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Sample records for platte north natural

  1. Base of principal aquifer for parts of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobza, Christopher M.; Abraham, Jared D.; Cannia, James C.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Sibray, Steven S.

    2014-01-01

    Water resources in the North and South Platte River valleys of Nebraska, including the valley of Lodgepole Creek, are critical to the social and economic health of the area, and for the recovery of threatened and endangered species in the Platte River Basin. Groundwater and surface water are heavily used resources, and uses are regulated in the study area. Irrigation is the dominant water use and, in most instances, is supplied by both groundwater and surface-water sources. The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to use airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys including the valley of Lodgepole Creek in western Nebraska. The objective of the surveys was to map the aquifers and underlying bedrock topography of selected areas to help improve the understanding of groundwater–surface-water relations to guide water-management decisions. This project was a cooperative study involving the North Platte Natural Resources District, the South Platte Natural Resources District, the Twin Platte Natural Resources District, the Conservation and Survey Division of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, and the Nebraska Environmental Trust. This report presents the interpreted base-of-aquifer surface for part of the area consisting of the North Platte Natural Resources District, the South Platte Natural Resources District, and the Twin Platte Natural Resources District. The interpretations presented herein build on work done by previous researchers from 2008 to 2009 by incorporating additional airborne electromagnetic survey data collected in 2010 and additional test holes from separate, related studies. To make the airborne electromagnetic data useful, numerical inversion was used to convert the measured data into a depth-dependent subsurface resistivity model. An interpretation of the elevation and configuration of the base of aquifer was completed in a geographic information system that provided x, y, and z

  2. Magnetic resonance sounding survey data collected in the North Platte, Twin Platte, and South Platte Natural Resource Districts, Western Nebraska, Fall 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Mason A.; Bloss, Benjamin R.; Irons, Trevor P.; Cannia, James C.; Abraham, Jared D.

    2014-01-01

    This report is a release of digital data and associated survey descriptions from a series of magnetic resonance soundings (MRS, also known as surface nuclear magnetic resonance) that was conducted during October and November of 2012 in areas of western Nebraska as part of a cooperative hydrologic study by the North Platte Natural Resource District (NRD), South Platte NRD, Twin Platte NRD, the Nebraska Environmental Trust, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The objective of the study was to delineate the base-of-aquifer and refine the understanding of the hydrologic properties in the aquifer system. The MRS technique non-invasively measures water content in the subsurface, which makes it a useful tool for hydrologic investigations in the near surface (up to depths of approximately 150 meters). In total, 14 MRS production-level soundings were acquired by the USGS over an area of approximately 10,600 square kilometers. The data are presented here in digital format, along with acquisition information, survey and site descriptions, and metadata.

  3. Base Contours of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  4. Base of principal aquifer boundary for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  5. Base of aquifer contour boundary of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  6. Oil and Natural Gas Pipelines, North America, 2010, Platts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Oil and Natural Gas Pipeline geospatial data layer contains gathering, interstate, and intrastate natural gas pipelines, crude and product oil pipelines, and...

  7. Elevation Control Points to reinterpret the base of aquifer contours after airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  8. Base control points of the aquifer contours enhanced with airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  9. Area of aquifer contours enhanced with airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  10. Base Control Points enhanced with airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  11. Base of aquifer contours model enhanced with airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  12. Base of aquifer contours enhanced with airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  13. Natural Gas Storage Facilities, US, 2010, Platts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Platts Natural Gas Storage Facilities geospatial data layer contains points that represent locations of facilities used for natural gas storage in the United...

  14. Simulation of groundwater flow and analysis of the effects of water-management options in the North Platte Natural Resources District, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Steven M.; Flynn, Amanda T.; Vrabel, Joseph; Ryter, Derek W.

    2015-08-12

    The North Platte Natural Resources District (NPNRD) has been actively collecting data and studying groundwater resources because of concerns about the future availability of the highly inter-connected surface-water and groundwater resources. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the North Platte Natural Resources District, describes a groundwater-flow model of the North Platte River valley from Bridgeport, Nebraska, extending west to 6 miles into Wyoming. The model was built to improve the understanding of the interaction of surface-water and groundwater resources, and as an optimization tool, the model is able to analyze the effects of water-management options on the simulated stream base flow of the North Platte River. The groundwater system and related sources and sinks of water were simulated using a newton formulation of the U.S. Geological Survey modular three-dimensional groundwater model, referred to as MODFLOW–NWT, which provided an improved ability to solve nonlinear unconfined aquifer simulations with wetting and drying of cells. Using previously published aquifer-base-altitude contours in conjunction with newer test-hole and geophysical data, a new base-of-aquifer altitude map was generated because of the strong effect of the aquifer-base topography on groundwater-flow direction and magnitude. The largest inflow to groundwater is recharge originating from water leaking from canals, which is much larger than recharge originating from infiltration of precipitation. The largest component of groundwater discharge from the study area is to the North Platte River and its tributaries, with smaller amounts of discharge to evapotranspiration and groundwater withdrawals for irrigation. Recharge from infiltration of precipitation was estimated with a daily soil-water-balance model. Annual recharge from canal seepage was estimated using available records from the Bureau of Reclamation and then modified with canal

  15. Sport hunting decision document package : North Platte National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes limited hunting opportunities at North Platte NWR. Hunting activities will be permitted, but administratively limited to...

  16. Environmental Assessment : Hunting Plan : North Platte National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Environmental Assessment is to evaluate the feasibility of opening the North Platte National Wildlife Refuge to limited hunting on previously...

  17. [North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1980 calendar year. The report begins by describing...

  18. North Platte National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on North Platte NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and...

  19. Winter raptor use of the Platte and North Platte River Valleys in south central Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingle, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    Winter distribution and abundance of raptors were monitored within the Platte and North Platte river valleys. Data were collected along 265 km of census routes along the Platte and North Platte rivers during the winters of 1978-1979 and 1979-1980. Observations recorded during the second winter involved less observation time and were at somewhat different periods. There were 1574 sightings of 15 species representing 3 raptor families. Number of raptors observed on 54 days from 15 November to 13 February 1978-1979 was 48.3 per 100 km. In 20 days of observation from 5 December to 6 March 1979-1980, 39.7 raptors were observed per 100 km. Small mammal indices were 21 and 12 captures per 1000 trap nights during November 1978 and 1979, respectively. Raptors were sighted most frequently in riverine habitat and least in pasture and tilled fields. American kestrels (Falco sparverius) (11.1 individuals/100 km), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) (9.9), and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) (9.6) were the most frequently sighted raptors. Northern harrier (Circus cyaneus), rough-legged hawk (B. lagopus), and prairie falcon (P. mexicanus) sightings were 3.4, 3.4, and 1.7, respectively. Nine species were seen at a frequency of less than 1.0 individuals/100 km. Improved foraging conditions throughout the region resulted in fewer raptors sighted in 1979-1980.

  20. Ice Jams on the Little Missouri River, North Dakota and North Platte River, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, B. P.; Brookman, D. A.

    2004-12-01

    During the winter months, rivers in the north central United States have a phenomenon occurring, which is known as "ice jams". The initial melting of the river ice causes broken ice buildup, which acts as a quasi-dam restricting the natural flow. Ice jams severely impact ecosystems and are known to cause extensive damage to the channels, as well as man-made structures. The focus of this paper is on ice jams on the Little Missouri River in North Dakota and the North Platte River in Nebraska. Previous investigations done on the Lower Platte River valley, as well as the Missouri River basin, have shown that the primary cause of ice jams on these rivers is due to the spring thaw. The initial portion of the paper will discuss the pattern of ice jams on these rivers, as well as some mitigation strategies for control of these ice jams. The second section will deal with the modeling of ice jams on these river systems using HEC-RAS. This model will be comprised of both two and three-dimensional aspects of the rivers.

  1. Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex annual habitat management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex Annual Habitat Management Plan provides a year long vision and specific guidance on managing habitats...

  2. Final Environmental Assessment : Recreation management on the Lake Minatare Unit, North Platte National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Environmental Assessment is to evaluate the feasibility of removing portions of the North Platte National Wildlife Refuge from the National...

  3. Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1999 calendar year. The report...

  4. Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1994 calendar year. The report...

  5. Survey of reptiles and amphibians of North Platte National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposal is for surveying reptiles and amphibians of North Platte National Wildlife Refuge for the specific goals of generating a species list, species...

  6. Summary of Activities, Crescent Lake and North Platte Refuges : May 1938

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments for May of 1938. The...

  7. Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The report...

  8. Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2000 calendar year. The report...

  9. Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1996 calendar year. The report...

  10. Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2001 calendar year. The report...

  11. Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2004 calendar year. The report...

  12. Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2002 calendar year. The report...

  13. Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2005 calendar year. The report...

  14. Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2003 calendar year. The report...

  15. Narrative report North Platte Refuge: May, June, July, and August, 1943

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1943. The report begins by summarizing the...

  16. Lead Shot availability to birds using the North Platte River near a trap and Skeet range

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A trap and skeet shooting range gun club is located on the North Platte River, below the Guernsey Reservoir in Wyoming. In 1999, we obtained sediment samples to...

  17. Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report...

  18. Assessment of selenium and atrazine exposure and effects to wildlife at the North Platte National Wildlife Refuge, Scottsbluff, Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study evaluated selenium and atrazine exposure and effects to fish and wildlife at North Platte National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) in Scotts Bluff County,...

  19. Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report...

  20. Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1983 calendar year. The report...

  1. Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report...

  2. Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative report: Calendar year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report...

  3. Geohydrology and water quality of the North Platte River alluvial aquifer, Garden County, Western Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Gregory V.; Cannia, James C.

    1995-01-01

    In 1993, a 3-year study was begun to describe the geohydrology and water quality of the North Platte River alluvial aquifer near Oshkosh, Garden County, Nebraska. The study's objectives are to evaluate the geohydrologic characteristics of the alluvial aquifer and to establish a network of observation wells for long-term monitoring of temporal variations and spatial distributions of nitrate and major-ion concentrations. Monitor wells were installed at 11 sites near Oshkosh. The geohydrology of the aquifer was characterized based on water-level measurements and two short-term aquifer tests. Bimonthly water samples were collected and analyzed for pH, specific conductivity, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and nutrients that included dissolved nitrate. Concentrations of major ions were defined from analyses of semiannual water samples. Analyses of the geohydrologic and water-quality data indicate that the aquifer is vulnerable to nitrate contamination. These data also show that nitrate concentrations in ground water flowing into and out of the study area are less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Concentration Level of 10 milligrams per liter for drinking water. Ground water from Lost Creek Valley may be mixing with ground water in the North Platte River Valley, somewhat moderating nitrate concentrations near Oshkosh.

  4. "We Were Beet Workers, and that Was All": Beet Field Laborers in the North Platte Valley, 1902-1930

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Dustin

    2011-01-01

    The experiences of the men, women, and children who labored in the beet fields of the North Platte Valley changed significantly as the sugar beet industry went through a period of rapid expansion prior to 1920 and then reached a relatively stable plateau. During the period of expansion, laborers were attracted by promises of reasonable wages, good…

  5. "We Were Beet Workers, and that Was All": Beet Field Laborers in the North Platte Valley, 1902-1930

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Dustin

    2011-01-01

    The experiences of the men, women, and children who labored in the beet fields of the North Platte Valley changed significantly as the sugar beet industry went through a period of rapid expansion prior to 1920 and then reached a relatively stable plateau. During the period of expansion, laborers were attracted by promises of reasonable wages, good…

  6. Crescent Lake / North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex Integrated Pest Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Integrated Pest Management Plan is to provide a comprehensive, environmentally sensitive approach to managing pests on the Crescent Lake / North...

  7. Selected Discharge Measurements at Stream-Gaging Stations on Lower Platte River near Ashland, Duncan, Leshara, Louisville, and North Bend, Nebraska, 1934-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The accompanying "Lower_Platte_GAGES5" data release consists of two parts, a spatial data layer composed of a vector point data set representing five USGS streamflow...

  8. North American Natural Gas Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Pemex Comercio Internacional (Pemex International), responsible for international trade. 30 North American Natural Gas Vision In 1995, the...distribution of secondary petrochemical products; and Pemex Internacional , which is in charge of international trade. Comisión Reguladora de Energía

  9. Digital map of the configuration of the base of the principal aquifer in the Elkhorn-Loup Model area, north-central Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Lewis and Clark Natural Resources District (NRD), Lower Elkhorn NRD, Lower Loup NRD, Lower Platte North...

  10. North American Natural Gas Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  11. Digitial map of geologic units forming the base of the principal aquifer and areas where the base of aquifer is not well defined, Elkhorn-Loup Model area, north-central Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Lewis and Clark Natural Resources District (NRD), Lower Elkhorn NRD, Lower Loup NRD, Lower Platte North...

  12. Digital map of the test-hole and well data used to estimate the configuration of the base of the principal aquifer and the geologic units underlying the principal aquifer in the Elkhorn-Loup model area, north-central Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Lewis and Clark Natural Resources District (NRD), Lower Elkhorn NRD, Lower Loup NRD, Lower Platte North...

  13. Water movement through the unsaturated zone of the High Plains Aquifer in the Central Platte Natural Resources District, Nebraska, 2008-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Gregory V.; Gurdak, Jason J.; Hobza, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainty about the effects of land use and climate on water movement in the unsaturated zone and on groundwater recharge rates can lead to uncertainty in water budgets used for groundwater-flow models. To better understand these effects, a cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Central Platte Natural Resources District was initiated in 2007 to determine field-based estimates of recharge rates in selected land-use areas of the Central Platte Natural Resources District in Nebraska. Measured total water potential and unsaturated-zone profiles of tritium, chloride, nitrate as nitrogen, and bromide, along with groundwater-age dates, were used to evaluate water movement in the unsaturated zone and groundwater recharge rates in the central Platte River study area. Eight study sites represented an east-west precipitation contrast across the study area—four beneath groundwater-irrigated cropland (sites 2, 5, and 6 were irrigated corn and site 7 was irrigated alfalfa/corn rotation), three beneath rangeland (sites 1, 4, and 8), and one beneath nonirrigated cropland, or dryland (site 3). Measurements of transient vertical gradients in total water potential indicated that periodic wetting fronts reached greater mean maximum depths beneath the irrigated sites than beneath the rangeland sites, in part, because of the presence of greater and constant antecedent moisture. Beneath the rangeland sites, greater temporal variation in antecedent moisture and total water potential existed and was, in part, likely a result of local precipitation and evapotranspiration. Moreover, greater variability was noticed in the total water potential profiles beneath the western sites than the corresponding eastern sites, which was attributed to less mean annual precipitation in the west. The depth of the peak post-bomb tritium concentration or the interface between the pre-bomb/post-bomb tritium, along with a tritium mass balance, within sampled soil profiles were used to

  14. Temporal Differences in the Hydrologic Regime of the Lower Platte River, Nebraska, 1895-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, Daniel; Zelt, Ronald B.; Linard, Joshua I.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Lower Platte South Natural Resources District for a collaborative study of the cumulative effects of water and channel management practices on stream and riparian ecology, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compiled, analyzed, and summarized hydrologic information from long-term gaging stations on the lower Platte River to determine any significant temporal differences among six discrete periods during 1895-2006 and to interpret any significant changes in relation to changes in climatic conditions or other factors. A subset of 171 examined hydrologic indices (HIs) were selected for use as indices that (1) included most of the variance in the larger set of indices, (2) retained utility as indicators of the streamflow regime, and (3) provided information at spatial and temporal scale(s) that were most indicative of streamflow regime(s). The study included the most downstream station within the central Platte River segment that flowed to the confluence with the Loup River and all four active streamflow-gaging stations (2006) on the lower Platte River main stem extending from the confluence of the Loup River and Platte River to the confluence of the Platte River and Missouri River south of Omaha. The drainage areas of the five streamflow-gaging stations covered four (of eight) climate divisions in Nebraska?division 2 (north central), 3 (northeast), 5 (central), and 6 (east central). Historical climate data and daily streamflow records from 1895 through 2006 at the five streamflow-gaging stations were divided into six 11-water-year periods: 1895?1905, 1934?44, 1951?61, 1966?76, 1985?95, and 1996?2006. Analysis of monthly climate variables?precipitation and Palmer Hydrological Drought Index?was used to determine the degree of hydroclimatic association between streamflow and climate. Except for the 1895?1905 period, data gaps in the streamflow record were filled by data estimation techniques, and 171 hydrologic indices were calculated using the

  15. Reconnaissance of ground-water quality in the North Platte Natural Resources District, western Nebraska, June-July 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Sibray, S.S.; Cannia, J.C.; Tanner, D.Q.

    1995-01-01

    One-hundred twenty wells completed in unconfined Quaternary alluvial, Ogallala, Arikaree, Brule fractured, sand and confined Chadron and undifferentiated Cretaceous water-bearing units were sampled in June and July 1991 to characterize the quality of ground water in the study area. More than 75 percent of the water samples had nitrate and nitrite as nitrogen concentrations equal to or less than 6.0 milligrams per liter. Samples from six wells completed in Quaternary alluvial and Brule fractured water-bearing units exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 milligrams per liter nitrate and nitrite as nitrogen. Water from several wells completed in Quaternary alluvial and the Brule water-bearing units had detectable concentrations of alachlor, atrazine, deethylatrazine, or prometon. Major element concentrations in water from 44 wells indicated that the water-bearing units had distinct chemistry. Water from unconfined water- bearing units generally was a calcium bicarbonate type and water from the confined water-bearing units generally was a sodium bicarbonate type. Measurements of pH and concentrations of dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, fluoride, arsenic, beryllium, manganese, adjusted gross alpha activities, radon, and uranium in ground water exceeded final or proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Levels or Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels.

  16. A Concept for a Long Term Hydrologic Observatory in the South Platte River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, J. A.

    2004-12-01

    The intersection between: (1) the Rocky Mountains and developments occurring in high altitude fragile environments; (2) the metropolitan areas emerging at the interface of the mountains and the plains; (3) the irrigation occurring along rivers as they break from the mountains and snake across the Great Plains; and (4) the grasslands and the dryland farming that covers the vast amount of the Great Plains, represents a dynamic, complex, highly integrated ecosystem, stretching from Montana and North Dakota to New Mexico and Texas. This swath of land, and the rivers that cross it (headwaters of the Missouri , the Yellowstone, the North Platte , the South Platte, the Arkansas , the Cimarron, the Red and the Pecos Rivers ), represent a significant percentage of the landmass of the United States. Within this large area, besides tremendous increases in population in metropolitan areas, there are new energy developments, old hard rock mining concerns, new recreation developments, irrigation farms selling water to meet urban demands, new in-stream flow programs, struggling rural areas, and continued "mining" of ground water. The corresponding impacts are creating endangered and threatened species conflicts which require new knowledge to fully understand the measures needed to mitigate harmful ecosystem conditions. Within the Rocky Mountain/Great Plains interface, water is limiting and land is plentiful, presenting natural resource managers with a number of unique problems which demand a scale of integrated science not achieved in the past. For example, water is imported into a number of the streams flowing east from the Rocky Mountains. Nitrogen is deposited in pristine watersheds that rise up high in the Rocky Mountains. Cities capture spring runoff in reservoirs to use at a steady rate over the entire year, putting water into river systems normally moving low flows in the winter. Irrigation of both urban landscapes and farm fields may be at a scale that impacts climate

  17. North American Natural Gas Markets. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group`s findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  18. Project plan-Surficial geologic mapping and hydrogeologic framework studies in the Greater Platte River Basins (Central Great Plains) in support of ecosystem and climate change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Margaret E.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Slate, Janet L.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Sawyer, David A.; VanSistine, D. Paco

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Platte River Basin area spans a central part of the Midcontinent and Great Plains from the Rocky Mountains on the west to the Missouri River on the east, and is defined to include drainage areas of the Platte, Niobrara, and Republican Rivers, the Rainwater Basin, and other adjoining areas overlying the northern High Plains aquifer. The Greater Platte River Basin contains abundant surficial deposits that were sensitive to, or are reflective of, the climate under which they formed: deposits from multiple glaciations in the mountain headwaters of the North and South Platte Rivers and from continental ice sheets in eastern Nebraska; fluvial terraces (ranging from Tertiary to Holocene in age) along the rivers and streams; vast areas of eolian sand in the Nebraska Sand Hills and other dune fields (recording multiple episodes of dune activity); thick sequences of windblown silt (loess); and sediment deposited in numerous lakes and wetlands. In addition, the Greater Platte River Basin overlies and contributes surface water to the High Plains aquifer, a nationally important groundwater system that underlies parts of eight states and sustains one of the major agricultural areas of the United States. The area also provides critical nesting habitat for birds such as plovers and terns, and roosting habitat for cranes and other migratory birds that travel through the Central Flyway of North America. This broad area, containing fragile ecosystems that could be further threatened by changes in climate and land use, has been identified by the USGS and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln as a region where intensive collaborative research could lead to a better understanding of climate change and what might be done to adapt to or mitigate its adverse effects to ecosystems and to humans. The need for robust data on the geologic framework of ecosystems in the Greater Platte River Basin has been acknowledged in proceedings from the 2008 Climate Change Workshop and in draft

  19. Flooding in the South Platte River and Fountain Creek Basins in eastern Colorado, September 9–18, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, Robert A.; Holmes, Jr., Robert R.

    2015-11-25

    On September 9, 2013, rain began to fall in eastern Colorado as a large low-pressure system pulled plumes of tropical moisture northward from the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. By September 16, 2013, as much as 12 to 20 inches of rain had fallen in the foothills of the Front Range of the Southern Rocky Mountains and adjacent plains near Colorado Springs, Colorado, north to the Colorado-Wyoming border. The rain caused major flooding during September 9–18, 2013, in a large part of the South Platte River Basin and in the Fountain Creek Basin. The floods resulted in several fatalities, more than 31,000 damaged or destroyed structures, and an estimated 3 billion dollars in damages. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) documented peak stage, streamflow, or both from the flood event for 80 sites located on selected rivers and streams in the South Platte River and Fountain Creek Basins and on the Platte River in Nebraska. The majority of flood-peak streamflows occurred on September 12 or 13, 2013, coinciding with the period of maximum rainfall. The flood resulted in new record peak streamflows at 17 streamgages having at least 10 years of record; 13 in the South Platte River Basin and 4 in the Fountain Creek Basin.

  20. North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E. [eds.

    1989-04-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E. (eds.)

    1989-04-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-09-30

    The objectives of the study were: (1) to perform resource assessment of the thermogenic gas resources in deeply buried (>15,000 ft) natural gas reservoirs of the onshore interior salt basins of the north central and northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling; and (2) to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the deep thermogenic gas resource that is available for potential recovery and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential for this thermogenic gas resource. Petroleum source rock analysis and petroleum system characterization and modeling, including thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling, have shown that the Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation served as the regional petroleum source rock in the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Thus, the estimates of the total hydrocarbons, oil, and gas generated and expelled are based on the assumption that the Smackover Formation is the main petroleum source rock in these basins and subbasins. The estimate of the total hydrocarbons generated for the North Louisiana Salt Basin in this study using a petroleum system approach compares favorably with the total volume of hydrocarbons generated published by Zimmermann (1999). In this study, the estimate is 2,870 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated using the method of Schmoker (1994), and the estimate is 2,640 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated using the Platte River software application. The estimate of Zimmermann (1999) is 2,000 to 2,500 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated. The estimate of gas generated for this basin is 6,400 TCF using the Platte River software application, and 12,800 TCF using the method of Schmoker (1994). Barnaby (2006) estimated that the total gas volume generated for this basin ranges from 4,000 to 8,000 TCF. Seventy

  3. Emergent sandbar dynamics in the lower Platte River in eastern Nebraska: methods and results of pilot study, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jason S.; Schultze, Devin M.; Zelt, Ronald B.

    2013-01-01

    The lower Platte River corridor provides important habitats for two State- and federally listed bird species: the interior least tern (terns; Sternula antillarum athallassos) and the piping plover (plovers; Charadrius melodus). However, many of the natural morphological and hydrological characteristics of the Platte River have been altered substantially by water development, channelization, hydropower operations, and invasive vegetation encroachment, which have decreased the abundance of high-quality nesting and foraging habitat for terns and plovers. The lower Platte River (LPR), defined as 103 miles (mi) of the Platte River between its confluence with the Loup River and its confluence with the Missouri River, has narrowed since the late-19th and early-20th centuries, yet it partially retains many geomorphologic and hydrologic characteristics important to terns and plovers. These birds nest on the sandbars in the river and along shorelines at sand- and gravel-pit lakes in the adjacent valley. The need to balance continued economic, infrastructure, and resource development with the conservation of important physical and aquatic habitat resources requires increased understanding of the physical and biological dynamics of the lower Platte River. Spatially and temporally rich datasets for emergent sandbar habitats are necessary to quantify emergent sandbar dynamics relative to hypothesized controls and stressors. In cooperation with the Lower Platte South Natural Resources District, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a pilot study of emergent sandbar dynamics along a 22-mi segment of the LPR downstream from its confluence with Salt Creek, near Ashland, Nebraska. The purposes of the study were to: (1) develop methods to rapidly assess sandbar geometries and locations in a wide, sand-bed river, and (2) apply and validate the method to assess emergent sandbar dynamics over three seasons in 2011. An examination of the height of sandbars relative to the local stage of

  4. Ethnic and institutional aspects of natural resources of the North

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Grigoryevich Loginov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper questions of social and economic development of the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North in their traditional places of living and traditional business activities are considered. Influence of the process of commercial development on a natural complex and indigenous people owing to negative consequences of policy of use of raw material resources is shown. Problems of interaction of representatives of indigenous ethnicities and subsoil users while developing mineral deposits and implementation of infrastructure projects in northern areas in an existing institutional framework are revealed. The issue in the definition of damage to territories of traditional environmental management because of the absence of approved at the Federal Level and the regulations adapted in regions is noted. The directions on the preservation of the environment and conditions for a habitation of indigenous people and development of branches of traditional environmental management in the conditions of proceeding process of exploitation of natural resources in areas of their accommodation are offered.

  5. Groundwater Quality and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Nebraska's Central Platte River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Richard B

    2015-03-01

    Groundwater nitrate contamination has been an issue in the Platte River Valley of Nebraska since the 1960s, with groundwater nitrate-N concentrations frequently in excess of 10 mg L. This article summarizes education and regulatory efforts to reduce the environmental impact of irrigated crop production in the Platte River Valley. In 1988, a Groundwater Management Area (GWMA) was implemented in the Central Platte Natural Resources District to encourage adoption of improved management practices. Since 1988, there have been steady declines in average groundwater nitrate-N concentrations of about 0.15 mg NO-N L yr in much of the GWMA (from 19 to 15 mg NO-N L). However, N use efficiency (NUE) (partial factor productivity for N [PFP]) has increased very little from 1988 to 2012 (60-65 kg grain kg N), whereas statewide PFP increased from 49 to 67 kg grain kg N in the same period. Although growers are encouraged to credit N from sources besides fertilizer (e.g., soil residual, legumes, irrigation water, and manure), confidence in and use of credits tended to decrease as credits became larger; there was a tendency toward an average N rate regardless of credit-based recommendations. This information, coupled with data from other studies, suggests that much of the decline in groundwater nitrate can be attributed to improved irrigation management-especially conversion from furrow to sprinkler irrigation-and to a lesser extent to improved timing of N application. The development and adoption of improved N management practices, such as fertigation, controlled-release N formulation, and use of crop canopy sensors for in-season N application may be required for further significant NUE gains in these irrigated systems.

  6. Natural incidence of tomato viruses in the North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mohammadi HAJIABADI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted in Qazvin province in the North of Iran, to determine the incidence of tomato viruses including: Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV, Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV, Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV, Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, Tomato ring spot virus (ToRSV, Tomato aspermy virus (TAV, Potato virus Y (PVY, Beet curly top virus (BCTV, and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV. A total of 742 tomato symptomatic samples were collected during the summer of 2007 in five regions of Qazvin province (Qazvin, Takestan, Boeen-Zahra, Alborz and Abiyek and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. TSWV was detected in Alborz (4.4 % and Abiyek (3.57% regions but TMV and CMV were detected in all five regions. The greatest and least incidence of tomato viruses were recorded in Alborz (40.7 % and Takestan (11.1 %, respectively. The presence of these viruses was also evaluated in the weed hosts as natural sources of plant viruses. The greatest and least incidence of tomato viruses in weed hosts were recorded in Boeen-Zahra (25.6 % and Qazvin (12.8 %, respectively. TSWV was not detected in weeds. Transmission tests demonstrated that Thrips tabaci acts as TSWV carrier and Myzus persicae and Aphis gossypii were CMV carriers. Seed transmission tests were positive for TMV (13 tomato seedlings from 100 seedlings, but no TSWV transmission was observed through the seeds of infected tomato fruits.

  7. Transboundary natural gas sales and North American Free Trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzienkowski, J.S. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1993-12-31

    During the last 25 years American natural gas producers have seen wide fluctuations in gas supply, demand and price, and changes in the transboundary natural gas sales regulations have added to the instability. The history of such changes is outlined, and the impact of free trade agreements is discussed. Such agreements may significantly limit the power of the executive branch to restrict natural gas imports with a contracting nation. Topics include: FERC control of transportation and rate design of imported gas; foreign regulatory schemes for the explortation of natural gas; free trade agreements and transboundary natural gas sales; Energy Policy Act of 1992.

  8. 77 FR 52650 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Platte...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ..., the Platte River caddisfly is considered a shredder and largely feeds upon senescent (aged) plant tissue (Whiles et al. 1999, pp. 542-543). As one of the few shredders present in sloughs, the Platte... shredder species (Roeding and Smock 1989, p. 149), such as the Platte River caddisfly (Vivian 2011, p....

  9. The Planning Task for Teams (PLATT): An environment for research on planning and decision making in teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, W.; Houttuin, K.

    2007-01-01

    In this report, we introduce a newly developed task environment for experimental team research: the Planning Task for Teams (PLATT). PLATT is a scenario based, computerized, complex planning task for three-person teams. PLATT has been designed to be able to do experimental laboratory research on

  10. The Planning Task for Teams (PLATT): An environment for research on planning and decision making in teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, W.; Houttuin, K.

    2007-01-01

    In this report, we introduce a newly developed task environment for experimental team research: the Planning Task for Teams (PLATT). PLATT is a scenario based, computerized, complex planning task for three-person teams. PLATT has been designed to be able to do experimental laboratory research on com

  11. Comparison of water consumption in two riparian vegetation communities along the central Platte River, Nebraska, 2008–09 and 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brent M.; Rus, David L.

    2013-01-01

    The Platte River is a vital natural resource for the people, plants, and animals of Nebraska. A recent study quantified water use by riparian woodlands along central reaches of the Platte River, Nebraska, finding that water use was mainly regulated below maximum predicted levels. A comparative study was launched through a cooperative partnership between the U.S. Geological Survey, the Central Platte Natural Resources District, the Nebraska Department of Natural Resources, and the Nebraska Environmental Trust to compare water use of a riparian woodland with that of a grazed riparian grassland along the central Platte River. This report describes the results of the 3-year study by the U.S. Geological Survey to measure the evapotranspiration (ET) rates in the two riparian vegetation communities. Evapotranspiration was measured during 2008–09 and 2011 using the eddy-covariance method at a riparian woodland near Odessa, hereinafter referred to as the “woodland site,” and a riparian grassland pasture near Elm Creek, hereinafter referred to as the “grassland site.” Overall, annual ET totals at the grassland site were 90 percent of the annual ET measured at the woodland site, with averages of 653 millimeters (mm) and 726 mm, respectively. Evapotranspiration rates were similar at the grassland site and the woodland site during the spring and fall seasons, but at the woodland site ET rates were higher than those of the grassland site during the peak-growth summer months of June through August. These seasonal differences and the slightly lower ET rates at the grassland site were likely the result of differing plant communities, disturbance effects related to grazing and flooding, and climatic differences between the sites. The annual water balance was calculated for each site and indicated that the predominant factors in the water balance at both sites were ET and precipitation. Annual precipitation for the study period ranged from near to above the normal

  12. Density and viscosity behavior of a North Sea crude oil, natural gas liquid, and their mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, KAG; Cisneros, Sergio; Kvamme, B

    2005-01-01

    to accurately model the saturation pressures, densities, and viscosities of petroleum systems ranging from natural gases to heavy crude oils. The applicability of this overall modeling technique to reproduce measured bubble points, densities, and viscosities of a North Sea crude oil, a natural gas liquid...

  13. Long-Term Response of Groundwater Nitrate Concentrations to Management Regulations in Nebraska's Central Platte Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Exner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of 16 years (1988–2003 of management practices on high groundwater nitrate concentrations in Nebraska's central Platte River valley was assessed in a 58,812-ha (145,215-ac groundwater quality management area intensively cropped to irrigated corn (Zea mays L.. Crop production and groundwater nitrate data were obtained from ~23,800 producer reports. The terrace, comprising ~56% of the study area, is much more intensively cropped to irrigated corn than the bottomland. From 1987 to 2003, average groundwater nitrate concentrations in the primary aquifer beneath the bottomland remained static at ~8 mg N/l. During the same period, average groundwater nitrate concentrations in the primary aquifer beneath the terrace decreased from 26.4 to 22.0 mg N/l at a slow, but significant (p < 0.0001, rate of 0.26 mg N/l/year. Approximately 20% of the decrease in nitrate concentrations can be attributed to increases in the amount of N removed from fields as a consequence of small annual increases in yield. During the study, producers converted ~15% of the ~28,300 furrow-irrigated terrace hectares (~69,800 ac to sprinkler irrigation. The conversion is associated with about an additional 50% of the decline in the nitrate concentration, and demonstrates the importance of both improved water and N management. Average N fertilizer application rates on the terrace were essentially unchanged during the study. The data indicate that groundwater nitrate concentrations have responded to improved management practices instituted by the Central Platte Natural Resources District.

  14. Visibility graph network analysis of natural gas price: The case of North American market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mei; Wang, Yaqi; Gao, Cuixia

    2016-11-01

    Fluctuations in prices of natural gas significantly affect global economy. Therefore, the research on the characteristics of natural gas price fluctuations, turning points and its influencing cycle on the subsequent price series is of great significance. Global natural gas trade concentrates on three regional markets: the North American market, the European market and the Asia-Pacific market, with North America having the most developed natural gas financial market. In addition, perfect legal supervision and coordinated regulations make the North American market more open and more competitive. This paper focuses on the North American natural gas market specifically. The Henry Hub natural gas spot price time series is converted to a visibility graph network which provides a new direction for macro analysis of time series, and several indicators are investigated: degree and degree distribution, the average shortest path length and community structure. The internal mechanisms underlying price fluctuations are explored through the indicators. The results show that the natural gas prices visibility graph network (NGP-VGN) is of small-world and scale-free properties simultaneously. After random rearrangement of original price time series, the degree distribution of network becomes exponential distribution, different from the original ones. This means that, the original price time series is of long-range negative correlation fractal characteristic. In addition, nodes with large degree correspond to significant geopolitical or economic events. Communities correspond to time cycles in visibility graph network. The cycles of time series and the impact scope of hubs can be found by community structure partition.

  15. Near-decadal changes in nitrate and pesticide concentrations in the South Platte River alluvial aquifer, 1993-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, S.S.; Schaffrath, K.R.; Mashbum, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    The lower South Platte River basin of Colorado and Nebraska is an area of intense agriculture supported by surface-water diversions from the river and ground-water pumping from a valley-fill alluvial aquifer. Two well networks consisting of 45 wells installed in the South Platte alluvial aquifer were sampled in the early 1990s and again in the early 2000s to examine near-decadal ground-water quality changes in irrigated agricultural areas. Ground-water age generally increases and dissolved-oxygen content decreases with distance along flow paths and with depdi below the water table, and denitrification is an important natural mitigation mechanism for nitrate in downgradient areas. Ground-water travel time from upland areas to the river ranges from 12 to 31 yr on the basis of apparent ground-water ages. Ground-water nitrate concentrations for agricultural land-use wells increased significantly for oxidized samples over the decade, and nitrogen isotope ratios for oxidized samples indicate synthetic fertilizer as the predominant nitrate source. Ground-water concentrations of atrazine, DEA, and prometon decreased significandy. The decrease in pesticide concentrations and a significant increase in the ratio of DEA to atrazine suggest decreases in pesticide concentrations are likely caused by local decreases in application rates and/or degradation processes and that atrazine degradation is promoted by oxidizing conditions. The difference between results for oxidizing and nitrate-reducing conditions indicates redox state is an important variable to consider when evaluating ground-water quality trends for redox-sensitive constituents such as nitrate and pesticides in the South Platte alluvial aquifer. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  16. The North American natural gas liquids markets are chaotic

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we test for deterministic chaos (i.e., nonlinear deterministic processes which look random) in seven Mont Belview, Texas hydrocarbon markets, using monthly data from 1985:1 to 1996:12--the markets are those of ethane, propane, normal butane, iso-butane, naptha, crude oil, and natural gas. In doing so, we use the Lyapunov exponent estimator of Nychka, Ellner, Gallant, and McCaffrey (1992). We conclude that there is evidence consistent with a chaotic nonlinear generation process i...

  17. Natural parasitism by Trichogramma spp. in agroecosystems of the Mid-North, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranyse Barboa Querino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The micro-hymenopterans of genus Trichogramma are eggs parasitoids used in the biological control of lepidopteran pests. The objectives of this study was to record the interaction of species of Trichogramma and their hosts on crops in the Mid-North, in the states of Maranhão and Piauí, Brazil. Lepidopteran eggs were sampled on crops and non-crops. Trichogramma atopovirilia , T. manicobai , T. galloi and T. pretiosum occur naturally in eggs of eight lepidopteran species. Natural parasitism shown by Trichogramma species reveals the importance of these parasitoids as agents for biological control in the Mid-North region.

  18. THE NATURAL MOVEMENT OF POPULATION IN THE NORTH-WEST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUELA-DORA ORBOI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available From the perspective of human development indicators during the past 15 years, Region North-West has undergone a series of negative processes, which are the most significant demographic decline due to negative natural growth and increased migration of people, especially those assets. Region North-West faces a negative demographic trend, with life expectancy of 71.38 years, the national average (72.22 years with high external migration, especially of highly qualified workforce. Analysis of employment trends of population in Region North-West shows a downward trend and projections for the development for years emphasized the decrease in employment. Estimates on the evolution of the population in Region North-West during 2005-2013 reveals a total population decreased by 4.2%.

  19. An Inventory of Natural, Human, and Social Overhead Capital Resources in North-Central New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Garrey; Eastman, Clyde

    Concerned with the north-central area of New Mexico (Rio Arriba, Taos, Colfax, Mora, Santa Fe, and San Miguel counties), this inventory describes the situation and delineation of the region, the natural resources (physical characteristics, land, land-ownership patterns, land-use patterns, land-title problems, water resources, and minerals); human…

  20. Non-predation natural mortality of Norway pout ( Trisopterus esmarkii ) in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparholt, H.; Larsen, L.I.; Nielsen, J. Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    Based on age disaggregated data on catch rates in bottom trawl surveys, commercial catches, and the number consumed by the North Sea piscivorous predators, new estimates of non-predation natural mortality, M1, are obtained for Norway pout [Trisopterus esmarkii (Nilsson)]. Simple log catch ratio...

  1. Contaminant exposure and reproductive health of sandhill cranes in the Central Platte River Valley, Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The central Platte River Valley provides crucial staging habitat for the endangered whooping crane (Grus americana) and the mid-continent population of sandhill...

  2. 77 FR 61593 - North American Natural Resources, Inc. Complainant v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C, American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission North American Natural Resources, Inc. Complainant v. PJM Interconnection, L... Federal Power Act (FPA), 16 U.S.C. 824(e), North American Natural Resource, Inc. (NSANR) filed a...

  3. Statistical Aspects of the North Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclones: Trends, Natural Variability, and Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    Statistical aspects of the North Atlantic basin tropical cyclones for the interval 1945- 2005 are examined, including the variation of the yearly frequency of occurrence for various subgroups of storms (all tropical cyclones, hurricanes, major hurricanes, U.S. landfalling hurricanes, and category 4/5 hurricanes); the yearly variation of the mean latitude and longitude (genesis location) of all tropical cyclones and hurricanes; and the yearly variation of the mean peak wind speeds, lowest pressures, and durations for all tropical cyclones, hurricanes, and major hurricanes. Also examined is the relationship between inferred trends found in the North Atlantic basin tropical cyclonic activity and natural variability and global warming, the latter described using surface air temperatures from the Armagh Observatory Armagh, Northern Ireland. Lastly, a simple statistical technique is employed to ascertain the expected level of North Atlantic basin tropical cyclonic activity for the upcoming 2007 season.

  4. Natural gas trade in North America: Building up to the NAFTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plourde, A. [Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    This paper traces the evolution of natural gas trade among Canada, Mexico, and the United States in the 1967-1992 period. In addition, the provisions of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) that relate to natural gas trade are examined in the light of the corresponding aspects of the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA). One of the main conclusions to emerge is that exports from Canada to the United States would likely continue to dominate North American natural gas trade patterns under the NAFTA. Past experience suggests that regulatory policies play a crucial role in determining trade patterns. In the case of Canada and the United States, the policies of deregulation implemented by the two countries prior to 1989 have proven to be much more important than has the FTA in encouraging cross-border trade in natural gas. Since the NAFTA allows Mexico to maintain a highly interventionist approach to energy policy, an internally-driven process of policy change will be required to liberalize natural gas trade between Mexico and the other parties to the Agreement. A few specific developments relating to natural gas trade among the NAFTA parties are also examined in the light of the Agreement. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Environment management conflict in Mount Tangkuban Perahu Nature Reserve and Nature Park, North Bandung, West Java

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damanik, Demak Ely Riana, E-mail: damanikdemak@gmail.com, E-mail: sjarmidi@sith.itb.ac.id; Sjarmidi, Achmad, E-mail: damanikdemak@gmail.com, E-mail: sjarmidi@sith.itb.ac.id [Bioresources Management Research Group, School of Life Science and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Nature Park Mount Tangkuban Perahu is part of the Nature Reserve that defined as utilization zone. Until now the nature park continues to experience disruption and threat caused by human activities such as tourists, local peoples, and administrators so that giving rise to the area conflict. The number of rules did not guarantee high protection of the area and even can lead conflict. The evaluation performance of stakeholder and analysis environmental sustainablity, seems that there are not sustainable. The performance score of stakeholders in conservation efforts in the field of preservation and protection are 1.5 and 2 respectively (low category), while the area of utilization is 2 (low category). Total score condition of management area are 1.75 (low category). Visitors assume that Tangkuban Perahu was categorized as cheap attraction (< Rp. 100,000 pervisit), but the benefits, comfort and safety are considerable (> 50%). Most visitors have a good perception of the facilities (66.2%), ticket price (64.6%), and ecosystems (78.5%). However this is not followed by magnitude of willingness to pay from the visitor to keep the preserved area (61.5% of visitors want to pay < 100,000). Most argue that the management of the area classified as good (78.5%), but approximately 38.5% of visitors said that need additional facilities such as children's play facilities in the area. This shows the lack of understanding of visitor of the meaning of natural recreation. Some visitors (47.69%) mentioned the need of management system implementation to ensure the region sustainability. The causes and alternative conflict resolution also discussed in this study.

  6. Urban nature conservation: vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom municipal area, North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Cilliers

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This study on the natural and degraded natural vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, forms part of a research programme on spontaneous vegetation in urban open spaces in the North West Province, South Africa. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN as a first approximation, the classification was refined by applying Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which 6 plant communities were recognised, which are subdivided in sub-communities and variants, resulting in 18 vegetation units. Some of these vegetation units are similar to communities described previously in natural areas. The presence of degraded natural communities suggests huge anthropogenic influences in certain areas. An ordination (DECORANA scatter diagram shows the distribution of the plant communities along gradients which could be related to vegetation structure, altitude, soil depth, rockiness of soil surface, wetness or dryness of the habitat and number of introduced species. This study contributes to the compilation of a guideline for a conservation orientated management plan for the area, but also created a wealth of new knowledge of the reaction of indigenous plant species under disturbed conditions.

  7. Environment management conflict in Mount Tangkuban Perahu Nature Reserve and Nature Park, North Bandung, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanik, Demak Ely Riana; Sjarmidi, Achmad

    2014-03-01

    Nature Park Mount Tangkuban Perahu is part of the Nature Reserve that defined as utilization zone. Until now the nature park continues to experience disruption and threat caused by human activities such as tourists, local peoples, and administrators so that giving rise to the area conflict. The number of rules did not guarantee high protection of the area and even can lead conflict. The evaluation performance of stakeholder and analysis environmental sustainablity, seems that there are not sustainable. The performance score of stakeholders in conservation efforts in the field of preservation and protection are 1.5 and 2 respectively (low category), while the area of utilization is 2 (low category). Total score condition of management area are 1.75 (low category). Visitors assume that Tangkuban Perahu was categorized as cheap attraction ( 50%). Most visitors have a good perception of the facilities (66.2%), ticket price (64.6%), and ecosystems (78.5%). However this is not followed by magnitude of willingness to pay from the visitor to keep the preserved area (61.5% of visitors want to pay sustainability. The causes and alternative conflict resolution also discussed in this study.

  8. Environmental pollutant isotope measurements and natural radioactivity assessment for North Tushki area, south western desert, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sroor, A. E-mail: amanysroor@hotmail.com; Afifi, S.Y.; Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Salman, A.B.; Abdel-Sammad, M

    2002-09-01

    Natural radioactive materials under certain conditions can reach hazardous radiological levels. The natural radionuclide ({sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K) contents of rock samples at various locations in the North Tushki area were investigated using gamma-spectrometric analysis. Estimates of the measured radionuclide content have been made for the absorbed dose rate of gamma radiation. The equivalent radium (R{sub eq}) and the external hazard index (H{sub ex}) which resulted from the natural radionuclides in soil are also calculated and tabulated. The studied samples have been collected from various rock exposures in the North Tushki area. The distribution of major oxides, U and Th were studied. It is found that the enrichment and depletion of the major oxides are mainly due to the effect of hydrothermal alteration, which caused mobility of some major oxides, which increases some elements and decreases others. It is important to mention that the study area is far from the development region of the Tushki project and is only a local hazard. Therefore, additional regional studies of the Tushki Project area should be under taken to explore any unexpected environmental hazard due to the high concentration of the radioactive elements, which have been observed at its north boundary.

  9. Opportunity for natural selection among five population groups of Manipur, North East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, M; Meitei, S Y; Luxmi, Y; Achoubi, N; Meitei, K S; Murry, B; Sachdeva, M P; Saraswathy, K N

    2014-01-01

    Opportunity for natural selection among five population groups of Manipur in comparison with other North East Indian population has been studied. Crow's index as well as Johnston and Kensinger's index for natural selection were calculated based on differential fertility and mortality. The mortality component was found to be lower compared to fertility component in all the populations which may attribute to comparatively improved and easily accessible health care facilities. However, different selection pressures, artificial and natural, seem to be influencing the selection intensity through induced abortion and spontaneous abortion among the two non-tribal migrant groups: Bamon and Muslims, respectively. This study highlights the probable interaction of artificial and natural selection in determining the evolutionary fate of any population group.

  10. Performance analysis of greenhouse dryer by using insulated north-wall under natural convection mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Singh Chauhan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A prototype north wall insulated greenhouse dryer has been fabricated and tested in no-load conditions under natural convection mode. Experimentation has been conducted in two different cases. Case-I is when solar collector placed inside the dryer and Case-II is North wall insulated greenhouse dryer without solar collector. Coefficient of performance, heat utilisation factor, convective heat transfer coefficient and coefficient of diffusivity have been evaluated in thermal performance analysis. The difference of the highest convective heat transfer coefficient of both cases is 29.094W/m2°C which is showing the effectiveness of insulated north wall and solar collector. The maximum coefficient of diffusivity (0.0827 was achieved during the third day of experiment in Case-II. The inside room temperature of wall insulated greenhouse dryer for Case-I is 4.11%, 5.08 % and 11.61 % higher than the Case-II during the day 1, day 2 and day 3 respectively. This result is also showing the effectiveness of solar collector and insulated north wall. The highest heat utilisation factor (0.616 is obtained during the second day for Case-I while for Case-II it is 0.769 during the third day of experimentation. Maximum coefficient of performance achieved is 0.892 during the third day of the experiment for Case-I whereas 0.953 is obtained on the first day of experimentation for Case-II.

