats by inhibiting inflammatory responses and renal cell apoptosis. These effects may be associated with the p38MAPK and nuclear factor‑κB signal pathway.

  15. The Green Tea Catechin Epigallocatechin Gallate Ameliorates Graft-versus-Host Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Sabine; McGeary, Aleixandria; Rudloff, Sandra; Wilke, Andrea; Penack, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a standard treatment for leukemia and other hematologic malignancies. The major complication of allo-HSCT is graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD), a progressive inflammatory illness characterized by donor immune cells attacking the organs of the recipient. Current GVHD prevention and treatment strategies use immune suppressive drugs and/or anti-T cell reagents these can lead to increased risk of infections and tumor relapse. Recent research demonstrated that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a component found in green tea leaves at a level of 25–35% at dry weight, may be useful in the inhibition of GVHD due to its immune modulatory, anti-oxidative and anti-angiogenic capacities. In murine allo-HSCT recipients treated with EGCG, we found significantly reduced GVHD scores, reduced target organ GVHD and improved survival. EGCG treated allo-HSCT recipients had significantly higher numbers of regulatory T cells in GVHD target organs and in the blood. Furthermore, EGCG treatment resulted in diminished oxidative stress indicated by significant changes of glutathione blood levels as well as glutathione peroxidase in the colon. In summary, our study provides novel evidence demonstrating that EGCG ameliorates lethal GVHD and reduces GVHD-related target organ damage. Possible mechanisms are increased regulatory T cell numbers and reduced oxidative stress. PMID:28103249

  16. Nigerian Honey Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O.; Nwobodo, Ndubuisi N.; Akpan, Joseph L.; Okorie, Ugochi A.; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum T.; Ezeokpo, Basil C.; Nwadike, Kenneth I.; Erhiano, Erhirhie; Abdul Wahab, Mohd S.; Sulaiman, Siti A.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic dyslipidemia contributes to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Hence, its treatment is necessary to reduce cardiovascular events. Honey reduces hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. The reproducibility of these beneficial effects and their generalization to honey samples of other geographical parts of the world remain controversial. Currently, data are limited and findings are inconclusive especially with evidence showing honey increased glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic patients. It was hypothesized that this deteriorating effect might be due to administered high doses. This study investigated if Nigerian honey could ameliorate hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. It also evaluated if high doses of honey could worsen glucose and lipid abnormalities. Honey (1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 g/kg) was administered to diabetic rats for three weeks. Honey (1.0 or 2.0 g/kg) significantly (p HDL) cholesterol while it significantly (p HDL cholesterol, coronary risk index (CRI) and cardiovascular risk index (CVRI). In contrast, honey (3.0 g/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced TGs and VLDL cholesterol. This study confirms the reproducibility of glucose lowering and hypolipidemic effects of honey using Nigerian honey. However, none of the doses deteriorated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. PMID:26927161

  17. Protodioscin ameliorates fructose-induced renal injury via inhibition of the mitogen activated protein kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jinyang; Yang, Xiaolin; Meng, Zhaoqing; Guo, Changrun

    2016-11-15

    High dietary fructose can cause metabolic syndrome and renal injury. The effects of protodioscin on metabolic syndrome and renal injury were investigated in mice receiving high-dose fructose. Mice received 30% (w/v) fructose in water and standard chow for 6 weeks to induce metabolic syndrome and were divided into four groups to receive carboxymethylcellulose sodium, allopurinol (5 mg/kg) and protodioscin (5 and 10 mg/kg) continuously for 6 weeks, respectively. The glucose intolerance, serum uric acid (UA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were determined. Protodioscin significantly improved glucose intolerance and reduced the levels of serum UA, BUN, Cr, TC and TG. Histological examinations showed that protodioscin ameliorated glomerular and tubular pathological changes. Protodioscin significantly reduced renal concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α by inhibiting the activation of nuclear factor-κB, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. In addition, the effect of protodioscin on the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathway was examined. Taken together, protodioscin is a potential drug candidate for high dietary fructose-induced metabolic syndrome and renal injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Palatable cafeteria diet ameliorates anxiety and depression-like symptoms following an adverse early environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Morris, Margaret J

    2010-06-01

    Early trauma contributes to psychosocial disorders later in life. An adverse early environment induced by maternal separation (MS) is known to alter behavioural and stress responses in rats. Palatable food dampens stress responses. We investigated the influence of palatable cafeteria high-fat diet (HFD) on behavioural responses following MS or non-handling (NH), versus 15min brief separation. After littering, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to short separation, S15 (15min), prolonged separation, S180 (180min) daily from postnatal days 2 to 14 or were non-handled. Pups were assigned to HFD or chow at weaning. We assessed depression and anxiety-like behaviour with sucrose preference test (SPT) and elevated plus maze (EPM) respectively, and measured hypothalamic CRH and hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression. S180 rats showed increased anxiety-and depression-like behaviours, with increased plasma corticosterone, hypothalamic CRH, and reduced hippocampal GR expression versus S15 rats. Similar effects were observed across gender. These were normalized by provision of HFD, with greater beneficial effects in males. S15 showed no benefit of HFD. NH female rats had less adverse impacts; HFD had beneficial impact on behaviour in NH males. Thus behavioural deficits and gene expression changes induced by early life stress were ameliorated by HFD. These results highlight the important place of palatable food in reducing central stress responses supporting the therapeutic value of 'comfort food'.

  19. A PPARδ-selective antagonist ameliorates IMQ-induced psoriasis-like inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuguo; Hao, Yangyang; Wang, Xiaohuan; Wang, Lumei; Chen, Yongchun; Sun, Jun; Hu, Jinhong

