Baltimore City's public school system is in crisis. Academically, the school system fails on any number of measures. The city's graduation rate is barely above 50 percent and students continually lag well behind state averages on standardized tests. Adding to these problems is the school system's current fiscal crisis, created by years of fiscal…
This article describes how the National Association for Urban Debate Leagues is reviving debate competitions among high school students in city schools. Starting in Atlanta in 1985 and boosted by seed money from the billionaire George Soros' Open Society Institute, urban educators and their supporters in 2002 formed the National Association for…
Campo, Stacey Elizabeth
The community school model is rooted in John Dewey's (1902) conceptualization of the public school as a hub for the community. This work has evolved over a hundred years and recently experienced prominence in the public eye as a fundamental component of New York City's school turnaround policy. This dissertation describes findings and…
In the spring of 2009 I embarked on a teaching experiment in which I joined an online SUNY-Plattsburgh class taking my Anthropology of Human Rights course with a conventional class at the University of Zagreb, Croatia, where I was a visiting professor teaching the same course. My motivations were several, but prominent among them was to test the…
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Under Mayor Michael Bloomberg, New York City's education system embarked on a massive change effort, known as Children First, that produced significant results: new and better school options for families, more college-ready graduates, and renewed public confidence in New York City's schools. New York City's reform effort has also produced…
The Forest School approach to Early Years education, originally developed in Scandinavia, is influencing learning outside the classroom in England. An inner city primary school in Yorkshire investigated the nature and purpose of Forest Schools in Denmark, through a study visit, prior to developing their own Forest School in the midst of an urban…
Sakurai, A.; Bisri, M. B. F.; Oda, T.; Oktari, R. S.; Murayama, Y.
The study assessed the depth of school disaster safety at public elementary schools in Banda Aceh City, Indonesia in terms of comprehensive school safety, especially school location, disaster management and disaster education. The findings indicate that 56% of public elementary schools in Banda Aceh City are exposed to high tsunami risk, and most externally driven school disaster preparedness activities were not continued by the schools due to lack of ownership and funding. To realize comprehensive school safety, disaster preparedness programs should neither be brought in by external donors, nor be in a patchwork. Rather, it should be conducted jointly and sustainably by the local school and the community and supported by multi-sectoral support in the city. Comprehensive school safety of public elementary schools in Banda Aceh City could be realized by reviewing, updating and localizing school disaster preparedness programs by all the education partners in the city with strong political will and commitment.
Samuels, Christina A.
When Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg sought a leader for the New York City schools in 2002, his outside-the-box choice was Joel I. Klein, a former assistant U.S. attorney general who had no experience as a school administrator. Eight years later, in seeking a replacement for Mr. Klein, Mr. Bloomberg has tapped yet another person from outside education:…
McEwan, Patrick J.
The report examines whether increasing competition from charter schools has a causal effect on the achievement of public school students in New York City, using a three-year longitudinal database of student test scores. As a measure of competition, it considers the percentage of students who left a public school for a charter school in the prior…
Iatarola, Patrice; Stiefel, Leanna
Summarizes results of surveys and interviews of community members from 29 New York City schools involved in school-level budgeting during 1995-96. Analyzes respondents' knowledge about school budgets, ideas about resource decision making, perceptions of budgetary power, and suggestions. Fully 80% of respondents supported a participatory process.…
Stiefel, Leanna; Elbel, Brian; Pflugh Prescott, Melissa; Aneja, Siddhartha; Schwartz, Amy E.
Background: Public schools provide students with opportunities to participate in many discretionary, unmandated wellness programs. Little is known about the number of these programs, their distribution across schools, and the kinds of students served. We provide evidence on these questions for New York City (NYC) public schools. Methods: Data on…
McDermott, Ray; And Others
Reports on the achievement of the first Waldorf public elementary school in Milwaukee (Wisconsin). Early experience indicates that Waldorf pedagogy, with its emphasis on the natural rhythms of everyday life, is an effective model for predominantly African American children in an inner city. (SLD)
Survey data obtained in recent audits updated Ohio's local government units' assessment of Year 2000 (Y2K) readiness. The survey was developed with three intended objectives: (1) to provide an accurate assessment of the efforts to remediate the Y2K problem in Ohio's school districts, cities and counties; (2) to identify issues that could affect…
New York City's Mayor Michael Bloomberg and school's Chancellor Joel Klein made the creation of new schools an essential part of their Children First reform policy. In September 2002, 13 high schools opened replacing the lowest performing large high schools throughout the City. As of 2010, more than 400 new district and charter schools are in…
School Bus began operated on the 12th of January 2015. Provision of school buses is expected to reduce not only the use of vehicles by students, but it is also to reduce the number of traffic jams. Malang school bus facilities provided by the Department of Transport in cooperation with the Department of Education to serve students in elementary school, junior and senior high schools. After the service running two years, based on the preliminary observation not all students are interested in using the school bus. The research objective was to measure the school bus’s level service. The method to measure school bus’s level of service was used Importance Performance analysis (IPA). The results showed that through IPA, it can be concluded that school bus’s level of service in Malang City have been able to serve students/customers with the mean of degree suitability (Tki) is 111. Meanwhile it must be observed and get more attention to improve by government, attributes which is lies in the first quadrant or concentrate here (attribute Adequate space, Seating capacity, Availability trash can, Passenger facility down in points, The availability of information boards in each bus stop, Availability public telephone in each bus stop, and Availability CCTV in each bus), in order to increase its performance.
Meredith, Julie; Anderson, Leslie M.
City Year is a learning organization committed to the rigorous evaluation of its "Whole School Whole Child" model, which trains and deploys teams of AmeriCorps members to low-performing, urban schools to empower more students to reach their full potential. A third-party study by Policy Studies Associates (PSA) examined the impact of…
Full Text Available Coupled with the ‘smart city’, the idea of the ‘smart school’ is emerging in imaginings of the future of education. Various commercial, governmental and civil society organizations now envisage education as a highly coded, software-mediated and data-driven social institution. Such spaces are to be governed through computational processes written in computer code and tracked through big data. In an original analysis of developments from commercial, governmental and civil society sectors, the article examines two interrelated dimensions of an emerging smart schools imaginary: (1 the constant flows of digital data that smart schools depend on and the mobilization of analytics that enable student data to be used to anticipate and shape their behaviours; and (2 the ways that young people are educated to become ‘computational operatives’ who must ‘learn to code’ in order to become ‘smart citizens’ in the governance of the smart city. These developments constitute an emerging educational space fabricated from intersecting standards, technologies, discourses and social actors, all infused with the aspirations of technical experts to govern the city at a distance through both monitoring young people as ‘data objects’ and schooling them as active ‘computational citizens’ with the responsibility to compute the future of the city.
Poos, Bradley W.
Central High School in Kansas City, Missouri is one of the oldest schools west of the Mississippi and the first public high school built in Kansas City. Kansas City's magnet plan resulted in Central High School being rebuilt as the Central Computers Unlimited/Classical Greek Magnet High School, a school that was designed to offer students an…
Cosma, C.; Rudei, Corina; Ciubotariu, Irina; Hening, Kinga
/m 3 for flats are rather high and are due to slightly increased radon potential of the region, on the one hand, and on people tendency to save heat in the cold season, on the other hand. The average value found for houses in the cold season resembles those found in Ukraine and Sweden. These indoor radon values in Cluj-Napoca city are 2-3 times higher than other values found in Romania. In the case of detached houses, 30% of them have values above 200 Bq/m 3 , but only two values exceed the 400 Bq/m 3 threshold. Similarly results have been found in Cerna Valley. During 2003 year radon content in some schools from Cluj-Napoca was measured with CR-39 track detectors. For comparison we also measured the indoor radon concentrations in schools from Onesti city (Moldavia region). The values from Cluj and Onesti schools measured in the warm season show a difference, being higher in the Cluj-Napoca city. (authors)
Stiefel, Leanna; Elbel, Brian; Prescott, Melissa Pflugh; Aneja, Siddhartha; Schwartz, Amy Ellen
BACKGROUND Public schools provide students with opportunities to participate in many discretionary, unmandated wellness programs. Little is known about the number of these programs, their distribution across schools, and the kinds of students served. We provide evidence on these questions for New York City (NYC) public schools. METHODS Data on wellness programs were collected from program websites, NYC’s Office of School Food and Wellness, and direct contact with program sponsors for 2013. Programs were grouped into categories, nutrition, fitness, and comprehensive, and were combined with data on school characteristics available from NYC’s Department of Education. Numbers of programs and provision of programs were analyzed for relationships with demographic and school structural characteristics, using descriptive statistics and multiple regression. RESULTS Discretionary wellness programs are numerous, at 18 programs. Little evidence supports inequity according to student race/ethnicity, income, or nativity, but high schools, new schools, co-located schools, small schools, and schools with larger proportions of inexperienced teachers are less likely to provide wellness programs. CONCLUSIONS Opportunities exist to further the reach of wellness programs in public schools by modifying them for high school adoption and building capacity in schools less likely to have the administrative support to house them. PMID:27917485
This paper describes outcomes of a partnership between the Rochester City School District (New York) and the Kodak 21st Century Learning Challenge consulting program for improving school-based planning team (S-BPT) operations. The purpose of the school-based planning team is to involve the entire school community in improving school effectiveness.…
Karande, S; Gogtay, N J; Bala, N; Sant, H; Thakkar, A; Sholapurwala, R
Anxiety disorders usually remain undiagnosed in school students owing to the internalized nature of their symptoms. The present study was conducted with the primary objective of evaluating the prevalence of anxiety symptoms in school students in Mumbai. A secondary objective was to assess the impact of variables (age, gender, presence of sibling, and type of school curriculum or school) on anxiety symptoms. Study cases (8-15 year olds) were recruited by nonprobability sampling from four English-medium schools. Anxiety was measured using Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS)-child self-report questionnaire. T-scores (total and subscales) were calculated and cut-off scores of> 60 were considered as significant. Symptoms of overall anxiety were present in 10.8% (53/493) of the students. Older students (12-15 year olds) had greater odds of having overall anxiety symptoms (crude OR = 4.36, 95% CI 2.27 to 8.39, P < 0.0001). Symptoms of all anxiety disorders were present in the 493 participants, with obsessions/compulsions and fears of physical injury being the most common (in 29.6% and 27.2%, respectively). Older students and boys had greater odds of having obsessions/compulsions (crude OR = 2.32, 95% CI 1.56 to 3.44, P < 0.0001; and crude OR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.27, P= 0.035, respectively]. Students with sibling (s) had greater odds of having fears of physical injury (crude OR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.78, P= 0.003). There is an urgent need to screen school students in our city for anxiety disorders.
DiMartino, Catherine; Jessen, Sarah Butler
Over the past 20 years, market-based choice initiatives have become a popular approach to education reform. Since 2002, the New York City Department of Education has opened over 250 high schools, creating a marketplace so widespread that many students no longer have a zoned or neighborhood school. This article uses two New York City--based case…
Schools in New York City have made attempts to embrace and support the strand of "making connections", which is laid out in the New York City Department of Dance blueprint for teaching and learning in dance for grades PreK-12. Accordingly, some schools have integrated Ugandan traditional dances into the dance curriculum, and dance…
Council of the Great City Schools, 2008
This report describes statistical indicators developed by the Council of the Great City Schools and its member districts to measure big-city school performance on a range of operational functions in business, finance, human resources and technology. The report also presents data city-by-city on those indicators. This is the second time that…
Council of the Great City Schools, 2008
This report describes statistical indicators developed by the Council of the Great City Schools and its member districts to measure big-city school performance on a range of operational functions in business, finance, human resources and technology. The report also presents data city-by-city on those indicators. This is the second time that…
Emilio Blanco Bosco
Full Text Available This paper addresses the return to school among youngsters in Mexico City that had dropped out of school at some point between the beginning of elementary school and the end of upper secondary level. More than a quarter of these youngsters returned to school, which supports the idea that quitting school does not equal to the end of the educational career. There is a significant association between the socioeconomic origin and the probability of an individual returning to school, although weaker (and in the opposite direction than correlation with the probability of dropping out. Complex, non-linear patterns were found between the return and the moment when the drop out occurred, which questions mainstream theories about educational decisions. It was also found that an important proportion of those who returned to school completed upper secondary education, particularly remarkable among youngsters of lower social origins. The evidence supports the idea of considering both the effects of the social structure and the individual agency, and particularly to take into account the actors’ rationality.
Varela, Angel López-Silvarrey; Esteban, Santiago Rueda; Díaz, Sonia Pértega; Murúa, Javier Korta; Fernández-Oliva, Carmen Rosa Rodríguez; Jiménez, Jose Sánchez; Sansano, María Isabel Ubeda; Bernabé, Juan José Morell; López, Bárbara Iglesias; Gómez, Máximo Martínez; Piñana, Juana María Román
To analyze the knowledge of asthma and its management in Spanish school teachers using the Newcastle Asthma Questionnaire (NAKQ). Descriptive, observational prevalence study, using a self-report questionnaire on knowledge about childhood asthma and its management by teachers in pre-school, primary, and secondary schools in nine Spanish cities. Age, sex, academic training, teaching experience, courses in which they taught, and personal and family history of asthma, were collected from each teacher. For knowledge determination, the validated Spanish version of the NAKQ was used. A total of 208 centers participated, including 7,494 teachers. The questionnaire was completed by 4,679 teachers (62.4%). The mean score of correct responses was 16.0 ± 4.8 points out of 31 (median = 17, range: 0-30). Only 6.8% of teachers were capable of pointing out the three main symptoms of the disease; 1.5% knew the triggering factors of an asthma attack; 8.6% knew two medicines useful during an asthma attack; 32.7% knew that inhaled medications had less side effects than pills, and only 3.8% knew of ways to prevent asthma attacks during exercise. In the multivariate analysis, variables significantly associated with a higher questionnaire score were a "lower age" (Beta coefficient = -0.09), "male gender" (Beta = 0.77), "being asthmatic" (Beta = 2.10), or "having close relatives with asthma" (Beta = 1.36) and "teaching in a private school" (Beta = 0.66) or in "compulsory secondary education" (Beta = 0.59). Teachers have a low level of knowledge about asthma, with an important limitation in some aspects of the disease. They should be trained to recognize the main symptoms of the disease, on how to act in the event of symptoms, and the early identification of situations in which the pupils require health care assistance. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:678-687. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
This essay critiques the ideological assertions of corporate school reform and discusses how these logics perpetuate failure in urban education. Drawing on theories of neoliberal urbanism, the right to the city, and the commons, the essay argues that educational researchers and advocates need to reframe the values of urban education in line with a…
Yoon, Ee-Seul; Lubienski, Christopher; Lee, Jin
This analysis aims to measure the impact of school choice policy on secondary school students' enrolment patterns within the social geography of Vancouver, an increasingly polarized global city. The rationale for the study is to examine the impact of "education market" reforms on the socio-economic composition of schools in a Canadian…
Rothman, Robert, Ed.
In "City Schools," Robert Rothman and his colleagues at the Annenberg Institute for School Reform at Brown University put forward a vision of "smart education systems" that link a highly functioning and effective school district with a comprehensive and accessible web of supports for children, youth, and families. One-third of…
Nelson, Cindy Lou
This paper describes the history and development of the Jersey City Public Schools creative arts therapy program. Creative arts therapists contributed examples of their work throughout the district that provide a window into their respective school settings. Examples include technology-based art therapy, an extended school year program,…
This policy study critically compares two different efforts to implement an accountability system in the New York City public schools. In 1971, the New York City Board of Education contracted with the Educational Testing Service (ETS), which created a lengthy accountability plan for the district. Fitful maneuvers to execute the ETS plan fizzled…
De Witte, Kristof; Van Klaveren, Chris; Smets, Anton J H
This paper examines if ‘naming and shaming’ is an effective tool to increase accountability in school dropout for cities with disadvantaged student populations. It argues that a comparison with other cities might be unfair if regional and population characteristics differ. It discusses the example
M.Sc. (Environmental Management) This study explores the school-commuting phenomenon that occurs across the city of Johannesburg, with specific reference to inner city private schools. It was hypothesized that the school commute, much of which has its origins in spatial apartheid, is financially and socially unsustainable. As spatial apartheid continues to dominate the urban landscape in Johannesburg, it is posited that overall, the school commute hinders the City of Johannesburg’s progres...
Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Messel, Matthew
This study of high school outcomes in the Baltimore City Public Schools builds on substantial prior research on the early warning indicators of dropping out. It sought to investigate whether the same variables that predicted a non-graduation outcome in other urban districts--attendance, behavior problems, and course failure--were also significant…
Dibley Michael J
Full Text Available Abstract Background School environment influences students' behaviours. The purpose of this research was to identify school environment factors associated with BMI. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1792 school-aged adolescents from 30 schools in six districts in Xi'an City in 2004. Height and weight were taken from students by trained field staff. School environment characteristics such as physical factors (school facilities, school shops and fast food outlets in school area, school curricula and policies were collected from school doctors using school environment questionnaire. School environment factors were identified in linear mixed effect models with BMI as outcome and adjusted for socio-demographic factors. Results After adjusted for socio-demographic factors, BMI was associated with the availability of soft drinks at school shops, the availability and the number of western food outlet in the school vicinity. School curricula such as sports-meeting and health education session were also associated with BMI. Conclusions Urgent actions are needed to address the obesogenic elements of school environments. Community and school policy makers should make efforts for students to avoid exposure to fast food outlet in school area and soft drinks at school shops, and to improve school curricula to promote healthy behaviours.
Rubia-Mar Nunes Pinto
Full Text Available The text goal is to approach, as discourse of modernity in Goiás state, the conformation of the architectural and urban materiality of schools of the capital, Goiânia, at the moment the city was planned, built and occupied. We used cartographic, textual, iconographic and oral sources to analyze the urban fabric of the capital city and to find space, address and architecture of the schools. The theoretical dialogue is established with historians of the brazilian education that deal with relations between the urban and schools and the authors engaged in demonstrate how the discourse constitutes meanings about the city. The findings point to the role of schools in the project of modernity that was under way in Goiás and to the relevance of school materiality in the making of the urban culture of Goiânia.
Borja, Rhea R.
This article talks about a new school built, which is called "School of the Future," which was born of a partnership between the Philadelphia public schools and the world's leading software-maker, Microsoft Corp. A gleaming white building on the edge of a blighted West Philadelphia neighborhood, the $62 million school garnered wide attention when…
Eduardo Rodríguez Rocha
Full Text Available This article analyzes the role of schools in educational choices in the transition to public high schools in Mexico City. Secondary schools have the potential to influence educational choices, through the development of certain educational functions. This influence comes in different ways, and is relatively independent of adscriptive characteristics and previous academic performance of students. Schools serve i as agents contributing to decision making, facilitating continuity on educational trajectories ii or as instances that do not develop explicit actions aimed to link their students to any of the options offered in the post-secondary educational system. While some schools teaching resources are destined to accompany their students during their decision process, others lack of them, abandoning them in this crucial educational event. The article is based on data provided by an ethnographic study conducted in seven high schools in southern Mexico City between January and July 2012
Barrera, Lucia Hernandez; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Barquera, Simon; Cifuentes, Enrique
The childhood obesity epidemic is a global concern. There is limited evidence in Mexico linking the local food environment to obesity. The purpose of this study is to describe the links between the local food environment around elementary schools and schoolchildren's BMI in two Mexican cities. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 60 elementary schools in two Mexican cities (i.e., Cuernavaca and Guadalajara) in 2012-2013. Anthropometric measurements on schoolchildren were collected, as well as environmental direct audits and observations in a 100-m buffer around schools. Children's BMI was evaluated according to WHO-recommended procedures. In BMI models, the explanatory variable was the number of retail food sources. These models were adjusted for child's characteristics, schools' socioeconomic background, compliance with federal guidelines concerning unhealthy foods within schools' facilities, and corresponding city. Analysis was conducted in 2014. The number of mobile food vendors was higher around public schools than outside private schools (passociation between children's BMI and the number of mobile food vendors around schools. Schoolchildren from the highest tertile of mobile food vendors showed 6.8% higher BMI units than those from the lowest tertile. Children attending schools within the highest tertile of food stores also had 4.7% higher BMI units than children from schools in the lowest tertile. Health policy in Mexico should target the obesogenic environment surrounding elementary schools, where children may be more exposed to unhealthy foods. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Li, Xin; Lal, Dhyan
A two-year ethnographic observation of an inner-city high school in Los Angeles, USA, indicated that the principal, who was extremely dedicated to at-risk students and possessed a unique style of mentoring, played a major role in students academic achievement. We--the principal and the researcher who observed the school--inquired about the…
Turner, Catana L.
This study was undertaken to obtain descriptive information about teachers' perceptions of effective classroom management within an inner-city middle school. Thirteen teachers in one such school in Tennessee were interviewed about their classroom management behaviors. Teachers appeared to have an elaborate system of beliefs related to the themes…
Lewis, Leontye; Kim, Yanghee A.; Bey, Juanita Ashby
Few studies have observed what teachers actually do in the classroom to encourage parental involvement in their children's education. Over the school year, the various teaching practices and strategies of two teachers in an inner-city elementary school that has had public recognition in its efforts to involve parents were gathered through…
Berney, Tomi D.; Stern, Lucia
The Bilingual Specialized Programs in New York City High Schools project was supported by tax-levy, Pupils with Compensatory Educational Needs, and state Categorical Aid to Bilingual Education funds. The program functioned in 15 high schools in Manhattan, Brooklyn, and Queens. The program's aim was to provide students of limited English…
Holt, Nicholas L.; Sehn, Zoe L.; Spence, John C.; Newton, Amanda S.; Ball, Geoff D. C.
Background: School-based recreational opportunities for youth from low-income inner-city neighbourhoods are often lacking. School programs represent an ideal location for promoting youth development in low-income areas because they can provide safe, supervised, and structured activities. Such activities should include not only physical education…
Nathanson, Lori; Cole, Rachel; Kemple, James J.; Lent, Jessica; McCormick, Meghan; Segeritz, Micha
The Research Alliance for New York City Schools examined Department of Education (DOE) School Survey data from 2008-2010 to better understand the richness and complexities of the information elicited by the Survey from parents, students, and teachers. This document provides the appendices to the technical report "New York City School Survey…
Considers the implications of statistics on death and poverty in minority communities for Catholic high schools with large minority populations. Sees hope at the heart of the Catholic high school. Discusses how teachers, school climate, and careful curriculum design can help instill this hope in the students. (DMM)
Barquera, Simón; Hernández-Barrera, Lucia; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Cifuentes, Enrique
Background: Unhealthy environments and food advertisements are major determinants of childhood obesity. Recent regulation has banned unhealthy foods from schools in Mexico. However, currently there is no regulation limiting exposure to food marketing around schools. Thus, our objective was to analyze the characteristics of food advertising practices around 60 elementary schools in two cities and to evaluate compliance with the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) recommendations and the lo...
Background Annual urinary screening is conducted at municipal kindergartens, elementary schools, and junior high schools in Ikeda City, Osaka, Japan (Ikeda City School System), and the results are reviewed by a general physician, but standards for when to recommend specialist referral have not been clear. Methods In all children attending the Ikeda City School System in 2012, dipstick urinalysis of a first-morning urine specimen was recommended once or twice, and if a second urinalysis showed proteinuria (≥1+), the urinary protein/creatinine ratio was measured. If this showed ≥0.2 g/g of creatinine (g/gCr), it was recommended that the child be evaluated by a specialist at Ikeda City Hospital. Results Urinary screening was performed in about 20% (388) of kindergarten, about 90% (5363) of elementary school, and about 86% (2523) of junior high school children living in Ikeda City. Urine samples were obtained from 387, 5349, and 2476 children, respectively. The urinary protein/creatinine ratio was ≥0.2 g/gCr in 13 children, including 1 elementary and 12 junior high children. In these 13 children, chronic nephritic syndrome (CNS) was suspected in 6 junior high school children, and of these, this was a new finding in 5, and renal biopsy was indicated in 3. In Ikeda City, the prevalence of CNS in elementary school children was junior high school children was 0.29%, and a renal biopsy was indicated in 0.14%. By eliminating the costs associated with assessment of the results by the Ikeda Medical Association, and by directly contracting with the testing company, the expenses paid by Ikeda City for the system itself decreased from 2,508,619 yen to 966,157 yen. Conclusions Incorporating the urinary protein/creatinine ratio into the school urinary screening system in the Ikeda City School System and clarifying standards for specialist referral has enabled restructuring of the system so that is efficient and its effectiveness can be assessed. PMID:24330222
Full Text Available This paper is used to know about the psychological health situation for middle and primary school students in Xianning City and provide a certain empirical basis for meaningful development of psychological health education and psychological assistance. This paper uses the MHT scale prepared by Bucheng Zhou professor et al. to conduct a test for 1000 students in 7 middle and primary schools in Xianning City. The detection rate of psychological health problem accounts for 1.6% where the positive detection rate of study anxiety ranks first (43.2%. The psychological health situations have much difference in sex (t = -4. 624, P<0. 001, and it’s lower in male students than female ones. There is a significant difference between the psychological health situation for only and non-only children (t = -2. 519, P<0. 01.There is a significant difference on the psychological health situation for primary school, middle school and high school students (F = 11. 3, P<0. 001, and the psychological health situation of primary school students is better than that for middle school students. It can be concluded that the psychological health situation of middle and primary school students in Xianning City is fairly good, and the psychological health situation for male student, only children and primary school student is also fairly good.
Seyyed Alireza Mousavi
Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: A most part of children time is spent in a school environment. Important part of the basic mission of schools is promoting the health and safety. So assessing the existing conditions is an important factor in promotion and this study conducted to investigate the environmental health and safety status of Paveh city schools in Kermanshah province. Materials & Methods: This is a descriptive-cross sectional study and has performed in Paveh city of Kermanshah province. The study population consisted of primary, secondary and high schools of Paveh city. Data has been collated by referring to schools, direct observation and completion of environmental health and safety checklist. Schools conditions were determined according to the environmental health and safety checklist in desirable, semi-desirable and undesirable. The collected data were analyzed using Excel software, and data means and frequencies sign in tables and were drawn by charts. Results: From the 28 schools have visited 35.6% of school building is old and 63.7% of school building is new built. In the study of all schools in 8% of schools environmental health status were undesirable and in 21% semi-desirable and in 71% were desirable, also safety status in 4% of all schools were undesirable and in 21% semi-desirable and in 75% were desirable. Undesirable safety conditions related to adjacent to waste accumulation areas, brick buildings without footing beam, inappropriate distance of first row bench from the boards, lack of green spaces Conclusion: Given the importance of safety in schools, more attention should be paid to this issue. It is essential to compliance with the principles of health and safety in schools, also any consideration and action in this field can be effective in reducing the risk of many related health problems.
Full Text Available The German Philharmonic Chamber Orchestra Bremen, a world famous orchestra for classical music, and the Comprehensive School Bremen East, a school in a deprived area, in North American terms an inner-city school, are cooperating since 2007. A three-year follow-up evaluation study was conducted to find out, if projects facilitated by the presence of the orchestra have a positive impact on the self-reported well-being and the grades of students. Results showed that involvement in the projects distinctly benefited boys: They experience a better class climate and a higher satisfaction with school as well as improved German grades.
Kuzman, Marina; Posavec, Marija; Marić, Ivana
School health services (SHS) have in Croatia long tradition, established organizational structure, defined program and educated staff. The program is limited to the preventive activities. The aim of the study was to investigate the satisfaction of the children, school staff and parents with existing school health services in the City of Zagreb. The structured questionnaire was sent to the primary and secondary schools in the City of Zagreb, which were selected using random sample method. The questionnaires were anonymous and filled in supervised by class masters. In the secondary schools the structure of schooling was respected. Questionnaires were filled by 448 pupils from primary, 551 from secondary schools, by 596 parents and 595 teachers. In primary schools pupils rated SHS more available and accessible, staff complaisant and responsible, counselling being useful and justified, confidentiality respected higher than pupils from secondary schools (pZagreb are recognized as vital and necessary partners for schools, available and accessible for pupils, teachers and parents, especially for primary schools. Counselling is highly rated by all respondents, confidentiality considered as respected, and the problem of the most common challenges as successfully solved.
American Coll. Testing Program, Iowa City, IA.
This model describes how the guidance staff at a hypothetical high school communicated the effectiveness of the guidance program to students, parents, teachers, and administrators. A description of the high school is presented, and guidance services and personnel are described. A conceptual model responding to student needs is outlined along with…
Curry, Marnie W.
This article describes an urban high school's response to gun violence, chronicling how the school's mission, full-service community orientation, and commitment to authentic cariño (caring) allowed students to respond to grief and tragedy and develop an ongoing peace building movement that seeks to transform students' lives and the communities…
Yavuzer, Yasemin; Gundogdu, Rezzan; Dikici, Ayhan
The aim of this study is to determine the types and frequencies of violence encountered by teachers in primary and high schools in Nide province in Turkey, and, in addition, to determine the perceptions of teachers regarding the reasons for and methods of prevention of violent actions at schools. One hundred forty-two teachers were chosen for this…
Belmonte, Alessandro; di Clemente, Riccardo; Buldyrev, Sergey V.
We characterize the statistical law according to which Italian primary school-size distributes. We find that the school-size can be approximated by a log-normal distribution, with a fat lower tail that collects a large number of very small schools. The upper tail of the school-size distribution decreases exponentially and the growth rates are distributed with a Laplace PDF. These distributions are similar to those observed for firms and are consistent with a Bose-Einstein preferential attachment process. The body of the distribution features a bimodal shape suggesting some source of heterogeneity in the school organization that we uncover by an in-depth analysis of the relation between schools-size and city-size. We propose a novel cluster methodology and a new spatial interaction approach among schools which outline the variety of policies implemented in Italy. Different regional policies are also discussed shedding lights on the relation between policy and geographical features.
Le, Thi Ho Vi; Gillott, Mark C.; Rodrigues, Lucélia Taranto
Indoor environmental quality significantly impacts on students’ performance and productivity, particularly thermal comfort levels. Currently in Vietnam, very few studies have dealt with the issue and the current trend is to install energy-intensive air-conditioning in primary schools as this is perceived as more comfortable. In this study, the authors investigated the users’ perceptions of thermal comfort in three primary schools in Ho Chi Minh City during the mid-season (September 2015) and ...
Ying-Ming Su; Mei-Shu Huang
To mitigate the urban heat island effect has become a global issue when we are faced with the challenge of climate change. Through literature review, plant photosynthesis can reduce the carbon dioxide and mitigate the urban heat island effect to a degree. Because there are not enough open space and parks, green roof has become an important policy in Taiwan. We selected elementary school buildings in northern New Taipei City as research subjects since elementary schools ar...
Azam Mahmudi; Fatemeh Tajedini; Heshmatolah Ranjbar; Bijan Moghimi-Dehkordi
Background: In recent years, overweight and obesity have dramatically increased in many countries, and this trend is also visible among children. Childhood obesity will increase the chance of obesity and its associated diseases in adulthood. This study was aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of overweight and obesity in middle school students of Pakdasht. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 995 female students were selected from all middle schools of Pakdasht city, Teh...
Bigdeloo, Masoomeh; Bozorgi, Zahra Dasht
This study aims to investigate the relationship between the religious attitude, self-efficacy, and life satisfaction in high school teachers of Mahshahr City. To this end, 253 people of all high school teachers in Mahshahr City, in Iran were selected as the sample using the multistage cluster sampling method. For data collection, Glock and Stark's…
Under-performing New York City (NYC) schools precipitated Mayor Michael Bloomberg's decision to advance a vocational education initiative. The initiative was to address the problem of the many city high school graduates lacking both the skills for gainful employment and the academic preparedness to pursue higher education. The mayor's initiative…
This paper outlines several schemes for developing quality private schools for inner city students. The basic assumption justifying the proposal that such schools be independently managed is that the urban public school systems have patently failed to educate poor children. Therefore, a new national network of independent schools should be…
Xiao, Yuanmei; Li, Weijuan; Ren, Qingfeng; Ren, Xiaohui; Wang, Zhiming; Wang, Mianzhen; Lan, Yajia
To investigate the distribution and main influential factors of mental workload of middle school teachers in Nanchang City. A total of 504 middle school teachers were sampled by random cluster sampling from middle schools in Nanchang City, and the mental workload level was assessed with National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) which was verified in reliability and validity. The mental workload scores of middle school teachers in Nanchang was approximately normal distribution. The mental workload level of middle school teachers aged 31 -35 years old was the highest. For those no more than 35 years old, there was positive correlation between mental workload and age (r = 0.146, P teachers with lower educational level seemed to have a higher mental workload (P teacher worked per day, the higher the mental workload was. Working hours per day was the most influential factor on mental workload in all influential factors (P teachers was closely related to age, educational level and work hours per day. Working hours per day was the important risk factor of mental workload. Reducing working hours per day, especially reducing it to be no more than 8 hours per day, may be a significant and useful approach alleviating mental workload of middle school teachers in Nanchang City.
Schroeder, Krista; Jia, Haomiao; Wang, Y Claire; Smaldone, Arlene
The Healthy Options and Physical Activity Program (HOP) is a school nurse-led intervention for children with severe obesity. HOP was developed by experts at the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene and implemented in New York City schools beginning in 2012. The purpose of this study was to evaluate HOP implementation with the goal of informing HOP refinement and potential future HOP dissemination. This study entailed a retrospective analysis of secondary data. Analytic methods included descriptive statistics, Wilcoxon rank sum and Chi square tests, and multivariate logistic regression. During the 2012-2013 school year, 20,518 children were eligible for HOP. Of these, 1054 (5.1%) were enrolled in the program. On average, enrolled children attended one HOP session during the school year. Parent participation was low (3.2% of HOP sessions). Low nurse workload, low school poverty, higher grade level, higher BMI percentile, and chronic illness diagnosis were associated with student enrollment in HOP. As currently delivered, HOP is not likely to be efficacious. Lessons learned from this evaluation are applicable to future nurse-led obesity interventions. Prior to implementing a school nurse-led obesity intervention, nursing workload and available support must be carefully considered. Interventions should be designed to facilitate (and possibly require) parent involvement. Nurses who deliver obesity interventions may require additional training in obesity treatment. With attention to these lessons learned, evidence-based school nurse-led obesity interventions can be developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Daly, Richard F.
The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between an adolescent's socioeconomic status (SES) and selected variables of the sub-subsystems of the River City High School senior class social system during the 1974-75 academic year. Variables for study were selected from each of the three sub-subsystems of the senior class social…
Alfahadi, Abdulrahman M.; Alsalhi, Abdulrhman A.; Alshammari, Abdullah S.
The aim of this study is to investigate EFL Secondary School Teachers' Views on Blended Learning. It also aims to investigate (a) the teachers' views on blended learning content and process, and (b) how blended learning is effective in developing teachers' performance. The study sample included 35 EFL Saudi teachers in Tabuk City, KSA. In order to…
Perlman, Sharon E.; Nonas, Cathy; Lindstrom, Lauren L.; Choe-Castillo, Julia; McKie, Herman; Alberti, Philip M.
Background: The high prevalence of obesity puts children at risk for chronic diseases, increases health care costs, and threatens to reduce life expectancy. As part of the response to this epidemic, the New York City (NYC) Department of Education (DOE)--the nation's largest school district--has worked to improve the appeal and nutritional quality…
Viteritti, Joseph P.
In this essay, the author reviews "Education Reform in New York City: Ambitious Change in the Nation's Most Complex School System," by Jennifer A. O'Day, Catherine S. Bitter, and Louis Gomez. The book under review explores a larger set of issues, and some time has passed. But many of the issues studied remain relevant and the consistent…
Hopgood, Timothy; Percival, Teuila; Stewart, Joanna; Ameratunga, Shanthi
The school journey is a common context for child pedestrian injuries in New Zealand, with children from low socioeconomic, Maori or Pacific families being at increased risk. The extent to which evidence-based environmental strategies that can address this problem are equitably implemented is unclear. To determine if there is a difference in the distribution of traffic-calming modifications around schools in areas of high and low socioeconomic deprivation in Auckland and Manukau Cities, New Zealand. From a list of the most and least socioeconomically deprived schools in Auckland and Manukau Cities, 40 of each were randomly selected. The number of modifications within a 1 km radius of these schools was recorded in December 2009 or January 2010. The association of deprivation and region with the numbers of traffic-calming modifications was examined using a general linear model. Socioeconomically least deprived schools had more traffic-calming interventions than the most deprived schools (least square mean (LSM): 25 versus 18; p=0.05), and Auckland schools had more interventions than Manukau schools (LSM: 27 versus 16; p=0.001). Traffic-calming measures were observed more commonly in less deprived areas where the risks of child pedestrian injuries are generally lower. This apparent paradox could result in increasing socioeconomic inequities in the distribution of child pedestrian injuries.
This article examines the fundamental disconnect between discourses of accountability in education policy and their interpretation on the ground by parents. Based on data from two sites in Baltimore--district-led teacher training and a community facing school restructuring--I argue that both parents and education professionals consider…
Clark, Scott B.; DeCato, Kristen Devan; George, Dave; Henderson, Dana; Henry, Aston A., Jr.; Hoch, Christopher
Public schools have a mandate to educate children in a way that is safe, effective, and cost efficient. The risks involved in achieving that mandate have become increasingly complex, and the need to manage those risks has never been greater. The emergence of widespread, interconnected risks, such as cyber risks and data management, infrastructure…
Tsurugi, Yoko; Yamamoto, Mieko; Matsuda, Shinya
The purpose of this study was to clarify the actual sexual behavior and attitudes of high school students in Kitakyushu city, Fukuoka and then to develop effective sex education methods for high school students in this region. This study investigated the sexual behavior and attitudes of 1,297 high school students in Kitakyushu by self-administered questionnaire. The differences in their answers by sex, prevalence of sexual intercourse and change in sexual behavior and attitude before and after the sex education lecture were examined. 39.3% of the students had had sexual intercourse and 74.1% answered that they might have sex, if it were with a partner whom they loved. However, they did not have enough knowledge about contraception and sexually transmitted diseases. This result shows that they did not recognize the risks accompanying sexual intercourse. There are significant differences between male and female students in their sexual attitudes. Male students tend to permit premarital sexual intercourse, unfaithfulness, prostitution, hiring a prostitute and abortion. Male students tend to give more approval to the following opinions: both men and women should agree to sexual contact if the partner wants it; men should take the initiative in sexual contact; women should not talk about sex. Many female students answered that women should make their own decisions to have or not to have sex, however a considerable number of female students answered that for their first intercourse, they just agreed with their partner even though they really did not want to do so. After the sex education lecture, the students have more knowledge about contraception and STDs. However, there is no significant difference in their sexual attitudes before and after the lecture. In order to facilitate more desirable and safer sexual behavior among the younger generation, it is not enough to simply give them knowledge about contraception or STDs, etc. To organize more comprehensive sex
Dwi Putri, Lusi; Soehardi, Fitridawati; Saleh, Alfian
School Safety Zone is a location or region on particular roads that are time-based speed zone to set the speed of the vehicle in the school environment. The maximum speed limit permits entering a School Safety Zone, especially in Pekanbaru City is 25 km / h and an outline of the speed limit permit vehicles that pass through the School Safety Zone in Indonesia is generally 20-30 km / h. However, the vehicles speeds that pass School Safety Zone are higher than permit speeds.To ensure the level of vehicle offense across the territory of the School Safety Zone so it is necessary a primary data which is taken randomly based on field survey for 3 days at schools that has that facility ie SDN 3 Jalan Kesehatan Pekanbaru City, SDN 68 Jalan Balam Ujung Kota Pekanbaru and SDN 143 Jalan Taskurun Kota Pekanbaru. Furthermore, the data were taken in good condition that is at 6:30 to 7:30 am and at 12:00 to 13:00 pm. In addition, the data obtained is mileage and travel time of the vehicle. Both of these data can generate good speed value that passes through the area of School Safety Zone. Based on the research findings, the vehicle speed passing through the area of School Safety Zone is incompatible with speed permit at 35 km / h with a maximum average percentage of the rate of offense in the area of the school zone is 91.7%. This indicates that the vehicle passes School Safety Zone not following the rules of the maximum limit area and can be potentially harmful to elementary school students.
Patel, Molini M.; Chillrud, Steven N.; Correa, Juan C.; Feinberg, Marian; Hazi, Yair; Deepti, K. C.; Prakash, Swati; Ross, James M.; Levy, Diane; Kinney, Patrick L.
Relatively little is known about exposures to traffic-related particulate matter at schools located in dense urban areas. The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of diesel traffic proximity and intensity on ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) and black carbon (BC), an indicator of diesel exhaust particles, at New York City (NYC) high schools. Outdoor PM 2.5 and BC were monitored continuously for 4-6 weeks at each of 3 NYC schools and 1 suburban school located 40 km upwind of the city. Traffic count data were obtained using an automated traffic counter or video camera. BC concentrations were 2-3 fold higher at urban schools compared with the suburban school, and among the 3 urban schools, BC concentrations were higher at schools located adjacent to highways. PM 2.5 concentrations were significantly higher at urban schools than at the suburban school, but concentrations did not vary significantly among urban schools. Both hourly average counts of trucks and buses and meteorological factors such as wind direction, wind speed, and humidity were significantly associated with hourly average ambient BC and PM 2.5 concentrations in multivariate regression models. An increase of 443 trucks/buses per hour was associated with a 0.62 μg/m 3 increase in hourly average BC at an NYC school located adjacent to a major interstate highway. Car traffic counts were not associated with BC. The results suggest that local diesel vehicle traffic may be important sources of airborne fine particles in dense urban areas and consequently may contribute to local variations in PM 2.5 concentrations. In urban areas with higher levels of diesel traffic, local, neighborhood-scale monitoring of pollutants such as BC, which compared to PM 2.5, is a more specific indicator of diesel exhaust particles, may more accurately represent population exposures.
Carriedo, Ángela; Bonvecchio, Anabelle; López, Nancy; Morales, Maricruz; Mena, Carmen; Théodore, Florence L; Irizarry, Laura
To increase water consumption in school children in Mexico City through a social marketing intervention. Cluster quasi-experimental design. Intervention of three months in schools, including water provision and designed based on social marketing. Reported changes in attitude, knowledge and behavior were compared pre and post intervention. Children of the intervention group (n=116) increased in 38% (171 ml) water consumption during school time, control group (n=167) decreased its consumption in 21% (140 ml) (pwater consumption among children, strategy that might contribute to mitigate childhood obesity.
Full Text Available This article examines data on student achievement and school demographics not explored by the researchers who have promoted Community School District 2 (CSD 2 as a model of urban school reform that should be replicated elsewhere. Data on achievement indicate a remarkable degree of social and racial stratification among CSD 2's schools and levels of achievement that closely correlate with race, ethnicity, and poverty. In addition, when CSD 2's scores on state and city tests of mathematics are compared with results from CSD 25 in Queens, a school district that serves a population demographically similar, the superiority of its functioning becomes questionable. The article explains why the design of research on CSD 2 illustrates the perils to both research and policy when university-based researchers assume the role of “cheerleader” (Cuban, 1988, promoting reforms they have aided in implementing and assessing.
Salih A. Abdulla
Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to determine the knowledge and attitudes of primary school managers regarding epilepsy among school children in Erbil City, Iraq. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in primary schools between 18 June and 18 August 2013. A total of 80 primary school managers were selected to answer a questionnaire covering three domains: socio-demographical characteristics, knowledge of epilepsy and attitudes towards epilepsy. Results: More than half of the participants (55% had spent less than 10 years in school administration. More than one-third (37.5% of the participants believed that epilepsy was an infectious disease, and over half of the respondents (53.75% stated that epilepsy cannot be treated or prevented. Conclusion: Although the respondents’ attitudes towards pupils with epilepsy were generally positive, their knowledge of epilepsy was imperfect; thus, an epilepsy education campaign is required. This should focus on the causes of epilepsy and its management.
Barquera, Simón; Hernández-Barrera, Lucia; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Cifuentes, Enrique
Unhealthy environments and food advertisements are major determinants of childhood obesity. Recent regulation has banned unhealthy foods from schools in Mexico. However, currently there is no regulation limiting exposure to food marketing around schools. Thus, our objective was to analyze the characteristics of food advertising practices around 60 elementary schools in two cities and to evaluate compliance with the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) recommendations and the local food industry self-regulatory marketing code. Data were collected during the period of October 2012 to March 2013. A random sample of elementary schools was selected from two Mexican cities. Using geographic information systems, we drew a 100-m-diameter buffer around each school. Trained personnel obtained photographs to assess the locations and types of food advertisements. Our results were stratified by school type and by indicators of compliance with the PAHO and industry recommendations. We developed a multivariate negative binomial regression model to determine factors predicting the number of advertisements around schools. The number of advertisements was significantly higher around public schools than around private schools (6.5 ± 5.6 vs. 2.4 ± 3.5, p marketing medium (97%), showing mostly sugar-sweetened beverages, sweet breads, candies, and bottled water. Promotions, such as special prices or gifts, were included on 30% of printed posters. Food advertising practices were often in compliance with industry recommendations (83%) but not with those from the PAHO (32%) (p food marketing not only inside schools but also around them, particularly in lower income communities.
Ingle, Navin Anand; Dubey, Harsh Vardhan; Kaur, Navpreet; Gupta, Rahul
Healthy teeth and oral tissues and the need for oral health care are important for any section of society. Dental caries is an infectious microbial disease of multifactorial origin in which diet, host, and microbial flora interacts over a period of time in such a way so as to encourage demineralization of the tooth enamel with resultant caries formation. Dental caries, the product of man's progress towards civilization, has a very high morbidity potential and thus, is coming into focus of the mankind. To assess the prevalence of dental caries among 12-15 year old government and private school children of Bharatpur city. This was a cross-sectional study carried out on total 1400 school children, of which 700 school children were from government schools and 700 were from private schools. Simple random sampling methodology was used to select the sample. The subjects were examined for dental caries according to WHO 1997 assessment form. Significant Caries Index was also used to assess the prevalence of dental caries. The prevalence of dental caries was found higher among government school children, that is, 53%, when compared to private school children, that is, 47% and this difference was found to be statistically significant. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth were found to be higher in government school children (7.61 ± 2.86) as compared to private school children (4.76 ± 2.42). Dental caries was found to be the major public health problems among both the government and private school children of Bharatpur city, which need immediate attention. Regular dental checkups and practice of routine oral hygiene procedures will enable them to lead a healthier life.
Al-Merey, R.; Al-Ghali, M.; Mortada, S.
Due to the fact that lead is a relatively common element in nature and one of the most pollutant elements which man kind is exposed to in densely populated cities that have a large number of vehicles using leaded petrol which has bad effects on human health particularly children, it is found necessary to scan the health situation related to lead exposure in Damascus. The present work focuses on determining the concentration of lead in the blood of primary school children in Damascus city and some schools in the suburbs of Damascus. 546 blood samples were collected from school children in Damascus city and 183 blood samples from school children in the suburbs of Damascus. Parameters such as student's environmental, social and behavioral information were taken into consideration and correlate with lead concentration in students blood samples. Results showed that 76.3% of the samples have more than 10 μg/100 ml of lead in the blood. Which has lead to the following health effects: Decrease in hemoglobin and vitamin-D, Effects on central nervous system, Deterioration in children growth, decreasing in IQ, and kidney failure. (Authors)
Al-Merey, R.; Galee, M.; Mortada, S.
