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Sample records for platte river wetlands

  1. The Physical and Biochemical Alteration of the Platte River by Phragmites australis, an Invasive Species of Wetland Grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, R. C.; Krueger, R.; Triplett, L.; Michal, T.; Kettenring, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    Invasive species can have a profound impact on the ecosystems to which they are introduced. Beginning in 2003, the Platte River, Nebraska, USA, was invaded by an aggressive species of wetland grass, Phragmites australis. The invasion by Phragmites, in combination with river flow reductions due to agricultural irrigation, has drastically altered the character and morphology of the river. Once a braided and largely unvegetated river, the Platte had become densely colonized with vegetation by 2010. We measured some physical and biochemical characteristics of Platte River sediments to infer how that vegetation has changed the system. Specifically, we measured particle size, which is an indicator of flow velocity, and biogenic silica (BSi), which is a critical source of silicon for some aquatic organisms. Sediment was collected from areas of the riverbed that are unvegetated, and from areas that are occupied by Phragmites or native vegetation. Particle size was measured using a laser diffractometer to determine how much fine particle deposition was occurring. Biogenic silica (BSi) concentrations were measured using timed NaOH digestions and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Our results indicate that stands of Phragmites in the Platte River cause more deposition of finer silt-sized particles than other parts of the river that are unvegetated or are occupied by native vegetation. Also, Phragmites increased the sequestration of BSi in the river sediments. These changes to the Platte reverberate beyond the river itself; by sequestering silica in sediments, Phragmites could be diminishing the supply of silica to estuaries and coastal oceans. Hypothesizing that the silica content of the Platte's water had been reduced by the arrival of Phragmites, we measured dissolved (DSi) and biogenic silica (BSi) concentrations of Platte water using ICP-MS to compare to existing data from the 1990s.

  2. Hydrology and cycling of nitrogen and phosphorus in Little Bean Marsh : a remnant riparian wetland along the Missouri River in Platte County, Missouri, 1996-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Dale W.

    2004-01-01

    The lack of concurrent water-quality and hydrologic data on riparian wetlands in the Midwestern United States has resulted in a lack of knowledge about the water-quality functions that these wetlands provide. Therefore, Little Bean Marsh, a remnant riparian wetland along the Missouri River, was investigated in 1996 and 1997 primarily to determine the magnitude and character of selected water-quality benefits that can be produced in such a wetland and to identify critical processes that can be managed in remnant or restored riparian wetlands for amelioration of water quality. Little Bean Marsh averages 69 hectares in size, has a maximum depth of about 1 meter, and the majority of the marsh is covered by macrophytes. In 1997, 41 percent of the water received by Little Bean Marsh was from direct precipitation, 14 percent was from ground-water seepage, 30 percent from watershed runoff, and 15 percent was backflow from Bean Lake. Although, Little Bean Marsh was both a ground-water recharge and discharge area, discharge to the marsh was three times the recharge to ground water. Ground-water levels closely tracked marsh water levels indicating a strong hydraulic connection between ground water and the marsh. Reduced surface runoff and ground-water availability are stabilizing influences on marsh hydrology and probably contribute to the persistence of emergent vegetation. The rapid hydraulic connection between Little Bean Marsh and ground water indicates that the hydrologic regime of most wetlands along the lower Missouri River is largely a function of the altitude of the marsh bottom relative to the altitude of the water table. More water was lost from the marsh through evapotranspiration (59 percent) than all other pathways combined. This is partially because the transpiration process of abundant macrophytes can greatly contribute to the evapotranspiration above that lost from open water surfaces. Surface outflow accounted for 36 percent and ground-water seepage

  3. Winter raptor use of the Platte and North Platte River Valleys in south central Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingle, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    Winter distribution and abundance of raptors were monitored within the Platte and North Platte river valleys. Data were collected along 265 km of census routes along the Platte and North Platte rivers during the winters of 1978-1979 and 1979-1980. Observations recorded during the second winter involved less observation time and were at somewhat different periods. There were 1574 sightings of 15 species representing 3 raptor families. Number of raptors observed on 54 days from 15 November to 13 February 1978-1979 was 48.3 per 100 km. In 20 days of observation from 5 December to 6 March 1979-1980, 39.7 raptors were observed per 100 km. Small mammal indices were 21 and 12 captures per 1000 trap nights during November 1978 and 1979, respectively. Raptors were sighted most frequently in riverine habitat and least in pasture and tilled fields. American kestrels (Falco sparverius) (11.1 individuals/100 km), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) (9.9), and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) (9.6) were the most frequently sighted raptors. Northern harrier (Circus cyaneus), rough-legged hawk (B. lagopus), and prairie falcon (P. mexicanus) sightings were 3.4, 3.4, and 1.7, respectively. Nine species were seen at a frequency of less than 1.0 individuals/100 km. Improved foraging conditions throughout the region resulted in fewer raptors sighted in 1979-1980.

  4. Project plan-Surficial geologic mapping and hydrogeologic framework studies in the Greater Platte River Basins (Central Great Plains) in support of ecosystem and climate change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Margaret E.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Slate, Janet L.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Sawyer, David A.; VanSistine, D. Paco

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Platte River Basin area spans a central part of the Midcontinent and Great Plains from the Rocky Mountains on the west to the Missouri River on the east, and is defined to include drainage areas of the Platte, Niobrara, and Republican Rivers, the Rainwater Basin, and other adjoining areas overlying the northern High Plains aquifer. The Greater Platte River Basin contains abundant surficial deposits that were sensitive to, or are reflective of, the climate under which they formed: deposits from multiple glaciations in the mountain headwaters of the North and South Platte Rivers and from continental ice sheets in eastern Nebraska; fluvial terraces (ranging from Tertiary to Holocene in age) along the rivers and streams; vast areas of eolian sand in the Nebraska Sand Hills and other dune fields (recording multiple episodes of dune activity); thick sequences of windblown silt (loess); and sediment deposited in numerous lakes and wetlands. In addition, the Greater Platte River Basin overlies and contributes surface water to the High Plains aquifer, a nationally important groundwater system that underlies parts of eight states and sustains one of the major agricultural areas of the United States. The area also provides critical nesting habitat for birds such as plovers and terns, and roosting habitat for cranes and other migratory birds that travel through the Central Flyway of North America. This broad area, containing fragile ecosystems that could be further threatened by changes in climate and land use, has been identified by the USGS and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln as a region where intensive collaborative research could lead to a better understanding of climate change and what might be done to adapt to or mitigate its adverse effects to ecosystems and to humans. The need for robust data on the geologic framework of ecosystems in the Greater Platte River Basin has been acknowledged in proceedings from the 2008 Climate Change Workshop and in draft

  5. Contaminant exposure and reproductive health of sandhill cranes in the Central Platte River Valley, Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The central Platte River Valley provides crucial staging habitat for the endangered whooping crane (Grus americana) and the mid-continent population of sandhill...

  6. Lead Shot availability to birds using the North Platte River near a trap and Skeet range

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A trap and skeet shooting range gun club is located on the North Platte River, below the Guernsey Reservoir in Wyoming. In 1999, we obtained sediment samples to...

  7. Ice Jams on the Little Missouri River, North Dakota and North Platte River, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, B. P.; Brookman, D. A.

    2004-12-01

    During the winter months, rivers in the north central United States have a phenomenon occurring, which is known as "ice jams". The initial melting of the river ice causes broken ice buildup, which acts as a quasi-dam restricting the natural flow. Ice jams severely impact ecosystems and are known to cause extensive damage to the channels, as well as man-made structures. The focus of this paper is on ice jams on the Little Missouri River in North Dakota and the North Platte River in Nebraska. Previous investigations done on the Lower Platte River valley, as well as the Missouri River basin, have shown that the primary cause of ice jams on these rivers is due to the spring thaw. The initial portion of the paper will discuss the pattern of ice jams on these rivers, as well as some mitigation strategies for control of these ice jams. The second section will deal with the modeling of ice jams on these river systems using HEC-RAS. This model will be comprised of both two and three-dimensional aspects of the rivers.

  8. Simulation of water quantity exchange between groundwater and the Platte River water, central Nebraska

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The authors demonstrate the importance of the simulation of the water quantity exchange between river water and groundwater to a better understanding of the hydrologic relations between a river and nearby aquifer where groundwater is pumped extensively but only seasonally. And MODFLOW is used to design the stream-aquifer model in which the pumpage of more than 1000 wells was simulated. The river gaining and river losing processes were analyzed. Simulation results suggest that continuation of over-extraction of groundwater will gradually increase the depletion volume in the river year after year and more depletion will occur in later years. The exchange manner between groundwater and the Platte River differs from place to place. The Platte River loses water to the adjacent aquifer in the west part of the study area, and gains water from the adjacent aquifer in the east part of the study area.

  9. Native and European haplotypes of Phragmites Australis (common reed) in the central Platte River, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, D.L.; Galatowitsch, S.M.; Larson, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Phragmites australis (common reed) is known to have occurred along the Platte River historically, but recent rapid increases in both distribution and density have begun to impact habitat for migrating sandhill cranes and nesting piping plovers and least terns. Invasiveness in Phragmites has been associated with the incursion of a European genotype (haplotype M) in other areas; determining the genotype of Phragmites along the central Platte River has implications for proper management of the river system. In 2008 we sampled Phragmites patches along the central Platte River from Lexington to Chapman, NE, stratified by bridge segments, to determine the current distribution of haplotype E (native) and haplotype M genotypes. In addition, we did a retrospective analysis of historical Phragmites collections from the central Platte watershed (1902-2006) at the Bessey Herbarium. Fresh tissue from the 2008 survey and dried tissue from the herbarium specimens were classified as haplotype M or E using the restriction fragment length polymorphism procedure. The European haplotype was predominant in the 2008 samples: only 14 Phragmites shoots were identified as native haplotype E; 224 were non-native haplotype M. The retrospective analysis revealed primarily native haplotype individuals. Only collections made in Lancaster County, near Lincoln, NE, were haplotype M, and the earliest of these was collected in 1973. ?? 2011 Copyright by the Center for Great Plains Studies, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

  10. Temporal Differences in the Hydrologic Regime of the Lower Platte River, Nebraska, 1895-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, Daniel; Zelt, Ronald B.; Linard, Joshua I.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Lower Platte South Natural Resources District for a collaborative study of the cumulative effects of water and channel management practices on stream and riparian ecology, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compiled, analyzed, and summarized hydrologic information from long-term gaging stations on the lower Platte River to determine any significant temporal differences among six discrete periods during 1895-2006 and to interpret any significant changes in relation to changes in climatic conditions or other factors. A subset of 171 examined hydrologic indices (HIs) were selected for use as indices that (1) included most of the variance in the larger set of indices, (2) retained utility as indicators of the streamflow regime, and (3) provided information at spatial and temporal scale(s) that were most indicative of streamflow regime(s). The study included the most downstream station within the central Platte River segment that flowed to the confluence with the Loup River and all four active streamflow-gaging stations (2006) on the lower Platte River main stem extending from the confluence of the Loup River and Platte River to the confluence of the Platte River and Missouri River south of Omaha. The drainage areas of the five streamflow-gaging stations covered four (of eight) climate divisions in Nebraska?division 2 (north central), 3 (northeast), 5 (central), and 6 (east central). Historical climate data and daily streamflow records from 1895 through 2006 at the five streamflow-gaging stations were divided into six 11-water-year periods: 1895?1905, 1934?44, 1951?61, 1966?76, 1985?95, and 1996?2006. Analysis of monthly climate variables?precipitation and Palmer Hydrological Drought Index?was used to determine the degree of hydroclimatic association between streamflow and climate. Except for the 1895?1905 period, data gaps in the streamflow record were filled by data estimation techniques, and 171 hydrologic indices were calculated using the

  11. Influence of grazing and available moisture on breeding densities of grassland birds in the central platte river valley, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.H.; Newton, W.E.; Lingle, G.R.; Chavez-Ramirez, F.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between grassland breeding bird densities and both grazing and available moisture in the central Platte River Valley. Nebraska between 1980 and 1996. We also compared species richness and community similarity of breeding birds in sedge (Carex spp.) meadows and mesic grasslands. Densities of two species had a significant relationship with grazing and six of seven focal species had a significant relationship with available moisture. Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) and Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) densities were lower in grazed plots compared to ungrazed plots, whereas Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) densities were greater in sedge-meadow plots compared to mesic grassland plots. Bobolink, Dickcissel (Spiza americana). and Brown-headed Cowbird were negatively associated with available moisture with breeding densities peaking during the driest conditions. Our results suggest that wet conditions increase species richness for the community through addition of wetland-dependant and wetland-associated birds, but decrease densities of ground-nesting grassland birds in wet-meadow habitats, whereas dry conditions reduce species richness but increase the density of the avian assemblage. We propose that wet-meadow habitats serve as local refugia for grassland-nesting birds during local or regional droughts.

  12. U.S. Department of Energy electric and hybrid vehicle Site Operator Program at Platte River Power Authority. Final report, July 3, 1991--August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmert, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    The Platte River Power Authority (Platte River) is a political subdivision of the state of Colorado, owned by the four municipalities of Fort Collins, Loveland, Longmont and Estes Park, Colorado. Platte River is a non-profit, publicly owned, joint-action agency formed to construct, operate and maintain generating plants, transmission systems and related facilities for the purpose of delivering to the four municipalities electric energy for distribution and resale. Platte River, as a participant in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Site Operator Program, worked to accomplish the Site Operator Program goals and objectives to field test and evaluate electric and electric-hybrid vehicles and electric vehicle systems in a real world application/environment. This report presents results of Platte River`s program (Program) during the five-years Platte River participated in the DOE Site Operator Program. Platte River participated in DOE Site Operator Program from July 3, 1991 through August 31, 1996. During its Program, Platte River conducted vehicle tests and evaluations, and electric vehicle demonstrations in the Front Range region of Northern Colorado. Platte River also investigated electric vehicle infrastructure issues and tested infrastructure components. Platte River`s Program objectives were as follows: evaluate the year round performance, operational costs, reliability, and life cycle costs of electric vehicles in the Front Range region of Northern Colorado; evaluate an electric vehicle`s usability and acceptability as a pool vehicle; test any design improvements or technological improvements on a component level that may be made available to PRPA and which can be retrofit into vehicles; and develop, test and evaluate, and demonstrate components to be used in charging electric vehicles.

  13. Investigating the accuracy of photointerpreted unvegetated channel widths in a braided river system: a Platte River case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werbylo, Kevin L.; Farnsworth, Jason M.; Baasch, David M.; Farrell, Patrick D.

    2017-02-01

    The central Platte River in Nebraska, USA, has undergone substantial channel narrowing since basin settlement in the mid-nineteenth century. Many researchers have studied the causes of channel narrowing and its implications for endangered species that use wide, shallow channel segments with barren sandbars. As a result, changes in metrics such as unvegetated channel width have been studied. With few exceptions, these measures are estimated from aerial imagery without mention of error in relation to actual channel conditions and/or investigator bias. This issue is not unique to central Platte River studies, as a general lack of commentary is apparent regarding the direct comparison of channel planform characteristics interpreted from aerial imagery relative to those measured in the field. Here we present a case study where data collected by the Platte River Recovery Implementation Program was used to make multiple comparisons using three years of field-measured unvegetated channel widths and those photointerpreted from aerial imagery. Widths were interpreted by three investigators, who identified similar widths in almost all cases. Photointerpretation from imagery collected during the fall resulted in unvegetated width estimates that were more consistent with field measurments than estimates derived using imagery collected in June. Differences were attributed to three main factors: (1) influences of discharge on photointerpretation of unvegetated channel width; (2) increases in vegetative cover throughout the growing season; and (3) resolution of imagery. Most importantly, we concluded that photointerpretation of unvegetated widths from imagery collected during high flows can result in significant over estimation of unvegetated channel width.

  14. Reproductive ecology of interior least tern and piping plover in relation to Platte River hydrology and sandbar dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Jason M; Baasch, David M; Smith, Chadwin B; Werbylo, Kevin L

    2017-05-01

    Investigations of breeding ecology of interior least tern (Sternula antillarum athalassos) and piping plover (Charadrius melodus) in the Platte River basin in Nebraska, USA, have embraced the idea that these species are physiologically adapted to begin nesting concurrent with the cessation of spring floods. Low use and productivity on contemporary Platte River sandbars have been attributed to anthropomorphically driven changes in basin hydrology and channel morphology or to unusually late annual runoff events. We examined distributions of least tern and piping plover nest initiation dates in relation to the hydrology of the historical central Platte River (CPR) and contemporary CPR and lower Platte River (LPR). We also developed an emergent sandbar habitat model to evaluate the potential for reproductive success given observed hydrology, stage-discharge relationships, and sandbar height distributions. We found the timing of the late-spring rise to be spatially and temporally consistent, typically occurring in mid-June. However, piping plover nest initiation peaks in May and least tern nest initiation peaks in early June; both of which occur before the late spring rise. In neither case does there appear to be an adaptation to begin nesting concurrent with the cessation of spring floods. As a consequence, there are many years when no successful reproduction is possible because emergent sandbar habitat is inundated after most nests have been initiated, and there is little potential for successful renesting. The frequency of nest inundation, in turn, severely limits the potential for maintenance of stable species subpopulations on Platte River sandbars. Why then did these species expand into and persist in a basin where the hydrology is not ideally suited to their reproductive ecology? We hypothesize the availability and use of alternative off-channel nesting habitats, like sandpits, may allow for the maintenance of stable species subpopulations in the Platte River

  15. Groundwater Quality and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Nebraska's Central Platte River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Richard B

    2015-03-01

    Groundwater nitrate contamination has been an issue in the Platte River Valley of Nebraska since the 1960s, with groundwater nitrate-N concentrations frequently in excess of 10 mg L. This article summarizes education and regulatory efforts to reduce the environmental impact of irrigated crop production in the Platte River Valley. In 1988, a Groundwater Management Area (GWMA) was implemented in the Central Platte Natural Resources District to encourage adoption of improved management practices. Since 1988, there have been steady declines in average groundwater nitrate-N concentrations of about 0.15 mg NO-N L yr in much of the GWMA (from 19 to 15 mg NO-N L). However, N use efficiency (NUE) (partial factor productivity for N [PFP]) has increased very little from 1988 to 2012 (60-65 kg grain kg N), whereas statewide PFP increased from 49 to 67 kg grain kg N in the same period. Although growers are encouraged to credit N from sources besides fertilizer (e.g., soil residual, legumes, irrigation water, and manure), confidence in and use of credits tended to decrease as credits became larger; there was a tendency toward an average N rate regardless of credit-based recommendations. This information, coupled with data from other studies, suggests that much of the decline in groundwater nitrate can be attributed to improved irrigation management-especially conversion from furrow to sprinkler irrigation-and to a lesser extent to improved timing of N application. The development and adoption of improved N management practices, such as fertigation, controlled-release N formulation, and use of crop canopy sensors for in-season N application may be required for further significant NUE gains in these irrigated systems.

  16. Flooding in the South Platte River and Fountain Creek Basins in eastern Colorado, September 9–18, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, Robert A.; Holmes, Jr., Robert R.

    2015-11-25

    On September 9, 2013, rain began to fall in eastern Colorado as a large low-pressure system pulled plumes of tropical moisture northward from the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. By September 16, 2013, as much as 12 to 20 inches of rain had fallen in the foothills of the Front Range of the Southern Rocky Mountains and adjacent plains near Colorado Springs, Colorado, north to the Colorado-Wyoming border. The rain caused major flooding during September 9–18, 2013, in a large part of the South Platte River Basin and in the Fountain Creek Basin. The floods resulted in several fatalities, more than 31,000 damaged or destroyed structures, and an estimated 3 billion dollars in damages. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) documented peak stage, streamflow, or both from the flood event for 80 sites located on selected rivers and streams in the South Platte River and Fountain Creek Basins and on the Platte River in Nebraska. The majority of flood-peak streamflows occurred on September 12 or 13, 2013, coinciding with the period of maximum rainfall. The flood resulted in new record peak streamflows at 17 streamgages having at least 10 years of record; 13 in the South Platte River Basin and 4 in the Fountain Creek Basin.

  17. Mapping grasslands suitable for cellulosic biofuels in the Greater Platte River Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Bruce K.; Gu, Yingxin

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels are an important component in the development of alternative energy supplies, which is needed to achieve national energy independence and security in the United States. The most common biofuel product today in the United States is corn-based ethanol; however, its development is limited because of concerns about global food shortages, livestock and food price increases, and water demand increases for irrigation and ethanol production. Corn-based ethanol also potentially contributes to soil erosion, and pesticides and fertilizers affect water quality. Studies indicate that future potential production of cellulosic ethanol is likely to be much greater than grain- or starch-based ethanol. As a result, economics and policy incentives could, in the near future, encourage expansion of cellulosic biofuels production from grasses, forest woody biomass, and agricultural and municipal wastes. If production expands, cultivation of cellulosic feedstock crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and miscanthus (Miscanthus species), is expected to increase dramatically. The main objective of this study is to identify grasslands in the Great Plains that are potentially suitable for cellulosic feedstock (such as switchgrass) production. Producing ethanol from noncropland holdings (such as grassland) will minimize the effects of biofuel developments on global food supplies. Our pilot study area is the Greater Platte River Basin, which includes a broad range of plant productivity from semiarid grasslands in the west to the fertile corn belt in the east. The Greater Platte River Basin was the subject of related U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) integrated research projects.

  18. Geohydrology and water quality of the North Platte River alluvial aquifer, Garden County, Western Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Gregory V.; Cannia, James C.

    1995-01-01

    In 1993, a 3-year study was begun to describe the geohydrology and water quality of the North Platte River alluvial aquifer near Oshkosh, Garden County, Nebraska. The study's objectives are to evaluate the geohydrologic characteristics of the alluvial aquifer and to establish a network of observation wells for long-term monitoring of temporal variations and spatial distributions of nitrate and major-ion concentrations. Monitor wells were installed at 11 sites near Oshkosh. The geohydrology of the aquifer was characterized based on water-level measurements and two short-term aquifer tests. Bimonthly water samples were collected and analyzed for pH, specific conductivity, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and nutrients that included dissolved nitrate. Concentrations of major ions were defined from analyses of semiannual water samples. Analyses of the geohydrologic and water-quality data indicate that the aquifer is vulnerable to nitrate contamination. These data also show that nitrate concentrations in ground water flowing into and out of the study area are less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Concentration Level of 10 milligrams per liter for drinking water. Ground water from Lost Creek Valley may be mixing with ground water in the North Platte River Valley, somewhat moderating nitrate concentrations near Oshkosh.

  19. Geomorphic Classification and Evaluation of Channel Width and Emergent Sandbar Habitat Relations on the Lower Platte River, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Caroline M.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a summary of geomorphic characteristics extracted from aerial imagery for three broad segments of the Lower Platte River. This report includes a summary of the longitudinal multivariate classification in Elliott and others (2009) and presents a new analysis of total channel width and habitat variables. Three segments on the lower 102.8 miles of the Lower Platte River are addressed in this report: the Loup River to the Elkhorn River (70 miles long), the Elkhorn River to Salt Creek (6.9 miles long), and Salt Creek to the Missouri River (25.9 miles long). The locations of these segments were determined by the locations of tributaries potentially significant to the hydrology or sediment supply of the Lower Platte River. This report summarizes channel characteristics as mapped from July 2006 aerial imagery including river width, valley width, channel curvature, and in-channel habitat features. In-channel habitat measurements were not made under consistent hydrologic conditions and must be considered general estimates of channel condition in late July 2006. Longitudinal patterns in these features are explored and are summarized in the context of the longitudinal multivariate classification in Elliott and others (2009) for the three Lower Platte River segments. Detailed descriptions of data collection and classification methods are described in Elliott and others (2009). Nesting data for the endangered interior least tern (Sternula antillarum) and threatened piping plover (Charadrius melodus) from 2006 through 2009 are examined within the context of the multivariate classification and Lower Platte River segments. The widest reaches of the Lower Platte River are located in the segment downstream from the Loup River to the Elkhorn River. This segment also has the widest valley and highest degree of braiding of the three segments and many large vegetated islands. The short segment of river between the Elkhorn River and Salt Creek has a fairly low valley

  20. A Concept for a Long Term Hydrologic Observatory in the South Platte River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, J. A.

    2004-12-01

    The intersection between: (1) the Rocky Mountains and developments occurring in high altitude fragile environments; (2) the metropolitan areas emerging at the interface of the mountains and the plains; (3) the irrigation occurring along rivers as they break from the mountains and snake across the Great Plains; and (4) the grasslands and the dryland farming that covers the vast amount of the Great Plains, represents a dynamic, complex, highly integrated ecosystem, stretching from Montana and North Dakota to New Mexico and Texas. This swath of land, and the rivers that cross it (headwaters of the Missouri , the Yellowstone, the North Platte , the South Platte, the Arkansas , the Cimarron, the Red and the Pecos Rivers ), represent a significant percentage of the landmass of the United States. Within this large area, besides tremendous increases in population in metropolitan areas, there are new energy developments, old hard rock mining concerns, new recreation developments, irrigation farms selling water to meet urban demands, new in-stream flow programs, struggling rural areas, and continued "mining" of ground water. The corresponding impacts are creating endangered and threatened species conflicts which require new knowledge to fully understand the measures needed to mitigate harmful ecosystem conditions. Within the Rocky Mountain/Great Plains interface, water is limiting and land is plentiful, presenting natural resource managers with a number of unique problems which demand a scale of integrated science not achieved in the past. For example, water is imported into a number of the streams flowing east from the Rocky Mountains. Nitrogen is deposited in pristine watersheds that rise up high in the Rocky Mountains. Cities capture spring runoff in reservoirs to use at a steady rate over the entire year, putting water into river systems normally moving low flows in the winter. Irrigation of both urban landscapes and farm fields may be at a scale that impacts climate

  1. Emergent sandbar dynamics in the lower Platte River in eastern Nebraska: methods and results of pilot study, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jason S.; Schultze, Devin M.; Zelt, Ronald B.

    2013-01-01

    The lower Platte River corridor provides important habitats for two State- and federally listed bird species: the interior least tern (terns; Sternula antillarum athallassos) and the piping plover (plovers; Charadrius melodus). However, many of the natural morphological and hydrological characteristics of the Platte River have been altered substantially by water development, channelization, hydropower operations, and invasive vegetation encroachment, which have decreased the abundance of high-quality nesting and foraging habitat for terns and plovers. The lower Platte River (LPR), defined as 103 miles (mi) of the Platte River between its confluence with the Loup River and its confluence with the Missouri River, has narrowed since the late-19th and early-20th centuries, yet it partially retains many geomorphologic and hydrologic characteristics important to terns and plovers. These birds nest on the sandbars in the river and along shorelines at sand- and gravel-pit lakes in the adjacent valley. The need to balance continued economic, infrastructure, and resource development with the conservation of important physical and aquatic habitat resources requires increased understanding of the physical and biological dynamics of the lower Platte River. Spatially and temporally rich datasets for emergent sandbar habitats are necessary to quantify emergent sandbar dynamics relative to hypothesized controls and stressors. In cooperation with the Lower Platte South Natural Resources District, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a pilot study of emergent sandbar dynamics along a 22-mi segment of the LPR downstream from its confluence with Salt Creek, near Ashland, Nebraska. The purposes of the study were to: (1) develop methods to rapidly assess sandbar geometries and locations in a wide, sand-bed river, and (2) apply and validate the method to assess emergent sandbar dynamics over three seasons in 2011. An examination of the height of sandbars relative to the local stage of

  2. Predicting the stability of endangered stonecats in the LaPlatte River, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchala, Elizabeth A.; Parrish, Donna; Donovan, Therese M.

    2016-01-01

    Stonecats Noturus flavus in Vermont conform to a rare distribution pattern (as designated by Rabinowitz 1981) because their known distribution within the state is limited to the LaPlatte and Missisquoi rivers. We focused on Stonecats in the LaPlatte River to predict the stability of the population. During 2012–2014, we captured Stonecats via backpack electrofishing; fish were PIT-tagged (>90 mm TL) and marked with visible implant elastomer. Among the 1,671 Stonecats that were captured, 1,252 were PIT-tagged. Only 156 (12%) of the PIT-tagged fish were recaptured, and only 22 of those individuals were recaptured more than once. The Pradel model in Program MARK was used to estimate apparent survival (Φ) and seniority, which were used to derive the rate of population change (λ) for the Stonecat encounter histories we studied. We examined a total of 64 models in our candidate set, with the following covariates: TL at first capture, maximum temperature, season, maximum discharge, and area sampled. Survival estimates were highest in the spring (range of daily Φ = 0.9993–0.9995) and increased with greater TL at first capture. We also estimated increases in capture probability with increasing area sampled. We derived an annual λ of 0.9794, which indicates a slightly decreasing population. However, our λ estimate contained uncertainty that was likely increased due to the low recapture rates. Additional years of data could increase the accuracy of the λ estimate. In the meantime, we have provided insight into Stonecat population parameters that were otherwise unknown.

  3. Comparison of two methods for estimating base flow in selected reaches of the South Platte River, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capesius, Joseph P.; Arnold, L. Rick

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board, compared two methods for estimating base flow in three reaches of the South Platte River between Denver and Kersey, Colorado. The two methods compared in this study are the Mass Balance and the Pilot Point methods. Base-flow estimates made with the two methods were based upon a 54-year period of record (1950 to 2003).

  4. Demographics and movements of least terns and piping plovers in the Central Platte River Valley, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Erin A.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Ring, Megan M.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Anteau, Michael J.; Stucker, Jennifer H.

    2016-08-09

    The Central Platte River Valley provides breeding habitat for a variety of migratory birds, including federally endangered interior least terns (Sternula antillarum; least tern) and threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus). Since 2009, researchers have collected demographic data on both species that span their lifecycle (that is, from egg laying through survival of adults). Demographic data were used to estimate vital rates (for example, nest survival, chick survival, and so on) for both species and assess how these vital rates were related to type and age of nesting habitat. Nest survival of both species was unrelated to the age of the site a nest was initiated on. Piping plover chick survival to fledging age was not related to the age of the site it was hatched at, however, the probability of a least tern chick surviving to fledging was higher at older sites. In general there were fewer piping plover nests than least tern nests found at sites created through either the physical construction of a new site or new vegetation management regimes, during 2009–14.Mean daily least tern nest survival was 0.9742 (95-percent confidence interval [CI]: 0.9692–0.9783) and cumulative nest survival was 0.59 (95-percent CI: 0.53–0.65). Mean daily least tern chick survival was 0.9602 (95-percent CI: 0.9515–0.9673) and cumulative survival to fledging was 0.54 (95-percent CI = 0.48–0.61). Annual apparent survival rates were estimated at 0.42 (95-percent CI = 0.22–0.64) for adult least terns nesting in the Central Platte River Valley and an apparent survival rate of 0.14 (95-pecent CI = 0.04–0.41) for juvenile least terns. The number of least tern nests present at sites created during 2009–14 was associated with the age of the site; more least tern nests were associated with older sites. During 2009–14, there were four (less than 1 percent of all chicks marked) least tern chicks hatched from the Central Platte River Valley that were subsequently captured on

  5. Microbial water quality during the northern migration of Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) at the central Platte River, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    The central Platte River is an important resource in Nebraska. Its water flows among multiple channels and supports numerous beneficial uses such as drinking water, irrigation for agriculture, groundwater recharge, and recreational activities. The central Platte River valley is an important stopover for migratory waterfowl and cranes, such as the Whooping (Grus americana) and Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis), in their annual northward traversal of the Central Flyway. Waterfowl, cranes, and other migratory birds moving across international and intercontinental borders may provide long-range transportation for any microbial pathogen they harbor, particularly through the spread of feces. Samples were collected weekly in the study reach from three sites (upstream, middle, and downstream from the roosting locations) during the spring of 2009 and 2010. The samples were analyzed for avian influenza, Escherichia coli, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Campylobacter, and Legionella. Analysis indicates that several types of fecal indicator bacteria and a range of viral, protozoan, and bacterial pathogens were present in Sandhill Crane excreta. These bacteria and pathogens were present at a significantly higher frequency and densities in water and sediments when the Sandhill Cranes were present, particularly during evening roosts within the Platte River environment.

  6. Most central Nebraska wetlands gones, U.S. wildlife official says

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Newspaper article on how drainage of wetlands for farming and growth of woody vegetation along the Platte River in central Nebraska has resulted in a loss of 95% of...

  7. Foraging ecology of least terns and piping plovers nesting on Central Platte River sandpits and sandbars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfy, Mark H.; Anteau, Michael J.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Stucker, Jennifer H.

    2012-01-01

    Federally listed least terns (Sternula antillarum) and piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) nest on riverine sandbars on many major midcontinent river systems. On the Central Platte River, availability of sandbar habitat is limited, and both species nest on excavated sandpits in the river's floodplain. However, the extent to which sandpit-nesting birds use riverine habitats for foraging is unknown. We evaluated use of foraging habitats by least terns and piping plovers by collecting data on movements, behavior, foraging habitat, and productivity. We radiomarked 16 piping plovers and 23 least terns in 2009-2010 and monitored their movements using a network of fixed telemetry dataloggers. Piping plovers were detected primarily by the datalogger located in their nesting sandpit, whereas least terns were more frequently detected on dataloggers outside of the nesting sandpit. Telemetry data and behavioral observations showed that least terns tended to concentrate at the Kearney Canal Diversion Gates, where forage fish were apparently readily available. Fish sampling data suggested that forage fish were more abundant in riverine than in sandpit habitats, and behavioral observations showed that least terns foraged more frequently in riverine than in sandpit habitats. Piping plovers tended to forage in wet substrates along sandpit shorelines, but also used dry substrates and sandpit interior habitats. The greater mobility of least terns makes a wider range of potential foraging habitats available during brood rearing, making them able to exploit concentrations of fish outside the nesting colony. Thus, our data suggest that different spatial scales should be considered in managing nesting and foraging habitat complexes for piping plovers and least terns.

  8. Adaptive management on the central Platte River--science, engineering, and decision analysis to assist in the recovery of four species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chadwin B

    2011-05-01

    Active adaptive management is the centerpiece of a major species recovery program now underway on the central Platte River in Nebraska. The Platte River Recovery Implementation Program initiated on January 1, 2007 and is a joint effort between the states of Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska; the U.S. Department of the Interior; waters users; and conservation groups. This program is intended to address issues related to endangered species and loss of habitat along the Platte River in central Nebraska by managing land and water resources and using adaptive management as its science framework. The adaptive management plan provides a systematic process to test hypotheses and apply the information learned to improve management on the ground, and is centered on conceptual models and priority hypotheses that reflect different interpretations of how river processes work and the best approach to meeting key objectives. This framework reveals a shared attempt to use the best available science to implement experiments, learn, and revise management actions accordingly on the Platte River. This paper focuses on the status of adaptive management implementation on the Platte, experimental and habitat design issues, and the use of decision analysis tools to help set objectives and guide decisions.

  9. Depositional and erosional dynamics of emergent sandbars: a case study of the Platte River, Eastern Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, J. S.; Murr, M. L.; McElroy, B. J.

    2016-12-01

    Macroform sandbars (sandbars) are ubiquitous depositional features of sandy, braided rives. Sandbars formed during annual floods stall and emerge during flow recession, splitting flow, and producing the characteristic braiding pattern. Emergent sandbars are crucial components of riverine ecosystems, forming the foundation of the floodplain/braidplain, providing nesting, brooding, and foraging habitat for migratory and endemic animals, and shallow water aquatic habitat along their periphery. In the United States, substantial resources are being expended to recover and expand so-called emergent sandbar habitat (ESH) in large rivers of the Great Plains, where the natural extent and dynamism of ESH has been degraded due to construction of main-channel dams, navigation channels, and/or disruption of the natural hydrologic and sediment regimes. These programs are ultimately aimed at recovery and protection of populations of Federal and State-listed migratory bird species. Despite the importance of ESH, relatively little empirical information describing the natural temporal and spatial dynamics of sandbar geometries, erosion rates, and depositional controls is available for integrating into ecological and river management models. From 2011 to 2014, we monitored the geometry and fate of large emergent sandbars along 160 km of the sandy, braided Platte River in eastern Nebraska, a segment which retains a mostly natural sediment and hydrologic regime. We show that important descriptors of ESH quality, such as sandbar height, scale linearly with increases in flow stage, but the difference in elevation between sandbar height and formative stage also increases with increasing flow stage. Thus, the flood-hazard of natural sandbars may be much higher than current theory suggests. Our monitoring data indicates that emergent sandbars tend to erode within a year after deposition, and that the rate of erosion scales linearly with discharge. Finally, in agreement with previous work

  10. Near-decadal changes in nitrate and pesticide concentrations in the South Platte River alluvial aquifer, 1993-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, S.S.; Schaffrath, K.R.; Mashbum, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    The lower South Platte River basin of Colorado and Nebraska is an area of intense agriculture supported by surface-water diversions from the river and ground-water pumping from a valley-fill alluvial aquifer. Two well networks consisting of 45 wells installed in the South Platte alluvial aquifer were sampled in the early 1990s and again in the early 2000s to examine near-decadal ground-water quality changes in irrigated agricultural areas. Ground-water age generally increases and dissolved-oxygen content decreases with distance along flow paths and with depdi below the water table, and denitrification is an important natural mitigation mechanism for nitrate in downgradient areas. Ground-water travel time from upland areas to the river ranges from 12 to 31 yr on the basis of apparent ground-water ages. Ground-water nitrate concentrations for agricultural land-use wells increased significantly for oxidized samples over the decade, and nitrogen isotope ratios for oxidized samples indicate synthetic fertilizer as the predominant nitrate source. Ground-water concentrations of atrazine, DEA, and prometon decreased significandy. The decrease in pesticide concentrations and a significant increase in the ratio of DEA to atrazine suggest decreases in pesticide concentrations are likely caused by local decreases in application rates and/or degradation processes and that atrazine degradation is promoted by oxidizing conditions. The difference between results for oxidizing and nitrate-reducing conditions indicates redox state is an important variable to consider when evaluating ground-water quality trends for redox-sensitive constituents such as nitrate and pesticides in the South Platte alluvial aquifer. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of water consumption in two riparian vegetation communities along the central Platte River, Nebraska, 2008–09 and 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brent M.; Rus, David L.

    2013-01-01

    The Platte River is a vital natural resource for the people, plants, and animals of Nebraska. A recent study quantified water use by riparian woodlands along central reaches of the Platte River, Nebraska, finding that water use was mainly regulated below maximum predicted levels. A comparative study was launched through a cooperative partnership between the U.S. Geological Survey, the Central Platte Natural Resources District, the Nebraska Department of Natural Resources, and the Nebraska Environmental Trust to compare water use of a riparian woodland with that of a grazed riparian grassland along the central Platte River. This report describes the results of the 3-year study by the U.S. Geological Survey to measure the evapotranspiration (ET) rates in the two riparian vegetation communities. Evapotranspiration was measured during 2008–09 and 2011 using the eddy-covariance method at a riparian woodland near Odessa, hereinafter referred to as the “woodland site,” and a riparian grassland pasture near Elm Creek, hereinafter referred to as the “grassland site.” Overall, annual ET totals at the grassland site were 90 percent of the annual ET measured at the woodland site, with averages of 653 millimeters (mm) and 726 mm, respectively. Evapotranspiration rates were similar at the grassland site and the woodland site during the spring and fall seasons, but at the woodland site ET rates were higher than those of the grassland site during the peak-growth summer months of June through August. These seasonal differences and the slightly lower ET rates at the grassland site were likely the result of differing plant communities, disturbance effects related to grazing and flooding, and climatic differences between the sites. The annual water balance was calculated for each site and indicated that the predominant factors in the water balance at both sites were ET and precipitation. Annual precipitation for the study period ranged from near to above the normal

  12. Cross-section data and pressure transducer location of the South Platte River near Fort Morgan, Colorado, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    The USGS Colorado Water Science Center, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board, collected hydraulic data for the South Platte River for areas adjacent to Fort Morgan, Colo., based on the USGS streamgage 06759500 South Platte River at Fort Morgan, CO. The hydraulic data include survey point data for 54 cross sections and 10 pressure transducers, which are used to record the river stage beginning at Morgan County Road 16 and extending downstream to Morgan County Road 20.5 near Fort Morgan, Colo. The cross-section and pressure transducer location data were collected using real-time kinematic Global Navigation Satellite Systems by USGS personnel from February 15, 2017, through April 18, 2017. These data can be used to develop inundation maps, which could be available to emergency personnel, public officials, and the general public using an online public mapping application at the USGS Flood Inundation Mapper, which contains flood inundation map libraries from throughout the country created by the USGS.

  13. Habitat selection and productivity of least terns on the lower Platte River, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Eileen M.

    1996-01-01

    Least terns (Sterna antillarum) were studied on the lower Platte River, Nebraska, where this endangered population nests on natural sandbar habitat and on sandpit sites created by gravel dredging adjacent to the river. Theoretically terns should select habitats according to habitat suitability. However, the introduction of sandpits and conversion of tallgrass prairies along the river banks to agriculture, residential, and wooded areas may have affected terns' abilities to distinguish suitable habitat or the suitability of nesting habitats in general. I examined habitat selection and productivity of least terns to determine if terns selected habitat according to suitability (as indicated by productivity), what factors affected habitat selection and productivity, and if estimated productivity could support this population. Available habitats of both types were characterized and quantified using aerial videography (1989-90), and habitat use was assessed from census data (1987-90). Productivity of adults and causes and correlates of egg and chick mortality were estimated (1987-90). Population trend was assessed with a deterministic model using my estimates of productivity and a range of survival estimates for Laridae reported in the literature. Terns tended to use river sites with large midstream sandbars and a wide channel, and large sandpit sites with large surface areas of water relative to unused sites on both habitats. Number of sites and area of sand available were estimated using discriminant function analysis of variables quantified from video scenes of both habitats. Terns apparently did not use all potentially available sandbar and sandpit sites because discriminant function factor scores for used and unused sites overlapped broadly for both habitats. Terns did not prefer 1 habitat over the other. Although proportions of available sites used were greater on sandpits than on the river, proportions of available sand used did not differ between habitats

  14. Molecular detection of Campylobacter spp. and fecal indicator bacteria during the northern migration of Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Central Platte River

    Science.gov (United States)

    The annual Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) migration through Nebraska is thought to be a major source of fecal pollution to the Platte River, but of unknown human health risk. To better understand potential risks, the presence of Campylobacter species and fecal bacteria were exa...

  15. Molecular detection of Campylobacter spp. and fecal indicator bacteria during the northern migration of Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Central Platte River

    Science.gov (United States)

    The annual Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) migration through Nebraska is thought to be a major source of fecal pollution to the Platte River, but of unknown human health risk. To better understand potential risks, the presence of Campylobacter species and fecal bacteria were exa...

  16. Managing the wetlands. People and rivers: Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, P

    1993-01-01

    At the current population growth rate in Africa, the population will reach 1 billion by 2010. Water is needed to sustain these people, yet rainfall in Africa is erratic. Africans are already confronting a shortage of freshwater. Agriculture supports 66% of the population of sub-Saharan Africa. Sound agricultural development is needed to curb rural-urban migration, but a constant supply of freshwater is essential. Major rivers (the Limpopo in southern Africa and the Save/Sabi in Zimbabwe and Mozambique) now flow only seasonally. The flows of the Chari-Logona, the Nile, and the Zambezi are falling. Continual mismanagement of Africa's river basins coupled with current projections of global climate change will expand desiccation. All but the White Nile and the Zaire rivers flood seasonally every year, thereby expanding Africa's wetlands. Wetlands have been targeted for development projects (e.g., hydroelectric projects and large dams), largely to meet urban-industrial demands. Development planners tend to ignore the economic value of the wetlands. For example, the Niger Inland Delta sustains 550,000 people, 1 million cattle, and 1 million sheep. Wetlands replenish ground water and serve as natural irrigation. River basin planning often results in environmentally disastrous schemes which do not understand local management practices. Hydrologists, engineers, geologists, and economics design these schemes, but sociologists, anthropologists, and development experts should be included. The unfinished Jonglei Canal in southern Sudan would have adversely affected 400,000 pastoralists. The Volta River Authority's Akosombo Dam displaced 84,000 people and flooded the most productive agricultural land in Ghana. A sustainable future in Africa depends on understanding the interactions of human uses and the ways in which they relate to the natural variations in river flow. The IUCN Wetlands Programme, based on the principles of the World Conservation Strategy, is working with

  17. Factors affecting post-control reinvasion by seed of an invasive species, Phragmites australis, in the central Platte River, Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatowitsch, Susan M.; Larson, Diane L.; Larson, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plants, such as Phragmites australis, can profoundly affect channel environments of large rivers by stabilizing sediments and altering water flows. Invasive plant removal is considered necessary where restoration of dynamic channels is needed to provide critical habitat for species of conservation concern. However, these programs are widely reported to be inefficient. Post-control reinvasion is frequent, suggesting increased attention is needed to prevent seed regeneration. To develop more effective responses to this invader in the Central Platte River (Nebraska, USA), we investigated several aspects of Phragmites seed ecology potentially linked to post-control reinvasion, in comparison to other common species: extent of viable seed production, importance of water transport, and regeneration responses to hydrology. We observed that although Phragmites seed does not mature until very late in the ice-free season, populations produce significant amounts of viable seed (>50 % of filled seed). Most seed transported via water in the Platte River are invasive perennial species, although Phragmites abundances are much lower than species such as Lythrum salicaria, Cyperus esculentus and Phalaris arundinacea. Seed regeneration of Phragmites varies greatly depending on hydrology, especially timing of water level changes. Flood events coinciding with the beginning of seedling emergence reduced establishment by as much as 59 % compared to flood events that occurred a few weeks later. Results of these investigations suggest that prevention of seed set (i.e., by removal of flowering culms) should be a priority in vegetation stands not being treated annually. After seeds are in the seedbank, preventing reinvasion using prescribed flooding has a low chance of success given that Phragmites can regenerate in a wide variety of hydrologic microsites.

  18. Spring migration ecology of the mid-continent sandhill crane population with an emphasis on use of the Central Platte River Valley, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapu, Gary L.; Brandt, David A.; Kinzel, Paul J.; Pearse, Aaron T.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a 10-year study (1998–2007) of the Mid-Continent Population (MCP) of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) to identify spring-migration corridors, locations of major stopovers, and migration chronology by crane breeding affiliation (western Alaska–Siberia [WA–S], northern Canada–Nunavut [NC–N], west-central Canada–Alaska [WC–A], and east-central Canada–Minnesota [EC–M]). In the Central Platte River Valley (CPRV) of Nebraska, we evaluated factors influencing staging chronology, food habits, fat storage, and habitat use of sandhill cranes. We compared our findings to results from the Platte River Ecology Study conducted during 1978–1980. We determined spring migration corridors used by the breeding affiliations (designated subpopulations for management purposes) by monitoring 169 cranes marked with platform transmitter terminals (PTTs). We also marked and monitored 456 cranes in the CPRV with very high frequency (VHF) transmitters to evaluate length and pattern of stay, habitat use, and movements. An estimated 42% and 58% of cranes staging in the CPRV were greater sandhill cranes (G. c. tabida) and lesser sandhill cranes (G. c. canadensis), and they stayed for an average of 20 and 25 days (2000–2007), respectively. Cranes from the WA–S, NC–N, WC–A, and EC–M affiliations spent an average of 72, 77, 52, and 53 days, respectively, in spring migration of which 28, 23, 24, and 18 days occurred in the CPRV. The majority of the WA–S subpopulation settled in the CPRV apparently because of inadequate habitat to support more birds upstream, although WA–S cranes accounted for >90% of birds staging in the North Platte River Valley. Crane staging duration in the CPRV was negatively correlated with arrival dates; 92% of cranes stayed >7 days. A program of annual mechanical removal of mature stands of woody growth and seedlings that began in the early 1980s primarily in the main channel of the Platte River has allowed distribution of crane

  19. Investigation on Water Pollution of Four Rivers in Coastal Wetland of Yellow River Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed at analysing water pollution of four rivers in coastal wetland of Yellow River estuary. [Method] Taking four seriously polluted rivers (Guangli River, Shenxian Ditch, Tiao River and Chao River) in coastal wetland of Yellow River estuary as study objects, water samples were collected from the four rivers in May (dry period), August (wet period) and November (normal period) in 2009 and 2010 respectively, then pollution indices like nutritive salts, COD, chlorophyll-a, petroleum, et...

  20. Mapping grassland productivity with 250-m eMODIS NDVI and SSURGO database over the Greater Platte River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.; Bliss, Norman B.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed and described a relationship between satellite-derived growing season averaged Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and annual productivity for grasslands within the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB) of the United States. We compared growing season averaged NDVI (GSN) with Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database rangeland productivity and flux tower Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) for grassland areas. The GSN was calculated for each of nine years (2000–2008) using the 7-day composite 250-m eMODIS (expedited Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI data. Strong correlations exist between the nine-year mean GSN (MGSN) and SSURGO annual productivity for grasslands (R2 = 0.74 for approximately 8000 pixels randomly selected from eight homogeneous regions within the GPRB; R2 = 0.96 for the 14 cluster-averaged points). Results also reveal a strong correlation between GSN and flux tower growing season averaged GPP (R2 = 0.71). Finally, we developed an empirical equation to estimate grassland productivity based on the MGSN. Spatially explicit estimates of grassland productivity over the GPRB were generated, which improved the regional consistency of SSURGO grassland productivity data and can help scientists and land managers to better understand the actual biophysical and ecological characteristics of grassland systems in the GPRB. This final estimated grassland production map can also be used as an input for biogeochemical, ecological, and climate change models.

  1. Ground-water resources of the South Platte River Basin in western Adams and southwestern Weld Counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rex O.; Schneider, P.A.; Petri, Lester R.

    1964-01-01

    The area described in this report consists of about 970 square miles in western Adams and southwestern Weld Counties in northeastern Colorado. It includes that part of the South Platte River valley between Denver and Kuner, Colo., all of Beebe Draw, and the lower part of the valley of Box Elder Creek. The stream-valley lowlands are separated by rolling uplands. The climate is semiarid, the normal annual precipitation being about 13 inches; thus, irrigation is essential for stable agricultural development. The area contains about 220,000 acres of irrigated land in the stream valleys. Most of the remaining 400,000 acres of land is used for dry farming or grazing because it lacks irrigation water. Most of the lowlands were brought under irrigation with surface water during the early 1900's, and now nearly all the surface water in the area is appropriated for irrigation within and downstream from the area. Because the natural flow of the streams is sometimes less than the demand for water, ground water is used to supplement the surface-water supply. Wells, drilled chiefly since 1930, supply the supplemental water and in some places are the sole supply for irrigation use. Rocks exposed in the area are of sedimentary origin and range in age from Lato Cretaceous to Recent. Those that are consolidated, called 'bedrock' in this report, consist of the Fox Hills sandstone and the Laramie and Arapahoe formations, all of Late Cretaceous age, and the Denver formation and Dawson arkose of Late Cretaceous and Tertiary age. The surface of the bedrock was shaped by ancestral streams, the valleys of which are reflected by the present surface topography. Dune sand, slope wash, and thin upland deposits of Quaternary age mantle the bedrock in the divide areas, and stream deposits ranging in thickness from 0 to about 125 feet partly fill the ancestral valleys. The valley-fill deposits consist of beds and lenses of clay, silt, sand, gravel, cobbles, and boulders. Abundant supplies of

  2. Channel Morphology and Bed Sediment Characteristics Before and After Habitat Enhancement Activities in the Uridil Property, Platte River, Nebraska, Water Years 2005-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Fluvial geomorphic data were collected by the United States Geological Survey from July 2005 to June 2008 (a time period within water years 2005 to 2008) to monitor the effects of habitat enhancement activities conducted in the Platte River Whooping Crane Maintenance Trust's Uridil Property, located along the Platte River, Nebraska. The activities involved the removal of vegetation and sand from the tops of high permanent islands and the placement of the sand into the active river channel. This strategy was intended to enhance habitat for migratory water birds by lowering the elevations of the high islands, thereby eliminating a visual obstruction for roosting birds. It was also thought that the bare sand on the lowered island surfaces could serve as potential habitat for nesting water birds. Lastly, the project supplied a local source of sediment to the river to test the hypothesis that this material could contribute to the formation of lower sandbars and potential nesting sites downstream. Topographic surveys on the islands and along river transects were used to quantify the volume of removed sand and track the storage and movement of the introduced sand downstream. Sediment samples were also collected to map the spatial distribution of river bed sediment sizes before and after the management activities. While the project lowered the elevation of high islands, observations of the sand addition indicated the relatively fine-grained sand that was placed in the active river channel was rapidly transported by the flowing water. Topographic measurements made 3 months after the sand addition along transects in the area of sediment addition showed net aggradation over measurements made in 2005. In the year following the sand addition, 2007, elevated river flows from local rain events generally were accompanied by net degradation along transects within the area of sediment addition. In the spring of 2008, a large magnitude flow event of approximately 360 cubic meters per

  3. Chapter A. Effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems in the South Platte River basin, Colorado and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Lori A.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Dupree, Jean A.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the effects of urbanization on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of stream ecosystems in 28 basins along an urban land-use gradient in the South Platte River Basin, Colorado and Wyoming, from 2002 through 2003. Study basins were chosen to minimize natural variability among basins due to factors such as geology, elevation, and climate and to maximize coverage of different stages of urban development among basins. Because land use or population density alone often are not a complete measure of urbanization, land use, land cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables were integrated in a multimetric urban intensity index to represent the degree of urban development in each study basin. Physical characteristics studied included stream hydrology, stream temperature, and habitat; chemical characteristics studied included nutrients, pesticides, suspended sediment, sulfate, chloride, and fecal bacteria concentrations; and biological characteristics studied included algae, fish, and invertebrate communities. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), passive samplers that concentrate trace levels of hydrophobic organic contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), also were used. The objectives of the study were to (1) examine physical, chemical, and biological responses along the gradient of urbanization; (2) determine the major physical, chemical, and landscape variables affecting the structure of aquatic communities; and (3) evaluate the relevance of the results to the management of water resources in the South Platte River Basin. Commonly observed effects of urbanization on instream physical, chemical, and biological characteristics, such as increased flashiness, higher magnitude and more frequent peak flows, increased concentrations of chemicals, and changes in aquatic community structure, generally were not observed in this study. None of the hydrologic, temperature, habitat

  4. Water Rights for Wetlands in the Bear River Delta

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the basic premise and functioning of water rights in Utah and how water rights affect wetlands, specifically those in the northern region of the state. It includes the history of Utah water rights and the basic components of prior appropriation doctrine, and gives an example of using water rights for wetlands by explaining how the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge works with neighboring water users to secure water for its wetlands.

  5. NDVI saturation adjustment: a new approach for improving cropland performance estimates in the Greater Platte River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.; Howard, Daniel M.; Phuyal, Khem P.; Ji, Lei

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we developed a new approach that adjusted normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) pixel values that were near saturation to better characterize the cropland performance (CP) in the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB), USA. The relationship between NDVI and the ratio vegetation index (RVI) at high NDVI values was investigated, and an empirical equation for estimating saturation-adjusted NDVI (NDVIsat_adjust) based on RVI was developed. A 10-year (2000–2009) NDVIsat_adjust data set was developed using 250-m 7-day composite historical eMODIS (expedited Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI data. The growing season averaged NDVI (GSN), which is a proxy for ecosystem performance, was estimated and long-term NDVI non-saturation- and saturation-adjusted cropland performance (CPnon_sat_adjust, CPsat_adjust) maps were produced over the GPRB. The final CP maps were validated using National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) crop yield data. The relationship between CPsat_adjust and the NASS average corn yield data (r = 0.78, 113 samples) is stronger than the relationship between CPnon_sat_adjust and the NASS average corn yield data (r = 0.67, 113 samples), indicating that the new CPsat_adjust map reduces the NDVI saturation effects and is in good agreement with the corn yield ground observations. Results demonstrate that the NDVI saturation adjustment approach improves the quality of the original GSN map and better depicts the actual vegetation conditions of the GPRB cropland systems.

  6. Projecting future grassland productivity to assess the sustainability of potential biofuel feedstock areas in the Greater Platte River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.; Boyte, Stephen; Phyual, Khem

    2014-01-01

    This study projects future (e.g., 2050 and 2099) grassland productivities in the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB) using ecosystem performance (EP, a surrogate for measuring ecosystem productivity) models and future climate projections. The EP models developed from a previous study were based on the satellite vegetation index, site geophysical and biophysical features, and weather and climate drivers. The future climate data used in this study were derived from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model 3.0 ‘SRES A1B’ (a ‘middle’ emissions path). The main objective of this study is to assess the future sustainability of the potential biofuel feedstock areas identified in a previous study. Results show that the potential biofuel feedstock areas (the more mesic eastern part of the GPRB) will remain productive (i.e., aboveground grassland biomass productivity >2750 kg ha−1 year−1) with a slight increasing trend in the future. The spatially averaged EPs for these areas are 3519, 3432, 3557, 3605, 3752, and 3583 kg ha−1 year−1 for current site potential (2000–2008 average), 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050, and 2099, respectively. Therefore, the identified potential biofuel feedstock areas will likely continue to be sustainable for future biofuel development. On the other hand, grasslands identified as having no biofuel potential in the drier western part of the GPRB would be expected to stay unproductive in the future (spatially averaged EPs are 1822, 1691, 1896, 2306, 1994, and 2169 kg ha−1 year−1 for site potential, 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050, and 2099). These areas should continue to be unsuitable for biofuel feedstock development in the future. These future grassland productivity estimation maps can help land managers to understand and adapt to the expected changes in future EP in the GPRB and to assess the future sustainability and feasibility of potential biofuel feedstock areas.

  7. Columbia River ESI: NWI (National Wetlands Inventory - Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the wetlands of Columbia River classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) classification...

  8. Future Water Management in the South Platte River Basin: Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing, Population, Agriculture, and Climate Change in a Semi-Arid Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, E. L.; Hogue, T. S.; Anderson, A. M.; Read, L.

    2015-12-01

    In semi-arid basins across the world, the gap between water supply and demand is growing due to climate change, population growth, and shifts in agriculture and unconventional energy development. Water conservation efforts among residential and industrial water users, recycling and reuse techniques and innovative regulatory frameworks for water management strive to mitigate this gap, however, the extent of these strategies are often difficult to quantify and not included in modeling water allocations. Decision support systems (DSS) are purposeful for supporting water managers in making informed decisions when competing demands create the need to optimize water allocation between sectors. One region of particular interest is the semi-arid region of the South Platte River basin in northeastern Colorado, where anthropogenic and climatic effects are expected to increase the gap between water supply and demand in the near future. Specifically, water use in the South Platte is impacted by several high-intensity activities, including unconventional energy development, i.e. hydraulic fracturing, and large withdrawals for agriculture; these demands are in addition to a projected population increase of 100% by 2050. The current work describes the development of a DSS for the South Platte River basin, using the Water Evaluation and Planning system software (WEAP) to explore scenarios of how variation in future water use in the energy, agriculture, and municipal sectors will impact water allocation decisions. Detailed data collected on oil and gas water use in the Niobrara shale play will be utilized to predict future sector use. We also employ downscaled climate projections for the region to quantify the potential range of water availability in the basin under each scenario, and observe whether or not, and to what extent, climate may impact management decisions at the basin level.

  9. Assessing Hydrologic Impacts of Future Land Cover Change Scenarios in the South Platte River Basin (CO, WY, & NE) and the San Pedro River Basin (U.S./Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, J. E.; Burns, I. S.; Guertin, D. P.; Kepner, W. G.; Goodrich, D. C.

    2016-12-01

    Long-term land-use and land cover change and their associated impacts pose critical challenges to sustaining vital hydrological ecosystem services for future generations. In this study, a methodology to characterize hydrologic impacts from future urban growth through time that was developed and applied on the San Pedro River Basin was expanded and utilized on the South Platte River Basin as well. Future urban growth is represented by housing density maps generated in decadal intervals from 2010 to 2100, produced by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Integrated Climate and Land-Use Scenarios (ICLUS) project. ICLUS developed future housing density maps by adapting the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) social, economic, and demographic storylines to the conterminous United States. To characterize hydrologic impacts from future growth, the housing density maps were reclassified to National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2006 land cover classes and used to parameterize the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) using the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool. The objectives of this project were to 1) develop and implement a methodology for adapting the ICLUS data for use in AGWA as an approach to evaluate impacts of development on water-quantity and -quality, 2) present, evaluate, and compare results from scenarios for watersheds in two different geographic and climatic regions, 3) determine watershed specific implications of this type of future land cover change analysis.

  10. Treatment Efficiencies of Constructed Wetlands for Eutrophic Landscape River Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Sheng-Bing; YAN Li; KONG Hai-Nan; LIU Zhi-Ming; WU De-Yi; HU Zhan-Bo

    2007-01-01

    The efficiencies of two types of constructed wetlands for the treatment of low-concentration polluted eutrophic landscape river water were studied in the western section of the Qingyuan River at the Minhang campus of Shanghai Jiaotong University. The first wetland was a single-stage system using gravel as a filtration medium, and the second was a three-stage system filled with combinations of gravel, zeolite, and fly ash. Results from parallel operations of the wetlands showed that the three-stage constructed wetland could remove organics, nitrogen, and phosphorus successfully. At the same time, it could also decrease ammoniacal odour in the effluent. Compared to the single-stage constructed wetland, it had better nutrient removal efficiencies with a higher removal of 19.37%-65.27% for total phosphorus (TP) and 21.56%- 62.94% for total nitrogen (TN), respectively, during the operation period of 14 weeks. In terms of removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, and blue-green algae, these two wetland systems had equivalent performances. It was also found that in the western section of the test river, in which the two constructed wetlands were located, the water quality was much better than that in the eastern and middle sections without constructed wetland because COD, TN, and TP were all in a relatively lower level and the eutrophication could be prevented completely in the western section.

