WorldWideScience

Sample records for platte pipe line

  1. Metal and organic residues in addled eggs of least terns and piping plovers in the Platte Valley of Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The concentration of most residues detected in eggs of least terns and piping plovers nesting in the Platte River valley are not a cause for alarm. However, selenium...

  2. Demographics and movements of least terns and piping plovers in the Central Platte River Valley, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Erin A.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Ring, Megan M.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Anteau, Michael J.; Stucker, Jennifer H.

    2016-08-09

    The Central Platte River Valley provides breeding habitat for a variety of migratory birds, including federally endangered interior least terns (Sternula antillarum; least tern) and threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus). Since 2009, researchers have collected demographic data on both species that span their lifecycle (that is, from egg laying through survival of adults). Demographic data were used to estimate vital rates (for example, nest survival, chick survival, and so on) for both species and assess how these vital rates were related to type and age of nesting habitat. Nest survival of both species was unrelated to the age of the site a nest was initiated on. Piping plover chick survival to fledging age was not related to the age of the site it was hatched at, however, the probability of a least tern chick surviving to fledging was higher at older sites. In general there were fewer piping plover nests than least tern nests found at sites created through either the physical construction of a new site or new vegetation management regimes, during 2009–14.Mean daily least tern nest survival was 0.9742 (95-percent confidence interval [CI]: 0.9692–0.9783) and cumulative nest survival was 0.59 (95-percent CI: 0.53–0.65). Mean daily least tern chick survival was 0.9602 (95-percent CI: 0.9515–0.9673) and cumulative survival to fledging was 0.54 (95-percent CI = 0.48–0.61). Annual apparent survival rates were estimated at 0.42 (95-percent CI = 0.22–0.64) for adult least terns nesting in the Central Platte River Valley and an apparent survival rate of 0.14 (95-pecent CI = 0.04–0.41) for juvenile least terns. The number of least tern nests present at sites created during 2009–14 was associated with the age of the site; more least tern nests were associated with older sites. During 2009–14, there were four (less than 1 percent of all chicks marked) least tern chicks hatched from the Central Platte River Valley that were subsequently captured on

  3. Reproductive ecology of interior least tern and piping plover in relation to Platte River hydrology and sandbar dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Jason M; Baasch, David M; Smith, Chadwin B; Werbylo, Kevin L

    2017-05-01

    Investigations of breeding ecology of interior least tern (Sternula antillarum athalassos) and piping plover (Charadrius melodus) in the Platte River basin in Nebraska, USA, have embraced the idea that these species are physiologically adapted to begin nesting concurrent with the cessation of spring floods. Low use and productivity on contemporary Platte River sandbars have been attributed to anthropomorphically driven changes in basin hydrology and channel morphology or to unusually late annual runoff events. We examined distributions of least tern and piping plover nest initiation dates in relation to the hydrology of the historical central Platte River (CPR) and contemporary CPR and lower Platte River (LPR). We also developed an emergent sandbar habitat model to evaluate the potential for reproductive success given observed hydrology, stage-discharge relationships, and sandbar height distributions. We found the timing of the late-spring rise to be spatially and temporally consistent, typically occurring in mid-June. However, piping plover nest initiation peaks in May and least tern nest initiation peaks in early June; both of which occur before the late spring rise. In neither case does there appear to be an adaptation to begin nesting concurrent with the cessation of spring floods. As a consequence, there are many years when no successful reproduction is possible because emergent sandbar habitat is inundated after most nests have been initiated, and there is little potential for successful renesting. The frequency of nest inundation, in turn, severely limits the potential for maintenance of stable species subpopulations on Platte River sandbars. Why then did these species expand into and persist in a basin where the hydrology is not ideally suited to their reproductive ecology? We hypothesize the availability and use of alternative off-channel nesting habitats, like sandpits, may allow for the maintenance of stable species subpopulations in the Platte River

  4. Foraging ecology of least terns and piping plovers nesting on Central Platte River sandpits and sandbars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfy, Mark H.; Anteau, Michael J.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Stucker, Jennifer H.

    2012-01-01

    Federally listed least terns (Sternula antillarum) and piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) nest on riverine sandbars on many major midcontinent river systems. On the Central Platte River, availability of sandbar habitat is limited, and both species nest on excavated sandpits in the river's floodplain. However, the extent to which sandpit-nesting birds use riverine habitats for foraging is unknown. We evaluated use of foraging habitats by least terns and piping plovers by collecting data on movements, behavior, foraging habitat, and productivity. We radiomarked 16 piping plovers and 23 least terns in 2009-2010 and monitored their movements using a network of fixed telemetry dataloggers. Piping plovers were detected primarily by the datalogger located in their nesting sandpit, whereas least terns were more frequently detected on dataloggers outside of the nesting sandpit. Telemetry data and behavioral observations showed that least terns tended to concentrate at the Kearney Canal Diversion Gates, where forage fish were apparently readily available. Fish sampling data suggested that forage fish were more abundant in riverine than in sandpit habitats, and behavioral observations showed that least terns foraged more frequently in riverine than in sandpit habitats. Piping plovers tended to forage in wet substrates along sandpit shorelines, but also used dry substrates and sandpit interior habitats. The greater mobility of least terns makes a wider range of potential foraging habitats available during brood rearing, making them able to exploit concentrations of fish outside the nesting colony. Thus, our data suggest that different spatial scales should be considered in managing nesting and foraging habitat complexes for piping plovers and least terns.

  5. Mechanical Behaviour of Lined Pipe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilberink, A.

    2011-01-01

    Installing lined pipe by means of the reeling installation method seems to be an attractive combination, because it provides the opportunity of eliminating the demanding welds from the critical time offshore and instead preparing them onshore. However, reeling of lined pipe is not yet proven

  6. Dual phase steel for line pipe applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merwin, M.J. [United States Steel Corp., Research and Technology Centre, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory study of 2 samples of commercially produced line pipe from the same melting grade. The chemistries of the steel samples were presented. The study was conducted in response to requests by the American Petroleum Institute (API) for line pipe steel with a yield-strength-to-tensile-strength ratio (Y/T) of 0.85 or less, for use in offshore installations. The United States Steel Corporation initiated this program to achieve lower Y/T for line pipe grades while maintaining robust processing capability and mechanical properties. Heat treated seamless tubular products are typically processed in a manner that can be readily modified to produce dual phase microstructures by applying intercritical soaking before quenching. The steel line pipe industry is interested in dual phase steel for use in reel barge pipe laying operations because the the yield strength of dual phase steel is lower than tensile strength. In this study, the compositions of commercially produced material already in use for the line pipe market were studied. The developed dual phase microstructures were found to be stable over a range of intercritical temperatures. Tempering temperature and small chemistry differences were found to have the greatest influence on properties. The toughness performance was found to be excellent in samples tempered at temperatures greater than 550 degrees C, a regime which produced materials with strength suitable for use in API X60 line pipe. An incomprehensible difference in tensile strength between steels of similar chemistry was also noted. Welding performance was examined through the simulation of 3 regions of the heat-affected zone. The heat-affected zone properties were not influenced by either intercritical or tempering temperature. The only significant factor was the peak temperature that was achieved in the thermal cycle. The hardness of the heat-affected zone increased continuously with increasing peak temperature

  7. The Tree Lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (treeline)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 7 arcs representing the tree lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The tree lines were collected by a Trimble...

  8. 78 FR 62614 - Guttman Energy, Inc., PBF Holding Company LLC v. Buckeye Pipe Line Company, L.P., Laurel Pipe...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Guttman Energy, Inc., PBF Holding Company LLC v. Buckeye Pipe Line Company, L.P., Laurel Pipe Line Company, L.P.; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on October 15, 2013... Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) a complaint against Buckeye Pipe Line Company L.P. and Laurel...

  9. 75 FR 69125 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... COMMISSION Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China Determination... alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe (``seamless SLP pipe''), provided for in subheadings 7304... Charlotte R. Lane determines that the domestic seamless SLP pipe industry is materially injured by reason of...

  10. A VAM thread for line pipe J-LAY operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, Jean-Pierre [Vallourec Mannesmann Oil and Gas, Boulogne (France)

    2000-07-01

    Following increasing demand for line pipe in deep sea water, Bouygues Off-Shore and Vallourec Mannesmann Oil and Gas France have decided to develop and promote an innovative VAM threaded connection, to be implemented according to J-Lay method. The paper is addressing first the application that we decided to cover. The designed solution and its specificities compared to standard premium threads for vertical completions is described in detail. The qualification process of the product to confirm its leak tightness performance envelope and to validate its operational performances is presented. Finally, the paper is providing the running and pipe laying procedures of such concept and is giving inputs to a general trade-off between a conventional welded solution and such 'threaded line pipe' option. (author)

  11. 76 FR 18251 - Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan Andromania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... COMMISSION Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan Andromania AGENCY: United... antidumping duty orders on carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe from Japan and Romania... antidumping duty orders on carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe from Japan and...

  12. 77 FR 54926 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel; Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel; Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany... steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from Germany would be likely to lead to continuation or... 2012), entitled Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from...

  13. 78 FR 60897 - Certain Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... COMMISSION Certain Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe From Japan Determination On the basis of the record \\1... the antidumping duty order on certain welded large diameter line pipe from Japan would likely to lead... Certain Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe from Japan: Investigation No. 731-TA-919 (Second Review). By order...

  14. Development of high strength line pipe for Arctic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, L.E.; Klein, R.; Bai, D. [Evraz Inc., Regina, SK (Canada). Frontier Pipe Research Unit

    2009-07-15

    The pipelines that will carry large volumes of natural gas from the Mackenzie Delta and the Alaska North Slope to Alberta will have to meet stringent new requirements on material performance. High strength steels with thick pipe walls will be needed to accommodate the high operating pressure that will be needed to transmit gas over long distances. In addition, low operating temperatures and strain-based designs will be needed to meet Arctic operating conditions in areas of continuous or discontinuous permafrost. The Mackenzie Gas Project (MGP) has specified 762 mm OD x 16.2 mm WT Grade 550 (APIx80). Although the pipe has a high degree of ductility, material performance is of concern in terms of girth welds and associated heat affected zones. Studies have shown that the weld strength must overmatch the longitudinal strength of the pipe by at least 5 per cent in order to deflect any failure from a crack on the weld fusion line. The weld itself and the HAZ must also demonstrate a high degree of toughness. While proponents of the Alaska gas pipeline wish to use Grade 690 (APIx100) line pipe, full stress capacity tests have yet to be completed for Grade 690 material in the preferred gauge of 19 to 25 mm. Therefore, this paper examined 3 key issues pertaining to the performance of high strength line pipe in strain-based designs. These included girth weld HAZ toughness; work hardening characteristics; and achievement of very high strength levels. It was concluded that much more effort is needed to fully optimize these steels and to translate preliminary laboratory solutions to workable processing technologies. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  15. Evaluation of burst pressure prediction models for line pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xian-Kui, E-mail: zhux@battelle.org [Battelle Memorial Institute, 505 King Avenue, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States); Leis, Brian N. [Battelle Memorial Institute, 505 King Avenue, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Accurate prediction of burst pressure plays a central role in engineering design and integrity assessment of oil and gas pipelines. Theoretical and empirical solutions for such prediction are evaluated in this paper relative to a burst pressure database comprising more than 100 tests covering a variety of pipeline steel grades and pipe sizes. Solutions considered include three based on plasticity theory for the end-capped, thin-walled, defect-free line pipe subjected to internal pressure in terms of the Tresca, von Mises, and ZL (or Zhu-Leis) criteria, one based on a cylindrical instability stress (CIS) concept, and a large group of analytical and empirical models previously evaluated by Law and Bowie (International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, 84, 2007: 487-492). It is found that these models can be categorized into either a Tresca-family or a von Mises-family of solutions, except for those due to Margetson and Zhu-Leis models. The viability of predictions is measured via statistical analyses in terms of a mean error and its standard deviation. Consistent with an independent parallel evaluation using another large database, the Zhu-Leis solution is found best for predicting burst pressure, including consideration of strain hardening effects, while the Tresca strength solutions including Barlow, Maximum shear stress, Turner, and the ASME boiler code provide reasonably good predictions for the class of line-pipe steels with intermediate strain hardening response. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This paper evaluates different burst pressure prediction models for line pipes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The existing models are categorized into two major groups of Tresca and von Mises solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prediction quality of each model is assessed statistically using a large full-scale burst test database. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Zhu-Leis solution is identified as the best predictive model.

  16. Identifying thermal cycling mechanisms in PWR branch line piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosinski, S.T. [EPRI, Charlotte, NC (United States); Keller, J.D.; Bilanin, A.J. [Continuum Dynamics, Inc., Ewing, NJ (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Predicting the onset and the characteristics of thermal cycling in pressurized water reactor (PWR) branch line piping systems is critical to formulation of thermal fatigue screening tools. The complex nature of the underlying thermal-hydraulic phenomena, however, significantly complicates prediction using analytical models or direct numerical simulations. Instead, it is necessary to perform scaled experiments to identify the physical mechanisms and to gather data for formulation of semi-empirical models for the thermal cycling phenomena. Through the EPRI Materials Reliability Program a test program is underway to identify and develop semi-empirical correlations for the physical thermalhydraulic mechanisms that cause thermal cycling in dead-ended PWR branch line piping systems. Three series of tests are being performed in this test program: configuration tests on a representative up-horizontal (UH) branch line piping geometry, configuration tests on a representative down-horizontal (DH) branch line piping geometry, and high Reynolds number tests to assess penetration of secondary flow structures into a dead-ended branch line. Results from UH and DH configuration tests indicate that random turbulence penetration is not sufficient for thermal cycling to occur. Rather a swirling flow structure, representative of a large, 'corkscrew' vortical structure, is required for thermal cycling. Scale tests on the UH configuration have simulated cycling phenomena observed in full-scale plant data and have been used to determine parametric sensitivities in formulating a predictive model for the thermal cycling. Data indicate that the mechanism for thermal cycling in UH configurations is stochastic but scales with the leak rate from the valve. The critical dependent variables are reduced to several non-dimensional scaling curves, resulting in a semiempirical predictive model. This paper discusses the test program and the results obtained to date. Application of these

  17. 76 FR 60083 - Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... COMMISSION Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania Determinations... standard, line, and pressure pipe from Japan and Romania would be likely to lead to continuation or... pipe from Romania. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on April 1, 2011 (76 FR...

  18. ESTIMATION OF RESIDUAL CONTACT PRESSURE IN HYDRAULICALLY EXPANDED CRA-LINED PIPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xuesheng; Li Peining; Wang Ruzhu

    2004-01-01

    The mechanically bonded CRA-lined pipe is developed to meet the need for corrosion-resistant alloy steel pipe. Residual contact pressure at the interface of lined pipe is important factor that governs the quality of lined pipe. A simplified theoretical method is presented to predict the residual contact pressure created by hydraulic pressure. The calculating equation related hydro-forming pressure to the residual contact pressure between two metal faces is derived. And the validation of the proposed equation is accomplished by comparing its result to those obtained by experimental investigation.

  19. 77 FR 50465 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... Pipe From Romania: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe from Romania. The review covers one... carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe (small diameter seamless pipe) from...

  20. WATER QUALITY AND TREATMENT CONSIDERATIONS FOR CEMENT-LINED AND A-C PIPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both cement mortar lined (CML) and asbestos-cement pipes (A-C) are widely used in many water systems. Cement linings are also commonly applied in-situ after pipe cleaning, usually to prevent the recurrence of red water or tuberculation problems. Unfortunately, little consideratio...

  1. 75 FR 33803 - Sabine Pipe Line LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pipe Line LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization June 8, 2010. Take notice that on June 1, 2010, Sabine Pipe Line LLC (Sabine), 4800 Fournace Place, Bellaire...-free, (866) 208-3676 or TTY, (202) 502-8659. Specifically, Sabine proposes to abandon, in place,...

  2. Elevated temperature mechanical properties of line pipe steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Taylor Roth

    The effects of test temperature on the tensile properties of four line pipe steels were evaluated. The four materials include a ferrite-pearlite line pipe steel with a yield strength specification of 359 MPa (52 ksi) and three 485 MPa (70 ksi) yield strength acicular ferrite line pipe steels. Deformation behavior, ductility, strength, strain hardening rate, strain rate sensitivity, and fracture behavior were characterized at room temperature and in the temperature range of 200--350 °C, the potential operating range for steels used in oil production by the steam assisted gravity drainage process. Elevated temperature tensile testing was conducted on commercially produced as-received plates at engineering strain rates of 1.67 x 10 -4, 8.33 x 10-4, and 1.67 x 10-3 s-1. The acicular ferrite (X70) line pipe steels were also tested at elevated temperatures after aging at 200, 275, and 350 °C for 100 h under a tensile load of 419 MPa. The presence of serrated yielding depended on temperature and strain rate, and the upper bound of the temperature range where serrated yielding was observed was independent of microstructure between the ferrite-pearlite (X52) steel and the X70 steels. Serrated yielding was observed at intermediate temperatures and continuous plastic deformation was observed at room temperature and high temperatures. All steels exhibited a minimum in ductility as a function of temperature at testing conditions where serrated yielding was observed. At the higher temperatures (>275 °C) the X52 steel exhibited an increase in ductility with an increase in temperature and the X70 steels exhibited a maximum in ductility as a function of temperature. All steels exhibited a maximum in flow strength and average strain hardening rate as a function of temperature. The X52 steel exhibited maxima in flow strength and average strain hardening rate at lower temperatures than observed for the X70 steels. For all steels, the temperature where the maximum in both flow

  3. 77 FR 21968 - Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the... and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the People's Republic of China. The period of... countervailing duty order on seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the...

  4. 77 FR 59374 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe (Under 41/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ...] Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe (Under 4\\1/2\\ Inches... and pressure pipe (under 4\\1/2\\ inches) (hereinafter, ``small diameter pipe'') from Japan for the... Resources Ltd. (``CNRL), a Canadian exporter of small diameter pipe, which had requested an administrative...

  5. ACOUSTIC DETECTING AND LOCATING GAS PIPE LINE INFRINGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John L. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Patrick Browning

    2004-12-01

    The extensive network of high-pressure natural gas transmission pipelines covering the United States provides an important infrastructure for our energy independence. Early detection of pipeline leaks and infringements by construction equipment, resulting in corrosion fractures, presents an important aspect of our national security policy. The National Energy Technology Laboratory Strategic Center for Natural Gas (SCVG) is and has been funding research on various applicable techniques. The WVU research team has focused on monitoring pipeline background acoustic signals generated and transmitted by gas flowing through the gas inside the pipeline. In case of a pipeline infringement, any mechanical impact on the pipe wall, or escape of high-pressure gas, generates acoustic signals traveling both up and down stream through the gas. Sudden changes in flow noise are detectable with a Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP), developed under this contract. It incorporates a pressure compensating microphone and a signal- recording device. Direct access to the gas inside the line is obtained by mounting such a PAMP, with a 1/2 inch NPT connection, to a pipeline pressure port found near most shut-off valves. An FFT of the recorded signal subtracted by that of the background noise recorded one-second earlier appears to sufficiently isolate the infringement signal to allow source interpretation. Using cell phones for data downloading might allow a network of such 1000-psi rated PAMP's to acoustically monitor a pipeline system and be trained by neural network software to positively identify and locate any pipeline infringement.

  6. ACOUSTIC DETECTING AND LOCATING GAS PIPE LINE INFRINGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John L. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Patrick Browning

    2004-10-31

    The extensive network of high-pressure natural gas transmission pipelines covering the United States provides an important infrastructure for our energy independence. Early detection of pipeline leaks and infringements by construction equipment, resulting in corrosion fractures, presents an important aspect of our national security policy. The National Energy Technology Laboratory Strategic Center for Natural Gas (SCVG) is and has been funding research on various applicable techniques. The WVU research team has focused on monitoring pipeline background acoustic signals generated and transmitted by gas flowing through the gas inside the pipeline. In case of a pipeline infringement, any mechanical impact on the pipe wall, or escape of high-pressure gas, generates acoustic signals traveling both up and down stream through the gas. Sudden changes in flow noise are detectable with a Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP), developed under this contract. It incorporates a pressure compensating microphone and a signal- recording device. Direct access to the gas inside the line is obtained by mounting such a PAMP, with a 1/2 inch NPT connection, to a pipeline pressure port found near most shut-off valves. An FFT of the recorded signal subtracted by that of the background noise recorded one-second earlier appears to sufficiently isolate the infringement signal to allow source interpretation. Using cell phones for data downloading might allow a network of such 1000-psi rated PAMP's to acoustically monitor a pipeline system and be trained by neural network software to positively identify and locate any pipeline infringement.

  7. 49 CFR 192.367 - Service lines: General requirements for connections to main piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... connections to main piping. 192.367 Section 192.367 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY... requirements for connections to main piping. (a) Location. Each service line connection to a main must...

  8. Utilities:Other:Telephone Lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Other:telephone)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represent telephone lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The utility pipelines were collected by a Trimble GeoXT GPS unit with...

  9. A Study of Ceramic-Lined Composite Steel Pipes Prepared by SHS Centrifugal-Thermite Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuxin Li; Letao Jiang; Qing Lu; Peikang Bai; Bin Liu; Jianhong Wang

    2016-01-01

    .... The result showed the ceramic lined pipe is composed of the three main layers of various compositions, which were subsequently determined to be Fe layer, the transition layer and the ceramic layer...

  10. 76 FR 44608 - Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania; Scheduling of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... COMMISSION Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania; Scheduling of..., Line, and Pressure Pipe from Japan and Romania AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... pressure pipe from Japan and Romania would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  11. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF POWER CONSUMPTION FOR SOME OIL PIPE-LINE SECTIONS WITH POOR OPERATIONAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Kolesnik

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical model of power consumption for technologically completed and non-completed oil pipe-line sections with poor operational stability has been developed on the basis of daily indices concerning oil transportation regimes. The model permits to take into account tendencies in power consumption under various time prediction cycles and ranges of oil freight turnover, changes in the bulk and characteristics of the transported oil, configuration and design parameters of oil pipe-line.

  12. 76 FR 7815 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Pipe (Over 4\\1/2\\ Inches) From Japan: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of the... certain large diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe (over 4\\1/2\\ inches...

  13. Development of Exterior Anti-corrosion Coating Production Line for Large Diameter Hot Bent Pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiaoRuyi; ZhangYing

    2004-01-01

    The epoxy powder exterior anti-corrosion coating production line for bent pipes with a single (double) course production is a technologically advanced bent pipe anti-corrosion method with cost efficiency, environment friendliness and stable coating quality. The quality of the coating on the bent pipe fully meets the requirements of the current national and industrial standards. The application of the technology has filled the gap in the bent pipe anti-corrosion coating area of China, and leads the world technologically. With this technology the coating quality of the bent pipe has greatly improved, resulting in significant social and economic benefits. With the use of the technology in various large scale pipeline projects such as the “West to East Gas Pipeline Project”, it will exhibite a greater potential in the future pipeline projects with a broad application prospect.

  14. Digital in-line holography in thick optical systems: application to visualization in pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Verrier, Nicolas; Marc, Brunel; Denis, Lebrun; 10.1364/AO.47.004147

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we apply digital in-line holography to image opaque objects through a thick plano-concave pipe. Opaque fibers and opaque particles are considered}. Analytical expression of the intensity distribution in the CCD sensor plane is derived using generalized Fresnel transform. \\textbf{The proposed model has the ability to deal with various pipe shape and thickness and compensates for the lack of versatility of classical DIH models. Holograms obtained with a 12 mm thick plano-concave pipe are then reconstructed using fractional Fourier transform (FRFT).} This method allows us to get rid of astigmatism. Numerical and experimental results are presented.

  15. 78 FR 41369 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... Pipe From Romania: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011-2012 AGENCY... seamless pipe) from Romania. The period of review (POR) is August 1, 2011, through July 31, 2012. The... Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe from Romania,'' dated concurrently with this notice (Preliminary...

  16. Thermodynamic Peculiar Features of Steam Flow in Heat Pipe-Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Khroustalev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains results of the investigations pertaining to thermodynamic steam characteristics of the operating pipe-line, analysis of steam flow regimes, influence of heat losses on temperature fall along the length. The eh-diagram presents changes in e and e values which are caused by decrease of mean temperatures with the given pressure value at pipe-line inlet and outlet. The paper shows that steam enthalpy at the pipeline outlet depends on inlet enthalpy, ambient temperature and entropy difference.The constructed nomograph makes it possible to forecast steam temperature fall in the pipe-line with the purpose to ensure more efficient usage of its thermodynamic potential.

  17. Local buckling behavior of 48', X80 high-strain line pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Nobuhisa; Tajika, Hisakazu; Igi, Satoshi; Okatsu, Mitsuru; Kondo, Joe; Arakawa, Takekazu [JFE Steel Corporation (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    In the natural gas sector, more and more long distance and high pressure pipelines are now constructed in challenging areas, such as seismic and Arctic regions. In order to provide safe and reliable operations, high strength, high strain and large diameter pipes are used in such projects to withstand the important strains induced by the environment. The aim of this paper is to investigate the local buckling behavior of high strength and large diameter line pipes. A bending test apparatus was developed and used to perform 2 bending tests on X80 grade, 48'' pipes pressurized to 60% SMYS and a finite element analysis (FEA) was conducted. The comparison between experimental results and simulations showed that the FEA was successful in predicting bending moment, displacement and longitudinal strain. This paper demonstrated the FEA can be used to determine the behavior of high strength, high strain and large diameter pipes.

  18. Experimental testing and evaluation of cracks defects in line pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, Ali; Cronin, Duane; Plumtree, Alan [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Kania, Richard [TransCanada Pipelines, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Aging pipelines may show environmental or stress-induced cracking or similar defects. Several assessment methods are currently used for crack-like defects, as well as numerical modeling approaches. All have been used successfully, but unknown factors are the degree of conservatism and sensitivity to the various input parameters. To fill this knowledge gap, a series of full-scale burst tests was undertaken and successfully completed on end-capped, seam-welded pipe specimens having a 20-inch diameter and 5.7-mm wall thickness. The purpose was to study the failure behaviour of axial surface crack flaws and determine if the Level 3 FAD approach, NG-18 method and CorLAS can be applied to predict failure. The aspect of the fracture surface showed that the cause of failure of the pipe sections was ductile tearing, as expected in view of the material and crack sizes. It was found that the most accurate predictions were obtained with Level 3 FAD (J approach, using the cylinder equations) and CorLAS.

  19. Review Applications to Prevent Corrosion Reducing Gas Pipe Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Setoudeh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion is one of the major problems in the oil and gas industry is one that automatically allocates huge sums annually. Including ways to reduce corrosion of corrosion inhibitors is. Inhibiting substance that low amount is added to the system to slow or stop the chemical reaction does. When inhibitors of corrosion medium are added, the speed of corrosion decreases to zero takes. For the first time a deterrent mineral called arsenate sodium for inhibition steels carbon in oil wells was used to corrosion of CO2 prevented, but due to low yield was not satisfactory and therefore the other inhibitors were used. In the years 1945 to 1950 properties, excellent composition polar chain long was discovered. The discovery process of experiments related to organic inhibitors used in wells and pipes and oil Garza changed. This article examines the use of inhibitors to reduce corrosion in gas wells deals.

  20. 78 FR 33809 - Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Rescission...'') initiated an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on seamless carbon and alloy steel standard... order on seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the People's Republic...

  1. 77 FR 43806 - Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the... Department) initiated an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on seamless carbon and alloy... carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the People's Republic of China covering...

  2. 77 FR 39695 - HollyFrontier Refining and Marketing LLC v. Osage Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ...] HollyFrontier Refining and Marketing LLC v. Osage Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Complaint Take... Pipeline Proceedings; 18 CFR 343.1(a) and 343.2(c), HollyFrontier Refining and Marketing LLC (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against Osage Pipe Line Company, LLC (Respondent) alleging that the Respondent...

  3. STUDY OF ELECTROMAGNETIC STIRRING REFINING MICRO- STRUCTURES OF PIPE-LINE STEEL SAW DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. Zhang; B.N. Qian; X.M. Guo

    2002-01-01

    The effects of electromagnetic stirring on the microstructures of pipe-line steel SAWdeposited metal were investigated. The results showed that electromagnetic stirringincreased the number density of inclusions with 0.2-0.6μm in diameter and promotedthe formation and refining of acicular ferrite within austenite grains. The low tem-perature toughness of deposited metal was improved.

  4. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of J55ERW Steel Pipe Processed by On-Line Spray Water Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zejun Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An on-line spray water cooling (OSWC process for manufacturing electric resistance welded (ERW steel pipes is presented to enhance their mechanical properties and performances. This technique reduces the processing needed for the ERW pipe and overcomes the weakness of the conventional manufacturing technique. Industrial tests for J55 ERW steel pipe were carried out to validate the effectiveness of the OSWC process. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the J55 ERW steel pipe processed by the OSWC technology were investigated. The optimized OSWC technical parameters are presented based on the mechanical properties and impact the performance of steel pipes. The industrial tests show that the OSWC process can be used to efficiently control the microstructure, enhance mechanical properties, and improve production flexibility of steel pipes. The comprehensive mechanical properties of steel pipes processed by the OSWC are superior to those of other published J55 grade steels.

  5. Study on Laser Visual Measurement Method for Seamless Steel PipeStraightness Error by Multiple Line-structured Laser Sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈长水; 谢建平; 王佩琳

    2001-01-01

    An original non-contact measurement method using multiple line-structured laser sensors is introduced for seamless steel pipe straightness error is in this paper. An arc appears on the surface of the measured seamless steel pipe against a line-structured laser source. After the image of the arc is accepted by a CCD camera, the coordinates of the center of the pipe cross-section circle containing the arc can be worked out through a certain algorithm. Similarly, multiple line-structured laser sensors are equipped parallel to the pipe. The straightness error of the seamless steel pipe, therefore, can be inferred from the coordinates of multiple cross-section centers obtained from every line-structured laser sernsor .

  6. Crack control technology for the X80 large OD 1422 mm line pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyong Huo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available High-grade (API 5L X80 and large-diameter (OD 1422 mm line pipes are used in the Sino–Russian eastern route gas pipeline project for high pressure (12 MPa transmission, and this can significantly increase the transmission capacity and meet China's energy strategic demand. With the increase of steel grade, transmission pressure, pipe diameter and design coefficient, however, ductile crack of line pipes becomes the dominant crack mode, so it is necessary to focus on crack arrest and control study. In this paper, therefore, an intensive study was performed on the Battelle Two-Curve (BTC method which is the major solution to the calculation of arrest toughness, as well as the crack resistance curve and decompression curve. Based on the study, the principle and application range of the BTC method were confirmed. In addition, a series of analysis were conducted on the issues which occurred when the BTC method was applied to high-strength, high-toughness line pipe steel, and the commonly used modified approaches to BTC calculation results were also provided. After the crack control scheme of the X80 large OD 1422 mm line pipes for the Russian Bovanenkovo–Ukhta was reviewed, the BTC calculation results were corrected on the basis of the design parameters of the Sino–Russian eastern routine gas pipeline project, the Charpy V-notched (CVN impact energy which meets the project requirement was finally worked out to be 245 J.

  7. The Technical Specification and Physical Performance Level of Line Pipes for West-East Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FengBin; WangMaotang; LiuFangming; XiaoLiming

    2004-01-01

    The west-east gas transmission engineering is an important project attracting domestic and foreign attention. The gas pipeline used in this project is a gas pipeline with the longest distance, largest pipe diameter and highest transmission pressure in the history of petroleum pipeline construction of China. For the construction of top-rank gas pipeline in the world with high standard, high speed and high benefit, the key of specifying production of metallurgical and pipe-making enterprises and ensuring quality performance of the steel and steel pipe is to research and formulate a feasible and satisfactory technical Specification for engineering steel and steel pipe with international level. In this paper the author introduces the establishment of the technical specification for West-East gas pipeline project, and lays emphasis on the analysis and discussion of principle and method determining major technical indexes related to line pipes for West-East gas pipeline. The author also introduces actual material selection of gas pipeline home and abroad, and presents examination and application of the technical specification for West-East gas pipeline.

  8. Perforated mechanism of a water line outlet tee pipe for an oil well drilling rig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Cheng-hong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A corroded tee pipe belonging to a 10-in new separator water line outlet installed in an offshore oil well drilling rig was investigated. The configuration of the large corroded pit had the shape of an imperfect horse's hoof with a completely corroded interior and a honeycomb-like cavity. There is a badly corroded pit at the welded seam at the joint connecting the tee pipe and flange. The material strength of the tee pipe meets the requirement of ASTM-A234 Gr. WPR, but its chemical composition does not meet the stipulated requirements. A deformed streamline structure or twin crystal in the ferrite phase can be seen near the surface or sub-surface of the perforated corrosion puncture edge. The micro-hardness is also different from that of the original material. The SEM results show that the puncture appears to have been a mode of quasi-cleavage fractures with secondary cracks along the direction of the crystal grain; thus, the failure has the features of mechanical and chemical corrosion. The corroded surface contains high amounts of O, C, and N, as well as S, Cl, Si, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ti, etc., all of which are corrosion products caused by sea water. The penetrating puncture hole at the turn of the tee pipe is likely the result of cavitation erosion accompanied by chemical/electrochemical corrosion, and the corrosion on the seam connecting the tee pipe and flange is likely the result of electrochemical corrosion.

  9. 76 FR 62762 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Japan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... Petroleum Institute (``API'') 5L specifications and meeting the physical parameters described below... the market for the subject seamless pipes. However, ASTM A-106 pipes may be used in some boiler... distribution lines for commercial applications. These applications constitute the majority of the market...

  10. 75 FR 29972 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ..., regardless of wall-thickness, manufacturing process (e.g., hot-finished or cold-drawn), end finish (e.g...) pipe or ``hollow profiles'' suitable for cold finishing operations, such as cold drawing, to meet the... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe...

  11. A study of ceramic-lined composite steel pipes prepared by SHS centrifugal-thermite process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuxin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Al2O3 ceramic-lined steel pipe was produced by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis centrifugal thermite process (SHS C-T process from Fe2O3 and Al as the raw materials. The composition, phase separation and microstructures were investigated. The result showed the ceramic lined pipe is composed of the three main layers of various compositions, which were subsequently determined to be Fe layer, the transition layer and the ceramic layer. Fe layer is composed of austenite and ferrite, the transition layer consisted of Al2O3 ceramic and Fe, the ceramic layer consisted of the dendritic-shaped Al2O3 and the spinel-shaped structured FeAl2O4.

  12. Research for different crack width calculation methods of concrete-lined steel pressure pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuang; Li, Yang

    2017-08-01

    Based on a certain threshold to ensure the durability of structure, the concrete-lined steel pressure pipes used in the structure of large hydropower station widely are allowed to exist in concrete cracking under the action of a certain hydraulic pressure. According to the 1:2 large scale experiment model and the measured data of Three Gorges Hydro-power Station, the existing different methods for calculating crack width were compared and improvements and crack control measures were raised.

  13. Utilities:Water:Sewer Line Nodes at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Water:sewer_node)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents sewer line nodes at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The data were collected using Trimble Global Positioning System (GPS) units...

  14. Utilities:Water:Spring Water Lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Water:springwtr)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents spring water lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The data were collected using Trimble Global Positioning System (GPS)...

  15. Natural Gas Storage Facilities, US, 2010, Platts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Platts Natural Gas Storage Facilities geospatial data layer contains points that represent locations of facilities used for natural gas storage in the United...

  16. Native and European haplotypes of Phragmites Australis (common reed) in the central Platte River, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, D.L.; Galatowitsch, S.M.; Larson, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Phragmites australis (common reed) is known to have occurred along the Platte River historically, but recent rapid increases in both distribution and density have begun to impact habitat for migrating sandhill cranes and nesting piping plovers and least terns. Invasiveness in Phragmites has been associated with the incursion of a European genotype (haplotype M) in other areas; determining the genotype of Phragmites along the central Platte River has implications for proper management of the river system. In 2008 we sampled Phragmites patches along the central Platte River from Lexington to Chapman, NE, stratified by bridge segments, to determine the current distribution of haplotype E (native) and haplotype M genotypes. In addition, we did a retrospective analysis of historical Phragmites collections from the central Platte watershed (1902-2006) at the Bessey Herbarium. Fresh tissue from the 2008 survey and dried tissue from the herbarium specimens were classified as haplotype M or E using the restriction fragment length polymorphism procedure. The European haplotype was predominant in the 2008 samples: only 14 Phragmites shoots were identified as native haplotype E; 224 were non-native haplotype M. The retrospective analysis revealed primarily native haplotype individuals. Only collections made in Lancaster County, near Lincoln, NE, were haplotype M, and the earliest of these was collected in 1973. ?? 2011 Copyright by the Center for Great Plains Studies, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

  17. The First Assembly Line of Large-longitudinally-welded Steel Pipe in China Went into Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Bing

    2002-01-01

    @@ On July 27, the first assembly line to produce JCOE large diameter Longitudinally-submerged-arc-welded steel pipe in China, Which is the key homemade equipment project of "West-East Gas Transmission"project, was put into production. Chen Gen, vice general manager of CNPC; Xie Zhiqiang and Liu Haisheng, assistant chief manager of CNPC; Shi Xingquan, vice president of PetroChina; and the president of Itochu-Marubeni Steel & iron Co., Ltd.of Japan; attended the opening ceremony and cut the ribbon.

  18. Heat Transfer Modeling of an Annular On-Line Spray Water Cooling Process for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zejun; Han, Huiquan; Ren, Wei; Huang, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    On-line spray water cooling (OSWC) of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) steel pipes can replace the conventional off-line heat treatment process and become an important and critical procedure. The OSWC process improves production efficiency, decreases costs, and enhances the mechanical properties of ERW steel pipe, especially the impact properties of the weld joint. In this paper, an annular OSWC process is investigated based on an experimental simulation platform that can obtain precise real-time measurements of the temperature of the pipe, the water pressure and flux, etc. The effects of the modes of annular spray water cooling and related cooling parameters on the mechanical properties of the pipe are investigated. The temperature evolutions of the inner and outer walls of the pipe are measured during the spray water cooling process, and the uniformity of mechanical properties along the circumferential and longitudinal directions is investigated. A heat transfer coefficient model of spray water cooling is developed based on measured temperature data in conjunction with simulation using the finite element method. Industrial tests prove the validity of the heat transfer model of a steel pipe undergoing spray water cooling. The research results can provide a basis for the industrial application of the OSWC process in the production of ERW steel pipes.

  19. Heat Transfer Modeling of an Annular On-Line Spray Water Cooling Process for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zejun; Han, Huiquan; Ren, Wei; Huang, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    On-line spray water cooling (OSWC) of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) steel pipes can replace the conventional off-line heat treatment process and become an important and critical procedure. The OSWC process improves production efficiency, decreases costs, and enhances the mechanical properties of ERW steel pipe, especially the impact properties of the weld joint. In this paper, an annular OSWC process is investigated based on an experimental simulation platform that can obtain precise real-time measurements of the temperature of the pipe, the water pressure and flux, etc. The effects of the modes of annular spray water cooling and related cooling parameters on the mechanical properties of the pipe are investigated. The temperature evolutions of the inner and outer walls of the pipe are measured during the spray water cooling process, and the uniformity of mechanical properties along the circumferential and longitudinal directions is investigated. A heat transfer coefficient model of spray water cooling is developed based on measured temperature data in conjunction with simulation using the finite element method. Industrial tests prove the validity of the heat transfer model of a steel pipe undergoing spray water cooling. The research results can provide a basis for the industrial application of the OSWC process in the production of ERW steel pipes. PMID:26201073

  20. Effects of blast wave to main steam piping under high energy line break condition by TNT model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Lee, Eung Seok; Chang, Yoon Suk [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The aim of this study is to examine effect of the blast wave according to pipe break position through FE (Finite Element) analyses. If HELB (High Energy Line Break) accident occurs in nuclear power plants, not only environmental effect such as release of radioactive material but also secondary structural defects should be considered. Sudden pipe rupture causes ejection of high temperature and pressure fluid, which acts as a blast wave around the break location. The blast wave caused by the HELB has a possibility to induce structural defects around the components such as safe-related injection pipes and other structures.

  1. Method of Disposing Closing Spool in Lined Pipe%衬里管调整段的设置方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易志丹

    2015-01-01

    对衬里管的设置目的及其分类、不同衬里管直管的最大长度、现场制作调整段的方法一一详细阐述,进而对比国内项目和国外项目中不同衬里管的调整段设置方法,找出其差异,最终目的为日后其他设计项目提供多种衬里管调整段的设置方法。%In this article, the application objective and classification of lined pipe, the determination of the maximum length of straight lined pipe and the method of fabricating closing spool in lined pipe werefirst depicted in detail. Then, the differences in disposition of closing spool in lined pipe used in home projects and in abroad projects were found from the comparison, so that multiple methods in disposition of closingspool in lined pipe were provide for reference in later design projects.

  2. Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of a Single-Pass Weld Overlay and Girth Welding in Lined Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Obeid; Alfano, Giulio; Bahai, Hamid

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents a nonlinear heat-transfer and mechanical finite-element (FE) analyses of a two-pass welding process of two segments of lined pipe made of a SUS304 stainless steel liner and a C-Mn steel pipe. The two passes consist of the single-pass overlay welding (inner lap weld) of the liner with the C-Mn steel pipe for each segment and the single-pass girth welding (outer butt weld) of the two segments. A distributed power density of the moving welding torch and a nonlinear heat-transfer coefficient accounting for both radiation and convection have been used in the analysis and implemented in user subroutines for the FE code ABAQUS. The modeling procedure has been validated against previously published experimental results for stainless steel and carbon steel welding separately. The model has been then used to determine the isotherms induced by the weld overlay and the girth welding and to clarify their influence on the transient temperature field and residual stress in the lined pipe. Furthermore, the influence of the cooling time between weld overlay and girth welding and of the welding speed have been examined thermally and mechanically as they are key factors that can affect the quality of lined pipe welding.

  3. Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of a Single-Pass Weld Overlay and Girth Welding in Lined Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Obeid; Alfano, Giulio; Bahai, Hamid

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents a nonlinear heat-transfer and mechanical finite-element (FE) analyses of a two-pass welding process of two segments of lined pipe made of a SUS304 stainless steel liner and a C-Mn steel pipe. The two passes consist of the single-pass overlay welding (inner lap weld) of the liner with the C-Mn steel pipe for each segment and the single-pass girth welding (outer butt weld) of the two segments. A distributed power density of the moving welding torch and a nonlinear heat-transfer coefficient accounting for both radiation and convection have been used in the analysis and implemented in user subroutines for the FE code ABAQUS. The modeling procedure has been validated against previously published experimental results for stainless steel and carbon steel welding separately. The model has been then used to determine the isotherms induced by the weld overlay and the girth welding and to clarify their influence on the transient temperature field and residual stress in the lined pipe. Furthermore, the influence of the cooling time between weld overlay and girth welding and of the welding speed have been examined thermally and mechanically as they are key factors that can affect the quality of lined pipe welding.