Due to the fact that lead is a relatively common element in nature and one of the most pollutant elements which man kind is exposed to in densely populated cities that have a large number of vehicles using leaded petrol which has bad effects on human health particularly children, it is found necessary to scan the health situation related to lead exposure in Damascus. The present work focuses on determining the concentration of lead in the blood of primary school children in Damascus city and some schools in the suburbs of Damascus. 546 blood samples were collected from school children in Damascus city and 183 blood samples from school children in the suburbs of Damascus. Parameters such as student's environmental, social and behavioral information were taken into consideration and correlate with lead concentration in students blood samples. Results showed that 76.3% of the samples have more than 10 μg/100 ml of lead in the blood. Which has lead to the following health effects: Decrease in hemoglobin and vitamin-D, Effects on central nervous system, Deterioration in children growth, decreasing in IQ, and kidney failure. (Authors)
Sumarsono, Raden Bambang; Imron, Ali; Wiyono, Bambang Budi; Arifin, Imron
This research aims at describing parents participation in improving the quality of education of elementary schools viewed from the school substance and management. This is a qualitative research using phenomenology approach. The research design employed is comparative multicase involving four elementary schools in Malang city, East java,…
Beginning in 2002, with the election of Mayor Michael Bloomberg, New York City's Department of Education undertook an unprecedented overhaul of the largest school district in the United States. Over the next 10 years the Department of Education closed more than 25 large, underperforming high schools, and created almost 200 new, small high schools,…
Nathanson, Lori; Cole, Rachel; Kemple, James J.; Lent, Jessica; McCormick, Meghan; Segeritz, Micha
The Research Alliance for New York City Schools examined Department of Education (DOE) School Survey data from 2008-2010 to better understand the richness and complexities of the information elicited by the Survey from parents, students, and teachers. This report provides background information on the development of the NYC School Surveys during…
Yusta, Nyudule; Karugu, Geoffrey; Muthee, Jessica; Tekle, Tesfu
Learners with dyscalculia in the integrated primary schools in Arusha have been performing poorly in the Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE). Thus, the journal sought to investigate the impact of instructional resources on mathematics performance of learners with dyscalculia in integrated primary schools found in Arusha city, Tanzania. The…
Fancsali, Cheri; Jaffe-Walter, Reva; Mitchell-McKnight, Vernay; Nevarez, Nancy; Orellana, Eliana, Williams Rose, Lea
The Academy for Educational Development (AED) conducted a case study of six public high schools in New York City as part of a multifaceted evaluation of a small schools initiative funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Through surveys, interviews, and focus groups, the authors gathered information and opinions from the schools'…
The Future of Inner City High Schools: The Public-Private Contribution. Proceedings of Conference "The Future of Inner City High Schools: The Public-Private Contribution" (Boston, Massachusetts, June 21-22, 1984).
Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Kennedy School of Government.
This document summarizes the proceedings of a conference of urban leaders on public-private collaborative efforts to address the problems of inner-city high schools. Findings presented and opinions expressed at sessions on the following topics are outlined: (1) education funds; (2) city-wide umbrella organizations; (3) goal setting--tying jobs and…
Moosapour, Sodeif; Feizi, Dr. Mohammad; Alipour, Dr. Hosein
The present study is a survey method and terms of the target is practical and has done to explain the spiritual intelligence (Existential Intelligence, Personal intelligences, Transcendental Awareness and Conscious State Expansion) relationships with Organizational Citizenship Behavior (Sportsmanship, Courtesy, Conscientiousness, Civic Virtue and Altruism). The population was high school teachers in Germi City that were 400 peoples. We determined the amount of the sample size with the used of...
A mixed-methods study enabled the exploration of New York City high school data, analyzing performance/demographic scores based on principal and/or student gender, boroughs, and other factors found the following: Significant differences in boroughs’ college and career readiness scores, χ2(4, N = 369) = 26.830, p = .00, with (a) the highest mean rank of 251 for Staten Island, and the lowest mean rank of 156 for Brooklyn...
Egger, Joseph R; Konty, Kevin J; Wilson, Elisha; Karpati, Adam; Matte, Thomas; Weiss, Don; Barbot, Oxiris
The effects of individual school dismissal on influenza transmission have not been well studied. During the spring 2009 novel H1N1 outbreak, New York City implemented an individual school dismissal policy intended to limit influenza transmission at schools with high rates of influenza-like illness (ILI). Active disease surveillance data collected by the New York City Health Department on rates of ILI in schools were used to evaluate the impact. Sixty-four schools that met the Health Department's criteria for considering dismissal were included in the analysis. Twenty-four schools that met criteria subsequently dismissed all classes for approximately 1 school week. A regression model was fit to these data, estimating the effect of school dismissal on rates of in-school ILI following reconvening, adjusting for potential confounders. The model estimated that, on average, school dismissal reduced the rate of ILI by 7.1% over the entire average outbreak period. However, a large proportion of in-school ILI occurred before dismissal criteria were met. A separate model estimated that school absenteeism rates were not significantly affected by dismissal. Results suggest that individual school dismissal could be considered in situations where schools have a disproportionate number of high-risk students or may be unable to implement recommended preventive or infection control measures. Future work should focus on developing more sensitive indicators of early outbreak detection in schools and evaluating the impact of school dismissal on community transmission. © 2012, American School Health Association.
Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a disease caused by a hormonal disorder that affects insulin. 5.7% of the total population of Indonesia, including teenagers is a big challenge for the health sector to do the step in anticipation of the complexity of health problems caused by diabetes mellitus in Indonesia. This study aims to analyze the risk factors of diabetes mellitus in adolescent senior high school in the city of Malang. Method: This research was correlational research design, sampled in this study was partly teenagers is high school class in Malang city area drawn at random sampling with a large sample of 375 respondents. Research conducted at government senior high school 6 and 9 (SMU Negeri 6 and SMU Negeri 9 in the city of Malang, in May–August, 2011. Data collection techniques using questionnaires; measurements: weight, height, abdominal circumference/waist, blood pressure and food consumption survey (Recording of Present Food Intake of the diet for three days. Data was analyzed by descriptive and analytic Spearman Rho correlation with alpha 0.05. Result: The results showed that a BMI (body mass index and waist circumference (central obesity related to the risk of diabetes mellitus in teens senior high school in Malang with 0.000 p-values < α 0.05. However, there is no relationship between blood pressure, physical activity, frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption, family history of diabetes mellitus and the risk of diabetes mellitus in teens senior high school in Malang. Discussion: Recommended for teens to pay attention to healthy eating and balanced, in order to awake the ideal body weight and abdominal circumference are normal, so that avoid the risk of diabetes mellitus.
Caninéo, Paulo Antonio; Nishimura, Shizuko; Medina, Norma Helen; Koizumi, Inês Kazue; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves
To estimate the trachoma prevalence in school children in Embu das Artes - SP, aiming the implementation of the disease epidemiological surveillance. The city of Embu das Artes - SP, is 25 km far from the capital of the State. In the years of 2003-2004, a trachoma survey was conducted in a cluster sample of school children with the same methodology of the national trachoma student's survey of the Ministry of Health. Previously to the trachoma active search, activities of health education were performed in all schools. External ocular examinations were done in all students to detect trachoma according to the WHO criteria. All cases of trachoma were notified and their families were submitted to an external ocular examination. The cases were treated with 1% tetracycline ointment or systemic azithromycin. 2,374 students from nine sampled selected public schools were examined. The prevalence of follicular inflammatory trachoma (TF) was 3.1% (IC 95%: 2.4-3.9), varying from 0.5% to 4.2% in the examined schools. The prevalence for males was 3.2% and for females was 3.0%. The greater prevalence (8.6%) was found in 6 year-old children. The disease showed a mild behavior in this city, because no cases of intense inflammatory trachoma or cicatricial trachoma were detected. However, the prevalence was greater than the one found in the city of São Paulo. Epidemiological surveillance activities of trachoma must be continuous, mainly in places where the greater prevalence had been found.
Tai, Bao-Jun; Jiang, Han; Du, Min-Quan; Peng, Bin
To assess the outcome of oral health promotion in schoolchildren over a 3-year period in Yichang City, Hubei, China. In a cluster randomized controlled trial, the concept of the World Health Organization Health Promoting Schools Project was applied to primary schoolchildren. Seven intervention schools and eight control schools were randomly selected from one district by stratified cluster sampling. The study was conducted as a 3-year follow-up study. After 3 years, 661 children remained in the intervention group and 697 children in the control group. Data on dental caries, plaque accumulation, and sulcus bleeding were collected by clinical examination, while behavioural data were gathered by self-administered questionnaires. The 3-year net mean DMFS increment score was 0.22 in the intervention schools and 0.35 in the control schools (P schools adopted regular oral health behavioural practices such as brushing their teeth at least twice a day, visiting the dentist within the past calendar year, and using fluoride toothpaste. The study suggests that the school-based oral health promotion was an effective way to reduce new caries incidence, improve oral hygiene and establish positive oral health behavioural practices in the targeted schoolchildren.
Gotthelf, Susana Judith; Jubany, Lilian Laura
South America is now at a stage of epidemiological transition, changing the condition of high prevalence of underweight and stunting, to a scene marked by increases in obesity that accompanies chronic diseases, such us cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. Surveillance of risk factors associated with them is considered a priority. To establish the prevalence of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in adolescents in public and private schools in the city of Salta, and observe the socioeconomic characteristics and presence of cardiovascular risk factors in parents. Cross-sectional design, adolescents aged 16 to 20 years of public and private schools. Anthropometric, biochemical, food, social, lifestyle and family history variables. Adolescents of private schools had higher average values of cholesterol, LDL and glucose. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in public schools was 15% and 14.2% in private, and of hypertension 11.3% and 12.2%, respectively. It was noted higher consumption of sweets, sodas and juices; 35.1% and 42.5% of adolescents in public and private schools, did not perform physical activity, 14.2% and 27.1% smoked and 66.2% and 54.7%, respectively, consumed alcohol at weekend. The prevalence of obesity in mothers of public school students was significantly higher. There is evidence of the emergence of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in adolescents with different characteristics as belonging to public or private schools, but both groups involved in an unhealthy family environment.
Hammamizade O.R.1 BSc,
Full Text Available Aims The dramatic increase of smoking in adolescents has become one of the major challenges in most countries and it needs further consideration. The aim of this study was to determine the smoking prevalence and some related factors among high school students. Instrument & Methods This descriptive, cross-sectional study was done in 2012-13 academic year in male and female high school students of Kashan City, Iran and 328 students were selected by multi-stage random cluster sampling method. Data were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire which had three parts; demographic data, history of smoking in the family, and ways of smoking. Data analysis was done using Chi-square and ANOVA tests. Findings 19.3% (52 students of the high school students of Kashan City, Iran, were smokers; 41 boys (20.2% and 11 girls (8.8%. Smoking had significant relations with sex, grade and having a smoker in the family. 30.3% of the students had a cigarette smoker and 32.40% had a hookah smoker in their family. Hookah was the most prevalent tobacco product. Friends (47.8% in boys and 10.4% in girls and then relatives (13.4% in boys and 8.2% in girls contributed to students’ smoking. Conclusion Smoking hookah and cigarette have a high prevalence in sophomore and junior high school boys and having a smoker family member or friend is a main risk factor of start smoking in adolescents.
Mehan Meenakshi, Munshi Aparna, Surabhi Somila, Bhatt Trushna, Kantharia Neha
Background: Recent shift in lifestyle and behavioral patterns in population have caused an obesity epidemic during formative years. Present study evaluated existing health and nutrition policies in a private school in an urban Indian city and assessed prevalence of obesity in adolescent children & their association if any, with predictive behaviors of obesity. Methods: A private coeducational school located in an urban Indian city was selected and its existing health policies were eva...
Tsuda, Yuko; Matsumoto, Kenji; Komukai, Jun; Furukawa, Kanae; Saito, Kazumi; Shimouchi, Akira
With a broader aim of controlling pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) among foreigners, here, we have reported the findings of chest radiography screening for TB among international students at Japanese language schools in Osaka city. Between April 2011 and December 2013, 4,529 international students from 19 Japanese language schools in Osaka city underwent chest radiography for TB screening. The chest radiographs were studied in reference to the student's sex, age, nationality, and date of entry to Japan as well as any health conditions present at the time of screening. We further analyzed the bacterial information and pulmonary TB classification based on chest radiography findings of students who were identified to be positive for TB. Information on the implementation of health education was also gathered. The results revealed that 52.5% of the students who underwent chest radiography came from China, 20.3 % from South Korea, and 16.3% from Vietnam. Of the students, 52.9% were male and 47.1% were female. The median age of students was 23 years (range: 14-70 years). The median number of days from the first date of entry to Japan up until the radiography screening was 63 days. Based on the chest radiography findings, 71 students (1.6%) were suspected to have TB; however, further detailed examination confirmed that 19 students (0.4%) had active TB. This percentage is significantly higher than the 0.1% TB identification rate among residents in Osaka city of the same time period (Pschools (for a total of 12 times) in the 3-year period. A total of 257 language school staff and students attended the health education seminars. The identification rate of TB positive students in Japanese language schools was higher than that of the general residents in Osaka city. In addition, most of these students came to Japan within 1 year. It is also important to note that the majority of TB positive students had sputum smear negative results. This study proves that medical examination after
Burt, Kate Gardner; Burgermaster, Marissa; Jacquez, Raquel
The purpose of this study was to determine the level of integration of school gardens and identify factors that predict integration. 211 New York City schools completed a survey that collected demographic information and utilized the School Garden Integration Scale. A mean garden integration score was calculated, and multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine independent predictors of integration and assess relationships between individual integration characteristics and budget. The average integration score was 34.1 (of 57 points) and ranged from 8 to 53. Operating budget had significant influence on integration score, controlling for all other factors ( p integrated, as budget is a modifiable factor. When adequate funding is secured, a well-integrated garden may be established with proper planning and sound implementation.
González-Pastrana, Yina; Díaz-Montes, Carmen
Objective To determine the family characteristics associated with the nutritional status of school children in the city of Cartagena. Method A cross-sectional study involving a population of 104 384 children aged 6 to 10 in the city of Cartagena. Confidence levels were 95 % and prevalence levels were 5.8 % with 2 % error. The sample was 544 students. The schools were selected by proportional affixation in each of the three locations in the city, for a total of 21 schools. Later, the number of classrooms and the list of the students were requested. Children from these classrooms were randomly selected to complete the sample in each school. The tab and the family APGAR were the instruments used to assess the family characteristics as well as their family functionality. For nutritional status, anthropometric measurements were taken and evaluated in the WHO Anthro Plus program. The information was processed in the statistical package Epi info 7. Results 53.9 % of students had adequate nutritional status and 46.1 % malnutrition. The family characteristics associated with the child malnutrition by excess are: the number of family members OR 0.65 (CI: 0.4 -0.9) and family income OR 0.53 (CI: 0.3 -0.7). Meanwhile, the malnutrition by deficit was associated only with family income OR 2.08 (CI: 1.1 -3.9). Conclusion The variables that showed association with nutritional status were: income equal to or less than the minimum wage and number of family members.
Khawaja, Saleem; Khoja, Adeel Akbar; Motwani, Komal
To assess the proportion of various types of abuses and their association with school performances and psychological stress among adolescents from three major cities of Pakistan. The cross-sectional school survey was conducted from March to September 2009, comprising adolescent students at six schools in Karachi, Lahore and Quetta. Data was collected using a self-administered and pre-tested questionnaire by trained medical students. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 414 subjects in the study, there were 223 (54%) boys and 191 (46%) girls with an overall mean age of 14.36 ± 1.08 years. In all, 140 (33.7%) participants were physically abused and 236 (57%) participants were verbally abused in the preceding 12 months. Besides, 245 (59.2%) were involved in physical fight and 195 (47.1%) had suffered injury during the preceding year. There were 171 (41.4%) subjects having suffered bullying during the same period. Verbal abuse (p = 0.05), physical fight (p = 0.05) and bullying (p poor school performances among adolescents. Physical abuse (p = 0.05), verbal abuse (p = 0.003), injury (p = 0.02) and bullying (p poor school performance and poor mental health.
Fund for New York City Public Education.
Effective school library media centers are a cost-efficient way for schools to provide children with the sophisticated knowledge, research, and computer skills they will need for the growing demands of work and citizenship in the 21st century. The libraries' cultivation of literacy, research, and thinking skills is particularly crucial in…
Kaplan, Deborah L.
Every year approximately 17,000 adolescents ages 15-19 become pregnant in New York City. Most of these pregnancies are unintended and only a small percent of adolescents use effective contraception, with wide disparities by race/ethnicity and poverty level. While many studies have identified factors associated with contraceptive use, most research has focused on individual level factors, with little attention to the contribution of the school environment to sexual risk behavior and contraceptive use. This study investigates the effect of school-level factors on contraceptive use among adolescents in NYC public high schools before and after controlling for individual-level factors, and whether this effect varies with race/ethnicity. Using a cross-sectional design, the NYC Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) individual-level datasets for 2007, 2009 and 2011 were linked to a school-level dataset. Variables were selected based on empirical findings on factors associated with sexual behaviors, including contraceptive use, by adolescents. The analytic sample included all YRBS respondents aged 14 or older who reported having sexual intercourse in the past three months and had complete responses to the YRBS questions on contraceptive use at last sex (N=8,054). The chi square test of significance was used to evaluate significant associations between independent variables and contraceptive use in bivariate analyses; variables with a p value < 0.1 were included in the multivariable analyses. Binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the strength of the associations of school-level factors with contraceptive use among sexually active adolescents. Findings included that use of any contraception and/or hormonal contraception at last sexual intercourse was associated with attending schools with a higher six-year graduation rate, higher percent of students strongly agreeing they were safe in their classrooms, higher percent of teachers at the
As we all know, China is a country with many ethnic minorities mainly living in the northeastern and southwestern China. The English education in the primary schools in these areas is an important issue. The article analyzes the status quo of English education in primary schools in minor ethnic areas, taking the Leshan city, a western one as an…
Full Text Available To determine the sugar consumption pattern of the school children in Belgaum city and to organize for a diet-counseling program. Easy availability of sugar containing food and high consumption of these sweets if continued unabated, the dental caries among children would become a major public health problem. In this instance, Dietary counseling can be just appropriate to inhibit the carious process. 342 school children aged 13 years, from four schools in Belgaum city participated in the study. The pattern of sugar consumption was assessed using a 4-day diet diary. Analysis was done according to the method described by Nizel and Papas (Nutrition in clinical dentistry, 1989, 277 and the variables were: the sweet score, At meal sugar exposure (AMSE, Between meal sugar exposure (BMSE and Total sugar exposure (TSE. The mean, standard deviation and/or frequency were calculated for all variables. Student′s t-test was used to statistically analyze the gender difference. The mean + SD of the recorded variables were: sweet score 31 + 12.78/day, AMSE 0.88 + 0.33/day, BMSE 3.95 + 0.87/day, and TSE 4.83 + 0.96/day. No statistical significant gender difference with respect to the variables was observed. ′Tell Show And Do′ Diet counseling session will perhaps have a greater impact as compared to the most common strategy of simply exhorting the children to eat less sugar.
Zanni, Karina Piccin; Matsukura, Thelma Simões; Maia Filho, Heber de Souza
Childhood epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder associated with profound psychosocial limitations epileptic children's routine. Lack of information and inappropriate beliefs are still the factors that most contribute to the stigma and discrimination. This study aimed at characterizing teacher's beliefs and attitudes at regular and special schools in two cities of southeastern Brazil where students with epilepsy studied. Fifty-six teachers of public regular schools and specialized educational institutions for children with disabilities from two cities of Southeast Brazil who had epileptic children in their classroom completed the Brazilian version of The Epilepsy Beliefs and Attitudes Scale: Adult Version and answered a data sheet about sociodemographic characteristics. The results showed that no significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) have been found between the beliefs and attitudes of teachers in mainstream and special schools but both schoolteachers had more inappropriate beliefs and attitudes than appropriate ones against childhood epilepsy. These findings raise an important issue, providing us with the knowledge that epilepsy is still a condition which is surrounded by wrong beliefs. Also, educational programs could help reduce the gaps in knowledge about how such disease has been perceived worldwide.
Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Balas-Nakash, Margie; Schiffman-Selechnik, Esther; Barbato-Dosal, Annarella; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe
To characterize the nutritional status of school-aged children from an urban public school in Mexico City, Mexico, and to assess the influence of obesity on health status in a subgroup of these children. Cross-sectional descriptive study. A nutrition screening was done for all children, including anthropometric (ie, weight, height, and waist circumference) and blood pressure assessment. In the subgroup of children, complementary dietary and biochemical assessment (ie, glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, insulin, albumin, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels) was done. Children from an urban school in Mexico City (N=561) aged 6 to 13 years. The representative subgroup (n=88) was selected based on age (9 to 12 years) and weight status (ie, normal, overweight, or obese). Descriptive statistics, correlations, mean differences tests (analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U), and chi(2) tests (categorical variables) were done with SPSS version 13 (2005, SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). In the whole school, overweight and obesity prevalence were 27.1% and 21.4%, respectively. High systolic blood pressure was seen in 8.4% of children and 6.2% of children had prehypertension. Higher hypertension risk was seen in children with body mass index > or =95th percentile and waist circumference > or =90th percentile (88 cm). Significantly higher waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, insulin resistance indexes, and triglyceride levels were found among the obese when compared with normal-weight children. Childhood obesity prevalence is high in Mexico and it is having an influence on children's health. It is urgent to design, implement, and evaluate specific childhood obesity prevention programs.
Alemayehu, Abiy Maru; Belete, Gizchewu Tilahun; Adimassu, Nebiyat Feleke
Refractive error is an important cause of correctable visual impairment in the worldwide with a global distribution of 1.75% to 20.7% among schoolchildren. Teacher's knowledge about refractive error play an important role in encouraging students to seek treatment that helps in reducing the burden of visual impairment. To determine knowledge, attitude and associated factors among primary school teachers regarding refractive error in school children in Gondar city. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted on 565 primary school teachers in Gondar city using pretested and structured self-administered questionnaire. For processing and analysis, SPSS version 20 was used and variables which had a P value of attitude towards refractive error. History of spectacle use [AOR = 2.13 (95% CI: 1.32, 3.43)], history of eye examination [AOR = 1.67 (95% CI: 1.19, 2.34)], training on eye health [AOR = 1.94 (95% CI; 1.09, 3.43)] and 11-20 years of experience [AOR = 2.53 (95% CI: 1.18, 5.43)] were positively associated with knowledge. Whereas being male [AOR = 2.03 (95% CI: 1.37, 3.01)], older age [AOR = 3.05 (95% CI: 1.07, 8.72)], 31-40 years of experience [AOR = 0.23 (95% CI: 0.07, 0.72)], private school type [AOR = 1.76 (95% CI: 1.06, 2.93)] and 5th -8th teaching category [AOR = 1.54 (95% CI: 1.05, 2.24)] were associated with attitude. Knowledge and attitude of study subjects were low which needs training of teachers about the refractive error.
Introduction Refractive error is an important cause of correctable visual impairment in the worldwide with a global distribution of 1.75% to 20.7% among schoolchildren. Teacher’s knowledge about refractive error play an important role in encouraging students to seek treatment that helps in reducing the burden of visual impairment. Objective To determine knowledge, attitude and associated factors among primary school teachers regarding refractive error in school children in Gondar city. Methods Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted on 565 primary school teachers in Gondar city using pretested and structured self-administered questionnaire. For processing and analysis, SPSS version 20 was used and variables which had a P value of attitude towards refractive error. History of spectacle use [AOR = 2.13 (95% CI: 1.32, 3.43)], history of eye examination [AOR = 1.67 (95% CI: 1.19, 2.34)], training on eye health [AOR = 1.94 (95% CI; 1.09, 3.43)] and 11–20 years of experience [AOR = 2.53 (95% CI: 1.18, 5.43)] were positively associated with knowledge. Whereas being male [AOR = 2.03 (95% CI: 1.37, 3.01)], older age [AOR = 3.05 (95% CI: 1.07, 8.72)], 31–40 years of experience [AOR = 0.23 (95% CI: 0.07, 0.72)], private school type [AOR = 1.76 (95% CI: 1.06, 2.93)] and 5th -8th teaching category [AOR = 1.54 (95% CI: 1.05, 2.24)] were associated with attitude. Conclusion Knowledge and attitude of study subjects were low which needs training of teachers about the refractive error. PMID:29447172
Fried, B.; Dash, H. B.
John Dewey High School's participation in NASA's MESDT and DLN projects and other partnerships provide opportunities for our diverse population, focusing particular attention to under-represented and under-served groups in the field of Space Science.
In 2003, a few years after the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation began implementing its small schools reform agenda, the Chancellor of the New York City Department of Education (DOE) announced a plan to replace large failing high schools in New York City with 200 small schools. In short order, the foundation and the Chancellor became partners with…
Tasnim, Saria; Rahman, Aminur; Ara, Iffat
Adolescents constitute 23 percent of population in Bangladesh yet access to information and education on reproductive health is limited for them. To determine the effect of introducing an education booklet on reproductive health knowledge among the adolescents and its acceptability to them. Students of grade IX and X in eight secondary schools (both boys and girls schools) of periurban location of Dhaka city. A quasi-experimental pre-post test design study was conducted during October 2004 to May 2005. The intervention was distribution of an education booklet and conduction of a health education session at the respective classes. Total number of respondents were 1,490 (862 during pre test and 628 during post test). About 4% of parents never attended school, whereas 10.7% of fathers and 3.2% of mothers were graduates. A greater proportion of adolescents could correctly narrate the physiological changes of adolescence, duration of menstrual cycle, fertile period, leucorrhoea, masturbation, and night emission in the post test. Almost all adolescents stated that health education was necessary and should be given in secondary schools. About 95% stated that the education booklet was necessary. They appreciated that the language was easy and fluent, the illustration was meaningful, and some suggested a few modifications. Providing reproductive health information to adolescents can be sustained through inclusion in school curriculum and has the potential to produce health benefits in future.
Full Text Available A mixed-methods study enabled the exploration of New York City high school data, analyzing performance/demographic scores based on principal and/or student gender, boroughs, and other factors found the following: Significant differences in boroughs’ college and career readiness scores, χ2(4, N = 369 = 26.830, p = .00, with (a the highest mean rank of 251 for Staten Island, and the lowest mean rank of 156 for Brooklyn; (b larger socioeconomically integrated schools more successful; (c failure in small Manhattan and Bronx segregated/poverty female-majority schools; and (d male students, F(4, 359 = 2.49, p = .043, partial η2 = .027, attained significantly lower scores. Enrollment was significant, F(1, 457 = 7.215, p < .05 partial η2 = .940, with male principals (M = 746.40, SD = 903.58 leading larger schools. Recommendations include the following: gifted vocational education school, gauging for feminization, more Black/Hispanic principals; and assurance of licensed vocational educators.
Full Text Available Background: In recent years, overweight and obesity have dramatically increased in many countries, and this trend is also visible among children. Childhood obesity will increase the chance of obesity and its associated diseases in adulthood. This study was aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of overweight and obesity in middle school students of Pakdasht. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 995 female students were selected from all middle schools of Pakdasht city, Tehran Province by stratified random sampling method. The required information on demographic variables, social determinants of health, type of entertainment, daily physical activity and eating habits was collected and Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated. Results: The mean age of students was 12.6 years. Finally, 9.1% and 15.1% of the students were obese and overweight, respectively. The results of univariate analysis showed that overweight and obesity were significantly associated with age, type of transportation to school, time of computer use, first-degree family history of obesity and daily physical activity. Overweight and obesity were also independently related to type of transportation to school, time of computer use, first-degree family history of obesity, birth weight and daily physical activity based on the results of multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Considering the relatively high prevalence of overweight and obesity in middle school students, it is necessary to design and implement ongoing interventional and multidimensional programms in order to declin or eliminate the mentioned risk factors.
Benites, Daniela B.; Gordon, Ana Maria P.L.
Nowadays, much has been said about nuclear technology development in Brazil. The importance of introducing the nuclear energy in the Brazilian energetic matrix has been now recognized by the society. There is a highly accepted assertion about the role developed by the energy offer for the country development, although it is wellknown that this is a necessary condition, but not enough. Another major issue is the environment preservation, so that future generations may live in adequate climatic and environmental conditions. Industrial activities and mining are some of the issues debated in the world scenario. Therefore the option to introduce nuclear energy in the country energetic matrix is a decision that should be supported by its knowledge. Nevertheless, do the youth know what nuclear energy is? What this kind of technology applications and implications are? To answer these questions, this project aims to analyze to what extent secondary schools are aware of nuclear technology and its applications, to verify whether there are the minimal necessary conditions for their interpretation and comprehension of related phenomena, as well as to analyze whether these students are able to critically opine on this subject. The methodology consists in using, as a data collection tool, a questionnaire applied to the students. For this purpose, the research field is constituted of the third year secondary school students, from public state schools, in the city of Sao Paulo. The data survey was restricted to schools belonging to three levels of classification, in the National Examination of Secondary Schools 2007. The questions proposed in the questionnaire were elaborated in considering what students, according to their age, were supposed to know concerning nuclear technology having as reference the 'Leis de Diretrizes e Bases da Educacao Nacional' (National Education Guidance Law), the 'Parametros Curriculares Nacionais' (National Curricula Parameters) and basic nuclear
Perlman, Sharon E; Nonas, Cathy; Lindstrom, Lauren L; Choe-Castillo, Julia; McKie, Herman; Alberti, Philip M
The high prevalence of obesity puts children at risk for chronic diseases, increases health care costs, and threatens to reduce life expectancy. As part of the response to this epidemic, the New York City (NYC) Department of Education (DOE)--the nation's largest school district--has worked to improve the appeal and nutritional quality of school food. This article highlights some of the structural and policy changes that have improved the school food environment over the past decade, with the aim to share lessons learned and provide recommendations and resources for other districts interested in making similar modifications. This article details changes DOE has implemented over 10 years, including revised nutrition standards for school meals and competitive foods; new school food department staffing; food reformulations, substitutions, and additions; and transitions to healthier beverages. NYC's revised nutrition standards and hiring of expert staff increased availability of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy and decreased sugary beverages, and foods high in saturated fats and added sugars--the major contributors to discretionary calorie intake. DOE also introduced healthier beverages: switching from high-calorie, high-fat whole milk to low-fat milk and increasing access to water. NYC has successfully improved the quality of its school food environment and shown that healthier food service is possible, even under budgetary constraints. Several broad factors facilitated these efforts: fostering community partnerships and inter-agency collaboration, implementing policies and initiatives that target multiple sectors for greater impact, and working to make incremental improvements each year. © 2012, American School Health Association.
Full Text Available Primary and secondary level of education are essential elements for character building and success of younger generation in developing the nation. Education and learning at this level will very much determine how in the future and individual is able to play role and be competitive in the nation‟s development. One of the important element in the strategy of educational learning in school which is often forgotten by decision makers of principals and library managers is the library. Library operation in schools and mandrassas with a policy that has high legitimacy, should be implemented immediately. How ever, what happened was the opposite. By reason of limited fund, time and energy, many schools choose not to implement the rule about library.Base on this issue, this research studied the policy of principals regarding the implementations of act No. 43 of 2007, Government Regulation No. 19 of 2005 and Ministry of National Education Regulations No. 25 of 2008. The reseach was conducted in 6 schools and the quuesionnare was distributed to 6 prinsipals and 12 library staff in Bandung city. The results showed that understanding of three regulations was in very good category with the score of 1157 out og 1230 for the principals.The same category also applied to the library staff with the score of 1613 out of 1800. This suggests that the principals had known about the organization of school library. Likewise, school librarian have also understood and were able to carry out their duties in accordance with the existing regulations related to the operation of school library.
Full Text Available Primary and secondary level of education are essential elements for character building and success of younger generation in developing the nation. Education and learning at this level will very much determine how in the future and individual is able to play role and be competitive in the nation’s development. One of the important element in the strategy of educational learning in school which is often forgotten by decision makers of principals and library managers is the library. Library operation in schools and mandrassas with a policy that has high legitimacy, should be implemented immediately. How ever, what happened was the opposite. By reason of limited fund, time and energy, many schools choose not to implement the rule about library.Base on this issue, this research studied the policy of principals regarding the implementations of act No. 43 of 2007, Government Regulation No. 19 of 2005 and Ministry of National Education Regulations No. 25 of 2008. The research was conducted in 6 schools and the questionnaire was distributed to 6 principals and 12 library staff in Bandung city. The results showed that understanding of three regulations was in very good category with the score of 1157 out of 1230 for the principals.The same category also applied to the library staff with the score of 1613 out of 1800. This suggests that the principals had known about the organization of school library. Likewise, school librarian have also understood and were able to carry out their duties in accordance with the existing regulations related to the operation of school library.
Marilyn L. Balmeo
Full Text Available Leading-edge creation and development of technologies including those for the children with special learning needs found common place in the educational system. Allowably, this study’s focal point engages in the integration of technologies in the educational environments where students with special learning needs are housed. Respondents include 53 teachers employed in the special education schools in Baguio City, who were to determine the availability and effectiveness of technology in their schools and the problems encountered in the integration of technologies. Results indicate that availability and effectiveness of technologies are at limited level and that there are problems encountered in technology integration. This is significant for the achievement of the aim of students with special learning needs for they would be guided appropriately in the development of their skills with the challenges of educational attainment and life itself
Gonzalez, Marisol; Feinstein, Ronald; Iezzi, Carina; Fisher, Martin
The threat of childhood obesity has never been greater. Behavior changes implemented during childhood and adolescence are believed to be the most successful means of thwarting the progression of this epidemic. The American Academy of Pediatrics has developed a public health campaign that promotes awareness of clinical guidelines for nutrition and physical activity. The campaign is based on a concept developed by the Maine Center for Public Health referred to as "5-2-1-0 Healthy". The simple clear message of this concept outlines steps families can take to help prevent and treat childhood obesity. The purpose of the present study is to determine the current level of compliance and health education needs of a middle school population related to the "5-2-1-0" concept. A modified version of the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) was distributed to students at a private, nonsectarian, middle school in New York City. The school is located in the borough of Manhattan, but includes youngsters from all five boroughs of the city. The questions were grouped and analyzed according to "5-2-1-0" categories. Surveys were scored, and the association between targeted questionnaire items and demographic variables (i.e., sex and grade) was examined. All 140 students completed the survey, and there was great variability in their responses to both the nutrition and physical activity questions. Of all students, 65% reported eating one cup or more of fruit daily, and 38% reported eating one cup or more of vegetables daily. There was no statistically significant difference reported in consumption of fruits or vegetables by gender or grade. Over 60% of students indicated physical activity reported by gender and grade (more physical activity by males and younger students). There was no difference in the reported consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages by gender or grade. In a cohort of middle school
Alicea, Stacey; Pardo, Gisselle; Conover, Kelly; Gopalan, Geetha; McKay, Mary
African American and Latino youth who reside in inner-city communities are at heightened risk for compromised mental health, as their neighborhoods are too often associated with serious stressors, including elevated rates of poverty, substance abuse, community violence, as well as scarce youth-supportive resources, and mental health care options. Many aspects of disadvantaged urban contexts have the potential to thwart successful youth development. Adolescents with elevated mental health needs may experience impaired judgment, poor problem-solving skills, and conflictual interpersonal relationships, resulting in unsafe sexual behavior and drug use. However, mental health services are frequently avoided by urban adolescents who could gain substantial benefit from care. Thus, the development of culturally sensitive, contextually relevant and effective services for urban, low-income African American and Latino adolescents is critical. Given the complexity of the mental health and social needs of urban youth, novel approaches to service delivery may need to consider individual (i.e., motivation to succeed in the future), family (i.e., adult support within and outside of the family), and community-level (i.e., work and school opportunities) clinical components. Step-Up, a high school-based mental health service delivery model has been developed to bolster key family, youth and school processes related to youth mental health and positive youth development. Step-Up (1) intervenes with urban minority adolescents across inner-city ecological domains; (2) addresses multiple levels (school, family and community) in order to target youth mental health difficulties; and (3) provides opportunities for increasing youth social problem-solving and life skills. Further, Step-Up integrates existing theory-driven, evidence-based interventions. This article describes Step-Up clinical goals, theoretical influences, as well as components and key features, and presents preliminary data on
Sánchez-García, Rocío; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; González-Unzaga, Marco Aurelio
Childhood is a basic period for the development of habits and their continuation during the course of life. The objective of this study was to identify food preferences and their variations according to the nutritional status in school-age children living in Mexico City. A cross-sectional study was carried out including 1465 school-age children attending eight public elementary schools in Mexico City. Children were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their preferences to 70 selected different foods. Anthropometric measurements were also carried out. Parents of the children provided sociodemographic information. For each food, the preference was evaluated using a Likert scale. Frequencies were calculated for the total sample and for different nutritional status levels. Median age of children was 9 years old. Forty-eight percent of the children were overweight or obese. The most preferred foods were fruits, pizzas, flavored milk, and French fries. The least preferred foods were vegetables, whole-grain cereals, fish, meat, and panela cheese. Plain water (72%) and sugar-sweetened beverages (71%) had a high level of preference. There was no preference variation according to nutritional status. Food preference patterns of school-age children are a risk for unhealthy food consumption as well as for the increase in obesity prevalence in this population. Interventions focused on the promotion of a healthy food environment are necessary, aimed at improving food preferences from early childhood. Copyright © 2014 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Rabbani D.* PhD,
Full Text Available Aims Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT index plays a key role in health care decisionmaking. According to WHO guideline, DMFT should not be more than 1 in 12-year old children. The role of fluoride intake in tooth and bone health is also well known. This study was carried out to investigate the DMFT index in junior high school students of Golpaygan City, Iran, and its relation the Fluoride concentration of drinking water. Instrument & Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in all 530 junior high school students of Golpaygan City, Iran, during 2010-11. The DMFT index was determined by educated and trained mouth and teeth health experts. The Fluoride concentration was measured by SPADNS method from 4 different places in 2 different times, May and June (4 samples each. Data were analyzed by statistical descriptive methods and one-way ANOVA test. Findings DMFT was 3.07±2.34 in boys and 3.28±2.56 in girls (p=0.34. There were no significant differences between boys and girls in the averages of decayed (p=0.95, missing (p=0.89 and filled (p=0.13 teeth. There was a significant difference in the DMFT value of the different age groups. There was also a significant difference between the DMFT values according to mothers’ level of education. The average of Fluoride concentration in water samples of 4 different places of the region in 2 period of times was 0.33±0.09mg/l. Conclusion DMFT index in the students of Golpaygan City, Iran, is more than WHO standards.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE This study aims to verify the adequacy profile of the cities of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in relation to the purchase of products of family farming by the Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar (PNAE - National Program of School Meals. METHODS This is a quantitative descriptive study, with secondary data analysis (public calls-to-bid. The sample consisted of approximately 10% (n = 52 of the cities in the State, establishing a representation by mesoregion and size of the population. We have assessed the percentage of food purchased from family farming, as well as the type of product, requirements of frequency, delivery points, and presence of prices in 114 notices of public calls-to-bid, in 2013. RESULTS Of the cities analyzed, 71.2% (n = 37 reached 30% of food purchased from family farming. Most public calls-to-bid demanded both products of plant (90.4%; n = 103 and animal origin (79.8%; n = 91. Regarding the degree of processing, fresh products appeared in 92.1% (n = 105 of the public calls-to-bid. In relation to the delivery of products, centralized (49.1%; n = 56 and weekly deliveries (47.4%; n = 54 were the most described. Only 60% (n = 68 of the public calls-to-bid contained the price of products. CONCLUSIONS Most of the cities analyzed have fulfilled what is determined by the legislation of the PNAE. We have found in the public calls-to-bid a wide variety of food, both of plant and animal origin, and most of it is fresh. In relation to the delivery of the products, the centralized and weekly options prevailed.
Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Al-Garawi, M. S.; Al-Mosa, Tahani M.; Baig, M. R.
Measurement of indoor Concentrations were performed in Zulfi city of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 track etch detectors. This investigation focused on the influence of different parameters, namely different locations, school categories, school building types, and room type as well as on the existence of differences in radon concentration at floor levels. We divided the Zulfi city into five regions, keeping in mind their geographical locations between Tuwaiq Mountains and Al-Thuwayrat sands. The measured average radon concentrations for regions 1-5 respectively are: 87.0±14.2 Bq/m 3 , 83.4±6.0 Bq/m 3 , 61.6±6.4 Bq/m 3 , 63.7±5.4 Bq/m 3 and 87.5±6.Bq/m 3 and the minimum concentrations are 28.0 Bq/m 3 , 5.5 Bq/m 3 , 1.1 Bq/m 3 , 1.0 Bq/m 3 and 24 Bq/m 3 respectively. These results are still within normal limits and below the action level of 148 Bqm -3 set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A test of significance using Minitab program was applied to investigate if radon levels in regions are significantly different from each other. We tried all combinations, and found the following results. The ''within regions''(different location) test yielded, region 2 is not significant versus region ''1''(p = 0.783) and versus region ''5''(P = 0.646), whereas it is significant versus region ''3''(P = 0.0160) and also versus region ''4''(p = 0.018). We investigated government and rented school's building also and none was found significantly different (p = 0.052). Floors of the same building were tested in order to examine the radon concentration as a function of storey level. No significant difference was observed at floor levels (p = 0.009). When girl's schools versus Boys and kindergartens schools were tested they were found significantly different. It is believed that this significant difference is due to geographical nature of the area, since most of the girl's schools were selected from regions 2 and 3, these regions are relatively close to the Tuwaiq
Full Text Available Hiwot Berhanu Andualem, Natnael Lakachew Assefa, Dawit Zenebe Weldemichael, Tsehay Kassa Tefera Department of Optometry, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Introduction: Presbyopia is an age-related decline in accommodation that diminishes the ability of the eye to focus on near objects. This is due to reduced elasticity of the crystalline lens as age increases. It causes near-vision impairment and affects near work, so it has significant effects on quality of life, particularly in the life of teachers, whose work depends mostly on reading and writing at short distances.Objective: The overall objective of the study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of presbyopia among school teachers in Gondar city, Northwest Ethiopia, 2016.Methods: A cross-sectional study design with multistage simple random sampling technique was used to select 668 teachers in Gondar city. The study was conducted in 12 schools from April 15 to May 15, 2016. A pretested structured questionnaire and ophthalmic instruments for an eye examination were used as data collection tools by trained optometrists. Epi Info version 7 was used for data entry, and the data were exported to Statistical Package for Social Science version 20 for further analysis. Multivariate logistic regression was employed using enter method and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval, and p-value of ≤0.05 was considered to identify statistically significant associated factors of the outcome.Results: Prevalence of presbyopia among school teachers was 68.7%. Out of the total examined subjects, 317 (50.2% were females. On multivariate analysis, increased age, salary, work experience, cigarette smoking, pregnancy, and refractive error were positively and significantly associated with presbyopia. On the other hand, use of sunglasses and alcohol consumption were inversely and significantly associated with presbyopia.Conclusion and recommendation
Zhanna Ildarovna Busheva
Full Text Available Extreme conditions of the North, computerization, Internet and a gadget dependence, high physical and intellectual loads of children activities living in the north negatively affect younger generation health state. It is difficult to overestimate a role of motor activity in expansion of functionality of the developing organism as the lack of locomotion can lead to pathological shifts in an organism. Based on the study of the concept of a ‘motor activity’ and features North of the city the article suggests a model of motor activity optimization of younger school age children living in the conditions of the northern city. It consisted of 6 units related to goal-setting, diagnostic-analytical, concept, process-activity, reflexive-evaluative and effective. The research was conducted on the basis of Surgut city schools and the Surgut region of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Region-Yugra. During the research we revealed the most priority organization forms of motor activity of younger school age children living in conditions of the northern city. The model of motor activity optimization of younger school age children allows to create necessary optimum volume and to control of motor activity of children of younger school age. Purpose. The purpose of our research was to create model of motor activity optimization of younger school age children living in the conditions of the northern city. Methodology. Analysis and synthesis of the materials as well as the method of simulation are used as the main instruments. Results. A model of motor activity optimization of younger school age children has been elaborated in the course of study and its characteristics have been specified. Practical implications. The results can be of use for teachers at professional educational institutions.
I Wayan Citrawan
Full Text Available Partiality between male and female teachers in regard to the appointment of the headmasters of public schools in Denpasar has taken place. This study was intended to understand the matters pertaining to the marginalization of female teachers in the appointment of the headmasters of public schools in Denpasar City.The data were obtained using the techniques of observation, in-depth interview, and documentation study. The data were descriptively, qualitatively, and interpretatively analyzed. The theories used were the theories of Feminism, Hegemony,Theory of Power/Knowledge, and Deconstruction. The results of the study were as follows. The government regulation was not optimally applied. The female teachers were considered having insufficient capability. They were still regarded as the second in the selection process, and they were assumed to be in the domestic domain; as a result, the access to their development was obstructed. The internal factors included competition and commitment and the external ones included patriarchal ideology, the government policy and less support from their colleagues and administrative staff at the schools where they work. The impacts of the marginalization of the female teachers were that they intended to improve themselves and to submit to their fate. The other impact was that they got disappointed and obstructed to realize gender impartiality. Philosophically, the marginalization of the female teachers meant that there was no gender partiality and self actualization.
Full Text Available This research was conducted in one state senior high school in Jambi city aiming to get the whole picture about the methods of teachers in teaching Arabic vocabulary. We used a qualitative study with a case study approach. The participants of this research were teachers who taught Arabic vocabulary. The data were collected through interviews, documentation, and observation. The results showed that the methods used by the teachers in teaching Arabic vocabulary were mostly lecturing and demonstration. The obstacles faced by the teachers in Arabic vocabulary teaching were covered in several points namely, limited time allocation, teacher education background, infrastructure and lack of student interest in religious learning and expanding Arabic knowledge. We also presented the efforts by teachers to overcome the obstacles such as to motivate the students by telling them the importance of Arabic in international community as one of international students, to give practice tasks implementation, to sustainable evaluation and task.
Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane
We used longitudinal data from a birth cohort study, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, to investigate the links between Head Start and school readiness in a large and diverse sample of urban children at age 5 (N = 2,803; 18 cities). We found that Head Start attendance was associated with enhanced cognitive ability and social competence and reduced attention problems but not reduced internalizing or externalizing behavior problems. These findings were robust to model specifications (including models with city-fixed effects and propensity-scoring matching). Furthermore, the effects of Head Start varied by the reference group. Head Start was associated with improved cognitive development when compared with parental care or other nonparental care, as well as improved social competence (compared with parental care) and reduced attention problems (compared with other nonparental care). In contrast, compared with attendance at pre-kindergarten or other center-based care, Head Start attendance was not associated with cognitive gains but with improved social competence and reduced attention and externalizing behavior problems (compared with attendance at other center-based care). These associations were not moderated by child gender or race/ethnicity. PMID:21244155
Sallee, Mariel; Boske, Christa
This case is based on real-life experiences of community school members within Horner School--an inner-city public school. Specifically, the case explores challenges faced by Cathleen, a 1st-year, White, female principal, who was hired by central office to "revamp a charter school" to promote a quality education for all children. The case raises…
Kelly, Angela Marian
High school physics is a gateway course for post-secondary study in science, medicine, and engineering, as well as an essential component in the formation of students' scientific literacy. However, physics is widely considered appropriate only for an academic elite. The existence of policies that restrict science opportunities for secondary students results in diminished outcomes in terms of scientific proficiency. Although the national trend in physics enrollment has shown an increase in recent years, the rate of participation is much lower for students in urban schools. This study examines the availability of physics in New York City, and whether access is related to organizational and school-level variables. The statistical distribution of physics students throughout the city is compiled and analyzed. High schools that successfully offer physics are compared with those that do not. Other factors are explored to determine their relationship to physics access, such as the presence of science magnet schools, the availability of Advanced Placement Physics and Non-Regents Physics, the science curricular sequence, and teacher certification. The results show that physics is not widely available to students in New York City, with 55% of high schools simply not offering the subject. Only 27% of schools with fewer than 600 students offer physics. The science magnet schools enroll a significant proportion of physics students when compared with larger, economically depressed neighborhood schools. The causes of these disparities are complex, and the implications serious for those students who do not have equal access to physics. The implications of these findings are important. By highlighting descriptive variables, as well as statistical evidence of systemic discrimination and inequities, urban districts may formulate effective models for the promotion of physics study. School policies and structures need to target better rates of physics participation among all students
Full Text Available Background: Sexual violence against children increased in many regions in Indonesia, both in cities and in desa. Keadaan is also happening in the city of Padang, where cases of sexual violence against children is increasing from year to year. Therefore, necessary one model to be able to do primary prevention. Aims & Objectives: The aim of this study is to establish a model of promotion and prevention interventions that can be used as primary prevention of sexual violence against primary school children in Padang City. Material & Methods: The method was combining qualitative and quantitative research. The population of this study was the teachers and students within amount of ten elementary schools in the Padang City with 170 sample of people. Result: The model of intervention through Minangkabau language songs can enhance children's knowledge and assertiveness toward primary prevention of sexual violence. Conclusion: "Neherta" Model is a promotion and prevention interventions model of sexual violence against primary school children in Padang City.
Seyyed alireza Mousavi
Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Promoting the health and safety is an important part of the fundamental mission of schools and one factor in designing and operating schools that always has been important is lighting. As students spend considerable hours in the classroom and school, lighting should be designed appropriately and in accordance with the standards, to protect them from injuries. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the combination of natural and artificial lighting condition in primary schools of Baneh city, Kurdistan, Iran. Materials & Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. It's population consisted of primary schools in the city of Baneh and 12 schools were randomly selected as samples. Measurement has been done, using observation method in those schools by completing the assessment form. Then collected data were analyzed by SPSS 19, using descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA and Kruskal Wallis Test. Results: Results showed that the windows to the floor area in the most of schools classes were in standard range and just in 7 classes, the windows to the floor area ratio were less than standard. ANOVA showed the mean of luminance in those schools in p≤0.05 was significant and most of classes were in range of standard luminance. Comparison of luminance in schools corridors with standard showed that corridors luminance of 3schools were less than standard range. Conclusions: The amount of luminance in all schools was not appropriate especially in old schools. Therefore, to reduce the effect of inappropriate lightning on health in some classes, it is necessary to redesign the system. Furthermore, for parsimony, the lightning system modification is required to achieve standard luminance which is important.
Almuhanna, Monira Abdulrahman; Alsaif, Mohammed; Alsaadi, Muslim; Almajwal, Ali
Childhood obesity has become a new challenge for healthcare providers. The issue is not limited to certain parts of the world; its prevalence is increasing worldwide. The causes of obesity are poorly understood and continue to be debated and studied. It is a multifactorial disorder which involves dietary, behavioral, environmental as well as genetic factors. The increased consumption of more energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods with high levels of sugar and saturated fats, combined with reduced physical activity, have led to high obesity rates among children. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary intake on the occurrence of childhood obesity, and study other associated factors including the education, occupation and income of parents and the living status. Normal healthy school girls (n =196) and school boys (n = 85) between the age of 6- 15 were recruited for the study. We found that obesity among children in Riyadh City was significantly associated with fast food intake (p = 0.0280). It was also observed that 72.5% of the overweight or obese students consumed fast food at least 4 times/week, and the other 15.9% were taking fast food 1- 3 times/week, while only 11.6% of the same overweight or obese group did not consume any fast food/ week. Father's and mother's occupations were not significantly correlated to their children's body weight. The prevalence of childhood obesity is changing and increasing yearly and is attributed to the nutritional risk factors for the Saudi school-age children. It is interesting to know that most of overweight or obese school students belonged to the families of highincome. Parents must take necessary precautions for the diet of their children and should adopt healthy life style in order to prevent or manage obesity of their children.
Waddell, Elizabeth Needham; Orr, Mark G; Sackoff, Judith; Santelli, John S
Disparities in teen pregnancy rates are explained by different rates of sexual activity and contraceptive use. Identifying other components of risk such as race/ethnicity and neighborhood can inform strategies for teen pregnancy prevention. Data from the 2005 and 2007 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were used to model demographic differences in odds of recent sexual activity and birth control use among black, white, and Hispanic public high school girls. Overall pregnancy risk was calculated using pregnancy risk index (PRI) methodology, which estimates probability of pregnancy based on current sexual activity and birth control method at last intercourse. Factors of race/ethnicity, grade level, age, borough, and school neighborhood were assessed. Whites reported lower rates of current sexual activity (23.4%) than blacks (35.4%) or Hispanics (32.7%), and had lower predicted pregnancy risk (PRI = 5.4% vs. 9.0% and 10.5%, respectively). Among sexually active females, hormonal contraception use rates were low in all groups (11.6% among whites, 7.8% among blacks, and 7.5% among Hispanics). Compared to white teens, much of the difference in PRI was attributable to poorer contraceptive use (19% among blacks and 50% among Hispanics). Significant differences in contraceptive use were also observed by school neighborhood after adjusting for age group and race/ethnicity. Interventions to reduce teen pregnancy among diverse populations should include messages promoting delayed sexual activity, condom use and use of highly effective birth control methods. Access to long-acting contraceptive methods must be expanded for all sexually active high school students.
Balfanz, Robert; Legters, Nettie
The analysis presented in this paper strongly suggests that about half of the high schools in the nation’s 35 largest cities have severe dropout rates. It further shows that high schools with weak promoting power and by implication high dropout rates are found in almost all of the largest cities but they are particularly concentrated in Midwestern and Northern industrial cities and Texas.
Ginsburg, Golda S.; Becker, Kimberly D.; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Tein, Jenn-Yun
Background: The effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) in inner city schools, when delivered by novice CBT clinicians, and compared to usual care (UC), is unknown. Objective: This pilot study addressed this issue by comparing a modular CBT for anxiety disorders to UC in a sample of 32 volunteer youth (mean age 10.28 years, 63%…
DuFour, Marilyn Berry; Courter, Linda Kothera; Garvin, Dennis M.
The project PARK-IT! represents a unique partnership between a public elementary school and a city park in which students and teachers utilize a small naturalized area of the park as a Land Laboratory, and in return become its stewards. The project also includes this curriculum activity guide which can assist teachers in using the Land Lab with…
DuFour, Marilyn Berry; Courter, Linda Kothera; Garvin, Dennis M.
The project PARK-IT! represents a unique partnership between a public elementary school and a city park in which students and teachers utilize a small naturalized area of the park as a Land Laboratory, and in return become its stewards. The project also includes this curriculum activity guide which can assist teachers in using the Land Lab with…
DuFour, Marilyn Berry; Courter, Linda Kothera; Garvin, Dennis M.
The project PARK-IT! represents a unique partnership between a public elementary school and a city park in which students and teachers utilize a small naturalized area of the park as a Land Laboratory, and in return become its stewards. The project also includes this curriculum activity guide which can assist teachers in using the Land Lab with…
Smith, Sherry P.
Examines a set of characteristics that African American inner-city high school students may or may not value in a dating partner. A total of 80 students indicated how important they perceived certain qualities to be in a person they would like to date. The results are in contrast to the previous literature regarding dating-partner preferences…
Jalali, Zohreh; Heidari, Alireza
The research aimed to investigate the relationship between happiness, subjective well-being, creativity and job performance of primary school teachers in Ramhormoz City. Hence, a sample of 330 individuals was selected through random stratified sampling. The research tools included Oxford Happiness Inventory, Subjective Well-being Scale by Keyes…
Mijanovich, Tod; Abrams, Courtney; Cantor, Jonathan; Dunn, Lillian; Nonas, Cathy; Cappola, Kristin; Onufrak, Stephen; Park, Sohyun
Objectives. We determined the influence of “water jets” on observed water and milk taking and self-reported fluid consumption in New York City public schools. Methods. From 2010 to 2011, before and 3 months after water jet installation in 9 schools, we observed water and milk taking in cafeterias (mean 1000 students per school) and surveyed students in grades 5, 8, and 11 (n = 2899) in the 9 schools that received water jets and 10 schools that did not. We performed an observation 1 year after implementation (2011–2012) with a subset of schools. We also interviewed cafeteria workers regarding the intervention. Results. Three months after implementation we observed a 3-fold increase in water taking (increase of 21.63 events per 100 students; P schools. At 1 year, relative to baseline, there was a similar increase in water taking and no decrease in milk taking. Cafeteria workers reported that the water jets were simple to clean and operate. Conclusions. An environmental intervention in New York City public schools increased water taking and was simple to implement. PMID:25521867
Full Text Available Introduction: There has been an increasing secular trend in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in developing countries. The prevalence reported among children and adolescents of some metro cities in India are comparable to that in some developed countries. Westernization of culture, rapid mushrooming of fast food joints, lack of physical activity, and increasing sedentary pursuits in the metro cities are some of the reasons implicated for this. The nutritional changes in small town school children might be following the same pattern of larger cities. Aims and Objectives: To study the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school-going adolescents of Aligarh and to study the sociodemographic and behavioral correlates of the same. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study done in two affluent and two nonaffluent schools in Aligarh, taking 330 adolescents from each group (total-660. Study tools included a predesigned and pretested questionnaire, Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, and anthropometric measurement. Overweight and obesity were defined based on World Health Organization 2007 Growth Reference. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis were done. Results: Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 9.8% and 4.8% among school-going adolescents. The difference in prevalence of overweight and obesity among affluent schools (14.8% and 8.2% and nonaffluent schools (4.8% and 1.5% was significant. Risk factors for overweight and obesity were affluence, higher maternal education, parental history of obesity, frequent fast food intake, and television (TV viewing more than 2 h/day. Conclusion: Overweight and obesity among school-going adolescents is a crisis facing even smaller cities in India. Behavior change communication should be focused to adolescents, especially of the affluent section, toward restricting fast food intake, and TV viewing.
Patterson, Rita Mabon; Maldonado, Nancy; Howe, Mary
Violence is a problem that affects the family structure, schools, and communities. Although some violence takes place behind closed doors, the effects are devastating to society and the community. The overwhelming results are seen with the increase of visits to abuse shelters and emergency rooms. Domestic violence in households tends to continue…
Guitart, Daniela A; Pickering, Catherine M; Byrne, Jason A
Community garden research has focused on social aspects of gardens, neglecting systematic analysis of what food is grown. Yet agrodiversity within community gardens may provide health benefits. Diverse fruit and vegetables provide nutritional benefits, including vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals. This paper reports research that investigated the agro-biodiversity of school-based community gardens in Brisbane and Gold Coast cities, Australia. Common motivations for establishing these gardens were education, health and environmental sustainability. The 23 gardens assessed contained 234 food plants, ranging from 7 to 132 plant types per garden. This included 142 fruits and vegetables. The nutritional diversity of fruits and vegetable plants was examined through a color classification system. All gardens grew fruits and vegetables from at least four food color groups, and 75% of the gardens grew plants from all seven color groups. As places with high agrodiversity, and related nutritional diversity, some school community gardens can provide children with exposure to a healthy range of fruit and vegetables, with potential flow-on health benefits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mogasale, Vijayalaxmi V; Patil, Vishwanath D; Patil, Nanasaheb M; Mogasale, Vittal
To measure the prevalence of specific learning disabilities (SpLDs) such as dyslexia, dysgraphia and dyscalculia among primary school children in a South Indian city. A cross-sectional multi-staged stratified randomized cluster sampling study was conducted among children aged 8-11 years from third and fourth standard. A six level screening approach that commenced with identification of scholastic backwardness followed by stepwise exclusion of impaired vision and hearing, chronic medical conditions and subnormal intelligence was carried out among these children. In the final step, the remaining children were subjected to specific tests for reading, comprehension, writing and mathematical calculation. The prevalence of specific learning disabilities was 15.17% in sampled children, whereas 12.5%, 11.2% and 10.5% had dysgraphia, dyslexia and dyscalculia respectively. This study suggests that the prevalence of SpLDs is at the higher side of previous estimations in India. The study is unique due to its large geographically representative design and identification of the problem using simplified screening approach and tools, which minimizes the number and time of specialist requirement and spares the expensive investigation. This approach and tools are suitable for field situations and resource scarce settings. Based on the authors' experience, they express the need for more prevalence studies, remedial education and policy interventions to manage SpLDs at main stream educational system to improve the school performance in Indian children.
Fetohy, Ebtisam M
An experimental study was conducted to assess the impact and suitability of menstrual education program (MEP) for 1st and 2nd graders at a girls' secondary school in Riyadh city. The MEP was conducted on 5 classes, through one session and one assessment. The results revealed that the mean scores of knowledge, attitude and practice of the intervention classes (1st and 2nd graders) were significantly higher than that of the control classes. Stepwise linear regression models show that the age of menarche and grade were the predictors of students' knowledge among the control group and explained 7.8% of the variation of the knowledge score. Knowledge was a predictor of students' attitude of both groups (control and intervention) (beta = 0.359, 0.300 respectively). Knowledge was also a predictor of students' menstrual practice among control group (beta = -2.12). Attitude was a predictor of students' menstrual practice for both groups (beta = 0.360, 0.252 respectively). The study recommended the replication of the same program among elementary, preparatory, and other secondary schools for improvement of students' menstrual knowledge, attitudes and practice.
Dodson, Jennifer L; Hsiao, Ya-Chun; Kasat-Shors, Madhuri; Murray, Laura; Nguyen, Nga Kim; Richards, Adam K; Gittelsohn, Joel
To understand influences on diet among low-income African-American adolescents in East Baltimore. Formative research was conducted for a food store-centered healthy diet intervention targeted to inner-city youth. Family, school and neighborhood influences on eating habits and health concepts were explored. Family structure, economic resources and past experiences influence what food means to adolescents. Healthy food in school and local stores is limited. Terminology to categorize foods was identified, including the term "home foods". Suggested adolescent nutritional interventions include promotion of home-based eating, improving availability of healthy foods in school and neighborhood stores, and targeted educational materials.
The previous principal reports his concerned decontamination process of the school, localizing at 60 km distance from Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant, after its Accident (Mar. 2011). The school was defined as one of 11 with >3.8 mc-Sv/h ambient dose necessary for decontamination by Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science an Technology (MEXT). Measurements of the dose by Date City and MEXT started from April, which revealed that it was 3.3-5.5 mc-Sv/h at 1 m height of the schoolyard. Decontamination was done by weeding, then removal of the ground soil at 3 ) and spreading a new soil, resulting in the reduction of the dose to 0.75 mc-Sv/h at 50 cm height. Unexpectedly, the removed soil was buried for tentative storage by wrapping with Volclay tarpaulin in a 140 cm deep hole at the corner of the yard, which was a result of residents' disagreement with the scheduled estate. Decontamination of school circumstances was conducted in July by experts, PTA voluntary parents and applied volunteers with their repeated meetings involving the radiological explanation of even radiation units. The classroom ambient dose at 50 cm height was declined from 0.11 to 0.06 mc-Sv, pavements from 2-3 to 0.7-1.0, plantings from 3.7 to 0.7, and the bank between the yard and schoolhouse from 4-5 to 1-1.5. The swimming pool water was first purified with zeolite, which made its radiocesium level below the standard limit <50 Bq/L, then was released out, and the pool was filled with fresh city water (<7 Bq/L). The ambient dose 6-8 mc-Sv/h around the pool at 50 cm height was reduced to 0.7-0.8 after decontamination. The project finished within July. Now the decontamination is still under progress for the forest and resident's houses; pupils are enjoying lessons, swimming and sports; and the author looks back the successful importance of experts' easy explanation about radiology. (T.T)
Scalzo, F.; Johnson, L.; Marchese, P.
The New York City Research Initiative (NYCRI) is a research and academic program that involves high school students, undergraduate and graduate students, and high school teachers in research teams that are led by college/university principal investigators of NASA funded projects and/or NASA scientists. The principal investigators are at 12 colleges/universities within a 50-mile radius of New York City (NYC and surrounding counties, Southern Connecticut and Northern New Jersey), as well as the NASA Goddard Institute of Space Studies (GISS). This program has a summer research institute component in Earth Science and Space Science, and an academic year component that includes the formulation and implementation NASA research based learning units in existing STEM courses by high school and college faculty. NYCRI is a revision and expansion of the Institute on Climate and Planets at GISS and is funded by NASA MURED and the Goddard Space Flight Center's Education Office.
Coble, Chanelle A; Silver, Ellen J; Chhabra, Rosy
Examination of the association of sexual orientation to the sexual practices and health behaviors of high school girls in New York City (NYC). Data were drawn from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System survey of public high school students in grades 9-12 in NYC. None. Independent variables included sexual orientation and gender of sexual partners. Dependent variables include sexual/health risk behaviors. We used t tests to compare mean ages and χ 2 tests to compare distributions according to sexual orientation, gender of sexual partners, and differences in risk behaviors. The survey was completed by 4643 girls; mean age, 15.5 years; (1103 + 1842)/4254 (69%) black or Latina; 1101/4000 (27.5%) sexually active; 3574/4412 (81%) heterosexual; and (92 + 526)/4412 (14%) sexual minorities; 24.1% were heterosexual, 52.1% lesbian, and 49.4% were bisexual girls and were sexually active; 247 were classified as women who have sex with women (WSW) or WSW and men (WSWM). Of the sexually active girls, (65 + 182)/1081 (23%) were WSW/WSWM. The WSW/WSWM reported earlier sexual debut, more sexual partners, higher pregnancy rate, use of alcohol at last sex, history of intimate partner violence, and less likelihood of having an HIV test. Almost one in four of sexually active high school girls in NYC can be classified as WSW, who are vulnerable to increased sexual and health risk-taking behaviors leading to adverse health outcomes. The discordance between sexual behavior and sexual orientation emphasizes the importance of the provider sharing protective strategies in the sexual health counseling session for their patients who engage in sex with female partners regardless of sexual orientation. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vohra, Rajaat; Bhardwaj, Pankaj; Srivastava, Jyoti P; Srivastava, Shekhar; Vohra, Anusha
Childhood obesity is increasingly being observed with changing lifestyles of families. The magnitude of overweight ranges from 9% to 27.5% and obesity ranges from 1% to 12.9% among Indian children. The present study was undertaken to study the magnitude of overweight/obesity and its determinants among children in Lucknow city. A list of government and private school was procured from Office of Basic Shiksha Adhikari. Three government and three private schools were selected by Simple Random Sampling. Students of 5th to 12th grades available at the time of study were included as study unit. Predesigned and pretested questionnaire was used to elicit the information on family characteristics and individual characteristics. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Children with BMI of 25 and above were considered overweight and children with BMI more than 30 were considered obese. Overweight and obesity was found to be 4.17% and 0.73%, respectively; they together constitute 4.91% for overweight/obesity. The study revealed that the important correlates of overweight/obesity were father's education, father's occupation, class, children playing outdoor games for less than 30 min, and those consuming fast foods. Children of higher classes (above 8th standard) belonging to higher socioeconomic group with less outdoor activities and consuming fast foods were more predisposed to overweight/obesity. As a preventive strategy, there is a need to apply health and nutritional education programs for inculcating healthy life styles, and incorporating more outdoor activities in Physical Education Department of school curriculum.
Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity is increasingly being observed with changing lifestyles of families. The magnitude of overweight ranges from 9% to 27.5% and obesity ranges from 1% to 12.9% among Indian children. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to study the magnitude of overweight/obesity and its determinants among children in Lucknow city. Materials and Methods: A list of government and private school was procured from Office of Basic Shiksha Adhikari. Three government and three private schools were selected by Simple Random Sampling. Students of 5th to 12th grades available at the time of study were included as study unit. Predesigned and pretested questionnaire was used to elicit the information on family characteristics and individual characteristics. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Children with BMI of 25 and above were considered overweight and children with BMI more than 30 were considered obese. Results: Overweight and obesity was found to be 4.17% and 0.73%, respectively; they together constitute 4.91% for overweight/obesity. The study revealed that the important correlates of overweight/obesity were father′s education, father′s occupation, class, children playing outdoor games for less than 30 min, and those consuming fast foods. Conclusions : Children of higher classes (above 8th standard belonging to higher socioeconomic group with less outdoor activities and consuming fast foods were more predisposed to overweight/obesity. As a preventive strategy, there is a need to apply health and nutritional education programs for inculcating healthy life styles, and incorporating more outdoor activities in Physical Education Department of school curriculum.
Peters, Zachary J; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Davidson, Leslie L
Research is just beginning to explore the intersection of bullying and relationship violence. The relationship between these forms of youth aggression has yet to be examined in diverse urban centers, including New York City (NYC). This study seeks to identify intersections of joint victimization from bullying and electronic bullying (e-bullying) with physical relationship violence (pRV). This study examines data from the NYC Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a representative sample of NYC public high school students, to assess the concurrent victimization from bullying at school and e-bullying with pRV, operationalized as physical violence by a dating partner in the past 12 months. Students who reported being bullied at school and e-bullied had increased odds (bullied: OR = 2.5, 95% CI [2.1, 2.9]; e-bullied: OR = 3.0, 95% CI [2.6, 3.5]) of also being victimized by pRV compared with those who did not report being bullied or e-bullied. In logistic regression models, being bullied at school and being e-bullied remained significant predictors of students' odds of reporting pRV (bullied: AOR = 2.6, 95% CI [2.2, 3.1]; e-bullied: AOR = 3.0, 95% CI [2.5, 3.6]) while controlling for race, gender, sexual orientation, and age. This research is the first to assess the intersection of victimization from bullying and e-bullying with pRV in a large, diverse, random sample of urban high school students. In this sample, students who report being bullied or e-bullied are more likely also to report pRV than students who have not been bullied or e-bullied. This research has potential implications for educators, adolescent health and social service providers, and policy makers to tailor programs and enact policies that jointly address bullying and pRV. Future studies are needed to longitudinally assess both victimization from and perpetration of bullying and pRV. © The Author(s) 2015.
Elbel, Brian; Mijanovich, Tod; Abrams, Courtney; Cantor, Jonathan; Dunn, Lillian; Nonas, Cathy; Cappola, Kristin; Onufrak, Stephen; Park, Sohyun
We determined the influence of "water jets" on observed water and milk taking and self-reported fluid consumption in New York City public schools. From 2010 to 2011, before and 3 months after water jet installation in 9 schools, we observed water and milk taking in cafeterias (mean 1000 students per school) and surveyed students in grades 5, 8, and 11 (n=2899) in the 9 schools that received water jets and 10 schools that did not. We performed an observation 1 year after implementation (2011-2012) with a subset of schools. We also interviewed cafeteria workers regarding the intervention. Three months after implementation we observed a 3-fold increase in water taking (increase of 21.63 events per 100 students; Pschools. At 1 year, relative to baseline, there was a similar increase in water taking and no decrease in milk taking. Cafeteria workers reported that the water jets were simple to clean and operate. An environmental intervention in New York City public schools increased water taking and was simple to implement.
Bolden, Shenell L. T.
The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine key stakeholders' perceptions of the current Baltimore City Public Schools' (BCPS) sex education curriculum and to gain insight into how they believe the curriculum could be modified to be more effective. A mixed methods approach using qualitative and quantitative data collection consisting of a survey, focus group interview, and individual interviews was conducted to gather information on stakeholders' perceptions. The stakeholders included: (1) former students who received their sex education courses in the Baltimore City Public School system (BCPS); (2) teachers in BCPS who were affiliated with the sex education curriculum; (3) health care professionals who screened and/or treated East Baltimore City residents for a sexually transmitted disease (STD) and; (4) one policy maker who was responsible for creating sex education curriculum at the national level. Analysis of the quantitative data from former Baltimore City Public School students revealed a general satisfaction with the current sex education curriculum. However, qualitative data from the same group of stakeholders revealed several changes they thought should be implemented into the program in an effort to improve the current curriculum. Findings from the other groups after qualitative analysis of the interviews suggest three major themes in support of curriculum change: (1) a blended curriculum that integrates both the cognitive and affective learning domains; (2) knowledge of prevention of STD's and pregnancy; and (3) authentic teaching and learning. Results from this study strongly suggest that the Baltimore City Public School system is apathetic to the sexual health needs of students and, therefore, is inadvertently contributing to the high rate of sexually transmitted diseases among young people. Keywords: Abstinence, Affective domain, Indoctrination, Behavior Modification, Cognitive domain, Sex education curriculum, Sexually Transmitted Diseases.
Fontcuberta-Famadas, M; Serral, G; López, M J; Balfagón, P; García-Cid, E; Caballé-Gavaldà, L
An intervention to promote the development of an allergen control plan (ACP) and preventive measures for the management of allergens in school food services was implemented in all schools of Barcelona city over a three-year period (2013-2015) by the public health services. The present study aimed to assess changes regarding the management of food allergens in school food services in Barcelona after an intervention conducted by the public health services of the city. School meal operators of a random sample of 117 schools were assessed before and after the intervention using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire collected general information on the students and their demand for special menus, and included 17 closed questions regarding the implementation of specific preventive measures for the management of allergens. Based on these 17 questions, a food safety score was calculated for each school. The improvement in these scores was evaluated. The results showed positive increments in the percentage of implementation of 12 of the 17 preventive measures assessed. The percentage of school food services with an implemented ACP increased by 49%. Schools with external and internal food supplies increased their scores by 16.5% and 19.6%, respectively. The greatest improvements were observed in smaller food services and in schools located in districts with low gross household incomes. The intervention was effective in improving school food services' management of allergens and in reducing the differences found among food services in the pre-intervention survey. We must also focus efforts on reducing socio-economic inequalities linked to the management of allergens. Copyright © 2018 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Simon G Agolory
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Children are important transmitters of influenza in the community and a number of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs, including hand washing and use of hand sanitizer, have been recommended to mitigate the transmission of influenza, but limited information is available regarding schools' ability to implement these NPIs during an influenza outbreak. We evaluated implementation of NPIs during fall 2009 in response to H1N1 pandemic influenza (pH1N1 by New York City (NYC public schools. METHODS: From January 25 through February 9, 2010, an online survey was sent to all the 1,632 NYC public schools and principals were asked to participate in the survey or to designate a school nurse or other school official with knowledge of school policies and characteristics to do so. RESULTS: Of 1,633 schools, 376(23% accessed and completed the survey. Nearly all respondents (99% implemented at least two NPIs. Schools that had a Flu Response Team (FRT as a part of school emergency preparedness plan were more likely to implement the NPI guidelines recommended by NYC public health officials than schools that did not have a FRT. Designation of a room for isolating ill students, for example, was more common in schools with a FRT (72% than those without (53% (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Implementing an NPI program in a large school system to mitigate the effects of an influenza outbreak is feasible, but there is potential need for additional resources in some schools to increase capacity and adherence to all recommendations. Public health influenza-preparedness plans should include school preparedness planning and FRTs.
Rodrigo Alberto Toledo
Full Text Available This article draws an analytical panel of the main contributions and interpretations of Anhaia Mello about the problem of growing cities from the perspective of urbanism in the city of São Paulo. Based on a broad review of the literature, this article describes how urban planning migrated to academia and simultaneously to city ordinances, which resulted in the regulatory framework of land use and occupancy that ultimately produced “The Regional São Paulo Plan.” Research in the FAU-USP library revealed family documents and collections that helped reconstruct the intellectual history and career of urban planner and professor Anhaia Mello. The author of this paper organized the data gathered from these collections and compared them to the literature to reconstruct Anhaia Mello’s thoughts on how the city of São Paulo should grow in the mid-20th century. The analyses produced by Anhaia Mello served as a guide to identify the crystallization of a planning proposal for the city, which believed in reversing the metropolitan cycle and containing urban growth by applying the garden-city concept defended by Le Corbusier and the Chicago school.
Center for Understanding the Built Environment, Prairie Village, KS.
This curriculum packet contains two lesson plans about cities and architecture intended for use with students in upper elementary grades and middle schools. The first lesson plan, "City People, City Stories" (Jan Ham), states that understanding architecture and cities must begin with an understanding of the people of the city. The children create…
Garbin, C A S; Arcieri, R M; Ferreira, N F; Luvizuto, E R; Alle, C F
Diet control is one of the important factors in the prevention of dental caries because food functions as substratum for fermentation and, consequently, for the formation of the organic acids that demineralize the tooth surface. This study aims to descriptively assess school diet and the associated caries-preventive methods applied to children in all municipal nursery schools of a Brazilian city (Aragatuba/SP). For this, a questionnaire with open and closed questions was used. The results showed that all schools serve school meal, which is composed mainly of sugar, carbohydrates, and proteins. The students enjoy the meal very much because for most of them, the meal served at school is the only source of food. It was observed that 90% of the schools offer other kinds of food besides the main school meal. The snacks served such as cakes, white hominy, and milk fudge are composed of sweet and highly cariogenic foods. It was also verified that in 13.30% of the schools, the daily supervised dental hygiene, an important procedure that should not be neglected, is not carried out. This procedure introduces the children to healthy habits that are added to those acquired in the family environment. It was concluded that the school diet is potentially cariogenic and, in association with the lack of daily dental hygiene, this potential may become even higher.
Full Text Available Diet control is one of the important factors in the prevention of dental caries because food functions as substratum for fermentation and, consequently, for the formation of the organic acids that demineralize the tooth surface. This study aims to descriptively assess school diet and the associated caries-preventive methods applied to children in all municipal nursery schools of a Brazilian city (Aragatuba/SP. For this, a questionnaire with open and closed questions was used. The results showed that all schools serve school meal, which is composed mainly of sugar, carbohydrates, and proteins. The students enjoy the meal very much because for most of them, the meal served at school is the only source of food. It was observed that 90% of the schools offer other kinds of food besides the main school meal. The snacks served such as cakes, white hominy, and milk fudge are composed of sweet and highly cariogenic foods. It was also verified that in 13.30% of the schools, the daily supervised dental hygiene, an important procedure that should not be neglected, is not carried out. This procedure introduces the children to healthy habits that are added to those acquired in the family environment. It was concluded that the school diet is potentially cariogenic and, in association with the lack of daily dental hygiene, this potential may become even higher.
Rosenthal, Harvey M.
This Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title I project was developed in order to provide educationally enriching experiences to New York City elementary school students in disadvantaged non-public schools by means of field trips to places of civic and cultural interest. The 182 schools chosen were in designated poverty areas. Evaluation of…
Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund, 2013
In September 2008, Mayor Michael Bloomberg and former Schools Chancellor, Joel Klein announced Chancellor's Regulation A-832, which established policies and procedures on how New York City schools should respond to bias-based harassment, intimidation, and bullying in schools. The Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund (AALDEF), the Sikh…
Agolory, Simon G.; Barbot, Oxiris; Averhoff, Francisco; Weiss, Don; Wilson, Elisha; Egger, Joseph; Miller, Jeffery; Ogbuanu, Ikechukwu; Walton, Sabrina; Kahn, Emily
Introduction Children are important transmitters of influenza in the community and a number of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), including hand washing and use of hand sanitizer, have been recommended to mitigate the transmission of influenza, but limited information is available regarding schools' ability to implement these NPIs during an influenza outbreak. We evaluated implementation of NPIs during fall 2009 in response to H1N1 pandemic influenza (pH1N1) by New York City (NYC) public schools. Methods From January 25 through February 9, 2010, an online survey was sent to all the 1,632 NYC public schools and principals were asked to participate in the survey or to designate a school nurse or other school official with knowledge of school policies and characteristics to do so. Results Of 1,633 schools, 376(23%) accessed and completed the survey. Nearly all respondents (99%) implemented at least two NPIs. Schools that had a Flu Response Team (FRT) as a part of school emergency preparedness plan were more likely to implement the NPI guidelines recommended by NYC public health officials than schools that did not have a FRT. Designation of a room for isolating ill students, for example, was more common in schools with a FRT (72%) than those without (53%) (peffects of an influenza outbreak is feasible, but there is potential need for additional resources in some schools to increase capacity and adherence to all recommendations. Public health influenza-preparedness plans should include school preparedness planning and FRTs. PMID:23341877
Agolory, Simon G; Barbot, Oxiris; Averhoff, Francisco; Weiss, Don; Wilson, Elisha; Egger, Joseph; Miller, Jeffery; Ogbuanu, Ikechukwu; Walton, Sabrina; Kahn, Emily
Children are important transmitters of influenza in the community and a number of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), including hand washing and use of hand sanitizer, have been recommended to mitigate the transmission of influenza, but limited information is available regarding schools' ability to implement these NPIs during an influenza outbreak. We evaluated implementation of NPIs during fall 2009 in response to H1N1 pandemic influenza (pH1N1) by New York City (NYC) public schools. From January 25 through February 9, 2010, an online survey was sent to all the 1,632 NYC public schools and principals were asked to participate in the survey or to designate a school nurse or other school official with knowledge of school policies and characteristics to do so. Of 1,633 schools, 376(23%) accessed and completed the survey. Nearly all respondents (99%) implemented at least two NPIs. Schools that had a Flu Response Team (FRT) as a part of school emergency preparedness plan were more likely to implement the NPI guidelines recommended by NYC public health officials than schools that did not have a FRT. Designation of a room for isolating ill students, for example, was more common in schools with a FRT (72%) than those without (53%) (pschool system to mitigate the effects of an influenza outbreak is feasible, but there is potential need for additional resources in some schools to increase capacity and adherence to all recommendations. Public health influenza-preparedness plans should include school preparedness planning and FRTs.
Ferigollo, Daniele; Kirsten, Vanessa Ramos; Heckler, Dienifer; Figueredo, Oscar Agustín Torres; Perez-Cassarino, Julian; Triches, Rozane Márcia
This study aims to verify the adequacy profile of the cities of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in relation to the purchase of products of family farming by the Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar (PNAE - National Program of School Meals). This is a quantitative descriptive study, with secondary data analysis (public calls-to-bid). The sample consisted of approximately 10% (n = 52) of the cities in the State, establishing a representation by mesoregion and size of the population. We have assessed the percentage of food purchased from family farming, as well as the type of product, requirements of frequency, delivery points, and presence of prices in 114 notices of public calls-to-bid, in 2013. Of the cities analyzed, 71.2% (n = 37) reached 30% of food purchased from family farming. Most public calls-to-bid demanded both products of plant (90.4%; n = 103) and animal origin (79.8%; n = 91). Regarding the degree of processing, fresh products appeared in 92.1% (n = 105) of the public calls-to-bid. In relation to the delivery of products, centralized (49.1%; n = 56) and weekly deliveries (47.4%; n = 54) were the most described. Only 60% (n = 68) of the public calls-to-bid contained the price of products. Most of the cities analyzed have fulfilled what is determined by the legislation of the PNAE. We have found in the public calls-to-bid a wide variety of food, both of plant and animal origin, and most of it is fresh. In relation to the delivery of the products, the centralized and weekly options prevailed. Verificar o perfil de adequação dos municípios do Rio Grande do Sul no que tange à aquisição de produtos da agricultura familiar pelo Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar. Trata-se de estudo quantitativo descritivo, com análise de dados secundários (chamadas públicas). A amostra foi composta por aproximadamente 10% (n = 52) dos municípios do estado, tomando-se o cuidado de estabelecer uma representatividade por mesorregião e tamanho da
Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of psychoactive substances among teenagers in Poland has grown for several years. Statistics maintain at a lower level than in the western Europe, however it is necessary to conduct its permanent monitoring. The work presents results of the questionnaire study carried out in IOMEH in years 2010–11. Objective: The aim of this paper is to present the scale of psychoactive substances prevalence among teenagers from Silesian cities. Materials and methods: The programme was carried out by use of modified questionnaire of the ESPAD study. Questions related to characteristics of the examined person, dissemination, accessibility, awareness of risk and problems associated with the use of psychoactive substances. 928 teenagers: students of IIIrd grade of secondary schools and Ist and IInd grades of high schools from Sosnowiec and Chorzów (62% boys and 38% girls participated in the study. Results: 86,9% girls and 89,8% boys confirmed contact with the alcohol at least once in the lifetime and it is the most widespread psychoactive substance in the study group. Out of the other substances, cannabis use was confirmed by 40,7% of students (34,7% girls and 44,3% boys, designer drugs use - by of 21,8% pupils (17,5% girls and 24,5% boys. The distribution within the limits of 10% has been observed in the case of soothing/sleeping pills (also together with alcohol, and amphetamine. The prevalence of contact with other substances was at the level *10%. Boys more often than girls used the respective psychoactive substances (statistically significant differences. Conclusions: Results of the study confirm observation concerning the entire country that drinking alcohol by the young adolescents is becoming the statistical norm. The frequency of other psychoactive substances use demonstrates also concerning levels. There is a need of systematic education among teenagers at school, with particular emphasis on issues related to addiction and
Heo, Moonseong; Irvin, Erica; Ostrovsky, Natania; Isasi, Carmen; Blank, Arthur E; Lounsbury, David W; Fredericks, Lynn; Yom, Tiana; Ginsberg, Mindy; Hayes, Shawn; Wylie-Rosett, Judith
HealthCorps provides school wellness programming using curricula to promote changes in nutrition, mental health, and physical activity behaviors. The research objective was to evaluate effects of implementing its curricula on nutrition, mental health, and physical activity knowledge and behavior. Pre- and postsurvey data were collected (N = 2255) during the 2012-2013 academic year from 14 New York City public high schools. An 18-item knowledge questionnaire addressed 3 domains; 26 behavioral items were analyzed by factor analysis to identify 6 behavior domains, breakfast being a seventh 1-item domain. We examined the effects stratified by sex, applying mixed-effects models to take into account clustering effects of schools and participants adjusted for age. The HealthCorps program significantly increased all 3 knowledge domains (p mental health, and physical activity. It also improved several key behavioral domains, which are targets of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines to address obesity in youth. © 2016, American School Health Association.
Yustina Anie Indriastuti Kurniawan
Full Text Available Anemia is the main micronutrient deficiency problem among adolescent girls in Indonesia. Anemia due to iron deficiency often coexists with zinc deficiency. Both iron deficiency anemia and zinc deficiency can increase the risk of obstetric complications among pregnant women i.e. bleeding during labor and post-partum hemorrhage. Iron-folate supplementation among pregnant women had been conducting since long time ago throughout this country; however, effort to improve the nutritional status particularly among adolescent girls prior to pregnancy is still lack behind. Iron and zinc have antagonistic interaction. Therefore it was challenging to alleviate anemia problem among adolescent girls with appropriate ratio of iron-zinc supplementation, and will give a benefit to improve their nutritional status. This study was aimed to investigate the different ratios of ironzinc supplementation on reducing the prevalence of anemia as improving the nutritional status of adolescent school girls.A female elementary school students age 10-12 years old (n= 137 were screened in rural area of Kupang City, East Timor Province. Subjects were assigned randomly to one of the three groups for daily iron-zinc supplementation for 12 weeks; Group 1 (iron; 60 mg/day, Group 2 (iron and zinc; 30 mg and 15 mg/day, Group 3 (iron and zinc; 60 mg and 15 mg/day. Hemoglobin concentration was measured by cyanmethemoglobin method (Hemocue to determine the prevalence of anemia (Hb level < 120 g/L, while anthropometric assessment was conducted for measuring weight and height to determine the nutritional status. General characteristics was assessed through interview. At base line, 29.1% of subjects suffered from anemia and in general, the prevalence was reduced to around 13.1% after they took iron supplements with or without zinc. Hemoglobin concentration was significantly increased among all subjects euther suffered from anemia or not. The result of this study showed that subject who
Sacramento City Unified School District, CA. Citizens Advisory Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity.
A 1965 report presents the findings of a citizens committee on racial tension and school segregation in Sacramento, California. Discussed are defacto segregation and its causes and effects, equal educational opportunity, the neighborhood school concept, and intergroup relations. A series of recommendations for improvement are included. (NH)
Ahmed Fernanda Desky
Full Text Available One’s habit in language use is inﬂuenced by daily social life structures thereby creating diﬀerent interaction patterns both individually or as a group. Sociology of language critically analyzes the use of language as a symbol of power which dominates the arena in a multicultural school. This research utilizes mixed methods as it is considered capable of ﬁnding and answering the issues and problems under examination. The location of research was Sultan Iskandar Muda High School which is the only multicultural education curriculum based pilot school in the city of Medan. The informants in this study were the principal, teachers, and students while the respondents were samples of high school students totaling 86 individuals. Research results show that one’s power in language use is determined by one’s interest in using language. School power and individual power has diﬀerent portions when positioning one’s self during interactions. Although power is coercive in nature, the community must submit to rules of the school. The power of the school in determining language emphasizes values of nationalism, which is diﬀerent to individual or group power which adjusts the language to the situation at hand so that relations of language use has its own portion of interaction in the multicultural school.
Roberts, P. T.; Brown, S. G.; Vaughn, D.; DeWinter, J. L.
Black carbon (BC) is a short lived climate forcer and is associated with human health effects. We measured BC inside and outside at four schools in Salt Lake City during two studies in 2011-2014. In addition, PM2.5 was measured indoor and outdoor at one school, and gaseous air toxics outdoor at one school. The schools are within 500 m of a planned major freeway, and two of them will adjoin the freeway. The objectives included determining the outdoor and indoor concentrations of BC, the likely sources of BC, and once the freeway is built, the change in ambient BC at the schools. We determined the current state of air quality outdoors at these schools, to provide baseline data for comparison when the major freeway is operational, and indoors as a baseline before installing improved filtration to reduce BC in classrooms. Using MATES IV cancer risk values, we found that diesel particulate matter, as indicated by ambient, outdoor BC measurements, was responsible for 84% of the cancer risk at the schools. The HVAC system was moderately effective at filtrating PM mass (73% reduction), but very poor at filtering BC (7%-34% reduction), indicating that air toxics risk is similar indoors and outdoors. Improved filtration devices could potentially mitigate this risk, and improved filtration systems have been recommended for the schools. Lastly, we used the difference in absorption at two Aethalometer channels to determine that the majority of BC (> 90%) during the spring through fall is from fossil fuel emissions.
Edge, K. E.; Descours, K.; Frayman, K.
This paper draws on evidence from our three-year Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)-funded research study of the lives, careers, experiences and aspirations of Generation X (under 40 years of age) principals and vice-principals in London, New York City, and Toronto. More specifically, the paper examines interview evidence from nine school-based studies in which nine leaders and 54 teachers discuss their perspectives on leaders’ care of their staff members. The evidence demonstrates t...
researcher that: TECHNOLOGY IN AN INNER-CITY SCHOOL 11 Technology is wonderful in the classroom, especially for little kids . You can use...As far as writing, I can see that [hands-on vs. clicking; and hands-on is better]. We did not get to use the computer as much as kids do today. I...that teachers receive the training needed for them to implement the best instructional practices. Second, the pedagogical shift from traditional
D.Phil. (Career and Life Orientation) The study focuses on how extended families are involved on the wellness of orphans at a primary school in Masvingo City in Zimbabwe. Through an ethnographic research design, the study aimed to establish the involvement of extended families and challenges they face in rendering support and care to orphans. This study draws an intensive ethnographic research interrogative approach through observations, interviews, researcher made test and document analys...
Murray, Nancy G; Opuni, Kwame A; Reininger, Belinda; Sessions, Nathalie; Mowry, Melanie M; Hobbs, Mary
To test the effectiveness of a middle school, multimedia health sciences educational program called HEADS UP in non-Asian-minority (Hispanic and African American), inner-city students. The program designers hope to increase the number of these students entering the health sciences pipeline. The program includes video role-model stories featuring minority scientists and students, hands-on activities, and teacher resources. Collaborators from The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Spring Branch Independent School District, and the Health Museum developed the modules. From 2004 to 2007, the authors used a quasi-experimental, two-group pretest/posttest design to assess program effects on students' performance and interest in science, their science self-efficacy, their fear of science, and their science-related careers self-efficacy. An independent third party matched the intervention school to a comparison school by test scores, school demographics, and student demographics and then matched pairs of sixth-grade students (N = 428) by fifth-grade science scores, gender, ethnicity, and participation in the free or reduced lunch program. The authors collected data on these students for three years. At eighth grade (2007), the intervention school students scored significantly higher (F = 12.38, P science and reported higher interest in science (F = 11.08, P school pairs. Students in neither group reported an increase in their confidence to choose a science-related career, but students in one high-implementing teacher's class reported decreased fear of science. HEADS UP shows potential for improving inner-city, non-Asian-minority middle school students' performance and interest in science.
Campbell, Christine; Heyward, Georgia; Gross, Betheny
In America today, families in almost every urban community have some kind of public school choice. This report focuses on "public school choice," under which families are able to choose from both an array of traditional public schools and public charter schools. Public school choice has grown rapidly in the past 20 years; new charter…
Charter schools and school choice are popular reforms believed to improve student performance largely through market competition, increased innovation, or some combination of the two mechanisms. Opponents of school choice argue that such reforms sap needed funds and resources from the traditional public school system. Despite this claim, there has…
Patricio David Ramos-Padilla
Full Text Available Introduction: To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school students and adolescents of a urban area of the city of Riobamba.Material and Methods: 3680 students between 5 and 19 years, 1581 school students and 2099 adolescents enrolled in 65 units of basic education and high school were studied. The variables studied were: type of educational establishment, sex, age, weight and height. For the diagnosis of nutritional status, the WHO-2007 reference standards of body mass index for were used. School children and adolescents whose standard deviation was found <–2 were considered thin, between –2 and +1 normal weight, >+1 to +2 overweight and >+2 as obesity. Data were analyzed by the computer programs: Anthro Plus v1.0.4 and SPSS v20.Results: Being overweight affects 24.1% of school/adolescents; overweight, 17.8% and 6.3% obese. Excess weight is statistically higher (p<0.0001 in school (27.7% than in adolescents (21.5%. Similarly, excess weight is statistically higher (p<0.0001 in children men (31.0% than in women (24,4% at school age. And it is statistically higher (p<0.0001 in adolescent females (23.3% than in adolescent males (19.8%. Being overweight in school/adolescents affects: private schools (27.7%, treasury missionary establishments (25.3% and fiscal establishments (22.9%. Similarly, excess weight is greater among schoolchildren in private schools (28.1% than in fiscal establishments, 27.7% (non statistically p = 0.9984. And it is statistically greater (p <0.0001 in adolescents of private establishments (27.6% than in fiscal establishments (18.4%.Conclusions: The prevalence of weight excess (overweight / obesity in school students and young urban area of the city of Riobamba is high (24.1%, and is higher in school age (27.7% than in adolescents (21,5%. An intervention is needed to prevent and treat this serious public health trend.