  11. Land-Use Analysis and Simulated Effects of Land-Use Change and Aggregate Mining on Groundwater Flow in the South Platte River Valley, Brighton to Fort Lupton, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L.R.; Mladinich, C.S.; Langer, W.H.; Daniels, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Land use in the South Platte River valley between the cities of Brighton and Fort Lupton, Colo., is undergoing change as urban areas expand, and the extent of aggregate mining in the Brighton-Fort Lupton area is increasing as the demand for aggregate grows in response to urban development. To improve understanding of land-use change and the potential effects of land-use change and aggregate mining on groundwater flow, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the cities of Brighton and Fort Lupton, analyzed socioeconomic and land-use trends and constructed a numerical groundwater flow model of the South Platte alluvial aquifer in the Brighton-Fort Lupton area. The numerical groundwater flow model was used to simulate (1) steady-state hydrologic effects of predicted land-use conditions in 2020 and 2040, (2) transient cumulative hydrologic effects of the potential extent of reclaimed aggregate pits in 2020 and 2040, (3) transient hydrologic effects of actively dewatered aggregate pits, and (4) effects of different hypothetical pit spacings and configurations on groundwater levels. The SLEUTH (Slope, Land cover, Exclusion, Urbanization, Transportation, and Hillshade) urban-growth modeling program was used to predict the extent of urban area in 2020 and 2040. Wetlands in the Brighton-Fort Lupton area were mapped as part of the study, and mapped wetland locations and areas of riparian herbaceous vegetation previously mapped by the Colorado Division of Wildlife were compared to simulation results to indicate areas where wetlands or riparian herbaceous vegetation might be affected by groundwater-level changes resulting from land-use change or aggregate mining. Analysis of land-use conditions in 1957, 1977, and 2000 indicated that the general distribution of irrigated land and non-irrigated land remained similar from 1957 to 2000, but both land uses decreased as urban area increased. Urban area increased about 165 percent from 1957 to 1977 and about 56 percent from

  12. Chapter A. Effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems in the South Platte River basin, Colorado and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Lori A.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Dupree, Jean A.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the effects of urbanization on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of stream ecosystems in 28 basins along an urban land-use gradient in the South Platte River Basin, Colorado and Wyoming, from 2002 through 2003. Study basins were chosen to minimize natural variability among basins due to factors such as geology, elevation, and climate and to maximize coverage of different stages of urban development among basins. Because land use or population density alone often are not a complete measure of urbanization, land use, land cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables were integrated in a multimetric urban intensity index to represent the degree of urban development in each study basin. Physical characteristics studied included stream hydrology, stream temperature, and habitat; chemical characteristics studied included nutrients, pesticides, suspended sediment, sulfate, chloride, and fecal bacteria concentrations; and biological characteristics studied included algae, fish, and invertebrate communities. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), passive samplers that concentrate trace levels of hydrophobic organic contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), also were used. The objectives of the study were to (1) examine physical, chemical, and biological responses along the gradient of urbanization; (2) determine the major physical, chemical, and landscape variables affecting the structure of aquatic communities; and (3) evaluate the relevance of the results to the management of water resources in the South Platte River Basin. Commonly observed effects of urbanization on instream physical, chemical, and biological characteristics, such as increased flashiness, higher magnitude and more frequent peak flows, increased concentrations of chemicals, and changes in aquatic community structure, generally were not observed in this study. None of the hydrologic, temperature, habitat

  13. 77 FR 52650 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Platte...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ..., the Platte River caddisfly is considered a shredder and largely feeds upon senescent (aged) plant tissue (Whiles et al. 1999, pp. 542-543). As one of the few shredders present in sloughs, the Platte... shredder species (Roeding and Smock 1989, p. 149), such as the Platte River caddisfly (Vivian 2011, p....

  14. Base Contours of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  15. Base of principal aquifer boundary for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  16. Base of aquifer contour boundary of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  17. Analysis of wetland change in the Songhua River Basin from 1995 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, L. H.; Jiang, W. G.; Luo, Z. L.; He, X. H.; Liu, Y. H.

    2014-03-01

    Wetlands in the Songhua River Basin in both 1995 and 2008 were mapped from land use/land cover maps generated from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. These maps were then divided into two categories, i.e. artificial wetland and natural wetland. From 1995 to 2008, the total area of wetland in the Songhua River Basin increased from 93 072.3 km2 to 99 179.6 km2 a net increase of 6107.3 km2. The area of natural wetland decreased by 4043.7 km2 while the area of artificial wetland increased by 10 166.2 km2. Swamp wetland and paddy field wetland became the dominant wetlands and the swamp wetland in the east of the Heilong River system and the north of the Wusuli River system disappeared, being transformed into paddy field wetland. The diversity of wetland landscape is worsening and the distribution of wetland landscape is becoming more unbalanced; the fragmentation of natural wetland has intensified whereas the patch connectivity of artificial wetland has increased. Changes in natural wetlands were primarily caused by climate and socio-economic changes, while changes in artificial wetland were mainly caused by the growth of population and gross domestic product.

  18. Evaluation of groundwater levels in the South Platte River alluvial aquifer, Colorado, 1953-2012, and design of initial well networks for monitoring groundwater levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    The South Platte River and underlying alluvial aquifer form an important hydrologic resource in northeastern Colorado that provides water to population centers along the Front Range and to agricultural communities across the rural plains. Water is regulated based on seniority of water rights and delivered using a network of administration structures that includes ditches, reservoirs, wells, impacted river sections, and engineered recharge areas. A recent addendum to Colorado water law enacted during 2002-2003 curtailed pumping from thousands of wells that lacked authorized augmentation plans. The restrictions in pumping were hypothesized to increase water storage in the aquifer, causing groundwater to rise near the land surface at some locations. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board and the Colorado Water Institute, completed an assessment of 60 years (yr) of historical groundwater-level records collected from 1953 to 2012 from 1,669 wells. Relations of "high" groundwater levels, defined as depth to water from 0 to 10 feet (ft) below land surface, were compared to precipitation, river discharge, and 36 geographic and administrative attributes to identify natural and human controls in areas with shallow groundwater.

  19. Amazon River carbon dioxide outgassing fuelled by wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, Gwenaël; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Artigas, L. Felipe; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Benedetti, Marc F.; Vidal, Luciana; Meziane, Tarik; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Bernardes, Marcelo C.; Savoye, Nicolas; Deborde, Jonathan; Souza, Edivaldo Lima; Albéric, Patrick; Landim de Souza, Marcelo F.; Roland, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    River systems connect the terrestrial biosphere, the atmosphere and the ocean in the global carbon cycle. A recent estimate suggests that up to 3 petagrams of carbon per year could be emitted as carbon dioxide (CO2) from global inland waters, offsetting the carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. It is generally assumed that inland waters emit carbon that has been previously fixed upstream by land plant photosynthesis, then transferred to soils, and subsequently transported downstream in run-off. But at the scale of entire drainage basins, the lateral carbon fluxes carried by small rivers upstream do not account for all of the CO2 emitted from inundated areas downstream. Three-quarters of the world's flooded land consists of temporary wetlands, but the contribution of these productive ecosystems to the inland water carbon budget has been largely overlooked. Here we show that wetlands pump large amounts of atmospheric CO2 into river waters in the floodplains of the central Amazon. Flooded forests and floating vegetation export large amounts of carbon to river waters and the dissolved CO2 can be transported dozens to hundreds of kilometres downstream before being emitted. We estimate that Amazonian wetlands export half of their gross primary production to river waters as dissolved CO2 and organic carbon, compared with only a few per cent of gross primary production exported in upland (not flooded) ecosystems. Moreover, we suggest that wetland carbon export is potentially large enough to account for at least the 0.21 petagrams of carbon emitted per year as CO2 from the central Amazon River and its floodplains. Global carbon budgets should explicitly address temporary or vegetated flooded areas, because these ecosystems combine high aerial primary production with large, fast carbon export, potentially supporting a substantial fraction of CO2 evasion from inland waters.

  20. Floral Diversity in the Wetlands of Apete River, Eleyele Lake and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Floral Diversity in the Wetlands of Apete River, Eleyele Lake and Oba Dam in Ibadan, ... road construction and agricultural activities, but the floristic compositions of these ... A comparative assessment study of the floral of three wetlands in a ...

  1. Changes of Coastal Wetland Ecosystems in the Yellow River Delta and Protection Countermeasures to Them

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangzhou; CUI; Xuliang; ZHANG; Zhaohui; ZHANG; Zongjun; XU

    2013-01-01

    Coastal wetlands in the Yellow River Delta are typical new wetland ecosystems in warm temperate zone. In recent years, influenced by natural and human factors, these coastal wetlands in the Yellow River Delta have undergone changes of landscape fragmentation, vegetation degradation, pollution, species reduction, and harmful exotic species invasion. These changes have influenced sustainable and healthy development of marine economy of the Yellow River Delta. To protect natural ecological environment of the Yellow River Delta, the authors recommended that it should establish and improve policies, laws and regulations of wetland protection; carry out wetland resource investigation and assessment and monitoring; strengthen comprehensive protection and control of wetland; reduce wetland degradation and promote sustainable use of wetland.

  2. 2012 Reassessment of Floodplain Wetland Connections in the Middle Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGory, Kirk E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Walston, Leroy J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weber, Cory C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report presents the results of floodplain wetland connection surveys conducted in 2012 at eight priority floodplain wetlands along the middle Green River between Jensen and Ouray, Utah. Surveys were conducted at levee breaches and within channels leading from the breaches to the wetlands (referred to here as connection channels) to characterize the flows needed to connect the river's main channel with the floodplain wetlands.

  3. Linking channel hydrology with riparian wetland accretion in tidal rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign, Scott H.; Noe, Gregory B.; Hupp, Cliff R.

    2014-01-01

    hydrologic processes by which tide affects river channel and riparian morphology within the tidal freshwater zone are poorly understood yet are fundamental to predicting the fate of coastal rivers and wetlands as sea level rises. We investigated patterns of sediment accretion in riparian wetlands along the nontidal through oligohaline portion of two coastal plain rivers in Maryland, U.S., and how flow velocity, water level, and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in the channel may have contributed to those patterns. Sediment accretion was measured over a 1 year period using artificial marker horizons, channel hydrology was measured over a 1 month period using acoustic Doppler current profilers, and SSC was predicted from acoustic backscatter. Riparian sediment accretion was lowest at the nontidal sites (mean and standard deviation = 8 ± 8 mm yr-1), highest at the upstream tidal freshwater forested wetlands (TFFW) (33 ± 28 mm yr-1), low at the midstream TFFW (12 ± 9 mm yr-1), and high at the oligohaline (fresh-to-brackish) marshes (19 ± 8 mm yr-1). Channel maximum flood and ebb velocity was twofold faster at the oligohaline than tidal freshwater zone on both tidal rivers, corresponding with the differences in in-channel SSC: The oligohaline zone's SSC was more than double the tidal freshwater zone's and was greater than historical SSC at the nontidal gages. The tidal wave characteristics differed between rivers, leading to significantly greater in-channel SSC during floodplain inundation in the weakly convergent than the strongly convergent tidal river. High sediment accretion at the upstream TFFW was likely due to high river discharge following a hurricane.

  4. Changes of Coastal Wetland Ecosystems in the Yellow River Delta and Protection Countermeasures to Them

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Guangzhou; Zhang, Xuliang; Zhang, Zhaohui; Xu, Zongjun

    2013-01-01

    Coastal wetlands in the Yellow River Delta are typical new wetland ecosystems in warm temperate zone. In recent years, influenced by natural and human factors, these coastal wetlands in the Yellow River Delta have undergone changes of landscape fragmentation, vegetation degradation, pollution, species reduction, and harmful exotic species invasion. These changes have influenced sustainable and healthy development of marine economy of the Yellow River Delta. To protect natural ecological envir...

  5. A Decision Framework for Integrated Wetland-River Basin Management In A Tropical And Data Scarce Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arias Hidalgo, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, wetlands were considered separately from river basin systems. However, nowadays an integrated approach is becoming common practice in wetland-riverine watershed analysis and management. Such overall wetland management approach implies not only an adequate representation of relevant b

  6. Evaluation of carbon fluxes and trends (2000-2008) in the Greater Platte River Basin: a sustainability study on the potential biofuel feedstock development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.; Zhang, Li; Gilmanov, Tagir G.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the carbon fluxes and trends and examines the environmental sustainability (e.g., carbon budget, source or sink) of the potential biofuel feedstock sites identified in the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB). A 9-year (2000–2008) time series of net ecosystem production (NEP), a measure of net carbon absorption or emission by ecosystems, was used to assess the historical trends and budgets of carbon flux for grasslands in the GPRB. The spatially averaged annual NEP (ANEP) for grassland areas that are possibly suitable for biofuel expansion (productive grasslands) was 71–169 g C m−2 year−1 during 2000–2008, indicating a carbon sink (more carbon is absorbed than released) in these areas. The spatially averaged ANEP for areas not suitable for biofuel feedstock development (less productive or degraded grasslands) was −47 to 69 g C m−2 year−1 during 2000–2008, showing a weak carbon source or a weak carbon sink (carbon emitted is nearly equal to carbon absorbed). The 9-year pre-harvest cumulative ANEP was 1166 g C m−2 for the suitable areas (a strong carbon sink) and 200 g C m−2 for the non-suitable areas (a weak carbon sink). Results demonstrate and confirm that our method of dynamic modeling of ecosystem performance can successfully identify areas desirable and sustainable for future biofuel feedstock development. This study provides useful information for land managers and decision makers to make optimal land use decisions regarding biofuel feedstock development and sustainability.

  7. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: WETLANDS (Environmental Sensitivity Index Wetland Types - Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing coastal wetland habitats for the Hudson River classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI)...

  8. Selected Discharge Measurements at Stream-Gaging Stations on Lower Platte River near Ashland, Duncan, Leshara, Louisville, and North Bend, Nebraska, 1934-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The accompanying "Lower_Platte_GAGES5" data release consists of two parts, a spatial data layer composed of a vector point data set representing five USGS streamflow...

  9. 2014 Reassessment of Floodplain Wetland Connections in the Middle Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGory, K. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Walston, L. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weber, C. C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report presents the results of floodplain wetland connection surveys conducted in 2014 at six priority floodplain wetland sites along the middle Green River between Jensen and Ouray, Utah. Surveys were conducted at levee breaches and within channels leading from the breaches to the wetlands (referred to here as connection channels) to characterize the flows needed to connect the river’s main channel with the floodplain wetlands.

  10. Community-based restoration of desert wetlands: the case of the Colorado River delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osvel Hinojosa-Huerta; Mark Briggs; Yamilett Carrillo-Guerroro; Edward P. Glenn; Miriam Lara-Flores; Martha Roman-Rodriguez

    2005-01-01

    Wetland areas have been drastically reduced through the Pacific Flyway and the Sonoran Desert, with severe consequences for avian populations. In the Colorado River delta, wetlands have been reduced by 80 percent due to water management practices in the Colorado River basin. However, excess flows and agricultural drainage water has restored some areas, providing...

  11. Use of seasonal freshwater wetlands by fishes in a temperate river floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Julie A.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Fleming, Ian A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the use of freshwater wetland restoration and enhancement projects (i.e. non-estuarine wetlands subject to seasonal drying) by fish populations. To quantify fish use of freshwater emergent wetlands and assess the effect of wetland enhancement (i.e. addition of water control structures), two enhanced and two unenhanced emergent wetlands were compared, as well as two oxbow habitats within the Chehalis River floodplain. Eighteen fish species were captured using fyke nets and emigrant traps from January to the beginning of June, with the most abundant being three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus and Olympic mudminnow Novumbra hubbsi. Coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch was the dominant salmonid at all sites. Enhanced wetlands, with their extended hydroperiods, had significantly higher abundances of yearling coho salmon than unenhanced wetlands. Both enhanced and unenhanced emergent wetlands yielded higher abundances of non-game native fishes than oxbow habitats. Oxbow habitats, however, were dominated by coho salmon. Fish survival in the wetland habitats was dependent on emigration to the river before dissolved oxygen concentrations decreased and wetlands became isolated and stranding occurred. This study suggests that wetland enhancement projects with an outlet to the river channel appear to provide fishes with important temporary habitats if they have the opportunity to leave the wetland as dissolved oxygen levels deteriorate.

  12. Base of principal aquifer for parts of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobza, Christopher M.; Abraham, Jared D.; Cannia, James C.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Sibray, Steven S.

    2014-01-01

    Water resources in the North and South Platte River valleys of Nebraska, including the valley of Lodgepole Creek, are critical to the social and economic health of the area, and for the recovery of threatened and endangered species in the Platte River Basin. Groundwater and surface water are heavily used resources, and uses are regulated in the study area. Irrigation is the dominant water use and, in most instances, is supplied by both groundwater and surface-water sources. The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to use airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys including the valley of Lodgepole Creek in western Nebraska. The objective of the surveys was to map the aquifers and underlying bedrock topography of selected areas to help improve the understanding of groundwater–surface-water relations to guide water-management decisions. This project was a cooperative study involving the North Platte Natural Resources District, the South Platte Natural Resources District, the Twin Platte Natural Resources District, the Conservation and Survey Division of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, and the Nebraska Environmental Trust. This report presents the interpreted base-of-aquifer surface for part of the area consisting of the North Platte Natural Resources District, the South Platte Natural Resources District, and the Twin Platte Natural Resources District. The interpretations presented herein build on work done by previous researchers from 2008 to 2009 by incorporating additional airborne electromagnetic survey data collected in 2010 and additional test holes from separate, related studies. To make the airborne electromagnetic data useful, numerical inversion was used to convert the measured data into a depth-dependent subsurface resistivity model. An interpretation of the elevation and configuration of the base of aquifer was completed in a geographic information system that provided x, y, and z

  13. Macroinvertebrate distribution and aquatic ecology in the Ruoergai (Zoige) Wetland, the Yellow River source region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Xu, Mengzhen; Li, Zhiwei; Wang, Zhaoyin; Zhou, Hanmi

    2017-09-01

    The Ruoergai (Zoige) Wetland, the largest plateau peatland in the world, is located in the Yellow River source region. The discharge of the Yellow River increases greatly after flowing through the Ruoergai Wetland. The aquatic ecosystem of the Ruoergai Wetland is crucial to the whole Yellow River basin. The Ruoergai wetland has three main kinds of water bodies: rivers, oxbow lakes, and marsh wetlands. In this study, macroinvertebrates were used as indicators to assess the aquatic ecological status because their assemblage structures indicate long-term changes in environments with high sensitivity. Field investigations were conducted in July, 2012 and in July, 2013. A total of 72 taxa of macroinvertebrates belonging to 35 families and 67 genera were sampled and identified. Insecta was the dominant group in the Ruoergai Basin. The alpha diversity of macroinvertebrates at any single sampling site was low, while the alpha diversity on a basin-wide scale was much higher. Macroinvertebrate assemblages in rivers, oxbow lakes, and marsh wetlands differ markedly. Hydrological connectivity was a primary factor causing the variance of the bio-community. The river channels had the highest alpha diversity of macroinvertebrates, followed by marsh wetlands and oxbow lakes. The density and biomass of Gastropoda, collector filterers, and scrapers increased from rivers to oxbow lakes and then to marsh wetlands. The river ecology was particular in the Ruoergai Wetland with the high beta diversity of macroinvertebrates, the low alpha diversity of macroinvertebrates, and the low taxa richness, density, and biomass of EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera). To maintain high alpha diversity of macroinvertebrates macroinvertebrates in the Ruoergai Wetland, moderate connectivity of oxbow lakes and marsh wetlands with rivers and measures to control headwater erosion are both crucial.

  14. Macroinvertebrate distribution and aquatic ecology in the Ruoergai (Zoige) Wetland, the Yellow River source region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Xu, Mengzhen; Li, Zhiwei; Wang, Zhaoyin; Zhou, Hanmi

    2016-12-01

    The Ruoergai (Zoige) Wetland, the largest plateau peatland in the world, is located in the Yellow River source region. The discharge of the Yellow River increases greatly after flowing through the Ruoergai Wetland. The aquatic ecosystem of the Ruoergai Wetland is crucial to the whole Yellow River basin. The Ruoergai wetland has three main kinds of water bodies: rivers, oxbow lakes, and marsh wetlands. In this study, macroinvertebrates were used as indicators to assess the aquatic ecological status because their assemblage structures indicate long-term changes in environments with high sensitivity. Field investigations were conducted in July, 2012 and in July, 2013. A total of 72 taxa of macroinvertebrates belonging to 35 families and 67 genera were sampled and identified. Insecta was the dominant group in the Ruoergai Basin. The alpha diversity of macroinvertebrates at any single sampling site was low, while the alpha diversity on a basin-wide scale was much higher. Macroinvertebrate assemblages in rivers, oxbow lakes, and marsh wetlands differ markedly. Hydrological connectivity was a primary factor causing the variance of the bio-community. The river channels had the highest alpha diversity of macroinvertebrates, followed by marsh wetlands and oxbow lakes. The density and biomass of Gastropoda, collector filterers, and scrapers increased from rivers to oxbow lakes and then to marsh wetlands. The river ecology was particular in the Ruoergai Wetland with the high beta diversity of macroinvertebrates, the low alpha diversity of macroinvertebrates, and the low taxa richness, density, and biomass of EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera). To maintain high alpha diversity of macroinvertebrates macroinvertebrates in the Ruoergai Wetland, moderate connectivity of oxbow lakes and marsh wetlands with rivers and measures to control headwater erosion are both crucial.

  15. Characterization and copper binding of humic and nonhumic organic matter isolated from the South Platte River: Evidence for the presence of nitrogenous binding site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croue, J.-P.; Benedetti, M.F.; Violleau, D.; Leenheer, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Humic substances typically constitute 40-60% of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in surface waters. However, little information is available regarding the metal binding properties of the nonhumic hydrophilic portion of the DOM. In this study, humic and nonhumic DOM samples were isolated from the South Platte River (Colorado, DOC = 2.6 mg??L-1, SUVA254 = 2.4 L/mg??m) using a two-column array of XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins. The three major isolated fractions of DOM, which accounted for 57% of the bulk DOM, were characterized using a variety of analytical tools. Proton and copper binding properties were studied for each fraction. The main objective of this work was to compare the structural and chemical characteristics of the isolated fractions and test models describing DOM reactivity toward metal ions. The characterization work showed significant structural differences between the three isolated fractions of DOM. The hydrophobic acid fraction (i.e., humic substances isolated from the XAD-8 resin) gave the largest C/H, C/O, and C/N ratios and aromatic carbon content among the three isolated fractions. The transphilic acid (TPHA) fraction ("transphilic" meaning fraction of intermediate polarity isolated from the XAD-4 resin) was found to incorporate the highest proportion of polysaccharides, whereas the transphilic neutral (TPHN) fraction was almost entirely proteinaceous. The gradual increase of the charge with pH for the three DOM fractions is most likely caused by a large distribution of proton affinity constants for the carboxylic groups, as well as a second type of group more generally considered to be phenolic. In the case of the DOM fraction enriched in proteinaceous material (i.e., TPHN fraction), the results showed that the amino groups are reponsible for the charge reversal. For low copper concentrations, nitrogen-containing functional groups similar to those of amino acids are likely to be involved in complexation, in agreement with previously published data.

  16. Composition of dissolved organic nitrogen in rivers associated with wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Akira, E-mail: akiraw@agr.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Tsutsuki, Kiyoshi [Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555 (Japan); Inoue, Yudzuru [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Sakura, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Maie, Nagamitsu [School of Veterinary Medicine, Kitasato University, Towada, Aomori 034-8628 (Japan); Melling, Lulie [Tropical Peat Research Laboratory Unit, Chief Minister' s Department, Jalan Badruddin 93400, Kuching, Sarawak (Malaysia); Jaffé, Rudolf [Southeast Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, 3000 NE 151 Str., Marine Sciences Building, North Miami, FL 33181 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, 3000 NE 151 Str., Marine Sciences Building, North Miami, FL 33181 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    As basic information for assessing reactivity and functionality of wetland-associated dissolved organic matter (DOM) based on their composition and structural properties, chemical characteristics of N in ultrafiltered DOM (UDON; > 1 kD) isolated from wetland-associated rivers in three climates (cool-temperate, Hokkaido, Japan; sub-tropical, Florida, USA; tropical, Sarawak, Malaysia) were investigated. The UDON was isolated during dry and wet seasons, or during spring, summer, and autumn. The proportion of UDON present as humic substances, which was estimated as the DAX-8 adsorbed fraction, ranged from 47 to 91%, with larger values in the Sarawak than at the other sites. The yield of hydrolyzable amino acid N ranged 1.24 to 7.01mg g{sup −1}, which correlated positively to the total N content of UDOM and tended to be larger in the order of Florida > Hokkaido > Sarawak samples. X-ray photoelectron N1s spectra of UDON showed a strong negative correlation between the relative abundances of amide/peptide N and primary amine N. The relative abundances of amide/peptide N and primary amine N in the Sarawak samples were smaller (70–76%) and larger (20–23%) respectively compared to those (80–88% and 4–9%) in the Florida and Hokkaido samples. Assuming terminal amino groups and amide N of peptides as major constituents of primary amine N and amide/peptide N, respectively, the average molecular weight of peptides was smaller in the Sarawak samples than that in the Florida and Hokkaido samples. Seasonal variations in UDON composition were scarce in the Sarawak and Florida samples, whereas the distribution of humic substance-N and nonhumic substance-N and compositions of amino acids and N functional groups showed a clear seasonality in the Hokkaido samples. While aromatic N increased from spring to autumn, contributions from fresh proteinaceous materials were also enhanced during autumn, resulting in the highest N content of UDOM for this season. - Highlights: • DON in

  17. Elevation Control Points to reinterpret the base of aquifer contours after airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  18. Base control points of the aquifer contours enhanced with airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  19. Area of aquifer contours enhanced with airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  20. Base Control Points enhanced with airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  1. Base of aquifer contours model enhanced with airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  2. Base of aquifer contours enhanced with airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  3. Assessing Hydrologic Impacts of Future Land Cover Change Scenarios in the South Platte River Basin (CO, WY, & NE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long‐term land‐use and land cover change and their associated impacts pose critical challenges to sustaining vital hydrological ecosystem services for future generations. In this study, a methodology was developed on the San Pedro River Basin to characterize hydrologi...

  4. Assessing Hydrologic Impacts of Future Land Cover Change Scenarios in the South Platte River Basin (CO, WY, & NE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long‐term land‐use and land cover change and their associated impacts pose critical challenges to sustaining vital hydrological ecosystem services for future generations. In this study, a methodology was developed on the San Pedro River Basin to characterize hydrologi...

  5. Assessment of Wetland Ecosystem Health in the Yangtze and Amazon River Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Sun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As “kidneys of the earth”, wetlands play an important role in ameliorating weather conditions, flood storage, and the control and reduction of environmental pollution. With the development of local economies, the wetlands in both the Amazon and Yangtze River Basins have been affected and threatened by human activities, such as urban expansion, reclamation of land from lakes, land degradation, and large-scale agricultural development. It is necessary and important to develop a wetland ecosystem health evaluation model and to quantitatively evaluate the wetland ecosystem health in these two basins. In this paper, GlobeLand30 land cover maps and socio-economic and climate data from 2000 and 2010 were adopted to assess the wetland ecosystem health of the Yangtze and Amazon River Basins on the basis of a pressure-state-response (PSR model. A total of 13 indicators were selected to build the wetland health assessment system. Weights of these indicators and PSR model components, as well as normalized wetland health scores, were assigned and calculated based on the analytic hierarchy process method. The results showed that from 2000 to 2010, the value of the mean wetland ecosystem health index in the Yangtze River Basin decreased from 0.482 to 0.481, while it increased from 0.582 to 0.593 in the Amazon River Basin. This indicated that the average status of wetland ecosystem health in the Amazon River Basin is better than that in the Yangtze River Basin, and that wetland health improved over time in the Amazon River Basin but worsened in the Yangtze River Basin.

  6. Distribution of Organic Carbon in the Sediments of Xinxue River and the Xinxue River Constructed Wetland, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qingqing; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Haijie; Ge, Xiuli; Liu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Wetland ecosystems are represented as a significant reservoir of organic carbon and play an important role in mitigating the greenhouse effect. In order to compare the compositions and distribution of organic carbon in constructed and natural river wetlands, sediments from the Xinxue River Constructed Wetland and the Xinxue River, China, were sampled at two depths (0-15 cm and 15-25 cm) in both upstream and downstream locations. Three types of organic carbon were determined: light fraction organic carbon, heavy fraction organic carbon, and dissolved organic carbon. The results show that variations in light fraction organic carbon are significantly larger between upstream and downstream locations than they are between the two wetland types; however, the opposite trend is observed for the dissolved organic carbon. There are no significant differences in the distribution of heavy fraction organic carbon between the discrete variables (e.g., between the two depths, the two locations, or the two wetland types). However, there are significant cross-variable differences; for example, the distribution patterns of heavy fraction organic carbon between wetland types and depths, and between wetland types and locations. Correlation analysis reveals that light fraction organic carbon is positively associated with light fraction nitrogen in both wetlands, while heavy fraction organic carbon is associated with both heavy fraction nitrogen and the moisture content in the constructed wetland. The results of this study demonstrate that the constructed wetland, which has a relatively low background value of heavy fraction organic carbon, is gradually accumulating organic carbon of different types, with the level of accumulation dependent on the balance between carbon accumulation and carbon decomposition. In contrast, the river wetland has relatively stable levels of organic carbon.

  7. Distribution of Organic Carbon in the Sediments of Xinxue River and the Xinxue River Constructed Wetland, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Cao

    Full Text Available Wetland ecosystems are represented as a significant reservoir of organic carbon and play an important role in mitigating the greenhouse effect. In order to compare the compositions and distribution of organic carbon in constructed and natural river wetlands, sediments from the Xinxue River Constructed Wetland and the Xinxue River, China, were sampled at two depths (0-15 cm and 15-25 cm in both upstream and downstream locations. Three types of organic carbon were determined: light fraction organic carbon, heavy fraction organic carbon, and dissolved organic carbon. The results show that variations in light fraction organic carbon are significantly larger between upstream and downstream locations than they are between the two wetland types; however, the opposite trend is observed for the dissolved organic carbon. There are no significant differences in the distribution of heavy fraction organic carbon between the discrete variables (e.g., between the two depths, the two locations, or the two wetland types. However, there are significant cross-variable differences; for example, the distribution patterns of heavy fraction organic carbon between wetland types and depths, and between wetland types and locations. Correlation analysis reveals that light fraction organic carbon is positively associated with light fraction nitrogen in both wetlands, while heavy fraction organic carbon is associated with both heavy fraction nitrogen and the moisture content in the constructed wetland. The results of this study demonstrate that the constructed wetland, which has a relatively low background value of heavy fraction organic carbon, is gradually accumulating organic carbon of different types, with the level of accumulation dependent on the balance between carbon accumulation and carbon decomposition. In contrast, the river wetland has relatively stable levels of organic carbon.

  8. Trend and magnitude of changes in climate variables and reference evapotranspiration over 116-yr period in the Platte River Basin, central Nebraska-USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmak, Suat; Kabenge, Isa; Skaggs, Kari E.; Mutiibwa, Denis

    2012-02-01

    SummarySome studies that investigate the climate change and hydrologic balance relationships utilize reference (potential) evapotranspiration ( ETref) to either calculate the changes in trends and magnitude of actual ET or to determine changes in atmospheric demand. In such cases, it is important to acquire robust ETref estimates to correctly assess the impact of changes in meteorological variables on atmospheric evaporative demand, hydrologic balances, response of vegetation to climate, and their interactions. Despite its crucial importance, unfortunately, ETref is sometimes poorly addressed in climate change studies as some studies utilize temperature or radiation-based empirical equations due to various reasons (unavailability of climate data to solve combination-based energy balance equations, etc.). Since many climate variables that affect ETref rates have been changing and are expected to change in the future, single-variable equations for estimating the trend in ETref should be avoided due to the inherent nature of the trend passed to ETref from the variable. Here, we showed an integrated approach of practical and robust procedures that are already exist to estimate necessary climate variables [incoming shortwave radiation ( R s), net radiation ( R n), wind speed at 2-m ( u2), relative humidity (RH), and vapor pressure deficit (VPD)] only from observed maximum and minimum air temperatures ( Tmax and Tmin) and precipitation ( P) data to be used in Penman-Monteith-type combination-based energy balance equations to predict grass-and alfalfa-reference evapotranspiration ( ET o and ET r, respectively). We analyzed the trends and magnitudes of change in meteorological variables for a 116-yr period from 1893 to 2008 in the agro-ecosystem-dominated Platte River Basin in central Nebraska, USA. Although we found a significant ( P energy, which is primary driver of ETref. There was approximately 100 mm of increase in precipitation from 1893 to 2008 in the study

  9. The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) Network - Data and Technological Resources to Address Current and Emerging Issues in Agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalebo, J. A.; Wienhold, B.; Suyker, A.; Erickson, G.; Hayes, M. J.; Awada, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) is one of 18 established Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) networks across the US. PR-HPA is a partnership between the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), the USDA-ARS Agroecosystem Management Research Unit (AMRU) in Lincoln, and the USDA-ARS Environmental Management Research Unit (EMRU) in Clay Center, NE. The PR-HPA network encompasses 27,750 ha of research sites with data going back to the early 1900s. A partial list of on-going research projects include those encompassing long-term manuring and continuous corn (Est. 1912), dryland tillage plots (Est. 1970), soil nutrients and tillage (Est. 1983), biofuel feedstock studies (Est. 2001), and carbon sequestration study (Est. 2000). Affiliated partners include the National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) that develops measures to improve preparedness and adaptation to climate variability and drought; the High Plains Regional Climate Center (HPRCC) that coordinates data acquisition from over 170 automated weather stations and around 50 automated soil moisture network across NE and beyond; the AMERIFLUX and NEBFLUX networks that coordinate the water vapor and carbon dioxide flux measurements across NE with emphasis on rainfed and irrigated crop lands; the ARS Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network (GRACEnet) and the Resilient Economic Agricultural Practices (REAP) project; and the Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies (CALMIT) that assists with the use of geospatial technologies for agriculture and natural resource applications. Current emphases are on addressing present-day and emerging issues related to profitability and sustainability of agroecosystems. The poster will highlight some of the ongoing and planned efforts in research pertaining to climate variability and change, water sustainability, and ecological and agronomic challenges associated

  10. Wetland tree transpiration modified by river-floodplain connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Scott T; Krauss, Ken W.; Cochran, J. Wesley; King, Sammy L.; Keim, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrologic connectivity provisions water and nutrient subsidies to floodplain wetlands and may be particularly important in floodplains with seasonal water deficits through its effects on soil moisture. In this study, we measured sapflow in 26 trees of two dominant floodplain forest species (Celtis laevigata and Quercus lyrata) at two hydrologically distinct sites in the lower White River floodplain in Arkansas, USA. Our objective was to investigate how connectivity-driven water table variations affected water use, an indicator of tree function. Meteorological variables (photosynthetically active radiation and vapor pressure deficit) were the dominant controls over water use at both sites; however, water table variations explained some site differences. At the wetter site, highest sapflow rates were during a late-season overbank flooding event, and no flood stress was apparent. At the drier site, sapflow decreased as the water table receded. The late-season flood pulse that resulted in flooding at the wetter site did not affect the water table at the drier site; accordingly, higher water use was not observed at the drier site. The species generally associated with wetter conditions (Q. lyrata) was more positively responsive to the flood pulse. Flood water subsidy lengthened the effective growing season, demonstrating ecological implications of hydrologic connectivity for alleviating water deficits that otherwise reduce function in this humid floodplain wetland.

  11. Aquatic macrophyte and macroinvertebrate diversity and conservation in wetlands of the Sinos River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltchik, L; Rolon, A S; Stenert, C

    2010-12-01

    Wetlands are important sites for biological conservation because they support rich biodiversity and present high productivity. Species-area relationship is an important tool in conservation planning and it has been extensively used for wetland management. This study had as aims: (1) to analyse macrophyte and macroinvertebrate diversity in the fragmented wetlands of the Sinos River basin; and (2) to investigate whether wetland areas could work as a tool for selecting the important habitats for biodiversity conservation. Throughout the study, 56 species of macrophytes and 57 taxa of macroinvertebrates were identified. Macrophyte richness was related to the wetland area, but macroinvertebrate richness, however, was not related to the wetland area. The macrophyte and macroinvertebrate composition were not related to the wetland area. Species composition varied between the regions of the basin and the difference in the species composition occurred mainly by the distribution of macroinvertebrates. With regard to the biodiversity conservation of the Sinos River basin, the wetland area must not be a priority criterion for choosing the important wetlands for conservation. The environmental policies for biodiversity conservation must include management actions focused also on the protection of small wetlands. Moreover, other criteria should be analysed in further research such as habitat diversity, hydroperiod, geographic distribution and connectivity.

  12. National Bison Range, Ninepipe, Pablo and Swan River NWR's, Northwest Montana Wetlands: 1976 [Narrative report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for National Bison Range, Ninepipe NWR, Pablo NWR, Swan River NWR, and Northwest Montana Wetlands outlines Refuge accomplishments during the...

  13. Surficial and vertical distribution of heavy metals in different estuary wetlands in the Pearl river, South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Honggang; Cui, Baoshan [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing (China); Zhang, Kejiang [Xinjiang Research Center of Water and Wastewater Treatment, Xinjiang Deland Co., LTD., Urumqi (China)

    2012-10-15

    A total of 87 soil profiles sampled from five types of wetlands in the Pearl River estuary were analyzed to investigate the surficial and vertical distributions of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn). The results show that wetlands directly connected with rivers (e.g., riparian wetlands, estuarine wetlands, and mangrove wetlands) has much higher metal concentrations than those indirectly connected with rivers (e.g., pond wetlands and reclaimed wetlands). The river water is the major pollution source for all investigated heavy metals. The vertical distribution of heavy metals can be classified into three patterns: (i) linear distribution pattern. The concentration of heavy metals gradually decreases with an increase in soil depth (for riparian and estuarine wetlands); (ii) irregular and stable pattern (for pond and reclaimed wetlands); and (iii) middle enrichment pattern (for mangrove wetlands). In addition to river-borne inputs, a variety of vegetation composition, hydraulic conditions, and human activities also contribute to the variation in distribution of heavy metals in different wetlands. Soil properties (e.g., particle size, pH, salinity, and SOM) also affect the distribution of trace metals in each soil layer. The major pollution source of heavy metals is industrial wastewater. Other sources include agriculture and domestic premises, and atmospheric deposition. This study provides a sound basis for the risk assessment of heavy metals in the studied wetlands and for wetland conservation in general. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Restoring Wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    FERTILE LAND:The Qixing River Wetland in Heilongjiang Province was recently named a wetland of international importance at the Sixth Asian Wetland Symposium held in Wuxi City, east China’s Jiangsu Province, on October 13

  15. Ecological restoration and effect investigation of a river wetland in a semi-arid region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S.; Jiang, X.; Liu, Y.; Fu, Y.; Zhao, Q.

    2015-05-01

    River wetlands are heavily impacted by human intervention. The degradation and loss of river wetlands has made the restoration of river ecosystems a top priority. How to rehabilitate rivers and their services has been a research focus. The main goal of it is to restore the river wetland ecosystems with ecological methods. The Gudong River was selected as a study site in Chaoyang city in this study. Based on the analysis of interference factors in the river wetland degradation, a set of restoration techniques were proposed and designed for regional water level control, including submerged dikes, ecological embankments, revegetation and dredging. The restoration engineering has produced good results in water quality, eco-environment, and landscape. Monthly reports of the Daling River show that the water quality of Gudong River was better than Grade III in April 2013 compared with Grade V in May 2012. The economic benefit after restoration construction is 1.71 million RMB per year, about 1.89 times that before. The ratio of economic value, social value and eco-environmental value is 1:4:23.

  16. Occurrence of selected pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical compounds, and stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios, in a riverbank filtration study, Platte River, Nebraska, 2001 to 2003, Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, J.R.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Coplen, T.B.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.; Barber, L.B.

    2005-01-01

    Although studied extensively in recent years in Europe, the occurrence of endocrine disrupters and other organic wastewater compounds in the environment in the United States is not well documented. To better understand the efficiency of riverbank filtration with respect to endocrine disrupting compounds and to evaluate the use of riverbank filtration as an effective means of drinking-water treatment, a study was conducted during 2001-2003 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the City of Lincoln, at an established riverbank-filtration well field with horizontal collector wells and vertical wells. This study provides information that will be useful for (1) increased understanding of the processes and factors important in controlling the transport of endocrine disrupters, such as pesticides and pharmaceuticals during riverbank filtration, (2) better understanding of the physical and chemical processes that affect riverbank-filtration efficiency, and (3) managing the water resources of the eastern Platte River Basin. This report presents analytical methods and data collected during the study. Data are presented as generalized statistics and in figures showing temporal variations. Sites from which water-quality samples were collected for this study included wastewater sites (a cattle feedlot lagoon, a hog confinement lagoon, and wastewater-treatment plant effluent), surface-water sites (Platte River, Salt Creek, and Loup Power Canal), ground-water sites (one collector well and three vertical wells), and drinking-water sites (raw and finished). Field water-quality properties were measured in samples from these sites. Pharmaceutical compounds were detected often in the wastewater-treatment plant effluent. Surface and ground water showed low-level concentrations of pharmaceuticals. Finished drinking-water samples did not contain detectable concentrations of pharmaceuticals except for low levels of cotinine and

  17. Contrasting fluvial styles of the Paraguay River in the northwestern border of the Pantanal wetland, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assine, Mario Luis; Silva, Aguinaldo

    2009-12-01

    The Upper Paraguay drainage basin is situated mainly in west-central Brazil, near the Bolivian border. Flowing from north to south, the Paraguay is the trunk river of an alluvial depositional tract characterized by complex geomorphologic zonation that resulted from an intricate geologic evolution since the Late Pleistocene. This paper focuses on the geomorphology of the Paraguay River at the northwestern border of the Pantanal wetland, where two broad geomorphologic zones were distinguished. North from the Pantanal wetland, the Paraguay River flows in an aggradational fluvial plain, 5 km wide and incised into older alluvial deposits. The river exhibits a meandering style over most of its course, but sinuosity drops from 2.2 to 1.1 near the northwest border of the Pantanal wetland where the river has been forming the Paraguay fluvial megafan since the Late Pleistocene. The river deflects 90° eastward at the entrance into the Pantanal, changing its fluvial style because of a progressive loss of confinement downstream of the point where the river reaches lowland plains. The river becomes more sinuous, adopts a distributary pattern within the wetland and brings about the creation of the modern depositional lobe characterized by higher topographic gradient and active sedimentation likely linked to increased accommodation space allowing progradation. Fluvial discharge diminishes in the Pantanal wetland because of channel overbank flow during the rainy season and frequent levee crevassing. Avulsion belts and channel-levee complex are preserved on the floodplain as relict forms. South of the convergence of the two main channels that define the Taiamã Island, a loss of gradient marks the base of the depositional lobe. Further downstream, the Paraguay River returns to a meandering fluvial style, but crossing a large fluvial plain populated by hundreds of small lakes and seasonally flooded that characterizes the Pantanal wetland.

  18. Wetland Management Reduces Sediment and Nutrient Loading to the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restored riparian wetlands in the Upper Mississippi River basin have the potential to remove sediment and nutrients from tributaries before they flow into the Mississippi River. For 3 yr we calculated retention efficiencies of a marsh complex, which consisted of a restored marsh...

  19. ICHTHYOFAUNA OF THE HUTOVO BLATO WETLAND (LOWER RIVER NERETVA, BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA); STATUS AND VULNERABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Jakov Dulčić; Nikola Zovko; Branko Glamuzina; Pero Tutman

    2012-01-01

    The Hutovo Blato Nature Park is a small, shallow Mediterranean-type wetland of the River Neretva basin located in the SE of Bosnia and Herzegovina, about 20 km upstream from the Adriatic Sea, near the border with the Republic of Croatia. The River Neretva basin has a special value due to high freshwater fish fauna biodiversity anda high degree of endemism. Because of its natural characteristics, especially its fishes, the wetland area is one of the most important parts of the River Neretva an...

  20. Linking the historic 2011 Mississippi River flood to coastal wetland sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcini, Federico; Khan, Nicole S.; Macelloni, Leonardo; Horton, Benjamin P.; Lutken, Carol B.; McKee, Karen L.; Santoleri, Rosalia; Colella, Simone; Li, Chunyan; Volpe, Gianluca; D’Emidio, Marco; Salusti, Alessandro; Jerolmack, Douglas J.

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands in the Mississippi River deltaic plain are deteriorating in part because levees and control structures starve them of sediment. In Spring of 2011 a record-breaking flood brought discharge on the lower Mississippi River to dangerous levels, forcing managers to divert up to 3500 m3/s-1 of water to the Atchafalaya River Basin. Here we quantify differences between the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River inundation and sediment-plume patterns using field-calibrated satellite data, and assess the impact these outflows had on wetland sedimentation. We characterize hydrodynamics and suspended sediment patterns of the Mississippi River plume using in-situ data collected during the historic flood. We show that the focused, high-momentum jet from the leveed Mississippi delivered sediment far offshore. In contrast, the plume from the Atchafalaya was more diffuse; diverted water inundated a large area; and sediment was trapped within the coastal current. Maximum sedimentation (up to several centimetres) occurred in the Atchafalaya Basin despite the larger sediment load carried by the Mississippi. Minimum accumulation occurred along the shoreline between these river sources. Our findings provide a mechanistic link between river-mouth dynamics and wetland sedimentation patterns that is relevant for plans to restore deltaic wetlands using artificial diversions.

  1. Impact of Wetland Decline on Decreasing Dissolved Organic Carbon Concentrations along the Mississippi River Continuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Shuiwang; He, Yuxiang; Kaushal, Sujay S.; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Ward, Nicholas D.; Guo, Laodong

    2017-01-09

    Prior to discharging to the ocean, large rivers constantly receive inputs of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from tributaries or fringing floodplains and lose DOC via continuous in situ processing along distances that span thousands of kilometers. Current concepts predicting longitudinal changes in DOC mainly focus on in situ processing or exchange with fringing floodplain wetlands, while effects of heterogeneous watershed characteristics are generally ignored. We analyzed results from a 17-year time-series of DOC measurements made at seven sites and three expeditions along the entire Mississippi River main channel with DOC measurements made every 17 km. The results show a clear downstream decrease in DOC concentrations that was consistent throughout the entire study period. Downstream DOC decreases were primarily (~63–71%) a result of constant dilutions by low-DOC tributary water controlled by watershed wetland distribution, while in situ processing played a secondary role. We estimate that from 1780 to 1980 wetland loss due to land-use alterations caused a ca. 58% decrease in in DOC concentrations in the tributaries of the Mississippi River. DOC reductions caused by watershed wetland loss likely impacted the capacity for the river to effectively remove nitrogen via denitrification, which can further exacerbate coastal hypoxia. These findings highlight the importance of watershed wetlands in regulating DOC longitudinally along the headland to ocean continuum of major rivers.

  2. Causes of Wetland Degradation and Ecological Restoration in the Yellow River Delta Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jian-feng; Sun Qi-xiang

    2005-01-01

    Yellow River delta (YRD) is one of the biggest deltas that there is a large area of wetland in the world. Thanks to soil(sands) sediment carried by the Yellow River, there was averagely the newly formed land 21.3 km2in YRD. During the development of petroleum industry and urban expansion, wetlands were degraded due to population growth, irrational land use, in addition to adverse natural eco-environment such as lower precipitation, higher soil evaporation and soil salinazation. The major ecological measures to restore degraded wetland concerned with ensuring water supply, especially establishing perfect irrigation works; protecting virgin plant communities and assisting them to regenerate by the way of site preparation, improving living surroundings; introducing salt-tolerant plants to increase vegetation species and plant coverage, thereby enhancing the capability of wetland to combat contamination and pollution through plant remediation, uptake, absorption, etc. Finally making a comprehensive land use plan,accordingly removing deleterious facilities.

  3. Climate change and wetland loss impacts on a western river's water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Records, R. M.; Arabi, M.; Fassnacht, S. R.; Duffy, W. G.; Ahmadi, M.; Hegewisch, K. C.

    2014-11-01

    An understanding of potential stream water quality conditions under future climate is critical for the sustainability of ecosystems and the protection of human health. Changes in wetland water balance under projected climate could alter wetland extent or cause wetland loss (e.g., via increased evapotranspiration and lower growing season flows leading to reduced riparian wetland inundation) or altered land use patterns. This study assessed the potential climate-induced changes to in-stream sediment and nutrient loads in the snowmelt-dominated Sprague River, Oregon, western US. Additionally, potential water quality impacts of combined changes in wetland water balance and wetland area under future climatic conditions were evaluated. The study utilized the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) forced with statistical downscaling of general circulation model (GCM) data from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) using the Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA) method. Our findings suggest that, in the Sprague River, (1) mid-21st century nutrient and sediment loads could increase significantly during the high-flow season under warmer, wetter climate projections or could change only nominally in a warmer and somewhat drier future; (2) although water quality conditions under some future climate scenarios and no wetland loss may be similar to the past, the combined impact of climate change and wetland losses on nutrient loads could be large; (3) increases in stream total phosphorus (TP) concentration with wetland loss under future climate scenarios would be greatest at high-magnitude, low-probability flows; and (4) loss of riparian wetlands in both headwaters and lowlands could increase outlet TP loads to a similar degree, but this could be due to distinctly different mechanisms in different parts of the watershed.

  4. Simulation of hydrological processes in the Zhalong wetland within a river basin, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X. Q.; Zhang, G. X.; Xu, Y. Jun

    2013-07-01

    Zhalong National Nature Preserve is a large wetland reserve on the Songnen Plain in Northeast China. Wetlands in the preserve play a key role in maintaining regional ecosystem function and integrity. Global climate change and intensified anthropogenic activities in the region have raised great concerns over the change of natural flow regime, wetland degradation and loss. In this study, two key hydrologic components in the preserve, water surface area and water volume, as well as their variations during the period 1985-2006, were investigated with a spatially-distributed hydrologic modeling system (SWAT). A wetland module was incorporated into the SWAT model to represent hydrological linkages between the wetland and adjacent upland areas. The modified modeling system was calibrated with streamflow measurements from 1987 to 1989 and was validated for the period 2005-2006. The calibration achieved a Nash efficiency coefficient (Ens) of 0.86, and the validation yielded an Ens of 0.66. In the past 20 yr, water surface area in the Zhalong wetland fluctuated from approximately 200 km2 to 1145 km2 with a rapid decreasing trend through the early 2000s. Consequently, water volume decreased largely in the preserve, especially in the dry seasons. The situation changed following the implementation of a river diversion in 2001. Overall, the modeling yielded plausible estimates of hydrologic changes in this large wetland reserve, building a foundation for assessing ecological water requirements and developing strategies and plans for future water resources management within the river basin.

  5. Simulation of hydrological processes in the Zhalong wetland within a river basin, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Q. Feng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Zhalong National Nature Preserve is a large wetland reserve on the Songnen Plain in Northeast China. Wetlands in the preserve play a key role in maintaining regional ecosystem function and integrity. Global climate change and intensified anthropogenic activities in the region have raised great concerns over the change of natural flow regime, wetland degradation and loss. In this study, two key hydrologic components in the preserve, water surface area and water volume, as well as their variations during the period 1985–2006, were investigated with a spatially-distributed hydrologic modeling system (SWAT. A wetland module was incorporated into the SWAT model to represent hydrological linkages between the wetland and adjacent upland areas. The modified modeling system was calibrated with streamflow measurements from 1987 to 1989 and was validated for the period 2005–2006. The calibration achieved a Nash efficiency coefficient (Ens of 0.86, and the validation yielded an Ens of 0.66. In the past 20 yr, water surface area in the Zhalong wetland fluctuated from approximately 200 km2 to 1145 km2 with a rapid decreasing trend through the early 2000s. Consequently, water volume decreased largely in the preserve, especially in the dry seasons. The situation changed following the implementation of a river diversion in 2001. Overall, the modeling yielded plausible estimates of hydrologic changes in this large wetland reserve, building a foundation for assessing ecological water requirements and developing strategies and plans for future water resources management within the river basin.

  6. Changes of wetland landscape patterns in Dadu River catchment from 1985 to 2000, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laibin HUANG; Junhong BAI; Denghua YAN; Bin CHEN; Rong XIAO; Haifeng GAO

    2012-01-01

    Based on the interpretation and vector processing of remote sensing images in 1985 and 2000,the spatial changes of wetland landscape patterns in Dadu River catchment in the last two decades were studied using spatial analysis method.Supported by Apack software,the indices of wetland landscape pattern were calculated,and the information entropy (IE) was also introduced to show the changes of wetland landscape information.Results showed that wetland landscape in this region was characteristic of patch-corridor-matrix configuration and dominantly consisted of natural wetlands.Landscape patterns changed a little with low fragment and showed concentrated distribution with partial scattered distribution during the period from 1985 to 2000.The values of patch density and convergence index kept stable,and the values of diversity,evenness indices and IE showed a slight decrease,while dominance and fractal dimension indices were increased.All types of wetland landscapes had higher adjacency probabilities with grassland landscape in 1985 and 2000,and there was extremely weak hydrological link and large spatial gap among river,glacier,reservoir and pond wetlands due to low adjacency matrix values.Since their cumulative contribution exceeded 81% through the PCA analysis,the agriculture activities would be the main driving force to the landscape changes during the past 15 years.

  7. Environmental flows and its evaluation of restoration effect based on LEDESS model in Yellow River Delta wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.G.; Lian, Y.; Huang, C.; Wang, X.J.; Wang, R.L.; Shan, K.; Pedroli, B.; Eupen, van M.; Elmahdi, A.; Ali, M.

    2012-01-01

    Due to freshwater supplement scarcity and heavy human activities, the fresh water wetland ecosystem in Yellow River Delta is facing disintegrated deterioration, and it is seriously affecting the health of the Yellow River ecosystem. This paper identifies the restoration objectives of wetland aiming

  8. Statistical description of wetland hydrological connectivity to the River Murray in South Australia under both natural and regulated conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sean J.; Souter, Nicholas J.; Bean, Nigel G.; Ross, Joshua V.; Thompson, Richard M.; Bjornsson, Kjartan T.

    2015-12-01

    The effect of river regulation on the connectivity of the South Australian River Murray to its floodplain wetlands was examined using unregulated 'natural' and 'regulated' river flow data simulated between the years 1895 to 2009. A sample of 185 wetlands was used to calculate a range of connectivity statistics under both simulation scenarios. These statistics summarised the timing and duration of both connection and disconnection, as well as inundated area. Wetlands ranged from being permanently inundated, connected multiple times per year due to both small fluctuations in river level and the annual flood pulse, to flooded with diminishing frequency depending on the size of the annual flood pulse and their position on the floodplain. Under the natural scenario a wide range of wetland connectivity profiles were recorded whereas under the regulated scenario wetlands tended to be either permanently inundated or infrequently flooded. Under natural conditions wetlands that required higher flow before connecting were less frequently connected and for shorter periods. Under regulated conditions a larger proportion of wetland area was permanently connected than under natural conditions, however the annual flood pulse connected a larger area of wetlands under natural conditions. The information derived from this analysis can be used to design wetland management plans for individual wetlands within a river-wide management regime restoring lost hydrological variability.

  9. Linking the historic 2011 Mississippi River flood to coastal wetland sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcini, Federico; Khan, Nicole S.; Macelloni, Leonardo; Horton, Benjamin P.; Lutken, Carol B.; McKee, Karen L.; Santoleri, Rosalia; Colella, Simone; Li, Chunyan; Volpe, Gianluca; D'Emidio, Marco; Salusti, Alessandro; Jerolmack, Douglas J.

    2012-11-01

    Wetlands in the Mississippi River deltaic plain are deteriorating in part because levees and control structures starve them of sediment. In spring 2011 a record-breaking flood brought discharge on the lower Mississippi River to dangerous levels, forcing managers to divert up to 3,500m3s-1 of water to the Atchafalaya River Basin. Here we use field-calibrated satellite data to quantify differences in inundation and sediment-plume patterns between the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River. We assess the impact of these extreme outflows on wetland sedimentation, and use in situ data collected during the historic flood to characterize the Mississippi plume's hydrodynamics and suspended sediment. We show that a focused, high-momentum jet emerged from the leveed Mississippi, and delivered sediment far offshore. In contrast, the plume from the Atchafalaya was more diffuse; diverted water inundated a large area, and sediment was trapped within the coastal current. The largest sedimentation, of up to several centimetres, occurred in the Atchafalaya Basin despite the larger sediment load carried by the Mississippi. Sediment accumulation was lowest along the shoreline between the two river sources. We conclude that river-mouth hydrodynamics and wetland sedimentation patterns are mechanistically linked, providing results that are relevant for plans to restore deltaic wetlands using artificial diversions.

  10. [Limestone and pyrite-limestone constructed wetlands for treating river water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Rui-hua; Li, Jie; Hu, Jun-song; Sun, Qian-qian

    2013-09-01

    Polluted river water was treated with limestone and pyrite-limestone subsurface horizontal constructed wetlands. The aims were to know the performance of two wetlands on removal of common pollutants, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, and analyze the actions of these minerals. The relationship between hydraulic retention time and purification performance of two constructed wetlands was studied. The optimal hydraulic retention time for pollutant removal was about 3 d, The average removal efficiency of COD, TN and TP were 51%, 70% and 95%, respectively. With same influent and hydraulic loading, the average removal efficiency of COD, NH4+ -N, TN and TP were 53.93%, 82.13%, 66%, 50.9%, and 51.66%, 77.43%, 72.06%, 97.35% for limestone and pyrite-limestone constructed wetlands, respectively. There were few differences between limestone and pyrite-limestone wetlands on COD removal, but the nitrogen and phosphorus removal of pyrite-limestone constructed wetland was higher than that of limestone constructed wetland. The phosphorus removal of pyrite-limestone wetland was more efficiency and stable, not affected by temperature.

  11. Geochemical and physical properties of wetland soils at the Savannah River site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, K.L; Rogers, V.A.; Conner, S.P.; Cummings, C.L.; Gladden, J.B.; Weber, J.M.

    1996-05-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), located in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, is a nuclear production facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). To facilitate future human health and ecological risk assessments, treatability studies, remedial investigations, and feasibility studies for its wetland areas, SRS needs a database of background geochemical and physical properties of wetland soils. These data are needed for comparison to data collected from wetland soils that may have been affected by SRS operations. SRS contains 36,000 acres of wetlands and an additional 5,000 acres of bottom land soils subject to flooding. Recent studies of wetland soils near various waste units at SRS show that some wetlands have been impacted by releases of contaminants resulting from SRS operations (WSRC, 1992). Waste waters originating from the operations facilities typically have been discharged into seepage basins located in upland soils, direct discharge of waste water to wetland areas has been minimal. This suggests that impacted wetland areas have been affected indirectly as a result of transport mechanisms such as surface runoff, groundwater seeps, fluvial or sediment transport, and leaching. Looney et al. (1990) conducted a study to characterize the geochemical and physical properties of upland soils and shallow sediments on the SRS. A primary objective of the upland study was to collect the data needed to assess the qualitative and quantitative impacts of SRS operations on the environment. By comparing the upland soils data to data collected from waste units located in similar soils, SRS impacts could be assessed. The data were also intended to aid in selection of remediation alternatives. Because waste units at SRS have historically been located in upland areas, wetland soils were not sampled. (Abstract Truncated)

  12. Climate change and wetland loss impacts on a Western river's water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Records

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of potential stream water quality conditions under future climate is critical for the sustainability of ecosystems and protection of human health. Changes in wetland water balance under projected climate could alter wetland extent or cause wetland loss. This study assessed the potential climate-induced changes to in-stream sediment and nutrients loads in the historically snow melt-dominated Sprague River, Oregon, Western United States. Additionally, potential water quality impacts of combined changes in wetland water balance and wetland area under future climatic conditions were evaluated. The study utilized the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT forced with statistical downscaling of general circulation model (GCM data from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5 using the Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA method. Our findings suggest that in the Sprague River (1 mid-21st century nutrient and sediment loads could increase significantly during the high flow season under warmer-wetter climate projections, or could change only nominally in a warmer and somewhat drier future; (2 although water quality conditions under some future climate scenarios and no wetland loss may be similar to the past, the combined impact of climate change and wetland losses on nutrient loads could be large; (3 increases in stream total phosphorus (TP concentration with wetland loss under future climate scenarios would be greatest at high-magnitude, low-probability flows; and (4 loss of riparian wetlands in both headwaters and lowlands could increase outlet TP loads to a similar degree, but this could be due to distinctly different mechanisms in different parts of the watershed.

  13. Mara River and Associated Wetland as a Refuge of Threatened ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    importance oJ. the wetland as a refuge site for indigenous cichlids particularly tilapiines which have either disappeared ... Keywords: Fisheries, Plankton, Nutrients, Macrophytes, Management ... ecological changes due to direct and indirect.

  14. [Changes of wetland landscape pattern in Dayang River Estuary based on high-resolution remote sensing image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Zhao, Dong-zhi; Zhang, Feng-shou; Wei, Bao-quan

    2011-07-01

    Based on the comprehensive consideration of the high resolution characteristics of remote sensing data and the current situation of land cover and land use in Dayang River Estuary wetland, a classification system with different resolutions of wetland landscape in the Estuary was established. The landscape pattern indices and landscape transition matrix were calculated by using the high resolution remote sensing data, and the dynamic changes of the landscape pattern from 1984 to 2008 were analyzed. In the study period, the wetland landscape components changed drastically. Wetland landscape transferred from natural wetland into artificial wetland, and wetland core regional area decreased. Natural wetland's largest patch area index descended, and the fragmentation degree ascended; while artificial wetland area expanded, its patch number decreased, polymerization degree increased, and the maximum patch area index had an obvious increasing trend. Increasing human activities, embankment construction, and reclamation for aquaculture were the main causes for the decrease of wetland area and the degradation of the ecological functions of Dayang River Estuary. To constitute long-term scientific and reasonable development plan, establish wetland nature reserves, protect riverway, draft strict inspective regimes for aquaculture reclamation, and energetically develop resource-based tourism industry would be the main strategies for the protection of the estuarine wetland.

  15. Metal and organic residues in addled eggs of least terns and piping plovers in the Platte Valley of Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The concentration of most residues detected in eggs of least terns and piping plovers nesting in the Platte River valley are not a cause for alarm. However, selenium...

  16. Structured landscapes formed by competition between forest, peat forming wetlands, and rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Ype; Temme, Arnaud

    2016-04-01

    Fresh water is crucial for society and ecosystems. However, our ability to secure fresh water resources under climatic and anthropogenic change is impaired by the complexity of interactions between human society, ecosystems, soils, and topography. These interactions cause landscape properties to co-evolve, continuously changing the flow paths of water through the landscape. Such co-evolution driven flow path changes are, to-date, poorly understood. In this presentation we investigate hydrological interactions and feedbacks within a boreal landscape with forests, peat forming wetlands and rivers during the holocene. We introduce a spatially distributed landscape co-evolution model that simulates interactions between vegetation, soil organic matter, groundwater and rivers under a wide range of climates. Typical interactions of this model are that a denser vegetation (forest) evaporates more than the low biomass vegetation of a wetland, making the forest dryer and the wetland wetter. Wet conditions favour peat formation with a high water content that further reduces groundwater fluctuations, making the landscape even more wet. At the same time these wet condition cause runoff creating incising rivers that drain the peat and favour tree growth. To understand how positive and stabilizing feedbacks within the model structure form complex landscape patterns of forests, peat forming wetlands and rivers, we stepwise increase spatial connectivity within the model. This setup allows us to untangle the effects of climate, groundwater flow and stream erosion on landscape patterns and better understand observed landscape patterns.

  17. Simulating the Effects of Sea Level Rise on the Resilience and Migration of Tidal Wetlands along the Hudson River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Nava M; Laba, Magdeline; Spector, Sacha

    2016-01-01

    Sea Level Rise (SLR) caused by climate change is impacting coastal wetlands around the globe. Due to their distinctive biophysical characteristics and unique plant communities, freshwater tidal wetlands are expected to exhibit a different response to SLR as compared with the better studied salt marshes. In this study we employed the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM), which simulates regional- or local-scale changes in tidal wetland habitats in response to SLR, and adapted it for application in a freshwater-dominated tidal river system, the Hudson River Estuary. Using regionally-specific estimated ranges of SLR and accretion rates, we produced simulations for a spectrum of possible future wetland distributions and quantified the projected wetland resilience, migration or loss in the HRE through the end of the 21st century. Projections of total wetland extent and migration were more strongly determined by the rate of SLR than the rate of accretion. Surprisingly, an increase in net tidal wetland area was projected under all scenarios, with newly-formed tidal wetlands expected to comprise at least 33% of the HRE's wetland area by year 2100. Model simulations with high rates of SLR and/or low rates of accretion resulted in broad shifts in wetland composition with widespread conversion of high marsh habitat to low marsh, tidal flat or permanent inundation. Wetland expansion and resilience were not equally distributed through the estuary, with just three of 48 primary wetland areas encompassing >50% of projected new wetland by the year 2100. Our results open an avenue for improving predictive models of the response of freshwater tidal wetlands to sea level rise, and broadly inform the planning of conservation measures of this critical resource in the Hudson River Estuary.