  4. 75 FR 16071 - Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Line Pipe from the People's Republic of China: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ....) invoice price on all shipments of subject merchandise from the Huludao Companies entered or withdrawn from... 36.53 percent of the f.o.b. invoice price on all shipments of subject merchandise from companies... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Line Pipe from the People's Republic...

  5. Effect of heat treatments on the hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility of API X-65 grade line-pipe steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Ananta Nagu; Amarnath; T K G Namboodhiri

    2003-06-01

    Delayed failure tests were carried out on hydrogen charged API X-65 grade line-pipe steel in as received (controlled rolled), normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions. The resistance to hydrogen embrittlement was found in the order of controlled rolled $\\gt$ quenched and tempered $\\gt$ normalized. The fracture mode in the hydrogen embrittled steel was ductile.

  6. 78 FR 3916 - Certain Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe From Japan; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe From Japan; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct... will be established and announced at a later date. For further information concerning the conduct of...

  7. 75 FR 69050 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ...-thickness, manufacturing process (e.g., hot-finished or cold- drawn), end finish (e.g., plain end, beveled... profiles'' suitable for cold finishing operations, such as cold drawing, to meet the American Society for... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe...

  8. Study of pitting corrosion in line-pipe steel under the influence of remanent magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J.H.; Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J.M. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN), Zacatenco (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The influence of remanent magnetization on pitting corrosion in line-pipe steels is studied. Pitting corrosion experiments have been carried out on samples of an API 5L grade 52 steel under a magnetization level of the same order of magnitude of the remanent magnetization in the pipeline wall after in-line inspection based on magnetic flux leakage. The samples were magnetized using rings of the same grade as the investigated steel. Immediately after magnetization, the investigated samples were subjected to pitting by immersing them in a solution containing dissolved Cl{sup -} and SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and ions. The pitting experiments were conducted during a seven days period. The pit depth distribution and the maximum pit depth in each sample were recorded and used to conduct extreme value analyses of the pitting process in magnetized and non-magnetized control samples. The statistical assessment of the pitting corrosion data collected during this study shows that the magnetic field reduces the average depth of the pit population and also the extreme pit depth values that can be predicted from the maximum values observed in the magnetized samples in comparison with to the non-magnetized control samples. Scanning electron microscopy observations show that the magnetic field alters the pit morphology by increasing the pit mouth opening. (author)

  9. Effect of flow rate and lead/copper pipe sequence on lead release from service lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, Clément; Arnold, Roger B; Triantafyllidou, Simoni; Prévost, Michèle; Edwards, Marc

    2012-09-01

    A pilot experiment examined lead leaching from four representative configurations of service lines including: (1) 100% lead (Pb), (2) 100% copper (Cu), (3) 50% Pb upstream of 50% Cu, and (4) 50% Pb-downstream of 50% Cu using a range of flow rates. The cumulative mass of lead release indicated that a typical partial replacement configuration (50% lead downstream of copper) did not provide a net reduction in lead when compared to 100% lead pipe (85 mg for 50% Pb-downstream versus 83 mg for 100%-Pb) due to galvanic and deposition corrosion. The partially replaced service line configuration also had a much greater likelihood of producing water with "spikes" of lead particulates at higher flow rates, while tending to produce lower levels of lead at very low flow rates. After the first 214 days the galvanic current between copper and lead was only reduced by 34%, proving that galvanic impacts can be highly persistent even in water with optimized corrosion control by dosing of zinc orthophosphate. Finally, this experiment raises concern about the low flow rates used during some prior home sampling events, which may underestimate exposure to lead during normal water use, especially when galvanic Pb:Cu connections are present.

  10. Study of pitting corrosion in line-pipe steel under the influence of remanent magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J.H.; Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J.M. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN), Zacatenco (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The influence of remanent magnetization on pitting corrosion in line-pipe steels is studied. Pitting corrosion experiments have been carried out on samples of an API 5L grade 52 steel under a magnetization level of the same order of magnitude of the remanent magnetization in the pipeline wall after in-line inspection based on magnetic flux leakage. The samples were magnetized using rings of the same grade as the investigated steel. Immediately after magnetization, the investigated samples were subjected to pitting by immersing them in a solution containing dissolved Cl{sup -} and SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and ions. The pitting experiments were conducted during a seven days period. The pit depth distribution and the maximum pit depth in each sample were recorded and used to conduct extreme value analyses of the pitting process in magnetized and non-magnetized control samples. The statistical assessment of the pitting corrosion data collected during this study shows that the magnetic field reduces the average depth of the pit population and also the extreme pit depth values that can be predicted from the maximum values observed in the magnetized samples in comparison with to the non-magnetized control samples. Scanning electron microscopy observations show that the magnetic field alters the pit morphology by increasing the pit mouth opening. (author)

  11. Base of principal aquifer for parts of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobza, Christopher M.; Abraham, Jared D.; Cannia, James C.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Sibray, Steven S.

    2014-01-01

    Water resources in the North and South Platte River valleys of Nebraska, including the valley of Lodgepole Creek, are critical to the social and economic health of the area, and for the recovery of threatened and endangered species in the Platte River Basin. Groundwater and surface water are heavily used resources, and uses are regulated in the study area. Irrigation is the dominant water use and, in most instances, is supplied by both groundwater and surface-water sources. The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to use airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys including the valley of Lodgepole Creek in western Nebraska. The objective of the surveys was to map the aquifers and underlying bedrock topography of selected areas to help improve the understanding of groundwater–surface-water relations to guide water-management decisions. This project was a cooperative study involving the North Platte Natural Resources District, the South Platte Natural Resources District, the Twin Platte Natural Resources District, the Conservation and Survey Division of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, and the Nebraska Environmental Trust. This report presents the interpreted base-of-aquifer surface for part of the area consisting of the North Platte Natural Resources District, the South Platte Natural Resources District, and the Twin Platte Natural Resources District. The interpretations presented herein build on work done by previous researchers from 2008 to 2009 by incorporating additional airborne electromagnetic survey data collected in 2010 and additional test holes from separate, related studies. To make the airborne electromagnetic data useful, numerical inversion was used to convert the measured data into a depth-dependent subsurface resistivity model. An interpretation of the elevation and configuration of the base of aquifer was completed in a geographic information system that provided x, y, and z

  12. Bubble shape and breakage events in a vertical pipe at the boiler flow line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fsadni Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical and experimental aspects concerning the typical bubble shape at the flow line of a standard domestic central heating system are investigated. This is done in support of the on-going research on two-phase flows in domestic central heating systems. Bubble nucleation and detachment at the primary heat exchanger wall of a domestic central heating boiler results in a bubbly two-phase flow in the system pipe work. Bubbly flow results in undesired cold spots at higher points in the system, consequently diminishing system performance. An experimental analysis was done on the bubble shape at the exit of the boiler through the application of photographic techniques. The results are presented in terms of the measured bubble aspect ratios at some principal system operating conditions. The dimensionless Eotvos and bubble Reynolds number were calculated and tabulated with the measured mean diameters. The data was subsequently correlated to the bubble shape regime diagram. Results suggest that most bubbles are quasi-spherical in shape with a noticeable elongation at lower bulk fluid Reynolds numbers.

  13. Bubble shape and breakage events in a vertical pipe at the boiler flow line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fsadni, Andrew; Ge, Yunting

    2014-03-01

    The theoretical and experimental aspects concerning the typical bubble shape at the flow line of a standard domestic central heating system are investigated. This is done in support of the on-going research on two-phase flows in domestic central heating systems. Bubble nucleation and detachment at the primary heat exchanger wall of a domestic central heating boiler results in a bubbly two-phase flow in the system pipe work. Bubbly flow results in undesired cold spots at higher points in the system, consequently diminishing system performance. An experimental analysis was done on the bubble shape at the exit of the boiler through the application of photographic techniques. The results are presented in terms of the measured bubble aspect ratios at some principal system operating conditions. The dimensionless Eotvos and bubble Reynolds number were calculated and tabulated with the measured mean diameters. The data was subsequently correlated to the bubble shape regime diagram. Results suggest that most bubbles are quasi-spherical in shape with a noticeable elongation at lower bulk fluid Reynolds numbers.

  14. Optimization of hot rolling process for API-X60 grade line pipe steel with lower yield/tensile ratio for ERW pipe application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ro, K.S.; Arikere, B.; Sarkar, B.K.; Nagaraj, N.K.; Al-Shammary, S.; Al-Butairi, A. [Saudi Iron and Steel Co., Al-Jubail (Saudi Arabia)

    2004-07-01

    This paper described trials conducted to achieve a yield-to-tensile ratio lower than 0.85 for API X60 line pipes. The trials were based on the parameters affecting the mechanical and physical properties of hot-rolled coils. The production scale trials were performed by controlling: (1) finish rolling temperature; (2) coiling temperature; (3) cooling rates. The study also aimed to determine the effect of grain size and microstructure on yield-to-tensile ratios. A high reduction at approximately 1050 degrees C was provided at the roughing mill to ensure a transfer bar with a fine recrystallized austenitic grain size. A laminar cooling strategy was used to achieve a smaller grain size as well as to transform the austenites to ferrite and pearlite. A higher cooling rate (CR) was used to increase ferrite nucleation sites. Photomicrographs were used to show differences in grain size, grain shape, and the distribution of pearlite in the samples. A volume fraction analysis showed that the pearlite content varied from 8 per cent to 11 per cent in the trials. Samples for testing were collected from pipes made using a cage-forming process and a linear forming process. Results showed that the average yield strength drop from coil to pipe was 43.2 MPa, with a range of 30 to 90 MPa. Significant differences in yield strength drop were noted for the linear forming and cage forming processes. Results suggested that higher deformation temperatures combined with normal coiling temperatures and consistent water cooling patterns will provide optimum yield and tensile strengths with lower yield ratios. It was concluded that that a yield-to-tensile ratio of 0.84-0.88 can be achieved with API-X60 hot-rolled coils using the new process. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  15. Test research on cold bend of {phi}1219 mm x 22 mm X80 longitudinally submerged-arc welded line pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Chi; Lingkang, Ji; Yinglai, Liu; Peng, Wang [China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), Xi' an (China). Tubular Goods Research Center

    2009-07-01

    The tests of cold bend of {phi}1219 mm x 22 mm X80 longitudinally submerged-arc welded line pipes were done to research the effects of cold bend processes on the configuration and property of X80 steel pipe in this paper. In the filed bend tests, the six kinds radius of curvature consist of 18D, 20D, 24D, 28D, 35D and 47D (D is the diameter of steel pipe) were adopted. The results of welding seam non-destructive and macrograph examination show that the effect of bending process on the quality of welding seam is not obvious. The appearance inspections show that the serious distortions occur on the bend pipes of 18D and 20D radius of curvature. The mechanical property tests results indicate that the change of the transverse tensile property, toughness and hardness of cold bend pipes manufactured by various radius of curvature compare with the mother pipe are smaller. The change of longitudinal tensile property is bigger. Compared with the mother pipe, the yield strength and yield ratio in inner arc of bend pipe decrease, but those in outer arc of bend pipe increase. The longitudinal tensile curves in different sampling locations of bend pipe exhibit a rather large difference. (author)

  16. High energy pipe line break postulations and their mitigation - examples for VVER nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdarek, J.; Pecinka, L.; Kadecka, P.; Dotrel, J. [Nuclear Res. Inst., Rez (Czech Republic)

    1998-11-01

    The concept and the proposals for the protection and reinforcement of equipment against the effects of postulated rupture of the high-energy piping, in VVER Plant, are presented. The most recent version of the US NRC Guidelines has been used. The development of the legislation, the basic approach and selection of criteria for the assessment of the rupture of high energy piping, provide the basis for the application of the separation concept in the overall safety philosophy. (orig.)

  17. Pipe type poles in transmission power lines; Postes tipo tubo en lineas de transmision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes E, Mario; Becerril A, Armando [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The first supports for transmission power lines were relatively small structures, of simple configuration, to save reduced clearances to resist load in accordance with its need; with the technical development, gradually appeared higher and higher electric tensions and greater obstacles to overcome, consequently the design of the supports had to be adapted to the new conditions. This gave rise to the development of a specific technique that would adequate and incorporate the continuous engineering advances. In this document the initial considerations on the design poles pipe type are examined; within these considerations mention is made of: the design, the manufacture, the prototype tests, installation, quality control and foundations. The type tube pole is portrayed, as well as the steel reinforcement, finally the types of precast foundations are shown [Espanol] Los primeros soportes para lineas de transmision fueron estructuras relativamente pequenas, de configuracion simple, para salvar claros reducidos y resistir cargas proporcionales a sus necesidades, con el desarrollo de la tecnica, fueron apareciendo tensiones electricas cada vez mas elevadas y obstaculos mayores que vencer, por lo que el diseno de los soportes tuvo que adaptarse a las nuevas condiciones. Esto dio origen al desenvolvimiento de una tecnica especifica que fuese adecuando e incorporando los continuos avances de la ingenieria. En este documento se tratan las consideraciones iniciales del diseno de los postes tipo tubo; dentro de estas consideraciones se citan: el diseno, la fabricacion, las pruebas de prototipo, montajes, control de calidad y cimentaciones. Se ilustra el poste tipo tubo, al igual que el armado del poste, por ultimo se muestra los tipos de cimentaciones precoladas

  18. Winter raptor use of the Platte and North Platte River Valleys in south central Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingle, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    Winter distribution and abundance of raptors were monitored within the Platte and North Platte river valleys. Data were collected along 265 km of census routes along the Platte and North Platte rivers during the winters of 1978-1979 and 1979-1980. Observations recorded during the second winter involved less observation time and were at somewhat different periods. There were 1574 sightings of 15 species representing 3 raptor families. Number of raptors observed on 54 days from 15 November to 13 February 1978-1979 was 48.3 per 100 km. In 20 days of observation from 5 December to 6 March 1979-1980, 39.7 raptors were observed per 100 km. Small mammal indices were 21 and 12 captures per 1000 trap nights during November 1978 and 1979, respectively. Raptors were sighted most frequently in riverine habitat and least in pasture and tilled fields. American kestrels (Falco sparverius) (11.1 individuals/100 km), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) (9.9), and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) (9.6) were the most frequently sighted raptors. Northern harrier (Circus cyaneus), rough-legged hawk (B. lagopus), and prairie falcon (P. mexicanus) sightings were 3.4, 3.4, and 1.7, respectively. Nine species were seen at a frequency of less than 1.0 individuals/100 km. Improved foraging conditions throughout the region resulted in fewer raptors sighted in 1979-1980.

  19. Base Contours of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  20. Base of principal aquifer boundary for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  1. Base of aquifer contour boundary of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  2. Combined loading effects on the fracture mechanics behavior of line pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, R.E.; Cravero, S.; Ernst, H.A. [Tenaris Group, Campana (Argentina). SIDERCA R and D Center

    2009-12-19

    For certain applications, pipelines may be submitted to biaxial loading situations. In these cases, it is not clear the influence of the biaxial loading on the fracture mechanics behavior of cracked pipelines. For further understanding of biaxial loading effects, this work presents a numerical simulation of ductile tearing in a circumferentially surface cracked pipe under biaxial loading using the computational cell methodology. The model was adjusted with experimental results obtained in laboratory using single edge cracked under tension (SENT) specimens. These specimens appear as the better alternative to conventional fracture specimens to characterize fracture toughness of cracked pipes. The negligible effect of biaxial loadings on resistance curves was demonstrated. To guarantee the similarities of stress and strains fields between SENT specimens and cracked pipes subjected to biaxial loading, a constraint study using the J-Q methodology and the h parameter was used. The constraint study gives information about the characteristics of the crack-tip conditions. (author)

  3. 77 FR 787 - Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... place and installing an equivalent length of thickerwalled pipe in a parallel trench; (3) pressure... National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Pre-Filing Process and assigned Docket No. PF11-4-000 to staff...: complete its environmental assessment (EA) and place it into the Commission's public record (eLibrary) for...

  4. Evaluation of the Webler-Brown model for estimating tetrachloroethylene exposure from vinyl-lined asbestos-cement pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeren Timothy C

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From May 1968 through March 1980, vinyl-lined asbestos-cement (VL/AC water distribution pipes were installed in New England to avoid taste and odor problems associated with asbestos-cement pipes. The vinyl resin was applied to the inner pipe surface in a solution of tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE. Substantial amounts of PCE remained in the liner and subsequently leached into public drinking water supplies. Methods Once aware of the leaching problem and prior to remediation (April-November 1980, Massachusetts regulators collected drinking water samples from VL/AC pipes to determine the extent and severity of the PCE contamination. This study compares newly obtained historical records of PCE concentrations in water samples (n = 88 with concentrations estimated using an exposure model employed in epidemiologic studies on the cancer risk associated with PCE-contaminated drinking water. The exposure model was developed by Webler and Brown to estimate the mass of PCE delivered to subjects' residences. Results The mean and median measured PCE concentrations in the water samples were 66 and 0.5 μg/L, respectively, and the range extended from non-detectable to 2432 μg/L. The model-generated concentration estimates and water sample concentrations were moderately correlated (Spearman rank correlation coefficient = 0.48, p Conclusion PCE concentration estimates generated using the Webler-Brown model were moderately correlated with measured water concentrations. The present analysis suggests that the exposure assessment process used in prior epidemiological studies could be improved with more accurate characterization of water flow. This study illustrates one method of validating an exposure model in an epidemiological study when historical measurements are not available.

  5. Piping Connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    In Stennis Space Center's Component Test Facility, piping lines carry rocket propellants and high pressure cryogenic fuels. When the lines are chilled to a pretest temperature of 400 degrees below zero, ordinary piping connectors can leak. Under contract to Stennis, Reflange, Inc. developed the T-Con connector, which included a secondary seal that tolerates severe temperature change. Because of the limited need for the large and expensive T-Con product, Reflange also developed the less costly E-Con, a smaller more compact design with the same technical advantages as the T-Con.

  6. Finite Element Method Analysis of the Stress for Line Pipe with Corrode Groove During Outdoor Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuanzhao YANG; Daoxin LIU; Xiaohua ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    The basic principle of corrode groove on outside of steel pipe during storage was analyzed in this paper,namely the water film on the contacted surface of steel pipe,which gathered from humidity in the air,rain or gel,and the suspended particles in air,and the corrosive composition,such as SO2,CO2,O2 and NaCl,in addition to the inhomogeneity of the organization and composition,which lead to the corrosion cell reaction,so that cause the corrosion initial from the contact surface of the between steel pipes,so as to form the corrosion groove.At the same time,the corrosion groove with depth of 0.125t (t pipe wall thickness) on the pipe of φ 1016 mm×21 mm X70 API SPEC 5L was simulated using the FEM (finite element method),and the stress and strain distribution of the defect area near corrosion groove were solved at the inner pressure of 12 MPa,10 MPa,8 MPa,6 MPa,4 MPa and 2 MPa,respectively,which showed that no matter the pressure values were,the maximum stress and strain were lied at the bottom of corrosion defects groove and were in good linear relationship with the internal pressure increasing from 2 MPa to 6 MPa.When the internal pressures were greater than 6 MPa,they felled into the nonlinear model and to be yielded or even to be destroyed.In addition,the residual strength and the limit operation pressure of the corrode pipe with the defects groove of 0.125t were calculated or simulated according to the theoretical calculation,the finite element method based on the stress,the finite element method based on strain,DNV-RP-F101,ASME B31G and experimental methods respectively.The results showed that the residual strength and the limit operation pressure of the defective parts solved by the finite element method based on stress were 424 MPa,and 15.34 MPa,respectively,which was very close to that of experimental method,the residual strength was 410 MPa and the limit operation pressure 14.78 MPa.Besides,the results also showed that it was feasible and effective to

  7. X120M管线钢管的JCOE制造技术%Formation of X120M Line Pipe Through JCOE Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨社民

    2014-01-01

    The line pipe forming operation can be divided into two parts, first is to achieve the required shape in terms of curvature and ovality after formation of the line pipe, and the second part is to make right welding joint geometry. important operation is making the required curvature along the edges of TMCP and ACC plate for line pipe up to the 150 mm in width minimum and forming of the line pipe at JCO press. The selection of dies with proper hardness and curvature in both the operation plays a vital role in the formation of line pipes. The main parameters of selection dies are size of line pipe for which dies/tools are to be made i.e. the diameter of line pipe, thickness of line pipe and most important is grade of line pipe . In this process the strength level is achieved by the chemical composition of the slab, thickness of the slab, reheating temperature, roughing temperature at which reduction in the thickness, finish rolling temperature and finally the accelerated cooling temperature rate.%钢管成型工序分为两部分,第一步是获得钢管成型后所需形状的曲率和椭圆度;第二步是得到焊接所要求的成型缝几何形状。 JCO钢管成型首先是沿钢板的两边,通过板边预弯机获得所需的最小宽度150 mm的曲率,再经过JCO压力机成型为管线钢管。选择适当的模具硬度和曲率对钢管的成型起着至关重要的作用。模具主要参数是根据钢管的尺寸,即钢管直径、壁厚以及钢级等来确定的。另外,钢板的强度还取决于钢坯的化学成分、厚度、再加热温度、板坯下压量、初轧温度、精轧温度和最终加速冷却速率等因素。

  8. In-line ultrasonic monitoring for sediments stuck on inner wall of a polyvinyl chloride pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hogeon; Lee, Kyoungjun; Jhang, Kyung-Young

    2014-01-01

    This research verified the applicability and effectiveness of the ultrasonic monitoring of sediments stuck on the inner wall of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes. For identifying the transmittance of acoustic energy and the speed of sound in the PVC material, the pulse-echo ultrasonic testing was conducted for PVC sheets of different thicknesses. To simulate the solidified sediment, the hot melt adhesive (HMA) was covered on the inner wall of the PVC pipe in different heights. From the experiment, the speeds of sound in the PVC and the HMA materials were obtained as about 2258 and 2000 m/s, respectively. The thickness of the materials was calculated through the signal processing such as taking the absolute value and low pass filtering, the echo detection, and the measurement of the time of flight. The errors between actual and measured thicknesses of PVC sheets were below 5%. In the case of the substance stuck on the inner wall, the errors were below 2.5%. Since the pulse-echo ultrasonic inspection is available on the outer surface and its measurement accuracy was over 95%, it can be an efficient and effective in-service structural health monitoring for the sediment on the wall of PVC pipes.

  9. Emergent sandbar dynamics in the lower Platte River in eastern Nebraska: methods and results of pilot study, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jason S.; Schultze, Devin M.; Zelt, Ronald B.

    2013-01-01

    The lower Platte River corridor provides important habitats for two State- and federally listed bird species: the interior least tern (terns; Sternula antillarum athallassos) and the piping plover (plovers; Charadrius melodus). However, many of the natural morphological and hydrological characteristics of the Platte River have been altered substantially by water development, channelization, hydropower operations, and invasive vegetation encroachment, which have decreased the abundance of high-quality nesting and foraging habitat for terns and plovers. The lower Platte River (LPR), defined as 103 miles (mi) of the Platte River between its confluence with the Loup River and its confluence with the Missouri River, has narrowed since the late-19th and early-20th centuries, yet it partially retains many geomorphologic and hydrologic characteristics important to terns and plovers. These birds nest on the sandbars in the river and along shorelines at sand- and gravel-pit lakes in the adjacent valley. The need to balance continued economic, infrastructure, and resource development with the conservation of important physical and aquatic habitat resources requires increased understanding of the physical and biological dynamics of the lower Platte River. Spatially and temporally rich datasets for emergent sandbar habitats are necessary to quantify emergent sandbar dynamics relative to hypothesized controls and stressors. In cooperation with the Lower Platte South Natural Resources District, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a pilot study of emergent sandbar dynamics along a 22-mi segment of the LPR downstream from its confluence with Salt Creek, near Ashland, Nebraska. The purposes of the study were to: (1) develop methods to rapidly assess sandbar geometries and locations in a wide, sand-bed river, and (2) apply and validate the method to assess emergent sandbar dynamics over three seasons in 2011. An examination of the height of sandbars relative to the local stage of

  10. Improvement of in-line process in high frequency welded steel pipe mill using advance tube tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babakri, Khalid Ali [Saudi Steel Pipe Company, Dammam, (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-07-01

    The Saudi Steel Pipe Company has designed and implemented a new automated tube tracking system. This paper reported, based on practical experience, the improvement of the in-line process control in high frequency induction (HFI) welded steel pipe mill using this new advance in automated the tube tracking system (TTS). The TTS provides helps in quality control inspection stations (in-process inspection, flattening test, offline ultrasonic, final inspection). For example, the QC inspector at the in-process station is able to choose any tube from the running coil and carry out visual and dimensional inspections. The results will be automatically updated in the TTS. This new system is also integrated with the continuous electronic process control (CEPC) system where the welding and annealing parameters are recorded and linked to each produced coil. It is found that the implementation of the advanced TTS has improved in-line process control on the shop floor. The results showed an increase in productivity and a reduction of operation cost.

  11. Sport hunting decision document package : North Platte National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes limited hunting opportunities at North Platte NWR. Hunting activities will be permitted, but administratively limited to...

  12. Environmental Assessment : Hunting Plan : North Platte National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Environmental Assessment is to evaluate the feasibility of opening the North Platte National Wildlife Refuge to limited hunting on previously...

  13. [North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1980 calendar year. The report begins by describing...

  14. North Platte National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on North Platte NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and...

  15. Analysis of cracked core spray injection line piping from the Quad Cities Units 1 and 2 boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diercks, D.R.

    1983-12-01

    Elbow assemblies and adjacent piping from the loops A and B core spray injection lines of Quad Cities Units 1 and 2 Boiling Water Reactors have been examined in order to determine the nature and causes of coolant leakages and flaw indications detected during hydrostatic tests and subsequent ultrasonic inspections. The elbow assemblies were found to contain multiple intergranular cracks in the weld heat-affected zones. The cracking was predominantly axial in orientation in the forged elbow and wedge components, whereas mixed axial and circumferential cracking was seen in the wrought piping pieces. In at least two instances, axial cracks completely penetrated the circumferential weld joining adjacent components. Based upon the observations made in the present study, the failures were attributed to intergranular stress corrosion cracking caused by the weld-induced sensitized microstructure and residual stresses present; dissolved oxygen in the reactor coolant apparently served as the corrosive species. The predominantly axial orientation of the cracks present in the forged components is believed to be related to the banded microstructure present in these components. The metallographic studies reported are supplemented by x-radiography, chemical analysis and mechanical test results, determinations of the degree of sensitization present, and measurements of weld metal delta ferrite content.

  16. 77 FR 21734 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Pipe From Romania: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... and pressure pipe from Romania for the period August 1, 2010, through July 31, 2011. See Initiation...

  17. Toughening mechanism of lined Al2O3-ZrO2 multiphase ceramics in SHS composite pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Hypoeutectic and hypereutectic Al2O3-ZrO2 multiphase ceramics-lined composite pipes were produced by using the gravitational separation self-propagate high-temperature synthesis (SHS) process.The microstructure of the ceramics was observed by means of SEM and EPMA.The fracture toughness of the multiphase ceramics was tested by using the Vickers indentation method.The ceramics is 15.23 Mpa.m1/2.The toughening mechanisms were systematically investigated by means of SEM and XRD.The results show that the bridging toughening mechanism, stress induced ZrO2 transformation toughening mechanism, and microcrack toughening mechanism are the predominant toughening mechanism.

  18. 78 FR 64475 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... triple or quadruple certify the pipes by meeting the metallurgical requirements and performing the... ASTM A-106 pressure pipes and triple or quadruple certified pipes in large diameters is for use as oil... serves as a final reminder to importers of their responsibility under 19 CFR 351.402(f)(2) to file a...

  19. 76 FR 47555 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Japan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... triple or quadruple certify the pipes by meeting the metallurgical requirements and performing the... ASTM A-106 pressure pipes and triple or quadruple certified pipes in large diameters is for use as oil... regard to the excluded products listed above, the Department will not instruct U.S. Customs and Border...

  20. 77 FR 46385 - Certain Small Diameter Seamless Carbon and Alloy Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... Pipe From Germany: Final Results of the Expedited Third Sunset Review of the Antidumping Duty Order... pipe (seamless pipe) from Germany pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the... Germany pursuant to section 751(c) of the Act. See Sunset Initiation. The Department received a notice...

  1. Geomorphic Classification and Evaluation of Channel Width and Emergent Sandbar Habitat Relations on the Lower Platte River, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Caroline M.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a summary of geomorphic characteristics extracted from aerial imagery for three broad segments of the Lower Platte River. This report includes a summary of the longitudinal multivariate classification in Elliott and others (2009) and presents a new analysis of total channel width and habitat variables. Three segments on the lower 102.8 miles of the Lower Platte River are addressed in this report: the Loup River to the Elkhorn River (70 miles long), the Elkhorn River to Salt Creek (6.9 miles long), and Salt Creek to the Missouri River (25.9 miles long). The locations of these segments were determined by the locations of tributaries potentially significant to the hydrology or sediment supply of the Lower Platte River. This report summarizes channel characteristics as mapped from July 2006 aerial imagery including river width, valley width, channel curvature, and in-channel habitat features. In-channel habitat measurements were not made under consistent hydrologic conditions and must be considered general estimates of channel condition in late July 2006. Longitudinal patterns in these features are explored and are summarized in the context of the longitudinal multivariate classification in Elliott and others (2009) for the three Lower Platte River segments. Detailed descriptions of data collection and classification methods are described in Elliott and others (2009). Nesting data for the endangered interior least tern (Sternula antillarum) and threatened piping plover (Charadrius melodus) from 2006 through 2009 are examined within the context of the multivariate classification and Lower Platte River segments. The widest reaches of the Lower Platte River are located in the segment downstream from the Loup River to the Elkhorn River. This segment also has the widest valley and highest degree of braiding of the three segments and many large vegetated islands. The short segment of river between the Elkhorn River and Salt Creek has a fairly low valley

  2. 78 FR 63164 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... heating systems, air conditioning units, automatic sprinkler systems, and other related uses. Standard... products, natural gas and other liquids and gasses in industrial piping systems. They may carry these... for fire protection uses (ASTM A-795) are used for the conveyance of water. Seamless pipes...

  3. 76 FR 39852 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... Border Protection (``CBP'') data. After analyzing parties' explanations of these entries, we have reached... runs and separate inventories, manufacturers typically triple or quadruple certify the pipes by meeting... inventory to service all customers. The primary application of ASTM A-106 pressure pipes and triple or...

  4. On-line welding quality inspection system for steel pipe based on machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, high frequency welding has been widely used in production because of its advantages of simplicity, reliability and high quality. In the production process, how to effectively control the weld penetration welding, ensure full penetration, weld uniform, so as to ensure the welding quality is to solve the problem of the present stage, it is an important research field in the field of welding technology. In this paper, based on the study of some methods of welding inspection, a set of on-line welding quality inspection system based on machine vision is designed.

  5. 深孔绳索取心钻杆质量控制措施%Quality Control Measures of Wire-line Coring Drill Pipe for Deep Hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽君; 彭莉; 吕红军

    2012-01-01

      在优化深孔绳索取心钻杆结构设计、选用优质钢材基础上,制定合理的加工工艺和检测规程,配齐相应的检测器具。通过严格的工艺控制,确保钻杆质量稳定,满足深孔绳索取心钻进需要。%  On the basis of the optimization of structure design for deep hole wire-line coring drill pipe and the selection of high quality steel, rational processing technology and detecting rules are established with relative detecting appliances.By the strict process control, the quality of drill pipe is ensured to satisfy the requirements of wire-line coring drilling.

  6. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 192 - Qualification of Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualification of Pipe B Appendix B to Part 192... Pipe I. Listed Pipe Specifications API 5L—Steel pipe, “API Specification for Line Pipe” (incorporated by reference, see § 192.7). ASTM A53/A53M—Steel pipe, “Standard Specification for Pipe, Steel Black...

  7. Magnetic resonance sounding survey data collected in the North Platte, Twin Platte, and South Platte Natural Resource Districts, Western Nebraska, Fall 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Mason A.; Bloss, Benjamin R.; Irons, Trevor P.; Cannia, James C.; Abraham, Jared D.

    2014-01-01

    This report is a release of digital data and associated survey descriptions from a series of magnetic resonance soundings (MRS, also known as surface nuclear magnetic resonance) that was conducted during October and November of 2012 in areas of western Nebraska as part of a cooperative hydrologic study by the North Platte Natural Resource District (NRD), South Platte NRD, Twin Platte NRD, the Nebraska Environmental Trust, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The objective of the study was to delineate the base-of-aquifer and refine the understanding of the hydrologic properties in the aquifer system. The MRS technique non-invasively measures water content in the subsurface, which makes it a useful tool for hydrologic investigations in the near surface (up to depths of approximately 150 meters). In total, 14 MRS production-level soundings were acquired by the USGS over an area of approximately 10,600 square kilometers. The data are presented here in digital format, along with acquisition information, survey and site descriptions, and metadata.

  8. Reactions of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons with chlorine and chlorine dioxide in coal tar lined pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, T.; Maier, M.; Sacher, F.; Maier, D. [University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany). Engler Bunte Institut

    1997-12-31

    In the presence of disinfectants, PAH are remobilised from the coal tar lining of water distribution mains. Reactions of the PAH with chlorine and chlorine dioxide can lead to chlorinated PAH that might show higher mutagenic effects that the parent PAH. Detection limits in the lower nanogram-per-litre level for the determination of PAH and chlorinated PAH were achieved by using solid phase micro extraction and a gas chromatographic mass spectrometric device. Thus, the reactions of four PAH (anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene and phenanthrene) with chlorine and chlorine dioxide under conditions and at concentrations of common practice in the drinking water distribution system could be investigated. In batch experiments with demineralised and drinking water at pH 7, the concentrations of fluoranthene, fluorene and phenanthrene remained constant, whereas anthracene reacted quantitatively with both disinfectants. The reaction of anthracene followed by pseudo-first order kinetics. In these reactions no chlorinated products could be detected, only monohydroxyanthracene and anthraquinone were identified. The toxic effect of a set of chlorinated and oxidised PAH was also examined.

  9. Modular pipe-support system for industrial pipe line engineering. Interview with Christian Freimuth, VAM; Modulares Rohrunterstuetzungssystem fuer den industriellen Rohrleitungsbau. Interview mit Christian Freimuth, VAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-06-01

    The new Hilti system MI, is a innovative certificated modular pipe support system. The installation of new piping systems is simple, even in existing welded components. The advanced industrial standard 3d- as 2d-software of Hilti allows the design of constructions on the screen and afterwards putting together the new installation components. (GL) [German] Beim schluesselfertigen Bau eines neuen Gas- und Dampfturbinen-Kraftwerkes fuer den Chemiestandort Antwerpen, Belgien, kommt ein neues Rohrunterstuetzungssystem der Hilti Aktiengesellschaft zum Einsatz. Der Rohrleitungsbau mit Planung wird von der VAM GmbH and Co. Anlagentechnik und Montagen aus Wels/Oesterreich durchgefuehrt, die ueber jahrzehntelange Erfahrung im Industrierohrleitungsbau verfuegt. Das neue erdgasbefeuerte Kraftwerk, das die Siemens Landesgesellschaft in Belgien, die wiederum von der Firma Zandvliet-Power N.V. mit der Umsetzung des Gesamtprojektes beauftragt wurde, als Generalunternehmer auf dem Werksgelaende der BASF in Antwerpen errichtet, arbeitet nach dem Prinzip der Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung. Die Anlage umfasst einen Block mit einer elektrischen Leistung von rund 400 MW, der Strom erzeugt und die Produktionsanlagen des Chemiestandortes mit maximal 300 t Prozess-Dampf pro Stunde versorgen kann. Bei der Auswahl des Rohrunterstuetzungssystems hat die VAM mehrere Alternativsysteme unter realen Bedingungen geprueft. Dazu gehoerte auch das Hilti System MI, ein modulares Rohrunterstuetzungssystem fuer den industriellen Rohrleitungsbau. Es bietet eine leicht zu verarbeitende und sichere Loesung zur Befestigung von kaltgehenden Rohren bis 600 mm Durchmesser. Die VAM GmbH and Co. Anlagentechnik und Montagen ueberzeugte sich davon, dass der Wechsel von traditionell geschweissten Systemen zu einem flexiblen Montagesystem vielfaeltige Vorteile in technischer und gesamtwirtschaftlicher Hinsicht mit sich bringt. Der Gespraechspartner, Christian Freimuth, ist Projektleiter der VAM Anlagentechnik and Montagen

  10. 马氏体不锈钢HFW管线管的开发%Development of Weldable Martensitic Stainless Steel Line Pipe by HFW Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖国章; 高霞; 马星; 赵波锋

    2014-01-01

    A new type of martensitic stainless steel line pipe having excellent weldability and high corrosion resistance in wet CO2 environments manufactured by the high-frequency electric-resistance welding (HFW) process was developed. Through optimized design alloy composition, metallographic structure observation, mechanical property test, the steel pipe external dimension and anticorrosion performance test, the external dimension, mechanical properties of base metal and weld, and metallographic structure of the developed steel pipe can meet the design requirements. The test results showed that the new martensitic stainless steel can produce thin-walled and high precision line pipe, the gas shield welding techniques can be used in HFW; preheat before welding and heat treatment after welding don’t need for HFW steel pipe, the pipe body and weld can satisfy the condition of wet CO2 in oil and gas well.%研究开发了一种具有良好可焊性和抗湿CO2腐蚀的马氏体不锈钢合金及HFW焊管。通过合金成分优化设计、金相组织观察、力学性能试验、钢管外观尺寸及防腐性能试验,所开发的钢管外观尺寸、母材和焊缝的力学性能及金相组织等满足设计目标要求,与传统马氏体不锈钢管相比,具有更精确的外观尺寸。试验结果表明,新型可焊接马氏体不锈钢可以生产薄壁高精度管线管,可以用气体保护技术进行HFW焊接; HFW钢管不需焊前预热和焊后热处理,管体及焊缝所有性能满足油气井湿CO2腐蚀的服役环境。

  11. Elevation Control Points to reinterpret the base of aquifer contours after airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  12. Base control points of the aquifer contours enhanced with airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  13. Area of aquifer contours enhanced with airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  14. Base Control Points enhanced with airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  15. Base of aquifer contours model enhanced with airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  16. Base of aquifer contours enhanced with airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  17. 饱71 mm 绳索取心铝合金钻杆的研制%Development of ?71mm Aluminum Alloy Wire-line Coring Drill Pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张喜超

    2015-01-01

    The paper introduces the development situation of aluminum alloy drill pipe both in China and abroad and analy-zes the advantages of aluminum alloy wire-line coring drill pipe in geological drilling.?71mm ×5.5mm aluminum alloy co-ring drill pipe body and steel connection structure were designed in detail, the main technical parameters were obtained by the static tension and torque tests on the rods.%介绍了国内外铝合金钻杆的研制现状,分析了绳索取心铝合金钻杆在地质钻探中的优势。对饱71 mm ×5.5 mm绳索取心铝合金钻杆体与钢接头连接结构进行了详细设计。通过对试验钻杆进行静拉力、扭矩试验,得出了铝合金钻杆体与钢接头主要技术参数。

  18. 77 FR 56809 - Certain Small Diameter Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... process (hot-finished or cold-drawn), end finish (plain end, beveled end, upset end, threaded, or threaded... pressure applications. Finally, also excluded from the order are redraw hollows for cold-drawing when used in the production of cold-drawn pipe or tube. Although the HTSUS subheadings are provided for...

  19. 75 FR 57444 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... (other than stainless steel) pipe or ``hollow profiles'' suitable for cold finishing operations, such as cold drawing, to meet the American Society for Testing and Materials (``ASTM'') or American Petroleum... to this scope is dispositive. Scope Comments On May 26, 2010, Salem Steel, a U.S. importer of cold...

  20. Comparative study on CO2 corrosion behavior of N80,P110,X52 and 13Cr pipe lines in simulated stratum water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    To better understand the carbon dioxide (CO2) corrosion behavior of carbon steel and its influence on petroleum development (including drilling,production and transportation) in the Daqing Oilfield,CO2 corrosion behaviors of N80,P110,X52 and 13Cr pipe lines in simulated solution at high temperature and high pressure condition are investigated by dynamic corrosion experiments,scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses.Results show that the corrosion rate of all pipe lines increases quickly when CO2 partial pressure increases from 0.5 to 1.5 MPa,but it slows down when CO2 partial pressure further increases from 1.5 to 4.5 MPa,during which localized corrosion is prevailing.When the experimental temperature ranges from 60 to 120°C,localized corrosion prevails.The corrosion rate of all pipe lines decreases sharply when the temperature changes from 60 to 100°C,and it becomes stable after the temperature is higher than 100°C.When the flow rate is in the range of 0–1.5 m/s,the corrosion rate of sample X52 remains unchanged,but localized corrosion gradually becomes very serious when the flow rate further increases.By analyzing the corrosion product scales of sample 13Cr,some remarkable phenomena are observed.At the temperature range of 60–100°C,the corrosion product scales are loose and thick,but become very compact when the temperature increases above 100°C.In the later case,localized corrosion is prevailing.The main components of the corrosion product scales are FeCO3 and Cr2O3.

  1. 77 FR 52650 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Platte...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ..., the Platte River caddisfly is considered a shredder and largely feeds upon senescent (aged) plant tissue (Whiles et al. 1999, pp. 542-543). As one of the few shredders present in sloughs, the Platte... shredder species (Roeding and Smock 1989, p. 149), such as the Platte River caddisfly (Vivian 2011, p....

  2. The Planning Task for Teams (PLATT): An environment for research on planning and decision making in teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, W.; Houttuin, K.

    2007-01-01

    In this report, we introduce a newly developed task environment for experimental team research: the Planning Task for Teams (PLATT). PLATT is a scenario based, computerized, complex planning task for three-person teams. PLATT has been designed to be able to do experimental laboratory research on

  3. The Planning Task for Teams (PLATT): An environment for research on planning and decision making in teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, W.; Houttuin, K.