    2016-11-01

    PPARδ is highly expressed in skin, especially keratinocytes, and its expression is increased in psoriatic lesions. However, the potential role of PPARδ in the pathogenesis of psoriasis remains undefined. Mice treated with Imiquimod (IMQ) to induce psoriasis can be used to evaluate the pathogenesis of psoriasis, and this model has become one of the most important in vivo research tools for research on the disease. In the current study, we showed that PPARδ was highly expressed in the skin of IMQ-induced psoriasis mice. To further understand the impact of PPARδ in psoriasis, we used these mice in a series of experiments to evaluate the pathogenesis of psoriasis. We found that PPARδ was highly expressed in both psoriatic lesions and normal skin in IMQ-induced psoriasis mice. Furthermore, the expression of PPARδ-relevant lipases was also significantly increased. The PPARδ-selective antagonist GSK3787 ameliorated the observed inflammation in the skin of the experimental mice. Based on these results, PPARδ may be a potential target for the effective treatment of psoriasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Resveratrol Ameliorates Aging-Related Metabolic Phenotypes by Inhibiting cAMP Phosphodiesterases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Jun; Ahmad, Faiyaz; Philp, Andrew; Baar, Keith; Williams, Tishan; Luo, Haibin; Ke, Hengming; Rehmann, Holger; Taussig, Ronald; Brown, Alexandra L.; Kim, Myung K.; Beaven, Michael A.; Burgin, Alex B.; Manganiello, Vincent; Chung, Jay H.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Resveratrol, a polyphenol in red wine, has been reported as a calorie restriction mimetic with potential antiaging and antidiabetogenic properties. It is widely consumed as a nutritional supplement, but its mechanism of action remains a mystery. Here, we report that the metabolic effects of resveratrol result from competitive inhibition of cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterases, leading to elevated cAMP levels. The resulting activation of Epac1, a cAMP effector protein, increases intracellular Ca2+ levels and activates the CamKKβ-AMPK pathway via phospholipase C and the ryanodine receptor Ca2+-release channel. As a consequence, resveratrol increases NAD+ and the activity of Sirt1. Inhibiting PDE4 with rolipram reproduces all of the metabolic benefits of resveratrol, including prevention of diet-induced obesity and an increase in mitochondrial function, physical stamina, and glucose tolerance in mice. Therefore, administration of PDE4 inhibitors may also protect against and ameliorate the symptoms of metabolic diseases associated with aging. PMID:22304913

  1. Resveratrol Ameliorates the Depressive-Like Behaviors and Metabolic Abnormalities Induced by Chronic Corticosterone Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Cheng; Liu, Ya-Min; Shen, Ji-Duo; Chen, Jun-Jie; Pei, Yang-Yi; Fang, Xiao-Yan

    2016-10-13

    Chronic glucocorticoid exposure is known to cause depression and metabolic disorders. It is critical to improve abnormal metabolic status as well as depressive-like behaviors in patients with long-term glucocorticoid therapy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on the depressive-like behaviors and metabolic abnormalities induced by chronic corticosterone injection. Male ICR mice were administrated corticosterone (40 mg/kg) by subcutaneous injection for three weeks. Resveratrol (50 and 100 mg/kg), fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) and pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) were given by oral gavage 30 min prior to corticosterone administration. The behavioral tests showed that resveratrol significantly reversed the depressive-like behaviors induced by corticosterone, including the reduced sucrose preference and increased immobility time in the forced swimming test. Moreover, resveratrol also increased the secretion of insulin, reduced serum level of glucose and improved blood lipid profiles in corticosterone-treated mice without affecting normal mice. However, fluoxetine only reverse depressive-like behaviors, and pioglitazone only prevent the dyslipidemia induced by corticosterone. Furthermore, resveratrol and pioglitazone decreased serum level of glucagon and corticosterone. The present results indicated that resveratrol can ameliorate depressive-like behaviors and metabolic abnormalities induced by corticosterone, which suggested that the multiple effects of resveratrol could be beneficial for patients with depression and/or metabolic syndrome associated with long-term glucocorticoid therapy.

  2. Ameliorative effect of the cinnamon oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum upon early stage diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Awanish; Bhatti, Rajbir; Singh, Amarjit; Singh Ishar, Mohan Paul

    2010-03-01

    The current study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of the cinnamon oil upon early stage diabetic nephropathy owing to its antioxidant and antidiabetic effect. Cinnamon oil was extracted by hydro-distillation of the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume. Further characterization of the extracted oil was carried out using IR, (1)H-NMR, and (13)C-NMR techniques. Early stage of diabetic nephropathy was induced by administration of alloxan (150 mg/kg, I. P.). Cinnamon oil was administered at varying doses (5, 10, 20 mg/kg; I. P.) while the level of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, urea, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione, and catalase were determined. These parameters in cinnamon oil treated groups were compared with those of standard (glipizide; 10 mg/kg) and vehicle treated groups in order to investigate if cinnamon oil confers a significant protection against diabetic nephropathy. Histological studies of the kidney proved the protective effect of cinnamon oil by reducing the glomerular expansion, eradicating hyaline casts, and decreasing the tubular dilatations. Our results indicate that the volatile oil from cinnamon contains more than 98 % cinnamaldehyde and that it confers dose-dependent, significant protection against alloxan-induced renal damage, the maximum decrease in fasting blood glucose having been achieved at the dose of 20 mg/kg.

  3. Zerumbone ameliorates high glucose-induced reduction in AMPK phosphorylation in tubular kidney cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrikant, Chomanahalli B; Chilkunda, Nandini D

    2017-10-03

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in pathophysiology of diabetes and its complications. In recent years, its role in kidney as a therapeutic target in ameliorating diabetic kidney damage is receiving renewed attention. Efforts on identifying AMPK modulators from dietary sources have gained prominence because of the tremendous potential it harbours. We therefore, examined the effect of a few bioactives on AMPK phosphorylation in kidney tubular cells. AMPK phosphorylation at Thr172 was reduced (0.42 ± 0.05 - fold change compared to control; p<0.01 vs. control) after treatment with high glucose (30 mM) for 48 h and restored by zerumbone (1.59 ± 0.20; p<0.01 vs. high glucose) but not by other tested modulators. Zerumbone also increased the phosphorylation of downstream target of AMPK, the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) without affecting the mitochondrial membrane potential and ADP/ATP ratio. Thus, zerumbone could potentially be explored as a therapeutic agent in bringing about energy homeostasis in diabetes where high glucose suppresses AMPK pathway.