  11. A Study on the nature of genetic divergence in rice from assam and North East Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairavan, S; Siddiq, E A; Arunachalam, V; Swaminathan, M S

    1973-01-01

    A representative group of 190 rice types collected from North-East India along with four standard varieties, three of which were indicas and one japonica, was studied to understand the nature of genetic divergence. Preliminary grouping was done by canonical analysis and the resultant 42 groups were further classified using the D(2) statistic.The final grouping resulted in nine divergent clusters. The three indica standards were found in three different clusters indicating the wide available variability among them. The japonica standard formed a separate group by itself. A majority of the North-East Indian types formed clusters with indicas, whereas some were intermediate and still others were closer to japonica or indica, thus indicating a series of intergrades bridging indica and japonica.Height followed by leaf area was found to be important for primary and 100-grain weight, followed by amylose content for secondary differentiation. It appears that natural selection as well as human selection might have operated for characters differentiating rice types in Assam and North Eastern Himalayas. Geographical distance was not found to be related to genetic divergence. The study suggests that O. sativa contains innumerable but divergent forms, and its classification into definite varietal groups on an arbitrary basis such as isolation barrier, sexual affinity or geographic distribution would be far from reality.

  12. Surface Spills at Unconventional Oil and Gas Sites: a Contaminant Transport Modeling Study for the South Platte Alluvial Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCray, J. E.; Kanno, C.; McLaughlin, M.; Blotevogel, J.; Borch, T.

    2016-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has revolutionized the U.S.'s energy portfolio by making shale reservoirs productive and commercially viable. However, the public is concerned that the chemical constituents in hydraulic fracturing fluid, produced water, or natural gas itself could potentially impact groundwater. Here, we present fate and transport simulations of aqueous fluid surface spills. Surface spills are the most likely contamination pathway to occur during oil and gas production operations. We have three primary goals: 1) evaluate whether or not these spills pose risks to groundwater quality in the South Platte aquifer system, 2) develop a screening level methodology that could be applied at other sites and for various pollutants, and 3) demonstrate the potential importance of co-contaminant interactions using selected chemicals. We considered two types of fluid that can be accidentally released at oil and gas sites: produced water and hydraulic fracturing fluid. Benzene was taken to be a representative contaminant of interest for produced water. Glutaraldehyde, polyethylene glycol, and polyacrylamide were the chemical additives considered for spills of hydraulic fracturing fluid. We focused on the South Platte Alluvial Aquifer, which is located in the greater Denver metro area and overlaps a zone of high-density oil and gas development. Risk of groundwater pollution was based on predicted concentration at the groundwater table. In general, results showed groundwater contamination due to produced water and hydraulic fracturing fluid spills is low in most areas of the South Platte system for the contaminants and spill conditions investigated. Substantial risk may exist in certain areas where the groundwater table is shallow (less than 10 ft below ground surface) and when large spills and large post-spill storms occur. Co-chemical interactions are an important consideration in certain cases when modeling hydraulic fracturing fluid spills. By helping to identify locations

  13. Literature and information related to the natural resources of the North Aleutian Basin of Alaska.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stull, E.A.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-01-31

    The North Aleutian Basin Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) is a large geographic area with significant natural resources. The Basin includes most of the southeastern part of the Bering Sea Outer Continental Shelf, including all of Bristol Bay. The area supports important habitat for a wide variety of species and globally significant habitat for birds and marine mammals, including several federally listed species. Villages and communities of the Alaska Peninsula and other areas bordering or near the Basin rely on its natural resources (especially commercial and subsistence fishing) for much of their sustenance and livelihood. The offshore area of the North Aleutian Basin is considered to have important hydrocarbon reserves, especially natural gas. In 2006, the MMS released a draft proposed program, 'Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, 2007-2012' and an accompanying draft programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS). The draft proposed program identified two lease sales proposed in the North Aleutian Basin in 2010 and 2012, subject to restrictions. The area proposed for leasing in the Basin was restricted to the Sale 92 Area in the southwestern portion. Additional EISs will be needed to evaluate the potential effects of specific lease actions, exploration activities, and development and production plans in the Basin. A full range of updated multidisciplinary scientific information will be needed to address oceanography, fate and effects of oil spills, marine ecosystems, fish, fisheries, birds, marine mammals, socioeconomics, and subsistence in the Basin. Scientific staff at Argonne National Laboratory were contracted to assist MMS with identifying and prioritizing information needs related to potential future oil and gas leasing and development activities in the North Aleutian Basin. Argonne focused on three related tasks: (1) identify and gather relevant literature published since 1996, (2) synthesize and

  14. The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources: clean land, water, and air for healthy people and communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Lisa Diaz; Wakild, Charles; Boothe, Laura; Hildebrandt, Heather J; Nicholson, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources works with communities and other agencies to sustain clean air, water, and land. Sustainability efforts include protecting air quality through community design, community enhancement through brownfields revitalization, community development strategies to protect water resources, and the integration of natural resource conservation.

  15. Native and European haplotypes of Phragmites Australis (common reed) in the central Platte River, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, D.L.; Galatowitsch, S.M.; Larson, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Phragmites australis (common reed) is known to have occurred along the Platte River historically, but recent rapid increases in both distribution and density have begun to impact habitat for migrating sandhill cranes and nesting piping plovers and least terns. Invasiveness in Phragmites has been associated with the incursion of a European genotype (haplotype M) in other areas; determining the genotype of Phragmites along the central Platte River has implications for proper management of the river system. In 2008 we sampled Phragmites patches along the central Platte River from Lexington to Chapman, NE, stratified by bridge segments, to determine the current distribution of haplotype E (native) and haplotype M genotypes. In addition, we did a retrospective analysis of historical Phragmites collections from the central Platte watershed (1902-2006) at the Bessey Herbarium. Fresh tissue from the 2008 survey and dried tissue from the herbarium specimens were classified as haplotype M or E using the restriction fragment length polymorphism procedure. The European haplotype was predominant in the 2008 samples: only 14 Phragmites shoots were identified as native haplotype E; 224 were non-native haplotype M. The retrospective analysis revealed primarily native haplotype individuals. Only collections made in Lancaster County, near Lincoln, NE, were haplotype M, and the earliest of these was collected in 1973. ?? 2011 Copyright by the Center for Great Plains Studies, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

  16. Depositional and erosional dynamics of emergent sandbars: a case study of the Platte River, Eastern Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, J. S.; Murr, M. L.; McElroy, B. J.

    2016-12-01

    Macroform sandbars (sandbars) are ubiquitous depositional features of sandy, braided rives. Sandbars formed during annual floods stall and emerge during flow recession, splitting flow, and producing the characteristic braiding pattern. Emergent sandbars are crucial components of riverine ecosystems, forming the foundation of the floodplain/braidplain, providing nesting, brooding, and foraging habitat for migratory and endemic animals, and shallow water aquatic habitat along their periphery. In the United States, substantial resources are being expended to recover and expand so-called emergent sandbar habitat (ESH) in large rivers of the Great Plains, where the natural extent and dynamism of ESH has been degraded due to construction of main-channel dams, navigation channels, and/or disruption of the natural hydrologic and sediment regimes. These programs are ultimately aimed at recovery and protection of populations of Federal and State-listed migratory bird species. Despite the importance of ESH, relatively little empirical information describing the natural temporal and spatial dynamics of sandbar geometries, erosion rates, and depositional controls is available for integrating into ecological and river management models. From 2011 to 2014, we monitored the geometry and fate of large emergent sandbars along 160 km of the sandy, braided Platte River in eastern Nebraska, a segment which retains a mostly natural sediment and hydrologic regime. We show that important descriptors of ESH quality, such as sandbar height, scale linearly with increases in flow stage, but the difference in elevation between sandbar height and formative stage also increases with increasing flow stage. Thus, the flood-hazard of natural sandbars may be much higher than current theory suggests. Our monitoring data indicates that emergent sandbars tend to erode within a year after deposition, and that the rate of erosion scales linearly with discharge. Finally, in agreement with previous work

  17. Free Movement of natural persons: North-South Conflicts of Economic Interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Uddin Ahammad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the General Agreement on Trade in Service (GATS is one of the major achievements of the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations. All the trades in services fall within the GATS through four modes of delivery under Article I:2 of GATS. Among the modes, the liberalization of mode 4: Movement of Natural Persons which relates the removal of restrictions on workers travelling abroad temporarily, upon which developing countries have comparative advantage, remains one of the least negotiated issues of the WTO, while the other 3 modes upon which the developed countries have dominance have been liberalized substantially. This study elucidates some logical arguments that mode 4 is the victim of the North-South conflict of economic interests. Besides, this study furnishes arguments how liberalization of mode 4 can be economically beneficial for both North and South. The structural weakness in Articles, Schedules and Annexes of GATS entailing mode 4 needs to be restructured so that developing countries are able to participate meaningfully in the world trade in services and see their economic interests are protected equitably with the developed countries so that the economic interests of both developed and developing countries in trade in services can become mutually supportive.

  18. Literature and information related to the natural resources of the North Aleutian Basin of Alaska.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stull, E.A.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-01-31

    The North Aleutian Basin Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) is a large geographic area with significant natural resources. The Basin includes most of the southeastern part of the Bering Sea Outer Continental Shelf, including all of Bristol Bay. The area supports important habitat for a wide variety of species and globally significant habitat for birds and marine mammals, including several federally listed species. Villages and communities of the Alaska Peninsula and other areas bordering or near the Basin rely on its natural resources (especially commercial and subsistence fishing) for much of their sustenance and livelihood. The offshore area of the North Aleutian Basin is considered to have important hydrocarbon reserves, especially natural gas. In 2006, the MMS released a draft proposed program, 'Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, 2007-2012' and an accompanying draft programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS). The draft proposed program identified two lease sales proposed in the North Aleutian Basin in 2010 and 2012, subject to restrictions. The area proposed for leasing in the Basin was restricted to the Sale 92 Area in the southwestern portion. Additional EISs will be needed to evaluate the potential effects of specific lease actions, exploration activities, and development and production plans in the Basin. A full range of updated multidisciplinary scientific information will be needed to address oceanography, fate and effects of oil spills, marine ecosystems, fish, fisheries, birds, marine mammals, socioeconomics, and subsistence in the Basin. Scientific staff at Argonne National Laboratory were contracted to assist MMS with identifying and prioritizing information needs related to potential future oil and gas leasing and development activities in the North Aleutian Basin. Argonne focused on three related tasks: (1) identify and gather relevant literature published since 1996, (2) synthesize and

  19. Natural and experimental evidence of viscerotropic infection caused by Leishmania tropica from North Sinai, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doha, Said A; Shehata, Magdi G; Fahmy, Adel R; Samy, Abdallah M

    2014-08-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected clinical form that is quite prevalent in Eastern North parts of the country in Sinai Peninsula. Leishmania tropica was identified by previous reports as the causative agent responsible for viscerotropic infections in-patients and experimental animals. Here, we reported the viscerotropic infections from naturally infected rodent Gerbillus pyramidum floweri collected from North-Sinai. Footpad and tail lesions, spleenomegaly, and malformed dark-colored spleen were the characteristic CL symptoms. The spleen of the rodent found positive to amastigote impression smear. ITS-1 DNA was sequenced and revealed 100% identity of the strain in the current study to the other L. tropica sequences identified from the patients with the suspected CL and inhabited the same study area. The current findings confirmed the susceptibility of gerbil to L. tropica, and raise the concerns for the role of rodents as accidental host suffering the infections. The susceptibility of wild and experimental rodents to the same L. tropica strain was also investigated; BALB/c and G. pyramidum were more susceptible to L. tropica (24.33 ± 4.37 and 25 ± 4.58 days post-infection, respectively). Similar viscerotropic pathologies were reported in experimental infection of only golden hamster (≈ 120 days post-infection), and G. p. floweri (≈ 160 days post-infection).

  20. Metal and organic residues in addled eggs of least terns and piping plovers in the Platte Valley of Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The concentration of most residues detected in eggs of least terns and piping plovers nesting in the Platte River valley are not a cause for alarm. However, selenium...

  1. Geological report on water conditions at Platt National Park, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Charles Newton; Schoff, Stuart Leeson

    1939-01-01

    Platt National Park, located in southern Oklahoma, containing 842 acres, was established by Acts of Congress in 1902, 1904, and 1906. The reason for the setting aside of this area was the presence in the area of some 30 'mineral' springs, the water from which contains sulphur, bromide, salt, and other minerals, which are believed to possess medicinal qualities. For many generations the sulphur springs of the Chickasaw Nation had been known for their reputed healing qualities. It had long been the custom for families to come from considerable distances on horseback and in wagons and camp near the springs, in order to drink the water. In course of time a primitive town, known as Sulphur Springs, grew up near a group of springs known since as Pavilion Springs at the mouth of Sulphur Creek, now known as Travertine Creek. This town was still in existence at the time of my first visit to the locality in July, 1901. At this time, in company with Joseph A. Taff, of the United States Geological Survey, I spent a week riding over the country making a preliminary survey looking toward the setting aside of the area for a National Park. After the establishment of the National Park, the old town of Sulphur Springs was abandoned, and when the present boundaries of the park had been established the present town of Sulphur, now county seat of Murray County, grew up. In July 1906, on request of Superintendent Joseph F. Swords, I visited the park and made an examination of the various springs and submitted a report, dated August 15, 1906, to Secretary of the Interior E.A. Hitchcock. Copies of this report are on file in the Regional Office and at Platt National Park. In this report I set forth the approximate amount of flow of the various springs, the character of the water in each, and the conditions of the springs as of that date. I also made certain recommendations regarding proposed improvements of each spring. In this report I say: 'In the town of Sulphur, four wells have been

  2. Radiological health assessment of natural radioactivity in the vicinity of Obajana cement factory, North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omoniyi Matthew Isinkaye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in and around Obajana cement factory, North Central Nigeria have been carried out in this study to determine the activity levels of natural radionuclides in different environmental matrices in order to assess the radiological health hazards associated with the use of these matrices by the local population. A low-background Pb-shielded gamma spectroscopic counting assembly utilizing NaI (Tl detector was employed for the measurements. The results show that sediment samples have the highest activity concentrations of all the radionuclides relative to soil, farmland soil, and rock samples. The radium equivalent activity and indoor gamma dose rates together with the corresponding annual effective indoor doses evaluated were found to be lower than their permissible limits. It suffices to say, that contrary to age-long fear of radiation risks to the population in the vicinity of the cement factory, no excessive radiological health hazards either indoors and/or outdoors is envisaged. Therefore, the environmental matrices around the factory could be used without any restrictions.

  3. Radiological health assessment of natural radioactivity in the vicinity of Obajana cement factory, North Central Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isinkaye, Omoniyi Matthew; Jibiri, Nnamdi N; Olomide, Adebowale A

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in and around Obajana cement factory, North Central Nigeria have been carried out in this study to determine the activity levels of natural radionuclides in different environmental matrices in order to assess the radiological health hazards associated with the use of these matrices by the local population. A low-background Pb-shielded gamma spectroscopic counting assembly utilizing NaI (Tl) detector was employed for the measurements. The results show that sediment samples have the highest activity concentrations of all the radionuclides relative to soil, farmland soil, and rock samples. The radium equivalent activity and indoor gamma dose rates together with the corresponding annual effective indoor doses evaluated were found to be lower than their permissible limits. It suffices to say, that contrary to age-long fear of radiation risks to the population in the vicinity of the cement factory, no excessive radiological health hazards either indoors and/or outdoors is envisaged. Therefore, the environmental matrices around the factory could be used without any restrictions.

  4. Natural and anthropogenic impacts on historical heritage along the north Bulgarian Black Sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peev, Preslav; Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Shtirkov, Ilko

    2014-05-01

    Bulgaria is rich in the remains of past human settlements and activity. For example, along northern part of the Bulgarian coast, numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). The most significant of them are: Durankulak archaeological complex with the largest Prehistoric necropolis in the world, Prehistoric necropolis at the area of Lake Shablenska Tuzla, Antique settlements Caron Limen and Bizone, archeological reserve Yalata, Antique and Medieval castle at Cape Kaliakra etc. As, this north part of Bulgarian coast has a huge archaeological potential there is a ground for thinking that the remains of other periods as well as a brand new, previously unknown sites can be discovered in the near future. This does not exclude the probability of being randomly found individual objects that largely can be prevented from archaeological contexts. Therefore it is important that these archeological sites are protected properly and preserved for future generations. In Bulgaria such sites and monuments are legally protected under the Law of cultural heritage and managed by the Ministry of culture and local authorities. However, today most objects and sites, as part of common European historical and cultural heritage are posed to a variety of potential impacts and treats, both natural and human-induced. This study discusses the implications of natural factors, (such as climate change, extreme waves, erosion and shoreline changes) and human contributions (coastal infrastructures, tourism and insufficient management by decision-makers) to coastal and underwater cultural heritage along the north portion of Bulgarian coast. Major natural processes that seriously affect on coastal and maritime heritage environment are direct physical impact by global climate changes, sea level rise and caused increase of waves and storms, acceleration

  5. A stochastic equilibrium model for the North American natural gas market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jifang

    This dissertation is an endeavor in the field of energy modeling for the North American natural gas market using a mixed complementarity formulation combined with the stochastic programming. The genesis of the stochastic equilibrium model presented in this dissertation is the deterministic market equilibrium model developed in [Gabriel, Kiet and Zhuang, 2005]. Based on some improvements that we made to this model, including proving new existence and uniqueness results, we present a multistage stochastic equilibrium model with uncertain demand for the deregulated North American natural gas market using the recourse method of the stochastic programming. The market participants considered by the model are pipeline operators, producers, storage operators, peak gas operators, marketers and consumers. Pipeline operators are described with regulated tariffs but also involve "congestion pricing" as a mechanism to allocate scarce pipeline capacity. Marketers are modeled as Nash-Cournot players in sales to the residential and commercial sectors but price-takers in all other aspects. Consumers are represented by demand functions in the marketers' problem. Producers, storage operators and peak gas operators are price-takers consistent with perfect competition. Also, two types of the natural gas markets are included: the long-term and spot markets. Market participants make both high-level planning decisions (first-stage decisions) in the long-term market and daily operational decisions (recourse decisions) in the spot market subject to their engineering, resource and political constraints, resource constraints as well as market constraints on both the demand and the supply side, so as to simultaneously maximize their expected profits given others' decisions. The model is shown to be an instance of a mixed complementarity problem (MiCP) under minor conditions. The MiCP formulation is derived from applying the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions of the optimization problems

  6. Naturalization of central European plants in North America: species traits, habitats, propagule pressure, residence time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyšek, Petr; Manceur, Ameur M; Alba, Christina; McGregor, Kirsty F; Pergl, Jan; Stajerová, Katerina; Chytrý, Milan; Danihelka, Jiří; Kartesz, John; Klimesova, Jitka; Lucanova, Magdalena; Moravcová, Lenka; Nishino, Misako; Sadlo, Jiri; Suda, Jan; Tichy, Lubomir; Kühn, Ingolf

    2015-03-01

    The factors that promote invasive behavior in introduced plant species occur across many scales of biological and ecological organization. Factors that act at relatively small scales, for example, the evolution of biological traits associated with invasiveness, scale up to shape species distributions among different climates and habitats, as well as other characteristics linked to invasion, such as attractiveness for cultivation (and by extension propagule pressure). To identify drivers of invasion it is therefore necessary to disentangle the contribution of multiple factors that are interdependent. To this end, we formulated a conceptual model describing the process of invasion of central European species into North America based on a sequence of "drivers." We then used confirmatory path analysis to test whether the conceptual model is supported by a statistical model inferred from a comprehensive database containing 466 species. The path analysis revealed that naturalization of central European plants in North America, in terms of the number of North American regions invaded, most strongly depends on residence time in the invaded range and the number of habitats occupied by species in their native range. In addition to the confirmatory path analysis, we identified the effects of various biological traits on several important drivers of the conceptualized invasion process. The data supported a model that included indirect effects of biological traits on invasion via their effect on the number of native range habitats occupied and cultivation in the native range. For example, persistent seed banks and longer flowering periods are positively correlated with number of native habitats, while a stress-tolerant life strategy is negatively correlated with native range cultivation. However, the importance of the biological traits is nearly an order of magnitude less than that of the larger scale drivers and highly dependent on the invasion stage (traits were associated

  7. Corporate realignments in the natural gas industry: does the North American experience foretell the future for the European Union?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutledge, I.; Wright, Ph. [Sheffield Univ., Energy Studies Programme (United Kingdom); Wright, Ph. [Montpellier-1 Univ., CREDEN-LASER, 34 (France)

    2000-09-01

    This paper seeks to explore the extent to which the corporate realignments which have occurred in the North American Natural Gas Industry during a now relatively lengthy experience with liberalization involving a large number of players, will be imitated in the future by European Union countries other than the UK (which is of course already long-embarked along the path of Anglo-Saxon liberalization). The paper first of all catalogues the North American experience, drawing on company performance data assembled by the authors over the last decade (Rutledge and Wright, 1993, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2000). Secondly, this empirical exploration gives way to theoretical speculation: are there elements of the North American experience for which explanatory generalizations are possible? Thirdly, these empirical and theoretical insights are employed to identify and explore actual and potential differences in the corporate evolution of the European Union natural gas industry. (authors)

  8. Simulation of water quantity exchange between groundwater and the Platte River water, central Nebraska

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The authors demonstrate the importance of the simulation of the water quantity exchange between river water and groundwater to a better understanding of the hydrologic relations between a river and nearby aquifer where groundwater is pumped extensively but only seasonally. And MODFLOW is used to design the stream-aquifer model in which the pumpage of more than 1000 wells was simulated. The river gaining and river losing processes were analyzed. Simulation results suggest that continuation of over-extraction of groundwater will gradually increase the depletion volume in the river year after year and more depletion will occur in later years. The exchange manner between groundwater and the Platte River differs from place to place. The Platte River loses water to the adjacent aquifer in the west part of the study area, and gains water from the adjacent aquifer in the east part of the study area.

  9. Perceived risks of produced water management and naturally occurring radioactive material content in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Luisa; Yadav, Om Prakash; Khan, Eakalak

    2017-07-01

    Unconventional oil and gas development using hydraulic fracturing has caused conflict and controversy across the globe including the U.S. where some States banned the practice. Nevertheless, North Dakota (ND) has supported the practice because the State perceives the risks to be acceptable and because it has brought growth and opportunities to small communities. However, social acceptance of new technology is based on a number of factors and not contingent on economic benefits. To date, no research has been conducted to understand public risk perception of hazards associated with produced water from hydraulic fracturing in ND. This study focuses on understanding the risk perception of select ND stakeholder groups regarding produced water management and naturally occurring radioactive material. The software Qualtrics was used to create an online survey, collect data, and perform statistical analysis. The most important variables that seem to influence risk perception are the images and thoughts associated with produced water, level of knowledge about produced water handling and content, and knowing how to proceed in case of a spill of produced water. Overall, social risk perception could be in alignment with actual technical risk if availability of objective information is improved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. CLASSIFICATION OF SEMI-NATURAL GRASSLANDS IN NORTH-EASTERN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVA APOSTOLOVA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the syntaxonomic diversity of the semi-natural grasslands in NorthEastern Bulgaria following the principles of the Ziirich-Montpellier School. A total number of 172 releves, collected during 2002-2004, is used. TWINSPAN clustering is applied for determination vegetation types. The diagnostic species groups for the associations and subassociations are created by Cocktail method using the phi-coefficient with values above 0.3 within the JUICE software. As a result class Fesluco-Brometea is established with the alliances Festucion valesiacae, Pimpinello-Thymion and Chrysopogoni-Danthonion. The originally described Botriochloetum ischaemi Pop 1977 association is considered as typical on the subassociation level and a part of our releves are referred to it. Following the nomenclature rules we determined the subassotiation typicum. One new subassociation named Thymefosum pannonici of more xerophytic character, as compared to typical one, and well represented by differential species is established. The geographical distribution of Agropyro-Thymetum zygoidi and Agrostideto-Chrysopogonetum grylli associations is extended to the territory of Bulgaria. Class Molinio-Arrhenalherefea is represented by Cynosurion alliance and Festuco-Agrostidetum association is established by its probably most eastern area of distribution.

  11. Proceedings of the CERI North American natural gas conference and Calgary energy show 2003 : natural gas markets : the path ahead. CD-ROM ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The natural gas industry is undergoing significant changes that have been prompted by increased energy demand and emerging technologies. This conference provided an opportunity for participants to discuss a wide range of issues regarding energy supplies, with particular reference to natural gas, prices, trade, and non-conventional plays in North America such as coalbed methane and oil sand deposits. The 7 sessions of the conference were entitled: (1) an overview of gas supply potential in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) and the Lower 48 states; (2) the frontiers, east, west and north; (3) pipeline infrastructure issues; (4) exotics; (5) gas demand and price. Are the forecasts for real; (6) the new realities of trading and marketing; and, (7) the financial health of the natural gas industry. The outlook for both North American and world energy markets was also reviewed with particular emphasis on prospects for natural gas supply and reserves. Environmental and socio-economic challenges were described as being some of the risk factors that the industry must face. The conference featured 19 presentations of which 6 were indexed separately for inclusion in the database. tabs., figs.

  12. The Physical and Biochemical Alteration of the Platte River by Phragmites australis, an Invasive Species of Wetland Grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, R. C.; Krueger, R.; Triplett, L.; Michal, T.; Kettenring, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    Invasive species can have a profound impact on the ecosystems to which they are introduced. Beginning in 2003, the Platte River, Nebraska, USA, was invaded by an aggressive species of wetland grass, Phragmites australis. The invasion by Phragmites, in combination with river flow reductions due to agricultural irrigation, has drastically altered the character and morphology of the river. Once a braided and largely unvegetated river, the Platte had become densely colonized with vegetation by 2010. We measured some physical and biochemical characteristics of Platte River sediments to infer how that vegetation has changed the system. Specifically, we measured particle size, which is an indicator of flow velocity, and biogenic silica (BSi), which is a critical source of silicon for some aquatic organisms. Sediment was collected from areas of the riverbed that are unvegetated, and from areas that are occupied by Phragmites or native vegetation. Particle size was measured using a laser diffractometer to determine how much fine particle deposition was occurring. Biogenic silica (BSi) concentrations were measured using timed NaOH digestions and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Our results indicate that stands of Phragmites in the Platte River cause more deposition of finer silt-sized particles than other parts of the river that are unvegetated or are occupied by native vegetation. Also, Phragmites increased the sequestration of BSi in the river sediments. These changes to the Platte reverberate beyond the river itself; by sequestering silica in sediments, Phragmites could be diminishing the supply of silica to estuaries and coastal oceans. Hypothesizing that the silica content of the Platte's water had been reduced by the arrival of Phragmites, we measured dissolved (DSi) and biogenic silica (BSi) concentrations of Platte water using ICP-MS to compare to existing data from the 1990s.

  13. Applying the natural disasters vulnerability evaluation model to the March 2011 north-east Japan earthquake and tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Estrada, Mario Arturo; Yap, Su Fei; Park, Donghyun

    2014-07-01

    Natural hazards have a potentially large impact on economic growth, but measuring their economic impact is subject to a great deal of uncertainty. The central objective of this paper is to demonstrate a model--the natural disasters vulnerability evaluation (NDVE) model--that can be used to evaluate the impact of natural hazards on gross national product growth. The model is based on five basic indicators-natural hazards growth rates (αi), the national natural hazards vulnerability rate (ΩT), the natural disaster devastation magnitude rate (Π), the economic desgrowth rate (i.e. shrinkage of the economy) (δ), and the NHV surface. In addition, we apply the NDVE model to the north-east Japan earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 to evaluate its impact on the Japanese economy.

  14. Comparative study of potential transfer of natural and anthropogenic cadmium to plankton communities in the North-West African upwelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auger, P.A., E-mail: pierreamael.auger@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Physique des Océans (LPO), UMR-CNRS 6523/IFREMER/IRD/UBO, BP70, 29280 Plouzané (France); Machu, E.; Gorgues, T.; Grima, N. [Laboratoire de Physique des Océans (LPO), UMR-CNRS 6523/IFREMER/IRD/UBO, BP70, 29280 Plouzané (France); Waeles, M. [Université de Bretagne Occidentale (UBO), Laboratoire de l' Environnement Marin (LEMAR), UMR-CNRS 6539/IRD/UBO, place N. Copernic, 29280 Plouzané (France)

    2015-02-01

    A Lagrangian approach based on a physical–biogeochemical modeling was used to compare the potential transfer of cadmium (Cd) from natural and anthropogenic sources to plankton communities (Cd-uptake) in the North-West African upwelling. In this region, coastal upwelling was estimated to be the main natural source of Cd while the most significant anthropogenic source for marine ecosystem is provided by phosphate industry. In our model experiment, Cd-uptake (natural or anthropogenic) in the North-West African upwelling is the result of an interplay between the Cd dispersion (by advection processes) and the simulated biological productivity. In the Moroccan waters, advection processes limit the residence time of water masses resulting in a low natural Cd-uptake by plankton communities while anthropogenic Cd-uptake is high. As expected, the situation is reversed in the Senegalo-Mauritanian upwelling where natural Cd-uptake is higher than anthropogenic Cd-uptake. Based upon an estimate of Cd sources, our modeling study shows, unexpectedly, that the anthropogenic signal of potential Cd-bioaccumulation in the Moroccan upwelling is of the same order of magnitude as the natural signal mainly present in the Senegalo-Mauritanian upwelling region. A comparison with observed Cd levels in mollusk and fishes, which shows overall agreement with our simulations, is confirming our estimates. - Highlights: • We model the physical–biogeochemical dynamics in the North-West African upwelling. • We model the transport of cadmium from natural and anthropogenic sources. • We derive proxies of potential cadmium absorption and bioaccumulation in the plankton food chain. • The anthropogenic signal off Morocco at least equals the natural upwelling signal off Mauritania. • We compare our results with observed cadmium levels in mollusks and fishes.

  15. Drug-resistant Trypanosoma congolense in naturally infected donkeys in north Omo Zone, southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, E; Abebe, G

    2001-08-31

    A three-part study was conducted to determine the efficacy of isometamidium chloride in donkey populations naturally infected with trypanosomes in north Omo Zone, southern Ethiopia. In the first, 373 randomly selected donkeys from four villages were examined for trypanosome infections by the dark ground/phase contrast buffy coat technique (BCT) in November 1999. The trypanosome prevalence was 18.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 14.4, 22.5) and Trypanosoma congolense was the most common species accounting for 66.2% of the overall infections. In the second part, 40 infected donkeys were selected and treated with a prophylactic dose of 1.0mg/kg of isometamidium chloride and thereafter monitored every 14 days for 90 days. Trypanosomes were detected in eight donkeys within 1 month and in 20 donkeys within 2 months of treatment. About 16% (5/32) of donkeys infected with T. congolense were detected parasitemic 1 month after treatment. In addition, the result also revealed that all relapse/breakthrough infections were due to T. congolense. In the third part of this study mice were infected with two T. congolense field isolates from donkeys that were found to be parasitemic within 1 or 2 months after isometamidium treatment. The mice were treated with ranges of doses of isometamidium chloride or diminazene aceturate and thereafter followed for relapse infection. Isometamidium chloride at doses 0.5-4 mg/kg body weight and diminazene aceturate at doses of 3.5-28 mg/kg body weight failed completely to cure T. congolense infections in any of the mice.

  16. [Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge : 1970 annual narrative report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1970 calendar year. The report begins by...

  17. [Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative report : FY 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1974 fiscal year. The report begins by summarizing...

  18. Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge North Platte Easement Refuge: Annual Narrative Report, 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year. A memorandum from the...

  19. [Narrative report, Crescent Lake Refuge and North Platte Easement Refuge : January, February, March & April, 1945

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1945. The report begins by summarizing...

  20. Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge, North Platte Easement Refuge: Annual narrative report, 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1972 calendar year. The report begins by...

  1. Crescent Lake/North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Complex 2005 annual habitat work plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual habitat management plan outlines working habitat objectives for wetland habitats based on refuge purposes, professional judgment and experience for...

  2. Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge North Platte Easement Refuge: Annual Narrative Report, 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by...

  3. U.S. Department of Energy electric and hybrid vehicle Site Operator Program at Platte River Power Authority. Final report, July 3, 1991--August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmert, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    The Platte River Power Authority (Platte River) is a political subdivision of the state of Colorado, owned by the four municipalities of Fort Collins, Loveland, Longmont and Estes Park, Colorado. Platte River is a non-profit, publicly owned, joint-action agency formed to construct, operate and maintain generating plants, transmission systems and related facilities for the purpose of delivering to the four municipalities electric energy for distribution and resale. Platte River, as a participant in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Site Operator Program, worked to accomplish the Site Operator Program goals and objectives to field test and evaluate electric and electric-hybrid vehicles and electric vehicle systems in a real world application/environment. This report presents results of Platte River`s program (Program) during the five-years Platte River participated in the DOE Site Operator Program. Platte River participated in DOE Site Operator Program from July 3, 1991 through August 31, 1996. During its Program, Platte River conducted vehicle tests and evaluations, and electric vehicle demonstrations in the Front Range region of Northern Colorado. Platte River also investigated electric vehicle infrastructure issues and tested infrastructure components. Platte River`s Program objectives were as follows: evaluate the year round performance, operational costs, reliability, and life cycle costs of electric vehicles in the Front Range region of Northern Colorado; evaluate an electric vehicle`s usability and acceptability as a pool vehicle; test any design improvements or technological improvements on a component level that may be made available to PRPA and which can be retrofit into vehicles; and develop, test and evaluate, and demonstrate components to be used in charging electric vehicles.

  4. Reproductive ecology of interior least tern and piping plover in relation to Platte River hydrology and sandbar dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Jason M; Baasch, David M; Smith, Chadwin B; Werbylo, Kevin L

    2017-05-01

    Investigations of breeding ecology of interior least tern (Sternula antillarum athalassos) and piping plover (Charadrius melodus) in the Platte River basin in Nebraska, USA, have embraced the idea that these species are physiologically adapted to begin nesting concurrent with the cessation of spring floods. Low use and productivity on contemporary Platte River sandbars have been attributed to anthropomorphically driven changes in basin hydrology and channel morphology or to unusually late annual runoff events. We examined distributions of least tern and piping plover nest initiation dates in relation to the hydrology of the historical central Platte River (CPR) and contemporary CPR and lower Platte River (LPR). We also developed an emergent sandbar habitat model to evaluate the potential for reproductive success given observed hydrology, stage-discharge relationships, and sandbar height distributions. We found the timing of the late-spring rise to be spatially and temporally consistent, typically occurring in mid-June. However, piping plover nest initiation peaks in May and least tern nest initiation peaks in early June; both of which occur before the late spring rise. In neither case does there appear to be an adaptation to begin nesting concurrent with the cessation of spring floods. As a consequence, there are many years when no successful reproduction is possible because emergent sandbar habitat is inundated after most nests have been initiated, and there is little potential for successful renesting. The frequency of nest inundation, in turn, severely limits the potential for maintenance of stable species subpopulations on Platte River sandbars. Why then did these species expand into and persist in a basin where the hydrology is not ideally suited to their reproductive ecology? We hypothesize the availability and use of alternative off-channel nesting habitats, like sandpits, may allow for the maintenance of stable species subpopulations in the Platte River

  5. Soil Properties in Natural Forest Destruction and Conversion to Agricultural Land,in Gunung Leuser National Park, North Sumatera Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basuki Wasis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Destruction of the Gunung Leuser National Park area of North Sumatera Province through land clearing and land cover change from natural forest to agricultural land. Less attention to land use and ecosystem carrying capacity of the soil can cause soil degradation and destruction of flora, fauna, and wildlife habitat destruction. Environmental damage will result in a national park wild life will come out of the conservation area and would damage the agricultural community. Soil sampling conducted in purposive sampling in natural forest and agricultural areas.  Observation suggest that damage to the natural forest vegetation has caused the soil is not protected so that erosion has occurred. Destruction of natural forest into agricultural are as has caused damage to soil physical properties, soil chemical properties, and biological soil properties significantly. Forms of soil degradation caused by the destruction of natural forests, which is an increase in soil density (density Limbak by 103%, a decrease of 93% organic C and soil nitrogen decreased by 81%. The main factors causing soil degradation is the reduction of organic matter and soil erosion due to loss of natural forest vegetation.  Criteria for soil degradation in Governance Regulation Number 150/2000 can be used to determine the extent of soil degradation in natural forest ecosystems.Keywords: Gunung Leuser National Park, natural forest, agricultural land, land damage, soil properties

  6. [On the identification of the species Griphobilharzia amoena Platt, Blair, Purdie et Melville, 1991, a parasite of crocodiles in Australia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimov, D A; Filimonova, L V; Shakabroev, É B; Akramova, F D

    2011-01-01

    The results of the study of typical specimens of the trematode G. amoena from blood vessels of the crocodile Crocodylus johnstoni in Australia are provided. The data obtained on the morphology of this parasite did not confirm the statement of Platt et al. (1991) that this species belongs to the family Schistosomatidae. Morphological data on G. amoena enable attributing it to the genus Vasotrema of the family Spirorchidae as a new species. In this connection, the monotypical genus Griphobilharzia (justified by Platt et al., 1991) becomes a synonym of the genus Vasotrema, while the subfamily Griphobilharziinae becomes a synonym of the subfamily Hapalotrematinae.

  7. Evaluating the Risks of Surface Spills Associated with Hydraulic Fracturing Activities to Groundwater Resources: a Modeling Study in the South Platte Alluvial Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, C.; McLaughlin, M.; Blotevogel, J.; Benson, D. A.; Borch, T.; McCray, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has revolutionized the U.S.'s energy portfolio by making shale reservoirs productive and commercially viable. However, the public is concerned that the chemical constituents in hydraulic fracturing fluid, produced water, or natural gas itself could potentially impact groundwater or adjacent streams. Here, we conduct fate and transport simulations of surface spills, the most likely contamination pathway to occur during oil and gas production operations, to evaluate whether or not these spills pose risks to groundwater quality. We focus on the South Platte Alluvial Aquifer, which is located in the greater Denver metro area and overlaps a zone of high-density oil and gas development. The purpose of this work is to assess the mobility and persistence of chemical contaminants (e.g. biocides, friction reducers, surfactants, hydrocarbons, etc.) —based on sorption to soil, degradation potential, co-contaminant interactions, and spill conditions—and to understand the site characteristics and hydrologic conditions that would make a particular location prone to groundwater quality degradation in the event of an accidental release. We propose a coupled analytical-numerical approach that could be duplicated by environmental consultants. Results suggest that risk of groundwater pollution, based on predicted concentration at the groundwater table, is low in most areas of the South Platte system for the contaminants investigated under common spill conditions. However, substantial risk may exist in certain areas where the groundwater table is shallow. In addition, transport of certain contaminants is influenced by interactions with other constituents in produced or stimulation fluids. By helping to identify locations in the Front Range of Colorado that are at low or high risk for groundwater contamination due to a surface spill, it is our hope that this work will aid in improving prevention, mitigation, and remediation practices so that decision-makers can

  8. Understanding the Nature and Extent of Farm and Ranch Diversification in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Carla; Mahoney, Edward; Butler, Larry

    2008-01-01

    Pressure to adopt enhanced production technologies, changing government support policies, increasing and more diverse competition, and changing markets have posed economic challenges to North American farmers over the past two decades. As a response, farmers are adjusting their production model by incorporating agricultural related enterprises.…

  9. Pedicularis and Castilleja are natural hosts of Cronartium ribicola in North America: A first report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geral I. McDonald; Bryce A. Richardson; Paul J. Zambino; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook Kim

    2006-01-01

    White pine blister rust disease, caused by the introduced pathogen Cronartium ribicola, has severely disrupted five-needled pine ecosystems in North America. A 100-year effort to manage this disease was predicated in part on the premise that the pathogen utilizes only species of Ribes (Grossulariaceae) as...

  10. Relationship between the natural abundance of soil nitrogen isotopes and condition in North Dakota wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    A statewide condition assessment of North Dakota wetlands in the summer of 2011 was conducted as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA). Two other wetland condition assessments, the Index of Plant Community Integrity (IPCI...

  11. What is natural? : The scale of cryptogenesis in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haydar, Deniz

    2012-01-01

    Aim Cryptogenic species may include those taxa that were historically introduced and are now falsely viewed as native. Investigated here is the scale of cryptogenesis in the North Atlantic Ocean by examining disjunct distributions, defined as temperate species occurring only on both sides of the Nor

  12. Understanding the Nature and Extent of Farm and Ranch Diversification in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Carla; Mahoney, Edward; Butler, Larry

    2008-01-01

    Pressure to adopt enhanced production technologies, changing government support policies, increasing and more diverse competition, and changing markets have posed economic challenges to North American farmers over the past two decades. As a response, farmers are adjusting their production model by incorporating agricultural related enterprises.…

  13. Natural enemies of the spotted lanternfly in Asia and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotted lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula, is a sporadic pest of Tree-of-Heaven, Ailanthus altissima. The native range of L. delicatula includes China, Taiwan and Vietnam but it invaded Korea in 2004, Japan in 2009, and the U. S. in 2014. In North America, it is now found in eastern Pennsylvania with...

  14. Assessment of Domestic Goats as Models for Experimental and Natural Infection with the North American Isolate of Rickettsia slovaca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, M. Kelly; Spivey, Pamela; Lathrop, George W.; Powell, Nathaniel; Levin, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia slovaca is a tick-borne human pathogen that is associated with scalp eschars and neck lymphadenopathy known as tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) or Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy (DEBONEL). Originally, R. slovaca was described in Eastern Europe, but since recognition of its pathogenicity, human cases have been reported throughout Europe. European vertebrate reservoirs of R. slovaca remain unknown, but feral swine and domestic goats have been found infected or seropositive for this pathogen. Recently, a rickettsial pathogen identical to R. slovaca was identified in, and isolated from, the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis. In previous experimental studies, this organism was found infectious to guinea pigs and transovarially transmissible in ticks. In this study, domestic goats (Capra hircus) were experimentally inoculated with the North American isolate of this R. slovaca-like agent to assess their reservoir competence–the ability to acquire the pathogens and maintain transmission between infected and uninfected ticks. Goats were susceptible to infection as demonstrated by detection of the pathogen in skin biopsies and multiple internal tissues, but the only clinical sign of illness was transient fever noted in three out of four goats, and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. On average, less than 5% of uninfected ticks acquired the pathogen while feeding upon infected goats. Although domestic goats are susceptible to the newly described North American isolate of R. slovaca, they are likely to play a minor role in the natural transmission cycle of this pathogen. Our results suggest that goats do not propagate the North American isolate of R. slovaca in peridomestic environments and clinical diagnosis of infection could be difficult due to the brevity and mildness of clinical signs. Further research is needed to elucidate the natural transmission cycle of R. slovaca both in Europe and North America, as well as to identify a

  15. The Unusual Nature of Recent Snowpack Declines in the North American Cordillera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Gregory T.; Gray, Stephen T.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Fagre, Daniel B.; Littell, Jeremy S.; Watson, Emma; Luckman, Brian H.; Graumlich, Lisa J.

    2011-07-01

    In western North America, snowpack has declined in recent decades, and further losses are projected through the 21st century. Here, we evaluate the uniqueness of recent declines using snowpack reconstructions from 66 tree-ring chronologies in key runoff-generating areas of the Colorado, Columbia, and Missouri River drainages. Over the past millennium, late 20th century snowpack reductions are almost unprecedented in magnitude across the northern Rocky Mountains and in their north-south synchrony across the cordillera. Both the snowpack declines and their synchrony result from unparalleled springtime warming that is due to positive reinforcement of the anthropogenic warming by decadal variability. The increasing role of warming on large-scale snowpack variability and trends foreshadows fundamental impacts on streamflow and water supplies across the western United States.

  16. Habitat selection and productivity of least terns on the lower Platte River, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Eileen M.

    1996-01-01

    Least terns (Sterna antillarum) were studied on the lower Platte River, Nebraska, where this endangered population nests on natural sandbar habitat and on sandpit sites created by gravel dredging adjacent to the river. Theoretically terns should select habitats according to habitat suitability. However, the introduction of sandpits and conversion of tallgrass prairies along the river banks to agriculture, residential, and wooded areas may have affected terns' abilities to distinguish suitable habitat or the suitability of nesting habitats in general. I examined habitat selection and productivity of least terns to determine if terns selected habitat according to suitability (as indicated by productivity), what factors affected habitat selection and productivity, and if estimated productivity could support this population. Available habitats of both types were characterized and quantified using aerial videography (1989-90), and habitat use was assessed from census data (1987-90). Productivity of adults and causes and correlates of egg and chick mortality were estimated (1987-90). Population trend was assessed with a deterministic model using my estimates of productivity and a range of survival estimates for Laridae reported in the literature. Terns tended to use river sites with large midstream sandbars and a wide channel, and large sandpit sites with large surface areas of water relative to unused sites on both habitats. Number of sites and area of sand available were estimated using discriminant function analysis of variables quantified from video scenes of both habitats. Terns apparently did not use all potentially available sandbar and sandpit sites because discriminant function factor scores for used and unused sites overlapped broadly for both habitats. Terns did not prefer 1 habitat over the other. Although proportions of available sites used were greater on sandpits than on the river, proportions of available sand used did not differ between habitats

  17. Mapping grasslands suitable for cellulosic biofuels in the Greater Platte River Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Bruce K.; Gu, Yingxin

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels are an important component in the development of alternative energy supplies, which is needed to achieve national energy independence and security in the United States. The most common biofuel product today in the United States is corn-based ethanol; however, its development is limited because of concerns about global food shortages, livestock and food price increases, and water demand increases for irrigation and ethanol production. Corn-based ethanol also potentially contributes to soil erosion, and pesticides and fertilizers affect water quality. Studies indicate that future potential production of cellulosic ethanol is likely to be much greater than grain- or starch-based ethanol. As a result, economics and policy incentives could, in the near future, encourage expansion of cellulosic biofuels production from grasses, forest woody biomass, and agricultural and municipal wastes. If production expands, cultivation of cellulosic feedstock crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and miscanthus (Miscanthus species), is expected to increase dramatically. The main objective of this study is to identify grasslands in the Great Plains that are potentially suitable for cellulosic feedstock (such as switchgrass) production. Producing ethanol from noncropland holdings (such as grassland) will minimize the effects of biofuel developments on global food supplies. Our pilot study area is the Greater Platte River Basin, which includes a broad range of plant productivity from semiarid grasslands in the west to the fertile corn belt in the east. The Greater Platte River Basin was the subject of related U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) integrated research projects.