    2007-01-01

    In this report, we introduce a newly developed task environment for experimental team research: the Planning Task for Teams (PLATT). PLATT is a scenario based, computerized, complex planning task for three-person teams. PLATT has been designed to be able to do experimental laboratory research on com

  4. Galvanic Corrosion of Seawater Cooling Pipe Lined Copolymers%海水冷却管内衬共聚物后的电偶腐蚀

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨青松; 张波; 董彩常; 韩东锐

    2013-01-01

    采用海水浸泡、电偶腐蚀、模拟腐蚀和扫描电镜分析等方法,研究了脱氧铜(TUP)紫铜冷却水管内壁内衬共聚物后的电偶腐蚀性能.结果表明,内衬乙烯丙烯酸共聚物(EAA)或涂敷环氧玻璃鳞片后,TUP紫铜管与高电位金属连接引起的电偶腐蚀能够得到有效抑制,内衬EAA的性能优于涂敷环氧玻璃鳞片.%Galvanic corrosion of copper cooling pipes lined with copolymer were tested by seawater immersed test,galvanic corrosion test,simulated pipe test and scanning electron microscopy.The results showed that the galvanic corrosion between red copper and high potential metal was efficiently controlled by lining ethylene acrylic ocid (EAA)copolymer or overlaying epoxy glass flakes,the effect of lining ethylene acrylic acid (EAA) copolymer was more excellent than that of overlaying epoxy glass-flakes.

  5. B Plant process piping replacement feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howden, G.F.

    1996-02-07

    Reports on the feasibility of replacing existing embedded process piping with new more corrosion resistant piping between cells and between cells and a hot pipe trench of a Hanford Site style canyon facility. Provides concepts for replacement piping installation, and use of robotics to replace the use of the canyon crane as the primary means of performing/supporting facility modifications (eg, cell lining, pipe replacement, equipment reinstallation) and operational maintenenace.

  6. Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex annual habitat management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex Annual Habitat Management Plan provides a year long vision and specific guidance on managing habitats...

  7. Final Environmental Assessment : Recreation management on the Lake Minatare Unit, North Platte National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Environmental Assessment is to evaluate the feasibility of removing portions of the North Platte National Wildlife Refuge from the National...

  8. Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1999 calendar year. The report...

  9. Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1994 calendar year. The report...

  10. Survey of reptiles and amphibians of North Platte National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposal is for surveying reptiles and amphibians of North Platte National Wildlife Refuge for the specific goals of generating a species list, species...

  11. Contaminant exposure and reproductive health of sandhill cranes in the Central Platte River Valley, Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The central Platte River Valley provides crucial staging habitat for the endangered whooping crane (Grus americana) and the mid-continent population of sandhill...

  12. Summary of Activities, Crescent Lake and North Platte Refuges : May 1938

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments for May of 1938. The...

  13. Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The report...

  14. Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2000 calendar year. The report...

  15. Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1996 calendar year. The report...

  16. Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2001 calendar year. The report...

  17. Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2004 calendar year. The report...

  18. Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2002 calendar year. The report...

  19. Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2005 calendar year. The report...

  20. Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2003 calendar year. The report...

  1. Narrative report North Platte Refuge: May, June, July, and August, 1943

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1943. The report begins by summarizing the...

  2. Lead Shot availability to birds using the North Platte River near a trap and Skeet range

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A trap and skeet shooting range gun club is located on the North Platte River, below the Guernsey Reservoir in Wyoming. In 1999, we obtained sediment samples to...

  3. Industrial application of ultrasound based in-line rheometry: From stationary to pulsating pipe flow of chocolate suspension in precrystallization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouriev, Boris; Windhab, Erich; Braun, Peter; Birkhofer, Beat

    2004-10-01

    In-line visualization and on-line characterization of nontransparent fluids becomes an important subject for process development in food and nonfood industries. In our work, a noninvasive Doppler ultrasound-based technique is introduced. Such a technique is applied for investigation of nonstationary flow in the chocolate precrystallization process. Unstable flow conditions were induced by abrupt flow interruption and were followed up by strong flow pulsations in the piping system. While relying on available process information, such as absolute pressures and temperatures, no analyses of flow conditions or characterization of suspension properties could possibly be done. It is obvious that chocolate flow properties are sensitive to flow boundary conditions. Therefore, it becomes essential to perform reliable structure state monitoring and particularly in application to nonstationary flow processes. Such flow instabilities in chocolate processing can often lead to failed product quality with interruption of the mainstream production. As will be discussed, a combination of flow velocity profiles, on-line fit into flow profiles, and pressure difference measurement are sufficient for reliable analyses of fluid properties and flow boundary conditions as well as monitoring of the flow state. Analyses of the flow state and flow properties of chocolate suspension are based on on-line measurement of one-dimensional velocity profiles across the flow channel and their on-line characterization with the power-law model. Conclusions about flow boundary conditions were drawn from a calculated velocity standard mean deviation, the parameters of power-law fit into velocity profiles, and volumetric flow rate information.

  4. Water Distribution Lines, pipe features, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Washington County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Distribution Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as...

  5. 49 CFR 192.321 - Installation of plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation of plastic pipe. 192.321 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.321 Installation of plastic pipe. (a) Plastic pipe must be installed below ground level except as provided by paragraphs (g) and (h) of this section. (b) Plastic pipe that...

  6. ABSTRACTS WELDEL PIPE AND TUBE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    ) Application of the New High Temperature Deforming Process in High Frequency Welded Pipe Roller Fabrication Regarding to the failure of GCr15 forming roller and the sizing roller in High Frequency (HF) welded pipe unit, the new process of high temperature deforming heat treatment (forging residual heat quench ) is adopted, this combines the forging and heat treatment, and use the forging residual heat for quench, then the roller to be high temperature tempered, this makes the roller has good strength and toughness, fine structure and uniformly surface hardness. After quench, the inner hole of reduced , and prolongs the performance life. Subject Terms:electric welded pipe unit roller deforming heat treatment life Wang Sanyun(41) Advantage and the Newest Technology of the Pipe Middle Frequency Induction Heat Treatment this article introduces the development status of the middle frequency induction heat treatment technology both home and abroad, illustrates the eight advantages of pipe middle frequency induction heat treatment technology than common fire heat treatment method. The author thinks that the developed 1GBT transistor module middle frequency and frequency conversion power improves the properties of middle frequency induction heat furnace, and suggests to apply this technology in certain area. Subject Terms:pipe heat treatment modulate treatment middle frequency induction heat Huang Qi(48) Driving Gear Reform of Ф325mm Production Line The importedФ325mm pipe production line adopts the turbine driving and forces the lubricate. During the production of Ф114mm pipe, the speed of DC engine reaches 1500 r/min., and the turbine box heated serious, it smokes and leaks out and finally damaged. So , the driving parts is reformed , and the turbine box is replaced by gear-box, the divided two gear transports to the small spiral gear, every 4 stands of the 8 stands in forming section is series-wound. The DC engine with 150kw, 800-1600r/min is adopted for driving. This meet any

  7. Piping Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A NASA computer program aids Hudson Engineering Corporation, Houston, Texas, in the design and construction of huge petrochemical processing plants like the one shown, which is located at Ju'aymah, Saudi Arabia. The pipes handling the flow of chemicals are subject to a variety of stresses, such as weight and variations in pressure and temperature. Hudson Engineering uses a COSMIC piping flexibility analysis computer program to analyze stresses and unsure the necessary strength and flexibility of the pipes. This program helps the company realize substantial savings in reduced engineering time.

  8. Piping Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Burns & McDonnell provide architectural and engineering services in planning, design and construction of a wide range of projects all over the world. In design analysis, company regularly uses COSMIC computer programs. In computer testing piping design of a power plant, company uses Pipe Flexibility Analysis Program (MEL-21) to analyze stresses due to weight, temperature, and pressure found in proposed piping systems. Individual flow rates are put into the computer, then computer calculates the pressure drop existing across each component; if needed, design corrections or adjustments can be made and rechecked.

  9. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1994-01-01

    It is approximately 10 years since the Third Edition of Heat Pipes was published and the text is now established as the standard work on the subject. This new edition has been extensively updated, with revisions to most chapters. The introduction of new working fluids and extended life test data have been taken into account in chapter 3. A number of new types of heat pipes have become popular, and others have proved less effective. This is reflected in the contents of chapter 5. Heat pipes are employed in a wide range of applications, including electronics cooling, diecasting and injection mo

  10. FINITE ELEMENT METHOD ANALYSIS OF PIPE MATERIAL TEMPERATURE CHANGES INFLUENCE ON LINE EXPANSION LOOPS IN HYDRAULIC INSTALLATIONS ON MODERN TANKERS

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Finite element method analysis of main lines of hydraulic central loading system installation expansion loops mounted on product and chemical tankers has been presented in the paper. The axial forces problem in installations mounted along the ship's open decks executed from hull deformations on waves and thermal stresses is given. Use of "U" type expansion loops is described. Results of forces in anchor points and stresses of Mises due to expansion loop deformations are shown. Calculations we...

  11. FINITE ELEMENT METHOD ANALYSIS OF PIPE MATERIAL TEMPERATURE CHANGES INFLUENCE ON LINE EXPANSION LOOPS IN HYDRAULIC INSTALLATIONS ON MODERN TANKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartlomiej Zylinski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element method analysis of main lines of hydraulic central loading system installation expansion loops mounted on product and chemical tankers has been presented in the paper. The axial forces problem in installations mounted along the ship's open decks executed from hull deformations on waves and thermal stresses is given. Use of "U" type expansion loops is described. Results of forces in anchor points and stresses of Mises due to expansion loop deformations are shown. Calculations were made by ABAQUS Ver.6.7 FEM computer program.

  12. Technical Letter Report Assessment of Ultrasonic Phased Array Testing for Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Pressurizer Surge Line Piping Welds and Thick Section Primary System Cast Piping Welds JCN N6398, Task 2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Morra, Marino; Crawford, Susan L.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2008-07-21

    Research is being conducted for the NRC at PNNL to assess the effectiveness and reliability of advanced NDE methods for the inspection of LWR components. The scope of this research encompasses primary system pressure boundary materials including cast austenitic stainless steels (CASS), dissimilar metal welds (DMWs), piping with corrosion-resistant cladding, weld overlays, and far-side examinations of austenitic piping welds. A primary objective of this work is to evaluate various NDE methods to assess their ability to detect, localize, and size cracks in coarse-grained steel components. This interim technical letter report (TLR) provides a synopsis of recent investigations at PNNL aimed at evaluating the capabilities of phased-array (PA) ultrasonic testing (UT) methods as applied to the inspection of CASS welds in nuclear reactor piping. A description of progress, recent developments and interim results are provided.

  13. 46 CFR 45.153 - Through-hull piping: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Through-hull piping: General. 45.153 Section 45.153 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.153 Through-hull piping: General. (a) All through-hull pipes required by...

  14. Aeronautical tubes and pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauclair, N.

    1984-12-01

    The main and subcomponent French suppliers of aircraft tubes and pipes are discussed, and the state of the industry is analyzed. Quality control is essential for tubes with regard to their i.d. and metallurgical compositions. French regulations do not allow welded seam tubes in hydraulic circuits unless no other form is available, and then rustproofed steel must be installed. The actual low level of orders for any run of tubes dictates that the product is only one of several among the manufacturers' line. Automation, both in NDT and quality control, assures that the tubes meet specifications. A total of 10 French companies participate in the industry, serving both civil and military needs, with some companies specializing only in titanium, steel, or aluminum materials. Concerns wishing to enter the market must upgrade their equipment to meet the higher aeronautical specifications and be prepared to furnish tubes and pipes that serve both functional and structural purposes simultaneously. Additionally, pipe-bending machines must also perform to tight specifications. Pipes can range from 0.2 mm exterior diameter to 40 mm, with wall thicknesses from 0.02 mm to 3 mm. A chart containing a list of manufacturers and their respective specifications and characteristics is presented, and a downtrend in production with reduction of personnel is noted.

  15. 49 CFR 179.400-17 - Inner tank piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inner tank piping. 179.400-17 Section 179.400-17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...-17 Inner tank piping. (a) Product lines. The piping system for vapor and liquid phase transfer...

  16. 46 CFR 45.155 - Inlets and discharge piping: Valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inlets and discharge piping: Valves. 45.155 Section 45... LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.155 Inlets and discharge piping: Valves. (a) Except as provided in... visited by the crew. (e) Through-hull piping systems in machinery spaces may have valves with...

  17. 49 CFR 192.311 - Repair of plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repair of plastic pipe. 192.311 Section 192.311... Lines and Mains § 192.311 Repair of plastic pipe. Each imperfection or damage that would impair the serviceability of plastic pipe must be repaired or removed....

  18. 49 CFR 192.309 - Repair of steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repair of steel pipe. 192.309 Section 192.309... Lines and Mains § 192.309 Repair of steel pipe. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of a length of steel pipe must be repaired or removed. If a repair is made by grinding, the...

  19. The comprehensive pipe gallery design of Wenli avenue extension line in Hainan test area%海南试验区文黎大道延伸线综合管廊设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨湖平

    2015-01-01

    以海南国际旅游岛先行试验区文黎大道延伸线项目为例,重点介绍了综合管廊纳入管线的选择,管廊设计标准的选取,对浅埋式盖板沟结构综合管廊的横断面设计、平面布置、纵断面设计、各种节点设计、附属工程设计等作了详细阐述,提出了此类综合管廊管理意见。%Taking the Wenli avenue extension line project in Hainan international tourism island pilot test district as an example,this paper em-phatically introduced the comprehensive pipe gallery into pipeline selection,pipe gallery design criteria selection,elaborated in detail the cross-sectional design,plane layout,vertical section design,all kinds of nodes design,affiliated engineering design etc. of shallow buried type trench cover structure,put forward such comprehensive pipe gallery management advices.

  20. 基于多级模糊与GIS的天然气管道风险评估%Risk evaluation of the natural gas pipe-line based on multi-level fuzzy and GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卓; 李永树; 粱磊

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the urban burning gas pipe-line risk reasonably is of great significance for the safety of production and scientific management in gas industries. The multi-level fuzzy comprehensive evaluation mode of natural gas pipe-line is established based on theory of fuzzy data. Correlation that matches with fuzzy risk level is made by getting the risk index of gas pipe-line under the unified risk evaluation index system, and GIS technology is adopted to visualize the results. The results of experiment show that the multi-level fuzzy evaluation mode and GIS technology applying to risk evaluation can provide certain support for scientific decision for risk warning and programming in emergency plan of accidents.%合理地进行城市燃气管道风险评估对于燃气企业的安全生产及科学管理具有重要的意义.基于模糊数学理论建立天然气管道多级模糊综合评估模型,通过在统一的风险评估指标体系下获取的管道风险指数,建立与模糊风险等级相匹配的关系,并利用GIS技术对管道风险结果进行可视化表达.试验结果表明多级模糊评估模型与GIS技术应用于管道风险评估,能够为风险预警及事故应急预案编制提供科学决策依据.

  1. Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report...

  2. Assessment of selenium and atrazine exposure and effects to wildlife at the North Platte National Wildlife Refuge, Scottsbluff, Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study evaluated selenium and atrazine exposure and effects to fish and wildlife at North Platte National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) in Scotts Bluff County,...

  3. Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report...

  4. Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1983 calendar year. The report...

  5. Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report...

  6. Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative report: Calendar year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report...

  7. Geological report on water conditions at Platt National Park, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Charles Newton; Schoff, Stuart Leeson

    1939-01-01

    Platt National Park, located in southern Oklahoma, containing 842 acres, was established by Acts of Congress in 1902, 1904, and 1906. The reason for the setting aside of this area was the presence in the area of some 30 'mineral' springs, the water from which contains sulphur, bromide, salt, and other minerals, which are believed to possess medicinal qualities. For many generations the sulphur springs of the Chickasaw Nation had been known for their reputed healing qualities. It had long been the custom for families to come from considerable distances on horseback and in wagons and camp near the springs, in order to drink the water. In course of time a primitive town, known as Sulphur Springs, grew up near a group of springs known since as Pavilion Springs at the mouth of Sulphur Creek, now known as Travertine Creek. This town was still in existence at the time of my first visit to the locality in July, 1901. At this time, in company with Joseph A. Taff, of the United States Geological Survey, I spent a week riding over the country making a preliminary survey looking toward the setting aside of the area for a National Park. After the establishment of the National Park, the old town of Sulphur Springs was abandoned, and when the present boundaries of the park had been established the present town of Sulphur, now county seat of Murray County, grew up. In July 1906, on request of Superintendent Joseph F. Swords, I visited the park and made an examination of the various springs and submitted a report, dated August 15, 1906, to Secretary of the Interior E.A. Hitchcock. Copies of this report are on file in the Regional Office and at Platt National Park. In this report I set forth the approximate amount of flow of the various springs, the character of the water in each, and the conditions of the springs as of that date. I also made certain recommendations regarding proposed improvements of each spring. In this report I say: 'In the town of Sulphur, four wells have been

  8. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of the theory, design and manufacture of heat pipes and their applications. This latest edition has been thoroughly revised, up-dated and expanded to give an in-depth coverage of the new developments in the field. Significant new material has been added to all the chapters and the applications section has been totally rewritten to ensure that topical and important applications are appropriately emphasised. The bibliography has been considerably enlarged to incorporate much valuable new information. Thus readers of the previous edition, which has established

  9. Inspection technology for high pressure pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.; Eum, Heung S.; Choi, Yu R.; Moon, Soon S.; Jang, Jong H

    2000-02-01

    Various kinds of defects are likely to be occurred in the welds of high pressure pipes in nuclear power plants. Considering the recent accident of Zuruga nuclear power plant in Japan, reasonable policy is strongly requested for the high pressure pipe integrity. In this study, we developed the technologies to inspect pipe welds automatically. After development of scanning robot prototype in the first research year, we developed and implemented the algorithm of automatic tracking of the scanning robot along the weld line of the pipes. We use laser slit beam on weld area and capture the image using digital camera. Through processing of the captures image, we finally determine the weld line automatically. In addition, we investigated a new technology on micro systems for developing micro scanning robotic inspection of the pipe welds. The technology developed in this study is being transferred to the industry. (author)

  10. Temporal Differences in the Hydrologic Regime of the Lower Platte River, Nebraska, 1895-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, Daniel; Zelt, Ronald B.; Linard, Joshua I.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Lower Platte South Natural Resources District for a collaborative study of the cumulative effects of water and channel management practices on stream and riparian ecology, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compiled, analyzed, and summarized hydrologic information from long-term gaging stations on the lower Platte River to determine any significant temporal differences among six discrete periods during 1895-2006 and to interpret any significant changes in relation to changes in climatic conditions or other factors. A subset of 171 examined hydrologic indices (HIs) were selected for use as indices that (1) included most of the variance in the larger set of indices, (2) retained utility as indicators of the streamflow regime, and (3) provided information at spatial and temporal scale(s) that were most indicative of streamflow regime(s). The study included the most downstream station within the central Platte River segment that flowed to the confluence with the Loup River and all four active streamflow-gaging stations (2006) on the lower Platte River main stem extending from the confluence of the Loup River and Platte River to the confluence of the Platte River and Missouri River south of Omaha. The drainage areas of the five streamflow-gaging stations covered four (of eight) climate divisions in Nebraska?division 2 (north central), 3 (northeast), 5 (central), and 6 (east central). Historical climate data and daily streamflow records from 1895 through 2006 at the five streamflow-gaging stations were divided into six 11-water-year periods: 1895?1905, 1934?44, 1951?61, 1966?76, 1985?95, and 1996?2006. Analysis of monthly climate variables?precipitation and Palmer Hydrological Drought Index?was used to determine the degree of hydroclimatic association between streamflow and climate. Except for the 1895?1905 period, data gaps in the streamflow record were filled by data estimation techniques, and 171 hydrologic indices were calculated using the

  11. Simulation of water quantity exchange between groundwater and the Platte River water, central Nebraska

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The authors demonstrate the importance of the simulation of the water quantity exchange between river water and groundwater to a better understanding of the hydrologic relations between a river and nearby aquifer where groundwater is pumped extensively but only seasonally. And MODFLOW is used to design the stream-aquifer model in which the pumpage of more than 1000 wells was simulated. The river gaining and river losing processes were analyzed. Simulation results suggest that continuation of over-extraction of groundwater will gradually increase the depletion volume in the river year after year and more depletion will occur in later years. The exchange manner between groundwater and the Platte River differs from place to place. The Platte River loses water to the adjacent aquifer in the west part of the study area, and gains water from the adjacent aquifer in the east part of the study area.

  12. Fundamentals of piping design

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Written for the piping engineer and designer in the field, this two-part series helps to fill a void in piping literature,since the Rip Weaver books of the '90s were taken out of print at the advent of the Computer Aid Design(CAD) era. Technology may have changed, however the fundamentals of piping rules still apply in the digitalrepresentation of process piping systems. The Fundamentals of Piping Design is an introduction to the designof piping systems, various processes and the layout of pipe work connecting the major items of equipment forthe new hire, the engineering student and the vetera

  13. The Physical and Biochemical Alteration of the Platte River by Phragmites australis, an Invasive Species of Wetland Grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, R. C.; Krueger, R.; Triplett, L.; Michal, T.; Kettenring, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    Invasive species can have a profound impact on the ecosystems to which they are introduced. Beginning in 2003, the Platte River, Nebraska, USA, was invaded by an aggressive species of wetland grass, Phragmites australis. The invasion by Phragmites, in combination with river flow reductions due to agricultural irrigation, has drastically altered the character and morphology of the river. Once a braided and largely unvegetated river, the Platte had become densely colonized with vegetation by 2010. We measured some physical and biochemical characteristics of Platte River sediments to infer how that vegetation has changed the system. Specifically, we measured particle size, which is an indicator of flow velocity, and biogenic silica (BSi), which is a critical source of silicon for some aquatic organisms. Sediment was collected from areas of the riverbed that are unvegetated, and from areas that are occupied by Phragmites or native vegetation. Particle size was measured using a laser diffractometer to determine how much fine particle deposition was occurring. Biogenic silica (BSi) concentrations were measured using timed NaOH digestions and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Our results indicate that stands of Phragmites in the Platte River cause more deposition of finer silt-sized particles than other parts of the river that are unvegetated or are occupied by native vegetation. Also, Phragmites increased the sequestration of BSi in the river sediments. These changes to the Platte reverberate beyond the river itself; by sequestering silica in sediments, Phragmites could be diminishing the supply of silica to estuaries and coastal oceans. Hypothesizing that the silica content of the Platte's water had been reduced by the arrival of Phragmites, we measured dissolved (DSi) and biogenic silica (BSi) concentrations of Platte water using ICP-MS to compare to existing data from the 1990s.

  14. Reliability of piping system components. Volume 4: The pipe failure event database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, R.; Erixon, S. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Tomic, B. [ENCONET Consulting GmbH, Vienna (Austria); Lydell, B. [RSA Technologies, Visat, CA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Available public and proprietary databases on piping system failures were searched for relevant information. Using a relational database to identify groupings of piping failure modes and failure mechanisms, together with insights from published PSAs, the project team determined why, how and where piping systems fail. This report represents a compendium of technical issues important to the analysis of pipe failure events, and statistical estimation of failure rates. Inadequacies of traditional PSA methodology are addressed, with directions for PSA methodology enhancements. A `data driven and systems oriented` analysis approach is proposed to enable assignment of unique identities to risk-significant piping system component failure. Sufficient operating experience does exist to generate quality data on piping failures. Passive component failures should be addressed by today`s PSAs to allow for aging analysis and effective, on-line risk management. 42 refs, 25 figs.

  15. Applications and market of PVC for piping industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny De N. Martins

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of plastic materials by the piping industry accounts for a significant volume of polymers. In this segment PVC represents the largest worldwide market for plastics. PVC is often used in plastic pressure pipe systems for pipelines in the water and sewer industries because of its inexpensive nature and flexibility. Pipes and fittings constitute the largest volume application at 40% of the marketplace. This paper discusses the piping extrusion process and the worldwide PVC market, emphasizing the Brazilian market. It is also presented a case study including an overall cost calculation for making an extrusion line for PVC piping.

  16. Reusable pipe flange covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, James Elliott (Simpsonville, SC); Perez, Julieta (Houston, TX)

    2001-01-01

    A molded, flexible pipe flange cover for temporarily covering a pipe flange and a pipe opening includes a substantially round center portion having a peripheral skirt portion depending from the center portion, the center portion adapted to engage a front side of the pipe flange and to seal the pipe opening. The peripheral skirt portion is formed to include a plurality of circumferentially spaced tabs, wherein free ends of the flexible tabs are formed with respective through passages adapted to receive a drawstring for pulling the tabs together on a back side of the pipe flange.

  17. Pipe drafting and design

    CERN Document Server

    Parisher, Roy A; Parisher

    2000-01-01

    Pipe designers and drafters provide thousands of piping drawings used in the layout of industrial and other facilities. The layouts must comply with safety codes, government standards, client specifications, budget, and start-up date. Pipe Drafting and Design, Second Edition provides step-by-step instructions to walk pipe designers and drafters and students in Engineering Design Graphics and Engineering Technology through the creation of piping arrangement and isometric drawings using symbols for fittings, flanges, valves, and mechanical equipment. The book is appropriate primarily for pipe

  18. 四分裂架空输电线路导线接续管的更换工艺%Replacement Technology for Conductor Connecting Pipe of Quad-bundle Overhead Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱迪锋

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of replacement technology at height for conductor connect-ing pipe of quad-bundle EHV overhead transmission lines; besides, it analyzes the construction technology process. The construction technology is adopted in practical maintenance work, after which construction effi-ciency is enhanced, outage time of power lines is shortened, manpower and material resources for construc-tion work are reduced;besides, the impact on objects below the lines is reduced, and safety and efficiency of EHV transmission line maintenance are guaranteed.%叙述了四分裂超高压架空输电线路导线接续管的高空更换施工工艺特点,分析该施工工艺流程。在实际检修工作中运用后有效提高了施工效率,缩短线路停电时间,减少施工所需人力物力的投入,并对线路下方影响大大减少,确保了超高压输电线路检修工作的安全高效进行。

  19. Numerical simulation and assessment of impacts of cofferdam construction on sewage pipe lines%围堰工程对污水管线影响的数值模拟与评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芮瑞; 杨繁; 刘鹏

    2014-01-01

    There are a lot of kinds of underground pipes and structures in the urban area;the safety and regularly running of which must be taken into account during newly constructions. There are no generalized criterions to evaluate the safety and regularly running of them at present. It should be investigated which sectors the pipes belong to before construction, then their design and construction specifications can be used in the safety evaluation. Drainage design specifications are used to evaluate the safety of 2 large diameter steel sewage pipes with diameter of 1.2 m and thickness of 12 mm, during the cofferdam construction in the Litchi River in Guangzhou city. In view of the calculation methods in the design specification can not consider the interactions of all the effects during the construction. A three-dimensional simulation model of the whole cofferdam construction field stratum with the 2 large diameter steel sewage pipes is established. Deformation and stress of the pipes under 4 different construction conditions are calculated with FLAC3D. The equivalent stresses are calculated by fourth strength theory. The maximum value is 136.61 MPa, which appears at the outer surface of pipe No.1 under the last construction condition. The maximum settlement of the pipe is 39.3 mm, which produces 0.275% declination of the pipe. The maximum stress value calculated by theoretical calculation formulas is 188.18 MPa, which is much higher than the result calculated by the current codes. The reason is that every effort is calculated independently and simply added in the theoretical methods. Finally, Deformation and strength of the pipes are checked according to relevant Chinese standards. It reveals that the sewage pipe lines are safe in the construction procedure and the results got by numerical simulation are more reasonable than those calculated by theoretical formulas.%城市内新建工程周边环境复杂,地下管线种类繁多,在设计之初就需要考虑施工

  20. Investigation on Mechanical Property of Seamless Pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Li-ming; YANG Xiao-yong; LIU Ye

    2004-01-01

    The mechanical properties of the steel pipe rolled with continuously casting round billet after determining the chemical composition in steel were studied. The results show that the total reduction ratio should be higher than 5.2 when the line pipes of grade B, grade 20 and other general seamless pipe were rolled with continuously casting round billet. And the total reduction ratio should be higher than 10.2 and the grain size should be controlled more than grade 7 for casing of oil countryside tubular goods (OCTG).

  1. HFS 绳索取心孔底局部反循环三合管组合取心钻具%HFS Triple Pipe Composite Coring Tool with Bottom Partial Reverse Circulation for Wire-line Coring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐进军; 刘海斌

    2014-01-01

    介绍了研制成功的HFS绳索取心孔底局部反循环三合管组合取心钻具的结构和工作原理,喷反元件参数设计,及其室内模拟试验和现场试验情况。%The article introduces the successful development of HFS triple pipe composite coring tool with bottom partial re-verse circulation for wire-line coring and its structure, working principle, parameter design of jet-type reverse circulation el-ements as well as in-door simulation test and field test.

  2. 大型催化裂化装置反应油气管道的柔性设计%Piping flexibility design for oil vapor line of large FCC unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾比伦

    2011-01-01

    The critical difficult problem resulted from the unit's large-scalization in the design of FCC oil vapor transfer line is presented, i.e. the excessive thermal expansion force of oil vapor line on the fractionator oil vapor inlet. The limitation of conventional solution in large-scalization is analyzed and effective practical solutions are described. The new unique solution is recommended, in which fold type standpipe is installed to absorb the vertical thermal expansion, the rigid supports are provided at upper and lower parts of standpipe,spring hanger is supplied for middle fold pipe and flexible hangers are installed for lower horizontal pipe. The calculation shows that the new thermal expansion compensation design is obviously superior to the conventional design in thermal expansion compensation performance.%指出了催化裂化装置由于大型化引发的反应油气管道设计难以解决的关键性问题,即油气管道易对分馏塔油气入口产生过大的热膨胀作用力.分析传统解决方案应对装置大型化的局限性,阐述适用的解决途径,提出新颖独特的解决方案:立管呈折线形状,用以吸收竖直方向的热膨胀;立管上、下部分别设刚性支撑,中部斜管上设置弹簧吊架,下部水平管上设若干弹性吊架.计算结果表明,新方案的热膨胀补偿效能明显优于传统方案.

  3. U.S. Department of Energy electric and hybrid vehicle Site Operator Program at Platte River Power Authority. Final report, July 3, 1991--August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmert, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    The Platte River Power Authority (Platte River) is a political subdivision of the state of Colorado, owned by the four municipalities of Fort Collins, Loveland, Longmont and Estes Park, Colorado. Platte River is a non-profit, publicly owned, joint-action agency formed to construct, operate and maintain generating plants, transmission systems and related facilities for the purpose of delivering to the four municipalities electric energy for distribution and resale. Platte River, as a participant in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Site Operator Program, worked to accomplish the Site Operator Program goals and objectives to field test and evaluate electric and electric-hybrid vehicles and electric vehicle systems in a real world application/environment. This report presents results of Platte River`s program (Program) during the five-years Platte River participated in the DOE Site Operator Program. Platte River participated in DOE Site Operator Program from July 3, 1991 through August 31, 1996. During its Program, Platte River conducted vehicle tests and evaluations, and electric vehicle demonstrations in the Front Range region of Northern Colorado. Platte River also investigated electric vehicle infrastructure issues and tested infrastructure components. Platte River`s Program objectives were as follows: evaluate the year round performance, operational costs, reliability, and life cycle costs of electric vehicles in the Front Range region of Northern Colorado; evaluate an electric vehicle`s usability and acceptability as a pool vehicle; test any design improvements or technological improvements on a component level that may be made available to PRPA and which can be retrofit into vehicles; and develop, test and evaluate, and demonstrate components to be used in charging electric vehicles.

  4. BEAM PIPE IS INSTALLED

    CERN Multimedia

    The installation of the central section of the beam pipe into the heart of the  CMS was completed by 23 April. All the beam pipe elements have been successfully vacuum-tested and the bakeout started.  

  5. [On the identification of the species Griphobilharzia amoena Platt, Blair, Purdie et Melville, 1991, a parasite of crocodiles in Australia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimov, D A; Filimonova, L V; Shakabroev, É B; Akramova, F D

    2011-01-01

    The results of the study of typical specimens of the trematode G. amoena from blood vessels of the crocodile Crocodylus johnstoni in Australia are provided. The data obtained on the morphology of this parasite did not confirm the statement of Platt et al. (1991) that this species belongs to the family Schistosomatidae. Morphological data on G. amoena enable attributing it to the genus Vasotrema of the family Spirorchidae as a new species. In this connection, the monotypical genus Griphobilharzia (justified by Platt et al., 1991) becomes a synonym of the genus Vasotrema, while the subfamily Griphobilharziinae becomes a synonym of the subfamily Hapalotrematinae.

  6. Groundwater Quality and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Nebraska's Central Platte River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Richard B

    2015-03-01

    Groundwater nitrate contamination has been an issue in the Platte River Valley of Nebraska since the 1960s, with groundwater nitrate-N concentrations frequently in excess of 10 mg L. This article summarizes education and regulatory efforts to reduce the environmental impact of irrigated crop production in the Platte River Valley. In 1988, a Groundwater Management Area (GWMA) was implemented in the Central Platte Natural Resources District to encourage adoption of improved management practices. Since 1988, there have been steady declines in average groundwater nitrate-N concentrations of about 0.15 mg NO-N L yr in much of the GWMA (from 19 to 15 mg NO-N L). However, N use efficiency (NUE) (partial factor productivity for N [PFP]) has increased very little from 1988 to 2012 (60-65 kg grain kg N), whereas statewide PFP increased from 49 to 67 kg grain kg N in the same period. Although growers are encouraged to credit N from sources besides fertilizer (e.g., soil residual, legumes, irrigation water, and manure), confidence in and use of credits tended to decrease as credits became larger; there was a tendency toward an average N rate regardless of credit-based recommendations. This information, coupled with data from other studies, suggests that much of the decline in groundwater nitrate can be attributed to improved irrigation management-especially conversion from furrow to sprinkler irrigation-and to a lesser extent to improved timing of N application. The development and adoption of improved N management practices, such as fertigation, controlled-release N formulation, and use of crop canopy sensors for in-season N application may be required for further significant NUE gains in these irrigated systems.

  7. On Line Enrichment Monitor (OLEM) UF6 Tests for 1.5" Sch40 SS Pipe, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    March-Leuba, José A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Garner, Jim [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Younkin, Jim [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Simmons, Darrell W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-01

    gas within the unit header pipe as a function of time. The OLEM components have been tested on ORNL UF6 flow loop. Data were collected at five different enrichment levels (0.71%, 2.97%, 4.62%, 6.0%, and 93.7%) at several pressure conditions. The test data were collected in the standard OLEM N.4242 file format for each of the conditions with a 10-minute sampling period and then averaged over the span of constant pressures. Analysis of the collected data has provided enrichment constants that can be used for 1.5” stainless steel schedule 40 pipe measurement sites. The enrichment constant is consistent among all the wide range of enrichment levels and pressures used.

  8. Industrial application of ultrasound based in-line rheometry: Visualization of steady shear pipe flow of chocolate suspension in pre-crystallization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouriev, Boris; Windhab, Erich; Braun, Peter; Zeng, Yuantong; Birkhofer, Beat

    2003-12-01

    In the present work an in-line ultrasonic method for investigation of the rheological flow behavior of concentrated suspensions was created. It is based on a nondestructive rheological measuring technique for pilot plant and industrial scale applications. Elsewhere the author discusses a tremendous need for in-line rheological characterization of highly concentrated suspensions exposed to pressure driven shear flow conditions. Most existing on-line methods are based on destructive macro actuators, which are not suitable for materials with sensitive to applied deformation structure. Since the process of our basic interest influences the structure of suspension it would be difficult to separate the effects of rheometric measurement and weakly pronounced structural changes arising from a fine adjustment of the process parameters. The magnitude of these effects is usually associated with the complex flow dynamics of structured liquids and is sensitive to density or temperature fluctuations around the moving rheometric actuator. Interpretation of the results of such measurements can be hindered by process parameter influences on liquid product structure. Therefore, the author introduces an in-line noninvasive rheometric method, which is implemented in a pre-crystallization process of chocolate suspension. Use of ultrasound velocity profile pressure difference (UVP-PD) technique enabled process monitoring of the chocolate pre-crystallization process. Influence of seeded crystals on Rheology of chocolate suspension was recorded and monitored on line. It was shown that even slight velocity pulsations in chocolate mainstream can strongly influence rheological properties besides influencing flow velocity profiles. Based on calculations of power law fit in raw velocity profiles and calculation of wall shear stress from pressure difference measurement, a viscosity function was calculated and monitored on line. On-line results were found to be in a good agreement with off-line

  9. Impedance modelling of pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creasy, M. Austin

    2016-03-01

    Impedance models of pipes can be used to estimate resonant frequencies of standing waves and model acoustic pressure of closed and open ended pipes. Modelling a pipe with impedance methods allows additional variations to the pipe to be included in the overall model as a system. Therefore an actuator can be attached and used to drive the system and the impedance model is able to include the dynamics of the actuator. Exciting the pipe system with a chirp signal allows resonant frequencies to be measured in both the time and frequency domain. The measurements in the time domain are beneficial for introducing undergraduates to resonances without needing an understanding of fast Fourier transforms. This paper also discusses resonant frequencies in open ended pipes and how numerous texts incorrectly approximate the resonant frequencies for this specific pipe system.

  10. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel pipe to be operated at a pressure that produces a hoop stress of 30 percent, or more, of SMYS. (b) Each...

  11. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  12. Mapping grasslands suitable for cellulosic biofuels in the Greater Platte River Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Bruce K.; Gu, Yingxin

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels are an important component in the development of alternative energy supplies, which is needed to achieve national energy independence and security in the United States. The most common biofuel product today in the United States is corn-based ethanol; however, its development is limited because of concerns about global food shortages, livestock and food price increases, and water demand increases for irrigation and ethanol production. Corn-based ethanol also potentially contributes to soil erosion, and pesticides and fertilizers affect water quality. Studies indicate that future potential production of cellulosic ethanol is likely to be much greater than grain- or starch-based ethanol. As a result, economics and policy incentives could, in the near future, encourage expansion of cellulosic biofuels production from grasses, forest woody biomass, and agricultural and municipal wastes. If production expands, cultivation of cellulosic feedstock crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and miscanthus (Miscanthus species), is expected to increase dramatically. The main objective of this study is to identify grasslands in the Great Plains that are potentially suitable for cellulosic feedstock (such as switchgrass) production. Producing ethanol from noncropland holdings (such as grassland) will minimize the effects of biofuel developments on global food supplies. Our pilot study area is the Greater Platte River Basin, which includes a broad range of plant productivity from semiarid grasslands in the west to the fertile corn belt in the east. The Greater Platte River Basin was the subject of related U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) integrated research projects.

  13. Ice Jams on the Little Missouri River, North Dakota and North Platte River, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, B. P.; Brookman, D. A.

    2004-12-01

    During the winter months, rivers in the north central United States have a phenomenon occurring, which is known as "ice jams". The initial melting of the river ice causes broken ice buildup, which acts as a quasi-dam restricting the natural flow. Ice jams severely impact ecosystems and are known to cause extensive damage to the channels, as well as man-made structures. The focus of this paper is on ice jams on the Little Missouri River in North Dakota and the North Platte River in Nebraska. Previous investigations done on the Lower Platte River valley, as well as the Missouri River basin, have shown that the primary cause of ice jams on these rivers is due to the spring thaw. The initial portion of the paper will discuss the pattern of ice jams on these rivers, as well as some mitigation strategies for control of these ice jams. The second section will deal with the modeling of ice jams on these river systems using HEC-RAS. This model will be comprised of both two and three-dimensional aspects of the rivers.

  14. Geohydrology and water quality of the North Platte River alluvial aquifer, Garden County, Western Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Gregory V.; Cannia, James C.

    1995-01-01

    In 1993, a 3-year study was begun to describe the geohydrology and water quality of the North Platte River alluvial aquifer near Oshkosh, Garden County, Nebraska. The study's objectives are to evaluate the geohydrologic characteristics of the alluvial aquifer and to establish a network of observation wells for long-term monitoring of temporal variations and spatial distributions of nitrate and major-ion concentrations. Monitor wells were installed at 11 sites near Oshkosh. The geohydrology of the aquifer was characterized based on water-level measurements and two short-term aquifer tests. Bimonthly water samples were collected and analyzed for pH, specific conductivity, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and nutrients that included dissolved nitrate. Concentrations of major ions were defined from analyses of semiannual water samples. Analyses of the geohydrologic and water-quality data indicate that the aquifer is vulnerable to nitrate contamination. These data also show that nitrate concentrations in ground water flowing into and out of the study area are less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Concentration Level of 10 milligrams per liter for drinking water. Ground water from Lost Creek Valley may be mixing with ground water in the North Platte River Valley, somewhat moderating nitrate concentrations near Oshkosh.

  15. "We Were Beet Workers, and that Was All": Beet Field Laborers in the North Platte Valley, 1902-1930

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Dustin

    2011-01-01

    The experiences of the men, women, and children who labored in the beet fields of the North Platte Valley changed significantly as the sugar beet industry went through a period of rapid expansion prior to 1920 and then reached a relatively stable plateau. During the period of expansion, laborers were attracted by promises of reasonable wages, good…

  16. "We Were Beet Workers, and that Was All": Beet Field Laborers in the North Platte Valley, 1902-1930

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Dustin

    2011-01-01

    The experiences of the men, women, and children who labored in the beet fields of the North Platte Valley changed significantly as the sugar beet industry went through a period of rapid expansion prior to 1920 and then reached a relatively stable plateau. During the period of expansion, laborers were attracted by promises of reasonable wages, good…

  17. Flooding in the South Platte River and Fountain Creek Basins in eastern Colorado, September 9–18, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, Robert A.; Holmes, Jr., Robert R.

    2015-11-25

    On September 9, 2013, rain began to fall in eastern Colorado as a large low-pressure system pulled plumes of tropical moisture northward from the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. By September 16, 2013, as much as 12 to 20 inches of rain had fallen in the foothills of the Front Range of the Southern Rocky Mountains and adjacent plains near Colorado Springs, Colorado, north to the Colorado-Wyoming border. The rain caused major flooding during September 9–18, 2013, in a large part of the South Platte River Basin and in the Fountain Creek Basin. The floods resulted in several fatalities, more than 31,000 damaged or destroyed structures, and an estimated 3 billion dollars in damages. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) documented peak stage, streamflow, or both from the flood event for 80 sites located on selected rivers and streams in the South Platte River and Fountain Creek Basins and on the Platte River in Nebraska. The majority of flood-peak streamflows occurred on September 12 or 13, 2013, coinciding with the period of maximum rainfall. The flood resulted in new record peak streamflows at 17 streamgages having at least 10 years of record; 13 in the South Platte River Basin and 4 in the Fountain Creek Basin.