  4. Erdosteine ameliorates lung injury induced by transient aortic occlusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtoglu, Tunay; Sacar, Mustafa; Inan, Bilal Kaan; Duver, M Harun; Guler, Adem; Ucak, Alper; Us, Melih Hulusi; Yilmaz, Ahmet Turan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the protective effect of erdosteine on lung injury induced by ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) of the lower extremities of rats. Wistar albino rats (n = 21) were divided into three groups. In the IR group (n = 7), the aorta was cross-clamped for two hours, followed by one hour of reperfusion. In the erdosteine group (n = 7), animals were pretreated with erdosteine 100 mg/kg daily via gastric lavage, starting three days before aortic occlusion. In the control group (n 5 7), the lungs were removed and blood samples were taken immediately after sternotomy. No treatment was given in the control and IR groups. After both lungs were removed, biochemical parameters were measured and broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL ) assessment was made. MDA levels and MPO activities in the lung tissue were significantly reduced in the erdosteine group compared to the IR group. BAL assessment revealed decreased neutrophil counts in the erdosteine-treated group. Pretreatment of animals with erdosteine significantly attenuated transient aortic occlusion-induced remote lung injury, characterised by leukocyte accumulation and lipid peroxidation. The results suggest that erdosteine may be beneficial in amelioration of lung injury caused by IR.

  5. Erdosteine ameliorates PTZ-induced oxidative stress in mice seizure model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Atilla; Aladag, M Arif; Kocer, Abdulkadir; Boluk, Ayhan; Gurel, Ahmet; Armutcu, Ferah

    2005-05-30

    The role of oxygen-derived free radicals has been suggested in genesis of epilepsy and in the post seizure neuronal death. The aim of this study was to investigate whether erdosteine has a preventive effect against epilepsy and postepileptic oxidative stress. The mice (n=27) were divided into three groups: (i) PTZ-induced-epilepsy group (n=9); (ii) PTZ-induced-epilepsy+erdosteine group (n=9); (iii) control group (n=9). The animals were observed for a period of 30 min for latency to first seizure onset, total seizure duration, the number of seizure episodes. Then they were sacrificed and the brains were quickly removed, and frozen for biochemical analysis. Malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and xanthine oxidase (XO) activities were carried out in the brain tissue. The latent period between PTZ induction and seizure are longer in the PTZ+erdosteine group than in PTZ-induced-epilepsy group (Perdosteine group. SOD level did not change in this group. While MDA and XO levels are significantly lower, SOD level is significantly higher in the PTZ+erdosteine group compared to PTZ and control groups (Perdosteine treatment both may increase latent interval between seizures and may decrease oxidative stress, thus may ameliorate neuronal death in brain during seizures. It may be used as an adjunct therapy in epilepsy.

  6. Tempol, a Superoxide Dismutase-Mimetic Drug, Ameliorates Progression of Renal Disease in CKD Mice

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    Wei Ding

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD and antioxidants may ameliorate disease progression. We investigate the beneficial effect of Tempol, a superoxide dismutase-mimetic drug, on progression of disease in a mouse model of CKD. Methods: CKD was surgically induced in c57BL/6 mice by 5/6 nephrectomy. Mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham group, 5/6 nephrectomized group (Nx and Nx+Tempol (2 mmol/l in drinking water. Mice were sacrificed at the end of 12 weeks. Renal function, structure as well as expression of key molecules involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation, fibrosis and progression in mice were measured. Results: Reduced body weight and impaired renal function (elevation on serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, urine albumin, segmental sclerosis and tubulointerstitial damage was demonstrated in Nx mice but was significantly improved by Tempol administration. Nx animals exhibited significantly elevated proinflammatory and profibrotic factors, activation of NF-κB, increased expression of NADPH oxidase related subunits (p47phox, p67phox, gp91phox, and elevated activation of TGF-ß/Smad3, EGFR, MAPK signaling pathway. Tempol inhibited NF-κB mediated inflammation, TGF-ß/Smad3-induced renal fibrosis as well as EGFR and MAPK signaling pathway activation. Conclusions: Tempol administration attenuated renal injury in CKD mice through NF-κB, TGF-ß/Smad3, redox-senstive EGFR activation and c-Raf/MEK/ERK pathways.

  7. The ameliorative effect of propolis against methoxychlor induced ovarian toxicity in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Eman E; Kames, Amany O G; Sayed, S M; Nisr, Neveen A E L; Wahba, Nahed M; Elsherif, Walaa M; Nafady, Allam M; Abdel-Hafeez, M M; Aamer, A A

    2014-12-01

    A study was designed to evaluate ameliorative effect of propolis against methoxychlor (MXC) induced ovarian toxicity in rat. The organochlorine pesticide (MXC) is a known endocrine disruptor with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether chronic exposure to MXC could cause ovarian dysfunction, two groups of Sprague-Dawley adult female rats were exposed to MXC alone in a dose of 200mg/kg, twice/weekly, orally or MXC dose as previous plus propolis in a dose of 200mg/l/day, in drinking water for 10 months. Another two groups of rat were given corn oil (control) or propolis. Multiple reproductive parameters, ovarian weight, serum hormone levels, ovarian oxidative status and ovarian morphology were examined. In MXC-exposed group, there is a significant decrease in body and ovarian weight vs. control. MXC decreases serum estradiol and progesterone levels. A significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation was obtained while a significant decrease of the total antioxidant was recorded. Ovarian histopathology showed primary, secondary and vesicular follicles displaying an atretic morphology. Increase in the ovarian surface epithelium height accompanied with vacuolated, pyknotic oocytes were obtained. The previous toxic effects were neutralized by the administration of propolis in MXC+propolis group. The present results suggest that propolis may be effective in decreasing of MXC-induced ovarian toxicity in rat.

  8. Electroacupuncture in conscious free-moving mice reduces pain by ameliorating peripheral and central nociceptive mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Lei, Jianxun; Gupta, Mihir; Peng, Fei; Lam, Sarah; Jha, Ritu; Raduenz, Ellis; Beitz, Al J.; Gupta, Kalpna

    2016-01-01

    Integrative approaches such as electroacupuncture, devoid of drug effects are gaining prominence for treating pain. Understanding the mechanisms of electroacupuncture induced analgesia would benefit chronic pain conditions such as sickle cell disease (SCD), for which patients may require opioid analgesics throughout life. Mouse models are instructive in developing a mechanistic understanding of pain, but the anesthesia/restraint required to administer electroacupuncture may alter the underlying mechanisms. To overcome these limitations, we developed a method to perform electroacupuncture in conscious, freely moving, unrestrained mice. Using this technique we demonstrate a significant analgesic effect in transgenic mouse models of SCD and cancer as well as complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced pain. We demonstrate a comprehensive antinociceptive effect on mechanical, cold and deep tissue hyperalagesia in both genders. Interestingly, individual mice showed a variable response to electroacupuncture, categorized into high-, moderate-, and non-responders. Mechanistically, electroacupuncture significantly ameliorated inflammatory and nociceptive mediators both peripherally and centrally in sickle mice correlative to the antinociceptive response. Application of sub-optimal doses of morphine in electroacupuncture-treated moderate-responders produced equivalent antinociception as obtained in high-responders. Electroacupuncture in conscious freely moving mice offers an effective approach to develop a mechanism-based understanding of analgesia devoid of the influence of anesthetics or restraints. PMID:27687125