  18. Chapter A. Effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems in the South Platte River basin, Colorado and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Lori A.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Dupree, Jean A.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the effects of urbanization on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of stream ecosystems in 28 basins along an urban land-use gradient in the South Platte River Basin, Colorado and Wyoming, from 2002 through 2003. Study basins were chosen to minimize natural variability among basins due to factors such as geology, elevation, and climate and to maximize coverage of different stages of urban development among basins. Because land use or population density alone often are not a complete measure of urbanization, land use, land cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables were integrated in a multimetric urban intensity index to represent the degree of urban development in each study basin. Physical characteristics studied included stream hydrology, stream temperature, and habitat; chemical characteristics studied included nutrients, pesticides, suspended sediment, sulfate, chloride, and fecal bacteria concentrations; and biological characteristics studied included algae, fish, and invertebrate communities. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), passive samplers that concentrate trace levels of hydrophobic organic contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), also were used. The objectives of the study were to (1) examine physical, chemical, and biological responses along the gradient of urbanization; (2) determine the major physical, chemical, and landscape variables affecting the structure of aquatic communities; and (3) evaluate the relevance of the results to the management of water resources in the South Platte River Basin. Commonly observed effects of urbanization on instream physical, chemical, and biological characteristics, such as increased flashiness, higher magnitude and more frequent peak flows, increased concentrations of chemicals, and changes in aquatic community structure, generally were not observed in this study. None of the hydrologic, temperature, habitat

  19. The lost foam process in pilot castings plattes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Żółkiewicz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the process of thermal evaporation of a foundry pattern. At several research-development centres, studies have beencarried out to examine the physico-chemical phenomena that take place in foundry mould filled with polystyrene pattern when it is pouredwith molten metal. In the technique of evaporative patterns, the process of mould filling with molten metal (the said mould holding inside a polystyrene pattern is interrelated with the process of thermal decomposition of this pattern. The process of polystyrene pattern evaporation in foundry mould under the effect of molten metal is of a very complex nature and depends on many different factors, still not fully investigated. The technology of evaporative patterns was used in manufacture of pilot castings of the high abrasion resistance plates. The material and the properties of the resultant castings were determined by the customer (patent protection. At the beginning of the studies, the properties of the pattern material were determined, patterns were assembled, the properties of the ceramic layer were determined as well as the technique of its preparation and application. The technique of molten metal feeding to the mould cavity was examined along with the parameters of the gating and feeding system, and casting cooling and solidification conditions (large contraction, shrinkage cavities and depressions.

  20. An Analysis on Stability and Deposition Zones of Natural Gas Hydrate in Dongsha Region, North of South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuan Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose several physical/chemical causes to support the seismic results which find presence of Bottom Simulating Reflector (BSR at site 1144 and site 1148 in Dongsha Region, North of South China Sea. At site 1144, according to geothermal gradient, the bottom of stability zone of conduction mode is in agreement with BSR. At site 1148, however, the stability zone of conduction mode is smaller than the natural gas presence zone predicted by the BSR. We propose three causes, that is, mixed convection and conduction thermal flow mode, multiple composition of natural gas and overpressure in deep sediment to explain the BSR presence or gas hydrate presence. Further, our numerical simulation results suggest yet another reason for the presence of BSR at site 1144 and site 1148. Because the temperatures in deep sediment calculated from the mixed convection and conduction thermal flow mode are lower than that from the single conduction mode, the bottom of gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ is deeper than the bottom of gas hydrate deposition zone (GHDZ or BSR. The result indicates that occurrence zone of natural is decided by the condition that natural gas concentrate in the zone is greater than its solubility.

  1. Regional nitrogen budgets and riverine N & P fluxes for the drainages to the North Atlantic Ocean: Natural and human influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, R.W.; Billen, G.; Swaney, D.; Townsend, A.; Jaworski, N.; Lajtha, K.; Downing, J.A.; Elmgren, Ragnar; Caraco, N.; Jordan, T.; Berendse, F.; Freney, J.; Kudeyarov, V.; Murdoch, P.; Zhu, Z.-L.

    1996-01-01

    major control over river nitrogen export in some regions such as the northeastern U.S. Using data from relatively pristine areas as an index of change, we estimate that riverine nitrogen fluxes in many of the temperate regions have increased from pre-industrial times by 2 to 20 fold, although some regions such as northern Canada are relatively unchanged. Fluxes from the most disturbed region, the North Sea drainages, have increased by 6 to 20 fold. Fluxes from the Amazon basin are also at least 2 to 5 fold greater than estimated fluxes from undisturbed temperate-zone regions, despite low population density and low inputs of anthropogenic nitrogen to the region. This suggests that natural riverine nitrogen fluxes in the tropics may be significantly greater than in the temperate zone. However, deforestation may be contributing to the tropical fluxes. In either case, projected increases in fertilizer use and atmospheric deposition in the coming decades are likely to cause dramatic increases in nitrogen loading to many tropical river systems. ?? 1996 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  2. Ground-water resources of the South Platte River Basin in western Adams and southwestern Weld Counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rex O.; Schneider, P.A.; Petri, Lester R.

    1964-01-01

    The area described in this report consists of about 970 square miles in western Adams and southwestern Weld Counties in northeastern Colorado. It includes that part of the South Platte River valley between Denver and Kuner, Colo., all of Beebe Draw, and the lower part of the valley of Box Elder Creek. The stream-valley lowlands are separated by rolling uplands. The climate is semiarid, the normal annual precipitation being about 13 inches; thus, irrigation is essential for stable agricultural development. The area contains about 220,000 acres of irrigated land in the stream valleys. Most of the remaining 400,000 acres of land is used for dry farming or grazing because it lacks irrigation water. Most of the lowlands were brought under irrigation with surface water during the early 1900's, and now nearly all the surface water in the area is appropriated for irrigation within and downstream from the area. Because the natural flow of the streams is sometimes less than the demand for water, ground water is used to supplement the surface-water supply. Wells, drilled chiefly since 1930, supply the supplemental water and in some places are the sole supply for irrigation use. Rocks exposed in the area are of sedimentary origin and range in age from Lato Cretaceous to Recent. Those that are consolidated, called 'bedrock' in this report, consist of the Fox Hills sandstone and the Laramie and Arapahoe formations, all of Late Cretaceous age, and the Denver formation and Dawson arkose of Late Cretaceous and Tertiary age. The surface of the bedrock was shaped by ancestral streams, the valleys of which are reflected by the present surface topography. Dune sand, slope wash, and thin upland deposits of Quaternary age mantle the bedrock in the divide areas, and stream deposits ranging in thickness from 0 to about 125 feet partly fill the ancestral valleys. The valley-fill deposits consist of beds and lenses of clay, silt, sand, gravel, cobbles, and boulders. Abundant supplies of

  3. Natural history of TPA-untreated minor stroke in the North Dublin population stroke study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Marnane, M

    2011-05-01

    Introduction: Current guidelines recommend caution when considering emergency tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) therapy for patients with minor neurological deficits. However few data exist regarding the “natural history” (without tPA) of stroke in unselected population-based cohorts. We sought to evaluate the risk of long term disability in “minor stroke” patients.\\r\

  4. Coexistence in North Sea fish communities: implications for growth and natural mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gislason, H.; Pope, J.G.; Rice, J.C.; Daan, N.

    2008-01-01

    For a fish community to persist over time, all species must be able on average to replace themselves on a one-for-one basis over their lifetime. We use this principle and a size-based equilibrium model where asymptotic length is used as a functional trait to investigate how natural mortality should

  5. Terrestrial gastropods of Srebarna Nature Reserve, North-Eastern Bulgaria (Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivailo Dedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We give the results from the first investigation focused on the land snail fauna in Srebarna Nature Reserve in Bulgaria. A total of 23 localities were studied and 27 species of terrestrial gastropods were found, 23 of which were new observations for the Reserve.

  6. Terrestrial gastropods of Srebarna Nature Reserve, North-Eastern Bulgaria (Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedov, Ivailo; Antonova, Vera

    2015-01-01

    We give the results from the first investigation focused on the land snail fauna in Srebarna Nature Reserve in Bulgaria. A total of 23 localities were studied and 27 species of terrestrial gastropods were found, 23 of which were new observations for the Reserve.

  7. Statistical approaches to paternity analysis in natural populations and applications to the North Atlantic humpback whale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, R; Mattila, DK; Clapham, PJ; Palsboll, PJ

    2001-01-01

    We present a new method for paternity analysis in natural populations that is based on genotypic data that can take the sampling fi action of putative parents into account. The method allows paternity assignment to be performed in a decision theoretic framework. Simulations at e performed to evaluat

  8. Sound maps of the Dutch North Sea for natural and anthropogenic sound sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sertlek, H.O.; Aarts, G.; Brasseur, S.; Slabbekoorn, H.; Cate, C.ten; Benda-Beckmann, A.M. von; Ainslie, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Regulations for protecting and preserving the marine environment (e.g. in the USA and EU) often require investigating the potential effect of anthropogenic sound on marine life. The origin of underwater sound can be natural as well as anthropogenic. To assess the potential importance of various

  9. Quantifying natural source mercury emissions from the Ivanhoe Mining District, north-central Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Mark A.; Gustin, Mae Sexauer; Zhang, Hong

    In order to assess the importance of mercury emissions from naturally enriched sources relative to anthropogenic point sources, data must be collected that characterizes mercury emissions from representative areas and quantifies the influence of various environmental parameters that control emissions. With this information, we will be able to scale up natural source emissions to regional areas. In this study in situ mercury emission measurements were used, along with data from laboratory studies and statistical analysis, to scale up mercury emissions for the naturally enriched Ivanhoe Mining District, Nevada. Results from stepwise multi-variate regression analysis indicated that lithology, soil mercury concentration, and distance from the nearest fault were the most important factors controlling mercury flux. Field and lab experiments demonstrated that light and precipitation enhanced mercury emissions from alluvium with background mercury concentrations. Diel mercury emissions followed a Gaussian distribution. The Gaussian distribution was used to calculate an average daily emission for each lithologic unit, which were then used to calculate an average flux for the entire area of 17.1 ng Hg m -2 h -1. An annual emission of ˜8.7×10 4 g of mercury to the atmosphere was calculated for the 586 km 2 area. The bulk of the Hg released into the atmosphere from the district (˜89%) is from naturally enriched non-point sources and ˜11% is emitted from areas of anthropogenic disturbance where mercury was mined. Mercury emissions from this area exceed the natural emission factor applied to mercury rich belts of the world (1.5 ng m -2 h -1) by an order of magnitude.

  10. Pollen analysis of natural honeys from the central region of Shanxi, North China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yan Song

    Full Text Available Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010-2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples, Laminaceae (10, Brassicaceae (12, Rosaceae (12, Moraceae (13, Rhamnaceae (15, Asteraceae (17, and Fabaceae (19. In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples, Robinia pseudoacacia (3, Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2, Sophora japonica (1, Ailanthus altissima (1, Asteraceae type (1, and Fabaceae type (1. The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains, 4 to Group II (20,000-100,000, and 2 to Group III (100,000-500,000. The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption.

  11. Nucleotide diversity among natural populations of a North American poplar (Populus balsamifera, Salicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Amy L; Glenn, Elise; Yeager, Adam; Olson, Matthew S

    2009-01-01

    Poplars (Populus spp.) comprise an important component of circumpolar boreal forest ecosystems and are the model species for tree genomics. In this study, we surveyed genetic variation and population differentiation in three nuclear genes among populations of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) in North America. We examined nucleotide sequence variation in alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pdh), two well-studied nuclear loci in plants, and abscisic acid insensitivity 1B (ABI1B), a locus coincident with timing of seasonal dormancy in quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies of hybrid poplars. We compared estimates of baseline population genetic parameters for these loci with those obtained in studies of other poplar species, particularly European aspen (Populus tremula). Average pairwise nucleotide diversity (pi(tot) = 0.00216-0.00353) was equivalent to that in Populus trichocarpa, but markedly less than that in P. tremula. Elevated levels of population structure were observed in ABI1B between the northern and southern regions (F(CT) = 0.184, P boreal plant species.

  12. Natural Radioactivity at the Sin Quyen Iron-Oxide-Copper-Gold Deposit in North Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dinh Chau; Khanh, Phon Le; Jodłowski, Paweł; Pieczonka, Jadwiga; Piestrzyński, Adam; Van, Hao Duong; Nowak, Jakub

    2016-12-01

    The field radiometric and laboratory measurements were performed at the Sin Quyen copper deposit in North Vietnam. The field gamma-ray spectrometry indicated the concentration of uranium ranging from 5.5 to 87 ppm, thorium from 5.6 to 33.2 ppm, and potassium from 0.3 to 4.7%. The measured dose rates ranged from 115 to 582 nGy/h, the highest doses being at the copper ore. Concentrations in the solid samples were in the range of 20-1700 Bq/kg for uranium, 20-92.7 Bq/kg for thorium, and 7-1345 Bq/kg for potassium. The calculated doses were from 22 to 896 nGy/h; both measured and calculated dose rates are mostly related to uranium. Concentrations of radium in water samples were below 0. 17 Bq/L. Uranium in water samples was significantly higher than the hydrogeological background; the maximum of 13 Bq/L was at the waste zone pool, but neither radium nor uranium were present in tap water. Radon concentration in the dwelling air was from 42 to 278 Bq/m3 for 222Rn and from 8 to 193 Bq/m3 for 220Rn. The estimated committed dose rates were principally related to 222Rn concentration and ranged from 1.1 to 8.1 mSv/y.

  13. Natural Radioactivity at the Sin Quyen Iron-Oxide-Copper-Gold Deposit in North Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Dinh Chau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The field radiometric and laboratory measurements were performed at the Sin Quyen copper deposit in North Vietnam. The field gamma-ray spectrometry indicated the concentration of uranium ranging from 5.5 to 87 ppm, thorium from 5.6 to 33.2 ppm, and potassium from 0.3 to 4.7%. The measured dose rates ranged from 115 to 582 nGy/h, the highest doses being at the copper ore. Concentrations in the solid samples were in the range of 20-1700 Bq/kg for uranium, 20-92.7 Bq/kg for thorium, and 7-1345 Bq/kg for potassium. The calculated doses were from 22 to 896 nGy/h; both measured and calculated dose rates are mostly related to uranium. Concentrations of radium in water samples were below 0. 17 Bq/L. Uranium in water samples was significantly higher than the hydrogeological background; the maximum of 13 Bq/L was at the waste zone pool, but neither radium nor uranium were present in tap water. Radon concentration in the dwelling air was from 42 to 278 Bq/m3 for 222Rn and from 8 to 193 Bq/m3 for 220Rn. The estimated committed dose rates were principally related to 222Rn concentration and ranged from 1.1 to 8.1 mSv/y.

  14. Predicting the stability of endangered stonecats in the LaPlatte River, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchala, Elizabeth A.; Parrish, Donna; Donovan, Therese M.

    2016-01-01

    Stonecats Noturus flavus in Vermont conform to a rare distribution pattern (as designated by Rabinowitz 1981) because their known distribution within the state is limited to the LaPlatte and Missisquoi rivers. We focused on Stonecats in the LaPlatte River to predict the stability of the population. During 2012–2014, we captured Stonecats via backpack electrofishing; fish were PIT-tagged (>90 mm TL) and marked with visible implant elastomer. Among the 1,671 Stonecats that were captured, 1,252 were PIT-tagged. Only 156 (12%) of the PIT-tagged fish were recaptured, and only 22 of those individuals were recaptured more than once. The Pradel model in Program MARK was used to estimate apparent survival (Φ) and seniority, which were used to derive the rate of population change (λ) for the Stonecat encounter histories we studied. We examined a total of 64 models in our candidate set, with the following covariates: TL at first capture, maximum temperature, season, maximum discharge, and area sampled. Survival estimates were highest in the spring (range of daily Φ = 0.9993–0.9995) and increased with greater TL at first capture. We also estimated increases in capture probability with increasing area sampled. We derived an annual λ of 0.9794, which indicates a slightly decreasing population. However, our λ estimate contained uncertainty that was likely increased due to the low recapture rates. Additional years of data could increase the accuracy of the λ estimate. In the meantime, we have provided insight into Stonecat population parameters that were otherwise unknown.

  15. Natural patterns and anthropogenic disturbance in north Adriatic marine benthic assemblages: descriptive and methodological studies

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Marine soft bottom systems show a high variability across multiple spatial and temporal scales. Both natural and anthropogenic sources of disturbance act together in affecting benthic sedimentary characteristics and species distribution. The description of such spatial variability is required to understand the ecological processes behind them. However, in order to have a better estimate of spatial patterns, methods that take into account the complexity of the sedimentary system are required. ...

  16. Spring migration ecology of the mid-continent sandhill crane population with an emphasis on use of the Central Platte River Valley, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapu, Gary L.; Brandt, David A.; Kinzel, Paul J.; Pearse, Aaron T.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a 10-year study (1998–2007) of the Mid-Continent Population (MCP) of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) to identify spring-migration corridors, locations of major stopovers, and migration chronology by crane breeding affiliation (western Alaska–Siberia [WA–S], northern Canada–Nunavut [NC–N], west-central Canada–Alaska [WC–A], and east-central Canada–Minnesota [EC–M]). In the Central Platte River Valley (CPRV) of Nebraska, we evaluated factors influencing staging chronology, food habits, fat storage, and habitat use of sandhill cranes. We compared our findings to results from the Platte River Ecology Study conducted during 1978–1980. We determined spring migration corridors used by the breeding affiliations (designated subpopulations for management purposes) by monitoring 169 cranes marked with platform transmitter terminals (PTTs). We also marked and monitored 456 cranes in the CPRV with very high frequency (VHF) transmitters to evaluate length and pattern of stay, habitat use, and movements. An estimated 42% and 58% of cranes staging in the CPRV were greater sandhill cranes (G. c. tabida) and lesser sandhill cranes (G. c. canadensis), and they stayed for an average of 20 and 25 days (2000–2007), respectively. Cranes from the WA–S, NC–N, WC–A, and EC–M affiliations spent an average of 72, 77, 52, and 53 days, respectively, in spring migration of which 28, 23, 24, and 18 days occurred in the CPRV. The majority of the WA–S subpopulation settled in the CPRV apparently because of inadequate habitat to support more birds upstream, although WA–S cranes accounted for >90% of birds staging in the North Platte River Valley. Crane staging duration in the CPRV was negatively correlated with arrival dates; 92% of cranes stayed >7 days. A program of annual mechanical removal of mature stands of woody growth and seedlings that began in the early 1980s primarily in the main channel of the Platte River has allowed distribution of crane

  17. Survival of Wild Adults of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann under Natural Winter Conditions in North East Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Peñarrubia-María

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The overwintering of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann at the northern limits of its geographic distribution is not yet well known. With the aim of estimating the survival rate of medfly adults in northeast Spain under natural winter conditions, a two-winter-season trial was carried out. A control was carried out in a climatic chamber at 25°C. The results showed that medfly adults were unable to survive the entire winter season in the Girona area. Climatic conditions, including the daily minimum temperature, daily maximum temperature and the high rainfall, appeared to be involved in adult mortality in winter.

  18. Geomorphic Classification and Evaluation of Channel Width and Emergent Sandbar Habitat Relations on the Lower Platte River, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Caroline M.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a summary of geomorphic characteristics extracted from aerial imagery for three broad segments of the Lower Platte River. This report includes a summary of the longitudinal multivariate classification in Elliott and others (2009) and presents a new analysis of total channel width and habitat variables. Three segments on the lower 102.8 miles of the Lower Platte River are addressed in this report: the Loup River to the Elkhorn River (70 miles long), the Elkhorn River to Salt Creek (6.9 miles long), and Salt Creek to the Missouri River (25.9 miles long). The locations of these segments were determined by the locations of tributaries potentially significant to the hydrology or sediment supply of the Lower Platte River. This report summarizes channel characteristics as mapped from July 2006 aerial imagery including river width, valley width, channel curvature, and in-channel habitat features. In-channel habitat measurements were not made under consistent hydrologic conditions and must be considered general estimates of channel condition in late July 2006. Longitudinal patterns in these features are explored and are summarized in the context of the longitudinal multivariate classification in Elliott and others (2009) for the three Lower Platte River segments. Detailed descriptions of data collection and classification methods are described in Elliott and others (2009). Nesting data for the endangered interior least tern (Sternula antillarum) and threatened piping plover (Charadrius melodus) from 2006 through 2009 are examined within the context of the multivariate classification and Lower Platte River segments. The widest reaches of the Lower Platte River are located in the segment downstream from the Loup River to the Elkhorn River. This segment also has the widest valley and highest degree of braiding of the three segments and many large vegetated islands. The short segment of river between the Elkhorn River and Salt Creek has a fairly low valley

  19. Comparison of two methods for estimating base flow in selected reaches of the South Platte River, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capesius, Joseph P.; Arnold, L. Rick

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board, compared two methods for estimating base flow in three reaches of the South Platte River between Denver and Kersey, Colorado. The two methods compared in this study are the Mass Balance and the Pilot Point methods. Base-flow estimates made with the two methods were based upon a 54-year period of record (1950 to 2003).

  20. Specific activities of natural rocks and soils at quaternary intraplate volcanism north of Sana’a, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Shaban; El-Kamel, Abd El-Hadi; Abbady, Abd El-Bast; Saleh, Imran Issa; El-Mageed, Abdallah Ibrahim Abd

    2012-01-01

    The level of natural radioactivity in rocks and soil of 32 samples collected from locations at North Sana′a in Yemen was measured. Concentrations of radionuclides in rocks and soils samples were determined by gamma-ray spectrometer using high purity germanium (HPGe) detector with specially designed shield. The average radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K were determined and expressed in Bq/kg. The results showed that these radionuclides were present in concentrations of 21.79 ± 3.1, 19.5 ± 2.6 and 399.3 ± 16 Bq/kg, respectively, for rocks. For soil, the corresponding values were 48.2 ± 4.4, 41.7 ± 4.5 and 939.1 ± 36 Bq/kg, respectively. Also, the radiological hazard of the natural radionuclide content, radium equivalent activity, total dose rates, external hazard index and gamma activity concentration index of the (rocks/soils) samples in the area under consideration were calculated. The dose rates at 1 m above the ground from terrestrial sources were 38.39 and 86.89 nGy/h for rocks and surface soil, respectively, which present no significant health hazards to humans. PMID:22363113

  1. Decentralisation and devolution in Nicaragua’s North Atlantic autonomous region: Natural resources and indigenous peoples’ rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Larson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A number of governments, particularly in Latin America, have begun to recognise the rights of indigenous peoples and traditional communities to the lands on which they live. Recognition has often taken the form of constitutional provisions or laws that grant use rights in perpetuity or provide land titles. These provisions usually establish rights for multiple communities over a large territory, at a scale that may be ideal for promoting broader, ecosystem management approaches. At the same time, however, indigenous communities often do not have existing territorial governance structures at these scales. Nicaragua’s North Atlantic Autonomous Region provides a rich setting in which to study issues of multilevel natural resource governance. In addition to the devolution policies that have created official indigenous territories, the central government has decentralised important powers over natural resources to the regional autonomous authority, while municipal authorities still exist but have been marginalised. At the same time, however, the community scale is the one at which local people have traditionally managed resources. This paper examines these issues in light of efforts to establish democratic governance institutions at the territory level and argues that communities continue to lose out under multilevel governance regimes without concerted efforts to level the playing field. The findings are based on several years of research in the region, emerging research on newly titled territories and a six month training and dialogue with territory leaders, organised by a consortium of international and local NGOs.

  2. The long-term durability of low alkali cements. Evidence from new natural analog sites in Europe and North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, W. Russell [Bedrock Geosciences, Auenstein (Switzerland); Laine, Heini M. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Khoury, Hani [Jordan Univ., Amman (Jordan). Dept. of Geology

    2015-07-01

    The long-term durability of low alkali cements is of interest where they are under consideration as repository tunnel and exploration borehole seals and plugs. It is essential to have an appropriate understanding of their longevity to inform decisions on their potential use in a repository environment. Archaelogical analogues of low alkali cement have been studied for some time. Thomassin and Rassineux (1992), for example, reviewed some of the literature on Gallo-Roman cement-based materials and noted that one of the most impressive examples is the 1700 year old Roman mortar used in Hadrian's Wall (UK) which still contains substantial amounts of CSH (calcium silicate hydrate) compounds. These mortars were studied specifically with the behaviour of an ILW repository in mind (Jull and Lees 1990). However, plugs and seals will generally be required to be durable for longer than the few thousand years which can be accessed via archaeological analogues, so it is essential to turn to natural systems for evidence of longer term durability. To date, there have been no reported studies on natural low alkali cements. In principle, however, such cements should exist and the Bituminous Marl Formation, which hosts the natural OPC cements in Jordan (Pitty and Alexander, 2011), is a likely source. This Formation constitutes a widespread terrain which stretches from Syria in the north, through Israel and Jordan to Saudi Arabia in the south. The natural cement was formed by the combustion of organic rich limestones, a process which continues today. In Syria and northern Jordan, for example, the Formation is punctured by Late Oligocene to Quaternary volcanics so sites which include pozzolanic ash mixed with the Bituminous Marl exist and, on combustion, should produce natural low alkali cements. A site in northern Jordan is currently under investigation for evidence of long-term fresh groundwater/low alkali cement interaction and the preliminary results of the study will be

  3. Investigating the accuracy of photointerpreted unvegetated channel widths in a braided river system: a Platte River case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werbylo, Kevin L.; Farnsworth, Jason M.; Baasch, David M.; Farrell, Patrick D.

    2017-02-01

    The central Platte River in Nebraska, USA, has undergone substantial channel narrowing since basin settlement in the mid-nineteenth century. Many researchers have studied the causes of channel narrowing and its implications for endangered species that use wide, shallow channel segments with barren sandbars. As a result, changes in metrics such as unvegetated channel width have been studied. With few exceptions, these measures are estimated from aerial imagery without mention of error in relation to actual channel conditions and/or investigator bias. This issue is not unique to central Platte River studies, as a general lack of commentary is apparent regarding the direct comparison of channel planform characteristics interpreted from aerial imagery relative to those measured in the field. Here we present a case study where data collected by the Platte River Recovery Implementation Program was used to make multiple comparisons using three years of field-measured unvegetated channel widths and those photointerpreted from aerial imagery. Widths were interpreted by three investigators, who identified similar widths in almost all cases. Photointerpretation from imagery collected during the fall resulted in unvegetated width estimates that were more consistent with field measurments than estimates derived using imagery collected in June. Differences were attributed to three main factors: (1) influences of discharge on photointerpretation of unvegetated channel width; (2) increases in vegetative cover throughout the growing season; and (3) resolution of imagery. Most importantly, we concluded that photointerpretation of unvegetated widths from imagery collected during high flows can result in significant over estimation of unvegetated channel width.

  4. Microbial water quality during the northern migration of Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) at the central Platte River, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    The central Platte River is an important resource in Nebraska. Its water flows among multiple channels and supports numerous beneficial uses such as drinking water, irrigation for agriculture, groundwater recharge, and recreational activities. The central Platte River valley is an important stopover for migratory waterfowl and cranes, such as the Whooping (Grus americana) and Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis), in their annual northward traversal of the Central Flyway. Waterfowl, cranes, and other migratory birds moving across international and intercontinental borders may provide long-range transportation for any microbial pathogen they harbor, particularly through the spread of feces. Samples were collected weekly in the study reach from three sites (upstream, middle, and downstream from the roosting locations) during the spring of 2009 and 2010. The samples were analyzed for avian influenza, Escherichia coli, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Campylobacter, and Legionella. Analysis indicates that several types of fecal indicator bacteria and a range of viral, protozoan, and bacterial pathogens were present in Sandhill Crane excreta. These bacteria and pathogens were present at a significantly higher frequency and densities in water and sediments when the Sandhill Cranes were present, particularly during evening roosts within the Platte River environment.

  5. Demographics and movements of least terns and piping plovers in the Central Platte River Valley, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Erin A.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Ring, Megan M.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Anteau, Michael J.; Stucker, Jennifer H.

    2016-08-09

    The Central Platte River Valley provides breeding habitat for a variety of migratory birds, including federally endangered interior least terns (Sternula antillarum; least tern) and threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus). Since 2009, researchers have collected demographic data on both species that span their lifecycle (that is, from egg laying through survival of adults). Demographic data were used to estimate vital rates (for example, nest survival, chick survival, and so on) for both species and assess how these vital rates were related to type and age of nesting habitat. Nest survival of both species was unrelated to the age of the site a nest was initiated on. Piping plover chick survival to fledging age was not related to the age of the site it was hatched at, however, the probability of a least tern chick surviving to fledging was higher at older sites. In general there were fewer piping plover nests than least tern nests found at sites created through either the physical construction of a new site or new vegetation management regimes, during 2009–14.Mean daily least tern nest survival was 0.9742 (95-percent confidence interval [CI]: 0.9692–0.9783) and cumulative nest survival was 0.59 (95-percent CI: 0.53–0.65). Mean daily least tern chick survival was 0.9602 (95-percent CI: 0.9515–0.9673) and cumulative survival to fledging was 0.54 (95-percent CI = 0.48–0.61). Annual apparent survival rates were estimated at 0.42 (95-percent CI = 0.22–0.64) for adult least terns nesting in the Central Platte River Valley and an apparent survival rate of 0.14 (95-pecent CI = 0.04–0.41) for juvenile least terns. The number of least tern nests present at sites created during 2009–14 was associated with the age of the site; more least tern nests were associated with older sites. During 2009–14, there were four (less than 1 percent of all chicks marked) least tern chicks hatched from the Central Platte River Valley that were subsequently captured on

  6. Nitrate retention in riparian ground water at natural and elevated nitrate levels in North Central Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, J.H.; Jackman, A.P.; Triska, F.J.; Sheibley, R.W.; Avanzino, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between local ground water flows and NO3- transport to the channel was examined in three well transects from a natural, wooded riparian zone adjacent to the Shingobee River, MN. The hillslope ground water originated as recharge from intermittently grazed pasture up slope of the site. In the hillslope transect perpendicular to the stream, ground water NO3- concentrations decreased from ???3 mg N L-1 beneath the ridge (80 m from the channel) to 0.01 to 1.0 mg N L-1 at wells 1 to 3 m from the channel. The Cl- concentrations and NO3/Cl ratios decreased toward the channel indicating NO3- dilution and biotic retention. In the bankside well transect parallel to the stream, two distinct ground water environments were observed: an alluvial environment upstream of a relict beaver dam influenced by stream water and a hillslope environment downstream of the relict beaver dam. Nitrate was elevated to levels representative of agricultural runoff in a third well transect looted ???5 m from the stream to assess the effectiveness of the riparian zone as a NO3- sink. Subsurface NO3- injections revealed transport of up to 15 mg N L-1 was nearly conservative in the alluvial riparian environment. Addition of glucose stimulated dissolved oxygen uptake and promoted NO3- retention under both background and elevated NO 3- levels in summer and winter. Disappearance of added NO3- was followed by transient NO2- formation and, in the presence of C2H2, by N2O formation, demonstrating potential denitrification. Under current land use, most NO3- associated with local ground water is biotically retained or diluted before reaching the channel. However, elevating NO 3- levels through agricultural cultivation would likely result in increased NO3- transport to the channel. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  7. North Atlantic Ocean OSSE system development: Nature Run evaluation and application to hurricane interaction with the Gulf Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourafalou, Vassiliki H.; Androulidakis, Yannis S.; Halliwell, George R.; Kang, HeeSook; Mehari, Michael M.; Le Hénaff, Matthieu; Atlas, Robert; Lumpkin, Rick

    2016-11-01

    A high resolution, free-running model has been developed for the hurricane region of the North Atlantic Ocean. The model is evaluated with a variety of observations to ensure that it adequately represents both the ocean climatology and variability over this region, with a focus on processes relevant to hurricane-ocean interactions. As such, it can be used as the "Nature Run" (NR) model within the framework of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs), designed specifically to improve the ocean component of coupled ocean-atmosphere hurricane forecast models. The OSSE methodology provides quantitative assessment of the impact of specific observations on the skill of forecast models and enables the comprehensive design of future observational platforms and the optimization of existing ones. Ocean OSSEs require a state-of-the-art, high-resolution free-running model simulation that represents the true ocean (the NR). This study concentrates on the development and data based evaluation of the NR model component, which leads to a reliable model simulation that has a dual purpose: (a) to provide the basis for future hurricane related OSSEs; (b) to explore process oriented studies of hurricane-ocean interactions. A specific example is presented, where the impact of Hurricane Bill (2009) on the eastward extension and transport of the Gulf Stream is analyzed. The hurricane induced cold wake is shown in both NR simulation and observations. Interaction of storm-forced currents with the Gulf Stream produced a temporary large reduction in eastward transport downstream from Cape Hatteras and had a marked influence on frontal displacement in the upper ocean. The kinetic energy due to ageostrophic currents showed a significant increase as the storm passed, and then decreased to pre-storm levels within 8 days after the hurricane advanced further north. This is a unique result of direct hurricane impact on a western boundary current, with possible implications on the ocean

  8. Evaluation of groundwater levels in the South Platte River alluvial aquifer, Colorado, 1953-2012, and design of initial well networks for monitoring groundwater levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    The South Platte River and underlying alluvial aquifer form an important hydrologic resource in northeastern Colorado that provides water to population centers along the Front Range and to agricultural communities across the rural plains. Water is regulated based on seniority of water rights and delivered using a network of administration structures that includes ditches, reservoirs, wells, impacted river sections, and engineered recharge areas. A recent addendum to Colorado water law enacted during 2002-2003 curtailed pumping from thousands of wells that lacked authorized augmentation plans. The restrictions in pumping were hypothesized to increase water storage in the aquifer, causing groundwater to rise near the land surface at some locations. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board and the Colorado Water Institute, completed an assessment of 60 years (yr) of historical groundwater-level records collected from 1953 to 2012 from 1,669 wells. Relations of "high" groundwater levels, defined as depth to water from 0 to 10 feet (ft) below land surface, were compared to precipitation, river discharge, and 36 geographic and administrative attributes to identify natural and human controls in areas with shallow groundwater.

  9. Biomagnification of naturally-produced methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) in harbour seals and harbour porpoises from the Southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijser, L.; Losada, S.; Das, K.; Roosens, L.; Reijnders, P.J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Harbour seals and harbour porpoises are top predator species from the North Sea, have long life spans and hence, are known to accumulate high levels of anthropogenic contaminants. To gain knowledge about the behaviour of naturally-produced compounds in these marine mammals, the biomagnification of n

  10. Biomagnification of naturally-produced methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) in harbour seals and harbour porpoises from the Southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijser, L.; Losada, S.; Das, K.; Roosens, L.; Reijnders, P.J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Harbour seals and harbour porpoises are top predator species from the North Sea, have long life spans and hence, are known to accumulate high levels of anthropogenic contaminants. To gain knowledge about the behaviour of naturally-produced compounds in these marine mammals, the biomagnification of n

  11. Adaptive management on the central Platte River--science, engineering, and decision analysis to assist in the recovery of four species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chadwin B

    2011-05-01

    Active adaptive management is the centerpiece of a major species recovery program now underway on the central Platte River in Nebraska. The Platte River Recovery Implementation Program initiated on January 1, 2007 and is a joint effort between the states of Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska; the U.S. Department of the Interior; waters users; and conservation groups. This program is intended to address issues related to endangered species and loss of habitat along the Platte River in central Nebraska by managing land and water resources and using adaptive management as its science framework. The adaptive management plan provides a systematic process to test hypotheses and apply the information learned to improve management on the ground, and is centered on conceptual models and priority hypotheses that reflect different interpretations of how river processes work and the best approach to meeting key objectives. This framework reveals a shared attempt to use the best available science to implement experiments, learn, and revise management actions accordingly on the Platte River. This paper focuses on the status of adaptive management implementation on the Platte, experimental and habitat design issues, and the use of decision analysis tools to help set objectives and guide decisions.

  12. Accumulation of natural SF6 in the sedimentary aquifers of the North China Plain as a restriction on groundwater dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rohden, Christoph; Kreuzer, Andreas; Chen, Zongyu; Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner

    2010-09-01

    We employed environmental tracers ((3)H-(3)He, SF(6)) in a study investigating the groundwater recharge in the North China Plain (NCP), a sedimentary aquifer system consisting of fluvial and alluvial river deposits near the city of Shijiazhuang. The (3)H-(3)He dating method revealed reasonable results for the young groundwater with ages covering the range of recent to ~40 a. SF(6) samples were taken in parallel for independent dating and to compare the applicability of both methods. However, the SF(6)-results are influenced and, in part, dominated by a systematic non-atmospheric component, revealing that the dating with SF(6) is unreliable in this region. A correlation of non-atmospheric SF(6) and (3)H-(3)He ages suggests a continuous accumulation of natural SF(6) in the groundwater of the NCP aquifers. Although terrigenic SF(6) has previously been associated with crystalline or igneous rocks, our results indicate that it can also be accumulated in sandy aquifers on the timescale relevant for SF(6) dating.

  13. Evaluation of naturally occurring pigments of the North Bohemian lignite mining area; Bewertung von mineralischen Pigmentvorkommen des nordboehmischen Braunkohlenbeckens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buntenbach, Stephan [TriMin Consulting - Mineral Processing, Ammerthal (Germany); Botula, Jiri [VSB-Technical Univ. of Ostrava (Czech Republic). Mineral Processing Dept.; Leonhardt, Hana

    2010-11-15

    The research project ''Mineral Processing Methods for the Preparation of Naturally Occurring Pigments from Overburden of the Lignite Mines and from Shallow Clay Deposits of the North Bohemian Lignite Basin'', funded by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt DBU, was conducted as a collaboration between the AKW Apparate+Verfahren GmbH, Hirschau with the Technical University of Ostrava. Geological, mineralogical and mineral processing studies for the development of a suitable beneficiation method were carried out to investigate the possibilities of the industrial usage of beneficiated pigments of these deposits. It should be demonstrated, that the significant reserves of mineral pigments in the shallow deposits and also in the overburden of the lignite mines can be utilized ecologically and economically. Based on the results of geological prospecting work already carried out, the deposit Horenec was selected as the most important pigment deposits for the production of bolus and ochre earth. The newly carried out geological, mineralogical and chemical studies formed the basis for the following mineral processing test work and the test work for the usage of beneficiated products as colouring paint for plastic, fabric and other materials. (orig.)

  14. Chapter A. Effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems in the South Platte River basin, Colorado and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Lori A.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Dupree, Jean A.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the effects of urbanization on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of stream ecosystems in 28 basins along an urban land-use gradient in the South Platte River Basin, Colorado and Wyoming, from 2002 through 2003. Study basins were chosen to minimize natural variability among basins due to factors such as geology, elevation, and climate and to maximize coverage of different stages of urban development among basins. Because land use or population density alone often are not a complete measure of urbanization, land use, land cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables were integrated in a multimetric urban intensity index to represent the degree of urban development in each study basin. Physical characteristics studied included stream hydrology, stream temperature, and habitat; chemical characteristics studied included nutrients, pesticides, suspended sediment, sulfate, chloride, and fecal bacteria concentrations; and biological characteristics studied included algae, fish, and invertebrate communities. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), passive samplers that concentrate trace levels of hydrophobic organic contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), also were used. The objectives of the study were to (1) examine physical, chemical, and biological responses along the gradient of urbanization; (2) determine the major physical, chemical, and landscape variables affecting the structure of aquatic communities; and (3) evaluate the relevance of the results to the management of water resources in the South Platte River Basin. Commonly observed effects of urbanization on instream physical, chemical, and biological characteristics, such as increased flashiness, higher magnitude and more frequent peak flows, increased concentrations of chemicals, and changes in aquatic community structure, generally were not observed in this study. None of the hydrologic, temperature, habitat

  15. Radionuclide observables for the Platte underground nuclear explosive test on 14 April 1962.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Jonathan L; Milbrath, Brian D

    2016-11-01

    Past nuclear weapon explosive tests provide invaluable information for understanding the radionuclide observables expected during an On-site Inspection (OSI) for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). These radioactive signatures are complex and subject to spatial and temporal variability. The Platte underground nuclear explosive test on 14 April 1962 provides extensive environmental monitoring data that can be modelled and used to calculate the maximum time available for detection of the OSI-relevant radionuclides. The 1.6 kT test is especially useful as it released the highest amounts of recorded activity during Operation Nougat at the Nevada Test Site - now known as the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). It has been estimated that 0.36% of the activity was released, and dispersed in a northerly direction. The deposition ranged from 1 × 10(-11) to 1 × 10(-9) of the atmospheric release (per m(2)), and has been used in this paper to evaluate an OSI and the OSI-relevant radionuclides at 1 week to 2 years post-detonation. Radioactive decay reduces the activity of the OSI-relevant radionuclides by 99.7% within 2 years of detonation, such that detection throughout the hypothesized inspection is only achievable close to the explosion where deposition was highest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Radionuclide observables for the Platte underground nuclear explosive test on 14 April 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, Jonathan L.; Milbrath, Brian D.

    2016-11-01

    Past nuclear weapons tests provide invaluable information for understanding the radionuclide observables and data quality objectives expected during an On-site Inspection (OSI) for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). These radioactive signatures are complex and subject to spatial and temporal variability. The Platte Underground Nuclear Test on 14 April 1962 provides extensive environmental monitoring data that can be modelled and used to assess an OSI. The 1.6 kT test is especially useful as it released the highest amounts of recorded activity during Operation Nougat at the Nevada Test Site – now known as the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). It has been estimated that 0.36% of the activity was released, and dispersed in a northerly direction. The deposition ranged from 1 x 10-11 to 1 x 10-9 of the atmospheric release (per m2), and has been used to evaluate a hypothetical OSI at 1 week to 2 years post-detonation. Radioactive decay reduces the activity of the 17 OSI relevant radionuclides by 99.7%, such that detection throughout the inspection is only achievable close to the explosion where deposition was highest.

  17. Nature and melting processes of the lithosphere beneath the North-East Qiangqtang terrane, Central Tibet, during Eocene times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goussin, Fanny; Guillot, Stéphane; Schulmann, Karel; Cordier, Carole; Oliot, Emilien; Replumaz, Anne; Roperch, Pierrick; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    At the time of the collision with India (~55Ma), the southern margin of Asia was a composite continental domain resulting from an already long history of successive accretions of different terranes having different rheologies. Knowledge about the structure, composition and thermal state of the Tibetan lithosphere through time is thus fundamental to understand the respective contributions of pre-Cenozoïc and Cenozoïc tectonics in the building of the Plateau to its present-day elevations. We focused on the boundary between the Qiangtang terrane to the south, and the Songpan-Ganze terrane to the north. We jointly studied deep crustal xenoliths and associated (ultra-)potassic magmatism from the Eocene basins of Nangqian and Xialaxiu (Qinghai Province, China), north of the Qiangtang terrane. The aims were to retrieve the composition and the thermal state of the lower crust during Eocene times, to study the behavior of the lower crust and lithospheric mantle of the Eastern Qiangtang terrane and the adjacent Songpan-Ganze terrane at the time of the collision, and the link with the magmatic activity. Crustal xenoliths are of two types: biotite-rich, amphibole bearing metasediments; and garnet-bearing quartzo-feldspathic gneisses. Such assemblages are typical of very high-grade amphibolite and granulite facies metamorphism; further study should allow us to quantify the pressures and temperatures those rocks experienced until the time they were sampled by their host lavas. Major element geochemistry places the c.a. 51-49 Ma (Spurlin et al., 2005) Xialaxiu volcanic field in a fairly differentiated (SiO2~65-70 wt%) high-K field of the calc-alcaline series. Trace element analysis suggests a strong crustal contamination of the primary mantellic melts. C.a. 38-37 Ma (Spurlin et al., 2005) Nangqian magmatic bodies span across the alkaline series, with high to extreme (K2O~6wt%) values. Complex major and trace element patterns, coupled with high-resolution microprobe data on

  18. Hydrochemistry and boron isotopes as natural tracers in the study of groundwaters from North Chianan Plain, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hsueh-Yu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, hydrochemistry and boron isotopes are successfully applied to elucidate hydrogeological processes by the use of natural tracers. The hydrochemical analysis identifies four end-members in the hydrochemical evolution of groundwater from the North Chianan plain groundwater district. A few groundwater contain extraordinary chlorine concentrations of up to 48,000 mg l(-1). However, the hydrochemistry of groundwater only reveals that high saline water is a dominant factor in groundwater hydrochemistry. It is thought that these groundwater experienced precipitation of carbonates during seawater evaporation that did not involve the precipitation of gypsum. Boron isotopes are very efficient tracers in determining the source of salinisation. The boron isotopes reveal the results of mixing of evaporated seawater and water-sediment interaction. In general, the boron isotope ratio of the groundwater is controlled by a two-end-member mixing system, which is composed of evaporated seawater (isotopically heavy) and fresh surface water (isotopically light). Due to a long lagoonal period in the coastal plain, the groundwaters in the downstream area generally have high Cl/B ratios and relatively heavy boron isotope ratios while those in the upstream area are composed of low Cl/B and light boron isotopes. However, there is not a resolvable mixing trend between the Cl/B ratio and the isotopic composition of boron. It is probably obscured by a highly variable boron isotope ratio in fresh surface water and through fractionation associated with water-rock interaction. Both factors would decrease the boron isotope ratio but one effect cannot be distinguished from the other.

  19. Toxicity and water quality of natural waterbodies, reserve pits and selected sites at North Slope, Alaska, oilfields

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Oilfield activities on the North Slope of Alaska result in production of large amounts of wastes and fugitive dust. Surface storage and disposal of these wastes may...

  20. North Cascades National Park Service Complex Natural Resource Preservation Program Amphibian Inventory Big Beaver Watershed 1996 - Progress Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — The 1996 amphibian inventory in North Cascades National Park Service Complex Big Beaver watershed is part of a four year program to inventory amphibians in Pacific...

  1. Foraging ecology of least terns and piping plovers nesting on Central Platte River sandpits and sandbars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfy, Mark H.; Anteau, Michael J.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Stucker, Jennifer H.

    2012-01-01

    Federally listed least terns (Sternula antillarum) and piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) nest on riverine sandbars on many major midcontinent river systems. On the Central Platte River, availability of sandbar habitat is limited, and both species nest on excavated sandpits in the river's floodplain. However, the extent to which sandpit-nesting birds use riverine habitats for foraging is unknown. We evaluated use of foraging habitats by least terns and piping plovers by collecting data on movements, behavior, foraging habitat, and productivity. We radiomarked 16 piping plovers and 23 least terns in 2009-2010 and monitored their movements using a network of fixed telemetry dataloggers. Piping plovers were detected primarily by the datalogger located in their nesting sandpit, whereas least terns were more frequently detected on dataloggers outside of the nesting sandpit. Telemetry data and behavioral observations showed that least terns tended to concentrate at the Kearney Canal Diversion Gates, where forage fish were apparently readily available. Fish sampling data suggested that forage fish were more abundant in riverine than in sandpit habitats, and behavioral observations showed that least terns foraged more frequently in riverine than in sandpit habitats. Piping plovers tended to forage in wet substrates along sandpit shorelines, but also used dry substrates and sandpit interior habitats. The greater mobility of least terns makes a wider range of potential foraging habitats available during brood rearing, making them able to exploit concentrations of fish outside the nesting colony. Thus, our data suggest that different spatial scales should be considered in managing nesting and foraging habitat complexes for piping plovers and least terns.

  2. The features of element concentration in natural waters of the Kola North in conditions of environmental contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazova, Mariya; Moiseenko, Tatyana

    2016-04-01

    The intensive use of fossil fuels and industrial development in last century led to the formation of acid rain and water acidification. The problem of water acidification greatly was denoted in the middle of last century in North America and in Europe as a result of air emissions of acid gases, primarily sulfur dioxide. The process of water acidification due to the interaction of two factors: 1) the high deposition of acidifying substances, taking into account the duration of exposure; 2) the sensitivity of the natural catchment area of geological, landscape, geographic and climatic characteristics (Moiseenko, 2005). The effects of acid rains on metal migration and cycling were discussed in a number of previous studies (Jeffries, 1997; Moiseenko, 1999; Manio, 2001; Moiseenko, Gashkina, 2007). The distribution of elements in water lakes has been mixed and due to the change of geochemical cycles of elements occurring in the catchment area and in water. On the Kola Peninsula as a result of long-term operation of the copper-nickel smelter was the anthropogenic acidification and water pollution metals. Increased contents of elements due to the combined effect of three factors: 1) landscape-geochemical characteristics of watersheds; 2) dispersion with flue emissions; 3) leaching elements and bonding of metals with organic matter, especially in forested watersheds and wetlands. This region is subject to long-term effects of mining and smelting industries, and therefore difficult to find of water bodies, which can serve as a background lakes. It is proved that manmade acid rain lead to leach into the water of a large group of elements entering the water as a result of man-made streams, as well as the elements that consist of the rocks forming the watersheds. In order to identify the relationships between the components of the elemental composition of the water in the lake was made a factor analysis using a computer program «STATISTICA 10". Factor analysis revealed the

  3. Cross-section data and pressure transducer location of the South Platte River near Fort Morgan, Colorado, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    The USGS Colorado Water Science Center, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board, collected hydraulic data for the South Platte River for areas adjacent to Fort Morgan, Colo., based on the USGS streamgage 06759500 South Platte River at Fort Morgan, CO. The hydraulic data include survey point data for 54 cross sections and 10 pressure transducers, which are used to record the river stage beginning at Morgan County Road 16 and extending downstream to Morgan County Road 20.5 near Fort Morgan, Colo. The cross-section and pressure transducer location data were collected using real-time kinematic Global Navigation Satellite Systems by USGS personnel from February 15, 2017, through April 18, 2017. These data can be used to develop inundation maps, which could be available to emergency personnel, public officials, and the general public using an online public mapping application at the USGS Flood Inundation Mapper, which contains flood inundation map libraries from throughout the country created by the USGS.