  18. Simulating the Effects of Sea Level Rise on the Resilience and Migration of Tidal Wetlands along the Hudson River.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava M Tabak

    Full Text Available Sea Level Rise (SLR caused by climate change is impacting coastal wetlands around the globe. Due to their distinctive biophysical characteristics and unique plant communities, freshwater tidal wetlands are expected to exhibit a different response to SLR as compared with the better studied salt marshes. In this study we employed the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM, which simulates regional- or local-scale changes in tidal wetland habitats in response to SLR, and adapted it for application in a freshwater-dominated tidal river system, the Hudson River Estuary. Using regionally-specific estimated ranges of SLR and accretion rates, we produced simulations for a spectrum of possible future wetland distributions and quantified the projected wetland resilience, migration or loss in the HRE through the end of the 21st century. Projections of total wetland extent and migration were more strongly determined by the rate of SLR than the rate of accretion. Surprisingly, an increase in net tidal wetland area was projected under all scenarios, with newly-formed tidal wetlands expected to comprise at least 33% of the HRE's wetland area by year 2100. Model simulations with high rates of SLR and/or low rates of accretion resulted in broad shifts in wetland composition with widespread conversion of high marsh habitat to low marsh, tidal flat or permanent inundation. Wetland expansion and resilience were not equally distributed through the estuary, with just three of 48 primary wetland areas encompassing >50% of projected new wetland by the year 2100. Our results open an avenue for improving predictive models of the response of freshwater tidal wetlands to sea level rise, and broadly inform the planning of conservation measures of this critical resource in the Hudson River Estuary.

  19. Stability analysis on residue pond of the Platte River, Ecuador%厄瓜多尔索普拉多拉宝特河渣场边坡稳定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾晶; 王海涛

    2014-01-01

    研究开发快速经济和行之有效的滑坡治理方法与理论,一直是各国滑坡防治研究工作的重点。文章通过对厄瓜多尔索普拉多拉宝特河20#渣场边坡工程地质概况进行分析。依据极限平衡法计算出天然状态下该边坡最小安全系数为3.236。由此,分析出此渣场稳定性较好,边坡稳定。%Research and develop fast, economic and effectual control method and theory of landslide, which has been the focal point of work that various countries have researched al the time. This paper which investigates the deformation mechanism of landslide by analyzing the geological situation of construction of the 20th residue pond of the Platte River, Ecuador. Based on the limit equilibrium method to calculate the minimum safety coefficient of slope under the natural state of 3.236.As a result, the slag is analyzed with the field stability is better, the slope stability.

  20. Simulation of hydrological processes in the Zhalong Wetland within a river basin, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Q. Feng

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Zhalong National Nature Preserve is a large wetland reserve on the Songnen Plain in Northeast China. Wetlands in the preserve play a key role in maintaining regional ecosystem function and integrity. Global climate change and intensified anthropogenic activities in the region have raised great concerns over the change of natural flow regime, wetland degradation and losses. In this study, two key hydrologic components in the preserve, open water area and storage, as well as their variations during the period 1985–2006 were investigated with a spatially-distributed hydrologic modeling system, SWAT. A wetland module was incorporated into the SWAT model to represent hydrological linkages between the wetland and adjacent upland areas. The modified modeling system was calibrated with streamflow measurements from 1987 to 1989, in a Nash efficiency coefficient (Ens of 0.86, and was validated for the period 2005–2006, in an Ens of 0.66. In the past 20 yr, open water area in the Zhalong Wetland fluctuated from approximately 200 km2 to 1145 km2 with a rapid decreasing trend through the early 2000s. Consequently, open water storage in the preserve decreased largely, especially in the dry seasons. The situation changed following the implementation of a river diversion in 2001. Overall, the modeling yielded plausible estimates of hydrologic changes in this large wetland reserve, building a foundation for assessing ecological water requirements and developing strategies and plans for water resources management within the river basin.

  1. The importance of Nyando river wetlands plant resources and agricultural products: A comparative study of papyrus and rice.

    OpenAIRE

    Omollow, Maurice Omondi

    2003-01-01

    This study assessed the community perceptions of the importance of wetland plants, particularly papyrus ( Cyperus papyrus) and compared it with that of agricultural products, mainly rice ( Oryza Sativa ), in the Nyando River Wetlands, Kenya. The goal was to suggest better mechanisms for the sustainable management of the two resources and the wetlands. It was conducted among communities living in NRW area namely Nyando, Lower Nyakach and Kadibo Divisions of Kisumu and Ny ando districts, from A...

  2. ICHTHYOFAUNA OF THE HUTOVO BLATO WETLAND (LOWER RIVER NERETVA, BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA; STATUS AND VULNERABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakov Dulčić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Hutovo Blato Nature Park is a small, shallow Mediterranean-type wetland of the River Neretva basin located in the SE of Bosnia and Herzegovina, about 20 km upstream from the Adriatic Sea, near the border with the Republic of Croatia. The River Neretva basin has a special value due to high freshwater fish fauna biodiversity anda high degree of endemism. Because of its natural characteristics, especially its fishes, the wetland area is one of the most important parts of the River Neretva and as such was declared as a Nature Park in 1995 and included in the Ramsar Convention as an internationally important area. The present study analyses the fish fauna of the Hutovo Blato Nature Park which is less known. When drawing up the list of fish species, several data sources were used: our research data from the period 1999-2010, literature data and data on the catch of rare species collected by the park rangers, professional and sport fishermen, as well as our unpublished data. During our study, 25 fish species were recorded (by including the literature data the number raises to 43, and distributed in 36 genera and 19 families. Native species represent 63%, of which 15 are endemic with a very narrow range of distribution, while 15 species are exotic. Ichthyofauna of the Hutovo Blato wetland is notable for a number of marine species that reside there temporarily. A significant number of species from this list are found in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and are mostly endemic. Over the past decades, the tropic status of the wetland has changed as a result of anthropogenic activity, resulting in serious problems. The current status of the Hutovo Blato wetland and fish fauna in the wider area can be described as threatened. Effective habitat protection together with improved water management and measures to prevent the dispersion of exotic species, are particularly important in order to protect high ichthyofaunal diversity of this wetland.

  3. Effect of conservation efforts and ecological variables on waterbird population sizes in wetlands of the Yangtze River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Jia, Qiang; Prins, Herbert H T; Cao, Lei; de Boer, Willem Frederik

    2015-11-25

    Forage quality and availability, climatic factors, and a wetland's conservation status are expected to affect the densities of wetland birds. However, the conservation effectiveness is often poorly studied. Here, using twelve years' census data collected from 78 wetlands in the Yangtze River floodplain, we aimed to understand the effect of these variables on five Anatidae species, and evaluate the effectiveness of the conservation measures by comparing population trends of these species among wetlands that differ in conservations status. We showed that the slope angle of a wetland and the variation thereof best explain the differences in densities of four species. We also found that the population abundances of the Anatidae species generally declined in wetlands along the Yangtze River floodplain over time, with a steeper decline in wetlands with a lower protection status, indicating that current conservation policies might deliver benefits for wintering Anatidae species in China, as population sizes of the species were buffered to some extent against decline in numbers in wetlands with a higher level protection status. We recommend several protection measures to stop the decline of these Anatidae species in wetlands along the Yangtze River floodplain, which are of great importance for the East Asian-Australasian Flyway.

  4. Contaminant removal from low-concentration polluted river water by the bio-rack wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Zhang, Lanying; Lu, Shaoyong; Jin, Xiangcan; Gan, Shu

    2012-01-01

    The bio-rack is a new approach for treating low-concentration polluted river water in wetland systems. A comparative study of the efficiency of contaminant removal between four plant species in bio-rack wetlands and between a bio-rack system and control system was conducted on a small-scale (500 mm length x 400 mm width x 400 mm height) to evaluate the decontamination effects of four different wetland plants. There was generally a significant difference in the removal of total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and total phosphorus (TP), but no significant difference in the removal of permanganate index (COD(Mn)) between the bio-rack wetland and control system. Bio-rack wetland planted with Thalia dealbata had higher nutrient removal rates than wetlands planted with other species. Plant fine-root (root diameter plant biomass was related to nutrient removal efficiency. The study suggested that the nutrient removal rates are influenced by plant species, and high fine-root biomass is an important factor in selecting highly effective wetland plants for a bio-rack system. According to the mass balance, the TN and TP removal were in the range of 61.03-73.27 g/m2 and 4.14-5.20 g/m2 in four bio-rack wetlands during the whole operational period. The N and P removal by plant uptake constituted 34.9%-43.81% of the mass N removal and 62.05%-74.81% of the mass P removal. The study showed that the nitrification/denitrification process and plant uptake process are major removal pathways for TN, while plant uptake is an effective removal pathway for TP.

  5. Mississippi Wetland Management District: Tallahatchie, Dahomey and Coldwater River National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for the Mississippi Wetland Management District including Tallahatchie, Dahomey and Coldwater River National Wildlife Refuge outlines...

  6. The biogeography of fungal communities in wetland sediments along the Changjiang River and other sites in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Bing; Tian, Jianqing; Bai, Chunming; Xiang, Meichun; Sun, Jingzu; Liu, Xingzhong

    2013-01-01

    ...)) methods to assess the influence of historical and contemporary factors on the distributions of fungi in the wetland sediments at 10 locations along the Changjiang River and at 10 other locations in China...

  7. Waterbird Population Changes in the Wetlands at Chongming Dongtan in the Yangtze River Estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhijun; Wang, Yong; Gan, Xiaojing; Li, Bo; Cai, Yinting; Chen, Jiakuan

    2009-06-01

    We studied the changes in wetland habitats and waterbird communities between the 1980s and the 2000s at Chongming Dongtan, a Ramsar site in the Yangtze River estuary, an ecologically important region. This region is an important stopover site for shorebirds along the East Asian-Australasian flyway and is extensively used by waterfowl. A net loss of 11% of the wetland area was estimated during study periods at Chongming Dongtan. The change was dependent on wetland types: while the area of artificial habitats such as paddy fields and aquacultural ponds more than doubled, more than 65% of natural habitats including sea bulrush ( Scirpus mariqueter) and common reed ( Phragmites australis) marshes were lost over the two decades. An exotic plant species introduced from North America, smooth cordgrass ( Spartina alterniflora), occupied 30% of the vegetated intertidal zone by the 2000s. Although waterbird species richness did not change between the 1980s (110) and the 2000s (111), 13 species found in 1980s were replaced by 14 newly recorded species. Moreover, there were more species with declining trends (58) than with increasing trends (19). The population trends of species were affected by residential status and habitat types. Transients, wintering migrants, and habitat specialists were more likely to show declining trends compared to those breeding at Dongtan (including year-round and summer residents) and habitat generalists. Furthermore, species associated mainly with natural wetlands were more likely to decline than those associated mainly with artificial wetlands. These patterns suggest that the loss and change of wetland habitats at Chongming Dongtan adversely affected local population dynamics and might have contributed to the global decline of some waterbird species. Because Chongming Dongtan provides stopover and wintering habitats for many migratory waterbirds, protection and restoration of natural wetlands at Chongming Dongtan are urgently needed.

  8. Contaminant removal from low-concentration polluted river water by the bid-rack wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Wang; Lanying Zhang; Shaoyong Lu; Xiangcan Jin; Shu Gan

    2012-01-01

    The bio-rack is a new approach for treating low-concentration polluted river water in wetland systems.A comparative study of the efficiency of contaminant removal between four plant species in bio-rack wetlands and between a bio-rack system and control system was conducted on a small-scale (500 mm length × 400 mm width × 400 mm height) to evaluate the decontamination effects of four different wedand plants.There was generally a significant difference in the removal of total nitrogen (TN),ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and total phosphorus (TP),but no significant difference in the removal of permanganate index (CODMn) between the bio-rack wetland and control system.Bio-rack wetland planted with Thalia dealbata had higher nutrient removal rates than wetlands planted with other species.Plant fine-root (root diameter ≤ 3 mm) biomass rather than total plant biomass was related to nutrient removal efficiency.The study suggested that the nutrient removal rates are influenced by plant species,and high fine-root biomass is an important factor in selecting highly effective wetland plants for a bio-rack system.According to the mass balance,the TN and TP removal were in the range of 61.03-73.27 g/m2 and 4.14-5.20 g/m2 in four bio-rack wetlands during the whole operational period.The N and P removal by plant uptake constituted 34.9%-43.81% of the mass N removal and 62.05%-74.81% of the mass P removal.The study showed that the nitrification/denitrification process and plant uptake process are major removal pathways for TN,while plant uptake is an effective removal pathway for TP.

  9. Effect of conservation efforts and ecological variables on waterbird population sizes in wetlands of the Yangtze River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Jia, Qiang; Prins, Herbert H. T.; Cao, Lei; de Boer, Willem Frederik

    2015-11-01

    Forage quality and availability, climatic factors, and a wetland’s conservation status are expected to affect the densities of wetland birds. However, the conservation effectiveness is often poorly studied. Here, using twelve years’ census data collected from 78 wetlands in the Yangtze River floodplain, we aimed to understand the effect of these variables on five Anatidae species, and evaluate the effectiveness of the conservation measures by comparing population trends of these species among wetlands that differ in conservations status. We showed that the slope angle of a wetland and the variation thereof best explain the differences in densities of four species. We also found that the population abundances of the Anatidae species generally declined in wetlands along the Yangtze River floodplain over time, with a steeper decline in wetlands with a lower protection status, indicating that current conservation policies might deliver benefits for wintering Anatidae species in China, as population sizes of the species were buffered to some extent against decline in numbers in wetlands with a higher level protection status. We recommend several protection measures to stop the decline of these Anatidae species in wetlands along the Yangtze River floodplain, which are of great importance for the East Asian-Australasian Flyway.

  10. Heterogeneity in a Suburban River Network: Understanding the Impact of Fluvial Wetlands on Dissolved Oxygen and Metabolism in Headwater Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, J. S.; Wollheim, W. M.; Sheehan, K.; Lightbody, A.

    2014-12-01

    Low dissolved oxygen content in rivers threatens fish populations, aquatic organisms, and the health of entire ecosystems. River systems with high fluvial wetland abundance and organic matter, may result in high metabolism that in conjunction with low re-aeration rates, lead to low oxygen conditions. Increasing abundance of beaver ponds in many areas may exacerbate this phenomenon. This research aims to understand the impact of fluvial wetlands, including beaver ponds, on dissolved oxygen (D.O.) and metabolism throughout the headwaters of the Ipswich R. watershed, MA, USA. In several fluvial wetland dominated systems, we measured diel D.O. and metabolism in the upstream inflow, the surface water transient storage zones of fluvial wetland sidepools, and at the outflow to understand how the wetlands modify dissolved oxygen. D.O. was also measured longitudinally along entire surface water flow paths (x-y km long) to determine how low levels of D.O. propagate downstream. Nutrient samples were also collected to understand how their behavior was related to D.O. behavior. Results show that D.O. in fluvial wetlands has large swings with periods of very low D.O. at night. D.O. swings were also seen in downstream outflow, though lagged and somewhat attenuated. Flow conditions affect the level of inundation and the subsequent effects of fluvial wetlands on main channel D.O.. Understanding the D.O. behavior throughout river systems has important implications for the ability of river systems to remove anthropogenic nitrogen.

  11. Fish communities of a disturbed mangrove wetland and an adjacent tidal river in Palmar, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervette, V. R.; Aguirre, W. E.; Blacio, E.; Cevallos, Rodrigo; Gonzalez, Marcelo; Pozo, Francisco; Gelwick, F.

    2007-03-01

    Coastal Ecuador has lost 20-30% of mangrove wetlands over the past 30 years. Such habitat loss can impair the ecological functions of wetlands. A paucity of information exists concerning mangrove fish communities of Ecuador. In this study we identify the fish community of the remaining mangrove wetland in Palmar, Ecuador. Fish were sampled in the dry season of 2003 and the wet season of 2004 by seining in mangrove creeks and Main channel of Rio Palmar. For comparison, an adjacent tidal river without mangroves, Rio Javita, was also sampled. We collected a total of 12,231 individuals comprising 36 species in 16 families from Rios Palmar and Javita. Gobiidae (7 species) was the most diverse family for mangrove sites followed by Gerreidae (5 species) and Engraulidae (4 species). A total of 34 species were collected in the mangrove wetland, 21 of which were exclusive to the mangroves including three species of juvenile snook (Centropomidae), indicating that the mangrove habitat of Palmar may provide nursery habitat for these economically valued species. In Rio Javita, Carangidae (3 species) was the most diverse family followed by Engraulidae and Gerreidae (2 species each). A total of 14 species were collected in the tidal river, only two of which were exclusive to the river. Multivariate analyses of fish community data indicated significant differences in community composition between the mangrove creeks and the tidal river and between seasons in both. Juvenile white mullet, Mugil curema, were collected in high relative abundance in both Rios Palmar and Javita, as was the tropical silverside Atherinella serrivomer an ecologically important species. Although Rios Palmar and Javita are characterized by relatively low fish species richness compared to other tropical estuarine systems, they appear to provide an important habitat for several economically and ecologically valued species.

  12. Vegetation survey of Four Mile Creek wetlands. [Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.

    1990-11-01

    A survey of forested wetlands along upper Four Mile Creek was conducted. The region from Road 3 to the creek headwaters was sampled to evaluate the composition of woody and herbaceons plant communities. All sites were found to fall into either the Nyssa sylvatica (Black Gum) -- Persea borbonia (Red Bay) or Nyssa sylvatica -- Acer rubrum (Red Maple) types. These community types are generally species-rich and diverse. Previous studies (Greenwood et al., 1990; Mackey, 1988) demonstrated contaminant stress in areas downslope from the F- and H-Area seepage basins. In the present study there were some indications of contaminant stress. In the wetland near H-Area, shrub basal area, ground cover stratum species richness, and diversity were low. In the area surrounding the F-Area tree kill zone, ground cover stratum cover and shrub basal area were low and ground cover stratum species richness was low. The moderately stressed site at F-Area also showed reduced overstory richness and diversity and reduced ground cover stratum richness. These results could, however, be due to the very high basal area of overstory trees in both stressed F-Area sites that would reduce light availability to understory plants. No threatened or endangered plant species were found in the areas sampled. 40 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Geology and ground water in the Platte-Republican Rivers watershed and the Little Blue River basin above Angus, Nebraska, with a section on chemical quality of the ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C.R.; Brennan, Robert

    1960-01-01

    saturation because the ground water, as it percolates southeastward beneath the area, moves out of the Tertiary and into the Quaternary deposits without apparent hindrance. The water that enters the area as underflow from the west is augmented within the area by water that infiltrates from the land surface. The principal sources of irrigating water are precipitation, seepage from canals and reservoirs, and applied irrigation water. Except for the water withdrawn through wells or discharged by natural processes where valleys have been cut into the zone of saturation, ground water leaves the area as underflow into the Platte River valley on the north, the Blue River drainage basin on the east, or the Republican River valley on the south. Part of the water used for irrigation and watering livestock and all the water used in rural and urban homes, in public buildings, and for industrial purposes is obtained from wells, To date (1952) there is no indication that the supply of ground water is being depleted faster than it is being replenished; instead, studies indicate that greater quantities can be withdrawn without causing an excessive decline of the water table. An increase of ground-water withdrawals to a sustainable maximum, however, will be possible only if the points of withdrawal are scattered fairly uniformly. It is estimated that annual withdrawals per township should not exceed 2,100 acre-feet where infiltrating precipitation is the only source of recharge, or 3,000 acre-feet where other sources of recharge are significant. Although perennial withdrawals of this amount could be sustained indefinitely, they would cause some lowering of the water table and eventually a decrease in the amount of water discharged from the area by natural means. The ground water is of the calcium bicarbonate type. In much of the area it is hard or very hard, and in places it contains excessive amounts of iron. In all other respects the water is chemically suitable for domesti

  14. Performance measures for a Mississippi River reintroduction into the forested wetlands of Maurepas Swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Shaffer, Gary P.; Keim, Richard F.; Chambers, Jim L.; Wood, William B.; Hartley, Stephen B.

    2017-06-09

    The use of freshwater diversions (river reintroductions) from the Mississippi River as a restoration tool to rehabilitate Louisiana coastal wetlands has been promoted widely since the first such diversion at Caernarvon became operational in the early 1990s. To date, aside from the Bonnet Carré Spillway (which is designed and operated for flood control), there are only four operational Mississippi River freshwater diversions (two gated structures and two siphons) in coastal Louisiana, and they all target salinity intrusion, shellfish management, and (or) the enhancement of the integrity of marsh habitat. River reintroductions carry small sediment loads for various design reasons, but they can be effective in delivering fresh­water to combat saltwater intrusion and increase the delivery of nutrients and suspended fine-grained sediments to receiving wetlands. River reintroductions may be an ideal restoration tool for targeting coastal swamp forest habitat; much of the area of swamp forest habitat in coastal Louisiana is undergo­ing saltwater intrusion, high rates of submergence, and lack of riverine flow leading to reduced concentrations of important nutrients and suspended sediments, which sustain growth and regeneration, help to aerate swamp soils, and remove toxic compounds from the rhizosphere.The State of Louisiana Coastal Protection and Restora­tion Authority (CPRA) has made it a priority to establish a small freshwater river diversion into a coastal swamp forest located between Baton Rouge and New Orleans, Louisiana, to reintroduce Mississippi River water to Maurepas Swamp. While a full understanding of how a coastal swamp forest will respond to new freshwater loading through a Mississippi River reintroduction is unknown, this report provides guidance based on the available literature for establishing performance measures that can be used for evaluating the effectiveness of a Mississippi River reintroduction into the forested wetlands of Maurepas Swamp

  15. The effect of river pulsing on sedimentation and nutrients in created riparian wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahlik, Amanda M; Mitsch, William J

    2008-01-01

    Sedimentation under pulsed and steady-flow conditions was investigated in two created flow-through riparian wetlands in central Ohio over 2 yr. Hydrologic pulses of river water lasting for 6 to 8 d were imposed on each wetland from January through June during 2004. Mean inflow rates during pulses averaged 52 and 7 cm d(-1) between pulses. In 2005, the wetlands received a steady-flow regime of 11 cm d(-1) with no major hydrologic fluctuations. Thirty-two sediment traps were deployed and sampled once per month in April, May, June, and July for two consecutive years in each wetland. January through March were not sampled in either year due to frozen water surfaces in the wetlands. Gross sedimentation (sedimentation without normalizing for differences between years) was significantly greater in the pulsing study period (90 kg m(-2)) than in the steady-flow study period (64 kg m(-2)). When normalized for different hydrologic and total suspended solid inputs between years, sedimentation for April through July was not significantly different between pulsing and steady-flow study periods. Sedimentation for the 3 mo that received hydrologic pulses (April, May, and June) was significantly lower during pulsing months than in the corresponding steady-flow months. Large fractions of inorganic matter in collected sediments indicated that allochthonous inputs were the main contributor to sedimentation in these wetlands. Organic matter fractions of collected sediments were consistently greater in the steady-flow study period (1.8 g kg(-1)) than in the pulsed study period (1.5 g kg(-1)), consistent with greater primary productivity in the water column during steady-flow conditions.

  16. Distribution, source identification, and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in wetland soils of a river-reservoir system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoliang; Xiong, Ziqian; Liu, Hui; Liu, Guihua; Liu, Wenzhi

    2017-01-01

    The majority of rivers in the world have been dammed, and over 45,000 large reservoirs have been constructed for multiple purposes. Riparian and reservoir shorelines are the two most important wetland types in a dammed river. To date, few studies have concerned the heavy metal pollution in wetland soils of these river-reservoir systems. In this study, we measured the concentrations of ten heavy metals (Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn) in surface soils collected from riparian and reservoir shorelines along the Han River in different seasons. Our results found that the Co, Cu, and Ni concentrations in riparian wetlands were significantly lower than those in reservoir shorelines. In riparian wetlands, only soil Sr concentration significantly increased after summer and autumn submergence. Multivariate statistical analyses demonstrated that Ba and Cd might originate from industrial and mining sources, whereas Sr and Mn predominantly originated from natural rock weathering. The ecological risk assessment analysis indicated that both riparian and reservoir shorelines along the Han River in China exhibited a moderate ecological risk in soil heavy metals. The upper Han River basin is the water resource area of China's Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project. Therefore, to control the contamination of heavy metals in wetland soils, more efforts should be focused on reducing the discharge of mining and industrial pollutants into the riparian and reservoir shorelines.

  17. Tidal wetlands of the Yaquina and Alsea River estuaries, Oregon: Geographic Information Systems layer development and recommendations for National Wetlands Inventory revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Laura S.; Reusser, Deborah A.; Janousek, Christopher N.

    2013-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) layers of current, and likely former, tidal wetlands in two Oregon estuaries were generated by enhancing the 2010 National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) data with expert local field knowledge, Light Detection and Ranging-derived elevations, and 2009 aerial orthophotographs. Data were generated for two purposes: First, to enhance the NWI by recommending revised Cowardin classifications for certain NWI wetlands within the study area; and second, to generate GIS data for the 1999 Yaquina and Alsea River Basins Estuarine Wetland Site Prioritization study. Two sets of GIS products were generated: (1) enhanced NWI shapefiles; and (2) shapefiles of prioritization sites. The enhanced NWI shapefiles contain recommended changes to the Cowardin classification (system, subsystem, class, and/or modifiers) for 286 NWI polygons in the Yaquina estuary (1,133 acres) and 83 NWI polygons in the Alsea estuary (322 acres). These enhanced NWI shapefiles also identify likely former tidal wetlands that are classified as upland in the current NWI (64 NWI polygons totaling 441 acres in the Yaquina estuary; 16 NWI polygons totaling 51 acres in the Alsea estuary). The former tidal wetlands were identified to assist strategic planning for tidal wetland restoration. Cowardin classifications for the former tidal wetlands were not provided, because their current hydrology is complex owing to dikes, tide gates, and drainage ditches. The scope of this project did not include the field evaluation that would be needed to determine whether the former tidal wetlands are currently wetlands, and if so, determine their correct Cowardin classification. The prioritization site shapefiles contain 49 prioritization sites totaling 2,177 acres in the Yaquina estuary, and 39 prioritization sites totaling 1,045 acres in the Alsea estuary. The prioritization sites include current and former (for example, diked) tidal wetlands, and provide landscape units appropriate for basin

  18. Wetland loss due to land use change in the Lower Paraná River Delta, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Y V; Quintana, R D; Radeloff, V C; Gavier-Pizarro, G I

    2016-10-15

    Wetland loss is a global concern because wetlands are highly diverse ecosystems that provide important goods and services, thus threatening both biodiversity and human well-being. The Paraná River Delta is one of the largest and most important wetland ecosystems of South America, undergoing expanding cattle and forestry activities with widespread water control practices. To understand the patterns and drivers of land cover change in the Lower Paraná River Delta, we quantified land cover changes and modeled associated factors. We developed land cover maps using Landsat images from 1999 and 2013 and identified main land cover changes. We quantified the influence of different socioeconomic (distance to roads, population centers and human activity centers), land management (area within polders, cattle density and years since last fire), biophysical variables (landscape unit, elevation, soil productivity, distance to rivers) and variables related to extreme system dynamics (flooding and fires) on freshwater marsh conversion with Boosted Regression Trees. We found that one third of the freshwater marshes of the Lower Delta (163,000ha) were replaced by pastures (70%) and forestry (18%) in only 14years. Ranching practices (represented by cattle density, area within polders and distance to roads) were the most important factors responsible for freshwater marsh conversion to pasture. These rapid and widespread losses of freshwater marshes have potentially large negative consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem services. A strategy for sustainable wetland management will benefit from careful analysis of dominant land uses and related management practices, to develop an urgently needed land use policy for the Lower Delta.

  19. The role of the Wetland Reserve Program in conservation efforts in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Sammy L.; Twedt, Daniel J.; Wilson, R. Randy

    2006-01-01

    The Mississippi River Alluvial Valley includes the floodplain of the Mississippi River from Cairo, Illinois, USA, to the Gulf of Mexico. Originally this region supported about 10 million ha of bottomland hardwood forests, but only about 2.8 million ha remain today. Furthermore, most of the remaining bottomland forest is highly fragmented with altered hydrologic processes. During the 1990s landscape-scale conservation planning efforts were initiated for migratory birds and the threatened Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus). These plans call for large-scale reforestation and restoration efforts in the region, particularly on private lands. In 1990 the Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act authorized the Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP). The WRP is a voluntary program administered by the United States Department of Agriculture that provides eligible landowners with financial incentives to restore wetlands and retire marginal farmlands from agricultural production. As of 30 September 2005, over 275,700 ha have been enrolled in the program in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, with the greatest concentration in Louisiana, Arkansas, and Mississippi, USA. Hydrologic restoration is common on most sites, with open-water wetlands, such as moist-soil units and sloughs, constituting up to 30% of a given tract. Over 33,200 ha of open-water wetlands have been created, potentially providing over 115,000,000 duck-use days. Twenty-three of 87 forest-bird conservation areas have met or exceed core habitat goals for migratory songbirds and another 24 have met minimum area requirements. The WRP played an integral role in the fulfillment of these goals. Although some landscape goals have been attained, the young age of the program and forest stands, and the lack of monitoring, has limited evaluations of the program's impact on wildlife populations.

  20. Urbanization Impacts on Flooding in the Kansas River Basin and Evaluation of Wetlands as a Mitigation Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluates the impacts of future land use changes on flooding in the Kansas River Basin. It also studies the impacts of wetlands on flood reduction. The study presents Hydrologic Engineering Centers-Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) based runoff modeling and River A...

  1. Wetland management and rice farming strategies to decrease methylmercury bioaccumulation and loads from the Cosumnes River Preserve, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Fleck, Jacob; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; McQuillen, Harry; Heim, Wes

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated mercury (Hg) concentrations in caged fish (deployed for 30 days) and water from agricultural wetland (rice fields), managed wetland, slough, and river habitats in the Cosumnes River Preserve, California. We also implemented experimental hydrological regimes on managed wetlands and post-harvest rice straw management techniques on rice fields in order to evaluate potential Best Management Practices to decrease methylmercury bioaccumulation within wetlands and loads to the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. Total Hg concentrations in caged fish were twice as high in rice fields as in managed wetland, slough, or riverine habitats, including seasonal managed wetlands subjected to identical hydrological regimes. Caged fish Hg concentrations also differed among managed wetland treatments and post-harvest rice straw treatments. Specifically, Hg concentrations in caged fish decreased from inlets to outlets in seasonal managed wetlands with either a single (fall-only) or dual (fall and spring) drawdown and flood-up events, whereas Hg concentrations increased slightly from inlets to outlets in permanent managed wetlands. In rice fields, experimental post-harvest straw management did not decrease Hg concentrations in caged fish. In fact, in fields in which rice straw was chopped and either disked into the soil or baled and removed from the fields, fish Hg concentrations increased from inlets to outlets and were higher than Hg concentrations in fish from rice fields subjected to the more standard post-harvest practice of simply chopping rice straw prior to fall flood-up. Finally, aqueous methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations and export were highly variable, and seasonal trends in particular were often opposite to those of caged fish. Aqueous MeHg concentrations and loads were substantially higher in winter than in summer, whereas caged fish Hg concentrations were relatively low in winter and substantially higher in summer. Together, our results highlight the

  2. Amazon River carbon dioxide outgassing fuelled by wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abril, G.; Martinez, J.M.; Artigas, L.F.; Moreira-Turcq, P.; Benedetti, M.F.; Vidal, L.; Meziane, T.; Kim, J.-H.; Bernardes, M.C.; Savoye, N.; Deborde, J.; Souza, E.L.; Alberic, P.; de Souza, M.F.L.; Roland, F.

    2014-01-01

    River systems connect the terrestrial biosphere, the atmosphere and the ocean in the global carbon cycle(1). A recent estimate suggests that up to 3 petagrams of carbon per year could be emitted as carbon dioxide (CO2) from global inland waters, offsetting the carbon uptake by terrestrial

  3. Comparison of biogenic methane emissions from unmanaged estuaries, lakes, oceans, rivers and wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Llorente, M. J.; Alvarez-Cobelas, M.

    2012-11-01

    A literature review of quantitative data was carried out to conduct a cross-system study on methane emissions relating peak emissions (PE) and annual emissions (AE) in five types of non-managed ecosystems: estuaries, lakes, oceans, streams and wetlands. PE spanned eight orders of magnitude (0.015 μg CH4 m-2 h-1-300 mg CH4 m-2 h-1) while AE spanned seven (0.078-19044 g CH4 m-2 yr-1). PE and AE were strongly related worldwide (r2 = 0.93). There was no relationship between AE and latitude, with highly variable PE across latitudes and climates. The coefficient of variation (CV) was greatest for emissions in oceans and estuaries, while the highest emission rate was recorded in wetlands and lakes. Efflux from coastal areas and estuaries was higher than that from upwelling areas and deep seas. Concerning wetland types, marshes showed the highest PE with the highest wetland emissions occurring in sites dominated by big helophytes. Non-stratifying- and eutrophic lakes displayed more emissions than other lake types, but there was no environmental variable that might predict methane emissions from lakes on a worldwide basis. Generally, most ecosystem types followed a seasonal pattern of emissions, with a maximum in summer, except in estuaries which did not show any distinct pattern. Regarding the importance of hot spots within most ecosystems, more spatial variability of CH4 emissions was observed in lakes than in wetlands and oceans; however, no relationship between emissions and spatial variability was found. A positive relationship, albeit weak, was found between methane flux and either temperature or irradiance in wetlands; a narrow range of both negative and positive values of the water table promoted CH4 emissions. Previously, little was known about the factors controlling efflux from river and marine environments. Our study suggests that local conditions are important in controlling CH4 emissions, because the variability explained by the more commonly studied abiotic

  4. Retention and chemical speciation of uranium in an oxidized wetland sediment from the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dien; Seaman, John C.; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Jaffe, Peter R.; Koster van Groos, Paul; Jiang, De-Tong; Chen, Ning; Lin, Jinru; Arthur, Zachary; Pan, Yuanming; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Newville, Matthew; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Kaplan, Daniel I.

    2014-05-01

    Uranium speciation and retention mechanism onto Savannah River Site (SRS) wetland sediments was studied using batch (ad)sorption experiments, sequential extraction desorption tests and U L{sub 3}-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy of contaminated wetland sediments. U was highly retained by the SRS wetland sediments. In contrast to other similar but much lower natural organic matter (NOM) sediments, significant sorption of U onto the SRS sediments was observed at pH <4 and pH >8. Sequential extraction tests indicated that the U(VI) species were primarily associated with the acid soluble fraction (weak acetic acid extractable) and NOM fraction (Na-pyrophosphate extractable). Uranium L3- edge XANES spectra of the U-retained sediments were nearly identical to that of uranyl acetate. The primary oxidation state of U in these sediments was as U(VI), and there was little evidence that the high sorptive capacity of the sediments could be ascribed to abiotic or biotic reduction to the less soluble U(IV) species. The molecular mechanism responsible for the high U retention in the SRS wetland sediments is likely related to the chemical bonding of U to organic carbon.

  5. Regime shifts of Cruces River wetland ecosystem: current conditions, future uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor H Marín

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During April-May 2004 the Cruces River wetland ecosystem, located in Valdivia (40°S, southern Chile, was described as shifting from a clear water regime, dominated by the exotic macrophyte Egeria densa, to turbid waters and absence of submerged macrophytes. We analyzed the trophic status and ecological regime of the wetland from November 2011 through January 2013. The trophic status was determined comparing values of selected variables (nutrients, chlorophyll-a and transparency with OECD criteria. The ecological regime was determined comparing the same variables with the criteria proposed by Ibelings et al. (2007. We further compared the concentration of nutrients and suspended solids with previous measurements. Current trophic status of the wetland is between eutrophic and hypereutrophic, as shown by results, and its ecological regime intermediate, between clear and turbid waters, with a considerable risk of returning to turbid waters. In this article we discuss the potential relationship between the watershed land use (agriculture, cattle feeding and forestry, the change in wetland's trophic level and future conditions.

  6. Assessment of Wetland Water Quality and Avian Diversity of a Human-Modified Floodplain Wetland on River Yamuna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upma MANRAL

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Okhla Bird Sanctuary (OBS is an Important Bird Area, which comes under the protected area network of Uttar Pradesh with one-third area lying in the state of Delhi (India. OBS has widest flood plains along the Delhi stretch of river Yamuna and is important in conserving the ecological wealth of floodplains of the river. Rapid urbanization and industrialization and discharge of untreated wastewater into the river have resulted in deteriorated water quality. The present study focused on assessment of water quality, aquatic flora and avifaunal diversity in the OBS. Water quality was analyzed following methods of APHA. For vegetation analysis, sub-merged and free-floating plants were scooped up from five randomly selected sites. Total bird counts were conducted for water birds and species richness, evenness and Shannon-Weaver species diversity indices were calculated. Results indicate that the organic load is very high in the wetland as evident from low levels of dissolved oxygen (2.26 ± 1.62 mg/l and high Biological and Chemical Oxygen Demands (15.20 ± 3.75 mg/l, 44.60 ± 12.07 mg/l. Nine species of free-floating and submerged plants were recorded; Hydrilla verticillata, Vallisneria spiralis, Azolla pinnata and Ceratophyllum demersum dominated both deep and shallow water areas. 52 species of waterbirds including four near-threatened species viz., Anhinga melanogaster, Mycteria leucocephala, Threskiornis melanocephalus and Aythya nyroca were recorded. OBS provides opportunities for conservation in a metropolitan area, thus, appropriate measures should be taken to maintain its ecological integrity.

  7. Environmental assessment for the A-01 outfall constructed wetlands project at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed A-01 outfall constructed wetlands project at the Savannah River site (SRS), located near aiken, South Carolina. The proposed action would include the construction and operation of an artificial wetland to treat effluent from the A-01 outfall located in A Area at SRS. The proposed action would reduce the outfall effluent concentrations in order to meet future outfall limits before these go into effect on October 1, 1999. This document was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended; the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR Parts 1500--1508); and the DOE Regulations for Implementing NEPA (10 CFR Part 1021).

  8. Investigation of parasites of pikes (Esox lucius Linnaeus, 1785) from Chamkhale River, Anzali and Amirkelayeh wetlands, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrinejad, Ali; Khara, Hossein; Gudarzi, Majid

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the health status, the parasite diversity and abundance were studied in three pike populations. For this purpose, totally 90 fish were caught from three natural habitats of pike including Chamkhale River, Anzali and Amirkelayeh wetlands, Iran. After biometry and age determination, fish were dissected and parasites were investigated in intestine, gill and eye. According to results, five parasite species were identified in whole body of pikes including Eustrongylides exises, Raphidascaris acus and Triaeophorus crassus in intestine, Tetraonchus monenteron in gill and Diplostomum spathaceum in eye. The highest values of quantitative indices of parasite population [i.e. incidence percent (86.66 %), mean intensity (60.83 ± 39.92), mean abundance (58.14 ± 34.6) and abundance range (1-232)] were recorded for T. monenteron in all three sampling regions. The lowest values of these quantitative indices were found for D. spathaceum, E. exises and Tetraonchus crassus in Anzali wetland, Chamkhale River and Amirkelayeh wetland respectively. In 2, 3 and 4 years old pikes, T. monenteron had the highest values of quantitative indices of parasite population. In conclusion, our results showed that Anzali wetland have more parasite pollution compared to other sampling regions. This may be due to the more rapid eutrophication in this wetland compared to Amirkelayeh wetland and Chamkhale River.

  9. A remote sensing approach for connecting the historic 2011 Mississippi River flood to wetland sedimentation on the Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcini, Federico; Colella, Simone; Volpe, Gianluca; Khan, Nicole; Macelloni, Leonardo; Santoleri, Rosalia; Horton, Benjamin; Jerolmack, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    Wetlands in the Mississippi River deltaic plain are deteriorating in part because levees and control structures starve them of sediment. In Spring of 2011 a record breaking flood brought discharge on the lower Mississippi River to dangerous levels, forcing managers to divert additional water to the adjacent Atchafalaya River Basin. Here we quantify differences between the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River inundation and sediment-plume patterns using field-calibrated satellite data, and assess the impact these outflows had on wetland sedimentation. Since standard products available from MyOcean were not suitable for this purpose an ad hoc processing was developed to establish a relationship between field suspended sediment concentration (SSC) data and the corrected MODIS reflectance at 645 nm. We show that the focused, high-momentum jet from the leveed Mississippi delivered sediment far offshore. In contrast, the plume from the Atchafalaya was more diffuse; diverted water inundated a large area, and sediment was trapped within the coastal current. Maximum sedimentation (up to several centimetres) occurred in the Atchafalaya Basin despite the larger sediment load carried by the Mississippi. Little accumulation occurred along the shoreline between these river sources. The correspondence between zones of high shoreline deposition, and coastal SSC patterns indentified from satellite data, is strongly suggestive of plume-derived deposition on marshes. Our findings allow us to set an hydrodynamic theory that provides a mechanistic link between river-mouth dynamics and wetland sedimentation patterns, which is relevant for plans to restore deltaic wetlands.

  10. Plants accumulating heavy metals in the Danube River wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matache, Marius L; Marin, Constantin; Rozylowicz, Laurentiu; Tudorache, Alin

    2013-12-20

    We present herein our results regarding the accumulation of four heavy metals (copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc) in four aquatic species plants (Ceratophyllum demersum, Potamogeton pectinatus, Potamogeton lucens, Potamogeton perfoliatus) collected from the Danube River, South-Western part of Romania and their possible use as indicators of aquatic ecosystems pollution with heavy metals. Elements concentration from the vegetal material was determined through Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry. The species were chosen based on their previous use as bioindicators in aquatic ecosystems and due to the fact they are one of the most frequent aquatic plant species of the Danube River ecosystems within the Iron Gates Natural Park. Highest amounts are recorded for Ceratophyllum demersum (3.52 μg/g for Cd; 22.71 μg/g for Cu; 20.06 μg/g for Pb; 104.23 μg/g for Zn). Among the Potamogeton species, the highest amounts of heavy metals are recorded in Potamogeton perfoliatus (1.88 μg/g for Cd; 13.14 μg/g for Cu; 13.32 μg/g for Pb; 57.96 μg/g for Zn). The sequence for the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) calculated in order to describe the accumulation of the four metals is Cd > Zn > Pb > Cu. Increase of the zinc concentration determines an increase of the cadmium concentration (Spearman rho=0.40, p=0.02). Despite the low ambiental levels of heavy metals, the four aquatic plants have the ability to accumulate significant amounts, which make them useful as biological indicators. BCF value for Ceratophyllum demersum indicated this species as a cadmium hyperaccumulator.

  11. [Health assessment of Qi'ao Island mangrove wetland ecosystem in Pearl River Estuary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Gong; Zheng, Yao-Hui; Peng, Yi-Sheng; Chen, Gui-Zhu

    2010-02-01

    Based on the theories of wetland ecosystem health and by using "Pressure-State-Response" model, a health assessment indicator system for Qi' ao Island mangrove wetland ecosystem in Pearl River Estuary was built, and the assessment indices, assessment criteria, indices weighted values, assessment grades, and assessment methods were established to assess the health state of this ecosystem. In 2008, the overall health index of this ecosystem was 0.6580, health level was of grade II (healthy), and the pressure, state, and response indices were 0.3469, 0.8718, and 0.7754, respectively, suggesting that this ecosystem was good in state and response, but still had definite pressure. As a provincial nature reserve, this ecosystem was to be further improved in its health level. However, the research on the health assessment of mangrove wetland ecosystem was still young. Further studies should be made on the selection of assessment indices, long-term oriented monitoring of these indices, and quantification of the relations between ecosystem health level and ecosystem services.

  12. [Relationships of wetland landscape fragmentation with climate change in middle reaches of Heihe River, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng-Hui; Zhao, Rui-Feng; Zhao, Hai-Li; Lu, Li-Peng; Xie, Zuo-Lun

    2013-06-01

    Based on the 1975-2010 multi-temporal remotely sensed TM and ETM images and meteorological data, in combining with wavelet analysis, trend surface simulation, and interpolation method, this paper analyzed the meteorological elements' spatial distribution and change characteristics in the middle reaches of Heihe River, and elucidated the process of wetland landscape fragmentation in the study area by using the landscape indices patch density (PD), mean patch size (MPS), and patch shape fragment index (FS). The relationships between the wetland landscape fragmentation and climate change were also approached through correlation analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis. In 1975-2010, the overall distribution patterns of precipitation and temperature in the study area were low precipitation in high temperature regions and high precipitation in low temperature regions, and the main characteristics of climate change were the conversion from dry to wet and from cold to warm. In the whole study period, the wetland landscape fragmentation was mainly manifested in the decrease of MPS, with a decrement of 48.95 hm2, and the increase of PD, with an increment of 0.006 ind x hm(-2).

  13. Natural Gas Storage Facilities, US, 2010, Platts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Platts Natural Gas Storage Facilities geospatial data layer contains points that represent locations of facilities used for natural gas storage in the United...

  14. Carbon Sequestration in Mediterranean Tidal Wetlands: San Francisco Bay and the Ebro River Delta (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, J.; Fennessy, S.; Ibanez, C.

    2013-12-01

    Tidal wetlands accumulate soil carbon at relatively rapid rates, in large part because they build soil to counteract increases in sea-level rise. Because of the rapid rates of carbon sequestration, there is growing interest in evaluating carbon dynamics in tidal wetlands around the world; however, few measurements have been completed for mediterranean-type tidal wetlands, which tend to have relatively high levels of soil salinity, likely affecting both plant productivity and decomposition rates. We measured sediment accretion and carbon sequestration rates at tidal wetlands in two mediterranean regions: the San Francisco Bay Estuary (California, USA) and the Ebro River Delta (Catalonia, Spain). Sampling sites within each region represented a range of conditions in terms of soil salinity and plant communities, and these sites serve as potential analogs for long-term carbon sequestration in restored wetlands, which could receive credits under emerging policies for carbon management. Within San Francisco Bay, we collected six sediment cores per site at four salt marshes and two brackish tidal wetlands (two transects with three stations per transect at each site) in order to identify spatial variation both within and among wetlands in the Estuary. At the Ebro Delta, individual sediment cores were collected across 14 tidal wetland sites, including salt and brackish marshes from impounded areas, river mouths, coastal lagoon, and open bay settings. Cores were collected to 50 cm, and cores were dated using 137Cs and 210Pb. Most sites within San Francisco accreted 0.3-0.5 cm/yr, with slightly higher rates of accretion at low marsh stations; accretions rates based on 137Cs were slightly higher than those based on 210Pb, likely because of the shorter time frame covered by 137Cs dating. Accretion rates from the Ebro Delta sites were similar although more variable, with rates based on 137Cs ranging from 0.1 to 0.9 cm/yr and reflecting the wide range of conditions and management

  15. Constructed wetland as an ecotechnological tool for pollution treatment for conservation of Ganga river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, U N; Tripathi, R D; Singh, N K; Upadhyay, A K; Dwivedi, S; Shukla, M K; Mallick, S; Singh, S N; Nautiyal, C S

    2013-11-01

    With aim to develop an efficient and ecofriendly approach for on-site treatment of sewage, a sub-surface flow constructed wetland (CW) has been developed by raising potential aquatic macrophytes; Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Colocasia esculenta, Polygonum hydropiper, Alternanthera sessilis and Pistia stratoites in gravel as medium. Sewage treatment potential of CW was evaluated by varying retention time at three different stages of plant growth and stabilization. After 6 months, monitoring of fully established CW indicated reduction of 90%, 65%, 78%, 84%, 76% and 86% of BOD, TSS, TDS, NO3-N, PO4-P and NH4-N, respectively in comparison to inlet after 36 h of retention time. Sewage treatment through CW also resulted in reduction of heavy metal contents. Thus, CW proved an effective method for treatment of wastewater and may be developed along river Ganga stretch as an alternative technology. Treated water may be drained into river to check further deterioration of Ganga water quality.

  16. Dissolved organic matter dynamics in the oligo/meso-haline zone of wetland-influenced coastal rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maie, Nagamitsu; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Watanabe, Akira; Tsutsuki, Kiyoshi; Yamashita, Youhei; Melling, Lulie; Cawley, Kaelin M.; Shima, Eikichi; Jaffé, Rudolf

    2014-08-01

    Wetlands are key components in the global carbon cycle and export significant amounts of terrestrial carbon to the coastal oceans in the form of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Conservative behavior along the salinity gradient of DOC and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) has often been observed in estuaries from their freshwater end-member (salinity = 0) to the ocean (salinity = 35). While the oligo/meso-haline (salinity Malaysia. For the first two rivers, a clear decoupling between DOC and A254 was observed, while these parameters showed similar conservative behavior for the third. Three distinct EEM-PARAFAC models established for each of the rivers provided similar spectroscopic characteristics except for some unique fluorescence features observed for the Judan River. The distribution patterns of PARAFAC components suggested that the inputs from plankton and/or submerged aquatic vegetation can be important in the Bekanbeushi River. Further, DOM photo-products formed in the estuarine lake were also found to be transported upstream. In the Harney River, whereas upriver-derived terrestrial humic-like components were mostly distributed conservatively, some of these components were also derived from mangrove inputs in the oligo/meso-haline zone. Interestingly, fluorescence intensities of some terrestrial humic-like components increased with salinity for the Judan River possibly due to changes in the dissociation state of acidic functional groups and/or increase in the fluorescence quantum yield along the salinity gradient. The protein-like and microbial humic-like components were distributed differently between three wetland rivers, implying that interplay between loss to microbial degradation and inputs from diverse sources are different for the three wetland-influenced rivers. The results presented here indicate that upper estuarine oligo/meso-haline regions of coastal wetland rivers are highly dynamic with regard to the biogeochemical behavior of DOM.

  17. The Accumulation and Seasonal Dynamic of the Soil Organic Carbon in Wetland of the Yellow River Estuary, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianxiang Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The wetland of the Yellow River estuary is a typical new coastal wetland in northern China. It is essential to study the carbon pool and its variations for evaluating the carbon cycle process. The study results regarding the temporal-spatial distribution and influential factors of soil organic carbon in four typical wetlands belonging to the Yellow River estuary showed that there was no significant difference in the contents of the surface soil TOC to the same season among the four types of wetlands. For each type of wetlands, the TOC content in surface soils was significantly higher in October than that in both May and August. On the whole, the obvious differences in DOC contents in surface soils were not observed in the different wetland types and seasons. The peak of TOC appeared at 0–10 cm in the soil profiles. The contents of TOC and DOC were significantly higher in salsa than those in reed, suggesting that the rhizosphere effect of organic carbon in salsa was more obvious than that in reed. The results of the principal component analysis showed that the nitrogen content, salinity, bulk density, and water content were dominant influential factors for organic carbon accumulation and seasonal variation.

  18. Landsat and GRACE observations of arid wetland dynamics in a dryland river system under multi-decadal hydroclimatic extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zunyi; Huete, Alfredo; Ma, Xuanlong; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Devadas, Rakhesh; Clarke, Kenneth; Lewis, Megan

    2016-12-01

    complex dryland river systems. The protracted Millennium Drought from 2001 to 2009 resulted in long-term absence of major flood events, which substantially suppressed wetland vegetation growth. However, the 2010-11 La Niña induced flooding events led to an exceptionally large resurgence of vegetation, with a mean vegetation growth extent anomaly exceeding the historical average (1988-2011) by more than 1.5 standard deviations, suggesting a significant resilience of arid wetland ecosystems to climate variability. This study showed the ecological functioning of arid wetlands is particularly sensitive to large-scale hydrological fluctuations and extreme drought conditions, and vulnerable to future altered water regimes due to climate change. The methods developed herein can be applied to arid wetlands located in other dryland river systems across the globe.

  19. A Synthesis of Environmental and Plant Community Data for Tidal Wetland Restoration Planning in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Cullinan, Valerie I.

    2013-12-01

    This report reanalyzes and synthesizes previously existing environmental and plant community data collected by PNNL at 55 tidal wetlands and 3 newly restored sites in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) between 2005 and 2011. Whereas data were originally collected for various research or monitoring objectives of five studies, the intent of this report is to provide only information that will have direct utility in planning tidal wetland restoration projects. Therefore, for this report, all tidal wetland data on plants and the physical environment, which were originally developed and reported by separate studies, were tabulated and reanalyzed as a whole. The geographic scope of the data collected in this report is from Bonneville Lock and Dam to the mouth of the Columbia River

  20. Emergy and Economic Evaluations of Four Fruit Production Systems on Reclaimed Wetlands Surrounding the Pearl River Estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare a traditional tropical fruit cultivation system, for bananas, and three newly introduced fruit cultivation systems, for papaya, guava and wampee, on reclaimed wetlands of the Pearl River Estuary, China. The evaluations...

  1. The development of a decision support system for prioritizing forested wetland restoration areeas in the lower Yazoo River Basin, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anegla A. Davis; Barbara A. Kleiss; Charles G. O' Hara; Jennifer S. Derby

    2000-01-01

    The Eco-Assessor, a GIS-based decision-support system, has been developed for the lower part of the Yazoo River Basin, Mississippi, to help planners and managers determine the best locations for the restoration of wetlands based on defined ecological and geographic criteria and probability of success. To assess the functional characteristics of the potential...

  2. A century-scale, human-induced ecohydrological evolution of wetlands of two large river basins in Australia (Murray) and China (Yangtze)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattel, Giri R.; Dong, Xuhui; Yang, Xiangdong

    2016-06-01

    Recently, the provision of food and water resources of two of the world's largest river basins, the Murray and the Yangtze, has been significantly altered through widespread landscape modification. Long-term sedimentary archives, dating back for some centuries from wetlands of these river basins, reveal that rapid, basin-wide development has reduced the resilience of biological communities, resulting in considerable decline in ecosystem services, including water quality. Large-scale human disturbance to river systems, due to river regulation during the mid-20th century, has transformed the hydrology of rivers and wetlands, causing widespread modification of aquatic biological communities. Changes to cladoceran zooplankton (water fleas) were used to assess the historical hydrology and ecology of three Murray and Yangtze river wetlands over the past century. Subfossil assemblages of cladocerans retrieved from sediment cores (94, 45, and 65 cm) of three wetlands: Kings Billabong (Murray), Zhangdu, and Liangzi lakes (Yangtze), showed strong responses to hydrological changes in the river after the mid-20th century. In particular, river regulation caused by construction of dams and weirs together with river channel modifications, has led to significant hydrological alterations. These hydrological disturbances were either (1) a prolonged inundation of wetlands or (2) reduced river flow, both of which caused variability in wetland depth. Inevitably, these phenomena have subsequently transformed the natural wetland habitats, leading to a switch in cladoceran assemblages to species preferring poor water quality, and in some cases to eutrophication. The quantitative and qualitative decline of wetland water conditions is indicative of reduced ecosystem services, and requires effective restoration measures for both river basins which have been impacted by recent socioeconomic development and climate change.

  3. Carrying capacity for shorebirds during migratory seasons at the Jiuduansha Wetland, Yangtze River Estuary, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenming GE; Xiao ZHOU; Wenyu SHI; Tianhou WANG

    2008-01-01

    The carrying capacity of food resources for migrating shorebirds was estimated at a stopover site in the Yangtze River Estuary during the two migratory sea-sons (spring and autumn). From March to May and September to November 2005, the macrobenthos resources of the Jiuduansha Wetland were investigated, and most of the macrobenthos species in the newly-formed shoal were found to be appropriate food for shorebirds. Biomass measurements showed that the total food resource was about 4541.20 kg AFDW (Ash-Free Dry Weight) in spring and about 2279.64 kg AFDW in autumn. Calculations were also done in the available habi-tats (intertidal bare mudflat and Scirpus x mariqueter/ Scirpus triqueter zones) for the shorebirds. The food resources in the available areas were about 3429.03 kg AFDW in spring and about 1700.92 kg AFDW in autumn. Based on the classification (by lean weight, basic metabolic rate and body length) of the shorebird community, and using the energy depletion model, it was theorized that all of the food resources in the Jiuduansha Wetland could support about 3.5 million shorebirds during spring season and 1.75 million shorebirds during autumn season. The shorebird carrying capacities in terms of the available food were about 2.6 million and 1.3 million birds during the two respective migration seasons. Considering the effect of intake rate, the potential carrying capacity was about 0.13-0.26 million shorebirds in the study area. The main factor restricting use of the area by shorebirds was the scarcity of available habitats for roosting at high tide rather than availability of food supply. We recommend restoring some wading pools in the dense Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora zones for shorebirds to roost in, to improve shorebirds' utilization efficiency of the resources in the Jiuduansha Wetland.

  4. Vegetation cover, avoided erosion and water quality in high Andean wetlands, Yeso River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Alejandro; Soto, Jorge; Seguel, Oscar; Pérez, Javier; Osses, Daniela; Leiva, Nicolás; Zerega, Linka

    2017-04-01

    Wetlands on the high Andes mountains near Santiago de Chile have been impacted by overgrazing and off-road tourists. We studied wetlands in El Yeso River basin. In February 2015 we established 36 exclusions and measured vegetation cover and height, biomass production in and out the exclusions starting in October. Water and undisturbed soil samples were collected. Data were analyzed statistically to estimate i) the recovery of vegetation, and ii) the influence of grazing and vehicle traffic on vegetation loss, and iii) impacts on soil and water quality. In areas with less intense traffic, the difference in vegetation coverage in and out the exclusions is 22% (± 11.4%); in areas with more intense traffic this difference is 16% (± 16%). Height of vegetation, in the less intense traffic areas, ranges from 6.25 cm (± 2.8) to 13.32 cm (± 6.3). With higher traffic it varies between 6.9 cm (± 3.1) and 13.6 cm (± 5.4). Biomass varies between 0.06 kg DM/m2 to 0.57 kg DM/m2 depending on botanical composition and date. After water circulates through the wetlands its content of nitrogen increases 37.33% to 0.37 mg N/l and the fecal coliforms 66.67% to 0.67 MPN/100 ml, because of cattle. On the contrary, turbidity decreases 20.67% to 0.21 UNT because sediments are captured by vegetation. We also estimated an avoided erosion rate, ranging between 1.23% and 31.87% (depending on the slope) due to the increase in coverage within the exclusions.

  5. Growth and seasonal behavior of Anguilla anguilla in the River Minho tidal freshwater wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Correia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The River Minho estuary, located on the northwest coast of the Iberian Peninsula, is a mesotidal estuary, partially mixed that during the period of high floods it tends to evolve towards a salt wedge estuary. The influence of spring tides extends approximately 40 km upstream and the tidal freshwater wetlands (TFWs are located in the upper 30 km. The Minho estuary is part of a Natura 2000 site, which includes the entire international section of the river being considered a very important river concerning migratory fish species. In the River Minho TFWs several fish species have ecological and economic value (Salmo trutta, Alosa fallax, Platichthys flesus, Anguilla anguilla, Salmo salar, Alosa alosa and Petromyzon marinus. European eel, A. anguilla, is in Appendix II of CITES list, that includes species not necessarily threatened with extinction, but in which trade must be controlled in order to avoid utilization incompatible with their survival. Between January 2007 and December 2014, in a selected semi-enclosed area of TFW and using 5 fyke-nets, were captured 1303 eels. All eels were measured and weighted, ocular index was determined and also marked with pit-tags and released in the same area. During these 8 years of work, around 15% of the total captured eels were recaptured once, less than 3% were recapture twice, less than 1% three times and 3 eels were recaptured 4 times. Eels marked in 2009 are until now the ones that were recaptured more times. Biological data as eel growth, seaward migration state, seasonal differences of by-catch will be crossed with abiotic data namely river flow, precipitation and water temperature.

  6. Soil as levels and bioaccumulation in Suaeda salsa and Phragmites australis wetlands of the Yellow River Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjing; Bai, Junhong; Gao, Zhaoqin; Lu, Qiongqiong; Zhao, Qingqing

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available on As contamination dynamics in the soil-plant systems of wetlands. Total arsenic (As) in soil and plant samples from Suaeda salsa and Phragmites australis wetlands was measured in the Yellow River Estuary (YRE) in summer and autumn of 2007 to investigate the seasonal changes in As concentrations in different wetlands. The results showed that soil As levels greatly exceeded the global and regional background values. As levels in soil and the roots and stems of both types of plants were much higher in summer than in autumn, whereas leaf As showed higher level in autumn. Soil sulfur was the main factor influencing As levels in Suaeda salsa wetlands, whereas soil porosity was the most important factor for Phragmites australis wetlands. The contamination factor (CF) showed moderately to considerably polluted levels of As in both wetland soils. Plant roots and leaves of Suaeda salsa had higher As concentrations and biological concentration factors (BCFs) than stems, while the leaves and stems of Phragmites australis showed higher As levels and BCFs than roots. Compared to Phragmites australis, Suaeda salsa generally showed higher translocation factor (TF), while TF values for both plant species were higher in summer than in autumn.

  7. Study on driving forces of wetland change in the Western Liaohe River basin based on random forest model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Menghong; Yang, Changbao; Zhang, Yanhong; Lin, Nan

    2017-05-01

    Based on the platform of RS and GIS, random forest progression model is used for study driving force of wetland change in western Liaohe river basin, five influencing factors which include elevation, slope, temperature, precipitation and population density are chosen to establish random forest progression model about the wetland change and the driving factors. Using the the mean value of the prediction accuracy outside the bag calculated by the model to evaluate the importance of the variables. The result indicates that the coefficient of partial correlation between precipitation and wetland density is the largest among the five influencing factors, followed by temperature, population density, elevation and slope is smallest. The influence of natural factors on the change of wetland density is mainly reflected in precipitation and temperature factors, and the precipitation is obviously higher than that of temperature, under the influence of human factors, the influence of population density factor on wetland density is higher than that of elevation and slope factor. The result shows that in the past 40 years, the human activities in the study area have increased the density of wetland to some extent, but it is not the main factor.

  8. Vegetation and proximity to the river control amorphous silica storage in a riparian wetland (Biebrza National Park, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Struyf

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands can modify and control nutrient fluxes between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, yet little is known of their potential as biological buffers and sinks in the biogeochemical silica cycle. We investigated the storage of amorphous silica (ASi in a central-European riparian wetland. The variation in storage of ASi in the soil of an undisturbed wetland was significantly controlled by two factors: dominance of sedges and grasses and distance to the river (combined R2=78%. Highest ASi storage was found near the river and in sites with a dominance of grasses and sedges, plants which are well known to accumulate ASi. The management practice of mowing reduced the amount of variation attributed to both factors (R2=51%. Although ASi concentrations in soils were low (between 0.1 and 1% of soil dry weight, ASi controlled the availability of dissolved silica (DSi in the porewater, and thus potentially the exchange of DSi with the nearby river system through both diffusive and advective fluxes. A depth gradient in ASi concentrations, with lower ASi in the deeper layers, indicates dissolution. Our results show that storage and recycling of ASi in wetland ecosystems can differ significantly on small spatial scales. Human management interferes with the natural control mechanisms. Our study demonstrates that wetlands have the potential to modify the fluxes of both DSi and ASi along the land-ocean continuum and supports the hypothesis that wetlands are important ecosystems in the biogeochemical cycling of silica.