  9. Periploca forrestii Saponin Ameliorates Murine CFA-Induced Arthritis by Suppressing Cytokine Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingqin; Li, Minghui; He, Qiuhong; Yang, Xinping; Ruan, Fang; Sun, Guangchen

    2016-01-01

    Periploca forrestii Schltr. has been used as a Chinese folk medicine due to its versatile pharmacological effects such as promoting wounds and rheumatoid arthritis. However, the antiarthritic activity of Periploca forrestii saponin (PFS) and its active compound Periplocin has still not been demonstrated. Here, we evaluated the antiarthritic effects of PFS in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) rats by intragastric administration at a dose of 50 mg/kg. The anti-inflammatory activities of Periplocin were also examined in LPS-induced AIA splenocytes and synoviocytes. PFS significantly ameliorated joint swelling; inhibited bone erosion in joints; lowered levels of IL-6 and TGF-β1 in AIA rat splenocyte; and reduced joint protein expression levels of phospho-STAT3 and IKKα. Using LPS-induced AIA splenocytes, we demonstrate that Periplocin suppressed the key proinflammatory cytokines levels of IL-6, IFN-γ, TGF-β1, and IL-13 and IL-22 and transcription factor levels of T-bet, GATA3, and C-Jun genes. Periplocin also suppressed LPS-induced cytokine secretion from synoviocytes. Our study highlights the antiarthritic activity of PFS and its derived Periplocin and the underlying mechanisms. These results provide a strong rationale for further testing and validation of the use of Periploca forrestii Schltr. as an alternative modality for the treatment of RA.

  10. Salidroside, a Bioactive Compound of Rhodiola Rosea, Ameliorates Memory and Emotional Behavior in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeri, Agostino; Mammana, Leonardo; Tropea, Maria Rosaria; Gulisano, Walter; Puzzo, Daniela

    2016-02-26

    Rhodiola Rosea (R. Rosea) is a plant used in traditional popular medicine to enhance cognition and physical performance. R. Rosea medicinal properties have been related to its capability to act as an adaptogen, i.e., a substance able to increase the organism's resistance to a variety of chemical, biological, and physical stressors in a non-specific way. These adaptogen properties have been mainly attributed to the glycoside salidroside, one of the bioactive compounds present in the standardized extracts of R. Rosea. Here, we aimed to investigate whether a single dose of salidroside is able to affect memory and emotional behavior in wild type adult mice. We performed fear conditioning to assess cued and contextual memory, elevated plus maze and open field to evaluate anxiety, and tail suspension test to evaluate depression. Our results showed that a single i.p. administration of salidroside was able to enhance fear memory and exerted an anxiolytic and antidepressant effect. These data confirmed the adaptogenic effect of R. Rosea bioactive compounds in animal models and suggest that salidroside might represent an interesting pharmacological tool to ameliorate cognition and counteract mood disorders.

  11. Amelioration of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in Swiss albino mice by Rubia cordifolia extract

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    Joy Jisha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutics against a wide range of cancers including head, neck, ovarian and lung cancers. But its usefulness is limited by its toxicity to normal tissues, including cells of the kidney proximal tubule. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether the hydro-alcoholic extract of Rubia cordifolia could decrease the intensity of toxicity in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Cisplatin at a dose of 12 mg/kg body wt was administered intraperitoneally to Swiss albino mice. Another set of animals was given hydro-alcoholic extract of Rubia cordifolia at different doses along with cisplatin treatment. The antioxidant levels, serum creatinine, serum urea etc. were analyzed. Results: The extract could significantly decrease the cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity as inferred from the tissue antioxidant status in the drug administered animals. Remarkable change was observed in serum creatinine and urea levels. Lipid peroxidation in the kidney and liver tissues was also considerably reduced in Rubia cordifolia extract treated animals. Conclusion: Hydro-alcoholic extracts of Rubia cordifolia are effective in reducing the renal damage caused by the cancer chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin. Since Rubia cordifolia has been in use as an important ingredient in the traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine, it could be safe and beneficial to use this herbal extract as an adjuvant to ameliorate renal damage in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy with cisplatin.

  12. Alkaline ameliorants increase nitrous oxide emission from acidified black soil in Northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zuoqiang; Zhang, Xilin; Qiao, Yanjiao; Wang, Lianfeng

    2011-06-01

    Lime and plant ash are common management used to achieve optimum pH for plant growth and improve soil properties in agricultural soils. Laboratory incubation was conducted to assess N20 emissions as influenced by different soil amendments (lime and plant ash) in a slightly acidic arable soil (pH 5.34). The experimental treatments consisted of CK, lime and plant ash fertilized with NH4(+)-N or N03(-)-N as nitrogen resource. The results show that lime and plant ash dramatically increases the soil pH and N20 emission. For N03(-)-N fertilization, the cumulative N20 emissions from CK, lime and ash are 421, 1669 and 921 μg N20-N/kg, respectively. For NH4(+)-N fertilization, the cumulative N20 emissions from CK, lime and ash are 361, 576 and 559 μg N20-N/kg, respectively. N03(-)-N addition leads to more N20 emission than that of NH4(+)-N addition, and lime increases more N20 emission than that of plant ash. After incubation, N03(-)-N content decreased largely. The findings suggested that alkaline ameliorants increase N20 emissions due to enhancement of soil denitrification.

  13. Anxiety Sensitivity Amelioration Training (ASAT): a longitudinal primary prevention program targeting cognitive vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Norman B; Eggleston, A Meade; Woolaway-Bickel, Kelly; Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Kara; Vasey, Michael W; Richey, J Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Fear of arousal symptoms, often referred to as anxiety sensitivity (AS) appears to be associated with risk for anxiety pathology and other Axis I conditions. Findings from a longitudinal prevention program targeting AS are reported. Participants (n=404) scoring high on the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI) were randomly assigned to receive a brief intervention designed to reduce AS (Anxiety Sensitivity Amelioration Training (ASAT)) or a control condition. Participants were followed for up to 24 months. Findings indicate that ASAT produced greater reductions in ASI levels compared with the control condition. Moreover, reductions were specific to anxiety sensitivity relative to related cognitive risk factors for anxiety. ASAT also produced decreased subjective fear responding to a 20% CO(2) challenge delivered postintervention. Data from the follow-up period show a lower incidence of Axis I diagnoses in the treated condition though the overall group difference was not statistically different at all follow-up intervals. Overall, findings are promising for the preventative efficacy of a brief, computer-based intervention designed to decrease anxiety sensitivity.