  4. Molecular detection of Campylobacter spp. and fecal indicator bacteria during the northern migration of Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Central Platte River

    Science.gov (United States)

    The annual Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) migration through Nebraska is thought to be a major source of fecal pollution to the Platte River, but of unknown human health risk. To better understand potential risks, the presence of Campylobacter species and fecal bacteria were exa...

  5. Molecular detection of Campylobacter spp. and fecal indicator bacteria during the northern migration of Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Central Platte River

    Science.gov (United States)

    The annual Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) migration through Nebraska is thought to be a major source of fecal pollution to the Platte River, but of unknown human health risk. To better understand potential risks, the presence of Campylobacter species and fecal bacteria were exa...

  6. [Narrative report, Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge : May, June, July & August, 1946

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1946. The report begins by summarizing...

  7. Narrative report, Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge : Period ending April, 30, 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1949. The report begins by summarizing...

  8. Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Refuge narrative report : January, February, March, April, 1953

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1953. The report begins by summarizing...

  9. Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Refuge narrative report : September, October, November, December, 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1954. The report begins by...

  10. Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Refuge narrative report : May, June, July, August, 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1954. The report begins by summarizing...

  11. [Narrative report, Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge : May, June, July & August 1948

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1948. The report begins by summarizing...

  12. Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Refuge narrative report : September, October, November, December, 1953

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1953. The report begins by...

  13. [Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Annual Narrative Report : January 1 to December 31, 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1966 calendar year. An April 26, 1967 memorandum...

  14. [Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge narrative report : September 1 to December 31, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1956. The report begins by...

  15. [Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Annual Narrative Report : January 1 to December 31, 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1965 calendar year. An April 27, 1966 memorandum...

  16. Bioavailability and exposure assessment of petroleum hydrocarbons and trace elements in birds nesting near the North Platte River, Casper, Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this study were to compare refinery-related petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and nestling house...

  17. [Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge narrative report : 1 May to 31 August, 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1958. The report begins by summarizing...

  18. Quarterly narrative report : February, March and April, 1940 for Crescent Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge and North Platte Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from February through April of 1940. The report begins by...

  19. [Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge narrative report : May 1 to August 31, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1959. The report begins by summarizing...

  20. [Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge narrative report : September 1 to December 31, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1959. The report begins by...

  1. [Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge narrative report : September 1 to December 31, 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1960. The report begins by...

  2. [Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge narrative report : January 1 to April 30, 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1960. The report begins by summarizing...

  3. [Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge narrative report : May 1 to September 30, 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1960. The report begins by summarizing...

  4. [Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge narrative report : January 1 to April 30. 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1959. The report begins by summarizing...

  5. [Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge narrative report : January 1 to April 30, 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1961. The report begins by summarizing...

  6. [Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge narrative report : 1 September to 31 December, 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1958. Wildlife- including...

  7. [Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge narrative report : May 1 to August 31, 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1962. The report begins by summarizing...

  8. Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Refuge narrative report : May, June, July, August, 1951

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1951. The report begins by summarizing...

  9. [Narrative report, Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge : May, June, July & August, 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1949. The report begins by summarizing...

  10. [Narrative report, Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge : September, October, November & December, 1947

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1947. The report begins by...

  11. Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Refuge narrative report : January, February, March, April, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1956. The report begins by summarizing...

  12. Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Refuge narrative report : September, October, November, December, 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1955. The report begins by...

  13. Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Refuge narrative report : May, June, July, August, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1956. The report begins by summarizing...

  14. Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Refuge narrative report : May, June, July, August, 1953

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1953. The report begins by summarizing...

  15. [Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Annual Narrative Report : January 1 to December 31, 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1967 calendar year. An August 21, 1968 memorandum...

  16. [Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge narrative report : 1 September to 31 December, 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1957. The report begins by...

  17. [Narrative report, Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge : January, February, March & April, 1948

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1948. The report begins by summarizing...

  18. [Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge narrative report : September 1 to December 31, 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1961. Wildlife- including...

  19. The North Sea fish community: past, present and future : background document for the 2011 National Nature Outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teal, L.R.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term changes in the North Sea fish community have been demonstrated both as trends in individual species, particular those subject to fishing pressure, as well as in the community as a whole. Trends in diversity, size structure, trophic level and size at maturation have been related to fishing

  20. Transmission patterns of smallpox: Systematic review of natural outbreaks in Europe and North America since World War II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Bhatnagar (Vibha); M.A. Stoto (Michael); S.C. Morton (Sally); R. Boer (Rob); S.A. Bozzette (Samuel)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Because smallpox (variola major) may be used as a biological weapon, we reviewed outbreaks in post-World War II Europe and North America in order to understand smallpox transmission patterns. Methods: A systematic review was used to identify papers from the National Library o

  1. Transmission patterns of smallpox: Systematic review of natural outbreaks in Europe and North America since World War II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Bhatnagar (Vibha); M.A. Stoto (Michael); S.C. Morton (Sally); R. Boer (Rob); S.A. Bozzette (Samuel)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Because smallpox (variola major) may be used as a biological weapon, we reviewed outbreaks in post-World War II Europe and North America in order to understand smallpox transmission patterns. Methods: A systematic review was used to identify papers from the National Library o

  2. The North Sea fish community: past, present and future : background document for the 2011 National Nature Outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teal, L.R.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term changes in the North Sea fish community have been demonstrated both as trends in individual species, particular those subject to fishing pressure, as well as in the community as a whole. Trends in diversity, size structure, trophic level and size at maturation have been related to fishing

  3. Evaluating ethane and methane emissions associated with the development of oil and natural gas extraction in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, B.; Mahieu, E.; Emmons, L. K.; Tzompa-Sosa, Z. A.; Fischer, E. V.; Sudo, K.; Bovy, B.; Conway, S.; Griffin, D.; Hannigan, J. W.; Strong, K.; Walker, K. A.

    2016-04-01

    Sharp rises in the atmospheric abundance of ethane (C2H6) have been detected from 2009 onwards in the Northern Hemisphere as a result of the unprecedented growth in the exploitation of shale gas and tight oil reservoirs in North America. Using time series of C2H6 total columns derived from ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) observations made at five selected Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change sites, we characterize the recent C2H6 evolution and determine growth rates of ˜5% yr-1 at mid-latitudes and of ˜3% yr-1 at remote sites. Results from CAM-chem simulations with the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollutants, Phase II bottom-up inventory for anthropogenic emissions are found to greatly underestimate the current C2H6 abundances. Doubling global emissions is required to reconcile the simulations and the observations prior to 2009. We further estimate that North American anthropogenic C2H6 emissions have increased from 1.6 Tg yr-1 in 2008 to 2.8 Tg yr-1 in 2014, i.e. by 75% over these six years. We also completed a second simulation with new top-down emissions of C2H6 from North American oil and gas activities, biofuel consumption and biomass burning, inferred from space-borne observations of methane (CH4) from Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite. In this simulation, GEOS-Chem is able to reproduce FTIR measurements at the mid-latitudinal sites, underscoring the impact of the North American oil and gas development on the current C2H6 abundance. Finally we estimate that the North American oil and gas emissions of CH4, a major greenhouse gas, grew from 20 to 35 Tg yr-1 over the period 2008-2014, in association with the recent C2H6 rise.

  4. Effects on non-human species inhabiting areas with enhanced level of natural radioactivity in the north of Russia: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geras' kin, Stanislav A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology RAAS, 249020 Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: stgeraskin@gmail.com; Evseeva, Tatiana I. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Belykh, Elena S. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Majstrenko, Tatiana A. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Michalik, Boguslaw [Central Mining Institute, Pl. Gwarkow 1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland); Taskaev, Anatoliy I. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-15

    Results of long-term radioecological investigations in areas with an enhanced level of natural radioactivity in the north of Russia are summarized. Deleterious changes within animal and plant populations inhabiting areas with an enhanced level of natural radioactivity in the Komi Republic were revealed. These changes are expressed in enhanced levels of mutagenesis, destructive processes in the tissues of animals, disturbances of reproductive functions and reduced offspring viability. Compensatory processes, resulting in animal and plant survival under extremely adverse conditions of radium and uranium-radium contamination, were observed as well. However, obvious signs of adaptation failed to be detected. The findings suggest that adverse somatic and genetic effects are possible in plants and animals in the dose range observed at sites with an enhanced level of natural radioactivity. In contrast, different plant species inhabiting an area with an enhanced level of natural radioactivity in the taiga zone of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) reveal a stimulation of growth processes, photosynthesis, endogenous low molecular weight antioxidant synthesis as well as adaptive response. It is apparent from the data presented that naturally occurring differences in terrestrial radiation level could be of genetic and ecological consequence.

  5. Factors affecting post-control reinvasion by seed of an invasive species, Phragmites australis, in the central Platte River, Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatowitsch, Susan M.; Larson, Diane L.; Larson, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plants, such as Phragmites australis, can profoundly affect channel environments of large rivers by stabilizing sediments and altering water flows. Invasive plant removal is considered necessary where restoration of dynamic channels is needed to provide critical habitat for species of conservation concern. However, these programs are widely reported to be inefficient. Post-control reinvasion is frequent, suggesting increased attention is needed to prevent seed regeneration. To develop more effective responses to this invader in the Central Platte River (Nebraska, USA), we investigated several aspects of Phragmites seed ecology potentially linked to post-control reinvasion, in comparison to other common species: extent of viable seed production, importance of water transport, and regeneration responses to hydrology. We observed that although Phragmites seed does not mature until very late in the ice-free season, populations produce significant amounts of viable seed (>50 % of filled seed). Most seed transported via water in the Platte River are invasive perennial species, although Phragmites abundances are much lower than species such as Lythrum salicaria, Cyperus esculentus and Phalaris arundinacea. Seed regeneration of Phragmites varies greatly depending on hydrology, especially timing of water level changes. Flood events coinciding with the beginning of seedling emergence reduced establishment by as much as 59 % compared to flood events that occurred a few weeks later. Results of these investigations suggest that prevention of seed set (i.e., by removal of flowering culms) should be a priority in vegetation stands not being treated annually. After seeds are in the seedbank, preventing reinvasion using prescribed flooding has a low chance of success given that Phragmites can regenerate in a wide variety of hydrologic microsites.

  6. Analysis of GIS data to investigate natural resource impacts of high-voltage overhead lines in the examples in Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thinh, Nguyen Xuan; Sander, Leon; Kopec, Jakob; Muehlnickel, Kai [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany). Dept. of Spatial Information Management and Modelling

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we describe shortly Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia as study areas and the legal framework, both in the context of natural resource impacts of high-voltage overhead lines. We then conduct the buffer analysis of a GIS dataset in order to investigate natural resource impacts of existing high-voltage overhead lines in the two mentioned study areas. The paper is based upon the first results of the interdisciplinary research and development project ''Power Network Planning'' funded as part of the 6th Energy research program ''Research for an environmentally friendly, reliable and affordable energy supply'' by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi). (orig.)

  7. Vesta's north pole quadrangle Av-1 (Albana): Geologic map and the nature of the south polar basin antipodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewett, David T.; Buczkowski, Debra L.; Ruesch, Ottaviano; Scully, Jennifer E.; O'Brien, David P.; Gaskell, Robert; Roatsch, Thomas; Bowling, Timothy J.; Ermakov, Anton; Hiesinger, Harald; Williams, David A.; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2014-12-01

    As part of systematic global mapping of Vesta using data returned by the Dawn spacecraft, we have produced a geologic map of the north pole quadrangle, Av-1 Albana. Extensive seasonal shadows were present in the north polar region at the time of the Dawn observations, limiting the ability to map morphological features and employ color or spectral data for determination of composition. The major recognizable units present include ancient cratered highlands and younger crater-related units (undivided ejecta, and mass-wasting material on crater floors). The antipode of Vesta's large southern impact basins, Rheasilvia and Veneneia, lie within or near the Av-1 quadrangle. Therefore it is of particular interest to search for evidence of features of the kind that are found at basin antipodes on other planetary bodies. Albedo markings known as lunar swirls are correlated with basin antipodes and the presence of crustal magnetic anomalies on the Moon, but lighting conditions preclude recognition of such albedo features in images of the antipode of Vesta's Rheasilvia basin. “Hilly and lineated terrain,” found at the antipodes of large basins on the Moon and Mercury, is not present at the Rheasilvia or Veneneia antipodes. We have identified small-scale linear depressions that may be related to increased fracturing in the Rheasilvia and Veneneia antipodal areas, consistent with impact-induced stresses (Buczkowski, D. et al. [2012b]. Analysis of the large scale troughs on Vesta and correlation to a model of giant impact into a differentiated asteroid. Geol. Soc. of America Annual Meeting. Abstract 152-4; Bowling, T.J. et al. [2013]. J. Geophys. Res. - Planets, 118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgre.20123). The general high elevation of much of the north polar region could, in part, be a result of uplift caused by the Rheasilvia basin-forming impact, as predicted by numerical modeling (Bowling, T.J. et al. [2013]. J. Geophys. Res. - Planets, 118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgre

  8. natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Gómez Macías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de óxido de magnesio comercial se preparó una suspensión acuosa, la cual se secó y calcinó para conferirle estabilidad térmica. El material, tanto fresco como usado, se caracterizó mediante DRX, área superficial BET y SEM-EPMA. El catalizador mostró una matriz de MgO tipo periclasa con CaO en la superficie. Las pruebas de actividad catalítica se efectuaron en lecho fijo empacado con partículas obtenidas mediante prensado, trituración y clasificación del material. El flujo de reactivos consistió en mezclas gas natural-aire por debajo del límite inferior de inflamabilidad. Para diferentes flujos y temperaturas de entrada de la mezcla reactiva, se midieron las concentraciones de CH4, CO2 y CO en los gases de combustión con un analizador de gases tipo infrarrojo no dispersivo (NDIR. Para alcanzar conversión total de metano se requirió aumentar la temperatura de entrada al lecho a medida que se incrementó el flujo de gases reaccionantes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten desarrollar un sistema de combustión catalítica de bajo costo con un material térmicamente estable, que promueva la alta eficiencia en la combustión de gas natural y elimine los problemas de estabilidad, seguridad y de impacto ambiental negativo inherentes a los procesos de combustión térmica convencional.

  9. The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) Network - Data and Technological Resources to Address Current and Emerging Issues in Agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalebo, J. A.; Wienhold, B.; Suyker, A.; Erickson, G.; Hayes, M. J.; Awada, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) is one of 18 established Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) networks across the US. PR-HPA is a partnership between the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), the USDA-ARS Agroecosystem Management Research Unit (AMRU) in Lincoln, and the USDA-ARS Environmental Management Research Unit (EMRU) in Clay Center, NE. The PR-HPA network encompasses 27,750 ha of research sites with data going back to the early 1900s. A partial list of on-going research projects include those encompassing long-term manuring and continuous corn (Est. 1912), dryland tillage plots (Est. 1970), soil nutrients and tillage (Est. 1983), biofuel feedstock studies (Est. 2001), and carbon sequestration study (Est. 2000). Affiliated partners include the National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) that develops measures to improve preparedness and adaptation to climate variability and drought; the High Plains Regional Climate Center (HPRCC) that coordinates data acquisition from over 170 automated weather stations and around 50 automated soil moisture network across NE and beyond; the AMERIFLUX and NEBFLUX networks that coordinate the water vapor and carbon dioxide flux measurements across NE with emphasis on rainfed and irrigated crop lands; the ARS Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network (GRACEnet) and the Resilient Economic Agricultural Practices (REAP) project; and the Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies (CALMIT) that assists with the use of geospatial technologies for agriculture and natural resource applications. Current emphases are on addressing present-day and emerging issues related to profitability and sustainability of agroecosystems. The poster will highlight some of the ongoing and planned efforts in research pertaining to climate variability and change, water sustainability, and ecological and agronomic challenges associated

  10. Natural infection of North African gundi (Ctenodactylus gundi) by Leishmania tropica in the focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis, Southeast Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousslimi, Nadia; Ben-Ayed, Soumaya; Ben-Abda, Imène; Aoun, Karim; Bouratbine, Aïda

    2012-06-01

    North African gundis (Ctenodactylus gundi) were trapped in the Leishmania (L.) tropica focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis, situated in southeast Tunisia and evaluated for Leishmania infection by real-time kinetoplast DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Species identification was performed by internal transcribed spacer one (ITS1)-PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis of the 7SL RNA gene. Real-time PCR on blood was positive in 6 of 13 (46.2%) tested gundis. Leishmania tropica was identified in five infected gundis and Leishmania major in one specimen. Alignments of the ITS-1 DNA sequences and 7S-HRM curves analysis indicated that similar genotypes were present in humans, a sandfly, and gundis from the same region suggesting a potential role of this rodent as reservoir host of L. tropica in southeast Tunisia.

  11. Transmission patterns of smallpox: systematic review of natural outbreaks in Europe and North America since World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boer Rob

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because smallpox (variola major may be used as a biological weapon, we reviewed outbreaks in post-World War II Europe and North America in order to understand smallpox transmission patterns. Methods A systematic review was used to identify papers from the National Library of Medicine, Embase, Biosis, Cochrane Library, Defense Technical Information Center, WorldCat, and reference lists of included publications. Two authors reviewed selected papers for smallpox outbreaks. Results 51 relevant outbreaks were identified from 1,389 publications. The median for the effective first generation reproduction rate (initial R was 2 (range 0–38. The majority outbreaks were small (less than 5 cases and contained within one generation. Outbreaks with few hospitalized patients had low initial R values (median of 1 and were prolonged if not initially recognized (median of 3 generations; outbreaks with mostly hospitalized patients had higher initial R values (median 12 and were shorter (median of 3 generations. Index cases with an atypical presentation of smallpox were less likely to have been diagnosed with smallpox; outbreaks in which the index case was not correctly diagnosed were larger (median of 27.5 cases and longer (median of 3 generations compared to outbreaks in which the index case was correctly diagnosed (median of 3 cases and 1 generation. Conclusion Patterns of spread during Smallpox outbreaks varied with circumstances, but early detection and implementation of control measures is a most important influence on the magnitude of outbreaks. The majority of outbreaks studied in Europe and North America were controlled within a few generations if detected early.

  12. Patterns and driving factors of WUE and NUE in natural forest ecosystems along the North-South Transect of Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Wenping; REN Shujie; YU Guirui; FANG Huajun; JIANG Chunming; ZHANG Mi

    2011-01-01

    From July 2008 to August 2008,72 leaf samples from 22 species and 81 soil samples in the nine natural forest ecosystems were collected,from north to south along the North-South Transect of Eastern China (NSTEC).Based on these samples,we studied the geographical distribution patterns of vegetable water use efficiency (WUE) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE),and analyzed their relationship with environmental factors.The vegetable WUE and NUE were calculated through the measurement of foliar δ 13C and C/N of predominant species,respectively.The results showed:(1) vegetable WUE,ranging from 2.13 to 28.67 mg C g-1 H2O,increased linearly from south to north in the representative forest ecosystems along the NSTEC,while vegetable NUE showed an opposite trend,increasing from north to south,ranging from 12.92 to 29.60 g C g-1 N.(2) Vegetable WUE and NUE were dominantly driven by climate and significantly affected by soil nutrient factors.Based on multiple stepwise regression analysis,mean annual temperature,soil phosphorus concentration,and soil nitrogen concentration were responding for 75.5% of the variations of WUE (p<0.001).While,mean annual precipitation and soil phosphorus concentration could explain 65.7% of the change in vegetable NUE (p<0.001).Moreover,vegetable WUE and NUE would also be seriously inf1uenced by atmospheric nitrogen deposition in nitrogen saturated ecosystems.(3)There was a significant trade-off relationship between vegetable WUE and NUE in the typical forest ecosystems along the NSTEC (p<0.001),indicating a balanced strategy for vegetation in resource utilization in natural forest ecosystems along the NSTEC.This study suggests that global change would impact the resource use efficiency of forest ecosystems.However,vegetation could adapt to those changes by increasing the use efficiency of shortage resource while decreasing the relatively ample one.But extreme impacts,such as heavy nitrogen deposition,would break this trade-off mechanism and

  13. Mending the breach between labour and nature: environmental engagements of trade unions and the North-South divide

    OpenAIRE

    Räthzel, N; Uzzell, D

    2012-01-01

    In the past, environmental movements and labour movements have seen each other as opponents. Where labour movements have taken an interest in nature – in the first half of the 20th century - it was in the context of campaigning for spaces of recreation, and later as a necessary condition for a healthy life. In both cases nature has been constructed as ‘the Other’ of labour. The same can be said for environmental movements, which have aimed to defend, if not protect na ture ‘against labour’. T...

  14. Influence of forest and rangeland management on anadromous fish habitat in Western North America: impacts of natural events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas N. Swanston

    1980-01-01

    Natural events affecting vegetative cover and the hydrology and stability of a stream and its parent watershed are key factors influencing the quality of anadromous fish habitat. High intensity storms, drought, soil mass movement, and fire have the greatest impacts. Wind, stream icing, and the influence of insects and disease are important locally...

  15. OPERATIONAL REMOTE SENSING SERVICES IN NORTH EASTERN REGION OF INDIA FOR NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT, EARLY WARNING FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION AND DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION AND SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. N. Raju

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available North Eastern Region (NER of India comprising of eight states considered to be most unique and one of the most challenging regions to govern due to its unique physiographic condition, rich biodiversity, disaster prone and diverse socio-economic characteristics. Operational Remote Sensing services increased manifolds in the region with the establishment of North Eastern Space Applications Centre (NESAC in the year 2000. Since inception, NESAC has been providing remote sensing services in generating inventory, planning and developmental activities, and management of natural resources, disasters and dissemination of information and services through geo-web services for NER. The operational remote sensing services provided by NESAC can be broadly divided into three categories viz. natural resource planning and developmental services, disaster risk reduction and early warning services and information dissemination through geo-portal services. As a apart of natural resources planning and developmental services NESAC supports the state forest departments in preparing the forest working plans by providing geospatial inputs covering entire NER, identifying the suitable culturable wastelands for cultivation of silkworm food plants, mapping of natural resources such as land use/land cover, wastelands, land degradation etc. on temporal basis. In the area of disaster risk reduction, NESAC has initiated operational services for early warning and post disaster assessment inputs for flood early warning system (FLEWS using satellite remote sensing, numerical weather prediction, hydrological modeling etc.; forest fire alert system with actionable attribute information; Japanese Encephalitis Early Warning System (JEWS based on mosquito vector abundance, pig population and historical disease intensity and agriculture drought monitoring for the region. The large volumes of geo-spatial databases generated as part of operational services are made available to the

  16. Operational Remote Sensing Services in North Eastern Region of India for Natural Resources Management, Early Warning for Disaster Risk Reduction and Dissemination of Information and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P. L. N.; Sarma, K. K.; Barman, D.; Handique, B. K.; Chutia, D.; Kundu, S. S.; Das, R. Kr.; Chakraborty, K.; Das, R.; Goswami, J.; Das, P.; Devi, H. S.; Nongkynrih, J. M.; Bhusan, K.; Singh, M. S.; Singh, P. S.; Saikhom, V.; Goswami, C.; Pebam, R.; Borgohain, A.; Gogoi, R. B.; Singh, N. R.; Bharali, A.; Sarma, D.; Lyngdoh, R. B.; Mandal, P. P.; Chabukdhara, M.

    2016-06-01

    North Eastern Region (NER) of India comprising of eight states considered to be most unique and one of the most challenging regions to govern due to its unique physiographic condition, rich biodiversity, disaster prone and diverse socio-economic characteristics. Operational Remote Sensing services increased manifolds in the region with the establishment of North Eastern Space Applications Centre (NESAC) in the year 2000. Since inception, NESAC has been providing remote sensing services in generating inventory, planning and developmental activities, and management of natural resources, disasters and dissemination of information and services through geo-web services for NER. The operational remote sensing services provided by NESAC can be broadly divided into three categories viz. natural resource planning and developmental services, disaster risk reduction and early warning services and information dissemination through geo-portal services. As a apart of natural resources planning and developmental services NESAC supports the state forest departments in preparing the forest working plans by providing geospatial inputs covering entire NER, identifying the suitable culturable wastelands for cultivation of silkworm food plants, mapping of natural resources such as land use/land cover, wastelands, land degradation etc. on temporal basis. In the area of disaster risk reduction, NESAC has initiated operational services for early warning and post disaster assessment inputs for flood early warning system (FLEWS) using satellite remote sensing, numerical weather prediction, hydrological modeling etc.; forest fire alert system with actionable attribute information; Japanese Encephalitis Early Warning System (JEWS) based on mosquito vector abundance, pig population and historical disease intensity and agriculture drought monitoring for the region. The large volumes of geo-spatial databases generated as part of operational services are made available to the administrators and

  17. Dynamics and structure of natural regeneration in three high elevation LTER area in the Dolomites (North-Eastern Alps, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraruf L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration structures and spatial patterns of European larch (Larix decidua Miller, Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L. and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst., were analyzed in three high elevation LTER area in the Dolomites (North-Eastern Alps. Larch and spruce regeneration is mainly affected by dense forest cover and grasses competition whereas stone pine is mostly sensitive to late snow melting, fungal diseases and wild ungulate damages. The current stand and regeneration structure suggests that larch has been highly fostered in the past due to silvo-pastoral management practices. All species show a clear tendency to spatial intraspecific aggregation especially at short-distances. The spatial patterns of larch regeneration are more complex than the other two species, more heavily affected by a main factor such as the nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes L. seed dispersal for stone pine or presence of canopy gaps for spruce. However, spatial patterns of all species depend on the number of the available microsites, that often match at small distance driving the formation of small mixed and unevenaged patches. Combining the age structure and spatial pattern information we were able to better understand the small-scale patterns and processes and the role of the past disturbances on the regeneration dynamics in space and time.

  18. Natural radiogenic heat production in the northeastern part of the North German Basin; Natuerliche radiogene Waermeproduktion im Nordostdeutschen Becken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullner, H.A. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    The radiogenic heat-production rate is a parameter that affects the thermal structure in the sedimentary cover. The parameter is important to warrant an extensive study. The first results gained in the northeastern part of the North German Basin show values in the range between 2.2 and 2.6 {mu}W/m{sup 3} in Permian mudstones in the Peckensen borehole and in the Bonese borehole (Altmark area). Comparable results were obtained in mudstones from a {gamma}-ray log measured in the Rheinsberg borehole (Brandenburg area). (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Untersuchung der thermischen Struktur des nordostdeutschen Beckens erfordert Kenntnisse ueber die radiogene Waermeproduktion der in zahlreichen Bohrungen aufgeschlossenen Sedimente. Die erste Ergebnisse eines am GFZ Postdam begonnenen Messprogrammes zeigen Waermeproduktionsraten im Bereich 2,2 bis 2,6 {mu}W/m{sup 3} in Tonsteinen des Perm in den Bohrungen Peckensen und Bonese (Altmark). Eine vergleichbare Waermeproduktion wurde anhand eines {gamma}-ray-Logs in Tonsteinen in der Bohrung Rheinsberg (Brandenburg) ermittelt. (orig.)

  19. Trend and magnitude of changes in climate variables and reference evapotranspiration over 116-yr period in the Platte River Basin, central Nebraska-USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmak, Suat; Kabenge, Isa; Skaggs, Kari E.; Mutiibwa, Denis

    2012-02-01

    SummarySome studies that investigate the climate change and hydrologic balance relationships utilize reference (potential) evapotranspiration ( ETref) to either calculate the changes in trends and magnitude of actual ET or to determine changes in atmospheric demand. In such cases, it is important to acquire robust ETref estimates to correctly assess the impact of changes in meteorological variables on atmospheric evaporative demand, hydrologic balances, response of vegetation to climate, and their interactions. Despite its crucial importance, unfortunately, ETref is sometimes poorly addressed in climate change studies as some studies utilize temperature or radiation-based empirical equations due to various reasons (unavailability of climate data to solve combination-based energy balance equations, etc.). Since many climate variables that affect ETref rates have been changing and are expected to change in the future, single-variable equations for estimating the trend in ETref should be avoided due to the inherent nature of the trend passed to ETref from the variable. Here, we showed an integrated approach of practical and robust procedures that are already exist to estimate necessary climate variables [incoming shortwave radiation ( R s), net radiation ( R n), wind speed at 2-m ( u2), relative humidity (RH), and vapor pressure deficit (VPD)] only from observed maximum and minimum air temperatures ( Tmax and Tmin) and precipitation ( P) data to be used in Penman-Monteith-type combination-based energy balance equations to predict grass-and alfalfa-reference evapotranspiration ( ET o and ET r, respectively). We analyzed the trends and magnitudes of change in meteorological variables for a 116-yr period from 1893 to 2008 in the agro-ecosystem-dominated Platte River Basin in central Nebraska, USA. Although we found a significant ( P energy, which is primary driver of ETref. There was approximately 100 mm of increase in precipitation from 1893 to 2008 in the study

  20. Measurements of natural gamma radiation in beach sediments of north east coast of Tamilnadu, India by gamma ray spectrometry with multivariate statistical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SureshGandhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of natural gamma ray emitting 238U, 232Th and 40K radionuclides in beach sediments along north east coast of Tamilnadu, India has been carried out using a NaI(Tl gamma ray spectrometric technique. The total average concentrations of radionuclides 238U, 232Th, and 40K were 35.12, 713.16, and 349.60 Bq kg−1, respectively. Correlations made among these radionuclides prove the existence of secular equilibrium in the investigated sediments. The total average absorbed dose rate in the study areas is found to be 504.75 nGyh−1, whereas the annual effective dose rate has an average value of 0.62 mSvy−1. The mean activity concentrations of measured radionuclides were compared with other literature values. The ratios between the detected radioisotopes have been calculated for spatial distribution of natural radionuclides in studied area. Also the radiological hazard of the natural radionuclides content, radium equivalent activity, external hazard index of the sediment samples in the area under consideration were calculated. Multivariate Statistical analyses (Pearson Correlation, Cluster and Factor analysis were carried out between the parameters obtained from radioactivity to know the existing relations.

  1. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard

    2004-10-28

    The objectives of the study are: to perform resource assessment of the in-place deep (>15,000 ft) natural gas resource of the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling and to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the in-place deep gas resource that is potentially recoverable and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential to recover commercial quantities of the deep gas resource. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project is data compilation and petroleum system identification. The research focus for the first nine (9) months of Year 1 is on data compilation and for the remainder of the year the emphasis is on petroleum system identification.

  2. Enhancing the Variable Infiltration Capacity Model to Account for Natural and Anthropogenic Impacts on Evapotranspiration in the North American Monsoon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, T. J.; Vivoni, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a poorly constrained flux in the North American monsoon (NAM) region, leading to potential errors in land-atmosphere feedbacks. Due to the region's arid to semi-arid climate, two factors play major roles in ET: sparse vegetation that exhibits dramatic seasonal greening, and irrigated agriculture. To more accurately characterize the spatio-temporal variations of ET in the NAM region, we used the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, modified to account for soil evaporation (Esoil), irrigated agriculture, and the variability of land surface properties derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer during 2000-2012. Simulated ET patterns were compared to field observations at fifty-nine eddy covariance towers, water balance estimates in nine basins, and six available gridded ET products. The modified VIC model performed well at eddy covariance towers representing the natural and agricultural land covers in the region. Simulations revealed that major source areas for ET were forested mountain areas during the summer season and irrigated croplands at peak times of growth in the winter and summer, accounting for 22% and 9% of the annual ET, respectively. Over the NAM region, Esoil was the largest component (60%) of annual ET, followed by plant transpiration (T, 32%) and evaporation of canopy interception (8%). Esoil and T displayed different relations with P in natural land covers, with Esoil tending to peak earlier than T by up to one month, while only a weak correlation between ET and P was found in irrigated croplands. These VIC-based estimates are the most realistic to date for this region, outperforming several other process-based and remote-sensing-based gridded ET products. Furthermore, spatio-temporal patterns reveal new information on the magnitudes, locations and timing of ET in the North American monsoon region, with implications for land-atmosphere feedbacks.

  3. An assessment of the changing nature of the winter hydroclimate in eastern North America and its impacts on risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kent

    2016-04-01

    The winter hydroclimate of eastern North America is characterized by a complex and spatially varying combination of snow and rain. Much of this complexity stems from the presence of Great Lakes that are a source of heat and moisture during the winter months. Lake effect snowfall can result in heavy snowfall in highly localized regions downstream of the lakes. In addition the average mean winter temperature in the region is close to freezing and so there is enhanced sensitivity as to the phase of the precipitation. The region has warmed by 1-2.5 oC during the winter over the past 30 years and so there is concern that the character of the winter hydroclimate may be changing. Here we use reanalysis fields as well as the results of AMIP model runs, with horizontal resolutions ranging from 100 km to 16 km, to investigate the changes that have occurred in the winter hydroclimate of the region. It is shown that a horizontal resolution below ~40 km is needed to resolve the observed spatial gradients in snowfall and rainfall in the region. Over the past 30 years, the mean and 95th percentile snowfall rates in the southern part of the region have decreased by as much as 20% with an increase of a similar magnitude in both these parameters in its northwest. There has also been an increase in the mean and 95th percentile rainfall rates across much the region that exceeds 100% in the vicinity of Lake Superior, the largest and most northern of the Great Lakes. These changes are attributed to the warming that the region has experienced and are expected to continue into the future. They have and will continue to impact a number of societal functions including winter road maintenance as well as influencing the management of property risks such as flooding.

  4. On the nature and dynamics of the seismogenetic systems of North California, USA: An analysis based on Non-Extensive Statistical Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstathiou, Angeliki; Tzanis, Andreas; Vallianatos, Filippos

    2017-09-01

    We examine the nature of the seismogenetic system in North California, USA, by searching for evidence of complexity and non-extensivity in the earthquake record. We attempt to determine whether earthquakes are generated by a self-excited Poisson process, in which case they obey Boltzmann-Gibbs thermodynamics, or by a Critical process, in which long-range interactions in non-equilibrium states are expected (correlation) and the thermodynamics deviate from the Boltzmann-Gibbs formalism. Emphasis is given to background seismicity since it is generally agreed that aftershock sequences comprise correlated sets. We use the complete and homogeneous earthquake catalogue published by the North California Earthquake Data Centre, in which aftershocks are either included, or have been removed by a stochastic declustering procedure. We examine multivariate cumulative frequency distributions of earthquake magnitudes, interevent time and interevent distance in the context of Non-Extensive Statistical Physics, which is a generalization of extensive Boltzmann-Gibbs thermodynamics to non-equilibrating (non-extensive) systems. Our results indicate that the seismogenetic systems of North California are generally sub-extensive complex and non-Poissonian. The background seismicity exhibits long-range interaction as evidenced by the overall increase of correlation observed by declustering the earthquake catalogues, as well as by the high correlation observed for earthquakes separated by long interevent distances. It is also important to emphasize that two subsystems with rather different properties appear to exist. The correlation observed along the Sierra Nevada Range - Walker Lane is quasi-stationary and indicates a Self-Organized Critical fault system. Conversely, the north segment of the San Andreas Fault exhibits changes in the level of correlation with reference to the large Loma Prieta event of 1989 and thus has attributes of Critical Point behaviour albeit without acceleration of

  5. Stability analysis on residue pond of the Platte River, Ecuador%厄瓜多尔索普拉多拉宝特河渣场边坡稳定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾晶; 王海涛

    2014-01-01

    研究开发快速经济和行之有效的滑坡治理方法与理论,一直是各国滑坡防治研究工作的重点。文章通过对厄瓜多尔索普拉多拉宝特河20#渣场边坡工程地质概况进行分析。依据极限平衡法计算出天然状态下该边坡最小安全系数为3.236。由此,分析出此渣场稳定性较好,边坡稳定。%Research and develop fast, economic and effectual control method and theory of landslide, which has been the focal point of work that various countries have researched al the time. This paper which investigates the deformation mechanism of landslide by analyzing the geological situation of construction of the 20th residue pond of the Platte River, Ecuador. Based on the limit equilibrium method to calculate the minimum safety coefficient of slope under the natural state of 3.236.As a result, the slag is analyzed with the field stability is better, the slope stability.

  6. Quantity, structure, and habitat selection of natural spawning reefs by walleyes in a north temperate lake: A multiscale analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, Joshua K.; Bozek, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Spawning habitat, the cornerstone of self-sustaining, naturally reproducing walleyeSander vitreus populations, has received limited quantitative research. Our goal was to quantitatively describe the structure and quantity of natural walleye spawning habitat and evaluate potential selection of habitat in Big Crooked Lake, Wisconsin. In 2004 and 2005, we located and delineated walleye egg deposition polygons through visual snorkel and scuba surveys. We also delineated recently deposited, adhesive egg patches daily along one spawning reef in 2005. To determine habitat selection, we quantified and compared spawning and lakewide available habitat at different scales. In both years, walleyes used similar spawning habitat, including three geomorphic types: linear shorelines, a point bar, and an island. Walleyes used only 14% of the entire lake shoreline and 39% of the shoreline comprised of gravel (6.4–76.0 mm), cobble (76.1–149.9 mm), or coarser substrates for spawning in 2005, indicating selection of specific spawning habitat. Lakewide, walleyes spawned close to shore (outer egg deposition polygon boundary mean distance = 2.7 m), in shallow water (outer egg deposition polygon boundary mean depth = 0.3 m), and over gravel substrate (percent coverage mean = 64.3) having low embeddedness (mean = 1.30). Our best nearshore (0–13-m) resource selection function predicted an increase in the relative probability of egg deposition with the increasing abundance of gravel, cobble, and rubble (150.0–303.9-mm) substrates and a decrease with increasing distance from shore and water depth (89.9% overall correct classification). Adhesive egg patches confirmed that walleyes actively chose nearshore, shallow-water, and coarse-substrate spawning habitat. The quantitative habitat information and predictive models will assist biologists in developing walleye spawning reef protection strategies and potentially aid in designing and evaluating artificial spawning reefs.

  7. Application of self-organizing neural networks to classification of plant communities in Pangquangou Nature Reserve, North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jintun ZHANG; Hongxiao YANG

    2008-01-01

    Vegetation classification is an important topic in plant ecology and many quantitative techniques for classification have been developed in the field. The arti-ficial neural network is a comparatively new tool for data analysis. The self-organizing feature map (SOFM) is powerful tool for clustering analysis. SOFM has been applied to many research fields and it was applied to the classification of plant communities in the Pangquangou Nature Reserve in the present work. Pangquangou Nature Reserve, located at 37°20'-38°20' N, 110°18'-111°18' E, is a part of the Luliang Mountain range. Eighty-nine samples (quadrats) of 10 m x 10 m for for-est, 4 m × 4 m for shrubland and 1m x 1m for grass-land along an elevation gradient, were set up and species data was recorded in each sample. After discussion of the mathematical algorism, clustering technique and the pro-cedure of SOFM, the classification was carried out by using NNTool box in MATLAB (6.5). As a result, the 89 samples were clustered into 13 groups representing 13 types of plant communities. The characteristics of each community were described. The result of SOFM clas-sification was identical to the result of fuzzy c-mean clus-tering and consistent with the distribution patterns of vegetation in the study area and shows significant eco-logical meanings. This suggests that SOFM may clearly describe the ecological relationships between plant com-munities and it is a very effective quantitative technique in plant ecology research.

  8. The Feasibility of Submarine Paleoseismology: The North Anatolian Fault Beneath the Marmara Sea (Turkey) as a Natural Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, C. M.; Polonia, A.; Çagatay, M. N.; Cormier, M. H.; Seeber, L.; Ryan, W. B.; Gasperini, L.; Ligi, M.; Bonatti, E.; Bortoluzzi, G.; Capotondi, L.; Blasi, A.; Fabretti, P.; Marozzi, G.; Magagnoli, A.; Penitenti, D.; Busetti, M.; Görür, N.; Emre, O.; Okay, N.; Sarikavak, K.; Kurt, H.; Imren, C.; Eris, K.; Tok, B.; Ozer, N.

    2001-12-01

    The 1600km-long North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) has been rupturing across Turkey from east to west in a series of large earthquakes during the last century. The rupture advanced 160 km in 1999 in two disastrous earthquakes. The next rupture is expected to occur within the next few decades beneath the Marmara Sea. Because the seismic risk to Istanbul (population: 15 million) is severe, a large international research effort is focussing on this area. In particular, several recent expeditions acquired multibeam bathymetry data which together cover most of the Marmara Sea. In Fall 2000 and in Spring 2001, we charted the shelves and adjacent slopes in some key areas of the Marmara Sea using the R/V Odin Finder and the R/V Urania, respectively. Our goal is to map the detailed plan-view geometry of seismogenic fault strands, to resolve their shallow three-dimensional geometry, and to quantify their mean historic and prehistoric slips. Our survey strategy combines multibeam bathymetry and side-scan sonar imagery with shallow penetration, sub-meter resolution seismic profiling ("chirp"). The Holocene layer was also sampled with 60+ gravity cores, piston cores, and grabs. The Marmara Sea offers ideal ground-truthing for testing these submarine paleoseismology techniques because of the long historic record of earthquake effects (>2000 yr). Very tight grids of chirp profiles were acquired across active fault strands in Izmit Bay (eastern Marmara Sea) and near the Ganos peninsula (western Marmara Sea). Preliminary analyses highlight several Holocene features offset right-laterally by these strands, including a 85-m-deep paleo-shoreline, a buried river channel, and a canyon. Assuming that these morphological piercing points became inactive shortly after the Last Glacial Maxima (LGM), estimated slip rates are consistent with those deduced from GPS analysis (15-30 mm/yr). The 85m paleoshoreline provides a precise marker which will be used to quantify both the vertical and

  9. 'Natural background' soil water repellency in conifer forests of the north-western USA: Its prediction and relationship to wildfire occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, S.H.; Woods, S.W.; Martin, D.A.; Casimiro, M.

    2009-01-01

    Soils under a wide range of vegetation types exhibit water repellency following the passage of a fire. This is viewed by many as one of the main causes for accelerated post-fire runoff and soil erosion and it has often been assumed that strong soil water repellency present after wildfire is fire-induced. However, high levels of repellency have also been reported under vegetation types not affected by fire, and the question arises to what degree the water repellency observed at burnt sites actually results from fire. This study aimed at determining 'natural background' water repellency in common coniferous forest types in the north-western USA. Mature or semi-mature coniferous forest sites (n = 81), which showed no evidence of recent fires and had at least some needle cast cover, were sampled across six states. After careful removal of litter and duff at each site, soil water repellency was examined in situ at the mineral soil surface using the Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT) method for three sub-sites, followed by collecting near-surface mineral soil layer samples (0-3 cm depth). Following air-drying, samples were further analyzed for repellency using WDPT and contact angle (??sl) measurements. Amongst other variables examined were dominant tree type, ground vegetation, litter and duff layer depth, slope angle and aspect, elevation, geology, and soil texture, organic carbon content and pH. 'Natural background' water repellency (WDPT > 5 s) was detected in situ and on air-dry samples at 75% of all sites examined irrespective of dominant tree species (Pinus ponderosa, Pinus contorta, Picea engelmanii and Pseudotsuga menziesii). These findings demonstrate that the soil water repellency commonly observed in these forest types following burning is not necessarily the result of recent fire but can instead be a natural characteristic. The notion of a low background water repellency being typical for long-unburnt conifer forest soils of the north-western USA is

  10. RESOURCE ASSESSMENT OF THE IN-PLACE AND POTENTIALLY RECOVERABLE DEEP NATURAL GAS RESOURCE OF THE ONSHORE INTERIOR SALT BASINS, NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2004-04-16

    The University of Alabama and Louisiana State University have undertaken a cooperative 3-year, advanced subsurface methodology resource assessment project, involving petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling, to facilitate exploration for a potential major source of natural gas that is deeply buried (below 15,000 feet) in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas. The project is designed to assist in the formulation of advanced exploration strategies for funding and maximizing the recovery from deep natural gas domestic resources at reduced costs and risks and with minimum impact. The results of the project should serve to enhance exploration efforts by domestic companies in their search for new petroleum resources, especially those deeply buried (below 15,000 feet) natural gas resources, and should support the domestic industry's endeavor to provide an increase in reliable and affordable supplies of fossil fuels. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project is data compilation and petroleum system identification. The research focus for the first nine (9) months of Year 1 is on data compilation and for the remainder of the year the emphasis is on petroleum system identification. The objectives of the study are: to perform resource assessment of the in-place deep (>15,000 ft) natural gas resource of the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling and to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the in-place deep gas resource that is potentially recoverable and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential to recover commercial quantities of the deep gas resource. The project objectives will be achieved through a 3-year effort. First, emphasis is on petroleum system identification and characterization in the

  11. Future changes in the supply of goods and services from natural ecosystems: prospects for the European north

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Jansson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Humans depend on services provided by ecosystems, and how services are affected by climate change is increasingly studied. Few studies, however, address changes likely to affect services from seminatural ecosystems. We analyzed ecosystem goods and services in natural and seminatural systems, specifically how they are expected to change as a result of projected climate change during the 21st century. We selected terrestrial and freshwater systems in northernmost Europe, where climate is anticipated to change more than the global average, and identified likely changes in ecosystem services and their societal consequences. We did this by assembling experts from ecology, social science, and cultural geography in workshops, and we also performed a literature review. Results show that most ecosystem services are affected by multiple factors, often acting in opposite directions. Out of 14 services considered, 8 are expected to increase or remain relatively unchanged in supply, and 6 are expected to decrease. Although we do not predict collapse or disappearance of any of the investigated services, the effects of climate change in conjunction with potential economical and societal changes may exceed the adaptive capacity of societies. This may result in societal reorganization and changes in ways that ecosystems are used. Significant uncertainties and knowledge gaps in the forecast make specific conclusions about societal responses to safeguard human well-being questionable. Adapting to changes in ecosystem services will therefore require consideration of uncertainties and complexities in both social and ecological responses. The scenarios presented here provide a framework for future studies exploring such issues.

  12. Mapping grassland productivity with 250-m eMODIS NDVI and SSURGO database over the Greater Platte River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.; Bliss, Norman B.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed and described a relationship between satellite-derived growing season averaged Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and annual productivity for grasslands within the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB) of the United States. We compared growing season averaged NDVI (GSN) with Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database rangeland productivity and flux tower Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) for grassland areas. The GSN was calculated for each of nine years (2000–2008) using the 7-day composite 250-m eMODIS (expedited Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI data. Strong correlations exist between the nine-year mean GSN (MGSN) and SSURGO annual productivity for grasslands (R2 = 0.74 for approximately 8000 pixels randomly selected from eight homogeneous regions within the GPRB; R2 = 0.96 for the 14 cluster-averaged points). Results also reveal a strong correlation between GSN and flux tower growing season averaged GPP (R2 = 0.71). Finally, we developed an empirical equation to estimate grassland productivity based on the MGSN. Spatially explicit estimates of grassland productivity over the GPRB were generated, which improved the regional consistency of SSURGO grassland productivity data and can help scientists and land managers to better understand the actual biophysical and ecological characteristics of grassland systems in the GPRB. This final estimated grassland production map can also be used as an input for biogeochemical, ecological, and climate change models.