  9. Lacustrine records of Holocene flood pulse dynamics in the Upper Paraguay River watershed (Pantanal wetlands, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlue, Michael M.; Silva, Aquinaldo; Zani, Hiran; Corradini, Fabricio A.; Parolin, Mauro; Abel, Erin J.; Cohen, Andrew S.; Assine, Mario L.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Trees, Mark A.; Kuerten, Sidney; Gradella, Frederico dos Santos; Rasbold, Giliane Gessica

    2012-01-01

    The Pantanal is the world's largest tropical wetland and a biodiversity hotspot, yet its response to Quaternary environmental change is unclear. To address this problem, sediment cores from shallow lakes connected to the UpperParaguayRiver (PR) were analyzed and radiocarbon dated to track changes in sedimentary environments. Stratal relations, detrital particle size, multiple biogeochemical indicators, and sponge spicules suggest fluctuating lake-level lowstand conditions between ~ 11,000 and 5300 cal yr BP, punctuated by sporadic and in some cases erosive flood flows. A hiatus has been recorded from ~ 5300 to 2600 cal yr BP, spurred by confinement of the PR within its channel during an episode of profound regional drought. Sustained PR flooding caused a transgression after ~ 2600 cal yr BP, with lake-level highstand conditions appearing during the Little Ice Age. Holocene PR floodpulsedynamics are best explained by variability in effective precipitation, likely driven by insolation and tropical sea-surface temperature gradients. Our results provide novel support for hypotheses on: (1) stratigraphic discontinuity of floodplain sedimentary archives; (2) late Holocene methane flux from Southern Hemisphere wetlands; and (3) pre-colonial indigenous ceramics traditions in western Brazil.

  10. Lacustrine records of Holocene flood pulse dynamics in the Upper Paraguay River watershed (Pantanal wetlands, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlue, Michael M.; Silva, Aguinaldo; Zani, Hiran; Corradini, Fabrício A.; Parolin, Mauro; Abel, Erin J.; Cohen, Andrew S.; Assine, Mario L.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Trees, Mark A.; Kuerten, Sidney; Gradella, Frederico dos Santos; Rasbold, Giliane Gessica

    2012-09-01

    The Pantanal is the world's largest tropical wetland and a biodiversity hotspot, yet its response to Quaternary environmental change is unclear. To address this problem, sediment cores from shallow lakes connected to the Upper Paraguay River (PR) were analyzed and radiocarbon dated to track changes in sedimentary environments. Stratal relations, detrital particle size, multiple biogeochemical indicators, and sponge spicules suggest fluctuating lake-level lowstand conditions between ~ 11,000 and 5300 cal yr BP, punctuated by sporadic and in some cases erosive flood flows. A hiatus has been recorded from ~ 5300 to 2600 cal yr BP, spurred by confinement of the PR within its channel during an episode of profound regional drought. Sustained PR flooding caused a transgression after ~ 2600 cal yr BP, with lake-level highstand conditions appearing during the Little Ice Age. Holocene PR flood pulse dynamics are best explained by variability in effective precipitation, likely driven by insolation and tropical sea-surface temperature gradients. Our results provide novel support for hypotheses on: (1) stratigraphic discontinuity of floodplain sedimentary archives; (2) late Holocene methane flux from Southern Hemisphere wetlands; and (3) pre-colonial indigenous ceramics traditions in western Brazil.

  11. Ecological Effects of Roads on the Plant Diversity of Coastal Wetland in the Yellow River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzhao Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The 26 sample sites in 7 study plots adjacent to asphalt road and earth road in coastal wetland in the Yellow River Delta were selected to quantify plant diversity using quadrat sampling method in plant bloom phase of July and August 2012. The indice of βT and Jaccard’s coefficient were applied to evaluate the species diversity. The results showed that the plant diversities and alien plants were high in the range of 0–20 m to the road verge. There were more exotics and halophytes in plots of asphalt roadside than that of earth roadside. However, proportion of halophytes in habitats of asphalt roadsides was lower than that of earth roadside. By comparing β-diversity, there were more common species in the asphalt roadsides than that in the earth roadsides. The similarity of plant communities in studied plots of asphalt roadsides and earth roadsides increased with increasing the distance to road verge. The effect range of roads for plant diversity in study region was about 20 m to road verge. Our results indicate that the construction and maintenance of roads in wetland could increase the plant species diversities of communities and risk of alien species invasion.

  12. Microcrustaceans (Branchipoda and Copepoda) of Wetland Impoundments on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBiase, Adrienne E; Taylor, Barbara E

    2005-09-21

    The United States Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, contains an abundance of freshwater wetlands and impoundments. Four large impoundments, as well as several small, abandoned farm and mill ponds, and about 400 Carolina bays and other small, isolated depression wetland ponds are located within the 893 km2 area of the SRS. Crustaceans of the orders Branchiopoda and Copepoda are nearly ubiquitous in these water bodies. Although small in size, these organisms are often very abundant. They consequently play an important trophic role in freshwater food webs supporting fish, larval salamanders, larval insects, and numerous other animals, aquatic and terrestrial. This report provides an introduction to the free-living microcrustaceans of lentic water bodies on the SRS and a comprehensive list of species known to occur there. Occurrence patterns are summarized from three extensive survey studies, supplemented with other published and unpublished records. In lieu of a key, we provide a guide to taxonomic resources and notes on undescribed species. Taxa covered include the orders Cladocera, Anostraca, Laevicaudata, and Spinicaudata of the Subclass Branchiopoda and the Superorders Calanoida and Cyclopoida of Subclass Copepoda. Microcrustaceans of the Superorder Harpacticoida of the Subclass Copepoda and Subclass Ostracoda are also often present in lentic water bodies. They are excluded from this report because they have not received much study at the species level on the SRS.

  13. Physicochemical Characteristics of Pennar River, A Fresh Water Wetland in Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some physicochemical characteristics of a fresh water wetland were investigated. The analysis was carried out for a period of two years. Physical parameters such as colour, odour, temperature, electrical conductivity (EC total suspended solids (TSS total dissolved substances (TDS, total solids (TS, turbidity and chemical parameters such as pH, alkalinity, hardness, dissolved oxygen (DO, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, chloride, salinity, flouride, phosphate & nitrate were examined. Results of the study indicated that water in Pennar river is highly contaminated and not safe for drinking. Uncontrolled use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, unscrupulous dumping of domestic wastes are the major causes of deterioration of water. Poor quality of drinking water was recorded as the major risk factor for the large-scale water-borne diseases in the area.

  14. Vegetation, substrate and hydrology in floating marshes in the Mississippi river delta plain wetlands, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasser, C.E.; Gosselink, J.G.; Swenson, E.M.; Swarzenski, C.M.; Leibowitz, N.C.

    1996-01-01

    In the 1940s extensive floating marshes (locally called 'flotant') were reported and mapped in coastal wetlands of the Mississippi River Delta Plain. These floating marshes included large areas of Panicum hemitomon-dominated freshwater marshes, and Spartina patens/Scirpus olneyi brackish marshes. Today these marshes appear to be quite different in extent and type. We describe five floating habitats and one non-floating, quaking habitat based on differences in buoyancy dynamics (timing and degree of floating), substrate characteristics, and dominant vegetation. All floating marshes have low bulk density, organic substrates. Nearly all are fresh marshes. Panicum hemitomon floating marshes presently occur within the general regions that were reported in the 1940's by O'Neil, but are reduced in extent. Some of the former Panicum hemitomon marshes have been replaced by seasonally or variably floating marshes dominated, or co-dominated by Sagittaria lancifolia or Eleocharis baldwinii. ?? 1996 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  15. Using a constructed wetland for non-point source pollution control and river water quality purification: a case study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C Y; Kao, C M; Lin, C E; Chen, C W; Lai, Y C

    2010-01-01

    The Kaoping River Rail Bridge Constructed Wetland, which was commissioned in 2004, is one of the largest constructed wetlands in Taiwan. This multi-function wetland has been designed for the purposes of non-point source (NPS) pollutant removal, wastewater treatment, wildlife habitat, recreation, and education. The major influents of this wetland came from the local drainage trench containing domestic, agricultural, and industrial wastewaters, and effluents from the wastewater treatment plant of a paper mill. Based on the quarterly investigation results from 2007 to 2009, more than 96% of total coliforms (TC), 48% of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and 40% of nutrients (e.g. total nitrogen, total phosphorus) were removed via the constructed wetland system. Thus, the wetland system has a significant effect on water quality improvement and is capable of removing most of the pollutants from the local drainage system before they are discharged into the downgradient water body. Other accomplishments of this constructed wetland system include the following: providing more green areas along the riversides, offering more water assessable eco-ponds and eco-gardens for the public, and rehabilitating the natural ecosystem. The Kaoping River Rail Bridge Constructed Wetland has become one of the most successful multi-function constructed wetlands in Taiwan. The experience obtained from this study will be helpful in designing similar natural treatment systems for river water quality improvement and wastewater treatment.

  16. 鹤壁淇河国家湿地公园建设的SWOT分析%Analysis on National Wetland Park Construction SWOT of Hebi q River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鑫

    2012-01-01

    This paper hebi q river national wetland park construction, for example, in the wetland park deficiencies in the construction theory, from the protection and improvement of the wetland habitat, and analyses the construction of national wetland park of existing strengths, weaknesses, the opportunities and challenge faced. Through to the wetland park the SWOT analysis, explore construction hebi q river national importance of wetland park, make full use of the wetland park geographical location, biological resources, tourist resources and cultural resources advantage and realize hebi q river national wetland park construction necessity and sustainable development.%以鹤壁淇河国家湿地公园建设为例,针对目前湿地公园建设理论方面的不足,从保护和改善湿地生境入手,探讨了建设国家湿地公园存在的优势、劣势,面临的机遇和挑战。通过对湿地公园进行SWOT分析,指出了建设鹤壁淇河国家湿地公园的重要性,提出了利用湿地公园的地理位置、生物资源、旅游资源、文化资源等优势,以实现鹤壁淇河国家湿地公园建设的可持续发展。

  17. Agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution control function of different vegetation types in riparian wetlands: a case study in the Yellow River wetland in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tongqian; Xu, Huashan; He, Yuxiao; Tai, Chao; Meng, Hongqi; Zeng, Fanfu; Xing, Menglin

    2009-01-01

    Riparian wetland is the major transition zone of matter, energy and information transfer between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and has important functions of water purification and non-point pollution control. Using the field experiment method and an isotope tracing technique, the agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution control function of different vegetation types in riparian wetland was studied in the Kouma Section of the Yellow River. The results showed that the retention of agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution by riparian wetland soil occurs mainly in top 0-10 cm layer. The amount of nitrogen retained by surface soils associated with three types of vegetation are 0.045 mg/g for Phragmites communis Trin Linn, 0.036 mg/g for Scirpus triqueter Linn, and 0.032 mg/g for Typha angustifolia Linn, which account for 59.21%, 56.25%, and 56.14% of the total nitrogen interception, respectively. Exogenous nitrogen in 0-10 cm soil layer changes more quickly than in other layers. One month after adding K(15)NO3 to the tested vegetation, nitrogen content was 77.78% for P. communis Trin, 68.75% for T. angustifolia, and 8.33% for S. triqueter in the surface soil. After three months, nitrogen content was 93.33% for P. communis Trin, 72.22% for S. triqueter, and 37.50% for T. Angustifolia. There are large differences among vegetation communities respecting to purification of agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution. The nitrogen uptake amount decreases in the sequence: new shoots of P. communis Trin (9.731 mg/g) > old P. communis Trin (4.939 mg/g) > S. triqueter (0.620 mg/g) > T. angustifolia (0.186 mg/g). Observations indicated that the presence of riparian wetlands as buffers on and adjacent to stream banks could be recommended to control agricultural non-point pollution.

  18. Agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution control function of different vegetation types in riparian wetlands: A case study in the Yellow River wetland in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Tongqian; XU Huashan; HE Yuxiao; TAI Chao; MENG Hongqi; ZENG Fanfu; XING Menglin

    2009-01-01

    Riparian wetland is the major transition zone of matter, energy and information transfer between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and has important functions of water purification and non-point pollution control. Using the field experiment method and an isotope tracing technique, the agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution control function of different vegetation types in riparian wetland was studied in the Kouma Section of the Yellow River. The results showed that the retention of agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution by riparian wetland soil occurs mainly in top 0-10 cm layer. The amount of nitrogen retained by surface soils associated with three types of vegetation are 0.045 mg/g for Phragmites communis Trin Lima, 0.036 mg/g for Scirpus triqueter Liun, and 0.032 mg/g for Typha angustifolia Linn, which account for 59.21%, 56.25%, and 56.14% of the total nitrogen interception, respectively. Exogenous nitrogen in 0-10 cm soil layer changes more quickly than in other layers. One month after adding K15NO3 to the tested vegetation, nitrogen content was 77.78% for P. Communis Trin, 68.75% for T. Angustifolia, and 8.33% for S. Triqueter in the surface soil. After three months, nitrogen content was 93.33% for P. Communis Trin, 72.22% for S. Triqueter, and 37.50% for T. Angustifolia. There are large differences among vegetation communities respecting to purification of agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution. The nitrogen uptake amount decreases in the sequence: new shoots of P. Communis Trin (9.731 mg/g)>old P. Communis Trin (4.939 mg/g)>S. Triqueter (0.620 mg/g)>T. Angustifolia (0.186 mg/g). Observations indicated that the presence of riparian wetlands as buffers on and adjacent to stream banks could be recommended to control agricultural non-point pollution.

  19. [Removal efficiency of C and N in micro-polluted river through a subsurface-horizontal flow constructed wetlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-ping; Zhou, Li-xiang; Dai, Yuan-yuan; Cui, Chun-hong

    2008-08-01

    A subsurface-horizontal flow constructed wetlands (CWs) planted with reed was used to treat micro-polluted river water in this study with an aim to investigate the long-term treatment efficiency of CWs especially for organic C and N. Average data obtained from two-year plant growth season showed that performance of the wetlands appeared to be affected by both establishment/maturation factors and year-to-year climatic variations. The results displayed that the removal of C and N in the influent depended, to a certain extend, on plant growth and seasonal variations, especially for total N removal. It was observed that C removal occurred mainly in the front of CWs in the first-year's operation period and then was translocated to the rear end of wetlands in the second-year's operation period. C/N ratio in the influent was 5 or more, indicating enough C source supply for denitrification. Organic C removal efficiencies varied from 6.10% to 37.83% throughout the trial. Average total N removal efficiency of 15.51% in the first-year operation period and then declined to 8.61% in the second year. The highest removal efficiency of total N was below 40% throughout the two-year trial. It was found that nitrification and denitrification reached dynamic equilibrium at the middle of the wetlands where the highest total N removal efficiency occurred. The greatest oxygen consumption was observed in the front and middle of CWs. It was noted that nitrification occurred even in deep layer located in the rear end of the wetlands in the second-year operation period. Nitrification and denitrification occurred concurrently with C and total N removal along the stream way. Low-molecular-weight organic acids released from reed rhizosphere seemed to have a significant inhibitory effect on chemoautrophic nitrifying bacteria, which involved in nitrogen removal efficiency of the wetlands, particularly during spring and autumn.

  20. Late Holocene development of a major fluvial discontinuity in floodplain wetlands of the Blood River, eastern South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooth, Stephen; McCarthy, Terence; Rodnight, Helena; Keen-Zebert, Amanda; Rowberry, Matthew; Brandt, Dion

    2014-01-01

    In dryland settings, most floodplain wetlands form in low gradient, low energy environments that are characterised by strong interactions between flow, sediment and biota. Some floodplain wetlands are only partly channelled or largely unchannelled, and represent major discontinuities in drainage networks, fundamentally influencing downvalley water and sediment transfer. In the > 15 km2 Blood River floodplain wetlands, located in subhumid to semiarid eastern South Africa, field investigations, aerial photographs, and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages provide evidence for development of a major discontinuity during the very late Holocene. Between ~ 800 and 100 years ago, the wetlands were characterised by a through-going, meandering channel set within a floodplain up to 2.5 km wide. A sinuous channel remains in the lower part of the wetlands but during the last ~ 100 years major morphological and sedimentary changes have occurred upvalley. The former through-going, meandering channel has been replaced by a straighter channel that decreases in size downstream and terminates in a 'floodout', characterised here by an unchannelled reedbed. Small tributaries supply water and limited sediment to this floodout and another floodout located farther downvalley. Organo-clastic sediments > 3 m thick have accumulated in the floodouts as broad lobes, in places burying the former meander-belt sediments. On the steepened, downvalley sides of these lobes, small headcutting channels convey water that filters through the reedbeds. If headcutting through the lobes continues, a through-going channel may re-establish upvalley, possibly eventually linking with the sinuous but now moribund channel in the lower part of the wetlands. Along the Blood River, the initial cause(s) of the sequence of changes is not known, but these channel-floodplain adjustments are partially analogous to the system-scale, autogenic morphological and sedimentary dynamics of those dryland fluvial systems

  1. Characterization of labile organic carbon in coastal wetland soils of the Mississippi River deltaic plain: relationships to carbon functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodla, Syam K; Wang, Jim J; Delaune, Ronald D

    2012-10-01

    Adequate characterization of labile organic carbon (LOC) is essential to the understanding of C cycling in soil. There has been very little evaluation about the nature of LOC characterizations in coastal wetlands, where soils are constantly influenced by different redox fluctuations and salt water intrusions. In this study, we characterized and compared LOC fractions in coastal wetland soils of the Mississippi River deltaic plain using four different methods including 1) aerobically mineralizable C (AMC), 2) cold water extractable C (CWEC), 3) hot water extractable C (HWEC), and 4) salt extractable C (SEC), as well as acid hydrolysable C (AHC) which includes both labile and slowly degradable organic C. Molecular organic C functional groups of these wetland soils were characterized by (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The LOC and AHC increased with soil organic C (SOC) regardless of wetland soil type. The LOC estimates by four different methods were positively and significantly linearly related to each other (R(2)=0.62-0.84) and with AHC (R(2)=0.47-0.71). The various LOC fractions accounted for ≤4.3% of SOC whereas AHC fraction represented 16-49% of SOC. AMC was influenced positively by O/N-alkyl and carboxyl C but negatively by alkyl C, whereas CWEC and SEC fractions were influenced only positively by carboxyl C but negatively by alkyl C in SOC. On the other hand, HWEC fraction was found to be only influenced positively by carbonyl C, and AHC positively by O/N-alkyl and alkyl C but negatively by aromatic C groups in SOC. Overall these relations suggested different contributions of various molecular organic C moieties to LOC in these wetlands from those often found for upland soils. The presence of more than 50% non-acid hydrolysable C suggested the dominance of relatively stable SOC pool that would be sequestered in these Mississippi River deltaic plain coastal wetland soils. The results have important implications to the understanding of the

  2. Distribution of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in coastal wetland soil related land use in the Modern Yellow River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junbao; Zhan, Chao; Li, Yunzhao; Zhou, Di; Fu, Yuqin; Chu, Xiaojing; Xing, Qinghui; Han, Guangxuan; Wang, Guangmei; Guan, Bo; Wang, Qing

    2016-11-01

    The delivery and distribution of nutrients in coastal wetland ecosystems is much related to the land use. The spatial variations of TOC, TN, NH4+-N, NO3--N and TP and associated soil salinity with depth in 9 kinds land uses in coastal zone of the modern Yellow River Delta (YRD) was evaluated based on monitoring data in field from 2009 to 2015. The results showed that the average contents of soil TOC, TN, NO3--N, NH4+-N and TP were 4.21 ± 2.40 g kg-1, 375.91 ± 213.44, 5.36 ± 9.59 and 7.20 ± 5.58 and 591.27 ± 91.16 mg kg-1, respectively. The high N and C contents were found in cropland in southern part and low values in natural wetland, while TP was relatively stable both in profiles and in different land uses. The land use, land formation age and salinity were important factors influencing distributions of TOC and N. Higher contents of TOC and N were observed in older formation age lands in whole study region, while the opposite regulation were found in new-born natural wetland, indicating that the anthropogenic activities could greatly alter the original distribution regulations of nutrients in coastal natural wetlands by changing the regional land use.

  3. Forecasting landscape effects of Mississippi River diversions on elevation and accretion in Louisiana deltaic wetlands under future environmental uncertainty scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongqing; Steyer, Gregory D.; Couvillion, Brady R.; John M. Rybczyk,; Beck, Holly J.; William J. Sleavin,; Ehab A. Meselhe,; Mead A. Allison,; Ronald G. Boustany,; Craig J. Fischenich,; Victor H. Rivera-Monroy,

    2014-01-01

    Large sediment diversions are proposed and expected to build new wetlands to alleviate the extensive wetland loss (5,000 km2) affecting coastal Louisiana during the last 78 years. Current assessment and prediction of the impacts of sediment diversions have focused on the capture and dispersal of both water and sediment on the adjacent river side and the immediate outfall marsh area. However, little is known about the effects of sediment diversions on existing wetland surface elevation and vertical accretion dynamics in the receiving basin at the landscape scale. In this study, we used a spatial wetland surface elevation model developed in support of Louisiana's 2012 Coastal Master Plan to examine such landscape-scale effects of sediment diversions. Multiple sediment diversion projects were incorporated in the model to simulate surface elevation and vertical accretion for the next 50 years (2010-2060) under two environmental (moderate and less optimistic) scenarios. Specifically, we examined landscape-scale surface elevation and vertical accretion trends under diversions with different geographical locations, diverted discharge rates, and geomorphic characteristics of the receiving basin. Model results indicate that small diversions (landscape-scale elevation loss ( 1,500 m3 s-1) are required to achieve landscape-level benefits to promote surface elevation via vertical accretion to keep pace with rising sea level.

  4. The Plan of Building the Yi River Wetland in Linyi%沂河湿地规划设计初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王媛媛; 陆发利; 令狐荣钢; 班誉峰; 陈雪

    2011-01-01

    沂河纵贯临沂全境,湿地资源丰富,总面积达1.33万hm2.以建设大沂河湿地保护区为总体目标,沿河梯次设立湿地公园,全面加强沂河湿地生物多样性保护,维护湿地生态系统的生态特性和基本功能,保持和最大限度地发挥沂河湿地生态系统的各种功能和效益,力争使大沂河湿地最终以生态沂河湿地、人文沂河湿地、科普沂河湿地的面貌成为临沂大地又一靓丽的城市名片.%Linyi has a lot of wetlands, amount to 13 300 ha,because Yi River runs through in the region. The overall goal is to establish a large Yi River wetland reserve, wetland parks will be built a( different locations along the river, biodiversity conservation in Yi River wetland will be strengthened, (he ecological characteristics of wetland ecosystem and basic functionalities will be maintained to maximize various functions and benefits of the wetland ecosystem Yi River, making the large Yi River wetland as a name card of the city for its ecological function, humanities and science education.

  5. 辽河三角洲湿地生物多样性功能评价%Evaluation of Biodiversity Function of Liaohe River Delta Wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金爽

    2013-01-01

      在辽河三角洲湿地生物多样性调查的基础上,对辽河三角洲生物多样性进行评价,主要包括物种多样性和生态系统多样性。按照生物多样性评价标准,辽河三角洲湿地生物多样性处于一般水平,需要加大湿地生物多样性的保护力度。%The Liaohe River Delta wetland, located in the estuary confluence of Liaohe River and Daliaohe River, enjoy the reputations of being “biological gene bank”,”natural botanical garden”,”paradise for birds”, and”natural fishing farm”. Based on the survey data of the Liaohe River Delta wetland biodiversity, an evaluation of was conducted on biodiversity of the delta wetland, including species diversity and ecosystem diversity. According to the evaluation criteria, the richness of biodiversity in the Liaohe River Delta wetland is at a normal level. Therefore, conservation of biodiversity of the wetland needs to be further strengthened.

  6. Characterization of labile organic carbon in coastal wetland soils of the Mississippi River deltaic plain: Relationships to carbon functionalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodla, Syam K. [School of Plant, Environmental and Soil Sciences, Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Wang, Jim J., E-mail: jjwang@agcenter.lsu.edu [School of Plant, Environmental and Soil Sciences, Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); DeLaune, Ronald D. [Department of Oceanography and Coastal Sciences, School of the Coast and Environment, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Adequate characterization of labile organic carbon (LOC) is essential to the understanding of C cycling in soil. There has been very little evaluation about the nature of LOC characterizations in coastal wetlands, where soils are constantly influenced by different redox fluctuations and salt water intrusions. In this study, we characterized and compared LOC fractions in coastal wetland soils of the Mississippi River deltaic plain using four different methods including 1) aerobically mineralizable C (AMC), 2) cold water extractable C (CWEC), 3) hot water extractable C (HWEC), and 4) salt extractable C (SEC), as well as acid hydrolysable C (AHC) which includes both labile and slowly degradable organic C. Molecular organic C functional groups of these wetland soils were characterized by {sup 13}C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The LOC and AHC increased with soil organic C (SOC) regardless of wetland soil type. The LOC estimates by four different methods were positively and significantly linearly related to each other (R{sup 2} = 0.62-0.84) and with AHC (R{sup 2} = 0.47-0.71). The various LOC fractions accounted for {<=} 4.3% of SOC whereas AHC fraction represented 16-49% of SOC. AMC was influenced positively by O/N-alkyl and carboxyl C but negatively by alkyl C, whereas CWEC and SEC fractions were influenced only positively by carboxyl C but negatively by alkyl C in SOC. On the other hand, HWEC fraction was found to be only influenced positively by carbonyl C, and AHC positively by O/N-alkyl and alkyl C but negatively by aromatic C groups in SOC. Overall these relations suggested different contributions of various molecular organic C moieties to LOC in these wetlands from those often found for upland soils. The presence of more than 50% non-acid hydrolysable C suggested the dominance of relatively stable SOC pool that would be sequestered in these Mississippi River deltaic plain coastal wetland soils. The results have important implications to the

  7. Riparian wetlands of the middle reach of the Seine river (France): historical development, investigation and present hydrologic functioning. A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendjoudi, H.; Weng, P.; Guérin, R.; Pastre, J. F.

    2002-06-01

    Along the middle reach of the Seine river, upstream from Paris, riparian wetlands that have been functioning for centuries, first as a result of a succession of sedimentological/hydrological processes and later of continuous management practices where the value of the wetlands has been acknowledged as well as their importance for the ecology. Here, we present the results of a multidisciplinary research programme focused on this system with emphasis on its present hydrological functioning and on the tools used to understand and quantify it. The major hydrological and geochemical processes that are active at present are reviewed, but past processes are also described as well as the potential long-term evolution of the system. This study uses several innovative tools to investigate the wetlands and analyse them in space: thermographic aerial survey and electromagnetic prospecting resulting in a map of clay-layer thickness. Concerning the wetland hydrology, water budgets, established at different time scales (several years, one year, a season) illustrate the exchanges between the watershed, the river and the wetland and water storage in the wetlands during flood events. The results show how the upstream reservoirs, built during the last 20 years, presently control the preservation and functioning of downstream riparian wetlands. Monitoring and modelling of the hydrological functioning of one wetland site have made it possible to identify and quantify exchanges between the wetland (especially in the unsaturated upper layer) and its environment. In situ measurements of denitrification rates in the wetland were used to make initial estimates of its nitrate-elimination capacity.

  8. Wetlands in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Wetlands are shallow marine waters and wet areas in cluding rivers, lakes and marshes. According to scientists, even reservoirs and paddy fields fall into the category. Wetlands are classified into over 40 types but accounts for only 6% of the earth's total land area. Human beings inhabit by water and grass because wetlands provide us with water and wet soil.

  9. Wetland-estuarine-shelf interactions in the Plum Island Sound and Merrimack River in the Massachusetts coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liuzhi; Chen, Changsheng; Vallino, Joe; Hopkinson, Charles; Beardsley, Robert C.; Lin, Huichan; Lerczak, Jim

    2010-10-01

    Wetland-estuarine-shelf interaction processes in the Plum Island Sound and Merrimack River system in the Massachusetts coast are examined using the high-resolution unstructured grid, finite volume, primitive equations, coastal ocean model. The computational domain covers the estuarine and entire intertidal area with a horizontal resolution of 10-200 m. Driven by five tidal constituents forcing at the open boundary on the inner shelf of the eastern coast of the Gulf of Maine, the model has successfully simulated the 3-D flooding/drying process, temporal variability, and spatial distribution of salinity as well as the water exchange flux through the water passage between the Plum Island Sound and Merrimack River. The model predicts a complex recirculation loop around the Merrimack River, shelf, and Plum Island Sound. During the ebb tide, salt water in the Plum Island Sound is injected into the Merrimack River, while during flood tide, a significant amount of the freshwater in the Merrimack River is forced into Plum Island Sound. This water exchange varies with the magnitude of freshwater discharge and wind conditions, with a maximum contribution of ˜30%-40% variability in salinity over tidal cycles in the mouth of the Merrimack River. Nonlinear tidal rectification results in a complex clockwise residual recirculation loop around the Merrimack River, shelf, and Plum Island Sound. The net water flux from Plum Island Sound to the Merrimack River varies with the interaction between tide, river discharge, and wind forcing. This interaction, in turn, affects the salt transport from this system to the shelf. Since the resulting water transport into the shelf significantly varies with the variability of the wind, models that fail to resolve this complex estuarine and shelf system could either overestimate or underestimate the salt content over the shelf.

  10. Soil greenhouse gas fluxes during wetland forest retreat along the Lower Savannah River, Georgia (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Whitbeck, Julie L.

    2012-01-01

    Tidal freshwater forested wetlands (tidal swamps) are periodically affected by salinity intrusion at seaward transitions with marsh, which, along with altered hydrology, may affect the balance of gaseous carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) losses from soils. We measured greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O) from healthy, moderately degraded, and degraded tidal swamp soils undergoing sea-level-rise-induced retreat along the lower Savannah River, Georgia, USA. Soil CO2 flux ranged from 90.2 to 179.1 mg CO2 m-2 h-1 among study sites, and was the dominant greenhouse gas emitted. CO2 flux differed among sites in some months, while CH4 and N2O fluxes were 0.18 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 and 1.23 μg N2O m-2 h-1, respectively, with no differences among sites. Hydrology, soil temperature, and air temperature, but not salinity, controlled the annual balance of soil CO2 emissions from tidal swamp soils. No clear drivers were found for CH4 or N2O emissions. On occasion, large ebbing or very low tides were even found to draw CO2 fluxes into the soil (dark CO2 uptake), along with CH4 and N2O. Overall, we hypothesized a much greater role for salinity and site condition in controlling the suite of greenhouse gases emitted from tidal swamps than we discovered, and found that CO2 emissions–not CH4 or N2O–contributed most to the global warming potential from these tidal swamp soils.

  11. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Implementation of the Wetland Mitigation Bank Program at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1205) for the proposed implementation of a wetland mitigation bank program at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

  12. Vertical distribution and retention mechanism of nitrogen and phosphorus in soils with different macrophytes of a natural river mouth wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Chen, Qiuwen; Ren, Kuixiao; Chen, Kaining

    2015-03-01

    Wetland vegetation can improve water quality through several processes including direct assimilation and the indirect effects of sedimentation and mineralization. This research takes the Zhucao River mouth of Daxi reservoir as a study case to investigate the vertical distribution of nitrogen and phosphorus in the soil of a natural wetland covered by different plants prior to any restoration action. There are four native emergent macrophytes (Typha latifolia L., Polygonum hydropiper L., Juncus effuses L., Phragmites communis L.) in the wetland. The total nitrogen (TN) and nitrate contents decreased with the soil depth for all vegetation types, and the mean TN and nitrate concentrations were higher in vegetative soil than in bare ground. The maximum TN concentration was found in the surface soil (0-2 cm) covered by P. communis. Ammonium decreased with the soil depth in vegetative areas, while it increased with soil depth in bare ground. The rank order of P fractions was organic P (OP) > P associated with Ca (Ca-P) > P associated with Fe/Al (Fe/Al-P). Total phosphorus (TP) and OP showed vertical profiles similar to that of TN. The mean concentrations of TP, Ca-P and Fe/Al-P were higher in vegetative soil than in bare ground. The maximum mean TP was also found in soil covered by P. communis. Loss on ignition (LOI) was significantly correlated with TN and TP (P reservoir.

  13. Effects of wetland restoration using Anacostia River sediments at Kenilworth Marsh [Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Anacostia River is a freshwater tributary that flows through Maryland and the District of Columbia to the Potomac River. In D.C., the Anacostia River flows...

  14. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District, Swan River National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins...

  15. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District, Swan River National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins...

  16. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District, Swan River National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins...

  17. Soil organic carbon storage changes in coastal wetlands of the modern Yellow River Delta from 2000 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil carbon sequestration plays an essential role in mitigating atmospheric CO2 increases and the subsequently global greenhouse effect. The storages and dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC of 0–30 cm soil depth in different landscape types including beaches, reservoir and pond, reed wetland, forest wetland, bush wetland, farmland, building land, bare land (severe saline land and salt field in the modern Yellow River Delta (YRD were studied based on the data of the regional survey and laboratory analysis. The landscape types were classified by the interpretation of remote sensing images of 2000 and 2009, which were calibrated by field survey results. The results revealed an increase of 10.59 km2 in the modem YRD area from 2000 to 2009. The SOC density varied ranging from 0.73 kg m−2 to 4.25 kg m−2 at depth of 0–30 cm. There were approx. 3.559 × 106 t and 3.545 × 106 t SOC stored in the YRD in 2000 and 2009, respectively. The SOC storages changed greatly in beaches, bush wetland, farm land and salt field which were affected dominantly by anthropogenic activities. The area of the YRD increased greatly within 10 years, however, the small increase of SOC storage in the region was observed due to landscape changes, indicating that the modern YRD was a potential carbon sink and anthropogenic activity was a key factor for SOC change.

  18. Salinity influence on soil microbial respiration rate of wetland in the Yangtze River estuary through changing microbial community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Fei Xi; Lei Wang; Jia Jun Hu; Yu Shu Tang; Yu Hu; Xiao Hua Fu; Ying Sun

    2014-01-01

    Estuarine wetland,where freshwater mixes with salt water,comprises different regions (rivers and marine ecosystems) with significantly varying tidal salinities.Two sampling areas,ZXS and JS,were selected to investigate the effect of tidal salinity on soil respiration (SR).ZXS and JS were located in Zhongxia Shoal and Jiangyanan Shoal of Jiuduansha Wetland respectively,with similar elevation and plant species,but significantly different in salinity.The results showed that with almost identical plant biomass,the SR and soil microbial respiration (SMR) of the tidal wetland with lower salinity (JS) were significantly higher than those of the tidal wetland with higher salinity (ZXS) (p < 0.05).However,unlike SMR and SR,the difference in the soil microbial biomass (SMB) was not significant (p > 0.05) with the SMB of ZXS a little higher than that of JS.The higher SMR and SR of JS may be closely connected to the soil microbial community structures and amount of dominant bacteria.Abundant β-and γ-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria in JS soil,which have strong heterotrophic metabolic capabilities,could be the main reason for higher SMR and SR,whereas a high number of ε-Proteobacteria in ZXS,some of which have carbon fixation ability,could be responsible for relatively lower carbon output.Path analysis indicated that soil salinity had the maximum negative total influencing coefficient with SMR among the various soil physical and chemical factors,suggesting that higher soil salinity,restricting highly heterotrophic bacteria,is the principle reason for lower SMR and SR in the ZXS.

  19. Soil organic carbon storage changes in coastal wetlands of the modern Yellow River Delta from 2000 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil carbon sequestration plays an essential role in mitigating CO2 increases and the subsequently global greenhouse effect. The storages and dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC of 0–30 cm soil depth in different landscape types including beaches, reservoir and pond, reed wetland, forest wetland, bush wetland, farmland, building land, bare land (severe saline land and salt field in the modern Yellow River Delta (YRD, were studied based on the data of the regional survey and laboratory analysis. The landscape types were classified by the interpretation of remote sensing images of 2000 and 2009, which was calibrated by field survey results. The results revealed an increase of 10.59 km2 in the modem YRD area from 2000 to 2009. The SOC density varied ranging from 0.73 kg m−2 to 21.60 kg m−2 at depth of 30 cm. There were ~3.97 × 106 t and 3.98 × 106 t SOC stored in the YRD in 2000 and 2009, respectively. The SOC storages changed greatly in beaches, bush wetland, farm land and salt field which were affected dominantly by anthropogenic activities. The area of the YRD increased greatly within 10 yr, however, the small increase of SOC storage in the region was observed due to landscape changes, indicating that the modern YRD was a potential carbon sink and anthropogenic activity was a key factor for SOC change.

  20. A hierarchical approach on groundwater-surface water interaction in wetlands along the upper Biebrza River, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Anibas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As recognized in the European Water Framework Directive, groundwater-dependent wetlands and their diverse ecosystems have important functions which need to be protected. The vegetation in such habitats is often dependent on quality, quantity and patterns of river discharge and groundwater-surface water interaction on a local or reach scale. Since groundwater-surface water exchange studies on natural rivers and wetlands with organic soils are scarce, more functional analysis is needed. To this end we combined different field methods including piezometer nests, temperature as tracer and seepage meter measurements. Some of these measurements were used as inputs and/or as validation for the numerical 1-D heat transport model STRIVE. In transient mode the model was used to calculate spatially distributed vertical exchange fluxes from temperature profiles measured at the upper Biebrza River in Poland over a period of nine months. Time series of estimated fluxes and hydraulic head gradients in the hyporheic zone were used to estimate the temporal variability of groundwater-surface water exchange.

    This paper presents a hierarchical approach for quantifying and interpreting groundwater-surface water interaction in space and time. The results for the upper Biebrza show predominantly upward water fluxes, sections of recharge, however, exist along the reach. The fluxes depend more on hydraulic gradients than on riverbed conductivity. This indicates that the fluvio-plain scale is required for interpreting the exchange fluxes, which are estimated on a local scale. The paper shows that a conceptual framework is necessary for understanding the groundwater-surface water interaction processes, where the exchange fluxes are influenced by local factors like the composition of the riverbed and the position of the measurement on a local scale, and by regional factors like the hydrogeology and topography on a fluvio-plain scale. The hierarchical methodology

  1. A hierarchical approach on groundwater-surface water interaction in wetlands along the upper Biebrza River, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Anibas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater-surface water exchange studies on natural rivers and wetlands dominated by organic soils are scarce. We present a hierarchical approach to quantitatively investigate and interpret groundwater-surface water interaction in space and time by applying a combination of different field methods including piezometer nests, temperature and seepage measurements. The numerical 1-D heat transport model of STRIVE is used in transient mode to calculate vertical fluxes from thermal profiles measured along the upper Biebrza River, Poland over a period of nine months. The calculated fluxes show no clear spatial pattern of exchange fluxes unless an interpolation of the point estimates on a reach scale is performed. Significance of differences in net exchange rates versus morphological features are investigated with statistical tests. Time series of temperature and hydraulic head of the hyporheic zone are used to estimate the temporal variability of the groundwater-surface water exchange. Seepage meter measurements and slug tests were used for cross validation of modelled fluxes. Results show a strong heterogeneity of the thermal and physical soil properties along the reach, leading to a classification of these parameters for modelling purposes. The groundwater-surface water exchange shows predominantly upward water fluxes, however alternating sections of recharge exist. The exchange fluxes are significantly different dependent on the position of the river in the valley floor and the river morphology where fluxes are more dependent on hydraulic gradients than on river bed conductivity. Sections of higher fluxes are linked to the vicinity of the morainic plateau surrounding the rivers alluvium and to meanders, indicating that a perspective on the fluvio-plain scale is required for interpreting the estimated exchange fluxes. Since the vertical component of the exchange fluxes cannot explain the magnitude of the change in river discharge, a lateral flow

  2. Landscape pattern of seed banks and anthropogenic impacts in forested wetlands of the northern Mississippi River Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, B.; Wu, X.B.

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural development on floodplains contributes to hydrologic alteration and forest fragmentation, which may alter landscape-level processes. These changes may be related to shifts in the seed bank composition of floodplain wetlands. We examined the patterns of seed bank composition across a floodplain watershed by looking at the number of seeds germinating per m2 by species in 60 farmed and intact forested wetlands along the Cache River watershed in Illinois. The seed bank composition was compared above and below a water diversion (position), which artificially subdivides the watershed. Position of these wetlands represented the most variability of Axis I in a Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling (NMS) analysis of site environmental variables and their relationship to seed bank composition (coefficient of determination for Axis 1: r2 = 0.376; Pearson correlation of position to Axis 1: r = 0.223). The 3 primary axes were also represented by other site environmental variables, including farming status (farmed or unfarmed), distance from the mouth of the river, latitude, and longitude. Spatial analysis based on Mantel correlograms showed that both water-dispersed and wind/water-dispersed seed assemblages had strong spatial structure in the upper Cache (above the water diversion), bur the spatial structure of water-dispersed seed assemblage was diminished in the lower Cache (below the water diversion), which lost floodpulsing. Bearing analysis also Suggested that water-dispersal process had a stronger influence on the overall spatial pattern of seed assemblage in the upper Cache, while wind/water-dispersal process had a stronger influence in the lower Cache. An analysis of the landscapes along the river showed that the mid-lower Cache (below the water diversion) had undergone greater land cover changes associated with agriculture than did the upper Cache watershed. Thus, the combination of forest fragmentation and hydrologic changes in the surrounding landscape may

  3. Elements of an environmental decision support system for seasonal wetland salt management in a river basin subjected to water quality regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    2009-06-01

    Seasonally managed wetlands in the Grasslands Basin on the west-side of California's San Joaquin Valley provide food and shelter for migratory wildfowl during winter months and sport for waterfowl hunters during the annual duck season. Surface water supply to these wetlands contain salt which, when drained to the San Joaquin River during the annual drawdown period, can negatively impact water quality and cause concern to downstream agricultural riparian water diverters. Recent environmental regulation, limiting discharges salinity to the San Joaquin River and primarily targeting agricultural non-point sources, now also targets return flows from seasonally managed wetlands. Real-time water quality management has been advocated as a means of continuously matching salt loads discharged from agricultural, wetland and municipal operations to the assimilative capacity of the San Joaquin River. Past attempts to build environmental monitoring and decision support systems (EDSS's) to implement this concept have enjoyed limited success for reasons that are discussed in this paper. These reasons are discussed in the context of more general challenges facing the successful implementation of a comprehensive environmental monitoring, modelling and decision support system for the San Joaquin River Basin.

  4. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service 1996 annual report wetlands research related to the Pen Branch restoration effort on the Savannah River site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Kolka, R.K. [USDA Forest Service, Charleston, SC (United States); Trettin, C.C. [USDA Forest Service, Charleston, SC (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the role of the USDA Forest Service and their collaborators (SRTC, SREL, and several universities) in wetlands monitoring and research on the Savannah River Site. This report describes the rationales, methods, and results (when available) of these studies and summarizes and integrates the available information through 1996.

  5. Comparison of carbon sequestration ability and effect of elevation in fenced wetland communities of the Xilin River floodplains: a model case study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Wang, L.; Liu, H.; Wang, W.; Liang, C.; Yang, J.; Verhoeven, Jos

    2014-01-01

    Floodplain habitats of the Xilin River in Inner Mongolia, China, were overgrazed by sheep and cattle until fencing of the floodplains was implemented in 2000. Carbon cycling of three plant communities of differing floodplain elevation after fencing showed that biomass in low-elevation wetlands incre

  6. Water-quality modeling of Klamath Straits Drain recirculation, a Klamath River wetland, and 2011 conditions for the Link River to Keno Dam reach of the Klamath River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Sogutlugil, I. Ertugrul; Deas, Michael L.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2014-01-01

    The upper Klamath River and adjacent Lost River are interconnected basins in south-central Oregon and northern California. Both basins have impaired water quality with Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) in progress or approved. In cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Watercourse Engineering, Inc., have conducted modeling and research to inform management of these basins for multiple purposes, including agriculture, endangered species protection, wildlife refuges, and adjacent and downstream water users. A water-quality and hydrodynamic model (CE-QUAL-W2) of the Link River to Keno Dam reach of the Klamath River for 2006–09 is one of the tools used in this work. The model can simulate stage, flow, water velocity, ice cover, water temperature, specific conductance, suspended sediment, nutrients, organic matter in bed sediment and the water column, three algal groups, three macrophyte groups, dissolved oxygen, and pH. This report documents two model scenarios and a test of the existing model applied to year 2011, which had exceptional water quality. The first scenario examined the water-quality effects of recirculating Klamath Straits Drain flows into the Ady Canal, to conserve water and to decrease flows from the Klamath Straits Drain to the Klamath River. The second scenario explicitly incorporated a 2.73×106 m2 (675 acre) off-channel connected wetland into the CE-QUAL-W2 framework, with the wetland operating from May 1 through October 31. The wetland represented a managed treatment feature to decrease organic matter loads and process nutrients. Finally, the summer of 2011 showed substantially higher dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the Link-Keno reach than in other recent years, so the Link-Keno model (originally developed for 2006–09) was run with 2011 data as a test of model parameters and rates and to develop insights regarding the reasons for the improved water-quality conditions.

  7. Snohomish Estuary Wetlands Study. Volume IV. Delineation of Wetland Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    River FIG. 4 -G. 5 CARNATION [] Scale in Miles 0 5 1 FALL CITY SNOHOMISH ESTUARY WETLANDS STUDY 8AOUAH FIG. 6-/ 44 Isan A EVRT 12 1 land NO4Carnation on the Snoqualmie River (Tolt River confluence). I B. OBJECTIVES 8. The objectives of the overall Snohomish Estuary Wetlands

  8. Sport hunting decision document package : North Platte National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes limited hunting opportunities at North Platte NWR. Hunting activities will be permitted, but administratively limited to...

  9. Environmental Assessment : Hunting Plan : North Platte National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Environmental Assessment is to evaluate the feasibility of opening the North Platte National Wildlife Refuge to limited hunting on previously...

  10. [North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1980 calendar year. The report begins by describing...

  11. North Platte National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on North Platte NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and...

  12. Microcrustaceans (Branchiopoda and Copepoda) of Wetland Ponds and Impoundments on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrienne E. DeBiase; Barbara E. Taylor

    2005-09-21

    The United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, contains an abundance of freshwater wetlands and impoundments. Four large impoundments, as well as several small, abandoned farm and mill ponds, and about 400 Carolina bays and other small, isolated depression wetland ponds are located within the 893 km2 area of the SRS. Crustaceans of the orders Branchiopoda and Copepoda are nearly ubiquitous in these water bodies. Although small in size, these organisms are often very abundant. They consequently play an important trophic role in freshwater food webs supporting fish, larval salamanders, larval insects, and numerous other animals, aquatic and terrestrial. This report provides an introduction to the free-living microcrustaceans of lentic water bodies on the SRS and a comprehensive list of species known to occur there. Occurrence patterns are summarized from three extensive survey studies, supplemented with other published and unpublished records. In lieu of a key, we provide a guide to taxonomic resources and notes on undescribed species. Taxa covered include the orders Cladocera, Anostraca, Laevicaudata, and Spinicaudata of the Subclass Branchiopoda and the Superorders Calanoida and Cyclopoida of Subclass Copepoda. Microcrustaceans of the Superorder Harpacticoida of the Subclass Copepoda and Subclass Ostracoda are also often present in lentic water bodies. They are excluded from this report because they have not received much study at the species level on the SRS.

  13. Dynamics of arsenic in salt marsh sediments from Dongtan wetland of the Yangtze River estuary,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongjie Wang; Limin Zhou; Xiangmin Zheng; Peng Qian; Yonghong Wu

    2012-01-01

    The mobility and transformation of arsenic (As) in salt marsh sediments were investigated in Dongtan wetland of the Yangtze River estuary,China.As in surface water,pore water and the rhizosphere sediments were quantified.The microcosm incubation experiments were conducted during the flooding of the sediments to examine As dynamics that occurred during changing redox conditions.The concentrations of dissolved As in pore water (0.04-0.95 μmol/L) were significantly greater than that in surface water (0.03-0.06μmol/L).Under anoxic conditions,the reactive As could be initially mobilized by the reductive dissolution of Fe(Ⅲ) (hydr)oxides.Subsequently,most of the dissolved As was likely to be associated with secondary iron (hydr)oxide phases and remained in solid phases.The seasonal variability of acid volatile sulfide concentrations suggest the anoxic conditions are enhanced during summer by Spartina alterniflora compared to Phragmites australis and Scirpus mariqueter,causing a notable increase in As mobility.Generally,there was a typical variation in redox conditions with season in salt marsh sediments of Dongtan wetland,in which the dynamics of As mobility and transformation possibly were controlled by iron,and all of this could be significantly influenced by the rapid spread of S.alterniflora.

  14. On models for landscape connectivity:a case study of the new-born wetland of the Yellow River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The models for landscape connectivity are distinguished into models for line connectivity,vertex connectivity, network connectivity and patch connectivity separately. Because the models for line connectivity, for vertex connectivity, and for network connectivity have long been studied and have become ripe, the model for patch connectivity is paid special attention in this paper. The patch connectivity is defined as the average movement efficiency (minimizing movement distance) of animal migrants or plant propagules in patches of a region under consideration. According to this definition, a model for landscape connectivity is mathematically deduced to apply to GIS data. The application of model for patch connectivity in the new-bom wetland of the Yellow River Delta shows patch connectivity has a negative interrelation with human impact intensity and landscape diversity.

  15. Optimization of wetland restoration siting and zoning in flood retention areas of river basins in China: A case study in Mengwa, Huaihe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Song, Yuqin

    2014-11-01

    Wetland restoration in floodplains is an ecological solution that can address basin-wide flooding issues and minimize flooding and damages to riverine and downstream areas. High population densities, large economic outputs, and heavy reliance on water resources make flood retention and management pressing issues in China. To balance flood control and sustainable development economically, socially, and politically, flood retention areas have been established to increase watershed flood storage capacities and enhance the public welfare for the populace living in the areas. However, conflicts between flood storage functions and human habitation appear irreconcilable. We developed a site-specific methodology for identifying potential sites and functional zones for wetland restoration in a flood retention area in middle and eastern China, optimizing the spatial distribution and functional zones to maximize flood control and human and regional development. This methodology was applied to Mengwa, one of 21 flood retention areas in China's Huaihe River Basin, using nine scenarios that reflected different flood, climatic, and hydraulic conditions. The results demonstrated improved flood retention and ecological functions, as well as increased economic benefits.

  16. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Evaluating Wetland Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary using Hydroacoustic Telemetry Arrays to Estimate Movement, Survival, and Residence Times of Juvenile Salmonids, Volume XXII (22).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Russell W.; Skalski, John R.

    2008-08-01

    Wetlands in the Columbia River estuary are actively being restored by reconnecting these habitats to the estuary, making more wetland habitats available to rearing and migrating juvenile salmon. Concurrently, thousands of acoustically tagged juvenile salmonids are released into the Columbia River to estimate their survival as they migrate through the estuary. Here, we develop a release-recapture model that makes use of these tagged fish to measure the success of wetland restoration projects in terms of their contribution to populations of juvenile salmon. Specifically, our model estimates the fraction of the population that enter the wetland, survival within the wetland, and the mean residence time of fish within the wetland. Furthermore, survival in mainstem Columbia River downstream of the wetland can be compared between fish that remained the mainstem and entered the wetland. These conditional survival estimates provide a means of testing whether the wetland improves the subsequent survival of juvenile salmon by fostering growth or improving their condition. Implementing such a study requires little additional cost because it takes advantage of fish already released to estimate survival through the estuary. Thus, such a study extracts the maximum information at minimum cost from research projects that typically cost millions of dollars annually.

  17. Hydrologic and Water-Quality Conditions During Restoration of the Wood River Wetland, Upper Klamath River Basin, Oregon, 2003-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kurt D.; Snyder, Daniel T.; Duff, John H.; Triska, Frank J.; Lee, Karl K.; Avanzino, Ronald J.; Sobieszczyk, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Restoring previously drained wetlands is a strategy currently being used to improve water quality and decrease nutrient loading into Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. In this 2003-05 study, ground- and surface-water quality and hydrologic conditions were characterized in the Wood River Wetland. Nitrogen and phosphorus levels, primarily as dissolved organic nitrogen and ammonium (NH4) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), were high in surface waters. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations also were elevated in surface water, with median concentrations of 44 and 99 milligrams of carbon per liter (mg-C/L) in the North and South Units of the Wood River Wetland, respectively, reaching a maximum of 270 mg-C/L in the South Unit in late autumn. Artesian well water produced NH4 and SRP concentrations of about 6,000 micrograms per liter (ug/L), and concentrations of 36,500 ug-N/L NH4 and 4,110 ug-P/L SRP in one 26-28 ft deep piezometer well. Despite the high ammonium concentrations, the nitrate levels were moderate to low in wetland surface and ground waters. The surface-water concentrations of NH4 and SRP increased in spring and summer, outpacing those for chloride (a conservative tracer), indicative of evapoconcentration. In-situ chamber experiments conducted in June and August 2005 indicated a positive flux of NH4 and SRP from the wetland sediments. Potential sources of NH4 and SRP include diffusion of nutrients from decomposed peat, decomposing aquatic vegetation, or upwelling ground water. In addition to these inputs, evapoconcentration raised surface-water solute concentrations to exceedingly high values by the end of summer. The increase was most pronounced in the South Unit, where specific conductance reached 2,500 uS/cm and median concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus reached 18,000-36,500 ug-N/L and about 18,000-26,000 ug-P/L, respectively. Water-column SRP and total phosphorus levels decreased during autumn and winter following inputs of irrigation

  18. Faunal diversity of Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda in wetlands of Majuli (the largest river island, Assam, northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma, B. K.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Our collections from the wetlands of Majuli, the largest river island of the world and a unique fluvial landform of the Brahmaputra river basin of northeast India, reveal 55 Cladocera species belonging to 36 genera. These represent ~46.0% and ~79.0% of the freshwater species and genera of the taxon known from India, respectively. The Indo-Chinese Alona kotovi is new record from India and the Indo-Chinese Chydorus angustirostris is new to northeast India. The Australasian Disperalona caudata, the Indo-Chinese Alona cheni, and the Oriental Celsinotum macronyx and Kurzia (Rostrokurzia brevilabris are other biogeographically notable elements while several species are of regional interest. The speciose and diverse Cladocera reflect habitat diversity and environmental heterogeneity of the sampled ecosystems. The fauna records rich diversity of the littoral-periphytonic taxa in general and the Chydoridae in particular. Majuli Cladocera is characterized by lack of Leydigiopsis, Daphnia spp. and Acroperus harpae; fewer Diaphanosoma spp., and uncommon occurrence of the Bosminidae and Moinidae as compared with our samples elsewhere from the floodplains of the Brahmaputra basin.

  19. Conservation of wetlands of Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Bakobi, B.L.M.

    1993-01-01

    The major wetland systems of Tanzania are described together with specific functions,products and attributes of lakes, rivers, swamps, estuaries, mangroves and coastal areas. Reasons and priorities for the conservation of wetlands are given together with the existingproblems of wetland conservation and their solutions.

  20. 常熟市沿江湿地资源现状与保护利用研究%Study on the Current Situation and Protection and Utilization of Wetland Resources along Yangtze River in Changshu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爱权; 周美春

    2012-01-01

    Through field research and the interior analysis,we mainly surveyed plant and animal resources of the wetland along the Yangtze River in Changshu, and analyzed the distribution of wetland vegetation characteristics. It found that the wetland protection faced three main problems: reduced wetland area, increased pollution and damaged biodiversity. Combining with the development strategy of Changshu ecological city, suggestions for ecological conservation and sustainable utilization of wetland along the Yangtze River in Changshu were put forward,namely,strengthening wetland protection,implementing demonstration projects for wetland restoration,enhancing wetland monitoring and developing wetland eco -tourism.%通过野外调研和室内分析,主要调查了常熟市沿江湿地的植物、动物资源,分析了湿地植被特征分布.研究发现,湿地保护主要面临湿地面积减少、污染加剧、生物多样性受损3个方面的问题.结合常熟市生态城市发展战略,提出常熟市沿江湿地生态保护和可持续利用的建议:加强湿地保护力度,开展实施湿地保护和恢复示范工程,加强湿地动态监测,发展湿地生态旅游.

  1. In-stream PIT detection, estuary wetlands - Columbia River Estuary Tidal Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the tidal-fluvial estuary study is to determine the estuary's contribution to the spatial structure and life history diversity of Columbia River salmon...

  2. Hydrologic, vegetation, and soil data collected in selected wetlands of the Big River Management area, Rhode Island, from 2008 through 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, Meredith S.; Golet, Francis C.; Armstrong, David S.; Breault, Robert F.; McCobb, Timothy D.; Weiskel, Peter K.

    2012-01-01

    The Rhode Island Water Resources Board planned to develop public water-supply wells in the Big River Management Area in Kent County, Rhode Island. Research in the United States and abroad indicates that groundwater withdrawal has the potential to affect wetland hydrology and related processes. In May 2008, the Rhode Island Water Resources Board, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the University of Rhode Island formed a partnership to establish baseline conditions at selected Big River wetland study sites and to develop an approach for monitoring potential impacts once pumping begins. In 2008 and 2009, baseline data were collected on the hydrology, vegetation, and soil characteristics at five forested wetland study sites in the Big River Management Area. Four of the sites were located in areas of potential drawdown associated with the projected withdrawals. The fifth site was located outside the area of projected drawdown and served as a control site. The data collected during this study are presented in this report.

  3. Contribution of MODIS satellite imagery in modelling the flooding patterns of the coastal wetlands of the Tana River, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leauthaud, C.; Duvail, S.; Belaud, G.; Albergel, J.; Moussa, R.; Grunberger, O.

    2012-04-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, much of the arid and semi-arid lands are used by pastoralist groups as seasonal grazing zones. In such a context, wetlands are a vital resource as they act as retreat zones during the dry seasons when water and fodder resources are scarce. At a larger scale, wetlands also render numerous services including groundwater recharge, water quality improvement and climate regulation. As regular floods are the underlying factor determining the healthiness of wetland ecosystems, it is important to understand their dynamics for a better water resource management at the catchment scale in the context of increased water abstraction and hydroelectric infrastructure development. Yet, this is challenging in many places because of scarce or poor quality data and a often difficult access to the zone. In tropical or coastal areas, frequent cloud cover can also limit the use of remote sensing data. The MODIS instruments on board the Terra and Aqua satellites offer high temporal resolution images at a moderate spatial resolution in the visible and infrared spectrum. In particular the MOD09A1 and MYD09A1 500m, 8-day synthesis products select the best possible observation for each 8-day period thus decreasing poor quality pixels due to cloud cover in an image while retaining a high frequency coverage. Here we assess their potential use to monitor floods in the Tana River Delta (TRD), Kenya. In this study, all 8-day synthesis products from 2001 to 2011 were screened and selected for low cloud cover. The total flooded surface was then extracted from each image using the Normalized Difference Moisture Index (Xu, 2006) to obtain time-series inundation maps from 2002 onward. In a third step, the images were used, combined with river-flow data, to analyse the hydrological system of the area. The maximal extent, start and end inundation dates were determined for the major floods of the past decade. There were major differences in these characteristics for medium to large

  4. Method for estimating potential wetland extent by utilizing streamflow statistics and flood-inundation mapping techniques: Pilot study for land along the Wabash River near Terre Haute, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon H.; Ritz, Christian T.; Arvin, Donald V.

    2012-01-01

    Potential wetland extents were estimated for a 14-mile reach of the Wabash River near Terre Haute, Indiana. This pilot study was completed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). The study showed that potential wetland extents can be estimated by analyzing streamflow statistics with the available streamgage data, calculating the approximate water-surface elevation along the river, and generating maps by use of flood-inundation mapping techniques. Planning successful restorations for Wetland Reserve Program (WRP) easements requires a determination of areas that show evidence of being in a zone prone to sustained or frequent flooding. Zone determinations of this type are used by WRP planners to define the actively inundated area and make decisions on restoration-practice installation. According to WRP planning guidelines, a site needs to show evidence of being in an "inundation zone" that is prone to sustained or frequent flooding for a period of 7 consecutive days at least once every 2 years on average in order to meet the planning criteria for determining a wetland for a restoration in agricultural land. By calculating the annual highest 7-consecutive-day mean discharge with a 2-year recurrence interval (7MQ2) at a streamgage on the basis of available streamflow data, one can determine the water-surface elevation corresponding to the calculated flow that defines the estimated inundation zone along the river. By using the estimated water-surface elevation ("inundation elevation") along the river, an approximate extent of potential wetland for a restoration in agricultural land can be mapped. As part of the pilot study, a set of maps representing the estimated potential wetland extents was generated in a geographic information system (GIS) application by combining (1) a digital water-surface plane representing the surface of inundation elevation that sloped in the downstream

  5. Modeling inundation of seasonally flooded wetlands at McCarran Ranch on Truckee River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Chen, L.; Zhao, J.; Yu, Z.

    2014-05-01

    This paper among the first presents the application and validation of a hydrodynamic model (Adaptive Hydraulics model, AdH) of the McCarran ranch. We use the AdH model with topographic data by combining the DEM data from USGS seamless server and the ESRI tin data from United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to predict floodplain inundation for a river reach of ~10 km located at lower Truckee River in Nevada state. We tested the mesh independence, sensitivity of input parameters and time steps, and then compared the modeling results to the existing gauged data (both the discharge and water stage heights). Results show that the accuracy of prediction from AdH model can decline slightly at higher discharge and water levels. The modeling results are much sensitive to the roughness coefficient of main channel, suggesting the model calibration should give priority to the main channel roughness. The simulation results suggest that large flood events could lead to a significantly higher proportion of total flow that routed through the floodplains. During peak discharge, a river channel constriction diverted as much as 65% of the river's 512.3 m3s-1 discharge into the floodplain. During the overbank flow, the transboundary flux ratio is about 5-45% of the total river discharge. Results also showed that both the relation of inundation area and volume between the discharge exhibit an apparent looped curve form.