  14. Blockade of PLD2 Ameliorates Intestinal Mucosal Inflammation of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guangxi; Yu, Lin; Yang, Wenjing; Wu, Wei; Fang, Leilei

    2016-01-01

    Background. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronically remittent and progressive inflammatory disorders. Phospholipase D2 (PLD2) is reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases. However, the exact role of PLD2 in IBD is obscure. Methods. PLD2 expression was determined in peripheral blood cells and inflamed mucosa from patients with IBD by qRT-PCR. Colonic biopsies were also obtained from CD patients before and after infliximab (IFX) treatment to examine PLD2 expression. PLD2 selective inhibitor (CAY10594) was administrated daily by oral gavage in DSS-induced colitis mice. Bone marrow neutrophils from colitis mice were harvested to examine the migration using Transwell plate. Results. PLD2 was found to be significantly increased in peripheral blood cells and inflamed mucosa in patients with active IBD. Treatment with IFX could significantly decrease PLD2 expression in intestinal mucosa in patients with CD. Moreover, blockade of PLD2 with CAY10594 could markedly ameliorate DSS-induced colitis in mice and promote neutrophil migration. Conclusions. PLD2 plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of IBD. Blockade of PLD2 may serve as a new therapeutic approach for treatment of IBD. PMID:27721573

  15. Herbal medicine Ninjinyoeito ameliorates ribavirin-induced anemia in chronic hepatitis C: A randomized controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiharu Motoo; Hisatsugu Mouri; Koushiro Ohtsubo; Yasushi Yamaguchi; Hiroyuki Watanabe; Norio Sawabu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Ribavirin (RBV) shows a strong antiviral effect on hepatitis C virus when used in combination with interferon.However, RBV-induced anemia is a major problem in this therapy. It would be of great clinical importance to ameliorate the anemia without reducing the RBV dose.We report here that, Ninjinyoeito (NYT), a herbal medicine can reduce the RBV-induced anemia.METHODS: Twenty-three patients with chronic hepatitis C were treated with interferon alpha 2b plus RBV with (NYT group) or without (control group) NYT by a randomized selection. Eighteen patients completed the treatment schedule, and hemato-biochemical and virological effects were evaluated.RESULTS: There was no significant difference in biochemical and virological responses between the two groups. However, anemia was significantly reduced in the NYT group compared with the control group. The maximal decrease of Hb in the NYT group (2.59±1.10 g/dL)was significantly (P= 0.026) smaller than that in the control group (3.71±0.97 g/dL). There was no significant difference in serum glutathione peroxidase activity, serum RBV concentration, and Th1/Th2 balance between the two groups. There was no specific adverse effect in NYT administration.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that NYT could be used as a supportive remedy to reduce the RBV-induced anemia in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C.

  16. Inhibition of Notch signaling promotes browning of white adipose tissue and ameliorates obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Pengpeng; Shan, Tizhong; Liu, Weiyi; Yue, Feng; Yang, Xin; Liang, Xin-Rong; Wang, Jinghua; Li, Jie; Carlesso, Nadia; Liu, Xiaoqi; Kuang, Shihuan

    2014-08-01

    Beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) are similar to classical brown adipocytes in that they can burn lipids to produce heat. Thus, an increase in beige adipocyte content in WAT browning would raise energy expenditure and reduce adiposity. Here we report that adipose-specific inactivation of Notch1 or its signaling mediator Rbpj in mice results in browning of WAT and elevated expression of uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1), a key regulator of thermogenesis. Consequently, as compared to wild-type mice, Notch mutants exhibit elevated energy expenditure, better glucose tolerance and improved insulin sensitivity and are more resistant to high fat diet-induced obesity. By contrast, adipose-specific activation of Notch1 leads to the opposite phenotypes. At the molecular level, constitutive activation of Notch signaling inhibits, whereas Notch inhibition induces, Ppargc1a and Prdm16 transcription in white adipocytes. Notably, pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling in obese mice ameliorates obesity, reduces blood glucose and increases Ucp1 expression in white fat. Therefore, Notch signaling may be therapeutically targeted to treat obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  17. Spirulina did not ameliorate idiopathic chronic fatigue in four N-of-1 randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baicus, Cristian; Baicus, Anda

    2007-06-01

    Idiopathic chronic fatigue is an exclusion diagnosis established when no chronic disease is found. Spirulina platensis is an alga with a rich content of proteins, vitamins, minerals and amino acids and is considered as a bioactive additive with multiple effects, among them being effects against fatigue. However, despite the worldwide utilization of Spirulina, there are only a few quality studies with it and none concerning fatigue. The N-of-1 randomized trials are made on one patient, and by this kind of study the efficacy of a treatment on that particular patient can be assessed. A series of four N-of-1 double-blind, randomized trials were performed on four physicians who complained of chronic fatigue. Each patient was his own control and received three pairs of treatments comprising 4 weeks of spirulina and 4 weeks of placebo. Spirulina platensis was administered in a dose of 3 g/day. For each pair, the order of treatments was randomized. Outcome measures were severity of fatigue measured on a 10-point scale. The scores of fatigue were not significantly different between spirulina and placebo. Spirulina administered in a dose of 3 g/day did not ameliorate fatigue more than the placebo in any of the four subjects, and possibly it has no effect on chronic fatigue.