  13. Influence of grazing and available moisture on breeding densities of grassland birds in the central platte river valley, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.H.; Newton, W.E.; Lingle, G.R.; Chavez-Ramirez, F.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between grassland breeding bird densities and both grazing and available moisture in the central Platte River Valley. Nebraska between 1980 and 1996. We also compared species richness and community similarity of breeding birds in sedge (Carex spp.) meadows and mesic grasslands. Densities of two species had a significant relationship with grazing and six of seven focal species had a significant relationship with available moisture. Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) and Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) densities were lower in grazed plots compared to ungrazed plots, whereas Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) densities were greater in sedge-meadow plots compared to mesic grassland plots. Bobolink, Dickcissel (Spiza americana). and Brown-headed Cowbird were negatively associated with available moisture with breeding densities peaking during the driest conditions. Our results suggest that wet conditions increase species richness for the community through addition of wetland-dependant and wetland-associated birds, but decrease densities of ground-nesting grassland birds in wet-meadow habitats, whereas dry conditions reduce species richness but increase the density of the avian assemblage. We propose that wet-meadow habitats serve as local refugia for grassland-nesting birds during local or regional droughts.

  14. Capacitively coupled average resistivity of the Interstate and Tri-State Canals within Sioux and Scotts Bluff Counties in western Nebraska and Goshen County in eastern Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Platte Natural Resources District, used two surface geophysical techniques, capacitively coupled and...

  15. Direct-current average resistivity of the Tri-State Canal within Scotts Bluff County in western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Platte Natural Resources District, used two surface geophysical techniques, capacitively coupled and...

  16. Descriptors of natural thermal regimes in streams and their responsiveness to change in the Pacific Northwest of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arismendi, Ivan; Johnson, Sherri L.; Dunham, Jason B.; Haggerty, Roy

    2013-01-01

    characteristics or descriptors of thermal regimes in streams. The descriptors we provide herein can be applied across hydro-ecological regions to evaluate spatial and temporal patterns in thermal regimes. Evaluation of coherence and synchrony of different components of thermal regimes can facilitate identification of impacts of regional climate variability or local human or natural influences.

  17. On Values of Nature in North American Dystopian Novels%论北美反乌托邦小说的自然价值观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭言红

    2015-01-01

    当代北美反乌托邦小说通过大量使用时空对比、观念对比、人物对比等来描绘传统文明中的生态智慧,以此创造文本厚重的历史意识,突显两种社会中世界观、价值观的变化,以及对自然的不同态度,从生态的角度重新定义文明,重估其价值。这与传统文明虽然大相径庭,甚至许多方面相互冲突,但在自然面前都怀着尊重或者敬畏的态度,强调与自然和谐相处,人类应顺应而不是违背自然规律,并且都彰显了大自然蕴藏着无限潜力并对人类具有启示和拯救意义的主题。%The North American dystopian novels tend to adopt the extensive measures of spatial and temporal contrast,concepts contrast and characters contrast to get deep insight into the ecological wis-dom of traditional civilizations.With these strategies,they create a profound historical consciousness to highlight the opposite values in the different imaginary worlds,and express the opposite attitudes to nature.Through these divergences they manage to redefine some traditional civilizations and revaluate them.Although traditional civilizations are quite different in many aspects,even to some extent con-flicting with each other,they show their reverence and awe when facing nature.They emphasize the harmony between man and nature,implying that man should not violate the laws of nature.These dys-topian works either explicitly or implicitly is linked to the following topic:the infinite potential of na-ture can enlighten and redeem the human race.

  18. Geology and ground water in the Platte-Republican Rivers watershed and the Little Blue River basin above Angus, Nebraska, with a section on chemical quality of the ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C.R.; Brennan, Robert

    1960-01-01

    saturation because the ground water, as it percolates southeastward beneath the area, moves out of the Tertiary and into the Quaternary deposits without apparent hindrance. The water that enters the area as underflow from the west is augmented within the area by water that infiltrates from the land surface. The principal sources of irrigating water are precipitation, seepage from canals and reservoirs, and applied irrigation water. Except for the water withdrawn through wells or discharged by natural processes where valleys have been cut into the zone of saturation, ground water leaves the area as underflow into the Platte River valley on the north, the Blue River drainage basin on the east, or the Republican River valley on the south. Part of the water used for irrigation and watering livestock and all the water used in rural and urban homes, in public buildings, and for industrial purposes is obtained from wells, To date (1952) there is no indication that the supply of ground water is being depleted faster than it is being replenished; instead, studies indicate that greater quantities can be withdrawn without causing an excessive decline of the water table. An increase of ground-water withdrawals to a sustainable maximum, however, will be possible only if the points of withdrawal are scattered fairly uniformly. It is estimated that annual withdrawals per township should not exceed 2,100 acre-feet where infiltrating precipitation is the only source of recharge, or 3,000 acre-feet where other sources of recharge are significant. Although perennial withdrawals of this amount could be sustained indefinitely, they would cause some lowering of the water table and eventually a decrease in the amount of water discharged from the area by natural means. The ground water is of the calcium bicarbonate type. In much of the area it is hard or very hard, and in places it contains excessive amounts of iron. In all other respects the water is chemically suitable for domesti

  19. SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL RESILIENCE AND LAW IN THE PLATTE RIVER BASIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficiency and resistance to rapid change are hallmarks of both the judicial and legislative branches of the United States government. These defining characteristics, while bringing stability and predictability, pose challenges when it comes to managing dynamic natural systems. A...

  20. SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL RESILIENCE AND LAW IN THE PLATTE RIVER BASIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficiency and resistance to rapid change are hallmarks of both the judicial and legislative branches of the United States government. These defining characteristics, while bringing stability and predictability, pose challenges when it comes to managing dynamic natural systems. A...

  1. Future Water Management in the South Platte River Basin: Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing, Population, Agriculture, and Climate Change in a Semi-Arid Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, E. L.; Hogue, T. S.; Anderson, A. M.; Read, L.

    2015-12-01

    In semi-arid basins across the world, the gap between water supply and demand is growing due to climate change, population growth, and shifts in agriculture and unconventional energy development. Water conservation efforts among residential and industrial water users, recycling and reuse techniques and innovative regulatory frameworks for water management strive to mitigate this gap, however, the extent of these strategies are often difficult to quantify and not included in modeling water allocations. Decision support systems (DSS) are purposeful for supporting water managers in making informed decisions when competing demands create the need to optimize water allocation between sectors. One region of particular interest is the semi-arid region of the South Platte River basin in northeastern Colorado, where anthropogenic and climatic effects are expected to increase the gap between water supply and demand in the near future. Specifically, water use in the South Platte is impacted by several high-intensity activities, including unconventional energy development, i.e. hydraulic fracturing, and large withdrawals for agriculture; these demands are in addition to a projected population increase of 100% by 2050. The current work describes the development of a DSS for the South Platte River basin, using the Water Evaluation and Planning system software (WEAP) to explore scenarios of how variation in future water use in the energy, agriculture, and municipal sectors will impact water allocation decisions. Detailed data collected on oil and gas water use in the Niobrara shale play will be utilized to predict future sector use. We also employ downscaled climate projections for the region to quantify the potential range of water availability in the basin under each scenario, and observe whether or not, and to what extent, climate may impact management decisions at the basin level.

  2. Antimicrobial/cytolytic peptides from the venom of the North African scorpion, Androctonus amoreuxi: biochemical and functional characterization of natural peptides and a single site-substituted analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaaytah, Ammar; Zhou, Mei; Wang, Lei; Chen, Tianbao; Walker, Brian; Shaw, Chris

    2012-06-01

    The venoms of scorpions are complex cocktails of polypeptide toxins that fall into two structural categories: those that contain cysteinyl residues with associated disulfide bridges and those that do not. As the majority of lethal toxins acting upon ion channels fall into the first category, most research has been focused there. Here we report the identification and structural characterization of two novel 18-mer antimicrobial peptides from the venom of the North African scorpion, Androctonus amoreuxi. Named AamAP1 and AamAP2, both peptides are C-terminally amidated and differ in primary structure at just two sites: Leu-->Pro at position 2 and Phe-->Ile at position 17. Synthetic replicates of both peptides exhibited a broad-spectrum of antimicrobial activity against a Gram-positive bacterium (Staphylococcus aureus), a Gram-negative bacterium (Escherichia coli) and a yeast (Candida albicans), at concentrations ranging between 20 μM and 150 μM. In this concentration range, both peptides produced significant degrees of hemolysis. A synthetic replicate of AamAP1 containing a single substitution (His-->Lys) at position 8, generated a peptide (AamAP-S1) with enhanced antimicrobial potency (3-5 μM) against the three test organisms and within this concentration range, hemolytic effects were negligible. In addition, this His-->Lys variant exhibited potent growth inhibitory activity (ID(50) 25-40 μm) against several human cancer cell lines and endothelial cells that was absent in both natural peptides. Natural bioactive peptide libraries, such as those that occur in scorpion venoms, thus constitute a unique source of novel lead compounds with drug development potential whose biological properties can be readily manipulated by simple synthetic chemical means.

  3. Water and Gender in Recreating Family Life with Maa Ganga: The Confluence of Nature and Culture in a North Indian River Pilgrimage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrien Notermans

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the meaning of water and gender in the North Indian pilgrimage to the sacred river Ganges. It joins the recent criticism in anthropology concerning the nature/culture divide and aims to transcend that divide by focusing on water, not apart from but as part of social life. Assuming that water’s sociality is gendered, the authors look at how both the river water—itself as a landscape material—and the pilgrims’ engagements with that water are gendered. Starting from the central question: How do men’s and women’s ritual engagements with the sacred female river water (mutually construct social life? The article investigates men’s and women’s ritual use of water at different sites. It focuses on more than the central pilgrimage shrine and links the sacred river site to people’s homes to know how the moving river water, collected by pilgrims at the shrine, is used in water rituals back home. Trying to counterbalance the male and scriptural bias which is prominent in the literature on Ganges’ pilgrimage sites, the pilgrimage is studied from the perspective of lived religion that takes people’s embodied practices and sensory experiences of nature into account as well as people’s everyday life. By showing how men’s and women’s rituals differ and complement each other, it argues that men’s rituals at the pilgrimage site and women’s rituals at home serve the recreation of the family in a paired way. The argument is built on longitudinal and multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork at the Ganges river shrine in Haridwar (Uttarakhand and pilgrims’ residence in Udaipur (Rajasthan.

  4. Identification of Entamoeba polecki with Unique 18S rRNA Gene Sequences from Celebes Crested Macaques and Pigs in Tangkoko Nature Reserve, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuda, Josef; Feng, Meng; Imada, Mihoko; Kobayashi, Seiki; Cheng, Xunjia; Tachibana, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    Unique species of macaques are distributed across Sulawesi Island, Indonesia, and the details of Entamoeba infections in these macaques are unknown. A total of 77 stool samples from Celebes crested macaques (Macaca nigra) and 14 stool samples from pigs were collected in Tangkoko Nature Reserve, North Sulawesi, and the prevalence of Entamoeba infection was examined by PCR. Entamoeba polecki was detected in 97% of the macaques and all of the pigs, but no other Entamoeba species were found. The nucleotide sequence of the 18S rRNA gene in E. polecki from M. nigra was unique and showed highest similarity with E. polecki subtype (ST) 4. This is the first case of identification of E. polecki ST4 from wild nonhuman primates. The sequence of the 18S rRNA gene in E. polecki from pigs was also unique and showed highest similarity with E. polecki ST1. These results suggest that the diversity of the 18S rRNA gene in E. polecki is associated with differences in host species and geographic localization, and that there has been no transmission of E. polecki between macaques and pigs in the study area.

  5. NDVI saturation adjustment: a new approach for improving cropland performance estimates in the Greater Platte River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.; Howard, Daniel M.; Phuyal, Khem P.; Ji, Lei

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we developed a new approach that adjusted normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) pixel values that were near saturation to better characterize the cropland performance (CP) in the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB), USA. The relationship between NDVI and the ratio vegetation index (RVI) at high NDVI values was investigated, and an empirical equation for estimating saturation-adjusted NDVI (NDVIsat_adjust) based on RVI was developed. A 10-year (2000–2009) NDVIsat_adjust data set was developed using 250-m 7-day composite historical eMODIS (expedited Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI data. The growing season averaged NDVI (GSN), which is a proxy for ecosystem performance, was estimated and long-term NDVI non-saturation- and saturation-adjusted cropland performance (CPnon_sat_adjust, CPsat_adjust) maps were produced over the GPRB. The final CP maps were validated using National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) crop yield data. The relationship between CPsat_adjust and the NASS average corn yield data (r = 0.78, 113 samples) is stronger than the relationship between CPnon_sat_adjust and the NASS average corn yield data (r = 0.67, 113 samples), indicating that the new CPsat_adjust map reduces the NDVI saturation effects and is in good agreement with the corn yield ground observations. Results demonstrate that the NDVI saturation adjustment approach improves the quality of the original GSN map and better depicts the actual vegetation conditions of the GPRB cropland systems.

  6. Projecting future grassland productivity to assess the sustainability of potential biofuel feedstock areas in the Greater Platte River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.; Boyte, Stephen; Phyual, Khem

    2014-01-01

    This study projects future (e.g., 2050 and 2099) grassland productivities in the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB) using ecosystem performance (EP, a surrogate for measuring ecosystem productivity) models and future climate projections. The EP models developed from a previous study were based on the satellite vegetation index, site geophysical and biophysical features, and weather and climate drivers. The future climate data used in this study were derived from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model 3.0 ‘SRES A1B’ (a ‘middle’ emissions path). The main objective of this study is to assess the future sustainability of the potential biofuel feedstock areas identified in a previous study. Results show that the potential biofuel feedstock areas (the more mesic eastern part of the GPRB) will remain productive (i.e., aboveground grassland biomass productivity >2750 kg ha−1 year−1) with a slight increasing trend in the future. The spatially averaged EPs for these areas are 3519, 3432, 3557, 3605, 3752, and 3583 kg ha−1 year−1 for current site potential (2000–2008 average), 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050, and 2099, respectively. Therefore, the identified potential biofuel feedstock areas will likely continue to be sustainable for future biofuel development. On the other hand, grasslands identified as having no biofuel potential in the drier western part of the GPRB would be expected to stay unproductive in the future (spatially averaged EPs are 1822, 1691, 1896, 2306, 1994, and 2169 kg ha−1 year−1 for site potential, 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050, and 2099). These areas should continue to be unsuitable for biofuel feedstock development in the future. These future grassland productivity estimation maps can help land managers to understand and adapt to the expected changes in future EP in the GPRB and to assess the future sustainability and feasibility of potential biofuel feedstock areas.

  7. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the North Bamyan mineral district in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the North Bamyan mineral district, which has copper deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006,2007, 2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such

  8. Terrestrial Riparian Arthropod Investigations In the Big Beaver Creek Research Natural Area, North Cascades National Park Service Complex,1995-1996: Part III, Arachnida:Araneae

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — Ground-dwelling spider communities of nine distinct habitat types were sampled within the riparian corridor of lower Big Beaver Creek, North Cascades National Park...

  9. Using natural radionuclides 210Po and 210Pb in GEOTRACES data from the North Atlantic to estimate particulate and biologically reactive trace element scavenging and regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigaud, Sylvain; Church, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Central to understanding the coupling of oceanic carbon and nutrient cycles are trace elements that can limit ocean production and ultimately climate change. These include elements that are both lithogenic (particle reactive) and biogenic (biologically reactive) central to particle scavenging, exchange and bioavailability. The natural 210Po and 210Pb radionuclide (granddaughter/parent) pair provides the radiometric means to model particle scavenging and exchange in the ocean on monthly to annual time scales. Data on dissolved (0.2 μm, >53μm) 210Po (t1/2= 138.4 d) and 210Pb (T1/2 = 22.3 y) are available from seven complete water profiles during two U.S. GEOTRACES cruises that transited the North Atlantic during fall 2010 and 2011. The transects correspond to a wide range of marine environments: coastal slopes at the western and eutrophic up-welling at the eastern margins, Saharan dust sources from the east, hydro-thermal vents in the TAG plume on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and oligotrophic gyres in both the western and eastern basins. Steady state box modeling at each depth interval was employed to estimate radionuclide exchange rates at the fine-large particle and fine particulate-dissolved interface, in terms of biological uptake, and net of radioactive support or decay. By proxy, the results should predict the rates of biological (210Po) and particle reactive (210Pb) trace element adsorption and resorption, vertical particulate and carbon export, and respective residence times. The model results show the contrasting chemical behaviour of the two nuclides over the large range of oceanic conditions encountered in the North Atlantic. In the surface ocean, 210Po scavenging is linearly correlated with the concentration of particulate organic carbon (POC) in large particles, supporting the role of biogenic particles in 210Po bioaccumulation and export. At depth, 210Po exhibits significant widespread deficit with respect to 210Pb, which could in part be attributed to in

  10. Channel Morphology and Bed Sediment Characteristics Before and After Habitat Enhancement Activities in the Uridil Property, Platte River, Nebraska, Water Years 2005-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Fluvial geomorphic data were collected by the United States Geological Survey from July 2005 to June 2008 (a time period within water years 2005 to 2008) to monitor the effects of habitat enhancement activities conducted in the Platte River Whooping Crane Maintenance Trust's Uridil Property, located along the Platte River, Nebraska. The activities involved the removal of vegetation and sand from the tops of high permanent islands and the placement of the sand into the active river channel. This strategy was intended to enhance habitat for migratory water birds by lowering the elevations of the high islands, thereby eliminating a visual obstruction for roosting birds. It was also thought that the bare sand on the lowered island surfaces could serve as potential habitat for nesting water birds. Lastly, the project supplied a local source of sediment to the river to test the hypothesis that this material could contribute to the formation of lower sandbars and potential nesting sites downstream. Topographic surveys on the islands and along river transects were used to quantify the volume of removed sand and track the storage and movement of the introduced sand downstream. Sediment samples were also collected to map the spatial distribution of river bed sediment sizes before and after the management activities. While the project lowered the elevation of high islands, observations of the sand addition indicated the relatively fine-grained sand that was placed in the active river channel was rapidly transported by the flowing water. Topographic measurements made 3 months after the sand addition along transects in the area of sediment addition showed net aggradation over measurements made in 2005. In the year following the sand addition, 2007, elevated river flows from local rain events generally were accompanied by net degradation along transects within the area of sediment addition. In the spring of 2008, a large magnitude flow event of approximately 360 cubic meters per

  11. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard

    2005-04-15

    The principal research effort for the first six months of Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization. Understanding the burial and thermal maturation histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in petroleum system characterization. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicate that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was the Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa shale was an effective local petroleum source rock in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and a possible local source bed in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion was initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion was initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Reservoir rocks include Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary siliciclastic and carbonate strata. Seal rocks include Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary anhydrite and shale beds. Petroleum traps include structural and combination traps.

  12. Natural and human induced seabed evolution : the occurrence of large-scale bad patterns and the effects of human activities on the North Sea seabed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der Hennie Henriët

    2008-01-01

    The North Sea is a highly dynamic area, where a tidal current flows over a sandy seabed. It is an intensively used area where various human activities take place. The seabed is rich in oil and gas and there are a lot of oil and gas platforms connected to the shore with pipelines that are mostly buri

  13. Draft final report : Relative abundance and diversity of birds in riparian habitats at North Platte National Wildlife refuge and in grasslands at Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) are among the few remaining tracts of land that have the potential for providing population-source habitats for many declining bird...

  14. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2005-10-28

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization and modeling. Understanding the burial, thermal maturation, and hydrocarbon expulsion histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in hydrocarbon resource assessment. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and initial thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicated that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The initial modeling also indicated that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Refined thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling and additional petroleum source rock analysis have confirmed that the major source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early to Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary.

  15. Geologic framework, age, and lithologic characteristics of the North Park Formation in North Park, north-central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroba, Ralph R.

    2016-10-18

    Deposits of the North Park Formation of late Oligocene and Miocene age are locally exposed at small, widely spaced outcrops along the margins of the roughly northwest-trending North Park syncline in the southern part of North Park, a large intermontane topographic basin in Jackson County in north-central Colorado. These outcrops suggest that rocks and sediments of the North Park Formation consist chiefly of poorly consolidated sand, weakly cemented sandstone, and pebbly sandstone; subordinate amounts of pebble conglomerate; minor amounts of cobbly pebble gravel, siltstone, and sandy limestone; and rare beds of cobble conglomerate and altered tuff. These deposits partly filled North Park as well as a few small nearby valleys and half grabens. In North Park, deposits of the North Park Formation probably once formed a broad and relatively thick sedimentary apron composed chiefly of alluvial slope deposits (mostly sheetwash and stream-channel alluvium) that extended, over a distance of at least 150 kilometers (km), northwestward from the Never Summer Mountains and northward from the Rabbit Ears Range across North Park and extended farther northwestward into the valley of the North Platte River slightly north of the Colorado-Wyoming border. The maximum preserved thickness of the formation in North Park is about 550 meters near the southeastern end of the North Park syncline.The deposition of the North Park Formation was coeval in part with local volcanism, extensional faulting, development of half grabens, and deposition of the Browns Park Formation and Troublesome Formation and was accompanied by post-Laramide regional epeirogenic uplift. Regional deposition of extensive eolian sand sheets and loess deposits, coeval with the deposition of the North Park Formation, suggests that semiarid climatic conditions prevailed during the deposition of the North Park Formation during the late Oligocene and Miocene.The North Park Formation locally contains a 28.1-mega-annum (Ma

  16. The pulsating nature of large-scale Saharan dust transport as a result of interplays between mid-latitude Rossby waves and the North African Dipole Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, E.; Gómez-Peláez, A. J.; Rodríguez, S.; Terradellas, E.; Basart, S.; García, R. D.; García, O. E.; Alonso-Pérez, S.

    2017-10-01

    It was previously shown that during August the export of Saharan dust to the Atlantic was strongly affected by the difference of the 700-hPa geopotential height anomaly between the subtropics and the tropics over North Africa, which was termed the North African Dipole Intensity (NAFDI). In this work a more comprehensive analysis of the NAFDI is performed, focusing on the entire summer dust season (June-September), and examining the interactions between the mid-latitude Rossby waves (MLRWs) and NAFDI. Widespread and notable aerosol optical depth (AOD) monthly anomalies are found for each NAFDI-phase over the dust corridors off the Sahara, indicating that NAFDI presents intra-seasonal variability and drives dust transport over both the Mediterranean basin and the North Atlantic. Those summer months with the same NAFDI-phase show similar AOD-anomaly patterns. Variations in NAFDI-phase also control the displacement of the Saharan Heat Low (SHL) westwards or eastwards through horizontal advection of temperature over Morocco-Western Sahara or eastern Algeria-Western Libya, respectively. The connection between the SHL and the NAFDI is quantified statistically by introducing two new daily indexes that account for their respective phases (NAFDI daily index -NAFDIDI-, and SHL longitudinal shift index -SHLLSI-) and explained physically using the energy equation of the atmospheric dynamics. The Pearson's correlation coefficient between the one-day-lag SHLLSI and the NAFDIDI for an extended summer season (1980-2013) is 0.78. A positive NAFDI is associated with the West-phase of the SHL, dust sources intensification on central Algeria, and positive AOD anomalies over this region and the Subtropical North Atlantic. A negative NAFDI is associated with the East-phase of the SHL, and positive AOD anomalies over central-eastern Sahara and the central-western Mediterranean Sea. The results point out that the phase changes of NAFDI at intra-seasonal time scale are conducted by those

  17. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2006-04-26

    The principal research effort for the first half of Year 3 of the project has been resource assessment. Emphasis has been on estimating the total volume of hydrocarbons generated and the potential amount of this resource that is classified as deep (>15,000 ft) gas in the North Louisiana Salt Basin, the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, the Manila Subbasin and the Conecuh Subbasin. The amount of this resource that has been expelled, migrated and entrapped is also the focus of the first half of Year 3 of this study.

  18. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from naturally infected children in north-central Nigeria using the merozoite surface protein-2 as molecular marker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Segun Isaac Oyedeji; Henrietta Oluwatoyin Awobode; Chiaka Anumudu; Jrgen Kun

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To characterize the genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) field isolates in children from Lafia, North-central Nigeria, using the highly polymorphic P. falciparum merozoite surface protein 2 (MSP-2) gene as molecular marker. Methods: Three hundred and twenty children were enrolled into the study between 2005 and 2006. These included 140 children who presented with uncomplicated malaria at the Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital, Lafia and another 180 children from the study area with asymptomatic infection. DNA was extracted from blood spot on filter paper and MSP-2 genes were genotyped using allele-specific nested PCR in order to analyze the genetic diversity of parasite isolates. Results:A total of 31 and 34 distinct MSP-2 alleles were identified in the asymptomatic and uncomplicated malaria groups respectively. No difference was found between the multiplicity of infection in the asymptomatic group and that of the uncomplicated malaria group (P>0.05). However, isolates of the FC27 allele type were dominant in the asymptomatic group whereas isolates of the 3D7 allele type were dominant in the uncomplicated malaria group. Conclusions: This study showed a high genetic diversity of P. falciparum isolates in North-central Nigeria and is comparable to reports from similar areas with high malaria transmission intensity.

  19. Comparison ecological characteristics of mound-building mouse (mus spicilegus in two natural hotbeds of tularemia at North-West coast of the Black sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. T. Rusev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of ecology-epizootic monitoring of North-West coast of the Black sea carried out in wintering seasons of 2004, 2005 and 2011 testifies the basic role of the Mound-building mouse (Mus spicilegus Petenyi, 1882 as a carrier of Francisella tularensis. Spatial distribution of the Mound-building mouse strongly dependson a biotope, geographical region and weather conditions of a specific season. Mice nests in the storage mounds are located normally at a depth of 20–40 cm under the food storage chamber. Average number of the mice in storage mounds is 3.08 ± 1.54 in the south of investigated region and 3.88 ± 2.63 – in the NE of the region.

  20. Assessing Hydrologic Impacts of Future Land Cover Change Scenarios in the South Platte River Basin (CO, WY, & NE) and the San Pedro River Basin (U.S./Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, J. E.; Burns, I. S.; Guertin, D. P.; Kepner, W. G.; Goodrich, D. C.

    2016-12-01

    Long-term land-use and land cover change and their associated impacts pose critical challenges to sustaining vital hydrological ecosystem services for future generations. In this study, a methodology to characterize hydrologic impacts from future urban growth through time that was developed and applied on the San Pedro River Basin was expanded and utilized on the South Platte River Basin as well. Future urban growth is represented by housing density maps generated in decadal intervals from 2010 to 2100, produced by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Integrated Climate and Land-Use Scenarios (ICLUS) project. ICLUS developed future housing density maps by adapting the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) social, economic, and demographic storylines to the conterminous United States. To characterize hydrologic impacts from future growth, the housing density maps were reclassified to National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2006 land cover classes and used to parameterize the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) using the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool. The objectives of this project were to 1) develop and implement a methodology for adapting the ICLUS data for use in AGWA as an approach to evaluate impacts of development on water-quantity and -quality, 2) present, evaluate, and compare results from scenarios for watersheds in two different geographic and climatic regions, 3) determine watershed specific implications of this type of future land cover change analysis.

  1. Evaluation of carbon fluxes and trends (2000-2008) in the Greater Platte River Basin: a sustainability study on the potential biofuel feedstock development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.; Zhang, Li; Gilmanov, Tagir G.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the carbon fluxes and trends and examines the environmental sustainability (e.g., carbon budget, source or sink) of the potential biofuel feedstock sites identified in the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB). A 9-year (2000–2008) time series of net ecosystem production (NEP), a measure of net carbon absorption or emission by ecosystems, was used to assess the historical trends and budgets of carbon flux for grasslands in the GPRB. The spatially averaged annual NEP (ANEP) for grassland areas that are possibly suitable for biofuel expansion (productive grasslands) was 71–169 g C m−2 year−1 during 2000–2008, indicating a carbon sink (more carbon is absorbed than released) in these areas. The spatially averaged ANEP for areas not suitable for biofuel feedstock development (less productive or degraded grasslands) was −47 to 69 g C m−2 year−1 during 2000–2008, showing a weak carbon source or a weak carbon sink (carbon emitted is nearly equal to carbon absorbed). The 9-year pre-harvest cumulative ANEP was 1166 g C m−2 for the suitable areas (a strong carbon sink) and 200 g C m−2 for the non-suitable areas (a weak carbon sink). Results demonstrate and confirm that our method of dynamic modeling of ecosystem performance can successfully identify areas desirable and sustainable for future biofuel feedstock development. This study provides useful information for land managers and decision makers to make optimal land use decisions regarding biofuel feedstock development and sustainability.

  2. Impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement on high-fructose corn syrup supply in Canada: a natural experiment using synthetic control methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Pepita; McKee, Martin; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David

    2017-07-04

    Critics of free trade agreements have argued that they threaten public health, as they eliminate barriers to trade in potentially harmful products, such as sugar. Here we analyze the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), testing the hypothesis that lowering tariffs on food and beverage syrups that contain high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) increased its use in foods consumed in Canada. We used supply data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to assess changes in supply of caloric sweeteners including HFCS after NAFTA. We estimate the impact of NAFTA on supply of HFCS in Canada using an innovative, quasi-experimental methodology - synthetic control methods - that creates a control group with which to compare Canada's outcomes. Additional robustness tests were performed for sample, control groups and model specification. Tariff reductions in NAFTA coincided with a 41.6 (95% confidence interval 25.1 to 58.2) kilocalorie per capita daily increase in the supply of caloric sweeteners including HFCS. This change was not observed in the control groups, including Australia and the United Kingdom, as well as a composite control of 16 countries. Results were robust to placebo tests and additional sensitivity analyses. NAFTA was strongly associated with a marked rise in HFCS supply and likely consumption in Canada. Our study provides evidence that even a seemingly modest change to product tariffs in free trade agreements can substantially alter population-wide dietary behaviour and exposure to risk factors. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  3. Environmental Assessment: PL 84-99 Levee Rahabilitation Program Lower Platte South Natural Resource District Salt Creek, Lincoln, Lancaster County, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    presence. These species include white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), raccoon (Procyon lotor), fox squirrel (Sciurus niger ), eastern cottontail...Salt Creek tiger beetle is confined to eastern Nebraska saline wetlands and associated streams and tributaries of Salt Creek in the northern third of...Lancaster County. The insect is found along unvegetated mud banks of streams and seeps that contain salt deposits, and in association with saline

  4. Environmental Assessment: PL 84-99 Levee Rehabilitation Program Lower Platte South Natural Resource District, Antelope Creek, Lincoln, Lancaster County, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Army Corps of Engineers March 2015 Omaha District 20 Existing Conditions No immediate information was available from web ...construction related impacts to vegetation. Grading, scraping and reshaping of the proposed rehabilitation areas by construction equipment would occur and...area upon project completion. As such, construction-related impacts are not considered significant to area wildlife. Grading, scraping and

  5. RESOURCE CHARACTERIZATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF NATURAL GAS-HYDRATE AND ASSOCIATED FREE-GAS ACCUMULATIONS IN THE PRUDHOE BAY - KUPARUK RIVER AREA ON THE NORTH SLOPE OF ALASKA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Hunter; Shirish Patil; Robert Casavant; Tim Collett

    2003-06-02

    Interim results are presented from the project designed to characterize, quantify, and determine the commercial feasibility of Alaska North Slope (ANS) gas-hydrate and associated free-gas resources in the Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU), Kuparuk River Unit (KRU), and Milne Point Unit (MPU) areas. This collaborative research will provide practical input to reservoir and economic models, determine the technical feasibility of gas hydrate production, and influence future exploration and field extension of this potential ANS resource. The large magnitude of unconventional in-place gas (40-100 TCF) and conventional ANS gas commercialization evaluation creates industry-DOE alignment to assess this potential resource. This region uniquely combines known gas hydrate presence and existing production infrastructure. Many technical, economical, environmental, and safety issues require resolution before enabling gas hydrate commercial production. Gas hydrate energy resource potential has been studied for nearly three decades. However, this knowledge has not been applied to practical ANS gas hydrate resource development. ANS gas hydrate and associated free gas reservoirs are being studied to determine reservoir extent, stratigraphy, structure, continuity, quality, variability, and geophysical and petrophysical property distribution. Phase 1 will characterize reservoirs, lead to recoverable reserve and commercial potential estimates, and define procedures for gas hydrate drilling, data acquisition, completion, and production. Phases 2 and 3 will integrate well, core, log, and long-term production test data from additional wells, if justified by results from prior phases. The project could lead to future ANS gas hydrate pilot development. This project will help solve technical and economic issues to enable government and industry to make informed decisions regarding future commercialization of unconventional gas-hydrate resources.

  6. Annual cycle of the microzooplankton communities in the waters surrounding the Palm Island Nature Reserve (north Lebanon, with special attention to tintinnids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ABBOUD-ABI SAAB

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution, abundance and annual cycle of microzooplankton communities have been studied monthly at five sampling stations in the north Lebanon, covering both neritic and oceanic waters in the vicinity of small islands situated 5 km offshore.In general, the density of microprotozoans, except for ciliates, increased from the coastal towards the offshore area, with stations situated near the islands being similar to the offshore rather than to the coastal ones. The microprotozoan species showed their highest numbers in late autumn and early winter. Foraminifera abundance ranged from 20 to 3390 inds.m -3 (mean= 549 whereas Acantharia abundance was highest in spring and ranged from 0 to 2608 inds.m -3 (mean 259. The Polycistina had their highest numbers in late winter, which ranged from 0 to 6024 inds.m -3 (mean= 740. The Heliozoa were abundant in late autumn with numbers ranging from 0 to 5165 inds.m -3 (mean= 555. The annual cycle of Tintinnids at all the stations was bimodal with a principal peak in October-November and another one in May, while minimum numbers were recorded in August-September. A succession of populations was observed all year round with a density ranging between 344 and 38986 inds.m -3 (mean = 10878. Ninety different species of Tintinnids were recorded. The diversity index varied between 0.19 and 4.15. It was concluded that there was a large-scale gradient in seasonal diversity which could be related to the annual average sea surface temperature and to the development of the vertical thermic structure.

  7. 北宋非性命学的兴起与转变%The Rising and Transforming of Reproaching Human Nature and Destiny Learning in North Song Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金生杨

    2011-01-01

    在经学原典的基础上,在融会三教、复兴儒学的时代呼唤下,北宋儒家学者吸收佛、道之说,深述性命义理,逐渐建构起形而上的新儒学。与此同时,以欧阳修、司马光、苏轼、苏辙为代表,对性命学展开了激烈的批判。他们的非性命学基于排斥佛老、重振纲常,崇实黜虚、提倡实学,批判王安石变法而立论,先见性地揭示了性命学空谈不实之弊。随着性命学成为时代风尚,他们又向性命学方向转变,以自己独特的性命之学来批判现有性命学的不足,显示出学术发展的多元化,更折射出学术发展的曲折与必然。%On the basis of Confucian Classics,scholars in Northern Song dynasty absorbed the useful parts of Buddhism and Taoism,and founded Neo-Confucianism for human nature and destiny learning.At the same time,scholars such as Ouyang xiu,Sima guang,Su Shi and Su Zhe criticized it.However,with the development and wide spread of human nature and destiny learning,these scholars transformed to expound their own human nature and destiny learning.All of these meant that the development of the learning of Song Dynasty was not smooth.

  8. Process-Based Evidence of Coastal Accretion Adjacent to a Natural Inlet and Ebb-Tidal Delta on the North Florida Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P. N.; Olabarrieta, M.; Keough, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Physical mechanisms of tidal inlet accretion are difficult to document because of the episodic nature of sediment delivery to the coast from fluvial sources and the complex patterns of current magnitudes and directions arising from the interaction of nearshore waves with ebb-tidal delta bathymetry. Using monthly RTK-GPS field measurements of beach topography adjacent to a natural inlet, we document a shoreline change time series that illustrates a bi-directional, alongshore spreading pattern of accretion following an exceptionally high rainfall-discharge event in May 2009. Numerical modeling of wave set-up and nearshore currents in the vicinity of the inlet and ebb tidal delta produces depth-averaged flow velocity patterns consistent with our field observations of coastal accretion. Our results are in agreement with an accretion mechanism, proposed by other researchers, that involves sediment delivery to the margins of the ebb tidal delta during high velocity ebb flows that accompany large rainfall-discharge events, followed by onshore migration of swash bars during subsequent days to months, at a rate dependent upon the timing of nearshore wave energy delivery to the site.

  9. Evaluation of excess life time cancer risk due to natural radioactivity of the Lignite samples of the Nichahoma, lignite belt, North Kashmir, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashraf, Mudasir [VIT Univ., Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India). Photonic, Nuclear and Medical Physics Div.; Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Soura, Srinagar (India). Dept. of Radiological Physics and Bio-engineering; Radha, C. Anu; Ramasubramanian, V. [VIT Univ., Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India). Photonic, Nuclear and Medical Physics Div.; Ahmad, Shakeel; Masood, Sajad [Kashmir Univ., Srinagar (India). Dept. of Physics; Dar, Rayees Ahmad [Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Soura, Srinagar (India). Div. of Biostatistics

    2016-11-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides of the {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 40}K present in the lignite samples was measured by using a low-background Pb-shielded gamma spectroscopic counting assembly utilizing NaI(Tl) detector for the measurement and to evaluation the radiation hazard indices and excess life time cancer risk. The average values of specific activity concentrations in the investigated lignite samples was found to be 45.36 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 21.42 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, 40.51 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K and 79.11 Bq kg{sup -1} for Ra{sub eq} respectively. The average value excess life time cancer risk was found to be relatively higher than the world average. Moreover, the correlation analysis shows the strong dependence of excess lifetime cancer risk on measured dose and the radium equivalent activity.

  10. The nature of porosity in organic-rich mudstones of the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation, North Sea, offshore United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Neil S.; Hackley, Paul C.; Lowers, Heather; Hill, Ronald J.; Egenhoff, Sven O.; Eberl, Dennis D.; Blum, Alex E.

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of organic-rich mudstones from wells that penetrated the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation, offshore United Kingdom, were performed to evaluate the nature of both organic and inorganic rock constituents and their relation to porosity in this world-class source rock. The formation is at varying levels of thermal maturity, ranging from immature in the shallowest core samples to mature in the deepest core samples. The intent of this study was to evaluate porosity as a function of both organic macerals and thermal maturity. At least four distinct types of organic macerals were observed in petrographic and SEM analyses and they all were present across the study area. The macerals include, in decreasing abundance: 1) bituminite admixed with clays; 2) elongate lamellar masses (alginite or bituminite) with small quartz, feldspar, and clay entrained within it; 3) terrestrial (vitrinite, fusinite, semifusinite) grains; and 4) Tasmanites microfossils. Although pores in all maceral types were observed on ion-milled surfaces of all samples, the pores (largely nanopores with some micropores) vary as a function of maceral type. Importantly, pores in the macerals do not vary systematically as a function of thermal maturity, insofar as organic pores are of similar size and shape in both the immature and mature Kimmeridge rocks. If any organic pores developed during the generation of hydrocarbons, they were apparently not preserved, possibly because of the highly ductile nature of much of the rock constituents of Kimmeridge mudstones (clays and organic material). Inorganic pores (largely micropores with some nanopores) have been observed in all Kimmeridge mudstones. These pores, particularly interparticle (i.e., between clay platelets), and intraparticle (i.e., in framboidal pyrite, in partially dissolved detrital K-feldspar, and in both detrital and authigenic dolomite) are noteworthy because they compose much of the observable porosity in the shales in both

  11. Evaluation of the nature, origin and potentiality of the subsurface Middle Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous source rocks in Melleiha G-1x well, North Western Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. El Nady

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to evaluate the nature and origin of the source rock potentiality of subsurface Middle Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous source rocks in Melleiha G-1x well. This target was achieved throughout the evaluation of total organic carbon, rock Eval pyrolysis and vitrinite reflectance for fifteen cutting samples and three extract samples collected from Khatatba, Alam El Bueib and Kharita formations in the studied well. The result revealed that the main hydrocarbon of source rocks, for the Middle Jurassic (Khatatba Fm. is mainly mature, and has good capability of producing oil and minor gas. Lower Cretaceous source rocks (Alam El Bueib Fm. are mature, derived from mixed organic sources and have fair to good capability to generate gas and oil. Kharita Formation of immature source rocks originated from terrestrial origin and has poor to fair potential to produce gas. This indicates that Khatatba and Alam El Bueib formations take the direction of increasing maturity far away from the direction of biodegradation and can be considered as effective source potential in the Melleiha G-1x well.

  12. Characterization and copper binding of humic and nonhumic organic matter isolated from the South Platte River: Evidence for the presence of nitrogenous binding site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croue, J.-P.; Benedetti, M.F.; Violleau, D.; Leenheer, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Humic substances typically constitute 40-60% of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in surface waters. However, little information is available regarding the metal binding properties of the nonhumic hydrophilic portion of the DOM. In this study, humic and nonhumic DOM samples were isolated from the South Platte River (Colorado, DOC = 2.6 mg??L-1, SUVA254 = 2.4 L/mg??m) using a two-column array of XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins. The three major isolated fractions of DOM, which accounted for 57% of the bulk DOM, were characterized using a variety of analytical tools. Proton and copper binding properties were studied for each fraction. The main objective of this work was to compare the structural and chemical characteristics of the isolated fractions and test models describing DOM reactivity toward metal ions. The characterization work showed significant structural differences between the three isolated fractions of DOM. The hydrophobic acid fraction (i.e., humic substances isolated from the XAD-8 resin) gave the largest C/H, C/O, and C/N ratios and aromatic carbon content among the three isolated fractions. The transphilic acid (TPHA) fraction ("transphilic" meaning fraction of intermediate polarity isolated from the XAD-4 resin) was found to incorporate the highest proportion of polysaccharides, whereas the transphilic neutral (TPHN) fraction was almost entirely proteinaceous. The gradual increase of the charge with pH for the three DOM fractions is most likely caused by a large distribution of proton affinity constants for the carboxylic groups, as well as a second type of group more generally considered to be phenolic. In the case of the DOM fraction enriched in proteinaceous material (i.e., TPHN fraction), the results showed that the amino groups are reponsible for the charge reversal. For low copper concentrations, nitrogen-containing functional groups similar to those of amino acids are likely to be involved in complexation, in agreement with previously published data.

  13. Natural Radionuclide Contents in Raw Materials and the Aggregate Finished Product from Dangote Cement Plc, Obajana, Kogi State, North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O. Ajayi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of gamma ray activity in raw materials and the end product in Dangote Cement from Dangote Cement Plc, Obajana and Kogi State has been investigated in this study. Gamma ray spectrometry that possesses scintillation detector was used to analyze the samples collected from the company. Samples collected as raw materials are limestone, clay, gypsum and laterite and cement as finished product. The 40K, 238U, 232Th activity concentration were detected. The concentration of 40K range from 4649±366 to 0±65 Bq/Kg with highest value in limestone and lowest in laterite. The 238U concentration is highest in gypsum range from 696±233 to 41±27 Bq/Kg in laterite. 232Th activity is below detectable limit in all the raw materials but it has activity concentration of 40±26 Bq/Kg in the finished product which may be traceable to the fact that some finished additives are present which are not in the basic raw materials of this cement under investigation. It is concluded that the natural radionuclide measured for 40K, 238U and 232Th has mean activities of 2189.75±219.5, 331.25±132.25 and 0±31 Bq/Kg respectively, while its corresponding mean absorbed dose rate in air at 1 m above the ground was calculated to be 235.61 nGy/h or 2.064 mSv/y and the aggregate finished product (cement has absorbed dose rate of 342.22 nGy/h and an effective dose equivalent of 2.998 mSv/y. The calculated absorbed doses in nGy/h and mSv/y shows that Dangote cement under consideration has higher activities of the isotopes than the permissible level suggested by ICRP (80 nGy/h or 0.7 mSv/y

  14. Study on Poisonous Pteridophyte Plants in the North Slope of Taibai Mountain Nature Reserve%太白山自然保护区北坡有毒蕨类植物研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左茜; 李璟琦; 谢梓燚; 贺钰

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of wild poisonous pteridophyte plants in the north slope of Taibai Mountain Nature Reserve was studied by the author through three following ways :by reading references ,climbing up the mountain and investigating in wild field ,and studying the specimens preserved before .The results indicated that there are 7 species in Taibai Mountain Nature Reserve ,which takes 6 .4% species of the to-tal poisonous pteridophyte plants .According to different characters and usages ,poisonous pteridophyte plant were classified into medicine ,edibles and ornamental plants .The study provided scientific evidences for further exploitation and utilization of wild poisonous pteridophyte plants in Taibai Mountain Nature Reserve .%通过野外实地考察、室内标本鉴定和查阅整理资料相结合的方法,对太白山自然保护区有毒蕨类植物的种类、分布、有毒成分及其利用状况进行研究。结果表明:太白山自然保护区有毒蕨类植物有5科5属7种,均为小毒,占蕨类总数的6.4%,有药用、食用、观赏等多种用途。本研究可为合理开发和利用太白山有毒蕨类植物提供理论依据。

  15. Apollo in the North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østermark-Johansen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Walter Pater’s fascination with the Hyperborean Apollo, who according to myth resided north of the home of the northern wind, is explored in two of his pieces of short fiction, ‘Duke Carl of Rosenmold’ (1887) and ‘Apollo in Picardy’ (1893). The essay discusses some of Pater’s complex dialogue...... of Apollo the nature god. Furthermore, Pater is engaging in a complex geopolitical argument, playing out German, French and English culture against each other, as he traces the survival of the pagan gods after the onset of Christianity. The myth of the Hyperborean Apollo is a myth about the North: where...... does it begin? Where does it end? Is it a place of light or of darkness? Pater’s dark Apollo challenges conventional notions of the sun god and testifies to the strong presence of paganism in Pater’s late writings....

  16. Edible North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    2012-01-01

    With the publication of the Manifesto for a New Nordic Cuisine in 2004, the gastronomic potentials of the Scandinavian flora and fauna became the basis for a social innovation project with ambitions far beyond fine dining and select produce. Since then New Nordic Food has become a key platform......-constitutive role in the formation of publics (Marres 2007) and the ways in which they are themselves reconfigured as ‘matters of concern’ (Latour 2003) in this process. I draw on digital cartographies and fieldwork carried out under the Carlsberg funded project Edible North: Mapping the ’New Nordic Food...

  17. North Korean Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    North Korea’s economy and trade, North Korea’s possible response to sanctions and outside pressures of denuclearization , The extent of North...of denuclearization . The actions of North Korea are highly monitored and any predictions would take a much more in depth look at what North Korea

  18. Occurrence of selected pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical compounds, and stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios, in a riverbank filtration study, Platte River, Nebraska, 2001 to 2003, Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, J.R.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Coplen, T.B.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.; Barber, L.B.