  6. SUGAR CANE GROWING AND CATTLE GRAZING AS DRIVERS TO WETLAND DEGRADATION IN UGANDA: A case of upper river Ruizi and Iguluibi catchments Lake Victoria basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakiyemba Were, Alice; Isabirye, Moses; Mathijs, Erik; Deckers, Jozef; Poesen, Jean

    2010-05-01

    Introduction: This study was conducted with in the framework of the VLIR-OI project with the aim of making contributions to the Diagnosis and Remediation of Land Degradation Processes in the Riparian Zone of Lake Victoria Uganda in view of reducing sediment pollution of the Lake Waters with a special focus on the upper river Ruiz and Iguluibi catchments. The study seeks to investigate Sugarcane growing and cattle grazing as drivers to wetland degradation in light of the current farming systems and practices and their contributions to land degradation and pollution of the Lake Victoria waters. Vegetation especially wetlands improves the resistance to erosion. The removal of riparian vegetation tends to accelerate surface erosion as a result of human activities. Increased erosion with in the catchments due to clearing of wetlands for sugarcane growing and cattle grazing has caused adverse increased sedimentation, degraded the water quality, and reduced the water productivity of the Lake Victoria Basin. Methods: We conducted a qualitative and quantitative study to investigate Sugarcane growing and cattle grazing as drivers to wetland degradation in Uganda in light of the current farming systems and practices and their socio-economic contributions to wetland degradation and pollution of the Lake Victoria waters. Focus group discussions, key informant interviews, semi structured interviews and observations were undertaken with the relevant stakeholders in the community. Results: Findings reveal that in Iguluibi catchment, sugarcane growing is now a major activity indicating land use change since the 1990s. Community members said when planting sugarcane all vegetations including all trees are cut leaving the land bare to allow the tractor to clear the land for cultivation. This has left the land bare without any natural vegetation with increased erosion hence eventually loss of soil fertility and increased sediment pollution to the Lake Victoria waters. As a result of

  7. Wetland shoreline recession in the Mississippi River Delta from petroleum oiling and cyclonic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangoonwala, Amina; Jones, Cathleen E.; Ramsey, Elijah

    2016-11-01

    We evaluate the relative impact of petroleum spill and storm surge on near-shore wetland loss by quantifying the lateral movement of coastal shores in upper Barataria Bay, Louisiana (USA), between June 2009 and October 2012, a study period that extends from the year prior to the Deepwater Horizon spill to 2.5 years following the spill. We document a distinctly different pattern of shoreline loss in the 2 years following the spill, both from that observed in the year prior to the spill, during which there was no major cyclonic storm, and from change related to Hurricane Isaac, which made landfall in August 2012. Shoreline erosion following oiling was far more spatially extensive and included loss in areas protected from wave-induced erosion. We conclude that petroleum exposure can substantially increase shoreline recession particularly in areas protected from storm-induced degradation and disproportionally alters small oil-exposed barrier islands relative to natural erosion.

  8. Wetland shoreline recession in the Mississippi River Delta from petroleum oiling and cyclonic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangoonwala, Amina; Jones, Cathleen E.; Ramsey III, Elijah W.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the relative impact of petroleum spill and storm surge on near-shore wetland loss by quantifying the lateral movement of coastal shores in upper Barataria Bay, Louisiana (USA), between June 2009 and October 2012, a study period that extends from the year prior to the Deepwater Horizon spill to 2.5 years following the spill. We document a distinctly different pattern of shoreline loss in the 2 years following the spill, both from that observed in the year prior to the spill, during which there was no major cyclonic storm, and from change related to Hurricane Isaac, which made landfall in August 2012. Shoreline erosion following oiling was far more spatially extensive and included loss in areas protected from wave-induced erosion. We conclude that petroleum exposure can substantially increase shoreline recession particularly in areas protected from storm-induced degradation and disproportionally alters small oil-exposed barrier islands relative to natural erosion.

  9. [Composition of n-alkanes in soils of the Yellow River Estuary Wetlands and their potential as organic matter source indicators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Peng; Yin, Hong-Zhen; Yao, Qing-Zhen; Chen, Hong-Tao; Liu, Yue-Liang

    2012-10-01

    Abstract: Surface soil samples from the Yellow River Estuary Wetlands were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC) and n-alkanes. Molecular indicators of n-alkanes were calculated and their potential as organic matter source indicators was discussed and compared among different sampling areas and times. C25-C33 n-alkanes with odd-to-even predominance were observed in most surface soils of the wetlands, suggesting the dominant contribution of terrestrial higher plants for the soil organic matter (SOM), and the ubiquitous presence of unresolved complex mixture indicated the presence of petroleum contamination. Total n-alkane concentrations in soils varied from 0.57 microg x g(-1) to 3.90 microg x g(-1), and distinct spatial and temporal differences were observed. In April 2009 (dry season), total n-alkane concentration was higher than that in June 2009 (during water-sediment regulation) with the maximum concentration observed at the core area of the wetlands, followed by the north side of the Yellow River after the last pontoon bridge, and the abandoned channel area of the Yellow River. The opposite trend of total n-alkane concentration was observed in June. The variation of total n-alkane concentration at two sampling time points were positively correlated with TOC and negatively correlated with sediment grain size, suggesting the influence of hydro-environment on the accumulation of soil organic matter. Molecular indicators of n-alkanes, such as average chain length (ACL), odd-even predominance (OEP), alkane index (AI), carbon preference index (CPI) and Terrigenous/ Aquatic Ratio (TAR) indicated that the maturity of organic matter in soils of the wetlands was low, and the dominant source of the SOM was terrestrial higher plants and mainly herbaceous plants. Compared with other indicators, TAR is better in reflecting the variation of hydro-environment.

  10. Biogeochemical constraints on the ecological rehabilitation of wetland vegetation in river floodplains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, L.P.M.; Loeb, R.; Antheunisse, A.M.; Miletto, M.; Lucassen, E.C.H.E.T.; Boxman, A.W.; Smolders, A.J.P.; Roelofs, J.

    2006-01-01

    The European policy for river management during peak discharge periods is currently changing from exclusion strategies (reinforcement of dykes) to allowing a more natural situation by creating more floodplain space to reduce water levels during peak discharges. In addition, water retention and water

  11. High levels of mercury in wetland resources from three river basins in Ghana: a concern for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbogbo, Francis; Otoo, Samuel D; Huago, Robert Quaye; Asomaning, Obed

    2017-02-01

    Crustaceans, mollusks, and fish are wetland resources that constitute an important source of protein and foreign exchange for the Ghanaian population, and many species of these are sold in the open market and restaurants, yet studies on their heavy metal contents are generally scarce. This paper evaluates the levels of mercury in five species of crustaceans, two species of mollusks, and ten species of fish inhabiting three river basins with different catchment activities in Ghana. These include the Ankobra Basin, characterized with mining and agriculture, Densu Basin, associated with urban waste discharges and agriculture, and Lower Volta River Basin, associated with agricultural activities. Mercury concentration was highest in Ankobra (2.5 ± 2.59 μg g(-1)) followed by Densu (1.75 ± 1.35 μg g(-1)) and Volta (0.74 ± 1.46 μg g(-1)). The mercury load of the organisms range from mercury was not detected, mercury loads of all the organisms were above the permissible limit of 0.5 mg kg(-1) established by Commission Regulation-EC (2006) for fishery products and muscle meat of fish. Weekly quantities of crustaceans and mollusks considered safe for consumption by adults ranged from 88 and 1000 g while that of the fishes were between 70 and 700 g (on a dry weight basis) depending on the species. It was clear that some caution needs to be exercised in the consumption of Ghana's fresh and brackish water fisheries.

  12. Performance of the constructed wetland system for the treatment of water from the corumbataí river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kleiber Pessoa Borges

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the constructed wetland system for the treatment of water from the Corumbataí river simulated on a laboratory scale. The parameters analyzed at different points of the system were ammonia, biochemical demand for oxygen (BDO, chemical demand for oxygen (CDO, chlorides, apparent color, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, magnesium (Mg, sodium (Na, potassium (K, silicon (Si, total phosphorous, total coliforms and Escherichia coli, total dissolved solids (TDS, turbidity, and macrophyte biomass. The results demonstrated that this alternative water treatment system was effective in removing the microorganisms (total coliforms and E. coli, among other parameters analyzed, for varying periods of the treatment, promoting notable improvement in the quality of the water treated from the Corumbataí River.Na intenção de reduzir nutrientes e microrganismos das águas de rio, foi estudado um processo alternativo de tratamento, como o sistema construído de áreas alagadas (CWs, em escala de laboratório. Os parâmetros analisados em diferentes pontos do sistema utilizado foram amônia, demanda bioquímica de oxigênio (DBO, demanda química de oxigênio (DQO, cloretos, cor aparente, condutividade, oxigênio dissolvido, magnesium (Mg, sodium (Na, potassium (K, silicium (Si, fósforo total, coliformes totais e Escherichia coli, sólidos totais dissolvidos (TDS, turbidez e biomassa da macrófita. Os resultados demonstraram que este sistema alternativo de tratamento de água do rio Corumbataí foi eficiente na remoção dos microrganismos: coliformes totais e Escherichia coli dentre outros parâmetros analisados, em diferentes tempos de tratamento, promovendo melhoria acentuada na qualidade da água tratada.

  13. Wetland hydrology and tree distribution of the Apalachicola River flood plain, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitman, Helen M.; Sohm, James E.; Franklin, Marvin A.

    1984-01-01

    The Apalachicola River in northwest Florida is part of a three-State drainage basin encompassing 50,800 km 2 in Alabama, Georgia, and Florida. The river is formed by the confluence of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers at Jim Woodruff Dam from which it flows 171 km to Apalachicola Bay in the Gulf of Mexico. Its average annual discharge at Chattahoochee, Fla., is 690 m3/s (1958-80) with annual high flows averaging nearly 3,000 m3/s. Its flood plain supports 450 km 2 of bottom-land hardwood and tupelo-cypress forests. The Apalachicola River Quality Assessment focuses on the hydrology and productivity of the flood-plain forest. The purpose of this part of the assessment is to address river and flood-plain hydrology, flood-plain tree species and forest types, and water and tree relations. Seasonal stage fluctuations in the upper river are three times greater than in the lower river. Analysis of long-term streamflow record revealed that 1958-79 average annual and monthly flows and flow durations were significantly greater than those of 1929-57, probably because of climatic changes. However, stage durations for the later period were equal to or less than those of the earlier period. Height of natural riverbank levees and the size and distribution of breaks in the levees have a major controlling effect on flood-plain hydrology. Thirty-two kilometers upstream of the bay, a flood-plain stream called the Brothers River was commonly under tidal influence during times of low flow in the 1980 water year. At the same distance upstream of the bay, the Apalachicola River was not under tidal influence during the 1980 water year. Of the 47 species of trees sampled, the five most common were wet-site species constituting 62 percent of the total basal area. In order of abundance, they were water tupelo, Ogeechee tupelo, baldcypress, Carolina ash, and swamp tupelo. Other common species were sweetgum, overcup oak, planertree, green ash, water hickory, sugarberry, and diamond-leaf oak

  14. [Effect of human disturbance on ecological stoichiometry characteristics of soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in Minjiang River estuarine wetland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Qi; Zeng, Cong-Sheng; Zhong, Chun-Qi; Tong, Chuan

    2010-10-01

    To clarify responses of soil ecological stoichiometry in wetland to human disturbance, the ecological stoichiometry characteristics of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus elements of soil in Phragmites australis marsh, grassland, flat breed aquatics, cropland, pond aquaculture after human disturbance and abandoned cropland after human disturbance restoration in Minjiang River estuary were analyzed. The results showed: averaged values of C/N, C/P, N/P ratios were declined as the human disturbance increment, which appeared that Phragmites australis marsh, grassland (lower human disturbance, 25.53, 156.06, 6.11 and 27.58, 158.99, 5.78) were bigger than flat breed aquatics (medium human disturbance, 25.02, 96.90, 3.87), and flat breed aquatics (medium human disturbance) were bigger than cropland, pond aquaculture (higher human disturbance, 17.55, 46.19, 2.65 and 22.30, 57.51, 2.62). Compared with cropland, C/N, C/P, N/P ratios in abandoned cropland (human disturbance restoration) were (19.95, 63.81, 3.18) higher. The influencing factors were changed with the human disturbance intensity. Soil C/N ratios showed relatively small variation between different human disturbance and soil depth, while C/P and N/P ratios showed a high heterogeneity. The ratio of carbon to nutrition had preferable indication for carbon storage.

  15. Effect of artificial aeration on the performance of vertical-flow constructed wetland treating heavily polluted river water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiyu Dong; Zhimin Qiang; Tinggang Li; Hui Jin; Weidong Chen

    2012-01-01

    Three lab-scale vertical-flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs),including the non-aerated (NA),intermittently aerated (IA) and continuously aerated (CA) ones,were operated at different hydraulic loading rates (HLRs) to evaluate the effect of artificial aeration on the treatment efficiency of heavily polluted river water.Results indicated that artificial aeration increased the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in IA and CA,which significantly favored the removal of organic matter and NH4+-N.The DO grads caused by intermittent aeration formed aerobic and anoxic regions in IA and thus promoted the removal of total nitrogen (TN).Although the removal efficiencies of CODcr,NH4+-N and TN in the three VFCWs all decreased with an increase in HLR,artificial aeration enhanced the reactor resistance to the fluctuation of pollutant loadings.The maximal removal efficiencies of CODcr,NH4+-N and total phosphorus (TP) (i.e.,81%,87% and 37%,respectively) were observed in CA at 19 cm/day HLR,while the maximal TN removal (i.e.,57%) was achieved in IA.Although the improvement of artificial aeration on TP removal was limited,this study has demonstrated the feasibility of applying artificial aeration to VFCWs treating polluted eiver water,particularly at a high HLR.

  16. Headwaters, Wetlands, and Wildfires: Utilizing Landsat imagery, GIS, and Statistical Models for Mapping Wetlands in Northern Colorado's Cache la Poudre Watershed in the aftermath of the June 2012 High Park Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chignell, S.; Skach, S.; Kessenich, B.; Weimer, A.; Luizza, M.; Birtwistle, A.; Evangelista, P.; Laituri, M.; Young, N.

    2013-12-01

    The June 2012 High Park Fire burned over 87,000 acres of forest and 259 homes to the west of Fort Collins, CO. The fire has had dramatic impacts on forest ecosystems; of particular concern are its effects on the Cache la Poudre watershed, as the Poudre River is one of the most important headwaters of the Colorado Front Range, providing important ecosystem and economic services before flowing into the South Platte, which in turn flows into the Missouri River. Within a week of the fire, the area received several days of torrential rains. This precipitation--in conjunction with steep riverbanks and the loss of vegetation by fire--caused soil and ash runoff to be deposited into the Poudre's channel, resulting in a river of choking mud and black sludge. Monitoring the effects of such wildfires is critical and requires establishing immediate baseline data to assess impacts over time. Of particular concern is the region's wetlands, which not only provide habitat for a rich array of flora and fauna, but help regulate river discharge, improve water quality, and aid in carbon sequestration. However, the high expense of field work and the changing nature of wetlands have left many of the area's wetland maps incomplete and in need of updating. Utilizing Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 imagery, ancillary GIS layers, and boosted regression trees modeling, the NASA DEVELOP team based at the North Central Climate Science Center at Colorado State University developed a methodology for wetland modeling within the Cache la Poudre watershed. These efforts produced a preliminary model of predicted wetlands across the landscape that correctly classified 89% of the withheld validation points and had a kappa value of approximately 0.78. This initial model is currently being refined and validated using the USGS Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling (SAHM) to run multiple models within three elevation-based 'life zones.' The ultimate goal of this ongoing project is to provide important spatial

  17. Jining Sihe River Birds' Wetland Park landscape ecological design%济宁泗河爱鸟湿地公园景观生态设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕桂菊

    2016-01-01

    Wetland is the most favorable habitat for birds and an important ecological system,which has irreplaceable function. This paper takes Jining Sihe River Wetland Park as an example,combined with the characteristics of birds,living habits,with the birds in the wetland ecology and peopleˊs tourism demand as the basis for integration,with building green ecological space birds habitats and is suitable for people of leisure and recreation as the goal,and wetland ecological design concept as the core,by using diversified ecological design concept,the wetland is divided into wetland bird viewing area,living area,ecological demonstration and experience area,characteristic agriculture experience area and recreational service area of five functional areas,and the balanced development among birds, bird protection and ecological system of the new design to better coordinate the wetland and birds and the tourism and leisure in the park,and to create a harmonious coexistence of humans and birds in wetland landscape.%湿地是鸟类最优越的繁衍栖息地,也是重要的生态系统,具有不可替代的综合功能.文章以济宁泗河湿地公园设计为例,结合鸟类特点、生活习性,以湿地鸟类生态与人们的旅游需求整合为基点,营建适宜鸟类栖息生境和适宜人们休闲游憩的绿色生态空间为目标,在以湿地生态设计理念为核心的前提下,运用多元化生态设计理念,将湿地划分为湿地观赏区、鸟类生活区、生态展示和体验区、特色农业体验区和游憩服务区五大功能分区,并在公园中做了引鸟、护鸟的创新性设计,以更好地协调湿地及鸟类的生态系统和承载的旅游休闲之间的均衡发展,创造人、鸟和谐共处的湿地景观.

  18. Retention of contaminants in constructed and semi-natural wetland soils in urban river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinski, Kira; Gröngröft, Alexander; Eschenbach, Annette

    2017-04-01

    The retention of floods is one of the most relevant ecosystem function of urban floodplains, which is often improved by the construction of retention ponds and other water management measures. Retention ponds are connected to the river in a direct or a parallel arrangement and can be constructed as dry or wet retention pond under normal run-off conditions. Further important ecosystem functions provided by the floodplains soils are carbon sequestration, nutrient and contaminant regulation and recreation. However, with ongoing urbanization these ecosystem functions are significantly endangered. In our study we analyze the soil-based ecosystem functions of two river catchments in the City of Hamburg. The presentation will focus on the retention of contaminants in soils and sediments of eleven retention ponds within one catchment. The amount and concentrations of contaminants will be analyzed for controlling factors like grain size distribution, land-use within the headwaters and others.

  19. Influences of plant type on bacterial and archaeal communities in constructed wetland treating polluted river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yan; Yi, Hao; Chen, Sili; Zhang, Zhengke; Cui, Kai; Bing, Yongxin; Zhuo, Qiongfang; Li, Bingxin; Xie, Shuguang; Guo, Qingwei

    2016-10-01

    Both bacteria and archaeal communities can play important roles in biogeochemical processes in constructed wetland (CW) system. However, the influence of plant type on microbial community in surface water CW remains unclear. The present study investigated bacterial and archaeal communities in five surface water CW systems with different plant species. The abundance, richness, and diversity of both bacterial and archaeal communities considerably differed in these five CW systems. Compared with the other three CW systems, the CW systems planted with Vetiveria zizanioides or Juncus effusus L. showed much higher bacterial abundance but lower archaeal abundance. Bacteria outnumbered archaea in each CW system. Moreover, the CW systems planted with V. zizanioides or J. effusus L. had relatively lower archaeal but higher bacterial richness and diversity. In each CW system, bacterial community displayed much higher richness and diversity than archaeal community. In addition, a remarkable difference of both bacterial and archaeal community structures was observed in the five studied CW systems. Proteobacteria was the most abundant bacterial group (accounting for 33-60 %). Thaumarchaeota organisms (57 %) predominated in archaeal communities in CW systems planted with V. zizanioides or J. effusus L., while Woesearchaeota (23 or 24 %) and Euryarchaeota (23 or 15 %) were the major archaeal groups in CW systems planted with Cyperus papyrus or Canna indica L. Archaeal community in CW planted with Typha orientalis Presl was mainly composed of unclassified archaea. Therefore, plant type exerted a considerable influence on microbial community in surface water CW system.

  20. Risk assessment of agriculture impact on the Frío River watershed and Caño Negro Ramsar wetland, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, María-Luisa; Echeverría-Sáenz, Silvia; Mena, Freylan; Arias-Andrés, María; de la Cruz, Elba; Ruepert, Clemens

    2017-01-10

    The Caño Negro Ramsar wetland is a conservation area of great natural and societal value, located in the lower part of the Frío River watershed in the north of Costa Rica. Its aquatic ecosystems may be considered vulnerable to pollution due to recent changes in land use toward agriculture. In 2011 and 2012, quarterly sampling was done at ten sites located in the middle and lower sections of the Frío River Basin that pass through crop areas and later drain into Caño Negro wetland. Pesticide residues, nitrates, sediment concentrations, and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates and fish biomarkers were studied in the selected sites. Additionally, risk of toxicity was calculated in two different ways: (1) by using a ratio of MEC to hazard concentrations threshold for 5% of species (HC5) to calculate a risk quotient (RQ), and (2) by using a ratio of MEC to available ecotoxicity data of native fish and cladocera for diazinon and ethoprophos, to obtain a risk quotient for native species (RQns). Results indicated that three out of the ten sites (rivers Thiales, Mónico, and Sabogal) showed variable levels of pollution including six different active ingredients (a.i.) of pesticide formulations (herbicides ametryn, bromacil, and diuron; insecticides cypermethrin, diazinon, and ethoprophos). Moreover, potential adverse effects on fishes in Thiales and Mónico rivers were indicated by cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition and glutathione S-transferase (GST) enhancement. Risk evaluations indicated pesticide residues of ametryn, bromacil, and ethoprophos to be exceeding the limits set by MTR, also RQ was high (>1) in 70% of the positive samples for diuron (most frequently found pesticide in water samples), cypermethrin, diazinon, and ethoprophos, and RQns was high for diazinon. Therefore, these substances might be of major concern for the ecological health of aquatic ecosystems in the middle basin of the Frío River. The most critical site was Mónico River, which had the

  1. Analyzing trophic transfer of heavy metals for food webs in the newly-formed wetlands of the Yellow River Delta, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Baoshan, E-mail: cuibs@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang Qijun [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang Kejiang [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Liu Xinhui; Zhang Honggang [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Nine heavy metals sampled from water, sediments, and aquatic organisms in the newly-formed wetlands of the Yellow River Delta (YRD) of China were analyzed to evaluate their concentrations and trophic transfer in food webs. The stable carbon ({delta}{sup 13}C) and nitrogen ({delta}{sup 15}N) isotopes were used to investigate trophic interactions. Results show that most of heavy metals detected in water and sediments are lower than that in Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta. The longest food web is approximately 4 with the highest trophic level of birds. The difference of heavy metal concentrations between endangered Saunders's Gull and other three kinds of protected birds is not obvious. Cd, Zn, and Hg were identified to have an increase with the trophic level (TL), while As, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb show an opposite trend, however, the biomagnification of the selected nine heavy metals in the food webs is not significant. - Highlights: > Heavy metal content in newly-formed wetlands is lower than that in similar regions. > There is a trophic level-dependent accumulation of heavy metals in food webs. > The longest food web is approximately 4 with the highest trophic level of birds. > Cd, Zn, and Hg were identified to increase with the trophic level. > The difference of metal content between Saunders's Gull and other birds isn't obvious. - The newly-formed wetlands show slight heavy metal contamination and weak biomagnification through the food webs in the Yellow River Delta.

  2. Simulating the Effects of Sea Level Rise on the Resilience and Migration of Tidal Wetlands along the Hudson River

    OpenAIRE

    Tabak, Nava M.; Magdeline Laba; Sacha Spector

    2016-01-01

    Sea Level Rise (SLR) caused by climate change is impacting coastal wetlands around the globe. Due to their distinctive biophysical characteristics and unique plant communities, freshwater tidal wetlands are expected to exhibit a different response to SLR as compared with the better studied salt marshes. In this study we employed the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM), which simulates regional- or local-scale changes in tidal wetland habitats in response to SLR, and adapted it for appli...

  3. 城市河流截污与人工湿地净化实例%Case Study of Urban River Sewage Interception and Constructed Wetland Purification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永森

    2015-01-01

    The methods of sewage interception and constructed-wetland purification were combined and applied to enhance the water quality in the urban river under study which was contaminated by point ∕non-point sources from up-stream villages, towns and farmlands .In the sewage interception section , the interception zoning was applied and auxiliary facilities designed , based on the topographical condition and development sequences .In the wetland purification section , the multi-level subsurface flow wetland and cascade surface flow wetland were applied according to the topographical condition .Proper plants were chosen to ensure normal function and metabolism of the constructed wetland .The designed sewage interception capacity was 1.02 ×104 m3∕d, wetland purification capacity was 3.5 ×104 m3∕d and the surface area of the wetland is 45 hm2 .With the comprehensive effect of interception facilities and constructed wetland , the goal of water quality purification can be reached , meeting the standard requirement of urban river landscape .Also, it can build good water landscape in urban area and improve the eco-environment by giving full play of ecological service functions of the river and wetland .%针对受上游村庄、城镇、农田等点源、面源污染的城市河道,采用截污与人工湿地净化协同的处理方法改善水质。其中,截污环节根据地形与开发时序,合理设置截污区域,设计了配套所需的截污设施;人工湿地净化环节合理利用自然地形,采用多级潜流人工湿地与阶梯多级表面流人工湿地复合的湿地水净化系统,并选取合适的湿地植物,保障人工湿地正常代谢。设计截污能力为1.02×104 m3∕d,人工湿地处理能力为3.5×104 m3∕d,人工湿地面积为45 hm2。经过截污与人工湿地净化协同作用,可基本实现水质净化目标,使其水质达到GB 3838—2002的Ⅳ类标准,不仅有效保障处理水质,更可营造

  4. Radiological bioconcentration factors for aquatic, terrestrial, and wetland ecosystems at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, C.L.

    1994-09-01

    As a result of operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS), over 50 radionuclides have been released to the atmosphere and to onsite streams and seepage basins. Now, many of these radionuclides are available to aquatic and/or terrestrial organisms for uptake and cycling through the food chain. Knowledge about the uptake and cycling of these radionuclides is now crucial in evaluating waste management and clean-up alternatives for the site. Numerous studies have been conducted at the SRS over the past forty years to study the uptake and distribution of radionuclides in the Savannah River Site environment. In many instances, bioconcentration factors have been calculated to quantify the uptake of a radionuclide by an organism from the surrounding medium (i.e., soil or water). In the past, it has been common practice to use bioconcentration factors from the literature because site-specific data were not readily available. However, because of the variability of bioconcentration factors due to experimental or environmental conditions, site-specific data should be used when available. This report compiles and summarizes site-specific bioconcentration factors for selected radionuclides released at the Savannah River Site (SRS). An extensive literature search yielded site-specific bioconcentration factors for cesium, strontium, cobalt, plutonium, americium, curium, and tritium. These eight radionuclides have been the primary radionuclides studied at SRS because of their long half lives or because they are major contributors to radiological dose from exposure. For most radionuclides, it was determined that the site-specific bioconcentration factors were higher than those reported in literature. This report also summarizes some conditions that affect radionuclide bioavailability to and bioconcentration by aquatic and terrestrial organisms.

  5. Radiological bioconcentration factors for aquatic, terrestrial, and wetland ecosystems at the Savannah River site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friday, G.P.; Cummins, C.L.; Schwartzman, A.L.

    1996-12-31

    Since the early 1950s, the Savannah River Site (SRS) released over 50 radionuclides into the environment while producing nuclear defense materials. These releases directly exposed aquatic and terrestrial biota to ionizing radiation from surface water, soil, and sediment, and also indirectly by the ingestion of items in the food chain. As part of new missions to develop waste management strategies and identify cost-effective environmental restoration options, knowledge concerning the uptake and distribution of these radionuclides is essential. This report compiles and summarizes site-specific bioconcentration factors for selected radionuclides released at SRS.

  6. The Practice of Water Purification and Landscape Construction in Wu River Wetland%武河湿地水质净化及景观营造的实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党东雨

    2012-01-01

    This article mainly discusses the concrete project practice of water purification and landscape construction in Wu River Wetland. According to actual conditions of the wetland, cofferdam, dam, sluice and overflow weir of the water conservancy projects are taken to the upstream two river coming water for distribution configuration, making the river flow through the uniform ecological wetland. In wetland areas, all kinds of aquatic plants are scientific configured to achieve the purpose of purifying water quality by using aquatic plants. On the whole the planning and design of the wetland is made with gardening art skills, based on ecological water purification function, to greatly enhance the landscape quality of Wu river wetland, to achieve the unifying of the wetland ecological restoration and landscape construction and to improve the ecological environment of the wetland.%主要论述了武河湿地进行水质净化及景观营造的实践.该项目根据武河湿地场地实际状况,通过围堰、挡水坝、节制闸和溢流堰等各项水利工程对上游2条河水进行重新配水,使河水均匀流经各湿地生态区.在湿地生态区内,科学配置各种水生植物,达到利用水生植物净化水质的目的.对整个湿地的规划设计采用造园艺术手法,在满足水质净化功能的基础上,提高武河湿地的景观效果,达到湿地生态修复与景观营造的统一,改善湿地的生态环境.

  7. The liaohe river downstream wetland vegetation protection and research%辽河下游湿地植被的保护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬梅; 陈胜利

    2015-01-01

    辽河下游湿地是我国的重要湿地之一,通过对湿地植物芦苇进行室内、室外实验区的实验研究,总结出芦苇生长所需的最佳环境及水分含盐度. 提出在芦苇生长管理中,应根据芦苇需水规律,实行灌排结合的技术措施,既保证芦苇对水分的需求,又能够合理调节土壤通气状况,增加土壤通透性,促进土壤养分有效分解释放及芦苇根系发育和芦苇的生长,使湿地植物芦苇有一个良好的生长环境.%Liaohe River downstream wetlands is one of the important wetlands in our country, there is the world's largest coastal reed swamp wetland, this paper is based on the reed wetland plants for indoor and outdoor experimental area of experimental research, summed up the reeds grow the best environment and water salinity. Put forward in the reed growth management, should according to the laws of the reed water requirement, the irrigation and drainage combined with technical measures, which guarantee the reed demand for water, and can properly regulate soil aeration condition and increase soil permeability and promote soil nutrient release effective decomposition, promote the growth of reed root development and reed, the reed wetland plants have a good growth environment.

  8. Magnetic resonance sounding survey data collected in the North Platte, Twin Platte, and South Platte Natural Resource Districts, Western Nebraska, Fall 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Mason A.; Bloss, Benjamin R.; Irons, Trevor P.; Cannia, James C.; Abraham, Jared D.

    2014-01-01

    This report is a release of digital data and associated survey descriptions from a series of magnetic resonance soundings (MRS, also known as surface nuclear magnetic resonance) that was conducted during October and November of 2012 in areas of western Nebraska as part of a cooperative hydrologic study by the North Platte Natural Resource District (NRD), South Platte NRD, Twin Platte NRD, the Nebraska Environmental Trust, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The objective of the study was to delineate the base-of-aquifer and refine the understanding of the hydrologic properties in the aquifer system. The MRS technique non-invasively measures water content in the subsurface, which makes it a useful tool for hydrologic investigations in the near surface (up to depths of approximately 150 meters). In total, 14 MRS production-level soundings were acquired by the USGS over an area of approximately 10,600 square kilometers. The data are presented here in digital format, along with acquisition information, survey and site descriptions, and metadata.

  9. 河南沿黄湿地景观格局及其动态%Impacts of human activity and natural change on the wetland landscape pattern along the Yellow River in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁国付; 丁圣彦

    2004-01-01

    By using GIS and remote sensing techniques, the paper discusses how human activities have changed along the Yellow River in Henan province, China and how these altered activities have influenced the wetland landscape pattern change from 1987 to 2002. Results show that the total area of the wetland reduces dramatically compared to 1987, the total area of wetland reduces by 19.18%, the number of the patches in 2002 increases by 21.17%, the density increases by 50%, and the total perimeter increases by 1,290,491 m. Disturbed by human activities, landscape diversity index decreases from 1.1740 in 1987 to 0.9803 in 2002. During the last 20 years, the total area of the rice wetland increases, while the others decrease. Among those, the area of the bulrush wetland decreases most. In 1987, it takes 0.5% of the total area, but in 2002, it only takes 0.11%. The interpenetration of human influences on the wetland natural system has been long and close. The impacts of human activities on the spatial pattern of the wetland landscape along the Yellow River in Henan from 1987 to 2002 are great.

  10. Effects of groundwater levels and headwater wetlands on streamflow in the Charlie Creek basin, Peace River watershed, west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T.M.; Sacks, L.A.; Hughes, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    The Charlie Creek basin was studied from April 2004 to December 2005 to better understand how groundwater levels in the underlying aquifers and storage and overflow of water from headwater wetlands preserve the streamflows exiting this least-developed tributary basin of the Peace River watershed. The hydrogeologic framework, physical characteristics, and streamflow were described and quantified for five subbasins of the 330-square mile Charlie Creek basin, allowing the contribution of its headwaters area and tributary subbasins to be separately quantified. A MIKE SHE model simulation of the integrated surface-water and groundwater flow processes in the basin was used to simulate daily streamflow observed over 21 months in 2004 and 2005 at five streamflow stations, and to quantify the monthly and annual water budgets for the five subbasins including the changing amount of water stored in wetlands. Groundwater heads were mapped in Zone 2 of the intermediate aquifer system and in the Upper Floridan aquifer, and were used to interpret the location of artesian head conditions in the Charlie Creek basin and its relation to streamflow. Artesian conditions in the intermediate aquifer system induce upward groundwater flow into the surficial aquifer and help sustain base flow which supplies about two-thirds of the streamflow from the Charlie Creek basin. Seepage measurements confirmed seepage inflow to Charlie Creek during the study period. The upper half of the basin, comprised largely of the Upper Charlie Creek subbasin, has lower runoff potential than the lower basin, more storage of runoff in wetlands, and periodically generates no streamflow. Artesian head conditions in the intermediate aquifer system were widespread in the upper half of the Charlie Creek basin, preventing downward leakage from expansive areas of wetlands and enabling them to act as headwaters to Charlie Creek once their storage requirements were met. Currently, the dynamic balance between wetland

  11. A constructed treatment wetland for pulp and paper mill wastewater: performance, processes and implications for the Nzoia River, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abira, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The doctoral research study conducted in Kenya gives the first insight into the performance of a constructed treatment wetland receiving pulp and paper mill wastewater in the tropics. The wetland effectively removed organic matter, suspended solids, phenols and nutrients. BOD and phenols reduction

  12. Investigation of the Heavy Metal Contamination of the Sedi¬Ments from the Yellow River Wetland Nature Reserve of Zhengzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Zhao

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heavy metal pollution in the sediment of the Yellow River draws wide attention in the recent years. The Yellow River Wetland Nature Reserve of Zhengzhou is one of the major wetlands of the river and located at the beginning of the lower reach. In this article, we aimed to investigate the degree and the sources of the metal pollution in the reserve.Methods: Metals as Cu, Pb, Cr, Cd and Mn in the sediment were monitored using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The index of geo-accumulation (Igeo and the modified degree of contamination (mCd were developed to evaluate individual metal pollution and overall enrichment impact of the elements.Results: Compared with sediment quality guidelines, the effect of Cr and Pb are more serious than others. Igeo values show Pb pollution are moderate at the Xinzhai, Langchenggang and Nansutan sites, and mCd analysis indicate the whole contamination at the Wantan, Langchenggang and Nansutan sites was low. Principal component analysis indicated that the first factor was Cu, Mn and Cd, mainly from soil erosion and the irrational use of phosphate fertilizers; the second Pb from fossil fuel burning; and the third Cr from weathering process. Conclusion: We conclude that Pb contamination is serious in the reserve, and the main sources of the metal are crude oil consumption and coal combustion of the brick kilns around. We also draw a conclusion that it is vital to evaluate contamination degree with both individual elements and overall average.

  13. 黑河流域山丹马营河湿地保护与建设现状探析%Current Status of Wetland Protection and Develoment for Maying River in Shandan County of the Heihe River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉琴; 张文

    2012-01-01

    Based on achievements and current situation of wetland resources, protection and development in Maying River basin, problems and contradictions in wetland protection and development were identified. Strategies for science-based protection and sustainable development of the wetland were proposed to carry out area and function based protection, pollution control, rational use of wetland resources, and development of monitoring system.%从马营河流域湿地资源概况、保护与建设的成效及现状出发,分析了保护与建设中存在的问题和矛盾,从实施分区分类保护、控制污染、合理利用湿地资源、建立科研监测体系等方面,提出了马营河流域湿地实施科学保护和可持续发展的对策和建议.

  14. Ice Jam Flooding and Mitigation: Lower Platte River Basin, Nebraska,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Section B [] FREEZEUP Border ice: Growth from shore ft ___ % of channel remaining open Moving ice: Types Li Frazil slush Li Frazil pans (Check all...ice: _ AM/PM mm/dd/yy Post movement: Height of shear walls along bank: ft [] ICE JAMS Cause (check one): L] Freezeup Li Breakup Condition at ice jam...direction). Comments on any aspect of ice quantity, quality, freezeup , breakup, jamming, weather, etc.: CONTACT #1: CONTACT #2: CONTACT #3: (Local

  15. [Seasonal dynamics of nitrogen- and phosphorus absorption efficiency of wetland plants in Minjiang River estuary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Long; Zeng, Cong-Sheng; Zhang, Lin-Hai; Wang, Wei-Qi; Lin, Yan; Ai, Jin-Quan

    2009-06-01

    Taking the native Phragmites australis and invasive Spartina alterniflora in Minjiang River estuary as test objectives, this paper studied the seasonal dynamics of their biomass and nitrogen- and phosphorus absorption efficiency. A typical single-peak curve was presented for the seasonal dynamics of aboveground biomass and nitrogen- and phosphorus absorption efficiency of the two species. P. australis had the maximum aboveground biomass (2195.33 g X m(-2)) in summer, while S. alterniflora had it (3670.02 g X m(-2)) in autumn. The total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) contents of P. australis reached the peak (21.06 g x m(-2) of TN and 1.12 g x m(-2) of TP) in summer and in autumn, respectively, while those of S. alterniflora all reached the peak (26.76 g x m(-2) of TN and 3.23 g x m(-2) of TP) in autumn. Both of the two species had a higher absorption efficiency in TN than in TP (P absorption efficiency of TN and TP than P. australis (P nitrogen- and phosphorus absorption efficiency of the plants.

  16. The Wetland Resources Status and Conservation Strategy of the Yangtze River Basin%长江流域湿地资源现状及其保护对策探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张阳武

    2015-01-01

    根据第二次全国湿地资源调查成果,分析了长江流域上游、中游和下游的湿地资源及其湿地保护现状,重点论述了长江流域内国际重要湿地和国家重要湿地的分布数量、湿地面积、保护形式等情况,同时通过对流域内423个重要湿地受威胁状况及其影响面积的调查分析,总结了长江流域湿地面临的主要威胁,探讨了长江流域湿地保护对策,旨在为长江流域湿地保护与综合治理策略研究将提供参考。%According to the field survey data of the second national wetlands inventory project,this study analyzed the wetland resources and conservation status of the Yangtze River basin,including upstream, midstream and downstream.The information of wetlands of international and national importance in this region,e.g.,number,distribution,area,forms of conservation,etc.,was introduced.Meanwhile,the major threats to the wetlands in Yangtze River basin were revealed by investigating the threatened status and im-pacted area of 423 important wetlands within the river basin.And the wetland protection countermeasures were discussed.The results will provide basic data and related information for wetland protection and com-prehensive management strategiess and tudy in the Yangtze River basin.

  17. 三峡库区东溪河湿地保育区建设的生态学途径%An Ecological Way to Construct Wetland Conservation District of Dongxihe River in Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐静波; 刘红; 袁兴中

    2011-01-01

    Wetland park is an important part of the wetland protection system in National level. Huanghua Island of Three Gorges reservoir was approved as national wetland park pilot by National Forestry Bureaus in 2009 and Dongxihe River is one of its three functional areas. After flooding to 173 m height in 2008, a wide area of new wetland with typical habitats and rich species emerged in waterlevel-fluctuation zone of Dongxihe River in Zhongxian County, Chongqing municipality. And waterfowl are rich in species and quantity in winter of this region which has become the concentrated area of wetland biodiversity in Three Gorges reservoir. From ecological view,the goals and functional location of wetland conservation district in Dongxihe River was discussed, and the function of this area should be based on wetland conservation, then put forward to a series of measures to littoral wetland ecosystem restoration and ecological utilization, good habitat of wetland organism construction, beautiful wetland landscape creation through the wetland habitat display sub-area which was divided into two function units named water-level-fluctuation zone succession series and wetland plants display, wetland plants seedling cultivation sub-areas, wetland buffer zone, the vegetation restoration and reconstruction project in water-level-fluctuation zone of wetland conservation district in Dongxihe River. And on this basis, wetland ecological tourism, scientific research and monitoring wetland are being developed.%湿地公园是国家湿地保护体系的重要组成部分,2009年位于三峡库区的重庆忠县皇华岛被正式批准为国家湿地公园建设试点,东溪河湿地生态保育区是其3个功能区之一.自2008年三峡水库蓄水至173 m后,已经形成消落带新生湿地;其湿地生境典型,湿地植物资源丰富,冬季水鸟种类和数量丰富,成为三峡库区湿地生物多样性的集中富集区.文章从生态学途径对东溪河湿地生态

  18. Rhizosphere bacterial community of Typha angustifolia L. and water quality in a river wetland supplied with reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yihong; Gong, Huili; Guo, Xiaoyu

    2015-03-01

    Wetland plant rhizosphere microorganisms play a significant role in the purification of ecological restoration of reclaimed water replenishment wetlands. In this study, water quality discriminant analysis indicated the wetland had a distinctive role in the purification of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and nitrate (NO3 (-)) from reclaimed water, of which removal rates were 42.15, 47.34, and 28.56 % respectively. All the sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene clone library were affiliated with Proteobacteria (74.50 %), Bacteroidetes (6.54 %), Gemmatimonadetes (5.88 %), Chloroflexi (4.25 %), Chlorobi (2.94 %), Nitrospira (2.61 %), Acidobacteria (2.29 %), and Actinobacteria (0.98 %). Assessment of water quality purification and rhizosphere bacterial properties revealed that the major biogeochemical reactions were nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon, and sulfur cycles (33.70, 15.40, 14.40, and 4.90 %, respectively). In addition, approximately 5.90 and 4.60 % of the clones are closely related with the minor biogeochemical degradations of antibiotics and halogenated hydrocarbons, which were the typical characteristics of reclaimed water wetland different from freshwater wetlands. The finding of water quality discriminant is consistent with that of bacterial community, but the latter was a more powerful method than the former which reveals possible implications of wetland plant purification on the reclaimed water.

  19. The Study of High Latitude Meadow River Wetland Park Planning-A Case Study of the Concept Planning of Wetland Park in Hailaer, Inner Mongolia%高寒地区草原河流型湿地公园规划探索--以内蒙古海拉尔河湿地公园概念性规划为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鑫; 李雄

    2014-01-01

    以内蒙古海拉尔河湿地公园概念性规划为例,在充分研究该地区湿地现状特点的基础上,探讨了高寒地区草原河流型湿地公园规划的策略,即依据高寒地区草原河流型湿地生态过程恢复和改善湿地生境系统,然后在此基础上利用最小累计阻力模型确定湿地生态过程的空间格局,形成高寒地区草原河流型湿地公园规划。%Based on the thorough site and characteristics analysis of the local wetland, this paper discusses the planning strategy of the high latitude meadow river wetland park in Hailaer, Inner Mongolia, namely: restoring and promoting the wetland habitat systems according to the ecological procedure of the high latitude meadow river wetland, deciding the space layout by the cost-distance modeling and ifnally achieving the planning layout of the high latitude meadow river wetland park.

  20. Long-Term Response of Groundwater Nitrate Concentrations to Management Regulations in Nebraska's Central Platte Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Exner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of 16 years (1988–2003 of management practices on high groundwater nitrate concentrations in Nebraska's central Platte River valley was assessed in a 58,812-ha (145,215-ac groundwater quality management area intensively cropped to irrigated corn (Zea mays L.. Crop production and groundwater nitrate data were obtained from ~23,800 producer reports. The terrace, comprising ~56% of the study area, is much more intensively cropped to irrigated corn than the bottomland. From 1987 to 2003, average groundwater nitrate concentrations in the primary aquifer beneath the bottomland remained static at ~8 mg N/l. During the same period, average groundwater nitrate concentrations in the primary aquifer beneath the terrace decreased from 26.4 to 22.0 mg N/l at a slow, but significant (p < 0.0001, rate of 0.26 mg N/l/year. Approximately 20% of the decrease in nitrate concentrations can be attributed to increases in the amount of N removed from fields as a consequence of small annual increases in yield. During the study, producers converted ~15% of the ~28,300 furrow-irrigated terrace hectares (~69,800 ac to sprinkler irrigation. The conversion is associated with about an additional 50% of the decline in the nitrate concentration, and demonstrates the importance of both improved water and N management. Average N fertilizer application rates on the terrace were essentially unchanged during the study. The data indicate that groundwater nitrate concentrations have responded to improved management practices instituted by the Central Platte Natural Resources District.

  1. [Spatiotemporal variation characteristics of heavy metals pollution in the water, soil and sediments environment of the Lean River-Poyang Lake Wetland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Min-Fei; Li, Ling-Yu; Xu, Peng-Fei; Chen, Pu-Qing; Xiong, Jian-Qiu; Zhou, Xue-Ling

    2014-05-01

    Overlying water, sediments, surface soils in the typical wetland areas of Lean River and Poyang Lake which were rich in non-ferrous metal mineral resources on both sides of the river, were chosen for monitoring heavy metals including copper, lead and cadmium of base flow in average season, flood season, and dry season in 2012. Statistical analysis methods were coupled to characterize the spatiotemporal variation of heavy metals pollution and identify the main sources. The results indicated that the concentrations of copper were the highest in all samples of each sampling sites in the Lean River-Poyang Lake wetland. And the content values of copper, lead and cadmium in different samples of different sampling sites also showed that the content values of copper were higher than those of lead, and the content values of lead were also higher than those of cadmium. The results also showed that the heavy metals pollution of copper, lead and cadmium in flood season was the heaviest whereas the heavy metals pollution in dry season was comparatively light. The results of the contents of the three kinds of heavy metals elements in different sampling sites of the watersheds of lean River showed that the contents of copper in the samples from the upstream sampling sites of Lean River were higher than those of other samples from other sites. And the contents of lead in the samples from the downstream sampling sites of Lean River were higher than those of other samples from other sampling sites. The contents of cadmium in the samples from the midstream sampling sites of Lean River were higher than those of other samples from other sites. The first principal component representing copper pollution explained 36. 99% of the total variance of water quality. The second principal component concerning representing lead pollution explained 30. 12% of the total variance. The correlation analysis results showed that there were significant positive correlations among the contents of copper

  2. Wetlands & Deepwater Habitats - MO 2015 Meramec Wetland Complex (GDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — MoRAP produced and integrated data to map and rank wetlands for the Meramec River bottomland in Missouri. LiDAR elevation and vegetation height information and air...

  3. Constructed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    these systems can improve water quality, engineers and scientists construct systems that replicate the functions of natural wetlands. Constructed wetlands are treatment systems that use natural processes

  4. 安庆沿江湖泊湿地保护管理对策%Strategies for Conservation and Management of the Lake Wetlands along Yangtze River in Anqing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王康明

    2015-01-01

    本文介绍了安庆沿江湖泊湿地的基本情况、生态价值,在指出安庆沿江湖泊湿地保护当前面临的主要问题的基础上,提出了加强湖泊湿地保护管理的对策,旨在进一步促进沿江湖泊湿地保护管理工作。%In this paper, the basic information and ecological value of the lake wetlands along Yangtze River in Anqing City were introduced. And the main existing problems in the conservation of these wetlands along Yangtze River in Anqing were pointed out. Some strategies to strengthen the conservation and management of the lake wetlands were put forward with the aim of promoting their conservation and management.

  5. Enhancing mud supply from the Lower Missouri River to the Mississippi River Delta USA: Dam bypassing and coastal restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, G. Paul; Day, John W.; Rogers, J. David; Giosan, Liviu; Peyronnin, Natalie

    2016-12-01

    Sand transport to the Mississippi River Delta (MRD) remains sufficient to build wetlands in shallow, sheltered coastal bays fed by engineered diversions on the Mississippi River (MR) and its Atchafalaya River (AR) distributary. But suspended mud (silt & clay) flux to the coast has dropped from a mean of 390 Mt y-1 in the early 1950s, to 100 Mt y-1 since 1970. This fine-grained sediment travels deeper into receiving estuarine basins and plays a critical role in sustaining existing marshes. Virtually all of the 300 Mt y-1 of missing mud once flowed from the Missouri River (MOR) Basin before nearly 100 dams were built as part of the Pick-Sloan water development project. About 100 Mt y-1 is now intercepted by main-stem Upper MOR dams closed in 1953. But the remaining 200 Mt y-1 is trapped by impoundments built on tributaries to the Lower MOR in the 1950s and 1960s. Sediment flux during the post-dam high MOR discharge years of 1973, 1993 and 2011 approached pre-dam levels when tributaries to the Lower MOR, including the Platte and Kansas Rivers, contributed to flood flows. West bank tributaries drain a vast, arid part of the Great Plains, while those entering from the east bank traverse the lowlands of the MOR floodplain. Both provinces are dominated by highly erodible loess soils. Staunching the continued decline in MR fine-grained sediment flux has assumed greater importance now that engineered diversions are being built to reconnect the Lowermost MR to the MRD. Tributary dam bypassing in the Lower MOR basin could increase mud supply to the MRD by 100-200 Mt y-1 within 1-2 decades. Such emergency measures to save the MRD are compatible with objectives of the Missouri River Restoration and Platte River Recovery Programs to restore MOR riparian habitat for endangered species. Rapid mobilization to shunt fine-grained sediments past as many as 50 Lower MOR tributary dams in several U.S. states will undoubtedly require as much regional coordination and funding in the 21st

  6. The Planning Task for Teams (PLATT): An environment for research on planning and decision making in teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, W.; Houttuin, K.

    2007-01-01

    In this report, we introduce a newly developed task environment for experimental team research: the Planning Task for Teams (PLATT). PLATT is a scenario based, computerized, complex planning task for three-person teams. PLATT has been designed to be able to do experimental laboratory research on

  7. The Planning Task for Teams (PLATT): An environment for research on planning and decision making in teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, W.; Houttuin, K.

    2007-01-01

    In this report, we introduce a newly developed task environment for experimental team research: the Planning Task for Teams (PLATT). PLATT is a scenario based, computerized, complex planning task for three-person teams. PLATT has been designed to be able to do experimental laboratory research on com

  8. Simulation of groundwater flow and analysis of the effects of water-management options in the North Platte Natural Resources District, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Steven M.; Flynn, Amanda T.; Vrabel, Joseph; Ryter, Derek W.

    2015-08-12

    The North Platte Natural Resources District (NPNRD) has been actively collecting data and studying groundwater resources because of concerns about the future availability of the highly inter-connected surface-water and groundwater resources. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the North Platte Natural Resources District, describes a groundwater-flow model of the North Platte River valley from Bridgeport, Nebraska, extending west to 6 miles into Wyoming. The model was built to improve the understanding of the interaction of surface-water and groundwater resources, and as an optimization tool, the model is able to analyze the effects of water-management options on the simulated stream base flow of the North Platte River. The groundwater system and related sources and sinks of water were simulated using a newton formulation of the U.S. Geological Survey modular three-dimensional groundwater model, referred to as MODFLOW–NWT, which provided an improved ability to solve nonlinear unconfined aquifer simulations with wetting and drying of cells. Using previously published aquifer-base-altitude contours in conjunction with newer test-hole and geophysical data, a new base-of-aquifer altitude map was generated because of the strong effect of the aquifer-base topography on groundwater-flow direction and magnitude. The largest inflow to groundwater is recharge originating from water leaking from canals, which is much larger than recharge originating from infiltration of precipitation. The largest component of groundwater discharge from the study area is to the North Platte River and its tributaries, with smaller amounts of discharge to evapotranspiration and groundwater withdrawals for irrigation. Recharge from infiltration of precipitation was estimated with a daily soil-water-balance model. Annual recharge from canal seepage was estimated using available records from the Bureau of Reclamation and then modified with canal

  9. National Wetlands Inventory - Wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent, approximate location and type of wetlands and deepwater habitats in the United States and its Territories. These data delineate...

  10. National Wetlands Inventory - Wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent, approximate location and type of wetlands and deepwater habitats in the United States and its Territories. These data delineate...

  11. Records of pan (floodplain wetland) sedimentation as an approach for post-hoc investigation of the hydrological impacts of dam impoundment: The Pongolo river, KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, S K; Plater, A J

    2010-07-01

    River impoundment by dams has far-reaching consequences for downstream floodplains in terms of hydrology, water quality, geomorphology, ecology and ecosystem services. With the imperative of economic development, there is the danger that potential environmental impacts are not assessed adequately or monitored appropriately. Here, an investigation of sediment composition of two pans (floodplain wetlands) in the Pongolo River floodplain, KwaZulu-Natal, downstream of the Pongolapoort dam constructed in 1974, is considered as a method for post-hoc assessment of the impacts on river hydrology, sediment supply and water quality. Bumbe and Sokhunti pans have contrasting hydrological regimes in terms of their connection to the main Pongolo channel - Bumbe is a shallow ephemeral pan and Sokhunti is a deep, perennial water body. The results of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) geochemical analysis of their sediment records over a depth of >1 m show that whilst the two pans exhibit similar sediment composition and variability in their lower part, Bumbe pan exhibits a shift toward increased fine-grained mineral supply and associated nutrient influx at a depth of c. 45 cm whilst Sokhunti pan is characterised by increased biogenic productivity at a depth of c. 26 cm due to enhanced nutrient status. The underlying cause is interpreted as a shift in hydrology to a 'post-dam' flow regime of reduced flood frequencies with more regular baseline flows which reduce the average flow velocity. In addition, Sokhunti shows a greater sensitivity to soil influx during flood events due to the nature of its 'background' of autochthonous biogenic sedimentation. The timing of the overall shift in sediment composition and the dates of the mineral inwash events are not well defined, but the potential for these wetlands as sensitive recorders of dam-induced changes in floodplain hydrology, especially those with a similar setting to Sokhunti pan, is clearly demonstrated. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All

  12. Estimating Fill-Spill Wetland Surface Connections in the Pipestem Creek, ND, Across Wet-Dry Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region {PPR) can be connected via surface flows through a fill-spill mechanism, with some wetlands eventually spilling into stream/river systems. This wetland-to-wetland and wetland-to-stream connection of wetlands via fill-spill has high temporal ...

  13. FGD liner experiments with wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsch, W.J.; Ahn, C.; Wolfe, W.E.

    1999-07-01

    The construction of artificial wetlands for wastewater treatment often requires impermeable liners not only to protect groundwater resources but also to ensure that there is adequate water in the wetland to support appropriate aquatic life, particularly wetland vegetation. Liners or relatively impervious site soils are very important to the success of constructed treatment wetlands in areas where ground water levels are typically close to the ground surface. This study, carried out at the Olentangy River Wetland Research Park, investigated the use of FGD material from sulfur scrubbers as a possible liner material for constructed wetlands. While several studies have investigated the use of FGD material to line ponds, no studies have investigated the use of this material as a liner for constructed wetlands. They used experimental mesocosms to see the effect of FGD liner materials in constructed wetlands on water quality and on wetland plant growth. This paper presents the results of nutrient analyses and physicochemical investigation of leachate and surface outflow water samples collected from the mesocosms. Plant growth and biomass of wetland vegetation are also included in this paper. First two year results are reported by Ahn et al. (1998, 1999). The overall goal of this study is the identification of advantages and disadvantages of using FGD by-product as an artificial liner in constructed wetlands.

  14. Mapping forested wetlands in the Great Zhan River Basin through integrating optical, radar, and topographical data classification techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, X D; Zang, S Y; Wu, C S; Li, W L

    2015-11-01

    Knowledge of the spatial extent of forested wetlands is essential to many studies including wetland functioning assessment, greenhouse gas flux estimation, and wildlife suitable habitat identification. For discriminating forested wetlands from their adjacent land cover types, researchers have resorted to image analysis techniques applied to numerous remotely sensed data. While with some success, there is still no consensus on the optimal approaches for mapping forested wetlands. To address this problem, we examined two machine learning approaches, random forest (RF) and K-nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithms, and applied these two approaches to the framework of pixel-based and object-based classifications. The RF and KNN algorithms were constructed using predictors derived from Landsat 8 imagery, Radarsat-2 advanced synthetic aperture radar (SAR), and topographical indices. The results show that the objected-based classifications performed better than per-pixel classifications using the same algorithm (RF) in terms of overall accuracy and the difference of their kappa coefficients are statistically significant (pclassifications using the RF algorithm. As for the object-based image analysis, there were also statistically significant differences (palgorithms. The object-based classification using RF provided a more visually adequate distribution of interested land cover types, while the object classifications based on the KNN algorithm showed noticeably commissions for forested wetlands and omissions for agriculture land. This research proves that the object-based classification with RF using optical, radar, and topographical data improved the mapping accuracy of land covers and provided a feasible approach to discriminate the forested wetlands from the other land cover types in forestry area.

  15. STUDY ON WETLAND LOSS AND ITS REASONS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Wetlands are ecosystems with many functions. But the general public and government lack a comprehensive understanding of the importance of wetland benefits, thus making blindly exploitation, wetland resources decreasing and losing biodiversity. So wetlands in China, as in most countries, have suffered heavily from the pressure of development and have confronted with the threats of loss. The paper takes Sanjiang Plain marshes, lakes in the middle reaches of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River, coastal wetlands and mangroves as cases to study wetland loss in China, and puts forward main existing reasons of wetland loss, such as blindly reclamation and exploitation of wetland resources,over-exploitation of bio-resources in wetland, etc. More recently, there has been a growing recognition of the benefits of wetlands and a wide range of legal and regulatory initiatives have been undertaken which are designed to improve wetland management and conservation. On the basis of the above analysis, the paper brings forward some suggestions on wetland conservation.

  16. Trophic interactions of the endangered Southern river otter ( Lontra provocax) in a Chilean Ramsar wetland inferred from prey sampling, fecal analysis, and stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Marcela; Guevara, Giovany; Correa, Loreto; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio

    2013-04-01

    Non-invasive methodological approaches are highly recommended and commonly used to study the feeding ecology of elusive and threatened mammals. In this study, we use multiple lines of evidence to assess the feeding strategies of the endangered Southern river otter, by determining seasonal prey availability (electrofishing), analysis of undigested prey remains (spraints), and the use of stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C) in otter spraints ( n = 262) and prey in a wetland ecosystem of southern Chile (39°49'S, 73°15'W). Fecal and isotopic analyses suggest that the otter diet is restricted to a few prey items, particularly the less-mobile, bottom-living, and larger prey such as crayfish ( Samastacus spinifrons, 86.11 %) and crabs ( Aegla spp., 32.45 %), supplemented opportunistically by cyprinids ( Cyprinus carpio, 9.55 %) and catfish ( Diplomystes camposensis, 5.66 %). The results suggest that the river otter is highly specialized in bottom foraging. Isotopic signatures of food sources and feces revealed a mid-upper trophic position for the Southern river otter, with either higher or lower δ15N values than their potential prey items. δ13C values for river otters were less enriched than their potential food resources. We suggest that due to their narrow trophic niche and possible dependence on only a few food items, this species may be highly vulnerable to the reduction in its prey populations. Finally, maintaining the ecological interactions between Southern river otters and their prey is considered a central priority for the survival of this endangered carnivore mammal.

  17. Correlation of eco-hydrographic benefit and height increment of Robinia pseudoacacia stand with climatic environmental factors in Yellow River Delta Wetland of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Peng; YANG Hui-ling; ZHANG Guang-can; ZHOU Ze-fu

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between eco-hydrographic benefit of forest vegetation and climatic environmental factors is one of the focuses in the research on environmental protection and ecosystem countermeasures in Wetland. The runoff, sediment and soil moisture rate dynamics in Robinia pseudoacacia plantation and its clearcut area were investigated in the natural runoff experiment plots in Yellow River Delta Wetland, Shandong Province, China. The correlation of height increment of R. pseudoacacia with nine climate factors such as light, water, heat, etc. was analyzed by stepwise regression analysis. The results showed that the amounts of runoff and sediment in clearcut area of R. pseudoacacia were 53.9%-150.8% and 172.8%-387.1% higher than that in Robinia pseudoacacia plantation, respectively. The runoff peak value in R. pseudoacacia stand was obviously lower than that in clerarcut area, meantime, the occurrence of runoff peak in R. pseudoacacia stand was 25 min later than in its clerarcut area. The soil moisture rates in R. pseudoacacia stand and its clearcut varied periodically with annual rainfall precipitation in both dry season and humid season. The annual mean soil moisture rate in R. pseudoacacia stand was 23.3%-25.6% higher than that in its clearcut area. Meanwhile, a regression model reflecting the correlation between the height increment of R. pseudoacacia and climatic factors was developed by stepwise regression procedure method. It showed that the light was the most important factor for the height increment of R. pseudoacacia, followed by water and heat factors.

  18. 珠江口滨海湿地退化现状、原因及保护对策%Status, degradation causes, and protection measures of the Pearl River Estuary seashore wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李团结; 马玉; 王迪; 王爱军; 周英

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive survey results on the environment state of seashore wetland in the Pearl River Estuary in 2007 and 2008 show that seashore wetland degradation mainly includes four aspects: area reduction of natural wetland, declining productivity of wetland, continuing deterioration of wetland environment, and wetland landscape fragmentation. Degradation causes of the Pearl River Estuary seashore wetland mainly consist of beach development and reclamation, emissions, husbandry, sea-level rise, overfishing, sea sand exploitation, port construction, and water resource development, among others. It is imperative to take protective measures. In this paper, seven measures are present, including strengthening relevant laws and regulations to protect seashore wetland, implementing strategy of sustainable development, making medium-long term layout, cultivating personnel through training improving research and technology, building measuring system, setting up more protection areas, and increasing education of the mass. All these provide an important basis for the development, utilization, and protection of the Pearl River Estuary seashore wetland.%2007年和2008年秋季对珠江口滨海湿地进行了环境现状综合调查,结果表明,珠江口滨海湿地退化主要表现在4个方面:天然湿地面积减少、湿地生产力不断下降、湿地环境状况持续恶化和湿地景观破碎化.珠江口滨海湿地退化的原因主要为滩涂开发与围填海、污染物排放、养殖污染、海平面上升、过度捕捞、海砂开采和港口码头建设以及水土资源开发等因素.滨海湿地保护与利用对策主要有:制定有关滨海湿地保护的法律法规和湿地保护与利用规划;加强人才队伍建设和滨海湿地有关技术研究;建立滨海湿地动态监测体系;加大滨海湿地保护区建设的力度;加强宣传和教育.

  19. 陕西黄河湿地大鸨活动情况调查%Investigation on Otis tarda Activities around the Wetland of Yellow River in Shaanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何冰; 程孝宏; 王保星

    2011-01-01

    2006年-2009年来,笔者对陕西黄河湿地省级自然保护区内大鸨活动的栖息地范围、面积、大鸨种群数量以及植被等情况进行了调查分析,结果表明大鸨活动范围及除受食食物来源影响外还与人类活动等情况相关,但食物因素对大鸨的分布影响最大。%Investigations on Otis tarda activities around the wetland of Yellow River within Shaanxi was carried out in terms of the birds habitats,area,species quantities as well as the vegetations.The result shows that the area needed for the bird living is also influenced by human activities except for the food source.

  20. Spatio-temporal variations in biomass and mercury concentrations of epiphytic biofilms and their host in a large river wetland (Lake St. Pierre, Qc, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Stéphanie; Planas, Dolors; Amyot, Marc

    2015-02-01

    Within wetlands, epiphytes and macrophytes play an important role in storage and transfer of metals, through the food web. However, there is a lack of information about spatial and temporal changes in their metal levels, including those of mercury (Hg), a key priority contaminant of aquatic systems. We assessed total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations of epiphyte/macrophyte complexes in Lake St. Pierre, a large fluvial lake of the St. Lawrence River (Québec, Canada). THg and MeHg concentrations were ten fold higher in epiphytes than in macrophytes. THg concentrations in epiphytes linearly decreased as a function of the autotrophic index, suggesting a role of algae in epiphyte Hg accumulation, and % of MeHg in epiphytes reached values as high as 74%. Spatio-temporal variability in THg and MeHg concentrations in epiphytes and macrophytes were influenced by water temperature, available light, host species, water level, dissolved organic carbon and dissolved oxygen.