  18. C-phycocyanin ameliorates doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult rat cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mahmood; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Shobha, Jagdish C; Naidu, Madireddi U; Parinandi, Narasimham L; Kutala, Vijay Kumar; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2006-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX), a potent antineoplastic agent, poses limitations for its therapeutic use due to the associated risk of developing cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure. The cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin is associated with oxidative stress and apoptosis. We have recently shown that Spirulina, a blue-green alga with potent antioxidant properties, offered significant protection against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. The aim of the present study was to establish the possible protective role of C-phycocyanin, one of the active ingredients of Spirulina, against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. The study was carried out using cardiomyocytes isolated from adult rat hearts. Doxorubicin significantly enhanced the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells as measured by the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and dihydroethidium fluorescence. The doxorubicin-induced reactive oxygen species formation was significantly attenuated in cells pretreated with C-phycocyanin. It was further observed that the doxorubicin-induced DNA fragmentation and apoptosis, as assayed by TUNEL assay and flow cytometry coupled with BrdU-FITC/propidium iodide staining, were markedly attenuated by C-phycocyanin. C-phycocyanin also significantly attenuated the doxorubicin-induced increase in the expression of Bax protein, release of cytochrome c, and increase in the activity of caspase-3 in cells. In summary, C-phycocyanin ameliorated doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. This study further supports the crucial role of the antioxidant nature of C-phycocyanin in its cardioprotection against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  19. Sesamin Ameliorates Advanced Glycation End Products-Induced Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction and Apoptosis

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    Xiang Kong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Advanced glycation end products (AGEs, the direct modulators of β-cells, have been shown to cause insulin-producing β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis through increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Sesamin has been demonstrated to possess antioxidative activity. This study was designed to investigate whether sesamin protects against AGEs-evoked β-cell damage via its antioxidant property. The effects of sesamin were examined in C57BL/6J mice and MIN6 cell line. In in vivo studies, mice were intraperitoneally injected with AGEs (120 mg/kg and orally treated with sesamin (160 mg/kg for four weeks. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance and insulin releasing tests were performed. Insulin content, ROS generation and β-cell apoptosis in pancreatic islets were also measured. In in vitro studies, MIN6 cells were pretreated with sesamin (50 or 100 μM and then exposed to AGEs (200 mg/L for 24 h. Insulin secretion, β-cell death, ROS production as well as expression and activity of NADPH oxidase were determined. Sesamin treatment obviously ameliorated AGE-induced β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis both in vivo and in vitro. These effects were associated with decreased ROS production, down-regulated expression of p67phox and p22phox, and reduced NADPH oxidase activity. These results suggest that sesamin protects β-cells from damage caused by AGEs through suppressing NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative stress.

  20. Oral supplementation with cholecalciferol 800 IU ameliorates albuminuria in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy.

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    Yan Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low vitamin D levels can be associated with albuminuria, and vitamin D analogs are effective anti-proteinuric agents. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in vitamin D levels between those with micro- and those with macroalbuminuria, and to determine whether low dose cholecalciferol increases vitamin D levels and ameliorates albuminuria. METHODS: Two studies were performed in which 25-OH vitamin D(3 (25(OHD(3 concentrations were determined by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay: 1 a cross-sectional study of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM (n = 481 and healthy controls (n = 78; and 2 a longitudinal study of T2DM patients with albuminuria treated with conventional doses, 800 IU, of cholecalciferol for 6 months (n = 22, and a control group (n = 24. RESULTS: 1 Cross-sectional study: Compared to controls and T2DM patients with normoalbuminuria, serum 25(OHD(3 concentrations were significantly lower in patients with macro-albuminuria, but not in those with micro-albuminuria. Serum 25(OHD(3 levels were independently correlated with microalbuminuria. 2 Longitudinal study: Cholecalciferol significantly decreased microalbuminuria in the early stages of treatment, in conjunction with an increase in serum 25(OHD(3 levels. CONCLUSIONS: Low vitamin D levels are common in type 2 diabetic patients with albuminuria, particularly in patients with macroalbuminuria, but not in those with microalbuminuria. Conventional doses of cholecalciferol may have antiproteinuric effects on Chinese type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy.

  1. Autophagy ameliorates cognitive impairment through activation of PVT1 and apoptosis in diabetes mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhigui; Hao, Shuang; Yin, Hongqiang; Gao, Jing; Yang, Zhuo

    2016-05-15

    The underlying mechanisms of cognitive impairment in diabetes remain incompletely characterized. Here we show that the autophagic inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) aggravates cognitive impairment in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, including exacerbation of anxiety-like behaviors and aggravation in spatial learning and memory, especially the spatial reversal memory. Further neuronal function identification confirmed that both long term potentiation (LTP) and depotentiation (DPT) were exacerbated by autophagic inhibition in diabetic mice, which indicating impairment of synaptic plasticity. However, no significant change of pair-pulse facilitation (PPF) was recorded in diabetic mice with autophagic suppression compared with the diabetic mice, which indicated that presynaptic function was not affected by autophagic inhibition in diabetes. Subsequent hippocampal neuronal cell death analysis showed that the apoptotic cell death, but not the regulated necrosis, significantly increased in autophagic suppression of diabetic mice. Finally, molecular mechanism that may lead to cell death was identified. The long non-coding RNA PVT1 (plasmacytoma variant translocation 1) expression was analyzed, and data revealed that PVT1 was decreased significantly by 3-MA in diabetes. These findings show that PVT1-mediated autophagy may protect hippocampal neurons from impairment of synaptic plasticity and apoptosis, and then ameliorates cognitive impairment in diabetes. These intriguing findings will help pave the way for exciting functional studies of autophagy in cognitive impairment and diabetes that may alter the existing paradigms.

  2. Arctium lappa ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in rats fed with high fat/cholesterol diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Jung; Choi, Deok Ho; Cho, Guk Hyun; Kim, Jin Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2012-08-06

    Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae), burdock, is a medicinal plant that is popularly used for treating hypertension, gout, hepatitis, and other inflammatory disorders. This study was performed to test the effect of ethanol extract of Arctium lappa L. (EAL) seeds on vascular reactivity and inflammatory factors in rats fed a high fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD). EAL-I (100 mg·kg-1/day), EAL-II (200 mg·kg-1/day), and fluvastatin (3 mg·kg-1/day) groups initially received HFCD alone for 8 weeks, with EAL supplementation provided during the final 6 weeks. Treatment with low or high doses of EAL markedly attenuated plasma levels of triglycerides and augmented plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL markedly reduced impairments of acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation of aortic rings. Furthermore, chronic treatment with EAL significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP) and maintained smooth and flexible intimal endothelial layers in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL suppressed upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, and E-selectin in the aorta. Chronic treatment with EAL also suppressed increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression. These results suggested that EAL can inhibit HFCD-induced vascular inflammation in the rat model. The present study provides evidence that EAL ameliorates HFCD-induced vascular dysfunction through protection of vascular relaxation and suppression of vascular inflammation.