  18. 排水管道原位固化法修复内衬管的施工质量验收研究%Research on construction quality test of the drainage pipe lining tube rehabilitation by cured-in-place pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    遆仲森; 马保松; 舒彪; 陈宁宁

    2012-01-01

    原位固化法(Cured - In - Place Pipe,CIPP)管道修复技术在国外广泛应用于市政排水管道非开挖修复工程中,内衬管固化质量的施工验收是必不可少的技术环节.根据国家行业标准《城镇排水管道非开挖修复更新工程技术规程》编制的需求,依照ASTM标准及国家标准对原位固化法内衬管质量验收方法及其指标进行试验对比研究,验证了采用国标的相关标准的测试方法所得的材料性能结果能够满足ASTM标准中规定的相关指标要求,说明采用国标的检测方法在原位固化法修复排水管道内衬管的质量验收中是可行的;另外,为确保施工质量,建议进行测试的试样应通过现场取样获得.%Cured-in-place pipe(CIPP) had been widely used in the municipal drainage pipeline rehabilitation abroad. Curing quality of lining is the critical step in construction quality test. According to the requirements of the current national standard of "Technical specification for trench-less rehabilitation and renewal of urban sewer pipeline" which author joined the edition work, the experiments and comparison study on CIPP lining tube construction quality test method and its standards were carried out according to the ASTM standards and GB standards, which showed that the test method in GB was feasible for the test; in addition, to secure the construction quality, it was suggested that the sample for the test should be collected on spot.

  19. Chlorine decay in drinking-water transmission and distribution systems: pipe service age effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jasser, A O

    2007-01-01

    Water quality can deteriorate in the transmission and distribution system beyond the treatment plant. Minimizing the potential for biological regrowth can be attained by chlorinating the finished water. While flowing through pipes, the chlorine concentration decreases for different reasons. Reaction with the pipe material itself and the reaction with both the biofilm and tubercles formed on the pipe wall are known as pipe wall demand, which may vary with pipe parameters. The aim of this paper was to assess the impact of the service age of pipes on the effective chlorine wall decay constant. Three hundred and two pipe sections of different sizes and eight different pipe materials were collected and tested for their chlorine first-order wall decay constants. The results showed that pipe service age was an important factor that must not be ignored in some pipes such as cast iron, steel, cement-lined ductile iron (CLDI), and cement-lined cast iron (CLCI) pipes especially when the bulk decay is not significant relative to the wall decay. For the range of the 55 years of pipe service age used in this study, effective wall decay constants ranged from a decrease by -92% to an increase by +431% from the corresponding values in the recently installed pipes. The effect of service age on the effective wall decay constants was most evident in cast iron pipes, whereas steel pipes were less affected. Effective chlorine wall decay for CLCI and CLDI pipes was less affected by service age as compared to steel and cast iron pipes. Chlorine wall decay constants for PVC, uPVC, and polyethylene pipes were affected negatively by pipe service age and such effect was relatively small.

  20. The Optimization Program of Steel Plate Feeding Device for LASW Pipe Production Line%直缝埋弧焊管生产线钢板上料装置优选方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李钢; 张增全; 韩保材; 汤跃先; 汤圣先

    2015-01-01

    In this article, it described the main structure and constitute of 3 kinds of commonly used feeding device of JCOE/UOE LSAW pipe production line, including the combined converyor of roller and chain, chain conveyor and vacuum suction cups hanging conveyer, and compared the main structure and constitute with several aspects, such as equipment structure and operation, operation and maintenance workload, equipment investment, installed capacity, production running cost, plate scratch, etc. The results indicated that vacuum suction cups hanging conveyer device is with some advantages, such as simple structure, easy operation, low workload for operation and maintenance, small investment, small installed capacity, low production running cost, and production rhythm can completely meet the design requirements, which is the best optimization program for LASW pipe production line steel plate feeding device.%对JCOE/UOE直缝埋弧焊管生产线上通常采用的三种上料装置, 即平辊和链条组合输送装置、 链条输送装置以及真空吸盘吊输送装置的主要结构和组成进行了描述, 并从设备结构与操作、运行与维护工作量、 设备投资、 装机容量、 生产运行成本、 钢板划伤等主要方面进行了对比. 结果表明, 采用真空吸盘吊输送装置具有设备结构简单、 操作方便、 运行与维护的工作量相对较低、 资金投入相对较少、 装机容量小、 生产运行成本低、 生产节奏完全能满足设计要求等优点, 是直缝埋弧焊管生产线钢板上料的最佳优选方案.

  1. 埋地金属管道影响视电阻率观测的数值模拟%Digital analogue of apparent resistivity where there is a metal pipe line buried

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡德军; 徐建明; 张建民; 鞠岷

    2015-01-01

    目前在地震研究领域,绝大多数地电阻率观测台站均采用温纳装置,按照单极距方式进行观测,观测的视电阻率变化应该是表层变化(主要是干扰)和测区范围内深部变化(地下介质应力与应变状态发生变化)的综合变化。随着社会和经济的发展以及城市化进程的加快,城市基本建设范围快速扩张,不少地电阻率观测站受到各种各样的干扰,其中,地电阻率测区及附近埋地金属管道的影响是最主要的干扰因素之一。通过数值模拟进行了定性和半定量分析,找出了金属管道的物理属性、几何属性、埋设位置与干扰大小的关系,以方便数据中异常的识别。%In most of seismic research field at present,the instrument for the apparent resistivity or earth-resistivity measurement is Wenner device and the single pole layout is used. The measurement result of apparent resistivity mainly shows a comprehensive change of upper part of surface and the stress changes of the inner crust medium. The changes caused by the upper surface are called interference. With the development of social economy and ur-ban construction of infrastructure in China more and more seismic stations for apparent resistivity or earth-resistivi-ty measurement are affected by many kinds of interferences. The metal pipe line of water supply is one of interfer-ences. We use digital analogue to semi-qualitatively analyze and quantitatively analyze the interfere and try to find the physical attribute ,the geometry and the position of the buried metal pipe line in order to recognized the interfere in seismic data.

  2. Heat Pipe Materials Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eninger, J. E.; Fleischman, G. L.; Luedke, E. E.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental program to evaluate noncondensable gas generation in ammonia heat pipes was completed. A total of 37 heat pipes made of aluminum, stainless steel and combinations of these materials were processed by various techniques, operated at different temperatures and tested at low temperature to quantitatively determine gas generation rates. In order of increasing stability are aluminum/stainless combination, all aluminum and all stainless heat pipes. One interesting result is the identification of intentionally introduced water in the ammonia during a reflux step as a means of surface passivation to reduce gas generation in stainless-steel/aluminum heat pipes.

  3. Introduction to Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. NCTS 21070-15. Course Description: This course will present operating principles of the heat pipe with emphases on the underlying physical processes and requirements of pressure and energy balance. Performance characterizations and design considerations of the heat pipe will be highlighted. Guidelines for thermal engineers in the selection of heat pipes as part of the spacecraft thermal control system, testing methodology, and analytical modeling will also be discussed.

  4. Heat Pipe Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, William B.; Simon, Justin I.; Webb, A. Alexander G.

    2014-01-01

    When volcanism dominates heat transport, a terrestrial body enters a heat-pipe mode, in which hot magma moves through the lithosphere in narrow channels. Even at high heat flow, a heat-pipe planet develops a thick, cold, downwards-advecting lithosphere dominated by (ultra-)mafic flows and contractional deformation at the surface. Heat-pipes are an important feature of terrestrial planets at high heat flow, as illustrated by Io. Evidence for their operation early in Earth's history suggests that all terrestrial bodies should experience an episode of heat-pipe cooling early in their histories.

  5. Research & Development of Grade X70 LSAW Steel Pipes for West-East Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangXiaoxiang; SunQi

    2004-01-01

    In this article the research and development of X70 large diameter longitudinal seam submerged arc welded (LSAW) steel pipes for West-East Gas Transportation Pipeline project (WEGTP) in China are introduced, including the key technique, fabrication of pipe production line, mass production and the latest progress of LSAW steel pipe technique.

  6. Selected Discharge Measurements at Stream-Gaging Stations on Lower Platte River near Ashland, Duncan, Leshara, Louisville, and North Bend, Nebraska, 1934-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The accompanying "Lower_Platte_GAGES5" data release consists of two parts, a spatial data layer composed of a vector point data set representing five USGS streamflow...

  7. A Concept for a Long Term Hydrologic Observatory in the South Platte River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, J. A.

    2004-12-01

    The intersection between: (1) the Rocky Mountains and developments occurring in high altitude fragile environments; (2) the metropolitan areas emerging at the interface of the mountains and the plains; (3) the irrigation occurring along rivers as they break from the mountains and snake across the Great Plains; and (4) the grasslands and the dryland farming that covers the vast amount of the Great Plains, represents a dynamic, complex, highly integrated ecosystem, stretching from Montana and North Dakota to New Mexico and Texas. This swath of land, and the rivers that cross it (headwaters of the Missouri , the Yellowstone, the North Platte , the South Platte, the Arkansas , the Cimarron, the Red and the Pecos Rivers ), represent a significant percentage of the landmass of the United States. Within this large area, besides tremendous increases in population in metropolitan areas, there are new energy developments, old hard rock mining concerns, new recreation developments, irrigation farms selling water to meet urban demands, new in-stream flow programs, struggling rural areas, and continued "mining" of ground water. The corresponding impacts are creating endangered and threatened species conflicts which require new knowledge to fully understand the measures needed to mitigate harmful ecosystem conditions. Within the Rocky Mountain/Great Plains interface, water is limiting and land is plentiful, presenting natural resource managers with a number of unique problems which demand a scale of integrated science not achieved in the past. For example, water is imported into a number of the streams flowing east from the Rocky Mountains. Nitrogen is deposited in pristine watersheds that rise up high in the Rocky Mountains. Cities capture spring runoff in reservoirs to use at a steady rate over the entire year, putting water into river systems normally moving low flows in the winter. Irrigation of both urban landscapes and farm fields may be at a scale that impacts climate

  8. Pigging ends freezeups in caustic piping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, R.; Gaines, A.

    1985-03-01

    Convent Chemical Corporation in Convent, LA produces and ships bulk quantities of chlorine and caustic soda (NaOH). The caustic soda is available in various grades, including a 50% aqueous solution that freezes at 56/sup 0/F. An extensive network of chemical-resistant polypropylene-lined steel pipe (without heat tracing) is used to transfer the caustic soda from the production area to storage tanks and to the loading facilities for tank trucks, rail tank cars and barges. A sudden drop in ambient temperature can cause freezeup of the caustic transfer pipes which may result in downtime of as much as a week. Convent plant engineers designed a pigging system for the outdoor caustic transfer lines in the tank farm and to the loading stations. The patented design pig, (internal pipeline cleaner) consists of a flexible, bullet-shaped cylinder of chemical-resistant polyurethane foam with strips of urethane rubber on the surface, or with a solid coating of the tough material. Fluid or gas pressure on the sealed concave base propels the flexible pig through the pipe, valves, elbows, and other fittings, and material ahead of the pig is discharged into an appropriate receiver. The pigging system has eliminated the caustic freezing and plugging problems since it was installed in the summer of 1981. The flexible pig, propelled by 80 psi air, is used to clear the pipelines whenever caustic is transferred during the winter months. The air-propelled pig is designed and sized to easily pass through restrictions in the piping system, such as reduced port plug valves, but was once stuck when it reached a section of pipe that had collapsed. A pig containing the Cobalt 60 nuclear element was inserted into the line to quickly locate the stuck pig with the Geiger counter. The faulty section of pipe was replaced with a new polypropylene lined spool piece.

  9. On-line Testing Method for Underwater Pipeline Corrosion on Both Side of Pipe Wall%海底管道内外腐蚀的在线检测技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛宁林; 李新军; 魏中格

    2001-01-01

    目前,主要是把智能检测器放到管内,在输送介质 的推动下,完成海底管道内、外腐蚀的在线检测,智能检测器的原理主要基于漏磁技术、超 声波技术和涡流技术。本文介绍了以上三种检测技术的原理、检测器的结构、适应的介质以 及优缺点。%At present,on-line testing method for underwater pipeline corrosion on both side of pipe wall is that a intelligent testing pig was put into the pipeline and pushed by fluid medium. The intelligent testing pig mainly based on the principle of magnetic leakage, ultrasonic & eddy. The paper introduced the principle, structure, advantages & defects for the 3 types testing technology.

  10. Application of LBB to a nozzle-pipe interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Y.J.; Sohn, G.H.; Kim, Y.J. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Typical LBB (Leak-Before-Break) analysis is performed for the highest stress location for each different type of material in the high energy pipe line. In most cases, the highest stress occurs at the nozzle and pipe interface location at the terminal end. The standard finite element analysis approach to calculate J-Integral values at the crack tip utilizes symmetry conditions when modeling near the nozzle as well as away from the nozzle region to minimize the model size and simplify the calculation of J-integral values at the crack tip. A factor of two is typically applied to the J-integral value to account for symmetric conditions. This simplified analysis can lead to conservative results especially for small diameter pipes where the asymmetry of the nozzle-pipe interface is ignored. The stiffness of the residual piping system and non-symmetries of geometry along with different material for the nozzle, safe end and pipe are usually omitted in current LBB methodology. In this paper, the effects of non-symmetries due to geometry and material at the pipe-nozzle interface are presented. Various LBB analyses are performed for a small diameter piping system to evaluate the effect a nozzle has on the J-integral calculation, crack opening area and crack stability. In addition, material differences between the nozzle and pipe are evaluated. Comparison is made between a pipe model and a nozzle-pipe interface model, and a LBB PED (Piping Evaluation Diagram) curve is developed to summarize the results for use by piping designers.

  11. Explosive welding of pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drennov, O.; Burtseva, O.; Kitin, A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    2006-08-15

    Arrangement of pipelines for the transportation of oil and gas is a complicated problem. In this paper it is suggested to use the explosive welding method to weld pipes together. This method is rather new. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its static analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. We suggest to perform explosive welding according to the following scheme: the ends of the 2 pipes are connected, the external surfaces are kept at a similar level. A cylindrical steel layer of diameter larger than the pipe diameter is set around the pipe joint and an explosive charge is placed on its external surface. The basic problem is the elimination of strains and reduction of pipe diameter in the area of the dynamic effect. The suggestion is to use water as filler: the volume of pipes in the area adjacent to the zone of explosive welding is totally filled with water. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gas dynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water. Model experiments with pipes having radii R = 57 mm confirmed results of the calculations and the possibility in principle to weld pipes by explosion with use of water as filler.

  12. Optimization of Pipe Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C. T.; Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    1991-01-01

    The paper treats a piping system, where the layout of the network is given but the diameters of the pipes should be chosen among a small number of different values. The cost of realizing the system should be minimized while keeping the energy heads at the nodes above some lower limits. A new...

  13. A heat pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachev, L.A.; Kravtsov, A.A.

    1979-02-08

    A thermal pipe is described which contains a hermetically sealed body with a reticular filler. In order to increase the transmitted thermal power, the pipe is equipped with a high voltage source and with insulators, located between the wall of the body and the filler, where the latter is switched in to the high voltage source, preferably an adjustable one.

  14. Oscillating heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental fluid flow and heat transfer principles occurring in oscillating heat pipes and also provides updated developments and recent innovations in research and applications of heat pipes. Starting with fundamental presentation of heat pipes, the focus is on oscillating motions and its heat transfer enhancement in a two-phase heat transfer system. The book covers thermodynamic analysis, interfacial phenomenon, thin film evaporation,  theoretical models of oscillating motion and heat transfer of single phase and two-phase flows, primary  factors affecting oscillating motions and heat transfer,  neutron imaging study of oscillating motions in an oscillating heat pipes, and nanofluid’s effect on the heat transfer performance in oscillating heat pipes.  The importance of thermally-excited oscillating motion combined with phase change heat transfer to a wide variety of applications is emphasized. This book is an essential resource and learning tool for senior undergraduate, gradua...

  15. The monster sound pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Perkins, James

    2017-03-01

    Producing a deep bass tone by striking a large 3 m (10 ft) flexible corrugated drainage pipe immediately grabs student attention. The fundamental pitch of the corrugated tube is found to be a semitone lower than a non-corrugated smooth pipe of the same length. A video (https://youtu.be/FU7a9d7N60Y) of the demonstration is included, which illustrates how an Internet keyboard can be used to estimate the fundamental pitches of each pipe. Since both pipes have similar end corrections, the pitch discrepancy between the smooth pipe and drainage tube is due to the corrugations, which lower the speed of sound inside the flexible tube, dropping its pitch a semitone.

  16. Predicting the stability of endangered stonecats in the LaPlatte River, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchala, Elizabeth A.; Parrish, Donna; Donovan, Therese M.

    2016-01-01

    Stonecats Noturus flavus in Vermont conform to a rare distribution pattern (as designated by Rabinowitz 1981) because their known distribution within the state is limited to the LaPlatte and Missisquoi rivers. We focused on Stonecats in the LaPlatte River to predict the stability of the population. During 2012–2014, we captured Stonecats via backpack electrofishing; fish were PIT-tagged (>90 mm TL) and marked with visible implant elastomer. Among the 1,671 Stonecats that were captured, 1,252 were PIT-tagged. Only 156 (12%) of the PIT-tagged fish were recaptured, and only 22 of those individuals were recaptured more than once. The Pradel model in Program MARK was used to estimate apparent survival (Φ) and seniority, which were used to derive the rate of population change (λ) for the Stonecat encounter histories we studied. We examined a total of 64 models in our candidate set, with the following covariates: TL at first capture, maximum temperature, season, maximum discharge, and area sampled. Survival estimates were highest in the spring (range of daily Φ = 0.9993–0.9995) and increased with greater TL at first capture. We also estimated increases in capture probability with increasing area sampled. We derived an annual λ of 0.9794, which indicates a slightly decreasing population. However, our λ estimate contained uncertainty that was likely increased due to the low recapture rates. Additional years of data could increase the accuracy of the λ estimate. In the meantime, we have provided insight into Stonecat population parameters that were otherwise unknown.

  17. Long-Term Response of Groundwater Nitrate Concentrations to Management Regulations in Nebraska's Central Platte Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Exner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of 16 years (1988–2003 of management practices on high groundwater nitrate concentrations in Nebraska's central Platte River valley was assessed in a 58,812-ha (145,215-ac groundwater quality management area intensively cropped to irrigated corn (Zea mays L.. Crop production and groundwater nitrate data were obtained from ~23,800 producer reports. The terrace, comprising ~56% of the study area, is much more intensively cropped to irrigated corn than the bottomland. From 1987 to 2003, average groundwater nitrate concentrations in the primary aquifer beneath the bottomland remained static at ~8 mg N/l. During the same period, average groundwater nitrate concentrations in the primary aquifer beneath the terrace decreased from 26.4 to 22.0 mg N/l at a slow, but significant (p < 0.0001, rate of 0.26 mg N/l/year. Approximately 20% of the decrease in nitrate concentrations can be attributed to increases in the amount of N removed from fields as a consequence of small annual increases in yield. During the study, producers converted ~15% of the ~28,300 furrow-irrigated terrace hectares (~69,800 ac to sprinkler irrigation. The conversion is associated with about an additional 50% of the decline in the nitrate concentration, and demonstrates the importance of both improved water and N management. Average N fertilizer application rates on the terrace were essentially unchanged during the study. The data indicate that groundwater nitrate concentrations have responded to improved management practices instituted by the Central Platte Natural Resources District.

  18. Reliability of piping system components. Volume 1: Piping reliability - A resource document for PSA applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, R.; Erixon, S.; Tomic, B.; Lydell, B.

    1995-12-01

    SKI has undertaken a multi-year research project to establish a comprehensive passive component failure database, validate failure rate parameter estimates and establish a model framework for integrating passive component failures in existing PSAs. Phase 1 of the project produced a relational database on worldwide piping system failure events in the nuclear and chemical industries. This phase 2 report gives a graphical presentation of piping system operating experience, and compares key failure mechanisms in commercial nuclear power plants and chemical process industry. Inadequacies of traditional PSA methodology are addressed, with directions for PSA methodology enhancements. A data-driven-and-systems-oriented analysis approach is proposed to enable assignment of unique identities to risk-significant piping system component failures. Sufficient operating experience does exist to generate quality data on piping failures. Passive component failures should be addressed by today`s PSAs to allow for aging analysis and effective, on-line risk management. 111 refs, 36 figs, 20 tabs.

  19. Non-stationary flow of hydraulic oil in long pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hružík Lumír

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with experimental evaluation and numerical simulation of non-stationary flow of hydraulic oil in a long hydraulic line. Non-stationary flow is caused by a quick closing of valves at the beginning and the end of the pipe. Time dependence of pressure is measured by means of pressure sensors at the beginning and the end of the pipe. A mathematical model of a given circuit is created using Matlab SimHydraulics software. The long line is simulated by means of segmented pipe. The simulation is verified by experiment.

  20. Research and Practice on the Scheme of Pre-stressed Pipe Pile Reinforcing Multi-line Railway Subgrade%预应力管桩加固铁路多线路基的研究与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈效星; 朱洪伟

    2015-01-01

    verification were carried out. Research conclusions:(1 )Through the comparison of CFG pile raft,bored pile plate and pre-stressed pipe pile raft scheme,using pile raft for reinforcement multi line subgrade has obvious technical,economic and shorter work-period of comprehensive advantages.(2)By using the pile raft foundation,the amount of cushion compression,pile and the stab deformation of the piles can be ignored in the calculation of the settlement calculation of compositefoundation,the amount of compression of the substratum under the pile is only counted,calculation accuracy meets the requirements. (3)Using static pressure method for prestressed pipe pile construction,in case there are thick dense sand stratum,using high pressure water flushing with static pressure construction methods to traverse can meet the design pile depth. (4)Through observation and evaluation of subgrade settlement,it is recognized that using the pile raft foundation without preloading meet the standard of settlement after construction.(5 )The research results can provide reference for the foundation reinforcement of the multi line subgrade of passenger dedicated railway line.

  1. Reeling of tight fit pipe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Focke, E.S.

    2007-01-01

    If it would be possible to install Tight Fit Pipe by means of reeling, it would be an attractive new option for the exploitation of offshore oil and gas fields containing corrosive hydrocarbons. Tight Fit Pipe is a mechanically bonded double walled pipe where a corrosion resistant alloy liner pipe

  2. Experimenting with a "Pipe" Whistle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Olga

    2012-01-01

    A simple pipe whistle can be made using pieces of PVC pipe. The whistle can be used to measure the resonant frequencies of open or closed pipes. A slightly modified version of the device can be used to also investigate the interesting dependence of the sound frequencies produced on the orifice-to-edge distance. The pipe whistle described here…

  3. Design of deepwater HP/HT pipe-in-pipe flowlines crossing mega-furrows in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Tianxi Andy; Chacko, Jacob; Zhou, Mengjuan Jane; Omonoji, Gabriel O. [TECHNIP USA, Houston, TX (United States); Eigbe, Uwa [INTECSEA, Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Two 12-mile long pipe-in-pipe (PIP) with HT/HP flow lines were recently designed for the Chinook offshore oil field in the Gulf of Mexico. The routes of the flow line of the Chinook crosses continuous mega-furrows at the water depth ranging from 8200 ft to 8800 ft. The design of the temperature and pressure of the flow lines were 250 deg F and 12,684 psi, respectively. The detailed finite element analysis was performed to predict flow line in-place behavior. The strain-based criterion of API RP 1111 was used where stresses were greater than allowable limits of the ASME B31.8 and found to be satisfactory. The fatigue analysis of the spans pipe subjected to Vortex Induced Vibration (VIV) showed the need for VIV mitigation measures. It was decided that the entire length of the flow lines crossing the mega-furrows should be stake. The analysis of the stake fatigue life of the flow lines resulted greater than the required 25 years service life. Further analysis was performed on the PIP system to optimize the centralizer spacing to sufficiently limit the buckling of inner pipe under operation conditions and prevent crushing of the insulation in the annulus. J-lay analysis of the installation determining the amount of the inner pipe pre-tensioning that was required to eliminate locked-in stresses in the inner and outer pipes. (author)

  4. Pipe drafting and design

    CERN Document Server

    Parisher, Roy A

    2011-01-01

    Pipe Drafting and Design, Third Edition provides step-by-step instructions to walk pipe designers, drafters, and students through the creation of piping arrangement and isometric drawings. It includes instructions for the proper drawing of symbols for fittings, flanges, valves, and mechanical equipment. More than 350 illustrations and photographs provide examples and visual instructions. A unique feature is the systematic arrangement of drawings that begins with the layout of the structural foundations of a facility and continues through to the development of a 3-D model. Advanced chapters

  5. Optimization of Pipe Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C. T.; Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    1991-01-01

    The paper treats a piping system, where the layout of the network is given but the diameters of the pipes should be chosen among a small number of different values. The cost of realizing the system should be minimized while keeping the energy heads at the nodes above some lower limits. A new...... algorithm using successive linear programming is presented. The performance of the algorithm is illustrated by optimizing a network with 201 pipes and 172 nodes. It is concluded that the new algorithm seems to be very efficient and stable, and that it always finds a solution with a cost near the best...

  6. An electrohydrodynamic heat pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    A heat pipe of new design, using an electrode structure to orient and guide the dielectric liquid phase flow, is proposed. Analysis indicates that the operation of the electrohydrodynamic heat pipe is in direct analogy to capillary devices, with the polarization force acting in place of capillarity. Advantages of these new heat pipes include greatly reduced liquid friction, electrohydrodynamically enhanced evaporation and condensation heat transfer, and a possible voltage-controlled on/off feature. Preliminary calculations indicate that relatively high performance devices are possible.

  7. Electrohydrodynamic heat pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, T. B.

    1973-01-01

    An electrohydrodynamic heat pipe of radical design is proposed which substitutes polarization electrohydrodynamic force effects for capillarity in collecting, guiding, and pumping a condensate liquid phase. The discussed device is restricted to the use of dielectric liquids as working fluids. Because of the relatively poor thermal transport properties of these liquids, capillary heat pipes using these liquids have not been high performance devices. The employment of the electrohydrodynamic concept should enhance this performance and help fill the performance gap that exists in the temperature range from 250 F to 750 F for 'conventional' capillary heat pipes.

  8. Comparison of two methods for estimating base flow in selected reaches of the South Platte River, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capesius, Joseph P.; Arnold, L. Rick

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board, compared two methods for estimating base flow in three reaches of the South Platte River between Denver and Kersey, Colorado. The two methods compared in this study are the Mass Balance and the Pilot Point methods. Base-flow estimates made with the two methods were based upon a 54-year period of record (1950 to 2003).

  9. Oil Refinery Supply Chain Modelling Using Pipe Transportation Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Dyntar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an application of Pipe Transportation Simulator (PTS in oil refinery supply chain modelling. We develop the simulator in Witness simulation software environment using MS Excel for input data loading and outputs upgrading. PTS is particularly suitable for “what-if” analysis in the crude oil, fuels or gas supply chains where the products are transported among warehouses and refineries through the pipe lines. To discuss the basic functionality of proposed simulator we employ PTS to simulate a real oil refinery supply chain consisting of 16 warehouses and 3 refineries placed in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The refineries and warehouses are connected together with 21 pipe lines. PTS is used to verify a plan of fuels movements among warehouses and refineries as well as a plan of repairs of certain pipe lines in the selected time period of the length of 30 days.

  10. 热浸渗铝X70管线钢扩渗工艺研究%Research on Hot Diffusion Aluminizing Process of X70 Pipe Line Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄敦伟; 胡爱萍; 张宏伟; 孔德军

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between hot diffusion aluminizing temperature,infiltration time and thickness of aluminized coating of X70 pipe line steel was researched by quadratic orthogonal regression testing method.The regression equation of the alloying layer thickness was established.The optimum process for hot diffusion aluminizing treatment was gotten.The surface and interface morphologies of X70 pipeline steel after the aluminizing treatment were observed,and Fe and Al content change by the carbonitride layer were analyzed.The element diffusion mechanism of hot dipping alumetizing process was discussed.The results show that alloying layer thickness is increased with the rising of insulation temperture and the extending of diffusion time.The ideal inoulation temperature is 950 ℃ and time is insulation 6 h.%采用二次正交回归试验方法,研究了X70管线钢热扩渗铝保温温度、扩渗时间与渗铝层厚度的关系,建立了渗层回归方程,得到X70管线钢最优的热扩渗铝工艺参数.观察了X70管线钢热浸渗铝处理后的表面、界面微观形貌,分析了Fe和Al的含量沿渗层的变化情况,并对热浸渗铝过程中的元素扩散机理进行了探讨.结果表明:渗铝层厚度随保温温度的升高和扩渗时间的延长而增大,适宜的保温温度为950℃,扩渗时间为6h.

  11. Based Accuload Type Batch Controller Oil Pipe-line Metering System Proportional to Reconcile%基于Accuload型批量控制器的油品管道在线式比例调和计量系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐斌; 芮晶磊

    2016-01-01

    Due to the limited refining facility process in petrochemical industry, the environmental protection against the use of refined products , or comprehensive considerations of both technical and economic factors etc, the product after primary processing and the second processing can not completely meet the operating requirements from the market, or considering both economic and environmental factors, usually to meet the market quality requirements by blending technology, such as adding auxiliary chemical fuels such as ethanol etc.Therefore, the article mainly introduces the principle of the finished product batch controller based piping on-line ritio blending technology, the blending purpose, the blending method used in the petrochemical enterprises.%石油化工行业由于炼油装置工艺局限,成品油使用环境保护。或为达到最佳经济效益,经过炼油厂加工所得到的成油不能完全符合市场需求;或考虑经济环保因素,一般通过油品调合的方式来满足市场上对油品质量要求[2],如添加乙醇等辅助化学燃料等。因此,本文重点介绍了石油化工企业的基于批量控制器的油品管道在线式比例调合技术的原理、调合目的、调和方法。

  12. Investigating the accuracy of photointerpreted unvegetated channel widths in a braided river system: a Platte River case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werbylo, Kevin L.; Farnsworth, Jason M.; Baasch, David M.; Farrell, Patrick D.

    2017-02-01

    The central Platte River in Nebraska, USA, has undergone substantial channel narrowing since basin settlement in the mid-nineteenth century. Many researchers have studied the causes of channel narrowing and its implications for endangered species that use wide, shallow channel segments with barren sandbars. As a result, changes in metrics such as unvegetated channel width have been studied. With few exceptions, these measures are estimated from aerial imagery without mention of error in relation to actual channel conditions and/or investigator bias. This issue is not unique to central Platte River studies, as a general lack of commentary is apparent regarding the direct comparison of channel planform characteristics interpreted from aerial imagery relative to those measured in the field. Here we present a case study where data collected by the Platte River Recovery Implementation Program was used to make multiple comparisons using three years of field-measured unvegetated channel widths and those photointerpreted from aerial imagery. Widths were interpreted by three investigators, who identified similar widths in almost all cases. Photointerpretation from imagery collected during the fall resulted in unvegetated width estimates that were more consistent with field measurments than estimates derived using imagery collected in June. Differences were attributed to three main factors: (1) influences of discharge on photointerpretation of unvegetated channel width; (2) increases in vegetative cover throughout the growing season; and (3) resolution of imagery. Most importantly, we concluded that photointerpretation of unvegetated widths from imagery collected during high flows can result in significant over estimation of unvegetated channel width.

  13. Microbial water quality during the northern migration of Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) at the central Platte River, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    The central Platte River is an important resource in Nebraska. Its water flows among multiple channels and supports numerous beneficial uses such as drinking water, irrigation for agriculture, groundwater recharge, and recreational activities. The central Platte River valley is an important stopover for migratory waterfowl and cranes, such as the Whooping (Grus americana) and Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis), in their annual northward traversal of the Central Flyway. Waterfowl, cranes, and other migratory birds moving across international and intercontinental borders may provide long-range transportation for any microbial pathogen they harbor, particularly through the spread of feces. Samples were collected weekly in the study reach from three sites (upstream, middle, and downstream from the roosting locations) during the spring of 2009 and 2010. The samples were analyzed for avian influenza, Escherichia coli, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Campylobacter, and Legionella. Analysis indicates that several types of fecal indicator bacteria and a range of viral, protozoan, and bacterial pathogens were present in Sandhill Crane excreta. These bacteria and pathogens were present at a significantly higher frequency and densities in water and sediments when the Sandhill Cranes were present, particularly during evening roosts within the Platte River environment.

  14. Project plan-Surficial geologic mapping and hydrogeologic framework studies in the Greater Platte River Basins (Central Great Plains) in support of ecosystem and climate change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Margaret E.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Slate, Janet L.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Sawyer, David A.; VanSistine, D. Paco

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Platte River Basin area spans a central part of the Midcontinent and Great Plains from the Rocky Mountains on the west to the Missouri River on the east, and is defined to include drainage areas of the Platte, Niobrara, and Republican Rivers, the Rainwater Basin, and other adjoining areas overlying the northern High Plains aquifer. The Greater Platte River Basin contains abundant surficial deposits that were sensitive to, or are reflective of, the climate under which they formed: deposits from multiple glaciations in the mountain headwaters of the North and South Platte Rivers and from continental ice sheets in eastern Nebraska; fluvial terraces (ranging from Tertiary to Holocene in age) along the rivers and streams; vast areas of eolian sand in the Nebraska Sand Hills and other dune fields (recording multiple episodes of dune activity); thick sequences of windblown silt (loess); and sediment deposited in numerous lakes and wetlands. In addition, the Greater Platte River Basin overlies and contributes surface water to the High Plains aquifer, a nationally important groundwater system that underlies parts of eight states and sustains one of the major agricultural areas of the United States. The area also provides critical nesting habitat for birds such as plovers and terns, and roosting habitat for cranes and other migratory birds that travel through the Central Flyway of North America. This broad area, containing fragile ecosystems that could be further threatened by changes in climate and land use, has been identified by the USGS and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln as a region where intensive collaborative research could lead to a better understanding of climate change and what might be done to adapt to or mitigate its adverse effects to ecosystems and to humans. The need for robust data on the geologic framework of ecosystems in the Greater Platte River Basin has been acknowledged in proceedings from the 2008 Climate Change Workshop and in draft

  15. An electrohydrodynamic heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    Dielectric liquid for transfer of heat provides liquid flow from the condenser section to the evaporator section in conventional heat pipes. Working fluid is guided or pumped by an array of wire electrodes connected to a high-voltage source.

  16. Silicon Heat Pipe Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Karl Y.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Sunada, Eric T.; Bae, Youngsam; Miller, Jennifer R.; Beinsford, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Improved methods of heat dissipation are required for modern, high-power density electronic systems. As increased functionality is progressively compacted into decreasing volumes, this need will be exacerbated. High-performance chip power is predicted to increase monotonically and rapidly with time. Systems utilizing these chips are currently reliant upon decades of old cooling technology. Heat pipes offer a solution to this problem. Heat pipes are passive, self-contained, two-phase heat dissipation devices. Heat conducted into the device through a wick structure converts the working fluid into a vapor, which then releases the heat via condensation after being transported away from the heat source. Heat pipes have high thermal conductivities, are inexpensive, and have been utilized in previous space missions. However, the cylindrical geometry of commercial heat pipes is a poor fit to the planar geometries of microelectronic assemblies, the copper that commercial heat pipes are typically constructed of is a poor CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) match to the semiconductor die utilized in these assemblies, and the functionality and reliability of heat pipes in general is strongly dependent on the orientation of the assembly with respect to the gravity vector. What is needed is a planar, semiconductor-based heat pipe array that can be used for cooling of generic MCM (multichip module) assemblies that can also function in all orientations. Such a structure would not only have applications in the cooling of space electronics, but would have commercial applications as well (e.g. cooling of microprocessors and high-power laser diodes). This technology is an improvement over existing heat pipe designs due to the finer porosity of the wick, which enhances capillary pumping pressure, resulting in greater effective thermal conductivity and performance in any orientation with respect to the gravity vector. In addition, it is constructed of silicon, and thus is better

  17. Stuck pipe prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahrani, Majed

    2016-03-10

    Disclosed are various embodiments for a prediction application to predict a stuck pipe. A linear regression model is generated from hook load readings at corresponding bit depths. A current hook load reading at a current bit depth is compared with a normal hook load reading from the linear regression model. A current hook load greater than a normal hook load for a given bit depth indicates the likelihood of a stuck pipe.

  18. The Monster Sound Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Perkins, James

    2017-01-01

    Producing a deep bass tone by striking a large 3 m (10 ft) flexible corrugated drainage pipe immediately grabs student attention. The fundamental pitch of the corrugated tube is found to be a semitone lower than a non-corrugated smooth pipe of the same length. A video (https://youtu.be/FU7a9d7N60Y) of the demonstration is included, which…

  19. Heat pipe dynamic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issacci, F.; Roche, G. L.; Klein, D. B.; Catton, I.

    1988-01-01

    The vapor flow in a heat pipe was mathematically modeled and the equations governing the transient behavior of the core were solved numerically. The modeled vapor flow is transient, axisymmetric (or two-dimensional) compressible viscous flow in a closed chamber. The two methods of solution are described. The more promising method failed (a mixed Galerkin finite difference method) whereas a more common finite difference method was successful. Preliminary results are presented showing that multi-dimensional flows need to be treated. A model of the liquid phase of a high temperature heat pipe was developed. The model is intended to be coupled to a vapor phase model for the complete solution of the heat pipe problem. The mathematical equations are formulated consistent with physical processes while allowing a computationally efficient solution. The model simulates time dependent characteristics of concern to the liquid phase including input phase change, output heat fluxes, liquid temperatures, container temperatures, liquid velocities, and liquid pressure. Preliminary results were obtained for two heat pipe startup cases. The heat pipe studied used lithium as the working fluid and an annular wick configuration. Recommendations for implementation based on the results obtained are presented. Experimental studies were initiated using a rectangular heat pipe. Both twin beam laser holography and laser Doppler anemometry were investigated. Preliminary experiments were completed and results are reported.

  20. 基于压电传感器的石油钻具内孔修磨在线测偏系统%The on-line detection of deviating system in the drilling pipe hole grinding based on piezoelectric sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣

    2014-01-01

    针对石油钻具内孔修磨过程中的轴线偏斜技术难题,提出利用压电式测力传感器进行在线测偏。此方案在石油钻具生产领域具有一定的创新性。%In order to the current technical problems of axis deviation during drilling pipe hole grind-ing processing, this paper puts forward a kind of use of working principle of piezoelectric gauge force sen-sor for on-line detection of deviating .This scheme owns a certain innovation in the field of the drilling pipe processing.

  1. Heat Pipe Integrated Microsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gass, K.; Robertson, P.J.; Shul, R.; Tigges, C.

    1999-03-30

    The trend in commercial electronics packaging to deliver ever smaller component packaging has enabled the development of new highly integrated modules meeting the demands of the next generation nano satellites. At under ten kilograms, these nano satellites will require both a greater density electronics and a melding of satellite structure and function. Better techniques must be developed to remove the subsequent heat generated by the active components required to-meet future computing requirements. Integration of commercially available electronics must be achieved without the increased costs normally associated with current generation multi chip modules. In this paper we present a method of component integration that uses silicon heat pipe technology and advanced flexible laminate circuit board technology to achieve thermal control and satellite structure. The' electronics/heat pipe stack then becomes an integral component of the spacecraft structure. Thermal management on satellites has always been a problem. The shrinking size of electronics and voltage requirements and the accompanying reduction in power dissipation has helped the situation somewhat. Nevertheless, the demands for increased onboard processing power have resulted in an ever increasing power density within the satellite body. With the introduction of nano satellites, small satellites under ten kilograms and under 1000 cubic inches, the area available on which to place hot components for proper heat dissipation has dwindled dramatically. The resulting satellite has become nearly a solid mass of electronics with nowhere to dissipate heat to space. The silicon heat pipe is attached to an aluminum frame using a thermally conductive epoxy or solder preform. The frame serves three purposes. First, the aluminum frame provides a heat conduction path from the edge of the heat pipe to radiators on the surface of the satellite. Secondly, it serves as an attachment point for extended structures attached

  2. Epoxy Lining for Shipboard Piping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-30

    contact and they would not speculate how such tests would turn out. Soya 10 lecithin is approved for use as an emulsifier in food, and we anticipate that...a silicone leveling, flow and defoaming agent. 5. Dow-Corning Additive 57, a silicone flow and anti-mar agent. 6. Central Soya Soya Lecithin , a...and Central Soya Soya Lecithin , are added at low levels. The additives do not affect the chemical resistance of the coating. Any of these three, if

  3. Adaptive management on the central Platte River--science, engineering, and decision analysis to assist in the recovery of four species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chadwin B

    2011-05-01

    Active adaptive management is the centerpiece of a major species recovery program now underway on the central Platte River in Nebraska. The Platte River Recovery Implementation Program initiated on January 1, 2007 and is a joint effort between the states of Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska; the U.S. Department of the Interior; waters users; and conservation groups. This program is intended to address issues related to endangered species and loss of habitat along the Platte River in central Nebraska by managing land and water resources and using adaptive management as its science framework. The adaptive management plan provides a systematic process to test hypotheses and apply the information learned to improve management on the ground, and is centered on conceptual models and priority hypotheses that reflect different interpretations of how river processes work and the best approach to meeting key objectives. This framework reveals a shared attempt to use the best available science to implement experiments, learn, and revise management actions accordingly on the Platte River. This paper focuses on the status of adaptive management implementation on the Platte, experimental and habitat design issues, and the use of decision analysis tools to help set objectives and guide decisions.

  4. Radionuclide observables for the Platte underground nuclear explosive test on 14 April 1962.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Jonathan L; Milbrath, Brian D

    2016-11-01

    Past nuclear weapon explosive tests provide invaluable information for understanding the radionuclide observables expected during an On-site Inspection (OSI) for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). These radioactive signatures are complex and subject to spatial and temporal variability. The Platte underground nuclear explosive test on 14 April 1962 provides extensive environmental monitoring data that can be modelled and used to calculate the maximum time available for detection of the OSI-relevant radionuclides. The 1.6 kT test is especially useful as it released the highest amounts of recorded activity during Operation Nougat at the Nevada Test Site - now known as the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). It has been estimated that 0.36% of the activity was released, and dispersed in a northerly direction. The deposition ranged from 1 × 10(-11) to 1 × 10(-9) of the atmospheric release (per m(2)), and has been used in this paper to evaluate an OSI and the OSI-relevant radionuclides at 1 week to 2 years post-detonation. Radioactive decay reduces the activity of the OSI-relevant radionuclides by 99.7% within 2 years of detonation, such that detection throughout the hypothesized inspection is only achievable close to the explosion where deposition was highest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Radionuclide observables for the Platte underground nuclear explosive test on 14 April 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, Jonathan L.; Milbrath, Brian D.