  1. Mercury methylation and demethylation by periphyton biofilms and their host in a fluvial wetland of the St. Lawrence River (QC, Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelin, Stéphanie; Planas, Dolors [GRIL, Département de sciences biologiques, Université du Québec à Montréal, C.P. 8888, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8 (Canada); Amyot, Marc [GRIL, Département de sciences biologiques, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montréal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    Wetlands in large rivers are important sites of production of the neurotoxin methylmercury (MeHg), and the periphyton growing on wetland macrophytes are increasingly recognized as key players in this production and transfer in food webs. Information is lacking about mercury methylation (K{sub m}) and demethylation (K{sub d}) rates in periphytic biofilms from the Northern Hemisphere, as well as about the drivers of net MeHg production, hampering ecosystem modeling of Hg cycling. Mercury methylation and demethylation rates were measured in periphytic biofilms growing on submerged plants in a shallow fluvial lake located in a temperate cold region (St. Lawrence River, Quebec, Canada). Incubations were performed in situ within macrophyte beds using low-level spikes of {sup 199}HgO and Me{sup 200}Hg stable isotopes as tracers. A direct relationship was observed between K{sub m} (0.002 to 0.137 d{sup −1}) and [MeHg] in periphyton. A similar relationship was found between K{sub d} (0.096 to 0.334 d{sup −1}) and [inorganic Hg]. Periphyton of Lake St. Pierre reached high levels of net MeHg production that were two orders of magnitude higher than those found in local sediment. This production varied through the plant growing season and was mainly driven by environmental variables such as depth of growth, available light, dissolved oxygen, temperature, plant community structure, and productivity of the habitat. - Highlights: • Periphyton Hg methylation and demethylation were studied in a large fluvial lake. • Addition of stable Hg isotopes was used to obtain in situ rates for these processes. • Net methylation was higher in periphyton than in local sediments. • Methylation and demethylation rates fluctuated during the summer. • Key drivers of rates were depth, light, temperature, and community structure.

  2. Control of reed canarygrass promotes wetland herb and tree seedling establishment in an upper Mississippi River Floodplain forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Meredith; Brownell, Kurt; Groshek, Matthew; Kirsch, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    Phalaris arundinacea (reed canarygrass) is recognized as a problematic invader of North American marshes, decreasing biodiversity and persisting in the face of control efforts. Less is known about its ecology or management in forested wetlands, providing an opportunity to apply information about factors critical to an invader's control in one wetland type to another. In a potted plant experiment and in the field, we documented strong competitive effects of reed canarygrass on the establishment and early growth of tree seedlings. In the field, we demonstrated the effectiveness of a novel restoration strategy, combining site scarification with late fall applications of pre-emergent herbicides. Treatments delayed reed canarygrass emergence the following spring, creating a window of opportunity for the early growth of native plants in the absence of competition from the grass. They also allowed for follow-up herbicide treatments during the growing season. We documented greater establishment of wetland herbs and tree seedlings in treated areas. Data from small exclosures suggest, however, that deer browsing can limit tree seedling height growth in floodplain restorations. Slower tree growth will delay canopy closure, potentially allowing reed canarygrass re-invasion. Thus, it may be necessary to protect tree seedlings from herbivory to assure forest regeneration.

  3. Hydrological and hydraulic modelling of the Nyl River floodplain Part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-01-01

    Jan 1, 2007 ... Keywords: Nyl River floodplain, Nylsvlei, Nylsvley Nature Reserve, modelling wetland hydraulics, wetland evapotranspiration ..... A review of suitable methods for estimating evapotranspira- ..... ingum routing. J. Hydrol.

  4. The Urban Wetland Park Promotion Method and Path--Take the Promotion of Ten Mile River Scenic Region in Guiyang Huaxi National Urban Wetland Park as an Example%城市湿地公园提升方法和路径--以贵阳花溪国家城市湿地公园十里河滩景区提升为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴熙

    2014-01-01

    城市湿地公园是国家湿地保护体系的重要组成部分,对城市湿地公园建设提出了高质量要求,形成了保护、科普、休闲等多功能融合。本文以贵阳花溪国家城市湿地公园十里河滩景区提升为例,提出了城市湿地公园提升的方法和路径。%The urban wetland park is an important part of national wetland conservation system, which puts forward the high quality requirements for the construction of urban wetl-and park, and forms the multi-functional integration of pro-tection, popular science, leisure and others. This article takes the promotion of ten mile river scenic region in Guiyang Huaxi national wetland park as an example and puts forward the urban wetland park promotion method and path.

  5. 陕西黄河湿地生态保护路径研究——兼论国外湿地保护的借鉴%Research on Ecological Protection Path of the Yellow River Wetland in Shaanxi Province——Using Wetland Protection in Foreign Countries for Reference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝丽霞; 程书强

    2013-01-01

    With the aggravation of human activities, the irrational exploitation leads to degradation of the Yellow River wetland ecosystem in Shaanxi and loss of biodiversity. Referring some experiences from USA, Germany, Australia and Canada, and combining with the local conditions, some countermeasures and suggestions were put forward for the ecological protection of the Yellow River wetlands in Shaanxi.%随着人类活动的加剧,对湿地的不合理开发利用导致陕西黄河湿地生态系统退化和生物多样性锐减.借鉴美国、德国、澳大利亚、加拿大等湿地生态保护经验,结合陕西黄河湿地实际,提出了陕西黄河湿地生态保护的对策与建议.

  6. 黄河三角洲滨海湿地的生物多样性特征及保护对策%Biodiversity Characteristics and Protection Countermeasures of the Coastal Wetlands in the Yellow River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绪良; 肖滋民; 徐宗军; 张朝晖

    2011-01-01

    黄河三角洲滨海湿地具有以下生物多样性特点:不同类型的湿地中生物多样性差别显著;生物的态适应类型复杂;生物区系的地理分布成分有一定规律性;资源性动植物物种多;国家重点保护物种和濒危物种多。受自然因素和人为因素的影响,黄河三角洲滨海湿地出现了天然湿地面积减小、土壤盐渍化程度加重、湿地生态服务功能退化、湿地生物多样性水平下降等问题。为了保护黄河三角洲滨海湿地的生物多样性,提出了加强黄河三角洲自然保护区的基础设施建设、实施湿地生态恢复工程、建设黄河三角洲高效生态经济区、加强宣传教育以提高全民生物多样性保护意识、加强黄河三角洲湿地科学研究等对策。%The coastal wetlands in Yellow River Delta have the characteristics of newborn property,quick evolvement,ecolgical fragility,scarcity in types and important ecological function,etc.There are 298 species vascular plants,407 species phytoplankton,1 452 species animal,199 species birds,112 species marine fish,102 species freshwater fish and 121 species other freshwater animals,8 species repitles,6 species amphibians,193 species marine animals,223 species zoobenthos in intertidal wetland and other species.In the coastal wetlands,the biodiversity characters of different wetland types are obviously different,there are most species in uptidal wetlands because of diversity and complexity of habitats there,and there are lest species in intertidalwetlands because the habitats of the intertidal wetlands are single and instable.The plant and animal flora has complicated eco-adapted types of species and regular geographical composition,the vascular plant flora is young.Many species of plant and animal are endangered and are mainly protected by government,the vascular plant flora composition is simple and the woody plant species of the flora are poor.The coastal wetlands in Yellow

  7. The Importance of Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley Reforestation and Wetland Restoration Sites to Wintering Migratory Birds; Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Major efforts have been initiated in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMA V. Fig. I) from within both the U.S. Departments of Interior and Agriculture to...

  8. The Importance of Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley Reforestation and Wetland Restoration Sites to Wintering Migratory Birds: 2002 Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The annual report outlines the importance of conserving and restoring lands for migratory birds in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley.

  9. The Importance of Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley Reforestation and Wetland Restoration Sites to Wintering Migratory Birds: 2000 Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The annual report outlines the importance of conserving and restoring lands for migratory birds in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley.

  10. Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex annual habitat management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex Annual Habitat Management Plan provides a year long vision and specific guidance on managing habitats...

  11. Final Environmental Assessment : Recreation management on the Lake Minatare Unit, North Platte National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Environmental Assessment is to evaluate the feasibility of removing portions of the North Platte National Wildlife Refuge from the National...

  12. Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1999 calendar year. The report...

  13. Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1994 calendar year. The report...

  14. Survey of reptiles and amphibians of North Platte National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposal is for surveying reptiles and amphibians of North Platte National Wildlife Refuge for the specific goals of generating a species list, species...

  15. Summary of Activities, Crescent Lake and North Platte Refuges : May 1938

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments for May of 1938. The...

  16. Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The report...

  17. Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2000 calendar year. The report...

  18. Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1996 calendar year. The report...

  19. Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2001 calendar year. The report...

  20. Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2004 calendar year. The report...

  1. Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2002 calendar year. The report...

  2. Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2005 calendar year. The report...

  3. Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2003 calendar year. The report...

  4. Narrative report North Platte Refuge: May, June, July, and August, 1943

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1943. The report begins by summarizing the...

  5. Ecosystem services and water resource management in a small scale river basin characterized by ponds and wetlands: Fizeş River(Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian V. Maloş

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Water resource management can prove to be a very difficult task. It is not an easy job trying to fulfill the current requirements of the Water Framework Directive1 (WFD 2000/60/EC especially because it is difficult to estimate what really ?good status? means according with WFD. In order to reach the ?good status? in a particular river basin the water manager needs to propose a so called Program of Measures, which identifies and proposes measures to be taken in order to lower the impact generated by human activities. All these measures are based on an evaluation of the supposed natural status and current status in the river basin. What we try to propose here is a model for an tegrated management plan approach based both on the natural functionality of the river but also on the ecosystem services and social functionalities generated by man made ponds in the river basin.

  6. Analysis on Degradation of Ecological Environment of Coastal Wetland around the Pearl River Estuary%珠江口滨海湿地生态环境退化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玉; 蔡钰灿; 李团结; 刘昆; 王迪; 彭嵩

    2011-01-01

    The coastal wetland around the Pearl River estuary is various and widespread, but in the past few years it was unreasonably exploited, and the quality of ecological environment presented a declining trend. The authors investigated the coastal wetland around the Pearl River estuary in autumn of 2007 and 2008, selecting six representative zones to be studied. The results show that the water was badly polluted by chemical oxygen demand and biologic oxygen demand, the sediment was mostly polluted by Cu, Zn, Cd and As, especially Cu, and Cd pollution resource could be found around the Modaomen Estuary, higher plant grew mainly in nature reserve and wetland parks and was mostly mangrove, benthos diversity was low and evenness was medial. The main degradation phenomena of coastal wetland around the Pearl River estuary are area reduction of natural wetlands, declining of productivity of wetlands and continual deterioration of the wetland environment, etc. The main causes are irrational beach exploitation and reclamation, mass pollutant emissions, and overfishing, etc.%2007和2008年秋季对珠江口滨海湿地进行了2个航次的现状调查,并选择了6条代表性断面进行现场观测和样品采集.结果显示:珠江口滨海湿地的水质污染严重,主要受化学需氧量和生化需氧量的污染,沉积物主要受铜、锌、镉、砷的污染较为严重,特别是铜污染,而且磨刀门断面很有可能存在镉污染源;高等植物主要分布在自然保护区和湿地公园,且以红树林为主;底栖生物多样性不高,均匀度一般.珠江口滨海湿地退化主要表现为天然湿地面积减少、湿地生产力不断下降和湿地环境状况持续恶化等.退化的主要原因是滩涂开发与围填海、污染物大量排放和过度捕捞与养殖等.

  7. Regional ecological risk assessment of in the Liaohe River Delta wetlands%辽河三角洲湿地区域生态风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付在毅; 许学工; 林辉平; 王宪礼

    2001-01-01

    Ecological risk assessment is a new study field. Its objective is to estimate the possibility and magnitude in which some undesired ecological events will occur by using mathematics, probability and other risk analysis techniques. Regional ecological risk assessment is one branch of ecological risk assessment,for which both the receptors and sources of risk must be in regional scale, and the exposure and effects assessment must account their uncertainty and spatial heterogeneity. In the case study of the Liaohe River Delta wetlands.this article inguires into the theory and method of regional ecological risk assessment.   First, we select birds and their habitats as risk receptors after analyzed the landscape framework and ecological function of the wetlands.   Second, we define the mainly risk sources in this region including flood, drought, storm tide and oil pollution events. According to the statistic of the region, the probability and distributing of each kind of risk sources are gained.   Third, the habitat receptor is exposed under risk sources and contacts with bird receptor. Risk sources will affect the habitat elements and the birds will be harmed. In the exposure and hazard analysis, we use ecological index to denote the important degree of each habitat, use fragile index to show their features of anti-risk. Hazard consequences are analyzed, which formed by different risk sources. In order to compare the risk brought by different risk source, we use AHP method to get the weigh of each kind of risk sources.   Finally, risk assessment is the integrated phase of the research. Because of the spatial heterogeneity of risk sources, all risk sources are overlaid in the region, which divides the region into 122 risk areas. Within each risk area there is homogeneous for risk sources but heterogeneous for habitats. So we can get the ecological index and fragile index of each risk area according to the types of habitats in it, then combine

  8. 近20年来珠江三角洲滨海湿地景观的变化特征%Variations of Coastal Wetland Landscapes in the Pearl River Delta in the Last 20 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婧; 王爱军; 李团结

    2011-01-01

    Wetland types and landscape variations in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) during the last 20 years (from 1986 to 2005) were studied based on 4 Landsat TM satelite remote sensing images. The results show that the Pearl River estuary has been influenced intensively by the human activities, and the wetland area can only make up less than half of the whole coastal area. Even within the wetlands, the most are the artificial wetlands. Since 1986, the types of wetlands have changed distinctly. The land area used for the human constructions increases greatly, whereas the wetland area increased slowly before 2000 and decreased after 2000. The change in the wetland lanscape index is relatively small and the diversity index,the evenness index and the fractal dimension index tend to decrease slightly. The richness index and the habitat fragmentation index also increase slightly. However, the gallery density index decreases notably.A degradation of the coastal wetlands occurrs, to some extent, in the Pearl River estuary. Particuarly after 2000, the degradation of the coastal wetlands tended to intensify. Therefore, the pretection and restoration to the coastal wetlands, especially to the natural wetlands, should be enhanced.%用4景1986-2005年的Landsat TM卫星遥感影像作为数据源,结合野外调查,研究20a来珠江口滨海湿地的类型与景观变化情况.结果显示,珠江口地区受人类活动影响剧烈;湿地面积占据滨海地区面积不足一半,而湿地中,绝大部分又为人工湿地.从1986年起,湿地类型变化显著,人工建设用地的面积大大增加,湿地面积在2000年前缓慢增加,2000年后出现下降趋势.湿地景观指数变化相对较小,多样性、均匀度、分形维数略呈下降趋势,优势度和内部生境破碎化指数略呈上升趋势,廊道密度指数下降较显著.珠江口滨海湿地出现了一定程度的退化,尤其是2000年后湿地退化有加快趋势,对滨海湿地,特别是天然湿地的

  9. THE ACTUAL CONDITIONS OF WETLANDS FROM THE UPSTREAM OF HĂRPĂŞEŞETI RIVER (BAHLUI HYDROGRAPHICAL BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Romanescu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The Hărpăşeşti river is a right side affluent of the Bahluieţ river. It junctions with the latter in the river-collecting “market” from near Podu Iloaiei. The physico-chemical analysis conducted in the waters and the marshes of the creek relieve an increase of the content of dissolved salts and of the water chemical content as we advance upstream, as a consequence of the fact that these salts are transported from the upstream hydrographical basin. The temperature is higher in the low waters, and the dissolved oxygen has a higher importance in the waters with high depths, lower temperatures and rare aquatic vegetation.

  10. Timescales, mechanisms, and controls of incisional avulsions in floodplain wetlands: Insights from the Tshwane River, semiarid South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Zacchary T.; Tooth, Stephen; Ralph, Timothy J.; Duller, Geoff A. T.; McCarthy, Terence; Keen-Zebert, Amanda; Humphries, Marc S.

    2017-04-01

    Avulsion (relocation of a river course to a new position) typically is assumed to occur more frequently in rivers with faster sedimentation rates, yet supporting field data are limited and the influence of sedimentation rate on avulsion style remains unclear. Using analysis of historical aerial photographs, optically stimulated luminescence dating of fluvial sediments, and field observations, we document three avulsions that have occurred in the last 650 years along the lower reaches of the semiarid Tshwane River in northern South Africa. Study of the modern river and abandoned reaches reveals that a downstream decrease in discharge and stream power leads to reduced channel size and declining sediment transport capacity. Bank erosion drives an increase in channel sinuosity, leading to a decline in local channel slope, and to a further decrease in discharge and sediment transport. Local sedimentation rates > 10 mm a- 1 occur within and adjacent to the channel, so over time levees and an alluvial ridge develop. The resulting increase in cross-floodplain gradient primes a reach for avulsion by promoting erosion of a new channel on the floodplain, which enlarges and extends by knickpoint retreat during periods of overbank flow. Ultimately, the new channel diverts the discharge and bedload sediment from the older, topographically higher channel, which is then abandoned. Our findings support the assumption that avulsion frequency and sedimentation rate are positively correlated, and we demonstrate that incisional avulsions can occur in settings with relatively rapid net vertical aggradation. The late Holocene avulsions on the semiarid Tshwane River have been driven by intrinsic (autogenic) processes during meander belt development, but comparison with the avulsion chronology along a river in subhumid South Africa highlights the need for additional investigations into the influence of hydroclimatic setting on the propensity for avulsion.

  11. Effect of Climate change on the Wetland Ecological Environment in Heihe River Basin in Recent 51 Years%近51年气候变化对黑河流域湿地生态环境的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鸿勇; 张峰; 张洁

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] Our study was carried out to research the effect of climate change on wetland ecological environment in Heihe River basin. [ Method ] Based on meteorological data from six meteorological stations in Heihe River basin during 1959 - 2009, the effect of climate change on wetland ecological environment in Heihe River basin in recent 51 years was studied by means of statistical method. [ Result ] TemPerature and precipitation in heihe River basin showed obvious increasing trend in recent 51 years, especially in recent 20 years; climate change made Heihe River basin more and more dry, specially in mountain area; wetland ecological environment closely related to climate responded to climate change, such as groundwater level rise, wetland area decrease, agriculture planting structure change, meteorological disaster increase, destroyed biodiversity and so on. [ Conclusion ] Our study had important significance for the protection and development of wetland resources.%[目的]研究气候变化对黑河流域湿地生态环境的影响.[方法]利用1959~2009年黑河流域6个气象台站的气象资料,采用统计分析方法,研究了近51年气候变化对黑河流域湿地生态环境的影响.[结果]近51年来,黑河流域湿地气温、降水呈明显上升趋势,尤其是近20年来增温、增湿趋势更加显著;气候变化使黑河流域地表向干旱化发展的趋势加快,山区尤为显著;与气候密切相关的湿地生态环境也对气候变化作出了响应,具体表现为地下水位上升、湿地面积减少、农业种植结构改变、气象灾害增加、生物多样性遭到破坏等.[结论]该研究对湿地资源的保护和开发具有重要的意义.

  12. Regional Ecological Risk Assessment of Wetland in the Huanghe River Delta%黄河三角洲湿地区域生态风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许学工; 林辉平; 付在毅; 布仁仓

    2001-01-01

    以黄河三角洲为例进行了区域生态风险评价理论和方法的探讨。针对黄河三角洲主要生态风险源洪涝、干旱、风暴潮灾害、油田污染事故以及黄河断流的概率进行了分级评价;并提出度量生态损失与生态风险的指标和公式,分析了风险源的危害作用;运用遥感资料、历史记录、调查数据和地理信息系统(GIS)技术,完成了区域生态风险综合评价;在此基础上提出黄河三角洲的区域生态风险管理对策。%Through the case study of the wetland in the Huanghe River (Yellow River) delta,the concept of regional ecological risk assessment is inquired into,and a set of assessment method was developed.The main process of regional ecological risk assessment includes 5 stages:regional analysis,risk receptor selection,risk sources analysis,exposure and hazard analysis,and integrated risk assessment.Arming at flood,drought,storm tide,petroleum pollution accident and flow breaking in the lower Huanghe River,the probability and distribution of each kind of risk sources are evaluated.The authors bring forward indexes and formulas to measure hazarded degree and risk value of ecosystem.By using remote sensing data,historic record,survey data and by means of geographical information system (GIS),regional ecological risk assessment is finished.On the basis of assessment result,the environmental risk management countermeasure of the Huanghe River delta is advanced.

  13. Mitigation of negative ecological and socio-economic impacts of the Diama dam on the Senegal River Delta wetland (Mauritania, using a model based decision support system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Duvail

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The delta of the River Senegal was modified substantially by the construction of the Diama dam in 1986 and the floodplain and estuarine areas on the Mauritanian bank were affected severely by the absence of floods. In 1994, managed flood releases were initiated in the Bell basin (4000 ha of the Diawling National Park, as part of a rehabilitation effort. The basin was designated as a joint management area between traditional users and the Park authority and a revised management plan was developed through a participatory approach based on a topographical, hydro-climatic, ecological and socio-economic data. Hydraulic modelling was developed as a tool to support stakeholder negotiations on the desired characteristics of the managed flood releases. Initially, a water balance model was developed. The data were then integrated into a one-dimensional hydraulic model, MIKE 11 (DHI, 2000. When associated with a Digital Elevation Model and a Geographic Information System, (Arc View, the model provided a dynamic description of floods. Flood extent, water depth and flood duration data were combined with ecological and socio-economic data. The water requirements of the different stakeholders were converted to flood scenarios and the benefits and constraints analysed. A consensus scenario was reached through a participatory process. The volume of flood release required to restore the delta does not affect hydro-power generation, navigation or intensive irrigation, for which the dams in the basin were constructed. Hydraulic modelling provided useful inputs to stakeholder discussions and allows investigation of untested flood scenarios. Keywords: wetland restoration, water use conflicts, equity, Senegal River delta, Mauritania, Diawling National Park

  14. 郑州黄河湿地自然保护区生态评价%The Ecological Evaluation of The Yellow River Wetland Nature Reserve of Zhengzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨彦利; 邱记东; 段志强

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the factors related to diversity, representative, rarity, nature, ecological fragility, size suitability and human impacts are selected for the evaluation of ecological quality of Yellow River wetland of Zhengzhou adopting expert consultation laws. The results shows that the quality of the nature reserve can protect biodiversity efficiently. But it's necessary to take scientific and effective and protective messures.%以具有代表性的湿地评价的生物多样性、代表性、稀有性、自然性、面积适宜性,脆弱性和人类威胁等7个指标建立评价体系,对郑州黄河湿地自然保护区进行了生态评价,结果表明:该保护区生态质量较好,但仍需措施来提高保护区的生物多样性保护能力。

  15. 河流性湿地公园植物景观设计初探--以陕西千湖国家湿地公园为例%Plant Landscape Design for River Wetland Park:a Case Study of Qianhu Lake National Wetland Park in Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新兵; 王荣; 何婧; 梁振山

    2016-01-01

    以河流性湿地陕西千湖国家湿地公园为例,介绍了湿地公园植物景观配置中存在的问题,阐明了公园植物景观设计的原则。介绍了保护保育区、科普宣教展示区和湿地休闲区植物景观规划设计方法,以期为湿地公园植物的保护与恢复、植物景观规划营建提供有益的参考。%The river wetland, Shaanxi Qianhu lake national wetland park, was taken as a case study to analyze problems existing in the deployment of wetland landscape plants, and to describe principles for designing plant landscape of the park. Methods of plant landscape design were introduced for the protection and conservation area, the science education and exhibition area, and the recreation area, in order to provide a useful basis for rehabilitation and conservation, and plant landscape planning and construction for wetland parks.

  16. Landscape Design of Bird-watch Wetland Park:A Case Study of Yalu River Bird-watch Wetland Park in Dandong%浅谈湿地观鸟园景观设计思路——以丹东市鸭绿江口湿地观鸟园为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王阳

    2011-01-01

    在观鸟旅游的迅速发展下,湿地观鸟园建设已成为湿地景观的一个重要组成部分.结合丹东市鸭绿江口湿地观鸟园实际情况,对设计原则和园区规划等方面进行了系统分析,采用综合比较的方法总结湿地观鸟园的设计思路,并对湿地观鸟园中存在的若干问题提出了一些建议,希望能够为我国湿地观鸟园的建设提供理论依据.%With the development of bird watching tourism, bird-watch wetland park becomes an important part of wetland landscape. Principles for designing and planning of the park were described based on actual situation of Bird-watch Wetland Park in the estuary of Yalu River in Dandong. The design conception was summarized through comparative analyses. Measures were proposed to solve existing problems, in order to provide a theoretical basis for future development of bird-watch wetland park in China.

  17. Landscape Pattern of the River Wetland in Fuzhou during the Last Century%近百年福州市区河流湿地景观演变分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文实; 范小军

    2012-01-01

    The wetland is one of the most important ecosystems on earth. It plays an important role in the urban formation and its sustainable development. With the geographical expansion of cities, the wetland area is greatly reduced all over the world. The landscape pattern of the urban wetland experiences great changes at the same time. Fuzhou, the provincial capital of Fujian, the national level famous historical and cultural city, is located in southeast China, along the Minjiang estuary. The estuarine wetland around Fuzhou is seriously dwindled during the expansion of the city. A study of the spatio-temporal characteristics of its river wetland change may provide an important guideline for dealing with the conflict between the protection and the exploitation during the future urban development. Wulongjiang (Nangang), the south branch of Minjiang river, is mildly disturbed during the urbanization of Fuzhou. With three nautical charts supported by GIS technologies and Fragstats 3.3, the landscape pattern change of the river wetland of Wulongjiang in the last century is quantitatively studied in this paper. The river wetland is classified as the riverbed, the tidal flat and the island (shoal). The shorelines and Om isobaths are taken as the demarcation lines in the classification. On the whole, the total area in the study is in a slightly declining state. The extent of the landscape heterogeneity is decreased. And various kinds of changes could be observed. For the riverbed, the internal connection is weakened; for the tidal flat, the internal connection is strengthened; and for the islands and shoals, their areas are increased and the shapes are simplified. The river wetland landscape pattern change is closely related to the human activity such as the split and merge of islands and shoals.%以1950、1977和1996年海图为数据源,利用ArcGIS 10及FRAGSTATS 3.3,选取NP,CA,MPS,MSI,FD,LPI,FN,SHDI,SHEI及CONTAG等指标,对福州市区河流湿地南港[乌龙江)近百

  18. Uncertainty In Greenhouse Gas Emissions On Carbon Sequestration In Coastal and Freshwater Wetlands of the Mississippi River Delta: A Subsiding Coastline as a Proxy for Future Global Sea Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J. R.; DeLaune, R. D.; Roy, E. D.; Corstanje, R.

    2014-12-01

    The highly visible phenomenon of wetland loss in coastal Louisiana (LA) is examined through the prism of carbon accumulation, wetland loss and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Mississippi River Deltaic region experiences higher relative sea level rise due to coupled subsidence and eustatic sea level rise allowing this region to serve as a proxy for future projected golbal sea level rise. Carbon storage or sequestration in rapidly subsiding LA coastal marsh soils is based on vertical marsh accretion and areal change data. While coastal marshes sequester significant amount of carbon through vertical accretion, large amounts of carbon, previously sequested in the soil profile is lost through annual deterioration of these coastal marshes as well as through GHG emissions. Efforts are underway in Louisiana to access the carbon credit market in order to provide significant funding for coastal restoration projects. However, there is very large uncertainty on GHG emission rates related to both marsh type and temporal (daily and seasonal) effects. Very little data currently exists which addresses this uncertainty which can significantly affect the carbon credit value of a particular wetland system. We provide an analysis of GHG emission rates for coastal freshwater, brackish and and salt marshes compared to the net soil carbon sequestration rate. Results demonstrate that there is very high uncertainty on GHG emissions which can substantially alter the carbon credit value of a particular wetland system.

  19. 黄河三角洲湿地资源时空变化分析%Analysis of Temporal-Spatial Changes in Wetlands over the Yellow River Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓宇; 苏奋振; 吕婷婷; 仉天宇; 吴迪; 付敏

    2011-01-01

    Wetlands are considered as the most biologically diverse ecosystem. As the most complete and youngest wetland ecosystem type over the warm temperate zone in China, estuary wetlands over the Yellow River Deka have been experiencing great changes in terms of area arid structure in recent years, which, has in turn, resulted in a series of environmental problems. Dynamic monitoring spatial and temporal change patterns of wetland using remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques is essential to providing decision makers with important information to guide protection as well as management. Visual interpretation of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM)/Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM +) imageries acquired in 1995, 2000, and 2009 was performed to extract wetland information. Combined information derived from satellite imageries with data from survey conducted in the 1980s, spatial distribution patterns, change rates and types, as well as changing direction and magnitude of centroids of wetlands were investigated. Results show that wetland in the Yellow River Estuary changed greatly from 1985 through 2009, exhibiting varying characteristics in different periods. Constructed wetlands increased gradually. Natural wetlands, such as marsh and coastal wetland, decreased during the same period. The constructed wetlands were observed to be sparsely distributed in the study area in 1985. However, they became the major wetland type in 2009 and still maintains increasing at a high growth rate, even reaching 29.19 km2/a. During the same period, the total area of marsh considerably decreased, a lot of which has been converted into constructed wetlands, farming land, and other land use types. By exploring the major drivers of these changes, it was found that changes occurring in this area can be attributed mostly to anthropogenic intensive exploitation of wetland resources in pursuit of more economic profits. Diversion of the Yellow River in 1996 can be

  20. Evaluation of Ecosystem Services of Min River Estuary Wetland Nature Reserve%闽江河口湿地自然保护区生态系统服务价值评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅娇艳

    2012-01-01

    According to the theories of ecological economics and resource economics, a comprehensive evaluation of ecosystem services of Min River Estuary Wetland Nature Reserve was carried out based on existing survey data in order to protect the wetland and provide a scientific basis for public decision-making. The Ecosystem service value of Min River Estuary Wetland Nature Reserve was estimated at RMB 4966.l×104. The components of the ecosystem services were ranked on their values as: climate regulation> cultural carrier> biodiversity conservation>provision of goods.%研究运用生态经济学和资源环境经济学等有关理论和研究方法,利用前人已有调查资料,对闽江河口湿地自然保护区生态系统服务价值做了较全面的评价,拟为保护湿地和公共决策提供科学依据.闽江河口湿地自然保护区生态系统服务价值为4 966.1万元/a.按照价值量大小排序为:调节气候价值>文化载体价值>保护生物多样性价值>提供产品价值.

  1. NATURAL FACTORS FOR DETERIORATION OF COASTAL WETLAND IN THE YELLOW RIVER DELTA%黄河三角洲滨海湿地损失和退化的自然因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚长新; 袁红明; 孟祥君; 李绍全

    2011-01-01

    黄河三角洲滨海湿地的损失和功能退化是对环境变化的响应,主要受自然因素控制.黄河入海水沙是形成滨海湿地的物质基础.自20世纪70年代以来黄河水沙减少,新生湿地的形成速率变小;波浪、潮汐、风暴潮、地面下沉和海平面上升等因素导致了滨海湿地的损失,湿地的面积呈减小趋势.由于淡水资源的短缺导致滨海湿地土壤严重的盐碱化和干旱灾害,限制了湿地植被的发育,湿地功能退化.黄河冲淡水的减弱甚至消失,导致滨海湿地海水的盐度升高,温度降低,物理环境平衡遭到破坏,生物多样性明显降低.%The area reduction and function deterioration of the coastal wetland in the Yellow River Delta,as a response to climate change, is basically controlled by natural factors. Water and sediment from the Yellow River are the fundamental materials for the survival of the coastal wetland. The rate of increment of coastal wetland has slowed down as the water and sediment discharges of the Yellow River decreased since last seventies. The joint action of the factors, such as wave, tide, storm surges, land subsidence and sea level rise has led to area loss and the negative growth of the wetland in the last decade. Owing to water shortage, soil salinization and the drought frequently happened in the coastal wetland, the diluted water from the Yellow River is nearly disappeared. It results in the increase in salinity and decrease in surface water temperature in the offshore water, the damage of environment and the reduction in biodiversity.

  2. 基于遥感的辽河三角洲湿地生态系统服务价值评估%Value evaluation on ecosystem function of wetland in Liaohe River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    索安宁; 赵冬至; 卫宝泉; 陈艳拢

    2009-01-01

    利用中巴资源卫星对辽河三角洲盘锦湿地类型进行调查的基础上,综合应用环境经济学、资源经济学等方法对辽河三角洲湿地生态系统的服务功能价值进行了评估,得出该区域湿地生态系统的服务功能总价值为90.243×108元RMB.休闲娱乐、大气组分调节、物质生产和水文调节是该区域湿地生态系统服务功能价值的主要贡献者,分别占到系统总服务功能价值的25.93%、25.03%、22.35%和20.44%.%The main Liaohe River Delta is a wetland ecosystem, including the reef swamp, paddy field, mud flat, river, crab and shrimp field, barren mud and met meadow act surveyed by the remote sensing images of China-Brazil resource satellite. The evaluation on the main services in the wetland ecosystem of Liaohe River Delta was done by methods of environmental economics, resource economics, engineer building value and tour value. The total value in the wetland ecosystem services of Liaohe River Delta is about 90.243×108RMB. Among these services, the order of service value is: material output > air ingredients control > leisure service > flood control > habituating protection > culture service > pollution purification, with contribution of 25.93, 25.03, 22.35, 20.44, 3.17, 1.71 and 1.37%, respectively.

  3. Dichloroethene and Vinyl Chloride Degradation Potential in Wetland Sediments at Twin Lakes and Pen Branch, Savannah River National Laboratory, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.

    2007-01-01

    A series of 14C-radiotracer-based microcosm experiments was conducted to assess the mechanisms and products of degradation of dichloroethene (DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) in wetland sediments at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River National Laboratory. This project investigated the potential for biotic and abiotic DCE and VC degradation in wetland sediments from the Twin Lakes area of the C-BRP investigative unit and from the portion of Pen Branch located directly down gradient from the CMP investigative unit. Substantial degradation of [1,2-14C] DCE and [1,2-14C] VC to 14CO2 was observed in all viable sediment microcosms prepared under oxic conditions. These results indicate that microbial mineralization processes, involving direct oxidation or cometabolic oxidation, are the primary mechanisms of DCE and VC biodegradation in Twin Lake and Pen Branch sediments under oxic conditions. Substantial degradation of [1,2-14C] DCE and [1,2-14C] VC was observed in all viable sediment microcosms incubated under anoxic conditions. Production of 14CO2 was observed in all sediment microcosms under anoxic conditions. In general, the accumulation of mineralization products (14CO2 and 14CH4) was comparable to the accumulation of those reduced daughter products (14C-VC, 14C-ethene or 14C-ethane) traditionally identified with chloroethene reductive dechlorination. These results indicate that microbial mineralization processes can be an important component of DCE and VC degradation in Twin Lake and Pen Branch sediments under anoxic conditions. These results demonstrate that an evaluation of the efficiency of in situ DCE and VC biodegradation in Twin Lakes and Pen Branch that is based solely on the observed accumulation of reduced daughter products may underestimate substantially the total extent of contaminant biodegradation and, thus, the contribution of biodegradation to overall contaminant attenuation. No evidence of abiotic degradation of [1,2-14C] DCE or [1,2-14C] VC

  4. Wetland Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Marilyn

    1994-01-01

    Examines what wetland conservation means to different groups of Louisiana's coastal residents. Describes coastal resources, reasons for their deterioration, conservation efforts, and the impact of a public perception that conservation of wetlands is closely tied to conservation of the existing lifestyle. (LZ)

  5. Wetland Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter discusses the state of the science in wetland hydrology by touching upon the major hydraulic and hydrologic processes in these complex ecosystems, their measurement/estimation techniques, and modeling methods. It starts with the definition of wetlands, their benefit...

  6. Freshwater Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides descriptions about freshwater wetlands, such as marshes, swamps, and bogs. Contains three learning activities which deal with unusual wetland plants, the animals and plants in a typical marsh, and the effects of a draught on a swamp. Included are reproducible handouts and worksheets for two of the activities. (TW)

  7. Integrated ecosystem assessment of wetlands in the in the Northern Territory: a tool for NRM : a pilot case study in the Daly River, Mary River and East Alligator River catchments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ypma, O.; Zylstra, M.; Verschuuren, B.; Groot, de R.S.; Bachet, S.; Mabire, C.; Shrestha, P.

    2006-01-01

    Een overzicht van de belangrijkste onderzoeksresultaten van zes MSC Thesis als onderdeel van een onderzoek naar de sociale-economische waarden van wetlands in Noord-Australië. Deze waarden zijn geplaatst tegen de achtergrond van tegengestelde belangen en relevante politieke belangen

  8. A Model of Ecological Recycling Economy in Liaohe River Delta Wetland%辽河三角洲湿地生态循环经济模式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于长斌; 刘新宇

    2012-01-01

    辽河三角洲湿地是我国重要的湿地资源之一.随着经济和社会的快速发展,人们对辽河口湿地土壤、水、生物、矿产等资源的掠夺越来越严重,湿地资源过度开发,湿地退化严重,生态环境失衡.因此,如何保护和利用好辽河口湿地资源并实现良性的生态循环经济,已成为迫切需要解决的问题.根据可持续性评价目标提出了建立生态循环经济模式的5大评价标准:生产性、稳定性、保护性、经济可行性和社会承受力,在此基础上探讨了3种生态循环经济模式.%Liaohe River delta was one of the important wetland resources in China. With the rapid development of economy and society, exploitation of wetland resources such as soil, water, organisms, and minerals were increasingly serious. Over exploitation of wetland resources has led to severe wetland degradation and serious ecological imbalance. Therefore, how to protect and make good use of wetland resources and realize the benign ecological recycling economy has become an urgent problem. According to the objectives of assessment of sustainable development, five evaluation criteria were proposed for the model of ecological recycling economy, productivity, stability, protection, economic feasibility and social tolerance. Moreover, 3 models of ecological recycling economy were discussed in the paper.

  9. National Wetlands Inventory Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear wetland features (including selected streams, ditches, and narrow wetland bodies) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National...

  10. 陕西黄河湿地省级自然保护区生态系统保育及恢复存在的问题及对策%Problems and Countermeasures of Ecosystem Conservation and Restoration of Shaanxi Provincial Yellow River Wetland Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王保星; 王宝琴; 关燕雯

    2014-01-01

    According to current situation of the Yellow River wetland in Shaanxi Province,the significance of study on ecosystem conservation and restoration was discussed,foreign wetland research dynamic and wetland research progress in our country were analyzed,problems and countermeasures of ecosystem conservation and restoration of Shaanxi Provincial Yellow River wetland nature reserve were pointed out,so as to provide important reference for the future study on wetland ecosystem conservation and restoration of Shaanxi Provincial Yellow River wetland nature reserve.%针对陕西黄河湿地现状,论述了开展湿地生态系统保育恢复研究的重要意义,分析了国外湿地研究动态和我国湿地研究的进展,指出了在陕西黄河湿地自然保护区开展保育与恢复存在的问题和具体对策,以期为今后陕西黄河湿地自然保护区进行湿地生态系统保育及恢复研究提供重要参考。

  11. Ecohydraulics and Estuarine Wetland Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J. F.; Howe, A.; Saintilan, N.; Spencer, J.

    2004-12-01

    The hydraulics or water flow in wetlands is known to be a key factor influencing ecosystem development in estuarine wetland environments. The relationship is indirect, with the hydraulics of wetlands influencing a host of factors including soil salinity, waterlogging, sediment transport, sediment chemistry, vegetation dispersal and growth and nutrient availability and cycling. The relationship is also not one way, with the hydraulics of wetlands being influenced by plant and animal activity. Understanding these complex interactions is fundamental for the adequate management of estuarine wetlands. Listed as a Wetland of International Importance under the 1971 Ramsar Convention, the Hunter River estuary is regarded as the most significant site for migratory shorebirds in New South Wales, Australia. Over the past 20 years, the number of migratory shorebirds in the estuary has sharply declined from 8,000 to 4,000 approx. Alteration of bird habitat is believed to be one of the reasons for this alarming trend. In 2004 we started a three-year program to investigate the links between hydraulics, sediment, benthic invertebrates, vegetation and migratory shorebird habitat in the estuary. During the first year we have focused on a highly disturbed part of the Hunter estuary wetlands located on Ash Island. The area is one of the major roosting sites in the estuary and is characterized by a complex hydraulic regime due to a restricted tidal interchange with the Hunter River and the presence of infrastructure for the maintenance of power lines (i.e., roads, bridges, culverts). Salt marshes, mudflat and mangroves are the dominant vegetation types. The monitoring program includes measurements of water levels, salinity, discharge, velocity, turbulence, sediment transport and deposition, plant species and density, soil composition and benthic invertebrates coordinated with observations of bird habitat utilization on a number of locations throughout the wetland and for different flow

  12. Analysis of the population genetics of Opisthorchis viverrini sensu lato in the Nam Ngum River wetland, Lao PDR, by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatsopit, Nadda; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Saijuntha, Weerachai; Pitaksakulrat, Opal; Petney, Trevor N; Webster, Joanne P; Andrews, Ross H

    2014-08-01

    A previous population genetics study of Opisthorchis viverrini from a locality in an endemic area in Thailand found little genetic variation over time and second intermediate fish host species. Since a similar comparative analysis is not available for Lao PDR, we conducted a study of O. viverrini from different endemic foci in Vientiane Province, Lao PDR, based on spatial, temporal and fish host species. A total of 620 adult O. viverrini originating from the Nam Ngum River wetland were analysed at five previously defined polymorphic enzyme loci. Of these worms, 252 were from six different localities (spatial samples), 162 worms from different years (temporal samples) and 206 worms from four different cyprinid fish species. Significant heterozygote deficiency was found in most O. viverrini populations with levels of genetic differentiation ranging between F ST 0.0000 and 0.0197 suggesting that gene flow occurred at a variable rate. The role of temporal factors and fish host species had little influence on the level of genetic differentiation. As for O. viverrini from Thailand, these findings indicate that self-fertilization and/or a clonal distribution of O. viverrini occurs in Lao PDR. Unlike the results for O. viverrini from Thailand, spatial population substructuring may be the underlying population processes for O. viverrini in Lao PDR. These findings indicate that geographical variation may contribute to the transmission dynamics of the parasite with implications for parasite control. However, other host factors, such as snail intermediate hosts and mammal reservoir hosts, as well as human beings, may also play significant roles.

  13. Sediment record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Liaohe River Delta wetland, Northeast China: Implications for regional population migration and economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chuanliang; Lin, Tian; Ye, Siyuan; Ding, Xigui; Li, Yuanyuan; Guo, Zhigang

    2017-03-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of a (210)Pb-dated sediment core extracted from the Liaohe River Delta wetland were measured to reconstruct the sediment record of PAHs and its response to human activity for the past 300 years in Northeast China. The concentrations of the 16 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority PAHs (∑16PAHs) ranged from 46 to 1167 ng g(-1) in this sediment core. The concentrations of the 16 PAHs (especially 4- and 5+6-ring PAHs) after the 1980s (surface sediments 0-6 cm) were one or two orders of magnitudes higher than those of the down-core samples. The exponential growth of 4-ring and 5+6-ring PAH concentrations after the 1980s responded well to the increased energy consumption and number of civil vehicles resulting from the rapid economic development in China. Prior to 1950, relatively low levels of the 16 PAHs and a high proportion of 2+3-ring PAHs was indicative of biomass burning as the main source of the PAHs. A significant increase in the 2 + 3 ring PAH concentration from the 1860s-1920s was observed and could be attributed to a constant influx of population migration into Northeast China. It was suggested that the link between historical trend of PAHs and population or energy use involves two different economic stages. Typically, in an agricultural economy, the greater the population size, the greater the emission of PAHs from biomass burning, while in an industrial economy, the increase in sedimentary PAH concentrations is closely related to increasing energy consumption of fossil fuels.

  14. 基于遥感影像的黄河三角洲湿地景观演变及驱动因素分析%Analysis of wetland landscape evaluation and its driving factors in Yellow River Delta based on remote sensing image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢晓宁; 张静怡; 洪佳; 王玲玲

    2016-01-01

    为揭示1973-2013年黄河三角洲湿地景观演变情况及其驱动因素,更好地服务于区域湿地生态保护和恢复,利用1973-2013年9期Landsat卫星影像,构建了黄河三角洲湿地景观数据库。阐述了黄河三角洲湿地景观组成现状、分布规律和阶段特征,并结合黄河入海水沙及社会经济数据,探讨了其驱动力。研究表明:1)黄河三角洲湿地以自然湿地为主,近40 a来湿地总面积呈下降趋势,且以自然湿地向人工湿地和非湿地的转换为主要特征,湿地景观破碎化趋势严重;2)黄河三角洲湿地景观面积的整体下降趋势与黄河入海水沙的整体减少有较好的函数关系,且以输沙量对自然湿地景观,尤其是咸水湿地景观变化趋势的影响更强,径流量则对淡水湿地景观的影响更为突出。3)黄河三角洲湿地景观面积变化亦具有阶段性特征,这是由于黄河来水来沙量的显著周期性变化,叠加上持续扩大的人类活动影响所致。该研究分析了黄河三角洲湿地景观格局演变规律,并定性探讨了主要驱动因素,相关结论对区域湿地保护和恢复具有一定参考意义。%As one of the most active regions in the world, the Yellow River Delta has a large-area wetland which plays a significant role in balancing the regional eco-environment. However, in the past decades, increasingly severe natural and human environment have formed great threat to the Yellow River Delta wetland. Researches are urged to make clear what exactly has changed and which factors exactly result in it in order to put forward the measures of instructions on regional wetland protection. Therefore, a wetland landscape database that contained 9 land use maps of the Yellow River Delta in the year 1973, 1979, 1985,1992, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2013 was constructed with artificial visual interpretation as method and Landsat-MSS/TM/ETM/OLI satellite images

  15. Development and validation of a global dynamical wetlands extent scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Stacke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present the development of the dynamical wetland extent scheme (DWES and its validation against present day wetland observations. The DWES is a simple, global scale hydrological scheme that solves the water balance of wetlands and estimates their extent dynamically. The extent depends on the balance of water flows in the wetlands and the slope distribution within the grid cells. In contrast to most models, the DWES is not directly calibrated against wetland extent observations. Instead, wetland affected river discharge data are used to optimize global parameters of the model. The DWES is not a complete hydrological model by itself but implemented into the Max Planck Institute – Hydrology Model (MPI-HM. However, it can be transferred into other models as well.

    For present climate, the model validation reveals a good agreement between the occurrence of simulated and observed wetlands on the global scale. The best result is achieved for the northern hemisphere where not only the wetland distribution pattern but also their extent is simulated reasonably well by the DWES. However, the wetland fraction in the tropical parts of South America and Central Africa is strongly overestimated. The simulated extent dynamics correlate well with monthly inundation variations obtained from satellite for most locations. Also, the simulated river discharge is affected by wetlands resulting in a delay and mitigation of peak flows. Compared to simulations without wetlands, we find locally increased evaporation and decreased river flow into the oceans due to the implemented wetland processes.

    In summary, the validation analysis demonstrates the DWES' ability to simulate the global distribution of wetlands and their seasonal variations. Thus, the dynamical wetland extent scheme can provide hydrological boundary conditions for wetland related studies. In future applications, the DWES should be implemented into an earth system model

  16. Engineered wetlands : an innovative environmental solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, S.; Davis, B.M. [Jacques Whitford NAWE, White Bear Lake, MN (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Engineered wetlands are now considered as an emerging technology for the in situ remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and waters. Engineered wetlands incorporate a horizontal subsurface flow gravel bed reactor lined with impermeable liners, and are equipped with forced bed aeration systems in order to enhance oxygen delivery to the wetland's aerobic micro-organisms. The wetlands typically emphasize specific characteristics of wetland ecosystems to improve treatment capacities. This article discussed an engineered wetlands installed at a set of pipeline terminals as well as at a former British Petroleum (BP) refinery. The pipeline terminal generated contact wastewater containing BTEX and ammonia, and a subsurface engineered wetland was built in 1998. To date, the 16,000{sup 2} foot wetland has treated a flow-equalized input of approximately 1.5 m{sup 3} per day of contaminants. At the refinery, a wetland treatment system was designed to treat 6000 m{sup 3} of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The treatment site consists of a golf course, river front trails, and a white water kayak course. A cascade aeration system was used for iron oxidation and air-stripping. A soil matrix biofilter was used for passive gas phase benzene removal, as well as for the removal of ferric hydroxide precipitates. It was concluded that engineered wetlands can offer long-term solutions to site remediation challenges. 1 fig.

  17. Restoring Wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HAIRONG

    2011-01-01

    Watching flocks of waterfowl taking off and landing in the large expanse of wetland near his home is a favorite pastime of Li Qiwen a middle-aged primary school teacher in Weichang Township,Luobei County in Heilongjiang Province.The wetland is home to hundreds of species of birds,including rare white storks and red-crowned cranes,as well as more common geese and ducks.

  18. What Makes a Wetland a Wetland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides descriptions of and activities about various kinds of wetlands. Contains seven learning activities ranging from creating wetland scenes with picture cutouts to actually exploring a wetland. Includes reproducible handouts and worksheets for several of the activities. (TW)

  19. Virginia ESI: Wetlands (Wetland Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the coastal wetlands for Virginia, classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI)...

  20. Development and evaluation of a global dynamical wetlands extent scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Stacke

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present the development of the dynamical wetland extent scheme (DWES and evaluate its skill to represent the global wetland distribution. The DWES is a simple, global scale hydrological scheme that solves the water balance of wetlands and estimates their extent dynamically. The extent depends on the balance of water flows in the wetlands and the slope distribution within the grid cells. In contrast to most models, the DWES is not directly calibrated against wetland extent observations. Instead, wetland affected river discharge data are used to optimise global parameters of the model. The DWES is not a complete hydrological model by itself but implemented into the Max Planck Institute – Hydrology Model (MPI-HM. However, it can be transferred into other models as well.

    For present climate, the model evaluation reveals a good agreement for the spatial distribution of simulated wetlands compared to different observations on the global scale. The best results are achieved for the Northern Hemisphere where not only the wetland distribution pattern but also their extent is simulated reasonably well by the DWES. However, the wetland fraction in the tropical parts of South America and Central Africa is strongly overestimated. The simulated extent dynamics correlate well with monthly inundation variations obtained from satellites for most locations. Also, the simulated river discharge is affected by wetlands resulting in a delay and mitigation of peak flows. Compared to simulations without wetlands, we find locally increased evaporation and decreased river flow into the oceans due to the implemented wetland processes.

    In summary, the evaluation demonstrates the DWES' ability to simulate the distribution of wetlands and their seasonal variations for most regions. Thus, the DWES can provide hydrological boundary conditions for wetland related studies. In future applications, the DWES may be implemented into an Earth

  1. Chemical Properties of Pore Water and Sediment at Three Wetland Sites Near the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friday, G.P.

    2001-05-15

    In 1980, vegetative stress and arboreal mortality in wetland plant communities down-gradient from the F- and H-Area seepage basins were detected using aerial imagery. By 1988, approximately six acres in H-Area and four acres in F-Area had been adversely impacted. Today, wetland plant communities have become well established at the H-Area tree-kill zone.

  2. Analysis and Research on Birds Resources in Shaanxi Yellow River Wetland%陕西黄河湿地鸟类资源调查分析与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何冰; 王保星; 关燕雯; 王宝琴; 张维

    2013-01-01

    Shaanxi Yellow River Wetland is one of the international migratory bird habitats in the Midwest China and important stopover on the inland migratory channel .The region contains diverse habitats & prolific bird resources . Through survey of birds distribution in different habitats in the wetland ,such as high reeds areas ,low reeds areas , farmlands ,fish ponds ,lotus ponds ,tidal flats ,forests and so on .The result recorded a total of 16 orders ,39 families and 132 species ,increased three families and 13 species than that in the year of 2005 .The survey provides a scientific basis for the bird-resources protection for Shaanxi Yellow River Wetland .%陕西黄河湿地是我国中、西部国际候鸟的主要栖息地之一和内陆候鸟迁徙通道上的重要驿站,区内生境多样,鸟类资源十分丰富。通过对湿地内高生芦苇区、低矮芦苇区、盐碱地、农田、鱼塘、莲池、滩涂、林地等不同生境类型的鸟类分布情况进行的调查分析,结果共记录到16目39科132种,较2005年增加了3科13种,为陕西黄河湿地鸟类资源保护提供了科学依据。

  3. Radioiodine concentrated in a wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Daniel I; Zhang, Saijin; Roberts, Kimberly A; Schwehr, Kathy; Xu, Chen; Creeley, Danielle; Ho, Yi-Fang; Li, Hsiu-Ping; Yeager, Chris M; Santschi, Peter H

    2014-05-01

    Most subsurface environmental radioactivity contamination is expected to eventually resurface in riparian zones, or wetlands. There are a number of extremely sharp biogeochemical interfaces in wetlands that could alter radionuclide speciation and promote accumulation. The objective of this study was to determine if a wetland concentrated (129)I emanating from a former waste disposal basin located on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina, USA. Additionally, studies were conducted to evaluate the role of sediment organic matter in immobilizing the radioiodine. Groundwater samples were collected along a 0.7-km transect away from the seepage basin and in the downstream wetlands. The samples were analyzed for (129)I speciation (iodide (I(-)), iodate (IO3(-)), and organo-I). Groundwater (129)I concentrations in many locations in the wetlands (as high as 59.9 Bq L(-1)(129)I) were greatly elevated with respect to the source term (5.9 Bq L(-1)(129)I). (129)I concentration profiles in sediment cores were closely correlated to organic matter concentrations (r(2) = 0.992; n = 5). While the sediment organic matter promoted the uptake of (129)I to the wetland sediment, it also promoted the formation of a soluble organic fraction: 74% of the wetland groundwater (129)I could pass through a 1 kDa (wetlands may be highly effective at immobilizing aqueous (129)I, they may also promote the formation of a low-molecular-weight organic species that does not partition to sediments. This study provides a rare example of radioactivity concentrations increasing rather than decreasing as it migrates from a point source and brings into question assumptions in risk models regarding continuous dilution of released contaminants.

  4. Evaluation of Ecosystem Service Value of Olunggur River Wetland in Xinjiang%新疆乌伦古河湿地生态系统服务功能价值评估研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    买尔燕古丽·阿不都热合曼; 蔡新斌; 江晓珩; 林宣龙; 刘丽燕; 田润炜

    2015-01-01

    The ecosystem service value of Olunggur River wetland were evaluated by using the asset value method, market value method, shadow engineering method, carbon tax method, industrial oxygen producing method, afforestation cost method and substitution method. The results showed that, the total ecosystem service value of Olunggur River wetland was RMB 76 321.77×104 yuan/year, of which the value of resource supply was RMB 13 783.53×104 yuan/year, regulating service value was RMB 42 665.17×104yuan/year, supporting service value was RMB 18 894.71×104 yuan/year and culture service value was RMB 978.36×104Yuan/year. Among the assessed 8 indicators for wetland ecosystem services, water conservation and lfood regulation, and oxygen release accounted for larger proportions, respectively RMB 22 110.00×104Yuan/year, RMB 20 555.17×104 Yuan/year. Followed by conservation of water value, conservation of soil service value, biodiversity service value, habitat service value, food and raw materials supply value and culture service value. Olunggur River wetland is very important for the development of human society and ecological safety of the whole river basin, this study provides a scientiifc basis for the Rational exploitation and management of Olunggur River wetland resources.%采用资产价值法、市场价值法、影子工程法、碳税法,工业制氧法,造林成本法和替代法等评估了乌伦古河湿地生态系统服务功能价值.结果表明:乌伦古河湿地生态系统服务功能总价值为76 321.77×104元/a,其中资源供给服务功能价值为13 783.53×104元/a,调节服务功能价值为42 665.17×104元/a,支持服务功能价值为18 894.71×104元/a,科研文化服务价值为978.36×104元/a.在所评估的8项湿地生态系统服务功能价值中,比重较大的为涵养水源与调蓄洪水价值和固碳释氧价值,分别为22 110.00×104元/a和20 555.17×104元/a,其余按其价值量大小依次排序为供水与蓄水、保育土

  5. 中国鸭绿江口滨海湿地植物多样性分析%Plant Diversity in Yalu River Estuary Wetland in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘利; 张梅

    2012-01-01

    Plant diversity in the wetland around the Yalu River estuary was studied by route,sample plot survey and cluster analysis.It was found that there were abundant and various plant species in this area.The majority were angiosperms and dicotyledonous plants,appearing as remarkable dominant family.The single-species and few-species genera of angiosperm were rich,showing some relict phenomenon.The distribution types were various and complex with a long history,but short of endemic genera and species.The obvious dominance of temperate elements and plentiful tropical elements show that the flora in this area had close genetic relationship with tropical flora,indicating characteristics of plant crossing.It is proposed that the plant diversity in this area should be protected so as to make a good habitat environment for migratory bird and region ecological security.%通过线路、样地调查法及聚类分析等研究方法,对鸭绿江口湿地的植物多样性进行分析。得出以下结论:该地区植物种类丰富多样,以被子植物、双子叶植物为主,优势科现象明显,单种属和少种属占据比率较高,表现出一定残遗性;区系分布类型多样,来源较广泛,具有一定古老性,但特有属、种匮乏;区系温带属性明显,热带成分也比较丰富,说明本区与热带植物区系亲缘关系较高,显示出过渡性,建议应加强植物多样性的保护与管理,减少干扰与破坏,为保护候鸟迁徙地和区域生态安全提供良好环境。

  6. An Analysis of Impact of Human Activities on Wetland Ecological Environment in Luanhe River Estuary%人类活动对滦河口湿地生态环境影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时玉涛; 温海燕; 乔光建

    2011-01-01

    由于滦河上游修建和兴建大量蓄水工程,工农业用水量大幅度增加,滦河口人海水量大幅减少,对海口湿地生物多样性造成一定的负面影响.由于入海淡水水量减少,进而引起河口过渡段面积缩小,咸淡水混合体水面面积相应减少,使处于广盐性和狭盐性之间的动植物生存空间降低,适合河口生存环境的水生动植物种类和数量锐减,生物多样性受到影响.通过对滦河口1956年-2000年入海水量分析,20世纪80年代后水量减少显著,使得咸淡水混合水体面积减少将近3倍,导致适应河口生长环境的动植物减少,河口生物多样性受到很大影响.对滦河口湿地生态环境状况进行了探讨和分析,为相关部门在现状条件下保护和恢复滦河口湿地生态环境和生物多样性提供了技术依据.%t3ecause of the construction of large water storage projects in the upstream of the Luan River, water consumption for industry and agriculture substantially increases, causing a significant reduction of river water into the sea and bringing some negative impact on the biodiversity of the sea wetland. The decrease of fresh water into the sea causes shrinkage of estuary transition zone and decrease of salt and fresh water surface accordingly. Through the analysis to water into the sea from the Luan River from 1956 to 2000,it is found that a significant reduction of water after 1980s makes the salt and fresh water area decrease nearly 3 times, resulting in a reduction in the suitable growth area for plants and animals and impact on estuarine biodiversity. This paper discusses and analyzes the wetland ecological environment and provides a technical basis for protecting and restoring wetland environment and biodiversity of the Luanhe River esturay.

  7. Ecosystem level methane fluxes from tidal freshwater and brackish marshes of the Mississippi River Delta: Implications for coastal wetland carbon projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Guerry O.; Perez, Brian C.; McWhorter, David E.; Krauss, Ken W.; Johnson, Darren J.; Raynie, Richard C.; Killebrew, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfate from seawater inhibits methane production in tidal wetlands, and by extension, salinity has been used as a general predictor of methane emissions. With the need to reduce methane flux uncertainties from tidal wetlands, eddy covariance (EC) techniques provide an integrated methane budget. The goals of this study were to: 1) establish methane emissions from natural, freshwater and brackish wetlands in Louisiana based on EC; and 2) determine if EC estimates conform to a methane-salinity relationship derived from temperate tidal wetlands with chamber sampling. Annual estimates of methane emissions from this study were 62.3 g CH4/m2/yr and 13.8 g CH4/m2/yr for the freshwater and brackish (8–10 psu) sites, respectively. If it is assumed that long-term, annual soil carbon sequestration rates of natural marshes are ~200 g C/m2/yr (7.3 tCO2e/ha/yr), healthy brackish marshes could be expected to act as a net radiative sink, equivalent to less than one-half the soil carbon accumulation rate after subtracting methane emissions (4.1 tCO2e/ha/yr). Carbon sequestration rates would need case-by-case assessment, but the EC methane emissions estimates in this study conformed well to an existing salinity-methane model that should serve as a basis for establishing emission factors for wetland carbon offset projects.

  8. Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report...

  9. Assessment of selenium and atrazine exposure and effects to wildlife at the North Platte National Wildlife Refuge, Scottsbluff, Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study evaluated selenium and atrazine exposure and effects to fish and wildlife at North Platte National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) in Scotts Bluff County,...

  10. Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report...

  11. Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1983 calendar year. The report...

  12. Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report...

  13. Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative report: Calendar year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report...

  14. Geological report on water conditions at Platt National Park, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Charles Newton; Schoff, Stuart Leeson

    1939-01-01

    Platt National Park, located in southern Oklahoma, containing 842 acres, was established by Acts of Congress in 1902, 1904, and 1906. The reason for the setting aside of this area was the presence in the area of some 30 'mineral' springs, the water from which contains sulphur, bromide, salt, and other minerals, which are believed to possess medicinal qualities. For many generations the sulphur springs of the Chickasaw Nation had been known for their reputed healing qualities. It had long been the custom for families to come from considerable distances on horseback and in wagons and camp near the springs, in order to drink the water. In course of time a primitive town, known as Sulphur Springs, grew up near a group of springs known since as Pavilion Springs at the mouth of Sulphur Creek, now known as Travertine Creek. This town was still in existence at the time of my first visit to the locality in July, 1901. At this time, in company with Joseph A. Taff, of the United States Geological Survey, I spent a week riding over the country making a preliminary survey looking toward the setting aside of the area for a National Park. After the establishment of the National Park, the old town of Sulphur Springs was abandoned, and when the present boundaries of the park had been established the present town of Sulphur, now county seat of Murray County, grew up. In July 1906, on request of Superintendent Joseph F. Swords, I visited the park and made an examination of the various springs and submitted a report, dated August 15, 1906, to Secretary of the Interior E.A. Hitchcock. Copies of this report are on file in the Regional Office and at Platt National Park. In this report I set forth the approximate amount of flow of the various springs, the character of the water in each, and the conditions of the springs as of that date. I also made certain recommendations regarding proposed improvements of each spring. In this report I say: 'In the town of Sulphur, four wells have been

  15. Research on Monetary Value Evaluation of Linghe River Estuarine Wetland Ecosystem Service Function%辽宁省凌河口湿地生态服务功能货币价值评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成遣; 周林飞; 谭艳芳

    2012-01-01

    对辽宁省凌河口湿地生态服务功能进行了货币价值评估,通过目视解译法和湿地功能划分,确定了该研究区的物质生产等8项湿地生态服务主导功能,应用影子工程法、碳税法、替代法等生态学方法计算了凌河口湿地生态服务功能的货币总价值为67.07亿元,其中,历史文化功能比值最大,其次是物质生产功能。这说明湿地所具有的价值不仅仅局限于其物质生产价值,应考虑各种功能性服务所具有的价值。通过计算该湿地生态功能的货币价值表明,只有兼具凌河口湿地资源的保护和合理的利用开发,才能实现凌河口湿地资源的可持续发展。%This paper conducts monetary value evaluation of ecosystem service function for Linghe estuarine wetland. The method of map data visual interpretation and function classification of the wetland is used to identify eight main functions of wetland ecosystem services, calculate monetary value to be 67.07× 10^8 yuan. The historical and cultural function has the largest ratio, followed by the material production function, which indicates the value of wetland is not limited to the material production function, the value of various functional services should be considered as well. By evaluating monetary value of the wetland's ecological function, we should have increasing awareness on scientific and environmental conservation and development of resources in Linghe River estuarine wet- land reasonably so as to achieve the purpose of sustainable development of Linghe estuarine wetland.