Full Text Available Introduction The consumption of tobacco related products by the school teachers is a bad habit because it sends a wrong signal to young minds of students. It is injurious to health and is a waste of money and also is a wrong role model for the students.Objectives To find out the prevalence of pattern of tobacco use among primary school teachers in Belgaum city and to determine the factors influencing the use of tobacco among primary school teachers.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using random sampling technique among 400 teachers aged 21 to 60 years from 78 primary schools in Belgaum city during March to December 2009.Results Overall, prevalence of any form of tobacco use among primary school teachers was 14.50%. Only male teachers 46.03% used tobacco. 37.93% were using smoking type of tobacco, 46.56% used smokeless & 15.51%were using both types of tobacco products. Most of the users initiated tobacco use by 16 to 20 years of age. A substantial number of teachers initiated tobacco use for fun, imitation and peer pressure. 58.33% of the teachers were using tobacco due to un-satisfaction from profession, 37.50% due to family problems.Conclusion High proportion of male teachers used tobacco than female teachers, because of social norm. Almost all the teachers consciously avoided tobacco use in school premises. Students will be encouraged to start using tobacco, if they observe use of tobacco products by teachers who are the role models for students. It was concluded that it would be beneficial to conduct educational programs and seminars encouraging tobacco cessation to this professional group, along with school children.
Full Text Available Introduction The consumption of tobacco related products by the school teachers is a bad habit because it sends a wrong signal to young minds of students. It is injurious to health and is a waste of money and also is a wrong role model for the students. Objectives To find out the prevalence of pattern of tobacco use among primary school teachers in Belgaum city and to determine the factors influencing the use of tobacco among primary school teachers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using random sampling technique among 400 teachers aged 21 to 60 years from 78 primary schools in Belgaum city during March to December 2009. Results Overall, prevalence of any form of tobacco use among primary school teachers was 14.50%. Only male teachers 46.03% used tobacco. 37.93% were using smoking type of tobacco, 46.56% used smokeless & 15.51%were using both types of tobacco products. Most of the users initiated tobacco use by 16 to 20 years of age. A substantial number of teachers initiated tobacco use for fun, imitation and peer pressure. 58.33% of the teachers were using tobacco due to un- satisfaction from profession, 37.50% due to family problems. Conclusion High proportion of male teachers used tobacco than female teachers, because of social norm. Almost all the teachers consciously avoided tobacco use in school premises. Students will be encouraged to start using tobacco, if they observe use of tobacco products by teachers who are the role models for students. It was concluded that it would be beneficial to conduct educational programs and seminars encouraging tobacco cessation to this professional group, along with school children.
Sun, Xing-sheng; Li, Li; Zhang, Kan-kan
To understand the current status of malaria control knowledge awareness of primary and secondary school students and its influencing factors in Yunlong District, Xuzhou City, so as to provide the evidence for improving the malaria prevention work. A total of 800 students from 4 urban and rural primary and secondary schools were randomly selected and investigated with questionnaires. The total awareness rate of malaria control knowledge was 61.27%, and the awareness rates of symptoms of malaria and malaria prevention were only 38.99% and 57.59% respectively. The main approach of obtaining the malaria control knowledge was media (51.52%). The univariate analysis showed that sex, area and different education levels affected the awareness rates of malaria control knowledge (P knowledge of country students was lower than that of urban students (P knowledge of the secondary school students was higher than that of the primary school students (P knowledge of primary and secondary school students in Yunlong District is lower than that required by the national standard. Therefore, the health education of malaria control should be strengthened, especially in countryside school students and primary school students.
Community schools have a long history of helping students succeed in school by addressing the problems they face outside of school. But without specific data on students and the full range of their needs, community schools cannot be as effective as they would like to be. Driven by the desire to make more data-informed decisions, the Children's Aid…
MARÍA ESTHER IRIGOYEN-CAMACHO
Full Text Available Objetivo. Presentar las estimaciones de la prevalencia y la severidad de caries dental, así como las necesidades de tratamiento de la población escolar del Distrito Federal examinada en la encuesta de caries dental que se llevó a cabo en 1988 con la finalidad de obtener datos basales sobre caries en los escolares al inicio del Programa Nacional de Fluoruración de la Sal en México. Material y métodos. La población de estudio fue seleccionada empleando un marco muestral basado en el listado de las escuelas primarias y los jardines de niños registrados por la Secretaría de Educación Pública en 1988. En el examen de la cavidad bucal de los escolares se utilizaron los criterios diagnósticos señalados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados. Un total de 4 475 escolares de 5 a 12 años de edad participaron en el estudio. La prevalencia de caries dental en la población alcanzó 90.5%. El índice de necesidades de tratamiento fue elevado (79.6%. El promedio de los índices de caries en los escolares de 12 años de edad fue CPOD= 4.42 (desviación estándar DE 3.2 y CPOS= 6.53 (DE 4.8. Conclusiones. Los resultados de la encuesta subrayan la pertinencia de un programa preventivo de amplia cobertura, como el de fluoruración de la sal. Además, muestran que se requiere elaborar estrategias para mejorar el acceso de la población escolar a los servicios odontológicos del sistema de salud en México.Objective. To estimate the prevalence and severity of dental caries and the dental treatment necessities of school children in Mexico City. The studied population was surveyed for dental caries in 1988 to obtain data necessary for the National Program of Salt Fluoridation in Mexico. Material and methods. The population was selected with a sample frame based on a list of Kindergardens and primary schools registered at the Ministry of Public Education in 1988. The oral cavity examination was based on diagnostic criteria marked by the
Chen, J Q; Dunne, M P; Zhao, D C
This study assessed the preparedness of school health personnel to develop and deliver HIV/AIDS prevention education programmes for young people in China. A survey of 653 personnel working in secondary schools in 14 cities was conducted. More than 90% had basic knowledge of ways in which HIV can be transmitted, but knowledge of ways in which the virus is not transmitted needs improvement. Substantial numbers of teachers were not sure whether there was an effective preventive vaccine (42%) or did not know whether AIDS was a curable illness or not (32%). The great majority approved of AIDS prevention programmes in universities (98%) and secondary schools (91%), although fewer (58%) agreed that the topic was appropriate for primary schools. Currently, most classroom activities focuses on teaching facts about HIV/AIDS transmission, while less than half are taught about HIV/AIDS related discrimination and life skills to reduce peer pressure. Personnel with some prior training on HIV/ AIDS education (53%) had better factual knowledge, more tolerant attitudes and more confidence in teaching about HIV/AIDS than those without training. The majority of teachers indicated a need for more resource books, audiovisual products, expert guidance, school principal support and dissemination of national AIDS prevention education guidelines to schools.
Lawlis, Tanya; Eckley, Dionne; Jamieson, Maggie; Knox, Melissa
To investigate stakeholder perceptions of healthy food availability in school canteens, the promotion of healthy foods and canteen policy compliance. This is a cross-sectional study of Catholic and independent primary and high schools comprising three investigative phases: (i) survey of 39 schools, (ii) survey of canteen managers and parents from 10 schools and (iii) an audit of school menus against National Healthy School Canteen Guidelines. Total participants included: 6 principals, no canteen mangers and 86 parents from two schools; 24 menus were audited. Schools are committed to supporting healthy eating, with participants agreeing canteens should follow the National Health School Canteen Guidelines. A total of 94% of parents (n = 81/86) indicated that their children buy food from the school canteen, with commonly purchased items mostly classified as 'red'. Despite this food choice, parents (n = 32/48) indicated they had a responsibility to encourage healthy eating. No school canteen menu comprised +50% 'green' foods and thus did not comply with the National Healthy School Canteen Guidelines. Despite the intense focus on school canteens to sell healthy food, little has changed in terms of student's food choices and the barriers to providing healthy options. The external environment and divided parental buy-in impact the canteen's ability to comply with guidelines. A holistic approach involving all stakeholder levels is required to successfully achieve a healthy school canteen environment and positively influence student's food habits and choices. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.
Tatiane De Freitas Ermel
Full Text Available In the context of studies about space and school architecture, this article analyses the visual construction of the Fernando Gomes Elementary School, which was located in downtown Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil between 1913 and 1935. Designed by the engineer Afonso Hébert, head of the Department of Public Works in the State of Rio Grande do Sul/RS, the building was completed in 1922. In addition to functional elements, i.e., a large number of classrooms that would serve to increase the access of children to primary school, its monumental proportions incorporated a series of symbolic elements aligned with the ideals of the First Brazilian Republic (1889–1930. The documentary analysis was performed on the archives of the Directorship of Public Education and the Directorship of Public Works of Rio Grande do Sul, as well as various iconographic sources, capital improvement plans and periodicals of the time. The construction of the school inaugurated a new conception of the space and architecture of public elementary schools in the State, as the visible improvement and sanitation of the cities were considered of great importance in the period. The construction of school buildings was also one of the greatest advertising tools of the new Republican political regime.
Al Amin Rabby
Full Text Available This research aims to investigate how the aspects of cultural capital cause educational success of college students coming from different socioeconomic backgrounds in Sylhet City, Bangladesh. It employs sample survey of 210 Higher Secondary level students from three educational institutions of Sylhet City to collect data. Findings report that cultural capital has no significant relation with students’ educational success. Family economic condition and parental education put greater influence on students’ educational improvement. It is therefore essential to note that family income is more important than cultural capital to achieve a good result. The findings of this research contrast with Bourdieu’s study in France as cultural capital marginally influences educational success of the students. A number of students receive proper caring from schools and families that advance them at achieving more rewards which tend to perpetuate social inequality in Bangladesh. Higher family income and parental education of higher class further contribute to creating uneven success among the students.
Fruchter, Norm; Hester, Megan; Mokhtar, Christina; Shahn, Zach
Over the past decade, Mayor Michael Bloomberg has reorganized the New York City school system using principles and strategies extrapolated from his corporate sector experience. The mayor and his administration have restructured the public school system into a portfolio district centered on choice, autonomy, and accountability. These strategies…
This article draws awareness to the subtle and seeping "common sense" mentality of neoliberalism and deficit thinking assumptions about racially marginalized students in inner-city schools. From a literature review conducted on deficit thinking and deficit practices in schools, I developed three different frameworks for understanding the…
Alves, Emerson J. F.; Moura, Gerusa G.; dos A. Candeiro, Carlos R.
This article aims to analyze the geography textbooks, which are being used in the public schools of the city of Ituiutaba, Depth of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The research also seeks to address the ways and methods being employed by the teachers of these schools for studies that include the teaching of Geology and Geosciences. In this study, survey…
Ebadi, Setareh; Shakoorzadeh, Reza
The present study was carried out with the aim of Investigation of academic procrastination prevalence and its relationship with academic self-regulation and achievement motivation among high-school students in Tehran city. The sample included 624 high school students (312 Boys & 312 Girls) from different areas and regions that selected using…
Gray, Heewon Lee; Burgermaster, Marissa; Tipton, Elizabeth; Contento, Isobel R; Koch, Pamela A; Di Noia, Jennifer
Sample size and statistical power calculation should consider clustering effects when schools are the unit of randomization in intervention studies. The objective of the current study was to investigate how student outcomes are clustered within schools in an obesity prevention trial. Baseline data from the Food, Health & Choices project were used. Participants were 9- to 13-year-old students enrolled in 20 New York City public schools (n= 1,387). Body mass index (BMI) was calculated based on measures of height and weight, and body fat percentage was measured with a Tanita® body composition analyzer (Model SC-331s). Energy balance-related behaviors were self-reported with a frequency questionnaire. To examine the cluster effects, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated as school variance over total variance for outcome variables. School-level covariates, percentage students eligible for free and reduced-price lunch, percentage Black or Hispanic, and English language learners were added in the model to examine ICC changes. The ICCs for obesity indicators are: .026 for BMI-percentile, .031 for BMIz-score, .035 for percentage of overweight students, .037 for body fat percentage, and .041 for absolute BMI. The ICC range for the six energy balance-related behaviors are .008 to .044 for fruit and vegetables, .013 to .055 for physical activity, .031 to .052 for recreational screen time, .013 to .091 for sweetened beverages, .033 to .121 for processed packaged snacks, and .020 to .083 for fast food. When school-level covariates were included in the model, ICC changes varied from -95% to 85%. This is the first study reporting ICCs for obesity-related anthropometric and behavioral outcomes among New York City public schools. The results of the study may aid sample size estimation for future school-based cluster randomized controlled trials in similar urban setting and population. Additionally, identifying school-level covariates that can reduce cluster
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to find out: (1 how the junior high school English teachers in Bengkulu city exploited the commercially published textbooks for classroom use; (2 if there was a difference in the way the experienced and the inexperienced English language teachers exploited the commercially published textbooks in the classroom; and (3 whether the teachers adapted textbooks or produced their own materials for classroom use. Twelve English teachers (6 experienced and 6 inexperienced teachers from four different junior high schools or SMPs (2 favourite and 2 non-favourite in Bengkulu city were the participants in this study. Data were obtained through a questionnaire, classroom observations, and sample lesson plans. The results of the study revealed that: first, the junior high school English language teachers (ET and IT; (1 used the commercially prescribed textbooks to a large extent; (2 there was not much difference between the way experienced teachers and inexperienced teachers exploited the textbooks; (3 both groups of teachers adapted the textbooks or produced their own teaching materials.
Tappeh, K Hazrati; Chavshin, Ar; Hajipirloo, H Mohammadzadeh; Khashaveh, S; Hanifian, H; Bozorgomid, A; Mohammadi, M; Gharabag, D Jabbari; Azizi, H
Pediculosis capitis is cosmopolitan health problem. In addition to its physical problems, its psychological effects especially on pupils are more important. This study was conducted to determine the Pediculosis capitis among primary school pupils and also find out the role of probable related risk factors in Urmia city, Iran 2010. 35 primary schools of Urmia City according to the defined clusters randomly have been selected during 2010. 2040 pupils (866 boys and 1174 girls) were included and examined individually and privately by experts. Presence of adult or immature lice or having nits less than 1 cm from the hair basis were defined as positive. Data about demographic features and factors which their effect should be determined were recorded in standard questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS software with proper statistical test. Infestation was determined around 4%. Girls show significantly greater infestation. The availability of suitable warm water for bathing and hair length (separately in girls and boys) are significantly related to infestation load as well as infestation among different age groups. There was no significant relation between parent's education and job and infestation as well as bathing repetition per week and the kind of energy source which they have. Also there is no significant correlation between educational grades and head lice infestation. The head louse pediculosis is a health problem and remains a health threatening for school children.Effective risk factors should be determined carefully and regionally. Proper training plays a great role in order to prevent and control the problem.
Shehata, Ghaydaa A; Mahran, Dalia G
This study was designed to assess knowledge and attitude with respect to epilepsy among secondary school students (epileptic and none) in Assiut city, Egypt. A cross sectional study was applied among secondary school students in Assiut city, Egypt. A 13-item questionnaire was self administered by 2226 students who selected randomly. All students either epileptic or non-epileptic had been heard about epilepsy. Only 7.1% of epileptic students and 8.5% of non-epileptic students thought that the epilepsy is a brain disease. Out of 2198 non-epileptic students, 28.4% thought that person with epilepsy (PWE) should not marry and 92% of them refused to marry from PWE. The correct knowledge of epilepsy was significantly positive correlated with positive attitude towards PWE. However, students still feel persons with epilepsy are stigmatized and are different from others. Secondary school students in Egypt have a vague knowledge about the etiology of epilepsy. Misconceptions about and negative attitudes towards epilepsy are unexpectedly high among those students. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper draws on evidence from our three-year Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC-funded research study of the lives, careers, experiences and aspirations of Generation X (under 40 years of age principals and vice-principals in London, New York City, and Toronto. More specifically, the paper examines interview evidence from nine school-based studies in which nine leaders and 54 teachers discuss their perspectives on leaders’ care of their staff members. The evidence demonstrates that leaders and teachers both place a high level of importance on leaders’ ability and willingness to be supportive, understanding, and approachable. Teachers also expect leaders to serve as advocates for and role models of good work/life balance. While the school-level studies take place in radically different city-based contexts, the expectation of leaders’ care for teachers transcends different accountability and policy structures. Both groups focus their discussion on work/life balance and, more specifically, the need for leaders to understand that teachers are people with lives beyond school. The paper highlights implications for policy, practice, and future research.
Telmesani, Abdulwahab MA
The published data on Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) prevalence and its relationship with abdominal pain in Saudi Arabia is scarce. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of H. pylori and its relationship with chronic recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) among school students in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia. Three hundred and fourteen school students, 103 at the intermediate level (grades 7-9) aged 12-15 years and 211 at the secondary level (grades 10-12) aged 15-18 years were tested for H. pylori. Urea breath test (UBT) was used for this purpose. Children with chronic RAP were identified as per the Apley criteria. Overall, the UBT was positive in 86/314 (27.4%) students. It was positive in 45/103 (43.7%) intermediate school students and 41/211 (19.4%) secondary students. Out of the 55 students with chronic RAP, 40 (73%) were positive for H. pylori . Further, 62.9% and 82.1% were positive among the intermediate and secondary school students with RAP, respectively. The overall and specific odds ratios of RAP were 12.35 [95% confidence interval (C.I.) 6.30-24.22] and 10.40 (95% C.I. 1.75-11.73) for the intermediate school students and 22.69 (95% C.I. 7.99-64.44) for the secondary school students. The prevalence of H. pylori among the school children in Makkah, Saudi Arabia, is relatively low compared with developing countries. The prevalence was found to be higher among the younger age group. Further, there was a significant relation between H. pylori infection and RAP among the school students. (author)
Rosa Vázquez Recio
Full Text Available This article includes some reflections about rural schools, coming from the personal and professional experience of the author. The article claims that rural schools should cease to be forgotten or underestimated and that they should be recognized as real schools. This issue is linked to the field of initial teacher training, making some considerations to be taken into account in order to promote a change in the appraisal and recognition of schools in the rural world.
Lee, Young-Sun; Kim, Kwang-Hwan; Cho, Young-Chae
This study was performed to determine the mental health of high school students, and specifically that of children with no siblings in urban areas, and we aimed at revealing the various potential influences of different psycho-social factors. The participants were, 514 high school students who were the 1st- to 3rd-graders in Daejon City; they were, given self-administered questionnaires that required no signature during the period of March through June 2005. The analyzed items included the general character of the subjects, the symptoms of stress and depression for mental health, self-esteem as a psychological component, anxiety, dependent behavioral traits and, social support of family members and friends. The study results suggested that the group of urban high school children with no siblings had a higher tendency for stress and depression than did the urban high school children with siblings. The mental health and psychosocial factors were found to be influenced by friends, a sense of satisfaction at school and home life, and emotional support as well. In conclusion, emotional support by the family members can improve mental health by reducing anxiety, stress and depression.
Cordes, Sarah A.
Charter Schools represent a small share of the national education market: just 6.2 percent of all public schools and 4.6 percent of all students. But their rapid growth over the past two decades has captured an outsized measure of public attention, especially in communities where district and charter schools operate side by side. At New York…
Cruz Igor Raineh Durães; Mourão Daniella Mota; Freitas Daniel Antunes; Souza Andrey George Silva; Pereira Alessandra Ribeiro; Aidar Felipe José; Carneiro André Luiz Gomes
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between nutritional status and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in middle-school students in the city of Montes Claros - MG. The sample consisted of 382 students, aged 10?16 years. Nutritional status was evaluated using the Body Mass Index (BMI). Metabolic syndrome (MS) was defined as the presence of two or more criteria in accordance with definition of the International Diabetes Federation. The overall prevalence of MS was 7.9%. 9...
Lulić-Dukić, O.; Jurić, H.; Dukić, W.; Glavina, D.
The aim of this study was to investigate factors predisposing to early childhood caries (ECC) in pre-school children in the city of Zagreb, Croatia. The investigation was carried out on the sample of 145 children (77 boys and 68 girls) aged between 2 and 5 years, including clinical examination of dental status and survey on the habits among the parents. The overall prevalence of ECC was 30%: in girls it was 25%, and in boys 48%. The study on the risk factors was designed as a c...
Full Text Available Bullying in school, being a serious threat to physical and emotional health of children and adolescents all over the world, represents an important public health issue. In Italy, since 2007, the Italian Ministry of Education promotes activities to fight against and to prevent bullying in schools of all levels and, at the same time, also Health Authorities are trying to implement effective social-health responses. However, to date, the lack of consistent data, from national to local level, that could help in describing the problem in a proper manner, does not allow a systematic bullying surveillance and so also measuring the effectiveness of the public health strategy that could be implemented. The Bias pilot study’s aim is to evaluate the prevalence of bullying in a sample of schools in the city of Palermo, the largest in Sicily, and to investigate its characteristics in relation to different types of school. Finally, the Bias study aim to evaluate the feasibility of alternative methods for the detection of the prevalence of bullying phenomenon in schools. Here we present the research protocol and the questionnaires that will be used.
Romero, Claudia; Krichesky, Gabriela
School leadership has been identified as a key function to assuring quality in education. Principals' leadership can have a direct effect on students' learning by improving teaching, or an indirect effect by creating conditions that foster learning. This exploratory study aims to understand how school principals exercise their leadership and its…
Full Text Available Background: In India, teachers play an important role in providing long-term health education and changes in behavior. Aim: To assess the relationship among the oral health status, oral hygiene practices, and habits of primary and middle school teachers in Mangalore city. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was carried out for 1½ months on 241 primary and middle school teachers in Mangalore city. Oral hygiene practices and habits were assessed using a questionnaire. The oral health status of the teachers was examined using simplified oral hygiene index, gingival index, and caries experience was scored using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square were done. P < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: A total of 241 school teachers were included in the study. The majority of the males and females were in the age group of 30-39 years and 40-49 years, respectively. The increase in the gingival score in subjects was not statistically significant with the use of indigenous methods along with the brush. With respect to caries experience and oral hygiene practices, as the frequency of brushing increase, there was a decrease in the number of decayed and missing teeth and increase in the number of filled teeth (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The findings of this study highlight the importance of proper oral hygiene habits and its relationship of oral health status and recommend the continuous implementation of school-based programs to promote the oral health.
Toke, N.; Johnson, A.; Nelson, K.
Earthquakes are one of the most widely covered geologic processes by the media. As a result students, even at the middle school level, arrive in the classroom with preconceptions about the importance and hazards posed by earthquakes. Therefore earthquakes represent not only an attractive topic to engage students when introducing tectonics, but also a means to help students understand the relationships between geologic processes, society, and engineering solutions. Facilitating understanding of the fundamental connections between science and society is important for the preparation of future scientists and engineers as well as informed citizens. Here, we present a week-long lesson designed to be implemented in five one hour sessions with classes of ~30 students. It consists of two inquiry-based mapping investigations, motivational presentations, and short readings that describe fundamental models of plate tectonics, faults, and earthquakes. The readings also provide examples of engineering solutions such as the Alaskan oil pipeline which withstood multi-meter surface offset in the 2002 Denali Earthquake. The first inquiry-based investigation is a lesson on tectonic plates. Working in small groups, each group receives a different world map plotting both topography and one of the following data sets: GPS plate motion vectors, the locations and types of volcanoes, the location of types of earthquakes. Using these maps and an accompanying explanation of the data each group’s task is to map plate boundary locations. Each group then presents a ~10 minute summary of the type of data they used and their interpretation of the tectonic plates with a poster and their mapping results. Finally, the instructor will facilitate a class discussion about how the data types could be combined to understand more about plate boundaries. Using student interpretations of real data allows student misconceptions to become apparent. Throughout the exercise we record student preconceptions
Tian, Lingyun; Liu, Minhui; Li, Li; Fang, Zhengqing; Xiao, Hongling; Wu, Ying; Xia, Yanping
To investigate the current status on knowledge for unintentional injury and risky behavior among school-age children in Changsha, China, and to provide scientific evidence for the preventive strategies. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 866 students who were between 6 and 12 years old in Changsha. Two primary schools were selected by stratified cluster random sampling from all primary schools of Changsha city to collect the information regarding knowledge for unintentional injury and risky behavior occurring in the 6-month period before the survey. The mean score for knowledge of unintentional injury was 11.83±2.38. The levels of knowledge for unintentional injury differed significantly in child's age, parents' education background and child's injury history (Pchild's knowledge level was correlated with child's age, mother's education, child's injury history. The mean score for risky behavior was 17.61±10.35. The levels of risky behavior differed significantly in child's gender, father's age to have the child, parents' marriage status, whom does/do child live with, child's injury history and medical history since the birthday (Pchild's injury history, parents' marriage status, child's gender. There was no significant correlation between knowledge and risky behavior (P>0.05). It is a common phenomenon in school-age children who are lack of the knowledge for unintentional injury and risky behavior. This study provides useful information on the risk factors for unintentional injury and risky behavior, which would be significant for prevention program.
Almansour, Mohammed; Sami, Waqas; Al-Rashedy, Oliyan Shoqer; Alsaab, Rayan Saad; Alfayez, Abdulrahman Saad; Almarri, Nawaf Rashed
To determine the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice of food hygiene among primary, intermediate and high school students and explore association, if any, with socio-demographic differences. The observational cross-sectional study was conducted at boy's schools in Majmaah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from February to May 2014. Data was collected using stratified random sampling technique from students aged 8-25 year. Two schools from each level (primary, intermediate and high school) were randomly selected and data was collected from the selected schools using simple random sampling method. A self-administered modified Sharif and Al-Malki questionnaire for knowledge, attitude and practice of food hygiene was used with Arabic translation. The mean age of 377 male students in the study was 14.53±2.647 years. Knowledge levels was less in primary school students compared to high school students (p=0.026). Attitude level was high in primary school students compared to intermediate school students (pstudents exhibited good practice levels, despite fair knowledge and attitude levels.
Goldman, Richard; Champagne, David
A discussion of a small community in northern Israel which asserts that a basic difference between kibbutz and a city is a total integration on the kibbutz of work, education, leisure, and living missing in most urban areas where parents must travel to work; several processes by which increased integration between parents' work and childrens'…
New York City's new mayor, Bill de Blasio, represents a dramatic shift from his predecessor Michael Bloomberg in the area of education. Bloomberg was a national trendsetter on market reforms focused on privatization, testing, and competition. De Blasio was elected on an agenda of classroom investments, student supports, parent and community…
Hess, Frederick M.; Palmieri, Stafford; Scull, Janie
This study evaluates how welcoming thirty American cities--the twenty-five largest and five smaller "hotspots"--are to "nontraditional" problem-solvers and solutions. It assumes that the balky bureaucracies meant to improve K-12 education and hold leaders accountable are so calcified by policies, programs, contracts, and…
Hutzel, Karen; Bastos, Flavia M. C.; Cozier, Kimberly J.
This anthology places art at the center of meaningful urban education reform. Providing a fresh perspective on urban education, the contributors describe a positive, asset-based community development model designed to tap into the teaching/learning potential already available in urban cities. Rather than focusing on a lack of resources, this…
Simo, Nuria; Telford, Jon
The arrival over the last 15 years of a substantial number of pupils of immigrant origin has presented Catalan schools with significant challenges. The schools in Vic (70 km north of Barcelona) have been at the forefront of attempts to adjust to this new multicultural reality. This article describes the results of three studies carried out by the…
Wells, Amy Stuart
This policy brief provides a review of the social science evidence on the housing-school nexus, highlighting the problem of reoccurring racial segregation and inequality absent strong, proactive federal or state integration policies. Three areas of research are covered: (a) the nature of the housing-school nexus; (b) the impact of school…
OECD Publishing, 2017
Many people would not consider schools among the most innovative institutions of modern societies. This perception is not entirely accurate, since education is innovating in many ways in order to meet the demands of the 21st century economies and societies. But teachers and schools cannot do it alone. They should be seen as actors and partners in…
Rosalía Meníndez Martínez
Full Text Available At the end of the XIXth century, it experienced important changes in the public primary education in Mexico, as result of the project of modernization that porfirista impel the government between the year 1882 and 1911. Under this ambien- ce of changes, the classroom were for first attended in his demands of furniture, scho- ol material and spaces; therefore the environment and the dynamics to the interior of these school spaces, it was transformed, and with it there was marked the beginning of a new period in the public school especially the urban one. The intention of this one article it centres on studying the memory of these loun- ges of class, in which deep changes were experienced in the period of between centu- ries and which marked the school culture of the XXth century. Key words: Modernization, School culture, School inventory.
K Hazrati Tappeh
Full Text Available Background: Pediculosis capitis is cosmopolitan health problem. In addition to its physical problems, its psychological effects especially on pupils are more important. This study was conducted to determine the Pediculosis capitis among primary school pupils and also find out the role of probable related risk factors in Urmia city, Iran 2010.Methods: 35 primary schools of Urmia City according to the defined clusters randomly have been selected during 2010. 2040 pupils (866 boys and 1174 girls were included and examined individually and privately by experts. Presence of adult or immature lice or having nits less than 1 cm from the hair basis were defined as positive.Data about demographic features and factors which their effect should be determined were recorded in standard questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS software with proper statistical test.Results: Infestation was determined around 4%. Girls show significantly greater infestation. The availability of suitable warm water for bathing and hair length (separately in girls and boys are significantly related to infestation load as well as infestation among different age groups.There was no significant relation between parent’s education and job and infestation as well as bathing repetition per week and the kind of energy source which they have. Also there is no significant correlation between educational grades and head lice infestation.Conclusion: The head louse pediculosis is a health problem and remains a health threatening for school children.Effective risk factors should be determined carefully and regionally. Proper training plays a great role in order to prevent and control the problem
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Substance abuse is a common problem and a major public health dilemma with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, due to the increase of drug abuse in recent years, especially among young people and its complications, including loss of life, unwanted pregnancy, suicide commitment, as well as violence and given that our country has a young population, so the present study, aimed to investigate the substance abuse among the students in Yazd, a central city in Iran. Materials and methods: In this cross sectional study 1020 students studying in high school (the first period - the second period were investigated in the 2015-2016 academic year in the city of Yazd. Multi-stage sampling method using cluster and stratified sampling was used. Information were collected through a standardized questionnaire based on World Health Organization method known as Global school-based student health survey (GSHS which was translated to Persian. After completion of the questionnaire by students, the collected data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16 and through statistical tests of significance. Results: The results showed 18.1% of students had at least one history of drug use. 9.5% of students had a history of cannabis use, 12.5% had a history of amphetamines use, 10.8% had a history of taking psychotropic pills, 12.2% had a history of heroin use, 12.9% had a history of opium use, and finally, 9.6% had a history of crack use. There was no significant association between parents education and drug abuse in students. Conclusion: According to high prevalence and diversity of substance abuse among students, recommend educational program in school and parents supervision. Promotion of parents and teachers knowledge about symptoms of abuse is needed. Family support of adolescents is effective for prevention.
Huffaker, Michelle; Phipatanakul, Wanda
Home-based environmental interventions have demonstrated clinical benefit for children with asthma. Although much is known about school-based exposures, few studies have comprehensively examined the role the school environment plays in asthma and how effectively changing the environment might reduce morbidity when adjusting for exposures in the home. This review summarizes the importance and common challenges of school-based environmental assessment and intervention studies linked to health effects. We focus on the key components of study development and the challenges and benefits to implementation. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lin, Show-Yu; Wu, Ming-Ta; Cho, Ya-I.; Chen, Hui-Huang
Background:Nanotechnology education has become an urgent priority to nurture skilled human resources for the rapidly developing nanotechnology-related industries. The promotion of popular science education focusing on nanotechnology is an ideal approach to bridge the gaps in formal curricula, and to stimulate curiosity about and interest in nanotechnology among schoolchildren. Purpose:The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Nanotechnology-based Popular Science Education Promotion and Teaching (NPSEPT) program through camp activity that was implemented in elementary schools in I-Lan City, Taiwan. Program description:To create a competitive advantage, a human resources development program was implemented as one of the nanotechnology incubation projects in Taiwan and focused on developing an appropriately-skilled professional workforce as well as promoting popular science education. Sample:The volunteer research participants were 323 sixth grade students in four elementary schools in I-Lan City, Taiwan, who were evaluated at the beginning and the end of the nanotechnology-based popular science promotion camp activity. Design and methods:A research tool called the 'NPSEPT test' was designed specifically for this study and was approved by experts who evaluated its content and face validity. The questionnaire was divided into three aspects: 'Nanophenomena in the natural world'; 'Nanomaterials and their scaling effects'; and 'Definition, characteristics, and applications of nanotechnology.' The effectiveness of learning among the students was analyzed using descriptive statistics, a paired sample t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a post hoc comparison. Results:The results of the three-part 'NPSEPT test' revealed that NPSEPT significantly advanced nanotechnology learning performance and outcomes among students in the four participating elementary schools. Of the 15 questions included in the NPSEPT test, positive change for more than 30
Nelson, F. Howard
Discusses the effects of patronage politics on Chicago schools. Cites overtime abuse, poor job and program cost control, favoritism in contractual building maintenance, and capital building programs as some of the costs that political patronage imposes. (GC)
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Nutrition is important during childhood for growth and to help prevent infections and other diseases and educational interventions will be effective. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of educational intervention on promoting healthy eating behaviors among primary school students of Kermanshah City, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 135 primary school students were randomly allocated into intervention and control groups. Data were collected using a valid and reliable questionnaire before and after the intervention in the areas of knowledge, attitude, practice and demographic variables. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, and paired t test with the SPSS-13 software. Results: Results showed that after the educational intervention the mean scores of knowledge, attitudes and practice were increased significantly in the experimental group (P0.05. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the educational intervention was effective in creating positive changes in knowledge, attitude and especially behaviors of the students about healthy eating. According to the appropriate education in schools and low-cost and effective nutritional education, the need to extend this type of training programs seems necessary.
Full Text Available Children spend a large amount of time in school environments and when Indoor Air Quality (IAQ is poor, comfort, productivity and learning performances may be affected. The aim of the present study is to characterize IAQ in a primary school located in Taranto city (south of Italy. Because of the proximity of a large industrial complex to the urban settlement, this district is one of the areas identified as being at high environmental risk in Italy. The study carried out simultaneous monitoring of indoor and outdoor Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC concentrations and assessed different pollutants’ contributions on the IAQ of the investigated site. A screening study of VOC and determination of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylenes (BTEX, sampled with Radiello® diffusive samplers suitable for thermal desorption, were carried out in three classrooms, in the corridor and in the yard of the school building. Simultaneously, Total VOC (TVOC concentration was measured by means of real-time monitoring, in order to study the activation of sources during the monitored days. The analysis results showed a prevalent indoor contribution for all VOC except for BTEX which presented similar concentrations in indoor and outdoor air. Among the determined VOC, Terpenes and 2-butohxyethanol were shown to be an indoor source, the latter being the indoor pollutant with the highest concentration.
Shailee, Fotedar; Girish, M Sogi; Kapil, R Sharma; Nidhi, Pruthi
To assess the dental caries, periodontal health, and malocclusion of school children aged 12 and 15 years in Shimla city and to compare them in government and private schools. A cross-sectional study of 12- and 15-year-old children in government and private schools was conducted in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India. A sample of 1011 school children (both males and females) was selected by a two-stage cluster sampling method. Clinical recordings of dental caries and malocclusion were done according to World Health Organization diagnostic criteria 1997. Periodontal health was assessed by Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs index. The data collected was analyzed by SPSS package 13. The statistical tests used were t-test and Chi-square tests. The prevalence of dental caries was 32.6% and 42.2% at 12 and 15 years, respectively. At the12 years of age, the mean decayed, missing, filled teeth was 0.62 ± 1.42 and it was 1.06 ± 2.93 at 15 years of age. Females had higher level of caries than males at both the ages. At both ages, mean of decayed teeth was statistically higher in government schools as compared with private schools. Children in government schools had significantly less number of mean filled teeth at both ages as compared with private schools. The healthy component of gingiva was present in higher percentage of children in private schools as compared with government schools at both the age groups. The prevalence of malocclusion among the 12- year-old (58.1%) was more as compared with that among the 15-year-old (53.5%). The caries experience of 12- and 15-year-old children was low but the prevalence of gingivitis and malocclusion was quite high. Effective oral health promotion strategies need to be implemented to improve the oral health of school children further in Shimla city.
Maibam, Deveshwori; Sharma, Yubaraj; Saxena, Atul; Walia, Devesh; Diengdoh, Evamary; Rapmai, Aibora K.
Radon and its progeny account for more than 50% of total natural radiation exposure to humans and are considered to an important cause of lung cancer (UNSCEAR, 2008). Indoor radon levels are much higher than outdoor levels hence the importance of assessing radon levels in indoor environments, particularly schools which serve as a significant source of radon exposure both for children and the staffs. Children have smaller lung volumes and higher breathing rates therefore an augmented radon concentration results to a higher radiation dose in children. In our study, potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC) of 20 schools in Shillong region has been measured using the SSNTD method with LR-115 type 2 detectors. The detectors in bare mode were placed in class rooms at different floors of each school during winter and summer season. The detectors in bare mode were placed in class rooms at diff rent floors of each school during winter and summer season. The PAEC (mWL) at each of the selected schools are calculated and it ranges from 2.56 - 58.2 mWL (Arithmetic mean) and 2.34 - 58.18 mWL (Geometric mean). And the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) ranges from 0.74 - 17.85 mSv.y -1 . This preliminary study shows that the AEDE values of the schools under study are below the prescribed action limit by AERB i.e. 30 mSv.y -1 . (author)
Fernando Briseño Hurtado
Full Text Available It is vital that the school system currently promotes an equal distribution of educational opportunities between all social sectors and encourages alumni to have the opportunity to work in positions where they can take full advantage of the education they received. Therefore, the objective of this study was to diagnose the school opportunities that high school alumni have regarding their academic education and the relationship with their professional and job performance. The research was exploratory since it determined school opportunities for alumni as well as descriptive since it identified means for work insertion, continuity in higher education, and the degree of satisfaction of the educational services received. The design was cross-sectional because data was collected at one specific point in time, using a 44-item questionnaire applied to 65 alumni (36 male and 29 female. Results showed that the jobs they have are similar to those of their parents: 36.9% employees and 13.8% laborers. Only 41.5% were able to continue with higher education in public institutions, which reflects that poor students are disadvantaged due to their socio-economic and cultural background.
Cain, Agnieszka; Reznik, Marina
School officials and nurses play an important role in facilitating asthma management in schools. Little is known about their perspectives on in-school asthma management and barriers to physical activity (PA) at school. The goal of this study is to explore school officials' and nurses' perspectives on asthma care and barriers to PA in children with asthma attending New York City schools. We conducted qualitative, semistructured interviews with 10 principals, 3 assistant principals, and 9 nurses in 10 Bronx, New York elementary schools. Sampling continued until thematic saturation was reached. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded for common themes. The thematic and content review was subsequently used to analyze interview data. Emerging themes were discussed and agreed on by both investigators. Three main categories arose from the analysis: (1) procedures and policies around asthma management in school, (2) barriers to effective medication administration in school, and (3) barriers to PA in children with asthma. Participants identified gaps to in-school asthma management and barriers to PA participation: ineffective ways of identifying students with asthma; lack of written procedures for asthma management; difficulty in meeting the administrative requirements to administer asthma medication; lack of knowledge and training on asthma management for the parents, students, and school staff; parental limitation of children's PA; and schools not meeting the state physical education requirement. Our findings suggest the need for policy reform on asthma management and PA in urban schools and should be considered in the design of future interventions.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Refractive error is one of the most common causes of visual impairment around the world and the second leading cause of treatable blindness. Due to the high magnitude of uncorrected refractive errors, myopia is considered as one of the important public health problems, especially in the urban population in India. It has been given high priority under the National Programme for Control of Blindness. AIM The aim of the present study is to know the prevalence of myopia and assess the degree of myopia among school going children. SETTINGS AND DESIGN Cross-sectional study done for one year. METHODS AND MATERIAL Age group of children 13-15 years, a total of 1600 were included in the study. Refractive error was tested using Snellen’s chart, Pin hole test, Occluder, Retinoscope. Statistical Analysis was done using the Epi Info version 7. RESULTS The prevalence of refractive errors was more in private schools (28.6% than in government schools (23%. It was observed that myopia was the major refractive error (89.8% among total refractive errors, followed by astigmatism (6.1% and hypermetropia (4.1%. In myopic children, both eyes were involved in 71.5%, right eye alone in 16.4%. Only 60% (478 and 98.4% (788 have undergone eye checkups yearly once, 36% and 0.3% didn’t have eye checkups so far in private and government schools respectively. CONCLUSION We conclude that prevalence of refractive errors more in private schools than government schools and myopia is the major among refractive errors. In most of them both the eyes are involved. Bitot’s spots were more in government schools, suggesting the need of vitamin A supplementation.
Wan, Kong-Sang; Yang, Winnie; Wu, Wei-Fong
Environmental factors and eating habits have had a significant impact on the increased sensitization to allergens in children. This study investigated changes in common allergen sensitivities among children in Taipei City, Taiwan. A total of 142 primary schools in Taipei City, which included 25,094 students aged 7-8 years, were surveyed using an ISAAC questionnaire to screen for allergies. For positive responders, serum allergen-specific IgE was confirmed using the Pharmacia CAP system. A total of 1,500 students (5.98%) had confirmed sensitivities to allergens. Dust mite sensitivity among these children was nearly 90%. The prevalences of sensitivities to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, D. farinae and Blomia tropicalis were 90.79%, 88.24%, and 84.63%, respectively. Dog dander (29.95%) was the second most common aeroallergen to induce sensitivity. Allergies to cat dander (8.69%) and to cockroach (15.48%) had decreased dramatically compared with previous analyses. Among the food allergens studied, the most common allergens that induced sensitization were (in order of prevalence) crab, milk, egg white, and shrimp (88.08%, 22.45%, 24.23%, and 21.44%, respectively). Mold and pollen sensitization was identified in fewer than 2% of the schoolchildren. Dust mites remain the most common allergen to induce allergic sensitization among children in Taipei City, while cockroach and mold sensitivities have dramatically declined. Food allergens should also be considered as a trigger of respiratory allergy. Except for dust mites, American cockroach and crab, allergens commonly reported to induce sensitization in other Asian counties are not common in Taiwan.
Gullan, Rebecca L.; Power, Thomas J.; Leff, Stephen S.
Despite considerable fiscal and structural support for youth service programs, research has not demonstrated consistent outcomes across participants or programs, suggesting the need to identify critical program processes. The present study addresses this need through preliminary examination of the role of program empowerment in promoting positive identity development in inner-city, African American youth participating in a pilot school-based service program. Results suggest that participants who experienced the program as empowering experienced increases in self-efficacy, sense of civic responsibility, and ethnic identity, over and above general engagement and enjoyment of the program. Preliminary exploration of differences based on participant gender suggests that some results may be stronger and more consistent for males than females. These findings provide preliminary support for the importance of theoretically grounded program processes in producing positive outcomes for youth service participants. PMID:25104875
Song, Y; Wang, M; Xie, J; Li, W; Zhang, X; Wang, T; Tan, G
To investigate the prevalence of allergic rhinitis among elementary and middle school students and examine its impact on their quality of life. Stratified sampling and cluster sampling surveys were performed among 10-17-year-old students in Changsha city from June 2011 to April 2012. In the stratified sampling survey, the self-reported allergic rhinitis rate was 42.5 per cent. Further examination demonstrated that the average prevalence of allergic rhinitis was 19.4 per cent. The cluster sampling survey demonstrated that 214 of 814 students appeared to be atopic (26.3 per cent). The prevalence of allergic rhinitis and asthma was 17.2 and 2.1 per cent, respectively. In total, 71 atopic individuals (8.7 per cent) were without any symptoms of allergic disease. Further analysis showed that allergic rhinitis influenced the students' sleep, emotions and memory (p students' sleep, emotions and memory.
Cruz Igor Raineh Durães
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the association between nutritional status and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS in middle-school students in the city of Montes Claros - MG. The sample consisted of 382 students, aged 10-16 years. Nutritional status was evaluated using the Body Mass Index (BMI. Metabolic syndrome (MS was defined as the presence of two or more criteria in accordance with definition of the International Diabetes Federation. The overall prevalence of MS was 7.9%. 9.7% of students with MS were overweight and 72.4% were obese. Therefore, it can be inferred that carrying excess weight considerably increases the chances for a child to develop MS, and concomitantly increases the child’s risk for developing cardiovascular disease.
Lulić-Dukić, O; Jurić, H; Dukić, W; Glavina, D
The aim of this study was to investigate factors predisposing to early childhood caries (ECC) in pre-school children in the city of Zagreb, Croatia. The investigation was carried out on the sample of 145 children (77 boys and 68 girls) aged between 2 and 5 years, including clinical examination of dental status and survey on the habits among the parents. The overall prevalence of ECC was 30%: in girls it was 25%, and in boys 48%. The study on the risk factors was designed as a classic case-control study. The mean value of dmfs index among the cases amounted to 8.6, in comparison to 5.2 in the control group (pteeth-brushing habit after first 24 months did (p importance of early introduction of teeth-brushing and giving up the nightly consumption of sweet beverages in prevention of ECC.
Full Text Available Research question: What is the prevalence of hypertension in school children aged 10 years and above? Objectives: 1. To find out the prevalence of hypertension. 2. To generate a profile of hypertensive cases. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Selected primary schools run by Surat Manipal Corporation. Participants: School children aged 10 years and above. Sample size: 2250 children (1092 boys, 158girls Study variables: Age, sex, body weight, body mass index Outcome variables: Prevalence of hypertension. Statistical analysis: X2 test Results: Overall prevalence of hypertension in children was 2.3 percent, separately in girls and 0.9 percent in boys. Body weight above 40kgms and body mass index (BMI above 20 were differentiating points as children weighing more than 40kgms and/or with BMI more than 20 significantly higher prevalence of hypertension. Most of the cases were asymptomatic and also had no suggestive symptoms in the past.
Vitale, Romina; Degoy, Emilse; Berra, Silvina
During adolescence, school performance may be related to health, and academic achievements at this age can have an impact on the future. Our objective was to assess the relationship between academic performance and perceived health among adolescents, considering sociodemographic characteristics of their families. Cross-sectional pilot study conducted in a sample of adolescents attending common basic courses of three public secondary schools in the city of Córdoba (Argentina). Academic performance was calculated as the average grade in all subjects; performance was considered satisfactory if equal to or higher than 6. Perceived health was assessed using the KIDSCREEN-52 questionnaire, which scores ten dimensions. In addition, age, sex, maternal education level, socioeconomic level and household composition were also recorded. Univariate and bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression models were conducted. Five hundred fifty-four adolescents participated, 52% of them were girls. Unsatisfactory academic performance (27.6%) was more common among adolescents who evidenced a worse relationship with parents (OR: 2.68, 95% CI: 1.22-5.85) and a better relationship with peers (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.26-0.82). Stratification by socioeconomic level showed differences: among those with a high socioeconomic level, an unsatisfactory performance was more common among adolescents who perceived themselves as having a low autonomy, while it was more common among those who perceived a worse school environment in the middle-low socioeconomic level. Academic performance was associated with psychosocial dimensions of health, such as relationship with family members, peers, autonomy and school environment.
Birney, Lauren; McNamara, Denise
This paper explores the issue of social justice through the lens of equitable access to Advanced Placement courses in the City of New York High Schools, with focus on Advanced Placement Environmental Science. A critical component of the Advanced Placement Environmental Science course is the incorporation of environmental fieldwork. The National…
Burns, Richard Andrew; Machin, Michael Anthony
Although teaching is frequently cited as a stressful profession, limited recent Norwegian data is available. This study addressed the extent to which organizational climate and individual and organizational well-being outcomes vary between schools in rural, urban, and city locations. Participants were predominantly female (68%), aged 45+ years…
This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Northeastern Elementary School in Fountain City, IN. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the effectiveness of US Water Sys...