    2016-11-01

    Past nuclear weapons tests provide invaluable information for understanding the radionuclide observables and data quality objectives expected during an On-site Inspection (OSI) for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). These radioactive signatures are complex and subject to spatial and temporal variability. The Platte Underground Nuclear Test on 14 April 1962 provides extensive environmental monitoring data that can be modelled and used to assess an OSI. The 1.6 kT test is especially useful as it released the highest amounts of recorded activity during Operation Nougat at the Nevada Test Site – now known as the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). It has been estimated that 0.36% of the activity was released, and dispersed in a northerly direction. The deposition ranged from 1 x 10-11 to 1 x 10-9 of the atmospheric release (per m2), and has been used to evaluate a hypothetical OSI at 1 week to 2 years post-detonation. Radioactive decay reduces the activity of the 17 OSI relevant radionuclides by 99.7%, such that detection throughout the inspection is only achievable close to the explosion where deposition was highest.

  6. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcyn, Adam D.

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  7. Composite drill pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, James C [Fountain Valley, CA; Leslie, II, James C.; Heard, James [Huntington Beach, CA; Truong, Liem , Josephson; Marvin, Neubert [Huntington Beach, CA; Hans, [Anaheim, CA

    2008-12-02

    A composite pipe segment is formed to include tapered in wall thickness ends that are each defined by opposed frustoconical surfaces conformed for self centering receipt and intimate bonding contact within an annular space between corresponding surfaces of a coaxially nested set of metal end pieces. The distal peripheries of the nested end pieces are then welded to each other and the sandwiched and bonded portions are radially pinned. The composite segment may include imbedded conductive leads and the axial end portions of the end pieces are shaped to form a threaded joint with the next pipe assembly that includes a contact ring in one pipe assembly pierced by a pointed contact in the other to connect the corresponding leads across the joint.

  8. Heat-pipe Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, William B; Webb, A Alexander G

    2013-09-26

    The heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth are currently explained by plate tectonic and vertical tectonic models, but these do not offer a global synthesis consistent with the geologic record. Here we use numerical simulations and comparison with the geologic record to explore a heat-pipe model in which volcanism dominates surface heat transport. These simulations indicate that a cold and thick lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downwards. Declining heat sources over time led to an abrupt transition to plate tectonics. Consistent with model predictions, the geologic record shows rapid volcanic resurfacing, contractional deformation, a low geothermal gradient across the bulk of the lithosphere and a rapid decrease in heat-pipe volcanism after initiation of plate tectonics. The heat-pipe Earth model therefore offers a coherent geodynamic framework in which to explore the evolution of our planet before the onset of plate tectonics.

  9. Pipe Drafting with CAD. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Buddy

    This teacher's guide contains nine units of instruction for a course on computer-assisted pipe drafting. The course covers the following topics: introduction to pipe drafting with CAD (computer-assisted design); flow diagrams; pipe and pipe components; valves; piping plans and elevations; isometrics; equipment fabrication drawings; piping design…

  10. PE 100 pipe systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brömstrup, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    English translation of the 3rd edition ""Rohrsysteme aus PE 100"". Because of the considerably increased performance, pipe and pipe systems made from 100 enlarge the range of applications in the sectors of gas and water supply, sewage disposal, industrial pipeline construction and in the reconstruction and redevelopment of defective pipelines (relining). This book applies in particular to engineers, technicians and foremen working in the fields of supply, disposal and industry. Subject matters of the book are all practice-relevant questions regarding the construction, operation and maintenance

  11. Comparison of water consumption in two riparian vegetation communities along the central Platte River, Nebraska, 2008–09 and 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brent M.; Rus, David L.

    2013-01-01

    The Platte River is a vital natural resource for the people, plants, and animals of Nebraska. A recent study quantified water use by riparian woodlands along central reaches of the Platte River, Nebraska, finding that water use was mainly regulated below maximum predicted levels. A comparative study was launched through a cooperative partnership between the U.S. Geological Survey, the Central Platte Natural Resources District, the Nebraska Department of Natural Resources, and the Nebraska Environmental Trust to compare water use of a riparian woodland with that of a grazed riparian grassland along the central Platte River. This report describes the results of the 3-year study by the U.S. Geological Survey to measure the evapotranspiration (ET) rates in the two riparian vegetation communities. Evapotranspiration was measured during 2008–09 and 2011 using the eddy-covariance method at a riparian woodland near Odessa, hereinafter referred to as the “woodland site,” and a riparian grassland pasture near Elm Creek, hereinafter referred to as the “grassland site.” Overall, annual ET totals at the grassland site were 90 percent of the annual ET measured at the woodland site, with averages of 653 millimeters (mm) and 726 mm, respectively. Evapotranspiration rates were similar at the grassland site and the woodland site during the spring and fall seasons, but at the woodland site ET rates were higher than those of the grassland site during the peak-growth summer months of June through August. These seasonal differences and the slightly lower ET rates at the grassland site were likely the result of differing plant communities, disturbance effects related to grazing and flooding, and climatic differences between the sites. The annual water balance was calculated for each site and indicated that the predominant factors in the water balance at both sites were ET and precipitation. Annual precipitation for the study period ranged from near to above the normal

  12. 46 CFR 154.503 - Piping and piping system components: Protection from movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping and piping system components: Protection from..., Construction and Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.503 Piping and piping system components... cause stresses that exceed the design stresses, the piping and piping system components and cargo...

  13. Near-decadal changes in nitrate and pesticide concentrations in the South Platte River alluvial aquifer, 1993-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, S.S.; Schaffrath, K.R.; Mashbum, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    The lower South Platte River basin of Colorado and Nebraska is an area of intense agriculture supported by surface-water diversions from the river and ground-water pumping from a valley-fill alluvial aquifer. Two well networks consisting of 45 wells installed in the South Platte alluvial aquifer were sampled in the early 1990s and again in the early 2000s to examine near-decadal ground-water quality changes in irrigated agricultural areas. Ground-water age generally increases and dissolved-oxygen content decreases with distance along flow paths and with depdi below the water table, and denitrification is an important natural mitigation mechanism for nitrate in downgradient areas. Ground-water travel time from upland areas to the river ranges from 12 to 31 yr on the basis of apparent ground-water ages. Ground-water nitrate concentrations for agricultural land-use wells increased significantly for oxidized samples over the decade, and nitrogen isotope ratios for oxidized samples indicate synthetic fertilizer as the predominant nitrate source. Ground-water concentrations of atrazine, DEA, and prometon decreased significandy. The decrease in pesticide concentrations and a significant increase in the ratio of DEA to atrazine suggest decreases in pesticide concentrations are likely caused by local decreases in application rates and/or degradation processes and that atrazine degradation is promoted by oxidizing conditions. The difference between results for oxidizing and nitrate-reducing conditions indicates redox state is an important variable to consider when evaluating ground-water quality trends for redox-sensitive constituents such as nitrate and pesticides in the South Platte alluvial aquifer. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  14. Explosive Welding of Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennov, Oleg; Drennov, Andrey; Burtseva, Olga

    2013-06-01

    For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. Explosive welding of cylindrical surfaces is performed by launching of welded layer along longitudinal axis of construction. During this procedure, it is required to provide reliable resistance against radial convergent strains. The traditional method is application of fillers of pipe cavity, which are dense cylindrical objects having special designs. However, when connecting pipes consecutively in pipelines by explosive welding, removal of the fillers becomes difficult and sometimes impossible. The suggestion is to use water as filler. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gasdynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water (perturbations, which are moving in the axial direction with sound velocity, should not reach the layer end boundaries for 5-7 circulations of shock waves in the radial direction). Linear dimension of the water layer from the zone of pipe coupling along axis in each direction is >= 2R, where R is the internal radius of pipe.

  15. Heat-pipe planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, William B.; Simon, Justin I.; Webb, A. Alexander G.

    2017-09-01

    Observations of the surfaces of all terrestrial bodies other than Earth reveal remarkable but unexplained similarities: endogenic resurfacing is dominated by plains-forming volcanism with few identifiable centers, magma compositions are highly magnesian (mafic to ultra-mafic), tectonic structures are dominantly contractional, and ancient topographic and gravity anomalies are preserved to the present. Here we show that cooling via volcanic heat pipes may explain these observations and provide a universal model of the way terrestrial bodies transition from a magma-ocean state into subsequent single-plate, stagnant-lid convection or plate tectonic phases. In the heat-pipe cooling mode, magma moves from a high melt-fraction asthenosphere through the lithosphere to erupt and cool at the surface via narrow channels. Despite high surface heat flow, the rapid volcanic resurfacing produces a thick, cold, and strong lithosphere which undergoes contractional strain forced by downward advection of the surface toward smaller radii. We hypothesize that heat-pipe cooling is the last significant endogenic resurfacing process experienced by most terrestrial bodies in the solar system, because subsequent stagnant-lid convection produces only weak tectonic deformation. Terrestrial exoplanets appreciably larger than Earth may remain in heat-pipe mode for much of the lifespan of a Sun-like star.

  16. [Piping cinnamon] 791

    OpenAIRE

    W L H Skeen and Co

    2003-01-01

    279 x 211 mm. Showing female workers making cinnamon pipes. The cinnamon is placed on a low tripod formed from four sticks, and steadied with the operator's foot while the cuticle is scraped off with a small curved knife. Annotated '791' on the bottom right hand corner of the photograph. Date approximate.

  17. Transient Behaviour of a Heat Pipe with Extracapillary Circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Heat pipe devices, for their typical working mode, are particularly suitable for zero gravity applications, and have also been considered for applications in space satellites with nuclear generators because of the absence of active systems for the coolant circulation. The present work reports the results of experimental tests carried out on a heat pipe facility designed to investigate the thermal-hydraulic performance of a water heat pipe. The device layout, configuration and geometry, simulate a heat pipe working mode utilizable in space applications under zero gravity conditions. The evaporating section, completely lined (covered) with wicks (sintered stainless steel), and nearly plane shaped, is housed in a cylindrical container. The obtained results show that the system can approach steady-state conditions, at a pressure of 4 bar and with a heat flux transferred of about 150 W/cm2, supporting an electric power step of about 1.8 Kw.

  18. Cross-section data and pressure transducer location of the South Platte River near Fort Morgan, Colorado, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    The USGS Colorado Water Science Center, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board, collected hydraulic data for the South Platte River for areas adjacent to Fort Morgan, Colo., based on the USGS streamgage 06759500 South Platte River at Fort Morgan, CO. The hydraulic data include survey point data for 54 cross sections and 10 pressure transducers, which are used to record the river stage beginning at Morgan County Road 16 and extending downstream to Morgan County Road 20.5 near Fort Morgan, Colo. The cross-section and pressure transducer location data were collected using real-time kinematic Global Navigation Satellite Systems by USGS personnel from February 15, 2017, through April 18, 2017. These data can be used to develop inundation maps, which could be available to emergency personnel, public officials, and the general public using an online public mapping application at the USGS Flood Inundation Mapper, which contains flood inundation map libraries from throughout the country created by the USGS.

  19. Molecular detection of Campylobacter spp. and fecal indicator bacteria during the northern migration of Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Central Platte River

    Science.gov (United States)

    The annual Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) migration through Nebraska is thought to be a major source of fecal pollution to the Platte River, but of unknown human health risk. To better understand potential risks, the presence of Campylobacter species and fecal bacteria were exa...

  20. Molecular detection of Campylobacter spp. and fecal indicator bacteria during the northern migration of Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Central Platte River

    Science.gov (United States)

    The annual Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) migration through Nebraska is thought to be a major source of fecal pollution to the Platte River, but of unknown human health risk. To better understand potential risks, the presence of Campylobacter species and fecal bacteria were exa...

  1. LHCb: Beam Pipe portrait

    CERN Multimedia

    LHCb, Collaboration

    2005-01-01

    The proton beams circulate in the accelerator in Ultra High Vacuum to make them interact only with each other when colliding at the interaction point. A special beam pipe "holds" the vacuum where they pass through the LHCb detector: it has to be mechanically very strong to stand the difference in pressure between the vacuum inside it and the air in the cavern but also be as transparent as possible for the particles originating in the proton−proton collisions.

  2. LHCb: Beam Pipe

    CERN Multimedia

    LHCb, Collaboration

    2005-01-01

    The proton beams circulate in the accelerator in Ultra High Vacuum to make them interact only with each other when colliding at the interaction point. A special beam pipe "holds" the vacuum where they pass through the LHCb detector:it has to be mechanically very strong to stand the difference in pressure between the vacuum inside it and the air in the cavern but also be as transparent as possible for the particles originating in the proton−proton collisions.

  3. Heat Pipe Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Solar Fundamentals, Inc.'s hot water system employs space-derived heat pipe technology. It is used by a meat packing plant to heat water for cleaning processing machinery. Unit is complete system with water heater, hot water storage, electrical controls and auxiliary components. Other than fans and a circulating pump, there are no moving parts. System's unique design eliminates problems of balancing, leaking, corroding, and freezing.

  4. Pipe inspection using the pipe crawler. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective remediation technologies for use in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. In several of the buildings at the Fernald Site, there is piping that was used to transport process materials. As the demolition of these buildings occur, disposal of this piping has become a costly issue. Currently, all process piping is cut into ten-foot or less sections, the ends of the piping are wrapped and taped to prevent the release of any potential contaminants into the air, and the piping is placed in roll off boxes for eventual repackaging and shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal. Alternatives that allow for the onsite disposal of process piping are greatly desired due to the potential for dramatic savings in current offsite disposal costs. No means is currently employed to allow for the adequate inspection of the interior of piping, and consequently, process piping has been assumed to be internally contaminated and thus routinely disposed of at NTS. The BTX-II system incorporates a high-resolution micro color camera with lightheads, cabling, a monitor, and a video recorder. The complete probe is capable of inspecting pipes with an internal diameter (ID) as small as 1.4 inches. By using readily interchangeable lightheads, the same system is capable of inspecting piping up to 24 inches in ID. The original development of the BTX system was for inspection of boiler tubes and small diameter pipes for build-up, pitting, and corrosion. However, the system is well suited for inspecting the interior of most types of piping and other small, confined areas. The report describes the technology, its performance, uses, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned.

  5. 46 CFR 76.33-15 - Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 76.33-15 Section 76.33-15 Shipping COAST GUARD... System, Details § 76.33-15 Piping. (a) Individual pipes shall be not less than 3/4-inch standard pipe size. (b) All piping, valves, and fittings of ferrous materials shall be protected inside and...

  6. Continuous Surveillance Technique for Flow Accelerated Corrosion of Pipe Wall Using Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, F.; Kosaka, D.; Umetani, K.

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a on-line monitoring technique using electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT). In the series of laboratory experiments, carbon steel pipes were used and each sample was fabricated to simulate FAC. Electromagnetic acoustic resonance method (EMAR) is successfully tested for pipe wall thickness measurements. The validity and the feasibility of our method are also demonstrated through the laboratory experiments.

  7. Experimenting with a ``Pipe'' Whistle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Olga

    2012-04-01

    A simple pipe whistle can be made using pieces of PVC pipe. The whistle can be used to measure the resonant frequencies of open or closed pipes. A slightly modified version of the device can be used to also investigate the interesting dependence of the sound frequencies produced on the orifice-to-edge distance. The pipe whistle described here allows students in a physics of music or introductory physics course to study an example of an "edge tone" device that produces discrete sound frequencies. From their textbooks, students likely know about standing waves produced by pipes or strings, as well as the resonant frequencies for open and closed pipes. To go a bit further, they can also learn how the frequency of the sound wave depends on the orifice-to-edge distance of the wind instrument.

  8. Depositional and erosional dynamics of emergent sandbars: a case study of the Platte River, Eastern Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, J. S.; Murr, M. L.; McElroy, B. J.

    2016-12-01

    Macroform sandbars (sandbars) are ubiquitous depositional features of sandy, braided rives. Sandbars formed during annual floods stall and emerge during flow recession, splitting flow, and producing the characteristic braiding pattern. Emergent sandbars are crucial components of riverine ecosystems, forming the foundation of the floodplain/braidplain, providing nesting, brooding, and foraging habitat for migratory and endemic animals, and shallow water aquatic habitat along their periphery. In the United States, substantial resources are being expended to recover and expand so-called emergent sandbar habitat (ESH) in large rivers of the Great Plains, where the natural extent and dynamism of ESH has been degraded due to construction of main-channel dams, navigation channels, and/or disruption of the natural hydrologic and sediment regimes. These programs are ultimately aimed at recovery and protection of populations of Federal and State-listed migratory bird species. Despite the importance of ESH, relatively little empirical information describing the natural temporal and spatial dynamics of sandbar geometries, erosion rates, and depositional controls is available for integrating into ecological and river management models. From 2011 to 2014, we monitored the geometry and fate of large emergent sandbars along 160 km of the sandy, braided Platte River in eastern Nebraska, a segment which retains a mostly natural sediment and hydrologic regime. We show that important descriptors of ESH quality, such as sandbar height, scale linearly with increases in flow stage, but the difference in elevation between sandbar height and formative stage also increases with increasing flow stage. Thus, the flood-hazard of natural sandbars may be much higher than current theory suggests. Our monitoring data indicates that emergent sandbars tend to erode within a year after deposition, and that the rate of erosion scales linearly with discharge. Finally, in agreement with previous work

  9. Multileg Heat-Pipe Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J. P.; Haslett, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Parallel pipes provide high heat flow from small heat exchanger. Six parallel heat pipes extract heat from overlying heat exchanger, forming evaporator. Vapor channel in pipe contains wick that extends into screen tube in liquid channel. Rods in each channel hold wick and screen tube in place. Evaporator compact rather than extended and more compatible with existing heat-exchanger geometries. Prototype six-pipe evaporator only 0.3 m wide and 0.71 m long. With ammonia as working fluid, transports heat to finned condenser at rate of 1,200 W.

  10. 客运专线铁路预埋套管式高速道岔板预制工艺特殊技术研究%Special Technology Research on Prefabrication Process of High-Speed Turnout Slab with Embedded Pipe Sleeves on Passenger-dedicated Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付国才; 黄杰

    2012-01-01

    This paper, in combination with the research on the prefabrication process of the high speed turnout slab with embedded pipe sleeves, sums up its special technology of prefabrication process, including the mould installation, steel skeleton processing, pipe sleeve embedding and the turnout slab demoulding, turn-over, transferring, storage, etc. Based on the successful application of these research results, this paper concludes that the prefabrication quality indicators of the high speed turnout slab with embedded pipe sleeves can meet the requirements specified in relevant manufacture and acceptance conditions ( trial implementation) of passenger-dedicated line and can be used as reference for similar project.%结合预埋套管式高速道岔板的预制工艺研究,总结出包括预埋套管式高速道岔板的模具安装、钢筋骨架加工、预埋套管安装、道岔板脱模、翻面、运输及存放等方面的预制工艺特殊技术.这些研究成果的成功运用确保了预埋套管式高速道岔板预制件的质量指标满足客运专线铁路预埋套管式混凝土道岔板制造及验收技术条件(试行)规定,可供类似工程借鉴.

  11. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing: Piping calculations. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-07-24

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the FDNW calculations for Project W-320 readily retrievable. The objective of this calculation is to perform the structural analysis of the Pipe Supports designed for Slurry and Supernate transfer pipe lines in order to meet the requirements of applicable ASME codes. The pipe support design loads are obtained from the piping stress calculations W320-27-I-4 and W320-27-I-5. These loads are the total summation of the gravity, pressure, thermal and seismic loads. Since standard typical designs are used for each type of pipe support such as Y-Stop, Guide and Anchors, each type of support is evaluated for the maximum loads to which this type of supports are subjected. These loads are obtained from the AutoPipe analysis and used to check the structural adequacy of these supports.

  12. Fracture properties evaluation of stainless steel piping for LBB applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.J.; Seok, C.S.; Chang, Y.S. [Sung Kyun Kwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the material properties of SA312 TP316 and SA312 TP304 stainless steels and their associated welds manufactured for shutdown cooling line and safety injection line of nuclear generating stations. A total of 82 tensile tests and 58 fracture toughness tests on specimens taken from actual pipes were performed and the effect of various parameters such as the pipe size, the specimen orientation, the test temperature and the welding procedure on the material properties are discussed. Test results show that the effect of the test temperature on the fracture toughness was significant while the effects of the pipe size and the specimen orientation on the fracture toughness were negligible. The material properties of the GTAW weld metal was in general higher than those of the base metal.

  13. Utilities: Other Utilities: Fences in and around Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Other:Fences)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is feature class contains lines representing fence line at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The fences were collected by a Trimble GeoXT GPS unit with...

  14. Fracture mechanics models developed for piping reliability assessment in light water reactors: piping reliability project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, D.O.; Lim, E.Y.; Dedhia, D.D.; Woo, H.H.; Chou, C.K.

    1982-06-01

    The efforts concentrated on modifications of the stratified Monte Carlo code called PRAISE (Piping Reliability Analysis Including Seismic Events) to make it more widely applicable to probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis of nuclear reactor piping. Pipe failures are considered to occur as the result of crack-like defects introduced during fabrication, that escape detection during inspections. The code modifications allow the following factors in addition to those considered in earlier work to be treated: other materials, failure criteria and subcritical crack growth characteristic; welding residual and vibratory stresses; and longitudinal welds (the original version considered only circumferential welds). The fracture mechanics background for the code modifications is included, and details of the modifications themselves provided. Additionally, an updated version of the PRAISE user's manual is included. The revised code, known as PRAISE-B was then applied to a variety of piping problems, including various size lines subject to stress corrosion cracking and vibratory stresses. Analyses including residual stresses and longitudinal welds were also performed.

  15. Surface Spills at Unconventional Oil and Gas Sites: a Contaminant Transport Modeling Study for the South Platte Alluvial Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCray, J. E.; Kanno, C.; McLaughlin, M.; Blotevogel, J.; Borch, T.

    2016-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has revolutionized the U.S.'s energy portfolio by making shale reservoirs productive and commercially viable. However, the public is concerned that the chemical constituents in hydraulic fracturing fluid, produced water, or natural gas itself could potentially impact groundwater. Here, we present fate and transport simulations of aqueous fluid surface spills. Surface spills are the most likely contamination pathway to occur during oil and gas production operations. We have three primary goals: 1) evaluate whether or not these spills pose risks to groundwater quality in the South Platte aquifer system, 2) develop a screening level methodology that could be applied at other sites and for various pollutants, and 3) demonstrate the potential importance of co-contaminant interactions using selected chemicals. We considered two types of fluid that can be accidentally released at oil and gas sites: produced water and hydraulic fracturing fluid. Benzene was taken to be a representative contaminant of interest for produced water. Glutaraldehyde, polyethylene glycol, and polyacrylamide were the chemical additives considered for spills of hydraulic fracturing fluid. We focused on the South Platte Alluvial Aquifer, which is located in the greater Denver metro area and overlaps a zone of high-density oil and gas development. Risk of groundwater pollution was based on predicted concentration at the groundwater table. In general, results showed groundwater contamination due to produced water and hydraulic fracturing fluid spills is low in most areas of the South Platte system for the contaminants and spill conditions investigated. Substantial risk may exist in certain areas where the groundwater table is shallow (less than 10 ft below ground surface) and when large spills and large post-spill storms occur. Co-chemical interactions are an important consideration in certain cases when modeling hydraulic fracturing fluid spills. By helping to identify locations

  16. Thermal blooming on laser propagation in an aspirating pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fuyin; Wang, Jihong; Ren, Ge; Tan, Yufeng; Zhu, Nengbing; Ai, Zhiwei

    2016-10-01

    Thermal blooming effect of gas on laser propagation can seriously degrade performance of far-field beam quality and energy distribution. Numerical simulation is carried out to study the influences of thermal blooming on laser propagation in line pipes. A physical model of thermal blooming effect of gas on laser propagation in an aspirating pipe is established. Axial flow and suction in the outlet are used to attenuate the thermal blooming effect. Based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, stable calculation of flow field is carried out first, then the optical field and the fluent field is coupling calculated by means of user defined function (UDF). The results show that radial flow is enhanced in the aspirating pipe and the index of refraction gradient caused by thermal blooming effect is decreased. It is indicated that the beam quality of the outlet is improved compared with the pipe model without aspirating. The optical path difference (OPD) distribution of the outlet is analyzed and decomposed by Zernike polynomials. It is shown that the defocus item of 4m aspirating pipe is decreased more than an order of magnitude compared with the 4m pipe without aspirating.

  17. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system.

  18. Deployable Pipe-Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawidzki, Machi

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a concept of deployable Pipe-Z (dPZ): a modular structural system which takes advantage of the robustness of rigid-panel mechanism and allows to create free-form links which are also reconfigurable and deployable. The concept presented can be applied for building habitats and infrastructures for human exploration of oceans and outer space. dPZ structures can adapt to changing requirements e.g. mission objectives, crew condition and technological developments. Furthermore, such lightweight and adaptable structural concept can assist in sustainable exploration development. After brief introduction, the concept of Pipe-Z (PZ) is presented. Next, the reconfigurability of PZ is explained and illustrated with continuous and collision-free transition from a PZ forming a Trefoil knot to a Figure-eight knot. The following sections introduce, explain and illustrate the folding mechanism of a single foldable Pipe-Z module (fPZM) and entire dPZ structure. The latter is illustrated with asynchronous (delayed) unfolding of a relatively complex Unknot. Several applications of PZ are suggested, namely for underwater and deep-space and surface habitats, for permanent, but in particular, temporary or emergency passages. As an example, a scenario of a failure of one of the modules of the International Space Station is presented where a rigid structure of 40 fPZMs bypasses the "dead link". A low-fidelity prototype of a 6-module octagonal dPZ is presented; several folding schemes including concentric toric rings are demonstrated. Practical issues of pressurization and packing are briefly discussed.

  19. HPFRCC - Extruded Pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik; Pedersen, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    as well as structural design. Material development was carried out considering both processing requirements as well as mechanical properties of the hardened material. A micro-mechanical model for the non-linear material behavior of the hardened material based on the stress-crack width or the $\\sigma...... itself. The structural modeling of the pipe was done making direct use of the $\\sigma-w$ material characterization. The processing technique developed is a novel type of extrusion combiningease of material mixing and few requirements for material pre-processingwith a high degree of accuracy and stability...

  20. Vibration testing and analysis based on DASP of pump station pressure pipe line%基于DASP的泵站压力管道振动测试与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐存东; 左罗; 张硕; 史国坤

    2013-01-01

    大型泵站的压力管道在运行中的振动问题比较普遍,高频大幅的管道振动会严重影响泵站提水系统的安全稳定运行,特殊的运行工况和管道内不稳定的水流流态是引起压力管道振动的主要原因,对压力管道的振动特性进行测试可以反演分析引起管道振动的机理并评价其运行的稳定性,文中采用DASP软件对大型泵站的压力管道振动特性进行测试,通过对代表性测点的信号采集和信号分析,可得到管道的原位振动特性图像.测试结果表明:将基于DASP的测试技术应用于泵站压力管道的振动测试,不仅能够获得管道振动的实时测试信号和振动特性图谱,还可获得振动机理分析所需的更高的测试精度和效率,在工程实践中具有较好的推广价值.%Vibration problem is relatively common with the pressure pipes in operation in large-scale pump stations. Pipeline vibration with high frequency and large amplitude will seriously affect safe and stable operation of water lift system in pump stations. Special conditions and pipeline unstable flow pattern are the main reason of pressure pipes vibration. By means of testing the vibration characteristics of pressure pipes and inversion analysis, the mechanism of pipeline vibration can be obtained and the stability of operation will be evaluated. In this paper, by using software DASP, the test of pressure pipe vibration characteristics in large pump stations was conducted. By means of signal acquisition and signal analysis on representative measuring point, an in-situ vibration characteristic image of the pipeline could be obtained. Testing result showed that the application of DASP-based testing technique to vibration test of pump station pressure pipes not only could obtain real-time test signal and vibration characteristic spectrum of pipeline vibration but would also obtain higher testing accuracy and efficiency indispensable to vibration mechanism analysis

  1. Finned Carbon-Carbon Heat Pipe with Potassium Working Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2010-01-01

    This elemental space radiator heat pipe is designed to operate in the 700 to 875 K temperature range. It consists of a C-C (carbon-carbon) shell made from poly-acrylonitride fibers that are woven in an angle interlock pattern and densified with pitch at high process temperature with integrally woven fins. The fins are 2.5 cm long and 1 mm thick, and provide an extended radiating surface at the colder condenser section of the heat pipe. The weave pattern features a continuous fiber bath from the inner tube surface to the outside edges of the fins to maximize the thermal conductance, and to thus minimize the temperature drop at the condenser end. The heat pipe and radiator element together are less than one-third the mass of conventional heat pipes of the same heat rejection surface area. To prevent the molten potassium working fluid from eroding the C C heat pipe wall, the shell is lined with a thin-walled, metallic tube liner (Nb-1 wt.% Zr), which is an integral part of a hermetic metal subassembly which is furnace-brazed to the inner surface of the C-C tube. The hermetic metal liner subassembly includes end caps and fill tubes fabricated from the same Nb-1Zr alloy. A combination of laser and electron beam methods is used to weld the end caps and fill tubes. A tungsten/inert gas weld seals the fill tubes after cleaning and charging the heat pipes with potassium. The external section of this liner, which was formed by a "Uniscan" rolling process, transitions to a larger wall thickness. This section, which protrudes beyond the C-C shell, constitutes the "evaporator" part of the heat pipe, while the section inside the shell constitutes the condenser of the heat pipe (see figure).

  2. Heat Pipe Blocks Return Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eninger, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Metal-foil reed valve in conventional slab-wick heat pipe limits heat flow to one direction only. With sink warmer than source, reed is forced closed and fluid returns to source side through annular transfer wick. When this occurs, wick slab on sink side of valve dries out and heat pipe ceases to conduct heat.

  3. Temperature drops in heat pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saatci, A.M.; Khalifa, A.M.A.; Akyurt, M.

    1986-01-01

    The role of entrainment in limiting heat pipe power handling capacity is discussed. The effect of entrainment on the measured temperature field in the integral heat pipe of a split system solar cooker is analyzed. An experimental set-up depicting a heat loop is presented, along with test results.

  4. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Plumbing. Course: Supply Piping Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, R.; And Others

    One of three individualized courses included in a plumbing curriculum, this course covers installing, servicing, and repairing supply lines and fixtures commonly found in residential/commercial structures. The course is comprised of four units: (1) Pipe and Fittings, (2) Cold Water Supply, (3) Hot Water Supply, and (4) Fixtures. Each unit begins…

  5. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-24

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  6. Factors affecting post-control reinvasion by seed of an invasive species, Phragmites australis, in the central Platte River, Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatowitsch, Susan M.; Larson, Diane L.; Larson, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plants, such as Phragmites australis, can profoundly affect channel environments of large rivers by stabilizing sediments and altering water flows. Invasive plant removal is considered necessary where restoration of dynamic channels is needed to provide critical habitat for species of conservation concern. However, these programs are widely reported to be inefficient. Post-control reinvasion is frequent, suggesting increased attention is needed to prevent seed regeneration. To develop more effective responses to this invader in the Central Platte River (Nebraska, USA), we investigated several aspects of Phragmites seed ecology potentially linked to post-control reinvasion, in comparison to other common species: extent of viable seed production, importance of water transport, and regeneration responses to hydrology. We observed that although Phragmites seed does not mature until very late in the ice-free season, populations produce significant amounts of viable seed (>50 % of filled seed). Most seed transported via water in the Platte River are invasive perennial species, although Phragmites abundances are much lower than species such as Lythrum salicaria, Cyperus esculentus and Phalaris arundinacea. Seed regeneration of Phragmites varies greatly depending on hydrology, especially timing of water level changes. Flood events coinciding with the beginning of seedling emergence reduced establishment by as much as 59 % compared to flood events that occurred a few weeks later. Results of these investigations suggest that prevention of seed set (i.e., by removal of flowering culms) should be a priority in vegetation stands not being treated annually. After seeds are in the seedbank, preventing reinvasion using prescribed flooding has a low chance of success given that Phragmites can regenerate in a wide variety of hydrologic microsites.

  7. Habitat selection and productivity of least terns on the lower Platte River, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Eileen M.

    1996-01-01

    Least terns (Sterna antillarum) were studied on the lower Platte River, Nebraska, where this endangered population nests on natural sandbar habitat and on sandpit sites created by gravel dredging adjacent to the river. Theoretically terns should select habitats according to habitat suitability. However, the introduction of sandpits and conversion of tallgrass prairies along the river banks to agriculture, residential, and wooded areas may have affected terns' abilities to distinguish suitable habitat or the suitability of nesting habitats in general. I examined habitat selection and productivity of least terns to determine if terns selected habitat according to suitability (as indicated by productivity), what factors affected habitat selection and productivity, and if estimated productivity could support this population. Available habitats of both types were characterized and quantified using aerial videography (1989-90), and habitat use was assessed from census data (1987-90). Productivity of adults and causes and correlates of egg and chick mortality were estimated (1987-90). Population trend was assessed with a deterministic model using my estimates of productivity and a range of survival estimates for Laridae reported in the literature. Terns tended to use river sites with large midstream sandbars and a wide channel, and large sandpit sites with large surface areas of water relative to unused sites on both habitats. Number of sites and area of sand available were estimated using discriminant function analysis of variables quantified from video scenes of both habitats. Terns apparently did not use all potentially available sandbar and sandpit sites because discriminant function factor scores for used and unused sites overlapped broadly for both habitats. Terns did not prefer 1 habitat over the other. Although proportions of available sites used were greater on sandpits than on the river, proportions of available sand used did not differ between habitats

  8. Mathematical models for two-phase stratified pipe flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biberg, Dag

    2005-06-01

    The simultaneous transport of oil, gas and water in a single multiphase flow pipe line has for economical and practical reasons become common practice in the gas and oil fields operated by the oil industry. The optimal design and safe operation of these pipe lines require reliable estimates of liquid inventory, pressure drop and flow regime. Computer simulations of multiphase pipe flow have thus become an important design tool for field developments. Computer simulations yielding on-line monitoring and look ahead predictions are invaluable in day-to-day field management. Inaccurate predictions may have large consequences. The accuracy and reliability of multiphase pipe flow models are thus important issues. Simulating events in large pipelines or pipeline systems is relatively computer intensive. Pipe-lines carrying e.g. gas and liquefied gas (condensate) may cover distances of several hundred km in which transient phenomena may go on for months. The evaluation times associated with contemporary 3-D CFD models are thus not compatible with field applications. Multiphase flow lines are therefore normally simulated using specially dedicated 1-D models. The closure relations of multiphase pipe flow models are mainly based on lab data. The maximum pipe inner diameter, pressure and temperature in a multiphase pipe flow lab is limited to approximately 0.3 m, 90 bar and 60{sup o}C respectively. The corresponding field values are, however, much higher i.e.: 1 m, 1000 bar and 200{sup o}C respectively. Lab data does thus not cover the actual field conditions. Field predictions are consequently frequently based on model extrapolation. Applying field data or establishing more advanced labs will not solve this problem. It is in fact not practically possible to acquire sufficient data to cover all aspects of multiphase pipe flow. The parameter range involved is simply too large. Liquid levels and pressure drop in three-phase flow are e.g. determined by 13 dimensionless parameters

  9. BOA: Pipe-asbestos insulation removal robot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.; Schnorr, W. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The BOA system is a mobile pipe-external robotic crawler used to remotely strip and bag asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations. Steam and process lines within the DOE weapons complex warrant the use of a remote device due to the high labor costs and high level of radioactive contamination, making manual removal extremely costly and highly inefficient. Currently targeted facilities for demonstration and remediation are Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee.

  10. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2005-07-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. Bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple castiron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs with the pipe in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, minimize excavation, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of old cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct safe repair operations on live mains.

  11. Determining the location of buried plastic water pipes from measurements of ground surface vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggleton, J. M.; Brennan, M. J.; Gao, Y.

    2011-09-01

    ‘Mapping the Underworld' is a UK-based project, which aims to create a multi-sensor device that combines complementary technologies for remote buried utility service detection and location. One of the technologies to be incorporated in the device is low-frequency vibro-acoustics, and techniques for detecting buried infrastructure, in particular plastic water pipes, are being investigated. One of the proposed techniques involves excitation of the pipe at some known location with concurrent vibrational mapping of the ground surface in order to infer the location of the remainder of the pipe. In this paper, measurements made on a dedicated pipe rig are reported. Frequency response measurements relating vibrational velocity on the ground to the input excitation were acquired. Contour plots of the unwrapped phase revealed the location of the pipe to within 0.1-0.2 m. Magnitude contour plots revealed the excitation point and also the location of the pipe end. By examining the unwrapped phase gradients along a line above the pipe, it was possible to identify the wave-type within the pipe responsible for the ground surface vibration. Furthermore, changes in the ground surface phase speed computed using this method enabled the location of the end of the pipe to be confirmed.

  12. Structural evaluation report of piping and support structure for HANARO hot-water layer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo

    1997-02-01

    The major goal of this report is to assess the structural integrity on the piping and the support structures of HANARO hot-water layer system. The piping stress analysis was performed by using ADLPIPE program for the pipings subjected to dead weight, pressure, thermal expansion and seismic loadings. The pipings to evaluate the structural integrity are the pump suction line and the pump discharge line near safety related structures in reactor pool. Based on the reaction forces from the piping stress analysis, the design of support structure was carried out. The results of structural evaluation for the piping and the support structure showed that the structural acceptance criteria were satisfied, in compliance with ASME B and PV code, section III, subsection ND for the pipings and Subsection NF for the support structures. Therefore based on results of the analysis and the design, the structural integrity on the piping and the support structures of HANARO hot-water layer system proved. (author). 9 tabs., 14 figs. 9 refs.

  13. Piping benchmark problems for the ABB/CE System 80+ Standardized Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezler, P.; DeGrassi, G.; Braverman, J.; Wang, Y.K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-07-01

    To satisfy the need for verification of the computer programs and modeling techniques that will be used to perform the final piping analyses for the ABB/Combustion Engineering System 80+ Standardized Plant, three benchmark problems were developed. The problems are representative piping systems subjected to representative dynamic loads with solutions developed using the methods being proposed for analysis for the System 80+ standard design. It will be required that the combined license licensees demonstrate that their solution to these problems are in agreement with the benchmark problem set. The first System 80+ piping benchmark is a uniform support motion response spectrum solution for one section of the feedwater piping subjected to safe shutdown seismic loads. The second System 80+ piping benchmark is a time history solution for the feedwater piping subjected to the transient loading induced by a water hammer. The third System 80+ piping benchmark is a time history solution of the pressurizer surge line subjected to the accelerations induced by a main steam line pipe break. The System 80+ reactor is an advanced PWR type.

  14. 46 CFR 95.15-15 - Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 95.15-15 Section 95.15-15 Shipping COAST GUARD... Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-15 Piping. (a) The piping, valves, and fittings shall have a bursting pressure of not less than 6,000 pounds per square inch. (b) All piping, in nominal...

  15. 46 CFR 154.520 - Piping calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping calculations. 154.520 Section 154.520 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Process Piping Systems § 154.520 Piping calculations. A piping system must be designed to meet...

  16. 46 CFR 108.475 - Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 108.475 Section 108.475 Shipping COAST GUARD... Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.475 Piping. (a) Each pipe, valve, and fitting in a foam... to remove liquid from the system. (e) Piping in a foam extinguishing system must be used only...

  17. 14 CFR 27.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 27.1123 Section 27.1123... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 27.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping... operating temperatures. (b) Exhaust piping must be supported to withstand any vibration and inertia loads...

  18. 46 CFR 197.336 - Pressure piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure piping. 197.336 Section 197.336 Shipping COAST... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.336 Pressure piping. Piping systems that... must— (a) Meet the ANSI Code; (b) Have the point of connection to the integral piping system of...

  19. 46 CFR 64.95 - Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 64.95 Section 64.95 Shipping COAST GUARD... SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.95 Piping. (a) Piping, valves, flanges, and fittings used in the... the piping system must comply with § 56.60-25(c) of this chapter....

  20. 46 CFR 76.23-20 - Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 76.23-20 Section 76.23-20 Shipping COAST GUARD... System, Details § 76.23-20 Piping. (a) All piping, valves, and fittings shall meet the applicable requirements of subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. (b) All piping, valves, and fittings...

  1. 46 CFR 95.17-15 - Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 95.17-15 Section 95.17-15 Shipping COAST GUARD... Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.17-15 Piping. (a) All piping, valves, and fittings shall meet the applicable requirements of Subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. (b) All piping, valves, and fittings...

  2. 46 CFR 76.17-15 - Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 76.17-15 Section 76.17-15 Shipping COAST GUARD... Systems, Details § 76.17-15 Piping. (a) All piping, valves, and fittings shall meet the applicable requirements of subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. (b) All piping, valves, and fittings...

  3. 46 CFR 193.15-15 - Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 193.15-15 Section 193.15-15 Shipping COAST GUARD... Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-15 Piping. (a) The piping, valves, and fittings shall have a bursting pressure of not less than 6,000 pounds per square inch. (b) All piping, in nominal...

  4. Investigation of high-frequency pipe welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, Nikolai A.; Lakhno, Nikolay I.; Gushchin, A. G.; Putryk, N. D.; Kovalenko, Vladimir I.; Galkina, V. A.; Veselovsky, Vladimir B.; Furmanov, Valeri B.; Kovika, Nikolai D.; Novikov, Leonid V.; Shcherbina, V. N.

    1993-01-01

    For investigation of a pipe welding process at high-frequency heating aimed at increasing of pipe quality and decreasing of spoilage, the use of high-speed recording and TV-technique is considered to be effective. The authors have created a visual inspection system for pipe welding process studies at a tube mill of the Novomoskovsk Pipe Plant.

  5. 49 CFR 192.281 - Plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.281 Section 192.281... Plastic pipe. (a) General. A plastic pipe joint that is joined by solvent cement, adhesive, or heat fusion may not be disturbed until it has properly set. Plastic pipe may not be joined by a threaded joint...

  6. 49 CFR 195.114 - Used pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Used pipe. 195.114 Section 195.114 Transportation... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.114 Used pipe. Any used pipe installed in a pipeline system must comply with § 195.112 (a) and (b) and the following: (a) The pipe must be of a known specification and the...

  7. 49 CFR 195.112 - New pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New pipe. 195.112 Section 195.112 Transportation... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.112 New pipe. Any new pipe installed in a pipeline system must comply with the following: (a) The pipe must be made of steel of the carbon, low alloy-high strength, or alloy...