  16. 现代黄河三角洲滨海湿地生态水文环境脆弱性%Vulnerability of ecological environment in the modern Yellow River delta wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高茂生; 叶思源; 张国臣

    2012-01-01

    The ecological environment of the modern Yellow River delta wetland is getting more vulnerable under the influence of sea level rise, storm tide, shortage of discharge, extreme precipitation or evaporation, as well as human activities. A coastal wetland groundwater model was constructed by using Cl as a simulated factor. The results suggest that the change in shallow groundwater quality of the wetland depends upon the natural factors such as strong cutoff in the lower reaches and storm tide and human engineering activities. The coastal wetland would be submerged in the north without damp proof when the height of the storm tide reaches 2.4 m. The depth gradients of shallow groundwater and brackish water in sediments in the studied coastal delta wetland are the key factors to the vulnerability of ecological environment. The desalination of brackish water is derived by the joint action of groundwater dynamics, hydrochemistry and ocean tidal process.%受大气降水、黄河水位断流、风暴潮和人类工程活动等因素影响,现代黄河三角洲滨海湿地生态水文环境极其脆弱和敏感.本文运用地下水数值模拟方法,通过构建滨海湿地水文模型,以氯离子作为模拟因子,预测滨海湿地地下水趋势性变化.计算结果显示,湿地水位和盐度对湿地生长和发育起控制作用;黄河持续断流和强烈风暴潮对湿地水质影响明显;当风暴潮引起增水幅度超过正常潮高的2.4m,会造成沿海低地特别是北部未受防潮大坝保护的滨海湿地淹没.

  17. Applying science to conservation and restoration of the world's wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsch, W J

    2005-01-01

    The world has an estimated 7 to 9 million km2 of wetlands which can be defined through their hydrology, physiochemical environment, and biota. Many human cultures have lived in harmony with wetland environments for centuries. Many others have not, resulting in drainage or severe impact of wetlands throughout the world. Conservation of wetlands needs to be a priority for the cultural and ecological values they provide. But a more optimistic note is that large-scale restoration and re-creation of wetlands and riverine systems is beginning to happen throughout the world through ecological engineering. Examples of large-scale wetland restoration projects are presented for Delaware Bay, the Skjern River (Denmark), Florida Everglades, Louisiana Delta, the Mississippi River Basin, and the Mesopotamian Marshlands of Iraq.

  18. Coastal Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Area Cooperative Educational Services, New Haven, CT. Environmental Education Center.

    This material includes student guide sheets, reference materials, and tape script for the audio-tutorial unit on Inland Wetlands. A set of 35mm slides and an audio tape are used with the materials. The material is designed for use with Connecticut schools, but it can be adapted to other localities. The unit materials emphasize the structure,…

  19. Urban wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Salm, N.; Bellmann, C.; Hoeijmakers, S.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0533 Innovation & Sustainability. This is a manual meant for designers who are interested in water purifications within the boundaries of a project, presenting constructed wetlands. It is a guide to quickly provide you with project relevant

  20. Examining water quality effects of riparian wetland loss and restoration scenarios in a southern ontario watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanhong; Liu, Yongbo; Ou, Chunping; Gabor, Shane

    2016-06-01

    Wetland conservation has two important tasks: The first is to halt wetland loss and the second is to conduct wetland restoration. In order to facilitate these tasks, it is important to understand the environmental degradation from wetland loss and the environmental benefits from wetland restoration. The purpose of the study is to develop SWAT based wetland modelling to examine water quality effects of riparian wetland loss and restoration scenarios in the 323-km(2) Black River watershed in southern Ontario, Canada. The SWAT based wetland modelling was set up, calibrated and validated to fit into watershed conditions. The modelling was then applied to evaluate various scenarios of wetland loss from existing 7590 ha of riparian wetlands (baseline scenario) to 100% loss, and wetland restoration up to the year 1800 condition with 11,237 ha of riparian wetlands (100% restoration). The modelling was further applied to examine 100% riparian wetland loss and restoration in three subareas of the watershed to understand spatial pattern of water quality effects. Modelling results show that in comparing to baseline condition, the sediment, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) loadings increase by 251.0%, 260.5%, and 890.9% respectively for 100% riparian wetland loss, and decrease by 34.5%, 28.3%, and 37.0% respectively for 100% riparian wetland restoration. Modelling results also show that as riparian wetland loss increases, the corresponding environmental degradation worsens at accelerated rates. In contrast, as riparian wetland restoration increases, the environmental benefits improve but at decelerated rates. Particularly, the water quality effects of riparian wetland loss or restoration show considerable spatial variations. The watershed wetland modelling contributes to inform decisions on riparian wetland conservation or restoration at different rates. The results further demonstrate the importance of targeting priority areas for stopping riparian wetland loss

  1. Macrobenthos Community Structure and Water Quality Bioassessment in Anbang River Wetland%安邦河湿地底栖动物群落结构与水质生物评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘曼红; 陈欢; 阚春梅; 董雪

    2014-01-01

    分析了安邦河湿地底栖动物的物种组成与群落结构,同时利用Shannon-Wiener指数( H′)、生物学污染指数( BPI)和Chandler生物指数( CBI)对安邦河湿地水体污染状况进行了评价。共采集底栖动物431个,鉴定出底栖动物37种,隶属于5纲7目,其中昆虫纲种类最多,为27种,腹足纲4种,瓣鳃纲3种,寡毛纲2种,蛭纲1种。底栖动物优势种为卵萝卜螺( Radix ovate)和白旋螺( Gyraulus albus)。底栖动物的栖息密度较低,为(390±422)个· m-2。典型对应分析( CCA)表明,水深是影响安邦河湿地底栖动物物种分布的主要环境因子。安邦河湿地水质呈轻度污染状态。%We studied the species composition and community structure of the macrobenthos in the Anbang River Wetland in September 2012, and assessed the water quality of Anbang River Wetland with Shannon-Wiener lndex ( H′) , Biological pollution lndex ( BPI) and chandler biological lndex ( CBI) species composition and community structure.A total of 431 individuals were gathered, the species number was maximum order belonging to aquatic insects, 27 species, and 37 macro-benthos species were recorded belonging to 5 classes, 7 orders, including Gasteropod of 4 species, Lamellibranchiaof 3 species, Oligochaeta of 2 species, and Hirudinea of 1 species.Dominant species were Radix ovata and Gyraulus albus.The inhabit density was (390±422) ind./m2.We analyzed the relation of macrobenthos and environment factors by canonical correspondence analysis ( CCA) .Water depth was the main environment factor on the distribution of the macrobenthos spe-cies.The water quality assessment was medium-polluted in Anbang River Wetland.

  2. Hydrological science and wetland restoration: some case studies from Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acreman, M. C.; Fisher, J.; Stratford, C. J.; Mould, D. J.; Mountford, J. O.

    2007-01-01

    Throughout the world, wetlands are increasingly being recognised as important elements of the landscape because of their high biodiversity and goods and services they provide to mankind. After many decades of wetland destruction and conversion, large areas of wetlands are now protected under the International Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar) and regional or national legislation such as the European Union Habitats Directive. In many cases, there is a need to restore the ecological character of the wetland through appropriate water management. This paper provides examples of scientific knowledge of wetland hydrology that can guide such restoration. It focuses on the need for sound hydrological science on a range of issues including water level control, topography, flood storage, wetland connections with rivers and sustainability of water supply under climate change.

  3. Hydrological science and wetland restoration: some case studies from Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the world, wetlands are increasingly being recognised as important elements of the landscape because of their high biodiversity and goods and services they provide to mankind. After many decades of wetland destruction and conversion, large areas of wetlands are now protected under the International Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar and regional or national legislation such as the European Union Habitats Directive. In many cases, there is a need to restore the ecological character of the wetland through appropriate water management. This paper provides examples of scientific knowledge of wetland hydrology that can guide such restoration. It focuses on the need for sound hydrological science on a range of issues including water level control, topography, flood storage, wetland connections with rivers and sustainability of water supply under climate change.

  4. Uranium Immobilization in an Iron-Rich Rhizosphere of a Native Wetland Plant from the Savannah River Site under Reducing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hypothesis of this study was that iron plaque formed on the roots of wetland plants and their rhizospheres create environmental conditions favorable for iron reducing bacteria that promote the in situ immobilization of uranium. Greenhouse microcosm studies were conducted usin...

  5. Purification efficiencies of subsurface horizontal flow constructed wetland treating slightly polluted river water%潜流人工湿地对微污染河水的净化效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢飞; 黄磊; 高旭; 马晓霞; 刘明; 郭劲松

    2013-01-01

    Five identical subsurface horizontal flow constructed wetlands ( SHFCWs) with different plants were constructed to treat slightly polluted river water under field conditions. The changes of pH, DO and ORP between influent and effluent were monitored, and also the impact of temperature on purification efficiencies was studied. Results showed that there were almost no differences between influent and effluent to DO in all five SHFCWs. Except wetland planted with Canna indica, there was a similar situation to pH in the rest of four wetlands. Compared with ORP of influent, ORP of effluent increased in planted wetlands. Removal rates of pollutants in planted wetland were higher than that of blank wetland, and the removal efficiencies of NH4+ -N, TN and CODMn increased with temperature increasing, which could reach to 90% , 50% and 20% , respectively. But removal efficiency of TP had no obvious change, varied from 30% to 60% in planted wetlands. The results of correlation analyses showed that there were significant correlations between temperature and removal of NH4+ -N and TN. The correlation between temperature and removal of CODMn was poor for low CODMn in influent. Because particulate phosphorus (PP) was the main form in all sorts of phosphorus removal, there was almost no correlation between removal of TP and temperature.%为了探讨潜流人工湿地对微污染河水的净化效果,在野外条件下构建潜流人工湿地,分析了湿地中pH、氧化还原电位(ORP)和DO的进出水变化,考察了湿地中污染物的净化效果,探讨了温度对湿地净化效果的影响.各湿地进、出水DO浓度相差不大;除美人蕉湿地外,其余湿地出水pH较进水变化较小;植物湿地出水ORP较进水均有所增大.植物湿地对污染物的去除效果均优于空白湿地,且随着气温的升高,NH4+-N、TN和CODMn的去除率逐渐增加,去除率分别可达90%、50%和20%.TP去除率却未随温度发

  6. National Wetlands Inventory Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland point features (typically wetlands that are too small to be as area features at the data scale) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The...

  7. National Wetlands Inventory Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland area features mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National Wetlands Inventory is a national program sponsored by the US Fish and...

  8. The use of HJ-1A/B satellite data to detect changes in the size of wetlands in response in to a sudden turn from drought to flood in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River system in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the response in the size of wetlands to a sudden turn from drought to flood along the Yangtze River system in China. The wetlands and their spatial distributions in the provinces of Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Anhui and Jiangsu for three periods (April and May 2010, April and May 2011 and June and July 2011 were identified by the artificial visual interpretation of charge-coupled device images obtained in 2010 and 2011 by the HJ-1A and HJ-1B satellites. The sizes of the wetland areas of all five provinces in the three periods were 30,087.10, 23,427.68 and 31,346.49 km2, respectively, with the largest changes occurring in Jiangxi. Changes in the mean standardized precipitation index (SPI and its patterns of spatial distribution had similar trends to the changes in the size of the wetlands of each province in the three periods. SPI was positively correlated (R2 = 0.360, p < 0.05 with changes in the proportions of the wetlands during the drought. The mean SPI of the final period after the flood was positively correlated (R2 = 0.406, p < 0.01 with changes in the proportions of wetlands. Poyang Lake and Dongting Lake were impacted most by the flood, and Hongze Lake and Caohu Lake were the least affected.

  9. Ecological Species Groups of Wetland Vegetation on Lianbotan in Fen River, Shanxi%汾河连伯滩湿地植被生态种组

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦磊; 张峰

    2011-01-01

    根据42个野外样方调查资料,采用Fisher精确检验、Pearson相关系数和Spearman秩相关系数,研究汾河连伯滩湿地21个优势种的种间关系,结合组平均法的聚类结果,对生态种组进行了划分.结果表明:1)在210个种对中,Fisher精确检验结果表明共有16个种对为正关联,1个种对为负关联;Pearson相关系数有20个种对为正相关,5个种对为负相关;Spearman秩相关系数有34个种对为正相关,7个种对为负相关;2)在所有的种对中,大多数种对间表现为不显著关联,种间不显著相关,说明优势种群间生态位相对分离;3)综合种间关联、种间相关和聚类分析结果,将21个优势种划分成4个生态种组,分别是芦苇生态种组、赖草生态种组、白茅生态种组和野艾蒿生态种组,这4个生态种组反映了随水分条件变化连伯滩湿地植被群落的组成特征.%Interspecies relationships between the dominant species of wetland vegetation on Lianbotan in Fen River,Shanxi by Fishers exact test, Pearson's correlation coefficient and Spearman's rank correlation based on the data collected from 42 field plots. Ecological species groups of those dominant species were studied by using group averaging clustering.The results indicated that: Sixteen species-pairs had positive association coefficient and one species-pair had negative association coefficient by Fisher's exact test. In addition, 20 species-pairs had positive correlation coefficient and 5 species-pairs had negative correlation coefficient by Pearson's correlation analysis. Furthermore, 34 species-pairs displayed positive and 7 were negative correlations by Spearman. Associations and correlations between most species-pairs were not significant, which suggested that the dominant species distributed in an isolated pattern and their inches separated. On the basis of the results of association and correlation of those dominant species as well as that of analysis of clustering, those

  10. 长江对鄱阳湖退水期洲滩出露特征的影响%Influence of the Yangtze River Droughts on the Exposure Characteristics of the Poyang Lake Wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦凡; 张奇; 李云良; 姚静

    2016-01-01

    采用具有物理机制的二维水动力模型MIKE 21,基于2006年长江枯水与1953―2000年长江平均来水条件(平均条件)2种情景,模拟比较2种情景下鄱阳湖退水期(7―12月)洲滩出露过程,阐释长江来水变化对鄱阳湖洲滩出露特征的影响。结果表明:2006年长江来水减少导致鄱阳湖洲滩出露开始时间提前,与平均条件相比提前1个月;洲滩出露50%面积仅历时约0.5个月,比平均条件缩短约1.5个月;长江枯水对鄱阳湖洲滩出露分布影响最显著的时段为8―11月,8月上旬洲滩增加的出露面积主要分布在赣江入湖三角洲和东部湖湾,而8月中旬―11月末增加的出露面积主要分布在中部开敞湖区和北部入江通道洲滩;长江枯水对鄱阳湖中北部洲滩出露天数的影响大于南部湖区,对修水和赣江北支入湖三角洲的影响大于赣江中支和南支入湖三角洲,对鄱阳湖国家级自然保护区的影响明显大于南矶山自然保护区;长江来水变化还显著影响洲滩出露速率,2006年长江水情下洲滩自开始出露至到达最大出露面积(8月初―10月中旬)期间的平均出露速率(25 km2/d),与平均条件下洲滩自开始出露至到达最大出露面积(9月初―12月末)期间的平均出露速率(14.5 km2/d)相比增大了72%。%The variations in flow regime of the Yangtze River inevitable affect the hydrological condition in the Poyang Lake, and thus affect the spatial pattern of the exposure characteristics of the lake wetlands. In this study, we used a physically based hydrodynamic modeling (MIKE 21) to explore the influence of the Yangtze River droughts on the characteristics of spatial-temporal distribution of exposure area of the Poyang Lake. The objectives were achieved through the comparison of two simulation scenarios. One was the reference case representing for an average condition over a long period of 1953

  11. The role of wetlands in the hydrological cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bullock

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that wetlands have a significant influence on the hydrological cycle. Wetlands have therefore become important elements in water management policy at national, regional and international level. There are many examples where wetlands reduce floods, recharge groundwater or augment low flows. Less recognised are the many examples where wetlands increase floods, act as a barrier to recharge, or reduce low flows. This paper presents a database of 439 published statements on the water quantity functions of wetlands from 169 studies worldwide. This establishes a benchmark of the aggregated knowledge of wetland influences upon downstream river flows and groundwater aquifers. Emphasis is placed on hydrological functions relating to gross water balance, groundwater recharge, base flow and low flows, flood response and river flow variability. The functional statements are structured according to wetland hydrological type and the manner in which functional conclusions have been drawn. A synthesis of functional statements establishes the balance of scientific evidence for particular hydrological measures. The evidence reveals strong concurrence for some hydrological measures for certain wetland types. For other hydrological measures, there is diversity of functions for apparently similar wetlands. The balance of scientific evidence that emerges gives only limited support to the generalised model of flood control, recharge promotion and flow maintenance by wetlands portrayed throughout the 1990s as one component of the basis for wetland policy formulation. That support is confined largely to floodplain wetlands, while many other wetland types perform alternate functions – partly or fully. This paper provides the first step towards a more scientifically defensible functional assessment system. Keywords: wetlands, hydrological functions, flood reduction, groundwater recharge, low flows, evaporation

  12. Spatial modeling on the nutrient retention of an estuary wetland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Xiao, D.; Jongman, R.H.G.; Harms, W.B.; Bregt, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    There is a great potential to use the estuary wetland as a final filter for nutrient enriched river water, and reduce the possibility of coastal water eutrophication. Based upon field data, spatial models were designed on a stepwise basis to simulate the nutrient reduction function of the wetland in

  13. Kansas Playa Wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital dataset provides information about the distribution, areal extent, and morphometry of playa wetlands throughout western Kansas. Playa wetlands were...

  14. Influence of hydrologic loading rate on phosphorus retention and ecosystem productivity in created wetlands. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsch, W.J.; Cronk, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    Four 2- to 3-ha constructed freshwater riparian wetlands in Lake County, Illinois, were subjected to two hydrologic regimes of pumped river water to simulate nonpoint source pollution. The experimental wetlands at the Des Plaines River Wetland Demonstration Project were designed to develop and test wetland design principles, construction methods, and management programs needed to create and maintain wetlands for the purposes of water quality management, flood control, and fish and wildlife habitat. High-flow wetlands (HFW) with short retention times received 34 to 38 cm of river water per week, and low-flow wetlands (LFW) with high retention times received 10 to 15 cm per week. This report summarizes research results for phosphorus dynamics and retention, macrophyte development, periphyton productivity, and overall water column metabolism through 1992. All of these functions were hypothesized to be related to hydrologic conditions.

  15. 黄河三角洲滨海湿地健康条件评价概念模型%A Conceptual Model for the Assessment of Coastal Wetlands Health in the Yellow River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶思源; SMITH Gregory Jame; 高茂生; 丁喜桂; 刘强

    2009-01-01

    滨海湿地健康与生物学特征主要取决于区域上的水文与盐度体制以及景观尺度上的土地利用现状.然而,由于滨海湿地条件评价的指标和标准并不十分清楚,因此,对滨海湿地系统条件进行评价,目前仍是环境科学的难点.中国地质调查局(CGS)青岛海洋地质研究所与美国地质调查局湿地研究中心合作先后为美国密西西比河下游生态环境及中国黄河三角洲(YRD)滨海湿地评价建立了概念模型.本文将陈述YRD湿地评价的概念模型.此模型的建立在于确定滨海湿地当前的条件和随时间改善或退化的过程,以及确定优先管理的区域.CGS项目之所以选取YRD作为滨海湿地的研究对象主要是因为它具有重要的生态意义.由于上游来水减少或黄河断流,该区湿地生境十分脆弱.本文提出此概念模型可为今后湿地条件评价指标确定、调查研究活动和数据采集提供指导.通过该模型的构建,使环境变化可用具体指标来度量,从而服务于滨海湿地生态系统的保护与管理活动.%The physical and biological nature of coastal wetlands is fundamentally controlled by its hydrologic and salinity regimes and by its setting within a landscape mosaic of natural and human land uses. Assessing the health of coastal wetlands, however, remains a problem because no clear set of criteria for estimating this ecosystem. The Qingdao Institute of Marine Geology,China Geological Survey (CGS) and National wetlands research center, U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) joint great efforts to successively develop both conceptual models for coast and environmental geology in the Lower Mississippi Valley (LMV) and evaluating the health condition of coastal wetlands in Yelllow River Delta (YRD). The later effort will be presented in this article. This conceptual model is to identify geologic or anthropogenic processes that control ecosystem structure and function and response to drivers

  16. 闽江口湿地互花米草地上生物量的月动态特征%Monthly Dynamics of Aboveground Biomass of Spartina Alterniflora in Minjiang River Estuary Wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽纯; 林瑞坤; 吴振海; 陈家金; 杨凯; 徐宗焕

    2009-01-01

    The Minjiang River estuary wetland, one of the most important wetlands in Fujian province, China, is currently being increasingly dominated by alien invasive species Spartina alterniflora, causing its native species such as Phragmites australis and habitats for animals to be dangerous. The S. alterniflora has been spreading rapidly since its invasion in year 2004. However, there are still no effective measures to deal with these problems, with showing little research about the treatment for protecting native species over this area. The authors carefully examined the invasive situation regarding S. alterniflora over the Minjiang river estuary wetland in Shanyu floodplain, whose edge was seriously dominated by S. alterniflora in year 2008. Based on observations of community characteristics including aboveground biomass, height and density of S. alterniflora in the Minjiang river estuary wetland from March to October in 2008, monthly dynamics of aboveground biomass, average height, average density, absolute growth rate and absolute growth rate of aboveground biomass of S. alterniflora were extensively investigated. A correlation analysis among aboveground biomass, average height and average density were also performed. Field investigations of aboveground biomass were conducted by a harvest method, randomly selecting four 0.5m×0.5m quadrats in the study site. Results indicated that: l) from March to October, the aboveground biomass first increased, peaked in the middle of July with a maximum of 2658.9g/m~2, thereafter decreased from late July to the middle of August, and slowly increased from the late August to the middle of October; 2) the absolute growth rate reached a maximum of 32.48g/(m~2·d) from May to June, fluctuating thereafter. A negative value of-21.63 g/(m~2·d) even occurred from July to August; 3) the relative growth rate reached a maximum of 0.043g/(g·d) from pril to May and a negative value of-0.009g/(g·d) was also observed from July to August; 4

  17. THE SOURCES OF NUTRIENTS IN WATERS OF RIVERS IN THE WETLAND AREAS OF NAREW NATIONAL PARK IN NORTH-EASTERN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Skorbiłowicz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at the attempt to identify and to evaluate the interaction intensity, and to classify the sources of river waters nutrients in the catchment of upper river Narew within Narew National Park (north-eastern Poland. The studies were carried out on Narew river within borders of Narew National Park, where 5 measurement-control points were localized as well as one near estuaries of its 5 tributaries (Awissa, Czaplinianka, Horodnianka, Turośnianka and Supraśl. Factor analysis (FA from multi-dimensional group was applied for statistical processing of study results, because it is commonly used to describe and explore a large number of data. concentrations of analyzed chemicals depended on a water sampling point that was under anthropopression and geogenic conditions. Studies and results from analyses (FA and CA allowed for identifying the main sources of river Narew nutrients within Narew National Park. These are: tributaries of river Narew, point and distributed runoffs, as well as shallow ground waters that transport components having anthropogenic and partially geogenic-lithologic origin. River Turośnianka supplies the largest loads of studied parameters to river Narew within Narew National Park boundaries. River Supraśl is the most contaminated tributary of river Narew.

  18. Study on Remote Sensing Information Extraction in Wetland of The Yellow River%黄河河口湿地信息遥感提取研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹永刚; 李晓兵

    2013-01-01

      本文通过几何校正、图像选取以及图像增强等方式进行了遥感影像的预处理,为准确地提取湿地信息提供了数据基础。在舍弃单纯的传统监督分类和非监督分类的前提下提出了一种利用分层提取地物信息的新方法:即,首先根据地物的光谱特征采用模型法对有水的湿地进行提取,然后用非监督分类对其它湿地类型进行提取,最终得到了湿地类型分布图及其相应的面积。%In this paper, we through the geometric correction, image selection and image enhancement method of RS image processing, provides the data basis for accurately extract wetland information.In abandon traditional supervised classification and unsupervised classification of simple premise has put forward a new method of information extraction using hierarchical: namely, according to the spectral characteristics of object model method to extract water wet, and then use unsupervised classification to extract other wetland types, finally get the distribution map and the corresponding area of wetland types.

  19. Strength in Numbers: Describing the Flooded Area of Isolated Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terrie M.; Haag, Kim H.

    2006-01-01

    others (2005) documents bathymetric mapping approaches, the frequency of flooding in different areas of the wetlands, and the relation between flooding and vegetation in these wetlands. This fact sheet describes bathymetric mapping approaches and partial results from two natural marshes (Hillsborough River State Park Marsh, and Green Swamp Marsh) and one impaired marsh (W-29 Marsh) that is located on a municipal well field and is affected by ground-water withdrawals. (fig. 1).

  20. Evaluation of Ecological Environment in Jingxin Wetland Using Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN; Hui; ZHAO; Hai-qing; GUO; Xiao-dong; DU; Ji-zhong

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]The study aimed to assess the ecological environment in Jingxin wetland using analytic hierarchy process (AHP). [Method]Based on the field survey on Jingxin wetland in the downstream of Tumen River, as well as domestic and international indicators and methods of wetland ecological evaluation, ten indicators reflecting the environmental protection function, functions of the ecological system and social and cultural value of the wetland were selected to evaluate the ecological environment of Jingxin wetland using AHP. [Result] The comprehensive evaluation index ( CEI ) of Jingxin wetland was 0.7124, namely 0.7wetland was better on the whole. Among the ten indicators, the functions of regulating flood, water supply, climate regulation, tourism and being an important animal habitat played important roles in the determination of the wetland value. [Conclusion]The research could provide theoretical foundations for the protection of ecological environment in Jingxin wetland.

  1. Evaluation of Ecological Environment in Jingxin Wetland Using Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN; Hui; ZHAO; Hai-qing; GUO; Xiao-dong; DU; Ji-zhong

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]The study aimed to assess the ecological environment in Jingxin wetland using analytic hierarchy process (AHP). [Method]Based on the field survey on Jingxin wetland in the downstream of Tumen River, as well as domestic and international indicators and methods of wetland ecological evaluation, ten indicators reflecting the environmental protection function, functions of the ecological system and social and cultural value of the wetland were selected to evaluate the ecological environment of Jingxin wetland using AHP. [Result] The comprehensive evaluation index ( CEI ) of Jingxin wetland was 0.7124, namely 0.7CEI≤1.0, showing that the ecological environment in Jingxin wetland was better on the whole. Among the ten indicators, the functions of regulating flood, water supply, climate regulation, tourism and being an important animal habitat played important roles in the determination of the wetland value. [Conclusion]The research could provide theoretical foundations for the protection of ecological environment in Jingxin wetland.

  2. Hazards and Bioremediation of Oil-pollutants in Soil Yellow River Delta and Coastal Wetland%黄河三角洲滨海湿地土壤石油污染危害及生物修复技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦玉广; 刘超; 李秀启; 陈秀丽; 陈有光; 董贯仓; 刘峰; 王亚楠; 冷春梅; 朱士文

    2011-01-01

    概述了黄河三角洲滨海湿地土壤石油污染现状和石油污染物对该地区土壤、水、空气以及对人类自身造成的危害,论述了石油污染土壤的各种生物修复技术特点及适用范围,并对生物修复技术的研究进展进行了热点分析,最后结合“蓝、黄”两大发展战略对黄河三角洲滨海湿地石油污染土壤修复治理进行了展望.%The status of oil-contaminated soil in the Yellow River delta and coastal wetland region and its hazards to soil, water, air, and human being in the area were overviwed in this article. Then varieties of bioremediation techniques, their characteriazation and utilization scope were outlined; and the research focus of the bioremediation was reviewed. In the end, accompanied by two national economic development strategies: "Eco-efficient Yellow River Delta Economic Zone Development Plan" & "Blue Shandong Peninsula Economic Zone Development Plan", the procspect of Oil-contaminated soil remediation was briefly presented.

  3. Flora characteristics of Chenier Wetland in Bohai Bay and biogeographic relations with adjacent wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanyun; Lu, Zhaohua; Liu, Jingtao; Hu, Shugang

    2017-01-01

    A key step towards the restoration of heavily disturbed fragile coastal wetland ecosystems is determining the composition and characteristics of the plant communities involved. This study determined and characterized the community of higher plants in the Chenier wetland of Bohai Bay using a combination of field surveys, quadrat approaches, and multivariate statistical analyses. This community was then compared to other adjacent wetlands (Tianjin, Qinhuangdao, Laizhouwan, Jiaozhouwan, and Yellow River Delta wetland) located near the Huanghai and Bohai Seas using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). Results showed a total of 56 higher plant species belonging to 52 genera from 20 families in Chenier wetland, the majority of which were dicotyledons. Single-species families were predominant, while larger families, including Gramineae, Compositae, Leguminosae, and Chenopodiaceae contained a higher number of species (each⩾6 species). Cosmopolitan species were also dominant with apparent intrazonality. Abundance (number of species) of temperate species was twice that of tropical taxa. Species number of perennial herbs, such as Gramineae and Compositae, was generally higher. Plant diversity in the Chenier wetland, based on the Shannon-Wiener index, was observed to be between the Qinhuangdao and Laizhouwan indices, while no significant difference was found in other wetlands using the Simpson index. Despite these slight differences in diversity, PCoA based on species abundance and composition of the wetland flora suggest that the Bohai Chenier community was highly similar to the coastal wetlands in Tianjin and Laizhouwan, further suggesting that these two wetlands could be important breeding grounds and resources for the restoration of the plant ecosystem in the Chenier wetland.

  4. Differential assessment of designations of wetland status using two delineation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meiyin; Kalma, Dennis; Treadwell-Steitz, Carol

    2014-07-01

    Two different methods are commonly used to delineate and characterize wetlands. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ACOE) delineation method uses field observation of hydrology, soils, and vegetation. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wetland Inventory Program (NWI) relies on remote sensing and photointerpretation. This study compared designations of wetland status at selected study sites using both methods. Twenty wetlands from the Wetland Boundaries Map of the Ausable-Boquet River Basin (created using the revised NWI method) in the Ausable River watershed in Essex and Clinton Counties, NY, were selected for this study. Sampling sites within and beyond the NWI wetland boundaries were selected. During the summers of 2008 and 2009, wetland hydrology, soils, and vegetation were examined for wetland indicators following the methods described in the ACOE delineation manual. The study shows that the two methods agree at 78 % of the sampling sites and disagree at 22 % of the sites. Ninety percent of the sampling locations within the wetland boundaries on the NWI maps were categorized as ACOE wetlands with all three ACOE wetland indicators present. A binary linear logistic regression model analyzed the relationship between the designations of the two methods. The outcome of the model indicates that 83 % of the time, the two wetland designation methods agree. When discrepancies are found, it is the presence or absence of wetland hydrology and vegetation that causes the differences in delineation.

  5. Ohio Uses Wetlands Program Development Grants to Protect Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wetland water quality standards require the use of ORAM score to determine wetland quality. OEPA has also used these tools to evaluate wetland mitigation projects, develop performance standards for wetland mitigation banks and In Lieu Fee programs an.

  6. Using aerated gravel-packed contact bed and constructed wetland system for polluted river water purification: A case study in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. L.; Tu, Y. T.; Chiang, P. C.; Chen, S. H.; Kao, C. M.

    2015-06-01

    The Ju-Liao Stream is one of the most contaminated streams in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. A constructed wetland (CW) system was built in 2010 for polluted stream water purification and ecosystem improvement. An aerated gravel-packed contact bed (CB) system was built in 2011 and part of the stream water was treated by the CB before discharging to the CW. The influent rates of the CW and CB were approximately 5570 and 900 m3/d, respectively. The CW contained one free-water surface basin planted with emergent wetland plants, followed by the plug-flow channel-shaped free-water surface basin planted with emergent and floating wetland plants. The mean measured hydraulic loading rate (HLR), hydraulic retention time (HRT), water depth, and total volume of wetland system were 1.7 m/d, 0.68 d, 0.7 m, and 4400 m3, respectively. The aeration zone of the CB system had a dimension of 24 m (L) × 8 m (W) × 3 m (H), which was filled with gravels (average diameter = 5 cm) with a porosity of 0.4, and the aeration rate was 7.8 m3/min. Results show that the CB system was able to remove 69% of suspended solid (SS), 86% of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and 58% of total nitrogen (TN). Up to 82% of BOD and 27% of TN could be removed in the CW system. Removal efficiency of SS was affected by the growth of chlorophyll a in the CW system due to the growth of algae. The observed first-order decay rates (k) for BOD and TN in CB were 9.3 and 4.2 1/d, and the k values for BOD and TN removal in CW were 2.5 and 0.45 1/d. The high pollutant removal efficiencies in the CB system indicate that the system could enhance the organic and nutrient removal through the biological processes effectively. Sediments contained high total organic matter (1.9-4.5%), sediment total nitrogen (6.4-10.1 g/kg), sediment total phosphorus (0.59-0.94 g/kg), and sediment oxygen demand (0.9-4.1 g O2/m2 d). The organic and nutrient-abundant sediments resulted in reduced conditions (oxidation-reduction potential measurements

  7. Contamination assessment of arsenic and heavy metals in a typical abandoned estuary wetland--a case study of the Yellow River Delta Natural Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhenglei; Sun, Zhigao; Zhang, Hua; Zhai, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Coastal and estuarine areas are often polluted by heavy metals that result from industrial production and agricultural activities. In this study, we investigated the concentration trait and vertical pattern of trace elements, such as As, Cd, Ni, Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cr, and the relationship between those trace elements and the soil properties in coastal wetlands using 28 profiles that were surveyed across the Diaokouhe Nature Reserve (DKHNR). The goal of this study is to investigate profile distribution characteristics of heavy metals in different wetland types and their variations with the soil depth to assess heavy metal pollution using pollution indices and to identify the pollution sources using multivariate analysis and sediment quality guidelines. Principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and pollution level indices were applied to evaluate the contamination conditions due to wetland degradation. The findings indicated that the concentration of trace elements decreased with the soil depth, while Cd increases with soil depth. The As concentrations in reed swamps and Suaeda heteroptera surface layers were slightly higher than those in other land use types. All six heavy metals, i.e., Ni, Cu, As, Zn, Cr, and Pb, were strongly associated with PC1 (positive loading) and could reflect the contribution of natural geological sources of metals into the coastal sediments. PC2 is highly associated with Cd and could represent anthropogenic sources of metal pollution. Most of the heavy metals exhibited significant positive correlations with total concentrations; however, no significant correlations were observed between them and the soil salt and soil organic carbon. Soil organic carbon exhibited a positive linear relationship with Cu, Pb, and Zn in the first soil layer (0-20 cm); As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the second layer (20-40 cm); and As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the third layer (40-60 cm). Soil organic carbon exhibited only a negative correlation with Cd (P

  8. Winter vegetation composition and the purification effect of a cascaded wetland along the Jialu River%贾鲁河梯级河滩湿地冬季植被构建及净化效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭萧; 叶许春; 俞士敏; 李文朝

    2011-01-01

    在地处黄河之滨的河南郑州建设运行梯级河滩湿地净化贾鲁河水,技术示范工程在2009年夏、秋季节取得了良好的水质净化效果,为了验证冬季沉水植物对水质净化的效果,用菹草、伊乐藻、西伯利亚鸢尾等耐低温植物组建冬季湿地植被,研究了冬季植被的发育情况和水质净化效果.结果表明,菹草和伊乐藻这两种沉水植物能够在冬季湿地中成活并发育形成覆盖度最高达50%的植被,西伯利亚鸢尾全部成活并能发出新叶.在水力负荷为140 mm·d-1的连续运行状态下,湿地对河水中TN、TP、NH4+-N和CODcr的平均去除率分别为32%、67%、55%和29%,并且随着冬季植被的逐渐发育净化效果得到加强.冬季城市排水中的余热可以为在接纳河流中开展河滩梯级湿地水质净化提供有利条件,适当增加水深并利用菹草、伊乐藻等耐寒植物组建沉水植被是可行的.%A cascaded surface-flow constructed wetland with a total area of 7400 m , was constructed along the Jialu River floodplain in Zhengzhou city of Henan province. The substrate was high viscosity silt loam. The purification effect of the cascaded wetland was excellent in summer and autumn of 2009, then winter vegetation was composed with Potamogeton crispus, Elodea canadensis and Iris sibirica and the vegetation development and purification effect were observed continuously. Potamogeton crispus and Elodea canadensis survived and vegetation coverage stood at 50% . Iris sibirica all survived and issued new leaves. Our results indicated that the average removal rates of nitrogen, phosphorus, ammonia and CODCr were 32% , 67% , 55% and 29% respectively with hydraulic loading of 140 mm·d-1 . The purification effect was strengthened with the gradual development of the vegetation. This study demonstrated that a wetland with reasonable winter aquatic plants and species composition can ultimately improve the

  9. Modeling the hydrological significance of wetland restoration scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Martinez, Edwin; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Woznicki, Sean A; Love, Bradley J

    2014-01-15

    Wetlands provide multiple socio-economic benefits, among them mitigating flood through short- and long-term water storage functions and assisting with reduction of downstream flood peaks. However, their effectiveness in controlling floods is dictated by wetland size and distribution within a watershed. Due to the complexity of wetland hydrological processes at the watershed scale, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to study the impact of wetland restoration on streamflow rates and peaks in the Shiawassee River watershed of Michigan. Wetland restoration scenarios were developed based on combinations of wetland area (50, 100, 250, and 500 ha) and wetland depth (15, 30, 61, and 91 cm). Increasing wetland area, rather than depth, had a greater impact on long-term average daily streamflow. Wetland implementation resulted in negligible reductions in daily peak flow rates and frequency of peak flow events at the watershed outlet. In developing high impact areas for wetland restoration, similar locations were identified for reduction of subbasin and watershed outlet streamflow. However, the best combinations of area/depth differed depending on the goal of the restoration plan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Wonderful Wetlands: An Environmental Education Curriculum Guide for Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King County Parks Div., Redmond, WA.

    This curriculum guide was designed to give teachers, students, and society a better understanding of wetlands in the hope that they learn why wetlands should be valued and preserved. It explores what is meant by wetlands, functions and values of wetlands, wetland activities, and wetland offerings which benefit animal and plant life, recreation,…

  11. [On the identification of the species Griphobilharzia amoena Platt, Blair, Purdie et Melville, 1991, a parasite of crocodiles in Australia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimov, D A; Filimonova, L V; Shakabroev, É B; Akramova, F D

    2011-01-01

    The results of the study of typical specimens of the trematode G. amoena from blood vessels of the crocodile Crocodylus johnstoni in Australia are provided. The data obtained on the morphology of this parasite did not confirm the statement of Platt et al. (1991) that this species belongs to the family Schistosomatidae. Morphological data on G. amoena enable attributing it to the genus Vasotrema of the family Spirorchidae as a new species. In this connection, the monotypical genus Griphobilharzia (justified by Platt et al., 1991) becomes a synonym of the genus Vasotrema, while the subfamily Griphobilharziinae becomes a synonym of the subfamily Hapalotrematinae.

  12. Environmental Assessment for the Bear Creek Dam and Lake Project Master Plan, South Platte River, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    offers easy access to nearby scenic attractions including Bandimere Speedway, Red Rocks Park and Amphitheatre, Dinosaur Ridge, William F. Hayden Park on...access to nearby scenic attractions including Bandimere Speedway, Red Rocks Park and Amphitheatre, Dinosaur Ridge, William F. Hayden Park on Green

  13. SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL RESILIENCE AND LAW IN THE PLATTE RIVER BASIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficiency and resistance to rapid change are hallmarks of both the judicial and legislative branches of the United States government. These defining characteristics, while bringing stability and predictability, pose challenges when it comes to managing dynamic natural systems. A...

  14. SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL RESILIENCE AND LAW IN THE PLATTE RIVER BASIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficiency and resistance to rapid change are hallmarks of both the judicial and legislative branches of the United States government. These defining characteristics, while bringing stability and predictability, pose challenges when it comes to managing dynamic natural systems. A...

  15. SWS European Chapter Meeting on wetland restoration-Challenges and opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Carl Christian; Brix, Hans; Kronvang, Brian B.

    2014-01-01

    1. Introduction Wetland loss and degradation in Europe have been extreme andare still ongoing. By way of example, at least two-thirds of all shal-low lakes, bogs and wet meadows have been lost in Denmark since1784. The challenge for wetland scientists in Europe is to reversethe loss of wetlands...... and promote the protection of existing wet-lands and work for restoration of degraded wetlands.The EU Habitats Directive (HD) and the EU Water FrameworkDirective (WFD) are important policy instruments in wetland con-servation. Thus, restoration of wetlands and constructed wetlandshave become increasingly...... popular as mitigation options in RiverBasin Management Plans under the WFD to reduce nitrogen andphosphorus losses from fields to catchments.An important task for wetland scientists is to enhance our basicand applied understanding of the interlinked hydrological, bio-geochemical and ecological processes...

  16. Distribution Characteristics and Pollution Assessment of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments in Dagu River Wetland%大沽河湿地表层沉积物重金属分布特征及污染评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐勇; 马绍赛; 陈聚法; 赵俊; 夏斌; 崔正国

    2012-01-01

    胶州湾属半封闭海湾,水体交换能力较弱,受多条河流人海影响,污染日趋加重,通过大沽河的径流量、输沙量和溶解污染物占到胶州湾人海河流的首位.根据区域特征,于2009年2、5、8、11月对大沽河湿地48个采样点表层沉积物中的Cu、Zn、Pb、Cd、Hg、As、有机碳、粒度进行测定,探讨了重金属含量和污染特征与总有机碳、粒度的关系,利用污染评价法和潜在生态风险评价法进行污染和风险分析.结果表明:胶州湾大沽河湿地表层沉积物重金属含量较低,大部分测站符合海洋沉积物质量(GB 18668-2002)Ⅰ类标准的要求.表层沉积物中Cu、Pb、Zn含量8月份最高、2月份次之、5月份最低.Pb、Hg、As 3种重金属含量在2月份最高.Cu、Pb、Zn和Cd重金属之间存在显著正相关关系,Hg与As存在明显的相关关系:除Cd和As外的4种重金属与沉积物粘土、有机碳含量之间也存在显著正相关性.重金属单因子污染程度总体较轻,属于低污染水平,污染程度依次为Hg>Cd>Pb>Cu>As>Zn.大沽河河口区表层沉积物重金属潜在生态风险总体处于较低水平,风险程度依次为Hg>Cd>Pb>Cu>As>Zn.%Jiaozhou Bay is a semi-enclosed bay of weak water exchange capacity, the pollution is increasingly heavier for the rivers into the sea, the account of river runoff, sediment and dissolved pollutants into the sea through Dagu River are the first in all the rivers for Jiaozhou Bay. According to the characteristics of Dagu Kiver, the contents of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Hg, As, clay and organic carbon in the 48 surface sediments samples in the wetland of Dagu River were measured, in February, May, August, November of 2009. Firstly, the content and distributed characteristics of these heavy metals, and the relevance with different particle size and organic carbon were discussed, and methods of pollution assessment and the potential ecological risk assessment were used

  17. Denitrification and a nitrogen budget of created riparian wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, Jacqulyn A; Mander, Ulo; Mitsch, William J

    2012-01-01

    Riparian wetland creation and restoration have been proposed to mediate nitrate-nitrogen (NO-N) pollution from nonpoint agricultural runoff. Denitrification by anaerobic microbial communities in wetland soils is believed to be one of the main sinks for NO-N as it flows through wetlands. Denitrification rates were quantified using an in situ acetylene inhibition technique at 12 locations in three wetland/riverine sites at the Olentangy River Wetland Research Park, Columbus, Ohio for 1 yr. Sites included two created flow-through experimental wetlands and one bottomland forest/river-edge site. Points were spatially distributed at inflows, center, and outflows of the two wetlands to include permanently flooded open water, intermittently flooded transitions, and upland. Annual denitrification rates (median [mean]) were significantly higher ( wetlands (266 [415] μg NO-N m h) than in shallower transition zones (58 [37.5] μg NO-N m h). Median wetland transition zone denitrification rates did not differ significantly ( ≥ 0.05) from riverside or upland sites. Denitrification rates peaked in spring; for the months of April through June, median denitrification rates ranged from 240 to 1010 μg NO-N m h in the permanently flooded zones. A N mass balance analysis showed that surface water flux of N was reduced by 57% as water flowed through the wetland, but only about 3.5% of the N inflow was permanently removed through denitrification. Most N was probably lost through groundwater seepage. Comparison with denitrification rates measured previously in these wetlands suggests that these rates have remained steady over the past 4 to 5 yr.

  18. Percent Wetland Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  19. Percent Wetland Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  20. VSWI Wetlands Advisory Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset represents the DEC Wetlands Program's Advisory layer. This layer makes the most up-to-date, non-jurisdictional, wetlands mapping avaiable to the public...

  1. Why are wetlands important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, comparable to rain forests and coral reefs. An immense variety of species of microbes, plants, insects, amphibians, reptiles, birds, fish, and mammals can be part of a wetland ecosystem.

  2. Artesian Wetlands Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Artesian Wetlands Survey includes data on the wetlands in the San Luis Valley in Colorado. Data recorded includes location, area of influence, area inundated,...

  3. Wetland Program Pilot Grants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Wetland Grant Database (WGD) houses grant data for Wetland Program Development Grants (created by EPA in 1990 under the Clean Water Act Section 104(b)(3)...

  4. Improving wetland mapping techniques

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mapping wetland extent, structure and invasives using radar imagery. Acquiring optical, thermal, LIDAR, and RADAR images and analysis for improved wetland mapping,...

  5. Modoc wetlands study plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Study plan for Modoc Wetlands Study: An assessment of the probable responses of selected wildlife to wetlands management on the Modoc National Forest.

  6. River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The OECD report “Boosting Resilience through Innovative Risk Governance” examines the efforts of OECD countries to prevent or reduce future disaster impacts, and highlights several key areas where improvements can be made. International collaboration is insufficiently utilised to address shocks that have increasingly global consequences. Institutional design plays a significant role in facilitating or hampering the engagement and investments of governmental and non-governmental stakeholders in disaster risk prevention and mitigation. To inform the design of “better” institutions, the OECD proposes the application of a diagnostic framework that helps governments identify institutional shortcomings and take actions to improve them. The goal of the case study on the Rhone River is to conduct an analysis of the progress, achievements and existing challenges in designing and implementing disaster risk reduction strategies through the Rhone Plan from a comparative perspective across a set of selected countries of this study, like Austria and Switzerland, will inform how to improve institutional frameworks governing risk prevention and mitigation. The case study will be used to identify examples of successful practice taking into account their specific country contexts, and analyse their potential for policy transfer.

  7. 黄河三角洲新生湿地土壤金属元素空间分布特征%Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Metals in New-born Coastal Wetlands in the Yellow River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于君宝; 马向明; 董洪芳; 王慧彬; 陈小兵; 谢文军; 毛培利; 高永军; 单凯; 陈景春

    2011-01-01

    Applying method of samples with transects, the spatial distributions of 12 kinds of soil metal elements (Na, Mg, Ca, Al, Cr, Pb, Sr, Co, Ga, V, Ni and Ti) in the new-born coastal wetland of the Yellow River delta were studied by laying two transects running riverward to seaward. The results showed that, from the Yellow River bank to salt beach, 11 kinds of metals except Ti showed increasing trend gradually. The contents of all of studied metal elements in 0-30 cm soil depth were much higher than those in inland marsh. Comparing with soil background values of the study area, heavy metals of Cr, Pb and Ni were all at light pollution level in soil of the Yellow River Delta. The variation differences in soil profile were significant for all metal elements. The contents of Na and Sr increased with soil depth, while inverse variations of Ca and Mg were observed, the variations of Pb, Co, Ga, V, Ni and Ti contents showed an 'S' shape in soil profile. Correlation analysis showed that there were extremely significant positive correlations of contents of total organic carbon, total nitrogen, NO3~-N and contents of Ca, Mg, Al, V, Co, Ga, Sr, Cr, Ni and Pb in studied soils. The results indicates that the contents of total organic carbon, total nitrogen, NO3--N were key factors for soil adsorption of metal elements in new-born coastal wetlands of the Yellow River Delta%采用样带布点法,研究了黄河三角洲新生滨海湿地从黄河岸边至盐滩不同植物带上12种金属元素(Na、Mg、Ca、Al、Cr、Pb、Sr、Co、Ga、V、Ni和Ti)空间分布特征.结果表明,由黄河岸边至盐滩方向,除Ti以外,土壤中其他11种金属元素含量均呈逐渐升高的趋势;0~30 cm表层土壤中各金属元素含量均高于内陆沼泽;将土壤背景值作为标准,黄河三角洲土壤重金属Cr、Pb和Ni处于轻微污染状态;各金属元素在剖面上的变化差异较大,总体上Na和Sr含量随着剖面深度的增加而逐渐升高,Ca和Mg则表

  8. Interactions between river stage and wetland vegetation detected with a Seasonality Index derived from LANDSAT images in the Apalachicola delta, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagherazzi, S.; Toffolon, M.; la Cecilia, D.; Woodcock, C. E.

    2016-12-01

    The distribution of swamp floodplain vegetation and its evolution in the lower non-tidal reaches of the Apalachicola River, Florida USA, is mapped using Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (TM/ETM+) images captured over a period of 29 years. A newly developed seasonality index (SI), the ratio of the NDVI in winter months to the summer months, shows that the hardwood swamp, dominated by bald cypress and water tupelo, is slowly replaced by bottomland hardwood forest. This forest shift is driven by lower water levels in the Apalachicola River in the last 30 years, and predominantly occurs in the transitional area between low floodplains and high river banks. A negative correlation between maximum summer NDVI and water levels in winter suggests the growth of more vigorous vegetation in the vicinity of sloughs during years with low river flow. A negative correlation with SI further indicates that these vegetation patches are possibly replaced by species typical of drier floodplain conditions.

  9. Wetlands and infectious diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Robert H. Zimmerman

    2001-01-01

    There is a historical association between wetlands and infectious disease that has led to the modification of wetlands to prevent disease. At the same time there has been the development of water resources projects that increase the risk of disease. The demand for more water development projects and the increased pressure to make natural wetlands economically beneficial creates the need for an ecological approach to wetland management and health assessment. The environmental and health intera...

  10. Redeeming the Weeping Wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Renowned as the"Kidneys of the Earth,"wetlands are one of the three major ecosystems of the planet,along with forests and seas.With 10 percent of the world’s wetlands,China ranks number one in terms of the area of wetlands in Asia,and fourth in the world.China’s wetlands are abundant in type(containing all-natural and man-made types listed in the Convention

  11. "We Were Beet Workers, and that Was All": Beet Field Laborers in the North Platte Valley, 1902-1930

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Dustin

    2011-01-01

    The experiences of the men, women, and children who labored in the beet fields of the North Platte Valley changed significantly as the sugar beet industry went through a period of rapid expansion prior to 1920 and then reached a relatively stable plateau. During the period of expansion, laborers were attracted by promises of reasonable wages, good…

  12. "We Were Beet Workers, and that Was All": Beet Field Laborers in the North Platte Valley, 1902-1930

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Dustin

    2011-01-01

    The experiences of the men, women, and children who labored in the beet fields of the North Platte Valley changed significantly as the sugar beet industry went through a period of rapid expansion prior to 1920 and then reached a relatively stable plateau. During the period of expansion, laborers were attracted by promises of reasonable wages, good…

  13. WETLAND TYPES AND ASSOCIATE VEGETATION IN NEPAL:AN OVERVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohan Siwakoti

    2007-01-01

    Wetland is the transitional zone between the permanently wet and dry environment and shares the characteristics of the environment. Wetland is not yet to be classified unambiguously as either aquatic or terrestrial. However, the Ramsar Convention adopts an extremely broad approach in determining the wetland; as a result, several varieties of habitat types are included under the wetland definition. Wetlands are among the world's most productive ecosystems and provide a wide variety of goods and services. Nepal lies on the southern slopes of central Himalayas and occupies a total area of 147 181 km2 between the latitudes 26°22′ N and 30°27′ N and the longitudes 80°40′ E and 88°12′ E. The diverse landscape (60-8 848 m) and bioclimatic conditions (alpine to tropical) of the country provide a unique niche for different types of wetlands. These are distributed from high altitudinal glacial lakes to hot springs, ponds, ox-bow lakes to river floodplains, marshes and swamps. The country has 15 types of inland freshwater natural wetlands as classified by the Ramsar Convention. These wetlands house several species of rare and endangered flora and fauna. The present paper attempts to highlight the various types of wetlands in Nepal with associate vegetation.

  14. Flood-inundation maps and wetland restoration suitability index for the Blue River and selected tributaries, Kansas City, Missouri, and vicinity, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, David C.; Kelly, Brian P.; Studley, Seth E.

    2015-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 39.7-mile reach of the Blue River and selected tributaries (Brush Creek, Indian Creek, and Dyke Branch) at Kansas City, Missouri, and vicinity, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Kansas City, Missouri. The flood-inundation maps, accessed through the USGS Flood-Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the spatial extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at 15 reference streamgages and associated stream reaches in the Blue River Basin. Near-real-time stage data from the streamgages may be obtained from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at selected sites.

  15. Runoff, discharge and flood occurrence in a poorly gauged tropical basin : the Mahakam River, Kalimantan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidayat, H.

    2013-01-01

    Tidal rivers and lowland wetlands present a transition region where the interests of hydrologists and physical oceanographers overlap. Physical oceanographers tend to simplify river hydrology, by often assuming a constant river discharge when studying estuarine dynamics. Hydrologists, in turn, gener

  16. 弥苴河口湿地植物残体与底泥资源化利用研究%A Study on Resource Utilisation of Plant Residues and Sediment from Wetlands of Miju River Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑潭; 陈建中; 戴丽; 王志芸

    2012-01-01

    应用双室堆沤肥技术,以弥苴河口湿地植物残体、湿地底泥和当地养殖业废物制成双室堆沤肥,按不同配比设计5种施肥处理方案进行还田试验。对比研究施肥前后的蔬菜产量、蔬菜品质、土壤肥力以及土壤根际微生物,发现:方案A[50%-60%植物残体(收割物)+40%-50%养殖业废物+微生物菌剂(3kg/t),活性液体肥作追肥。农药同习惯施肥对增加蔬菜产量、提高蔬菜品质、增加土壤肥力和改善土壤微生态环境效果最好。在实际应用中也可适当增加10%-20%的湿地底泥,相应减少养殖业废物量。%By using a dual-chamber composting heap technology for plant residues and sediment from wetlands of Miju River estuary as well as local livestock farming wastes, compost in five different proportionings was made to apply to the fields. The yield and quality of vegetables, fertility and rhizospheric microorganisms of the soil before and after the fertiliser applications were compared. The field tests showed that Scenario A (50% to 60% harvesting material of plant residues + 40% to 50% livestock farming wastes + 3 kg microbial agent per tonne, with active liquid manure as topdressing and conventional type of pesticide usage) could enhance the vegetable yield and quality, improve fertility and microecosystem of the soil the best. In practice, 10% to 20% increase in wetland sediment with corresponding decrease in livestock farming wastes may be suitable as well.

  17. Effects of typhoon on methane production potential from the Minjiang River Estuaty wetland soil%台风对闽江河口湿地土壤甲烷产生潜力的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维奇; 王纯

    2011-01-01

    It is very important to clarify the effect of typhoon on wetland soil methane production in the research of global climate change. Methane production potential (J) from Phragmites australis wetland soil was measured under the effect of typhoon in the Minjiang River Estuary using the anaerobic incubation measurement method. The whole course of methane production potential variation was consisted of increment, decline, stabilization, and decline. There was significant difference of methane production potential between flower adding and the adding of root, stem, or leaf litters(P〈0.01). The order of methane production potential at various soil layers after typhoon were J5-10〉J0-5〉J10-15〉J15-20〉J20-25〉J25-30. Typhoon significantly enhanced the methane production potential.%揭示台风对湿地土壤甲烷产生的影响对全球气候变化研究具有重要意义。采用厌氧培养法对闽江河口芦苇湿地土壤受台风影响下的甲烷产生潜力(J)进行模拟实验。研究结果表明:受台风的影响,甲烷产生潜力经历了升高—下降—稳定—下降4个阶段;花枯落物输入与根、茎、叶枯落物输入后芦苇湿地土壤甲烷产生潜力差异极显著(P〈0.01);台风影响下不同土层甲烷产生潜力大小顺序为J5-10〉J0-5〉J10-15〉J15-20〉J20-25〉J25-30;台风对甲烷产生潜力具有明显的促进作用。

  18. Aquatic macrophyte diversity of the Pantanal wetland and upper basin

    OpenAIRE

    VJ. Pott; Pott, A; LCP. Lima; SN. Moreira; AKM Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    This is a short review of the state of the art concerning diversity of aquatic macrophytes and the main aquatic vegetation types in the Brazilian Pantanal wetland and upper watershed. There are ca. 280 species of aquatic macrophytes on the Pantanal floodplain, with scarce endemism. On the upper watershed, Cerrado wetlands (veredas) and limestone springs have a distinct flora from the Pantanal, with twice the species richness. As a representative case of aquatic habitats influenced by river fl...

  19. Environmental Feasibility of Using Wetlands to Treat Runoff Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    dominated by grasses and by annual and per- ennial broadleaved aquatic plants. These are often a very highly productive ecosys- tem. Mangrove Wetlands...recent origin ( Holocene ). They lie in river valleys that were cut during Pleistocene periods of lowered sea level. 7 Tidal Freshwater Marshes...Preliminary analysis criteria. 1. Vegetation Characteristics Yalu A. Type of Wetland Vegetation Shrub and Arboreal Species High e.g., mangrove (Rhizophora

  20. Freshwater Wetlands: A Citizen's Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catskill Center for Conservation and Development, Inc., Hobart, NY.

    The purpose of this "primer" for the general public is to describe the general characteristics of wetlands and how wetland alteration adversely affects the well-being of humans. Particular emphasis is placed on wetlands in New York State and the northeast. Topics discussed include wetland values, destruction of wetlands, the costs of wetland…

  1. Freshwater Wetlands: A Citizen's Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catskill Center for Conservation and Development, Inc., Hobart, NY.

    The purpose of this "primer" for the general public is to describe the general characteristics of wetlands and how wetland alteration adversely affects the well-being of humans. Particular emphasis is placed on wetlands in New York State and the northeast. Topics discussed include wetland values, destruction of wetlands, the costs of…

  2. Freshwater Wetlands: A Citizen's Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catskill Center for Conservation and Development, Inc., Hobart, NY.

    The purpose of this "primer" for the general public is to describe the general characteristics of wetlands and how wetland alteration adversely affects the well-being of humans. Particular emphasis is placed on wetlands in New York State and the northeast. Topics discussed include wetland values, destruction of wetlands, the costs of…

  3. Seasonal Variations of C: N: P Stoichiometry and Their Trade-Offs in Different Organs of Suaeda salsa in Coastal Wetland of Yellow River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fude; Liu, Yuhong; Wang, Guangmei; Song, Ye; Liu, Qing; Li, Desheng; Mao, Peili; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Variations of plant C: N: P stoichiometry could be affected by both some environmental fluctuations and plant physiological processes. However, the trade-off mechanism between them and their influencial factors were not understood completely. In this study, C, N, P contents and their stoichiometry of S. salsa’s plant organs (leaves, stems, and roots), together with their environmental factors including salinity, pH, soil N and soil P, were examined in the intertidal and supratidal habitats of coastal wetlands during the different sampling times (May, July, September, November). The results showed that both plant organ and sampling times affected C, N, and P and stoichiometry of S. salsa in the intertidal and supratidal habitats, however, their influencial conditions and mechanisms were different. In the intertidal habitat, the different slopes of C-P and N-P within interspecific organs suggested that plant P, C:P and N:P of S. salsa were modulated by P concentrations that allocated in the specific organs. However, the slopes of C-N were found to be not significant within interspecific organs, but during the sampling times. These differences of plant N and C:N were related with the physiological demand for N in the specific life history stage. In the supratidal habitat, no significant differences were found in the slopes of C-N, C-P, and N-P within interspecific organs. However, different slopes of C-N among the sampling times also indicated a self-regulation strategy for plant N and C:N of S. salsa in different ontogenetic stages. In contrast to the intertidal habitat, seasonal variations of P, C:P and N:P ratios within interspecific organs reflected the soil P characteristics in the supratidal habitat. Our results showed that the stoichiometric constraint strategy of plant S. salsa in this region was strongly correlated with the local soil nutrient conditions. PMID:26393356

  4. Seasonal Variations of C: N: P Stoichiometry and Their Trade-Offs in Different Organs of Suaeda salsa in Coastal Wetland of Yellow River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fude; Liu, Yuhong; Wang, Guangmei; Song, Ye; Liu, Qing; Li, Desheng; Mao, Peili; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Variations of plant C: N: P stoichiometry could be affected by both some environmental fluctuations and plant physiological processes. However, the trade-off mechanism between them and their influencial factors were not understood completely. In this study, C, N, P contents and their stoichiometry of S. salsa's plant organs (leaves, stems, and roots), together with their environmental factors including salinity, pH, soil N and soil P, were examined in the intertidal and supratidal habitats of coastal wetlands during the different sampling times (May, July, September, November). The results showed that both plant organ and sampling times affected C, N, and P and stoichiometry of S. salsa in the intertidal and supratidal habitats, however, their influencial conditions and mechanisms were different. In the intertidal habitat, the different slopes of C-P and N-P within interspecific organs suggested that plant P, C:P and N:P of S. salsa were modulated by P concentrations that allocated in the specific organs. However, the slopes of C-N were found to be not significant within interspecific organs, but during the sampling times. These differences of plant N and C:N were related with the physiological demand for N in the specific life history stage. In the supratidal habitat, no significant differences were found in the slopes of C-N, C-P, and N-P within interspecific organs. However, different slopes of C-N among the sampling times also indicated a self-regulation strategy for plant N and C:N of S. salsa in different ontogenetic stages. In contrast to the intertidal habitat, seasonal variations of P, C:P and N:P ratios within interspecific organs reflected the soil P characteristics in the supratidal habitat. Our results showed that the stoichiometric constraint strategy of plant S. salsa in this region was strongly correlated with the local soil nutrient conditions.