Full Text Available Objective:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA widely distributed in hospitals around the world. There is strong relationship between disease development and S. aureus nasal carriage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and epidemiology of nasal colonization with S. aureus and MRSA in the community of Duhok city, Iraq. Methods: 489 students aged 16 to18 years were included. Nasal swab samples were collected followed by antimicrobial susceptibility test. MRSA isolates were selected and investigated for the mecA gene. Also the prevalence of PantonValentine Leukocidin (PVL gene was also studied. Results: A total of 90 (18.4% out of 489 (18.4% of the students were found to be colonized by S. aureus . Only 10 (2.04% of the students were found to be MRSA carrier. All MRSA isolates were sensitive to Vancomycin. PLV gene was detected in one MRSA strain. Conclusion: This is the first study investigating S. aureus colonization in students in the Duhok city. Nasal carriage of S. aureus and MRSA is comparable with reports from elsewhere. Fortunately, all trains included in our study were sensitive to vancomycin. Further research is needed to examine the SCCmec elements and the evolution of MRSA over the time. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2014;4(2: 59-63
Umi Safiul Ummah
Full Text Available This study aims at describing management covering curriculum, student management, facilities and infrastructure management, personnel management and education, financial management, school relationship management with the community, and special service management. This research employed descriptive qualitative method using case study. This research was conducted at school X in Bandung city and school Y in Sidoarjo city. The data collection was done by conducting observation, interview, and document study. The data were then analyzed based on qualitative data analysis with case study in nature according to Milles and Huberman. The findings showed the curriculum used in both schools were different in terms of curriculum preparation, management of learners, facilities and infrastructure of both schools include learning media and school accessibility is not fully supportive, time management of educators and education-administrator for employee recruitment. Another aspect being described is about finance sources and school tuition, and also the policy related to students with special needs. In short, the results showed both schools applying inclusive values, yet those aspects need improvement.
van Hoof, Joris Jasper; Reijlink, Lian M.J.; van Dalen, Wim E.
Objective: alcohol availability is one of the strongest predictors of adolescent alcohol use, and subsequent harm. Alcohol outlets near schools are an important indicator of three types of availability related to adolescent alcohol use; physical (number), economic (price), and legal (compliance with
Shipps, Dorothy; Fowlkes, Elizabeth; Peltzman, Alissa
School reform involves the public: its expectation of participation and its support for a reform agenda. In theory, the press influences both. To explore this link, we compare education coverage in four press outlets, two each in Chicago and Cleveland. Articles and editors are interrogated for (1) style of journalism and (2) assumptions about the…
Walter, Heather J.; Gouze, Karen; Cicchetti, Colleen; Arend, Richard; Mehta, Tara; Schmidt, Janet; Skvarla, Madelynn
Background: National policy statements increasingly espouse the delivery of comprehensive mental health services in schools. In response to the limited evidence supporting this recommendation, the purpose of this study was to assess the need for, and feasibility, desirability, and outcomes of a full model of comprehensive mental health services in…
Hackett, Latha; Theodosiou, Louise; Bond, Caroline; Blackburn, Clare; Spicer, Freya; Lever, Rachel
There is growing awareness of mental health problems among children, and schools are increasingly being encouraged to take a wider role in preventing mental health difficulties. Local population studies are needed to inform delivery of universal through to targeted services. In the current study, parents and teachers of 2% of primary school…
Sisselman, Amanda; Strolin-Goltzman, Jessica; Auerbach, Charles; Sharon, Lisa
School-based health centers (SBHCs) continue to provide essential health care services to children and families in underserved neighborhoods across the country. Preliminary studies show that students who use SBHCs have better attendance rates as well as higher rates of academic achievement and attachment to the learning environment. Few studies,…
López-Barrón, Rita Gabriela; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat
The increasing overweight (OW) and obesity (OB) prevalence in Mexican children warrant the assessment of the environmental risk factors. To assess whether there is an association between food availability in children's environments and their food consumption with BMI z-score and waist circumference (WC). Six hundred and eighty four children, 264 parents, 22 teachers and cafeteria staff in the schools and street vendors participated in the study. Weight, height, and WC of 5(th) grade children were assessed. Food frequency, physical activity (PA) and eating habits questionnaires were applied to parents, children and teachers. A food inventory questionnaire was applied to parents, cafeteria staff in the schools, street vendors and stores near the schools. The children's mean age was 10.5. Twenty eight per cent of the children were overweight, 26% obese and 25% had abdominal obesity. A positive correlation was found between energy-dense foods (EDF), fruit and vegetable availability at home and their weekly consumption. Also a correlation between consumption of soft drinks and other EDF was found. The largest contributors to food consumption were the availability at home and at school (R2 = 0.11, p = 0.0001). Children's TV viewing was positively correlated with parents TV viewing time. For each hour of increase (from cero to seven) in daily TV viewing children were more likely to be overweight or obese (OR=1.22 95% CI 1.02-1.45, p=0.026). EDF, fruit and vegetable availability in and near home and school along with hours of TV viewing were positively associated with obesity. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available I nactive life style is one of the problems of today‟s health issues and has seri ous damage in health which threatens and risks human life. That‟s why „„living by raising life quality‟‟is considered to be a key for a healthy life. The way to handle that key is to make the regular physical activity a permanent part of life. Especially t he progress in technology brings the young generation an inactive life style.This study is made to form permanent solutions for suggestions by investigatingthe differences between physical activity and life quality. It is applied in 2013 - 2014 education yea rs, in Manisa city YunusEmre township senior high schools institutes, on 833 male and female students.The personal information form formed by the researchers and Life Quality SF - 36 Short form is applied on the participants in order to search the difference s of physical activity and life quality. Some statistical differences appeared and some did not in the participants‟ age, sex, sporting or not, having a sports license variables and SF - 36 sub dimensions. It is recommended that, in order to gain regular phy sical activity practice, especially in senior - high schools, gymnastics lessons should be increased and be lectured actively to raise the life quality.
Maria Tereza Silveira Böhme
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were: a to evaluate indicators of physical fitness in childrenand adolescents according to chronological age and gender; b to classify their performanceusing the PROESP-BR normative tables. A total of 3145 randomly selected school children (1590boys and 1555 girls, ranging in age from 7 to 16 years, were submitted to the following tests:distance covered in a 9-minute run, standing long jump test, medicine-ball throw, and 60-s situptest to measure abdominal muscle endurance. Significant differences were observed betweengenders at all chronological ages and also between boys of different chronological ages. In girls,no significant differences were observed between chronological ages, with performance tendingto stabilize at 11/12 years of age. Classification of the participants according to the PROESP-BRnormative tables showed that more than 50% of all subjects were below the 40th percentile in alltests, especially girls. The same tendency was observed when compared to other Brazilian studies.Considering mean values, it can be concluded that the school children studied, especially girls,presented a low level of physical fitness, thus indicating the need for health promotion programsin the midwest region of São Paulo City addressing physical activity.
D'Agostino, Emily M; Day, Sophia E; Konty, Kevin J; Larkin, Michael; Saha, Subir; Wyka, Katarzyna
Extensive research demonstrates the benefits of fitness on children's health and academic performance. Although decreases in health-related fitness may increase school absenteeism, multiple years of prospective, child-level data are needed to examine whether fitness changes predict subsequent chronic absenteeism status. Six cohorts of New York City public school students were followed from grades 5-8 (2006/2007-2012/2013; N = 349,381). A longitudinal 3-level logistic generalized linear mixed model with random intercepts was used to test the association of individual children's changes in fitness and 1-year lagged chronic absenteeism. The odds of chronic absenteeism increased 27% [odds ratio (OR) 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.30], 15% (OR 95% CI, 1.13-1.18), 9% (OR 95% CI, 1.07-1.11), and 1% (OR 95% CI, 0.98-1.04), for students who had a >20% decrease, 10%-20% decrease, 20% fitness increase. These findings contribute important longitudinal evidence to a cross-sectional literature, demonstrating reductions in youth fitness may increase absenteeism. Given only 25% of youth aged 12-15 years achieve the recommended daily 60 minutes or more of moderate to vigorous physical activity, future work should examine the potential for youth fitness interventions to reduce absenteeism and foster positive attitudes toward lifelong physical activity.
D'Agostino, Emily M; Day, Sophia E; Konty, Kevin J; Larkin, Michael; Saha, Subir; Wyka, Katarzyna
One-fifth to one-third of students in high poverty, urban school districts do not attend school regularly (missing ≥6 days/year). Fitness is shown to be associated with absenteeism, although this relationship may differ across poverty and gender subgroups. Six cohorts of New York City public school students were followed up from grades 5 to 8 during 2006/2007-2012/2013 (n = 349,381). Stratified three-level longitudinal generalized linear mixed models were used to test the association between changes in fitness and 1-year lagged child-specific days absent across gender and poverty. In girls attending schools in high/very high poverty areas, greater improvements in fitness the prior year were associated with greater reductions in absenteeism (P = .034). Relative to the reference group (>20% decrease in fitness composite percentile scores from the prior year), girls with a large increase in fitness (>20%) demonstrated 10.3% fewer days absent (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.834, 0.964), followed by those who had a 10%-20% increase in fitness (9.2%; IRR 95% CI: 0.835, 0.987), no change (5.4%; IRR 95% CI: 0.887, 1.007), and a 10%-20% decrease in fitness (3.8%; IRR 95% CI: 0.885, 1.045). In girls attending schools in low/mid poverty areas, fitness and absenteeism also had an inverse relationship, but no clear trend emerged. In boys, fitness and absenteeism had an inverse relationship but was not significant in either poverty group. Fitness improvements may be more important to reducing absenteeism in high/very high poverty girls compared with low/mid poverty girls and both high/very high and low/mid poverty boys. Expanding school-based physical activity programs for youth particularly in high poverty neighborhoods may increase student attendance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has been increasingly growing in many societies. The present study aimed to determine body mass index (BMI in primary school boys and girls in Tabriz city. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 857 primary school students of Tabriz city in 2012-2013. First, BMI of each person was calculated, and according to the NCHS standard curves, the values below the 5th percentile were considered as malnutrition and underweight, between the 85th-95th percentiles as overweight, and equal to or above the 95th percentile as obesity. Data were analyzed by one-sample t-test and t-test. The significance level was considered to be p<0.05. Results: According to the BMI data, the frequency of underweight, overweight, and obesity in the male students, were 20.9, 5.5, and 3.1%, and in female students were 18.8, 9.7, 0.9%, and in the total number of students were 20.1, 7.4, and 2.1%, respectively. Compared to the 50th percentile, the mean BMI in male students in the age group of 9 years was higher (p<0.01 and in the age group of 6 years was lower (p<0.05. This comparison in the female students indicated higher mean BMI in the age groups of 7, 9, 10, and 11 years compared to the 50th percentile (p<0.05. The frequency of overweight among female students (9.7% was higher than male students (5.5%. However, the frequency of obesity in the male students was approximately 3.5 times higher than female students (p<0.05. Conclusion: Given the existence of both malnutrition states of underweight and obesity in the students and also the significant effect of childhood body weight on chronic disorders in adulthood, proper nutrition planning is necessary at the school level.
Full Text Available For at least a decade now, the University of Winnipeg (U of W, an urban institution on Treaty One land in the heart of the Métis Nation, has challenged existing academic models and practices, and has incorporated strategies that address the social divide between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples in order to more effectively serve the learning needs of its surrounding community. This article demonstrates how an inner-city university has used internal policies and programs to help support the self-determination of Indigenous peoples. Six community learning initiatives were recently evaluated for impact. This article will provide an overview of the positive outcomes of these learning initiatives on a community of underrepresented learners.
Raad K. Faraj
Objectives The present study aims to assess the health behaviors among secondary school students of smoking, diet, and physical activity and to find out the relationship between health behaviors and socio-demographic characteristics of the students. Methods A descriptive, analytical study carried out from September 2015 to April, 2016 on a simple random sample of 500 students to achieve the objectives that are stated in this study. An assessment tool is constructed by the researcher based ...
Ricardo Jorquera Gutiérrez
Full Text Available The present investigation sought to establish a relationship between burnout and a number of demographic and organizational variables. The sample consisted of 191 primary school teachers of municipal, subsidized and private educational institutions of Copiapó. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI and the Cuestionario de Evaluación del Sindrome de Quemarse en el Trabajo (CESQT were used as tools to gather information from burnout levels presented by teachers. Two of them demonstrated an adequate reliability and concurrent validity. The results show a statistically significant relationship between absenteeism variable and all dimensions of burnout as measured by both instruments. No statistically significant differences between variables MBI and CESQT compared by sex, type of contract and income level were observed. When comparing the different dimensions of burnout by type of holder, statistically significant differences were detected in all of them. The results favor the private schools, showing the worst results in municipal schools. Alongside this, a negative correlation between levels of emotional exhaustion and psychological wear developed by teams of teachers and the results of the tests SIMCE [Sistema de Medición de la Calidad de la Educación] for second and fourth grade is observed.
Camila Rodrigues Costa
Full Text Available The Attention Deficit Hyperactivity/ Impulsiveness Disorder (ADHD is a neurobehavioral disorder which is common in the population of children at school age and the psychomotor activity in these children can be substantially lower than that expected in 30% to 50% of the cases. Thus, this study aims at describing the psychomotor profile of children diagnosed with ADHD. Initially, the research was assessed and authorized by the Education Department of Presidente Prudente-SP. Five children with the diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity/ Impulsiveness isorder took part in the study, none of them carrying comorbidities, aging between six and nine years, of both sexes, regularly enrolled in a public school in President Prudente-SP and participating in an extension project developed by the school. For the collection of data, the Motor Development Scale was used, as described by Rosa Neto (2002,in which all the tests proposed were used: fine motor skills, global motor skills, balance, body schema/ speed, spatial and temporal organization. The test was individually applied, in a single session, lasting 35 minutes on average. The data were analyzed according to the criteria established by the author. By analyzing the data, the motor performance of the children was between lower normal and medium.
Sosa-Rubi, Sandra G; Saavedra-Avendano, Biani; Piras, Claudia; Van Buren, S Janae; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio
Dating violence is a significant problem in Mexico. National survey data estimated 76 % of Mexican youth have been victims of psychological aggression in their relationships; 15.5 % have experienced physical violence; and 16.5 % of women have been the victims of sexual violence. Female adolescents perpetrate physical violence more frequently than males, while perpetration between genders of other types of violence is unclear. Furthermore, poor, marginalized youth are at a higher risk for experiencing dating violence. "Amor… pero del Bueno" (True Love) was piloted in two urban, low-income high schools in Mexico City to prevent dating violence. The intervention consisted of school-level and individual-level components delivered over 16 weeks covering topics on gender roles, dating violence, sexual rights, and strategies for coping with dating violence. The short-term impact was assessed quasi-experimentally, using matching techniques and fixed-effects models. A sample of 885 students (381 students exposed to the classroom-based curriculum of the individual-level component (SCC, IL-1) and 540 exposed only to the school climate component (SCC)) was evaluated for the following: changes in dating violence behaviors (psychological, physical and sexual), beliefs related to gender norms, knowledge, and skills for preventing dating violence. We found a 58 % (p violence, respectively, among SCC, IL-1 males compared to males exposed only to the SCC component. We also found a significant reduction in beliefs and attitudes justifying sexism and violence in dating relationships among SCC, IL-1 females (6 %; p < 0.05) and males (7 %; p < 0.05).
Full Text Available Introduction: India is estimated to have the third highest number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infections in the world with about 20.89 lakh people currently living with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. Inadequate knowledge, negative attitudes, and ignorance among the school students are major hindrances to prevent the spread of HIV. Aim: To assess the knowledge and attitude toward HIV/AIDS among the higher secondary school students of Jaipur city. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study comprising 613 higher secondary school students (male = 390, female = 223 from Jaipur city were included in the study. The city was divided into 4 zones and one school from each zone was selected randomly. A questionnaire assessing the knowledge and attitude toward HIV/AIDS was distributed among the senior school students. Pilot study was done among 50 students to test the validity of the questionnaire. Results: All the students (100% in our sample knew what is AIDS. About 96.2% of the students knew that AIDS is not a simple disease, the correct knowledge about the modes of transmission of HIV/AIDS was nearly 85.6% and about 94% of students would not leave the school if there was an AIDS student in their class. Eighty-four percent of students believed that students with AIDS should not go to special schools and about 95.8% students believed that HIV individuals must be supported, treated, and helped. Conclusion: The students had satisfactory knowledge about HIV/AIDS and their attitude toward this group of people was good. There is need and opportunity to provide factual and precise knowledge on HIV/AIDS for school students. There should also be a drive to increase education and awareness about HIV/AIDS in educational institutes.
Full Text Available Aim: To assess the impact of dental fear on different domains of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL among school going and non-school going children in the Indian scenario. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 279 school children and 257 non-school going children thus making a total sample of 536 children. The sampling frame comprised of 12-15-year-old children attending two upper primary public schools and non-school going children working at shops or not working in Udaipur city, India. Information on dental fear and OHRQoL was obtained by personal interviews by a single trained and calibrated examiner through a structured questionnaire. Intercooled STATA version 9.2 was employed to perform statistical analysis. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: Mean dental fear scores among school going (35.41 [11.79] and non-school going (47.59 [3.80] children revealed that dental fear was significantly (P ≤ 0.05 higher among non-school going than among school going children. In school going children, the likelihood of having poor oral symptoms, functional limitation and poorer social and emotional well being were significantly (P ≤ 0.05 lesser as compared with non-school going children. Conclusions: Fear has a significant impact on different domains of OHRQoL, except emotional well being, among non-school going children.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Air pollutant exposure has been associated with an increase in inflammatory markers and a decline in lung function in asthmatic children. Several studies suggest that dietary intake of fruits and vegetables might modify the adverse effect of air pollutants. Methods A total of 158 asthmatic children recruited at the Children's Hospital of Mexico and 50 non-asthmatic children were followed for 22 weeks. Pulmonary function was measured and nasal lavage collected and analyzed every 2 weeks. Dietary intake was evaluated using a 108-item food frequency questionnaire and a fruit and vegetable index (FVI and a Mediterranean diet index (MDI were constructed. The impact of these indices on lung function and interleukin-8 (IL-8 and their interaction with air pollutants were determined using mixed regression models with random intercept and random slope. Results FVI was inversely related to IL-8 levels in nasal lavage (p 1 (test for trend p 1 and FVC as was with MDI and ozone for FVC. No effect of diet was observed among healthy children. Conclusion Our results suggest that fruit and vegetable intake and close adherence to the Mediterranean diet have a beneficial effect on inflammatory response and lung function in asthmatic children living in Mexico City.
Full Text Available Today many of wide scope and famous organizations design and develop HSE models to achieve a more suitable HSE management system for their own purposes. To implement such models some requirements should be considered in line with defined goals and missions. The present study was carried out in order to achieve the HSE management system for children and adolescents in education and training centers. This study was conducted in two phases, namely identification and assessment/ documentation. The study was carried out in districts one, four, six, seven and eight of Tehran municipality during eighteen months. The employer was Tehran Shahr-e-salem Company (Healthy City and the contractor was the faculty of environment, University of Tehran. As the final result of study, based on initial data and by holding brainstorming meetings, the final citizenship HSE model was constructed in five panels: Management responsibility and commitment, Infrastructures and resources management and documentation, Planning, HSE operations management and Monitoring, analysis and improvement. This model was designed by consideration of existing capacities and with the goal of being responsive to all stakeholders (service provider, recipients of services and others.
Zhanna Ildarovna Busheva
Full Text Available Current issue under the study of problems of positive motivation formation for education of active attitude to physical culture and sports among primary school age children living in the northern city,is the study of students engaged and not engaged in physical culture and sports and main reasons research for passive attitude to the activity. In Surgut, KhMARYugra, 350 pupils were involved in theresearch of the age 710 years from the gymnasium named after Salmanov F.K. Following the procedure of L.I. Lubysheva active and passive attitude motives to primary school age children’s physicalactivity living in the northern city. We have identified 13 motives to the activity and 20 passive motives to the physical activity. During the research two groups of motives were identified reducing 710year old pupils’ motor activity. The first group of motives consists of the lack of organization and equipment; the second group consists of the lack of sports education (lack of physical culture valuecomprehension in human life. Children of primary school age living in the northern city point out various reasons explaining their passivity to the motor activity, physical culture and sports.Eliminating these causes is the first step to the positive motivation formation of physical activity. It requires to combine efforts of educational institutions work, physical education teachers and coachesto encourage healthy lifestyles, sports and recreational activities and students motivation increase to the motor activity, physical culture and sports in their spare time.
Ndukwu, C I; Egbuonu, I; Ulasi, T O; Ebenebe, J C
Undernutrition remains the largest contributor to the global disease burden. Different factors affecting the nutritional status of children need to be studied to determine those to be targeted in a country like Nigeria, characterized by widespread poverty and inequitable distribution of wealth. This study was aimed at ascertaining the relationship between prevailing socioeconomic and environmental factors, and the nutritional status of children residing in a typical urban slum. A cross-sectional descriptive study of 788 children aged 6-12 years selected by stratified, multistage random sampling method from public primary schools in slum and non-slum areas of Onitsha was carried out. Their nutritional status was determined using anthropometric measures. The socioeconomic and environmental variables of interest were analyzed to determine their relationship with undernutrition in the children. Socioeconomic status was the major determinant of nutritional status in this study. Poor housing also affected the nutritional status of the slum children who were significantly from poorer families than those residing in non-slum areas (χ2 = 66.69, P = 0.000). This study highlights the need for an effective nutrition program targeted at school children in urban slums surrounded by factors predisposing them to undernutrition.
Bogdanovica, Ilze; Szatkowski, Lisa; Britton, John; McNeill, Ann
Exposure to secondhand smoke is associated with an increased risk of adverse health effects among children. Although smoking in the home is an established major source of exposure, less is known about rules on smoking in cars. In a survey including a sample of secondary school students in Nottingham (UK) in 2012, participants were asked whether smoking was allowed in the family car, and how often the respondent travelled in a car in which smoking was allowed. Rules on smoking in cars were investigated in relation to socio-demographic variables and whether children had ever smoked themselves using logistic regression. Of 4,190 students aged 11-16 who provided data, approximately 12% reported that smoking was allowed in their family car and 35% that they travelled in a car where smoking was allowed at least sometimes. Absence of smoke free rules in the family car was more likely to be reported by children from more disadvantaged families, if parents and friends were smokers and if smoking was allowed in the main home. These factors, and having a sibling who smokes, were also independently associated with an increased risk of travelling in a car in which smoking was allowed at least sometimes. Respondents who were not protected from secondhand smoke in the car were also more likely to have ever smoked (adjusted odds ratio 1.59, 95% CI 1.18-2.14). Absence of smoke free rules in a family car and travelling in a car where smoking was allowed was relatively common among secondary school students, was strongly related to social disadvantage and a higher risk of smoking experimentation. Measures to prevent such exposure are therefore indicated.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are the fifth leading risk of global deaths. Once considered a high income country problem, overweight and obesity are now raising in low income and middle income countries especially in urban settings . OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of obesity in school children and to identify the factors influencing childhood obesity. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: The present study has been undertaken at one of the school of Vidyagiri, Bagalkot. The duration of study was during March to August 2014 for a period of two months. A total of 750 students from standard V to X, aged between 10 - 15 year s had been enrolled in the study. It is a Cross - sectional descriptive study Obesity was assessed by BMI for age. Body mass index (BMI was calculated as body weight in kilograms/height in meter square. The children were categorized into obese and non - obese by using K.N. Agarwal percentiles, children with 95th Percentile of BMI is taken as cut - off point. Children with BMI more than this cut - off point with respect to age and sex is considered as obese. The association of each of the variables with obesity was assessed with the Chi - square test. RESULTS: 22.53% of the children had family history of obesity. The total prevalence of obesity was 2.80%. The Prevalence of obesity among male was 2.01% and in female it was 0.79%. The association between obesity in chil dren and family H/O obesity, Diabetes, frequency of outdoor games, number of high energy food intake and education of mother is found to be statistically significant
Ambuabunos, E A; Ofovwe, E G; Ibadin, M O
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood neuro-developmental condition with early onset. ADHD affects children worldwide. However, there is a variation in the prevalence across different countries. In Nigeria, there is paucity of information on the prevalence. To provide the relevant information, a cross-sectional study was conducted between February and August 2006 among 1473 public primary school pupils aged 6-12 years selected systematically among pupils in Egor Local Government Area of Edo State. All the 1473 pupils were screened with the Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD) Rating Scale to identify children who had ADHD symptoms as contained in the DSM -IV. Such children were compared with randomly selected controls. The academic records of both the groups were also compared. The prevalence of ADHD was 7.6%. The prevalence was higher in boys (9.4%) when compared to girls (5.5%) (P = 0.003). Of the three different subtypes of ADHD, the predominantly inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) was the most prevalent (47.3% of the ADHD population) followed by the combined type (ADHD-C; 31.3%), while the least prevalent was the hyperactive/impulsive subtype (ADHD-HI; 21.4%). There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of ADHD amongst the different age cohorts. The prevalence of ADHD was relatively high when compared to the figures available for other countries. For this reason, there is a need to pay increased attention to this condition in Nigeria. Community screening under the umbrella of the School Health Program could be of assistance.
Fugas, Valeria; Berta, Eugenia; Walz, Florencia; Fortino, Ma Alejandra; Martinelli, Marcela J
Breakfast provides the necessary energy and nutrients to achieve an optimal physical and mental performance. OBJECTIVE. To find out breakfast frequency, factors that influence breakfast habit and skipping, breakfast quality and snack intake in children from public schools in the city of Santa Fe. POPULATION AND METHODS. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. A total of 637 students were assessed using a closed-ended question survey. RESULTS. Seventy five percent of children had breakfast on a daily basis; only 1.6% had a good quality breakfast. Eating breakfast every day or some days did not depend on having the company of a family member. In the case of first to fifth grade children, the weekly frequency depended on having a family member who made it (p= 0.04). The main cause for skipping breakfast was lack of time. Twenty-three percent of children in sixth and seventh grade indicated feeling unwell when having breakfast. More than 50% of children watched television while having breakfast. Most students in first to third grade had breakfast that could be improved (41%) and which was insufficient (41%). An insufficient quality breakfast was more common among fourth and fifth grade students (50%). A remarkable piece of information is the number of sixth and seventh grade children who had a poor quality breakfast (16%). Very few children had a snack that was appropriate to supplement the final quality of breakfast. CONCLUSIONS. Although a high percentage of school-aged children are used to having breakfast, most have an incomplete breakfast. Very few manage to supplement their breakfast with snacks at mid-morning.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...
Kuz, Anthony; Ziegler, Eugene L.
The thrust of this research exploration is aimed at one of the most pressing social problems facing America today: segregation in the public schools. The school system is only one of a complex set of systems, all interrelated, that comprise the entity that we call a city. The geography of the school system--the location of facilities and the…
What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Meeting the Challenge of Combating Chronic Absenteeism: Impact of the NYC Mayor's Interagency Task Force on Chronic Absenteeism and School Attendance and Its Implications for Other Cities"
What Works Clearinghouse, 2013
This study examined the effectiveness of an intervention designed to reduce rates of chronic student absenteeism in New York City public schools. The study authors reported that schools participating in the intervention experienced greater reductions in rates of student chronic absenteeism than the comparison schools. Students who attended the…
Reza Vahab Kashani
Full Text Available Introduction: Foot deformities are common among complaints of patients referred to the orthopedic centers. Most of naturally occurring lower limb deformities in children, which are rather common, would be corrected with further normal growth. However, a small percentage of these problems remain unresolved and may cause complications in the future. The main aim of this study is determination of prevalence of flat foot and hallux valgus deformity among primary school female students in Kiar city of Chaharmahal and BakhtiariMaterial and Methods: This is a cross sectional study. Foot posture index (FPI 6 test evaluate for 345 students in age range 7- 11 years and two groups of 7 to 9 years and 11 to 10 years. Also prevalence of hallux valgus among 345 students evaluated.Results: 7.8 % of studied subjects had flat foot deformity. Among 345 students, 12 (6.6% students in range of age 7 -9 years and 15 (9.3 % students in range of 10-11 had flat foot deformity. Also prevalence of hallux valgus was 16.5%.Conclusion: These findings point to the importance of proper physical examination, early diagnosis and on-time treatment of foot deformities such as flat foot and hallux valgus deformity in children.
Nakamura, Masashi; Yukawa, Kouichi; Sugahara, Kazuo; Mitsutake, Noriyuki; Sugahara, Masashi
Nagasaki junior high school students were divided into Group E (children of the exposed) and Group O (children of the non-exposed). Their growth was compared according to the degree of exposure received by their parents. An interim result was reported. There was a big difference between the height and body weight of students who lived in the center of the city and those who lived in the suburbs. These values also differed greatly according to family occupations. When the difference in physique between Group E and Group O was considered, districts and occupations were restricted. A tendency of O>E only was observed in an investigation of all subjects in all districts. A significant difference between the groups was observed in regard to some grades when districts and occupations were restricted. A scattering analysis of physique values, regarded as independent variables, of the same students according to grade revealed a difference in O>E in height, especially in boys. (Tsunoda, M.)
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Schema is a cognitive and emotional pattern, which can affect individual behaviors. This study was performed to investigate mental health problems and personality characteristics in female students in Qom city. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 151 female students of Qom high schools in three disciplines of Mathematical Sciences, Humanities, and Experimental Sciences in 2011-2012 academic years. Sampling was performed in two steps; first cluster sampling and then stratified sampling with proportional allocation to each cluster. Participants answered a 75-question questionnaire, “Young Early Maladaptive Schemas”. Data were analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis, spearman correlation coefficient, and Lambda statistics. Results: The mean age of the students was 15±1.5 years. Unrelenting standards schemas (in domain of over vigilance/inhibition, failure and dependency (in dimension of impaired autonomy, and defectiveness and shame (in dimension of disconnection and rejection had the highest mean scores, respectively. None of the mean scores had a significant difference according to three academic groups. But the correlation between the schemas was statistically significant in the academic groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: In this study, 2 out of the 4 schemas with the highest mean belonged to impaired performance domain. Given that this schema is formed by parental behavior during childhood, therefore, one of the strategies can be training of parents to improve children’s confidence and not over caring of them.
Full Text Available Teenage is the most vital and delicate stage of human life. During teenage youngsters try to follow new fashion, culture and style which is being presented in different programs and advertisements on television. They have strong urge and inclination to adopt something new and extra ordinary different from their surroundings. In Pakistan, there are about 43.40% are the adolescents of the age between 13-16 years as stated by Federal Bureau of Statistics. Adolescents are the age group that is the most effected by T.V pro-grams and advertisements. Target audience of most of the programs and ad-vertisements area adolescents e.g. cell phone advertisements. Most of the children in different countries spend almost 3-4 hours per day in watching T.V as per statement of UNESCO. The effects of the commercials and T.V pro-grams on children vary from person to person. This research tries to dig out the impact of different T.V programs and ads on the children between the age group of 13-16 of different schools of Bahawalpur City.
Adriana Garcia Gonçalves
Full Text Available The study aimed to characterize the educational services offered to students with physical disabilities in a Municipal Education of a midsize city of São Paulo state. We gathered the data through document analysis and application of semi-structured interviews. We recorded the data on audio, transcribed and analyzed them. We categorized them into two categories, the first of which referred to the attendance policies and second, the organization of care for students with physical disabilities. The results showed that the system investigated showed accessibility policies supporting the use of assistive technology for students with disabilities enrolled in regular education, despite not indicate the need for specialized educational services when the student has no associated cognitive impairment. We concluded that there are myriad factors to contemplate the school inclusion of students with physical disabilities and that many actions are needed to ensure education and social participation of this target audience. Keywords: Special Education. Physical Disabilities. Specialized Educational Services. Assistive Technology.
Vincent, Carol; Neal, Sarah; Iqbal, Humera
Much of the literature on the urban middle classes describes processes of both affiliation (often to the localities) and disaffiliation (often from some of the non-middle-class residents). In this paper, we consider this situation from a different position, drawing on research exploring whether and how children and adults living in diverse localities develop friendships with those different to themselves in terms of social class and ethnicity. This paper focuses on the interviews with the ethnically diverse, but predominantly white British, middle-class parent participants, considering their attitudes towards social and cultural difference. We emphasize the importance of highlighting inequalities that arise from social class and its intersection with ethnicity in analyses of complex urban populations. The paper's contribution is, first, to examine processes of clustering amongst the white British middle-class parents, particularly in relation to social class. Second, we contrast this process, and its moments of reflection and unease, with the more deliberate and purposeful efforts of one middle-class, Bangladeshi-origin mother who engages in active labour to facilitate relationships across social and ethnic difference. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.
Joseph, Nitin; Nelliyanil, Maria; Rai, Sharada; Y P, Raghavendra Babu; Kotian, Shashidhar M; Ghosh, Tanima; Singh, Manisha
Fast foods are quite popular among children owing to taste, appearance and hype created by mass media. However, the increased incidence of lifestyle disorders seen now-a-days at an early age could be attributed to fast foods. This study was done to assess the awareness of health hazards, consumption pattern of fast foods and to find out its association with overweight among high school students. This cross-sectional study was done among boys of 3 private schools in Mangalore city in March 2012. Data was collected using a semi-structured self-administered questionnaire. Chi-square test, one-way ANOVA and binary logistic regression analysis was used for analysis. P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant association. Mean age of boys was 13.5±0.9 years. Out of 300 participants, 41(13.7%) were overweight and 8 (2.7%) were obese. 292(97.3%) were fast food users of which 42(14.4%) consumed it every day. Majority of participants were introduced to fast foods through television commercials 193(64.3%). 73(57%) developed this habit as they were bored with home food. Awareness of harmful effects of fast food consumption was known to 186(62%) students and this was found to be associated with the perceived need to control its usage (pconsumption of fast foods was found to influence fast food consumption among children (p=0.024). As many as 68(22.7%) and 206(68.7%) children were not eating vegetables and fruits respectively every day. Increased frequency of fast food consumption in a week was found to be associated with overweight or obesity among children after adjusting the effects of confounders (p=0.003). Awareness on health hazards of fast foods needs to be taught at schools so as to minimize its consumption. Parents have to set an example themselves by not eating fast foods and improving home food to support discouragement of fast foods. This would minimize life style disorders among children to a greater extent.
Full Text Available Calcium is an important mineral playing a vital role to maintain bone health. Calcium intake is considered as one of the most important determinants to assess the calcium status and to evaluate the calcium deficiency in the human body. Our study aims at estimating calcium intake in a sample of children and adolescent to be used in the global strategy to reduce calcium deficiency disorders in Morocco. Thus, 131 children and adolescents were recruited from public schools at Rabat and its regions in the framework of a descriptive cross-sectional study. For each participant, anthropometric parameters were measured. Calcium status was assessed by 24 h dietary recall. Food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate children’s nutritional habits and to assess the consumption of calcium-rich food. Overall, the mean calcium intake was 522.0 ± 297.0 mg/day, and 85.5% of subjects highlighted calcium deficiency, with no significant difference between boys and girls. Calcium intake was significantly different according to age groups, and high consumption of calcium was found in subjects aged from 14 to 18 years (776.86 ±290.07 mg/day, giving evidence of the low calcium status of the studied population. Daily food intake and food frequency analysis showed that bread, vegetables, and fruits are the most consumed food and the main source of daily calcium intake. Consumption of dairy products, considered as the best source of calcium, is lower and represents only 14% of total calcium intake. Our study clearly showed that calcium status is very lower in Moroccan children and adolescents and a large proportion of this population have inadequate calcium intake. Hence, there’s an urgent need of specific strategies, including children sensitisation and nutritional education, to increase calcium intake and therefore reduce calcium deficiency disorders impacting the whole body during childhood and in adult age.
Navarro, J Alexander; Kohl, Katrin S; Cetron, Martin S; Markel, Howard
Applying qualitative historical methods, we examined the consideration and implementation of school closures as a nonpharmaceutical intervention (NPI) in thirty US cities during the spring 2009 wave of the pA(H1N1) influenza pandemic. We gathered and performed close textual readings of official federal, state, and municipal government documents; media coverage; and academic publications. Lastly, we conducted oral history interviews with public health and education officials in our selected cities. We found that several local health departments pursued school closure plans independent of CDC guidance, that uncertainty of action and the rapidly evolving understanding of pA(H1N1) contributed to tension and pushback from the public, that the media and public perception played a significant role in the response to school closure decisions, and that there were some notable instances of interdepartmental communication breakdown. We conclude that health departments should continue to develop and fine-tune their action plans while also working to develop better communication methods with the public, and work more closely with education officials to better understand the complexities involved in closing schools. Lastly, state and local governments should work to resolve lingering issues of legal authority for school closures in times of public health crises. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.
Darraj, Hussain; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Al Sanosi, Rashad; Badedi, Mohammed; Sabai, Abdullah
Depression is a serious mental health disorder and characterized by sadness, loss of interest in activities, and decreased energy. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of the school intervention program on depression literacy and stigma among students of secondary schools. A cluster randomized trial will be conducted on sample of 360 students to assess the depression literacy and stigma towards depression before and after a designed intervention educational program. The intervention consists of a package of 2 lectures, 1 video contact, and group discussion of 5 myths about depression, posters, and brochure. The target population consists of all secondary school students in Jazan, where there are 13 secondary schools will be stratified according to sex (6 schools for boys and 7 schools for girls). The results of the study will provide evidence of the efficacy of educational intervention programs on increasing depression literacy among students of secondary schools in Jazan City. The expected outcome of this study is to increase the depression literacy rate among high school students in the intervention group.
Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias; Reis, Sandra Cristina Guimaraes Bahia; Gonçalves, Michele Martins; Balbo, Patrícia Lima; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues
To compare 12-year-old students from public and private schools in the city of Goiânia, Brazil, in terms of the prevalence of caries, periodontal conditions, dentofacial anomalies, and fluorosis. In 2003, the 2002-2003 Oral Health Conditions in the Brazilian Population project (SB Brasil) was expanded to Goiânia as a cross-sectional study, as described in the present article. The sample included 1 947 students from urban schools: 1 790 (91.9%) attended public schools and 157 (8.1%) attended private schools. Data on the following oral conditions were collected through clinical examination: dental caries (decayed, missing, or filled teeth index, DMFT), periodontal condition (Community Periodontal Index, CPI), dentofacial anomaly (Dental Aesthetics Index, DAI), and dental fluorosis (Dean index). The groups were compared using the chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests. There were differences between the public and private schools for all the variables. DMFT, CPI, and DAI indexes were higher in children from public schools (P schools (P school was associated with the oral health condition of the children in this sample. Investments in actions and services to mitigate this inequality and its effects should be made as part of the policies to promote oral health.
Zamani, Eshrat; Chashmi, Maliheh; Hedayati, Nasim
Background: This study aimed to investigate the effects of addiction to computer games on physical and mental health of students. Methods: The study population includes all students in the second year of public guidance schools in the city of Isfahan in the educational year of 2009-2010. The sample size includes 564 students selected by multiple steps stratified sampling. Dependent variables include general health in dimensions of physical health, anxiety and sleeplessness and impaired social...
Tarkang, Elvis E
HIV/AIDS prevention programs rooted in the social cognitive models are based on the theoretical assumptions that adoption of preventive behaviour (condom use) depends on the individual's perceptions of their susceptibility to HIV/AIDS and the benefits of condom use. However some studies contend that applying such models in the African setting may not be that simple considering that in many societies, people's capacity to initiate health enhancing behaviour are mediated by power relations (parents/guardians) and socialisation processes that are beyond the control of individuals. The relative influence of these family forces on condom use is however unknown in Cameroon. In this study it is hypothesized that adolescents' perceptions of family support for condom use, would encourage condom use among female students in Limbe urban city of Cameroon. A cross-sectional study of a probability sample of 210 female students selected from three participating secondary school was adopted, using a self-administered questionnaire to collect data. Pearson Chi-square statistics was used to test association between perceived family support for condom use and condom use. Statistics were calculated using SPSS version 20 software program. Of the respondents, 56.2% reported being sexually active. Of these, 27.4% reported using condoms consistently; 39.1% reported having used condoms during their first sexual intercourse, while 48.7% reported having used condoms during their last sexual intercourse. Majority of the female students exhibited positive perceptions regarding family support for condom use. Respondents who agreed that they feel themselves free to discuss condom use with their parents or any adult member of the family, reported more condom use during first sex than those who disagreed (X2 = 13.021; df = 6; p = 0.043). Likewise respondents who agreed that they feel themselves free to discuss condom use with their parents or any adult member of the family, reported
McMahon, Kelly A.
Federal school accountability policies like No Child Left Behind were based on a logic that measuring school performance and making the results public through tools like school report cards would incentivize educators to create strategies for improving school quality. Yet, most schools needed more than incentives to be able to design improvement…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight prevalence among Guatemalan girls is higher in public than in private schools. Little is known about adolescent girls’ perceptions of the right ways to achieve a healthy weight. This study examines public and private school adolescent girls’ perceptions of a “healthy weight,” and barriers and facilitators to achieving it. Methods We conducted 4 focus groups in public and private schools in Guatemala City with girls from 13 to 15 years old. The discussion guide included open-ended questions and activities aimed at examining perceptions of “healthy weight” and barriers and motivators to achieving it within the school environment. Focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed. Data analyses followed established methods of content analysis. Results Twenty-eight girls (private school, n = 12; public school, n = 16 of ages ranging from 13.1 to 15.9 years (median, 14, IQR, 13.6–14.9 participated in the study. Girls identified images of thin and fit women as healthy. They cited healthy eating and physical activity as ways to achieve a healthy weight. Within the school environment, barriers to maintaining a healthy weight included a lack of healthy food options and the prioritization of sports for boys over girls. In public schools, facilities were less than optimal; in private schools, girls’ access to facilities was limited. Public school girls stated that their uniforms were inappropriate for exercising. Conclusion Our findings support the need to provide more healthy food options in Guatemalan schools. In addition, physical activity for girls should be promoted and facilities made available for their use.
WWC Review of the Report "Meeting the Challenge of Combating Chronic Absenteeism: Impact of the NYC Mayor's Interagency Task Force on Chronic Absenteeism and School Attendance and Its Implications for Other Cities." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review
What Works Clearinghouse, 2014
The 2013 study, "Meeting the Challenge of Combating Chronic Absenteeism: Impact of the NYC Mayor's Interagency Task Force on Chronic Absenteeism and School Attendance and Its Implications for Other Cities", examined the impact of the strategies developed by an interagency task force in New York City to combat chronic absenteeism in…
Full Text Available This paper aimed at demonstrating the use of GIS in the display of data about primary schools in the walled part of Zaria city, Kaduna State. It is hoped that the database and its graphic display in maps will guide decision making at the primary education level in the study area. Coordinates of the schools were obtained with a handheld GPS receiver, while their attribute data were obtained from the local education authority and triangulated with questionnaires administered to the headmasters of the schools. ArcGIS 9.2 version software was used for buffer zone (1 km. The result indicates that there are 31 public primary schools in the study area. The oldest was established in 1921 and the latest in 2007. Graphic displays of some attributes of the schools were produced. The buffer zones produced suggest no pupil walks more than a kilometer to reach school. It is recommended that in the future, GIS tools should be applied when managing school data. Capacities to achieve this should be developed.
Katz, Bruce; Noring, Luise; Garrelts, Nantke
Centennial Scholar Initiative and the Foreign Policy program, with key research led by the Copenhagen Business School. It aims to show the extent to which cities are at the vanguard of this crisis and to deepen our understanding of the role and capacity of city governments and local networks in resettlement...
Drug Abuse in the New York City Schools. A Report of the Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control, House of Representatives, Ninety-Fifth Congress, Second Session (August 30-September 1, 1978).
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.
The January 1977 hearing by the U.S. House Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control mandated three days of further hearings in 1978. The focus was upon New York city schools, but reflected many similar situations in other urban school systems according to the committee's judgement. The committee also found that alcohol and marihuana usage…
Brown, Steven G; Vaughn, David L; Roberts, Paul T
As part of two separate studies aimed to characterize ambient pollutant concentrations at schools in urban areas, we compare black carbon and particle count measurements at Adcock Elementary in Las Vegas, NV (April-June 2013), and Hunter High School in the West Valley City area of greater Salt Lake City, UT (February 2012). Both schools are in urban environments, but Adcock Elementary is next to the U.S. 95 freeway. Black carbon (BC) concentrations were 13% higher at Adcock compared to Hunter, while particle count concentrations were 60% higher. When wind speeds were low-less than 2 m/sec-both BC and particle count concentrations were significantly higher at Adcock, while concentrations at Hunter did not have as strong a variation with wind speed. When wind speeds were less than 2 m/sec, emissions from the adjacent freeway greatly affected concentrations at Adcock, regardless of wind direction. At both sites, BC and particle count concentrations peaked in the morning during commute hours. At Adcock, particle count also peaked during midday or early afternoon, when BC was low and conditions were conducive to new particle formation. While this midday peak occurred at Adcock on roughly 45% of the measured days, it occurred on only about 25% of the days at Hunter, since conditions for particle formation (higher solar radiation, lower wind speeds, lower relative humidity) were more conducive at Adcock. Thus, children attending these schools are likely to be exposed to pollution peaks during school drop-off in the morning, when BC and particle count concentrations peak, and often again during lunchtime recess when particle count peaks again. Particle count concentrations at two schools were shown to typically be independent of BC or other pollutants. At a school in close proximity to a major freeway, particle count concentrations were high during the midday and when wind speeds were low, regardless of wind direction, showing a large area of effect from roadway emissions
This article inserts the concept of risk in the context of open-air schools and investigates its implications, capacities and limits. It is contended that applying at-risk labels to pupils who attended open-air schools is itself a risky business. The category to some extent constitutes an anomaly within most open-air schools' histories, as much of…
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to compare thought – action fusion and anxiety sensitivity among girls and boys adolescents having obsessive–compulsive symptoms in clinical and nonclinical extent. The survey selects 384 high school students in city of Esfahan, Iran and distributes a questionnaire among them. All questions are designed in Likert scale and participants are divided into two groups of with and without OCD. The results show that there is a significant and positive difference in thought – action fusion and anxiety sensitivity among girls and boys adolescents having or symptoms in clinical and nonclinical l extent (P<0.01.
Full Text Available Physical education is one of the most important parts of schoolchildren studies and it could influence of social and academic performance of children, significantly. This paper studies physical education among schoolchildren who attend elementary schools in city of Esfahan, Iran over for the educational calendar of 2010-2011. The study selects 52 schools as sample, 18 non-for-profit and 34 governmental schools and half of them belong to female students. The results of this study indicate that physical education has a somewhat better quality in non-for-profit educational system compared with governmental ones although this difference is not statistically significance (P<0.05. In our survey, ten percent of time, physical education was performed poorly, twenty five percent was in average condition, forty eight percent was in good condition and seventeen percent was in excellent condition.