  8. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for use...

  9. Loop Heat Pipe Startup Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2016-01-01

    A loop heat pipe must start successfully before it can commence its service. The startup transient represents one of the most complex phenomena in the loop heat pipe operation. This paper discusses various aspects of loop heat pipe startup behaviors. Topics include the four startup scenarios, the initial fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir that determines the startup scenario, factors that affect the fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir, difficulties encountered during the low power startup, and methods to enhance the startup success. Also addressed are the pressure spike and pressure surge during the startup transient, and repeated cycles of loop startup and shutdown under certain conditions.

  10. Carbon-Fiber/Epoxy Tube Lined With Aluminum Foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernet, Nelson J.; Kerr, Gregory K.

    1995-01-01

    Carbon-fiber/epoxy composite tube lined with welded aluminum foil useful as part of lightweight heat pipe in which working fluid ammonia. Aluminum liner provides impermeability for vacuum seal, to contain ammonia in heat pipe, and to prevent flow of noncondensable gases into heat pipe. Similar composite-material tubes lined with foils also incorporated into radiators, single- and two-phase thermal buses, tanks for storage of cryogenic materials, and other plumbing required to be lightweight.

  11. Nitrogen heat pipe for cryocooler thermal shunt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prenger, F.C.; Hill, D.D.; Daney, D.E.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Green, G.F.; Roth, E.W. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Annapolis, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A nitrogen heat pipe was designed, built and tested for the purpose of providing a thermal shunt between the two stages of a Gifford-McMahan (GM) cryocooler during cooldown. The nitrogen heat pipe has an operating temperature range between 63 and 123 K. While the heat pipe is in the temperature range during the system cooldown, it acts as a thermal shunt between the first and second stage of the cryocooler. The heat pipe increases the heat transfer to the first stage of the cryocooler, thereby reducing the cooldown time of the system. When the heat pipe temperature drops below the triple point, the nitrogen working fluid freezes, effectively stopping the heat pipe operation. A small heat leak between cryocooler stages remains because of axial conduction along the heat pipe wall. As long as the heat pipe remains below 63 K, the heat pipe remains inactive. Heat pipe performance limits were measured and the optimum fluid charge was determined.

  12. Stereo particle image velocimetry applied to a vortex pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zherui; Hugo, Ronald J.

    2006-03-01

    Stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) has been employed to study a vortex generated via tangential injection of water in a 2.25 inch (57 mm) diameter pipe for Reynolds numbers ranging from 1,118 to 63,367. Methods of decreasing pipe-induced optical distortion and the PIV calibration technique are addressed. The mean velocity field analyses have shown spatial similarity and revealed four distinct flow regions starting from the central axis of rotation to the pipe wall in the vortex flows. Turbulence statistical data and vortex core location data suggest that velocity fluctuations are due to the axis of the in-line vortex distorting in the shape of a spiral.

  13. 不同管线钢管标准对无损检测要求的差异分析%Analysis on Similarities and Differences of NDT Requirements in Different Line Pipe Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王自信; 张圣光; 蒋太秋; 李珂; 邢小芳

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide support for product order and inspection of steel pipe, the NDT requirements in the conventional standards for pipeline steel, such as API SPEC 5L(44th edition), GRTT 9711.1-1997,GB/T 97112-1999 and SY/T 5037-2000(the part of submerged arc welding), were analyzed and compared. GB/T 97112-1999 is the most strict and detailed in the above mentioned four standards, API SPEC 5L(44th edition) is the more strict However GB/T 9711.1-1997 is the common requirement, it does not require inspection lamination of pipe body through NDT, and without residual magnetic inspection requirement SY/T 5037-2000 is an inspection standard used for common low pressure fluid service, its NDT requirements is the lowest.%对管线钢常用产品标准API SPEC 5L(44版),GB/T 9711.1-1997,GB/T9711.2-1999和SY/T 5037-2000(埋弧焊部分)的无损检测要求进行了分析比较,以期对钢管的订货、检验提供帮助.GB/T9711.2-1999标准是4个标准中要求最为严格、详细的,相比之下,API SPEC 5L(44版)的无损检测要求要比GB/T9711.2-1999低一些,而GB/T9711.1-1997对无损检测要求更低,且未要求通过无损检测方法对管体分层进行检验,也无检验剩磁的要求.SY/T 5037-2000作为普通低压流体输送管道用钢管检验标准,对无损检测的要求最低.

  14. 49 CFR 192.279 - Copper pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copper pipe. 192.279 Section 192.279... Copper pipe. Copper pipe may not be threaded except that copper pipe used for joining screw fittings or... heavier wall pipe listed in Table C1 of ASME/ANSI B16.5. [Amdt. 192-62, 54 FR 5628, Feb. 6, 1989, as...

  15. 49 CFR 192.373 - Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. 192.373... Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.373 Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. (a) Cast or ductile iron... cast iron pipe or ductile iron pipe is installed for use as a service line, the part of the...

  16. Detection of a Misaligned Broken Pipe by Electromagnetic Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gregorio, Pietro Paolo; Frezza, Fabrizio; Mangini, Fabio; Ferrara, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    The study we are presenting concerns electromagnetic scattering of a plane wave due to the presence of a misaligned broken pipe buried in a half-space occupied by cement and by asphalt/ground, for civil-engineering applications. In order to simulate a realistic scenario, the pipe is supposed cylindrical and made of metallic or poly-vinyl chloride (PVC) material whose electromagnetic properties are known in the literature and dimensions are the most used in civil-engineering applications. We consider the longitudinal axis of the pipe running parallel to the air-cement interface. We suppose, after the break of the pipe, that the longitudinal axes of the two parts move on a plane parallel to the separation interface, in opposite directions. The study focuses on the electromagnetic response of the scattered electric field along a line above the interface of the media considering different distances between the longitudinal axis of the tubes in two cases: PVC and metallic material. To accomplish the study, a commercially available simulator based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) is adopted and a circularly-polarized plane wave impinging normally to the interface is considered. This kind of study could be useful for monitoring the status of buried pipes using ground penetrating radar (GPR) techniques in many applications of Civil Engineering without the need to intervene destructively in the structure. Acknowledgement This work is a contribution to COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" (www.GPRadar.eu, www.cost.eu).

  17. Flexible mobile robot system for smart optical pipe inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampfer, Wolfram; Bartzke, Ralf; Ziehl, Wolfgang

    1998-03-01

    Damages of pipes can be inspected and graded by TV technology available on the market. Remotely controlled vehicles carry a TV-camera through pipes. Thus, depending on the experience and the capability of the operator, diagnosis failures can not be avoided. The classification of damages requires the knowledge of the exact geometrical dimensions of the damages such as width and depth of cracks, fractures and defect connections. Within the framework of a joint R&D project a sensor based pipe inspection system named RODIAS has been developed with two partners from industry and research institute. It consists of a remotely controlled mobile robot which carries intelligent sensors for on-line sewerage inspection purpose. The sensor is based on a 3D-optical sensor and a laser distance sensor. The laser distance sensor is integrated in the optical system of the camera and can measure the distance between camera and object. The angle of view can be determined from the position of the pan and tilt unit. With coordinate transformations it is possible to calculate the spatial coordinates for every point of the video image. So the geometry of an object can be described exactly. The company Optimess has developed TriScan32, a special software for pipe condition classification. The user can start complex measurements of profiles, pipe displacements or crack widths simply by pressing a push-button. The measuring results are stored together with other data like verbal damage descriptions and digitized images in a data base.

  18. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich; Nechitaeva Valentina Anatol'evna; Bogomolova Irina Olegovna; Shaykhetdinova Yuliya Aleksandrovna; Daminova Yuliya Farikhovna

    2014-01-01

    The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of d...

  19. Corrosion behavior in heat pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurak Rodbumrung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to perform life testing and determine the effect of working fluid on the corrosion of a heat pipe with a sintered wick. The heat pipe was made from a copper tube. The inner heat pipe was filled with 99.97% pure copper powder as a dendritic for the sintering process. The heat pipe had an outer diameter of 6 mm with a length of 200 mm, and distilled water and ethanol were the working fluids. The operating temperature at the evaporator was 125°C. The analysis consisted of using a scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results of the scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis showed that the corrosion of the heat pipe was uniform. The result of the atomic absorption spectroscopy indicated that the concentration of the copper in the ethanol as the working fluid was greater than in the distilled water as the working fluid, and the highest concentration of copper particles in the ethanol was 22.7499 ppm or 0.0409 mg after testing for 3000 h. The concentration of copper was higher when the length of the life test increased due to corrosion of the heat pipe.

  20. Heat pipe turbine vane cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langston, L.; Faghri, A. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high heat transfer rate and an uniform temperature along the vane due to the internal change of phase of the heat pipe working fluid. Furthermore, this technology can also eliminate hot spots at the vane leading and trailing edges and increase the vane life by preventing thermal fatigue cracking. There is also the possibility of requiring no bleed air from the compressor, and therefore eliminating engine performance losses resulting from the diversion of compressor discharge air. Significant improvement in gas turbine performance can be achieved by using heat pipe technology in place of conventional air cooled vanes. A detailed numerical analysis of a heat pipe vane will be made and an experimental model will be designed in the first year of this new program.

  1. Simulation of groundwater flow and analysis of the effects of water-management options in the North Platte Natural Resources District, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Steven M.; Flynn, Amanda T.; Vrabel, Joseph; Ryter, Derek W.

    2015-08-12

    The North Platte Natural Resources District (NPNRD) has been actively collecting data and studying groundwater resources because of concerns about the future availability of the highly inter-connected surface-water and groundwater resources. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the North Platte Natural Resources District, describes a groundwater-flow model of the North Platte River valley from Bridgeport, Nebraska, extending west to 6 miles into Wyoming. The model was built to improve the understanding of the interaction of surface-water and groundwater resources, and as an optimization tool, the model is able to analyze the effects of water-management options on the simulated stream base flow of the North Platte River. The groundwater system and related sources and sinks of water were simulated using a newton formulation of the U.S. Geological Survey modular three-dimensional groundwater model, referred to as MODFLOW–NWT, which provided an improved ability to solve nonlinear unconfined aquifer simulations with wetting and drying of cells. Using previously published aquifer-base-altitude contours in conjunction with newer test-hole and geophysical data, a new base-of-aquifer altitude map was generated because of the strong effect of the aquifer-base topography on groundwater-flow direction and magnitude. The largest inflow to groundwater is recharge originating from water leaking from canals, which is much larger than recharge originating from infiltration of precipitation. The largest component of groundwater discharge from the study area is to the North Platte River and its tributaries, with smaller amounts of discharge to evapotranspiration and groundwater withdrawals for irrigation. Recharge from infiltration of precipitation was estimated with a daily soil-water-balance model. Annual recharge from canal seepage was estimated using available records from the Bureau of Reclamation and then modified with canal

  2. 77 FR 41967 - Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From India, Thailand, and Turkey; Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... and Border Protection will continue to collect cash deposits at the rates in effect at the time of... finished conduit. Standard pipe that is dual or triple certified/ stenciled that enters the U.S. as line... hollows for redraws, finished scaffolding, and finished conduit. Standard pipe that is dual or triple...

  3. Model for the calculation of transient hydraulics caused by the valve motion in water supply pipe line%泵阀动作给水管线水力瞬变计算模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖宗蓉

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic transient (water hammer)refers to the dynamic change of flow and pres-sure in hydraulic system,which comes from the fact that transient increase of water pressure in the pipes would cause pressure waves and transmit it in sound velocity.In this paper,hydraulic transi-ent was analyzed through rigid water hammer model and flexible water hammer model.Simplified finite difference equation was adopted to build a characteristics-method mathematical model for hy-draulic transient and set up boundary conditions for pump motions and valve motions.Characteris-tic method equation and boundary conditions equation were used to get the transient of water hammer waves in pipelines so as to solve the problems of water hammer in complicated pipeline sys-tem and boundary conditions.%由于管道内压力瞬间升高,压力波在管道内以声速传递,导致水力系统流量和压力动态变化,即产生水力瞬变(水锤),通过刚性水锤模型和弹性水锤模型分析给水管线水力瞬变,采用简化的有限差分方程,建立特征线法水力瞬变数学模型,并建立了泵、阀动作的边界条件,可借助于特征线方程和边界条件方程,求解管线内水锤波的暂态,以解决复杂的管路系统和边界条件的水锤问题。

  4. Development of Coatings for Lining of Oil Pipe Used in High Water Content Oilfield%高含水油田管道内壁涂料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆文明; 吴璇; 张荣伟; 周如东

    2011-01-01

    以环氧树脂、防腐颜填料等原材料研制了具有高效防腐性的底漆;以氟树脂、二硫化钼、聚四氟乙烯、石墨等原材料研制了不仅具有防腐蚀特性,同时具有疏水等特性的低表面能面漆.由所研制的底漆和面漆组成的复合涂层在注水原油在管道输送过程中,对管道底材起到很好的保护作用,延长了管道的使用寿命,同时面漆涂层的表面能比较低,具有一定的疏水性,能够减小管道中液体流动的阻力,从而达到减阻增效的作用.%The title high performance antcorrosive primer has been developed based on epoxy resin, anti - corrosion pigments and other raw materials. The fluorine resin, molybdenum disulfide, FIFE and graphite were used to produce the low surface energy paint finish, which provided not only anti - corrosion properties, but also hydrophobic characteristics. This paint system with both primer and finish was utilized to coat the inner wall of the oil pipes that was used in the high water content oilfield, which played an important role in the protection of the pipelines and extend the service life of the pipelines during the transport of the water filled crude oil inside the oil pipelines. In addition, the low surface energy of topcoat can reduce the flow resistance inside the pipelines for improvement of the oil transportation efficency.

  5. Overall Thermal Performance of Flexible Piping Under Simulated Bending Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.; Demko, J. A.; Thompson, Karen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Flexible, vacuum-insulated transfer lines for low-temperature applications have higher thermal losses than comparable rigid lines. Typical flexible piping construction uses corrugated tubes, inner and outer, with a multilayer insulation (MLI) system in the annular space. Experiments on vacuum insulation systems in a flexible geometry were conducted at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. The effects of bending were simulated by causing the inner tube to be eccentric with the outer tube. The effects of spacers were simulated in a controlled way by inserting spacer tubes for the length of the cylindrical test articles. Two material systems, standard MLI and a layered composite insulation (LCI), were tested under the full range of vacuum levels using a liquid nitrogen boiloff calorimeter to determine the apparent thermal conductivity (k-value). The results indicate that the flexible piping under simulated bending conditions significantly degrades the thermal performance of the insulation system. These data are compared to standard MLI for both straight and flexible piping configurations. The definition of an overall k-value for actual field installations (k(sub oafi)) is described for use in design and analysis of cryogenic piping systems.

  6. A Novel MagPipe Pipeline transportation system using linear motor drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.R.; Montgomery, D.B.; Roderick, L. [Magplane Technology Inc., Littleton, MA (United States)

    2009-11-15

    A novel capsule pipeline transportation system using linear motor drives, called Magplane MagPipe, is under development with the intention to replace trucks and railways for hauling materials from the mine to the rail head, power plant, or processing plant with reduced operating cost and energy consumption. The initial demonstration of a MagPipe line in Inner Mongolia will be a 500-m-long double-pipe coal transport system with the design transportation capacity of 3 Mega-Mg per year. The pipeline consists of 6-m-long plastic pipe modules with an I-beam suspension system inside the pipe to carry sets of five coupled capsules. The pipe will also contain noncontinuous motor winding modules spaced at 50-m intervals. A set of Halbach-arrayed permanent magnets on the bottom of the capsules interact with the linear motor windings to provide propulsion. The motor is driven by variable frequency drives outside the pipe to control the speed. This paper briefly describes the overall MagPipe pipeline transportation system, including the preliminary conclusions of the linear synchronous motor analysis.

  7. Development and Manufacture of Cost-Effective Composite Drill Pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James C. Leslie

    2008-12-31

    fields up to 74 kilohertz (KHz), a removable section of copper wire can be placed inside the composite pipe to short the tool joints electrically allowing electromagnetic signals inside the collar to induce and measure the same within the rock formation. By embedding a pair of wires in the composite section and using standard drill pipe box and pin ends equipped with a specially developed direct contact joint electrical interface, power can be supplied to measurement-while-drilling (MWD) and logging-while-drilling (LWD) bottom hole assemblies. Instantaneous high-speed data communications between near drill bit and the surface are obtainable utilizing this 'smart' drilling technology. The composite drill pipe developed by ACPT has been field tested successfully in several wells nationally and internationally. These tests were primarily for short radius and ultra short radius directional drilling. The CDP in most cases performed flawlessly with little or no appreciable wear. ACPT is currently marketing a complete line of composite drill collars, subs, isolators, casing, and drill pipe to meet the drilling industry's needs and tailored to replace metal for specific application requirements.

  8. Mapping grassland productivity with 250-m eMODIS NDVI and SSURGO database over the Greater Platte River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.; Bliss, Norman B.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed and described a relationship between satellite-derived growing season averaged Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and annual productivity for grasslands within the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB) of the United States. We compared growing season averaged NDVI (GSN) with Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database rangeland productivity and flux tower Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) for grassland areas. The GSN was calculated for each of nine years (2000–2008) using the 7-day composite 250-m eMODIS (expedited Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI data. Strong correlations exist between the nine-year mean GSN (MGSN) and SSURGO annual productivity for grasslands (R2 = 0.74 for approximately 8000 pixels randomly selected from eight homogeneous regions within the GPRB; R2 = 0.96 for the 14 cluster-averaged points). Results also reveal a strong correlation between GSN and flux tower growing season averaged GPP (R2 = 0.71). Finally, we developed an empirical equation to estimate grassland productivity based on the MGSN. Spatially explicit estimates of grassland productivity over the GPRB were generated, which improved the regional consistency of SSURGO grassland productivity data and can help scientists and land managers to better understand the actual biophysical and ecological characteristics of grassland systems in the GPRB. This final estimated grassland production map can also be used as an input for biogeochemical, ecological, and climate change models.

  9. Influence of grazing and available moisture on breeding densities of grassland birds in the central platte river valley, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.H.; Newton, W.E.; Lingle, G.R.; Chavez-Ramirez, F.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between grassland breeding bird densities and both grazing and available moisture in the central Platte River Valley. Nebraska between 1980 and 1996. We also compared species richness and community similarity of breeding birds in sedge (Carex spp.) meadows and mesic grasslands. Densities of two species had a significant relationship with grazing and six of seven focal species had a significant relationship with available moisture. Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) and Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) densities were lower in grazed plots compared to ungrazed plots, whereas Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) densities were greater in sedge-meadow plots compared to mesic grassland plots. Bobolink, Dickcissel (Spiza americana). and Brown-headed Cowbird were negatively associated with available moisture with breeding densities peaking during the driest conditions. Our results suggest that wet conditions increase species richness for the community through addition of wetland-dependant and wetland-associated birds, but decrease densities of ground-nesting grassland birds in wet-meadow habitats, whereas dry conditions reduce species richness but increase the density of the avian assemblage. We propose that wet-meadow habitats serve as local refugia for grassland-nesting birds during local or regional droughts.

  10. Dynamics analysis of drawing cables for pipe robot over long distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓宗全; 王少纯; 胡明; 姜生源

    2003-01-01

    Focusing on the speed control problem, this paper presents a study on the stick-slip phenomena of cable driven by pipe robot and the critical conditions of stick-slip. By dynamics simulation and field experiments, the theoretical analysis has been proved to be practical and valid. The result is of considerable theoretical value in the speed control for pipe robot on receiving and putting line.

  11. Flat heat pipe design, construction, and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voegler, G.; Boughey, B.; Cerza, M.; Lindler, K.W.

    1999-08-02

    This paper details the design, construction and partial analysis of a low temperature flat heat pipe in order to determine the feasibility of implementing flat heat pipes into thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion systems.

  12. 46 CFR 61.15-5 - Steam piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam piping. 61.15-5 Section 61.15-5 Shipping COAST... Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-5 Steam piping. (a) Main steam piping shall be subjected to a.... If the covering of the piping is not removed, the test pressure shall be maintained on the piping...

  13. Utilities:Other:Telephone Nodes at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Other:telephone_node)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represent the nodes of the telephone lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The utility pipelines were collected by a Trimble GeoXT GPS...

  14. Utilities:Power:Underground Powerline Nodes at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Power:powerln)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents the powerline nodes (power line poles) at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The utility powerline nodes were collected by a...

  15. 77 FR 32508 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Turkey: Notice of Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... this order, except for line pipe, oil country tubular goods, boiler tubing, cold- drawn or cold-rolled... examined stages in the marketing process and selling functions along the chain of distribution between the...

  16. Introduction to Loop Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Loop Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. This course will discuss operating principles and performance characteristics of a loop heat pipe. Topics include: 1) pressure profiles in the loop; 2) loop operating temperature; 3) operating temperature control; 4) loop startup; 4) loop shutdown; 5) loop transient behaviors; 6) sizing of loop components and determination of fluid inventory; 7) analytical modeling; 8) examples of flight applications; and 9) recent LHP developments.

  17. 46 CFR 169.652 - Bilge piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge piping. 169.652 Section 169.652 Shipping COAST... Electrical Bilge Systems § 169.652 Bilge piping. (a) All vessels of 26 feet in length and over must be... than 120 feet in length the bilge pipe must be not less than one and one-half inches. Piping on...

  18. China Steel Pipes Demand Rising Steadily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Steel pipes industry is an industry to play a decisive role in the national economic development. During the Tenth Five-Year Plan period, the steel pipes output has been increased distinctly. Based on experts forecast,the steel pipes demand in China will still be in tendency of increase during the Eleventh FiveYear Plan period, which will doubtlessly bring new opportunity and challenge to the steel pipes enterprises in China.

  19. 46 CFR 76.15-15 - Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 76.15-15 Section 76.15-15 Shipping COAST GUARD... Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-15 Piping. (a) The piping, valves, and fittings shall have a bursting pressure of not less than 6,000 p.s.i. (b) All piping, in nominal sizes not over 3/4 inch, shall be...

  20. Assessment of the integrity of welded pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Šarkoćević, Živče; Arsić, Miodrag; Sedmak, Aleksandar; MEĐO, Bojan; Mišić, Milan; id_orcid 0000-0003-0550-1851

    2014-01-01

    The subject of the paper is analysis of the integrity of welded pipes made of API J55 steel by high frequency contact welding (HF). Experimental research on the mechanical properties of the base material was conducted on pipes withdrawn from exploatation after 70 000 hours at service. Defect influence of the surface crack on the integrity of pipes was tested using hydrostatic pressure of pipes with axial surface crack in the base material. Fracture behaviour was tested using modified compact ...

  1. BIMORPH PIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATOR FOR SMALL PIPE ROBOT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An experimental bimorph piezoelectric element (PZT) actuator for small pipe robot is developed. The robotcan move in φ 20 mm pipe, and can carry a CCD camera for detecting cracks or fine holes on inner surface of pipe. Thevelocity of the robot can reach 17~22 mm/s for vertical pipe up/down, respectively. Moving principle and its perfor-mance characteristics are presented.

  2. Analysis of Municipal Pipe Network Franchise Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Sun; Haichuan, Tian; Feng, Xu; Huixia, Zhou

    Franchise institution of municipal pipe network has some particularity due to the characteristic of itself. According to the exposition of Chinese municipal pipe network industry franchise institution, the article investigates the necessity of implementing municipal pipe network franchise institution in China, the role of government in the process and so on. And this offers support for the successful implementation of municipal pipe network franchise institution in China.

  3. Smoking water pipe is injurious to lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivapalan, Pradeesh; Ringbæk, Thomas; Lange, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the pulmonary consequences of water pipe smoking. Smoking water pipe affects the lung function negatively, is significantly associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and increases the risk of lung infections. Case reports suggest that regular smokers of water pipe...

  4. 46 CFR 108.449 - Piping tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping tests. 108.449 Section 108.449 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.449 Piping tests. (a... piping installation. (b) When tested with CO2 or other inert gas under a pressure of 70 kilograms...

  5. 14 CFR 29.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 29.1123 Section 29.1123... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 29.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping must be heat and corrosion resistant, and must have provisions to prevent failure due to...

  6. 46 CFR 76.10-15 - Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 76.10-15 Section 76.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 76.10-15 Piping. (a) All piping, valves, and fittings shall meet the applicable requirements...

  7. 49 CFR 195.128 - Station piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station piping. 195.128 Section 195.128 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.128 Station piping. Any pipe to be installed in a station that...

  8. 46 CFR 193.10-15 - Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 193.10-15 Section 193.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 193.10-15 Piping. (a) All piping, valves, and fittings, shall meet...

  9. 46 CFR 95.10-15 - Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 95.10-15 Section 95.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 95.10-15 Piping. (a) All piping, valves, and fittings shall meet the...

  10. 14 CFR 25.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 25.1123 Section 25.1123... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 25.1123 Exhaust piping. For powerplant and auxiliary power unit installations, the following apply: (a) Exhaust piping must be heat...

  11. 46 CFR 132.110 - Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 132.110 Section 132.110 Shipping COAST GUARD....110 Piping. (a) Except as provided for liftboats by § 134.180 of this subchapter, each fitting, flange, valve, and run of piping must meet the applicable requirements of part 128 of this subchapter....

  12. Thermodynamic aspects of heat pipe operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Robert; Gottschlich, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    An expanded heat pipe operating model is described which includes thermodynamic and heat transfer considerations to reconcile disparities between actual and theoretical heat pipe performances. The analysis shows that thermodynamic considerations can explain the observed heat pipe performance limitations. A full understanding of thermodynamic processes could lead to advanced concepts for thermal transport devices.

  13. 46 CFR 154.660 - Pipe welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe welding. 154.660 Section 154.660 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.660 Pipe welding. (a) Pipe welding must meet Part 57 of this chapter. (b) Longitudinal butt...

  14. 49 CFR 192.59 - Plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.59 Section 192.59 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.59 Plastic pipe. (a) New plastic pipe... specification; and (2) It is resistant to chemicals with which contact may be anticipated. (b) Used plastic...

  15. 49 CFR 236.712 - Brake pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brake pipe. 236.712 Section 236.712 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.712 Brake pipe. A pipe...

  16. 46 CFR 76.25-30 - Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkling System, Details § 76.25-30 Piping. (a) All piping, valves, and fittings of ferrous materials shall be... piping, valves, fittings, and sprinkler heads shall be securely supported, and, where...

  17. 33 CFR 127.1101 - Piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Piping systems. 127.1101 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Design and Construction § 127.1101 Piping systems. Each piping system within the marine transfer area for LHG used for the transfer of LHG must meet the...

  18. 46 CFR 56.10-5 - Pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Ferrous pipe. ASTM Specification A 53 (incorporated by reference, see § 56.01-2) furnace welded pipe shall... found from Table 56.60-1(a). (3) Copper-nickel alloys may be used for water and steam service within the... specifically permitted by this part. (6) Aluminum-alloy pipe or tube along with similar junction equipment may...

  19. Reliability of piping system components. Framework for estimating failure parameters from service data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, R. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Hegedus, D.; Tomic, B. [ENCONET Consulting GesmbH, Vienna (Austria); Lydell, B. [RSA Technologies, Vista, CA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes results and insights from the final phase of a R and D project on piping reliability sponsored by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI). The technical scope includes the development of an analysis framework for estimating piping reliability parameters from service data. The R and D has produced a large database on the operating experience with piping systems in commercial nuclear power plants worldwide. It covers the period 1970 to the present. The scope of the work emphasized pipe failures (i.e., flaws/cracks, leaks and ruptures) in light water reactors (LWRs). Pipe failures are rare events. A data reduction format was developed to ensure that homogenous data sets are prepared from scarce service data. This data reduction format distinguishes between reliability attributes and reliability influence factors. The quantitative results of the analysis of service data are in the form of conditional probabilities of pipe rupture given failures (flaws/cracks, leaks or ruptures) and frequencies of pipe failures. Finally, the R and D by SKI produced an analysis framework in support of practical applications of service data in PSA. This, multi-purpose framework, termed `PFCA`-Pipe Failure Cause and Attribute- defines minimum requirements on piping reliability analysis. The application of service data should reflect the requirements of an application. Together with raw data summaries, this analysis framework enables the development of a prior and a posterior pipe rupture probability distribution. The framework supports LOCA frequency estimation, steam line break frequency estimation, as well as the development of strategies for optimized in-service inspection strategies. 63 refs, 30 tabs, 22 figs.

  20. Investigation of organic matter migrating from polymeric pipes into drinking water under different flow manners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Liu, Shuming; Liu, Wenjun

    2014-02-01

    Polymeric pipes, such as unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) pipes, polypropylene random (PPR) pipes and polyethylene (PE) pipes are increasingly used for drinking water distribution lines. Plastic pipes may include some additives like metallic stabilizers and other antioxidants for the protection of the material during its production and use. Thus, some compounds can be released from those plastic pipes and cast a shadow on drinking water quality. This work develops a new procedure to investigate three types of polymer pipes (uPVC, PE and PPR) with respect to the migration of total organic carbon (TOC) into drinking water. The migration test was carried out in stagnant conditions with two types of migration processes, a continuous migration process and a successive migration process. These two types of migration processes are specially designed to mimic the conditions of different flow manners in drinking water pipelines, i.e., the situation of continuous stagnation with long hydraulic retention times and normal flow status with regular water renewing in drinking water networks. The experimental results showed that TOC release differed significantly with different plastic materials and under different flow manners. The order of materials with respect to the total amount of TOC migrating into drinking water was observed as PE > PPR > uPVC under both successive and continuous migration conditions. A higher amount of organic migration from PE and PPR pipes was likely to occur due to more organic antioxidants being used in pipe production. The results from the successive migration tests indicated the trend of the migration intensity of different pipe materials over time, while the results obtained from the continuous migration tests implied that under long stagnant conditions, the drinking water quality could deteriorate quickly with the consistent migration of organic compounds and the dramatic consumption of chlorine to a very low level. Higher amounts of TOC

  1. Inspection of Fusion Joints in Plastic Pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connie Reichert

    2005-09-01

    The standard method of joining plastic pipe in the field is the butt fusion process. As in any pipeline application, joint quality greatly affects overall operational safety of the system. Currently no simple, reliable, cost-effective method exists for assessing the quality of fusion joints in the field. Visual examination and pressure testing are current nondestructive approaches, which do not provide any assurance about the long-term pipeline performance. This project developed, demonstrated, and validated an in-situ nondestructive inspection method for butt fusion joints in gas distribution plastic pipelines. The inspection system includes a laser-based image-recognition system that automatically generates and interprets digital images of pipe joints and assigns them a pass/fail rating, which eliminates operator bias in evaluating joint quality. An EWI-patented process, the Weld Zone Inspection Method (WZIM) was developed in which local heat is applied to the joint region to relax the residual stresses formed by the original joining operation, which reveals the surface condition of the joint. In cases where the joint is not formed under optimal conditions, and the intermolecular forces between contacting surfaces are not strong enough, the relaxation of macromolecules in the surface layer causes the material to pull back, revealing a fusion line. If the joint is sound, the bond line image does not develop. To establish initial feasibility of the approach, welds were performed under standard and nonstandard conditions. These welds were subjected to the WZIM and two destructive forms of testing: short-term tensile testing and long-term creep rupture testing. There appears to be a direct correlation between the WZIM and the destructive testing results. Although WZIM appears to be more sensitive than destructive testing can verify, the approach appears valid.

  2. PPOOLEX experiments with two parallel blowdown pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, J.; Puustinen, M.; Raesaenen, A. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Nuclear Safety Research Unit (Finland))

    2011-01-15

    This report summarizes the results of the experiments with two transparent blowdown pipes carried out with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Steam was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through either one or two vertical transparent blowdown pipes to the condensation pool. Five experiments with one pipe and six with two parallel pipes were carried out. The main purpose of the experiments was to study loads caused by chugging (rapid condensation) while steam is discharged into the condensation pool filled with sub-cooled water. The PPOOLEX test facility is a closed stainless steel vessel divided into two compartments, dry well and wet well. In the experiments the initial temperature of the condensation pool water varied from 12 deg. C to 55 deg. C, the steam flow rate from 40 g/s to 1 300 g/s and the temperature of incoming steam from 120 deg. C to 185 deg. C. In the experiments with only one transparent blowdown pipe chugging phenomenon didn't occur as intensified as in the preceding experiments carried out with a DN200 stainless steel pipe. With the steel blowdown pipe even 10 times higher pressure pulses were registered inside the pipe. Meanwhile, loads registered in the pool didn't indicate significant differences between the steel and polycarbonate pipe experiments. In the experiments with two transparent blowdown pipes, the steamwater interface moved almost synchronously up and down inside both pipes. Chugging was stronger than in the one pipe experiments and even two times higher loads were measured inside the pipes. The loads at the blowdown pipe outlet were approximately the same as in the one pipe cases. Other registered loads around the pool were about 50-100 % higher than with one pipe. The experiments with two parallel blowdown pipes gave contradictory results compared to the earlier studies dealing with chugging loads in case of multiple pipes. Contributing

  3. Future Water Management in the South Platte River Basin: Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing, Population, Agriculture, and Climate Change in a Semi-Arid Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, E. L.; Hogue, T. S.; Anderson, A. M.; Read, L.

    2015-12-01

    In semi-arid basins across the world, the gap between water supply and demand is growing due to climate change, population growth, and shifts in agriculture and unconventional energy development. Water conservation efforts among residential and industrial water users, recycling and reuse techniques and innovative regulatory frameworks for water management strive to mitigate this gap, however, the extent of these strategies are often difficult to quantify and not included in modeling water allocations. Decision support systems (DSS) are purposeful for supporting water managers in making informed decisions when competing demands create the need to optimize water allocation between sectors. One region of particular interest is the semi-arid region of the South Platte River basin in northeastern Colorado, where anthropogenic and climatic effects are expected to increase the gap between water supply and demand in the near future. Specifically, water use in the South Platte is impacted by several high-intensity activities, including unconventional energy development, i.e. hydraulic fracturing, and large withdrawals for agriculture; these demands are in addition to a projected population increase of 100% by 2050. The current work describes the development of a DSS for the South Platte River basin, using the Water Evaluation and Planning system software (WEAP) to explore scenarios of how variation in future water use in the energy, agriculture, and municipal sectors will impact water allocation decisions. Detailed data collected on oil and gas water use in the Niobrara shale play will be utilized to predict future sector use. We also employ downscaled climate projections for the region to quantify the potential range of water availability in the basin under each scenario, and observe whether or not, and to what extent, climate may impact management decisions at the basin level.

  4. LHC Report: A spring clean for the beam pipe

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    After a successful calibration run at 1.38TeV, the LHC went into a four-day technical stop on Monday 28 March. Work conducted during the technical stop included wrapping solenoids around vacuum pipes to help counteract electron-cloud effects. X-rays of the cryogenic piping line in Sector 4-5 were also taken, and a cryogeniccompressor was replaced at Point 4.   The recently installed solenoids suppress the electron cloud effect by creating a longitudinal magnetic field that bends back the emitted electrons avoiding their escape from the beam pipe surface and thus preventing their participation in the avalanche process in the beam pipe. After coming out of the technical stop on 1 April, a series of rigorous tests with low-intensity beams was performed to make sure that everything was working as it should. This is standard procedure, as a number of hardware (and software) changes are made during a technical stop and it is imperative that we make sure that none of these have impacted machine protectio...

  5. This is not a Pipe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, Sine Nørholm

    2016-01-01

    or unwilling to listen to, let alone engage with, emotionally guided bottom-up participation. Using an illustrative case of a Danish public debate over an alleged ban on liquorice pipes, this article argues that the disconnect between invitation and participation may be explained by the fact...

  6. Investigation of sand in piping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nađ Laslo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For the investigation of the grain size distribution of the material washed out from the piping, we used 20 samples originating from different places on the Danube and the Tisza rivers. The grading characteristics of these samples were investigated based on selected grain sizes and the uniformity of gradients. Based on the investigations it has become possible to identify which grain size fractions are likely to be washed out, and how to characterize those fractions. Based on the grain size distribution curves it has been made possible to define the boundaries of the zone susceptible to piping. The zone limits of granular soils liquefied by earthquakes and the zone limits of the soil out washed from piping are very similar. This apparent correspondence already formerly raised the hypothetic question of whether piping occurring during high flood can be simulated by shape to similar surface liquefaction phenomena experienced during earthquakes, as in both cases a volcanic cone is formed through the crater of which water is constantly issuing, dragging away solid particles.

  7. Localized turbulence in pipe flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuik, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis the transition to turbulence in pipe flow is investigated. At low Reynolds numbers, the flow returns to the laminar state spontaneously. At high Reynolds number a small perturbation causes the flow to suddenly become turbulent. In the intermediate regime localized turbulence is observ

  8. Methods for Analyzing Pipe Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    1989-01-01

    to formulate the flow equations in terms of pipe discharges than in terms of energy heads. The behavior of some iterative methods is compared in the initial phase with large errors. It is explained why the linear theory method oscillates when the iteration gets close to the solution, and it is further...

  9. Spinning pipe gas lens revisited

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafusire, C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The graded index (GRIN-like) medium generated by gas inside a heated steel pipe when rotated about its longitudinal axis has the ability to focus a laser beam. While the effective focal length of such a system has previously been studied...

  10. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of drainage pipes. The co-authors emphasize that the use of ice compared to other methods of pipe cleaning has a number of advantages due to the relative simplicity and cheapness of the process, economical efficiency and lack of environmental risk. The equipment for performing ice cleaning is presented, its technological options, terms of cleansing operations, as well as the volumes of disposed pollution per unit length of the water supply and drainage pipelines. It is noted that ice cleaning requires careful planning in the process of cooking ice and in the process of its supply in the pipe. There are specific requirements to its quality. In particular, when you clean drinking water system the ice applied should be hygienically clean and meet sanitary requirements.In pilot projects, in particular, quantitative and qualitative analysis of sediments adsorbed by ice is conducted, as well as temperature and the duration of the process. The degree of pollution of the pipeline was estimated by the volume of the remote sediment on 1 km of pipeline. Cleaning pipelines using ice can be considered one of the methods of trenchless technologies, being a significant alternative to traditional methods of cleaning the pipes. The method can be applied in urban pipeline systems of drinking water supply for the diameters of 100—600 mm, and also to diversion collectors. In the world today 450 km of pipelines are subject to ice cleaning method.Ice cleaning method is simple

  11. Influence of residual stress on the HIC resistance of high frequency induction welded pipes with regard to process-specific influencing factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krageloh, Joachim; Brauer, Holger; Bosch, Christoph [Salzgitter Mannesmann Line Pipe GmbH, (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The industry needs to meet growing demand for pipes with high resistance to sour service conditions. Salzgitter Mannesmann Line Pipe is developing new product ranges of high frequency induction (HFI) welded pipes. This study investigated the influence of residual stress on the resistance of HFI welded pipes to HIC with focus on process-specific influencing factors. Four materials with different strengths were tested. Three of them were not manufactured for sour service and so were sure to show significant HIC damage during the tests. The specimens were studied using the cross-sectioning method for longitudinal and circumferential residual stress. A four-point-bend test in line with ADTM G 39 was also done to determine the HIC resistance of the pipe specimens. The results provide a characteristic HIC value and crack area ratio, CAR. This study showed that residual stress induced by HFI welding of pipes has no negative impact on resistance to HIC.

  12. Preliminary Design of IHTS Piping Support for PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nak-Hyun; Koo, Gyeong-Hoi [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A pipe support is a designed element that transfer the load from pipe to the supporting structures. Providing sufficient pipe wall thickness and installing proper supports are most important elements for structural integrity of the piping system. Piping supports are generally referred to as device used in supporting the weight of the piping. The weight includes that of the pipe proper, the content the pipe carries, and the pipe converting, such as insulation. A FE analysis was performed to select variable spring hanger of IHTS hot-leg piping for PGSFR. The calculated values will be used to design variable spring hanger.

  13. Chapter A. Effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems in the South Platte River basin, Colorado and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Lori A.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Dupree, Jean A.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the effects of urbanization on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of stream ecosystems in 28 basins along an urban land-use gradient in the South Platte River Basin, Colorado and Wyoming, from 2002 through 2003. Study basins were chosen to minimize natural variability among basins due to factors such as geology, elevation, and climate and to maximize coverage of different stages of urban development among basins. Because land use or population density alone often are not a complete measure of urbanization, land use, land cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables were integrated in a multimetric urban intensity index to represent the degree of urban development in each study basin. Physical characteristics studied included stream hydrology, stream temperature, and habitat; chemical characteristics studied included nutrients, pesticides, suspended sediment, sulfate, chloride, and fecal bacteria concentrations; and biological characteristics studied included algae, fish, and invertebrate communities. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), passive samplers that concentrate trace levels of hydrophobic organic contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), also were used. The objectives of the study were to (1) examine physical, chemical, and biological responses along the gradient of urbanization; (2) determine the major physical, chemical, and landscape variables affecting the structure of aquatic communities; and (3) evaluate the relevance of the results to the management of water resources in the South Platte River Basin. Commonly observed effects of urbanization on instream physical, chemical, and biological characteristics, such as increased flashiness, higher magnitude and more frequent peak flows, increased concentrations of chemicals, and changes in aquatic community structure, generally were not observed in this study. None of the hydrologic, temperature, habitat

  14. NDVI saturation adjustment: a new approach for improving cropland performance estimates in the Greater Platte River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.; Howard, Daniel M.; Phuyal, Khem P.; Ji, Lei

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we developed a new approach that adjusted normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) pixel values that were near saturation to better characterize the cropland performance (CP) in the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB), USA. The relationship between NDVI and the ratio vegetation index (RVI) at high NDVI values was investigated, and an empirical equation for estimating saturation-adjusted NDVI (NDVIsat_adjust) based on RVI was developed. A 10-year (2000–2009) NDVIsat_adjust data set was developed using 250-m 7-day composite historical eMODIS (expedited Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI data. The growing season averaged NDVI (GSN), which is a proxy for ecosystem performance, was estimated and long-term NDVI non-saturation- and saturation-adjusted cropland performance (CPnon_sat_adjust, CPsat_adjust) maps were produced over the GPRB. The final CP maps were validated using National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) crop yield data. The relationship between CPsat_adjust and the NASS average corn yield data (r = 0.78, 113 samples) is stronger than the relationship between CPnon_sat_adjust and the NASS average corn yield data (r = 0.67, 113 samples), indicating that the new CPsat_adjust map reduces the NDVI saturation effects and is in good agreement with the corn yield ground observations. Results demonstrate that the NDVI saturation adjustment approach improves the quality of the original GSN map and better depicts the actual vegetation conditions of the GPRB cropland systems.