    2005-01-01

    Although studied extensively in recent years in Europe, the occurrence of endocrine disrupters and other organic wastewater compounds in the environment in the United States is not well documented. To better understand the efficiency of riverbank filtration with respect to endocrine disrupting compounds and to evaluate the use of riverbank filtration as an effective means of drinking-water treatment, a study was conducted during 2001-2003 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the City of Lincoln, at an established riverbank-filtration well field with horizontal collector wells and vertical wells. This study provides information that will be useful for (1) increased understanding of the processes and factors important in controlling the transport of endocrine disrupters, such as pesticides and pharmaceuticals during riverbank filtration, (2) better understanding of the physical and chemical processes that affect riverbank-filtration efficiency, and (3) managing the water resources of the eastern Platte River Basin. This report presents analytical methods and data collected during the study. Data are presented as generalized statistics and in figures showing temporal variations. Sites from which water-quality samples were collected for this study included wastewater sites (a cattle feedlot lagoon, a hog confinement lagoon, and wastewater-treatment plant effluent), surface-water sites (Platte River, Salt Creek, and Loup Power Canal), ground-water sites (one collector well and three vertical wells), and drinking-water sites (raw and finished). Field water-quality properties were measured in samples from these sites. Pharmaceutical compounds were detected often in the wastewater-treatment plant effluent. Surface and ground water showed low-level concentrations of pharmaceuticals. Finished drinking-water samples did not contain detectable concentrations of pharmaceuticals except for low levels of cotinine and

  19. Distribución natural de Nothofagus alpina y Nothofagus obliqua (nothofagaceae en Argentina, dos especies de primera importancia forestal de los bosques templados norpatagónicos Natural distribution of Nothofagus alpina and Nothofagus obliqua (Nothofagaceae in Argentina, two productively important tree species of the North Patagonian temperate forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamila Sabatier

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Conocer la distribución natural de cualquier especie es esencial para poder planificar su conservación o uso. El Raulí [Nothofagus alpina (Poepp. & Endl. Oerst. = Nothofagus nervosa (Phil. Dim. et Mil.] y el Roble Pellín [Nothofagus obliqua (Mirb. Oerst. ssp. obliqua] son dos especies forestales de primera importancia en los bosques norpatagónicos, y objetos de un programa de domesticación en curso. En base al cruce de capas de información digital de estudios previos verificada por informantes locales calificados, por controles de campo y por interpretación sobre pantalla de imágenes provistas libremente por Google Earth, se mapeó la distribución natural de ambas especies en Argentina. La presencia del Raulí se registra sobre una superficie de 79.636 ha, mientras que sobre 33.859 ha se desarrollan bosques con presencia de Roble Pellín. La mayor parte de estas superficies se encuentran protegidas por el sistema de Parques Nacionales (97 % del área ocupada con Raulí y 83 % de la ocupada con Roble Pellín, sin embargo varios bosques relevantes para la conservación se hallan bajo jurisdicción de la Provincia de Neuquén, lo cual debería ser considerado al momento de planear una estrategia de conservación para ambas especies.Knowing the natural range of any species is essential to plan its conservation or use. The South-American beeches Raulí [Nothofagus alpina (Poepp. & Endl. Oerst. = Nothofagus nervosa (Phil. Dim. et Mil.] and Roble Pellín [Nothofagus obliqua (Mirb. Oerst. ssp. obliqua] are two important forest tree species of the North Patagonian forests, and the object of a current domestication program. Natural distribution of both beeches in Argentina was mapped based on digital information of previous works which was verified by local qualified informants, ground control check and visual interpretation of images freely provided by Google Earth. Raulí is present over a surface of 79,636 ha, while 33,859 ha are occupied by

  20. Natural gas; Gas Natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Carlos A.; Moraes, Claudia C.D. [Eletricidade de Sao Paulo S.A. (ELETROPAULO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Carlos H.F. [Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Clecio Fabricio da; Alves, Ricardo P. [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Sposito, Edivaldo Soares; Hulle, Lutero [Espirito Santo Centrais Eletricas S.A. (ESCELSA), Vitoria, ES (Brazil); S. Martins, Icaro da [Centrais Eletricas do Norte do Brasil S.A. (ELETRONORTE), Belem, PA (Brazil); Vilhena, Joao Luiz S. de [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Fagundes, Zaluar Aquino [Companhia Estadual de Energia Eletrica do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    An increase in the consumption of natural gas in Brazil is an expected fact in what concerns energetic planning. This work presents the existing situation in what concerns natural gas utilization in the main world economies, as well as an analysis of the participation of this fuel among the energy final consumption per sources. The Brazilian consumption of natural gas is also analysed as well as the international agreement between Brazil and Bolivia for natural gas commercialization. Some legal, institutional and political aspects related to natural gas commercialization are also discussed. Finally, several benefits to be brought by the utilization of natural gas are presented 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  1. FLOODPLAIN, PLATTE COUNTY, MISSOURI USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  2. Apparent Resistivity and Estimated Interaction Potential of Surface Water and Groundwater along Selected Canals and Streams in the Elkhorn-Loup Model Study Area, North-Central Nebraska, 2006-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeple, Andrew P.; Vrabel, Joseph; Kress, Wade H.; Cannia, James C.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the State of Nebraska adopted new legislation that in part requires local Natural Resources Districts to include the effect of groundwater use on surface-water systems in their groundwater management plan. In response the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Upper Elkhorn, Lower Elkhorn, Upper Loup, Lower Loup, Middle Niobrara, Lower Niobrara, Lewis and Clark, and Lower Platte North Natural Resources Districts, did a study during 2006-07 to investigate the surface-water and groundwater interaction within a 79,800-square-kilometer area in north-central Nebraska. To determine how streambed materials affect surface-water and groundwater interaction, surface geophysical and lithologic data were integrated at four sites to characterize the hydrogeologic conditions within the study area. Frequency-domain electromagnetic and waterborne direct- current resistivity profiles were collected to map the near-surface hydrogeologic conditions along sections of Ainsworth Canal near Ainsworth, Nebraska; Mirdan and Geranium Canals near Ord, Nebraska; North Loup River near Ord, Nebraska; and Middle Loup River near Thedford, Nebraska. Lithologic data were collected from test holes at each site to aid interpretation of the geophysical data. Geostatistical analysis incorporating the spatial variability of resistivity was used to account for the effect of lithologic heterogeneity on effective hydraulic permeability. The geostatistical analysis and lithologic data descriptions were used to make an interpretation of the hydrogeologic system and derive estimates of surface-water/groundwater interaction potential within the canals and streambeds. The estimated interaction potential at the Ainsworth Canal site and the Mirdan and Geranium Canal site is generally low to moderately low. The sediment textures at nearby test holes typically were silt and clay and fine-to-medium sand. The apparent resistivity values for these sites ranged from 2 to 120 ohm-meters. The vertical

  3. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the North Takhar mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter D in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the North Takhar mineral district, which has placer gold deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006,2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such

  4. Airborne geophysical surveys conducted in western Nebraska, 2010: contractor reports and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2014-01-01

    This report contains three contractor reports and data files for an airborne electromagnetic survey flown from June 28 to July 7, 2010. The first report; “SkyTEM Survey: Nebraska, USA, Data” describes data aquisition and processing from a time-domain electromagnetic and magnetic survey performed by SkyTEM Canada, Inc. (the North American SkyTEM subsidiary), in western Nebraska, USA. Digital data for this report are given in Appendix 1. The airborne geophysical data from the SkyTEM survey subsequently were processed and inverted by Aarhus Geophysics ApS, Aarhus, Denmark, to produce resistivity depth sections along each flight line. The result of that processing is described in two reports presented in Appendix 2, “Processing and inversion of SkyTEM data from USGS Area UTM–13” and “Processing and inversion of SkyTEM data from USGS Area UTM–14.” Funding for these surveys was provided by the North Platte Natural Resources District, the South Platte Natural Resources District, and the Twin Platte Natural Resources District, in Scottsbluff, Sidney, and North Platte, Nebraska, respectively. Any additional information concerning the geophysical data may be obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Crustal Geophysics and Geochemistry Science Center, Denver Colorado.

  5. Jurassic domes in the North Sea - northern North Atlantic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surlyk, F. [Univ. of Copenhagen, Geological Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The stratigraphic and tectonic evolution of the Jurassic of East Greenland, the Norwegian Shelf and the North Sea is remarkably similar. A major Middle Jurassic unconformity occurs in all three areas. In the North Sea it is commonly termed the `Mid-Cimmerian Unconformity` and is characterized by progressive truncation of the underlying section towards a centre at the triple junction between the Central Graben, Viking Graben and Moray Firth. Strata above the unconformity show a progressive Late Aalenian-Early Kimmeridgian onlap in the same direction. These relations have been interpreted as caused by Early Jurassic uplift and of a major thermal dome in the central North Sea, followed by Medial and Late Jurassic rifting, erosion, deflation and transgression of the dome. The East Greenland unconformity shows progressive truncation of underlying strata from south to north, and Bajocian to Callovian onlap in the same direction. The same pattern seems to be developed on the conjugate Norwegian margin. This suggests the possibility that the three unconformities have similar causes for their development. It is proposed that major rift domes formed in the Central North Sea and in the Greenland-Norway seaway in Early Jurassic times. The domes were eroded and gradually deflated during Medial Jurassic times and were finally submerged by the Late Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian. They were associated with volcanism and rifting which was delayed with respect to dome initiation. Roughly contemperaneous domes were present west of Britain, north of the Porcupine Seabight, and in Scania, southern Sweden, as reflected by development of asymmetrical unconformities showing progressive truncation of underlying strata, onlap of overlying Jurassic strata, and associated intrusive and extrusive volcanism. The domes are related to impingement of the heads of transient mantle plumes at the base of the lithosphere. The associated unconformities are thus of non-eustatic nature. Domal uplift and

  6. The mystery of the "North of the North" in Ibsen's works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Nygaard

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is an exaggeration to claim that several of the protagonists in Ibsen’s dramatic works are from the north, or have lived there. The few characters in Ibsen’s drama related to the North are, however, given a special emphasis in his works. They are, like the landscape and the light of the North, mysterious, strange, strong and untamed. Or they have been exiled, suppressed or forgotten – and then suddenly arrive unexpectedly and challenge the established order and open new tension and ambition. Ibsen only visited Northern Norway once, on a trip to North Cape in 1891. His only experience of the “North” before that was actually of Central Norway, Trondheim and Molde. The North in Ibsen’s dramas is accordingly just fiction, imagination – and an expression of the general Southern Norwegian understanding of the “others” living in the North and the “otherness” of the North. Especially people from the North of the North, such as Finnmark, who represent a mysterious, bewitching and magic power, like Rebekka West in Rosmersholm and the foreign sailor in Lady from the Sea. This is explained by the magic nature of the North, such as the midnight sun, the Polar light or the overwhelming and irresistible winter storms over the sea.  But Ibsen has also given other clues for the understanding of the mysterious characters from Finnmark, the North of the North. These clues are related to the cultural otherness of the characters as Sami and Kvääni.

  7. Natural gas outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, R. [TransCanada Transmission, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This presentation reviewed natural gas supply and demand issues facing Ontario and outlined TransCanada's role as a key player in Ontario's energy industry. TransCanada's gas transmission assets include 39,000 km of wholly owned pipelines from British Columbia to Atlantic Canada that carry 11 Bcf of gas per day. In addition, TransCanada operates 29 power generating plants, of which 6 are in Ontario. The company is also involved the proposed Mackenzie Valley and Alaska pipeline. A map illustrating Ontario and Quebec operations was included along with graphs depicting the 2004 base case for North American gas demand by region. Historical and forecasted gas demand by end use sector in Ontario and Quebec was also illustrated. A chart of North American gas supply indicates that new supply is needed to meet energy demands. Production forecasts for Western Canada for conventional and unconventional reserves indicates that by 2015, unconventional reserves such as coalbed methane (CBM) will make up a larger portion of the production mix. A map indicating existing and proposed import terminals along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts for liquefied natural gas (LNG) was included. The challenges facing the North American gas market include price volatility, the need to update energy policies, the need to improve regulatory efficiency, and aligning the interests of market participants. It was concluded that although natural gas from Western Canada will continue to be a stable supply source for many years, the natural gas market in North America is seeking new supply in frontier gas, LNG and CBM to meeting growing demand. 1 tab., 11 figs.

  8. Energy Relations between the European Union and North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kilpeläinen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses European Union (EU-North Africa energy relations with a special focus on renewables in North Africa, arguing that the research so far has not taken due account of North African perceptions of EU external energy policy. It is argued that current research on EU-North African relations has not taken sufficient note of the multidimensionality of energy or addressed the inconsistent nature of EU policy making. However, addressing these issues is vital in approaching EU-North Africa energy relations and EU policy towards North Africa in general. The study of perceptions is introduced as one way to develop research further, to give further impetus on understanding how EU-North African energy relations develop and to understand energy relations in their complexity.

  9. Importance of water quality on plant abundance and diversity in high-alpine meadows of the Yerba Loca Natural Sanctuary at the Andes of north-central Chile Importancia de la calidad del agua sobre la abundancia y diversidad vegetal en vegas altoandinas del Santuario Natural Yerba Loca en los Andes de Chile centro-norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSANNA GINOCCHIO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Porphyry Cu-Mo deposits have influenced surface water quality in high-Andes of north-central Chile since the Miocene. Water anomalies may reduce species abundance and diversity in alpine meadows as acidic and metal-rich waters are highly toxic to plants The study assessed the importance of surface water quality on plant abundance and diversity in high-alpine meadows at the Yerba Loca Natural Santuary (YLNS, central Chile (33°15' S, 70°18' W. Hydrochemical and plant prospecting were carried out on Piedra Carvajal, Chorrillos del Plomo and La Lata meadows the growing seasons of 2006 and 2007. Direct gradient analysis was performed through canonical correspondence analysis (CCA to look for relationships among water chemistry and plant factors. High variability in water chemistry was found inside and among meadows, particularly for pH, sulphate, electric conductivity, hardness, and total dissolved Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Fe. Data on species abundance and water chemical factors suggests that pH and total dissolved Cu are very important factor determining changes in plant abundance and diversity in study meadows. For instance, Festuca purpurascens, Colobanthus quitensis, and Arenaria rivularis are abundant in habitals with Cu-rich waters while Festuca magellanica, Patosia clandestina, Plantago barbata, Werneria pygmea, and Erigeron andícola are abundant in habitals with dilute waters.Los megadepósitos de pórfidos de Cu-Mo han influido sobre la calidad de las aguas superficiales en las zonas altoandinas del centro-norte de Chile desde el Mioceno. Estas alteraciones en la calidad de las aguas podrían afectar negativamente a la vegetación presente en las vegas altoandinas, ya que las aguas acidas y ricas en metales son altamente tóxicas para las plantas. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de la calidad de las aguas en la abundancia y diversidad florística de las vegas altoandinas del Santuario de la Naturaleza Yerba Loca (SNYL, en Chile central (33

  10. Adult Education Faculty and Programs in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, Elizabeth J.; Wright, Robin Redmon; Taylor, Edward W.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a quantitative survey of North American adult education faculty and a textual analysis of websites of adult education graduate programs in North America conducted in the fall of 2013. This study examined background information about adult education faculty and programs; the nature of faculty work interests,…

  11. Rat Lungworm Expands into North America

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-21

    Emily York, integrated pest management specialist at the Sam Noble Museum of Natural History, discusses the rat lungworm expansion in North America.  Created: 1/21/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/21/2016.

  12. Trans-Pacific and trans-Arctic pathways of the intertidal macroalga Fucus distichus L. reveal multiple glacial refugia and colonizations from the North Pacific to the North Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coyer, James A.; Hoarau, Galice; Van Schaik, Jaap; Luijckx, Pepijn; Olsen, Jeanine L.

    2011-01-01

    Aim We examined the phylogeography of the cold-temperate macroalgal species Fucus distichus L., a key foundation species in rocky intertidal shores and the only Fucus species to occur naturally in both the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. Location North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans (42 deg

  13. Carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide in the North Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Jayakumar, D.A.; George, M.D.; Narvekar, P.V.; DeSousa, S.N.

    The understanding of biogeochemical cycling of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide in the oceans is essential for predicting the fate of anthropogenically emitted components. The North Indian Ocean, with its diverse regimes, provides us with a natural...

  14. Land-Use Analysis and Simulated Effects of Land-Use Change and Aggregate Mining on Groundwater Flow in the South Platte River Valley, Brighton to Fort Lupton, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L.R.; Mladinich, C.S.; Langer, W.H.; Daniels, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Land use in the South Platte River valley between the cities of Brighton and Fort Lupton, Colo., is undergoing change as urban areas expand, and the extent of aggregate mining in the Brighton-Fort Lupton area is increasing as the demand for aggregate grows in response to urban development. To improve understanding of land-use change and the potential effects of land-use change and aggregate mining on groundwater flow, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the cities of Brighton and Fort Lupton, analyzed socioeconomic and land-use trends and constructed a numerical groundwater flow model of the South Platte alluvial aquifer in the Brighton-Fort Lupton area. The numerical groundwater flow model was used to simulate (1) steady-state hydrologic effects of predicted land-use conditions in 2020 and 2040, (2) transient cumulative hydrologic effects of the potential extent of reclaimed aggregate pits in 2020 and 2040, (3) transient hydrologic effects of actively dewatered aggregate pits, and (4) effects of different hypothetical pit spacings and configurations on groundwater levels. The SLEUTH (Slope, Land cover, Exclusion, Urbanization, Transportation, and Hillshade) urban-growth modeling program was used to predict the extent of urban area in 2020 and 2040. Wetlands in the Brighton-Fort Lupton area were mapped as part of the study, and mapped wetland locations and areas of riparian herbaceous vegetation previously mapped by the Colorado Division of Wildlife were compared to simulation results to indicate areas where wetlands or riparian herbaceous vegetation might be affected by groundwater-level changes resulting from land-use change or aggregate mining. Analysis of land-use conditions in 1957, 1977, and 2000 indicated that the general distribution of irrigated land and non-irrigated land remained similar from 1957 to 2000, but both land uses decreased as urban area increased. Urban area increased about 165 percent from 1957 to 1977 and about 56 percent from

  15. CLIL in the North: finding true north?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Nienke

    2016-01-01

    CLIL teaching in the Netherlands is very popular: roughly 130 secondary schools offer CLIL education. But did you know that only nine secondary schools in the north of the Netherlands currently offer bilingual education? This means that CLIL education is still not at cycling distance for every teena

  16. CLIL in the North: finding true north?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Nienke

    CLIL teaching in the Netherlands is very popular: roughly 130 secondary schools offer CLIL education. But did you know that only nine secondary schools in the north of the Netherlands currently offer bilingual education? This means that CLIL education is still not at cycling distance for every

  17. Possibility and Actualization of Dual Emancipation of Mankind and Nature ——On the Purport of North American Ecological Marxism%人与自然双重解放的可能与现实——北美生态学马克思主义理论评析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵卯生

    2012-01-01

    By carrying on the purport of emancipating mankind of Marxism, North American Ecological Marxism explores a way of socialist revolution to emancipate mankind and nature in the ecological crisis. The consciousness of constructing itself based on Historical materialism shows the red character of North American Ecological Marxism. However, the socialist ecological economy with eclecticism is not feasible, and the mode of steady economy of Ecological Socialism is Utopian.%北美生态学马克思主义承接马克思主义解放人的价值旨趣,探寻生态危机下人与自然双重解放的社会主义变革道路。北美生态学马克思主义坚持以历史唯物主义为自身理论构建基础的自觉意识映现出其变革资本主义实现社会主义的红色性质,然而,带有折衷主义倾向的社会主义生态经济并不具备现实可行性,生态社会主义的稳态经济模式亦具有明显的乌托邦特性。

  18. Natural factors and mining activity bearings on the water quality of the Choapa basin, North Central Chile: insights on the role of mafic volcanic rocks in the buffering of the acid drainage process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Amparo; Oyarzún, Jorge; Maturana, Hugo; Kretschmer, Nicole; Meza, Francisco; Oyarzún, Ricardo

    2011-10-01

    This contribution analyzes water chemical data for the Choapa basin, North Central Chile, for the period 1980-2004. The parameters considered are As, Cu Fe, pH, EC, SO₄⁻², Cl⁻¹, and HCO[Formula: see text], from samples taken in nine monitoring stations throughout the basin. Results show rather moderate contents of As, Cu, and Fe, with the exception of the Cuncumén River and the Aucó creek, explained by the influence of the huge porphyry copper deposit of Los Pelambres and by the presence of mining operations, respectively. When compared against results obtained in previous researches at the neighboring Elqui river basin, which host the El Indio Au-Cu-As district, a much reduced grade of pollution is recognized for the Choapa basin. Considering the effect of acid rock drainage (ARD)-related Cu contents on the fine fraction of the sediments of both river basins, the differences recorded are even more striking. Although the Los Pelambres porphyry copper deposit, on the headwaters of the Choapa river basin, is between one and two orders of magnitude bigger than El Indio, stream water and sediments of the former exhibit significantly lower copper contents than those of the latter. A main factor which may explain these results is the smaller degree of H( + )-metasomatism on the host rocks of the Los Pelambres deposit, where mafic andesitic volcanic rocks presenting propylitic hydrothermal alteration are dominant. This fact contrast with the highly altered host rocks of El Indio district, where most of them have lost their potential to neutralize ARD.

  19. 华北地区栓皮栎天然次生林地位指数表的编制%Establishment of Site Index Table for Quercus variabilis Natural Secondary Forest in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑聪慧; 贾黎明; 段劼; 魏松坡; 孙操稳; 贾振虎; 卢福顺; 王志勇; 崔向东

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 514 height-age data of 71 sample plots of cork oak natural secondary forest in the northern region and 58 stem analysis sample trees which were average dominate trees were used to establish site index table. The model lgH = - 0. 205 9+0. 770 OlgA was selected as oriented curve from 12 mathematical models. The datum age was 50 years. Exponential distance was 2 m. Six site index curves(7 - 17 m)of Quercus variabilis natural secondary forest were developed by using the method of standard deviation adjustment. Tested by correlation coefficient, fit significance and forecast accuracy, the results showed that the site index table had promising precision, and it could be used on Quercus variabilis natural secondary forest site evaluation.%以华北地区71块栓皮栎天然次生林标准地和58株平均优势木解析木的514对树高-年龄数据作为编表材料,从12个数学模型中选定lgH=-0.205 9+0.770 01gA作为导向曲线,基准年龄为50年,指数级距为2 m,运用标准差调整法导出7~17m6条地位指数曲线,最终得到华北地区栓皮栎天然次生林地位指数表.相关系数检验、拟合显著性检验和预报精度检验表明:所编地位指数表精度较高,可用于华北地区栓皮栎天然次生林立地质量评价.

  20. North Korea Conundrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samore, G

    2002-07-01

    Proliferation has become an important political issue over the last decades, marked simultaneously by the nuclearization of South Asia, the strengthening of international regimes (TNP, CW, MTCR) and the discovery of fraud and trafficking. This paper presents the motivations and strategy of North Korea in violating existing agreements and developing an alternative source of weapons grade material. Then it analyses the US gradual economical and political strategy to pressure North Korea to eliminate its nuclear weapons program. The future position of the US will depend on the Iraq outcome and on the results of its pressure policy on North Korea. (J.S.)

  1. Piping Plover Habitat Loss at the Nature Conservancy's John E. Williams Preserve, Central North Dakota: an Interdisciplinary Study of Alkaline Prairie Pothole Glacial Lakes, Groundwater, Gravel Beaches and Vegetation Encroachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciamanda, M.; Kellner, J. R.; Lamb, M. A.; Clotts, R.; Pastika, D. W.; Welter, D. J.; Brown, J. M.; Schuweiler, T. K.; Mohanty, R. B.; Vang, K. M.; Nichols, K. S.; Lorah, P. A.; Robinson, D. O.

    2016-12-01

    The Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus) is a threatened migratory bird that nests along shores of alkaline lakes, the Great Lakes, and the Atlantic Ocean. John Williams Preserve, in central North Dakota, houses one of the largest breeding populations in the world. Over the past eighty years, vegetation has encroached and caused variable habitat loss from lake to lake (Root and Ryan, 2004). Processes operating on different time scales affect lake, beach and vegetation changes: long-term global climate changes, decadal drought cycles, and seasonal and local weather. To determine how these processes interact to affect vegetation growth, soil salinity and habitat loss, we began a multidisciplinary field study. Sampled lake cores provide a chemical record of historical events and possible habitat changes. Water chemistry samples taken in different months inform groundwater flow patterns and core interpretation. Spatial analyses of local and regional groundwater systems informed placement of piezometers to determine groundwater flow. Aerial drone imagery builds on previous ground studies and allows for a quantitative spatial analysis of vegetation encroachment and geomorphic analyses. The three main lakes in our study show a general increase in concentration of major ions from east to west —from Pelican to Peterson to Williams—that mirrors westerly groundwater flow. Geochemical data from sediment cores, including LOI, XRD and XRF data, show that Williams is the most variable chemically, Pelican the least. Williams contains the most evaporate minerals, including thernardite and burkeite. Land use changes in the last 120 years may have changed lake chemistry: at 60 cm depth in cores, there are changes in the organic matter concentration and major ion chemistry, suggesting an increase in runoff and sediment input. Historical research points to changing agricultural practices as a possible cause of these changes. Initial ArcGIS analyses of detailed drone topographic data

  2. NORTH CAUCASIAN DEFENSIVE ARMAMENT OF THE NEW TIME IN THE FUNDS OF THE STAVROPOL STATE HISTORICAL-CULTURAL AND NATURAL-LANDSCAPE MUSEUM-RESERVE NAMED AFTER G. N. PROZRITELEV AND G. K. PRAVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Victorovich SALNIKOV

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the analysis of the defensive items of Caucasian warriors in the XVII - XIX centuries stocked in the collections of the Stavropol State Histori-cal-Cultural and Natural-Landscape Museum-Reserve named after G. N. Prozritelev and G. K. Prave. The signifi-cance of the above-mentioned study of the Museum ex-hibits is in the fact that it allows to identify not only the level of development of productive forces in the region, but also to outline the specific features of inter-cultural, economic and political relations with the neighboring regions, as a result of which we can highlight the pres-ence of elements of imported weapons.

  3. DETERRING NORTH KOREA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michael Peck

    2017-01-01

    .... No one can credibly promise that the GMD system will work as planned in an emergency, but with North Korea exploding nuclear bombs underground and testing long-range missiles, the US plans to spend...

  4. Tuberculosis in North Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perry, Sharon; Linton, Heidi; Schoolnik, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Tensions on the Korean Peninsula are high. How South Korea, the United States, and other countries, including China, engage North Korea remains a sensitive issue, as policies tying aid to denuclearization are debated...

  5. Cogeneration and North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, J. [ed.

    1979-01-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of 18 individual presentations. Appendices include lists of participants, speakers, and session chairmen plus California and North Carolina reports and legislation dealing with cogeneration.

  6. Displaying Nature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Beijing Museum of Natural History is located in Chongwen District, close to the Temple of Heaven and Tianqiao Theater. It was founded in 1951 and formally named Beijing Museum of Natural History in 1962.

  7. Reconnaissance of ground-water quality in the Papio-Missouri River Natural Resources District, eastern Nebraska, July through September 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Ellis, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    A reconnaissance of ground-water quality was conducted in the Papio-Missouri River Natural Resources District of eastern Nebraska. Sixty-one irrigation, municipal, domestic, and industrial wells completed in the principal aquifers--the unconfined Elkhorn, Missouri, and Platte River Valley alluvial aquifers, the upland area alluvial aquifers, and the Dakota aquifer--were selected for water-quality sampling during July, August, and September 1992. Analyses of water samples from the wells included determination of dissolved nitrate as nitrogen and triazine and acetanilide herbicides. Waterquality analyses of a subset of 42 water samples included dissolved solids, major ions, metals, trace elements, and radionuclides. Concentrations of dissolved nitrate as nitrogen in water samples from 2 of 13 wells completed in the upland area alluvial aquifers exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level for drinking water of 10 milligrams per liter. Thirty-nine percent of the dissolved nitrate-as-nitrogen concentrations were less than the detection level of 0.05 milligram per liter. The largest median dissolved nitrate-as-nitrogen concentrations were in water from the upland area alluvial aquifers and the Dakota aquifer. Water from all principal aquifers, except the Dakota aquifer, had detectable concentrations of herbicides. Herbicides detected included alachlor (1 detection), atrazine (13 detections), cyanazine (5 detections), deisopropylatrazine (6 detections), deethylatrazine (9 detections), metolachlor (6 detections), metribuzin (1 detection), prometon (6 detections), and simazine (2 detections). Herbicide concentrations did not exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Levels for drinking water. In areas where the hydraulic gradient favors loss of surface water to ground water, the detection of herbicides in water from wells along the banks of the Platte River indicates that the river could act as a line source of

  8. Comparative Studies on the Carbon Storage Between the Kandelia candel Natural Forests and Plantations in North Mangrove Forests of China%中国红树林北缘区不同起源秋茄林碳储量比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严锦钰; 何东进; 李晓景; 王韧; 蔡金标; 游巍斌; 苏少川; 张中瑞; 肖石红

    2013-01-01

    The carbon storage and carbon allocation patterns of natural and artificial Kandelia candel wetland ecosystem were investigated in north marginal region of mangrove.The results were as follows:(1)The ecosystem's carbon stock(tree layer+understory+litter floor+soil)was about 221.8 t/hm in the K.candel natural forests,while that of the plantations was 154.6 t/hm2.We primarily concluded that the carbon stock in the natural forests was higher than that in the plantations; (2)The carbon pool in the soil was the main resource of ecosystem's carbon storage of both K.candel natural forests and plantations,whose respective amounts were 87.0% and 93.5%.The carbon stock of tree layer was on the second place(natural forests:12.8%; plantations:6.5%)and the least contribution to the stock of carbon was attributed to the understory and litter floor,which was only 0.01% to 0.12%; (3)Compared with the soil carbon pools outside the forest,the superiority of wetland ecosystem of K.candel mangrove is obvious.%对红树林自然分布区域北缘区不同起源(天然林和人工林)秋茄林湿地生态系统的碳储量及分配格局进行对比分析.结果表明:(1)秋茄天然林生态系统碳储量(乔木层+林下植被+死地被物+土壤碳)约为221.8 t/hm2,人工林约为154.6 t/hm2,秋茄天然林生态系统在碳汇功能上优于人工林;(2)无论天然林还是人工林生态系统,土壤是主要碳库,分别占总碳储量87.0%和93.5%;乔木层碳储量次之(天然林12.8%;人工林6.5%),林下植被和死地被物对生态系统碳储量贡献微小,仅0.01%~0.12%;(3)与林外土壤碳库相比,红树林湿地碳库更具优势.

  9. Regional Military Security Cooperation in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-11

    Forward for North American Integration by Dr. Stephen Blank, Dr. Stephanie Golob, and Dr. Guy Stanley is a Pace University, Lubin School of Business...States are “the countries that ring the Gap – Mexico, Brazil, South Africa, Morocco, Algeria, Greece, Turkey, Pakistan, Thailand, Malaysia , the... vernacular regarding globalization, I will examine the impact of globalization on the world in terms of population, natural resources, and connectivity

  10. 77 FR 28331 - Standards for Business Practices for Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... Natural Gas Pipelines AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, DOE. ACTION: Request for additional... North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) applicable to natural gas pipelines. The Commission... American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) applicable to natural gas pipelines. The Commission, however,...

  11. North Korea, Quo Vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl H. Stingeder

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available North Korean politics appears neither irrational nor unpredictable: the logic of its actions may at first seem opaque, but it nonetheless displays its own rationale and patterns. – North Korea: a ruthless political actor, now under the leadership of Kim Jong-Un who inherited the regime’s leadership from his father and "Supreme Leader", Kim Jong-Il, in 2011. The country’s policy is based on its ongoing political agenda of (nuclear brinkmanship, a true threat to the world – or at least that's how the Western hemisphere sees it. Yet our factual knowledge of this post-Leninist and totalitarian regime is extremely limited and relatively distorted; it is largely circumstantial evidence and judgmental speculation that accounts for our perception of this East Asian state. Northeast Asia (China, Japan, South and North Korea, Taiwan is a region dominated by the legacy of the Cold War. The North Korean leadership has indeed established its priorities, primarily its isolationist orientation, but in the long term the regime cannot survive without external stimulus. Most importantly, even in a long-term, non-violent and gradual transformation of North Korea considerable danger can ultimately result in the demise of the regime. Apart from few signs of a North Korean "civil society", currently only the army might have the resources to see through a regime change. In the meantime, the strategies of isolationism as well as tight control of the media remain as fundamental cornerstones of the regime. A close-knit network of social control has been established and access to the internet for the most part is limited to the regime’s entrusted cadre.

  12. US North Slope gas and Asian LNG markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1994-01-01

    Prospects for export of liquified natural gas (LNG) from Alaska's North Slope are assessed. Projected market conditions to 2010 show that new LNG capacity beyond announced expansions will be needed to meet regional demand and that supplies will probably come from outside the region. The estimated delivered costs of likely suppliers show that Alaska North Slope gas will not be competitive. The alternative North Slope gas development strategies of transport and sale to the lower 48 states and use on the North Slope for either enhanced oil recovery or conversion to liquids are examined. The alternative options require delaying development until US gas prices increase, exhaustion of certain North Slope oil fields, or advances occur in gas to liquid fuels conversion technology. ?? 1995.

  13. PLURALIZING NATURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    Denmark is widely recognised for its democratic approach to planning and the idea of planning for the common good. This interest in the common good and common values seems also to be reflected in the way which nature restoration is planned and managed – one common nature directed by the public...... authorities. But nature restoration is far from being a neural undertaking. Just like any other type of heritage production it can be the source of dissonance – ‘our’ nature is not necessary ‘their’ nature. Often this dissonance is managed in ways, which are not particular sensitive to site......-specificity. As exemplified by the Skjern River Restoration Project (1999-2003), one interpretation of the landscape sometimes suppresses other valid interpretations neglecting its diverse history. However, evidence from Switzerland suggests that planning for the common good, in the case of nature restoration, does...

  14. Nature seconded

    OpenAIRE

    Gough, Tim

    2002-01-01

    Heidegger�s remark that the banks of the river (representing nature in its supposedly pure state) only become apparent because of the presence of the bridge (representing the artificial in its supposed opposition to that nature) will lead this presentation to a discussion of whether or not the idea of �nature� as prior to architecture remains unequivocally valid. If nature/the site - that which claims to come before the artificial/architecture - only appears as a result of the presence ...

  15. North Atlantic Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, R.; Bryan, K.; Schott, F.

    The intensity of the North Atlantic winddriven and thermohaline circulation and the close proximity of many oceanographic installations make the North Atlantic a particularly favored region of the world ocean from the standpoint of research in ocean circulation. Recent increases in available data and advances in numerical modeling techniques served as the impetus to convene a joint workshop of modelers and observers working on the North Atlantic with the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) Working Group (WG) 68 (“North Atlantic Circulation”). Goals of the workshop were to provide an update on data sets and models and to discuss the poleward heat flux problem and possible monitoring strategies. The joint Workshop/SCOR WG-68 meeting was convened by F. Schott (chairman of the working group; Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Miami, Fla.), K. Bryan (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/ Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (NOAA/GFDL)), and R. Molinari (NOAA/Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (NOAA/AOML)).

  16. The mossy north

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateo, Rubén G.; Broennimann, Olivier; Normand, Signe

    2016-01-01

    , as predicted by theory, and whether the assembly mechanisms differ among taxonomic groups. SR increases towards the south in spermatophytes, but towards the north in ferns and bryophytes. SR patterns in spermatophytes are consistent with their patterns of beta diversity, with high levels of nestedness...

  17. 闽北天然阔叶林径阶材种结构分析及出材率表的编制%Compilation of Output Structure of Diameter Grade Wood Assortments and Volume Ratio Table for Natural Broad-Leaved Forest Tree Species in North Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓景; 江希钿; 庄崇洋; 李小铃

    2012-01-01

    应用闽北天然阔叶林现场造材资料,在分析径阶材种结构规律的基础上,选择适合的方程建立材种出材率模型并编制二元材种出材率表.经检验,该表精度较高,在林业生产上有实用价值.为方便生产中应用,还建立了树高曲线模型,由二元材种出材率袁导出了一元材种出材率表.%The volume ratio model of wood assortment was built by choosing the proper equation, and the two dimension merchantable wood assortment volume yielding rate tables were compiled based on structure analyses of diameter grade wood assortments, with on the spot sample timber data collected from the natural broad-leaved forests in the north Fujian Province. The wood assortment volume yielding rate tables were tested to be with high precision and practicable in forestry production. In order to facilitate the production and application, tree height model was established, and the one dimension merchantable wood assortment volume yielding rate tables were derived from the two dimension tables.

  18. Matematica Natural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Patricia; Medearis, Linda

    Matematica Natural (Natural Mathematics) is a mathematics curriculum for young children based on the assumption that they learn mathematics through concrete, real life, relevant experiences and that educational differences rather than cultural differences influence math achievement. The curriculum uses hands-on materials and activities to teach…

  19. Natur formet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Malene Hauxner, "Fra naturlig natur til SUPERNATUR – Europæisk landskabsarkitektur 1967-2007 set fra Danmark", Risskov: Ikaros Press, 2011.......Anmeldelse af Malene Hauxner, "Fra naturlig natur til SUPERNATUR – Europæisk landskabsarkitektur 1967-2007 set fra Danmark", Risskov: Ikaros Press, 2011....

  20. Nature Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Natalie; Lee, Richard E.; Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Richard Louv's "Last Child in the Woods" (2008) added to a growing consensus to get children outside and experiencing nature. Using ideas from place-based education, the authors present a simple year-long project that brings science, nature, and other curriculum standards to life right in your school yard. With a focus on journaling, this project…

  1. Matematica Natural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Patricia; Medearis, Linda

    Matematica Natural (Natural Mathematics) is a mathematics curriculum for young children based on the assumption that they learn mathematics through concrete, real life, relevant experiences and that educational differences rather than cultural differences influence math achievement. The curriculum uses hands-on materials and activities to teach…

  2. Nature Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Natalie; Lee, Richard E.; Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Richard Louv's "Last Child in the Woods" (2008) added to a growing consensus to get children outside and experiencing nature. Using ideas from place-based education, the authors present a simple year-long project that brings science, nature, and other curriculum standards to life right in your school yard. With a focus on journaling, this project…

  3. Natural death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehmichen, M; Meissner, C

    2000-01-01

    The increasing age of every human being is the beginning of the end of life, an obviously natural process, but any attempt to define the term 'natural death' soon encounters difficulties in defining what is meant by 'natural'. In the industrialized countries of the West, for example 'natural death' is thought of as the opposite of non-natural types of death such as accidental death, suicide, and homicide. The aim of our present survey is to discuss the meaning of the term 'natural death' under a clinical, a forensic and a scientific point of view with regard to recent developments especially in molecular biology. If there are 'external' physical influences, a medical-technical manipulation, a therapeutic or molecular biological intervention cannot be definitely ruled out as the cause of death, then use of the term 'natural death' in general is open to question. It will only remain meaningful if it can be applied with a specific meaning in definite practical situations. Current research and medical technology, however, do not allow use of the term 'natural death' in its conventional sense: it can thus be stricken from the medical vocabulary. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. A atividade de produção de informações estratégicas : paralelo entre os princípios de Washington Platt e a gestão comercial das empresas de mídia impressa em Brasília

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Trata do modelo teórico de produção de informações estratégicas, proposto em nove princípios por Washington Platt, na forma de produção de informações estratégicas no departamento comercial de empresas de mídia impressa em Brasília. O estudo propõe um paralelo entre os nove princípios e a gestão comercial dos meios de comunicação impressa para seu desenvolvimento no mercado. Por meio desses princípios, da inteligência competitiva e da gestão da informação, a pesquisa utiliza o modelo do refer...

  5. Dissonant Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2013-01-01

    Nature restoration is far from being a neural undertaking. Just like any other type of heritage production it can be the source of dissonance – ‘our’ nature is not necessary ‘their’ nature. Often this dissonance is managed in ways, which are not particular sensitive to site......-specificity. As exemplified by the Skjern River Restoration Project (1999-2003), one interpretation of the landscape sometimes suppresses other valid interpretations neglecting its diverse history. Landscape architecture might, however, provide an alternative approach to nature restoration that is more site specific...... and allows for multiple interpretations to coexist. Evidence can be found in the Re-naturalization of River Aire (2002-2015), a restoration project, which reveals approaches that could be labelled landscape architecture specific....

  6. 77 FR 43711 - Standards for Business Practices of Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 284 Standards for Business Practices of Interstate Natural Gas... (WGQ) of the North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) applicable to natural gas pipelines. In... Gas Quadrant (WGQ) of the North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) applicable to natural...

  7. Geographical structure and differential natural selection among North European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEvoy, Brian P; Montgomery, Grant W; McRae, Allan F

    2009-01-01

    from F(ST)-based analysis of genic and nongenic SNPs that differential positive selection has operated across these populations despite their short divergence time and relatively similar geographic and environmental range. The pressure appears to have been focused on genes involved in immunity, perhaps...... reflecting response to infectious disease epidemic. Such an event may explain a striking selective sweep centered on the rs2508049-G allele, close to the HLA-G gene on chromosome 6. Evidence of the sweep extends over a 8-Mb/3.5-cM region. Overall, the results illustrate the power of dense genotype and sample...

  8. Natural Gas Price Volatility in the UK and North America

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Lacking a commonly held definition, volatility is an often over-generalised term with different meanings to different constituencies. This does not detract from the importance of the subject. To traders volatility is a source of revenue, to energy intensive industrial end-users it is often perceived as a threat. Midstream utilities actively work to risk-manage volatility in order to deliver a ‘dampened’ price offer to end-user customers. In this working paper Sofya Alterman summarises ...

  9. Approach for urban green space site-habitat design and construction method based on the natural environment conditions in North-west China%自然环境条件影响下的西北城市绿地生境营造途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晖; 李莉华; 徐鼎黄

    2016-01-01

    Cities in north-western China, while facing the feature and constraint of natural enviornment condition also the fragile ecological system, is more urgent to rebuild new ecological process in inner city area, during urbannization development. And urban green space is the important part of evolving in construction of urban ecology system. Comparing with the regional poverty ecology background and infertile land, planting site design and constuction of urban green space could develop more adaptable and diverse condition of habitat site. The research puts forward the concept of “Habitat-site construction”, that indicates urban green space site planning and design with the diverse bio-community habitat system of multi eco-function. With the chanlenge of improvement and restricted condition , this research aims to explore the possibile approach to rebuild new ecological process by intervention of human designing, construction and maintainnence, consequently to improve the quality of human settlements in north-western cities.%西北地区城市化发展,在面对自然生态环境的特点和制约条件下,更需要在城市内部建立新的生态过程。而城市绿地建设的目标和质量,是构成城市生态环境的关键。相比较于地域性生态环境贫瘠的特点,西北城市中绿化场地的规划设计与建设过程,反而具有创建更适宜、更多样的生物栖息地的潜力。研究提出生境营造理念,即群落生态系统与场地设计相结合,用适生群落栖息地构成多样化的城市绿地空间,探索制约条件下的改善途径,形成人工干预下的生态过程,提高西北地区城市人居生态环境质量。

  10. Natural Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset shows the locations of known tracts of high quality natural communities in Kansas, generalized to the PLSS section. It is not a compehensive dataset of...

  11. Natural Propositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernfelt, Frederik

    Preface -- Introduction -- The generality of signs -- Dicisigns -- Some consequences of the dicisign doctrine -- Dicisigns and cognition -- Natural propositions--the evolution of semiotic self-control -- Dicisigns beyond language -- Operational and optimal iconicity in Peirce's diagrammatology...

  12. Writing Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Asdal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of the Nordic Journal of Science and Technology Studies is interested in how nature, in different versions and forms, is invited into our studies, analyses, and stories. How is it that we “write nature”? How is it that we provide space for, and actually describe the actors, agents, or surroundings, in our stories and analyses? The articles in the issue each deal with different understandings of both the practices of writing and the introduction of various natures into these. In this introduction to the issue the editors engage with actor-network theory as a material semiotic resource for writing nature. We propose to foreground actor-network theory as a writing tool, at the expense of actor-network theory as a distinct vocabulary. In doing this and pointing out the semiotic origins to material-semiotics we also want to problematize a clear-cut material approach to writing nature.

  13. Natural Propositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernfelt, Frederik

    Preface -- Introduction -- The generality of signs -- Dicisigns -- Some consequences of the dicisign doctrine -- Dicisigns and cognition -- Natural propositions--the evolution of semiotic self-control -- Dicisigns beyond language -- Operational and optimal iconicity in Peirce's diagrammatology...

  14. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  15. A brief analysis of North Sea physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Sündermann

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The current state of understanding the North Sea's physical system is presented. First, basic phenomena like astronomical tides and general circulation will be described and analysed with respect to their physical nature and respective interactions. There will be special focus on fundamental dynamic balances. Next, some specific topics relevant to the marine ecosystem, the economy and society will be considered: among them, spreading and transport processes, the fresh water budget, the heat budget and storm surges. A separate section is dedicated to the North Sea of Tomorrow, i.e. the prospective variations of the physical environment resulting from global changes in future decades. The statements are based on the long experience of the authors and their groups and include findings that are little known if at all. The review finishes with a list of open questions and the corresponding research demands.

  16. Workshop Murska Sobota, North of Lendavska Street

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Zorc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The urban design workshop "North of Lendavska Street" addressed the extensive area north of downtown Murska Sobota. The area is undergoing intensive transformation. Service and commercial programmes are occupying abandoned industrial and military facilities and filling the empty spaces between. Due to its location near the city centre and its proximity to natural surroundings across the Ledava stream, the area is also attractive for housing and recreation. The existing residential neighbourhood to the south has poor living conditions due to inadequate open space and a badly organised traffic system. The workshop, organised by the Municipality of Murska Sobota, involved groups of students from three Slovene faculties and two groups of practicing architects. The groups proposed designs and strategies for possible future urban development and formed a joint professional platform to prepare spatial planning documents.

  17. Financial methodology for Brazilian market of small producers of oil and natural gas, based on Canadian and North American experiences in reserves quantification, evaluation and certification; Metodologia de financeiamento para pequenos produtores do mercado brasileiro de petroleo e gas natural, baseado nas experiencias canadense e americana na quantificacao, valoracao e certificacao de reservas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Enrico Brunno Zipoli de Sousa e [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Geologia; Coelho, Jose Mario [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Minas

    2008-07-01

    ANP (National Agency of Petroleum, Natural gas and Biofuels), through auctions of exploratory blocks in the subsequent years from the break of the monopoly of PETROBRAS with the Law 9.478 of 1997, had important role in the opening of the section and in the attainment of the self-sufficiency of petroleum. However the petroleum production in ripe and marginal fields were left off, since the initial interest in the first rounds was to attract the major companies. - International Oil Companies (IOC) - when ANP granted great blocks offshore. Ripe fields are defined as fields in phase of irreversible declination and marginal fields are also defined as economical concept, certain for business decision and external economical factors (price of the oil, etc.). Canada and USA, worldwide leaders in the market of petroleum and gas, possess politics that benefit and maintain the small companies protected of the competition of INOC's by assuring small companies finance through the guarantee of proved reserves of oil. This paper assemble Canadian and American experiences in regulation for small companies investments and compares it with Brazilian financing types, which is restricted due to the Brazilian finance agent's despite about oil and gas activity. (author)

  18. Naturalness redux

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbrichesi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The idea of naturalness, as originally conceived, refers only to the finite renormalization of the Higgs boson mass induced by the introduction of heavier states. In this respect, naturalness is still a powerful heuristic principle in model building beyond the standard model whenever new massive states are coupled to the Higgs field. The most compelling case is provided by the generation of neutrino masses. In this paper we confront this problem from a new perspective. The right-handed sector responsible for the seesaw mechanism---which introduces a large energy threshold above the electroweak scale---is made supersymmetric to comply with naturalness while the standard model is left unchanged and non-supersymmetric. Cancellations necessary to the naturalness requirement break down only at two loops, thus offering the possibility to increase the right-handed neutrino mass scale up to one order of magnitude above the usual values allowed by naturalness. If also the weak boson sector of the standard model is mad...