Ren, Qingfeng; Li, Weijuan; Ren, Xiaohui; Xu, Qunying; Zhang, Zhongwei; Xiao, Yuanmei
To investigate the prevalence and its influential factors about personal life habits of sub-health of grade one students in high school in Nanchang City. A self-designed sub-health questionnaire was used to measure the sub-health of 653 grade one students in high school in Nanchang sampled with stratified randomly cluster sampling. The prevalence of sub-health among the students was 85. 2% , and the prevalence. of physiological sub-health, psychological sub-health and social sub-health was 64. 3%, 55. 9% and 74. 7% respectively. In their personal life habits, the degree of activity, vegetables and fruits consumed, staying up late were the main influencing factors of sub-health (P bad habits of personal life. More attention should be given to girls, boarders, non-cadres students and students in non-key class.
Sadoh, W E; Israel-Aina, Y T; Sadoh, A E; Uduebor, J E; Shaibu, M; Ogonor, E; Enugwuna, F C
Overweight and obesity in children, and adolescents is on the rise globally. Affected children are prone to cardio-metabolic problems later in life, especially hypertension. The prevalence of obesity/overweight may differ depending on school type. Private schools are attended mostly by children of the affluent, while public schools are attended predominantly by those in the low and middle socio-economic classes. To compare the prevalence of overweight, obesity and elevated blood pressure (BP) in pupils attending public and private primary schools in an urban community in Nigeria. In this cross sectional study, the BMI and BP of pupils in public and private primary schools, recruited by multistage sampling method, were measured. Their nutritional status was categorized using their BMI percentiles. Analysis was by SPSS. A total of 1466 pupils were recruited, 814(55.5%) were in public schools and 722(49.2%) were males. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in private schools 11.8% and 11.7% compared to public schools 3.3% and 0.9%. The mean systolic BP of pupils in public schools 96.8 ± 12.5 mmHg was higher than that in private schools 95.5 ± 10.2 mmHg, p = 0.032. Distribution of pupils with prehypertension and hypertension between private and public schools was not significantly different. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is higher in pupils attending private schools compared to those in public school. Urgent measures are needed to stem this tide through education, weight reduction and physical activity programs, especially in pupils attending private schools.
DeVore-Wedding, Beverly R.
Recruitment and retention concerns for teachers, particularly in rural school districts and in science, fill the daily news and research literature. The shortage of STEM workers is also another concern as well. Then why do nationally recognized secondary science teachers remain in rural schools with lower salaries, increased responsibilities beyond teaching content, and multi-preparations, stay in those schools? How do they overcome challenges in their schools? This multiple case study focuses on Presidential Award for Excellence in Mathematics and Science Teaching (PAEMST) awardees who have taught secondary science in rural school districts 10 years or more. Eight rural PAEMST high school science teachers were identified in Nebraska and the six contiguous states; four consented to participate in this study. Interviews of these teachers and a colleague, principal, and or students were conducted to answer the research questions. Using a lens of resiliency, similarities were identified that show how these teachers overcome adversity and thrived in their rural school and communities. Resilient themes that emerged from this study are adaptability, autonomy, collaborative, competency, connectedness, problem-solvers, and resourcefulness. Common themes of success for teaching in rural schools for the four teachers were autonomy and relationships. Common themes of challenges for teaching in rural schools were diversity, funding, professional isolation, and teaching assignments. These characteristics and strategies may help schools with their recruitment and retention of teachers as well as teachers themselves benefiting from hearing other teachers' stories of success and longevity.
City School District Reorganization: An Annotated Bibliography. Centralization and Decentralization in the Government of Metropolitan Areas with Special Emphasis on the Organization, Administration, and Financing of Large-City School Systems. Educational Research Series No. 1.
Rideout, E. Brock; Najat, Sandra
As a guide to educational administrators working in large cities, abstracts of 161 books, pamphlets, papers, and journal articles published between 1924 and 1966 are classified into five categories: (1) Centralization versus decentralization, (2) local government, (3) metropolitan organization, (4) the financing of education, and (5) the…
Hammami, Mohammad Bakri Alaa; Mohammed, Eman Qasem; Hashem, Anas Mohammad; Al-Khafaji, Mina Amer; Alqahtani, Fatima; Alzaabi, Shaikha; Dash, Nihar
Since the industrial revolution in the 1800s, plastic pollution is becoming a global reality. This study aims to assess knowledge and attitude about plastic pollution among secondary school students in Sharjah city, United Arab Emirates. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 students in 6 different secondary schools in Sharjah city. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed through probability stratified random sampling method between February and April 2016. Majority of the population understands how harmful plastic wastes are to the environment (85.5%). However, the students' mean knowledge score was 53%, with females (P < 0.01), grades 11 and 12 (P = 0.024), and students whose mothers were more educated (P = 0.014) being more knowledgeable and inclined towards pro-environmental behavior. Yet, all students showed tendency to be involved in the fighting against this dilemma. Strategies which address deficiencies, provide incentives for change, and assure governmental support along with environmental education are needed to bridge the information gap and enhance opportunities to adopt pro-environmental behaviors.
Marissa Yanara de Godoy Lima
Full Text Available To government resources be earmarked for equality and just education for every society, it is important that public managers make decisions and measures that address this need and are more effective. Thus, there is the understanding that measuring education costs adequately, relating such costs to students' school performance is necessary for the definition that costs are used for educational development. Based on this premise, the article aims to analyze how possible relationships between costs, performance and structure of the different elementary school units in the city of Cambé / PR. This study was carried out from the analysis of the distribution of resources invested in primary education in a small municipality in the north of Paraná. For a data analysis, a descriptive statistic was used, as was the non-parametric correlation test. It was verified that the schools that obtained the highest cost / student did not necessarily present better performance in the indicators of quality of the Basic Education Development Index (IDEB, evidencing a significant asymmetry of the cost / student ratio existing among the schools surveyed.
Full Text Available In this paper, the findings of a research study, in which the English reading performances of Grade 7 English Second Language (ESL learners in four different types of rural primary school which use English as the language of learning and teaching (LoLT were observed, are examined and how poor scores can be partly explained by the social context of learners and schools is explored. Although the Language in Education Policy in South Africa seeks to distribute and maintain the linguistic capital of the official languages through its support of multilingualism, the predominant preference for English as the LoLT in schooling disadvantages most ESL learners and perpetuates inequality in learner outcomes. This situation is exacerbated in certain school contexts such as those in rural settings. Bourdieu’s theory of linguistic capital and Coleman’s distinction between school social capital and home social capital are used as theoretical frameworks to the empirical inquiry undertaken in this study. The findings indicate a difference in the grammar and comprehension scores of learners in the respective participating schools as well as a sharp difference in the performance of learners in the different types of school involved. This suggests the current use of English as the LoLT does not mean that linguistic capital is equally distributed throughout schools. School type can thus act as an agent of cultural reproduction which influences learner outcomes.
Forbes, Paul; Klevan, Sarah
Black and Latino men pay a heavy price for the structural inequities they face, such as higher rates of poverty, incarceration, and unemployment. New York City's Young Men's Initiative, a combination of new programs and policy reforms, seeks to mitigate some of the effects of these inequitable conditions on young men of color. The educational…
This article examines the impact of contact-based educational encounter strategies of shared learning on Jewish-Arab relations in Israel. It analyses a programme of education for shared life that takes place in a mixed (75% Jewish/25% Arab) city at the centre of Israel since 2012. The programme aims to mitigate Jewish-Arab relations in the city…
This study explored the differences in student achievement on New York State standardized tests between blended learning and traditional instructional methodologies. Specifically, the study compared student achievement in iLearnNYC schools, to their peer schools that deliver instruction in a traditional manner. iLearnNYC is a blended learning…
Wilkes, Shani; Brohawn, Kathryn; Mevs, Pascale; Lee, Jaein
Education leaders across the country confront a growing challenge: too many students are not college ready when they leave high school. Although indicators exist to identify students at risk of dropping out of high school, few indicators of students' college readiness are currently in place, and few districts have linked indicators to practices…
Gulcan, Murat Gurkan
Any kind of practices at schools are made based on a planned and programmed process. There is a decision taken prior to every action and it is important at what level these decisions are taken. Development of participative management approach at schools positively affects the teaching process. Education staff participation in decisions causes…
PCBs were used extensively in school building materials (caulk and lighting fixture ballasts) during the approximate period of 1950-1978. Most of the schools built nationwide during this period have not had indoor air sampling conducted for PCBs. Passive air sampling holds promi...
Gray, Heewon Lee; Burgermaster, Marissa; Tipton, Elizabeth; Contento, Isobel R.; Koch, Pamela A.; Di Noia, Jennifer
Objective: Sample size and statistical power calculation should consider clustering effects when schools are the unit of randomization in intervention studies. The objective of the current study was to investigate how student outcomes are clustered within schools in an obesity prevention trial. Method: Baseline data from the Food, Health &…
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Exercise and physical activity are important health behaviors for preventing disease and mortality and positive relationship with physical and mental health promotion. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors related to the intention to perform physical activity based on the theory of planned behavior among high school female students of Ahvaz city in 2016-2017. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 163 high school female students who were randomly selected from public schools in Ahvaz city. Data were gathered using questionnaire include demographic characteristics (5 items And the theory of planned behavior structure including attitude (9 items, subjective norms (6 items, perceived behavior control (4 items and intention (4 items. Finally, data collected and analyzed by SPSS software version 23 using regression analysis and Pierson correlation coefficient. Results: The mean age of participant’s was 13.76±0.89. In regression model, the attitude (β=0.46, p<0.001 and perceived behavior control (β=0.15, p<0.05 were predictors of the physical activity intention. This model could explain 40% of the variance of the physical activity intention. Among these variables, the effect of attitude was greater than other variables (P<0.001, β=0.46. Conclusion: The results showed that attitude and perceived behavioral control were predictors of physical activity behavior intent. The results reveal the perceived behavior control, attitudes and subjective norms could predict physical activity intention. Therefore, using this theory and paying more attention to the attitude structure is important as the strongest predictor of behavior It is important to target intent and promotion of physical activity behavior in this group.
Weade, Ginger; Kennedy, Marcy Keifer; Armstrong, Jennifer; Douglas, Maria; Hoisington, Liz; More, Stephanie; Mullins, Heidi; West, Lindsey; Helfrich, Sara; Kennedy, Chris; Miles, Tracy; Payne, Sue; Camara, Kristin; Lemanski, Laura; Henning, John; Martin, Carl
Outreach and engagement that connects the Patton College at Ohio University with P-12 schools has been a strong tradition in the Southeastern Ohio/Appalachian region. In the mid-1980s, a partnership aligned with the Coalition of Essential Schools and 9 "Common Principles"' was one of the first. Alignment with 19 "Postulates" of…
Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....
Petersen, Poul Erik; Peng, Bin; Tai, Baojun
OBJECTIVES: To assess oral health outcomes of a school-based oral health education (OHE) programme on children, mothers and schoolteachers in China, and to evaluate the methods applied and materials used. DESIGN: The WHO Health Promoting Schools Project applied to primary schoolchildren in 3...... in experimental schools adopted regular oral health behaviour such as toothbrushing, recent dental visits, use of fluoride toothpaste, with less frequent consumption of cakes/biscuits compared to controls. In experimental schools, mothers showed significant beneficial oral health developments, while teachers...... showed higher oral health knowledge and more positive attitudes, also being satisfied with training workshops, methods applied, materials used and involvement with children in OHE. CONCLUSIONS: The programme had positive effects on gingival bleeding score and oral health behaviour of children...
Full Text Available This paper outlines the implementation of a programme of work that started with the development of a population-level children’s health, fitness and lifestyle study in 1996 (SportsLinx leading to selected interventions one of which is described in detail: the Active City of Liverpool, Active Schools and SportsLinx (A-CLASS Project. The A-CLASS Project aimed to quantify the effectiveness of structured and unstructured physical activity (PA programmes on children’s PA, fitness, body composition, bone health, cardiac and vascular structures, fundamental movement skills, physical self-perception and self-esteem. The study was a four-arm parallel-group school-based cluster randomised controlled trial (clinical trials no. NCT02963805, and compared different exposure groups: a high intensity PA (HIPA group, a fundamental movement skill (FMS group, a PA signposting (PASS group and a control group, in a two-schools-per-condition design. Baseline findings indicate that children’s fundamental movement skill competence levels are low-to-moderate, yet these skills are inversely associated with percentage body fat. Outcomes of this project will make an important contribution to the design and implementation of children’s PA promotion initiatives.
McWhannell, Nicola; Henaghan, Jayne L.
This paper outlines the implementation of a programme of work that started with the development of a population-level children’s health, fitness and lifestyle study in 1996 (SportsLinx) leading to selected interventions one of which is described in detail: the Active City of Liverpool, Active Schools and SportsLinx (A-CLASS) Project. The A-CLASS Project aimed to quantify the effectiveness of structured and unstructured physical activity (PA) programmes on children’s PA, fitness, body composition, bone health, cardiac and vascular structures, fundamental movement skills, physical self-perception and self-esteem. The study was a four-arm parallel-group school-based cluster randomised controlled trial (clinical trials no. NCT02963805), and compared different exposure groups: a high intensity PA (HIPA) group, a fundamental movement skill (FMS) group, a PA signposting (PASS) group and a control group, in a two-schools-per-condition design. Baseline findings indicate that children’s fundamental movement skill competence levels are low-to-moderate, yet these skills are inversely associated with percentage body fat. Outcomes of this project will make an important contribution to the design and implementation of children’s PA promotion initiatives.
Wati, Susi Erna
Child age at ranging Elementary School 6 to 12 years, this term constitute school term. Child those are on SD's early class is child that lies on early age elongation. Early age term constitute child developing term that short but constitutes term that really necessary for its life. Therefore, on this term all proprietary potency child needs to be pushed so will optimal ala amends. Menarche constitute first menstruating that ordinary happening deep age range 10 to 12 years. All this time a ...
Sasaki, Reinaldo Satoru Azevedo; de Souza, Márcia Maria; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Sardinha, Luciana Monteiro Vasconcelos; Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias
To investigate the characteristics of sexual behavior in school-aged adolescents and possible differences regarding sex and type of school. Cross-sectional study using data from the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE) 2009, carried out by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, in partnership with the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). The sample consisted of 3,099 9th graders living in Goiânia, State of Goiás, Brazil, mostly aged between 13 to 15 years old, who answered a self-applicable questionnaire on risk and protective health factors. The Rao-Scott test was used in the statistical analysis, considering the complex sample design. The prevalence of sexual intercourse was of 26.5% (95%CI 23.8 - 29.4) at least once in life and of 18.5% (95%CI 16.5 - 20.8) in the last year. Both behaviors were more frequent among male students and among those attending public schools. Most of the respondents had their first intercourse at the age of 13 or younger, with up to 3 partners. They had also used a pregnancy prevention method in the last intercourse, and received guidance on prevention at school. The age of the first intercourse was earlier and the number of partners was higher among male students. More females and those attending public schools reported having received information on pregnancy prevention. Guidance on STD/AIDS was also more frequent in public schools. Results showed a need for health education measures involving education and health professionals, as well as parents, to reduce the discrepancies found regarding sex and type of school.
Coker, Kendell L.; Ikpe, Uduakobong N.; Brooks, Jeannie S.; Page, Brian; Sobell, Mark B.
This study examined the relationship between traumatic stress, social problem solving, and moral disengagement among African American inner-city high school students. Participants consisted of 45 (25 males and 20 females) African American students enrolled in grades 10 through 12. Mediation was assessed by testing for the indirect effect using the confidence interval derived from 10,000 bootstrapped resamples. The results revealed that social problem-solving skills have an indirect effect on the relationship between traumatic stress and moral disengagement. The findings suggest that African American youth that are negatively impacted by trauma evidence deficits in their social problem solving skills and are likely to be at an increased risk to morally disengage. Implications for culturally sensitive and trauma-based intervention programs are also provided. PMID:25071874
Rottenbacher de Rojas, Jan Marc
This study analyzes the relation between national identity and the appreciation of the characters and events of Peruvian history in a sample of public school teachers from the city of Lima (N = 99). Adapted versions of the NATID Scale (Keillor et al., 1996) and the CSES Scale (Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992) are used as measures of national identity. National pride and interest in knowing about Peruvian history are variables also included in this study. The study shows that appreciation of historical characters is more positive than appreciation of historical events. There is a positive association between national identity and appreciation of Peruvian historical characters. A multiple linear regression model is proposed; this model shows that appreciation of cultural heritage and national pride has a positive impact on the appreciation of characters of Peruvian history.
Coker, Kendell L; Ikpe, Uduakobong N; Brooks, Jeannie S; Page, Brian; Sobell, Mark B
This study examined the relationship between traumatic stress, social problem solving, and moral disengagement among African American inner-city high school students. Participants consisted of 45 (25 males and 20 females) African American students enrolled in grades 10 through 12. Mediation was assessed by testing for the indirect effect using the confidence interval derived from 10,000 bootstrapped resamples. The results revealed that social problem-solving skills have an indirect effect on the relationship between traumatic stress and moral disengagement. The findings suggest that African American youth that are negatively impacted by trauma evidence deficits in their social problem solving skills and are likely to be at an increased risk to morally disengage. Implications for culturally sensitive and trauma-based intervention programs are also provided.
Pandolfi, Marcela Maria; Sandrini, Fabio; Oliveira, Maurício Rocco de; Armond, Jane de Eston; Zöllner, Ana Cristina Ribeiro; Juliano, Yara; Souza, Patrícia Colombo de
To evaluate the persistence of nutritional deficit in a sample of schoolchildren. A cross-sectional study of 1,761 schoolchildren between 6 and 10 years from 3 schools. They were assessed by Z scores of weight for height and height for age, according to the World Health Organization. The variables studied were gender, age, grade and school year. The χ² test was used to relate the nutritional deficit with the variables. Of all children 8.5% were malnourished according to the weight for height Z score, 21.6%, according to height for age. The analysis of the weight for height Z score revealed that 59.7% were male and 40.3% female. The mean age was 8.9 years. As to the Z score of height for age, 53.9% were males and 46.1% females. The risk of malnutrition was higher among boys: 59.7% for the weight for height index and 53.9% for height for age. There was no statistical difference between schools, gender and school year. As to nutritional status, school period (p Malnutrition still persists among the low-income population and males had a higher percentage of malnutrition. Nutritional evaluation of students is an extremely important tool for understanding the dynamics of child nutrition and development.
Marcela Maria Pandolfi
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the persistence of nutritional deficit in a sample of schoolchildren. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 1,761 schoolchildren between 6 and 10 years from 3 schools. They were assessed by Z scores of weight for height and height for age, according to the World Health Organization. The variables studied were gender, age, grade and school year. The χ² test was used to relate the nutritional deficit with the variables. Results: Of all children 8.5% were malnourished according to the weight for height Z score, 21.6%, according to height for age. The analysis of the weight for height Z score revealed that 59.7% were male and 40.3% female. The mean age was 8.9 years. As to the Z score of height for age, 53.9% were males and 46.1% females. The risk of malnutrition was higher among boys: 59.7% for the weight for height index and 53.9% for height for age. There was no statistical difference between schools, gender and school year. As to nutritional status, school period (p < 0.0001 and students’ grade (p = 0.0105, we observed statistical significance. Conclusion: Malnutrition still persists among the low-income population and males had a higher percentage of malnutrition. Nutritional evaluation of students is an extremely important tool for understanding the dynamics of child nutrition and development.
Full Text Available Language is the most important communication tool that has various functions to be used in people’s interaction. It is essentially utilized in every aspect of life in which there will be no good movement without a language. The same language used differently by some people is known as language variation that also takes place at an exceptional school (henceforth called as ES in Gorontalo City, particularly the students with a physical disability. For that reason, this study aims to describe the use of language variation by the students with a physical disability at ES in Gorontalo City. Sociolinguistics theory about the use of language variation becomes the guideline of this study, and it refers to the speaker’s language variation viewed by (1 lexical choice; (2 sentence; (3 intonation and (4 plot suitability. The result finally shows that the use of language variation by the students with a physical disability is based on the speaker’s lexical choice, sentence arrangement, intonation, and plot suitability.
Zepeda-Romero, L C; Barrera-de-Leon, J C; Camacho-Choza, C; Gonzalez Bernal, C; Camarena-Garcia, E; Diaz-Alatorre, C; Gutierrez-Padilla, J A; Gilbert, C
To determine the causes of blindness in students attending schools for the blind in Guadalajara city, Mexico and to assess the availability of screening for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in local neonatal intensive care units. Information on causes of blindness was obtained by interview with parents and teachers, review of records and examination. Causes of visual loss in children with a distance visual acuity of blind) were determined and classified according to the WHO's classification system for children. Of 153 children in the two participating schools, 144 were severely visual impaired or blind. Their ages ranged from 4 months to 15 years and 58% were female. ROP was the most common cause of visual loss (34.7%), followed by optic nerve lesions (17.4%) and glaucoma (14.6%). 25/59 (42.3%) children aged 0-4 years were blind from ROP compared with 6/32 (18.8%) children aged 10-15 years. 78% of children blind from ROP had psychomotor delay and less than half (46%) had not received treatment for ROP. All five privately funded neonatal intensive care units in the city regularly screen for ROP compared with only four of the 12 units in the public sector. ROP is the leading cause of blindness in children in Mexico despite national guidelines being in place. Health policies promoting primary prevention through improved neonatal care need to be implemented. Advocacy is required so that the time ophthalmologists spend screening and treating ROP is included in their job description and hence salaried.
Sood, Shveta; Ahuja, Vipin; Chowdhry, Swati
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between anthropometric measurements and oral health status in the primary dentition of school-going children. In this study, 280 elementary school children (116 girls and 164 boys, age: 3-6 years) were examined. Body mass index (BMI) of each subject was calculated and compared with age and gender using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) pediatric growth charts. Based on these growth charts, the sample population was distributed into three groups: Group I: Normal weight (5 th -85 th percentiles), Group II: Risk of overweight/obese (>85 th percentile), and Group III: Underweight (oral health status and BMI of elementary school-going children.
Salvi S. Shah
Full Text Available Purpose: The association of obesity with hypertension has been recognized for the decades which are the important risk factors for the cardiovascular disease. So the purpose of the present study was to determine association of obesity with hypertension in school going children of Surat. Methodology: School going children aged between 12-18 years, of five schools in Surat were selected for the study. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Blood pressure measurements were taken as per recommendation of American heart society and family history of hypertension has also been assessed. Hypertension was considered if blood pressure is more than 95th percentile according to the update of task force report and Obesity was diagnosed by BMI for age. Results: Of 682 children, 8.94% were obese and 20.09% were hypertensive. Conclusion: Obesity is strongly associated with hypertension in children and both together may risk factors for later coronary disease.
Zelniker, Tamar; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel
A two-year (1998-2000) School-Family Partnership for Coexistence (SFPC) programme was implemented in Acre, a mixed Jewish-Arab city in Israel, to promote parents' role as facilitators of their children literacy development and to empower parents to advance coexistence and inter-group relations. The SFPC program was part of a five-year (1995-2000)…
Full Text Available This paper attempts to investigate the lack of knowledge attitude and practices of street food vendors in Bo the Southern Province of Sierra Leone. A cross sectional study conducted among eighty-seven respondents vendors in forty-four in Bo City. Data was collected using a structured and semi structured questionnaire. The collected data is analysed using a simple descriptive statistics with the help Excel Microsoft ware. A statistical significance was found in relation to knowledge. Attitude towards food safety was negative self-reported practices by Street Food Vendors were statistically significant with low hygiene standards while predisposing factors showed relatively low personal hygiene poor environmental sanitation and low food safety practice. The realize consequences are utmost health risks of consuming street foods as food contamination has caused food borne diseases and outbreaks. It is recommended that standard training be provided for these vendors by the Bo City Council in collaboration with Njala University. It is essential that poor people in a developing country such as Sierra Leone be allowed to earn their livelihood by means of an easy-to-enter business such as street food vending when hygiene standards are sustained.
Scalzo, F.; Frost, J.; Carlson, B. E.; Marchese, P.; Rosenzweig, C.; Austin, S. A.; Peteet, D. M.; Druyan, L.; Fulakeza, M.; Gaffin, S.; Baruh, H.; Decker, S.; Thangam, S.; Miles, J.; Moshary, F.; Rossow, W.; Greenbaum, S.; Cheung, T. K.; Johnson, L. P.
1 Frank Scalzo, 1 Barbara Carlson, 2 Leon Johnson, 3 Paul Marchese, 1 Cynthia Rosenzweig, 2 Shermane Austin, 1 Dorothy Peteet, 1 Len Druyan, 1 Matthew Fulakeza, 1 Stuart Gaffin, 4 Haim Baruh, 4 Steven Decker, 5 Siva Thangam, 5 Joe Miles, 6 James Frost, 7 Fred Moshary, 7 William Rossow, 7 Samir Ahmed, 8 Steven Greenbaum and 3 Tak Cheung 1 NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, USA 2 Physical, Environmental and Computer Sciences, Medgar Evers College, CUNY, Brooklyn, NY, USA 3 Physics, Queensborough Community College, CUNY, Queens, NY, USA 4 Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA 5 Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ, USA 6 Physics, LaGuardia Community College, CUNY, Queens, NY, USA 7 Electrical Engineering, City College of New York, CUNY, USA 8 Physics, Hunter College, CUNY, USA The New York City Research Initiative (NYCRI) is a research and academic program that involves high school, undergraduate and graduate students, and high school teachers in research teams under the mentorship of college/university principal investigator of NASA funded projects and/or NASA scientists. The principal investigators are at 7 colleges/universities within a 20-mile radius of New York City (NYC and Northern New Jersey), as well as the NASA Goddard Institute of Space Studies. The program supports research in Earth Science, Space Science, and Space Technology. Research investigations include: Sea Surface Temperature and Precipitation in the West African Monsoon, Urban Heat Island: Sun and Rain Effects, Decadal Changes in Aerosol and Asthma, Variations in Salinity and River Discharge in the Hudson River Estuary, Environmental Change in the Hudson Estuary Wetlands, Verification of Winter Storm Scale Developed for Nor’easters, Solar Weather and Tropical Cyclone Activity, Tropospheric and Stratospheric Ozone Investigation in Metropolitan NYC, Aerosol Optical Depth through use of a MFRSR, Detection of Concentration in the Atmosphere Using a Quantum Cascade Laser System
Heo, Moonseong; Irvin, Erica; Ostrovsky, Natania; Isasi, Carmen; Blank, Arthur E.; Lounsbury, David W.; Fredericks, Lynn; Yom, Tiana; Ginsberg, Mindy; Hayes, Shawn; Wylie-Rosett, Judith
Background: HealthCorps provides school wellness programming using curricula to promote changes in nutrition, mental health, and physical activity behaviors. The research objective was to evaluate effects of implementing its curricula on nutrition, mental health, and physical activity knowledge and behavior. Methods: Pre- and postsurvey data were…
Faina Sergeyevna Zharskaya
Full Text Available The past decade is marked by a rise in the detection rates of gout. The paper gives data on its incidence, risk factors, the frequency of diagnostic errors, the specific features of the course of male gouty arthritis, and the effectiveness of Gout school activities
Ozcan, Sevgi; Ergin, Ahmet; Saatci, Esra; Bozdemir, Nafiz; Kurdak, Hatice; Akpinar, Ersin
Injuries are the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in adolescents and can be grouped as unintentional (such as motor vehicle crashes and fires) and intentional (violence and suicide). The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of high risk behaviors related to violence in high school students. The population comprised 2,480 randomly selected students from 10 schools among 46,271 students from 72 high schools in 1999-2000 in Adana and 2,352 (94.8%) were reached. They completed a Youth Risk Behavior Survey Questionnaire (YRBSQ). The mean age was 16.5 +/- 1 (14-21) years. 275 (11.7%) students stated that they carried a knife or a sharp weapon during the last 30 days, 151 (6.4%) carried a gun, 710 (30.2%) participated in a physical fight, 68 (2.9%) were threatened or injured by a weapon, 73 (3.1%) could not attend school because of threats from other students, 96 (4.1%) were forced into sexual intercourse. Male students were significantly more likely than female students to report all types of high risk behaviors except forced sexual intercourse. The rate of risky behaviors increased with higher grade. Violence towards and by adolescents is a severe problem. Families, teachers, and health care professionals should be aware of risk factors and be active in prevention of high risk behaviors in youth.
de Forest, Jennifer
In this article Jennifer de Forest details the 1958 Harlem school boycott and the resulting court case, "In the Matter of Charlene Skipwith." de Forest demonstrates how the Harlem Parents' Committee mobilized dissent in Harlem and led a boycott that effectively used the Supreme Court's 1954 decision in "Brown II," which…
Magro, Serena; de Gregorio, Cesare; Magro, Laura; Fernandez, Dalila; Sacchi, Gabriella; Sarullo, Filippo Maria; Magro, Francesco; Novo, Salvatore
Exposure of children to passive tobacco smoking in the household setting has been demonstrated to cause respiratory diseases. Early atherosclerosis has also been demonstrated in young people previously exposed to passive tobacco smoking. Functional damage can initiate at the fetal age due to maternal smoking, with a tendency towards over-time progress. To date only scant data are available about indoor parental smoking attitudes and their changes after campaigns against smoke and risk factors in exposed youths. Questionnaires are useful tools in order to search for information on cigarette smoking and parental household lifestyle. In this study, we asked pupils of primary schools for providing information on their relatives' every 5 years throughout the period 1994-2009. A multiple-choice answer questionnaire about sharing household parental smoking was administered to all primary school children (mean age 10.5 ± 0.5 years) of the city of Agrigento (Sicily, Italy). A total of 2221 questionnaires were collected from 637 children in 1994, 687 in 1999, 516 in 2004, and 381 in 2009. Important findings show a significant reduction in both smoking parents and exposure to passive tobacco smoking (from 64% in 1994 to 45% in 2009, psmoking. These results likely reflect such a greater awareness about smoke-related risks in children, and the effectiveness of medical campaigns against cardiovascular risk factors as well.
The objective of this research study is to offer a glimpse into the lives of some newly-arrived students of different racial, linguistic and religious backgrounds as they confront the process of immigration and therefore personal and social displacement within the context of a Toronto inner-city high school. These students carry with them hidden but enduring scars that influence all aspects of their educational lives. In many cases their experience is steeped in trauma. Using auto-ethnographic methodology, this research is devoted to giving voice to these students who inhabit a space filled with suffering and loss but also resilience and cautious hope. If we really care about these vulnerable students in our classrooms, we must rethink and reshape our understanding of teaching and learning that is more fundamentally linked to the lived experiences of students coming from places of war and other oppressions. These issues are crucial for the future of nation-building and citizenship education in pluralistic Western societies such as Canada, both in and out of school.
Full Text Available The Objective of this study is to find out whether or not there is a significant relationship between teachersâ€™ working period and workload and studentsâ€™ English achievement of some Junior High Schools in Palembang city. The populations of this study were all English teachers and the students of ten Junior High Schools in Palembang. 945 students were taken as the sample by using purposive sampling and for the teachers was also purposive technique sampling. The instrument used in collecting the data were questionnaire for teachers that was used to know the ideal condition of teachersâ€™ working period and workload and documentation of studentsâ€™ English achievement. The data obtained from the questionaire and studentsâ€™ grade was analyzed by using Coefficient Contingency on the help of SPSS Package for Windows to assess the contribution of teachersâ€™ working period and workload and studentsâ€™ English achievement. The obtained chi-square is 14.594, the probability under 0.05 and degree of freedom 4. The chi-square obtained > the value of chi-square table and coefficient contingency value is 0.542. It means that there was a correlation between teachersâ€™ working period and workload and studentsâ€™ English achievement.
Rehm, Matthias; Stan, Catalin; Wøldike, Niels Peter
, the concept of smart city learning is exploited to situate learning about geometric shapes in concrete buildings and thus make them more accessible for younger children. In close collaboration with a local school a game for 3rd graders was developed and tested on a field trip and in class. A mixed measures...
This article describes the different experiences of the participants in an Outward Bound-sponsored "urban expedition" to New York City that was designed to make them better teachers by examining their beliefs and biases. The participants in this "urban expedition" came from schools that work with Outward Bound USA, the…
Bonvecchio, Anabelle; Théodore, Florence L; Safdie, Margarita; Duque, Tiffany; Villanueva, María Ángeles; Torres, Catalina; Rivera, Juan
This paper describes the methods and key findings of formative research conducted to design a school-based program for obesity prevention. Formative research was based on the ecological model and the principles of social marketing. A mixed method approach was used. Qualitative (direct observation, indepth interviews, focus group discussions and photo-voice) and quantitative (closed ended surveys, checklists, anthropometry) methods were employed. Formative research key findings, including barriers by levels of the ecological model, were used for designing a program including environmental strategies to discourage the consumption of energy dense foods and sugar beverages. Formative research was fundamental to developing a context specific obesity prevention program in schools that seeks environment modification and behavior change.
Full Text Available Research on the Implementation of Religion Education was held at the special Ele- mentary School (SDLB “Asuhan Kasih” in Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara Province. The results of this study indicate that the implementation of religion education at Orphanage SDLB “Asuhan Kasih” can run well. Despite this aspect of the teaching force is still not in accordance with the subjects being taught. It can be seen from a qualified religion teacher not as a religious teacher. Contributing factor in the lear- ning process is the higher spirit of in learning religion, dedication of religion teacher, the availability of classroom space, facilities and location are not far from the school environment for learners. Inhibiting factor in the learning process is the absence of special teachers to teach religious education, lack of teaching aids, lack of reference books, and a lack of operational funds.
Daniela Tavares Gontijo
Full Text Available The adolescence is a human development time characterized by biopsychosocial changes, influenced by personal life experiences. In this context pregnancy along adolescence has been regarded as a relevant social issue due to the high prevalence in this age group. This study aims to describe biopsychosocial characteristics of adolescent mothers in a school hospital (SH of a public university in Minas Gerais, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study with 40 adolescent mothers in this hospital. Data were collected through a form and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The data in this study were similar to findings in studies conducted in other urban centers especially as regards the participants’ average age and the precarious economic condition of their families and school performance. The data analysis has highlighted the need to understand teenage pregnancy as an experience with different factors as biological, psychological, economic and social development.
Daniela Tavares Gontijo
Full Text Available The adolescence is a human development time characterized by biopsychosocial changes, influenced by personal life experiences. In this context pregnancy along adolescence has been regarded as a relevant social issue due to the high prevalence in this age group. This study aims to describe biopsychosocial characteristics of adolescent mothers in a school hospital (SH of a public university in Minas Gerais, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study with 40 adolescent mothers in this hospital. Data were collected through a form and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The data in this study were similar to findings in studies conducted in other urban centers especially as regards the participants’ average age and the precarious economic condition of their families and school performance. The data analysis has highlighted the need to Características de mães adolescentes understand teenage pregnancy as an experience with different factors as biological, psychological, economic and social development. teenage pregnancy, adolescent, reproduction
, any attempt to create a green city is motivated by certain ecological, political and esthetical perspectives. Therefore the role of plants in tomorrows cities is everything but straightforward. Rather, a broad range of possibilities unfolds. City PLANTastic is the title of the 8th World in Denmark...
Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans
of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban scenography....
Aiman Farag Mohammed Ali
Full Text Available Malnutrition, a major risk factor for a number of infectious diseases, including acute upper respiratory tract infections (AURTI, is common in developing countries. Nutritional status is an important index of the quality of life. Objectives:To analyze the correlation between food intake and health status to nutritional status of 9-11 years old children in Semarang. The study was a correlation study carried among school children in Semarang aged 9-11 years old. Data are presented in the descriptive analyses and Spearman correlation. Overall, food intake (energy and protein of 9-11 years old children in Semarang is normal with ≥ 90% RDA, health status of them was satisfactory (very low AURTI incidence,and their nutritional status were mostly normal. There was a correlation between energy intake with nutritional status with indicators BMI, and z-score of W/A and H/A, but there was no correlation between protein intake and AURTI with nutritional status. Energy and food intake of the children correlate with all nutritional status being studied. It should be suggested to parents to implement balanced diet, to avoid the development of obesity among elementary school children through nutrition education to prevent malnutrition as well as obesity.How to CiteAli, A. F. M., Muis, S. F., & Suhartono, S. (2016. Correlation between Food Intake and Health Status with The Nutritional Status of School Children Age 9-11 in Semarang City. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(3, 249-256.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Paediatric obesity is a complex and growing global problem which is escalating much more rapidly in developing countries like India and considered an important predecessor to NCD multi-morbidity due to changing life style as a result of rapid urbanisation and mechanisation. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of overweight, obesity, paediatric metabolic syndrome and associated risk factors among children in the age group of 10-16 years in private schools of Shimla city. MATERIALS AND METHODS At total of 2100 adolescents attending school (aged 10-16 years participated in this cross-sectional study. All the anthropometric, clinical and biochemical assessment was done after proper consent. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was assessed by using IOTF guidelines and the metabolic syndrome was determined by the Paediatric International Diabetic Federation definition modified for age group. RESULTS The prevalence of overweight, obesity and paediatric metabolic syndrome was 14.5%, 4.1% & 4.3% respectively. In the groups with PMS, hypertension, waist circumference, and TG were significantly higher, and HDL-C was significantly lower. Significant difference was observed in gender, physical activity level, metabolic equivalent, consumption of junk food & time spent on TV in the distribution of overweight, obesity and metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION Our study highlights the possible role of change in the dietary pattern and physical activity pattern in the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome in early stage of life. Collective efforts of parents and schools are required to institute early preventive measures to reduce progression towards obesity and its future complications.
Edwards, Jane U; Mauch, Lois; Winkelman, Mark R
To support curriculum and policy, a midwest city school district assessed the association of selected categories of nutrition and physical activity (NUTR/PA) behaviors, fitness measures, and body mass index (BMI) with academic performance (AP) for 800 sixth graders. Students completed an adapted Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (NUTR/PA behaviors), fitness assessments (mile run, curl-ups, push-ups, height, and weight) with results matched to standardized scores (Measures of Academic Progress [MAP]), meal price status, and gender. Differences in mean MAP scores (math and reading) were compared by selected categories of each variable utilizing 1-way analysis of variance. Associations were determined by stepwise multiple regression utilizing mean MAP scores (for math and for reading) as the dependent variable and NUTR/PA behaviors, fitness, and BMI categories as independent variables. Significance was set at α = 0.05. Higher MAP math scores were associated with NUTR (more milk and breakfast; less 100% fruit juice and sweetened beverages [SB]) and PA (increased vigorous PA and sports teams; reduced television), and fitness (higher mile run performance). Higher MAP reading scores were associated with NUTR (fewer SB) and PA (increased vigorous PA, reduced television). Regression analysis indicated about 11.1% of the variation in the mean MAP math scores and 6.7% of the mean MAP reading scores could be accounted for by selected NUTR/PA behaviors, fitness, meal price status, and gender. Many positive NUTR/PA behaviors and fitness measures were associated with higher MAP scores supporting the school district focus on healthy lifestyles. Additional factors, including meal price status and gender, contribute to AP. © 2011, Fargo Public School.
Assessment of physical education time and after-school outdoor time in elementary and middle school students in south Mexico City: the dilemma between physical fitness and the adverse health effects of outdoor pollutant exposure.
Villarreal-Calderón, Anna; Acuña, Hilda; Villarreal-Calderón, Jessica; Garduño, Mónica; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos F; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo
Strategies to promote lifelong physical activity among children are needed to stem the adverse health consequences of inactivity. However, the health effects in growing children of long-term exposure to a polluted atmosphere are of deep concern. The atmosphere of south Mexico City (SMC) is characterized by a complex mixture of air pollutants, including ozone, particulate matter, and aldehydes. Radiological evidence suggests that small-airway disease could be present in clinically healthy, tobacco unexposed SMC children. The aim of this study was to assess, by means of a self-reported questionnaire, the physical education class times, daily outdoor after-school exposure time, and tobacco exposure in students attending public elementary and middle schools in SMC. Additionally, the time each student spent viewing television was assessed, and the authors measured each student's weight and height to determine body mass index (BMI, weight in kg divided by height in m2). The survey included 1,159 students in grades 7-9. The authors identified 2 critical periods of outdoor exposure in SMC children that coincided with significant concentrations of both ozone and particulate matter with diameters less than 10 micrometers (PM10): during school time after 11:00 A.M. and in the after-school outdoor activity period, usually extending from 1:00 P.M. to 6:00 P.M. Thirty-two percent of elementary and 61% of middle school students have physical education classes after 11:00 A.M. Students in SMC spend an average of 19.6 hr/wk outdoors in the after-school period, during which time they are engaged in light to moderate physical activities. Half of the students are exposed to tobacco smoke at home, and 7% of middle school students smoke. On the basis of BMI, 60% of students were classified as undernourished, overweight, or obese. No correlations were found between BMI and time spent viewing TV, time outdoors (on weekdays and weekends), or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke
Shilpa Trilok Hajare
Full Text Available Background: In the present era with a drastic change in lifestyle of every individual, weight gain and obesity are posing a growing threat to health in countries all over the world. Once a problem of affluence, obesity growing in many developing countries also due to decreased physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, altered eating habits, increased fat content in diet and decreased social activities. It is therefore imperative that rising incidence of obesity is controlled by tracking the trend of obesity since childhood and by BCC activities. Aims & Objectives: To study the life-style profile of high school students and association of lifestyle with Body Mass Index. Material & Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 565 high school students. Students were interviewed regarding daily activity, physical activity, hours of television and computer viewing and routine food habits. The anthropometric measurements were done. BMI was calculated according to WHO 2007 criteria. Results: The prevalence of overweight in students was found to be 5.84% and obesity was 0.35%. There was statistical evidence that the overweight students were associated with higher socio economic status group (p=0.000107, decreased physical activity (p= 0.0001; OR- 10.88, increased consumption of junk food (p=0.0005817; OR- 3.4 and more hours of viewing television/ computer (p=0.00555; OR- 2.99.
Shilpa Trilok Hajare
Full Text Available Background: In the present era with a drastic change in lifestyle of every individual, weight gain and obesity are posing a growing threat to health in countries all over the world. Once a problem of affluence, obesity growing in many developing countries also due to decreased physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, altered eating habits, increased fat content in diet and decreased social activities. It is therefore imperative that rising incidence of obesity is controlled by tracking the trend of obesity since childhood and by BCC activities. Aims & Objectives: To study the life-style profile of high school students and association of lifestyle with Body Mass Index. Material & Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 565 high school students. Students were interviewed regarding daily activity, physical activity, hours of television and computer viewing and routine food habits. The anthropometric measurements were done. BMI was calculated according to WHO 2007 criteria. Results: The prevalence of overweight in students was found to be 5.84% and obesity was 0.35%. There was statistical evidence that the overweight students were associated with higher socio economic status group (p=0.000107, decreased physical activity (p= 0.0001; OR- 10.88, increased consumption of junk food (p=0.0005817; OR- 3.4 and more hours of viewing television/ computer (p=0.00555; OR- 2.99.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantify the physical activity (PA of students and describe the school environment surrounding PA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between November 2005 and March 2006, in Mexico City, we conducted quantitative and qualitative observations to describe the PA and the school context. RESULTS: Recess and physical education class (PE were the only opportunities to participate in PA. PE occurred one time per week with a duration of 39.8±10.6 minutes which is less than national and international recommendations. Students participated in moderate-to-vigorous PA 29.2±17.8% of PE. The dynamics of PE did not promote the inclusion of all students or PA. During recess there was overcrowding of the school patio and no equipment for PA or organization of PA. DISCUSSION: The PA of students in public schools in Mexico City can be improved by increasing the quantity and quality of PE and increasing opportunities for activity during recess.OBJETIVO: Cuantificar la actividad física (AF en niños escolares y describir el entorno escolar relacionado con la AF. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Entre noviembre de 2005 y marzo de 2006 en la Ciudad de México, se realizó observación directa cuantitativa y cualitativa para describir el nivel de AF y el contexto escolar durante recreo y clases de educación física (CEF. RESULTADOS: El recreo y las CEF fueron los únicos espacios en los que se realizó AF. Las CEF se impartieron una vez a la semana y duraron 39.8±10.6 minutos, lo que está por debajo de las recomendaciones internacionales. Se participó en actividades moderadas-vigorosas 29.2±17.8% de las CEF. La dinámica de las CEF no favoreció la AF. Durante el recreo se observó saturación del patio y no se realizaron actividades organizadas ni se utilizaron materiales para promover la AF. DISCUSIÓN: Se recomienda incrementar la calidad y la cantidad de las CEF y el tiempo dedicado a jugar durante el recreo.
Assessment of exposure to sexually explicit materials and factors associated with exposure among preparatory school youths in Hawassa City, Southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional institution based survey.