  15. Projecting future grassland productivity to assess the sustainability of potential biofuel feedstock areas in the Greater Platte River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.; Boyte, Stephen; Phyual, Khem

    2014-01-01

    This study projects future (e.g., 2050 and 2099) grassland productivities in the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB) using ecosystem performance (EP, a surrogate for measuring ecosystem productivity) models and future climate projections. The EP models developed from a previous study were based on the satellite vegetation index, site geophysical and biophysical features, and weather and climate drivers. The future climate data used in this study were derived from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model 3.0 ‘SRES A1B’ (a ‘middle’ emissions path). The main objective of this study is to assess the future sustainability of the potential biofuel feedstock areas identified in a previous study. Results show that the potential biofuel feedstock areas (the more mesic eastern part of the GPRB) will remain productive (i.e., aboveground grassland biomass productivity >2750 kg ha−1 year−1) with a slight increasing trend in the future. The spatially averaged EPs for these areas are 3519, 3432, 3557, 3605, 3752, and 3583 kg ha−1 year−1 for current site potential (2000–2008 average), 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050, and 2099, respectively. Therefore, the identified potential biofuel feedstock areas will likely continue to be sustainable for future biofuel development. On the other hand, grasslands identified as having no biofuel potential in the drier western part of the GPRB would be expected to stay unproductive in the future (spatially averaged EPs are 1822, 1691, 1896, 2306, 1994, and 2169 kg ha−1 year−1 for site potential, 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050, and 2099). These areas should continue to be unsuitable for biofuel feedstock development in the future. These future grassland productivity estimation maps can help land managers to understand and adapt to the expected changes in future EP in the GPRB and to assess the future sustainability and feasibility of potential biofuel feedstock areas.

  16. Leak before break evaluation for main steam piping system made of SA106 Gr.C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Kyoung Mo; Jee, Kye Kwang; Pyo, Chang Ryul; Ra, In Sik [Korea Power Engineering Company, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-04-01

    The basis of the leak before break (LBB) concept is to demonstrate that piping will leak significantly before a double ended guillotine break (DEGB) occurs. This is demonstrated by quantifying and evaluating the leak process and prescribing safe shutdown of the plant on the basis of the monitored leak rate. The application of LBB for power plant design has reduced plant cost while improving plant integrity. Several evaluations employing LBB analysis on system piping based on DEGB design have been completed. However, the application of LBB on main steam (MS) piping, which is LBB applicable piping, has not been performed due to several uncertainties associated with occurrence of steam hammer and dynamic strain aging (DSA). The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the applicability of the LBB design concept to main steam lines manufactured with SA106 Gr.C carbon steel. Based on the material properties, including fracture toughness and tensile properties obtained from the comprehensive material tests for base and weld metals, a parametric study was performed as described in this paper. The PICEP code was used to determine leak size crack (LSC) and the FLET code was used to perform the stability assessment of MS piping. The effects of material properties obtained from tests were evaluated to determine the LBB applicability for the MS piping. It can be shown from this parametric study that the MS piping has a high possibility of design using LBB analysis.

  17. Underground pipe inspection device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germata, Daniel Thomas [Wadsworth, IL

    2009-02-24

    A method and apparatus for inspecting the walls of an underground pipe from inside the pipe in which an inspection apparatus having a circular planar platform having a plurality of lever arms having one end pivotably attached to one side of the platform, having a pipe inspection device connected to an opposite end, and having a system for pivoting the lever arms is inserted into the underground pipe, with the inspection apparatus oriented with the planar platform disposed perpendicular to the pipe axis. The plurality of lever arms are pivoted toward the inside wall of the pipe, contacting the inside wall with each inspection device as the apparatus is conveyed along a length of the underground pipe.

  18. Ground-water resources of the South Platte River Basin in western Adams and southwestern Weld Counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rex O.; Schneider, P.A.; Petri, Lester R.

    1964-01-01

    The area described in this report consists of about 970 square miles in western Adams and southwestern Weld Counties in northeastern Colorado. It includes that part of the South Platte River valley between Denver and Kuner, Colo., all of Beebe Draw, and the lower part of the valley of Box Elder Creek. The stream-valley lowlands are separated by rolling uplands. The climate is semiarid, the normal annual precipitation being about 13 inches; thus, irrigation is essential for stable agricultural development. The area contains about 220,000 acres of irrigated land in the stream valleys. Most of the remaining 400,000 acres of land is used for dry farming or grazing because it lacks irrigation water. Most of the lowlands were brought under irrigation with surface water during the early 1900's, and now nearly all the surface water in the area is appropriated for irrigation within and downstream from the area. Because the natural flow of the streams is sometimes less than the demand for water, ground water is used to supplement the surface-water supply. Wells, drilled chiefly since 1930, supply the supplemental water and in some places are the sole supply for irrigation use. Rocks exposed in the area are of sedimentary origin and range in age from Lato Cretaceous to Recent. Those that are consolidated, called 'bedrock' in this report, consist of the Fox Hills sandstone and the Laramie and Arapahoe formations, all of Late Cretaceous age, and the Denver formation and Dawson arkose of Late Cretaceous and Tertiary age. The surface of the bedrock was shaped by ancestral streams, the valleys of which are reflected by the present surface topography. Dune sand, slope wash, and thin upland deposits of Quaternary age mantle the bedrock in the divide areas, and stream deposits ranging in thickness from 0 to about 125 feet partly fill the ancestral valleys. The valley-fill deposits consist of beds and lenses of clay, silt, sand, gravel, cobbles, and boulders. Abundant supplies of

  19. INL Reactor Technology Complex Out-of-Service Buried Piping Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas M. Gerstner

    2008-05-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Reactor Technology Complex (RTC) buried piping and components are being characterized to determine if they should be managed as hazardous waste and subject to the Hazardous Waste Management Act /Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). RTC buried piping and components involve both active piping and components from currently operating nuclear facilities, such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), and inactive lines from facilities undergoing D&D activities. The issue exists as to the proper methods to analyze and control hazards associated with D&D activities on facilities collocated with existing operating nuclear facilities, or future collocated facilities being considered with the resurgent nuclear industry. During initial characterization activities, it was determined that residual radioactive material in several inactive RTC lines and components could potentially exceed hazard category (HC) 3 thresholds. In addition, concerns were raised as to how to properly isolate active nuclear facility piping and components from those inactive lines undergoing RCRA actions, and whether the operating facility safety basis could be impacted. Work was stopped, and a potential inadequacy in the safety analysis (PISA) was declared, even though no clear safety basis existed for the inactive, abandoned lines and equipment. An unreviewed safety question (USQ) and an occurrence report resulted. A HC 3 or greater Nuclear Facility/Activity for the buried piping and components was also declared in the occurrence report. A qualitative hazard assessment was developed to evaluate the potential hazards associated with characterization activities, and any potential effects on the safety basis of the collocated RTC operating nuclear facilities. The hazard assessment clearly demonstrated the low hazards associated with the activities based on form and dispersiblity of the radioactive material in the piping and components. The hazard assessment developed

  20. Numerical Modeling for Impact-resistant Pipes Buried at Shallow Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Jong; Hsu, Jung-Fu

    2010-05-01

    The plastic pipes buried at shallow depth are popular for underground telecommunication lines. To assess their impact-worthiness under loads from heavy traffics, the study establishes a numerical model to correlate with field data. Field impact tests were carried out where a 50-kg mass free-falling at 2.2 m height was dropped onto the soil backfill directly above a buried pipe. A contact-impact model incorporating finite elements of disjoined material regions is developed to simulate the phenomena of mass-soil-pipe interaction and soil dent. Plastic soil deformations are accounted for. Also implemented is a new erosion scheme for dealing with numerical instability caused by crumpled elements during heavy impact. Reasonable agreements can be observed between the analyzed and measured soil dent. This model is versatile in making design evaluations for buried pipes to withstand impact loads. It has potential applications to cemented soil fills and blast loads.

  1. The New Development of Welded Steel Pipe Technology%焊接钢管技术的新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓香

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduced the new development of the international line pipe technology during the recent decadc from several aspects, such as onshore natural gas line pipe, offshore natural gas line pipe, large deformation pipe and ultra-high strength line pipe;the construction and development of the modem information system in welded pipe corporation,and the advancement in production technology and equipment of the high-frequency longitudinal welded pipe, SAWH pipe and SAWL pipe. It suggested that China welded pipe corporations should accelerate the renovation and upgrading the equipment to meet the requirements of the line pipe with high properties, high grade, heavy wall thickness and high precision; updating the NDT equipment thoroughly to ensure it works reliable; to realize aatomatization from the foundation to whole-line through the information renovation, and then enhance competitive strength of China welded pipe corporations.%介绍了近十几年国际管线钢管技术的新进展,包括陆地天然气管道用管、海底天然气管道用管以及大应变钢管和超高强度管线钢管的开发;焊管企业的现代化信息系统的建设及发展;我国高频直缝焊管、螺旋埋弧焊管和直缝埋弧焊管生产技术和装备的技术进步.建议我国焊管企业应加快设备改造和升级,以适应管线管向高性能、高钢级、大壁厚和高尺寸精度发展的要求;对无损探伤设备进行彻底更新,保证其可靠工作;通过信息化改造,实现从基础自动化到全线自动化、信息化的飞跃,进一步增强我国焊管企业的竞争力.

  2. Water-hammer pressure waves interaction at cross-section changes in series in viscoelastic pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meniconi, S.; Brunone, B.; Ferrante, M.

    2012-08-01

    In view of scarcity of both experimental data and numerical models concerning transient behavior of cross-section area changes in pressurized liquid flow, the paper presents laboratory data and numerical simulation of the interaction of a surge wave with a partial blockage by a valve, a single pipe contraction or expansion and a series of pipe contraction/expansion in close proximity.With regard to a single change of cross-section area, laboratory data point out the completely different behavior with respect to one of the partially closed in-line valves with the same area ratio. In fact, for the former the pressure wave interaction is not regulated by the steady-state local head loss. With regard to partial blockages, transient tests have shown that the smaller the length, the more intense the overlapping of pressure waves due to the expansion and contraction in series.Numerically, the need for taking into account both the viscoelasticity and unsteady friction is demonstrated, since the classical water-hammer theory does not simulate the relevant damping of pressure peaks and gives rise to a time shifting between numerical and laboratory data. The transient behavior of a single local head loss has been checked by considering tests carried out in a system with a partially closed in-line valve. As a result, the reliability of the quasi steady-state approach for local head loss simulation has been demonstrated in viscoelastic pipes. The model parameters obtained on the basis of transients carried out in single pipe systems have then been used to simulate transients in the more complex pipe systems. These numerical experiments show the great importance of the length of the small-bore pipe with respect to one of the large-bore pipes. Precisely, until a gradually flow establishes in the small-bore pipe, the smaller such a length, the better the quality of the numerical simulation.

  3. LASER ULTRASONIC FOR MEASUREMENTS OF VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION IN PIPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Navarrete

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the development of a photoacoustic flowmeter with probe-beam deflection. A pulsedlaser beam produces an acoustic pulse, whose propagation is registered by its deflection effects on two cw probebeams. The acoustic pulse in a flowing fluid is produced by absorption of a laser pulse (30 ns, 1.1 mJ focused overa path flow line. The acoustic propagations, along and against the flow, are monitored by two cw probe beams. Inthe interaction, the probe beam undergoes a transient deflection that is detected by a fast response photodiode.The velocity distribution data profile of a square pipe is obtained by means of the acoustic pulse arrival timemeasured through its cross section applying the cylindrical shockwave model developed by Vlasses. The profilesdetermined with this experimental technique are compared with two turbulent pipe flow models.

  4. New technology for transmission measurements in process pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, C E; Favalli, A; Goda, J M; Ianakiev, K D; Lombardi, M; McCluskey, C W; Paffett, M T; Swinhoe, M T

    2013-02-01

    Transmission measurements of radiation through process pipes provide a non-intrusive method of determining the amount of product present in the pipes. The product could be a liquid, a slurry, or a gas, which is the most challenging because of the low density. Traditionally, these techniques have used a radioactive source that has to be replaced periodically. We have developed a transmission technique based on an X-ray tube instead of a decaying source. A notch filter is used to provide a narrow transmission line, and a thin silicon transmission detector is used to monitor the X-ray tube output. The transmitted X-rays are measured with a high-throughput gamma spectrometer that consists of a NaI(Tl) detector and an MCA with precise dead time correction. This spectrometer provides stable transmission measurements with an accuracy of a fraction of a percent. The shielding and collimator are made of machinable tungsten for thermal mechanical stability, as well low-cost, low-weight tungsten powder in polymer castings. We describe two methods of measuring the pipe wall thickness without evacuating the pipe. Our particular application was for enrichment monitors for UF(6) in process pipes. Enrichment monitors that are independent of the plant data require two measurements: a transmission measurement to determine the total amount of uranium in the pipe and a measurement of the 186-keV gamma-ray line to determine the amount of (235)U present. The ratio of these values gives the enrichment. Previous designs used a decaying radioactive source such as (57)Co (122 keV, T(½)=272 days) or (109)Cd (22 keV, T(½)=1.2 years). A major effort was required to access and periodically replace these sources in operating plants. In this report, we describe the use of an X-ray tube, which eliminated the source problem, and other innovations. Then we present data from an enrichment monitor that incorporates these innovations.

  5. First ERW Ф610 Steel Tube Production Line Brought on Stream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The first domestic ERWФ610 high-frequency straight-seam steel pipe production line was built in Shanghai Zhongyou TIPO Steel Pipe Co Ltd recently.This steel pipe production line initiated inside China has drawn the attention from many enterprises including PetroChina and CNOOC. It is known that the first batch of products have been transported to the construction site of the West -East Gas Transmission Project.

  6. 临沂机场航站楼钢管桁架施工技术%CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE FOR PIPE TRUSS OF LINYI AIRPORT TERMINAL BUILDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李太权; 苏建成; 邱国峰

    2012-01-01

    临沂机场新航站楼结构形式为平面钢管桁架,通过大跨度平面钢管桁架中相贯线切割小、钢管冷弯控制和桁架组拼完成了钢管构件加工.通过方案比选,采用了设置临时支架、起重机换位吊装法,保证了吊装质量及进度.%New terminal building of Linyi Airport adopts plane steel pipe truss structure and the process of steel pipe component is successfully completed through intersecting line cutting in wide-span plane steel pipe truss, cold bending control of steel pipe and truss assembly. After comparison and selection among different schemes, temporary support and crane transposition lifting are adopted to guarantee the lifting quality and construction schedule.New terminal building of Linyi Airport adopts plane steel pipe truss structure and the process of steel pipe component is successfully completed through intersecting line cutting in wide-span plane steel pipe truss, cold bending control of steel pipe and truss assembly. After comparison and selection among different schemes, temporary support and crane transposition lifting are adopted to guarantee the lifting quality and construction schedule.New terminal building of Linyi Airport adopts plane steel pipe truss structure and the process of steel pipe component is successfully completed through intersecting line cutting in wide-span plane steel pipe truss, cold bending control of steel pipe and truss assembly. After comparison and selection among different schemes, temporary support and crane transposition lifting are adopted to guarantee the lifting quality and construction schedule.

  7. Evaluation of cracking in the 241-AZ tank farm ventilation line at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANANTATMULA, R.P.

    1999-10-20

    In the period from April to October of 1988, a series of welding operations on the outside of the AZ Tank Farm ventilation line piping at the Hanford Site produced unexpected and repeated cracking of the austenitic stainless steel base metal and of a seam weld in the pipe. The ventilation line is fabricated from type 304L stainless steel pipe of 24 inch diameter and 0.25 inch wall thickness. The pipe was wrapped in polyethylene bubble wrap and buried approximately 12 feet below grade. Except for the time period between 1980 and 1987, impressed current cathodic protection has been applied to the pipe since its installation in 1974. The paper describes the history of the cracking of the pipe, the probable cracking mechanisms, and the recommended future action for repair/replacement of the pipe.

  8. 46 CFR 154.310 - Cargo piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo piping systems. 154.310 Section 154.310 Shipping... Arrangements § 154.310 Cargo piping systems. Cargo liquid or vapor piping must: (a) Be separated from other piping systems, except where an interconnection to inert gas or purge piping is required by §...

  9. 46 CFR 154.500 - Cargo and process piping standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo and process piping standards. 154.500 Section 154... Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.500 Cargo and process piping standards. The cargo liquid and vapor piping and process piping systems must meet the requirements in §§ 154.503 through...

  10. 46 CFR 154.522 - Materials for piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials for piping. 154.522 Section 154.522 Shipping... Process Piping Systems § 154.522 Materials for piping. (a) The materials for piping systems must meet § 154.625 for the minimum design temperature of the piping, except the material for open ended...

  11. 46 CFR 119.730 - Nonferrous metallic piping materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonferrous metallic piping materials. 119.730 Section... INSTALLATION Piping Systems § 119.730 Nonferrous metallic piping materials. (a) Nonferrous metallic piping materials are acceptable for use in the following: (1) Non-vital systems; (2) Aluminum fuel piping on...

  12. 脉冲激光线源激发金属圆管中冯.密赛斯应力的研究%Analysis of the Von Mises stress fields generated by a pulsed line - source laser in metal pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何跃娟; 朱云; 刘慧娟

    2011-01-01

    在得到的温茺场分布的基础上,用有限元结构分析法数值模拟了金属圆管中脉冲激光线源产生的主应力场情况,得到了铝管中不同时刻的冯.密赛斯应力场,给出了不同时刻冯,密赛斯应力随周向和法向的分布以及等值图分布情况。数值结果表明:在激光加载中心点处冯.密赛斯应力值最大,冯.密赛斯应力随周向和法向的变化情况和温度场的变化类似。%Based on the laser- induced temperature fields, the transient thermal stress fields generated by a pulsed line - source laser in aluminum pipe are analyzed by using a finite element method. The Van Mises stress fields are obtained at various time. The normal and the circmnferential distributions of Von Mises stress are given at various time. And the isolines' distributions of Von Mises stress are shown. The numerical results denoted: the center of the laser irradiation range at the material surface has the biggest Von Mises stress. The distribution of Von Mises stress is similar to the temperature distribution.

  13. 交变磁场对SHS制备复合钢管陶瓷层相结构的影响%Effects of Alternative Magnetic Field on Phase Structure in Ceramic Layer of Ceramic Lined Compound Steel Pipes Fabricated by SHS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦万丽

    2009-01-01

    Effects of alternative magnetic field on phase structure in ceramic layer of ceramic lined compound steel pipes fabricated by SHS were described, and NiO was added as additive to contrast. The results show that change of phase structure in ceramic layer can not be observed in alternative magnetic field. With in-creasing in magnetic flux intensity, size of α-Al2O3 is decreased, and morphology is gradually transformed into fine equiaxed grain structure. Effects of alterna-tive magnetic field are strengthened by adding NiO, which results in the refinement of grain size at a lower magnetic flux density.%将交变磁场引入自蔓延反应,研究其对陶瓷层的相结构的影响,采用NiO作为添加剂进行对比试验.试验结果表明,交变磁场并不改变陶瓷层的相组成.显微结构分析表明,随着磁感应强度的增加,α-AI2O3的枝晶尺寸减小,形态逐渐向细小的等轴晶形态过渡,在磁感应强度为0.2 T时,出现等轴晶组织.NiO的加入增强了交变磁场的影响效果,在NiO加入量为0.4%时可以在0.1 T的磁感应强度下得到细小的等轴晶组织.

  14. Defect Detection in Pipes using a Mobile Laser-Optics Technology and Digital Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tezerjani Abbasali Dehghan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method for defect detection in pipes using a mobile laser-optics technology and conventional digital-geometry-based image processing techniques. The laser-optics consists of a laser that projects a line onto the pipe’s surface, and an omnidirectional camera. It can be mounted on a pipe crawling robot for conducting continuous inspection. The projected laser line will be seen as a half-oval in the image. When the laser line passes over defected points, the image moments on the pixel information would change. We propose a B-spline curve fitting on the digitally-convoluted image and a curvature estimation algorithm to detect the defects from the image. Defect sizes of 2 mm or larger can be detected using this method in pipes of up to 24 inch in diameter. The proposed sensor can detect 180-degree (i.e., upper half surface of the pipe. By turning the sensor 180 degrees, one will be able to detect the other half (i.e., lower half of the pipe’s surface. While, 360-degree laser rings are available commercially, but they did not provide the intensity needed for our experimentation. We also propose a fast boundary extraction algorithm for real time detection of defects, where a trace of consecutive images are used to track the image features. Tests were carried out on PVC and steel pipes.

  15. Piping inspection carriage having axially displaceable sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, William T.; Treanor, Richard C.

    1994-01-01

    A pipe inspection instrument carriage for use with a pipe crawler for performing internal inspections of piping surfaces. The carriage has a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly and a central support connecting the two assemblies and for mounting an instrument arm having inspection instruments. The instrument arm has a y-arm mounted distally thereon for axially aligning the inspection instrumentation and a mounting block, a linear actuator and axial movement arm for extending the inspection instruments radially outward to operably position the inspection instruments on the piping interior. Also, the carriage has a rotation motor and gear assembly for rotating the central support and the front leg assembly with respect to the rear leg assembly so that the inspection instruments azimuthally scan the piping interior. The instrument carriage allows performance of all piping inspection operations with a minimum of moving parts, thus decreasing the likelihood of performance failure.

  16. Wave Propagation in Pipe-like Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsbøl, Jonas

    Pipe-like shell structures are found in a wide range of practical applications such as: Wind turbine towers, jet engines, brass instruments, and piping systems. For many of these applications, structural vibrations play an important role for their performance. This thesis will in particular focus...... on how the curvature on a thin-walled pipe, as well as a changing radius along a straight thin-walled pipe, affects the waveguide properties. It shows that the waveguide properties of curved pipes roughly can be divided into three regimes: The curved beam regime, the cylinder regime, and the torus regime....... In the curved beam regime the waveguide properties of the pipe can be approximated by classical curved beam theory while in the cylinder regime they can be approximated by cylindrical shell theory. In the torus regime none of the two other regimes apply, and a full-blown shell model is needed. For the straight...

  17. Lightweight Heat Pipes Made from Magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, John N.; Zarembo, Sergei N.; Eastman, G. Yale

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium has shown promise as a lighter-weight alternative to the aluminum alloys now used to make the main structural components of axially grooved heat pipes that contain ammonia as the working fluid. Magnesium heat-pipe structures can be fabricated by conventional processes that include extrusion, machining, welding, and bending. The thermal performances of magnesium heat pipes are the same as those of equal-sized aluminum heat pipes. However, by virtue of the lower mass density of magnesium, the magnesium heat pipes weigh 35 percent less. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, magnesium heat pipes could also be attractive as heat-transfer devices in terrestrial applications in which minimization of weight is sought: examples include radio-communication equipment and laptop computers.

  18. Intermediate Temperature Fluids for Heat Pipes and Loop Heat Pipes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will develop heat pipe and loop heat pipe (LHP) working fluids for what is known as the intermediate...

  19. Pipes under internal pressure and bending

    CERN Document Server

    Catinaccio, A

    2009-01-01

    This article covers the general behaviour of a straight uniform pipe, with built-in open ends, subject to internal pressure and in plane bending or curvature. It is intended as a summary of the basic equations driving the unintuitive phenomena of bending and instability of pipes under internal pressure. The analysis covers in addition the investigation of opposite pressure stabilisation effects that can be observed in some orthotropic material pipes like composite pressure hoses.

  20. Effect of Glass Reinforced Epoxy (GRE) pipe filled with Geopolymer Materials for Piping Application: Compression Properties

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to achieve the highest compressive strength of glass reinforced epoxy pipe with the geopolymer filler content of weight percentage that were used in glass reinforced epoxy pipe. The samples were prepared by using the filament winding method. The effect of weight percentage of geopolymer materials in epoxy hardener was studied under mechanical testing, which is using the compression test. A series of glass reinforced epoxy pipe and glass reinforced epoxy pipe filled wi...

  1. Development of bore tools for pipe inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Taguchi, Kou; Ito, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    In the International Thermonuclear Reactor (ITER), replacement and maintenance on in-vessel components requires that all cooling pipes connected be cut and removed, that a new component be installed, and that all cooling pipes be rewelded. After welding is completed, welded area must be inspected for soundness. These tasks require a new work concept for securing shielded area and access from narrow ports. Tools had to be developed for nondestructive inspection and leak testing to evaluate pipe welding soundness by accessing areas from inside pipes using autonomous locomotion welding and cutting tools. A system was proposed for nondestructive inspection of branch pipes and the main pipe after passing through pipe curves, the same as for welding and cutting tool development. Nondestructive inspection and leak testing sensors were developed and the basic parameters were obtained. In addition, the inspection systems which can move inside pipes and conduct the nondestructive inspection and the leak testing were developed. In this paper, an introduction will be given to the current situation concerning the development of nondestructive inspection and leak testing machines for the branch pipes. (author)

  2. Plastic pipe systems failure investigation and diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Farshad, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    Industrial and domestic piping is increasingly made from various plastics and composites, and these materials withstand heavy use over long periods. They are, however, affected by environmental and other factors over time and can degrade, causing major problems within piping systems. Farshad's book deals with why plastic pipes and systems fail, and with how to investigate and diagnose such failures. Pipes may buckle, fracture, change in dimensions and colour, blister and delaminate, corrode through stress, be abraded and obstructed: all these cause problems and lead to loss of efficient operat

  3. Fracture mechanics parameters of multilayer pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šestáková L.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Multilayer pipes consisting of different materials are frequently used in praxis because of partial improvement of the properties of pipe systems. To estimate lifetime of these pipes the basic fracture parameters have to be determined. In this work finite element calculations are applied in order to estimate the stress intensity factor K and T-stress values for a new type of non-homogenous C-shape specimen. The application of calculated K and T values to laboratory estimation of fracture toughness and its transferability to real pipe system is discussed.

  4. Water pipe smoking and dermatologic consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollina, U

    2015-08-01

    Water pipe smoking is a recently growing addiction worldwide. It has become popular in Africa and the Western World and enfaces a renaissance in Middle East and Asia. The smoking technique leads to a different exposure to potential hazardous compounds compared to cigarette or classical pipe smoking. The common assumption that water pipe smoking is less dangerous to health is not substantiated by scientific data. Non-tobacco-based preparations reduce the exposure to nicotine but may contain equal or even higher concentrations of other toxic compounds. The medical literature on adverse effect of water pipe smoking on skin and oral mucosa is reviewed but future research is a demand.

  5. Location of Agricultural Drainage Pipes and Assessment of Agricultural Drainage Pipe Conditions Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods are needed to not only locate buried agricultural drainage pipe, but to also determine if the pipes are functioning properly with respect to water delivery. The primary focus of this research project was to confirm the ability of ground penetrating radar (GPR) to locate buried drainage pipe ...

  6. The Analysis of the Field Application Methodology of Electromagnetic Ultrasonic Testing for Piping in Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chi Seung; Joo, Keum Jong; Choi, Jung Kweun; Um, Byung Kook; Park, Jea Suk [Korea Advanced Ispection Technology Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    Nuclear plant piping is classified as the safety class and non-safety class piping in usual. Safety class piping has been examined in accordance with ASME Section XI and V during PSI/ISI using RT, UT, PT, ECT, etc and evaluated periodically for integrity. But failures in piping had reported at non-welded parts and non-safety class pipings as well as the safety class pipings. The existing NDT methods are suitable for the specific parts for instance weldments to inspect but difficult to examine all parts (total coverage) of pipe line and very expensive in cost and consume the time. And also inspection using those methods is difficult and limited for the parts which are complex configuration, embedded under ground and installed at high radiation area in nuclear power plants. In order to inspect all parts of long range piping systems and reduce the inspection time and cost, the electromagnetic ultrasonic inspection technology is suitable and effective. The electromagnetic ultrasonic method can cover more than 50 m apart from sensor at one time without moving the sensor and examined the parts which are in difficulties for accessibility, for example, high radiation area, insulated components and embedded under ground.

  7. Literature review and experimental investigation of heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsch, W. O.; Schoenhals, R. J.; Viskanta, R.; Winter, E. R. F.

    1971-01-01

    Tests on heat pipes determine operational limits, external boundary conditions, noncondensable gas effects, startup behavior, and geometric configurations. Experiment consists of design, construction, and testing of an apparatus for measuring wick properties, conventional heat pipes and coplanar heat pipes.

  8. Chapter A. Effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems in the South Platte River basin, Colorado and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Lori A.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Dupree, Jean A.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the effects of urbanization on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of stream ecosystems in 28 basins along an urban land-use gradient in the South Platte River Basin, Colorado and Wyoming, from 2002 through 2003. Study basins were chosen to minimize natural variability among basins due to factors such as geology, elevation, and climate and to maximize coverage of different stages of urban development among basins. Because land use or population density alone often are not a complete measure of urbanization, land use, land cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables were integrated in a multimetric urban intensity index to represent the degree of urban development in each study basin. Physical characteristics studied included stream hydrology, stream temperature, and habitat; chemical characteristics studied included nutrients, pesticides, suspended sediment, sulfate, chloride, and fecal bacteria concentrations; and biological characteristics studied included algae, fish, and invertebrate communities. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), passive samplers that concentrate trace levels of hydrophobic organic contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), also were used. The objectives of the study were to (1) examine physical, chemical, and biological responses along the gradient of urbanization; (2) determine the major physical, chemical, and landscape variables affecting the structure of aquatic communities; and (3) evaluate the relevance of the results to the management of water resources in the South Platte River Basin. Commonly observed effects of urbanization on instream physical, chemical, and biological characteristics, such as increased flashiness, higher magnitude and more frequent peak flows, increased concentrations of chemicals, and changes in aquatic community structure, generally were not observed in this study. None of the hydrologic, temperature, habitat

  9. Channel Morphology and Bed Sediment Characteristics Before and After Habitat Enhancement Activities in the Uridil Property, Platte River, Nebraska, Water Years 2005-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Fluvial geomorphic data were collected by the United States Geological Survey from July 2005 to June 2008 (a time period within water years 2005 to 2008) to monitor the effects of habitat enhancement activities conducted in the Platte River Whooping Crane Maintenance Trust's Uridil Property, located along the Platte River, Nebraska. The activities involved the removal of vegetation and sand from the tops of high permanent islands and the placement of the sand into the active river channel. This strategy was intended to enhance habitat for migratory water birds by lowering the elevations of the high islands, thereby eliminating a visual obstruction for roosting birds. It was also thought that the bare sand on the lowered island surfaces could serve as potential habitat for nesting water birds. Lastly, the project supplied a local source of sediment to the river to test the hypothesis that this material could contribute to the formation of lower sandbars and potential nesting sites downstream. Topographic surveys on the islands and along river transects were used to quantify the volume of removed sand and track the storage and movement of the introduced sand downstream. Sediment samples were also collected to map the spatial distribution of river bed sediment sizes before and after the management activities. While the project lowered the elevation of high islands, observations of the sand addition indicated the relatively fine-grained sand that was placed in the active river channel was rapidly transported by the flowing water. Topographic measurements made 3 months after the sand addition along transects in the area of sediment addition showed net aggradation over measurements made in 2005. In the year following the sand addition, 2007, elevated river flows from local rain events generally were accompanied by net degradation along transects within the area of sediment addition. In the spring of 2008, a large magnitude flow event of approximately 360 cubic meters per

  10. Piping Flexibility Analysis of the Primary Cooling System of TRIGA 2000 Bandung Reactor due to Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. Rahardjo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes in a nuclear installation can overload a piping system which is not flexible enough. These loads can be forces, moments and stresses working on the pipes or equipments. If the load is too large and exceed the allowable limits, the piping and equipment can be damaged and lead to overall system operation failure. The load received by piping systems can be reduced by making adequate piping flexibility, so all the loads can be transmitted homogenously throughout the pipe without load concentration at certain point. In this research the analysis of piping stress has been conducted to determine the size of loads that occured in the piping of primary cooling system of TRIGA 2000 Reactor, Bandung if an earthquake happened in the reactor site. The analysis was performed using Caesar II software-based finite element method. The ASME code B31.1 arranging the design of piping systems for power generating system (Power Piping Code was used as reference analysis method. Modeling of piping systems was based on the cooling piping that has already been installed and the existing data reported in Safety Analysis Reports (SARs of TRIGA 2000 reactor, Bandung. The quake considered in this analysis is the earthquake that occurred due to the Lembang fault, since it has the Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA in the Bandung TRIGA 2000 reactor site. The analysis results showed that in the static condition for sustain and expansion loads, the stress fraction in all piping lines does not exceed the allowable limit. However, during operation moment, in dynamic condition, the primary cooling system is less flexible at sustain load, ekspansi load, and combination load and the stress fraction have reached 95,5%. Therefore a pipeline modification (rerouting is needed to make pipe stress does not exceed the allowable stress. The pipeline modification was carried out by applied a gap of 3 mm in the X direction of the support at node 25 and eliminate the support at the node

  11. Study on dinamic behavior and least burying depth of underground protective pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, Tetsuyuki; Kokusyo, Goji; Tanaka, Yukihisa; Kobayashi, Seiichi

    1988-03-30

    Effect of unit load per travel wheel on the protective pipe was studied when electricity cable distribution lines were buried in the depth less than the present standard for electric equipment, and logical burying depth was investigated. Test items were material test of the protective pipe, indoor load test, and field test at loamy ground. Impact resistance hard PVC pipe was used as the protective pipe, and its strength and elastic modulus were measured. Along with these tests, it was confirmed that there was no problem of cracking by repeated flattening or breakage by fatigue. By indoor test, it was observed that, in case of shallow burying, creap deformation was small, stress concentrate occured at the middle of axial direction, and that flattening ratio was seriously affected by the method of backfilling. Field test was conducted by applying the static load of a 20 ton dump truck, and the deformation, stress, and subsidence of the protective pipe, were measured. As the conclusion of those experiments, it was found that burying of protective pipe in the depth of not less than 30 cm is allowable, as long as sufficient bakfilling is made. (14 figs, 3 tabs, 3 refs)

  12. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station recirc pipe dose rates with zinc injection and condenser replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiCello, D.C.; Odell, A.D.; Jackson, T.J. [PECO Energy Co., Delta, PA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS) is located near the town of Delta, Pennsylvania, on the west bank of the Susquehanna River. It is situated approximately 20 miles south of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The site contains two boiling water reactors of General Electric design and each rated at 3,293 megawatts thermal. The units are BWR 4s and went commercial in 1977. There is also a decommissioned high temperature gas-cooled reactor on site, Unit 1. PBAPS Unit 2 recirc pipe was replaced in 1985 and Unit 3 recirc pipes replaced in 1988 with 326 NGSS. The Unit 2 replacement pipe was electropolished, and the Unit 3 pipe was electropolished and passivated. The Unit 2 brass condenser was replaced with a Titanium condenser in the first quarter of 1991, and the Unit 3 condenser was replaced in the fourth quarter of 1991. The admiralty brass condensers were the source of natural zinc in both units. Zinc injection was initiated in Unit 2 in May 1991, and in Unit 3 in May 1992. Contact dose rate measurements were made in standard locations on the 28-inch recirc suction and discharge lines to determine the effectiveness of zinc injection and to monitor radiation build-up in the pipe. Additionally, HPGe gamma scans were performed to determine the isotopic composition of the oxide layer inside the pipe. In particular, the specific ({mu}Ci/cm{sup 2}) of Co-60 and Zn-65 were analyzed.

  13. Heat Pipe with Axial Wick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Jay H. (Inventor); Holmes, Rolland (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A heat pipe has an evaporator portion, a condenser portion, and at least one flexible portion that is sealingly coupled between the evaporator portion and the condenser portion. The flexible portion has a flexible tube and a flexible separator plate held in place within the flexible tube so as to divide the flexible tube into a gas-phase passage and a liquid-phase artery. The separator plate and flexible tube are configured such that the flexible portion is flexible in a plane that is perpendicular to the separator plate.

  14. Buckling Characteristics of Cylindrical Pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshiaki Sakurai

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the buckling pattern of the body frame by energy absorbed efficiency of crashworthiness related toresearch of the buckling characteristics of aluminum cylindrical pipes with various diameters formed mechanical tools. Experimentswere performed by the quasi-static test without lubrication between specimen and equipment. According to the change in the radiusversus thickness of the specimen, the buckling phenomena are transformed from folding to bellows and the rate of energy absorptionis understood. In crashworthiness, frames are characterized by the folding among three patterns from the absorbed energy efficiencypoint of view and weight reduction. With the development of new types of transport such as electric vehicles, innovated bodystructure should be designed.

  15. Statistical Dependence of Pipe Breaks on Explanatory Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Gómez-Martínez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aging infrastructure is the main challenge currently faced by water suppliers. Estimation of assets lifetime requires reliable criteria to plan assets repair and renewal strategies. To do so, pipe break prediction is one of the most important inputs. This paper analyzes the statistical dependence of pipe breaks on explanatory variables, determining their optimal combination and quantifying their influence on failure prediction accuracy. A large set of registered data from Madrid water supply network, managed by Canal de Isabel II, has been filtered, classified and studied. Several statistical Bayesian models have been built and validated from the available information with a technique that combines reference periods of time as well as geographical location. Statistical models of increasing complexity are built from zero up to five explanatory variables following two approaches: a set of independent variables or a combination of two joint variables plus an additional number of independent variables. With the aim of finding the variable combination that provides the most accurate prediction, models are compared following an objective validation procedure based on the model skill to predict the number of pipe breaks in a large set of geographical locations. As expected, model performance improves as the number of explanatory variables increases. However, the rate of improvement is not constant. Performance metrics improve significantly up to three variables, but the tendency is softened for higher order models, especially in trunk mains where performance is reduced. Slight differences are found between trunk mains and distribution lines when selecting the most influent variables and models.

  16. Drinking water contaminants from epoxy resin-coated pipes: A field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasärkkä, Johanna; Pernica, Marek; Kuta, Jan; Lašňák, Jonáš; Šimek, Zdenĕk; Bláha, Luděk

    2016-10-15

    Rehabilitation of aged drinking water pipes is an extensive renovation and increasingly topical in many European cities. Spray-on-lining of drinking water pipes is an alternative cost-effective rehabilitation technology in which the insides of pipes are relined with organic polymer. A commonly used polymer is epoxy resin consisting of monomer bisphenol A (BPA). Leaching of BPA from epoxy lining to drinking water has been a concern among public and authorities. Currently epoxy lining is not recommended in some countries. BPA leaching has been demonstrated in laboratory studies but the behavior and ageing process of epoxy lining in situ is not well known. In this study 6 locations with different age epoxy linings of drinking water pipes done using two distinct technologies were studied. While bisphenol F, 4-n-nonylphenol, and 4-t-octylphenol were rarely found and in trace concentrations, BPA was detected in majority of samples. Pipes lined with the older technology (LSE) leached more BPA than those with more recent technology (DonPro): maxima in cold water were 0.25 μg/L and 10 ng/L, respectively. Incubation of water in pipes 8-10 h prior to sampling increased BPA concentration in cold water 1.1-43-fold. Hot water temperature caused even more BPA leaching - at maximum 23.5 μg/L. The influence of ageing of epoxy lining on BPA leaching on could be shown in case of LSE technology: locations with 8-9 years old lining leached 4-20-fold more BPA compared to a location with 2-year-old lining. Analysis of metals showed that epoxy lining can reduce especially iron concentration in water. No significant burden to water could be shown by the analyzed 72 volatile organic compounds, including epichlorhydrin, precursor used in epoxy resin. Estrogenicity was detected in water samples with the highest BPA loads. Comparable responses of two yeast bioreporters (estrogen receptor α and BPA-targeted) indicated that bisphenol-like compounds were the main cause of estrogenicity

  17. Hydrogen-related stress corrosion cracking in line pipe steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo

    1997-01-01

    A correlation between hydrogen concentration (C0) and the critical stress intensity factor for propagation of hydrogen-related cracks has been established by fracture mechanical testing of CT-specimens for the heat affected zone of an X-70 pipeline steel. This has been compared with field...

  18. Marys Lake 69/115-kV transmission line upgrade and substation expansion projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    Western Area Power Administration (Western) and the Platte River Power Authority (Platte River) propose to upgrade portions of the existing electric transmission and substation system that serves the Town of Estes Park, Colorado. The existing transmission lines between the Estes Power Plant Switchyard and the Marys Lake Substation include a 115,000 volt (115-kV) line and 69,000 volt (69-kV) line. Approximately one mile is a double-circuit 115/69-kV line on steel lattice structures, and approximately two miles consists of separate single-circuit 115-kV and a 69-kV lines, constructed on wood H-Frame structures. Both lines were constructed in 1951 by the US Bureau of Reclamation. The existing transmission lines are on rights-of-way (ROW) that vary from 75 feet to 120 feet and are owned by Western. There are 48 landowners adjacent to the existing ROW. All of the houses were built adjacent to the existing ROW after the transmission lines were constructed. Upgrading the existing 69-kV transmission line between the Marys Lake Substation and the Estes Power Plant Switchyard to 115-kV and expanding the Marys Lake Substation was identified as the most effective way in which to improve electric service to Estes Park. The primary purpose and need of the proposed project is to improve the reliability of electric service to the Town of Estes Park. Lack of reliability has been a historical concern, and reliability will always be less than desired until physical improvements are made to the electrical facilities serving Estes Park.

  19. INFLUENCE OF PIPE ANGLE ON BEDLOAD TRANSPORT IN AN INCLINED PIPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David M. ADMIRAAL

    2003-01-01

    A number of reservoirs in Nebraska have been retrofitted with sediment bypass systems to extend their lifespan. The bypass systems are best suited for rerouting sediment that travels as bedload since bedload is relatively easy to capture at reservoir inlets. Because of their size, the captured sediment particles sometimes travel as bedload in the bypass system as well. Studies have been done to quantify head losses in horizontal pipes with different water and sediment flow rates, and the results have been used to assess the practicality of bypass systems for specific prototypes. However, much less has been done to evaluate the performance of inclined pipes for bypassing sediment. Furthermore, little has been done to understand how bedforms influence head losses in the pipes. In order to better understand the behavior of sediment transport within pipes, an experimental apparatus was constructed to simulate a range of sediment loading rates, water flow rates, and pipe inclination angles. Three pressure taps with a spacing of 1.5 m were installed in the pipe at a location sufficiently downstream from the inlet. One section of the pipe was replaced with an acrylic pipe of equivalent internal diameter so that bedform shapes and sizes could be measured for different flow conditions. For each flow condition, the pressure drop in the pipe and the sediment transport rate are recorded over time. For coarse sediment, the inclination angle ofthe pipe and the sediment transport rate both have a strong influence on flow properties, and, thus, head losses in the pipe.