  19. Emancipating Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    2012-01-01

    The issue of riverine flooding in the UK is closely tied up with computer simulations. Arguably, these modelling practices are ripe with the anticipation of nature. They aspire to pre-empt it, hence expect it to be ‘out there’, and ultimately work through formalized distillations of it – hydrodyn......The issue of riverine flooding in the UK is closely tied up with computer simulations. Arguably, these modelling practices are ripe with the anticipation of nature. They aspire to pre-empt it, hence expect it to be ‘out there’, and ultimately work through formalized distillations...... of it – hydrodynamic equations – which have their own anticipations and place their own demands on their modellers. Through the experience of a flood modelling apprenticeship I argue that the taking-place of such anticipations paradoxically relies on the birth of a hybrid, the model-modeller, and thus on a nature...

  20. Ley Natural

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    1. La expresión «ley natural» en la historia de las ideas. Uso ético y uso científico. 2. La cuestión de las leyes naturales en el ámbito de la naturaleza y en el ámbito de la conducta humana. 3. La ley natural como teoría moral se desarrolla en dos planos: a) plano práctico: el obrar humano responde a razones, depende de principios que constituyen una única ley; b) plano de fundamentación metafísica: la ley natural como participación de la ley eterna en la criatura racional. 4. La ley nat...

  1. Emancipating Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    2012-01-01

    The issue of riverine flooding in the UK is closely tied up with computer simulations. Arguably, these modelling practices are ripe with the anticipation of nature. They aspire to pre-empt it, hence expect it to be ‘out there’, and ultimately work through formalized distillations of it – hydrodyn......The issue of riverine flooding in the UK is closely tied up with computer simulations. Arguably, these modelling practices are ripe with the anticipation of nature. They aspire to pre-empt it, hence expect it to be ‘out there’, and ultimately work through formalized distillations...... of it – hydrodynamic equations – which have their own anticipations and place their own demands on their modellers. Through the experience of a flood modelling apprenticeship I argue that the taking-place of such anticipations paradoxically relies on the birth of a hybrid, the model-modeller, and thus on a nature...

  2. Natural games

    CERN Document Server

    Anttila, Jani

    2011-01-01

    Behavior in the context of game theory is described as a natural process that follows the 2nd law of thermodynamics. The rate of entropy increase as the payoff function is derived from statistical physics of open systems. The thermodynamic formalism relates everything in terms of energy and describes various ways to consume free energy. This allows us to associate game theoretical models of behavior to physical reality. Ultimately behavior is viewed as a physical process where flows of energy naturally select ways to consume free energy as soon as possible. This natural process is, according to the profound thermodynamic principle, equivalent to entropy increase in the least time. However, the physical portrayal of behavior does not imply determinism. On the contrary, evolutionary equation for open systems reveals that when there are three or more degrees of freedom for behavior, the course of a game is inherently unpredictable in detail because each move affects motives of moves in the future. Eventually, wh...

  3. Coastal Microbial Mat Diversity along a Natural Salinity Gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, H.; Fillinger, L.; Stal, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    The North Sea coast of the Dutch barrier island of Schiermonnikoog is covered by microbial mats that initiate a succession of plant communities that eventually results in the development of a densely vegetated salt marsh. The North Sea beach has a natural elevation running from the low water mark to

  4. [Natural selection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, E

    1985-05-01

    Much of the resistance against Darwin's theory of natural selection has been due to misunderstandings. It is shown that natural selection is not a tautology and that it is a two-step process. The first step, the production of variation, is under the control of chance; the second step, selection proper, is an anti-chance process, but subject to many constraints. The target of selection is the individual as a whole, and many neutral mutations can be retained as hitchhikers of successful genotypes. Sexual selection results from selection for pure reproductive success.

  5. Provincialising Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Provincialising Nature: Multidisciplinary Approaches to the Politics of the Environment in Latin America offers a timely analysis of some of the crucial challenges, contradictions and promises within current environmental discourses and practices in the region. This book shows both challenging...... scenarios and original perspectives that have emerged in Latin America in relation to the globally urgent issues of climate change and the environmental crisis. Two interconnected analytical frameworks guide the discussions in the book: the relationship between nature, knowledge and identity and their role...

  6. Kritikkens natur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz-Jakobsen, Claus

    1999-01-01

    Artiklen introducerer det nye forskningsfelt inden for samtænkning af litteratur, kultur og natur, den såkaldt økologiske kritik, og kaster et kritisk blik på  dens brug af romantisk litteratur som proto-økologisk kanon.......Artiklen introducerer det nye forskningsfelt inden for samtænkning af litteratur, kultur og natur, den såkaldt økologiske kritik, og kaster et kritisk blik på  dens brug af romantisk litteratur som proto-økologisk kanon....

  7. Natural aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Scorer, R S

    1958-01-01

    Natural Aerodynamics focuses on the mathematics of any problem in air motion.This book discusses the general form of the law of fluid motion, relationship between pressure and wind, production of vortex filaments, and conduction of vorticity by viscosity. The flow at moderate Reynolds numbers, turbulence in a stably stratified fluid, natural exploitation of atmospheric thermals, and plumes in turbulent crosswinds are also elaborated. This text likewise considers the waves produced by thermals, transformation of thin layer clouds, method of small perturbations, and dangers of extra-polation.Thi

  8. Apollo in the North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østermark-Johansen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    with Victorian science, mythography and folklore in the texts, in an attempt to map the topicality of his fiction. Although he chose historical settings in medieval France and eighteenth-century Germany for his tales, they reflect recent debates about the disappearance of the sun and the folkloristic animalism......Walter Pater’s fascination with the Hyperborean Apollo, who according to myth resided north of the home of the northern wind, is explored in two of his pieces of short fiction, ‘Duke Carl of Rosenmold’ (1887) and ‘Apollo in Picardy’ (1893). The essay discusses some of Pater’s complex dialogue...

  9. Fargo, North Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated version Click on the image for high resolution TIFF file Why does Fargo flood? The Red River of the North, which forms the border between North Dakota and Minnesota, has a long history of severe floods. Major floods include those of 1826, 1897, 1950, 1997, and now 2009. The 1997 flood caused billions of dollars of damage, with greatest impact to the city of Grand Forks, north of and downstream from Fargo. The 2009 flood, which has primarily impacted Fargo, appears to have peaked early on March 28. Several factors combine to cause floods. Obviously, rainfall and snowmelt rates (and their geographic distribution) are the fundamental variables that create flooding in some years and not others. But the repetition of flooding in Fargo (and areas downstream), rather than in adjacent regions, can be attributed largely to its topographic setting and geologic history. The formation of landforms in the geologic past is often interpretable from digital topographic data, such as that supplied by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This image, covering parts of North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, displays ground elevation as brightness (higher is brighter) plus has simulated shading (with illumination from the north) to enhance topographic detail such as stream channels, ridges, and cliffs. The Red River of the North is the only major river that flows northward from the United States into Canada. In this scene it flows almost straight north from Fargo. North of this image it continues past the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, and into Lake Winnipeg, which in turn drains to Hudson Bay. In the United States, the river lies in a trough that was shaped by continental glaciers that pushed south from Canada during the Pleistocene epoch, up to about 10,000 years ago. This trough is about 70 km (45 miles) wide and tens of meters (very generally about 100 feet) deep. Here near Fargo it lies on the east side of a much

  10. Nature Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Donna R.

    2010-01-01

    Children are naturally curious about the world in which they live. To focus this sense of wonder, have your students investigate their local habitat as it changes over the year. This multiseason study will build connections and add relevance to the habitats that children learn about. This series of activities for grades 4-6 explores the changing…

  11. Nature's Palette

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Brooke B.; Brewer, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    Flower petals, acorn hats, exoskeletons of beetles, and lichens are just a few of the objects students may find in a surprising array of vivid colors. These tiny examples from nature's palette can be discovered in a school yard, a park, or even along the edges of a paved sidewalk...it simply takes careful observation! This article describes a…

  12. Kritikkens natur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz-Jakobsen, Claus

    1999-01-01

    Artiklen introducerer det nye forskningsfelt inden for samtænkning af litteratur, kultur og natur, den såkaldt økologiske kritik, og kaster et kritisk blik på  dens brug af romantisk litteratur som proto-økologisk kanon....

  13. Natural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleishman, Erica; Belnap, Jayne; Cobb, Neil; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Ford, Karl; MacDonald, Glen; Pellant, Mike; Schoennagel, Tania; Schmit, Lara M.; Schwartz, Mark; van Drunick, Suzanne; Westerling, Anthony LeRoy; Keyser, Alisa; Lucas, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Natural Ecosystems analyzes the association of observed changes in climate with changes in the geographic distributions and phenology (the timing of blossoms or migrations of birds) for Southwestern ecosystems and their species, portraying ecosystem disturbances—such as wildfires and outbreaks of forest pathogens—and carbon storage and release, in relation to climate change.

  14. The North Sea - A shelf sea in the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emeis, Kay-Christian; van Beusekom, Justus; Callies, Ulrich; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Kannen, Andreas; Kraus, Gerd; Kröncke, Ingrid; Lenhart, Hermann; Lorkowski, Ina; Matthias, Volker; Möllmann, Christian; Pätsch, Johannes; Scharfe, Mirco; Thomas, Helmuth; Weisse, Ralf; Zorita, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Global and regional change clearly affects the structure and functioning of ecosystems in shelf seas. However, complex interactions within the shelf seas hinder the identification and unambiguous attribution of observed changes to drivers. These include variability in the climate system, in ocean dynamics, in biogeochemistry, and in shelf sea resource exploitation in the widest sense by societies. Observational time series are commonly too short, and resolution, integration time, and complexity of models are often insufficient to unravel natural variability from anthropogenic perturbation. The North Sea is a shelf sea of the North Atlantic and is impacted by virtually all global and regional developments. Natural variability (from interannual to multidecadal time scales) as response to forcing in the North Atlantic is overlain by global trends (sea level, temperature, acidification) and alternating phases of direct human impacts and attempts to remedy those. Human intervention started some 1000 years ago (diking and associated loss of wetlands), expanded to near-coastal parts in the industrial revolution of the mid-19th century (river management, waste disposal in rivers), and greatly accelerated in the mid-1950s (eutrophication, pollution, fisheries). The North Sea is now a heavily regulated shelf sea, yet societal goals (good environmental status versus increased uses), demands for benefits and policies diverge increasingly. Likely, the southern North Sea will be re-zoned as riparian countries dedicate increasing sea space for offshore wind energy generation - with uncertain consequences for the system's environmental status. We review available observational and model data (predominantly from the southeastern North Sea region) to identify and describe effects of natural variability, of secular changes, and of human impacts on the North Sea ecosystem, and outline developments in the next decades in response to environmental legislation, and in response to

  15. Sandy desertification in the north of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Tao(王涛); ZHU; Zhenda(朱震达); WU; Wei(吴薇)

    2002-01-01

    With the economic and social development, desertification exerted increasingly pro-found influences on natural environment and social development and attracted widespread atten-tion of international communities, China, as one of the countries facing severe desertificationproblems, has witnessed some progress in understanding and combating the process of desertifi-cation through many years of hard work. Based on the experiences and research achievements,this paper briefly discusses the causes, developmental processes, damage assessment and con-trol mechanism of desertification in the north of China so as to provide some basic experiences forthe further study of desertification.

  16. 76 FR 10388 - Notice of Public Meeting, North Slope Science Initiative-Science Technical Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... decisions. This meeting will include a workshop entitled ``Science, Natural Resources, and Subsistence in... Panel through the Executive Director, North Slope Science Initiative. Each formal meeting will also have... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, North Slope Science Initiative--Science...

  17. Bark beetle outbreaks in western North America: causes and consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Barbara; Logan, Jesse; MacMahon, James A.; Allen, Craig D.; Ayres, Matt; Berg, Edward E; Carroll, Allan; Hansen, Matt; Hicke, Jeff H.; Joyce, Linda A.; Macfarlane, Wallace; Munson, Steve; Negron, Jose; Paine, Tim; Powell, Jim; Raffa, Kenneth; Regniere, Jacques; Reid, Mary; Romme, Bill; Seybold, Steven J.; Six, Diana; Vandygriff, Jim; Veblen, Tom; White, Mike; Witcosky, Jeff; Wood, David

    2005-01-01

    Since 1990, native bark beetles have killed billions of trees across millions of acres of forest from Alaska to northern Mexico. Although bark beetle infestations are a regular force of natural change in forested ecosystems, several of the current outbreaks, which are occurring simultaneously across western North America, are the largest and most severe in recorded history.

  18. Perspectives in Applied Linguistics: A North American View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabe, William

    2004-01-01

    This overview focuses on the work of Applied Linguistics in North America with an emphasis on publications in the past 6 years. Follow a brief interpretive section on the nature and status of Applied Linguistics, the article reviews a number of major areas of research in Applied Linguistics. These areas include second language acquisition (and its…

  19. Satellite (Natural)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    In its most general sense, any celestial object in orbit around a similar larger object. Thus, for example, the Magellanic Clouds are satellite galaxies of our own Milky Way galaxy. Without qualification, the term is used to mean a body in orbit around a planet; an alternative term is moon. The term natural satellite distinguishes these bodies from artificial satellites—spacecraft placed in orbi...

  20. Categorical representation of North American precipitation projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Arthur M.; Seager, Richard

    2016-04-01

    We explore use of the familiar tercile framework of seasonal forecasting for the characterization of 21st-century precipitation projections over North America. Consistent with direct analyses of modeled precipitation change, in a superensemble of CMIP5 simulations an unambiguous pattern of shifted tercile population statistics develops as the globe warms. Expressed categorically, frequencies for the low (i.e., dry) tercile increase in the southwestern United States and southward into Mexico and decrease across the northern tier of North America, while counts for the high tercile shift in the opposite sense. We show that as the 21st-century proceeds, changes become statistically significant over wide regions in the pointwise sense, and also when considered as projections on model-specific climate change “fingerprints”. Background noise in the superensemble, against which significance is established, comprises both structural model uncertainty and natural climate variability. The robustness of these findings makes a compelling case for long-range planning for a dryer future in the American Southwest and southward, and wetter one to the north and especially northeast, while communication is facilitated by widespread user familiarity with the tercile format.

  1. ITS Platform North Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Agerholm, Niels; Juhl, Jens

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the project entitled “ITS Platform North Denmark” which is used as a test platform for Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) solutions. The platform consists of a newly developed GNSS/GPRS On Board Unit (OBU) to be installed in 500 cars, a backend server and a specially...... designed digital road map for ITS applications. The platform is freely accessible, which means that third party applications could be run on the platform. It is estimated that using this platform enables the ITS applications to be developed for 20% of the normal cost, hence third party are invited to test...... their applications in this platform. This paper presents the platform’s potentials and explains a series of test applications which are under development on it. Moreover, a number of new projects planned for the platform are demonstrated....

  2. Phoenix Animation Looking North

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation is a series of images, taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager, combined into a panoramic view looking north from the lander. The area depicted is beyond the immediate workspace of the lander and shows a system of polygons and troughs that connect with the ones Phoenix will be investigating in depth. The images were taken on sol 14 (June 8, 2008) or the 14th Martian day after landing. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Hydrology of a natural hardwood forested wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    George M. Chescheir; Devendra M. Amatya; R. Wayne Skaggs

    2008-01-01

    This paper documents the hydrology of a natural forested wetland near Plymouth, NC, USA. The research site was located on one of the few remaining, undrained non-riverine, palustrine forested hardwood wetlands on the lower coastal plain of North Carolina. A 137 ha watershed within the 350ha wetland was selected for intensive field study. Water balance components...

  4. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-10

    calender -day notification period to Congress as required by U.S. law. The White House stated that North Korea would thus be removed on August 11, 2008...Congress notification of his intent to remove North Korea from the list of state sponsors of terrorism after 45 calender days. Under U.S. law, the

  5. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-06

    he was officially notifying Congress of his intent to remove North Korea from the list of state sponsors of terrorism after the 45 calender -day...of his intent to remove North Korea from the list of state sponsors of terrorism after 45 calender days. Under U.S. law, the President is required to

  6. North Carolina surgical workforce trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poley, Stephanie T; Kasper, Elizabeth W; Walker, Elizabeth K; Lyons, Jessica C; Newkirk, Vann R; Thompson, Kristie

    2011-01-01

    Between 1997 and 2008, the number of general surgeons in North Carolina increased and shifted demographically, geographically, and by specialty. However, surgeon numbers--overall and by specialty--do not appear to have increased as quickly or to have shifted in the same ways as North Carolina's general population.

  7. Plastic in North Sea Fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.; Gruijter, de C.; Mergia, M.T.; Franeker, van J.A.; Murk, A.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    To quantify the occurrence of ingested plastic in fish species caught at different geographical positions in the North Sea, and to test whether the fish condition is affected by ingestion of plastics, 1203 individual fish of seven common North Sea species were investigated: herring, gray gurnard, wh

  8. Is There Really A North American Plate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krill, A.

    2011-12-01

    Lithospheric plates are typically identified from earthquake epicenters and evidence such as GPS movements. But no evidence indicates a plate boundary between the North American and South American Plates. Some plate maps show them separated by a transform boundary, but it is only a fracture zone. Other maps show an "undefined plate boundary" or put no boundary between these two plates (check Google images). Early plate maps showed a single large American Plate, quite narrow east of the Caribbean Plate (Le Pichon 1968, Morgan 1968). The North and South American Plates became established by the leading textbook Earth (Press & Siever 1974). On their map, from a Scientific American article by John Dewey (1972), these new plates were separated by an "uncertain plate boundary." The reasons for postulating a North American Plate were probably more psychological than geological. Each of the other continents of the world had its own plate, and North American geologists naturally wanted theirs. Similarly, European geographers used to view Europe as its own continent. A single large plate should again be hypothesized. But the term American Plate would now be ambiguous ("Which plate, North or South?") Perhaps future textbook authors could call it the "Two-American Plate." Textbook authors ultimately decide such global-tectonic matters. I became aware of textbook authors' opinions and influence from my research into the history of Alfred Wegener's continental drift (see Fixists vs. Mobilists by Krill 2011). Leading textbook author Charles Schuchert realized that continental drift would abolish his cherished paleogeographic models of large east-west continents (Eria, Gondwana) and small oceans (Poseiden, Nereis). He and his junior coauthors conspired to keep drift evidence out of their textbooks, from the 1934-editions until the 1969-editions (Physical Geology by Longwell et al. 1969, Historical Geology by Dunbar & Waage 1969). Their textbooks ruled in America. Textbooks

  9. LNG : its potential impact on North American markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, B. [Benjamin Schlesinger and Associates Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is expected to play a greater role in North American gas supplies and markets due to the decrease in conventional natural gas production in North America accompanied by an increase in demand for energy. It is expected that the overall share of the LNG gas market will rise from about 1.4 per cent in 2002 to more than 5 per cent by 2020, and potentially up to 15 per cent by that year. The construction of at least 15 new LNG receiving terminals has been proposed for location in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. In addition, El Paso has proposed a novel offshore LNG receiving concept involving offshore gas pipelines and on-board-ship regasification. As trading of LNG increases in the Atlantic, markets in eastern United States and Canada will benefit from improved gas supplies, but pricing patterns are expected to change. Basis differentials along the Atlantic coastline will probably diminish, potentially reducing the value of Sable Island gas and the pipeline system that runs north to south along the eastern coast of North America. It was noted that Middle Eastern suppliers of LNG will play an important potential role in North American markets. 19 figs.

  10. Environmental impact assessment in the pipeline industry. Experiences with the UK north western ethylene pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryde, A.

    1997-12-31

    The north western ethylene pipeline is the final link between Shell`s oil and gas fields in the North Sea and its petrochemical complexes in Cheshire. The natural gas from which ethylene is obtained comes from the Brent and central fields in the North Sea. Environmental impacts are discussed in this paper covering topics as follow: Regulatory and legal aspects; environmental assessment during planning and design; environmental control during construction; environmental management during operation; environmental controls at sensitive sites on the north western ethylene pipeline: some examples. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Addressing wind integration issues in north eastern North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-27

    Wind energy has been growing rapidly in the north eastern region of North America in response to an increasing focus on security of supply issues and greater public concern over climate change. The purpose of this report was to address the issues associated with wind integration in the north east by evaluating issues that inhibit the transmission of wind; identifying actions that will improve the integration of wind; and profiling processes that could facilitate the uptake of wind. Specifically, the report sought to identify wind integration issues that may arise in the north east region in the next 5 to 10 year period. The report provided an overview of the north east and its wind resource, including an overview of the north east electricity market; wind energy overview; and intermittent wind farms. The global experience of wind integration to date was also presented. This included long-term wind vision; wind resource data set; multi-integration studies; upgrading and expanding transmissions systems; balancing area size; forecasting; geographical diversity; increasing system flexibility; and whole sale markets. A north east wind integration seminar was also highlighted. It was concluded that large scale wind could produce sufficient revenues to pay for the addition of substantial transmission with added benefits to the loads. 37 refs., 17 figs., 2 appendices.

  12. Natural Family Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sex and Birth Control Birth Control Natural Family Planning Natural Family Planning Birth ControlPrevention and WellnessSex and Birth Control Share Natural Family Planning Natural Family PlanningWhat is natural family planning?Natural ...

  13. The pollination biology of North American orchids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Argue, Charles L

    2012-01-01

    .... The Pollination Biology of North American Orchids brings together, for the first time, a comprehensive treatment of this information for all native and introduced North American orchids found north...

  14. North Polar Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour. In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime. The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 86.5, Longitude 64.5 East (295.5 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen

  15. Natural relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzola, Luca; Raidal, Martti

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by natural inflation, we propose a relaxation mechanism consistent with inflationary cosmology that explains the hierarchy between the electroweak scale and Planck scale. This scenario is based on a selection mechanism that identifies the low-scale dynamics as the one that is screened from UV physics. The scenario also predicts the near-criticality and metastability of the Standard Model (SM) vacuum state, explaining the Higgs boson mass observed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Once Majorana right-handed neutrinos are introduced to provide a viable reheating channel, our framework yields a corresponding mass scale that allows for the seesaw mechanism as well as for standard thermal leptogenesis. We argue that considering singlet scalar dark matter extensions of the proposed scenario could solve the vacuum stability problem and discuss how the cosmological constant problem is possibly addressed.

  16. Petroleum geology of North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGregor, D.S. [ed.] [BP Exploration Operating Co. Ltd., Jakarta (Indonesia); Moody, R.T.J. [ed.] [Moody-Sandman Associates, Kingston (United Kingdom); Clark-Lowes, D.D. [ed.] [University of London (United Kingdom). Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine

    1998-12-31

    North Africa contains some 4% of the world`s remaining oil and gas reserves, and is now one of the most active exploration areas. This volume represents the first attempt at a compilation of the petroleum geology of North Africa, documenting a series of papers collected on the petroleum geology of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and the western part of Egypt. The main objectives of this book are to increase the level of documentation towards that appropriate for such major petroleum provinces and to facilitate the application of analogues between North African countries and beyond. (author)

  17. North American oil demand outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, M.B. [National Economic Research Associates, White Plains, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    An understanding of the relationship of economic growth and potential petroleum product demand is needed to forecast the potential for North American oil demand growth as well as knowledge of world supply and price. The bullish expectations for economic growth in the US and Canada auger well for North American refiners and marketeers. The growth in world economic output forecast, however, means a larger oil demand and an increase in OPEC`s pricing power. Such price increases could depress North American oil demand growth. (author)

  18. Quickening construction of natural gas infrastructures and ensuring safe supply of natural gas in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Peng; Zhongde, Zhao; Chunliang, Sun; Juexin, Shen

    2010-09-15

    Compared with North America or Europe in respect of natural gas resources, markets and pipeline networks, the current China stands in a special period with natural gas market in quick development, accordingly, it's recommended to strengthen cooperation and coordination between investors by way of diversified investment and joint adventures and on the basis of diversified resource supply modes, so as to accelerate the construction of infrastructures including the natural gas pipeline networks and the storage and peak-shaving facilities, quick up the market development, realize the situation of mutual-win-win, and finally ensure safety of natural gas utilization in the domestic markets.

  19. North American Breeding Bird Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This protocol framework provides guidance for conducting surveys of North American bird populations at multiple stations within two or more regions. The BBS is a...

  20. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by

  1. Digital Preservation and Access of Natural Resources Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulhavy, David L.; Reynolds, R. Philip; Unger, Daniel R.; Bullard, Steven H.; McBroom, Matthew W.

    2017-01-01

    Digitization and preservation of natural resource documents were reviewed and the current status of digitization presented for a North American university. It is important to present the status of the digitation process for natural resources and to advocate for increased collections of digital material for ease of reference and exchange of…

  2. Supporting Early Childhood Environmental Education through the Natural Start Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Christy; Braus, Judy

    2013-01-01

    The Natural Start Alliance is a new initiative of the North American Association for Environmental Education. Natural Start was created to support and expand early childhood environmental education (ECEE) by creating a network of organizations, educators, parents, and others who care about using environmental education to support young children's…

  3. Plant Functional Types and Their Impact Environmental Factors in a Naturally Recovered Poplar-birch Woodland on the North Slope of Qilian Mountains, China%祁连山北坡自然恢复杨桦林地植物功能型组成及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石福习; 赵成章; 任珩; 周伟; 高福元; 盛亚萍; 李丽丽

    2012-01-01

    Plant functional types (PFTs) are important in understanding the dynamics and the functions of an ecosystems, which provide also useful information for ecosystem management. In 28 observation plots of a naturally recovered popiar-birch woodland on the north slope of Qilian Mountains, China, 81 plant species were classified into 18 plant functional types (PFTs), according to their life forms (including arbors, lianas, subshrub, shrub, perennial grasses, perennial forbs and annual or biennial grass) and ecotypes (including xerophyte, xerophytic and mesophytic, mesophyte and hygrophyte). The relationships between PFTs and environmental factors were studied using Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). The results showed that the dominant PFTs were PFTsl6 (mesophytic perennial forbs), PFTs23 (hygrophytic perennial forbs), PFTs9 (xerophytic and mesophytic perennial forbs) and PFTslS (mesophytic shrub) on the poplar-birch restoration woodland. The stratificd structure with wood, shrub and herb layers indicated the plant life forms had a tendency of complication and structurization, and the emerging mesophyte plants reflected changes of the micro-environments. The distribution patterns of PFTs were controlled by the soil physical and chemical properties in that soil bulk density, soil organic carbon and content of nitrogen determined the characteristics of the plant life forms, while the soil water moisture and canopy cover were the main ecologis factors that affected the distribution of ecotypes. The slope position and slope aspect controlled the plant distribution pattem and formation of the community.%依据生活型(乔木、藤本、灌木、半灌木、多年生禾草、多年生杂类草和一二年生草本)和水分生态型(旱生、旱中生、中生和湿生)将祁连山北坡次生杨桦林28个调查样地中的81个物种划分为18种植物功能型(Plant function types,PFTs),并通过典范对应分析(CCA)方法研究植物功能型与环境因子间

  4. Nature and nature values in organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lene; Noe, Egon; Højring, Katrine

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between agriculture and nature is a centra issue in the current agricultural debate. Organic farming has ambitions and a special potential in relation to nature. Consideration for nature is part of the guiding principals of organic farming and many organic farmers are committed...... to protecting natural qualities. However, the issue of nature, landscape, and land use is not straightforward. Nature is an ambiguous concept that involves multiple interests and actors reaching far beyond farmers. The Danish research project ......

  5. Education challenges in the North Sea area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, Jean Paul

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the North Sea as a fast evolving coastal ecosystem. The variability of natural conditions relates to the global climatic change and to human disturbances, which originate regionally. Education is an integral part of the strategy to improve environmental awareness. Considering contemporary challenges for educating the wider public about the main issues of environmental concern, attention is paid to various plans, which are being developed in North-Western Europe from primary schools to universities. "Learning for life" relies on an opening of the vocation of traditional universities and on the creation of a European university. Sharing resources in a competitive environment is one response given by British universities in the framework of a Discipline Network in Coastal Sciences and Management in 1996-2000. Networking is truly the key to a fast evolving teaching and learning context, notably in relation to ever developing information and communication technologies. The dissemination of scientific information is primordial in this context; a case study relating to the European project "Marine biodiversity in Europe" (BIOMARE) demonstrates the need for an elaborated strategy leading to socio-economic considerations. Empowering communities and governance are the main possible outcomes of such an enlarged approach to education, involving teachers, students, researchers, professionals, and volunteers. Proposals are made for amplifying the involvement of non-scientists into scientific research and its applications to management. Finally, a case is made for facilitating the mobility of all concerned, with a view to annihilate language and cultural barriers.

  6. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Sakhalin Basin Province, Russia, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources for the North Sakhalin Basin Province of Russia. The mean volumes were estimated at 5.3 billion barrels of crude oil, 43.8 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 0.8 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.

  7. Gas deliveries from Haltenbanken/North Sea; Gassleveranser Haltenbanken/Nordsjoeen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramm, H.H.

    1995-12-31

    The conference paper relates to the development and delivery of natural gas from the Haltenbanken area and the North Sea on the Norwegian continental shelf. Alternatives of field developments and pipelines together with the allocation of contracts for securing the contractual delivery of natural gas to the European continent in future and an alternative delivery to the Scandinavian countries, are discussed. 2 figs.

  8. 77 FR 38185 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of North Carolina; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... real-world conditions; in some instances, EPA relied on a single monitor to assess visibility... natural visibility conditions in Class I areas. EPA is finalizing a limited approval of North Carolina's... reasonable progress towards the national goal of achieving natural visibility conditions than would...

  9. Oral literary traditions in North Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Brakel-Papenhuyzen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with traditional literature of the Pakpak-Dairi and Karo peoples in North Sumatra, who are speakers of closely related Batak languages and have many common features in their language and culture. Their traditional life-style, based on agriculture and the use of forest products, requires the regular performance of community rituals featuring songs, dance, music and other oral traditions including storytelling. The songs, prayers, and stories belonging to their literary tradition have characteristic features that are intimately connected with the social context in which they are created and performed. Karo and Pakpak-Dairi oral genres often contain information about the natural environment, local customs and religious concepts. They may also reflect perceptions of relationships with neighbouring groups, such as the Minangkabau and the Malays who live in the coastal areas.

  10. Natural gas : nirvana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stonehouse, D.

    2001-04-01

    Despite completing 8,900 gas wells in year 2000, the deliverability of natural gas out of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) was stagnant which has left many analysts wondering whether the basin has reached its limit. It also leaves many wondering if gas producers will be able to meet the strong demand for natural gas in the future. Nearly all new electrical generation being built in the U.S. is gas-based due to strict new environmental standards limiting the growth in hydro and coal-powered generation. Any future coal plants will use gasification technology and combined cycle turbines. Combined cycle turbines developed by Boeing and Lockheed are more efficient than combustion turbines, making gas more competitive with fuel alternatives. The lack of growth in natural gas supply has left storage levels near record lows. Demand is expected to increase in 2001 by 3.2 per cent to 23 trillion cubic feet in the U.S. Longer term, major new reserves must be brought on stream to meet this demand. It was noted that the easy discoveries within the WCSB have been made. The new plays are smaller, more technically complex and expensive which suggests that more investment is needed in training geologists, geophysicists and petroleum engineers to find new reserves. The Canadian Energy Research Institute agrees that there is enough gas in Alberta and British Columbia to meet current demands but efforts must shift towards drilling in the foothills front and northwest regions of Alberta to increase deliverability. Brief notes on several gas finds by various oil and gas companies in the area were presented. The article also discussed the huge untapped potential of northern reserves. Analysts have noted 44 Tcf of proven reserve, with a potential of 165 Tcf. In addition, new pipelines from the Alaskan North Slope and the Mackenzie Delta could transport nearly 2 Tcf annually to market. Wells drilled by Chevron and Paramount at Fort Liard in 1999 initially flowed at rates up to

  11. Petroleum and natural gas in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Presentations made at the 7th Annual Illinois Energy Conference are compiled and reported. Specific topics include: Illinois petroleum and natural gas supply; energy use patterns for Illinois and the nation; impacts of the National Energy Act on the natural gas industry; natural gas for North America; natural gas supply under the Natural Gas Policy; US access to international oil; deregulation and its impact on the US petroleum supply; the US Energy Policy; petroleum pricing and taxation policies in Illinois; the high cost of energy and its impact on the poor; impact of increased fuel prices on Illinois' industrial future; energy prices and inflation; opportunities for energy conservation in transportaton; overview of energy and synfuels from biomass and wastes; an inventory of energy potential from biomass in Illinois; problems and potential of alcohol from agriculture; liquid and gaseous fuels from coal; and alternatives to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  12. The North Atlantic Cold Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greatbatch, Richard; Drews, Annika; Ding, Hui; Latif, Mojib; Park, Wonsun

    2016-04-01

    The North Atlantic cold bias, associated with a too zonal path of the North Atlantic Current and a missing "northwest corner", is a common problem in coupled climate and forecast models. The bias affects the North Atlantic and European climate mean state, variability and predictability. We investigate the use of a flow field correction to adjust the path of the North Atlantic Current as well as additional corrections to the surface heat and freshwater fluxes. Results using the Kiel Climate Model show that the flow field correction allows a northward flow into the northwest corner, largely eliminating the bias below the surface layer. A surface cold bias remains but can be eliminated by additionally correcting the surface freshwater flux, without adjusting the surface heat flux seen by the ocean model. A model version in which only the surface fluxes of heat and freshwater are corrected continues to exhibit the incorrect path of the North Atlantic Current and a strong subsurface bias. Removing the bias impacts the multi-decadal time scale variability in the model and leads to a better representation of the SST pattern associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability than the uncorrected model.

  13. Fossil and genomic evidence constrains the timing of bison arrival in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese, Duane; Stiller, Mathias; Heintzman, Peter D.; Reyes, Alberto V.; Zazula, Grant D.; Soares, André E. R.; Meyer, Matthias; Hall, Elizabeth; Jensen, Britta J. L.; Arnold, Lee J.; MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Shapiro, Beth

    2017-03-01

    The arrival of bison in North America marks one of the most successful large-mammal dispersals from Asia within the last million years, yet the timing and nature of this event remain poorly determined. Here, we used a combined paleontological and paleogenomic approach to provide a robust timeline for the entry and subsequent evolution of bison within North America. We characterized two fossil-rich localities in Canada’s Yukon and identified the oldest well-constrained bison fossil in North America, a 130,000-y-old steppe bison, Bison cf. priscus. We extracted and sequenced mitochondrial genomes from both this bison and from the remains of a recently discovered, ˜120,000-y-old giant long-horned bison, Bison latifrons, from Snowmass, Colorado. We analyzed these and 44 other bison mitogenomes with ages that span the Late Pleistocene, and identified two waves of bison dispersal into North America from Asia, the earliest of which occurred ˜195-135 thousand y ago and preceded the morphological diversification of North American bison, and the second of which occurred during the Late Pleistocene, ˜45-21 thousand y ago. This chronological arc establishes that bison first entered North America during the sea level lowstand accompanying marine isotope stage 6, rejecting earlier records of bison in North America. After their invasion, bison rapidly colonized North America during the last interglaciation, spreading from Alaska through continental North America; they have been continuously resident since then.

  14. Trophodynamics and functional feeding groups of North Sea fauna: a combined stable isotope and fatty acid approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kürten, B.; Frutos, I.; Struck, U.; Painting, S.J.; Polunin, N.V.C.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The trophodynamics of pelagic and benthic animals of the North Sea, North Atlantic shelf, were assessed using stable isotope analysis (SIA) of natural abundance carbon and nitrogen isotopes, lipid fingerprinting and compound-specific SIA (CSIA) of phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs). Zooplankto

  15. Trophodynamics and functional feeding groups of North Sea fauna: a combined stable isotope and fatty acid approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kürten, B.; Frutos, I.; Struck, U.; Painting, S.J.; Polunin, N.V.C.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    The trophodynamics of pelagic and benthic animals of the North Sea, North Atlantic shelf, were assessed using stable isotope analysis (SIA) of natural abundance carbon and nitrogen isotopes, lipid fingerprinting and compound-specific SIA (CSIA) of phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs). Zooplankto

  16. Trophodynamics and functional feeding groups of North Sea fauna: a combined stable isotope and fatty acid approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kürten, B.; Frutos, I.; Struck, U.; Painting, S.J.; Polunin, N.V.C.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    The trophodynamics of pelagic and benthic animals of the North Sea, North Atlantic shelf, were assessed using stable isotope analysis (SIA) of natural abundance carbon and nitrogen isotopes, lipid fingerprinting and compound-specific SIA (CSIA) of phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs).

  17. Trophodynamics and functional feeding groups of North Sea fauna: a combined stable isotope and fatty acid approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kürten, B.; Frutos, I.; Struck, U.; Painting, S.J.; Polunin, N.V.C.; Middelburg, J.J.

    The trophodynamics of pelagic and benthic animals of the North Sea, North Atlantic shelf, were assessed using stable isotope analysis (SIA) of natural abundance carbon and nitrogen isotopes, lipid fingerprinting and compound-specific SIA (CSIA) of phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs).

  18. The effects of regional economic integration in Europe of the pattern north-north and north-south

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antevski Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of regional economic integration in Europe, especially the North-North and North-South integration patterns, and how the benefits and costs of integration are divided between countries. Outcomes depend on: comparative advantages, factor endowments, factor intensities, competitive advantages, FDI flows, transfers of technology, knowledge spillovers, economies of scale, transport costs, industry/GDP ratios, and agglomeration forces. The North-North integration between high income countries tends to lead to convergence of country incomes. Contrary, the South-South integration between low income countries causes divergence. Low income countries are likely to be better served by the North-South integration.

  19. Preparing for Upheaval in North Korea: Assuming North Korean Regime Collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    defense agreement between North Korea and China but also pro-Chinese North Korean elites’ requests for Chinese help are likely to justify Chinese...PREPARING FOR UPHEAVAL IN NORTH KOREA : ASSUMING NORTH KOREAN REGIME COLLAPSE by Kwonwoo Kim December 2013 Thesis Advisor: Wade Huntley Second...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PREPARING FOR UPHEAVAL IN NORTH KOREA : ASSUMING NORTH KOREAN REGIME COLLAPSE 5

  20. The Outer Banks of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Robert; Lins, Harry; Smith, Jodi Jones

    2016-12-27

    The Outer Banks of North Carolina are excellent examples of the nearly 300 barrier islands rimming the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. These low, sandy islands are among the most dynamic natural landscapes occupied by man. Beach sands move offshore, onshore, and along the shore in the direction of the prevailing longshore currents. In this way, sandy coasts continuously adjust to different tide, wave, and current conditions and to rising sea level that causes the islands to migrate landward.Despite such changes, barrier islands are of considerable environmental importance. The Outer Banks are home to diverse natural ecosystems that are adapted to the harsh coastal environment. Native species tend to be robust and many are specifically adapted to withstand salt spray, periodic saltwater flooding, and the islands’ well-drained sandy soil. The Outer Banks provide an important stopover for birds on the Atlantic flyway, and many species inhabit the islands year round. In addition, Outer Banks beaches provide an important nesting habitat for five endangered or threatened sea turtle species.European explorers discovered North Carolina’s barrier islands in the 16th century, although the islands were not permanently settled until the middle 17th century. By the early 19th century, shipbuilding and lumber industries were among the most successful, until forest resources were depleted. Commercial fishing eventually followed, and it expanded considerably after the Civil War. By the Great Depression, however, little industry existed on the Outer Banks. In response to the effects of a severe hurricane in 1933, the National Park Service and the Civilian Conservation Corps proposed a massive sand-fixation program to stabilize the moving sand and prevent storm waves from sweeping across the entire width of some sections of the islands. Between 1933 and 1940, this program constructed sand fencing on 185 kilometers (115 miles) of beach and planted grass seedlings

  1. MINORITIES OF THE POPULATION OF THE NORTH: THE STATUS AND PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Loginov

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Focuses on the formed social-demographic situation in the context of the native minorities of the population of the North (KMNS, shown is the role of the roots of the traditional nature use in their life styles in the context of the new territory of the transport-promoter acquiring of the North, near-polar and polar Ural. Distinguishes the socio-economical consequences of the acquiring of the region for KMNS and the traditional economy.

  2. Ant community change across a ground vegetation gradient in north Florida's longleaf pine flatwoods

    OpenAIRE

    David Lubertazzi; Walter Tschinkel

    2003-01-01

    Ant communities in longleaf pine habitats are poorly known and hence the naturally occurring ant assemblages of a large portion of southeastern North America are not well understood. This study examined the diverse ant community found in the longleaf pine flatwoods of north Florida and tested how ant diversity changes along a herbaceous ground cover gradient. Restoring the ground cover to its original floral composition is an important focus of longleaf pine conservation and hence it is impor...

  3. Senior Power at North Hennepin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugnet, Charles J.

    1976-01-01

    Since 1970 North Hennepin Community College in Minneapolis has enrolled 3,411 in its Seniors on Campus program for senior citizens. The key to initiation and continuing development of the program described here is involvement of senior citizens themselves in the Senior Advisory Committee. (JT)

  4. Teacher Burnout in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowers, Erin N.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed study dissertation was to determine if teachers in North Dakota public schools show signs of teacher burnout and the extent to which NCLB is a major stress factor. The research questions were: To what extent are teachers experiencing symptoms of burnout? What are the factors of burnout? The research hypothesis was: The…

  5. The North Korean Missile Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David

    2001-04-01

    In recent years, the development of ballistic missiles by North Korea has been a key motivation for US efforts to stem missile proliferation and to develop defenses against intermediate and long-range missiles. In the 1980s, North Korea reverse-engineered short-range Soviet Scud missiles and began to produce and sell them. In 1993, it flight-tested a missile reported to have a range of up to 1,300 kilometers, which would allow it to target most of Japan. In 1998, it launched a multi-stage missile over Japan; it later announced that the launch had been an attempt to place a satellite in orbit. An important question is what these tests imply for its current capability and its possible future missile development. Since North Korea has sold missiles to countries in the Middle East and South Asia and is reported to be assisting Iran's missile development program, understanding its capabilities is relevant to security concerns in several parts of the world. In this talk I will discuss my analysis of the publicly available information about North Korea's missile tests, and my conclusions about possible future developments. This includes estimates of ranges and payloads of its next potential generation of missiles, and comments about their potential military utility.

  6. SHINING STAR IN NORTH BEIJING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The area around the Asian Games Village in north Beijing has seen rapid development in recent years,boosted by the construction of Olympic stadiums,such as the National Stadium,National Aquatics Center,Olympic Hockey Field, Archery Field and Tennis Center. Equipped with complete facilities,

  7. Vulnerability in north- central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Milhøj, Anders; Nguyen, Thao Phuong

    2015-01-01

    This article examines changes in livelihood strategies in response to flooding. It does so on the basis of a household survey which was undertaken in three provinces in north central Vietnam. All households in the survey were regularly affected by flooding, but only poor households experience...

  8. Organic agriculture in North Carolina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wossink, G.A.A.; Kuminoff, N.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of the NC State Economist provides an overview of organic agriculture with an emphasis on North Carolina. Research results are reported and some of the new policies and programs that may affect organic agriculture in the near future are described

  9. HORSE RACE IN NORTH TIBET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This annual horse race takes place in every township of the north Tibetan grassland,one by one,starting from August 1st. The principal activities are usually a horse race and a blessing by touching the foreheads of people by a Rinpoche.

  10. Coastal Erosion and Flooding Hazards on the North Sea Coast at Thyboron, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per; Sørensen, Carlo Sass; Nielsen, Peter

    Since a breach of the coastal barrier in 1862, the Thyboron Channel connecting the North Sea and the Lim Fiord has been artificially maintained by construction of breakwaters and groins on the North Sea coast and inside the channel, respectively. Sand nourishment schemes have since the 1980s...... counteracted the natural erosion in the upper profile on the North Sea coast where the alongshore sediment transport converges towards the channel and deposits up to 1 million m3/y on the flood tidal delta inside the fiord, Figure 1....

  11. The north Sulu Sea productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Z.

    2009-12-01

    The Sulu Sea is a part of the western North Pacific. It is a closed sea for its deep water and a semi-closed sea for its upper layer. The Sulu Sea exchanges mainly surface waters with the South China Sea and the Celebes Sea. The Sulu Sea is more productive than the adjacent South China Sea (Jones, 2002). On the basis of MERIS satellite observations from 2002 to 2008, we focus on the high-chlorophyll area as an indicator of the abundance of primary productivity in the Sulu Sea. Strong chlorophyll concentration in the north Sulu Sea close to the Mindoro Strait mainly occurs from December to March and low chlorophyll concentration happens in April to November. The adjacent South China Sea on the other side of Mindoro Strait has shown persistent signs of low chlorophyll concentration. Based on 1/8° Global Navy Coastal Ocean Model, the intrusion of the South China Sea waters through the Mindoro Strait to the Sulu Sea from April to November is the main reason for the low chlorophyll concentration observed in the north Sulu Sea. During April to November, the South China Sea waters flow through the Mindoro Strait and stay on the surface of the north Sulu Sea because of their low density. The north Sulu Sea waters mix with fresher waters coming from the South China Sea without new nutrients supply. When the inflow from South China Sea to Sulu Sea ceases in December to March, the upwelling due to the summer monsoon wind becomes an important mechanism supplying deep nutrients to the surface water which lead to high chlorophyll concentration. Jones, I.S.F., 2002. Primary production in the Sulu Sea. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences-Earth and Planetary Sciences 111, 209-213.

  12. The Survey of Ermia mangshanensis Resource in South China Tiger Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heping; XIE; Shizhou; LI; Jianrong; WANG; Yuanhui; CHEN; Lianchao; CHEN; Shengqiao; LEI

    2014-01-01

    In 2007,one living Ermia mangshanensis was found in the Shapingpian area at the junction of South China Tiger Nature Reserve in North Guangdong and Hunan Mangshan National Nature Reserve.To learn more about Ermia mangshanensis resource,the researchers in South China Tiger Nature Reserve in North Guangdong and Hunan Mangshan National Nature Reserve conducted field survey of Ermia mangshanensis in the Shapingpian area during the period 2010- 2012.The results show that there is Ermia mangshanensis in the Shapingpian area of South China Tiger Nature Reserve at the elevation of 800- 1200 m,and the population number is estimated at 48- 80.

  13. North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proceedings of the Tenth North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles, held in Copenhagen, 14-17 May 2008......Proceedings of the Tenth North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles, held in Copenhagen, 14-17 May 2008...

  14. North Pacific Pelagic Seabird Database (NPPSD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The North Pacific Pelagic Seabird Database (NPPSD) was created in 2005 to consolidate data on the oceanic distribution of marine bird species in the North Pacific....

  15. North Cascades Grizzly Bear Ecosystem Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — We conducted a 6-year evaluation of the North Cascades Grizzly Bear Ecosystem (NCGBE) in north-central Washington to determine the suitability of the area to support...

  16. Scales of Natural Flood Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Alex; Quinn, Paul; Owen, Gareth; Hetherington, David; Piedra Lara, Miguel; O'Donnell, Greg

    2016-04-01

    The scientific field of Natural flood Management (NFM) is receiving much attention and is now widely seen as a valid solution to sustainably manage flood risk whilst offering significant multiple benefits. However, few examples exist looking at NFM on a large scale (>10km2). Well-implemented NFM has the effect of restoring more natural catchment hydrological and sedimentological processes, which in turn can have significant flood risk and WFD benefits for catchment waterbodies. These catchment scale improvements in-turn allow more 'natural' processes to be returned to rivers and streams, creating a more resilient system. Although certain NFM interventions may appear distant and disconnected from main stem waterbodies, they will undoubtedly be contributing to WFD at the catchment waterbody scale. This paper offers examples of NFM, and explains how they can be maximised through practical design across many scales (from feature up to the whole catchment). New tools to assist in the selection of measures and their location, and to appreciate firstly, the flooding benefit at the local catchment scale and then show a Flood Impact Model that can best reflect the impacts of local changes further downstream. The tools will be discussed in the context of our most recent experiences on NFM projects including river catchments in the north east of England and in Scotland. This work has encouraged a more integrated approach to flood management planning that can use both traditional and novel NFM strategies in an effective and convincing way.