Habesha, Tony; Aderaw, Zewdie; Lakew, Serawit
According to the 2007 Ethiopian census, youths aged 15-24 years were more than 15.2 million which contributes to 20.6% of the whole population. These very large and productive groups of the population are exposed to various sexual and reproductive health risks. The aim of this study was to assess exposure to Sexually Explicit Materials (SEM) and factors associated with exposure among preparatory school students in Hawassa city, Southern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional institution based study involving 770 randomly selected youth students of preparatory schools at Hawassa city. Multi stage sampling technique was used to select study subjects. Data was collected using pre-tested and self-administered questionnaire. Data was entered by EPI INFO version 3.5.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 statistical software packages. The result was displayed using descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analysis. Statistical association was done for independent predictors (at p students were participated in this study with a response rate of 97.4%. Among this, about 77.3% of students knew about the presence of SEM and most of the respondents 566(75.5%) were watched SEM films/movies and 554(73.9%) were exposed to SE texts. The overall exposure to SEM in school youths was 579(77.2%). Among the total respondents, about 522(70.4%) claimed as having no open discussion on sexual issues with in their family. Furthermore, About 450 (60.0%) respondents complained for having no sexual and reproductive health education at their school. Male students had faced almost two times higher exposure to SEM than female students (95 % CI: AOR 1.84(C.I = 1.22, 2.78). Students who attended private school were more than two times more likely exposed to SEM than public schools (95 % CI: AOR 2.07(C.I = 1.29, 3.30). Students who drink alcohol and labelled as 'sometimes' were two times more likely exposed to SEM than those who never drink alcohol (95 % CI = AOR 2.33(C.I = 1.26, 4.30). Khat
Toussaint-Martinez de Castro, Georgina; Guagnelli, Miguel Ángel; Clark, Patricia; Méndez Sánchez, Lucía; López-González, Desireé; Galán-Herrera, Juan Francisco; Sánchez-Ruiz, Martín
In 2012, the Mexican National Health Survey showed a moderate prevalence rate of vitamin D deficiency, around 16%, in a national representative sample of children. A decreasing prevalence of anemia during the last 15 years has been observed in Mexico. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of vitamin D in children 3-8 years old in four different locations within the metropolitan area of Mexico City and to compare them to levels of iron and zinc as references of nutritional status. One hundred and seventeen healthy children aged 3-8 years attending four hospitals in Mexico City were invited to participate. All children received medical and nutritional evaluation, and blood samples were obtained. Children were selected in the four hospitals between April and August 2008. More than half (51.3%) were boys; their average age was 5.5 ± 1.6 years. The mean height and weight of the children were 112.1 ± 11.2 cm and 20.2 ± 4.9 kg respectively, with a body mass index [BMI] of 15.8 ± 1.7 kg/m². The mean Z-score (BMI) was 0.007 ± 0.999. The prevalence of subjects with deficient levels of 25-OH-vitamin D (ENSANUT 2012) about the sustained reduction of anaemia prevalence among preschool and schoolchildren since 1999 and the rising rates of vitamin D deficiency in the same population. Similar to other studies, we found a link between socioeconomic status and the deficiency of micronutrients, these being markers of better nutrition, and vitamin D is remarkably related to the quality of the diet. This finding has not been considered in our population before. There is evidence of a sustained decrease of anaemia in Mexican children due to general enrichment of foods and focus on vulnerable populations, while vitamin D deficiency seems to have increased. More studies are needed to obtain more information on vitamin D levels at different ages and definition of susceptible groups in order to investigate the possibility of general population measures such as enrichment
Calderoni, Michele E; Alderman, Elizabeth M; Silver, Ellen J; Bauman, Laurie J
To determine the rate of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after 9/11 in a sample of New York City high school students and associations among personal exposure, loss of psychosocial resources, prior mental health treatment, and PTSD. A total of 1214 students (grades 9 through 12) attending a large community high school in Bronx County, 20 miles north of "Ground Zero," completed a 45-item questionnaire during gym class on one day eight months after 9/11. Students were primarily Hispanic (62%) and African American (29%) and lived in the surrounding neighborhood. The questionnaire included the PCL-T, a 17-item PTSD checklist supplied by the Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The PCL-T was scored following the DSM-IV criteria for PTSD requiring endorsement of at least one repeating symptom, two hyperarousal symptoms, and three avoidance symptoms. Bivariate analysis comparing PTSD with personal exposure, loss of psychosocial resources, and mental health variables was done and multiple logistic regression was used to identify significant associations. There were 7.4 % of students with the PTSD symptom cluster. Bivariate analysis showed a trend for females to have higher rates of PTSD (males [6%] vs. females [9%], p = .06] with no overall ethnic differences. Five of the six personal exposure variables, and both of the loss of psychosocial resources and mental health variables were significantly associated with PTSD symptom cluster. Multiple logistic regression analysis found one personal exposure variable (having financial difficulties after 9/11, odds ratio [OR] = 5.27; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.9-9.7); both the loss of psychosocial resources variables (currently feeling less safe, OR = 3.58; 95% CI 1.9-6.8) and currently feeling less protected by the government, (OR = 4.04; 95% CI 2.1-7.7); and one mental health variable (use of psychotropic medication before 9/11, OR = 3.95; 95% CI 1.2-13.0) were
Khayri, Hiba O; Muneer, Siddig E; Ahmed, Saifeldeen B; Osman, Magdi A; Babiker, Elfadil E
The study was conducted in Saudi Arabia to assess the nutritional status of primary school Sudanese pupils and explore its' correlates. Anthropometric measurements of 400 (200 males and 200 females) students of age 6-12 were taken. Their daily food intake was assessed using food frequency and 24 h recall method. Data about the socio-economic characteristics of the students' families was collected through personal interview using a questionnaire. The study revealed that 31 and 8.75 % of the respondents suffer from underweight and overweight, respectively. The respondents' average daily intake of calories and fiber was significantly lower than that of the DRI, while their intake of protein, carbohydrates, unsaturated fat, some vitamins and iron was significantly higher than that of the DRI (unbalanced meals). Apart from the family monthly income none of the hypothesized predictors of the respondents' nutritional status were found to be significantly correlated with the students' nutritional status indicators.
Brêtas, José Roberto da Silva; Ohara, Conceição Vieira da Silva; Jardim, Dulcilene Pereira
It is a descriptive, qualitative study aimed at identifying some aspects related to teenagers' sexual behavior. The subjects of the study were 920 adolescents aged 10 to 19, who were attending primary and secondary schools in the region of Santo Eduardo, municipality of Embu, São Paulo, Brazil. The data were collected through a questionnaire with 28 structured questions. The results show that 77% of adolescents liked their bodies, 71% looked for information about sexuality, and 35% thought their parents were the primary source of information; 26% of them said they had an active sexual life, 79% had had the first sexual intercourse at the age of 14 or younger, and 81% used condoms. The results of the study emphasize the importance of providing sexual guidance for adolescents in order to encourage prevention attitudes.
Full Text Available Background: Over the time there has been spectrum of changes in the universe. It may be at physical, chemical and cultural level. People have adopted newer life styles like their working style, clothing’s, food habits and so on. One of the pertinent example of this newer food habits is rising consumption of soft drinks rather than traditional home made drinks. This study was aimed to find out various determinants responsible for this rising trend of soft drinking so that effective intervention can be undertaken to overcome this creeping problem. Objectives: To find out the prevalence of soft drinking consumption among the students and to assess the determinants of soft drink consumption among the students. Materials and methods: It was a cross sectional study. A sample of 200 students was selected from the both govt. and private schools by stratified random sampling. Then they all were interviewed by using pre tested, semi structured proforma. Later on data was analyzed manually and by using suitable statistical software. Results: Frequent drinking of soft drinks was found more among the students of private schools than govt. (p < 0.05. A significant association was found between pocket money, TV watching and frequency of soft drinking (p< 0.05.Other reasons which were found to be responsible by far for frequent soft drinking like lack of awareness regarding hazards, frequent TV watching, desire of new taste, lack of health education from the parents side etc. Conclusion: Soft drinking consumption is creeping day by day amongst the children with out knowing their hazards. And they are the future of any country so there should be effective intervention from both sides govt. as well as parents to get rid of it at earliest.
Zelalem Alamrew Anteneh
Full Text Available Background. Overweight and obesity are risk factors for diet-related noncommunicable diseases. These diseases are the fifth leading risks for global deaths. Virtually, all age groups are affected from consequences of overweight and obesity. Methods. Cross-sectional study was conducted among 431 school adolescents. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaire and physical measurements. The sex and age specific BMI was computed using WHO Anthroplus software and the data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results. The magnitudes of overweight and obesity were 12.3% and 4.4%, respectively, and the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity together was 16.7%. Three-fourths of the respondents (74.7% had healthy body mass index; however, 8.6% were underweight. Sex, frequency of eating food out of home, school type, family monthly income, family having vehicle, vigorous physical activity, and frequency of vigorous physical activity were statistically significant predictors of overweight and obesity. Conclusion. The problems of overweight and obesity are taking place while students are still under the risk of underweight. Several factors were correlated with overweight and obesity. Therefore, interventions targeting gender, frequency of eating food out of home, vigorous activities, and frequency of doing vigorous physical activity are recommended.
Anteneh, Zelalem Alamrew; Gedefaw, Molla; Tekletsadek, Kidist Nigatu; Tsegaye, Meseret; Alemu, Dagmawi
Background. Overweight and obesity are risk factors for diet-related noncommunicable diseases. These diseases are the fifth leading risks for global deaths. Virtually, all age groups are affected from consequences of overweight and obesity. Methods. Cross-sectional study was conducted among 431 school adolescents. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaire and physical measurements. The sex and age specific BMI was computed using WHO Anthroplus software and the data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results. The magnitudes of overweight and obesity were 12.3% and 4.4%, respectively, and the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity together was 16.7%. Three-fourths of the respondents (74.7%) had healthy body mass index; however, 8.6% were underweight. Sex, frequency of eating food out of home, school type, family monthly income, family having vehicle, vigorous physical activity, and frequency of vigorous physical activity were statistically significant predictors of overweight and obesity. Conclusion. The problems of overweight and obesity are taking place while students are still under the risk of underweight. Several factors were correlated with overweight and obesity. Therefore, interventions targeting gender, frequency of eating food out of home, vigorous activities, and frequency of doing vigorous physical activity are recommended. PMID:26697231
Syed MS Andrabi
Full Text Available Aim: Obesity is the most common cause of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MS. These are the most important risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD. No evidence exists regarding the prevalence of the MS in children in sSrinagar city of Kashmir India. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of MS in 8-18-year-old school-going children of Kashmir, India. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 758 respondents in 8-18 years of age were randomly selected using a simple random sampling method. The self-designed questionnaire was individually completed after receiving a written informed consent. The weight, height, waist circumference (WC, body mass index (BMI, and blood pressure were measured using standard tools. Ten milliliters of blood was taken for measuring lipid profile and fasting blood sugar (FBS of the school children. We determined MS according to the modified Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III criteria. Results: The prevalence of the MS was 3.8% (boys: 3.9%, girls: 3.8% and the prevalence of obesity was 9.9% (boys: 9.9%, girls: 10.6% among the studied children. Obese subjects had the highest proportion of MS compared with those at risk for overweight and those with normal weight (30.7% vs. 2.5% and 0.5%, respectively; P = 0.000. Conclusion: The MS is prevalent even in young children, so we suggest screening programs for children aged 8-18 years to control obesity and MS in the developing world.
Full Text Available According to Inglehart's modernisation theory, socio-economic growth leads to changes in values. Following a longer period of economic growth, a gradual change from materialistic to post-materialistic values is established. The main goal of this study, which is based on Inglehart's theory, was to assess the relationship between post-materialistic values on one side and religiousness, attitudes towards nationalism, and attitudes towards gender roles on the other among high school students in the city of Split. The research was conducted on a convenience sample of 427 high school students from Split (there were 269 female students and 158 male students with the average age of 17 years. The results indicated that the students from the sample had mixed materialistic and post-materialistic values. Statistically significant differences were found between male and female students in all measured variables. For this reason, analyses were conducted separately by gender. Using multiple regression analysis, it was established that the model with post-materialistic values as the outcome was statistically significant regardless of gender. Discriminative analysis additionally showed that the measured attitudes discriminated groups of students with different levels of post-materialistic values (most prominently, attitudes towards gender roles and religiousness among female students, and attitudes towards nationalism and gender roles among male students. The main finding of the study was that of a difference between male and female students in terms of measured religiousness and two sets of attitudes, as well as gender differences in the relationship between the measured religiousness and the measured attitudes on one side and post-materialistic values on the other. Higher post-materialistic values were associated with lower religiousness among female students and lower acceptance of nationalism among male students.
Ynalvez, Marcus Antonius; Ynalvez, Ruby; Torregosa, Marivic; Palacios, Horacio; Kilburn, John
This study examines the association of children's (i) micro-social environment, specifically siblings [kin-friends] and friends from school and neighborhood [non-kin-friends], and (ii) ownership of information and communication technologies (ICT), specifically cell phones and iPod/MP3 players, with body mass index percentile (BMIp). Fifty-five randomly selected 6th graders with a mean age of 12 years, stratified by gender (23 boys and 32 girls), from a Texas middle school located in a city along the U.S. southern border. The linear regression of BMIp on number of siblings and of non-kin-friends, and ownership of cell phone and of iPod/MP3 player was examined using two models: M1 was based on the manual selection of predictors from a pool of potential predictors. M2 was derived from the predictors specified in M1 using backward elimination technique. Because sample size was small, the significance of regression coefficients was evaluated using robust standard errors to calculate t-values. Data for predictors were obtained through a survey. Height and weight were obtained through actual anthropometric measurements. BMIp was calculated using the on-line BMI calculator of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Findings reveal that children's social environment and ICT ownership predict BMIp; specifically, number of siblings (M2: β = -0.34, p-value MP3 players (M2: β = 0.33, p-value < .001). These results underscore the importance of family in configuring, and of new personal technical devices (that encourage solitary, and oftentimes sedentary, activities) in predicting child body mass. Â© 2012 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was the considering of the effect of six week mixed exercise (power & plyometric of dynamic balance in Takhti school physical education students in Babol city. 60 male athlete students (physical education, without record of injury in lower organs, head & auricle disorders voluntarily participated in this research and randomly divided into two 15 individual groups (first group: power exercise; second group: plyometric exercise; third group: mixed exercise (power and plyometric and forth group: control group. The day before the performing of the six weeks exercise program, dynamic balance of examined students measured by Star Excursion Balance test (SEBT. During the six weeks that exercise group did their special exercises, the control group was asked to keep their daily body exercises and their own exercise. The day after the exercise period finished, the dynamic balance of examined students measured. Descriptive statistics one variable variance analyzes and perspective Tukey test in meaning level α≤0/05 used for statistical analyze. The results showed that power exercise, plyometric and mixed, caused meaningful increasing of examined students success distance in all eight aspects of SEBT. According to the results of the research, the use of mixed exercise, plyometric and power (specially mixed exercises is suggested in order to decrease the probability of injury and the improvement of athlete’s dynamic balance. . Keywords: Power Exercise, Plyometric Exercise, Mixed Exercise, Dynamic Balance
Ntelioglou, Burcu Yaman; Fannin, Jennifer; Montanera, Mike; Cummins, Jim
This paper presents findings from a collaborative inquiry project that explored teaching approaches that highlight the significance of multilingualism, multimodality, and multiliteracies in classrooms with high numbers of English language learners (ELLs). The research took place in an inner city elementary school with a large population of recently arrived and Canadian-born linguistically and culturally diverse students from Gambian, Indian, Mexican, Sri Lankan, Tibetan and Vietnamese backgrounds, as well as a recent wave of Roma students from Hungary. A high number of these students were from families with low-SES. The collaboration between two Grade 3 teachers and university-based researchers sought to create instructional approaches that would support students' academic engagement and literacy learning. In this paper, we described one of the projects that took place in this class, exploring how a descriptive writing unit could be implemented in a way that connected with students' lives and enabled them to use their home languages, through the creation of multiple texts, using creative writing, digital technologies, and drama pedagogy. This kind of multilingual and multimodal classroom practice changed the classroom dynamics and allowed the students access to identity positions of expertise, increasing their literacy investment, literacy engagement and learning.
Full Text Available The objective of the research is to find out deeply the aspects of equal gender on English textbooks for Senior High School by Indonesian and English writer in Serang City. The method used in this research is qualitative research with content analysis technique.The data collected through document review. The research finding shows that the perecentage of men are higher than women in the aspects of main character and historical event, the use of equal language, public and domestic role, and art talent, sport, and intellectual competence on the books of indonesia writer in four language skills such as listening, speaking, reading, and writing.This description shows that women are inferior because of culture, misinterpretation of religion, and patriarchy system factor. Whreas the perecentage of men and women are gender equal on the book of English writer, especially in the main character, the language equal, the public and domestic role, and the art talent, but the sport and intelectual competence showed that the perencentage of men are high. It means that women have opportunity as men and especially domestic role is responsibility of both men and women. It can be concluded that the Englsh textbook is written by Indonesian that called curriculum 2013 can not be used as English lesson, whereas the English textbook of English writer can recommend as English lesson because it found the equal gender.
Burcu eYaman Ntelioglou
Full Text Available This paper presents findings from a collaborative inquiry project that explored teaching approaches that highlight the significance of multilingualism, multimodality and multiliteracies in classrooms with high numbers of English language learners (ELLs. The research took place in an inner city elementary school with a large population of recently arrived and Canadian-born linguistically and culturally diverse students from Gambian, Indian, Mexican, Sri Lankan, Tibetan and Vietnamese backgrounds, as well as a recent wave of Roma students from Hungary. A high number of these students were from families with low-SES. The collaboration between two Grade 3 teachers and university-based researchers sought to create instructional approaches that would support students’ academic engagement and literacy learning. In this paper, we described one of the projects that took place in this class, exploring how a descriptive writing unit could be implemented in a way that connected with students’ lives and enabled them to use their home languages, through the creation of multiple texts, using creative writing, digital technologies and drama pedagogy. This kind of multilingual and multimodal classroom practice changed the classroom dynamics and allowed the students access to identity positions of expertise, increasing their literacy investment, literacy engagement and learning.
Saha, Sabyasachi; GV, Jagannatha; Narang, Ridhi; Biswas, Gautam; Sood, Poonam; Garg, Aarti; Narayan, Manu
Background: Facial aesthetics affects how people are perceived by society and how they perceive themselves. Anterior malocclusion can have an impact on the overall facial appearance. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of malocclusion and its psycho-social impact among 12 to 15 yrs old school children in Lucknow city. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of collection of information for psychosocial assessment using a questionnaire and clinical examination of malocclusion. Data regarding psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics was collected using a Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) given by Klages et al., (2006). Results: 15.57% children belonged to the definite malocclusion category and 5.41% to the handicapped malocclusion category. The mean Dental self confidence score differed significantly among both male (p≤0.001) and female children (p≤0.001) across the age groups. The mean Social impact score did not differ significantly among both male (p≤0.31) and female children (p≤0.12) across the age groups. Conclusion: The results of the present study imply that dental aesthetics had a significant impact on the psychosocial aspects of human life irrespective of the gender. PMID:25478444
Zamani, Eshrat; Chashmi, Maliheh; Hedayati, Nasim
This study aimed to investigate the effects of addiction to computer games on physical and mental health of students. The study population includes all students in the second year of public guidance schools in the city of Isfahan in the educational year of 2009-2010. The sample size includes 564 students selected by multiple steps stratified sampling. Dependent variables include general health in dimensions of physical health, anxiety and sleeplessness and impaired social functioning. Data were collected using General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) scale and a questionnaire on addiction to computer games. Pearson's correlation coefficient and structural model were used for data analysis. There was a significant positive correlation between students' computer games addiction and their physical and mental health in dimensions of physical health, anxiety and sleeplessness There was a significant negative relationship between addictions to computer games and impaired social functioning. The results of this study are in agreement with the findings of other studies around the world. As the results show, addiction to computer games affects various dimensions of health and increases physical problems, anxiety and depression, while decreases social functioning disorder.
Gharlipour, Zabihollah; Ghaffari, Mohtasham; Hoseini, Zahra; Heidarabadi, Akbar Babaei; Tavassoli, Elahe; Hozuri, Mohammad; Jang, Shahram Arsang; Reisi, Mahnoush; Sahraiyan, Maryam
Eating breakfast is crucial for adolescents to be healthy. It also improves students' capacity of learning and doing school homework. Although healthy habits such as eating breakfast, weight control, and regular sleep increase the lifespan in adults, the effects of healthy habits on school-age children have not been studied much. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of an educational program based on Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) on eating breakfast among middle school students. This interventional study was conducted on sixth-grade students in Qom City during the academic year 2012-2013. First, 97 students were randomly assigned to the experimental group and 97 other students were assigned to the control group. Then, a questionnaire was developed on eating breakfast by the researchers according to the TPB. A pilot study was conducted to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. To assess the validity of the questionnaire, advice by a panel of experts was sought. To carry out a pre-test, both groups answered the questions. After analyzing the pre-test results, the required content was developed for the experimental group. Educational methods included delivering speech, discussion groups, pamphlets, and posters. The required educationalcontent was provided for students during five sessions and for parents in one session. To determine the effect of educational intervention, a post-test study was carried out 2 months after the intervention. Collected data were analyzed using independent t-test, χ,() and repeated measures. In the experimental group, 36.7% of students were eating breakfast at least in a day of a week, before educational intervention. After implementation of the educational program, only 32.7% of them were continuing their past habit. There was a significant difference between themean scores of attitudes, perceived behavioral control, intention, and practice of eating breakfast in the experimental and control groups (P students
Ma, Xiquan; Yao, Yuhong; Zhao, Xudong
This study was carried out to explore the prevalence of behavioral problems among adolescents in junior high school as well as their families' levels of function or dysfunction that contribute to children's behavioral problems in Mainland China. One thousand, four hundred and seventy-six adolescents (ages 12-17 years) and their families participated in the study. Parents completed a self-administered questionnaire consisting of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Family Assessment Device (FAD) and a number of demographic questions. Student's t-tests, chi-square tests and stepwise multiple regression models were performed to examine the variables. The estimated prevalence of behavioral problems was 10.5% based on the cutoff point for behavioral problems according to the CBCL. Behavioral problems identified by the CBCL occurred differently at various developmental stages (F = 10.06, P = 0.007). The study showed that inappropriate affective responsiveness, poor affective involvement and low ability of problem solving in the family were significantly associated with increased risk for externalizing behavior problems and total behavior problems of boys. Inappropriate affective responsiveness and poor communication in the family were significantly associated with increased risk for internalizing problems for boys. Poorly established patterns of family behavior were important factors contributing to the development of externalizing behavior problems, internalizing behavior problems and total behavior problems for girls'. The present findings suggest that functional levels of family are associated with the adolescent's mental health, and that specific family dynamics may influence the development of behavioral problems among adolescents in China. Copyright © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Fisker, Anna Marie; Clausen, Katja Seerup
This paper analyzed the development of a city based sustainable food strategy for the city of Aalborg. It’s based on 3 cases of food service: food for the elderly as operated by the Municipality, food the hospital patients as operated by the region and food for defense staff as operated...
Suzuki, Hiroaki; Dastur, Arish; Moffatt, Sebastian; Yabuki, Nanae; Maruyama, Hinako
This book provides an overview of the World Bank's Eco2 cities : ecological cities as economic cities initiative. The objective of the Eco2 cities initiative is to help cities in developing countries achieve a greater degree of ecological and economic sustainability. The book is divided into three parts. Part one describes the Eco2 cities initiative framework. It describes the approach, be...
Cities, Towns and Villages, We have the county boundaries including Hephzibah, and Blyth, with roads, parcels, schools, hospitals, fire stations, historic areas.points of interest, etc., Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Augusta-Richmond County Government.
NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Cities, Towns and Villages dataset current as of 2007. We have the county boundaries including Hephzibah, and Blyth, with roads, parcels, schools, hospitals, fire...
The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property....... As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....
Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan
Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction....... This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge between art...
This book discusses primary education of the poor in the city of Mumbai, India. It focuses on the city of Mumbai itself and the poor who live in it, answering questions such as What makes the city the way it is? What does it mean to be poor in Mumbai? and How does the poverty of the poor in Mumbai affect their chances of receiving a basic…
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...
Full Text Available Aim. To correlate the prevalence of dental caries to body mass index, daily sugar intake, and oral hygiene status of 12-year-old school children of Mathura city. Material and Methods. The study design was cross-sectional and included 100 school children aged 12 years (n=50 boys and n=50 girls who were randomly selected from two schools based upon inclusion and exclusion criteria. Body weight/height was recorded and BMI was calculated and plotted on CDC-BMI for age growth charts/curves for boys and girls to obtain percentile ranking. Dental caries was recorded using WHO criteria. Oral hygiene status of the study subjects was assessed using oral hygiene index-simplified. Data regarding the daily sugar intake was recorded using 24-hour recall diet frequency chart. The data obtained was analysed using SPSS version 11.5 for windows. Result. Only 27 subjects were affected by caries. The mean DMFT/dmft was 0.37 ± 0.79 and 0.12 ± 0.60, respectively. Statistical analysis by means of a logistic regression model revealed that only oral hygiene status had a significant effect on caries prevalence (OR = 5.061, P=0.004, whereas daily sugar intake and body mass index had no significant effect. Conclusion. From the analysis, it was concluded that oral hygiene status had a significant effect on caries prevalence of 12-year-old school children of Mathura city.
The city of Artesia (New Mexico) was considering the issuance of $210 million in industrial revenue bonds (IRB) for construction of a new poultry processing plant 5 miles west of Artesia in Eddy County. Since property financed with IRB is exempt from all state and local property taxes for the life of the bonds, the city of Artesia requested an…
Jensen, Ole B.
for a new urban condition where cities are networked and connected (as well as disconnected) from the local block to global digital spheres. In the midst of many of the well-known data-creating devices (e.g. Bluetooth, radio-frequency identification (RFID), GPS, smartphone applications) there is a “new kid......This paper address the phenomenon of drones and their potential relationship with the city from the point of view of the so-called “mobilities turn”. This is done in such a way that turns attention to a recent redevelopment of the “turn” towards design; so the emerging perspective of “mobilities...... design” will be used as a background perspective to reflect upon the future of drones in cities. The other perspective used to frame the phenomenon is the emerging discourse of the “smart city”. A city of proliferating digital information and data communication may be termed a smart city as shorthand...
This paper briefly reviews how New York City has developed its bureaucratic school structures, the pathologies that have developed within them, and some remedies that can help to change them into structures that will improve city schools. Some historians claimed that reformers purposely created bureaucratic school systems to provide a docile pool…
A number of cities in Africa experience very rapid spatial growth without the benefit of a systematic process of planning and implementation of planning decisions. This process has challenged the road and transport system, created high levels of congestion, and hampered mobility and accessibility...... to both central and new peripheral areas. This paper reports on studies carried out in Accra and Dar es Salaam to address and link 1) mobility practices of residents, 2) local strategies for ‘post-settlement’ network extension, and 3) the city-wide performance of the transport system. The studies draw...... in advance. However, such solutions are often impeded by costly and cumbersome land-acquisition processes, and because of the reactive and often piecemeal approach to infrastructure extensions, the development will often be more costly. Moreover, the lack of compliance to a city-wide development plan...
Vatican City, the administrative and spiritual capital of the Roman catholic Church, has a population of 1000. Citizenship is generally accorded only to those who reside in Vatican City for reasons of office of employment. Supreme legislative, executive, and judicial power is currentily exercised by Pope John Paul II, the 1st non-italian pope in 5 centuries. The State of Vatican City is recognized by many nations as an independent sovereign state under the temporal jurisdiction of the Pope. By 1984, 108 countries had established diplomatic relations with the Holy See, most of which are not Roman Catholic. Third World countries comprise a large proportion of countries that have recently established relations with the Holy See. The US re-established relations with the Vatican in 1984 and there is frequent contact and consultation between the 2 states on key international issues.
Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía
Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...
Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.
This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to
Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans; Jensen, Ole B.
This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun and cult...
Frimann, Søren; Stigel, Jørgen
Succesful corporate branding requires that questions related to communication, publicity, and organizational structures are adressed. An uncritical adoption of approaches known from tradition product branding will inevitable give problems as the properties of tangible commodities and services...... to face - these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated...
Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin ...
Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin ...
The case study by Ejigu reveals a tension inherent in urban development in the ... In fact, the price of viable land in the Global South cities is sometimes as high as the ... He discusses the 'piecemeal' construction practice typical of the informal ...
Die Stadt als Beute. But where most of these films follow the money and dissect the power relations in today’s urban planning, Whose city? instead moves back in time to the almost forgotten, but defining architectural disputes of the 1990s. With the fall of the Berlin Wall and the rest of the Iron...
Mark Twain once famously quipped, "I never let schooling get in the way of my education." Paul Simon, the American folk singer, begins one of his songs "When I think back on all the crap I learned at high school, it's a wonder I can hardly think at all." These men could just have easily been discussing schooling in Ireland, for…
O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Lee-St. John, Terrence; Raczek, Anastasia E.; Luna Bazaldua, Diego A.; Walsh, Mary
Out-of-school factors can significantly impact students' readiness to learn and thrive in school. Research confirms that larger social structures and contexts beyond the school are critical, accounting for up to two-thirds of the variance in student achievement (Coleman et al., 1966; Rothstein, 2010; Phillips, Brooks-Gunn, Duncan, Klebanov, &…
Roaf, S.; Fuentes, M.; Gupta, R.
Over the last decade, climate change has moved from being the concern of few to a widely recognized threat to humanity itself and the natural environment. The 1990s were the warmest decade on record, and ever-increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/), could, if left unchecked lead to serious consequences globally, including increased risks of droughts, floods and storms, disruption to agriculture, rising sea levels and the spread of disease. The contribution of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide has been recognized as the principal cause of the atmospheric changes that drive these climate trends. Globally, buildings are the largest source of indirect carbon emissions. In 2000, the UK Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution estimated that in order to stabilise carbon emissions at levels, which avoid catastrophic alterations in the climate, we would have to reduce emissions from the built environment by at least 60% by 2050 and 80% by 2100 relative to 1997 levels. Studies of the Oxford Ecohouse have demonstrated that it is not difficult to reduce carbon emissions from houses by 60% or more through energy efficiency measures, but it is only possible to reach the 90% level of reductions required by using renewable energy technologies. Solar energy technologies have been the most successfully applied of all renewable to date largely because they are the only systems that can be incorporated easily into the urban fabric. In addition, the short fossil fuel horizons that are predicted (c. 40 years left for oil and 65 years for gas) will drive the markets for solar technologies. For these reasons, the cities of the future will be powered by solar energy, to a greater or lesser extent, depending on the city form and location. In recognition of the need to move rapidly towards a renewable energy future, a group of international cities, including Oxford, have started the Solar City Network. In this paper we outline the
Paulín, Horacio Luis; Universidad Nacional de Córdoba
This paper presents the problem of school violence through a critical reading that allows rethinking the approach to school bullying. It proposes a critical psychosocial interactionist approach from a qualitative perspective focused on the reconstruction and understanding of the conflicts in coexistence in secondary schools in Argentina from the perspective of young people and educators. It focus the analysis on physical confrontations (“fights”) between students, which emerge in defined situ...
Aranzales Delgado, Yuvitza Daniella; Castaño Castrillón, José Jaime; Figueroa Salcedo, Reinaldo Augusto; Jaramillo Ruiz, Sebastián; Landazuri Quiñones, Johan nicolás; Muriel Forero, Vanessa; rodríguez Ramírez, Alejandra; Valencia Cortés, Katerine
Determine the frequency and the ways of presentation of bullying and cyberbullying in high school students from schools in Manizales, Caldas, Colombia, between January and June of 2013. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional studyrealized in three public schools of Manizales. The population of students was 1769, of which 574 were gotten as a sample. Many variables were taken from previous questionnaires’ studies: Demographic, bullying using the instrument for bullying ofFundación Paz Ciudad...
Nowadays cities compete with each other for attracting investments and people, which make them implement new city marketing and city branding strategies. There are many factors that can influence city image and its perception in customers’ minds. The purpose of this thesis is to realize how a well-selected city marketing strategy benefits the city and gain a deeper understanding of city marketing possibilities. The final goal is to offer suggestions for the city of Moscow, which can help to i...
GOLDMAN, LOUIS A.; AND OTHERS
THIS COMPREHENSIVE HANDBOOK EXPLAINS THE MAJOR BENEFITS PROVIDED BY THE NEW YORK CITY TEACHERS' RETIREMENT SYSTEM. PROCEDURES ARE GIVEN FOR CALCULATING RETIREMENT ALLOWANCES UNDER THE VARIOUS PLANS AVAILABLE AND DEATH BENEFITS EITHER BEFORE OR AFTER RETIREMENT. SOCIAL SECURITY PROVISIONS, TAXES ON RETIREMENT INCOME, LOAN PRIVILEGES, WORK AFTER…
Stinnett, Jacquelyn; Karr-Kidwell, PJ
This paper provides an extensive literary review and presents guidelines and strategies to help school administrators recruit and retain highly effective minority teachers for culturally diverse school districts. The literature review identifies successful teacher recruitment approaches and specific techniques that make these approaches work.…
Papageorgiou, Nikoletta; Galani, Apostolia; Mavrikaki, Evangelia
This work--part of a wider project aimed at engaging first year primary school pupils in public open-space design--explores the perceptions of junior primary school children as to the urban square. Data collection tools comprised semi-structured interviews, sketches and storytelling via puppet-animation. Our findings have shown that--according to…
Fairchild, Susan; Carrino, Gerard; Gunton, Brad; Soderquist, Chris; Hsiao, Andrew; Donohue, Beverly; Farrell, Timothy
New Visions for Public Schools has leveraged student-level data to help schools identify at-risk students, designed metrics to capture student progress toward graduation, developed data tools and reports that visualize student progress at different levels of aggregation for different audiences, and implemented real-time data systems for educators.…
This magazine offers an insight into the growing commercial innovation, civic movements, and political narratives surrounding sharing economy services, solutions and organisational types. It presents a cross-section of the manifold sharing economy services and solutions that can be found in Denmark....... Moreover, 15 thought leading experts - professionals and academic - have been invited to give their perspective on sharing economy for cities. This magazine touches upon aspects of the sharing economy as mobility, communities, sustainability, business development, mobility, and urban-rural relation....
Voelzke, M. R.; Faria, R. Z.; Pedroso, M.; Jacinto, C.; Silva, L. C. P.
The Johannes Kepler planetary, located at the SABINA Parque do Conhecimento in the City of Santo André, Brazil, has equipments that allow the teaching and diffusion of Astronomy. The attendances take place during the week for schools and at weekends for the public. The attending focus is on elementary students from Santo André’s municipal schools, kids between 6 and 10 years old. The pedagogical team created attendance models with specific matters for each age. The model is only incorporated into the planetary agenda after the municipal teacheŕs approval. This paper reports the establishment and approval of an attending project for 2nd grade students between September and November 2014. The workshops "My first spyglass" and "Creating my constellations" and the planetary session "Watching the Sky" were created. The Municipal Education Office received the project and passed it to the schools. From the 51 municipal schools, 13 took part sending 21 classes, totaling 521 students. The project included activities for the students, such as the construction of spyglasses out of cardboard which made them learn about constellations of yeaŕs seasons and enabled them to create their own constellations. During the schools permanency in the planetary, the teachers received a survey to evaluate the pilot project. The evaluation of the researched items allowed to classify them into satisfactory, partially satisfactory or unsatisfactory. The results were 95% satisfactory, considering the following aspects: used script, applied workshops, participation, concern and content uptake by the students; and a satisfactory rate of 100% about the used resources. Upon the approval, the pedagogical team included definitively this attendance into their agenda.
Sensorineural hearing loss in high school teenagers in Mexico City and its relationship with recreational noise Las alteraciones auditivas de escolares adolescentes en la Ciudad de México pueden estar relacionadas al ruido recreativo
María del Consuelo Martínez-Wbaldo
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure the frequency of hearing loss in a sample of typical public high-school students exposed to recreational noise, and determine associated risk factors. The sample was made up of 214 teenagers from a high-school in Mexico City; subjects were selected randomly per strata. We applied a questionnaire to identify risk factors for hearing loss and performed a battery of audiologic tests consisting of otoscopy, tympanometry, and pure-tone audiometry. The mean age of the sample was 16 ± 1.07 years; 73% were male and 27%, female. Hearing loss was found in 21% of students. The main hearing loss-related risk factor was exposure to recreational noise: frequent attendance at discotheques and pop-music concerts; use of personal stereos; and noise exposure in school workshops. The high frequency of hearing loss in high school students from one Mexico City school (nearly one fifth of the sample was found to be related to noise exposure mainly during recreational activities.El objetivo de este estudio fue medir la frecuencia de alteraciones auditivas en una muestra de escolares de educación media superior expuestos a ruido recreativo y determinar algunos factores de riesgo asociados. La muestra estuvo constituida por 214 adolescentes de una escuela de la Ciudad de México. Los sujetos fueron seleccionados al azar por medio de una computadora. Se aplicaron cuestionarios con el objeto de identificar los factores de riesgo para alteraciones auditivas y se les practicaron diversos estudios audiológicos consistentes en: otoscopía, timpanometría y una audiometría a tonos puros. La edad media de la muestra fue de 16 ± 1,07 años, 73% fueron del sexo masculino y 27% femenino. Se encontraron alteraciones auditivas en 21% de los estudiantes. Los principales factores de riesgo asociados a alteraciones auditivas fueron: exposición al ruido recreativo al asistir a discotecas, conciertos de música popular, el uso de equipos de
刘玉荣; 左志平; 黄华; 马继飞
[Objective]To study the risk factors of hypertension among primary and secondary school students in Baoding City.[Methods]With stratified random cluster sampling survey, primary and secondary school students in 50 chronic non-communicable diseases prevention and treatment demonstration zones were investigated in our city.[Results]The proportion of overweight and obesity, alcohol-drinking, smoking, passive smoking was 22.5%, 6.4%, 1.3%, 29.8% respectively. The ratio of Boys often eating fruits and vegetables was lower than that of girls, the ratio comparison of eating meat between genders was on the contrary (Both P＜0.01). Overweight and obesity, passive smoking, drinking were risk factors of hypertension (OR value, 95% CI, P values was 1.84,1.56～2.18,0.00;1.20,1.05～1.36,0.01;2.14,1.43～3.21,0.00 respectively).[Conclusion] Overweight and obesity, passive smoking, alcohol-drinking are main risk factors for hypertension of primary and secondary school students in Baoding City.%目的 了解保定市中小学生高血压病的危险因素.方法 对该市50个慢性非传染性疾病综合防治示范区的中小学生进行分层随机整群抽样调查.结果 超重肥胖、饮酒、吸烟、被动吸烟占调查人数的比率分别是22.5%、6.4%、1.3%、29.8%.男生经常吃蔬菜水果的比率低于女生,吃肉和饮酒的比率高于女生(均P＜0.01).超重肥胖、被动吸烟、饮酒是高血压的危险因素(OR值、95%CI和P值分别是1.84,1.56～2.18,0.00;1.20,1.05～1.36,0.01;2.14,1.43～3.21,0.00).结论 超重肥胖、被动吸烟、饮酒是保定市中小学生高血压病的主要危险因素.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of childhood obesity among adolescents has been rapidly rising in Mainland China in recent decades, especially in urban and rich areas. There is an urgent need to develop effective interventions to prevent childhood obesity. Limited data regarding adolescent overweight prevention in China are available. Thus, we developed a school-based intervention with the aim of reducing excess body weight in children. This report described the study design. Methods/design We designed a cluster randomized controlled trial in 8 randomly selected urban primary schools between May 2010 and December 2013. Each school was randomly assigned to either the intervention or control group (four schools in each group. Participants were the 4th graders in each participating school. The multi-component program was implemented within the intervention group, while students in the control group followed their usual health and physical education curriculum with no additional intervention program. The intervention consisted of four components: a classroom curriculum, (including physical education and healthy diet education, b school environment support, c family involvement, and d fun programs/events. The primary study outcome was body composition, and secondary outcomes were behaviour and behavioural determinants. Discussion The intervention was designed with due consideration of Chinese cultural and familial tradition, social convention, and current primary education and exam system in Mainland China. We did our best to gain good support from educational authorities, school administrators, teachers and parents, and to integrate intervention components into schools’ regular academic programs. The results of and lesson learned from this study will help guide future school-based childhood obesity prevention programs in Mainland China. Trial registration Registration number: ChiCTR-ERC-11001819
FISCHER, JOHN H.
TO ASSIST IN DESEGREGATION, VARIOUS MODELS FOR THE SCHOOL PARK ARE PROPOSED--(1) ASSEMBLING ALL STUDENTS AND SCHOOLS OF A SMALL OR MEDIUM-SIZED COMMUNITY ON A SINGLE CAMPUS, (2) SERVING ONE SECTION OF A LARGE CITY, (3) CENTERING ALL SCHOOL FACILITIES FOR A SINGLE LEVEL OF EDUCATION ON A SINGLE SITE, AND (4) ESTABLISHING RINGS OF SCHOOL PARKS ABOUT…
This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…
Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....
Al Harbi, Ayman
A \\'smart city\\' is an urban region that is highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure, sustainable real estate, communications and market viability. It is a city where information technology is the principal infrastructure and the basis for providing essential services to residents. Yanbu Industrial City- Smart City Project - First large scale smart city in The kingdom.
随着新课标的实施，体操项目在体育课中的开展也越来越少，体操项目的价值是不可置疑的，本文通过分析其中原因，为广州市小学体育课中顺利进行体操教学，提供一些参考建议。%With the implementation of new curriculum, gymnas-tics event is less and less in physical education, but the value of gymnastics event is not to be questioned. Through analyzing the causes, this paper provides some reference and suggestions for the smooth implementation of gymnastics teaching in primary school physical education in Guangzhou City.
Pehlke, Elisa L; Letona, Paola; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Gittelsohn, Joel
Developing countries have undergone transitions driven by globalization and development, accelerating increases in prevalence of overweight and obesity among children. Schools have been identified as effective settings for interventions that target children's dietary behaviors. In Guatemala, public schools commonly have food kiosks (Casetas) that sell products to children. From July through October 2013, observations during recess, in-depth interviews with school principals (n = 4) and caseta vendors (n = 4), and focus groups with children (n = 48) were conducted. This article explores products available to children at casetas. Factors that affect what casetas offer include regulations and enforcement, vendor investment and earnings, vendor resources, product demand, pricing, and children's preferences. These factors influence the products that are available and children's tendency to purchase them. Potential strategies for improvement include healthy food preparation, price manipulation and promotions, raffles and games to encourage healthier choices, and policy to push toward development of healthier products.
Indah Suci Anzarkusuma
RISKESDAS 2010 showed the prevalence of food consumption below 70% of Recommended Daily Intake (RDI 2004 was 40.6% while among school-age children was about 41.2 %. The prevalence of underweight (Body-Mass-Index for age = BMI/A was 7.6%; in Banten province was about 9.5%. This study aims to determine the differences of nutritional status among school aged children in relation to their dietary pattern in a primary school, District of Rajeg, Tangerang, Banten. This is a cross-sectional study. The population is a primary school children, with total respondent of 124 children. Dietary patterns and anthropometric measurements were conducted by trained junior nutritionists. Independent t-test, correlation and one-way Anova were employed to answer research questions. Most of respondent are male (53.2 % with an average 10 years of age and in mostly in 5th grade (62.1 %. Average value of Z –score BMI/Age was (-0.4 ± 1.8. About 53.2% have 3 meals a day, 94.4 % having breakfast, and if there is no breakfast at home (79% those students get their pocket money about 3200 ± 1400 rupiah/day. There is a difference OF nutritional status based on the frequency of meals (p< 0.05. There were no difference in nutritional status by sex, age, having breakfast at home, and no correlation with nominal allowances (p ≥ 0.05. Intensive counseling and nutrition education for school children should be given by teacher, especially information regarding the importance of breakfast or habit of bringing food or healthy snack, sanitation and personal hygiene. Keywords: Nutritional Status, Dietary Pattern, School Aged-children
Suggesting that women are at a disadvantage in cities and towns, discusses experiences of women at home, working women, women traveling, shopping, and growing old in cities. Includes suggestions for studying women in cities. (JN)
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — City Revenues and Expenses from the Operating Budget from 2012 to Present, updated every night from the City's JD Edwards ledger.
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pittsburgh City FacilitiesIncludes: City Administrative Buildings, Police Stations, Fire Stations, EMS Stations, DPW Sites, Senior Centers, Recreation Centers, Pool...
This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?
Reporting on a Talk I Gave Some Months Ago, the Headline in "La Opinion," Los Angeles' Premier Spanish Language Newspaper, Declared the City's School System "en crisis permanente." No One Wrote in to Disagree. The Claremont Letter. Volume 3, Issue 1
Kerchner, Charles T.
Reporting on a talk the author gave some months ago, the headline in "La Opinion," Los Angeles' premier Spanish language newspaper, declared the city's school system "en crisis permanente." No one wrote in to disagree. Indeed, at the end of "Learning from L.A.: Institutional Change in American Public Education" (Harvard Education Press) the author…
A E Amuabunos
Conclusion: The prevalence of ADHD in this study is relatively high. Community screening under the umbrella of the School Health Programme is required. Appropriate medications, educational support and psychotherapy when incorporated in the national health system will go a long way in redirecting affected children′s developmental lives.
The purpose of this study was to explore the association of NCLB/accountability with educational output and input for New York State, collectively. Focusing on ELA and Math achievement in 4th and 8th grades, this study demonstrated the association of accountability outcomes in three ways: "accountability design, school proficiency level, and…
Alexakos, Konstantinos; Jones, Jayson K.; Rodriguez, Victor H.
In this hermeneutic study we explore how fictive kinship (kin-like close personal friendship) amongst high school students of color mediated their resiliency, perseverance, and success in a college physics class. These freely chosen, processual friendships were based on emotional and material support, motivation, and caring for each other, as well…
Full Text Available : The mental health has a prominent role in psychosocial development in different periods of life, especially during adolescence. Mental disorders in adolescents can be related to different educational and non-educational factors. Therefore the aim of this study was to identify the educational and non-educational factors affecting the mental health of femal high school students in Bushehr. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 500 high school femal students evaluated with using multi-stage cluster random sampling. Information was collected by questionnaire with three-part including educational factors (suchas anxiety academic and educational motivation, non educational factors (suchas demographic characteristics and quality of life (SF-36 part. The data were analyzed with SPSS software by using appropriate statistical tests. In this study the mental health level was moderate (50.99±11, and mental health was associated with educational motivation, facilitator anxiety, the school years, educational branch, interest to educational branch, mother education, evaluation of educational counseling, and evaluation of non educational counseling. Maternal education, interest to educational branch, the evaluation of non-educational counseling, facilitating stress, the school year, and educational branch were predictors of mental health (R2= 0.107. According to the results, providing educational consulting for increasing interest to educational branch, also non educational consulting for reducing problems and designing stress management workshop are necessary to improve students' mental health.
Escolas eficazes na educação de jovens e adultos: estudo de casos na rede municipal do Rio de Janeiro Schools successful in the education of juveniles and adults: case studies from the city of Rio de Janeiro
Jaqueline Luzia da Silva
Full Text Available O artigo apresenta uma pesquisa que buscou identificar características de escolas que têm a capacidade de incidir positivamente no processo de alfabetização e na redução dos índices de evasão dos alunos da Educação de Jovens e Adultos (EJA. Foram analisadas três escolas da rede municipal do Rio de Janeiro que integram o Programa de Educação de Jovens e Adultos (PEJA e têm bons indicadores de aprendizagem, permanência e aprovação, à luz da literatura sobre a pesquisa em eficácia escolar. Os resultados mostram que as escolas eficazes na modalidade EJA tomam atitudes explícitas para promover a assiduidade dos alunos. Estas instituições são organizadas quanto à disciplina e orientação curricular, além de contar com equipes pedagógicas (diretores, coordenadores, orientadores e professores integradas e focadas no ensino e na aprendizagem. E mantêm altas expectativas em relação ao desempenho e à trajetória escolar dos alunos.The present work describes research carried out in order to identify a number of school characteristics having a positive influence on the literacy process as well as on reduction of school dropout rates from EJA (young people and adult education. Three municipal schools from Rio de Janeiro city, participating in PEJA (young people and adult education program, were investigated. According to the school effectiveness survey these institutions presented high levels of learning, improved grades and better attendance. The results show that the schools successfully following the EJA program, demonstrate unambiguously an attitude promoting students' diligence and also count on integrated pedagogical staff (directors, coordinators, counselors and teachers with a special focus on learning and teaching. Not to mention the fact that they are organized on the basis of, both: behavioral standards and national curriculum. Furthermore, they maintain high expectations in relation to the students' performance as
Hunter, Richard C.; Mazingo, Terri H.
Describes efforts by two school districts to address the potential threats of shootings and other school disruptions: Baltimore City Public Schools in Maryland and Charlotte-Mecklenburg Public Schools in North Carolina. Also describes the growing costs of providing safety and security in elementary and secondary schools. (Contains 13 references.)…
Carla Nascimento Luguetti
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were: a to evaluate indicators of physical fitness in children and adolescents according to chronological age and gender; b to classify their performance using the PROESP-BR normative tables. A total of 3145 randomly selected school children (1590 boys and 1555 girls, ranging in age from 7 to 16 years, were submitted to the following tests: distance covered in a 9-minute run, standing long jump test, medicine-ball throw, and 60-s situp test to measure abdominal muscle endurance. Significant differences were observed between genders at all chronological ages and also between boys of different chronological ages. In girls, no significant differences were observed between chronological ages, with performance tending to stabilize at 11/12 years of age. Classification of the participants according to the PROESP-BR normative tables showed that more than 50% of all subjects were below the 40th percentile in all tests, especially girls. The same tendency was observed when compared to other Brazilian studies. Considering mean values, it can be concluded that the school children studied, especially girls,presented a low level of physical fitness, thus indicating the need for health promotion programs in the midwest region of São Paulo City addressing physical activity.