  3. Intervention of ginger or propolis ameliorates methotrexate-induced ileum toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Hamid, Manal; Salah, Marwa

    2016-02-01

    The long-term clinical use of methotrexate (MTX) is restricted due to its severe intestinal toxicity. The protective effect of ginger or propolis on the toxicity induced by MTX is relatively less understood, so the possible protective effect of ginger or propolis, used separately, was investigated. A total of 60 male albino rats were divided into six groups as follows: (1) control group; (2) ginger group; (3) propolis group; (4) MTX group; (5) ginger + MTX group; and (6) propolis + MTX group. The present results show that MTX caused ileum injury, including shortening and fusion of the villi, inflammatory cell infiltration and goblet cell depletion. Administration of ginger or propolis ameliorated the MTX-induced ileum injury as shown by histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural investigations and statistical analysis. This is revealed by intact villi, which shows marked increase in brown colouration of proliferating cell nuclear antigen positive nuclei in the crypts region, improvement in the number of goblet cells and brush border length of ileum. The current results conclude the efficacy and safety of ginger and propolis, which may be due to their antioxidant properties.

  4. Ac-SDKP ameliorates the progression of lupus nephritis in MRL/lpr mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hechang; Zhao, Jijun; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Hongyue; Huang, Bin; Liang, Yingjie; Yu, Xueqing; Yang, Niansheng

    2012-12-01

    N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) is an endogenous tetrapeptide which can inhibit the differentiation, migration and activation of macrophages and suppress the proliferation of fibroblast. This study examined the effects of Ac-SDKP on the progression of lupus nephritis (LN). MRL/lpr mice received subcutaneous infusion of Ac-SDKP (1.0 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) or vehicle through implanted osmotic mini-pumps from 12 to 20 weeks until being euthanized. MRL/MpJ mice served as normal controls. The data indicative of renal inflammation and fibrosis were evaluated before and after treatment. Ac-SDKP-treated MRL/lpr mice showed reduced proteinuria and improved renal function compared with vehicle-treated controls. Ac-SDKP-treated mice demonstrated decreased inflammatory infiltrates of T cells and macrophages in the kidneys as compared to vehicle-treated animals. The treatment also inhibited the activation of NF-κB and production of TNF-α. Despite this, immune complex deposition and plasma anti-dsDNA levels were not statistically different between the two groups. In addition, the treatment inhibited renal expression of TGF-β1, α-SMA and fibronectin as well as the phosphorylation of Smad2/3. Ac-SDKP treatment ameliorated LN through exerting anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects on MRL/lpr mice, providing therapeutic potential for halting the progression of LN.

  5. Tetrandrine Ameliorates Cirrhosis and Portal Hypertension by Inhibiting Nitric Oxide in Cirrhotic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海; 陈孝平

    2004-01-01

    To examine the role and effect of nitric oxide synthase type Ⅱ (NOSⅡ) in cirrhotic rats,expression of NOSⅡ mRNA was detected by real time RT-PCR. The enzymatic activity of nitric oxide synthase and the circulating levels of NO, systemic and portal hemodynamics and quantification of cirrhosis were measured. Chinese traditional medicine was used to treat cirrhotic rats and the effect of NO was evaluated. Double-blind method was used in experiment. Our results showed the concentration of NO and the enzymatic activity of NOS increased markedly at all stages of cirrhosis and iNOSmRNA was strongly expressed. Meanwhile, the portal-venous-pressure (PVP) and portal-venous-flow (PVF) were significantly increased. NO, NOS and iNOSmRNA were positively correlated to the degree of hepatic fibrosis. Tetrandrine significantly inhibited NO production and the expression of iNOSmRNA. Our results suggested that increased hepatic expression of NOS Ⅱ is one of the important factors causing cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Tetrandrine can significantly ameliorate cirrhosis and portal hypertension.

  6. Caffeic acid ameliorates early and delayed brain injuries after focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu ZHOU; San-hua FANG; Yi-lu YE; Li-sheng CHU; Wei-ping ZHANG; Meng-ling WANG; Er-qing WEI

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of caffeic acid on early and delayed injuries after focal cerebral ischemia in rats, and the possible relation to 5-lipoxygenase inhibition. Methods: Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion in Sprague-Dawley rats. Caffeic acid (10 and 50 mg/kg) was ip injected for 5 d after ischemia. The brain injuries were observed, and the levels of cysteinyl leukotrienes and leukotriene B4 in the brain tissue were measured. Results: Caffeic acid (50 mg/kg) ameliorated neurological dysfunction and neuron loss, and decreased infarct volume 24 h after ischemia; it attenuated brain atrophy, infarct volume, and particularly astrocyte proliferation 14 d after ischemia. In addition, it reduced the production of leukotrienes (5-lipoxygenase metabolites) in the ischemic hemispheres 3 h and 7 d after ischemia. Conclusion: Caffeic acid has protective effect on both early and delayed injuries after focal cerebral ischemia in rats; and this effect may partly relate to 5-lipoxygenase inhibition.

  7. Nitric oxide ameliorates zinc oxide nanoparticles-induced phytotoxicity in rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Chao; Yin, Shan-Shan; Li, Xiu-Ling; Hu, Wen-Jun; Simon, Martin; Shen, Zhi-Jun; Xiao, Qiang; Chu, Cheng-Cai; Peng, Xin-Xiang; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2015-10-30

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been found to function in enhancing plant tolerance to various environmental stresses. However, role of NO in relieving zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs)-induced phytotoxicity remains unknown. Here, sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a NO donor) was used to investigate the possible roles and the regulatory mechanisms of NO in counteracting ZnO NPs toxicity in rice seedlings. Our results showed that 10 μM SNP significantly inhibited the appearance of ZnO NP toxicity symptoms. SNP addition significantly reduced Zn accumulation, reactive oxygen species production and lipid peroxidation caused by ZnO NPs. The protective role of SNP in reducing ZnO NPs-induced oxidative damage is closely related to NO-mediated antioxidant system. A decrease in superoxide dismutase activity, as well as an increase in reduced glutathione content and peroxidase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activity was observed under SNP and ZnO NPs combined treatments, compared to ZnO NPs treatment alone. The relative transcript abundance of corresponding antioxidant genes exhibited a similar change. The role of NO in enhancing ZnO NPs tolerance was further confirmed by genetic analysis using a NO excess mutant (noe1) and an OsNOA1-silenced plant (noa1) of rice. Together, this study provides the first evidence indicating that NO functions in ameliorating ZnO NPs-induced phytotoxicity.