  5. N and P Dynamic of Phragmites australis and Typha angustata Litter in Dawen River Wetland During the Decomposition%大汶河湿地香蒲和芦苇分解过程中N、P动态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳新伟; 刘君

    2012-01-01

    The research used the bag method to explore the decomposition dynamic of Phragmites australis and Typha angustata which are location different environment in Dawen River wetland. The environment are the surface and 50cm under the surface. The results showed that; ①All treatments have the same tendency and three stages which include rapidly - slowly - rapidly decrease. The decomposition rate of Typha angustata is higher than Phragmites australis, and the mass remaining ration respectively are 38% and 43% after 10 months. Decomposition rate in the upper layer was more rapidly than the lower layer, Remaining mass of Phragmites australis and Typha angustata in upper layer and lower layer were 43. 02% , 58. 01% and 38. 31% , 53. 27% . ②The content and NAI of N and P showed the fluctuation dynamic. At the end of the experiment the N and P content of Typha angustata is obviously lower than Phragmites australis. The N of Phragmites australis and Typha angustata are release from litter to environment and the P of Phragmites australis and Typha angustata are relocate from environment. All these result are important to understand the recycle of material in wetland. On the other hand, these results give some theory basement to the science management of wetland.%利用网袋法研究大汶河湿地芦苇和香蒲凋落物处于水体表面和水下50cm不同条件下的分解动态,测定了凋落物中N、P含量并计算了两者的积累系数(Accumulative Index,AI).结果表明:①各处理分解动态相似,都呈现3个阶段:快速下降-平稳下降-快速下降;芦苇分解速度明显小于香蒲,10个月后芦苇和香蒲的干物质剩余率分别为38%和43%;上层分解速度明显快于下层,到试验结束时,各处理干物质剩余量分别为上层芦苇(FL)43.02%,下层芦苇(CL) 58.01%,上层香蒲(FX) 38.31%,下层香蒲(CX) 53.27%;②芦苇和香蒲所含N、P含量及总量动态相似:各处理N、P含量都呈现波动趋势,至

  6. Colorado wetlands initiative : 1997-2000 : Protecting Colorado's wetlands resource

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Colorado Wetlands Initiative is an endeavor to protect wetlands and wetland-dependent wildlife through the use of voluntary, incentive-based mechanisms. It is a...

  7. Redox Transformations of Mercury in Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyot, M.

    2007-12-01

    Wetlands are valued for their high biodiversity and for their ecosystem services. However, we still have a poor understanding of their role in the redox transformation of contaminants such as mercury. We first propose a brief overview of past studies conducted on wetlands from different latitudes. In most instances, photochemical processes are determinant in the upper portion of the water column. At the sediment/water interface, evidence is currently supporting a significant contribution of bacterial communities, as promoters of Hg(II) reduction, particularly in the presence of anoxia. A multi-year study was recently conducted on Hg redox cycling in a fluvial wetland of the St. Lawrence River, where wetland restoration could have unintended consequences. In addition to photochemistry and bacterial reduction, Hg redox cycling was affected by epiphytes living on macrophytes, through adsorption/absorption processes. Redox studies such as this one have been historically seen as having implication for water/air flux studies, since Hg(0) is volatile. We here also discuss the potential bioavailability of Hg(0) towards bacteria. An emerging axis of our wetland research effort deals with beaver dams, which are in expansion and shown to produce high levels of methylHg

  8. Treatment efficiency of effluent prawn culture by wetland with floating aquatic macrophytes arranged in series

    OpenAIRE

    MNP Henares; AFM Camargo

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of a series of wetland colonized with Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia molesta to treat the effluent of a giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) broodstock pond was evaluated in this study. The experimental design was completely randomized and was performed in 9 rectangular tanks (1.6 m(3)) with three treatments (constructed wetlands) and three replicates. The treatment types included: a wetland colonized with E. crassipes and S. molesta (EcSm) arranged sequentially, a ...

  9. Mitigation bank promotes research on restoring Coastal Plain depression wetlands (South Carolina).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Christopher D.; DeSteven, Diane; Kilgo, John C.

    2004-12-31

    Barton, Christopher, D., Diane DeSteven and John C. Kilgo. 2004. Mitigation bank promotes research on restoring Coastal Plain depression wetlands (South Carolina). Ecol. Rest. 22(4):291-292. Abstract: Carolina bays and smaller depression wetlands support diverse plant communities and provide critical habitat for semi-aquatic fauna throughout the Coastal Plain region of the southeastern United States. Historically, many depression wetlands were altered or destroyed by surface ditching, drainage, and agricultural or silviculture uses. These important habitats are now at further risk of alteration and loss following a U.S. Supreme Court decision in 2001 restricting federal regulation of isolated wetlands. Thus, there is increased attention towards protecting intact sites and developing methods to restore others. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) 312-mi2 (800-km2) Savannah River Site (SRS) in west-central South Carolina includes about 350 Carolina bays and bay-like wetland depressions, of which about two-thirds were degraded or destroyed prior to federal acquisition of the land. Although some of the altered wetlands have recovered naturally, others still have active active drainage ditches and contain successional forests typical of drained sites. In 1997, DOE established a wetland mitigation bank to compensate for unavoidable wetland impacts on the SRS. This effort provided an opportunity fir a systematic research program to investigate wetland restoration techniques and ecological responses. Consequently, research and management staffs from the USDA Forest Service, Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation, the Savannah River Technology Center, the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) and several universities developed a collaborative project to restore degraded depression wetlands on the SRS. The mitigation project seeks cost-effective methods to restore the hydrology and vegetation typical of natural depression wetlands, and so enhance habitats for

  10. Agricultural use of wetlands: opportunities and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Jos T A; Setter, Tim L

    2010-01-01

    Wetlands are species-rich habitats performing valuable ecosystem services such as flood protection, water quality enhancement, food chain support and carbon sequestration. Worldwide, wetlands have been drained to convert them into agricultural land or industrial and urban areas. A realistic estimate is that 50 % of the world's wetlands have been lost. This paper reviews the relationship between wetlands and agriculture with the aim to identify the successes and failures of agricultural use in different types of wetlands, with reference to short-term and long-term benefits and issues of sustainability. It also addresses a number of recent developments which will lead to pressure to reclaim and destroy natural wetlands, i.e. the continuous need for higher production to feed an increasing world population and the increasing cultivation of energy crops. Finally, attention is paid to the development of more flood-tolerant crop cultivars. Agriculture has been carried out in several types of (former) wetlands for millennia, with crop fields on river floodplain soils and rice fields as major examples. However, intensive agricultural use of drained/reclaimed peatlands has been shown to lead to major problems because of the oxidation and subsidence of the peat soil. This does not only lead to severe carbon dioxide emissions, but also results in low-lying land which needs to be protected against flooding. Developments in South-East Asia, where vast areas of tropical peatlands are being converted into oil palm plantations, are of great concern in this respect. Although more flood-tolerant cultivars of commercial crop species are being developed, these are certainly not suitable for cultivation in wetlands with prolonged flooding periods, but rather will survive relatively short periods of waterlogging in normally improved agricultural soils. From a sustainability perspective, reclamation of peatlands for agriculture should be strongly discouraged. The opportunities for

  11. Development of a "Hydrologic Equivalent Wetland" Concept for Modeling Cumulative Effects of Wetlands on Watershed Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Liu, T.; Li, R.; Yang, X.; Duan, L.; Luo, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Wetlands are one of the most important watershed microtopographic features that affect, in combination rather than individually, hydrologic processes (e.g., routing) and the fate and transport of constituents (e.g., sediment and nutrients). Efforts to conserve existing wetlands and/or to restore lost wetlands require that watershed-level effects of wetlands on water quantity and water quality be quantified. Because monitoring approaches are usually cost or logistics prohibitive at watershed scale, distributed watershed models, such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), can be a best resort if wetlands can be appropriately represented in the models. However, the exact method that should be used to incorporate wetlands into hydrologic models is the subject of much disagreement in the literature. In addition, there is a serious lack of information about how to model wetland conservation-restoration effects using such kind of integrated modeling approach. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a "hydrologic equivalent wetland" (HEW) concept; and 2) demonstrate how to use the HEW concept in SWAT to assess effects of wetland restoration within the Broughton's Creek watershed located in southwestern Manitoba of Canada, and of wetland conservation within the upper portion of the Otter Tail River watershed located in northwestern Minnesota of the United States. The HEWs were defined in terms of six calibrated parameters: the fraction of the subbasin area that drains into wetlands (WET_FR), the volume of water stored in the wetlands when filled to their normal water level (WET_NVOL), the volume of water stored in the wetlands when filled to their maximum water level (WET_MXVOL), the longest tributary channel length in the subbasin (CH_L1), Manning's n value for the tributary channels (CH_N1), and Manning's n value for the main channel (CH_N2). The results indicated that the HEW concept allows the nonlinear functional relations between watershed processes

  12. Effects of Environmental Conditions on an Urban Wetland's Methane Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naor Azrieli, L.; Morin, T. H.; Bohrer, G.; Schafer, K. V.; Brooker, M.; Mitsch, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    Methane emissions from wetlands are the largest natural source of uncertainty in the global methane (CH4) budget. Wetlands are highly productive ecosystems with a large carbon sequestration potential. While wetlands are a net sink for carbon dioxide, they also release methane, a potent greenhouse gas. To effectively develop wetland management techniques, it is important to properly calculate the carbon budget of wetlands by understand the driving factors of methane fluxes. We constructed an eddy flux covariance system in the Olentangy River Wetland Research Park, a series of created and restored wetland in Columbus Ohio. Through the use of high frequency open path infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) sensors, we have continuously monitored the methane fluxes associated with the wetland since May 2011. To account for the heterogeneous landscape surrounding the tower, a footprint analysis was used to isolate data originating from within the wetland. Continuous measurements of the meteorological and environmental conditions at the wetlands coinciding with the flux measurements allow the interactions between methane fluxes and the climate and ecological forcing to be studied. The wintertime daily cycle of methane peaks around midday indicating a typical diurnal pattern in cold months. In the summer, the peak shifts to earlier in the day and also includes a daily peak occurring at approximately 10 AM. We believe this peak is associated with the onset of photosynthesis in Typha latifolia flushing methane from the plant's air filled tissue. Correlations with methane fluxes include latent heat flux, soil temperature, and incoming radiation. The connection to radiation may be further evidence of plant activity as a driver of methane fluxes. Higher methane fluxes corresponding with higher soil temperature indicates that warmer days stimulate the methanogenic consortium. Further analysis will focus on separating the methane fluxes into emissions from different terrain types within

  13. 珠江口红树林湿地演变与现状的遥感分析%Inventory of mangrove wetlands in the Pearl River Estuary of China using remote sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎夏; 叶嘉安; 刘凯

    2006-01-01

    Mangrove forests have important ecological functions in protecting the environment. However,the mangrove wetlands have been largely lost because of intensified human activities in the study area.Remote sensing can be conveniently used for the inventory of mangrove forests because field investigation is very difficult. In this study, a knowledge-based system is developed to retrieve spatio-temporal dynamics of mangrove wetlands using multi-temporal remote sensing data. Radar remote sensing data are also used to provide complementary information for the quantitative analysis of mangrove wetlands. Radar remote sensing is able to penetrate mangrove forests and obtain the trunk information about mangrove structures. The integration of radar remote sensing with optical remote sensing can significantly improve the accuracies of classifying mangrove wetland types and estimating wetland biomass.

  14. Mangrove wetland ecosystems in Ganges-Brahmaputra delta in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shafi Noor ISLAM; Albrecht GNAUCK

    2008-01-01

    The Sundarbans is one of the productive man-grove wetland ecosystems in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta in Bangladesh. The delta is undergoing rapid eco-logical changes due to human activity. In the present study, surface water salinity data from 13 rivers of the Sundarbans were collected in order to investigate the sal-ine water intrusion in the mangrove wetlands. Results demonstrate that saline water has penetrated the upstream area as river water salinity has increased signifi-cantly in 1976 compared to the year 1968. The soil and river water salinity data also shows that it has crossed the water salinity threshold line in most parts of the Sundarbans wetlands. These observations are due to the construction of Farakka Barrage in 1975, which reduced the water discharge of the Ganges River from 3700 m3/s in 1962 to 364 m3/s in 2006. The shortage of freshwater dis-charge to the deltaic area is trailing active ecosystems function, especially in the dry season in the south western region in Bangladesh. The objective of this study is to understand and analyze the present degraded mangrove wetland ecosystems and their negative impacts. The find-ings of this study would contribute to the formulation of the mangrove wetland ecosystems management plan inthe Ganges delta of Bangladesh.

  15. Wetlands & Deepwater Habitats - Montana Wetland and Riparian Framework - Map Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Wetland and Riparian Framework represents the extent, type, and approximate location of wetlands, riparian areas, and deepwater habitats in Montana....

  16. Patterns and drivers for wetland connections in the Prairie Pothole Region, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoof, Melanie; Christensen, Jay R.; Alexander, Laurie C.

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystem function in rivers, lakes and coastal waters depends on the functioning of upstream aquatic ecosystems, necessitating an improved understanding of watershed-scale interactions including variable surface-water flows between wetlands and streams. As surface water in the Prairie Pothole Region expands in wet years, surface-water connections occur between many depressional wetlands and streams. Minimal research has explored the spatial patterns and drivers for the abundance of these connections, despite their potential to inform resource management and regulatory programs including the U.S. Clean Water Act. In this study, wetlands were identified that did not intersect the stream network, but were shown with Landsat images (1990–2011) to become merged with the stream network as surface water expanded. Wetlands were found to spill into or consolidate with other wetlands within both small (2–10 wetlands) and large (>100 wetlands) wetland clusters, eventually intersecting a stream channel, most often via a riparian wetland. These surface-water connections occurred over a wide range of wetland distances from streams (averaging 90–1400 m in different ecoregions). Differences in the spatial abundance of wetlands that show a variable surface-water connection to a stream were best explained by smaller wetland-to-wetland distances, greater wetland abundance, and maximum surface-water extent. This analysis demonstrated that wetland arrangement and surface water expansion are important mechanisms for depressional wetlands to connect to streams and provides a first step to understanding the frequency and abundance of these surface-water connections across the Prairie Pothole Region.

  17. Assessing Man’s Impact on Wetlands,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Evaluation System is applied in abbreviated case studies to construction in the Yazoo Basin in Mississippi and the Neuse River Estuaries of North... WETLANS Wetland is a collective term encompassing ... areas such as swamps, marshes, and bogs. It shares their hydrologic, vege- tative, and soil...advertisements for new developments along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, the end of construction was not in sight as more and more Americans were seeking second

  18. Scoping Agriculture, Wetland Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is identified as the main cause of wetland degradation and loss. Using a drivers, pressures, state changes, impacts and responses (DPSIR) framework to analyze 90 cases drawn from all parts of the world and all wetland types, this report assesses the character of agriculture - wetlands interactions (AWIs) and their impacts in socio-economic and ecosystem services terms. The report is a technical framework that is used to scope out the relevance and nature of AWIs, identify response...

  19. Impact of climate change and agricultural developments in the Taquari River basin, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querner, E.P.; Jonker, R.N.J.; Padovani, C.; Soriano, B.; Galdino, S.

    2005-01-01

    The Pantanal wetland is part of the Upper Paraguay River basin. The major driving force of the wetland system is the annual oscillation between dry and wet seasons. This study focussed on the Taquari basin, a tributary of the Paraguay River, where erosion takes place and parts of the river silt up,

  20. 10 years after the largest river restoration project in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Kristensen, Esben Astrup; Kronvang, B.; Wiberg-Larsen, P.;

    2014-01-01

    The lower river Skjern (Denmark) historically contained a large variation in habitats and the river ran through large areas with wetlands, many backwaters, islands and oxbow lakes. During the 1960s the river was channelized and the wetland drained. A restoration during 2001–2002 transformed 19 km...

  1. Select state inland wetland protection laws. A review of the state laws and their natural resource data requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, S. B.

    1980-01-01

    Although many states afford some measure of protection for wetland areas through flood-plain regulations or through programs for coastal areas, shorelands, scenic and wild rivers or pollution control, few states have programs that adequately deal with conservation of wetlands. Only 16 states have legislation specifically regulating development or use of wetlands. Most of the wetland acts apply only to coastal wetlands, several to inland wetlands and three acts apply to both. Many other states are still regulating wetland use through the dredge and fill and/or critical area program. Several offer tax incentives to property owners to encourage protection of wetlands or broader open spaces. Many states have acquired wetlands for park and wildlife purposes and a large measure of wetland protection is achieved by the very restrictive controls applied to floodways areas. Direct floodplain or floodway regulations or state standards for local regulations were adopted in 24 states but protection of ecological values of wetlands is rarely an explicit objective of these programs. Scenic and wild river programs adopted in one half of the states provide some protection for wetland areas.

  2. Monitoring of deltaic wetland processes with seasonal aerial photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, A. R., Jr.; Snell, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    A year-long study of four river deltas, using color infrared photography at three-month intervals, showed clearly the impact of damming the lower river or channelizing its outlet on the wetland environment. An important result of the season's photography was the dramatic appearance of the detrital material being flushed out of the deltaic wetlands by flood waters, and moved down into the lower estuaries for use by the marine organisms in the lower tropical levels. The species makeup and relative vigor of the deltaic plant communities were well recognizable on the imagery, as was the flushing mechanism in one still viable delta marsh.

  3. Working for Water: A Transdisciplinary Collaboration for Wetlands Restoration in an Urbanizing Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2013, I collaborated with staff at the Environmental Protection Agency’s Atlantic Ecology Division to explore the public perceptions of services and disservices associated with restoration of riparian areas and wetlands in the urbanizing Woonasquatucket River watershed i...

  4. Pollution assessment and source identifications of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of the Yellow River Delta, a newly born wetland in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhifeng; Wang, Lili; Niu, Junfeng; Wang, Jingyi; Shen, Zhenyao

    2009-11-01

    The levels and possible sources of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic carbons (PAHs) in the sediments from the Yellow River Delta (YRD) were investigated. The total PAH concentrations ranged from 23.9 to 520.6 microg kg(-1) with a mean value of 150.9 microg kg(-1), indicating low or medium levels compared with reported values of other deltas. The concentrations of the 16 individual PAHs presented varied profiles among different regions. The ecological risk assessment of PAHs showed that adverse effects would rarely occur in the sediments of the YRD based on the effect range-low quotients and the probability risk assessment. The PAH compositions and the principal component analysis (PCA) with multiple linear regression (MLR) uniformly presumed the mixed sources of pyrogenic- and petrogenic-deriving PAHs in the YRD. By PCA with MLR, the contributions of major sources were quantified as 36.4% from oil burning, 33.1% from biomass combustion, and 30.5% from diesel emission sources.

  5. Mapping wetlands in the Lower Mekong Basin for wetland resource and conservation management using Landsat ETM images and field survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAlister, Charlotte; Mahaxay, Manithaphone

    2009-05-01

    The Mekong River Basin is considered to be the second most species rich river basin in the world. The 795,000 km(2) catchment encompasses several ecoregions, incorporating biodiverse and productive wetland systems. Eighty percent of the rapidly expanding population of the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB), made up in part by Lao PDR, Thailand, Cambodia and Viet Nam, live in rural areas and are heavily reliant on wetland resources. As the populations of Cambodia and Lao PDR will double in the next 20 years, pressure on natural resources and particularly wetlands can only increase. For development planning, resource and conservation management to incorporate wetland issues, information on the distribution and character of Mekong wetlands is essential. The existing but outdated wetland maps were compiled from secondary landuse-landcover data, have limited coverage, poor thematic accuracy and no meta-data. Therefore the Mekong River Commission (MRC) undertook to produce new wetland coverage for the LMB. As resources, funding and regional capacity are limited, it was determined that the method applied should use existing facilities, be easily adaptable, and replicable locally. For the product to be useful it must be accepted by local governments and decision makers. The results must be of acceptable accuracy (>75%) and the methodology should be relatively understandable to non-experts. In the first stage of this exercise, field survey was conducted at five pilot sites covering a range of typical wetland habitats (MRC wetland classification) to supply data for a supervised classification of Landsat ETM images from the existing MRC archive. Images were analysed using ERDAS IMAGINE and applying Maximum Likelihood Classification. Field data were reserved to apply formal accuracy assessment to the final wetland habitat maps, with resulting accuracy ranging from 77 to 94%. The maps produced are now in use at a Provincial and National level in three countries for resource and

  6. Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex 2005 annual habitat work plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual habitat management plan outlines working habitat objectives for wetland habitats based on refuge purposes, professional judgment and experience for...

  7. 岸边带湿地对富营养化河流的净化作用研究%The purification function of riparian wetlands on the eutrophicated river

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王朝旭; 祝贵兵; 王雨; 叶磊; 王为东; 尹澄清

    2012-01-01

    According to the water quality investigation of the upstream of the North Canal, the concentrations of total nitrogen, total phosphorus and NH4-N exceeded their respective standard for 12, 10 and 7 times, respectively, and NH4+ -N is the main pollutant in the North Canal. Further studies were carried out in a typical riparian wetland near Shahe Reservoir of the North Canal. The results showed that the concentrations of NH4+ -N, TN and TP in the natural riparian wetland (2.50,6.54,0.12 mg. L- 1, respectively) decreased greatly compared with that of river water. The average contents of NH4+ -N, TN and OM of the macrophyte-covered riparian zone (MRZ) sediment (23.0 mg- kg - 1, 0.66 g. kg -1 and 9.13 g· kg - 1 , respectively) were 0.20, 0.48 and 0.67 times lower than that of bare riparian zone (BRZ) sediment, respectively. The main reasons were the coupled nitrification / denitrification drived by microbes and the absorption of nutrient elements by riparian plants. The average C/N ratio in the MRZ sediment was 1.6 times higher than that of BRZ, which supplied relatively sufficient carbon source for denitrifieation. In contrast to BRZ, MRZ was more favorable for nutrient element removal. As a demonstration of simulating natural riparian wetland, Luomahu Lake constructed wetland showed obvious removal effect of water nutrient elements.%对北运河上游污染严重流域实地调查发现,水中TN、TP和NH4+-N的最大超标倍数分别为12、10和7,以NH4+-N污染为主要特征.对北运河流域沙河水库附近一处典型岸边带湿地进行深入研究发现,天然河流岸边带湿地系统对河水中NH4+-N、TN和TP浓度有明显的削减作用,分别由河水中的27.0、29.0、1.82mg·L-1降至湿地中的2.50、6.54、0.12mg·L-1.由于微生物驱动的硝化-反硝化脱氮作用以及岸边带植物对营养元素的吸收作用,植被型岸边带沉积物中NH4+-N、TN和OM含量(分别为23.0mg·kg-1,0.66g·kg-1和9

  8. Effect of Different Land Use Patterns on Physical Characteristics of Soil Water in Yellow River Wetland in Shanxi%不同土地利用方式对陕西黄河湿地土壤水分物理性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云鹏; 张社奇; 谷洁; 解迎革

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The aim was to study the effect of different land use patterns on physical characteristics of soil water in yellow river wetland in Shanxi Province. [ Method] Yellow River wetland in Shanxi was selected as the research area, through comparison on the physical properties of the soil water under different land use patterns, the soil water physical properties and variation roles in the process of the wetland degradation was studied. [ Result ] From the wetlands, cultivated land to the abandoned salina land, soil bulk density of three different land use patterns increased with the increasing of soil depth. Soil bulk densities were ranked in the order of wetland ( 1. 474 g/em3 ), cultivated land ( 1. 522 g/em3 ) and the abandoned salina land ( 1. 593 g/cm3 ). Soil became compacted increasingly; the indicators of soil porosity ( total porosity, capillary porosity, non-capillary porosity) were also reduced with the change of land use patterns, in which, capillary porosity and total porosity reached the extreme significance level with the change of land use patterns, and non-capillary porosity reached signifieant level. The wetland degradation was exacerbated by changes in soil porosity conditions; the changes in max soil moisture capacity, capillary moisture capacity and min moisture capacity change under the three different land use types showed the same variation rules respectively. Compared with wetland, max soil moisture capacity of cultivated land and salina land was decreased by 5.7% and 22.3%, respectively; capillary moisture capacity decreased by 0.2% and 19.4%, min moisture capacity decreased by 2.7% and 15.9%. Among three land use patterns,both water storage capacity and water draught capacity of wetlands were better than that of cultivated land and salina land. Compared with that of wetland, the water storage capacity of cultivated land and salina land was decreased by 12.4% and 15.2%, and water draught capacity of wetland was decreased by 2

  9. In situ quantification of spatial and temporal variability of hyporheic exchange in static and mobile gravel-bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberry, Donald O.; Klos, P. Zion; Neal, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Seepage meters modified for use in flowing water were used to directly measure rates of exchange between surface and subsurface water in a gravel- and cobble bed river in western Pennsylvania, USA (Allegheny River, Q mean = 190 m 3/s) and a sand- and gravel-bed river in Colorado, USA (South Platte River, Q mean = 9??7 m 3/s). Study reaches at the Allegheny River were located downstream from a dam. The bed was stable with moss, algae, and river grass present in many locations. Median seepage was + 0??28 m/d and seepage was highly variable among measurement locations. Upward and downward seepage greatly exceeded the median seepage rate, ranging from + 2??26 (upward) to - 3??76 (downward) m/d. At the South Platte River site, substantial local-scale bed topography as well as mobile bedforms resulted in spatial and temporal variability in seepage greatly in exceedence of the median groundwater discharge rate of 0??24 m/d. Both upward and downward seepage were recorded along every transect across the river with rates ranging from + 2??37 to - 3??40 m/d. Despite a stable bed, which commonly facilitates clogging by fine-grained or organic sediments, seepage rates at the Allegheny River were not reduced relative to those at the South Platte River. Seepage rate and direction depended primarily on measurement position relative to local- and meso-scale bed topography at both rivers. Hydraulic gradients were small at nearly all seepage-measurement locations and commonly were not a good indicator of seepage rate or direction. Therefore, measuring hydraulic gradient and hydraulic conductivity at in-stream piezometers may be misleading if used to determine seepage flux across the sediment-water interface. Such a method assumes that flow between the well screen and sediment-water interface is vertical, which appears to be a poor assumption in coarse-grained hyporheic settings.

  10. Reconstruction of Anacostia wetlands: success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschlag, R.S.; Perry, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    Historically, the tidal Anacostia River in Washington, D.C. had been an extensive system of freshwater tidal marshes replete with a full array of wetland vegetation dominated by wild rice. The local Nacochtank Indians had found the abundant fish and wildlife sufficient to sustain their daily lives. White man's intrusion upon the landscape gradually brought about deterioration of the natural (and associated cultural) system. Total demise followed mid-20th century dredge and fill channelization, which was conducted from the confluence of the Anacostia with the Potomac near the heart of Washington, D.C. to the terminus of the tidal regime at Bladensburg, Maryland. The National Park Service (NPS) became the manager for much of the land along the Anacostia, particularly the eastern bank. As part of its planning effort, the NPS envisioned returning portions of the Anacostia under its control to a natural system as a vignette. The concept was based on bringing back as comprehensive a collection of vegetation and wildlife as possible through the reestablishment of tidal marshes at Kenilworth and Kingman. The resultant wetlands were to be made accessible to the public both logistically and through a well designed interpretative program. In fact, this vision has been realized due to an impressive cooperative effort among a number of Federal and local agencies and organizations. In 1993, 32 acres of freshwater tidal marsh were reconstructed at Kenilworth. Based upon the 5-year monitoring program that has been in place since reconstruction, several generalizations may be made concerning the degree of success of the marsh reconstruction. Water quality in the marsh system and nearby tidal waters has not been noticeably improved. The poor quality may be clue to the overwhelmingly high loads (e.g., sediment, nutrients, etc.) brought in on the twice daily tidal cycle from the Anacostia and to the relatively small volume of water which actually interacts with the emergent marsh

  11. Wetlands: Earth's Kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetlands are unique, diverse, and productive habitats that emerge at the fringe of aquatic and upland land systems. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines wetlands as "areas that are regularly inundated by surface water or groundwater and characterized by a preva...

  12. Microbiology of wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Dedysh, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    Wetlands are ecologically as well as economically important systems due to their high productivity, their nutrient (re)cycling capacities, and their prominent contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions. Being on the transition between terrestrial and—aquatic ecosystems, wetlands are buffers for

  13. Good Wetland Agricultural Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengsdijk, H.; Zingstra, H.L.

    2009-01-01

    Within the Guiding Agriculture Wetland Interaction (GAWI) project the Driver!Pressure!State! Impact!Response (DPSIR) approach has been adopted to describe and analyse agriculture!wetland interactions. The DPSIR approach provides a consistent framework to analyse the complex causal chain among

  14. EFFECT OF SALT WEDGE INTRUSION IN KUSHIRO WETLAND CONSIDERING SEA LEVEL RISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Atsushi; Shintani, Tetsuya; Nakayama, Keisuke; Maruya, Yasuyuki; Ishida, Tetsuya; Houmura, Kenichi

    This paper describes the effect of sea-level rise (SLR) on the salt wedge intrusion in terms of ecological system in Kushiro wetland. Kushiro wetland was registered by Ramsar Treaty and the largest wetland in Japan. A previous study demonstrates that the salt wedge intrusion may not affect ecological system of Kushiro wetland, such as loss of freshwater plants along Kushiro River. However, it is revealed that SLR may occur in the end of the 21st century, which enhances the increase in the distance of the salt wedge intrusion along Kushiro River and the loss of endangered species of Kushiro wetland along Kushiro River. This study thus aims to investigate the influence of the salt wedge intrusion on freshwater plants along Kushiro River, and to clarify the salt wedge intrusion when SLR occurs due to climate change. We attempted to investigate the influence of SLR on endangered species along Kyu-Kushiro River in which sea water is likely to intrude up to about 8 km from the river mouth. As results, it is suggested from field observations that salinity may decrease freshwater plants along Kushiro River, and it clarifies the possibility that the salt wedge intrudes Kushiro River due to SLR by using 3D hydrodynamic model, Fantom3D.

  15. Application of Landscape Ecology in Overall Plan of Xingjiang River National Wetland Park%景观生态学理论在邢江河国家湿地公园总体规划中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾辉; 李超; 陈勇

    2014-01-01

    The landscape ecology landscape pattern, andscape ecological protection and ecological restora-tion principles to wetland park planning, can play a good guidance,can effectively integrate the regional wetland resources,is conducive to the wetland ecosystem restoration and reconstruction,so as to give full play to the Wetland Parkecological,economic and social benefits.%将景观生态学的景观格局、景观生态保护与生态恢复等原理运用于湿地公园规划中,可起到良好的指导作用,能有效整合区域湿地资源,有利于湿地生态系统的恢复和重建,从而充分发挥湿地公园的生态、经济和社会效益。

  16. Wetland Loss and Restoration Options in Southern Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Robert G.

    2008-03-01

    Wetlands are productive landscape features of the broad Mississippi River Delta system. In addition to their ecological services of providing habitats for a variety of species including juvenile commercial and recreational fish, they provide a valuable wave reduction role during severe storm events characterized by elevated water levels and high waves. Currently, these wetlands are stressed by a combination of natural and human-related forces resulting in rapid loss rates. Although many factors contribute to wetland loss rates, the single greatest factor is the shunting of river borne sediments offshore into deep water. Navigational interests benefit greatly from the present fixed location of the main navigation channel at Southwest pass with its terminus at the edge of the continental shelf such that the sediment load is discharged into deep water. The Mississippi River Delta region is subsiding at up to more than 10 times the Eustatic rate of sea level rise and thus the wetland and barrier island systems require these sediments for maintenance and growth. With the increasing scarcity and costs of energy, it is highly desirable that wetland restoration be done using natural forces to the degree possible. Absent legal issues, a pragmatic approach could be to identify those areas where progress can be made with realistic investments of economic and energy resources and to accept that areas with less benefit per investment will continue to degrade. The paper will review various options and discuss obstacles and opportunities.

  17. 生物栅-复合人工湿地系统对黑臭河水的中试处理%Pilot Scale Experiment of Malodorous River Water Treatment Combined with Biofilm Grid and Integrated Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands(BFG-IVCWs)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘震; 张勇; 黄民生; 何岩; 程庆霖

    2011-01-01

    Considering low dissolved oxygen and heavy organic pollution in malodorous river water, biofilm grid technology and integrated vertical flow constructed wetlands (BFG-IVCWs) was used to purify malodorous river water. The results of experiments show that fiber filter on COD removal rate is 30 %~40 %, wetland on COD removal rate is 45 %, the effect of Pontederia cordata and Pumice on COD removal is obvious. During operation of the system, TP removal rate is 58.13 %~83.25 %, TN removal efficiency is much better in early operation, which is 58.14 %.%针对黑臭河水溶解氧极低、有机物污染重的特点,充分利用生物栅技术和人工湿地技术组合而成生物栅-复合人工湿地系统(BFG-IVCWs),来净化黑臭河水降低COD等污染物质.试验结果表明:软性填料槽对COD的去除率为30%~40%,人工湿地对COD的去除率保持在45%,梭鱼草及蜂巢石对COD去除效果明显.该系统运行期间TP去除率为58.13%~83.25%,对TN去除效果初期较好,达到58.14%.

  18. Wetland Management - A Success Story In Transition - Restoration of Bhoj Wetland, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgal, M. K.; Tech, B. M.; Miwwa

    Wetlands are beautiful, biologically diverse, hydrologically disperse and ecological vibrant landscape world wide, embracing soils, water, plants, animals and human be- ing. The population growth in the catchment of wetlands led to multifarious human interventions for deriving maximum benefit from the wetlands and their catchments neglecting and disrespecting the principles of sustainability. This act of destruction has been pronounced in developing countries which are under the grip of poverty, illiteracy and lack of environmental education. SBhoj WetlandS is a Lake situated ´ in Central India, Earthen Dam across the river KOLANS in 1061 AD by then ruler king BHOJ. Till 1950 this Wetland was served as a principal source of water supply, even not requiring filtration. As the city grew and the wetland started getting encir- cled by habitation and urban development, the anthropogenic pressures on the lake increased, thus accelerating the process of eutrophication, making the water unfit for human consumption without due treatment due to deterioration of quality of water. For the conservation and management of Bhoj Wetland (Lake Bhopal) a project is under- taken in the financial assistance from Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC, Japan). The project envisages tackle various issues of conservation and management ofn the wetlands under a multi prongs strategies and manner. Although these issues are deeply interrelated and interlinked but for operational and management ease, these issues have been divided into various sub projects which are being tackled indepen- dently, albeit with undercurrent knowledge and understanding of the related issues and interconnectivity with each other. The Project itself is an apt example of the spectrum of varied problems and issues that come to light when attempts are made for sustain- able conservation and management of a wetland. The Project as envisaged intends to conserve and manage through 14 sub projects as under:- Sub

  19. Anthropogenic acceleration of sediment accretion in lowland floodplain wetlands, Murray-Darling Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, Peter; Fluin, Jennie; Tibby, John; Hancock, Gary; Harrison, Jennifer; Zawadzki, Atun; Haynes, Deborah; Khanum, Syeda; Little, Fiona; Walsh, Brendan

    2009-07-01

    Over the last decade there has been a deliberate focus on the application of paleolimnological research to address issues of sediment flux and water quality change in the wetlands of the Murray-Darling Basin of Australia. This paper reports on the research outcomes on cores collected from sixteen wetlands along the Murrumbidgee-Murray River continuum. In all sixteen wetlands radiometric techniques and exotic pollen biomarkers were used to establish sedimentation rates from the collected cores. Fossil diatom assemblages were used to identify water source and quality changes to the wetlands. The sedimentation rates of all wetlands accelerated after European settlement, as little as two-fold, and as much as eighty times the mean rate through the Late Holocene. Some wetlands completely infilled through the Holocene, while others have rapidly progressed towards a terrestrial state due to accelerated accretion rates. Increasing wetland salinity and turbidity commenced within decades of settlement, contributing to sediment inputs. The sedimentation rate was observed to slow after river regulation in one wetland, but has accelerated recently in others. The complex history of flooding and drying, and wetland salinisation and eutrophication, influence the reliability of models used to establish recent, fine-resolution chronologies with confidence and the capacity to attribute causes to documented effects.

  20. Restoring biodiversity in the Gwydir Wetlands through environmental flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawhinney, W A

    2003-01-01

    As part of the Water Reforms process, environmental flow rules have been progressively implemented in New South Wales rivers. The Integrated Monitoring of Environmental Flows (IMEF) is a major project established to better understand how rivers and associated wetlands respond to environmental water allocations. The results presented here represent the vegetation data collected for the testing of the hypothesis that "protecting or restoring a portion of freshes and high flows and otherwise maintaining natural flow variability will replenish anabranches and riverine wetlands, restoring their biodiversity". The study site is the Ramsar listed Gwydir Wetlands, located on the Gingham and Gwydir (Big Leather) Watercourses in the Lower Gwydir Valley, 100 km west of Moree. The expansion of irrigated agriculture in the lower Gwydir valley has severely altered flow regimes in the wetlands. The spread of the weed Phyla canescens (Lippia) is of major concern to landholders in the Gwydir Wetlands. Results indicate that Paspalum distichum (Water couch) and Eleocharis plana (Ribbed spike-rush) can maintain dominance over Phyla canescens if flooding occurs on a semi-regular basis. Conversely, Eichhornia crassipes (Water hyacinth) is a rampant noxious weed of open water in the Gwydir Wetlands, and has quickly spread in areas that are inundated for long periods. Management of this weed requires periodic drying of the wetlands to cause desiccation and death of the plants. The flooding requirement of individual species and plant associations in the Gwydir Wetlands are currently not fully understood. By providing better information on the consequence of different flows, the IMEF project will help to develop better management strategies to shift the dominance from introduced species such as P. canescens and E. crassipes to more desirable native plant species.

  1. Species Diversity of Herbaceous Seed Plants in Wetlands along the Middle Reaches of Wei River%渭河中段河漫滩草本植物群落物种多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉鑫淼; 弓弼; 郭君洁; 杨玲; 孙景芝

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide scientific data for vegetation landscape restoration and biodiversity conservation in the middle reaches of Wei River,this paper focused on analyzing the biodiversity of herbaceous seed plants in wetlands by using the community ecology research method.The results showed:1) a total of 168 species,belonging to 43 families and 119 genera,were found in the studied area.And among them,the Compositae,Gramineae,Cyperaceae and Polygonaceae were dominant families.2) The dominant species and associated species were different among the sampling plots,mostly Gramineae and Compositae.3) The values of Simpson index (DS) of the herbs were between 0.85 to 0.96.Those of Shannon Weiner index (H) were 1.62 to 2.32.And those of evenness index (JP) were 0.16 to 0.85.The data indicated that the diversity indices were low.Alpha diversity had a similar trend compared with species.4) The β diversity showed a similar pattern with Cody index,which were mainly decided by the habitat condition variation and human factors.%以渭河中段河漫滩草本植物群落为研究对象,采用群落生态学的调查方法,探讨多样性变化格局,为渭河景观恢复重建和生物多样性保护提供科学依据.结果表明:1)研究区共有草本植物168种,隶属于119属43科,优势科有菊科(Compositae)、禾本科(Gramineae)、莎草科(Cyperaceae)、蓼科(Polygonaceae).2)各样地优势种和伴生种有差异,多为禾本科和菊科植物.3)Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H)在1.62~2.32之间,Simpson多样性指数(DS)在0.85~0.96之间.Pielou均匀度指数(JP)在0.61~0.85之间.α多样性变化格局与丰富度指数变化格局比较一致.4)相异性系数和Cody指数变化格局比较一致.渭河中段河漫滩草本植物多样性指数偏低,受人为干扰因素影响较大.

  2. Neotropical coastal wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Karen L.; Batzer, Darold P.; Baldwin, Andrew H.

    2012-01-01

    The Neotropical region, which includes the tropical Americas, is one of the world's eight biogeographic zones. It contains some of the most diverse and unique wetlands in the world, some of which are still relatively undisturbed by humans. This chapter focuses on the northern segment of the Neotropics (south Florida, the Caribbean islands, Mexico, and Central America), an area that spans a latitudinal gradient from about 7 N to 29 N and 60 W to 112 W. Examples of coastal wetlands in this realm include the Everglades (Florida, USA), Ten Thousand Islands (Florida, USA), Laguna de Terminos (Mexico), Twin Cays (Belize), and Zapata Swamp (Cuba). Coastal wetlands are dominated by mangroves, which will be emphasized here, but also include freshwater swamps and marshes, saline marshes, and seagrass beds. The aim of this chapter is to provide a broad overview of Neotropical coastal wetlands of the North American continent, with an emphasis on mangroves, since this is the dominant vegetation type and because in-depth coverage of all wetland types is impossible here. Instead, the goal is to describe the environmental settings, plant and animal communities, key ecological controls, and some conservation concerns, with specific examples. Because this book deals with wetlands of North America, this chapter excludes coastal wetlands of South America. However, much of the information is applicable to mangrove, marsh, and seagrass communities of other tropicaI regions.

  3. Status Quo, Analysis and Suggestions for Public Awareness on Wetland Conservation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaoyun; XU Jiliang; YUAN Jun

    2011-01-01

    To understand the status of public awareness on wetland conservation in China, 1 237 people from 8 provinces or municipality were interviewed by questionnaire. After analysis of the results, 88.5% of the interviewees know the word ‘wetland'. TV and radio is the main tool for them to get information. More than two thirds of the respondents mainly learn the information on wetland conservation through TV and radio. There are still big gaps among different people in understanding wetland. Only 13.3% of the respondents give a completely right answer on question ‘ which areas are wetlands'. Most of the respondents cited lakes, marshes and rivers as wetlands, but more than half of them do not regard beaches, reservoirs, paddy fields and fish ponds as wetlands. Most of the people cited wetlands can provide such functions as water conservation, climate regulation, protecting wildlife, removing pollution, but know little about other functions such as flood control, provisioning of aquatic products, and soil retention, and much less about the cultural functions such as recreation, and inherited folk culture. Except for wastewater discharge, nearly half of the general public knows little about other threats of the wetland, while most of the people do not believe that artificial aquaculture will cause threats to the wetland areas. Public awareness on wetland conservation in China needs to be improved. Most of the respondents cited that TV, radio and internet are the most effective ways to publicize information on wetland conservation. More than two thirds of the respondents mainly learn the information on wetland conservation through TV and radio, while 38.0% of the respondents mainly through internet.Specifically, for farmers/fishermen, posters/picture albums can benefit them more than the internet; the undergraduates also expect to learn wetland mainly through posters/picture albums; while for the primary and middle school students, the school education is another

  4. INTRINSIC BIOREMEDIATION OF A PETROLEUM-IMPACTED WETLAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following the 1994 San Jacinto River flood and oil spill in southeast Texas, a petroleum-contaminated wetland was reserved for a long-term research program to evaluate bioremediation as a viable spill response tool. The first phase of this program, presented in this paper, evalua...

  5. INTRINSIC BIOREMEDIATION OF A PETROLEUM-IMPACTED WETLAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following the 1994 San Jacinto River flood and oil spill in southeast Texas, a petroleum-contaminated wetland was reserved for a long-term research program to evaluate bioremediation as a viable spill response tool. The first phase of this program, presented in this paper, evalua...

  6. Origins, fates, and ramifications of natural organic compounds of wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Wetzel

    2000-01-01

    Much of the organic carbon for heterotrophic metabolism in aquatic ecosystems is soluble and derived from structural compounds of higher plants of terrestrial and wetland-littoral sources of both lake and river ecosystems. The chemical recalcitrance of this organic matter and its oxidative utilization are fundamentally different from many sources within the aquatic...

  7. Simulated wetland conservation-restoration effects on water quantity and quality at watershed scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xixi; Shang, Shiyou; Qu, Zhongyi; Liu, Tingxi; Melesse, Assefa M; Yang, Wanhong

    2010-07-01

    Wetlands are one of the most important watershed microtopographic features that affect hydrologic processes (e.g., routing) and the fate and transport of constituents (e.g., sediment and nutrients). Efforts to conserve existing wetlands and/or to restore lost wetlands require that watershed-level effects of wetlands on water quantity and water quality be quantified. Because monitoring approaches are usually cost or logistics prohibitive at watershed scale, distributed watershed models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), enhanced by the hydrologic equivalent wetland (HEW) concept developed by Wang [Wang, X., Yang, W., Melesse, A.M., 2008. Using hydrologic equivalent wetland concept within SWAT to estimate streamflow in watersheds with numerous wetlands. Trans. ASABE 51 (1), 55-72.], can be a best resort. However, there is a serious lack of information about simulated effects using this kind of integrated modeling approach. The objective of this study was to use the HEW concept in SWAT to assess effects of wetland restoration within the Broughton's Creek watershed located in southwestern Manitoba, and of wetland conservation within the upper portion of the Otter Tail River watershed located in northwestern Minnesota. The results indicated that the HEW concept allows the nonlinear functional relations between watershed processes and wetland characteristics (e.g., size and morphology) to be accurately represented in the models. The loss of the first 10-20% of the wetlands in the Minnesota study area would drastically increase the peak discharge and loadings of sediment, total phosphorus (TP), and total nitrogen (TN). On the other hand, the justifiable reductions of the peak discharge and loadings of sediment, TP, and TN in the Manitoba study area may require that 50-80% of the lost wetlands be restored. Further, the comparison between the predicted restoration and conservation effects revealed that wetland conservation seems to deserve a higher priority

  8. Radionuclide observables for the Platte underground nuclear explosive test on 14 April 1962.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Jonathan L; Milbrath, Brian D

    2016-11-01

    Past nuclear weapon explosive tests provide invaluable information for understanding the radionuclide observables expected during an On-site Inspection (OSI) for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). These radioactive signatures are complex and subject to spatial and temporal variability. The Platte underground nuclear explosive test on 14 April 1962 provides extensive environmental monitoring data that can be modelled and used to calculate the maximum time available for detection of the OSI-relevant radionuclides. The 1.6 kT test is especially useful as it released the highest amounts of recorded activity during Operation Nougat at the Nevada Test Site - now known as the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). It has been estimated that 0.36% of the activity was released, and dispersed in a northerly direction. The deposition ranged from 1 × 10(-11) to 1 × 10(-9) of the atmospheric release (per m(2)), and has been used in this paper to evaluate an OSI and the OSI-relevant radionuclides at 1 week to 2 years post-detonation. Radioactive decay reduces the activity of the OSI-relevant radionuclides by 99.7% within 2 years of detonation, such that detection throughout the hypothesized inspection is only achievable close to the explosion where deposition was highest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Radionuclide observables for the Platte underground nuclear explosive test on 14 April 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, Jonathan L.; Milbrath, Brian D.

    2016-11-01

    Past nuclear weapons tests provide invaluable information for understanding the radionuclide observables and data quality objectives expected during an On-site Inspection (OSI) for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). These radioactive signatures are complex and subject to spatial and temporal variability. The Platte Underground Nuclear Test on 14 April 1962 provides extensive environmental monitoring data that can be modelled and used to assess an OSI. The 1.6 kT test is especially useful as it released the highest amounts of recorded activity during Operation Nougat at the Nevada Test Site – now known as the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). It has been estimated that 0.36% of the activity was released, and dispersed in a northerly direction. The deposition ranged from 1 x 10-11 to 1 x 10-9 of the atmospheric release (per m2), and has been used to evaluate a hypothetical OSI at 1 week to 2 years post-detonation. Radioactive decay reduces the activity of the 17 OSI relevant radionuclides by 99.7%, such that detection throughout the inspection is only achievable close to the explosion where deposition was highest.

  10. Role of Wetland Ecosystems In Hydrobioecological Dynamics In Indian Punjab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Ladhar, Satnam

    The State of Punjab in India, with a total geographical area of only 50,362 sq.kms, has a special significance for its contributions of foodgrains towards the central pool. The name Punjab, which included part of western Punjab, now in Pakistan, was derived from its five rivers namely Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Jehlam. Now only Sutlej, Beas and Ravi rivers pass through the State and serves as its lifelines. Its rich soils and good irrigation system linked with hardworking farmers have made the country foodgrain surplus. Green revolution is the word linked to this state. Ancient agriculture had been mostly dependant on the rain water or surface waters available in rivers, streams, ponds, open wells, etc. Thus role of rivers, streams and manmade wetlands occupying just 23000 ha area cannot be ignored while appreciating the technological advancements in agricultural production. But recently tubewell systems have replaced the earlier systems of irrigation. This has also changed the view of farmers for surface water sources particularly seasonal rivulets and natural wetlands, which are thus being ruthlessly reclaimed creating serious imbalances in StateSs ground water table and sustainability of agro-economy. While the natural wetlands have suffered the most, the large man made riverine reservoirs made for water supplies, are also shrinking due to encroachments and upstream diversion. The overall water scenario in the State has undergone a tremendous change from earlier surplus to the scarcity and thus the bio-ecological dynamics has shown significant alterations over the time. Harike and Ropar Wetlands came into formation in 1952 with the construction of ma- jestic barrages over river Sutlej. Harike Wetland with original water storage capacity of 67,900 acre feet, receives 25 million acre feet of water through rivers Sutlej and Beas and diverts 29,984 cusecs (cubic feet per second) through three canals for ir- rigation and drinking water supplies in south western

  11. Amphipod densities and indices of wetland quality across the upper-Midwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, M.J.; Afton, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional, behavioral, and diet data for lesser scaup (Aythya affinis [Eyton, 1838]) indicates that there has been a decrease in amphipod (Gammarus lacustris [G. O. Sars, 1863] and Hyalella azteca [Saussure, 1858]) density and wetland quality throughout the upper-Midwest, USA. Accordingly, we estimated densities of Gammarus and Hyalella in six eco-physiographic regions of Iowa, Minnesota, and North Dakota; 356 randomly selected semipermanent and permanent wetlands were sampled during springs 2004 and 2005. We also examined indices of wetland quality (e.g., turbidity, fish communities, aquatic vegetation) among regions in a random subset of these wetlands (n = 267). Gammarus and Hyalella were present in 19% and 54% of wetlands sampled, respectively. Gammarus and Hyalella densities in North Dakota were higher than those in Iowa and Minnesota. Although historical data are limited, our regional mean (1 to 12 m-3) amphipod densities (Gammarus + Hyalella) were markedly lower than any of the historical density estimates. Fish, important predators of amphipods, occurred in 31%-45% of wetlands in North Dakota, 84% of wetlands in the Red River Valley, and 74%-84% of wetlands in Iowa and Minnesota. Turbidity in wetlands of Minnesota Morainal (4.0 NTU geometric mean) and Red River Valley (6.1 NTU) regions appeared low relative to that of the rest of the upper-Midwest (13.2-17.5 NTU). We conclude that observed estimates of amphipods, fish, and turbidity are consistent with low wetland quality, which has resulted in lower food availability for various wildlife species, especially lesser scaup, which use these wetlands in the upper-Midwest. ?? 2008, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  12. Wetlands Environmental Management For Agriculture In Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katai Janos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hungary is located at the central Basin of Danube River, which is surrounded by the Alps and the Carpathians mountain range. The 84% of the Hungary area lies below 200 mBm. The rate of the flooded area is significant in the country. The average runoff of surface water exceeds hundred billion cubic meters. Streams and rivers from the surrounding area flow together with the Danube River into the Black sea. The 96% of the mentioned water quantity come from abroad; three-quarters of this water quantity enter the country in the Danube’s, Tisza’s and Drava’s riverbed. In my presentation, I would like to give an account about the status of wetlands in Hungary, its roles of agriculture and social life, difficulties encountered and future possibilities referring to literary sources.

  13. Treatment efficiency of effluent prawn culture by wetland with floating aquatic macrophytes arranged in series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MNP Henares

    Full Text Available The efficiency of a series of wetland colonized with Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia molesta to treat the effluent of a giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii broodstock pond was evaluated in this study. The experimental design was completely randomized and was performed in 9 rectangular tanks (1.6 m3 with three treatments (constructed wetlands and three replicates. The treatment types included: a wetland colonized with E. crassipes and S. molesta (EcSm arranged sequentially, a wetland with E. crassipes only (Ec and a wetland with S. molesta only (Sm. The means of suspended particulate material (SPM, total inorganic nitrogen (TIN, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, P-orthophosphate (PO4-P and total phosphorus (TP of the treated effluents were compared using ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (P<0.05. The effluent treated in Ec and EcSm wetlands exhibited lower SPM concentrations. The Ec wetland reduced TIN, TKN, PO4-P and TP by 46.0, 43.7, 44.4 and 43.6%, respectively. In the EcSm wetland, the reduction of TIN (23.0%, TKN (33.7% and PO4-P (26.7% was similar to the Sm wetland (19.8% TIN, 30.9% TKN and 23.8% PO4-P. The Ec wetland was more efficient in treating pond effluent due likely to the higher root surface of E. crassipes, which forms an extensive area favorable to retention and adsorption of debris and absorption of nutrients.

  14. Wetlands Inventory Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Nevada wetlands inventory is a unit of a nationwide survey undertaken by the Fish and Wildlife Service to locate and tabulate by habitat types the important...

  15. WaterWetlands_NWI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — VCGI downloaded NWI quads from the US FWS web site and reprojected to VCS NAD83. NWI digital data files are records of wetlands location and classification as...

  16. Classics of Artifical Wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    By the construcfion of frraced fields over the past cenfuries,the Hani people created wetland in the ailao Mountains,an area where there originally was no such land ,which greatly improved the local ecosystem.

  17. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  18. Ebullitive methane emissions from oxygenated wetland streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, John T; Stanley, Emily H; Spawn, Seth A; Finlay, Jacques C; Loken, Luke C; Striegl, Robert G

    2014-11-01

    Stream and river carbon dioxide emissions are an important component of the global carbon cycle. Methane emissions from streams could also contribute to regional or global greenhouse gas cycling, but there are relatively few data regarding stream and river methane emissions. Furthermore, the available data do not typically include the ebullitive (bubble-mediated) pathway, instead focusing on emission of dissolved methane by diffusion or convection. Here, we show the importance of ebullitive methane emissions from small streams in the regional greenhouse gas balance of a lake and wetland-dominated landscape in temperate North America and identify the origin of the methane emitted from these well-oxygenated streams. Stream methane flux densities from this landscape tended to exceed those of nearby wetland diffusive fluxes as well as average global wetland ebullitive fluxes. Total stream ebullitive methane flux at the regional scale (103 Mg C yr(-1) ; over 6400 km(2) ) was of the same magnitude as diffusive methane flux previously documented at the same scale. Organic-rich stream sediments had the highest rates of bubble release and higher enrichment of methane in bubbles, but glacial sand sediments also exhibited high bubble emissions relative to other studied environments. Our results from a database of groundwater chemistry support the hypothesis that methane in bubbles is produced in anoxic near-stream sediment porewaters, and not in deeper, oxygenated groundwaters. Methane interacts with other key elemental cycles such as nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, which has implications for ecosystem changes such as drought and increased nutrient loading. Our results support the contention that streams, particularly those draining wetland landscapes of the northern hemisphere, are an important component of the global methane cycle.

  19. Ebullitive methane emissions from oxygenated wetland streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, John T.; Stanley, Emily H.; Spawn, Seth A.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Stream and river carbon dioxide emissions are an important component of the global carbon cycle. Methane emissions from streams could also contribute to regional or global greenhouse gas cycling, but there are relatively few data regarding stream and river methane emissions. Furthermore, the available data do not typically include the ebullitive (bubble-mediated) pathway, instead focusing on emission of dissolved methane by diffusion or convection. Here, we show the importance of ebullitive methane emissions from small streams in the regional greenhouse gas balance of a lake and wetland-dominated landscape in temperate North America and identify the origin of the methane emitted from these well-oxygenated streams. Stream methane flux densities from this landscape tended to exceed those of nearby wetland diffusive fluxes as well as average global wetland ebullitive fluxes. Total stream ebullitive methane flux at the regional scale (103 Mg C yr−1; over 6400 km2) was of the same magnitude as diffusive methane flux previously documented at the same scale. Organic-rich stream sediments had the highest rates of bubble release and higher enrichment of methane in bubbles, but glacial sand sediments also exhibited high bubble emissions relative to other studied environments. Our results from a database of groundwater chemistry support the hypothesis that methane in bubbles is produced in anoxic near-stream sediment porewaters, and not in deeper, oxygenated groundwaters. Methane interacts with other key elemental cycles such as nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, which has implications for ecosystem changes such as drought and increased nutrient loading. Our results support the contention that streams, particularly those draining wetland landscapes of the northern hemisphere, are an important component of the global methane cycle.

  20. [Research progress on wetland ecotourism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Long; Lu, Lin

    2009-06-01

    Wetland is rich in biodiversity and cultural diversity, possessing higher tourism value and environmental education and community participation functions. Wetland ecotourism reflects the sustainable development of tourism economy and wetland protection, having received great concern from governments and scholars at home and abroad. This paper summarized the related theories and practices, discussed the research advances in wetland ecotourism from the aspects of significance, progress, contents, methods and results, and pointed out the important research fields in the future, aimed to accelerate the development of wetland ecotourism research and to provide reference about the resources exploitation, environment protection, and scientific administration of wetland and related scenic areas.

  1. Estimating nitrate load reductions from placing constructed wetlands in a HUC-12 watershed using LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitigating Gulf of Mexico hypoxia will require practices to reduce nitrate losses from tile drains throughout the upper Mississippi River basin. Wetlands are a key practice to help accomplish this but the locations of feasible wetland sites will need to be determined on a watershed specific basis. T...

  2. Monthly flooded area classification using low resolution SAR imagery in the Sudd wetland from 2007-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    The annual flood cycle of the Sudd wetland in South Sudan plays an important role in the Nile River Basin water balance. The wetland, however, is extensive and sparsely instrumented, which has inhibited credible understanding of regional flooding across space and time. Here we explore the potential ...

  3. It's time to set some standards: Environmental classification of freshwater wetlands in New Zealand and their protection from eutrophication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrell, Brian Keith; Clarkson, Beverly

    Most natural resource plans provide protection for lakes and rivers from catchment activities leading to eutrophication. However, they are often silent about wetlands, due to the lack of information available for setting standards, defining reference conditions, and predicting responses to nutrient...... properties will allow determination of goals for management of wetland biotic integrity...

  4. Metro Multnomah Wetlands - Multnomah Channel Wetland Restoration Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Multnomah Channel Wetland Restoration Monitoring Project characterizes wetlands use by juvenile salmonids and other fishes in the Multnomah Channel Marsh Natural...

  5. Wetlands & Deepwater Habitats - MO 2012 East West Gateway Wetlands (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Cowardin’s Classification of Wetlands and Deep Water Habitats of the United States (http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/wetlands/classwet/index.htm), together with...

  6. Wetlands & Deepwater Habitats - MO 2012 East West Gateway Wetlands (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Cowardin’s Classification of Wetlands and Deep Water Habitats of the United States (http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/wetlands/classwet/index.htm), together with...

  7. [Wetlands of priority restoration in Northeast China based on spatial analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhang-Yu; Liu, Dian-Wei; Wang, Zong-Ming; Ren, Chun-Ying; Tang, Xu-Guang; Jia, Ming-Ming; Wang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    By using GIS/RS technology, and from the aspects of landscape structure, river- and road densities, wetness index, geomorphology, and cultivated land productivity, a spatial analysis was made on the potentiality of wetland restoration in Northeast China, with the regions of priority and secondary priority restoration wetlands determined. Then, by using the coordinated development index of crop production and wetland as well as the landscape indices, the wetland restoration effect was verified. In Northeast China, the wetland area of priority restoration was 1.78 x 10(6) hm2, among which, farmland and grassland were the main types for restoration, accounting for 96.7% of the total, and mainly located in the Sanjiang Plain in the northeastern part and the Songnen Plain in the central part of Northeast China. The wetland area of secondary priority restoration was 1.03 x 10(6) hm2. After the restoration of the wetlands, the wetland area in Northeast China would be increased by 37.4%, compared with the present wetland area, and the value of the coordinated development index of crop production and wetland would increase from 0.539 before restoration to 0.733 after restoration. The landscape pattern would be more benefit to the performance of the ecological functions of the wetlands. This study revealed that the restoration scheme of the wetlands in Northeast China based on spatial analysis was practicable, which could provide data support for the implement of wetland restoration and the improvement of ecological environment in Northeast China.

  8. Efficiencies of freshwater and estuarine constructed wetlands for phenolic endocrine disruptor removal in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chi-Ying; Yang, Lei; Kuo, Wen-Chien; Zen, Yi-Peng

    2013-10-01

    We examined the distribution and removal efficiencies of phenolic endocrine disruptors (EDs), namely nonylphenol diethoxylates (NP2EO), nonylphenol monoethoxylates (NP1EO), nonylphenol (NP), and octylphenol (OP), in wastewater treated by estuarine and freshwater constructed wetland systems in Dapeng Bay National Scenic Area (DBNSA) and along the Dahan River in Taiwan. Water samples were taken bimonthly at 30 sites in three estuarine constructed wetlands (Datan, Pengcun and Linbian right bank (A and B)) in DBNSA, for eight sampling campaigns. The average removal efficiencies were in the range of 3.13-97.3% for wetlands in DBNSA. The highest average removal occurred in the east inlet to the outlet of the Tatan wetland. The most frequently detected compound was OP (57.7%), whose concentration was up to 1458.7 ng/L in DBNSA. NP was seen in only 20.5% of the samples. The temporal variation of EDs showed a decrease across seasons, where summer>spring>winter>autumn in these constructed wetlands. The removal efficiencies of EDs by estuarine wetlands, in decreasing order, were Datan>Pengcun>Linbian right bank in DBNSA. Water samples collected at 18 sites in three freshwater constructed wetlands (Daniaopi, Hsin-Hai I, and Hsin-Hai II) along the riparian area of Dahan River. NP2EO was the most abundant compound, with a concentration of up to 11,200 ng/L. Removal efficiencies ranged from 55% to 91% for NP1EO, NP2EO, and NP in Hsin-Hai I. The average removal potential of EDs in freshwater constructed wetlands, in decreasing order, was Hsin-Hai II>Daniaopi>Hsin-Hai I constructed wetlands. The lowest concentrations of the selected compounds were observed in the winter. The highest removal efficiency of the selected phenolic endocrine disruptors was achieved by Hsin-Hai I wetland. The calculated risk quotients used to evaluate the ecological risk were up to 30 times higher in the freshwater wetlands along Dahan River than in the estuarine (DBNSA) constructed wetlands, indicating

  9. Wetland InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wdowinski, S.; Kim, S.; Amelung, F.; Dixon, T.

    2006-12-01

    Wetlands are transition zones where the flow of water, the nutrient cycling, and the sun energy meet to produce a unique and very productive ecosystem. They provide critical habitat for a wide variety of plant and animal species, including the larval stages of many ocean fish. Wetlands also have a valuable economical importance, as they filter nutrients and pollutants from fresh water used by human and provide aquatic habitats for outdoor recreation, tourism, and fishing. Globally, many such regions are under severe environmental stress, mainly from urban development, pollution, and rising sea level. However, there is increasing recognition of the importance of these habitats, and mitigation and restoration activities have begun in a few regions. A key element in wetlands conservation, management, and restoration involves monitoring its hydrologic system, as the entire ecosystem depends on its water supply. Heretofore, hydrologic monitoring of wetlands are conducted by stage (water level) stations, which provide good temporal resolution, but suffer from poor spatial resolution, as stage station are typically distributed several, or even tens of kilometers, from one another. Wetland application of InSAR provides the needed high spatial resolution hydrological observations, complementing the high temporal resolution terrestrial observations. Although conventional wisdom suggests that interferometry does not work in vegetated areas, several studies have shown that both L- and C-band interferogra