馬渕, 浩一; Mabuchi, Koichi
This paper gives an account of "The Electric Vehicle Project", a science museum activity in cooperation with Nagoya Institute of Technology and major manufacturing companies. The project is intended to encourage Japanese high school students' interest in science and technology, based on Nagoya, Japan and Asia, the center of the manufacturing industries. The project contains three programs: 1) Students make practical lead acid batteries. 2) Students drive an electric vehicle of their own desig...
Aiman Farag Mohammed Ali; Siti Fatimah Muis; Suhartono Suhartono
Malnutrition, a major risk factor for a number of infectious diseases, including acute upper respiratory tract infections (AURTI), is common in developing countries. Nutritional status is an important index of the quality of life. Objectives:To analyze the correlation between food intake and health status to nutritional status of 9-11 years old children in Semarang. The study was a correlation study carried among school children in Semarang aged 9-11 years old. Data are presented in the descr...
Young British Bangladeshi women are often perceived as a marginalised, vulnerable group unlikely to succeed within the UK education system. Although achievement at GCSE level has improved significantly in recent years, female British Bangladeshis continue to be identified as an under-performing group at A-level and in higher education (Dale, 2002; Hussain, 2005). This article examines the educational experiences of a group of young British Bangladeshi women at one east London secondary school...
Ali Jafari Nodoushan
Full Text Available Introduction: ADHD is one of the most common disorders among school children throughout the world. Parents of these children are faced with more conflicts than normal children's parents. The Purpose of his study was to evaluate and compare the mental health status of mothers having children with attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder versus mental health of mothers having normal primary school children, Yazd, Iran. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 160 mothers of primary-school children who were selected through random cluster sampling; 80 of them had children with attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder and the remaining half had normal children. Also, for the diagnosis of children with attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder, the Conners test as well as test of General Mental Health (GHQ were used to measure mothers' mental health. The data were then analyzed in two levels of descriptive and inferential statistics (T-test and analysis of variance Results: Comparison of mental health and its subscales indicated that mothers of children with ADHD disorder were lower in all aspects of mental health than mothers of normal children. Conclution: According to the research results, mothers of children with attention deficit/hyperactive disorder have lower levels of mental health than mothers of normal children. So, it is recommended that education and health officials provide training courses for these parents to promote their mental health status and consequently their quality of family life.
Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen
An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...
J Gordon Millichap
The effects of participation in the school breakfast program by low income children on academic achievement and rates of absence and tardiness are reported from the Department of Pediatrics, Boston City Hospital, Boston, MA.
F. O. EZEOKOLI
Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of two methods of instruction on secondary school students’ critical response to Prose Literature text. The study adopted a pretest, posttest, control group quasi experimental design. The participants in the study were 84 Senior Secondary II students of Literature-in-English purposively selected from four Schools in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area of Edo State. Two intact classes were randomly assigned to each of the treatment and control groups. Three hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha level. The instruments used were: Critical Response to Prose Literature Test (r = .75, Questionnaire on Home Background of Students (r = .82, and Critical Response to Prose Literature Test Marking Guide. Data obtained were subjected to Analysis of Covariance and graph. The results showed significant main effect of treatment on students’ critical response to Prose Literature (F (1, 77 = 44.731; p < .05. Students exposed to Engagement Strategies Method performed better than those exposed to the Conventional Method of instruction. Further, home background of students had no significant effect on students’ critical response to Prose Literature text (F (2, 77 = 4.902; p < .05. There was significant interaction effect of treatment and home background of students on students’ critical response to Prose Literature text (F (2, 77 = 3.508; p < .05. It was concluded that Engagement Strategies Method is effective in promoting students’ critical response to Prose Literature text. Teachers of Literature-in-English should employ Engagement Strategies Method in teaching Prose Literature to students in Senior Secondary Schools.
M C Patel
Full Text Available Background and objective: dental trauma is an irreversible pathology that after occurrence is characterized by life-long debilitating effects. The objectives of this study were to measure the prevalence of anterior teeth fracture and their association with predisposing factors such as lip coverage, molar relationship, overjet, and variables such as age, sex, cause, and place of trauma. Materials and Methods: an epidemiological cross-sectional study was carried out among 3708 school children aged 8-13 years in the Vadodara city. All children completed a questionnaire related to history of trauma to their anterior teeth after which they were examined for lip competence, Angle′s molar relationship amount of overjet and nature of trauma sustained. The results were statistically analyzed using the prevalence test, Chi-square test, and Mantel-Haenszel Common Odds Ratio. Results: the prevalence of traumatic injuries was 8.79% and the ratio of boys: girl′s was 1.28:1. Inadequate lip coverage group sustained about five times more injuries than the adequate lip coverage group (P = 0.000, OR= 5.407. The maximum traumatic injuries were seen in children having Angle Class II Div 1 molar relationship and/or overjet greater than 5.5 mm and was statistically significant (P<0.05. Maximum number of injuries occurred at 9 years of age. The most predominant injuries were enamel fractures, the most common place for occurrence was home and fall against object, the most frequent cause. Conclusion: the prevalence of dental injuries in the Vadodara city is high and it has a great potential to be considered as an emerging public health problem.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental factors play a very important role in the child development process, especially in a situation like that of Iraq. Thirteen years of economic sanctions followed by the 2003 war and 8 years of unstable security have affected the daily life of Iraqi families and children. The objective of this study was to assess the associations between living environment domains and child intelligence quotient (IQ score. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 529 children aged 7–8 years from five primary schools in Baghdad during September–October, 2011. The five schools represent people living a range of conditions, and include of both high and low socio-economic groups. Living environment was assessed by 13 questionnaire items, consists of three domains: physical safety , mental stress and public services. While IQ was assessed by Raven Colored progressive matrices. Results Among the participants, 22% were of low intelligence versus 77% of high intelligence and 19% lived in a poor environment. There were significant associations between the mental stress and service living environment domains and child IQ (p = 0.009 and p = 0.001, respectively. Conclusion In Iraq, child IQ was found to be associated with the mental stress and service domains of the living environment. This study findings will help authorities in their efforts to improve living environment.
Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal; Isa, Zaleha Md; Aljunid, Syed; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Tamil, Azmi Mohd; Abdalqader, Mohammed A
Environmental factors play a very important role in the child development process, especially in a situation like that of Iraq. Thirteen years of economic sanctions followed by the 2003 war and 8 years of unstable security have affected the daily life of Iraqi families and children. The objective of this study was to assess the associations between living environment domains and child intelligence quotient (IQ) score. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 529 children aged 7-8 years from five primary schools in Baghdad during September-October, 2011. The five schools represent people living a range of conditions, and include of both high and low socio-economic groups. Living environment was assessed by 13 questionnaire items, consists of three domains: physical safety , mental stress and public services. While IQ was assessed by Raven Colored progressive matrices. Among the participants, 22% were of low intelligence versus 77% of high intelligence and 19% lived in a poor environment. There were significant associations between the mental stress and service living environment domains and child IQ (p = 0.009 and p = 0.001, respectively). In Iraq, child IQ was found to be associated with the mental stress and service domains of the living environment. This study findings will help authorities in their efforts to improve living environment.
Choudhary, Rahul; Sharma, Rajesh; Bhat, Manohar; Satish V; Khairwa, Abhishek; Solanki, Jitender
Dental caries and obesity are both multifactorial disease with a complex etiology and both are associated with dietary habits. Prevalence of dental caries and an association between body mass index (BMI) and dental caries among school children The present was done on 1500 school going children to assess the prevalence of dental caries in 12-15 year old overweight children. Weight and height were measured in light clothing and without shoes using an electronic weighing scale. Subjects’ heights were measured using a stadiometre. Subjects were examined on an upright chair in adequate natural daylight and dental caries was measured by using DMF index. Chi-square test was used to analyze and compare qualitative data whereas unpaired ‘t’ test was used to analyze and compare quantative data Amongst 1500 children, 156 were found to be overweight, 443 were normal weight. When mean BMI between overweight and normal weight were compared a highly significant difference was observed. When DMFT of overweight and normal weight were compared no significant difference was observed Dental caries was observed more in females as compared to males and no significant difference was observed between dental caries and weight gain
Widya Dwi Ariyani; Katharina Oginawati; Muhayatun Santoso; Diah Dwiana L; Endah Damastuti; Syukria Kurniawati; Natalia Adventini; Woro Yatu Niken S
Micronutrient elements contained in foods have an important role in the metabolism process in human body, so micronutrient element deficiencies can cause health problems and chronic diseases. Children are the population that generally more vulnerable in suffering of micronutrient deficiencies which have significant affects on their growth and development. Micronutrient deficiencies have long been happening in Indonesia but were not solved and the nutrition status data of children in Indonesia is still limited. Therefore, through this research the daily dietary intake of Ca, Fe and Zn micronutrient in school-aged children has been determined. Food sampling was carried out using duplicate diet method and the Fe and Zn elements were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) while the Ca was determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) method. The analysis results show the range concentration of Ca, Fe and Zn in food samples obtained were 307-1991; 10,1-95,5 and 11,9-29,4 mg/kg respectively, while the average of Ca, Fe and Zn daily intake were 228; 9.3 and 4.6 mg/day and they were only fulfill 28%, 74% and 39% of AKG (adequate value of nutrient). The Ca, Fe and Zn deficiencies were observed on school-aged children in Bandung. This result is expected to give description and information to the authority on planning and policies taking as efforts in quality improvement of the next human resources. (author)
Alexsandro Aparecido Sgobin
Full Text Available Este texto procura descrever experiências realizadas em uma escola da periferia de Campinas, tendo como inspiração a pedagogia libertária, ou anarquista. Com a consciência de que a implantação da própria pedagogia libertária em escolas sob o comando do Estado e, portanto imersas em uma ideologia capitalista, é praticamente impossível sugerir práticas de aula que busquem "anarquismos": movimentos, pensares, amores, batalhas que movimentem o pensamento e abram linhas de fuga, tocando as pretensões libertárias. No caso das experiências descritas neste texto, utilizamos, como possíveis anarquismos, fotografias de pichações que sofreram manipulação digital, tornando-se uma "hiper-realidade".This paper seeks to describe experiences in a school on the outskirts of Campinas, taking as inspiration the anarchist pedagogy. With the awareness that the implementation of anarchist pedagogy in public schools (immersed in a capitalist ideology is virtually impossible, we suggest classroom practices that seek for "anarchisms": movements, thoughts, love affairs, battles that move thought and open escape routes, touching the libertarian claims. In the case of the experiments described in this paper we use as possible anarchism photographs of "graffiti", which have undergone digital manipulation, making it a "hyperreality."
In February 2009, newly elected President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama visited Capital City Public Charter School in northwest Washington, D.C. This was the First Family's first official public-school visit, just a few short weeks after President Obama was sworn into office. Obama's enthusiastic support for charter schools was one of…
Xu, Fei; Wang, Xiaorong; Ware, Robert S; Tse, Lap Ah; Wang, Zhiyong; Hong, Xin; Chan, Emily Ying Yang; Li, Jiequan; Wang, Youfa
urgent development of effective interventions to prevent rapidly rising childhood obesity in China is needed. Between May 2010 and December 2013, a cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted among 4th graders in eight urban primary schools randomly assigned to intervention or control groups in Nanjing, China. A multi-component intervention program was implemented within the treatment group, while students in the control group followed their usual health education curriculum without additional intervention. At baseline, 638 and 544 students were enrolled in the intervention and control group, respectively. The prevalence of excess body weight was 26.8%, with 27.4% in the intervention group and 26.1% in the control group (p=0.61). The mean (SD) BMI and WC was 18.7 (3.0) and 63.0 (9.2) for participants in intervention schools, and 18.5 (2.9) and 63.6 (8.7) for students in control group, separately (p=0.24 and 0.41, respectively). Compared to those who were not aware of what lifestyle/behavior factors were unhealthy, students who were aware of the unhealthy lifestyle/ behavior factors consumed fewer fried snacks (0.46±0.76 serves/week vs 0.65±0.91 serves/week; p<0.01), soft drinks (160±194 ml/week vs 199±227 ml/week; p<0.01), but larger amount of meat (502±429 g/week vs 449±344 g/week; p=0.03), and reported less screen time (214±232 minutes/week vs 252±264 minutes/week; p<0.01). Moreover, there was no difference within physical activity time between these two groups (257±341 minutes/week vs 218±324 minutes/week; p=0.13). Main characteristics of participants were balanced at baseline within intervention and control schools, but a gap existed between healthy lifestyle knowledge and actual healthy behavior in students. ChiCTR-ERC-11001819.
Ghobadi, Saeed; Totosy de Zepetnek, Julia O; Hemmatdar, Zeinab; Bellissimo, Nick; Barati, Reza; Ahmadnia, Hoda; Salehi-Marzijarani, Mohammad; Faghih, Shiva
It has been reported that television (TV) viewing is associated with childhood obesity in Western countries. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between obesity and eating habits while watching TV among primary-school children in the Middle East. Cross-sectional. Children were recruited from primary schools of four educational districts in Shiraz, Iran. Anthropometric indices of mass (kg) and height (m) were measured, and BMI (percentile) was calculated. Demographic characteristics, TV viewing behaviours and physical activity data were collected from parents during face-to-face interviews and a 3d dietary record was completed. Subject Children (n 607) aged 6-10 years. Mean (sd) age of children was 8·16 (1·37) years, of whom 9·1 and 8·4 % were overweight and obese, respectively. Children who spent ≥2 h watching TV on weekdays (OR=1·99; 95 % CI 1·09, 3·60) and weekend days (OR=1·86; 95 % CI 1·01, 3·43) had higher odds of being obese, even after adjusting for physical activity. Children who ate breakfast while watching TV had higher odds of being overweight v. those who did not watch TV while eating breakfast (OR=2·70; 95 % CI 1·02, 7·60). There were no associations between TV viewing during other meals (lunch and dinner) and overweight/obesity. TV viewing for ≥2 h daily increases the risk of being obese in Iranian children aged 6-10 years, independent of physical activity. Further, breakfast consumption while watching TV may increase the risk of overweight/obesity, independent of total TV viewing time.
Effect of oral health education in the form of Braille and oral health talk on oral hygiene knowledge, practices, and status of 12–17 years old visually impaired school girls in Pune city: A comparative study
Bhor, K.; Shetty, V.; Garcha, V.; Nimbulkar, G. C.
Aim: To assess the effect of oral health education (OHE) in the form of Braille and combination with Oral health talk (OHT) on oral hygiene knowledge, practices, and status of 12–17 years old visually impaired school girls in Pune city. Materials and Methods: A 6-week comparative study was conducted among 74 residential visually impaired school girls aged 12–17 years, who were trained to read Braille. The participants were divided into two groups, namely, Group A (n = 37) receiving OHE only in the form of Braille and Group B (n = 37) receiving OHE in form of Braille and OHT at baseline, 2, and 4-week interval. Oral health knowledge was assessed using a self-administered, pre-validated, pre-tested questionnaire typed in Marathi Braille. Assessment of oral hygiene practices and status was done using standardized proforma and simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S), respectively, at baseline and at the end of 6 weeks. Data was analyzed using paired and unpaired Student's t-test. Results: The results showed a statistically significant increase in oral health knowledge levels in Group B (4.95 ± 1.66) as compared to Group A (2.97 ± 1.28). There was a significant increase in the frequency of mouth-rinsing in Group B (97.3%) as compared to Group A (86.5%) as well as in the tongue cleaning practice in Group B (100%) as compared to Group A (81.1%) at the end of 6 weeks. Conclusion: OHE in the form of Braille and OHT was more effective than OHE using only Braille. PMID:27891313
Effect of oral health education in the form of Braille and oral health talk on oral hygiene knowledge, practices, and status of 12-17 years old visually impaired school girls in Pune city: A comparative study.
Bhor, K; Shetty, V; Garcha, V; Nimbulkar, G C
To assess the effect of oral health education (OHE) in the form of Braille and combination with Oral health talk (OHT) on oral hygiene knowledge, practices, and status of 12-17 years old visually impaired school girls in Pune city. A 6-week comparative study was conducted among 74 residential visually impaired school girls aged 12-17 years, who were trained to read Braille. The participants were divided into two groups, namely, Group A ( n = 37) receiving OHE only in the form of Braille and Group B ( n = 37) receiving OHE in form of Braille and OHT at baseline, 2, and 4-week interval. Oral health knowledge was assessed using a self-administered, pre-validated, pre-tested questionnaire typed in Marathi Braille. Assessment of oral hygiene practices and status was done using standardized proforma and simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S), respectively, at baseline and at the end of 6 weeks. Data was analyzed using paired and unpaired Student's t -test. The results showed a statistically significant increase in oral health knowledge levels in Group B (4.95 ± 1.66) as compared to Group A (2.97 ± 1.28). There was a significant increase in the frequency of mouth-rinsing in Group B (97.3%) as compared to Group A (86.5%) as well as in the tongue cleaning practice in Group B (100%) as compared to Group A (81.1%) at the end of 6 weeks. OHE in the form of Braille and OHT was more effective than OHE using only Braille.
Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-
Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)
Jerusalem is more than an intriguing global historical city; it is a classroom for liberal learning and international understanding. It had never been a city of one language, one religion and one culture. Looking at the origins of Jerusalem's name indicates its international and multicultural nature. While Israelis designate Jerusalem as their…
La imagen profesional del bibliotecario escolar la percepción de los directivos y la autopercepción de los bibliotecarios de las escuelas primarias de la ciudad de Rafaela, Santa Fe The School Librarian's Professional Image: The Perception of Headmasters and Self-Perceptions of Librarians in Primary Schools in The City of Rafaela, Santa Fe
Fabiana María Jaime
Full Text Available Se analiza la imagen profesional del bibliotecario escolar desde la percepción de los directivos y la autopercepción de los bibliotecarios de las escuelas primarias de la ciudad de Rafaela, Santa Fe. De allí se desprenden, como objetivos específicos, analizar la formación profesional del bibliotecario, la imagen ante la sociedad, el rol específico actual, la comunicación con los directivos de escuela, el interés de estos por la función del bibliotecario escolar, la relación con toda la comunidad educativa y las políticas bibliotecarias que rigen el trabajo bibliotecario. Se trata de un estudio crítico descriptivo, con un enfoque cuantitativo. El procedimiento metodológico utilizado es el empírico-deductivo. El universo y la población de estudio, son diez escuelas de la ciudad de Rafaela con bibliotecarios de cargo oficial y título profesional. Se concluye que la imagen que los directivos poseen de los bibliotecarios escolares está desdibujada. Reconocen la capacidad profesional de los bibliotecarios escolares pero no les ofrecen el acompañamiento y las herramientas imprescindibles para desplegar su máximo potencial. Sin embargo, los bibliotecarios fortalecen esta imagen debilitada. De igual modo, la inestabilidad en la implementación de políticas bibliotecarias desde la institución escolar y la carencia de figura legal de bibliotecario escolar para el Estado no brindan oportunidad para reforzar la imagen profesional del bibliotecario escolar.This work examines the professional image of school librarian of the city of Rafaela, Santa Fe. Their specific objectives are to analyse the training of librarians, the image in society, the specific role today, the communication with school headmasters, their interest in the role of school librarian, the relationship with all the educational community and library policies governing library work. This is a critical descriptive and quantitative approach and a design field that extracts
Alexakos, Konstantinos; Jones, Jayson K.; Rodriguez, Victor H.
In this hermeneutic study we explore how fictive kinship (kin-like close personal friendship) amongst high school students of color mediated their resiliency, perseverance, and success in a college physics class. These freely chosen, processual friendships were based on emotional and material support, motivation, and caring for each other, as well as trust, common interests, and goals. Such close bonds contributed in creating a safe and supportive emotional space and allowed for friendly, cooperative competition within the physics classroom. Friends became the role models, source of support, and motivation for the fictive kinship group as well as for each other, as the group became the role model, source of support, and motivation for the individuals in it. Because of their friendships with one another, physics talk was extended and made part of their personal interactions outside the classroom. These social relationships and safe spaces helped the students cope and persevere despite their initial conflicting expectations of their success in physics. Our research thus expands on the concept of social learning by exploring student friendships and how they frame and mediate such a process.
Tolan, Patrick; Lovegrove, Peter; Clark, Eren
Studies of predictors of development of young men of color have been primarily focused on factors that impede positive development rather than factors that promote it. There are also few examples of longitudinal studies of positive development of this population and few that consider multiple protective factors simultaneously. Little is also known about how such positive outcomes might relate to prediction of problematic functioning. This study tests a developmental-ecological framework of positive and risky development among a sample of young men of color growing up in high-risk urban environments. African American and Latino adolescent males (148 African American, 193 Latino) were followed from early to late adolescence. Stress in early adolescence was related to school engagement and prosocial values as well as depressive symptoms and problems assessed 2 years later. The role of family and individual protective factors as direct effects and as mitigating the stress-outcome relation were also tested. Stress predicted problem outcomes but not positive functioning. Early engagement in prosocial activities and coping skills did predict positive outcomes. In contrast, problem outcomes were predicted directly by stress, with some indication of interaction with some protective factors for both such outcomes. Overall results suggest value in focusing on positive outcomes along with negative outcomes, as they are not the antithesis and have some shared but some different predictors. Implications for supporting positive development are presented. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Al Harbi, Ayman
A 'smart city' is an urban region that is highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure, sustainable real estate, communications and market viability. It is a city where information technology is the principal infrastructure and the basis
important part of city planning is also learning from other cities, e.g., through the bench-learning, defining ..... Integrated semantics service platform ...... order to provide the best services to customers, their different needs and preferences ...
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Trees cared for and managed by the City of Pittsburgh Department of Public Works Forestry Division. Tree Benefits are calculated using the National Tree Benefit...
Following President Trump's withdrawal from the Paris Agreement, cities worldwide have pledged support to combat climate change. Along with a growing coalition of businesses and institutions, cities represent a beacon of hope for carbon reduction in politically tumultuous times.
Mar 6, 2018 ... As cities expand, climate change compounds the stress on poor communities that already ... Ensure that our research partners are engaging with the best international networks on urban climate ... Siblings paddling to school.
Donham van Deusen, Jean; Langhorne, Mary Jo
Describes the Community Reading Month (CRM) initiative in Iowa City, Iowa; its goals are to promote the value of reading and to build a sense of community. Topics include the development of CRM, increased reading scores of Iowa City's elementary school students, activities for people of all ages, and planning and evaluation. (AEF)
London is one of the most complex, dynamic and diverse cities in the world, with 8 million residents, over 300 languages spoken in its schools, and some 30 million overseas visitors every year. Reaching out to and connecting all these people with the city's heritage while catering to their many interests, motivations and learning needs is a huge…
Read, S.A.; Sezer, C.
The models we use for understanding the city have changed since the early 20th century when the social-spatial researchers of the Chicago School elaborated their idea of ‘urban ecologies’. Technological, social and urban changes mean we can no longer understand processes of economy, community,
At the midpoint of a five-year program of research, experts working through the Safe and Inclusive Cities initiative are shedding light on what works — and what doesn't ... and schools are no longer safe or easy to reach, and new environments.
Ghazal Motazed Keyvani
Full Text Available Background Nowadays, one of the principal difficulties faced by educational systems worldwide is anxiety, a mental problem, which is evidently difficult to be endured by many students and leads to various types of mental and physical disorders or reduction of educational efficiency, and has gained attention of sociologists for its consequent psychological, social, and economical impacts. Objectives The current study aimed at predicting exam anxiety based on meta-cognitive beliefs and learning methods among high school students of Bandar Abbas. Methods The study population included 351 students (197 males and 154 females, who were selected randomly by the cluster approach and answered the research tools including Meta-Cognitive Beliefs Questionnaires (MCQ-30, Learning methods questionnaires of Marton and Saljoo (1996 and also test anxiety questionnaire of Alpert and Haber (1960. The study plan was correlative-descriptive. Pearson simple correlation coefficient, multi variable regression, and multi variable variance analysis were used to analyze the obtained data. Results The study results indicated that there was a positive significant relationship between meta-cognitive beliefs and exam anxiety, a negative significant relationship between profound learning and learning methods and exam anxiety, and a positive significant relationship between smattering learning method and exam anxiety. The regression exam results also revealed that meta-cognitive beliefs and smattering learning methods could positively predict and determine exam anxiety in students. A significant relationship was observed between meta-cognitive beliefs in females and males, and female students showed greater intention and interest toward meta-cognitive beliefs than males, however, no significant difference was observed between learning methods and exam anxiety in females and males. Conclusions It was concluded from the study results that profound learning methods lead to the
Doevendans, C.H.; Schram, A.L.
A distinction between basic archetypes of urban form was made by Bruno Fortier: the accumulation city as opposed to the creation city. These archetypes derive from archaeology - being based on the Roman and the Egyptian city - but are interpreted as morphological paradigms, as a set of assumptions
赵连志; 赵凌云; 王晶; 张凤英
目的 了解和明确承德市中学生健康危险行为的现状和影响因素,为制定有效的干预措施提供科学依据.方法 采用整群分层抽样的方法抽取2 183名中学生为研究对象,其中男生1 065人,女生1 118人,采用“中国城市青少年健康相关行为调查问卷”进行调查.结果 不健康饮食的报告率为32.30％,吸烟、饮酒的报告率分别为13.19％和27.44％,打架、住宿、家庭情况也会对其产生较大影响.药物滥用的报告率为3.48％,每周体力活动少于3次的报告率为57.81％,长时间上网的报告率为9.34％.伤害行为中以骑自行车违规,步行违规,打架为主.结论 承德市中学生中主要健康危险行为均有发生,应该加强教育,保证其健康成长.%OBJECTIVE To study the present situation and the influencing factors of health-endangered behaviors of middle school students in the downtown of Chengde city, and then to provide informative foundation for the related departments when making injury prevention for the students. METHODS 2 183 middle school students were selected by using the method of Cluster stratified sampling as the research object, including 1 065 boys and 1 118 girls. Questionnaire of "health-related behaviors of Chinese urban youth questionnaire" was used. RESULTS The report rate of unhealthy diet was 32.30%, the report rate of smoking and drinking alcohol were 13.19% and 27.44%. Fight, accommodation, family will also had great influence on them. The report rate of drug abuse was 3.48%, the report rate of weekly physical activity less than three times was 57.81% and the report rate of long time online was 9.34%. Illegal ride, walk and fight were given priority to the act of damage. CONCLUSION Major health-endangered behaviors 1 have happened among the middle school students in the downtown of Chengde city, we should strengthen the education and ensure the healthy growth of them.
Full Text Available We present our approach on how smart city technologies may enhance the learning process. We have developed the CLIO urban computing system, which invites people to share personal memories and interact the collective city memory. Various educational scenarios and activities were performed exploiting CLIO; in this paper we present the methodology we followed and the experience we gained. Learning has always been the cognitive process of acquiring skills or knowledge, while teachers are often eager to experiment with novel technological means and methods; our aim was to explore the effect that urban computing could have to the learning process. We applied our methodology in the city of Corfu inviting schools to engage their students in learning through the collective city memory while exploiting urban computing. Results from our experience demonstrate the potential of exploiting urban computing in the learning process and the benefits of learning out of the classroom.
Duncan, Dennis W.; Collins, Ashley; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.; Knauft, David Alan; Berle, David C.
School gardens have been an active part of United States schools since 1890, when the first school garden was established in Roxbury, Massachusetts. Since the turn of the 20th century school gardens have greatly expanded to include inner city schools in some of the largest metropolitan areas of the country. Since the early 1990s, school gardens…
Fayemi Mojisola M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Young people are becoming increasingly exposed to the risk of HIV infection. According to the 2008 HIV/Syphilis sentinel survey in Nigeria, 3.3% of young people aged 15-19 years are infected. Primary prevention especially abstinence, remains one of the most realistic interventions for reducing further spread of the virus. However, the adoption of sexual abstinence as a prevention strategy among adolescents remains low and factors influencing its practice among urban young people in Nigeria are relatively unknown. The aim of the study was to document the sexual abstinence behaviour of in-school adolescents, the factors influencing or obstructing abstinence, and knowledge of HIV and AIDS in Ibadan, South-West Nigeria. Methods The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey of students in Ibadan South-West Local Government Area. A total of 420 respondents (52% males and 48% females, selected through a multistage sampling technique, completed a semi-structured questionnaire. This was supplemented with eight focus group discussions (FGDs which had an average of 9 respondents within the 10 and 19 years age group. The data from the FGDs were transcribed and summarized manually while the quantitative data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences to generate frequencies, cross tabulations of variables and logistic regression analysis. Results Twelve percent of the entire sample had ever had sex. Overall, knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention was high and most respondents favoured the promotion of abstinence as an HIV prevention strategy. A smaller proportion of male respondents (79% abstained compared with the females (98%. Major predictors of sexual abstinence were being a female, not having a boyfriend or girl friend, not using alcohol and having a positive attitude towards abstinence (P Sexual abstinence was also significantly associated with perceived self efficacy to refuse sex and negative
Lorenzen, Mark; Vaarst Andersen, Kristina
and exhibits a tendency of congregating in major cities with diverse service and cultural offers and tolerance to non-mainstream lifestyles. However, we find that a range of smaller Danish cities also attract the creative class. Second, we undertake qualitative interviews that facilitate theory building. We...... suggest that many creatives are attracted by the smaller cities' cost advantages, specialized job offers, attractive work/life balances, and authenticity and sense of community. The article synthesizes its results into four stylized types of creative cities, and concludes by discussing the policy...... challenges associated with these different cities....
Johnson, Bjørn; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Hansen, Jens Aage
There is a strong connection between economic growth and development of cities. Economic growth tends to stimulate city growth, and city economies have often shaped innovative environments that in turn support economic growth. Simultaneously, social and environmental problems related to city growth...... can be serious threats to the realization of the socio-economic contributions that cities can make. However, as a result of considerable diversity of competences combined with interactive learning and innovation, cities may also solve these problems. The ‘urban order’ may form a platform...... for innovative problem solving and potential spill-over effects, which may stimulate further economic growth and development. This paper discusses how waste problems of cities can be transformed to become part of new, more sustainable solutions. Two cases are explored: Aalborg in Denmark and Malmö in Sweden...
configuration of a space for interaction. Hertzberger´s work confirms a commitment with the child as the centre of the learning process. Moreover, the architect demonstrates major interest in collective values, together with an understanding of architecture as a basis-foundation for freedom. His direct precedents are the ideas of his teacher, Aldo van Eyck. However, it is in his educational architecture where these can be radically observed. The numerous projects that he has designed cover all the phases of the educational process: from those of early childhood to university studies. In these projects he has developed a wide repertoire of design strategies linked to the Active school and the Montessori Method. His extensive work allows him to try out the full scope of the idea of a building being like a city, by blurring the limits between public and private space, the school and its environment, in a journey that crosses from the classroom to the city.
Full Text Available Progressive cities worldwide have demonstrated political leadership by initiating meaningful strategies and actions to tackle climate change. However, the lack of knowledge concerning embodied greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of cities has hampered effective mitigation. We analyse trans-boundary GHG emission transfers between five Australian cities and their trading partners, with embodied emission flows broken down into major economic sectors. We examine intercity carbon footprint (CF networks and disclose a hierarchy of responsibility for emissions between cities and regions. Allocations of emissions to households, businesses and government and the carbon efficiency of expenditure have been analysed to inform mitigation policies. Our findings indicate that final demand in the five largest cities in Australia accounts for more than half of the nation’s CF. City households are responsible for about two thirds of the cities’ CFs; the rest can be attributed to government and business consumption and investment. The city network flows highlight that over half of emissions embodied in imports (EEI to the five cities occur overseas. However, a hierarchy of GHG emissions reveals that overseas regions also outsource emissions to Australian cities such as Perth. We finally discuss the implications of our findings on carbon neutrality, low-carbon city concepts and strategies and allocation of subnational GHG responsibility.
Walkiria Gonçalves Reganhan
Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esse estudo identificar o perfil de professores de ensino regular da cidade de Marília que tinham alunos com deficiências matriculados em suas salas de aula, bem como o perfil da clientela atendida por estes professores. Participaram do estudo 68 professores da cidade de Marília - SP que tinham alunos com deficiência matriculados em suas salas. O instrumento de coleta de dados utilizado foi um questionário contendo 13 questões divididas em 2 partes: 1 identificação dos participantes e 2 identificação dos alunos com deficiência. Os dados colhidos nos questionários foram submetidos à análise da freqüência absoluta e relativa. Foram identificadas 10 categorias. De acordo com os resultados dessa pesquisa, concluiu-se que a inserção do aluno com deficiência no ensino regular ocorre com a modificação da formação que favorece ao profissional o conhecimento e a compreensão das distintas formas de aprendizagem do seu alunado, a fim de estruturar sua própria prática pedagógica para atender, com qualidade, a diversidade.The aim of this study was to identify the profile of regular school teachers of Marília-SP, who have students with disabilities registered in their classrooms, as well as to identify the clientele these teachers were working with. Sixty eight teachers participated in the study in the city of Marília - SP, all of whom had students with disabilities in their classrooms. The instrument used to collect data was a questionnaire with 13 questions divided in 2 parts: 1 identification of participants and 2 identification of students with disabilities. The data was submitted to analysis of absolute and relative frequency. Ten categories were identified. We were able to conclude, based on the results of the study, that the inclusion of students with disabilities in regular school occurs due to changes in teacher development that enable professionals to acquire knowledge and understanding of the distinct
Podoll, Sue; Randle, Darcy
The Rapid City Academy is the alternative high school program for South Dakota's Rapid City Area Schools, which has an enrollment of about 13,000 K-12 students, with five middle schools feeding two large traditional high schools and the alternative program. A high percentage of students at the academy are considered "at-risk" due to…
Sparks, Sarah D.
The first round of this year's high-school-match notifications in New York City's massive, district-wide school choice process went out to students this month, sparking celebration, consternation, and a renewal of concerns about unequal access to the city's best schools. The Big Apple's school-matching system is certainly on a New York scale, with…
City Management Efficiency Indexes of China's 200 Cities and Provinces [CMEICN 2007]——Issued by World Economy Research Centre of BTBU School of Economics(WERCCN) & China Economy Index Center of Beijing Circulation Industry Research Centre(BCEIC)[The firs part
Ji; Zhu; Wang; Shuang; Man; Yuanchao; Dang; Xiaohui; Liu; Kuankuan
In the 21st century, China has entered into an era in which city is the principal part of development. Cities, as the basic unit of a country's social and economic development, undertake multiple functions such as political, social,economic and environmental management.……
City Management Efficiency Indexes of China's 200 Cities and Provinces [CMEICN 2007]——Issued by World Economy Research Centre of BTBU School of Economics(WERCCN) & China Economy Index Center of Beijing Circulation Industry Research Centre(BCEIC)[The firs part
@@ In the 21st century, China has entered into an era in which city is the principal part of development. Cities, as the basic unit of a country's social and economic development, undertake multiple functions such as political, social,economic and environmental management.
This is a review article on "Healthy Cities". The Healthy Cities programme has been developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to tackle urban health and environmental issues in a broad way. It is a kind of comprehensive policy package to carry out individual projects and activities effectively and efficiently. Its key aspects include healthy public policy, vision sharing, high political commitment, establishment of structural organization, strategic health planning, intersectoral collaboration, community participation, setting approach, development of supportive environment for health, formation of city health profile, national and international networking, participatory research, periodic monitoring and evaluation, and mechanisms for sustainability of projects. The present paper covered the Healthy Cities concept and approaches, rapid urbanization in the world, developments of WHO Healthy Cities, Healthy Cities developments in the Western Pacific Region, the health promotion viewpoint, and roles of research.
This paper presents the results of a study on the understanding of the term information literacy of primary and secondary school students, from the fifth grade of elementary school to the fourth year of high school at the local level, and who are members of the City Library in Imotski. The study examined 98 members of the City Library, through a…
Marsh, Julie A.; Springer, Matthew G.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Yuan, Kun; Epstein, Scott; Koppich, Julia; Kalra, Nidhi; DiMartino, Catherine; Peng, Art
In the 2007-2008 school year, the New York City Department of Education and the United Federation of Teachers jointly implemented the Schoolwide Performance Bonus Program in a random sample of the city's high-needs public schools. The program lasted for three school years, and its broad objective was to improve student performance through…
Hoffman, Steven; Marsiglia, Flavio F; Nevarez, Lucinda; Porta, Maria
Health literacy (HL) is recognized as an important health construct that is correlated with various health-related outcomes, but outside of the United States there is limited HL research available, particularly among youth. This study looked at the HL and harmful health behavior (i.e., substance use) of 210 youth across 10 schools in Guatemala City. Based on results from the Newest Vital Sign (NVS) HL assessment, fewer than one third of youth sampled had adequate HL. Training/education to improve adolescent HL is needed in Guatemala City, and the unique skillset of social workers could be an idea method of reaching at-risk youth.
Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities.
is increas- ingly based in and on cities rather than nations, and cities compete for businesses, branding, tourists and talent. In the western world, urbanisation has happened simultane- ously to de-industrialisation, which has opened industrial neighbourhoods and harbours for new uses – often focus- ing......There are over 20 cities world-wide with a population of over 10 million people. We have entered ‘The Millennium of the City’. The growth of urban populations has been accompanied by profound changes of the cities’ economic and social profile and of the cities themselves. The world economy...
de Fatima D'Assumpcao Castro, Maria; Alves, Luiz Anastacio
The introduction of computer technology has touched off an actual revolution for teaching and learning activities. In the present study, we investigated the impact of the implementation and use of computers in the public school system, from the elementary grades to high school, in Niteroi city, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). This city, with a total…
I define big data with respect to its size but pay particular attention to the fact that the data I am referring to is urban data, that is, data for cities that are invariably tagged to space and time. I argue that this sort of data are largely being streamed from sensors, and this represents a sea change in the kinds of data that we have about what happens where and when in cities. I describe how the growth of big data is shifting the emphasis from longer term strategic planning to short-term thinking about how cities function and can be managed, although with the possibility that over much longer periods of time, this kind of big data will become a source for information about every time horizon. By way of conclusion, I illustrate the need for new theory and analysis with respect to 6 months of smart travel card data of individual trips on Greater London's public transport systems.
The future of the cities has been under discussion since the first city. It has been typical in every civilisation and era to hope for a better city. Creek philosopher Platon created image of future city where all men were equal and the city was ruled by philosophers minds. Many philosopher or later social scientist have ended up to similar "hope to be city". The form and type of the better city has depended from creators of those future city images. The creators have had their future city im...
By 2008, New York City's school governing regime contained two market-creation policies. Each reshaped principal incentives. One closed large high schools, replacing them with four-to-eight small schools. Another replaced uniform district-provided services with eleven School Support Organizations (SSOs). Both aimed to empower principals with new…
O planejamento do "Recreio nas Férias" na cidade Paulista de Americana Planning for the program "leisure during the school break" ("Recreio nas Férias" in the brazilian city of Americana, state of São Paulo
Nayara Torre de Almeida
Full Text Available O presente artigo constitui um relato de experiência do processo de planejamento e implementação do projeto "Recreio nas Férias" em um dos núcleos do Programa Segundo Tempo, localizado no bairro Vila Jones na cidade Paulista de Americana. O Projeto "Recreio nas Férias" é uma iniciativa do Ministério do Esporte, implantada em 2009 com o objetivo de, no período de férias escolares, oferecer às crianças e adolescentes participantes do programa, opções de esporte e lazer (e.g., atividades lúdicas, esportivas, artísticas, culturais, sociais e turísticas que "preencham o seu tempo livre de forma prazerosa e ao mesmo tempo construtiva" (BRASIL, 2010. Confrontando tais objetivos com os estudos mais atuais no campo do lazer é possível perceber que, no campo das políticas públicas, ainda permanece a visão histórica que tende a tratar o lazer como ocupação do tempo ocioso, principalmente quando se trata das propostas voltadas às classes populares. Isso fica evidente na preocupação explícita de "preencher o tempo livre", enfatizando seu caráter ocupacional. Nesse sentido, tecemos algumas aproximações com estudos de Silva (2003, 2008 e Marcellino (1995, 2001, 2008 compreendendo o lazer como uma das possibilidades de vivência do lúdico e construção da cidadania, ou seja, buscando responder a seguinte questão: pode o lazer assumir outro papel, senão este "ocupacional" historicamente observado nas políticas de esporte e lazer voltadas às classes populares?This study reports the planning and the implementation of the program "Recreio nas Férias" in one of the centers of the program "Second Half" ("Programa Segundo Tempo", located in Vila Jones in the Brazilian city of Americana, State of São Paulo. The program "Leisure During the School Break" ("Recreio nas Férias" is a project of the Ministry of Sports, lounged in 2009. The aim was, during the school break, to provide children and adolescents with sports and leisure
万忠伟; 杨斌; 陈艳
文章通过了解岳阳市中学生健康危险行为流行现状和特点，为控制和预防中学生健康危险行为提供依据.文章统一使用中国疾病预防控制中心提供的“中国青少年健康相关行为调查问卷”和调查方法进行现场调查，采用Spss8.0软件进行统计分析.结果表明：在被调查学生中，曾尝试吸烟率为36.31%，吸烟年龄≤13岁的报告率为28.54%，目前吸烟率为13.76%.曾尝试饮酒率为48.11%，饮酒年龄≤13岁的报告率为30.06%，目前饮酒率为30.21%.上网率为40.59%.结论认为：随着年龄的增长，中学生的健康危险行为呈上升趋势，应针对不同性别、年龄、城乡特点提出相应的健康行为指导，增强学生自我保护意识.%The paper studies popular situation and characteristics of the health risk behaviors among middle school students in Yueyang city, for purpose of controlling and preventing of middle school students health risk behaviors. The study applies"the Chinese adolescent health related behavior questionnaire" provided by Chinese disease prevention and control center to do the survey, using SPSS 8.0 software for statistical analysis. The results show that in the students being investigated, the proportion of trying to smoking is 36.31%,smoking age≤13 report rate is 28.54%, at present smoking is 13.76%. The rate of trying to alcohol consumption is 48.11%, the drinking age≤13 report rate is 30.06%, the drinking rate is 30.21%. internet surfing rate is 40.59%. the study conclusion finds that with the growth of the age, middle school students health risk behavior shows ascendant trend, we should according to different gender, age, urban and rural characteristics put forward the corresponding health behavior guidance, strengthen students' protection consciousness.
Brief reviews of six notable education books selected by the editors of "American School Board Journal." Includes books such as Rachel Simmons's "Odd Girl Out: The Hidden Culture of Aggression in Girls," Jonathan Schorr's "Hard Lessons: The Promise of an Inner City Charter School," Peter Irons's "Jim Crow's Children: The Broken Promise of the…
Apr 23, 2002 ... Schools Water Efficiency Project in February 2003, which supports several of the City's Water Demand ... of automatic flushing urinals (AFUs) alone in schools can save up .... to go back into the bag as the cistern is filling.
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — School enrollment data are used to assess the socioeconomic condition of school-age children. Government agencies also require these data for funding allocations...
Unknown, [Unknown; Nijholt, A.; Nijholt, Antinus
In this book, we address the issue of playfulness and playability in intelligent and smart cities. Playful technology can be introduced and authorized by city authorities. This can be compared and is similar to the introduction of smart technology in theme and recreational parks. However, smart
Kleiman, Neil; Forman, Adam; Ko, Jae; Giles, David; Bowles, Jonathan
With Washington trapped in budget battles and partisan gridlock, cities have emerged as the best source of government innovation. Nowhere is this more visible than in New York City. Since taking office in 2002, Mayor Bloomberg has introduced a steady stream of innovative policies, from a competition to recruit a new applied sciences campus and a…
in informing understandings and imaginings of the modern city. The author critically examines influential traditions in western Europe associated with such figures as Ebenezer Howard and Le Corbusier, uncovering the political interests, desires and anxieties that lay behind their ideal cities, and drawing out...
Gautier, Pieter; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen
Do people move to cities because of marriage market considerations? In cities singles can meet more potential partners than in rural areas. Singles are therefore prepared to pay a premium in terms of higher housing prices. Once married, the marriage market benefits disappear while the housing...
This study examined the factors that are related to collaboration between high school social workers and substance abuse prevention/intervention counselors in New York State high schools (except for New York City high schools). Constructs that were analyzed were high school social workers' perceived adequacy in working with high school students'…
This article reflects on the challenges for urban planning posed by the emergence of smart cities in network societies. In particular, it reflects on reductionist tendencies in existing smart city planning. Here the concern is with the implications of prior reductions of complexity which have been...... undertaken by placing primacy in planning on information technology, economical profit, and top-down political government. Rather than pointing urban planning towards a different ordering of these reductions, this article argues in favor of approaches to smart city planning via complexity theory....... Specifically, this article argues in favor of approaching smart city plans holistically as topologies of organized complexity. Here, smart city planning is seen as a theory and practice engaging with a complex adaptive urban system which continuously operates on its potential. The actualizations in the face...
Full Text Available This article explores new dimensions of the global city in light of the correlation between hegemonic transition and the prominence of financial centers. It counterposes Braudels historical sequence of dominant cities to extant approaches in the literature, shifting the emphasis from a convergence of form and function to variations in history and structure. The marked increase of finance in the composition of London, New York and Tokyo has paralleled each citys occupation of a distinct niche in world financial markets: London is the principal center of currency exchange, New York is the primary equities market, and Tokyo is the leader in international banking. This division expresses the progression of world-economies since the nineteenth century and unfolds in the context of the present hegemonic transition. By combining world-historical and city-centered approaches, the article seeks to reframe the global city and overcome the limits inherent in the paradigm of globalization.
cities. This theoretical curiosity is reflected in the rising interest in urban strategy from practice. For instance, the World Bank regularly organizes an Urban Strategy Speaker Series, while the powerful network CEOs for Cities lobbies for a strategic approach to urban development. Critical scholars......Strategy frames the contemporary epistemological space of urbanism: major cities across the globe such as New York, London and Sydney invest time, energy and resources to craft urban strategies. Extensive empirical research projects have proposed a shift towards a strategic framework to manage...... such as Zukin diagnose not a shift in but a shift to strategic thinking in the contemporary city. This article poses the question: what makes strategy such an attractive ‘thought style’ in relation to imagining and managing cities? How can we understand the practice of urban strategy? And what are its intended...
O'Day, Jennifer A.
Using complexity theory, examines standards-based accountability focused on improving school organization. Compares Chicago Public Schools' outcomes-based bureaucratic accountability approach with Baltimore City Schools' combined administrator-professional accountability. Concludes that the combined approach should result in more lasting change.…
Sandvik, Kjetil; Knudsen, Jacob
and development. Focusing on processes of citizen participation and co-creation as the main driving force, we introduce a concept of 'smart city at eye level'. The introduction of new media technology and new media uses need to emerge from a profound understanding of the wants, needs and abilities of the citizens......Smart city strategies concern the improvement of economic and political efficiency and the enabling of social, cultural and urban development (Hollands 2008) and covers a variety of fields from improving infrastructures, social and cultural development, resilience strategies (e.g. green energy......), improving schools, social welfare institutions, public and private institutions etc. The 'smart' in smart city strategies implies that these efforts are accomplished by the introduction and embedding of smart media technology into the very fabric of society. This is often done in a top-down and technology...