  20. PE管管材性能探讨%Pipe Performance of PE Pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李子臣

    2011-01-01

    目前中国的塑料管道正在稳步发展,其中PE管强劲的发展势头最为令人瞩目.PE管的使用领域广泛,其中给水管和燃气管是其两个最大的应用市场.本文简单阐述了PE管的组成成分,对比分析了PE管的性能,最后论述了PE管的用途.%At present, China's plastic pipe is steadily developing, and strong momentum of development of the PE pipe is the most remarkable. PE pipe has a wide use, in which water pipe and gas pipe are two largest markets for application. This paper briefly describes the composition of PE pipe, makes comparative analysis of its performance, and finally discusses the use of PE pipe.

  1. 49 CFR 230.62 - Dry pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dry pipe. 230.62 Section 230.62 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Pipes §...

  2. Technical Study of Slotted Pipe Working

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Helai; Su Feng

    1996-01-01

    @@ Introduction Slotted pipe is a kind of tool used in the oilfield for drilling wells to proof sand. There are many difficulties in working out several thousands seams which are about 0.3mm to 0.6 mm wide on a 10 meter long alloy steel pipe,and the types are various, such as straight and trapezoid.

  3. Heat-pipe thermionic reactor concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm Pedersen, E.

    1967-01-01

    Main components are reactor core, heat pipe, thermionic converter, secondary cooling system, and waste heat radiator; thermal power generated in reactor core is transported by heat pipes to thermionic converters located outside reactor core behind radiation shield; thermionic emitters are in direct...

  4. Updating piping probabilities with survived historical loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweckendiek, T.; Kanning, W.

    2009-01-01

    Piping, also called under-seepage, is an internal erosion mechanism, which can cause the failure of dikes or other flood defence structures. The uncertainty in the resistance of a flood defence against piping is usually large, causing high probabilities of failure for this mechanism. A considerable

  5. 75 FR 877 - Drill Pipe From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... COMMISSION Drill Pipe From China AGENCY: International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of antidumping... States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China of drill pipe, provided for in subheadings... Government of China. Unless the Department of Commerce extends the time for initiation pursuant to...

  6. Heat pipe thermosyphon heat performance calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novomestský, Marcel; Kapjor, Andrej; Papučík, Štefan; Siažik, Ján

    2016-06-01

    In this article the heat performance of the heat pipe thermosiphon is achieved through numerical model. The heat performance is calculated from few simplified equations which depends on the working fluid and geometry. Also the thermal conductivity is good to mentioning, because is really interesting how big differences are between heat pipes and full solid surfaces.

  7. Energy Industry:Hunger for Steel Pipe?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Berry Chen

    2009-01-01

    @@ After the ups and downs of Chinese steel pipe market in 2008, industry structure changes are taking place quietly. Some enterprises with high-end oil and natural gas pipes and high-pressure boiler tubes have not been much offected in this storm, and won good market demand, while others with low-end products have been eliminated.

  8. DEPOSITION OF PARTICLES IN TURBULENT PIPE FLOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaowei Luo; Suyuan Yu

    2006-01-01

    The deposition of particles in turbulent pipe flow was investigated in terms of two mechanisms, turbulent and thermophoretic. A general equation incorporating these two mechanisms was formulated to calculate the deposition efficiency of aerosol particles in turbulent pipe flow together with thermophoretic deposition. The validity of the equation was confirmed by good agreement between calculated and measured results.

  9. Water driven turbine/brush pipe cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werlink, Rudy J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Assemblies are disclosed for cleaning the inside walls of pipes and tubes. A first embodiment includes a small turbine with angled blades axially mounted on one end of a standoff support. An O-ring for stabilizing the assembly within the pipe is mounted in a groove within the outer ring. A replaceable circular brush is fixedly mounted on the opposite end of the standoff support and can be used for cleaning tubes and pipes of various diameters, lengths and configurations. The turbine, standoff support, and brush spin in unison relative to a hub bearing that is fixedly attached to a wire upstream of the assembly. The nonrotating wire is for retaining the assembly in tension and enabling return of the assembly to the pipe entrance. The assembly is initially placed in the pipe or tube to be cleaned. A pressurized water or solution source is provided at a required flow-rate to propel the assembly through the pipe or tube. The upstream water pressure propels and spins the turbine, standoff support and brush. The rotating brush combined with the solution cleans the inside of the pipe. The solution flows out of the other end of the pipe with the brush rotation controlled by the flow-rate. A second embodiment is similar to the first embodiment but instead includes a circular shaped brush with ring backing mounted in the groove of the exterior ring of the turbine, and also reduces the size of the standoff support or eliminates the standoff support.

  10. Geothermal drill pipe corrosion test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, B.C.; Copass, K.S.

    1980-12-01

    Plans are presented for conducting a field test of drill pipe corrosion, comparing air and nitrogen as drilling fluids. This test will provide data for evaluating the potential of reducing geothermal well drilling costs by extending drill pipe life and reducing corrosion control costs. The 10-day test will take place during fall 1980 at the Baca Location in Sandoval County, New Mexico.

  11. Estimation of leak rate through circumferential cracks in pipes in nuclear power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai Hak Park

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The leak before break (LBB concept is widely used in designing pipe lines in nuclear power plants. According to the concept, the amount of leaking liquid from a pipe should be more than the minimum detectable leak rate of a leak detection system before catastrophic failure occurs. Therefore, accurate estimation of the leak rate is important to evaluate the validity of the LBB concept in pipe line design. In this paper, a program was developed to estimate the leak rate through circumferential cracks in pipes in nuclear power plants using the Henry–Fauske flow model and modified Henry–Fauske flow model. By using the developed program, the leak rate was calculated for a circumferential crack in a sample pipe, and the effect of the flow model on the leak rate was examined. Treating the crack morphology parameters as random variables, the statistical behavior of the leak rate was also examined. As a result, it was found that the crack morphology parameters have a strong effect on the leak rate and the statistical behavior of the leak rate can be simulated using normally distributed crack morphology parameters.

  12. Evaluation of conjugate, radial heat transfer in an internally insulated composite pipe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reurings, C.; Koussios, S.; Bergsma, O.K.; Vergote, K.

    2015-01-01

    In order to compete with steel, a fibre-reinforced composite exhaust wall with a general-purpose resin system requires an effective but lightweight insulation layer. However a lack of experimental methods for heat transfer from turbulent gas flow to pipe walls lined with a porous insulation layer wa

  13. Evaluation of conjugate, radial heat transfer in an internally insulated composite pipe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reurings, C.; Koussios, S.; Bergsma, O.K.; Vergote, K.

    2015-01-01

    In order to compete with steel, a fibre-reinforced composite exhaust wall with a general-purpose resin system requires an effective but lightweight insulation layer. However a lack of experimental methods for heat transfer from turbulent gas flow to pipe walls lined with a porous insulation layer

  14. Root cause analysis of vibrations and pulsations in a naphtha pipe system with centrifugal pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, E. van; Almasy, S.

    2010-01-01

    The capacity of a platform installation consisting of naphtha feed lines from centrifugal pumps to an oven has been increased by 25 % in combination with rerouting of the piping layout upstream of the oven and inside the convection zone. The operating company observed considerable increase of the vi

  15. Root cause analysis of vibrations and pulsations in a naphtha pipe system with centrifugal pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, E. van; Almasy, S.

    2010-01-01

    The capacity of a platform installation consisting of naphtha feed lines from centrifugal pumps to an oven has been increased by 25 % in combination with rerouting of the piping layout upstream of the oven and inside the convection zone. The operating company observed considerable increase of the

  16. IPIRG programs - advances in pipe fracture technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkowski, G.; Olson, R.; Scott, P. [Batelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of the advances made in fracture control technology as a result of the research performed in the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) program. The findings from numerous experiments and supporting analyses conducted to investigate the behavior of circumferentially flawed piping and pipe systems subjected to high-rate loading typical of seismic events are summarized. Topics to be discussed include; (1) Seismic loading effects on material properties, (2) Piping system behavior under seismic loads, (3) Advances in elbow fracture evaluations, and (4) {open_quotes}Real{close_quotes} piping system response. The presentation for each topic will be illustrated with data and analytical results. In each case, the state-of-the-art in fracture mechanics prior to the first IPIRG program will be contrasted with the state-of-the-art at the completion of the IPIRG-2 program.

  17. Evaluating the Risks of Surface Spills Associated with Hydraulic Fracturing Activities to Groundwater Resources: a Modeling Study in the South Platte Alluvial Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, C.; McLaughlin, M.; Blotevogel, J.; Benson, D. A.; Borch, T.; McCray, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has revolutionized the U.S.'s energy portfolio by making shale reservoirs productive and commercially viable. However, the public is concerned that the chemical constituents in hydraulic fracturing fluid, produced water, or natural gas itself could potentially impact groundwater or adjacent streams. Here, we conduct fate and transport simulations of surface spills, the most likely contamination pathway to occur during oil and gas production operations, to evaluate whether or not these spills pose risks to groundwater quality. We focus on the South Platte Alluvial Aquifer, which is located in the greater Denver metro area and overlaps a zone of high-density oil and gas development. The purpose of this work is to assess the mobility and persistence of chemical contaminants (e.g. biocides, friction reducers, surfactants, hydrocarbons, etc.) —based on sorption to soil, degradation potential, co-contaminant interactions, and spill conditions—and to understand the site characteristics and hydrologic conditions that would make a particular location prone to groundwater quality degradation in the event of an accidental release. We propose a coupled analytical-numerical approach that could be duplicated by environmental consultants. Results suggest that risk of groundwater pollution, based on predicted concentration at the groundwater table, is low in most areas of the South Platte system for the contaminants investigated under common spill conditions. However, substantial risk may exist in certain areas where the groundwater table is shallow. In addition, transport of certain contaminants is influenced by interactions with other constituents in produced or stimulation fluids. By helping to identify locations in the Front Range of Colorado that are at low or high risk for groundwater contamination due to a surface spill, it is our hope that this work will aid in improving prevention, mitigation, and remediation practices so that decision-makers can

  18. Improvement in Mechanical Properties of SA508 Gr.1a Piping Material by Modifying Microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Weon; Choi, Myung Rak [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Young Jin; Park, Heung Bae; Kim, Kyung Su [KEPCO E-C, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    It is attempted to apply LBB concept to the design of secondary piping systems, such as main-steam line and feed-water line. But, for obtaining sufficient margin in LBB analysis for these piping systems, it is necessary to reduce the applied loads by improving structural design and to employ piping material with higher toughness and strength than existing piping materials such as SA106 Gr.C and SA106 Gr.B carbon steels. SA508 Gr.1a ferritic steel has been used for the reactor coolant system (RCS) piping in KSNP (Korea Nuclear Power Plant) and is known to have good toughness and strength as well as weld ability. Such characteristics provide a sufficient margin in the LBB analysis for RCS piping. Based on SA508 Gr.1a piping material, thus, this study attempts to obtain a further improved piping material by modifying microstructure of SA508 Gr.1a without change of chemical composition. In order to obtain a modified microstructure, thus, this study simply heat-treated again SA508 Gr.1a piping material at the same heat-treatment condition that had been employed in the fabrication of SA508 Gr.1a piping material. The microstructure is composed of the homogeneous mixture of fine-grained ferrite and bainite. This is different from that of as-received SA508 Gr.1a. This difference is associated with different size of object to be heat-treated. This shows that SA508 Gr.1a piping material has a microstructure with fine-grained ferrite and bainite mixture, which provides good toughness and strength, if it is properly heat-treated. Tensile and J-R tests were conducted using specimens machined form modified SA508 Gr.1a piping material given by heat-treated, and the results were compared with those tested from as-received SA508 Gr..1a piping material. At 316 .deg. C, however, both strength and elongation of modified SA508 Gr.1a are higher than those of as-received SA508 Gra.1a. The results of J-R tests showed that J-R curve of modified SA508 Gr.1a is almost the same as that of as

  19. Measurements of Sc I gf-values. [absorption spectroscopy using heat pipe oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, W. H.; Reeves, E. M.; Tomkins, F. S.

    1976-01-01

    Absolute gf-values were obtained for 98 transitions in neutral scandium by the hook method using an inductively coupled heat-pipe oven. Of the 98 lines, 51 are classified, 33 are unclassified lines that occur in pairs with the lower energy level identified, and 14 are unclassified but are believed to originate from one of the two lower levels of the ground state. The results are compared with semiempirical and other measurement results in the literature.

  20. 49 CFR 192.719 - Transmission lines: Testing of repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. 192.719... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.719 Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. (a) Testing of replacement pipe. If a segment of transmission line...

  1. LABAN emplacement pipe load-release test and stemming/canister alignment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, D.L.

    1983-12-02

    An Emplacement Pipe Load-Release Test and a study of downhole alignment during stemming were performed on the LABAN event. The purpose of these experiments was to determine canister and line of sight (LOS) distortion induced by downhole stemming and load-release procedures. The load-release test was aborted at approximately 40% completion due to excessive canister distortions. This report summarizes test results in terms of emplacement pipe loads vs vertical canister motions, canister and LOS lateral displacements, and the changes in LOS alignment that resulted from the downhole stemming and load-release processes.

  2. Non-Newtonian Liquid Flow through Small Diameter Piping Components: CFD Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Tarun Kanti; Das, Sudip Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis have been carried out to evaluate the frictional pressure drop across the horizontal pipeline and different piping components, like elbows, orifices, gate and globe valves for non-Newtonian liquid through 0.0127 m pipe line. The mesh generation is done using GAMBIT 6.3 and FLUENT 6.3 is used for CFD analysis. The CFD results are verified with our earlier published experimental data. The CFD results show the very good agreement with the experimental values.

  3. Casing free district heating pipes; Mantelfria fjaerrvaermeroer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saellberg, Sven-Erik; Nilsson, Stefan [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that polyurethane insulation (PUR foam) on district heating pipes acts as protection against water if it is of good quality, i.e. free from cracks, cavities and other defects. On the other hand water vapour easily diffuses through PUR foam. However this is not a problem as long as the steel pipe is warmer than the surface layer, since the high temperature will prevent the vapour from condensating. What will happen with the insulation of a casing free district heating pipe where the ground water level occasionally reaches above the pipe has not been studied in detail. The current project has studied to what extent moisture enters the PUR foam insulation of two approximately one meter long district heating pipes without casing which have been in the ground for four years. Occasionally, the ground-water has entirely covered the pipes. In addition, the foam has been studied with respect to damage from the surrounding backfill material. Test specimens were taken out of the casing free pipes and were analysed with respect to moisture content. Additional measurements were done with a moisture indicator, and the electric resistance between the steel pipes and the four surveillance wires in each pipe was measured. The results from the various measurement techniques were the compared. The results show that the PUR foam remains dry as long as the service pipe is hot if no defects, such as crack and cavities, are present. Close to the service pipe, the foam actually dries out over time. The moisture content of the middle layer remains more or less constant. Only the colder parts on the outside exhibit an increase in moisture content. It was also seen that defects may lead to water ingress with subsequent humidification of the foam. However, the damaged foam area is limited. This is not the case for a regular pipe with a vapour tight casing, where experience show that moisture tend to spread along the pipe. The pipes were buried in sand and no

  4. Equivalent thermal conductivity of heat pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zesheng LU; Binghui MA

    2008-01-01

    In precision machining, the machining error from thermal distortion carries a high proportion of the total errors. If a precision machining tool can transfer heat fast, the thermal distortion will be reduced and the machining precision will be improved. A heat pipe working based on phase transitions of the inner working liquid transfers heat with high efficiency and is widely applied in spaceflight and chemical industries. In mechanics, applications of heat pipes are correspondingly less. When a heat pipe is applied to a hydrostatic motor-ized spindle, the thermal distortion cannot be solved dur-ing the heat transfer process because thermal conductivity or equivalent thermal conductivity should be provided first for special application in mechanics. An equivalent thermal conductivity model based on equivalent thermal resistances is established. Performance tests for a screen wick pipe, gravity pipe, and rotation heat pipe are done to validate the efficiency of the equivalent thermal conduc-tivity model. The proposed model provides a calculation method for the thermal distortion analysis of heat pipes applied in the motorized spindle.

  5. Research of Spined Heat-Exchanging Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akulov Kirill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Work is devoted to a research of spined heat-exchanging pipes that are assumed to use in air-cooler exchangers (ACE. The proposed new geometry of finning allows intensifying heat exchange and improving the efficiency of air coolers. It is caused by the increased area of finned surface with a value of finning ratio (the ratio of the area of the smooth pipe to a finned one to 42.7, while in the commercially available ACE, the figure is 22. Besides, the geometrical arrangement of the pin fins turbulizes the airflow. It should be mentioned that an easier method of manufacturing of heat exchanging pipes is proposed to use, which will reduce their costs. The proposed heat exchange pipes are made by winding cut aluminum strip to the supporting pipe or stretching stamped blanks on it. To increase the efficiency of the heat exchange surface pin fins should be as thin and long as possible; however, their strength should be sufficient for deformation-free operation. Fins should be staggered to maximize the distance between them. Spined heat-exchange pipes are designed to operate in a commercially produced ACE and their service is carried out similarly to commercially produced transversely finned pipes.

  6. Methods for Analyzing Pipe Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    1989-01-01

    The governing equations for a general network are first set up and then reformulated in terms of matrices. This is developed to show that the choice of model for the flow equations is essential for the behavior of the iterative method used to solve the problem. It is shown that it is better...... to formulate the flow equations in terms of pipe discharges than in terms of energy heads. The behavior of some iterative methods is compared in the initial phase with large errors. It is explained why the linear theory method oscillates when the iteration gets close to the solution, and it is further...... demonstrated that this method offers good starting values for a Newton-Raphson iteration....

  7. Determination of geomagnetic archaeomagnitudes from clay pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Games, K. P.; Baker, M. E.

    1981-02-01

    Archaeomagnitude determinations of a selection of clay pipes dateable to AD 1645+/-10 as well as studies of pottery samples from the same site and of the same age have been made. Values of the magnitude of the ancient magnetic field (Banc), were obtained from two pottery sherds, two pipe bowls and three pipe stems. The values from the sherds and bowls agree within 2% and compare well with the average value of the magnitude of the magnetic field for the seventeenth century as determined by other archaeomagnetic studies. However, the pipe stems give values of Banc which are significantly less than those from the bowls and pottery. We have not yet been able to explain this and thus we suggest that reliable archaeomagnitude determinations can be made from the bowls of clay pipes but not from the stems. Nevertheless, this result provides a new source of material for investigating variations in the geomagnetic field strength over the past 400 yr. Clay pipes have been manufactured in England since the end of the sixteenth century. In the firing process some pipes were broken and disposed of without ever having been smoked. One such collection, discovered at Rainford, Lancashire, in 1978, consisted of a series of discrete dumps including pipes, kiln debris and a small collection of contemporary used earthenware sherds. The internal consideration of the dumps suggested a very short period of activity and archaeologists (P. Davey, personal communication) ascribe all the material to the period 1645+/-10 yr. With such well-dated material, we set out to check whether or not reliable archaeomagnitudes could be obtained from the pipes.

  8. 30 CFR 75.1905-1 - Diesel fuel piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel fuel piping systems. 75.1905-1 Section... Diesel fuel piping systems. (a) Diesel fuel piping systems from the surface must be designed and operated... spillage of fuel and that activates an alarm system. (b) All piping, valves and fittings must be—...

  9. 46 CFR 182.720 - Nonmetallic piping materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonmetallic piping materials. 182.720 Section 182.720... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Piping Systems § 182.720 Nonmetallic piping materials. (a) Rigid... systems where permitted by paragraph (e) of this section. (c) Nonmetallic piping must not be used...

  10. 46 CFR 119.720 - Nonmetallic piping materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonmetallic piping materials. 119.720 Section 119.720 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... Piping Systems § 119.720 Nonmetallic piping materials. Nonmetallic piping materials,...

  11. 46 CFR 58.25-20 - Piping for steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping for steering gear. 58.25-20 Section 58.25-20... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-20 Piping for steering gear. (a) Pressure piping must... actuating system including the reservoir. The storage tank must be permanently connected by piping so...

  12. 46 CFR 153.294 - Marking of piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking of piping systems. 153.294 Section 153.294... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.294 Marking of piping systems. (a) Each cargo piping...

  13. 46 CFR 153.280 - Piping system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping system design. 153.280 Section 153.280 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.280 Piping system design. (a) Each cargo piping system must...

  14. 46 CFR 182.710 - Piping for vital systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping for vital systems. 182.710 Section 182.710... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Piping Systems § 182.710 Piping for vital systems. (a) Vital systems are... section is a non-vital system. (c) Piping used in a vital system must: (1) Be composed of...

  15. 46 CFR 116.970 - Protection against hot piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection against hot piping. 116.970 Section 116.970 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 116.970 Protection against hot piping. Piping, including valves, pipe...

  16. 46 CFR 154.512 - Piping: Thermal isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping: Thermal isolation. 154.512 Section 154.512 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... and Process Piping Systems § 154.512 Piping: Thermal isolation. Low temperature piping must...

  17. 46 CFR 182.730 - Nonferrous metallic piping materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonferrous metallic piping materials. 182.730 Section... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Piping Systems § 182.730 Nonferrous metallic piping materials. (a) Nonferrous metallic piping materials are acceptable for use in the following: (1)...

  18. 46 CFR 154.516 - Piping: Hull protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping: Hull protection. 154.516 Section 154.516... and Process Piping Systems § 154.516 Piping: Hull protection. A vessel's hull must be protected from...-522), at: (a) Each piping connection dismantled on a routine basis; (b) Cargo discharge and...

  19. 46 CFR 61.15-15 - Other piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other piping. 61.15-15 Section 61.15-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-15 Other piping. (a) All other piping systems shall be...

  20. 46 CFR 154.528 - Piping joints: Flange type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping joints: Flange type. 154.528 Section 154.528... and Process Piping Systems § 154.528 Piping joints: Flange type. (a) A flange must be one of the following types: (1) Welding neck. (2) Slip-on. (3) Socket weld. (b) If the piping is designed for...

  1. 46 CFR 153.910 - Cargo piping plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo piping plan. 153.910 Section 153.910 Shipping... Information § 153.910 Cargo piping plan. No person may operate a tankship unless the tankship has a cargo piping plan that: (a) Shows all cargo piping on the tankship; (b) Shows all cargo valving, pumps,...

  2. 46 CFR 154.519 - Piping relief valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping relief valves. 154.519 Section 154.519 Shipping... Process Piping Systems § 154.519 Piping relief valves. (a) The liquid relief valve that protects the cargo piping system from liquid pressure exceeding the design pressure must discharge into: (1) A cargo...

  3. 46 CFR 56.30-3 - Piping joints (reproduces 110).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping joints (reproduces 110). 56.30-3 Section 56.30-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Selection and Limitations of Piping Joints § 56.30-3 Piping joints (reproduces 110). The type...

  4. 46 CFR 153.292 - Separation of piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Separation of piping systems. 153.292 Section 153.292... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.292 Separation of piping systems. Cargo piping systems must...

  5. 46 CFR 119.710 - Piping for vital systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping for vital systems. 119.710 Section 119.710... Piping Systems § 119.710 Piping for vital systems. (a) Vital systems are those systems that are vital to...-vital system. (c) Piping used in a vital system must meet § 56.60 in subchapter F of this...

  6. 46 CFR 154.514 - Piping: Electrical bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping: Electrical bonding. 154.514 Section 154.514 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... and Process Piping Systems § 154.514 Piping: Electrical bonding. (a) Cargo tanks or piping that...

  7. 46 CFR 98.25-55 - Cargo piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo piping. 98.25-55 Section 98.25-55 Shipping COAST... Cargo piping. (a) Piping shall be of seamless steel meeting the requirements of § 56.60-1 of subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. The piping shall be of not less than Schedule 40...

  8. 46 CFR 154.355 - Bow and stern loading piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bow and stern loading piping. 154.355 Section 154.355... Arrangements § 154.355 Bow and stern loading piping. (a) Bow and stern loading piping must: (1) Meet § 154.310...; (3) Be clearly marked; (4) Be segregated from the cargo piping by a removable spool piece in...

  9. 49 CFR 192.121 - Design of plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design of plastic pipe. 192.121 Section 192.121... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.121 Design of plastic pipe. Subject to the limitations of § 192.123, the design pressure for plastic pipe is determined by either of...

  10. 49 CFR 192.125 - Design of copper pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design of copper pipe. 192.125 Section 192.125... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.125 Design of copper pipe. (a) Copper pipe used in mains must have a minimum wall thickness of 0.065 inches (1.65 millimeters) and must be...

  11. 49 CFR 192.277 - Ductile iron pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ductile iron pipe. 192.277 Section 192.277 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Ductile iron pipe. (a) Ductile iron pipe may not be joined by threaded joints. (b) Ductile iron pipe may...

  12. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.105 Design formula for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the following...

  13. 49 CFR 195.212 - Bending of pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bending of pipe. 195.212 Section 195.212... PIPELINE Construction § 195.212 Bending of pipe. (a) Pipe must not have a wrinkle bend. (b) Each field bend must comply with the following: (1) A bend must not impair the serviceability of the pipe. (2) Each...

  14. 46 CFR 154.548 - Cargo piping: Flow capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo piping: Flow capacity. 154.548 Section 154.548... and Process Piping Systems § 154.548 Cargo piping: Flow capacity. Piping with an excess flow valve must have a vapor or liquid flow capacity that is greater than the rated closing flow under § 154.546....

  15. 49 CFR 192.275 - Cast iron pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cast iron pipe. 192.275 Section 192.275... Cast iron pipe. (a) Each caulked bell and spigot joint in cast iron pipe must be sealed with mechanical leak clamps. (b) Each mechanical joint in cast iron pipe must have a gasket made of a...

  16. Heat pipe testing program test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienert, W.B.

    1980-03-14

    A test plan is given which describes the tests to be conducted on several typical solar receiver heat pipes. The hardware to be used, test fixtures and rationale of the test program are discussed. The program objective is to perform life testing under simulated receiver conditions, and to conduct performance tests with selected heat pipes to further map their performance, particularly with regard to their transient behavior. Performance requirements are defined. Test fixtures designed for the program are described in detail, and their capabilities for simulating the receiver conditions and their limitations are discussed. The heat pipe design is given. (LEW)

  17. Fatigue analysis of aluminum drill pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Ribeiro Plácido

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental program was performed to investigate the fundamental fatigue mechanisms of aluminum drill pipes. Initially, the fatigue properties were determined through small-scale tests performed in an optic-mechanical fatigue apparatus. Additionally, full-scale fatigue tests were carried out with three aluminum drill pipe specimens under combined loading of cyclic bending and constant axial tension. Finally, a finite element model was developed to simulate the stress field along the aluminum drill pipe during the fatigue tests and to estimate the stress concentration factors inside the tool joints. By this way, it was possible to estimate the stress values in regions not monitored during the fatigue tests.

  18. Gas lensing in a heated spinning pipe

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafusire, C

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Spinning Pipe C MAFUSIRE1,2, A FORBES2, G SNEDDEN3, C MAHLASE3, MM MICHAELIS4 & M MATHUTHU1 1University of Zimbabwe, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe 2CSIR National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa 3CSIR Defence Peace Safety... this system. BEAM PROPAGATION THROUGH GAS LENSES The heated spinning pipe acts as a GRIN lens where the refractive index variation inside the pipe is given by The variable parameters of the gas lens in this work were the rotation...

  19. Arterial gas occlusions in operating heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaski, E. W.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of noncondensable gases on high performance arterial heat pipes has been investigated both analytically and experimentally. Models have been generated which characterize the dissolution of gases in condensate and the diffusional loss of dissolved gases from condensate in arterial flow. These processes, and others, have been used to postulate stability criteria for arterial heat pipes. Experimental observations of gas occlusions were made using a stainless steel heat pipe equipped with viewing ports, and the working fluids methanol and ammonia with the gas additives helium, argon, and xenon. Observations were related to gas transport models.

  20. Heat pipes theory, design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Reay, David; Kew, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Heat Pipes, 6th Edition, takes a highly practical approach to the design and selection of heat pipes, making it an essential guide for practicing engineers and an ideal text for postgraduate students. This new edition has been revised to include new information on the underlying theory of heat pipes and heat transfer, and features fully updated applications, new data sections, and updated chapters on design and electronics cooling. The book is a useful reference for those with experience and an accessible introduction for those approaching the topic for the first time. Contains all informat

  1. Characterization of radioactive contamination inside pipes with the Pipe Explorer{sup trademark} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, C.D.; Lowry, W.; Cramer, E. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s nuclear facility decommissioning program needs to characterize radiological contamination inside piping systems before the pipe can be recycled, remediated, or disposed. Historically, this has been attempted using hand held survey instrumentation, surveying only the accessible exterior portions of pipe systems. Difficulty, or inability of measuring threshold surface contamination values, worker exposure, and physical access constraints have limited the effectiveness of this approach. Science and Engineering associates, Inc. under contract with the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center has developed and demonstrated the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system, which uses an inverting membrane to transport various characterization sensors into pipes. The basic process involves inverting (turning inside out) a tubular impermeable membrane under air pressure. A characterization sensor is towed down the interior of the pipe by the membrane.

  2. Coolant choice for the central beryllium pipe of the BESIII beam pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li-Fang; Wang, Li; Wu, Ping; Ji, Quan; Li, Xun-Feng; Liu, Jian-Ping

    2010-07-01

    In order to take away much more heat on the BESIII beam pipe to guarantee the normal particle detection, EDM-1 (oil No.1 for electric discharge machining), with good thermal and flow properties was selected as the candidate coolant for the central beryllium pipe of the BESIII beam pipe. Its cooling character was studied and dynamic corrosion experiment was undertaken to examine its corrosion on beryllium. The experiment results show that EDM-1 would corrode the beryllium 19.9 μm in the depth in 10 years, which is weak and can be neglected. Finite element simulation and experiment research were taken to check the cooling capacity of EDM-1. The results show that EDM-1 can meet the cooling requirement of the central beryllium pipe. Now EDM-1 is being used to cool the central beryllium pipe of the BESIII beam pipe.

  3. Alpha detection in pipes using an inverting membrane scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendrick, D.T.; Cremer, C.D.; Lowry, W. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Characterization of surface alpha emitting contamination inside enclosed spaces such as piping systems presents an interesting radiological measurement challenge. Detection of these alpha particles from the exterior of the pipe is impossible since the alpha particles are completely absorbed by the pipe wall. Traditional survey techniques, using hand-held instruments, simply can not be used effectively inside pipes. Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. is currently developing an enhancement to its Pipe Explorer{trademark} system that will address this challenge. The Pipe Explorer{trademark} uses a unique sensor deployment method where an inverted tubular membrane is propagated through complex pipe runs via air pressure. The inversion process causes the membrane to fold out against the pipe wall, such that no part of the membrane drags along the pipe wall. This deployment methodology has been successfully demonstrated at several DOE sites to transport specially designed beta and gamma, scintillation detectors into pipes ranging in length up to 250 ft.

  4. Pressure Change in Tee Branch Pipe in Oscillatory Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Sakamoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of unsteady flow of branch pipes in pneumatic systems. Branch pipes are used in pneumatic pipe systems in various industrial fields. To predict the unsteady pressure changes in the pneumatic piping systems, it is necessary that the dynamic characteristics of branch pipes are at hand, in addition to the dynamic characteristic of single pipe. However, while so many studies are accumulated for a single pipe dynamics, few studies have reported the pressure changes in branch pipes due to oscillatory flow. This paper reports an experimental study on the dynamic characteristics of the pressure change in a pneumatic branch pipe under given oscillatory flow. The paper also proposes a simulation method to predict the pressure changes in a pneumatic branch pipe under oscillatory flow. The validity of simulation is verified for oscillatory flows up to 5 Hz, comparing with the experimental results.

  5. 78 FR 25253 - Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure From the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure From the People... seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe ] (``seamless pipe'') from the...

  6. Computation on pipe dynamic response induced by deflagration of H2 and air mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Computation is devoted to evaluating structural safety of a heat exchanger inside a reactor whose geometry can be simplified as outer and inner pipes as well as a chamber. This paper has numerically studied deflagration of hydrogen air mixture and pipe dynamic responses. The Navier-Stokes equations coupled with multi-species mass equation are solved by TVD scheme to get flow-field solution based on MPI and multi-block methods. Combustion is described by a 11-species and 23-step reaction model. The source term is treated implicitly to involve species production and depletion. Ignition is approximated by input energy CpT per unit mass in a specified period and zone. Finally,contours of pressure and OH mass fraction at different time pe-riods and pressure histories at fixed points are obtained. When loading is specified as wall pressure,virtual work theorem in Lagrangian frame which describes pipe response is solved by FEM to obtain stress and strain distributions. Results show that shock waves can be generated and reflected on the walls of the chamber and pipes. The shock waves and flame can not be dis-sipated in a narrow gap spanning 2 mm. Meanwhile,stress waves are generated. They propagate outwards on the inner and outer pipe walls. At the gap exit,shock wave diffracts and impacts on the inner pipe walls. Coupled with hot jet from the gap,reignition occurs on the inner pipe wall surfaces. Then,flame catches up the leading shock and shock front deforms into a planar one although the shock front passes through a short divergent section downstream. Also,stress concentrates along the intersected lines among the top,bottom and side walls. This means that the chamber is an easily damaged component. The methods provided in this paper can be used to evaluate structural safety.

  7. Preliminary piping layout and integration of European test blanket modules subsystems in ITER CVCS area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarallo, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.tarallo@unina.it [CREATE, University of Naples Federico II, DII, P.le Tecchio, 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Mozzillo, Rocco; Di Gironimo, Giuseppe [CREATE, University of Naples Federico II, DII, P.le Tecchio, 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Aiello, Antonio; Utili, Marco [ENEA UTIS, C.R. Brasimone, Bacino del Brasimone, I-40032 Camugnano, BO (Italy); Ricapito, Italo [TBM& MD Project, Fusion for Energy, EU Commission, Carrer J. Pla, 2, Building B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • The use of human modeling tools for piping design in view of maintenance is discussed. • A possible preliminary layout for TBM subsystems in CVCS area has been designed with CATIA. • A DHM-based method to quickly check for maintainability of piping systems is suggested. - Abstract: This paper explores a possible integration of some ancillary systems of helium-cooled lithium lead (HCLL) and helium-cooled pebble-bed (HCPB) test blanket modules in ITER CVCS area. Computer-aided design and ergonomics simulation tools have been fundamental not only to define suitable routes for pipes, but also to quickly check for maintainability of equipment and in-line components. In particular, accessibility of equipment and systems has been investigated from the very first stages of the design using digital human models. In some cases, the digital simulations have resulted in changes in the initial space reservations.

  8. Three dimensional damage mechanics analysis of real life reactor piping components under various loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durgaprasad, P.V.; Sahu, M.K.; Dutta, B.K. (Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Trombay, Mumbai (India)), e-mail: pvdp@barc.gov.in

    2009-07-01

    In this work, the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) damage mechanics model is used for the crack growth analysis of real life reactor piping components. The paper also addresses the challenges involved in such analyses. As a part of component integrity testing, a comprehensive experimental program has been pursued to generate the fracture behavior of reactor piping components. Several real life pipes and elbows with various flaw sizes have been tested under different loading conditions like temperature, pressure, bending etc. In the present work, some of the selected components have been analyzed numerically by using parallel in-house finite element code 'MADAM' with GTN constitutive model. The strength of the micro mechanical models has been demonstrated by comparing the numerical results like load v/s. load-line displacements, J-R curves with the experimental data

  9. Analytical approach and field monitoring for mechanical behaviors of pipe roof reinforcement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hai-tao; JIA Jin-qing; KANG Hai-gui

    2009-01-01

    Considering the delay effect of initial lining and revising the Winkler elastic foundation model, an analytical approach based on Pasternak elastic foundation beam theory for pipe roof reinforcement was put forward. With the example of a certain tunnel excavation, the comparison of the values of longitudinal strain of reinforcing pipe between field monitoring and analytical approach was made. The results indicate that Pasternak model, which considers a more realistic hypothesis in the elastic soil than Winkler model, gives more accurate calculation and agrees better with the result of field monitoring. The difference of calculation results between these two models is about 7%, and Pasternak model is proved to be a better way to study the reinforcement mechanism and improve design practice. The calculation results also reveal that the reinforcing pipes act as levers, which increases longitudinal load transfer to an unexcavated area, and consequently decreases deformation and increases face stability.

  10. Visualization of working fluid flow in gravity assisted heat pipe

    OpenAIRE

    Nemec Patrik; Malcho Milan

    2015-01-01

    Heat pipe is device working with phase changes of working fluid inside hermetically closed pipe at specific pressure. The phase changes of working fluid from fluid to vapor and vice versa help heat pipe to transport high heat flux. The article deal about construction and processes casing in heat pipe during operation. Experiment visualization of working fluid flow is performed with glass heat pipe filed with ethanol. The visualization of working fluid flow explains the phenomena as working fl...

  11. Optimizing the Pipe Diameter of the Pipe Belt Conveyor Based on Discrete Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yong-cun; Wang, Shuang; Hu, Kun; Li, De-yong

    2016-03-01

    In order to increase the transport volume of the pipe belt conveyor and reduce lateral pressure of the supporting roller set, this study aims to optimize the pipe diameter of the pipe belt conveyor. A mechanical model of the pipe belt conveyor with six supporting roller sets in the belt bearing section was built based on the infinitesimal method, and the formula for calculating the lateral pressure of each supporting roller was deduced on the basis of reasonable assumption. Simulated analysis was carried out on the operation process of the pipe belt conveyor by using the discrete element method. The result showed that, when the other conditions were certain, as the pipe diameter increased, the average lateral pressure of the supporting roller set increased, with a gradually decreasing increment, which was consistent with the calculated result of the theoretical formula. An optimized pipe diameter under the current conditions was obtained by fitting the curve of the formula for calculating the transport volume of the pipe belt conveyor and its simulation curve. It provided a certain reference value for improving the transport efficiency and prolonging the service life of the pipe belt conveyor.

  12. Impact of the amount of working fluid in loop heat pipe to remove waste heat from electronic component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smitka Martin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the options on how to remove waste heat from electronic components is using loop heat pipe. The loop heat pipe (LHP is a two-phase device with high effective thermal conductivity that utilizes change phase to transport heat. It was invented in Russia in the early 1980’s. The main parts of LHP are an evaporator, a condenser, a compensation chamber and a vapor and liquid lines. Only the evaporator and part of the compensation chamber are equipped with a wick structure. Inside loop heat pipe is working fluid. As a working fluid can be used distilled water, acetone, ammonia, methanol etc. Amount of filling is important for the operation and performance of LHP. This work deals with the design of loop heat pipe and impact of filling ratio of working fluid to remove waste heat from insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT.

  13. Multi-leg heat pipe evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J. P.; Haslett, R. A. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A multileg heat pipe evaporator facilitates the use and application of a monogroove heat pipe by providing an evaporation section which is compact in area and structurally more compatible with certain heat exchangers or heat input apparatus. The evaporation section of a monogroove heat pipe is formed by a series of parallel legs having a liquid and a vapor channel and a communicating capillary slot therebetween. The liquid and vapor channels and interconnecting capillary slots of the evaporating section are connected to the condensing section of the heat pipe by a manifold connecting liquid and vapor channels of the parallel evaporation section legs with the corresponding liquid and vapor channels of the condensing section.

  14. Reliability Estimation for Double Containment Piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Cadwallader; T. Pinna

    2012-08-01

    Double walled or double containment piping is considered for use in the ITER international project and other next-generation fusion device designs to provide an extra barrier for tritium gas and other radioactive materials. The extra barrier improves confinement of these materials and enhances safety of the facility. This paper describes some of the design challenges in designing double containment piping systems. There is also a brief review of a few operating experiences of double walled piping used with hazardous chemicals in different industries. This paper recommends approaches for the reliability analyst to use to quantify leakage from a double containment piping system in conceptual and more advanced designs. The paper also cites quantitative data that can be used to support such reliability analyses.

  15. 75 FR 8113 - Drill Pipe From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Drill Pipe From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject antidumping and countervailing duty investigations. DATES: Effective...

  16. Titanium Heat Pipe Thermal Plane Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermacore Inc. proposes an innovative titanium heat pipe thermal plane for passive thermal control of individual cells within a fuel cell stack. The proposed...

  17. Titanium Heat Pipe Thermal Plane Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II program is to complete the development of the titanium heat pipe thermal plane and establish all necessary steps for production of this...

  18. Heat transfer, thermal control, and heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    This volume provides information on recent progress in spacecraft thermal control and the supporting disciplines of conduction, thermal radiation, and heat pipe theory and application. Four problem areas are considered: conduction heat transfer, radiation heat transfer, thermal control, and heat pipes. The topics covered include finite-element methodology for transient conduction/forced-convection thermal analysis; effects of surface finish on thermal contact resistance between different materials; mathematical models for wide-band nongray gas radiation in spherical and cylindrical geometries; thermal design, analysis and testing of the Shuttle remote manipulator arm; porous heat pipe; and transient behavior of liquid trap heat-pipe thermal diodes. Also discussed is the thermal design concept for a high-resolution UV spectrometer.

  19. Rhode Island Piping Plover Restoration Project 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The recovery plan for Piping Plover on Rhode Island discusses the current status of the species, habitat requirements and limiting factors, recovery objectives and...

  20. High Energy Vibration for Gas Piping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gary Y. H.; Chan, K. B.; Lee, Aylwin Y. S.; Jia, ShengXiang

    2017-07-01

    In September 2016, a gas compressor in offshore Sarawak has its rotor changed out. Prior to this change-out, pipe vibration study was carried-out by the project team to evaluate any potential high energy pipe vibration problems at the compressor’s existing relief valve downstream pipes due to process condition changes after rotor change out. This paper covers high frequency acoustic excitation (HFAE) vibration also known as acoustic induced vibration (AIV) study and discusses detailed methodologies as a companion to the Energy Institute Guidelines for the avoidance of vibration induced fatigue failure, which is a common industry practice to assess and mitigate for AIV induced fatigue failure. Such detailed theoretical studies can help to minimize or totally avoid physical pipe modification, leading to reduce offshore plant shutdown days to plant shutdowns only being required to accommodate gas compressor upgrades, reducing cost without compromising process safety.