  8. Sesame oil therapeutically ameliorates cardiac hypertrophy by regulating hypokalemia in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan-Teng; Periasamy, Srinivasan; Chang, Chih-Ching; Mo, Fan-E; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2014-08-01

    Hypokalemia and hypertension are common manifestations of preclinical cardiovascular conditions that have a predictive value for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Cardiac hypertrophy, an important risk factor in heart failure, is attributed to long-term hypokalemia and hypertension. Sesame oil is rich in nutrients and possesses potent antihypertensive activities. We investigated the therapeutic potential of sesame oil using a hypertensive model created by subcutaneously injecting deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA; 15 mg/mL/kg in mineral oil; twice weekly for 5 weeks) and supplementing with 1% sodium chloride drinking water (DOCA/salt) to uninephrectomized rats. Sesame oil was administered by oral gavage (0.5 or 1 mL/kg/d for 7 days) after 4 weeks of DOCA/salt treatment. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), electrocardiography (ECG), and K(+) and Mg(2+) levels were assessed 24 hours after the last dose of sesame oil. Heart tissue was collected for histologic analysis. Sesame oil effectively reduced the SBP/DBP and ECG abnormalities and increased the serum levels of K(+) and Mg(2+) while limiting the urinary excretion of K(+) in DOCA/salt-induced hypertensive rats. In addition, sesame oil decreased the heart mass, the thickness of the left ventricle, and the diameter of cardiomyocytes, indicating the regression of left ventricular hypertrophy in the hypertensive rats. We demonstrate that sesame oil therapeutically ameliorates cardiac hypertrophy by regulating hypokalemia in hypertensive rats. © 2013 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  9. Hydrogen Gas Ameliorates Hepatic Reperfusion Injury After Prolonged Cold Preservation in Isolated Perfused Rat Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Shingo; Wakayama, Kenji; Fukai, Moto; Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Ishikawa, Takahisa; Fukumori, Daisuke; Shibata, Maki; Yamashita, Kenichiro; Kimura, Taichi; Todo, Satoru; Ohsawa, Ikuroh; Taketomi, Akinobu

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogen gas reduces ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI) in the liver and other organs. However, the precise mechanism remains elusive. We investigated whether hydrogen gas ameliorated hepatic I/R injury after cold preservation. Rat liver was subjected to 48-h cold storage in University of Wisconsin solution. The graft was reperfused with oxygenated buffer with or without hydrogen at 37° for 90 min on an isolated perfusion apparatus, comprising the H2 (+) and H2 (-) groups, respectively. In the control group (CT), grafts were reperfused immediately without preservation. Graft function, injury, and circulatory status were assessed throughout the perfusion. Tissue samples at the end of perfusion were collected to determine histopathology, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. In the H2 (-) group, IRI was indicated by a higher aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) leakage, portal resistance, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine-positive cell rate, apoptotic index, and endothelial endothelin-1 expression, together with reduced bile production, oxygen consumption, and GSH/GSSG ratio (vs. CT). In the H2 (+) group, these harmful changes were significantly suppressed [vs. H2 (-)]. Hydrogen gas reduced hepatic reperfusion injury after prolonged cold preservation via the maintenance of portal flow, by protecting mitochondrial function during the early phase of reperfusion, and via the suppression of oxidative stress and inflammatory cascades thereafter. Copyright © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Radiation-Induced Testicular Injury and Its Amelioration by Tinospora cordifolia (An Indian Medicinal Plant Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this investigation is to determine the deleterious effects of sub lethal gamma radiation on testes and their possible inhibition by Tinospora cordifolia extract (TCE. For this purpose, one group of male Swiss albino mice was exposed to 7.5 Gy gamma radiation to serve as the irradiated control, while the other group received TCE (75 mg/kg b. wt./day orally for 5 consecutive days half an hr before irradiation to serve as experimental. Exposure of animals to 7.5 Gy gamma radiation resulted into significant decrease in body weight, tissue weight, testes- body weight ratio and tubular diameter up to 15 days of irradiation. Cent percent mortality was recorded by day 17th in irradiated control, whereas all animals survived in experimental group. TCE pretreatment rendered significant increase in body weight, tissue weight, testes- body weight ratio and tubular diameter at various intervals as compared to irradiated group. Radiation induced histological lesions in testicular architecture were observed more severe in irradiated control then the experimental. TCE administration before irradiation significantly ameliorated radiation induced elevation in lipid peroxidation and decline in glutathione concentration in testes. These observations indicate the radio- protective potential of Tinospora cordifolia root extract in testicular constituents against gamma irradiation in mice.

  11. Paeoniflorin Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis via Inhibition of Dendritic Cell Function and Th17 Cell Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Qi, Yuanyuan; Yuan, Yuanyang; Cai, Li; Xu, Haiyan; Zhang, Lili; Su, Bing; Nie, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Paeoniflorin (PF) is a monoterpene glycoside and exhibits multiple effects, including anti-inflammation and immunoregulation. To date, the effect of PF on multiple sclerosis (MS) has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effect of PF in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for MS. After administered with PF, the onset and clinical symptoms of EAE mice were significantly ameliorated, and the number of Th17 cells infiltrated in central nervous system (CNS) and spleen was also dramatically decreased. Instead of inhibiting the differentiation of Th17 cells directly, PF influenced Th17 cells via suppressing the expression of costimulatory molecules and the production of interlukin-6 (IL-6) of dendritic cells (DCs) in vivo and in vitro, which may be attributable to the inhibition of IKK/NF-κB and JNK signaling pathway. When naïve CD4+ T cells were co-cultured with PF-treated dendritic cells under Th17-polarizing condition, the percentage of Th17 cells and the phosphorylation of STAT3 were decreased, as well as the mRNA levels of IL-17, RORα, and RORγt. Our study provided insights into the role of PF as a unique therapeutic agent for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and illustrated the underlying mechanism of PF from a new perspective. PMID:28165507

  12. Use of ethylenediurea (EDU) to ameliorate ozone effects on purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szantoi, Zoltan; Chappelka, Arthur H; Muntifering, Russell B; Somers, Greg L