  17. Climate change in the North and the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rottem, Svein Vigeland; Moe, Arild

    2007-11-15

    How will climate change affect oil industry operations in the High North? The report analyses impacts in the North that are different from, or come in addition to, the impacts felt globally, from two angles: One outlining climate-related changes in nature and their impacts on oil industry operations, and the second discussing actual and possible policy responses and their impact. Forecasts and scenarios developed by climate scientists indicate that the situation is volatile. The climate and weather will be less predictable. Although the long term tendency is clear, there will be large variations in ice from year to year, with some seasons colder and with more ice than what has been 'normal' in recent years. The industry cannot count on areas remaining ice-free, and when it comes to fixed installations it will have to prepare for a situation in 2030 with maximum ice not much different than today. Climate policies are not likely to have a strong direct impact on the operations of oil companies in the north, but the climate development in the North is likely to impact other political processes, public opinion and consumers. In turn they may affect the conditions for oil industry operations. (author). 49 refs., 7 figs

  18. Psychiatry in former socialist countries: implications for north korean psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Su; Park, Sang Min; Jun, Jin Yong; Kim, Seog Ju

    2014-10-01

    Very little information is available regarding psychiatry in North Korea, which is based on the legacy of Soviet psychiatry. This paper reviews the characteristics of psychiatry in former socialist countries and discusses its implications for North Korean psychiatry. Under socialism, psychiatric disorders were attributed primarily to neurophysiologic or neurobiological origins. Psychosocial or psychodynamic etiology was denied or distorted in line with the political ideology of the Communist Party. Psychiatry was primarily concerned with psychotic disorders, and this diagnostic category was sometimes applied based on political considerations. Neurotic disorders were ignored by psychiatry or were regarded as the remnants of capitalism. Several neurotic disorders characterized by high levels of somatization were considered to be neurological or physical in nature. The majority of "mental patients" were institutionalized for a long periods in large-scale psychiatric hospitals. Treatment of psychiatric disorders depended largely on a few outdated biological therapies. In former socialist countries, psychodynamic psychotherapy was not common, and psychiatric patients were likely to experience social stigma. According to North Korean doctors living in South Korea, North Korean psychiatry is heavily influenced by the aforementioned traditions of psychiatry. During the post-socialist transition, the suicide rate in many of these countries dramatically increased. Given such mental health crises in post-socialist transitional societies, the field of psychiatry may face major challenges in a future unified Korea.

  19. Psychiatry in Former Socialist Countries: Implications for North Korean Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Su; Park, Sang Min; Jun, Jin Yong

    2014-01-01

    Very little information is available regarding psychiatry in North Korea, which is based on the legacy of Soviet psychiatry. This paper reviews the characteristics of psychiatry in former socialist countries and discusses its implications for North Korean psychiatry. Under socialism, psychiatric disorders were attributed primarily to neurophysiologic or neurobiological origins. Psychosocial or psychodynamic etiology was denied or distorted in line with the political ideology of the Communist Party. Psychiatry was primarily concerned with psychotic disorders, and this diagnostic category was sometimes applied based on political considerations. Neurotic disorders were ignored by psychiatry or were regarded as the remnants of capitalism. Several neurotic disorders characterized by high levels of somatization were considered to be neurological or physical in nature. The majority of "mental patients" were institutionalized for a long periods in large-scale psychiatric hospitals. Treatment of psychiatric disorders depended largely on a few outdated biological therapies. In former socialist countries, psychodynamic psychotherapy was not common, and psychiatric patients were likely to experience social stigma. According to North Korean doctors living in South Korea, North Korean psychiatry is heavily influenced by the aforementioned traditions of psychiatry. During the post-socialist transition, the suicide rate in many of these countries dramatically increased. Given such mental health crises in post-socialist transitional societies, the field of psychiatry may face major challenges in a future unified Korea. PMID:25395966

  20. 27 CFR 9.30 - North Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false North Coast. 9.30 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the North Coast viticultural area...

  1. 76 FR 43710 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget..., Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound, 1500 North Warner St., Tacoma, WA 98416... inventory of human remains in the possession of the Slater Museum of Natural History, University of...

  2. 2005 the North American Solar Challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Eberle

    2008-12-22

    In July 2005 the North American Solar Challenge (NASC) featured university built solar powered cars ran across the United States into Canada. The competition began in Austin, Texas with stops in Weatherford, Texas; Broken Arrow, Oklahoma; Topeka, Kansas; Omaha, Nebraska; Sioux Falls, South Dakota, Fargo, North Dakota; Winnipeg, Manitoba; Brandon, Manitoba; Regina, Saskatchewan; Medicine Hat, Alberta; mainly following U.S. Highway 75 and Canadian Highway 1 to the finish line in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, for a total distance of 2,500 miles. NASC major sponsors include the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Natural Resources Canada and DOEs National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The event is designed to inspire young people to pursue careers in science and engineering. NASCs predecessors, the American Solar Challenge and Sunrayce, generally have been held every two years since 1990. With each race, the solar cars travel faster and further with greater reliability. The NASC promotes: -Renewable energy technologies (specifically photovoltaic or solar cells) -Educational excellence in science, engineering and mathematics -Creative integration of technical and scientific expertise across a wide-range of disciplines -Hands-on experience for students and engineers to develop and demonstrate their technical and creative abilities. Safety is the first priority for the NASC. Each team put its car through grueling qualifying and technical inspections. Teams that failed to meet the requirements were not allowed participate. During the race, each team was escorted by lead and chase vehicles sporting rooftop hazard flashers. An official observer accompanied each solar car team to keep it alert to any safety issues.

  3. 76 FR 35202 - Piedmont Natural Gas Company, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    .... Mendoza, Piedmont Natural Gas Company, Inc., Post Office Box 33068, Charlotte, NC 28233 or by e-mailing michelle.mendoza@piedmontng.com or to James H. Jeffries IV, Moore & Van Allen PLLC, 100 North Tryon...

  4. Love thy nature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rokab, Sylvie; Souda, Elaine; Raven, Tamra; Roland, David Garfield; Chitraker, Rohan; Neeson, Liam; Rossi, Fernanda; Almeida, Eriberto

    2014-01-01

    Narrated by Liam Neeson, Love Thy Nature shows how deeply we've lost touch with nature, and takes viewers on a cinematic journey through the beauty and intimacy of our vital relationship with the natural world...

  5. Natural Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Gobinda G.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to natural language processing, including theoretical developments; natural language understanding; tools and techniques; natural language text processing systems; abstracting; information extraction; information retrieval; interfaces; software; Internet, Web, and digital library applications; machine translation for…

  6. A Bayesian modelling framework for tornado occurrences in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Vincent Y S; Arhonditsis, George B; Sills, David M L; Gough, William A; Auld, Heather

    2015-03-25

    Tornadoes represent one of nature's most hazardous phenomena that have been responsible for significant destruction and devastating fatalities. Here we present a Bayesian modelling approach for elucidating the spatiotemporal patterns of tornado activity in North America. Our analysis shows a significant increase in the Canadian Prairies and the Northern Great Plains during the summer, indicating a clear transition of tornado activity from the United States to Canada. The linkage between monthly-averaged atmospheric variables and likelihood of tornado events is characterized by distinct seasonality; the convective available potential energy is the predominant factor in the summer; vertical wind shear appears to have a strong signature primarily in the winter and secondarily in the summer; and storm relative environmental helicity is most influential in the spring. The present probabilistic mapping can be used to draw inference on the likelihood of tornado occurrence in any location in North America within a selected time period of the year.

  7. North Atlantic warming and the retreat of Greenland's outlet glaciers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straneo, Fiammetta; Heimbach, Patrick

    2013-12-05

    Mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet quadrupled over the past two decades, contributing a quarter of the observed global sea-level rise. Increased submarine melting is thought to have triggered the retreat of Greenland's outlet glaciers, which is partly responsible for the ice loss. However, the chain of events and physical processes remain elusive. Recent evidence suggests that an anomalous inflow of subtropical waters driven by atmospheric changes, multidecadal natural ocean variability and a long-term increase in the North Atlantic's upper ocean heat content since the 1950s all contributed to a warming of the subpolar North Atlantic. This led, in conjunction with increased runoff, to enhanced submarine glacier melting. Future climate projections raise the potential for continued increases in warming and ice-mass loss, with implications for sea level and climate.

  8. Learning from nature: Nature-inspired algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albeanu, Grigore; Madsen, Henrik; Popentiu-Vladicescu, Florin

    2016-01-01

    During last decade, the nature has inspired researchers to develop new algorithms. The largest collection of nature-inspired algorithms is biology-inspired: swarm intelligence (particle swarm optimization, ant colony optimization, cuckoo search, bees' algorithm, bat algorithm, firefly algorithm etc...... on collective social behaviour of organisms, researchers have developed optimization strategies taking into account not only the individuals, but also groups and environment. However, learning from nature, new classes of approaches can be identified, tested and compared against already available algorithms....... This work reviews the most effective nature-inspired algorithms and describes learning strategies based on nature oriented thinking. Examples and the benefits obtained from applying nature-inspired strategies in test generation, learners group optimization, and artificial immune systems for learning...

  9. Regularities, Natural Patterns and Laws of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stathis Psillos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available  The goal of this paper is to sketch an empiricist metaphysics of laws of nature. The key idea is that there are regularities without regularity-enforcers. Differently put, there are natural laws without law-makers of a distinct metaphysical kind. This sketch will rely on the concept of a natural pattern and more significantly on the existence of a network of natural patterns in nature. The relation between a regularity and a pattern will be analysed in terms of mereology.  Here is the road map. In section 2, I will briefly discuss the relation between empiricism and metaphysics, aiming to show that an empiricist metaphysics is possible. In section 3, I will offer arguments against stronger metaphysical views of laws. Then, in section 4 I will motivate nomic objectivism. In section 5, I will address the question ‘what is a regularity?’ and will develop a novel answer to it, based on the notion of a natural pattern. In section 6, I will raise the question: ‘what is a law of nature?’, the answer to which will be: a law of nature is a regularity that is characterised by the unity of a natural pattern.

  10. Projected Future Climate Analogues and Climate "Velocities" in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, S. L.; Bartlein, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Future climate changes may have significant effects on many North American ecosystems. One way of assessing the potential impacts of future climate change is to use future climate analogues of present climate to evaluate the spatial extent and rates of future climate change. We used a set of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) future climate simulations (2006-2100) produced under representative concentration pathway scenario RCP8.5. We regridded these data to a 10-km equal-area grid of North America. Modern climate data (1961-1990 30-year mean) were interpolated to the same 10-km grid. The projected future climate data were analyzed using 10-year mean values of monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation and a set of derived annual bioclimatic variables (e.g., growing degree days) considered to be ecologically significant. Potential future climate analogues were calculated for each grid cell using Euclidean distances to identify similar climates occurring elsewhere in North America. We identify regions that are projected to retain climates similar to present in the future (e.g., parts of the southeastern United States) and regions where present climates are projected to become less common or to disappear in the future (e.g., high elevation sites in western North America). We also calculate the rates of change in locations of similar climates (i.e., climate analogue velocities) and compare our results with simulated paleoclimate velocities over the past 22 kyr (from TraCE-21ka transient climate simulations for 22 ka-present). We discuss the implications of these results for conservation and natural resource management in North America. We also describe a web application being developed to allow researchers, decision makers, and members of the public, to visualize, explore, and use the climate analogue data.

  11. North Atlantic warming: patterns of long-term trend and multidecadal variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, Igor V.; Alexeev, Vladimir A.; Zhang, Xiangdong [University of Alaska Fairbanks, International Arctic Research Center, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Bhatt, Uma S. [University of Alaska Fairbanks, Geophysical Institute, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Polyakova, Evgenia I. [Stanford University, Department of Geological and Environmental Studies, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Climate fluctuations in the North Atlantic Ocean have wide-spread implications for Europe, Africa, and the Americas. This study assesses the relative contribution of the long-term trend and variability of North Atlantic warming using EOF analysis of deep-ocean and near-surface observations. Our analysis demonstrates that the recent warming over the North Atlantic is linked to both long-term (including anthropogenic and natural) climate change and multidecadal variability (MDV, {proportional_to}50-80 years). Our results suggest a general warming trend of 0.031 {+-} 0.006 C/decade in the upper 2,000 m North Atlantic over the last 80 years of the twentieth century, although during this time there are periods in which short-term trends were strongly amplified by MDV. For example, MDV accounts for {proportional_to}60% of North Atlantic warming since 1970. The single-sign basin-scale pattern of MDV with prolonged periods of warming (cooling) in the upper ocean layer and opposite tendency in the lower layer is evident from observations. This pattern is associated with a slowdown (enhancement) of the North Atlantic thermohaline overturning circulation during negative (positive) MDV phases. In contrast, the long-term trend exhibits warming in tropical and mid-latitude North Atlantic and a pattern of cooling in regions associated with major northward heat transports, consistent with a slowdown of the North Atlantic circulation as evident from observations and confirmed by selected modeling results. This localized cooling has been masked in recent decades by warming during the positive phase of MDV. Finally, since the North Atlantic Ocean plays a crucial role in establishing and regulating the global thermohaline circulation, the multidecadal fluctuations discussed here should be considered when assessing long-term climate change and variability, both in the North Atlantic and at global scales. (orig.)

  12. Quaternary Evolution of North Core Sound Sound, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietsche, Andrew

    Northern Core Sound is a shallow lagoonal estuary located behind the Outer Banks barrier islands of eastern North Carolina. Thirty-two vibracores and 155 km of chirp and boomer seismic data have been used to define the geologic framework and establish the Holocene evolution of this back-barrier lagoon. Vibracores have been logged for lithology, and sampled to establish the distribution and abundance of foraminifera. The lithostratigraphy and biofacies could not be directly correlated but when related to the seismic data, apparent patterns could be recognized. The Quaternary stratigraphic framework of North Core Sound consists of five depositional sequences, comprising transgressive, highstand, and falling stage systems tracts. Seismic reflections are prominent and are correlated to the sequence stratigraphic surfaces within Pamlico Sound defined by Mallinson et al. (2010). The late Pleistocene paleotopographic surface dips slightly seaward and is characterized by two or three fluvial channels correlating to modern embayments. These channels are separated by a paleotopographic high that extends from Cedar Island seaward. The channels run northeast in the north and southwest in the south creating two different paleo-environments. The paleotopographic high may have contributed to differing foraminiferal assemblages found within Holocene unit. The Holocene unit is characterized by high salinity estuarine deposits dominated by the foraminifera Elphidium excavatum and Ammonia parkinsoniana. Three very similar biofacies were defined with more abundant Ammonia parkinsoniana where salinities may have been slightly lower. Only a salt marsh facies was significantly different. The biofacies may also represent the two paleo-environments illustrated in the seismic data as one is mainly found to the north of the paleotopographic high and the other to the south. Two seismic reflections, H30 and H60, are interpreted as tidal ravinement surfaces and divide the Holocene into three

  13. Alaskan North Slope Oil & Gas Transportation Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilly, Michael Russell [Geo-Watersheds Scientific LLC, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2017-03-31

    early or risk being caught on ice roads with flooded stream crossings, or unusable sections of ice road due to local melt. These challenges result in higher oil and gas field exploration and operational costs. Much of the scientific understanding to address transportation issues for oil and gas development on the North Slope exists, but has not been placed into a set of tools and data sets useful for industry and management agencies. Optimizing North Slope transportation networks during winter operation seasons is critical in managing increasing resource development and will provide a framework for environmentally-responsive development. Understanding the physical environment (such as snow, water, ice, soils) is necessary to ensure protection of fisheries and other natural resources on the sensitive tundra landscape. Solutions also have to do more than just describe current conditions, they need the ability to forecast short-term conditions. This will allow management agencies to respond to future variability in snow cover, soil temperature, and water availability more effectively. In turn, industry will then have more time to plan the significant mobilization taking place every winter season.

  14. Energy Modeling Forum Study #26: Changing the game? Emissions and market implications of ?new natural gas supplies: EPA US9r MARKAL model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the application of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling, new natural gas shale formations are becoming widely available in North America atcompetitive prices. This development has created an extensive search for new markets where natural gas may compete effectively w...

  15. Energy Modeling Forum Study #26 CHANGING THE GAME?: EMISSIONS AND MARKET IMPLICATIONS OF NEW NATURAL GAS SUPPLIES: EPA US9r MARKAL Model Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the application of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling, new natural gas shale formations are becoming widely available in North America at competitive prices. This development has created an extensive search for new markets where natural gas may compete effectively ...

  16. Resilience of Natural Gas Networks during Conflicts, Crises and Disruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Carvalho; Lubos Buzna; Flavio Bono; Marcelo Masera; Arrowsmith, David K.; Dirk Helbing

    2013-01-01

    Human conflict, geopolitical crises, terrorist attacks, and natural disasters can turn large parts of energy distribution networks offline. Europe's current gas supply network is largely dependent on deliveries from Russia and North Africa, creating vulnerabililties to social and political instabilities. During crises, less delivery may mean greater congestion, as the pipeline network is used in ways it has not been designed for. Given the importance of the security of natural gas supply, we ...

  17. Natural Gas Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás Correa; Nelson Osorio

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the present and future on natural gas transportation options, from oil and gas fields to markets, including liquefied natural gas, gas pipeline, compressed natural gas, natural gas hydrates, and gas to liquids and the perspectives of using them in Colombia, since this is the main fuel alternative to supply the world in at least the next 50 years.

  18. Natural Gas Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Correa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the present and future on natural gas transportation options, from oil and gas fields to markets, including liquefied natural gas, gas pipeline, compressed natural gas, natural gas hydrates, and gas to liquids and the perspectives of using them in Colombia, since this is the main fuel alternative to supply the world in at least the next 50 years.

  19. Natural Gas will Transport from Changqing to Beijing in 1996

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xinmin

    1994-01-01

    @@ It was reported from the reserves appraisal meeting held on March 27,1993 for the south and north part of the central gasfield in Ordos Basin,that by the end of last year, the approved natural gas reserves of Changqing Petroleum Exploration Bureau amount to 100 billion cubic meters cumulatively.

  20. NOx Emissions from Oil and Gas Production in the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. D.; Foulds, A.; Purvis, R.; Vaughan, A. R.; Carslaw, D.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    North Sea oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons, comprising liquid petroleum and natural gas, produced from petroleum reservoirs beneath the North Sea. As of January 2015, the North Sea is the world's most active offshore drilling region with 173 rigs drilling. During the summer of 2015, a series of survey flights took place on the UKs FAAM BAe 146 research aircraft with the primary aim to assess background methane (and other hydrocarbons) levels in the drilling areas of the North Sea. Also measured were Nitrogen Oxides (NO and NO2), which are emitted from almost all combustion processes and are a key air pollutant, both directly and as a precursor to ozone (O3). The oil and gas platforms in the North Sea are often manned and require significant power generation and support vessels for their continued operation, processes that potentially emit significant amounts of NOx into an otherwise relative clean environment. During these flights we were able to measure the NO­­­x (and any subsequently produced O3) emitted from specific rigs, as well as the NOx levels in the wider North Sea oil and gas production region (see figure for example). NOx mixing ratios of <10 ppbv were frequently observed in plumes, with significant perturbation to the wider North Sea background levels. NOx emissions from the rigs are point sources within the UKs National Atmospheric Emission Inventory (NAEI) and the measurements taken in plumes from individual rigs are used to assess the accuracy of these estimates.

  1. Drilling the North Anatolian Fault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Aktar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An international workshop entitled “GONAF: A deep Geophysical Observatory at the North Anatolian Fault”, was held 23–27 April 2007 in Istanbul, Turkey. The aim of this workshop was to refine plans for a deep drilling project at the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ in northwestern Turkey. The current drilling target is located in the Marmara Sea offshore the megacity of Istanbul in the direct vicinity of the main branch of the North Anatolian Fault on the PrinceIslands (Figs. 1 and 2.The NAFZ represents a 1600-km-long plate boundary that slips at an average rate of 20–30 mm·yr-1 (McClusky et al., 2000. It has developed in the framework of the northward moving Arabian plate and the Hellenic subduction zone where the African lithosphere is subducting below the Aegean. Comparison of long-term slip rates with Holocene and GPS-derived slip rates indicate an increasing westwardmovement of the Anatolian plate with respect to stable Eurasia. During the twentieth century, the NAFZ has ruptured over 900 km of its length. A series of large earthquakes starting in 1939 near Erzincan in Eastern Anatolia propagated westward towards the Istanbul-Marmara region in northwestern Turkey that today represents a seismic gap along a ≥100-km-long segment below the Sea of Marmara. This segment did not rupture since 1766 and, if locked, may have accumulated a slip deficit of 4–5 m. It is believed being capable of generating two M≥7.4 earthquakes within the next decades (Hubert-Ferrari et al., 2000; however, it could even rupture in a large single event (Le Pichon et al., 1999.

  2. North Dakota Energy Workforce Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Drake [Bismarck State College, Bismarck, ND (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Bismarck State College, along with its partners (Williston State College, Minot State University and Dickinson State University), received funding to help address the labor and social impacts of rapid oilfield development in the Williston Basin of western North Dakota. Funding was used to develop and support both credit and non-credit workforce training as well as four major symposia designed to inform and educate the public; enhance communication and sense of partnership among citizens, local community leaders and industry; and identify and plan to ameliorate negative impacts of oil field development.

  3. The North Ecliptic Pole Supercluster

    OpenAIRE

    Mullis, C. R.; Henry, J. P.; Gioia, I. M.; Boehringer, H.; Briel, U. G.; Voges, W.; Huchra, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    We have used the ROSAT All-Sky Survey to detect a known supercluster at z=0.087 in the North Ecliptic Pole region. The X-ray data greatly improve our understanding of this supercluster's characteristics, approximately doubling our knowledge of the structure's spatial extent and tripling the cluster/group membership compared to the optical discovery data. The supercluster is a rich structure consisting of at least 21 galaxy clusters and groups, 12 AGN, 61 IRAS galaxies, and various other objec...

  4. North America: US activity is unprecedented

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-15

    For overall drilling activity in 1981, North America is expected to post a 20.9% increase over 1980 figures for a total of 90,347 wells. The growth is due solely to a 28.6% increase in US activity; Canada and Mexico show declines of 31.3% and 7.8%, respectively. Mid-year reports for the US included 36,776 wells, 7078 of them gas wells; of 7526 wildcats, 840 were gas-productive. The success rate for mid-year was 25.5%. The downturn in Canadian activity reflects the decrease in investments caused by the restructuring of the Canadian industry. Exploration is continuing, however, particularly in the east coast offshore region, the Beaufort Sea, and the Arctic Islands. The outlook in Mexico is highly promising: new fields are being discovered regularly in Campeche Bay, the Mesozoic region of Tabasco and Chiapas, the Sabinas Gulf region, and Chicontepec Paleocanyon. Since 1976, Petroleos Mexicanos has successfully reduced natural-gas flaring to less than 2% of production. Gas production increased by 22% in 1980, reaching 3.723 billion CF/day by December. Other drilling activity occurred in the West Indies and Caribbean Sea and parts of Central America.

  5. Pipelines from the north : a U.S. perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slutz, J. [United States Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2003-07-01

    The United States will continue to look to Canada and Alaska for a significant part of its natural gas supply in an effort to meet its growing demand for energy. The United States depends on Canadian gas as a reliable and secure supply of energy, and is therefore examining natural gas markets and the wide range of supply opportunities. This presentation highlighted changes in cross border natural gas trade in North America and noted that 94 per cent of natural gas going to the United States from Canada is shipped via pipeline. On the liquefied natural gas (LNG) front, U.S. exports to Mexico now exceed imports, but import volumes from Trinidad and Nigeria are increasing as expected. Total import volumes in 2001 surpassed the previous year. A look at the infrastructure of LNG in the United States was also presented along with the advantages and limitations of each option. Cost comparisons were also presented. It was noted that any import or LNG project would result in unique economics. LNG projects are now cheaper because of better engineering, economies of scale and better pipeline economics. The U.S. National Energy Policy recommends that the pipeline to bring Alaskan gas to U.S. markets should be constructed as soon as possible. It was emphasized that any project to ship natural gas from Alaska to the lower 48 will need to work closely with Canada in order to be successful. 15 figs.

  6. The Nature of Natural Hazards Communication (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. Y.

    2013-12-01

    Some of the many issues of interest to natural hazards professionals include the analysis of proactive approaches to the governance of risk from natural hazards and approaches to broaden the scope of public policies related to the management of risks from natural hazards, as well as including emergency and environmental management, community development and spatial planning related to natural hazards. During the talk we will present results of scientific review, analysis and synthesis, which emphasize same new trends in communication of the natural hazards theories and practices within an up-to-the-minute context of new environmental and climate change issues, new technologies, and a new focus on resiliency. The presentation is divided into five sections that focus on natural hazards communication in terms of education, risk management, public discourse, engaging the public, theoretical perspectives, and new media. It includes results of case studies and best practices. It delves into natural hazards communication theories, including diffusion, argumentation, and constructivism, to name a few. The presentation will provide information about: (1) A manual of natural hazards communication for scientists, policymakers, and media; (2) An up-to-the-minute context of environmental hazards, new technologies & political landscape; (3) A work by natural hazards scientists for geoscientists working with social scientists and communication principles; (4) A work underpinned by key natural hazards communication theories and interspersed with pragmatic solutions; (5) A work that crosses traditional natural hazards boundaries: international, interdisciplinary, theoretical/applied. We will further explore how spatial planning can contribute to risk governance by influencing the occupation of natural hazard-prone areas, and review the central role of emergency management in risk policy. The goal of this presentation is to contribute to the augmentation of the conceptual framework

  7. Histophilosis as a Natural Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, D; Sondgeroth, K S

    2016-01-01

    Histophilus somni is responsible for sporadic disease worldwide in cattle and, to a lesser extent, in small ruminants, bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and North American bison (Bison bison). The importance of H. somni diseases can be attributed to improved clinical and laboratory recognition, combined with the growth in intensive management practices for cattle. Although outbreaks of bovine histophilosis can occur year-round, in northern and southern hemispheres, it is most frequent in late fall and early winter. Weather, stress, dietary changes, and comingling of cattle are likely to be major triggers for outbreaks. The most frequent clinical expressions of histophilosis include undifferentiated fever, fibrinosuppurative pneumonia, encephalitis-leptomeningitis, necrotizing myocarditis, and diffuse pleuritis. Neurological disease occurs either as thrombotic meningoencephalitis (TME) or as suppurative meningitis with ventriculitis. Acute myocarditis is characteristically necrotizing and generally involves one or both papillary muscles in the left ventricular myocardium. Biofilm-like aggregates of bacteria occur in capillaries and veins in myocardium, in the central nervous system, and on endocardial surfaces. H. somni is a component of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex. In our experience, it is most commonly diagnosed in subacute-to-chronic polymicrobial pulmonary infections in combination with Mannheimia haemolytica, Trueperella pyogenes, Pasteurella multocida, or Mycoplasma bovis. Other, less common forms of H. somni disease present as polyarthritis/tenosynovitis, abortion with placentitis and fetal septicemia, epididymitis-orchitis, and ocular infections. It is likely that H. somni is under-recognized clinically and diagnostically. Most state and provincial laboratories in North America rely on bacterial isolation to confirm infection. The use of more sensitive detection methods on field cases of histophilosis will help resolve the pathogenesis of H

  8. Sandy Desertification Status and its Driving Mechanism in North Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yuxiang

    2004-01-01

    As the main body of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, North Tibet Plateau is one of three major sandy desertification regions in China and also a representative sandy desertification zone of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Accordingly, it is an important region for the study of recent sandy desertification processes and formation mechanism. From such aspects as desertified land types, areas and distributions etc., this paper analyses in detail the sandy desertification status on North Tibet Plateau,and qualitatively and quantitatively deals with the main factors that affect recent sandy desertification processes and the driving mechanism. Research results show that North Tibet Plateau is an important sandy desertification region in China characterized with large desertified land areas, diversified types,high severity, extensive distributions and serious damages. Sandy desertification occurrence and development resulted from combined effects of natural factors, anthropogenic factors, natural processes and man-made processes, of which climatic change is the main driving force.

  9. Inventory of Glaciers in the North Cascades, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Austin; Richardson, Don; Tangborn, Wendell V.; Rosselot, F.L.

    1971-01-01

    Perennial bodies of ice in the North Cascades having areas of at least 0.1 km2 (square kilometer) are tabulated and classified. The inventory, a contribution to the International Hydrological Decade, includes 756 glaciers, covering 267 km2, about half of the glacier area in the United States south of Alaska. Listings include each glacier's location, drainage basin, area, length, orientation, altitude, and classification as to form, source, surface, nature of terminus, and activity. These glaciers contribute annually about 800 million cubic meters of water to streamflow in the State of Washington.

  10. Al-Zubarah and its Hinterland, North Qatar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George; Barnes, Richard Hugh; Macumber, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    of al-Zubarah and its hinterland, as well as initial reconnaissance of other north Qatar sites. This paper will focus on the results of the work in and around al-Zubarah, including the mapping of the site, the geomorphological and archaeological investigation of its hinterland including associated sites......, and two areas of investigative open-area excavations within the town of al-Zubarah. Overall, the extraordinary complexity of the natural and human environment encountered through this work is being revealed, and suggests that in the future many more rewarding outcomes can be expected in the study...

  11. Provenance and Technology of Early Islamic Pottery from North Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarboush, Maher Mithqal Fayez

    study of pottery samples selected from four sites located in the north part of Jordan. Three of the sites were once major cities of the Decapolis: Jarash (Gerasa), Umm Qais (Gadara), and Tabaqat Fahl (Pella). The fourth site is Tal al - Husn, a substantial rural village located between Umm Qais...... Islamic pottery from northern Jordan alongside the old chronological and typological studies of this period in Jordan. Clear evidence argues for some urban continuation in the studied areas that indicate continuation of local productions technologies. Likewise, the results identifying the nature of Jarash...

  12. North American sturgeon otolith morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate expedient species identification of deceased sturgeon (Acipenseridae) when external physical characteristic analysis is inconclusive has become a high priority due to the endangered or threatened status of sturgeon species around the world. Examination of otoliths has provided useful information to aid in population management, age and size-class analysis, understanding predator–prey interactions, and archeological research in other fish species. The relationship between otolith characteristics and sturgeon species has remained unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the shape of otoliths from the eight species of sturgeon found in North America to test the utility of otolith characteristic morphology in species identification. There were distinct differences in the size and shape of the otoliths between species of sturgeon with little shape variation among individuals of the same species. The relationship between otolith length axes was linear, and most of the variability was explained by a Log (axis + 1) transformation of the x and y axes (r2 = 0.8983) using the equation y = 0.73x + 0.0612. Images of otoliths from all eight North American species are presented to assist in the identification process.

  13. Conservation of North Pacific shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Robert E.; Butler, Robert W.; Tomkovich, Pavel S.; Mundkur, Taej; Handel, Colleen M.

    1994-01-01

    In his introduction to the 1979 Symposium proceedings entitled “Shorebirds in Marine Environments," Frank Pitelka stressed the need for studies and conservation programs that spanned the western hemisphere (Pitelka 1979). In the 15 years since Pitelka's call to arms, the locations of many important migratory and wintering sites for shorebirds have been identified in the Americas (Senner and Howe 1984, Morrison and Ross 1989, Morrison and Butler 1994) and in the East Asian-Australasian flyway (Lane and Parish 1991, Mundkur 1993, Watkins 1993). However, assessments for Central America, the Russian Far East and most of Oceania remain incomplete or lacking.The recognition that shorebird conservation required the protection of habitats throughout the birds' range (e.g., Morrison 1984, Davidson and Evans 1989 in Ens et al. 1990) prompted the establishment of the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network (WHSRN) in the Americas in 1985 (Joyce 1986). This program complemented the 1971 Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially for Waterbirds (Ramsar Convention, Smart 1987), recognized by more that 50 countries world-wide.Our purpose for writing this paper is to: (1) describe the distribution of North Pacific shorebirds throughout their annual cycle; (2) review the locations of and threats to important sites used by North Pacific shorebirds during the breeding, migration, and wintering periods, and (3) outline a program for international conservation of Pacific shorebirds.

  14. The North Ecliptic Pole Supercluster

    CERN Document Server

    Mullis, C R; Gioia, I M; Böhringer, H; Briel, U G; Voges, W; Huchra, J P

    2001-01-01

    We have used the ROSAT All-Sky Survey to detect a known supercluster at z=0.087 in the North Ecliptic Pole region. The X-ray data greatly improve our understanding of this supercluster's characteristics, approximately doubling our knowledge of the structure's spatial extent and tripling the cluster/group membership compared to the optical discovery data. The supercluster is a rich structure consisting of at least 21 galaxy clusters and groups, 12 AGN, 61 IRAS galaxies, and various other objects. A majority of these components were discovered with the X-ray data, but the supercluster is also robustly detected in optical, IR, and UV wavebands. Extending 129 x 102 x 67 (1/h50 Mpc)^3, the North Ecliptic Pole Supercluster has a flattened shape oriented nearly edge-on to our line-of-sight. Owing to the softness of the ROSAT X-ray passband and the deep exposure over a large solid angle, we have detected for the first time a significant population of X-ray emitting galaxy groups in a supercluster. These results demon...

  15. North-South Globalization and Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Joël Hellier

    2012-01-01

    To analyse the globalization-inequality relationship, we extend the North-South HOS model by assuming (i) that the size of the South (emerging countries) increases over time and that the North (advanced countries) and the South never stand simultaneously inside the diversification cone, (ii) several northern and southern countries with different skill endowments, and (iii) North-South technological differences, productivity catching up and technological transfers. The model generates three ph...

  16. A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, the North Atlantic, Eurasia, and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    A computer program was developed for the calculation of a goid based upon a combination of satellite and surface gravity data. A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, the North Atlantic, Eurasia, and Australia was derived by using this program.

  17. Assessment of the Adoption of Agroforestry Technologies by Limited-Resource Farmers in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Paula E.; Owooh, Bismark; Idassi, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Agroforestry is a natural resource management system that integrates trees, forages, and livestock. The study reported here was conducted to determine farmers' knowledge about and willingness to adopt agroforestry technologies in North Carolina. The study reported participants were primarily older, male farmers, suggesting the need to attract more…

  18. Changes in tussock architecture of invasive Spartina densiflora (Poaceae) along the Pacific Coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is important to link functional trait-based responses of invaders to environmental changes to improve our understanding of mechanisms that promote invasiveness. The invasion of alien Spartina densiflora Brongn. along the Pacific coast of North America provides a natural model system for studying ...

  19. Coastal circulation in the North Indian Ocean: Coastal segment (14,S-W)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; Gouveia, A.D.

    and as a result the circulation shows a distinct seasonal character. The nature of winds, precipitation, runoff, and tides in the region are summarized. Characteristics of large-scale near surface circulation and of water masses in the North Indian Basin...

  20. Transport, preservation and accumulation of organic carbon in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, H.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis contains the results of the research on the burial of organic carbon in the North Sea as it was carried out at the Netherlands Institute for Sea Research in the period 1993-1997. Carbon in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is one of the major contributors to the natural greenhouse

  1. Transport, preservation and accumulation of organic carbon in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, H. de

    1997-01-01

    This thesis contains the results of the research on the burial of organic carbon in the North Sea as it was carried out at the Netherlands Institute for Sea Research in the period 1993-1997. Carbon in the form of carbon dioxide (C02 ) is one of the major contributors to the natural greenhouse

  2. Transport, preservation and accumulation of organic carbon in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, H. de

    1997-01-01

    This thesis contains the results of the research on the burial of organic carbon in the North Sea as it was carried out at the Netherlands Institute for Sea Research in the period 1993-1997. Carbon in the form of carbon dioxide (C02 ) is one of the major contributors to the natural greenhouse effect

  3. Transport, preservation and accumulation of organic carbon in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, H.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis contains the results of the research on the burial of organic carbon in the North Sea as it was carried out at the Netherlands Institute for Sea Research in the period 1993-1997. Carbon in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is one of the major contributors to the natural greenhouse effect

  4. Long-term hydrology and water quality of a drained pine plantation in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.M. Amatya; R.W. Skaggs

    2011-01-01

    Long-term data provide a basis for understanding natural variability, reducing uncertainty in model inputs and parameter estimation, and developing new hypotheses. This article evaluates 21 years (1988-2008) of hydrologic data and 17 years (1988-2005) of water quality data from a drained pine plantation in eastern North Carolina. The plantation age was 14 years at the...

  5. Transport, preservation and accumulation of organic carbon in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, H.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis contains the results of the research on the burial of organic carbon in the North Sea as it was carried out at the Netherlands Institute for Sea Research in the period 1993-1997. Carbon in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is one of the major contributors to the natural greenhouse effect

  6. Transport, preservation and accumulation of organic carbon in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, H. de

    1997-01-01

    This thesis contains the results of the research on the burial of organic carbon in the North Sea as it was carried out at the Netherlands Institute for Sea Research in the period 1993-1997. Carbon in the form of carbon dioxide (C02 ) is one of the major contributors to the natural greenhouse effect

  7. On a new Aphrodite-species (Aphrod. roulei) from the North Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R.

    1917-01-01

    Among the Annelids of the Leiden Museum I met with two specimens of the genus Aphrodite from the North Atlantic 1), purchased some years ago from the late Mr. G. A. Frank, the well-known dealer in natural objects. They agree with Aphrod. perarmata Roule 2), collected by the "Talisman" in the middle

  8. Wildlife values of North American ricelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, J.M.; Elphick, C.S.; Reinecke, K.J.; Miller, M.R.; Manley, Scott W.

    2008-01-01

    Ricelands have become an indispensable component of waterbird habitat and a leading example of integrating agricultural and natural resource management in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, Gulf Coast, and Central California. Residual rice, weed seeds, and invertebrates provide food for many avian species during fall and winter. In North America, considerable information exists on the use of ricefields by wintering waterbirds, the value of ricelands as breeding habitat for birds, and the effects of organic chemicals on birds that- feed in ricefields. Recent research has also examined the influence of field management practices, such as winter flooding and post-harvest straw manipulation, on the suitability of ricefields for wildlife. Whereas early studies focused on detrimental effects of wildlife on rice production (e.g., crop depredation), it has become apparent that waterbirds may benefit producers by enhancing straw decomposition, reducing weed and pest pressure, and providing additional income through hunting and wildlife viewing opportunities. A comprehensive evaluation of agronomic and environmental issues is needed to meet the challenges of producing food and sustaining wildlife in twenty-first-century rice lands. Changes in agricultural markets, pressures of increased urban development, conflicting needs for limited resources such as water, endangered species constraints, and concerns over water quality must be addressed in developing a sustainable, mutually beneficial partnership among the rice industry, wildlife, and environmental interests. Research is also needed to evaluate potential reductions in the wildlife carrying capacity of ricelands resulting from new harvest and field management techniques, crop conversion, or loss of rice acreage. Key uncertainties include: (1) changes in waste grain abundance and availability due to various harvest and post-harvest management practices; (2) evaluating food depletion by birds feeding in rice6elds and

  9. Water quality of North Carolina streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harned, Douglas; Meyer, Dann

    1983-01-01

    Interpretation of water quality data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and the North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community Development, for the Yadkin-Pee Dee River system, has identified water quality variations, characterized the current condition of the river in reference to water quality standards, estimated the degree of pollution caused by man, and evaluated long-term trends in concentrations of major dissolved constituents. Three stations, Yadkin River at Yadkin College (02116500), Rocky River near Norwood (02126000), and Pee Dee River near Rockingham (02129000) have been sampled over different periods of time beginning in 1906. Overall, the ambient water quality of the Yadkin-Pee Dee River system is satisfactory for most water uses. Iron and manganese concentrations are often above desirable levels, but they are not unusually high in comparison to other North Carolina streams. Lead concentrations also periodically rise above the recommended criterion for domestic water use. Mercury concentrations frequently exceed, and pH levels fall below, the recommended criteria for protection of aquatic life. Dissolved oxygen levels, while generally good, are lowest at the Pee Dee near Rockingham, due to the station 's location not far downstream from a lake. Suspended sediment is the most significant water quality problem of the Yadkin-Pee Dee River. The major cation in the river is sodium and the major anions are bicarbonate and carbonate. Eutrophication is currently a problem in the Yadkin-Pee Dee, particularly in High Rock Lake. An estimated nutrient and sediment balance of the system indicates that lakes along the Yadkin-Pee Dee River serve as a sink for sediment, ammonia, and phosphorus. Pollution makes up approximately 59% of the total dissolved solids load of the Yadkin River at Yadkin College, 43% for the Rocky River near Norwood, and 29% for the Pee Dee River near Rockingham. Statistically significant trends show a pattern of increasing

  10. North Slope Decision Support for Water Resource Planning and Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnabel, William; Brumbelow, Kelly

    2013-03-31

    The objective of this project was to enhance the water resource decision-making process with respect to oil and gas exploration/production activities on Alaska’s North Slope. To this end, a web-based software tool was developed to allow stakeholders to assemble, evaluate, and communicate relevant information between and amongst themselves. The software, termed North Slope Decision Support System (NSDSS), is a visually-referenced database that provides a platform for running complex natural system, planning, and optimization models. The NSDSS design was based upon community input garnered during a series of stakeholder workshops, and the end product software is freely available to all stakeholders via the project website. The tool now resides on servers hosted by the UAF Water and Environmental Research Center, and will remain accessible and free-of-charge for all interested stakeholders. The development of the tool fostered new advances in the area of data evaluation and decision support technologies, and the finished product is envisioned to enhance water resource planning activities on Alaska’s North Slope.

  11. Sex selection through traditional drugs in rural north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandyopadhyay S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Repidly declining sex ratio has highlighted a strong son preference among many societies various methods are employed by people to get a son. Objective: To determine the use pattern of sex selection drugs (SSDs in rural North India. Methods: An integrated qualitative and quantitative study was conducted in rural North India. A rapid population and hospital based survey of women in their early reproductive life was done in the study area to enlist the respondents. Few SSD samples were collected and analyzed. Results: SSDs were freely available from grocers, chemist shops and specific people in villages. These contained Shivalingi (Bryonia Laciniosa and Majuphal (Gtuercus infectoria. SSD use rate was 46% and 30% in community based and hospital based studies respectively. Use rate was significantly higher in women who did not have any son. Of the SSD samples and two individual ingredients analyzed by thin layer chromatography, 3 contained testosterone and one progesterone; one ingredient contained testosterone and the other natural steroids. Conclusion: Use of SSDs seems to be very common in North India. Implication of presence of steroids in SSDs needs further evaluation.

  12. Nature's Nature: Ideas of Nature in Curricula for Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Maurice, Henry

    2006-01-01

    Two contrasting sets of ideas about nature in environmental education are described. An analytical framework is developed from inter-disciplinary histories of ideas and used in evaluating a specific curriculum. In conclusion, some general implications are suggested for curricula in environmental education. [This article was reprinted from…

  13. Aksu-Zhabagly Nature Reserve's 90-anniversary

    OpenAIRE

    Anatoliy F. Kovshar

    2016-01-01

    The Aksu-Zhabagly nature reserve is located in West Tien Shan in Kazakhstan, on the border of three countries – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan (70°18'-57' E and 42°08'-30' N), with an area of 1281 km2; its length is 53 km from the most western to the most eastern point and 41 km from the most southern to the most northern point. It occupies the western limit of the Talasskiy Alatau ridge and its north-western spurs: Zhabaglytau mountains, Alatau, Bugultor, Aksutau and Ugam ridges. In t...

  14. A Brief overview of some natural molluscicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lineda Dahane-Rouissat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In Algeria, there are three active schistosome centers (Schistosoma haematobium carried by the intermediate host (Bulinus forskalii and Bulinus truncatus in the Saharan oasis of Djanet region, Beni Abbes and Biskra and north in the area of Algiers (Mitidja, Reghaia, Gué of Constantine finally near Oran (Jdioua. This bref reviews on natural molluscicides give and presents preliminary research of a molluscicidal screening programme carried out on some Algerian Saharan molluscicidal plants: Anvillea radiata, Artemisia herba alba Asso, Bubonium gravealens, Launaea nudicaulis, Warionea saharea [Asteraceae] ; Capparis spinosa L. [Capparidaceae]; Acacia raddiana [Fabaceae] et Limoniastrum Feei [Plumbagiaceae].

  15. Establishment of nature reserves in administrative regions of mainland China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziliang Guo

    Full Text Available Nature reserves are widely considered as one available strategy for protecting biodiversity, which is threatened by habitat fragmentation, and wildlife extinction. The Chinese government has established a goal of protecting 15% of its land area by 2015. We quantitated the characteristics and distribution of nature reserves in mainland China and evaluated the expansion process for national nature reserves. National nature reserves occupy 64.15% of the total area of nature reserves. Steppe and meadow ecosystem, ocean and seacoast ecosystem, and wild plant nature reserves represent lower percentages, particularly in national nature reserves, in which they comprised 0.76%, 0.54%, and 0.69%, respectively, of the area. Furthermore, medium and small nature reserves compose 92.32% of all nature reserves. The land area under any legal protection has reached 14.80%, although only 9.78% is strictly protected. However, if 9 super-large national nature reserves, located in Southwest and Northwest China were removed, the percentage of strictly protected area decreases to 2.66% of the land area of China. The areas contained in nature reserves in each province are not proportional to the areas of the provinces, particularly for national nature reserves, with higher protection rates in Southwest and Northwest China than in other regions. Of the 31 provinces, 22 provinces feature strict protection of less than 4% of their areas by national nature reserves; these provinces are mainly located in East, Central, South, and North China. Moreover, the unevenness indexes of the distribution of nature reserves and national nature reserves are 0.39 and 0.58, respectively. The construction of nature reserves has entered a steady development stage after a period of rapid expansion in mainland China. In recent years, the total area of national nature reserves has increased slowly, while the total area of nature reserves has not increased, although the number of nature

  16. Ecology of North Sea fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daan, N.; Bromley, P. J.; Hislop, J. R. G.; Nielsen, N. A.

    Fishes of the North Sea include over 200 species exhibiting widely differing ecological characteristics. There is a wealth of literature and, in this paper, we have restricted ourselves to providing generalized data on the more abundant species, with a view of highlighting those aspects which link the total fish community to the biotic and abiotic environment. There is necessarily a bias towards commercial species, because most of the pertinent information is related specifically to fish which are heavily fished. However, since there are few abundant species which are not exploited, the ecological links of the total fish community to other components of the system are well represented by the selection. Moreover, exploitation of the fish community may have indirectly affected the ecological relationships in the entire system. It follows that an understandinf of the impact of fisheries on the fish community is likely to play a key role in helping us to understand how the North Sea ecosystem functions. The paper highlights various ecological aspects of the fish fauna including population dynamics, spawning in time and space, distribution, variations in year class strength, feeding, density-dependent growth and changes in species composition. Despite long time series of quantitative biological information for individual species and the obvious impact of fisheries on longevity and productivity of the fish community, the general conclusion is that it remains very difficult to separate effects of fisheries and of the environment on reproductive success, in which the variation is the most important destabilizing factor in the regulation of exploited fish populations. Another conclusion is that the spatial heterogeneity of the fish community in the North Sea is a factor of considerable concern in trying to link fish production to other components. It would seem likely that, to improve our understanding of the ecological linkages in the entire system, the spatial differences

  17. Naturally Colored Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Instead of using dye to color cotton, an Arizona cotton breeder is letting nature do the work. Through crossbreeding, Sally Fox of Natural Cotton Colours in Wickenberg is creating plants that yield fiber in an array

  18. Sunk Lake Natural Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Sunk Lake Natural Area Management Plan guides the long-range development of the Natural Area by identifying and integrating appropriate habitats, management...

  19. Natural Weathering Exposure Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...

  20. Vermont Natural Resources Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The purpose of the Natural Resources Atlas is to provide geographic information about environmental features and sites that the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources...